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Sample records for aerosolized eastern equine

  1. Characterization and Pathogenesis of Aerosolized Eastern Equine Encephalitis in the Common Marmoset (Callithrix jacchus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-10

    to assess intranasal EEEV infection 70 (Adams, 2008). The small size of the marmoset allows for easy handling, reasonable housing 71 space , and...P.D., Boolukos, P.J. 1969. Eastern equine encephalitis. Distribution of 599 central nervous system lesions in man and Rhesus monkey . J Comp Pathol...pp. 831-838. 654 Wyckoff, R.W. 1939. Encephalomyelitis in monkeys . Science. 89(2319), 542-543. 655 Wyckoff, R.W., Tesar, W.C. 1939. Equine

  2. Eastern Equine Encephalitis

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    ... bite of an infected mosquito. Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) is a rare illness in humans, and only ... EEEV have no apparent illness. Severe cases of EEE (involving encephalitis, an inflammation of the brain) begin ...

  3. Severe Encephalitis in Cynomolgus Macaques Exposed to Aerosolized Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    report here that cynomolgus macaques are also suitable as a model for aerosol exposure to EEE viruses. MATERIALS AND METHODS Animals. Healthy, adult... trocar , the arterial catheter was routed through the subcuta- neous space to the inguinal incision. With an 18-gauge needle, the arterial catheter was

  4. Rabies direct fluorescent antibody test does not inactivate rabies or eastern equine encephalitis viruses.

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    Jarvis, Jodie A; Franke, Mary A; Davis, April D

    2016-08-01

    An examination using the routine rabies direct fluorescent antibody test was performed on rabies or Eastern equine encephalitis positive mammalian brain tissue to assess inactivation of the virus. Neither virus was inactivated with acetone fixation nor the routine test, thus laboratory employees should treat all samples as rabies and when appropriate Eastern equine encephalitis positive throughout the whole procedure.

  5. Endemic eastern equine encephalitis in the Amazon region of Peru.

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    Aguilar, Patricia V; Robich, Rebecca M; Turell, Michael J; O'Guinn, Monica L; Klein, Terry A; Huaman, Alfredo; Guevara, Carolina; Rios, Zonia; Tesh, Robert B; Watts, Douglas M; Olson, James; Weaver, Scott C

    2007-02-01

    Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) causes severe neurologic disease in North America, but only two fatal human cases have been documented in South America. To test the hypothesis that alphavirus heterologous antibodies cross-protect, animals were vaccinated against other alphaviruses and challenged up to 3 months later with EEEV. Short-lived cross-protection was detected, even in the absence of cross-neutralizing antibodies. To assess exposure to EEEV in Peru, sera from acutely ill and healthy persons were tested for EEEV and other alphavirus antibodies, as well as for virus isolation. No EEEV was isolated from patients living in an EEEV-enzootic area, and only 2% of individuals with febrile illness had EEEV-reactive IgM. Only 3% of healthy persons from the enzootic region had EEEV-neutralizing antibodies. Our results suggest that humans are exposed but do not develop apparent infection with EEEV because of poor infectivity and/or avirulence of South American strains.

  6. Spatial epidemiology of eastern equine encephalitis in Florida

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    Vander Kelen Patrick T

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eastern Equine Encephalitis virus (EEEV is an alphavirus with high pathogenicity in both humans and horses. Florida continues to have the highest occurrence of human cases in the USA, with four fatalities recorded in 2010. Unlike other states, Florida supports year-round EEEV transmission. This research uses GIS to examine spatial patterns of documented horse cases during 2005–2010 in order to understand the relationships between habitat and transmission intensity of EEEV in Florida. Methods Cumulative incidence rates of EEE in horses were calculated for each county. Two cluster analyses were performed using density-based spatial clustering of applications with noise (DBSCAN. The first analysis was based on regional clustering while the second focused on local clustering. Ecological associations of EEEV were examined using compositional analysis and Euclidean distance analysis to determine if the proportion or proximity of certain habitats played a role in transmission. Results The DBSCAN algorithm identified five distinct regional spatial clusters that contained 360 of the 438 horse cases. The local clustering resulted in 18 separate clusters containing 105 of the 438 cases. Both the compositional analysis and Euclidean distance analysis indicated that the top five habitats positively associated with horse cases were rural residential areas, crop and pastureland, upland hardwood forests, vegetated non-forested wetlands, and tree plantations. Conclusions This study demonstrates that in Florida tree plantations are a focus for epizootic transmission of EEEV. It appears both the abundance and proximity of tree plantations are factors associated with increased risk of EEE in horses and therefore humans. This association helps to explain why there is are spatially distinct differences in the amount of EEE horse cases across Florida.

  7. An eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE) outbreak in Quebec in the fall of 2008.

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    Chénier, Sonia; Côté, Geneviève; Vanderstock, Johanne; Macieira, Susana; Laperle, Alain; Hélie, Pierre

    2010-09-01

    Eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE) was diagnosed in 19 horses and a flock of emus in the province of Quebec in fall 2008. The EEE virus caused unusual gross lesions in the central nervous system of one horse. This disease is not usually present in Quebec and the relation between the outbreak and favorable environmental conditions that summer are discussed.

  8. Serosurveillance of Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus in Amphibians and Reptiles from Alabama, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, Sean P.; HASSAN, HASSAN K.; Chapman, Taryn; White, Gregory; Guyer, Craig; Unnasch, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is among the most medically important arboviruses in North America, and studies suggest a role for amphibians and reptiles in its transmission cycle. Serum samples collected from 351 amphibians and reptiles (27 species) from Alabama, USA, were tested for the presence of antibodies against EEEV. Frogs, turtles, and lizards showed little or no seropositivity, and snakes had high seropositivity rates. Most seropositive species were preferred or abundant h...

  9. Isolation of eastern equine encephalitis virus in A549 and MRC-5 cell cultures.

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    Sotomayor, E A; Josephson, S L

    1999-07-01

    Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) has been diagnosed either serologically or by virus isolation. Until now, the recovery of EEE virus has been delegated to reference laboratories with the expertise and resources needed to amplify the virus in a susceptible vertebrate host and/or to isolate and identify the virus in cell culture. We report a case in which EEE virus was recovered directly from a patient's cerebrospinal fluid in A549 and MRC-5 cell cultures. Many clinical virology laboratories routinely use these cells to recover adenovirus, herpes simplex virus, and enterovirus. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of isolation of EEE virus in A549 cell culture. This report demonstrates the possibility of recovery of EEE virus in cell culture without the necessity of bioamplification or maintaining unusual cell lines.

  10. The impact of eastern equine encephalitis virus on efforts to recover the endangered whooping crane

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    Carpenter, J.W.; Clark, G.G.; Watts, D.M.; Cooper, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    The whooping crane (Grus americana), although never abundant in North America, became endangered primarily because of habitat modification and destruction. To help recovery, a captive propagation and reintroduction program was initiated at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center (PWRC) in 1966. However, in 1984, 7 of 39 whooping cranes at PWRC died from infection by eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus, an arbovirus that infects a wide variety of indigenous bird species, although mortality is generally restricted to introduced birds. Following identification of the aetiological agent, surveillance and control measures were implemented, including serological monitoring of both wild and captive birds for EEE viral antibody and assay of locally-trapped mosquitoes for virus. In addition, an inactivated EEE virus vaccine developed for use in humans was evaluated in captive whooping cranes. Results so far suggest that the vaccine will afford protection to susceptible birds.

  11. Detection of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus RNA in North American snakes.

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    Bingham, Andrea M; Graham, Sean P; Burkett-Cadena, Nathan D; White, Gregory S; Hassan, Hassan K; Unnasch, Thomas R

    2012-12-01

    The role of non-avian vertebrates in the ecology of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEEV) is unresolved, but mounting evidence supports a potential role for snakes in the EEEV transmission cycle, especially as over-wintering hosts. To determine rates of exposure and infection, we examined serum samples from wild snakes at a focus of EEEV in Alabama for viral RNA using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Two species of vipers, the copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix) and the cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus), were found to be positive for EEEV RNA using this assay. Prevalence of EEEV RNA was more frequent in seropositive snakes than seronegative snakes. Positivity for the quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in cottonmouths peaked in April and September. Body size and sex ratios were not significantly different between infected and uninfected snakes. These results support the hypothesis that snakes are involved in the ecology of EEEV in North America, possibly as over-wintering hosts for the virus.

  12. Serosurveillance of eastern equine encephalitis virus in amphibians and reptiles from Alabama, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Sean P; Hassan, Hassan K; Chapman, Taryn; White, Gregory; Guyer, Craig; Unnasch, Thomas R

    2012-03-01

    Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is among the most medically important arboviruses in North America, and studies suggest a role for amphibians and reptiles in its transmission cycle. Serum samples collected from 351 amphibians and reptiles (27 species) from Alabama, USA, were tested for the presence of antibodies against EEEV. Frogs, turtles, and lizards showed little or no seropositivity, and snakes had high seropositivity rates. Most seropositive species were preferred or abundant hosts of Culex spp. mosquitoes at Tuskegee National Forest, that target ectothermic hosts. The cottonmouth, the most abundant ectotherm sampled, displayed a high prevalence of seropositivity, indicating its possible role as an amplification and/or over-wintering reservoir for EEEV.

  13. Habitat associations of eastern equine encephalitis transmission in Walton County Florida.

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    Kelen, Patrick T Vander; Downs, Joni A; Burkett-Cadena, Nathan D; Ottendorfer, Christy L; Hill, Kevin; Sickerman, Stephen; Hernandez, José; Jinright, Joseph; Hunt, Brenda; Lusk, John; Hoover, Victor; Armstrong, Keith; Unnasch, Robert S; Stark, Lillian M; Unnasch, Thomas R

    2012-05-01

    Eastern Equine Encephalitis virus (EEEV; family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus) a highly pathogenic mosquito-borne virus is endemic to eastern North America. The ecology of EEEV in Florida differs from that in other parts of the United States; EEEV in the northeastern United States is historically associated with freshwater wetlands. No formal test of habitat associations of EEEV in Florida has been reported. Geographical Information Sciences (GIS) was used in conjunction with sentinel chicken EEEV seroconversion rate data as a means to examine landscape features associated with EEEV transmission in Walton County, FL. Sentinel sites were categorized as enzootic, periodically enzootic, and negative based on the number of chicken seroconversions to EEEV from 2005 to 2009. EEEV transmission was then categorized by land cover usage using Arc GIS 9.3. The land classification data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test for each land use class to determine which habitats may be associated with virus transmission as measured by sentinel chicken seroconversion rates. The habitat class found to be most significantly associated with EEEV transmission was tree plantations. The ecological factor most commonly associated with reduced levels of EEEV transmission was vegetated nonforest wetlands. Culiseta melanura (Coquillett), the species generally considered to be the major enzootic EEEV vector, was relatively evenly distributed across all habitat classes, while Aedes vexans (Meigen) and Anopheles crucians Weidemann were most commonly associated with tree plantation habitats.

  14. Molecular detection of Eastern Equine Encephalitis virus in mosquitoes from La Pintada (Antioquia

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    Richard Hoyos L

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The detection of emerging and re-emerging arboviruses in mosquitoes from urban and rural areas, is fundamental for predict possible epidemic outbreaks in human populations. The Municipality of La Pintada (Antioquia, is characterized by the presence of dry tropical forest relicts, fishing, tourism, farms and mining. An entomological research was performed for explore the possible circulation of arboviruses of public health importance. Materials and methods. Mosquitoes were captured in urban and rural sites in February-April of 2012. The specimens were stored in liquid nitrogens tanks and were grouped using taxonomic keys for genera. RNA extraction from pools and generic/nested RT-PCR was performed for Flavivirus, Alphavirus, Orthobunyavirus (Group Bunyamwera and Phlebovirus. Results. 1274 mosquitoes were collected, mainly belonging to Culex and Aedes genera. RNA extracts of 64 pools were tested by RT-PCR and one pool was positive for Alphavirus. Sequencing of the RT-PCR product and the analysis with sequences storage in GenBank designate the presence of Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV. Conclusions. This is the first record of natural infection from EEEV in mosquitoes from La Pintada (Antioquia, an area with ecological elements that favor the emergence of emerging and re-emerging arboviruses of medical and veterinarian importance.

  15. Mosquito-Host Interactions during and after an Outbreak of Equine Viral Encephalitis in Eastern Panama

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    Navia-Gine, Wayra G.; Loaiza, Jose R.; Miller, Matthew J.

    2013-01-01

    Mosquito blood meals provide information about the feeding habits and host preference of potential arthropod-borne disease vectors. Although mosquito-borne diseases are ubiquitous in the Neotropics, few studies in this region have assessed patterns of mosquito-host interactions, especially during actual disease outbreaks. Based on collections made during and after an outbreak of equine viral encephalitis, we identified the source of 338 blood meals from 10 species of mosquitoes from Aruza Abajo, a location in Darien province in eastern Panama. A PCR based method targeting three distinct mitochondrial targets and subsequent DNA sequencing was used in an effort to delineate vector-host relationships. At Aruza Abajo, large domesticated mammals dominated the assemblage of mosquito blood meals while wild bird and mammal species represented only a small portion of the blood meal pool. Most mosquito species fed on a variety of hosts; foraging index analysis indicates that eight of nine mosquito species utilize hosts at similar proportions while a stochastic model suggests dietary overlap among species was greater than would be expected by chance. The results from our null-model analysis of mosquito diet overlap are consistent with the hypothesis that in landscapes where large domestic animals dominate the local biomass, many mosquito species show little host specificity, and feed upon hosts in proportion to their biomass, which may have implications for the role of livestocking patterns in vector-borne disease ecology. PMID:24339965

  16. Media attention and public perceptions of cancer and eastern equine encephalitis.

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    Ackerson, Leland K; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

    2010-08-01

    Previous research has found that members of the public have a skewed sense of health risk. The purpose of this research was to investigate how mass media use influences perceptions of threat from cancer and eastern equine encephalitis (EEE). Investigators performed a media content analysis of 253 health-related articles from 11 Massachusetts newspapers, then used logistic regression to analyze responses to a health communication survey of 613 Massachusetts adults. A greater proportion of cancer articles compared to those about EEE mentioned progress in combating the disease (61.0% vs. 16.2%, P media was related to higher odds of perceiving EEE as a threat (OR 2.14; 95% CI 1.03-4.45), and of perceiving EEE as a threat compared to cancer (OR 2.18; 95% CI 1.24-3.84). Media treatment of health stories that emphasize the novelty and unpredictability of EEE compared to cancer may lead to distorted perceptions of threat among news consumers.

  17. Vector-host interactions and epizootiology of eastern equine encephalitis virus in Massachusetts.

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    Molaei, Goudarz; Andreadis, Theodore G; Armstrong, Philip M; Thomas, Michael C; Deschamps, Timothy; Cuebas-Incle, Esteban; Montgomery, Walter; Osborne, Matthew; Smole, Sandra; Matton, Priscilla; Andrews, Wayne; Best, Curtis; Cornine, Frank; Bidlack, Ellen; Texeira, Tony

    2013-05-01

    Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus is a highly pathogenic mosquito-borne zoonosis that is responsible for outbreaks of severe disease in humans and equines, resulting in high mortality or severe neurological impairment in most survivors. In the northeastern United States, EEE virus is maintained in an enzootic cycle involving the ornithophilic mosquito, Culiseta melanura (Coquillett) and passerine birds in freshwater swamp habitats. To evaluate the role of Cs. melanura and Culiseta morsitans (Theobald) in recent episodes of EEE virus activity in Massachusetts, we collected blood-fed mosquitoes between June, 2007, and October, 2008, from virus foci in 6 counties, and identified the source of blood meals by PCR amplification of mitochondrial cytochrome b gene and sequencing. Analysis of 529 Cs. melanura and 25 Cs. morsitans revealed that nearly 99% and 96% of mosquitoes, respectively, acquired blood meals solely from avian hosts. American Robin, Turdus migratorius Linnaeus was identified as the most common vertebrate host for Cs. melanura (21.7%, n=115), followed by Tufted Titmouse, Baeolophus bicolor (L.) (8.7%, n=46), Black-capped Chickadee, Poecile atricapillus (L.) (8.5%, n=45), Scarlet Tanager, Piranga olivacea (Gmelin) (6.8%, n=36), Field Sparrow, Spizella pusilla (Wilson) (6.2%, n=33), Northern Cardinal, Cardinalis cardinalis (L.) (5.7%, n=30), and other mostly Passeriformes birds. Mammalian-derived blood meals were identified as white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus Zimmermann, domestic cow, Bos taurus L., and human, Homo sapiens L. There were 4 isolations of EEE virus, West Nile virus, and Highland J virus from Cs. melanura. Our results in conjunction with other lines of evidence, including reservoir competency, prevalence of antibody, and infection in nature, suggest that the American Robin, Tufted Titmouse, Black-capped Chickadee, and a few other passerine birds may play key roles in supporting EEE virus transmission in Massachusetts. Infrequent

  18. Use of an inactivated eastern equine encephalitis virus vaccine in cranes

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    Carpenter, J.W.; Dein, F.J.; Clark, G.G.; Watts, D.M.; Crabbs, C.L.

    1986-01-01

    An unprecedented outbreak of fatal eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus occurred during the late summer and fall of 1984 in endangered whooping cranes (Grus americana) at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, Maryland. As part of efforts to prevent future epizootics of EEE. studies were conducted to evaluate the antibody response of cranes following vaccination with a formalin-inactivated EEE virus vaccine. Viral specific neutralizing antibody was elicited in sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) and whooping cranes following 1M inoculation with the vaccine. Among the 1M-inoculated cranes, peak antibody titers of 1:80 on days 30 to 60 had waned to undetectable levels by days 90 to 120. Although the initial titers were not increased by the first booster dose, the duration of the antibody was extended considerably. Whooping cranes, receiving vaccine 6 months after their first vaccination, developed titers of 1:80 to 1:320 by day 30. At 45 days after the final vaccination, these titers had dropped to 1:10 to 1:160. Cranes with preexisting EEE virus antibody, apparently reflecting natural infection, exhibited an anamnestic response indicated by a rapid increase and sustained high antibody titer. Even though EEE virus vaccine induced neutralizing antibody and produced no adverse side effects, further studies will be required to assess the significance of this response as a strategy for protecting whooping cranes against natural EEE virus infection. The loss of captive whooping cranes to the EEE virus presented a previously unrecognized risk and obstacle to recovery of this species. Not only was, there a setback in the captive breeding and reintroduction program for the whooping crane, but, because of the susceptibility of the species to the EEE virus. establishment of additional crane populations may be more complicated than initially envisioned. However, through continued surveillance, serological monitoring, and vaccination activities, we are confident that

  19. Aerosol physical and optical properties in the Eastern Mediterranean Basin, Crete, from Aerosol Robotic Network data

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    A. Fotiadi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigate the aerosol optical properties, namely aerosol extinction optical thickness (AOT, Angström parameter and size distribution over the Eastern Mediterranean Basin, using spectral measurements from the recently established FORTH (Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas AERONET station in Crete, for the two-year period 2003–2004. The location of the FORTH-AERONET station offers a unique opportunity to monitor aerosols from different sources. Maximum values of AOT are found primarily in spring, which together with small values of the Angström parameter indicate dust transported from African deserts, whereas the minimum values of AOT occur in winter. In autumn, large AOT values observed at near-infrared wavelengths arise also from dust transport. In summer, large AOT values at ultraviolet (340 nm and visible wavelengths (500 nm, together with large values of the Angström parameter, are associated with transport of fine aerosols of urban/industrial and biomass burning origin. The Angström parameter values vary on a daily basis within the range 0.05–2.20, and on a monthly basis within the range 0.68–1.9. This behaviour, together with broad frequency distributions and back-trajectory analyses, indicates a great variety of aerosol types over the study region including dust, urban-industrial and biomass-burning pollution, and maritime, as well as mixed aerosol types. Large temporal variability is observed in AOT, Angström parameter, aerosol content and size. The fine and coarse aerosol modes persist throughout the year, with the coarse mode dominant except in summer. The highest values of AOT are related primarily to southeasterly winds, associated with coarse aerosols, and to a less extent to northwesterly winds associated with fine aerosols. The results of this study show that the FORTH AERONET station in Crete is well suited for studying the transport and mixing of different types of aerosols from a variety

  20. The first outbreak of eastern equine encephalitis in Vermont: outbreak description and phylogenetic relationships of the virus isolate.

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    Kali D Saxton-Shaw

    Full Text Available The first known outbreak of eastern equine encephalitis (EEE in Vermont occurred on an emu farm in Rutland County in 2011. The first isolation of EEE virus (EEEV in Vermont (VT11 was during this outbreak. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that VT11 was most closely related to FL01, a strain from Florida isolated in 2001, which is both geographically and temporally distinct from VT11. EEEV RNA was not detected in any of the 3,905 mosquito specimens tested, and the specific vectors associated with this outbreak are undetermined.

  1. Spatiotemporal variability and contribution of different aerosol types to the aerosol optical depth over the Eastern Mediterranean

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    Georgoulias, Aristeidis K.; Alexandri, Georgia; Kourtidis, Konstantinos A.; Lelieveld, Jos; Zanis, Prodromos; Pöschl, Ulrich; Levy, Robert; Amiridis, Vassilis; Marinou, Eleni; Tsikerdekis, Athanasios

    2016-11-01

    This study characterizes the spatiotemporal variability and relative contribution of different types of aerosols to the aerosol optical depth (AOD) over the Eastern Mediterranean as derived from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) Terra (March 2000-December 2012) and Aqua (July 2002-December 2012) satellite instruments. For this purpose, a 0.1° × 0.1° gridded MODIS dataset was compiled and validated against sun photometric observations from the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET). The high spatial resolution and long temporal coverage of the dataset allows for the determination of local hot spots like megacities, medium-sized cities, industrial zones and power plant complexes, seasonal variabilities and decadal averages. The average AOD at 550 nm (AOD550) for the entire region is ˜ 0.22 ± 0.19, with maximum values in summer and seasonal variabilities that can be attributed to precipitation, photochemical production of secondary organic aerosols, transport of pollution and smoke from biomass burning in central and eastern Europe and transport of dust from the Sahara and the Middle East. The MODIS data were analyzed together with data from other satellite sensors, reanalysis projects and a chemistry-aerosol-transport model using an optimized algorithm tailored for the region and capable of estimating the contribution of different aerosol types to the total AOD550. The spatial and temporal variability of anthropogenic, dust and fine-mode natural aerosols over land and anthropogenic, dust and marine aerosols over the sea is examined. The relative contribution of the different aerosol types to the total AOD550 exhibits a low/high seasonal variability over land/sea areas, respectively. Overall, anthropogenic aerosols, dust and fine-mode natural aerosols account for ˜ 51, ˜ 34 and ˜ 15 % of the total AOD550 over land, while, anthropogenic aerosols, dust and marine aerosols account ˜ 40, ˜ 34 and ˜ 26 % of the total AOD550 over the sea, based on

  2. Developing GIS-based eastern equine encephalitis vector-host models in Tuskegee, Alabama

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    Novak Robert J

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A site near Tuskegee, Alabama was examined for vector-host activities of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEEV. Land cover maps of the study site were created in ArcInfo 9.2® from QuickBird data encompassing visible and near-infrared (NIR band information (0.45 to 0.72 μm acquired July 15, 2008. Georeferenced mosquito and bird sampling sites, and their associated land cover attributes from the study site, were overlaid onto the satellite data. SAS 9.1.4® was used to explore univariate statistics and to generate regression models using the field and remote-sampled mosquito and bird data. Regression models indicated that Culex erracticus and Northern Cardinals were the most abundant mosquito and bird species, respectively. Spatial linear prediction models were then generated in Geostatistical Analyst Extension of ArcGIS 9.2®. Additionally, a model of the study site was generated, based on a Digital Elevation Model (DEM, using ArcScene extension of ArcGIS 9.2®. Results For total mosquito count data, a first-order trend ordinary kriging process was fitted to the semivariogram at a partial sill of 5.041 km, nugget of 6.325 km, lag size of 7.076 km, and range of 31.43 km, using 12 lags. For total adult Cx. erracticus count, a first-order trend ordinary kriging process was fitted to the semivariogram at a partial sill of 5.764 km, nugget of 6.114 km, lag size of 7.472 km, and range of 32.62 km, using 12 lags. For the total bird count data, a first-order trend ordinary kriging process was fitted to the semivariogram at a partial sill of 4.998 km, nugget of 5.413 km, lag size of 7.549 km and range of 35.27 km, using 12 lags. For the Northern Cardinal count data, a first-order trend ordinary kriging process was fitted to the semivariogram at a partial sill of 6.387 km, nugget of 5.935 km, lag size of 8.549 km and a range of 41.38 km, using 12 lags. Results of the DEM analyses indicated a statistically significant inverse

  3. Vector-Host Interactions of Culiseta melanura in a Focus of Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus Activity in Southeastern Virginia.

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    Molaei, Goudarz; Armstrong, Philip M; Abadam, Charles F; Akaratovic, Karen I; Kiser, Jay P; Andreadis, Theodore G

    2015-01-01

    Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) causes a highly pathogenic mosquito-borne zoonosis that is responsible for sporadic outbreaks of severe illness in humans and equines in the eastern USA. Culiseta (Cs.) melanura is the primary vector of EEEV in most geographic regions but its feeding patterns on specific avian and mammalian hosts are largely unknown in the mid-Atlantic region. The objectives of our study were to: 1) identify avian hosts of Cs. melanura and evaluate their potential role in enzootic amplification of EEEV, 2) assess spatial and temporal patterns of virus activity during a season of intense virus transmission, and 3) investigate the potential role of Cs. melanura in epidemic/epizootic transmission of EEEV to humans and equines. Accordingly, we collected mosquitoes at 55 sites in Suffolk, Virginia in 2013, and identified the source of blood meals in engorged mosquitoes by nucleotide sequencing PCR products of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. We also examined field-collected mosquitoes for evidence of infection with EEEV using Vector Test, cell culture, and PCR. Analysis of 188 engorged Cs. melanura sampled from April through October 2013 indicated that 95.2%, 4.3%, and 0.5% obtained blood meals from avian, mammalian, and reptilian hosts, respectively. American Robin was the most frequently identified host for Cs. melanura (42.6% of blood meals) followed by Northern Cardinal (16.0%), European Starling (11.2%), Carolina Wren (4.3%), and Common Grackle (4.3%). EEEV was detected in 106 mosquito pools of Cs. melanura, and the number of virus positive pools peaked in late July with 22 positive pools and a Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) infection rate of 4.46 per 1,000 mosquitoes. Our findings highlight the importance of Cs. melanura as a regional EEEV vector based on frequent feeding on virus-competent bird species. A small proportion of blood meals acquired from mammalian hosts suggests the possibility that this species may occasionally

  4. Vector-Host Interactions of Culiseta melanura in a Focus of Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus Activity in Southeastern Virginia.

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    Goudarz Molaei

    Full Text Available Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV causes a highly pathogenic mosquito-borne zoonosis that is responsible for sporadic outbreaks of severe illness in humans and equines in the eastern USA. Culiseta (Cs. melanura is the primary vector of EEEV in most geographic regions but its feeding patterns on specific avian and mammalian hosts are largely unknown in the mid-Atlantic region. The objectives of our study were to: 1 identify avian hosts of Cs. melanura and evaluate their potential role in enzootic amplification of EEEV, 2 assess spatial and temporal patterns of virus activity during a season of intense virus transmission, and 3 investigate the potential role of Cs. melanura in epidemic/epizootic transmission of EEEV to humans and equines. Accordingly, we collected mosquitoes at 55 sites in Suffolk, Virginia in 2013, and identified the source of blood meals in engorged mosquitoes by nucleotide sequencing PCR products of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. We also examined field-collected mosquitoes for evidence of infection with EEEV using Vector Test, cell culture, and PCR. Analysis of 188 engorged Cs. melanura sampled from April through October 2013 indicated that 95.2%, 4.3%, and 0.5% obtained blood meals from avian, mammalian, and reptilian hosts, respectively. American Robin was the most frequently identified host for Cs. melanura (42.6% of blood meals followed by Northern Cardinal (16.0%, European Starling (11.2%, Carolina Wren (4.3%, and Common Grackle (4.3%. EEEV was detected in 106 mosquito pools of Cs. melanura, and the number of virus positive pools peaked in late July with 22 positive pools and a Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE infection rate of 4.46 per 1,000 mosquitoes. Our findings highlight the importance of Cs. melanura as a regional EEEV vector based on frequent feeding on virus-competent bird species. A small proportion of blood meals acquired from mammalian hosts suggests the possibility that this species may

  5. Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicon particle vaccine protects nonhuman primates from intramuscular and aerosol challenge with ebolavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Andrew S; Kuehne, Ana I; Barth, James F; Ortiz, Ramon A; Nichols, Donald K; Zak, Samantha E; Stonier, Spencer W; Muhammad, Majidat A; Bakken, Russell R; Prugar, Laura I; Olinger, Gene G; Groebner, Jennifer L; Lee, John S; Pratt, William D; Custer, Max; Kamrud, Kurt I; Smith, Jonathan F; Hart, Mary Kate; Dye, John M

    2013-05-01

    There are no vaccines or therapeutics currently approved for the prevention or treatment of ebolavirus infection. Previously, a replicon vaccine based on Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) demonstrated protective efficacy against Marburg virus in nonhuman primates. Here, we report the protective efficacy of Sudan virus (SUDV)- and Ebola virus (EBOV)-specific VEEV replicon particle (VRP) vaccines in nonhuman primates. VRP vaccines were developed to express the glycoprotein (GP) of either SUDV or EBOV. A single intramuscular vaccination of cynomolgus macaques with VRP expressing SUDV GP provided complete protection against intramuscular challenge with SUDV. Vaccination against SUDV and subsequent survival of SUDV challenge did not fully protect cynomolgus macaques against intramuscular EBOV back-challenge. However, a single simultaneous intramuscular vaccination with VRP expressing SUDV GP combined with VRP expressing EBOV GP did provide complete protection against intramuscular challenge with either SUDV or EBOV in cynomolgus macaques. Finally, intramuscular vaccination with VRP expressing SUDV GP completely protected cynomolgus macaques when challenged with aerosolized SUDV, although complete protection against aerosol challenge required two vaccinations with this vaccine.

  6. Combined alphavirus replicon particle vaccine induces durable and cross-protective immune responses against equine encephalitis viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Douglas S; Glass, Pamela J; Bakken, Russell R; Barth, James F; Lind, Cathleen M; da Silva, Luis; Hart, Mary Kate; Rayner, Jonathan; Alterson, Kim; Custer, Max; Dudek, Jeanne; Owens, Gary; Kamrud, Kurt I; Parker, Michael D; Smith, Jonathan

    2014-10-01

    Alphavirus replicons were evaluated as potential vaccine candidates for Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV), or eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) when given individually or in combination (V/W/E) to mice or cynomolgus macaques. Individual replicon vaccines or the combination V/W/E replicon vaccine elicited strong neutralizing antibodies in mice to their respective alphavirus. Protection from either subcutaneous or aerosol challenge with VEEV, WEEV, or EEEV was demonstrated out to 12 months after vaccination in mice. Individual replicon vaccines or the combination V/W/E replicon vaccine elicited strong neutralizing antibodies in macaques and demonstrated good protection against aerosol challenge with an epizootic VEEV-IAB virus, Trinidad donkey. Similarly, the EEEV replicon and V/W/E combination vaccine elicited neutralizing antibodies against EEEV and protected against aerosol exposure to a North American variety of EEEV. Both the WEEV replicon and combination V/W/E vaccination, however, elicited poor neutralizing antibodies to WEEV in macaques, and the protection conferred was not as strong. These results demonstrate that a combination V/W/E vaccine is possible for protection against aerosol challenge and that cross-interference between the vaccines is minimal. Importance: Three related viruses belonging to the genus Alphavirus cause severe encephalitis in humans: Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV), and eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV). Normally transmitted by mosquitoes, these viruses can cause disease when inhaled, so there is concern that these viruses could be used as biological weapons. Prior reports have suggested that vaccines for these three viruses might interfere with one another. We have developed a combined vaccine for Venezuelan equine encephalitis, western equine encephalitis, and eastern equine encephalitis expressing the surface

  7. Characterizing areas of potential human exposure to eastern equine encephalitis virus using serological and clinical data from horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocheleau, J-P; Arsenault, J; Ogden, N H; Lindsay, L R; Drebot, M; Michel, P

    2017-03-01

    Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) is a rare but severe emerging vector-borne disease affecting human and animal populations in the northeastern United States where it is endemic. Key knowledge gaps remain about the epidemiology of EEE virus (EEEV) in areas where its emergence has more recently been reported. In Eastern Canada, viral activity has been recorded in mosquitoes and horses throughout the 2000s but cases of EEEV in humans have not been reported so far. This study was designed to provide an assessment of possible EEEV human exposure by modelling environmental risk factors for EEEV in horses, identifying high-risk environments and mapping risk in the province of Quebec, Canada. According to logistic models, being located near wooded swamps was a risk factor for seropositivity or disease in horses [odds ratio (OR) 4·15, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·16-14·8) whereas being located on agricultural lands was identified as protective (OR 0·75, 95% CI 0·62-0·92). A better understanding of the environmental risk of exposure to EEEV in Canada provides veterinary and public health officials with enhanced means to more effectively monitor the emergence of this public health risk and design targeted surveillance and preventive measures.

  8. A Multi-Year Study of Mosquito Feeding Patterns on Avian Hosts in a Southeastern Focus of Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Estep, Laura K.; Christopher J W McClure; Burkett-Cadena, Nathan D; HASSAN, HASSAN K.; Hicks, Tyler L; Thomas R Unnasch; Hill, Geoffrey E

    2011-01-01

    Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is a mosquito-borne pathogen that cycles in birds but also causes severe disease in humans and horses. We examined patterns of avian host use by vectors of EEEV in Alabama from 2001 to 2009 using blood-meal analysis of field-collected mosquitoes and avian abundance surveys. The northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis) was the only preferred host (fed on significantly more than expected based on abundance) of Culiseta melanura, the enzootic vector of E...

  9. Seasonal heterogeneity in aerosol types over Dibrugarh-North-Eastern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Binita; Bhuyan, Pradip Kumar; Gogoi, Mukunda; Bhuyan, Kalyan

    2012-02-01

    Columnar aerosol properties retrieved from Multi-Wavelength solar Radiometer (MWR) measurements during the period 2001-2010 over Dibrugarh (27.3°N, 94.6°E, 111 m amsl), North-Eastern India are analyzed to identify the types of aerosols in the atmospheric column. Highest Aerosol optical depth (AOD) characterizes the pre-monsoon (March-May), while lowest AOD has been observed during the post-monsoon (Oct-Nov) season. The Ångström exponent (α) indicates predominance of fine aerosols during post-monsoon and winter (Dec-Feb) and dominance of coarse mode in pre-monsoon and monsoon (June-Sept). NOAA HYSPLIT back trajectory analysis suggests that the seasonal heterogeneity in aerosol characteristics can be attributed to the varying contribution from different source regions. Using the relationship between AOD 500 and α, the aerosols can be classified into five main types viz. continental average (CA), marine continental average (MCA), urban/industrial and biomass burning (UB) and desert dust (DD) while the remaining cases are considered as unidentified or mixed type (MT). These aerosol types exhibit seasonal heterogeneity in their contribution depending upon variability in sources. In winter, local production contributes to observed appreciable CA aerosol type, while highest percentage of UB type is attributed to both local and transported aerosols. On the other hand, transported UB and DD types play a significant role in the pre-monsoon season. Post-monsoon season is indicative of background continental average aerosol condition with a significant contribution from CA and MCA aerosols. Monsoon aerosols couldn't be distinguished properly due to different particle growth processes like humidification, hygroscopic growth etc. and hence MT aerosol type is predominant in this season. This is the first ever attempt to classify aerosols over this environment.

  10. Characterization and transport of aerosols over equatorial eastern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatebe, C. K.; Tyson, P. D.; Annegarn, H. J.; Helas, G.; Kinyua, A. M.; Piketh, S. J.

    2001-09-01

    Measurements of the composition of aerosol partitioned into two size fractions, fine (particle aerodynamic equivalent diameter, dp ≤ 2.5 μm) and coarse (2.5 6000 km. So-called pristine marine air from the central Indian Ocean is shown to contain aged and recirculated Si that could only have been derived from land areas after transport over long distances. The nature of the aerosols measured on Mount Kenya depends critically on regional patterns of aerosol transport. Interregional transfers seem to be a feature of the transport climatology. Likewise, interhemispheric transport across the equator in east Africa is observed.

  11. Gene Expression Profiling of Nonhuman Primates Exposed to Aerosolized Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    Alphavirus of the family Togaviridae. VEEV is endemic throughout Central and South America, circulating in rodent and/or avian hosts and a mosquito...helpful for the prevention and emergency preparedness against an intentional aerosol ex- posure of the virus. VEEV will readily replicate in humans, as...host responses to other alphaviruses . Johnston et al. (2001), for example, investigated the infection of the Old World alpha- virus Sindbis in murine

  12. Impact of aerosols on precipitation from deep convective clouds in eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Mengjiao; Li, Zhanqing; Wan, Bingcheng; Cribb, Maureen

    2016-08-01

    We analyzed the impact of aerosols on precipitation based on 3 years of 3-hourly observations made in heavily polluted eastern China. The probability of precipitation from different cloud types was calculated using International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project cloud data and gauge-based hourly precipitation data. Because deep convective clouds have the largest precipitation probability, the influence of aerosols on the precipitation from such clouds was studied in particular. Aerosol properties were taken from the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications Aerosol Reanalysis data set. As aerosol optical depth increased, rainfall amounts from deep convective clouds increased at first and then decreased. The descending part of the trend is likely due to the aerosol radiative effect. Downwelling solar radiative fluxes at the surface decreased as aerosol optical depth increased. The decrease in solar radiation led to a decrease in ground heat fluxes and convective available potential energy, which is unfavorable for development of convective clouds and precipitation. The tendencies for lower cloud top temperatures, lower cloud top pressures, and higher cloud optical depths as a response to larger aerosol optical depths suggest the invigoration effect. Vertical velocity, relative humidity, and air temperature from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction Climate Forecast System Reanalysis were sorted to help investigate if the trends are dependent on any environmental conditions. How dynamic and microphysical factors strengthen or mitigate the impact of aerosols on clouds and precipitation and more details about their interplay should be studied further using more observations and model simulations.

  13. Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE): a description of the 1989 outbreak, recent epidemiologic trends, and the association of rainfall with EEE occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letson, G W; Bailey, R E; Pearson, J; Tsai, T F

    1993-12-01

    An Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) outbreak in 1989 led to nine human and 196 equine cases, chiefly in coastal Atlantic and Gulf Coast counties. In the past two decades, EEE age-specific incidence and mortality rates have declined compared with earlier years. Analysis of rainfall patterns in areas where human EEE cases occurred between 1983 and 1989 revealed an association between occurrence of human cases and excess rainfall. The association was stronger with data from local weather stations than from statewide rainfall averages and the predictive models were best when applied to northern states. The sensitivity and specificity of these measures varied, depending on the model used, but the positive predictive value was no better than 50%, regardless of the rainfall model applied.

  14. Genetic analysis of South American eastern equine encephalomyelitis viruses isolated from mosquitoes collected in the Amazon Basin region of Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondig, John P; Turell, Michael J; Lee, John S; O'Guinn, Monica L; Wasieloski, Leonard P

    2007-03-01

    Identifying viral isolates from field-collected mosquitoes can be difficult and time-consuming, particularly in regions of the world where numerous closely related viruses are co-circulating (e.g., the Amazon Basin region of Peru). The use of molecular techniques may provide rapid and efficient methods for identifying these viruses in the laboratory. Therefore, we determined the complete nucleotide sequence of two South American eastern equine encephalomyelitis viruses (EEEVs): one member from the Peru-Brazil (Lineage II) clade and one member from the Argentina-Panama (Lineage III) clade. In addition, we determined the nucleotide sequence for the nonstructural P3 protein (nsP3) and envelope 2 (E2) protein genes of 36 additional isolates of EEEV from mosquitoes captured in Peru between 1996 and 2001. The 38 isolates were evenly distributed between lineages II and III virus groupings. However, analysis of the nsP3 gene for lineage III strongly suggested that the 19 isolates from this lineage could be divided into two sub-clades, designated as lineages III and IIIA. Compared with North American EEEV (lineage I, GA97 strain), we found that the length of the nsP3 gene was shorter in the strains isolated from South America. A total of 60 nucleotides was deleted in lineage II, 69 in lineage III, and 72 in lineage IIIA. On the basis of the sequences we determined for South American EEEVs and those for other viruses detected in the same area, we developed a series of primers for characterizing these viruses.

  15. Aged organic aerosol in the Eastern Mediterranean: the Finokalia aerosol measurement experiment-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Hildebrandt

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aged organic aerosol (OA was measured at a remote coastal site on the island of Crete, Greece during the Finokalia Aerosol Measurement Experiment-2008 (FAME-2008, which was part of the EUCAARI intensive campaign of May 2008. The site at Finokalia is influenced by air masses from different source regions, including long-range transport of pollution from continental Europe. A quadrupole aerosol mass spectrometer (Q-AMS was employed to measure the size-resolved chemical composition of non-refractory submicron aerosol (NR-PM1, and to estimate the extent of oxidation of the organic aerosol. Factor analysis was used to gain insights into the processes and sources affecting the OA composition. The particles were internally mixed and liquid. The largest fraction of the dry NR-PM1 sampled was ammonium sulfate and ammonium bisulfate, followed by organics and a small amount of nitrate. The variability in OA composition could be explained with two factors of oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA with differing extents of oxidation but similar volatility. Hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA was not detected. There was no statistically significant diurnal variation in the bulk composition of NR-PM1 such as total sulfate or total organic aerosol concentrations. However, the OA composition exhibited statistically significant diurnal variation with more oxidized OA in the afternoon. The organic aerosol was highly oxidized, regardless of the source region. Total OA concentrations also varied little with time of day, suggesting that local sources had only a small effect on OA concentrations measured at Finokalia. The aerosol was transported for about one day before arriving at the site, corresponding to an OH exposure of approximately 4×1011 molecules cm−3 s. The constant extent of oxidation suggests that atmospheric aging results in a highly oxidized OA at these OH exposures, regardless of the aerosol source.

  16. Aged organic aerosol in the Eastern Mediterranean: the Finokalia Aerosol Measurement Experiment – 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Hildebrandt

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Aged organic aerosol (OA was measured at a remote coastal site on the island of Crete, Greece during the Finokalia Aerosol Measurement Experiment-2008 (FAME-2008, which was part of the EUCAARI intensive campaign of May 2008. The site at Finokalia is influenced by air masses from different source regions, including long-range transport of pollution from continental Europe. A quadrupole aerosol mass spectrometer (Q-AMS was employed to measure the size-resolved chemical composition of non-refractory submicron aerosol (NR-PM1, and to estimate the extent of oxidation of the organic aerosol. Factor analysis was used to gain insights into the processes and sources affecting the OA composition. The particles were internally mixed and liquid. The largest fraction of the dry NR-PM1 sampled was ammonium sulfate and ammonium bisulfate, followed by organics and a small amount of nitrate. The variability in OA composition could be explained with two factors of oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA with differing extents of oxidation but similar volatility. Hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA was not detected. There was no statistically significant diurnal variation in the bulk composition of NR-PM1 such as total sulfate or total organic aerosol concentrations. However, the OA composition exhibited statistically significant diurnal variation with more oxidized OA in the afternoon. The organic aerosol was highly oxidized, regardless of the source region. Total OA concentrations also varied little with source region, suggesting that local sources had only a small effect on OA concentrations measured at Finokalia. The aerosol was transported for about one day before arriving at the site, corresponding to an OH exposure of approximately 4×1011 molecules cm−3 s. The constant extent of oxidation suggests that atmospheric aging results in a highly oxidized OA at these OH exposures, regardless of the aerosol source.

  17. Response of North Pacific eastern subtropical mode water to greenhouse gas versus aerosol forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Luo, Yiyong

    2016-04-01

    Mode water is a distinct water mass characterized by a near vertical homogeneous layer or low potential vorticity, and is considered essential for understanding ocean climate variability. Based on the output of GFDL CM3, this study investigates the response of eastern subtropical mode water (ESTMW) in the North Pacific to two different single forcings: greenhouse gases (GHGs) and aerosol. Under GHG forcing, ESTMW is produced on lighter isopycnal surfaces and is decreased in volume. Under aerosol forcing, in sharp contrast, it is produced on denser isopycnal surfaces and is increased in volume. The main reason for the opposite response is because surface ocean-to-atmosphere latent heat flux change over the ESTMW formation region shoals the mixed layer and thus weakens the lateral induction under GHG forcing, but deepens the mixed layer and thus strengthens the lateral induction under aerosol forcing. In addition, local wind changes are also favorable to the opposite response of ESTMW production to GHG versus aerosol.

  18. Pathogenesis of Aerosolized Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus Infection in Guinea Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Steele5 Address: 1Division of Microbiology , Tulane National Primate Research Center, Covington, Louisiana, USA, 2Center for Vaccine Research, University...included rare positive cells that appeared to be osteoblasts in the skulls of four guinea pigs, small foci of positive subgingival or periodontal connective

  19. Climatic impact of urbanization in Eastern China: modeling the combined urban heat island and aerosol effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Y.; Yang, B.; Zhao, C.; Leung, L. R.; Yan, H.; Fan, J.

    2014-12-01

    In this study we investigate the climatic impact of urbanization, including both Urban Heat Island (UHI) and aerosol effects, over the Yangtze-Delta metropolitan clusters region of Eastern China, based on a series of simulations with prescribed land use/land cover and emissions of aerosols and their precursors for the 2000s and 1970s , respectively. We conduct simulations for each land use/land cover and emission scenario from 2006-2010 using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, with online chemistry/aerosol and urban canopy models, at a 3-km grid spacing. Overall the model can reasonably capture the spatial pattern of temperature and precipitation as well as the phase of precipitation diurnal cycle in summer. Simulations results show a very clear UHI effect, i.e. expanded urban surface decreases surface latent heat flux, increases sensible heat flux and PBL height, and reduces surface wind over urban areas, with a more significant change in summer. Aerosol has much less obvious impact on local surface heat flux and temperature, but shows more remote impacts downwind due to dispersion and transport of pollutants and aerosol-cloud interaction. Aerosol also has a larger impact on precipitation amount and areal coverage than UHI. While UHI increases precipitation over urban regions during daytime especially when the southeasterly monsoonal flow prevails, aerosol remarkably suppresses precipitation, especially for light to moderate rain events, and increases the frequency of dry days in the entire model region.

  20. Numerical Study of the Eff ect of Anthropogenic Aerosols on Spring Persistent Rain over Eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Jiechun; XU Haiming; MA Hongyun; JIANG Zhihong

    2014-01-01

    The eff ect of anthropogenic aerosols on the spring persistent rain (SPR) over eastern China is investigated by using a high-resolution Community Atmosphere Model version 5.1 (CAM5.1). The results show that the SPR starts later due to anthropogenic aerosols, with a shortened duration and reduced rainfall amount. A reduction in air temperature over the low latitudes in East Asia is linked to anthropogenic aerosols;so is a weakened southwesterly on the north side of the subtropical high. Meanwhile, air temperature increases signifi cantly over the high latitudes. This north-south asymmetrical thermal eff ect acts to reduce the meridional temperature gradient, weakening the upper-level westerly jet over East Asia and the vertical motion over southeastern China. As a result, the SPR is reduced and has a much shorter duration. The indirect eff ect of anthropogenic aerosols also plays an important role in changing the SPR. Cloud droplet number concentration increases due to anthropogenic aerosols acting as cloud condensation nuclei, leading to a reduction in cloud eff ective radius over eastern China and a reduced precipitation effi ciency there.

  1. A closure study of aerosol optical properties at a regional background mountainous site in Eastern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Liang [Collaborative Innovation Center on Forecast and Evaluation of Meteorological Disasters, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Key Laboratory for Aerosol–Cloud–Precipitation of China Meteorological Administration, School of Atmospheric Physics, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Yin, Yan, E-mail: yinyan@nuist.edu.cn [Collaborative Innovation Center on Forecast and Evaluation of Meteorological Disasters, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Key Laboratory for Aerosol–Cloud–Precipitation of China Meteorological Administration, School of Atmospheric Physics, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Xiao, Hui [Key Laboratory for Aerosol–Cloud–Precipitation of China Meteorological Administration, School of Atmospheric Physics, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Yu, Xingna [Collaborative Innovation Center on Forecast and Evaluation of Meteorological Disasters, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Key Laboratory for Aerosol–Cloud–Precipitation of China Meteorological Administration, School of Atmospheric Physics, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Hao, Jian; Chen, Kui [Key Laboratory for Aerosol–Cloud–Precipitation of China Meteorological Administration, School of Atmospheric Physics, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); and others

    2016-04-15

    There is a large uncertainty in evaluating the radiative forcing from aerosol–radiation and aerosol–cloud interactions due to the limited knowledge on aerosol properties. In-situ measurements of aerosol physical and chemical properties were carried out in 2012 at Mt. Huang (the Yellow Mountain), a continental background mountainous site in eastern China. An aerosol optical closure study was performed to verify the model outputs by using the measured aerosol optical properties, in which a spherical Mie model with assumptions of external and core–shell mixtures on the basis of a two-component optical aerosol model and high size-segregated element carbon (EC) ratio was applied. Although the spherical Mie model would underestimate the real scattering with increasing particle diameters, excellent agreement between the calculated and measured values was achieved with correlation coefficients above 0.98. Sensitivity experiments showed that the EC ratio had a negligible effect on the calculated scattering coefficient, but largely influenced the calculated absorption coefficient. The high size-segregated EC ratio averaged over the study period in the closure was enough to reconstruct the aerosol absorption coefficient in the Mie model, indicating EC size resolution was more important than time resolution in retrieving the absorption coefficient in the model. The uncertainties of calculated scattering and absorption coefficients due to the uncertainties of measurements and model assumptions yielded by a Monte Carlo simulation were ± 6% and ± 14% for external mixture and ± 9% and ± 31% for core–shell mixture, respectively. This study provided an insight into the inherent relationship between aerosol optical properties and physicochemical characteristics in eastern China, which could supplement the database of aerosol optical properties for background sites in eastern China and provide a method for regions with similar climate. - Highlights: • A spherical Mie

  2. Toward reconciling the influence of atmospheric aerosols and greenhouse gases on light precipitation changes in Eastern China: AEROSOLS AND GREENHOUSE GASES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yuan [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena California USA; Ma, Po-Lun [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Jiang, Jonathan H. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena California USA; Su, Hui [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena California USA; Rasch, Philip J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA

    2016-05-21

    The attribution of the widely observed shifted precipitation extremes to different forcing agents represents a critical issue for understanding of changes in the hydrological cycle. To compare aerosol and greenhouse-gas effects on the historical trends of precipitation intensity, we performed AMIP-style NCAR/DOE CAM5 model simulations from 1950-2005 with and without anthropogenic aerosol forcings. Precipitation rates at every time step in CAM5 are used to construct precipitation probability distribution functions. By contrasting the two sets of experiments, we found that the global warming induced by the accumulating greenhouse gases is responsible for the changes in precipitation intensity at the global scale. However, regionally over the Eastern China, the drastic increase in anthropogenic aerosols primarily accounts for the observed light precipitation suppression since the 1950s. Compared with aerosol radiative effects, aerosol microphysical effect has a predominant role in determining the historical trends of precipitation intensity in Eastern China.

  3. Natural and anthropogenic aerosols in the Eastern Mediterranean and Middle East: possible impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallos, G; Solomos, S; Kushta, J; Mitsakou, C; Spyrou, C; Bartsotas, N; Kalogeri, C

    2014-08-01

    The physical and chemical properties of airborne particles have significant implications on the microphysical cloud processes. Maritime clouds have different properties than polluted ones and the final amounts and types of precipitation are different. Mixed phase aerosols that contain soluble matter are efficient cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and enhance the liquid condensate spectrum in warm and mixed phase clouds. Insoluble particles such as mineral dust and black carbon are also important because of their ability to act as efficient ice nuclei (IN) through heterogeneous ice nucleation mechanisms. The relative contribution of aerosol concentrations, size distributions and chemical compositions on cloud structure and precipitation is discussed in the framework of RAMS/ICLAMS model. Analysis of model results and comparison with measurements reveals the complexity of the above links. Taking into account anthropogenic emissions and all available aerosol-cloud interactions the model precipitation bias was reduced by 50% for a storm simulation over eastern Mediterranean.

  4. Characteristics of distribution and seasonal variation of aerosol optical depth in eastern China with MODIS products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chengcai; MAO Jietai; LAU Kai-Hon Alexis; CHEN Jay-Chung; YUAN Zibing; LIU Xiaoyang; ZHU Aihua; LIU Guiqing

    2003-01-01

    The accuracy of MODIS aerosol products from the NASA Terra Satellite is validated in comparison with the results of sun-photometer observations in Beijing and Hong Kong. By analyzing the MODIS aerosol products within the period of August 2000 to April 2003, it is believed that human activities are the main source of aerosols in the eastern part of China. This is based on the facts that all areas with relatively high values are consistent with regions of dense population and fast economic development, such as the North China Plain, the Sichuan Basin and the Pearl River Delta. It is also supported by the distribution of ?ngstr?m exponents showing that most aerosols in the eastern part of China are closely related to human activities, excepting the strong sandstorm episodes occurring in spring, fall and winter. In contrast to developed countries, the ?ngstr?m exponent of urban area in China is lower than its surroundings, indicating that the contribution of local floating dust and soot attributed to human activities is significant. Results presented in this paper provide important data for further research on climatic change and environmental study.

  5. A multi-year study of mosquito feeding patterns on avian hosts in a southeastern focus of eastern equine encephalitis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estep, Laura K; McClure, Christopher J W; Burkett-Cadena, Nathan D; Hassan, Hassan K; Hicks, Tyler L; Unnasch, Thomas R; Hill, Geoffrey E

    2011-05-01

    Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is a mosquito-borne pathogen that cycles in birds but also causes severe disease in humans and horses. We examined patterns of avian host use by vectors of EEEV in Alabama from 2001 to 2009 using blood-meal analysis of field-collected mosquitoes and avian abundance surveys. The northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis) was the only preferred host (fed on significantly more than expected based on abundance) of Culiseta melanura, the enzootic vector of EEEV. Preferred hosts of Culex erraticus, a putative bridge vector of EEEV, were American robin (Turdus migratorius), Carolina chickadee (Poecile carolinensis), barred owl (Strix varia), and northern mockingbird (Mimus polyglottis). Our results provide insight into the relationships between vectors of EEEV and their avian hosts in the Southeast and suggest that the northern cardinal may be important in the ecology of EEEV in this region.

  6. Impact of wild forest fires in Eastern Europe on aerosol composition and particle optical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tymon Zielinski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors discuss the changes of aerosol optical depth (AOD in the region of eastern Europe and the Baltic Sea due to wild fire episodes which occurred in the area of Belarus and Ukraine in 2002. The authors discuss how the biomass burning aerosols were advected over the Baltic area and changed the composition of aerosol ensemble for a period of several summer weeks. The air pressure situation and slow wind speeds also facilitated the development of such conditions. As a consequence very high AOD levels were recorded, by an order of 3–4 higher versus normal conditions and they significantly increased the annual averages. On particular days of August 2002 the AOD values reached a level of over 0.7. On these days fine particles fully dominated the entire ensemble of aerosol particles. They were either sulfates or smoke particles. Such situation was unique over a period of many years and it had its serious consequences for the region and especially for the Baltic Sea.

  7. Geochemistry of aerosols from an urban site, Varanasi, in the Eastern Indo-Gangetic Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Kirpa; Norra, Stefan; Zirzov, Felix; Singh, Sunita; Mehra, Manisha; Nanad Tripathi, Sachichida

    2016-04-01

    PM2.5 aerosol samples were collected from an urban site, Varanasi, in the eastern Indo-Gangetic Plain on weekly basis during 19 March to 29 May 2015 (n=12), along with daily samples (n=8) during 11 to 18 March 2015 to study the geochemical and morphological features of aerosols. Samples were collected with a low volume sampler (Leckel GmbH, Germany) on the terrace of the Institute of Environment and Sustainable Development building, located in the Banaras Hindu University campus in the southern part of the city. Samples were analyzed for element concentration by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry and particle morphology by Scanning Electron Microscope. PM2.5 concentration ranged between 22.3 and 70.5 μgm-3 in daily samples, whereas those varied between 52.0 and 106 μgm-3 in weekly samples. Lead, potassium, aluminum, zinc and iron have conspicuously higher concentrations with Pb concentration exceeding above the annual limit of 50 ngm-3 in four samples. First results show a trend of corresponding concentrations of chemical elements originated from anthropogenic and geogenic sources. The biogenic particles are a minor fraction of the total particulate aerosols. The Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) back trajectory analysis of air parcels indicate that the air mass for the low loaded days originate from eastern directions including the region of the gulf of Bengal, where as high aerosols concentrations in cases of air masses arriving from north-western direction transporting the air pollutants from the Gangetic Plain towards Varanasi. Black carbon (BC) concentration, measured using an microaethalometer (AE-51), exhibit a strong variability (4.4 to 8.4 μg m-3) in the University campus which are ˜20-40% lower than those measured in the Varanasi city. The carbon content was found to be high with soot particles constituting the largest part in these samples and exist as single particle as well as attachment to other particles

  8. QUantifying the Aerosol Direct and Indirect Effect over Eastern Mediterranean from Satellites (QUADIEEMS): Overview and preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgoulias, Aristeidis K.; Zanis, Prodromos; Pöschl, Ulrich; Kourtidis, Konstantinos A.; Alexandri, Georgia; Ntogras, Christos; Marinou, Eleni; Amiridis, Vassilis

    2013-04-01

    An overview and preliminary results from the research implemented within the framework of QUADIEEMS project are presented. For the scopes of the project, satellite data from five sensors (MODIS aboard EOS TERRA, MODIS aboard EOS AQUA, TOMS aboard Earth Probe, OMI aboard EOS AURA and CALIOP aboard CALIPSO) are used in conjunction with meteorological data from ECMWF ERA-interim reanalysis and data from a global chemical-aerosol-transport model as well as simulation results from a regional climate model (RegCM4) coupled with a simplified aerosol scheme. QUADIEEMS focuses on Eastern Mediterranean [30oN-45No, 17.5oE-37.5oE], a region situated at the crossroad of different aerosol types and thus ideal for the investigation of the direct and indirect effects of various aerosol types at a high spatial resolution. The project consists of five components. First, raw data from various databases are acquired, analyzed and spatially homogenized with the outcome being a high resolution (0.1x0.1 degree) and a moderate resolution (1.0x1.0 degree) gridded dataset of aerosol and cloud optical properties. The marine, dust and anthropogenic fraction of aerosols over the region is quantified making use of the homogenized dataset. Regional climate model simulations with REGCM4/aerosol are also implemented for the greater European region for the period 2000-2010 at a resolution of 50 km. REGCM4's ability to simulate AOD550 over Europe is evaluated. The aerosol-cloud relationships, for sub-regions of Eastern Mediterranean characterized by the presence of predominant aerosol types, are examined. The aerosol-cloud relationships are also examined taking into account the relative position of aerosol and cloud layers as defined by CALIPSO observations. Within the final component of the project, results and data that emerged from all the previous components are used in satellite-based parameterizations in order to quantify the direct and indirect (first) radiative effect of the different

  9. Characterization of aerosol particle episodes in Finland caused by wildfires in Eastern Europe

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    J. V. Niemi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the sources, compositions and size distributions of aerosol particles during long-range transport (LRT PM2.5 episodes which occurred on 12–15 August, 26–28 August and 5–6 September 2002 in Finland. Backward air mass trajectories, satellite detections of fire areas and dispersion modelling results indicate that emissions from wildfires in Russia and other Eastern European countries arrived in Finland during these episodes. Elemental analyses using scanning electron microscopy (SEM coupled with energy dispersive X-ray microanalyses (EDX showed that the proportions of S-rich particles and agglomerates (agglomeration was caused partly by the sampling method used increased during the episodes, and they contained elevated fractions of K, indicating emissions from biomass burning. These aerosols were mixed with S-rich emissions from fossil fuel burning during transport since air masses came through polluted areas of Europe. Minor amounts of coarse Ca-rich particles were also brought by LRT during the episodes, and they probably originated from wildfires and/or from Estonian and Russian oil-shale-burning industrial areas. Ion chromatography analysis showed that concentrations of sulphate (SO42-, total nitrate (NO3-+HNO3(g and total ammonium (NH4++NH3(g increased during the episodes, but the ratio of the total amount of these ions to PM10 concentration decreased, indicating unusually high fractions of other chemical components. Particle number size distribution measurements with differential mobility particle sizer (DMPS revealed that concentrations of particles 90–500 nm increased during the episodes, while concentrations of particles smaller than 90 nm decreased. The reduction of the smallest particles was caused by suppressed new particle formation due to vapour and molecular cluster uptake of LRT particles. Our results show that emissions from wildfires in Russian and other Eastern European countries deteriorated air quality of

  10. Mesoscale modeling of combined aerosol and photo-oxidant processes in the eastern Mediterranean

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    M. Lazaridis

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Particulate matter and photo-oxidant processes in the Eastern Mediterranean have been studied using the UAM-AERO mesoscale air quality model in conjunction with the NILU-CTM regional model. Meteorological data were obtained from the RAMS prognostic meteorological model. The modeling domain includes the eastern Mediterranean area between the Greek mainland and the island of Crete. The modeling system is applied to study the atmospheric processes in three periods, i.e. 13–16 July 2000, 26–30 July 2000 and 7–14 January 2001. The spatial and temporal distributions of both gaseous and particulate matter pollutants have been extensively studied together with the identification of major emission sources in the area. The modeling results were compared with field data obtained in the same period. Comparison of the modeling results with measured data was performed for a number of gaseous and aerosol species. The UAM-AERO model underestimates the PM10 measured concentrations during summer but better comparison has been obtained for the winter data.

  11. Mesoscale modeling of combined aerosol and photo-oxidant processes in the Eastern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lazaridis

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Particulate matter and photo-oxidant processes in the Eastern Mediterranean have been studied using the UAM-AERO mesoscale air quality model in conjunction with the NILU-CTM regional model. Meteorological data were obtained from the RAMS prognostic meteorological model. The modeling domain includes the eastern Mediterranean area between the Greek mainland and the island of Crete. The modeling system is applied to study the atmospheric processes in three periods, i.e. 13–16 July 2000, 26–30 July 2000 and 7–14 January 2001. The spatial and temporal distributions of both gaseous and particulate matter pollutants have been extensively studied together with the identification of major emission sources in the area. The modeling results were compared with field data obtained in the same period. The objective of the current modeling work was mainly to apply the UAM-AERO mesoscale model in the eastern Mediterranean in order to assess the performed field campaigns and determine that the applied mesoscale model is fit for this purpose. Comparison of the modeling results with measured data was performed for a number of gaseous and aerosol species. The UAM-AERO model underestimates the PM10 measured concentrations during summer and winter campaigns. Discrepancies between modeled and measured data are attributed to unresolved particulate matter emissions. Particulate matter in the area is mainly composed by sulphate, sea salt and crustal materials, and with significant amounts of nitrate, ammonium and organics. During winter the particulate matter and oxidant concentrations were lower than the summer values.

  12. Surto de encefalomielite equina Leste na Ilha de Marajó, Pará Eastern equine encephalitis on Marajó Island, Pará state, Brazil

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    Karinny F. Campos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Nove casos de encefalomielite equina foram estudados na Ilha de Marajó, estado do Pará, Brasil. Os equinos apresentavam dificuldade em se manter em estação, andavam em círculo, tinham acentuada depressão, pálpebras cerradas, paralisia da língua, tremores musculares, bruxismo, anorexia e desidratação. Alguns apresentavam diminuição dos reflexos auricular, palpebral, de ameaça, diminuição do tônus da língua e taquicardia. Posição de auto-auscultação foi observada com frequência. Os animais muitas vezes eram encontrados apoiados em troncos e cercas para se manterem em estação. À necropsia verificou-se hemorragia das leptomeninges e da medula, alguns apresentaram ainda aderência das leptomeninges. À histopatologia verificou-se encefalite difusa que afetava principalmente a substância cinzenta, com meningite e coroidite. Foi observada perivasculite mononuclear. Em dois equinos identificou-se o vírus da encefalomielite equina Leste pela reação de Semi-Nested transcrição reversa de polimerase em cadeia (Semi-Nested RT-PCR.Nine cases of equine encephalomyelitis on Marajó Island, state of Pará, Brazil, were studied. The affected horses had difficulty to stand, walked in circles, with marked depression, closed eyelids, tongue paralysis, muscle tremors, bruxism, anorexia and dehydration. Some had their ear and eyelid reflexes diminished, decreased tongue tone and tachycardia; laid down frequently they kept their head on the chest. Often they were seen resting their head on tree trunks or fences. At necropsy, hemorrhages of the meninges and spinal cord, and in some animals also adhesion of the meninges were found. Histologically there was diffuse encephalitis affecting mainly the gray matter, with meningitis and choroiditis. Presence of perivascular cuffs consisting of mononuclear inflammatory cells was observed. From two horses the Eastern equine encephalitis virus was identified by semi-nested reverse transcription

  13. Statistical Comparison of Cloud and Aerosol Vertical Properties between Two Eastern China Regions Based on CloudSat/CALIPSO Data

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    Yujun Qiu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between cloud and aerosol properties was investigated over two 4° × 4° adjacent regions in the south (R1 and in the north (R2 in eastern China. The CloudSat/CALIPSO data were used to extract the cloud and aerosol profiles properties. The mean value of cloud occurrence probability (COP was the highest in the mixed cloud layer (−40°C~0°C and the lowest in the warm cloud layer (>0°C. The atmospheric humidity was more statistically relevant to COP in the warm cloud layer than aerosol condition. The differences in COP between the two regions in the mixed cloud layer and ice cloud layer (<−40°C had good correlations with those in the aerosol extinction coefficient. A radar reflectivity factor greater than −10 dBZ occurred mainly in warm cloud layers and mixed cloud layers. A high-COP zone appeared in the above-0°C layer with cloud thicknesses of 2-3 km in both regions and in all the four seasons, but the distribution of the zonal layer in R2 was more continuous than that in R1, which was consistent with the higher aerosol optical thickness in R2 than in R1 in the above-0°C layer, indicating a positive correlation between aerosol and cloud probability.

  14. Fullerene Soot in Eastern China Air: Results from Soot Particle-Aerosol Mass Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Ge, X.; Chen, M.; Zhang, Q.; Yu, H.; Sun, Y.; Worsnop, D. R.; Collier, S.

    2015-12-01

    In this work, we present for the first time, the observation and quantification of fullerenes in ambient airborne particulate using an Aerodyne Soot Particle - Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (SP-AMS) deployed during 2015 winter in suburban Nanjing, a megacity in eastern China. The laser desorption and electron impact ionization techniques employed by the SP-AMS allow us to differentiate various fullerenes from other aerosol components. Mass spectrum of the identified fullerene soot is consisted by a series of high molecular weight carbon clusters (up to m/z of 2000 in this study), almost identical to the spectral features of commercially available fullerene soot, both with C70 and C60 clusters as the first and second most abundant species. This type of soot was observed throughout the entire study period, with an average mass loading of 0.18 μg/m3, accounting for 6.4% of the black carbon mass, 1.2% of the total organic mass. Temporal variation and diurnal pattern of fullerene soot are overall similar to those of black carbon, but are clearly different in some periods. Combining the positive matrix factorization, back-trajectory and analyses of the meteorological parameters, we identified the petrochemical industrial plants situating upwind from the sampling site, as the major source of fullerene soot. In this regard, our findings imply the ubiquitous presence of fullerene soot in ambient air of industry-influenced area, especially the oil and gas production regions. This study also offers new insights into the characterization of fullerenes from other environmental samples via the advanced SP-AMS technique.

  15. Ergosterol, arabitol and mannitol as tracers for biogenic aerosols in the Eastern Mediterranean

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    N. Burshtein

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Aerosols containing biological components can have a significant effect on human health by causing primarily irritation, infection and allergies. Specifically, airborne fungi can cause a wide array of adverse responses in humans depending on the type and quantity present. In this study we used chemical biomarkers for analyzing fungi-containing aerosols in the eastern Mediterranean region during the year 2009 in order to quantify annual fungal abundances. The prime marker for fungi used in this study was ergosterol, and its concentrations were compared with those of mannitol and arabitol, which were recently suggested to also correlate with fungal spores concentrations (Bauer et al., 2008a. Back trajectory analysis, inorganic ions, humidity and temperature were used in an attempt to identify sources as well as the dependence on seasonal and environmental conditions. We found that the ambient concentrations of ergosterol, arabitol and mannitol range between 0 and 2.73 ng m−3, 1.85 and 58.27 ng m−3, 5.57 and 138.03 ng m−3, respectively. The highest levels for all biomarkers were during the autumn, probably from local terrestrial sources, as deduced from the inorganic ions and back trajectory analysis. Significant correlations were observed between arabitol and mannitol during the entire year except for the winter months. Both sugars correlated with ergosterol only during the spring and autumn. We conclude that mannitol and arabitol might not be specific biomarkers for fungi and that the observed correlations during spring and autumn may be attributed to high levels of vegetation during spring blossoms and autumn decomposition.

  16. Ergosterol, arabitol and mannitol as tracers for biogenic aerosols in the eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burshtein, N.; Lang-Yona, N.; Rudich, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Aerosols containing biological components can have a significant effect on human health by causing primarily irritation, infection and allergies. Specifically, airborne fungi can cause a wide array of adverse responses in humans depending on the type and quantity present. In this study we used chemical biomarkers for analyzing fungi-containing aerosols in the eastern Mediterranean region during the year 2009 in order to quantify annual fungal abundances. The prime marker for fungi used in this study was ergosterol, and its concentrations were compared with those of mannitol and arabitol which were recently suggested to also correlate with fungal spores concentrations (Bauer et al., 2008a). Back trajectory analysis, inorganic ions, humidity and temperature were used in an attempt to identify sources as well as the dependence on seasonal and environmental conditions. We found that the ambient concentrations of ergosterol, arabitol and mannitol range between 0 and 2.73 ng m-3, 1.85 and 58.27 ng m-3, 5.57 and 138.03 ng m-3, respectively. The highest levels for all biomarkers were during the autumn, probably from local terrestrial sources, as deduced from the inorganic ions and back trajectory analysis. Significant correlations were observed between arabitol and mannitol during the entire year except for the winter months. Both sugars correlated with ergosterol only during the spring and autumn. We conclude that mannitol and arabitol might not be specific biomarkers for fungi and that the observed correlations during spring and autumn may be attributed to high levels of vegetation during spring blossoms and autumn decomposing.

  17. Ergosterol, arabitol and mannitol as tracers for biogenic aerosols in the eastern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Burshtein

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerosols containing biological components can have a significant effect on human health by causing primarily irritation, infection and allergies. Specifically, airborne fungi can cause a wide array of adverse responses in humans depending on the type and quantity present. In this study we used chemical biomarkers for analyzing fungi-containing aerosols in the eastern Mediterranean region during the year 2009 in order to quantify annual fungal abundances. The prime marker for fungi used in this study was ergosterol, and its concentrations were compared with those of mannitol and arabitol which were recently suggested to also correlate with fungal spores concentrations (Bauer et al., 2008a. Back trajectory analysis, inorganic ions, humidity and temperature were used in an attempt to identify sources as well as the dependence on seasonal and environmental conditions. We found that the ambient concentrations of ergosterol, arabitol and mannitol range between 0 and 2.73 ng m−3, 1.85 and 58.27 ng m−3, 5.57 and 138.03 ng m−3, respectively. The highest levels for all biomarkers were during the autumn, probably from local terrestrial sources, as deduced from the inorganic ions and back trajectory analysis. Significant correlations were observed between arabitol and mannitol during the entire year except for the winter months. Both sugars correlated with ergosterol only during the spring and autumn. We conclude that mannitol and arabitol might not be specific biomarkers for fungi and that the observed correlations during spring and autumn may be attributed to high levels of vegetation during spring blossoms and autumn decomposing.

  18. Studies of arboviruses in Southwestern Venezuela: I. Isolations of Venezuelan and Eastern Equine Encephalitis viruses from sentinel hamsters in the Catatumbo region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walder, R; Suárez, O M

    1976-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe isolations of Venezuelan (VEE) and Eastern (EEE) Equine Encephalitis virus made in the lowland moist tropical forest of the Catatumbo region on the southwestern part of the State of Zulia, Venezuela. We have isolated four strains of EEEV from sentinel hamsters exposed at Caño Mocho and Madre Vieja sites in 1973 and 1974, and three strains of EEEV in Hacienda (Hda.) Las Nubes in 1975. Both viruses were recovered during silent interepidemic periods and we believe these viruses are maintained in this region in sylvatic conditions. The recovered virus strains were detected within 24 to 48 hours, both in SMB and Vero Cell monolayer cultures and the sentinel hamsters yielded virus infectivities up to 10(4) PFU ml. Our VEEV isolate (IVIC PAn 23645-47), recovered during the silent interepizodemic period had an elution profile on the hydroxylapatite column corresponding to that of a I-D (VEEV-3880) or a I-E (VEEV-63A216) 'enzootic' subtype. However, considering other in vitro criteria (KHI; HA pH 5.8-6.0; small plaque size in Vero monolayers with suitable overlay media), this later and other previous isolates had some very distinct properties of the 'epizootic' strains. Thus, the evidence suggests that in Venezuela the VEEV cycle in nature is maintained either by the so called 'enzootic' and/or 'epizootic' virus types, or the virus population of the isolates have particular in vitro properties which do not correlate to the virulence markers in vivo. We consider this important question must be further clarified, and in addition, the isolation of three strains of EEEV are reported; this is the first report of the presence of this virus in Venezuela. Although the EEEV isolates may be of the South American type, they must be considered as potentially dangerous in the case of outbreaks.

  19. Aerosol shortwave daily radiative effect and forcing based on MODIS Level 2 data in the Eastern Mediterranean (Crete

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    N. Benas

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The mean daily shortwave (SW radiation budget was computed on a 10 km × 10 km resolution above FORTH-CRETE AERONET station in Crete, Greece, for the 9-yr period from 2000 to 2008. The area is representative of the Eastern Mediterranean region, where air pollution and diminishing water resources are exacerbated by high aerosol loads and climate change. The present study aims to quantify the aerosol direct effect and forcing on the local energy budget. A radiative transfer model was used, with daily climatological data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS, on board NASA's Terra and Aqua satellites. The radiative fluxes were computed at the surface, within the atmosphere and at the top of atmosphere (TOA. Downward surface fluxes and aerosol optical thickness (AOT were validated against ground measurements. Daily fluxes reveal the direct radiative effects of dust events, with mean daily values reaching up to −100, 55 and −30 W m−2 at the surface (cooling, within the atmosphere (warming and at TOA (cooling, respectively. Mean monthly values show a decreasing trend of the aerosol direct radiative effect, in agreement with a similar trend in AOT. The analysis of the contribution of anthropogenic and natural aerosol show major peaks of natural aerosol direct effect occurring mainly in spring, while a summer maximum is attributed to anthropogenic aerosol. During their peaks, anthropogenic aerosol forcing can reach values of −15 W m−2 at the surface, 8 W m−2 in the atmosphere and over −4 W m−2 at TOA (monthly mean values. The corresponding daily peak values for natural aerosol are over −10 W m−2, 6 W m−2 and −3 W m−2. Annual mean values and standard deviations (interannual variability of anthropogenic aerosol forcing are −10 ± 3 W m−2 at the surface, 5 ± 1 W m−2 in the atmosphere and −3 ± 1 W m

  20. Dynamics of Vector-Host Interactions in Avian Communities in Four Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus Foci in the Northeastern U.S.

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    Goudarz Molaei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE virus (Togaviridae, Alphavirus is a highly pathogenic mosquito-borne zoonosis that is responsible for occasional outbreaks of severe disease in humans and equines, resulting in high mortality and neurological impairment in most survivors. In the past, human disease outbreaks in the northeastern U.S. have occurred intermittently with no apparent pattern; however, during the last decade we have witnessed recurring annual emergence where EEE virus activity had been historically rare, and expansion into northern New England where the virus had been previously unknown. In the northeastern U.S., EEE virus is maintained in an enzootic cycle involving the ornithophagic mosquito, Culiseta melanura, and wild passerine (perching birds in freshwater hardwood swamps. However, the identity of key avian species that serve as principal virus reservoir and amplification hosts has not been established. The efficiency with which pathogen transmission occurs within an avian community is largely determined by the relative reservoir competence of each species and by ecological factors that influence contact rates between these avian hosts and mosquito vectors.Contacts between vector mosquitoes and potential avian hosts may be directly quantified by analyzing the blood meal contents of field-collected specimens. We used PCR-based molecular methods and direct sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene for profiling of blood meals in Cs. melanura, in an effort to quantify its feeding behavior on specific vertebrate hosts, and to infer epidemiologic implications in four historic EEE virus foci in the northeastern U.S. Avian point count surveys were conducted to determine spatiotemporal host community composition. Of 1,127 blood meals successfully identified to species level, >99% of blood meals were from 65 avian hosts in 27 families and 11 orders, and only seven were from mammalian hosts representing three species. We developed an

  1. Characteristics of climate change in the “significant impact zone” affected by aerosols over eastern China in warm seasons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Through analysis of the distribution pattern and changing characteristics of atmospheric aerosols over the East Asia region during warm seasons in recent 20 a and beyond as well as their possible interac- tive relationship with a variety of meteorological elements, it is found that the high-value zone of aerosol optical depth derived from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), its significant negative correlation zones in terms of sunshine duration (SD) and surface air temperature (SAT) and its significant positive correlation zones with low-level cloud amount (LCC) are co-located in the South China region during warm periods. Based on this finding, the region is referred to as a "significant impact zone" (SI zone) affected by aerosols. Then, a comparative analysis is made on variation differ- ences of observed SAT, SD and LCC, etc. in different regions. It is also found that the LCC is increased and the SD is decreased within the "SI zone" over eastern China during the warm season. These characteristics are more evident than those beyond the zone, while the warming trend within the zone is evidently weaker than that outside it. Studies show that since recent 20 a, under the influence of aerosols, the LCC tend to increase substantially with a clear decrease of SD and an unnoticeable warming trend within the "SI zone". Comparing with the climate change beyond the zone, the difference is significant. Therefore, the effects of atmospheric aerosols on climate is possibly one of the contri- butions to the difference of climate change existed between the southern and northern parts of the Eastern China during a warm season.

  2. Equine Piroplasmosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Equine piroplasmosis is an infectious, tick-borne disease caused by the hemoprotozoan parasites Theileria (previously Babesia) equi and Babesia caballi. Piroplasmosis affects all wild and domestic equid species and causes signs related to intravascular hemolysis and associated systemic illness. Infe...

  3. Insights on organic aerosol aging and the influence of coal combustion at a regional receptor site of central eastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. W. Hu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand the aging and processing of organic aerosols (OA, an intensive field campaign (Campaign of Air Pollution at Typical Coastal Areas IN Eastern China, CAPTAIN was conducted March–April at a receptor site (a Changdao island in central eastern China. Multiple fast aerosol and gas measurement instruments were used during the campaign, including a high resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS that was applied to measure mass concentrations and non-refractory chemical components of submicron particles (PM1nr. The average mass concentration of PM1(PM1nr+black carbon was 47 ± 36 μg m−3 during the campaign and showed distinct variation, depending on back trajectories and their overlap with source regions. Organic aerosol (OA is the largest component of PM1 (30%, followed by nitrate (28%, sulfate (19%, ammonium (15%, black carbon (6%, and chloride (3%. Four OA components were resolved by positive matrix factorization (PMF of the high-resolution spectra, including low-volatility oxygenated organic aerosol (LV-OOA, semi-volatile oxygenated OA (SV-OOA, hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA and a coal combustion OA (CCOA. The mass spectrum of CCOA had high abundance of fragments from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs (m/z 128, 152, 178, etc.. The average atomic ratio of oxygen to carbon in OA (O / C at Changdao was 0.59, which is comparable to other field studies reported at locations downwind of large pollution sources, indicating the oxidized nature of most OA during the campaign. The evolution of OA elemental composition in the van Krevelen diagram (H / C vs. O / C showed a slope of −0.63; however, the OA influenced by coal combustion exhibits a completely different evolution that appears dominated by physical mixing. The aging of organic aerosols vs. photochemical age was investigated. It was shown that OA / ΔCO, as well as LV-OOA / ΔCO and SV-OOA / ΔCO, positively correlated with photochemical age. LV

  4. Modelling the chemically aged and mixed aerosols over the eastern central Atlantic Ocean – potential impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Astitha

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Detailed information on the chemical and physical properties of aerosols is important for assessing their role in air quality and climate. This work explores the origin and fate of continental aerosols transported over the Central Atlantic Ocean, in terms of chemical composition, number and size distribution, using chemistry-transport models, satellite data and in situ measurements. We focus on August 2005, a period with intense hurricane and tropical storm activity over the Atlantic Ocean. A mixture of anthropogenic (sulphates, nitrates, natural (desert dust, sea salt and chemically aged (sulphate and nitrate on dust aerosols is found entering the hurricane genesis region, most likely interacting with clouds in the area. Results from our modelling study suggest rather small amounts of accumulation mode desert dust, sea salt and chemically aged dust aerosols in this Atlantic Ocean region. Aerosols of smaller size (Aitken mode are more abundant in the area and in some occasions sulphates of anthropogenic origin and desert dust are of the same magnitude in terms of number concentrations. Typical aerosol number concentrations are derived for the vertical layers near shallow cloud formation regimes, indicating that the aerosol number concentration can reach several thousand particles per cubic centimetre. The vertical distribution of the aerosols shows that the desert dust particles are often transported near the top of the marine cloud layer as they enter into the region where deep convection is initiated. The anthropogenic sulphate aerosol can be transported within a thick layer and enter the cloud deck through multiple ways (from the top, the base of the cloud, and by entrainment. The sodium (sea salt related aerosol is mostly found below the cloud base. The results of this work may provide insights relevant for studies that consider aerosol influences on cloud processes and storm development in the Central Atlantic region.

  5. Modelling the chemically aged and mixed aerosols over the eastern central Atlantic Ocean - potential impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astitha, M.; Kallos, G.; Spyrou, C.; O'Hirok, W.; Lelieveld, J.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.

    2010-07-01

    Detailed information on the chemical and physical properties of aerosols is important for assessing their role in air quality and climate. This work explores the origin and fate of continental aerosols transported over the Central Atlantic Ocean, in terms of chemical composition, number and size distribution, using chemistry-transport models, satellite data and in situ measurements. We focus on August 2005, a period with intense hurricane and tropical storm activity over the Atlantic Ocean. A mixture of anthropogenic (sulphates, nitrates), natural (desert dust, sea salt) and chemically aged (sulphate and nitrate on dust) aerosols is found entering the hurricane genesis region, most likely interacting with clouds in the area. Results from our modelling study suggest rather small amounts of accumulation mode desert dust, sea salt and chemically aged dust aerosols in this Atlantic Ocean region. Aerosols of smaller size (Aitken mode) are more abundant in the area and in some occasions sulphates of anthropogenic origin and desert dust are of the same magnitude in terms of number concentrations. Typical aerosol number concentrations are derived for the vertical layers near shallow cloud formation regimes, indicating that the aerosol number concentration can reach several thousand particles per cubic centimetre. The vertical distribution of the aerosols shows that the desert dust particles are often transported near the top of the marine cloud layer as they enter into the region where deep convection is initiated. The anthropogenic sulphate aerosol can be transported within a thick layer and enter the cloud deck through multiple ways (from the top, the base of the cloud, and by entrainment). The sodium (sea salt related) aerosol is mostly found below the cloud base. The results of this work may provide insights relevant for studies that consider aerosol influences on cloud processes and storm development in the Central Atlantic region.

  6. Modelling the chemically aged and mixed aerosols over the eastern central Atlantic Ocean-potential impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Astitha, M.; Kallos, G.; Spyrou, C.; O'Hirok, W.; Lelieveld, J.; Denier Gon, H.A.C. van der

    2010-01-01

    Detailed information on the chemical and physical properties of aerosols is important for assessing their role in air quality and climate. This work explores the origin and fate of continental aerosols transported over the Central Atlantic Ocean, in terms of chemical composition, number and size dis

  7. Biomass burning aerosols observed in Eastern Finland during the Russian wildfires in summer 2010 - Part 1: In-situ aerosol characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portin, H.; Mielonen, T.; Leskinen, A.; Arola, A.; Pärjälä, E.; Romakkaniemi, S.; Laaksonen, A.; Lehtinen, K. E. J.; Komppula, M.

    2012-02-01

    Biomass burning smoke and associated aerosol particles from wildfires near Moscow, Russia during summer 2010 had a significant impact on air quality both in the close vicinity of the burning area and to a lesser extent in other parts of Eastern Europe. Smoke was also observed in Eastern Finland, about 1000 km northwest of the fire area, in city of Kuopio, at Puijo tower atmospheric measurement station and at the city of Kuopio air quality monitoring sites. The origin of air masses was confirmed by remote sensing observations and trajectory analyses. Despite the distance between Kuopio and the fire area and a travel time of 1-2 days, exceptional physical and optical properties of aerosol particles were evident. During smoke events, aerosol particles twice as large (geometric mean diameter 158 nm) as in background conditions (geometric mean diameter 76.3 nm) were observed and they contained record-breaking amounts of black carbon, up to 1.23 μg m -3, which exceeds typical values by a factor of 12. Thus, absorption coefficient was significantly different when compared to background summer conditions (8.12 Mm -1 vs. 0.651 Mm -1). Also scattering coefficients experienced a remarkable increase, on average from 12.0 Mm -1, 7.2 Mm -1 and 4.2 Mm -1 to 245 Mm -1, 169 Mm -1 and 111 Mm -1 for blue, green and red light, respectively. The amount of particulate mass also experienced a multifold increase. Depending on the measurement site, PM 2.5 grew from 3 to 6 μg m -3 to 34-48 μg m -3 and PM 10 from 4 to 17 μg m -3 to 40-76 μg m -3. Trace gas concentrations were also affected by the smoke presence, especially carbon monoxide, which is commonly used as a tracer for biomass burning smoke. The concentration of nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone and sulfur dioxide was affected only moderately and partly masked by the emissions from local pollutant sources.

  8. Insights into Submicron Aerosol Composition and Sources from the WINTER Aircraft Campaign Over the Eastern US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroder, J. C.; Campuzano Jost, P.; Day, D. A.; Fibiger, D. L.; McDuffie, E. E.; Blake, N. J.; Hills, A. J.; Hornbrook, R. S.; Apel, E. C.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Campos, T. L.; Brown, S. S.; Jimenez, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    The WINTER aircraft campaign was a recent field experiment to probe the sources and evolution of gas pollutants and aerosols in Northeast US urban and industrial plumes during the winter. A highly customized Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) was flown on the NCAR C-130 to characterize submicron aerosol composition and evolution. Thirteen research flights were conducted covering a wide range of conditions, including rural, urban, and marine environments during day and night. Organic aerosol (OA) was a large component of the submicron aerosol in the boundary layer. The fraction of OA (fOA) was smaller (35-40%) than in recent US summer campaigns (~60-70%). Biomass burning was observed to be an important source of OA in the boundary layer, which is consistent with recent wintertime studies that show a substantial contribution of residential wood burning to the OA loadings. OA oxygenation (O/C ratio) shows a broad distribution with a substantial fraction of smaller O/C ratios when compared to previous summertime campaigns. Since measurements were rarely made very close to primary sources (i.e. directly above urban areas), this is consistent with oxidative chemistry being slower during winter. SOA formation and aging in the NYC plume was observed during several flights and compared with summertime results from LA (CalNex) and Mexico City (MILAGRO). Additionally, an oxidation flow reactor (OFR) capable of oxidizing ambient air up to several equivalent days of oxidation was deployed for the first time in an aircraft platform. The aerosol outflow of the OFR was sampled with the AMS to provide real-time snapshots of the potential for aerosol formation and aging. For example, a case study of a flight through the Ohio River valley showed evidence of oxidation of SO2 to sulfate. The measured sulfate enhancements were in good agreement with our OFR chemical model. OFR results for SOA will be discussed.

  9. Aerosol chemistry above an extended Archipelago of the Eastern Mediterranean basin during strong northern winds

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    E. Athanasopoulou

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Detailed aerosol chemical predictions by a carefully designed model system (i.e. PMCAMx, WRF, GEOS-CHEM, along with airborne and ground-based observations, are presented and analyzed over a wide domain covering the Aegean Archipelago. The studied period is ten successive days during the summer of 2011, characterized by the most frequent prevailing wind conditions (Etesian regime. The submicron aerosol load in the lower troposphere above the Archipelago (< 2.2 km altitude is homogenously enriched in sulfate (average modeled and measured submicron sulfate of 5.5 and 5.8 μg m−3, respectively, followed by organics (2.3 and 4.4 μg m−3 and ammonium (1.5 and 1.7 μg m−3. Aerosol concentrations smoothly decline aloft, reaching lower values (< 1 μg m−3 above 4.2 km altitude. Model performance is found good (according the selected evaluation criteria for sulfate, ammonium, chloride, elemental carbon, organic carbon and total PM10 mass concentration, indicating a satisfactory representation of the aerosol chemistry and precursors. Higher model discrepancies are confined to the highest (e.g. peak sulfate values and lowest ends (e.g. nitrate of the airborne aerosol mass size distribution, as well as in airborne organic concentrations (model underestimation around 50%. The latter is most probably related to the intense fire activity upwind the Archipelago (i.e. Balkan area and Black Sea coastline, which is not represented in the current model application. Overall, the model system shows the best agreement with observations under strong northeastern winds over the Archipelago and up to 2.2 km altitude. The activation of the chemical ageing of biogenic particles is suggested to be used for the aerosol chemistry module, when treating organics in a sufficient nitrogen and sulfate-rich environment, such as that over the Aegean basin. More than 70% of the predicted aerosol mass over the Aegean Archipelago during a representative Etesian episode is

  10. An Investigation of Aerosol Size Distribution Properties at Dibrugarh: North-Eastern India

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    Mukunda Madhab Gogoi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Columnaraerosol size distributions, retrieved from spectral AOD (aerosol optical depth esti mates over a northeastern location of India (Dibrugarh are, ingeneral, bimodal with the occurrence of primary (broad mode at 0.04 - 0.17 m and the secondary mode at 0.88 - 1.29 m. The physical parameters of size distributions representing the microphysical properties of aerosols show distinct sea sonal variations with the highest value of the effec tiveradii (~ 0.55 m during pre-mon soon (March to May season which, along with the highest value of AOD (~ 0.46 ¡__n0.09 during the same season, is attributed to the maxi mum abundance of coarsepa ticles. Examining the re sults in the light of the HYSPLIT back tra jectory analy sis and the peruliar to pogr phy of northeast India allowing advection only from the Indo-Gangetic plains or Bay-of-Ben gal, it appears that the strong presence of the coarse mode aerosols are associated with either mineral dust or marine aerosol components or both.

  11. Ultrafine sea spray aerosol over the south eastern Pacific: open-ocean contributions to marine boundary layer CCN

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    R. Blot

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Accurate measurements of natural aerosol emissions over the ocean are needed to estimate the anthropogenic impact on the environment. In this study, we measured Sea Spray Aerosol (SSA concentrations with diameters larger than 0.040 μm produced by open-ocean breaking waves over the SEP (South Eastern Pacific. Robust statistics were established through repeated airborne flights over 1000 km along 20° S from the coastline of Chile to 85° W during VOCALS-Rex (VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land-Study Regional Experiment. Non-volatile SSA number concentrations were inferred using a thermally resolved technique constrained for clean conditions with Ångström exponent below 0.5, Black Carbon (BC mass concentration at values lower than 15 ng m−3 and Organic aerosols (Org concentration less than 0.02 μg m−3. We found that number concentrations of SSA active as CCN for a supersaturation of 0.25% varied between 17 cm−3 and 36 cm−3 but these did not increase with the increasing mean wind speed typically observed further offshore along 20° S. Concurrent increases in mean offshore precipitation rate in excess of about 1 mm d−1 indicate scavenging of SSA by precipitation exceeds increases in production at wind speeds above about 8 m s−1. This demonstrates the critical role of precipitation as a major sink of SSA over the remote ocean. Finally, we found that under clean conditions and for estimated stratus supersaturations between 0.20% and 0.43%, SSA represented about 20% of the total ambient CCN along 20° S.

  12. Aerosol radiative forcing during African desert dust events (2005-2010) over South-Eastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, A.; Olmo, F. J.; Lyamani, H.; Antón, M.; Quirantes, A.; Alados-Arboledas, L.

    2012-03-01

    The instantaneous values of the aerosol radiative forcing (ARF) at the surface and the top of the atmosphere (TOA) were calculated during desert dust events occurred at Granada (Southeastern Spain) from 2005 to 2010. For that, the SBDART radiative transfer model was utilized to simulate the global irradiance values (0.3-2.8 μm) at the surface and TOA using as input the aerosol properties derived from a CIMEL sun-photometer measurements and an inversion methodology that uses the sky radiance measurements in principal plane configuration and non-spherical particle shapes approximation. The SBDART modeled global irradiances at surface have been successfully validated against experimental measurements obtained by CM-11 pyranometer, indicating the reliability of the radiative transfer model used in this work for the ARF calculations. The monthly ARF values at surface ranged from -32 W m-2 to -46 W m-2, being larger in April and July than in the rest of months. The seasonal ARF evolution was inconsistent with seasonal aerosol optical depth (AOD) variation due to the effects induced by other aerosol parameter such as the single scattering albedo. The ARF at TOA changed from -9 W m-2 to -29 W m-2. Thus, the atmospheric ARF values (ARF at TOA minus ARF at surface) ranged from +15 to +35 W m-2. These results suggest that the African dust caused local atmospheric heating over the study location. The instantaneous aerosol radiative forcing efficiency (ARFE), aerosol radiative forcing per unit of AOD (440 nm), at surface and TOA during African desert dust events was evaluated according to the desert dust source origins. The ARFE values at surface were relatively high (in absolute term) and were -157 ± 20 (Sector A), -154 ± 23 (Sector B), and -147 ± 23 (Sector C) W m-2. These values were larger than many of the values found in literature which could be due to the presence of more absorbing atmospheric particles during African desert dust intrusions over our study area

  13. Latitudinal aerosol size distribution variation in the Eastern Atlantic Ocean measured aboard the FS-Polarstern

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    M. W. Gallagher

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol size distribution measurements from 0.03 µm to 25 µm diameter were taken at ambient humidity aboard the German research vessel, FS-Polarstern, during a transect from Bremerhaven in northern Germany, to Cape Town in South Africa across latitudes 53°32' N to 33°55' S, denoted cruise number ANT XXI/1. The data were segregated according to air mass history, wind speed and latitude. Under clean marine conditions, the averaged size distributions were generally in good agreement with those reported previously for diameters less than 0.5 µm and can be approximated by two log-normal modes, with significant variation in the mean modal diameters. Two short periods of tri-modal behaviour were observed. Above 0.5 µm, there is indication of a limit to the mechanical generation of marine aerosol over the range of wind speeds observed (~1.7–14.7 m s−1. A new technique to determine the errors associated with aerosol size distribution measurements using Poisson statistics has been applied to the dataset, providing a tool to determine the necessary sample or averaging times for correct interpretation of such data. Finally, the data were also used to investigate the loss rate of condensing gases with potentially important consequences for heterogeneous marine photochemical cycles.

  14. Latitudinal aerosol size distribution variation in the Eastern Atlantic Ocean measured aboard the FS-Polarstern

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    P. I. Williams

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol size distribution measurements from 0.03 μm to 25 μm diameter were taken at ambient humidity aboard the German research vessel, FS-Polarstern, during a transect from Bremerhaven in northern Germany, to Cape Town in South Africa across latitudes 53°32' N to 33°55' S, denoted cruise number ANT XXI/1. The data were segregated according to air mass history, wind speed and latitude. Under clean marine conditions, the averaged size distributions were generally in good agreement with those reported previously for diameters less than 0.5 μm and can be approximated by two log-normal modes, with significant variation in the mean modal diameters. Two short periods of tri-modal behaviour were observed. Above 0.5 μm, there is indication of a limit to the mechanical generation of marine aerosol over the range of wind speeds observed. A new technique to determine the errors associated with aerosol size distribution measurements using Poisson statistics has been applied to the dataset, providing a tool to determine the necessary sample or averaging times for correct interpretation of such data. Finally, the data were also used to investigate the loss rate of condensing gases with potentially important consequences for heterogeneous marine photochemical cycles.

  15. Case study of a multi-layer aerosol structure in the eastern Mediterranean observed with the airborne polarized lidar ALEX during a STAAARTE campaign (7 June 1997

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    F. Dulac

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available We present a case study of tropospheric aerosol transport in the eastern Mediterranean, based on airborne measurements obtained south of Greece on 7 June 1997. Airborne observations (backscattering lidar at 0.532 mm with polarization measurements, in situ particle counters/sizers, and standard meteorological measurements are complemented by monitoring with Meteosat visible and infrared images and a ground-based sun-photometer, air-mass back-trajectory computations, and meteorological analyses. The vertical structure of the lower troposphere appears complex with horizontal variability and a superposition of several turbid layers from the surface up to the clean free troposphere which is found above 2 to 4 km in altitude. We identify the presence of depolarising dust from northern Africa in the most elevated turbid layer, which is relatively humid and has clouds embedded. The lowermost troposphere likely contains pollution water-soluble aerosols from eastern continental Greece, and an intermediate layer is found with a probable mixture of the two types of particles. The column optical depth at 0.55 mm estimated from Meteosat is in the range 0.15–0.35. It is used to constrain the aerosol backscattering-to-extinction ratio needed for the backscattering lidar data inversion. The column value of 0.017 sr−1 is found applicable to the various aerosol layers and allows us to derive the aerosol extinction vertical profile. The aerosol extinction coefficient ranges from 0.03 km−1 in the lower clean free troposphere to more than 0.25 km−1 in the marine boundary layer. Values are <0.1 km−1 in the elevated dust layer but its thickness makes it dominate the aerosol optical depth at some places.

  16. Airborne study of a multi-layer aerosol structure in the eastern Mediterranean observed with the airborne polarized lidar ALEX during a STAAARTE campaign (7 June 1997

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    F. Dulac

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case study of tropospheric aerosol transport in the eastern Mediterranean, based on airborne measurements obtained south of Greece on 7 June 1997. Airborne observations (backscattering lidar at 0.532 mm with polarization measurements, in situ particle counters/sizers, and standard meteorological measurements are complemented by monitoring with Meteosat visible and infrared images and a ground-based sun-photometer, air-mass back-trajectory computations, and meteorological analyses. As already observed from ground-based lidars in the Mediterranean region, the vertical structure of the lower troposphere appears complex, with a superposition of several turbid layers from the surface up to the clean free troposphere which is found here above 2 to 4 km in altitude. The aircraft observations also reveal an important horizontal variability. We identify the presence of depolarising dust from northern Africa in the most elevated turbid layer, which is relatively humid and has clouds embedded. The lowermost troposphere likely contains pollution water-soluble aerosols from eastern continental Greece, and an intermediate layer is found with a probable mixture of the two types of particles. The column optical depth at 0.55 mm estimated from Meteosat is in the range 0.15-0.35. It is used to constrain the aerosol backscattering-to-extinction ratio needed for the backscattering lidar data inversion. The column value of 0.017 sr -1 is found applicable to the various aerosol layers and allows us to derive the aerosol extinction vertical profile. The aerosol extinction coefficient ranges from 0.03 km-1 in the lower clean free troposphere to more than 0.25 km-1 in the marine boundary layer. Values are -1 in the elevated dust layer but its thickness makes it dominate the aerosol optical depth at some places.

  17. Assessment of aerosol radiative forcing in the North-Eastern region of India using radiative transfer model and regional climate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Binita; Bhuyan, Pradip

    Regional characterization of atmospheric aerosols is essential from the viewpoint of reducing the current uncertainties in the understanding of their climate implications at regional and global scale. The north-eastern part of India owing to its unique topography and geography located at sub Himalayan range and the middle of Indian Subcontinent and South-East Asian region as well as with scattered local hilly regions persevere complex aerosol environment. Collocated measurements of parameters corresponding to aerosol optical and physical properties i.e., spectral aerosol optical depths (AODs) by a 10 channel Multi-Wavelength solar Radiometer (MWR), near surface aerosol mass concentration of composite aerosols by a Quartz Crystal Microbalance Impactor (QCM) and Black Carbon (BC) mass concentration by an Aethalometer have been used in the Optical Properties of Aerosols and Clouds (OPAC) model to estimate the optical properties of composite aerosols over Dibrugarh (27.3ºN, 94.6ºE, 111 m amsl) for the short wavelength range. The OPAC outputs are then used as inputs to the Rdiative Transfer model ‘Santa Barbara DISORT Atmospheric Radiative Transfer (SBDART)’, developed by the University of California, Santa Barbara, to derive the shortwave aerosol radiative properties. The aerosol optical depth shows maximum value in pre-monsoon season and minimum in post-monsoon season. Columnar aerosols are bimodal in nature with dominant contribution from fine mode aerosols. Unlike columnar aerosols surface aerosol concentration including black carbon shows maximum value in winter and minimum in monsoon season. The aerosol radiative forcing (ARF) estimated for the period pre-monsoon 2008-winter 2013 shows maximum value in the pre-monsoon season at the surface as well as in the atmosphere corresponding to highest columnar aerosol loading. The surface forcing varies between -37 Wm-2 in Pre-monsoon 2009 and 2011 to -13 Wm-2 in Post-monsoon 2008 while forcing in the Atmosphere

  18. Contributions of local sources, long-range and mountain wind transport for aerosols over an eastern Himalayan high-altitude station in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Abhijit; Sarkar, Chirantan; Singh, Ajay; Ghosh, Sanjay; Raha, Sibaji; Das, Sanat

    A long-term study (2010-2013) on aerosols mass concentrations (PM2.5), number concentrations of size segregated aerosols and mass concentration of total suspended black carbon aerosols has been made over Darjeeling (27.01 N, 88.15 E), a high altitude (2200 m asl) station at eastern Himalaya in India. Seasonal and diurnal variation of all types of aerosols, their chemical composition and source apportionment revealed that aerosols over this part of Himalaya are mainly of two types; locally generated and long-range transported aerosols. The diurnal variation of aerosols including black carbon showed distinct feature of up-slope mountain wind transport mainly during premonsoon (Mar-May) which brings aerosol particles from low land regions. This present study focuses on the estimation of the individual contributions from local emissions (LE), long-range transport (LRT) and mountain wind transport (MWT) towards the total aerosol loading over Darjeeling. Several strike events (called by local political party) were observed at Darjeeling over the entire period of study (2008-2013) when all the local activities (schools, colleges, offices, vehicular, industrial etc) were stopped fully. Most of the strike events occurred during premonsoon. We have observed three types of events during premonsoon over the entire study period; 1) strike events with the contribution of LRT+MWT with zero local emissions (LE=0), 2) normal days with the contribution of LE+LRT+MWT, 3) normal days with the contribution of LE+MWT with zero long-range contribution (LRT=0). On normal days, the diurnal variation of aerosols during premonsoon showed sharp morning and evening peaks associated to local anthropogenic activities with the effect of up-slope mountain wind during afternoon. During strike events, the morning and evening peaks were absent but a broad peak was observed during afternoon associated to up-slope mountain wind. The increase in aerosol concentrations during afternoon on strike days

  19. Field detection of eastern equine encephalitis virus in the Amazon Basin region of Peru using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction adapted for field identification of arthropod-borne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Guinn, Monica L; Lee, John S; Kondig, John P; Fernandez, Roberto; Carbajal, Faustino

    2004-02-01

    In support of efforts to develop rapid diagnostic assays for use in the field, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays were developed to detect arboviruses circulating in the Amazon Basin region of Peru. Previous knowledge of arthropod/pathogen relationships allowed a focused evaluation to be conducted in November 2000 that assessed the feasibility and reliability of a mobile, rapid, field-expedient RT-PCR diagnostic system aimed at detecting eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) in Culex (Melanoconion) pedroi mosquitoes. Modifications were made to a commercially available mobile molecular laboratory kit and assay procedures were tailored for use under harsh environmental conditions with field-collected and field-processed mosquitoes. From CO2 baited mosquito light traps, 3,227 Cx. (Mel.) pedroi mosquitoes were collected and sorted into 117 pools. The pools were processed and assayed in the field by RT-PCR and five of those pools were found positive for EEEV. Laboratory sequence analysis confirmed the presence of two distinct subtypes of EEEV.

  20. Impacts of atmospheric circulations on aerosol distributions in autumn over eastern China: observational evidences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, X.-Y.; Fu, Y.-F.; Yang, Y.-J.; Liu, G.-S.

    2015-02-01

    Regional heavy pollution events in East China (110-122° E, 28-40° N) are the main environmental problems recently because of the high urbanization and rapid economic development connected with too much emissions of pollutants. However, appropriate weather condition is another factor which cannot be ignored for these events. In this study, the relationship between regional pollution status and larger scale atmospheric circulations over East China in October is investigated using ten-year (2001-2010) MODIS/Terra aerosol optical depth (AOD) product and the NCEP reanalysis data together with case analysis and composite analysis. Generally, statistics in East China show values of mean AOD vary from 0.3 to 0.9 in October over the region, and larger AOD variances are accompanied with the distribution of higher average AOD. Eighteen pollution episodes (regional mean AOD > 0.6) and ten clean episodes (regional mean AOD China or steady straight westerly in middle troposphere, particularly the rear of anticyclone at 850 hPa, are typical weather patterns responsible for heavy pollution events, while clean episodes occur when strong southeastward cold air advection prevails below the middle troposphere or air masses are transported from sea to the mainland. The above studies are especially useful to the government decision make on balance of economic activities and pollution mitigations.

  1. Circulation of Eastern equine encephalitis, Western equine encephalitis, Ilhéus, Maguari and Tacaiuma viruses in equines of the Brazilian Pantanal, South America Circulação dos virus das encefalites equina do Leste e Oeste, Ilhéus, Maguari e Tacaiuma em equinos da região do Pantanal brasileiro, América do Sul

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    Lygia Busch Iversson

    1993-08-01

    Full Text Available Neutralizing antibodies to EEE (6.7%, WEE (1.2%, ILH (26.6%, MAG (28.2% and TCM (15.7% viruses were found in sera of 432 equines of the Brazilian Pantanal, area where undiagnosed horse deaths are frequently observed. A 4-fold rise in CF titer to EEE virus was detected in acute and convalescent sera of an encephalitis horse sacrified in 1992. Antibodies to EEE, ILH, MAG and TCM viruses were detected in horses less than 2 years old indicating recent circulation of these viruses in the Pantanal. The evidence of recent equine encephalitis associated with rising CF titer to EEE warrants a more intensive study with attempts to isolate virus from horses with clinical manifestations of encephalitis.Em um inquérito sorológico realizado em 432 equinos da região do Pantanal, território brasileiro, foram detectados anticorpos neutralizantes para os vírus EEE (6,7%, WEE (1,2%, ILH (26,6%, MAG (28,2% e TCM (15,7%. Detectou-se também em um cavalo com um quadro clínico de encefalite um aumento de 4 vezes no título de anticorpos fixadores de complemento para EEE em soros coletados nas fases aguda e convalescente da doença. Cavalos com menos de 2 anos de idade apresentaram anticorpos neutralizantes para EEE, ILH, MAG e TCM, indicando circulação recente desses vírus no Pantanal. Os achados justificam intensificar esses estudos na região com tentativas de isolamento de vírus de animais apresentando manifestações clínicas de encefalite.

  2. A regional scale modeling analysis of aerosol and trace gas distributions over the eastern Pacific during the INTEX-B field campaign

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    B. Adhikary

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The Sulfur Transport and dEposition Model (STEM is applied to the analysis of observations obtained during the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment-Phase B (INTEX-B, conducted over the eastern Pacific Ocean during spring 2006. Predicted trace gas and aerosol distributions over the Pacific are presented and discussed in terms of transport and source region contributions. Trace species distributions show a strong west (high to east (low gradient, with the bulk of the pollutant transport over the central Pacific occurring between ~20° N and 50° N in the 2–6 km altitude range. These distributions are evaluated in the eastern Pacific by comparison with the NASA DC-8 and NSF/NCAR C-130 airborne measurements along with observations from the Mt. Bachelor (MBO surface site. Thirty different meteorological, trace gas and aerosol parameters are compared. In general the meteorological fields are better predicted than gas phase species, which in turn are better predicted than aerosol quantities. PAN is found to be significantly overpredicted over the eastern Pacific, which is attributed to uncertainties in the chemical reaction mechanisms used in current atmospheric chemistry models in general and to the specifically high PAN production in the SAPRC-99 mechanism used in the regional model. A systematic underprediction of the elevated sulfate layer in the eastern Pacific observed by the C-130 is another issue that is identified and discussed. Results from source region tagged CO simulations are used to estimate how the different source regions around the Pacific contribute to the trace gas species distributions. During this period the largest contributions were from China and from fires in South/Southeast and North Asia. For the C-130 flights, which operated off the coast of the Northwest US, the regional CO contributions range as follows: China (35%, South/Southeast Asia fires (35%, North America anthropogenic (20%, and North Asia fires (10

  3. Aerosol deposition (trace elements and black carbon) over the highest glacier of the Eastern European Alps during the last centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertò, Michele; Barbante, Carlo; Gabrieli, Jacopo; Gabrielli, Paolo; Spolaor, Andrea; Dreossi, Giuliano; Laj, Paolo; Zanatta, Marco; Ginot, Patrick; Fain, Xavier

    2016-04-01

    Ice cores are an archive of a wide variety of climatic and environmental information from the past, retaining them for hundreds of thousands of years. Anthropogenic pollutants, trace elements, heavy metals and major ions, are preserved as well providing insights on the past atmospheric circulations and allowing evaluating the human impact on the environment. Several ice cores were drilled in glaciers at mid and low latitudes, as in the European Alps. The first ice cores drilled to bedrock in the Eastern Alps were retrieved during autumn 2011 on the "Alto dell`Ortles glacier", the uppermost glacier of the Ortles massif (3905m, South Tirol, Italy), in the frame of the "Ortles Project". A preliminary dating of the core suggests that it should cover at least 300-400 years. Despite the summer temperature increase of the last decades this glacier still contain cold ice. Indeed, O and H isotopes profiles well describe the atmospheric warming as well as the low temperatures recorded during the Little Ice Age (LIA). Moreover, this glacier is located close to densely populated and industrialized areas and can be used for reconstructing for the first time past and recent air pollution and the human impact in the Eastern European Alps. The innermost part of the core is under analysis by means of a "Continuous Flow Analysis" system. This kind of analysis offers a high resolution in data profiles. The separation between the internal and the external parts of the core avoid any kind of contamination. An aluminum melting head melts the core at about 2.5 cm min-1. Simultaneous analyses of conductivity, dust concentration and size distribution (from 0.8 to 80 μm), trace elements with Inductive Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS, Agilent 7500) and refractory black carbon (rBC) with the Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2, Droplet Measurement Technologies) are performed. A fraction of the melt water is collected by an auto-sampler for further analysis. The analyzed elements

  4. Long-range transportation of anthropogenic aerosols over eastern coastal region of India: Investigation of sources and impact on regional climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, S. K.; Jayaraman, A.

    2012-11-01

    Estimation of the effect of long-range transportation of anthropogenic aerosols in India is a real challenge due to the strong influence of local sources. This study addresses this issue from the measurements of aerosol optical and physical properties during 16-31 March 2006 at Kalpakkam (12.56° N and 80.12° E), a remote eastern coastal station in India. Increased anthropogenic aerosols were observed due to long-range transport from Indo-Gangetic Basin (IGB) in comparison to two other sources: central Bay of Bengal (CBoB) and northern Indian Ocean (NIO) as grouped from back-trajectory analyses of air parcels. AOD is found to be maximum of about 0.32 during IGB wind regime followed by CBoB (0.27) and NIO (0.20) winds. MODIS observed AOD is found to be high all along the wind back-trajectories connected from IGB indicating IGB as a source. Black carbon (BC) during IGB wind (2.0 μg·m- 3) is 65% greater than that observed during NIO wind (1.2 μg·m- 3). As a result, single scattering albedo becomes as low as 0.89 during IGB wind while 0.92 during NIO wind. These long-range transported aerosols cause about 65% enhancement of atmospheric radiative forcing and consequently, aerosol heating rate is also increased by about 70% during IGB wind regime (0.36 K/day) compared to NIO wind regime (0.21 K/day). Being a coastal region, Kalpakkam experiences strong diurnal variation of aerosol properties due to land and sea breezes that introduce about 30% increase of atmospheric forcing during land breeze by short-range transport of BC from nearby urban region. The present study concludes that long-range transported anthropogenic aerosols over coastal region of India cause significant enhancement of regional aerosol radiative forcing and their heating effect can have significant consequences for regional climate change by altering hydrological cycle over the tropical continental area.

  5. Molecular determinants of mouse neurovirulence and mosquito infection for Western equine encephalitis virus.

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    Eric C Mossel

    Full Text Available Western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV is a naturally occurring recombinant virus derived from ancestral Sindbis and Eastern equine encephalitis viruses. We previously showed that infection by WEEV isolates McMillan (McM and IMP-181 (IMP results in high (∼90-100% and low (0% mortality, respectively, in outbred CD-1 mice when virus is delivered by either subcutaneous or aerosol routes. However, relatively little is known about specific virulence determinants of WEEV. We previously observed that IMP infected Culex tarsalis mosquitoes at a high rate (app. 80% following ingestion of an infected bloodmeal but these mosquitoes were infected by McM at a much lower rate (10%. To understand the viral role in these phenotypic differences, we characterized the pathogenic phenotypes of McM/IMP chimeras. Chimeras encoding the E2 of McM on an IMP backbone (or the reciprocal had the most significant effect on infection phenotypes in mice or mosquitoes. Furthermore, exchanging the arginine, present on IMP E2 glycoprotein at position 214, for the glutamine present at the same position on McM, ablated mouse mortality. Curiously, the reciprocal exchange did not confer mouse virulence to the IMP virus. Mosquito infectivity was also determined and significantly, one of the important loci was the same as the mouse virulence determinant identified above. Replacing either IMP E2 amino acid 181 or 214 with the corresponding McM amino acid lowered mosquito infection rates to McM-like levels. As with the mouse neurovirulence, reciprocal exchange of amino acids did not confer mosquito infectivity. The identification of WEEV E2 amino acid 214 as necessary for both IMP mosquito infectivity and McM mouse virulence indicates that they are mutually exclusive phenotypes and suggests an explanation for the lack of human or equine WEE cases even in the presence of active transmission.

  6. Equine dental advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, S K

    2001-08-01

    The reintroduction and development of safe motorized instruments, the increased availability of continuing education, and the understanding and implementation of appropriate procedures allow practitioners to provide better dental care. Veterinarians realize that sedation, analgesia, a full-mouth speculum, and proper instrumentation are necessary to provide these services. Continued instrument design, future research, and new treatment and prophylactic protocols should have a positive impact on the future of equine dental health. New and rediscovered procedures for equilibrating equine occlusion are allowing horses to masticate more efficiently, carry a bit more comfortably, and experience improved performance. The horse, the horse owner, and the veterinary profession all benefit from providing complete equine dental care.

  7. Ion concentrations of PM10–2.5 and PM2.5 aerosols over the eastern Mediterranean region: seasonal variation and source identification

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    N. A. Saliba

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The annual averages of particulate matters (PM10, PM10–2.5 (coarse and PM2.5 (fine in a densely populated area of Beirut were measured and found to be 84±27, 53±20 and 31±9 μg m−3, respectively. Ion Chromatography (IC analysis of the collected PM Teflon filters showed that NaCl, CaSO4 and Ca(NO32 were predominant in the coarse particles, while (NH42SO4 was the main salt in the fine particles. Using the non destructive Fourier Transform Infra Red-Attenuated Total Reflection (FTIR-ATR technique, CaCO3 was determined in the coarse filter. In addition, ATR measurements showed that inorganic salts present in the coarse particles are mostly water insoluble while salts found in fine particles are soluble. Concentrations of nitrates and calcium higher than the ones reported in neighboring Mediterranean countries were good indication of high traffic density and crustal dust abundance in Beirut, respectively. The study of the seasonal variation showed that long-range transport of SO2 from Eastern and Central Europe, sandy storms coming from Africa and marine aerosols are considered major sources of the determined inorganic ions. Considering the importance of the health and climate impacts of aerosols locally and regionally, this study constitutes a point of reference for eastern Mediterranean transport modeling studies and local regulatory and policy makers.

  8. Aerosol Size, CCN, and Black Carbon Properties at a Coastal Site in the Eastern U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royalty, T. M.; Petters, M. D.; Grieshop, A. P.; Meskhidze, N.; Reed, R. E.; Phillips, B.; Dawson, K. W.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosols play an important role in regulating the global radiative budget through direct and indirect effects. To date, the role of sea spray aerosols in modulating climate remains poorly understood. Here we present results from measurements performed at the United States Army Corps of Engineers' Field Research Facility in Duck, North Carolina, USA. Aerosol mobility size distributions (10-600 nm), refractory black carbon (rBC) and scattering particle size distributions (200-620 nm), and size resolved cloud condensation nuclei distributions (.07% - .6% supersaturation) were collected at the end of a 560m pier. Aerosol characteristics associated with northerly, high wind speed (15+ m s-1) flow originating from an oceanic trajectory are contrasted with aerosol properties observed during a weak to moderate westerly flow originating from a continental trajectory. Both marine and continental air masses had aerosol with bi-modal number size distributions with modes centered at 30nm and 140nm. In the marine air-mass, the CCN concentration at supersaturation of 0.4%, total aerosol number, surface, and volume concentration were low. rBC number concentration (D > 200 nm) associated with the marine air-mass was an order of magnitude less than continental number concentration and indicative of relatively unpolluted air. These measurements are consistent with measurements from other coastal sites under marine influence. The relative proportion of Aitken mode size particles increased from 1:2 to 2:1 while aerosol surface area was < 25 μm2 cm-3, suggesting that conditions upwind were potentially conducive to new particle formation. Overall, these results will contribute a better understanding to composition and size variation of marine aerosols.

  9. Equine Infectious Anemia

    OpenAIRE

    Hoopes, Karl H.

    2017-01-01

    This fact sheet gives information on equine infectious anemia, a blood-borne infectious viral disease of horses, donkeys, and mules. It describes transmission, clinical disease, diagnosis and control.

  10. Equine herpesvirus 1 myeloencephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusterla, Nicola; Hussey, Gisela Soboll

    2014-12-01

    Equine myeloencephalopathy (EHM), an uncommon manifestation of equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) infection, can cause devastating losses on individual farms, boarding stables, veterinary hospitals, and show and racing venues. An improved understanding of EHM has emerged from experimental studies and from data collected during field outbreaks at riding schools, racetracks, horse shows, and veterinary hospitals throughout North America and Europe. These outbreaks have highlighted the contagious nature of EHV-1 and have prompted a reevaluation of diagnostic procedures, treatment modalities, preventative measures, and biosecurity protocols for this disease. This article focuses on recent data related to the cause, epidemiology, pathogenesis, immunity, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of EHV-1 infection with emphasis on EHM.

  11. Equine corneal stromal abscesses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, M. D. L.; Andersen, P. H.; Plummer, C. E.

    2013-01-01

    The last 30 years have seen many changes in the understanding of the pathogenesis and treatment of equine corneal stromal abscesses (SAs). Stromal abscesses were previously considered an eye problem related to corneal bacterial infection, equine recurrent uveitis, corneal microtrauma and corneal....... Medical and surgical treatments are now directed towards elimination of fungal and bacterial infections, reduction and replacement of diseased corneal stroma, and suppression of iridocyclitis. If the abscess and anterior uveitis do not respond satisfactorily to medical therapy, full thickness or split...

  12. Fossil and non-fossil source contributions to atmospheric carbonaceous aerosols during extreme spring grassland fires in Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ulevicius

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In early spring the Baltic region is frequently affected by high pollution events due to biomass burning in that area. Here we present a comprehensive study to investigate the impact of biomass/grass burning (BB on the evolution and composition of aerosol in Preila, Lithuania, during springtime open fires. Non-refractory submicron particulate matter (NR-PM1 was measured by an Aerodyne aerosol chemical speciation monitor (ACSM and a source apportionment with the multilinear engine (ME-2 running the positive matrix factorization (PMF model was applied to the organic aerosol fraction to investigate the impact of biomass/grass burning. Satellite observations over regions of biomass burning activity supported the results and identification of air mass transport to the area of investigation. Sharp increases in biomass burning tracers, such as levoglucosan up to 683 ng m−3 and black carbon (BC up to 17 μg m−3 were observed during this period. A further separation between fossil and non-fossil primary and secondary contributions was obtained by coupling ACSM PMF results and radiocarbon (14C measurements of the elemental (EC and organic (OC carbon fractions. Non-fossil organic carbon (OCnf was the dominant fraction of PM1, with the primary (POCnf and secondary (SOCnf fractions contributing 26–44 % and 13–23 % to the TC, respectively. 5–8 % of the TC had a primary fossil origin (POCf, whereas the contribution of fossil secondary organic carbon (SOCf was 4–13 %. Non-fossil EC (ECnf and fossil EC (ECf ranged from 13–24 % and 7–12 %, respectively. Isotope ratio of stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes were used to distinguish aerosol particles associated with solid and liquid fossil fuel burning.

  13. Review of equine piroplasmosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Equine piroplasmosis is caused by one of two erythrocytic parasites Babesia caballi or Theileria equi. Although the genus of the latter remains controversial the most recent designation, Theileria is utilized in this review. Shared pathogenesis includes tick-borne transmission and erythrolysis leadi...

  14. Equine influenza: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Waghmare

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Equine influenza virus is a leading cause of respiratory disease in the horses. The disease is the OIE listed disease of equines, ponies, mules and donkeys and spreads very fast. The sporadic outbreaks of the disease have occurred all over the country. Many cases have been reported in Delhi, Meerut, Saharanpur, Jaipur, Hisar, Calcutta, Ahmedabad. Nearly all the horses at Matheran (Hill station were infected with influenza. The disease has spread like wildfire at the stables of Royal Western India Turf Club (RWITC at Pune and suspended the Mumbai racing season for prolonged period of time resulting in marked economic losses. After affecting racing in Mumbai, Calcutta and New Delhi, the dreaded equine influenza has spread to Karnataka and Mysore. An outbreak of disease has marred the racing season across the country. The disease was first detected in Jammu & Kashmir before entering the central region Horses at the army polo clubs and Delhi equestrian center were also affected. As per the recent survey conducted by the army across India, it has been found that 5400 horses are infected so far, especially thoroughbred most severely. Nearly, 95 % of horses on a major farm in India are suspected of suffering from equine influenza. The government also banned inter-state movement of horses for three months to contain the disease. [Vet World 2010; 3(4.000: 194-197

  15. Characterization and quantification of aerosol chemical species present below and within cloud over an eastern Himalayan high altitude hill station in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Arindam; Chatterjee, Abhijit; Sarkar, Chirantan; Ghosh, Sanjay; Raha, Sibaji

    2016-07-01

    There are two main processes through which aerosols and gases get scavenged by rain called below-cloud scavenging or "washout" and in-cloud scavenging or "rainout". The first process refers to the washout of the aerosols and gases present below the cloud during precipitation events by raindrops along their fall. The second process corresponds to the condensation of water vapor on aerosol particles during the formation of cloud droplets and incorporation of gases surrounding the droplets by aqueous-phase reactions. However, the most efficient pathway to remove the atmospheric pollutants is below cloud scavenging which is a major pointer of ecosystem, biogeochemical cycle as well as the climate change. A study has been conducted in 2014 and 2015 monsoon (June-September) in Darjeeling (27.01 ° N, 88.15 ° E), a high altitude (2200 m asl) hill station over eastern Himalaya in India. The study was focused on the below-cloud and in-cloud scavenging of various aerosol ionic species. Attempt was also made to estimate the contribution of in-cloud scavenging and below-cloud scavenging by collecting rain samples sequentially for different rain events. Sea-salt (Na+, sea-Mg2+, Cl- and sea-SO4 2-) and soil dust (non-sea Ca2+, non-sea-Mg2+) species show sharp decrease in concentration for each of the rain sample. This indicates that these species were mostly accumulated below the cloud and washed out during rain. Their concentrations were thus decreased sharply as rains progressed. On the other hand, non-SO4-2 and NH4+ showed different behavior. Their concentrations decreased sharply at the initial stage of the rain and then remained almost constant with rainfall. This explains wash out of these two species at the initial stage of the rain and their contribution from "within the cloud". NH4 + and non-sea-SO4 2- could thus act as cloud condensation nuclei over this part of Himalaya. A strong correlation between these two species indicates their association as (NH4)2SO4. Acidity

  16. Long-term measurements of carbonaceous aerosols in the eastern Mediterranean: evidence of long-range transport of biomass burning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sciare

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Long-term (5-yr measurements of Black Carbon (BC and Organic Carbon (OC in bulk aerosols are presented here for the first time in the Mediterranean Basin (Crete Island. A multi-analytical approach (including thermal, optical, and thermo-optical techniques was applied for these BC and OC measurements. Light absorbing dust aerosols have shown to poorly contribute (+17% on a yearly average to light absorption coefficient (babs measurements performed by an optical method (aethalometer. Long-range transport of agricultural waste burning from European countries surrounding the Black Sea was shown for each year during two periods (March–April and July–September. The contribution of biomass burning to the concentrations of BC and OC has shown to be rather small (20 and 14%, respectively, on a yearly basis, although this contribution could be much higher on a monthly basis and is expected a high intra and inter annual variability. By removing the biomass burning influence, our data revealed an important seasonal variation of OC, with an increase by almost a factor of two for the Spring months of May and June, whereas BC was found to be quite stable throughout the year. Preliminary measurements of Water Soluble Organic Carbon (WSOC have shown that the monthly mean WSOC/OC ratio remains stable throughout the year (0.45±0.12, suggesting that the partitioning between water soluble and water insoluble organic matter is not significantly affected by biomass burning and secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation. A chemical mass closure performed in the fine mode (Aerodynamic Diameter, A.D.<1.5 μm showed that the mass contribution of organic matter (POM was found to be essentially invariable during the year (monthly average of 26±5%.

  17. Equine recurrent uveitis: Human and equine perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malalana, Fernando; Stylianides, Amira; McGowan, Catherine

    2015-10-01

    Equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) is a spontaneous disease characterised by repeated episodes of intraocular inflammation. The epidemiology of ERU has not been fully elucidated, but the condition appears to be much more common in horses than is recurrent uveitis in humans, especially in certain breeds and geographical regions. Both humans and horses show a similarly altered immune response and a marked autoimmune response as the primary disease pathophysiology. However, an inciting cause is not always clear. Potential inciting factors in horses include microbial agents such as Leptospira spp. Microbial factors and genetic predisposition to the disease may provide clues as to why the horse appears so susceptible to this disease. The aim of this review is to discuss the immunology and genetics of ERU, compare the disease in horses with autoimmune anterior uveitis in humans, and discuss potential reasons for the increased prevalence in the horse.

  18. Microdialysis in equine research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, M A; Jacobsen, S; Petersen, L J

    2013-01-01

    in the tissues has led to important discoveries in the detection of tissue changes within the areas of pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, pathology and pathophysiology. New technological solutions, such as transportable pumps, fluid collectors and bedside analysers, have made microdialysis an indispensable tool...... for the surveillance of critically ill human patients, such as after brain injuries and reconstructive surgeries. The use of microdialysis in equine medicine has been sparingly described with only 14 published studies within muscle, pulmonary and hoof lamellar tissue, nasal mucosa, intestinal wall, uterine, allantoic...... and cerebrospinal fluid and blood. Only a few papers have been published within each area, indicating that few equine researchers are aware of the unique opportunities provided by the technique. This review discusses the theory and applications of microdialysis with a special emphasis on clinical and experimental...

  19. Correlation of black carbon aerosol and carbon monoxide in the high-altitude environment of Mt. Huang in Eastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. L. Pan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the relationship between black carbon (BC and carbon monoxide (CO will help improve BC emission inventories and the evaluation of global/regional climate forcing effects. In the present work, the BC (PM1 mass concentration and CO mixing ratio were continuously measured at a high-altitude background station on the summit of Mt. Huang (30.16° N, 118.26° E, 1840 m a.s.l.. Annual mean BC mass concentration was 1004.5 ± 895.5 ng m−3 with maxima in spring and autumn, and annual mean CO mixing ratio was 424.1 ± 159.2 ppbv. A large increase of CO was observed in the cold season, implying the contribution from the large-scale domestic coal/biofuel combustion for heating. The BC-CO relationship was found to show different seasonal features but strong positive correlation (R>0.8. In Mt. Huang area, the ΔBC/ΔCO ratio showed unimodal diurnal variations and had a maximum during the day (09:00–17:00 LST and minimum at night (21:00–04:00 LST in all seasons, indicating the impact of planetary boundary layer and the intrusion of clean air masses from the high troposphere. Back trajectory cluster analysis showed that the ΔBC/ΔCO ratio of plumes from the Eastern China (Jiangsu, Zhejiang provinces and Shanghai was 8.8 ± 0.9 ng m−3 ppbv−1. Transportation and industry were deemed as controlling factors of the BC-CO relationship in this region. The ΔBC/ΔCO ratios for air masses from Northern China (Anhui, Henan, Shanxi and Shandong provinces and southern China (Jiangxi, Fujian and Hunan provinces were quite similar with mean values of 6.5 ± 0.4 and 6.5 ± 0.2 ng m−3 ppbv−1 respectively. The case studies combined with satellite observations demonstrated that the ΔBC/ΔCO ratio for biomass burning (BB plumes were 10.3 ± 0.3 and 11.6 ± 0.5ng m−3 ppbv−1, significantly higher than those during non-BB impacted periods. The loss of BC

  20. Assessment and statistical modeling of the relationship between remotely sensed aerosol optical depth and PM2.5 in the eastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paciorek, Christopher J; Liu, Yang

    2012-05-01

    Research in scientific, public health, and policy disciplines relating to the environment increasingly makes use of high-dimensional remote sensing and the output of numerical models in conjunction with traditional observations. Given the public health and resultant public policy implications of the potential health effects of particulate matter (PM*) air pollution, specifically fine PM with an aerodynamic diameter information, in particular aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrieved from satellites, to help characterize variability in ground-level PM2.5 concentrations in space and time. While the United States and some other developed countries have extensive PM monitoring networks, gaps in data across space and time necessarily occur; the hope is that remote sensing can help fill these gaps. In this report, we are particularly interested in using remote-sensing data to inform estimates of spatial patterns in ambient PM2.5 concentrations at monthly and longer time scales for use in epidemiologic analyses. However, we also analyzed daily data to better disentangle spatial and temporal relationships. For AOD to be helpful, it needs to add information beyond that available from the monitoring network. For analyses of chronic health effects, it needs to add information about the concentrations of long-term average PM2.5; therefore, filling the spatial gaps is key. Much recent evidence has shown that AOD is correlated with PM2.5 in the eastern United States, but the use of AOD in exposure analysis for epidemiologic work has been rare, in part because discrepancies necessarily exist between satellite-retrieved estimates of AOD, which is an atmospheric-column average, and ground-level PM2.5. In this report, we summarize the results of a number of empirical analyses and of the development of statistical models for the use of proxy information, in particular satellite AOD, in predicting PM2.5 concentrations in the eastern United States. We analyzed the spatiotemporal structure

  1. Trace elements in South America aerosol during 20th century inferred from a Nevado Illimani ice core, Eastern Bolivian Andes (6350 m a.s.l.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-D. Taupin

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available A 137 m ice core drilled in 1999 from Eastern Bolivian Andes at the summit of Nevado Illimani (16° 37' S, 67° 46' W, 6350 m a.s.l. was analyzed at high temporal resolution, allowing a characterization of trace elements in Andean aerosol trapped in the ice during the 20th century. The upper 50 m of the ice core were dated by multi-proxy analysis of stable isotopes (d18O and d2H, 137Cs and Ca+2 content, electrical conductivity, and insoluble microparticle content, together with reference historical horizons from atmospheric nuclear tests and known volcanic eruptions. This 50 m section corresponds to a record of environmental variations spanning about 80 years from 1919 to 1999. It was cut in 744 sub-samples under laminar flow in a clean bench, which were analyzed by Ion Chromatography for major ionic concentration, by a particle counter for insoluble aerosol content, and by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS for the concentration of 45 chemical species from Li to U. This paper focuses on results of trace element concentrations measured by ICP-MS. The high temporal resolution used in the analyses allowed classifying samples as belonging to dry or wet seasons. During wet season elemental concentrations are low and samples show high crustal enrichment factors. During dry seasons the situation is opposite, with high elemental concentrations and low crustal enrichments. For example, with salt lakes as main sources in the region, average Li concentration during the 20th century is 0.035 and 0.90 ng g−1 for wet and dry seasons, respectively. Illimani average seasonal concentration ranges cover the spectrum of elemental concentration measurements at another Andean ice core site (Sajama for most soil-related elements. Regional crustal dust load in the deposits was found to be overwhelming during dry season, obfuscating the contribution of biomass burning material. Marked temporal trends from the onset of 20th century to more recent

  2. Long-term aerosol and trace gas measurements in Eastern Lapland, Finland: the impact of Kola air pollution to new particle formation and potential CCN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyrö, Ella-Maria; Väänänen, Riikka; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Virkkula, Aki; Asmi, Ari; Nieminen, Tuomo; Dal Maso, Miikka; Petäjä, Tuukka; Keronen, Petri; Aalto, Pasi; Riipinen, Ilona; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Hari, Pertti; Kulmala, Markku

    2014-05-01

    Sulphur and primary emissions have been decreasing largely all over Europe, resulting in improved air quality and decreased direct radiation forcing by aerosols. The smelter industry in Kola Peninsula is one of largest sources of anthropogenic SO2 within the Arctic domain and since late 1990s the sulphur emissions have been decreasing rapidly (Paatero et al., 2008; Prank et al., 2010). New particle formation (NPF) is tightly linked with the oxidizing product of SO2, namely sulphuric acid (H2SO4), since it is known to be the key component in atmospheric nucleation (Sipilä et al., 2010). Thus, decreasing sulphur pollution may lead to less NPF. However, low values of condensation sink (CS), which is determined by the amount of pre-existing particles, favours NPF. We used 14 years (1998-2011) of aerosol number size distribution and trace gas data from SMEAR I station in Eastern Lapland, Finland, to investigate these relationships between SO2, NPF and CS. The station is a clean background station with occasional sulphur pollution episodes when the air masses arrive over Kola Peninsula. We found that while SO2 decreased by 11.3 % / year, the number of clear NPF event days was also decreasing by 9.9 % / year. At the same time, CS was decreasing also (-8.0 % / year) leading to formation of more particles per single NPF event (J3 increased by 29.7 % / year in 2006-2011) but the low vapour concentrations of H2SO4 (proxy decreased by 6.2 % / year) did not allow them to grow into climatically relevant sizes. Over the time, concentrations of potential CCN (cloud condensing nuclei) were also decreasing with more moderate pace, -4.0 % / year. The events started on average earlier after sunrise when the SO2 concentration during the start of the event was higher and NPF occurred more frequently in air masses which were travelling over Kola. Despite the total decrease in sulphur pollution originating from Kola there is currently no evidence of cleaning of the emissions, rather the

  3. The Equine PeptideAtlas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Louise; Jacobsen, Stine; Sorensen, Mette A.

    2014-01-01

    data mining resource. The advantages of the Equine PeptideAtlas are demonstrated by examples of mining the contents for information on potential and well-known equine acute phase proteins, which have extensive general interest in the veterinary clinic. The extracted information will support further......Progress in MS-based methods for veterinary research and diagnostics is lagging behind compared to the human research, and proteome data of domestic animals is still not well represented in open source data repositories. This is particularly true for the equine species. Here we present a first...... analyses, and emphasizes the value of the Equine PeptideAtlas as a resource for the design of targeted quantitative proteomic studies....

  4. Psychosocial Equine Program for Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferruolo, David M

    2016-01-01

    Nearly half of all combat veterans suffer from serious psychological disorders and reintegration issues. Veterans shy away from typical talk therapy and are seeking alternative treatments. Equine-facilitated mental health therapy has shown promise in treating veterans with depressive and anxiety disorders and reintegration issues. This article reports on an institutional review board-approved pilot program designed to address the mental health needs of veterans. Furthermore, this article discusses future directions for evolving development of equine treatment programming.

  5. Equine glanders in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arun, S; Neubauer, H; Gürel, A; Ayyildiz, G; Kusçu, B; Yesildere, T; Meyer, H; Hermanns, W

    1999-03-01

    In the course of an epidemiological study of glanders on a number of Turkish islands in the Sea of Marmara, 1128 horses were examined by using the intracutaneous mallein test. Thirty-five (3-1 per cent) developed an increase in rectal temperature and a swelling at the point of injection. Ten of these horses were killed and glanders was confirmed in five cases by the presence of lesions and by the immunohistological demonstration of the causative agent, Burkholderia mallei. Clinical and pathological findings indicated that in all cases the infection was restricted to the mucous membrane of the nasal cavity with its parasinus, the nostrils and the upper lips. It was confirmed that equine glanders is endemic in Turkey.

  6. Equine Assisted Psychotherapy: The Equine Assisted Growth and Learning Association's Model Overview of Equine-Based Modalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notgrass, Clayton G.; Pettinelli, J. Douglas

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the Equine Assisted Growth and Learning Association's (EAGALA) experiential model called "Equine Assisted Psychotherapy" (EAP). EAGALA's model is based on the Association for Experiential Education's (AEE) tenets and is focused on the learner's experience with horses. Drawing on the historical use of equines in the…

  7. Equine herpes myeloencephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, C W; Fenner, W R

    1987-08-01

    The neurologic form of EHV-1 infection appears to be the result of central nervous system infarction caused by vasculitis, which is initiated in endothelial cells of small blood vessels. The etiologic agent is equine herpesvirus-1, subtype 1. There is some evidence to suggest that the neurologic form of the disease actually results from reactivation of a previous infection. Whether the vasculitis that causes the central nervous system injury is the direct result of the infection or an immune response to the infection has not been determined. The clinical signs are rapid in onset, nonprogressive, and many horses may improve. The diagnosis must often remain tentative, particularly in horses that recover, because there is no single reliable confirmatory test. The prognosis is generally good, although recovery may be slow and incomplete. Supportive therapy is essential, and administration of corticosteroids may be useful. There is no specific therapy for the virus or for the vasculitis. Currently no vaccine can be claimed to protect against the central nervous system form of the disease. Vaccination is recommended, however, to reduce the incidence of respiratory disease, abortion, and neonatal death on the farm. Repeated vaccination is necessary to maintain presumably protective antibody concentrations. Vaccination every 3 to 4 months may decrease the incidence of EHV-1 infection on the farm and therefore may indirectly prevent the occurrence of the neurologic form of the disease.

  8. Equine corneal surgery and transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, Heidi M

    2004-08-01

    Corneal disease is common in equine ophthalmology and requires vigilant monitoring and appropriate therapy to optimize the outcome. Many equine corneal diseases, particularly those that progress rapidly, may benefit from surgical intervention. These include descemetoceles, deep corneal lacerations and ulcers, corneal perforation/iris prolapse, ulcerative keratitis, corneal stromal abscesses, and corneoscleral neoplasia. Indications for corneal transplantation include optical, tectonic, therapeutic, and cosmetic purposes. Corneal transplantation is most often implemented in equine patients for tectonic and therapeutic reasons when a cornea is compromised by corneal stromal abscess, iris prolapse, or neoplasia. This article provides an outline of when to consider surgical intervention for corneal disease, the procedures available and expected outcomes, and how appropriate early surgical intervention can dramatically improve the end result.

  9. Anesthesia of the geriatric equine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doherty TJ

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Reza Seddighi, Thomas J DohertyDepartment of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Veterinary Medical Center, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, USAAbstract: Advancements in veterinary medicine have resulted in an increased number of geriatric horses being presented for medical or surgical procedures that require general anesthesia. Due to the physiological changes associated with aging and the likelihood of concurrent disease conditions, the geriatric equine is at an increased risk during anesthesia. The main physiological changes associated with aging, and their impact on anesthesia, are discussed in this review.Keywords: geriatric, equine, anesthesia

  10. Toxicology for the Equine Practitioner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dissi, Ahmad

    2015-08-01

    A wide variety of toxins cause diseases in the horse and are investigated routinely by veterinarians and veterinary pathologists to identify the cause of illness and death. A complete investigation involves performing a thorough necropsy and requires macroscopic and microscopic examination of lesions and a variety of laboratory testing to obtain an accurate diagnosis. The identification of gross lesions by equine practitioners is often the first step in formulating a diagnostic plan. This article provides a description of selected common toxins producing detectable gross lesions in horses in North America. The article is useful to equine practitioners and veterinary pathologists investigating a toxicology-related death.

  11. Vector ecology of equine piroplasmosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Equine piroplasmosis (EP) is a disease of equidae including horses, donkeys, mules and zebras caused by either of two protozoan parasites, Theileria equi or Babesia caballi. These parasites are biologically transmitted between hosts via tick-vectors and although they have inherent differences, they ...

  12. 抗东方马脑炎病毒结构蛋白E2单克隆抗体的制备及其抗原表位的鉴定%Preparation of monoclonal antibodies against eastern equine encephalitis virus E2 protein and the B-cell epitopes identification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晶; 吴东来; 孙恩成; 刘霓红; 杨涛; 杨银辉; 耿宏伟; 秦永丽; 王凌凤; 徐青元

    2011-01-01

    为制备抗东方马脑炎病毒(EEEV)结构蛋白E2的单克隆抗体(MAb)并鉴定其抗原表位,本研究以Bac-to-Bac真核表达系统表达EEEV E2蛋白,纯化后作为免疫原免疫BALB/c小鼠,取其脾淋巴细胞与小鼠骨髓瘤细胞SP2/0进行融合.以原核表达载体pET-30a表达并纯化的EEEV E2蛋白作为包被抗原建立间接ELISA方法筛选杂交瘤细胞,获得4株稳定分泌抗EEEV E2蛋白MAbs的杂交瘤细胞株,分别命名为6F3、6F11、7C11、8B11.Western blot与间接免疫荧光试验结果表明,获得的4株MAbs均与EEEV呈阳性反应,而与西方马脑炎病毒、乙型脑炎病毒以及登革热病毒1型~4型呈阴性反应.利用部分重叠的原核表达的短肽对E2蛋白抗原表位进行鉴定,初步确定MAb 6F11、7C11和8B11识别的抗原表位均为E-33 (321EGLEYTWGNHPPKRVW336),而MAb 6F3无短肽与其反应,推测可能为构象表位.本研究结果为建立EEEV型特异性检测方法、研究E2蛋白结构功能及该病的进一步防制奠定了基础.%For preparation of monoclonal antibodies (Mab) against eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) structural glycoprotein E2 and identification of the B-cell epitopes, B ALB/c mice were immunized with protein E2 expressed in Bac-to-Bac eukaryotic expression system. Splenocytes of the BALB/c mice were fused with myeloma cell SP2/0 for producing hybridoma. Four hybridomas stably secreting Mabs against the protein E2 were developed, designated 6F3, 6F11, 7C11 and 8B11, and determined by indirect ELISA, coating with purified EEEV E2 expressed in E. Coli. The western blot and IFA demonstrated that the Mabs were able to react positively with EEEV, whereas no cross reaction was found for western equine encephalitis virus, Japanese encephalitis virus and Dengue virus serotype 1 to 4. Further epitope mapping of EEEV E2 protein with a set of shortpeptides showed that Mab 6F11, 7C11 and 8B11 recognized the linear epitope at E-33 (^'EGLEYTWGNHPPKRVW336), but

  13. Aerosol Properties Over the Eastern US in July 2002: Comparison of Long-Term Measurements With Results From a Coupled Meteorology-Chemistry Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, U.; Husain, L.; Khan, A. J.; Ahmed, T.; Adelman, Z.; Xiu, A.; Arunachalam, S.

    2007-12-01

    Elemental or black carbon aerosols absorb solar radiation and have direct and indirect effect on radiative forcing. Unfortunately, global EC data are rather sparse. Therefore, for planetary radiative forcing calculations atmospheric EC burdens are obtained from model estimates based on energy consumptions. In this work we have attempted to evaluate a multiscale integrated model for aerosol physics, chemistry and radiative effects using measurements of EC and sulfate at two sites in New York State. The EC and sulfate concentrations were measured for January, February, July and August 2002 at Mayville, and Whiteface Mountain. Our Mayville site is located near Lake Chautauqua, ~ 100 km southwest of Buffalo and ~ 530 km upwind of Whiteface Mountain. Our observatory at Whiteface Mountain is located at an altitude of 1.5 km above mean sea level. Whereas at Mayville samples were collected daily, the duration of sampling at Whiteface Mountain varied from 6 to 48 h. The samples were analyzed for EC using the thermal optical method and sulfate by ion chromatography. The observations of elemental carbon and sulfate from Whiteface and Mayville for the summer of 2002 have been used along with other network measurements from the IMPROVE and CASTNet networks to evaluate METCHEM, a tightly coupled meteorology-chemistry model in nested simulations over the U.S. to examine the radiative impacts of absorbing and scattering aerosols. The model is being driven by a high-quality bottom-up inventory of emissions compiled by the Regional Planning Organizations for their 2002 visibility assessments, and the National Emissions Inventories compiled previously by the U.S. EPA in the years 2002 and 1999. The model was used to compare both the effects of evolving emissions, and the successive improvements in characterizing wildfire emissions in each of these inventories. Results of aerosol concentrations and aerosol optical depths are compared for a 3-week test period of simulation using the

  14. A Multi-Agent Alphavirus DNA Vaccine Delivered by Intramuscular Electroporation Elicits Robust and Durable Virus Specific Immune Responses in Mice and Rabbits and Completely Protects Mice against Lethal Venezuelan, Western, and Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus Aerosol Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-26

    A Multi-Agent Alphavirus DNA Vaccine Delivered by Intramuscular Electroporation Elicits 1 Robust and Durable Virus-Specific Immune Responses in Mice...Agent Alphavirus DNA Vaccine Protects Mice 12 13 #Address correspondence to Lesley C. Dupuy, lesley.c.dupuy.ctr@mail.mil. 14 *Present address...virus (VEEV) DNA vaccine 21 that was optimized for increased antigen expression and delivered by intramuscular (IM) 22 electroporation (EP) elicits

  15. Ethmoid Hematoma of the Equine

    OpenAIRE

    Etherington, W G; Vasey, J. R.; Horney, F. D.

    1982-01-01

    Two cases of ethmoid hematoma of the equine are reported. Clinically both horses had intermittent unilateral epistaxis unassociated with exercise. In one horse, diagnosis was based on the use of an endoscope for visualization and for biopsy of a mass associated with the ethmoid turbinates. In the other horse, exploratory trephination of the posterior maxillary sinus was necessary to obtain a diagnostic biopsy specimen. Radiography was helpful in the diagnosis of one case. Surgical removal of ...

  16. Measurements of Saharan dust aerosols over the Eastern Mediterranean using elastic backscatter-Raman lidar, spectrophotometric and satellite observations in the frame of the EARLINET project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Papayannis

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on the vertical distributions of Saharan dust aerosols over the N.E. Mediterranean region, which were obtained during a typical dust outbreak on August 2000, by two lidar systems located in Athens and Thessaloniki, Greece, in the frame of the European EARLINET project. MODIS and ground sun spectrophotometric data, as well as air-mass backward trajectories confirmed the existence of Saharan dust in the case examined, which was also successfully forecasted by the DREAM dust model. The lidar data analysis for the period 2000-2002 made possible, for the first time, an estimation of the vertical extent of free tropospheric dust layers [mean values of the aerosol backscatter and extinction coefficients and the extinction-to-backscatter ratio (lidar ratio, LR at 355 nm], as well as a seasonal distribution of Saharan dust outbreaks over Greece, under cloud-free conditions. A mean value of the lidar ratio at 355 nm was obtained over Athens (53±1 sr and over Thessaloniki (44±2 sr during the Saharan dust outbreaks. The corresponding aerosol optical thickness (AOT at 355 nm, in the altitude range 0-5 km, was 0.69±0.12 and 0.65±0.10 for Athens and Thessaloniki, respectively (within the dust layer the AOT was 0.23 and 0.21, respectively. Air-mass back-trajectory analysis performed in the period 2000-2002 for all Saharan dust outbreaks over the N.E. Mediterranean indicated the main pathways followed by the dust aerosols.

  17. The equine veterinarian : past, present and prospects of a profession

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loomans, J.B.A.

    2008-01-01

    The equine veterinarian has regained its position in the veterinary profession. Equine veterinarians work in equine practices as well as in mixed practices. In general, it can be said that the backbone of equine work is formed by a relatively small amount of activities for which only a limited numbe

  18. Purification of equine Gc-globulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houen, Gunnar; Pihl, Tina Holberg; Andersen, Pia Haubro;

    Objectives With the aim of producing antibodies for an equine Group specific component (Gc)-globulin assay, the protein was purified from normal equine plasma. Methods Equine Gc-globulin was purified from healthy horse plasma using ion exchange chromatography (Q-Sepharose, CM-Sepharose) and prepa......Objectives With the aim of producing antibodies for an equine Group specific component (Gc)-globulin assay, the protein was purified from normal equine plasma. Methods Equine Gc-globulin was purified from healthy horse plasma using ion exchange chromatography (Q-Sepharose, CM......-Sepharose) and preparative PAGE. Results Equine Gc-globulin has successfully been purified from healthy horse plasma and rabbits and mice are being immunized to produce specific antibodies. Conclusions Purification of equine Gc-globulin and the production of specific antibodies will make it possible to develop an assay...... for measuring Gc-globulin in horses. Studies in rodents and humans have shown that Gc-globulin is a multifunctional acute phase plasma protein, which removes actin from the blood by binding it and facilitating its clearance from the circulation by the liver. As such, Gc-globulin prevents hyper coagulation...

  19. Equine Management and Production. Teacher Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This package contains the instructor's manual, instructor's resource package, and student workbook for a 1-year introductory course in equine management and production. The course emphasizes the skills needed to manage small one- or two-horse facilities and to enter postsecondary equine education programs. The instructor's manual presents basic…

  20. Testosterone correlates with Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus infection in macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koterski James

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Here we briefly report testosterone and cytokine responses to Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV in macaques which were used as part of a larger study conducted by the Department of Defense to better characterize pathological responses to aerosolized VEEV in non-human primates. Serial samples were collected and analyzed for testosterone and cytokines prior to and during infection in 8 captive male macaques. Infected animals exhibited a febrile response with few significant changes in cytokine levels. Baseline testosterone levels were positively associated with viremia following exposure and were significantly higher than levels obtained during infection. Such findings suggest that disease-induced androgen suppression is a reasonable area for future study. Decreased androgen levels during physiological perturbations may function, in part, to prevent immunosuppression by high testosterone levels and to prevent the use of energetic resources for metabolically-expensive anabolic functions.

  1. Equine uveitis: a UK perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, R C

    2010-03-01

    Uveitis in the equine population of the UK does not appear to be as prevalent or disastrous as seen across regions of Europe and the USA. Some cases perceived to be recurrent uveitis may be poorly resolved single episodes of uveitis and care should be taken not to make the diagnosis of recurrence without ensuring effective control of the initial episode. Leptospira spp. appear to play only a minor role ERU in the UK which is probably the main reason for the prevalence of the disease being much lower compared to the USA and mainland Europe. Actual data are relatively few on the ground as far as disease surveillance in concerned. This has 2 implications. Firstly unless we are able to effectively monitor the levels of uveitic disease, it will be difficult to pick up early changes in the trend which may allow quicker intervention. Secondly, it is difficult to secure funding for further research if the prevalence of the problem is poorly defined. This may leave the UK equine population at risk should the disease profile suddenly alter for the worse.

  2. Ocular histopathology in Eastern equine encephalitis: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora M. Lad

    2017-04-01

    Conclusions and importance: To our knowledge, this is the first report of ophthalmological and ocular pathology observations in an EEE patient. Interestingly, the inflammatory findings in the retina are reminiscent of the central nervous system effects of EEE virus. These findings are relevant given the recent epidemic of microcephaly and ophthalmic complications secondary to another arboviral virus, the Zika virus.

  3. Case of eastern equine encephalitis presenting in winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Kairav J; Cherabuddi, Kartikeya

    2016-05-10

    A 50-year-old man was admitted in midwinter with fever, altered mental status and new onset generalised tonic-clonic seizure with urinary incontinence. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis revealed an opening pressure of 14.5 cm of water, normal glucose and protein 82 mg/dL (reference range: 15-45 mg/dL). Cell count showed: red cells 11 (reference range: EEE) antibody, IgG titre was 1:64 and IgM titre was EEE was established. The patient was treated with supportive care. He recovered well with mildly impaired memory but no other cognitive deficits.

  4. Annotation of the protein coding regions of the equine genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hestand, Matthew S.; Kalbfleisch, Theodore S.; Coleman, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Current gene annotation of the horse genome is largely derived from in silico predictions and cross-species alignments. Only a small number of genes are annotated based on equine EST and mRNA sequences. To expand the number of equine genes annotated from equine experimental evidence, we sequenced m...... and appear to be small errors in the equine reference genome, since they are also identified as homozygous variants by genomic DNA resequencing of the reference horse. Taken together, we provide a resource of equine mRNA structures and protein coding variants that will enhance equine and cross...

  5. Current developments in equine cataract surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, R J; Utter, M E

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this review is to discuss the evolution of equine cataract surgery over the past 50 years to its current stage. Equine cataract surgery is performed similarly compared with the techniques used in human ophthalmology and in other veterinary species. However, enough differences exist to make surgical lens removal and intraocular lens implantation in the horse an intrinsically unique endeavour. Due to the size of the adult equine globe, the introduction of species-specific instrumentation has provided the cornerstone to many of the changes made regarding surgical technique over the last 15-20 years. The continuing development of an equine specific, foldable intraocular lens implant (IOL) has provided much needed data supporting the use of such lenses in the horse to improve upon the post operative visual outcome. Finally, the methods utilised to assess visual capacity and the effects of intraocular lens implantation on the globe (e.g. ocular ultrasonography, electroretinography and streak retinoscopy) are gradually becoming more important in preoperative patient assessment and IOL development in the horse. It is the hope of the authors that a broader group of equine veterinarians will become aware of the many changes that have taken place in equine cataract surgery over the last half-century. Although aspiration was implemented nearly 40 years ago in foals for the treatment of congenital cataracts, phacofragmentation (phacoemulsification) techniques have only recently become routine in mature horses undergoing lens extraction.

  6. Venezuelan equine encephalitis in Panama: fatal endemic disease and genetic diversity of etiologic viral strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelia Quiroz

    Full Text Available Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE is a reemerging, mosquito-borne viral disease of the neotropics that is severely debilitating and sometimes fatal to humans. Periodic epidemics mediated by equine amplification have been recognized since the 1920s, but interepidemic disease is rarely recognized. We report here clinical findings and genetic characterization of 42 cases of endemic VEE detected in Panama from 1961-2004. Recent clusters of cases occurred in Darien (eastern Panama and Panama provinces (central Panama near rainforest and swamp habitats. Patients ranged from 10 months to 48 years of age, and the more severe cases with neurological complications, including one fatal infection, were observed in children. The VEE virus strains isolated from these cases all belonged to an enzootic, subtype ID lineage known to circulate among sylvatic vectors and rodent reservoir hosts in Panama and Peru. These findings underscore endemic VEE as an important but usually neglected arboviral disease of Latin America.

  7. Venezuelan equine encephalitis in Panama: fatal endemic disease and genetic diversity of etiologic viral strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, Evelia; Aguilar, Patricia V; Cisneros, Julio; Tesh, Robert B; Weaver, Scott C

    2009-06-30

    Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) is a reemerging, mosquito-borne viral disease of the neotropics that is severely debilitating and sometimes fatal to humans. Periodic epidemics mediated by equine amplification have been recognized since the 1920s, but interepidemic disease is rarely recognized. We report here clinical findings and genetic characterization of 42 cases of endemic VEE detected in Panama from 1961-2004. Recent clusters of cases occurred in Darien (eastern Panama) and Panama provinces (central Panama) near rainforest and swamp habitats. Patients ranged from 10 months to 48 years of age, and the more severe cases with neurological complications, including one fatal infection, were observed in children. The VEE virus strains isolated from these cases all belonged to an enzootic, subtype ID lineage known to circulate among sylvatic vectors and rodent reservoir hosts in Panama and Peru. These findings underscore endemic VEE as an important but usually neglected arboviral disease of Latin America.

  8. Optimal management of equine keratomycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooks DE

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Paula D Galera1, Dennis E Brooks21College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Brasilia, DF, Brazil; 2Departments of Large and Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USAAbstract: Keratomycosis in the horse exists in several unique clinical forms. This paper discusses the diagnosis and clinical management of keratomycosis in the horse associated with tear film instability, epithelial keratopathy, subepithelial infiltrates, superficial and deep ulcers, plaques, melting ulcers, descemetoceles, iris prolapse, and stromal abscesses. Prompt diagnosis and aggressive treatment of equine keratomycosis can make a major difference in the maintenance of a cosmetic and visual eye.Keywords: fungal keratitis, keratomycosis, horse, cornea, melting, keratoplasty

  9. Correlation of black carbon aerosol and carbon monoxide concentrations measured in the high-altitude environment of Mt. Huangshan, Eastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. L. Pan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the relationship between black carbon (BC and carbon monoxide (CO will help improve BC emission inventories and the evaluation of global/regional climate forcing effects. In the present work, the BC (PM1 and CO mixing ratio was continuously measured at a~high-altitude background station on the summit of Mt Huangshan between 2006 and 2009. Annual mean BC concentration was 654.6 ± 633.4 ng m−3 with maxima in spring and autumn, when biomass was burned over a large area in Eastern China. The yearly averaged CO concentration was 446.4 ± 167.6 ppbv, and the increase in the CO concentration was greatest in the cold season, implying that the large-scale domestic coal/biofuel combustion for heating has an effect. The BC–CO relationship was found to have different seasonal features but strong positive correlation (R > 0.8. Back trajectory cluster analysis showed that the ΔBC/ΔCO ratio of plumes from the Yangtze River Delta region was 6.58 ± 0.96 ng m−3 ppbv−1, which is consistent with result from INTEX-B emission inventory. The ΔBC/ΔCO ratios for air masses from Northern, Central Eastern and Southern China were 5.2 ± 0.63, 5.65 ± 0.58 and 5.21 ± 0.93 ng m−3 ppbv−1, respectively. Over the whole observation period, the ΔBC/ΔCO ratio had unimodal diurnal variations and had a maximum during the day (09:00–17:00 LST and minimum at night (21:00–04:00 LST in spring, summer, autumn and winter, indicating the effects of the intrusion of clean air mass from the high troposphere. The case study combined with measurements of urban PM10 concentrations and satellite observations demonstrated that the ΔBC/ΔCO ratio for a plume of burning biomass was 12.4 ng m−3 ppbv−1 and that for urban plumes in Eastern China was 5.3 ± 0.53 ng m−3 ppbv−1. Transportation and industry were deemed as

  10. Check list of the helminths of equines in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürler, Ali Tümay; Bölükbaş, Cenk Soner; Açici, Mustafa; Umur, Sinasi

    2010-01-01

    Helminths of equines are one of the most important agents of parasitic diseases. Therefore, many studies have been conducted on helminths of equines in Turkey. In this article, a check list and prevalence rates of helminths of equines in Turkey have been given.

  11. Annotation of the protein coding regions of the equine genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hestand, Matthew S.; Kalbfleisch, Theodore S.; Coleman, Stephen J.;

    2015-01-01

    Current gene annotation of the horse genome is largely derived from in silico predictions and cross-species alignments. Only a small number of genes are annotated based on equine EST and mRNA sequences. To expand the number of equine genes annotated from equine experimental evidence, we sequenced...

  12. Training Law Enforcement Officials on Responding to Equine Calls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kathleen P.; Stauffer, Gary; Stauffer, Monte; Anderson, Doug; Biodrowski, Kristie

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of equine abuse/neglect cases is an ongoing issue. However, officials responding to equine cases are rarely experienced in handling horses. Therefore, workshops teaching basic horse husbandry were offered to better equip and prepare officials to respond to equine cases. Trainings consisted of both classroom and hands-on sessions.…

  13. Benzimidazoles Pharmacodynamics in Equine Strongyles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Catana

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Our research aimed to assess the effectiveness of four benzimidazoles: albendazole, fenbendazole, mebendazole and thiabendazole against equine strongyles. The tests were performed between March 2015 and May 2016, on samples collected from 20 horses and 8 donkeys living in Harghita County. In vivo, Faecal Egg Count Reduction Test (FECRT was used to evaluate fenbendazole pharmacodynamics. In vitro, Egg hatch assay (EHA and Larval development assay (LDA were used to evaluate the effectiveness of albendazole, fenbendazole, mebendazole and thiabendazole. The predominance of small strongyle species was observed, mostly Cyathostomum type A. In the horse group, before treatment, the average intensity was 1595.5 EPG, the maximum value being 4000, and extensivity 55%. Tested again at 14 days after treatment, all samples were negative. In the donkey group, before treatment, the total number was 6550 EPG, intensity of 935.7 and extensivity of 87.5%. 14 days after treatment, the average intensity was 150 and the extensivity 50%. In the horse group, EHA proved the efficacy of fenbendazole (0.0192%, albendazole (0.3740% and thiabendazole (11.62% and a major risk of inducing adaptive phenomena for mebendazole (Y parameter 1009.92. In the donkey group, all benzimidazoles had limited effectiveness: thiabendazole (73.93%, mebendazole (87.51%, fenbendazole (94.05%, albendazole (111.67%. All benzimidazoles inhibited larval development. For all tested benzimidazoles, the resistance induction predictive comparative risk analysis highlighted the benefit of their use, provided that the treatment protocol allows sufficient contact time.

  14. Pathophysiology of Equine Neonatal Septicemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Ospina Chirivi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal septicemia is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in horses in their first seven days of life and within their pathophysiology. It is important to consider the extrinsic and intrinsic predisposing factors which make foals susceptible to agents of primarily bacterial etiology. However, other types of infectious etiology (viruses and fungi should be considered too, as well as noninfectious etiologies. The paper mentions a wide variety of mechanisms that produce different injuries that must be addressed with measures of critical neonatal care, so it is imperative for the veterinarian to know the pathogenic mechanisms of the disease, its clinical presentation and anatomo-pathological lesions. Thus, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS, multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS, and peripheral circulatory collapse or shock are some of the elements defined as the pillars of the pathophysiology of neonatal septicemia, extensively studied in equine medicine. This paper presents a short review of the triggering mechanisms of neonatal septicemia highlighting the importance of epidemiological investigations in Colombia. It shows the need for retrospective and prospective studies and for divulgation of some of the preventive measures of the disease in horses.

  15. Evidence-based equine dentistry: preventive medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmalt, James L

    2007-08-01

    Dental problems are some of the most common reasons for a horse to be presented to an equine veterinarian. Despite the importance of anecdotal evidence as a starting point, the science of equine dentistry (especially prophylactic dentistry) has remained poorly supported by evidence-based approaches to diagnosis and treatment. In the 21st century, veterinarians have an ethical responsibility to promote and use the results of evidence-based research and not propagate statements attesting to the purported benefits of intervention without supporting research. Consider also that society is becoming more litigious and therefore is basing treatment plans and advice on published research, which protects the profession from legal challenges concerning our professional conduct. This article reviews the current published evidence concerning the role of equine dentistry in feed digestibility and performance.

  16. Purification of equine Gc-globulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houen, Gunnar; Pihl, Tina Holberg; Andersen, Pia Haubro;

    Objectives With the aim of producing antibodies for an equine Group specific component (Gc)-globulin assay, the protein was purified from normal equine plasma. Methods Equine Gc-globulin was purified from healthy horse plasma using ion exchange chromatography (Q-Sepharose, CM...... for measuring Gc-globulin in horses. Studies in rodents and humans have shown that Gc-globulin is a multifunctional acute phase plasma protein, which removes actin from the blood by binding it and facilitating its clearance from the circulation by the liver. As such, Gc-globulin prevents hyper coagulation......-globulin infusions. Reference List    1.   Vasconcellos CA and Lind SE. Coordinated inhibition of actin-induced platelet aggregation by plasma gelsolin and vitamin D-binding protein. Blood 1993;82:3648-3657....

  17. [Demonstration of Chlamydia from an equine abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, K; Sachse, K; Sting, R

    2000-02-01

    The isolation and identification of a chlamydial agent from an equine fetus is reported. The fetus was aborted by a mare with respiratory disease and fever in the 9th month of pregnancy. The serum of the mare was investigated by the compliment fixation test. Specific antibodies were detected for chlamydial antigen in a titer of > 1:40 and for equine herpes virus 1 antigen in a titer of 1:32. Pathological lesions were not found in the organs of the fetus. Chlamydiae were detected in the placenta by ELISA and subsequently isolated by cell culture. Using PCR technique the agent was identified as Chlamydophila psittaci.

  18. Customer service in equine veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blach, Edward L

    2009-12-01

    This article explores customer service in equine veterinary medicine. It begins with a discussion about the differences between customers and clients in veterinary medicine. An overview of the nature of the veterinary-client-patient relationship and its effects on the veterinarian's services sheds light on how to evaluate your customer service. The author reviews a study performed in 2007 that evaluated 24 attributes of customer service and their importance to clients of equine veterinarians in their decision to select a specific veterinarian or hospital. The article concludes with an overview of how to evaluate your customer service in an effort to optimize your service to achieve customer loyalty.

  19. Equine clinical cytogenetics: the past and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lear, T L; Bailey, E

    2008-01-01

    Cytogenetic analyses of horses have benefited the horse industry by identifying chromosomal aberrations causing congenital abnormalities, embryonic loss and infertility. Technical advances in cytogenetics enabled the identification of chromosome specific aberrations. More recently, advances in genomic tools have been used to more precisely define chromosome abnormalities. In this report we review the history of equine clinical cytogenetics, identify historical landmarks for equine clinical cytogenetics, discuss how the current use of genomic tools has benefited this area, and how future genomics tools may enhance clinical cytogenetic studies in the horse.

  20. In vitro cytotoxic activity of equine lymphocytes on equine herpesvirus-1 infected allogenic fibroblasts

    OpenAIRE

    Edens, Lucy Marie

    1994-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to: 1) develop a technique to analyze the in vitro cytotoxic activity of lymphocytes from adult horses against equine herpes virus-1 (EHV-1) infected allogenic equine dermal fibroblasts (EDF); 2) evaluate the ability of a 72 hour in vitro incubation with interleukin-2 (I L-2) to enhance the lymphocytic cytolytic activity against EHV-1 infected EDF; 3) compare the cytotoxic activity among lymphocytes isolated from pregnant mares and non-pregnant...

  1. Tachykinin receptors in the equine pelvic flexure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonea, I M; Wilson, D V; Bowker, R M; Robinson, N E

    1997-07-01

    Tachykinins, of which substance P (SP) is the prototype, are neuropeptides which are widely distributed in the nervous systems. In the equine gut, SP is present in enteric nerves and is a powerful constrictor of enteric muscle; in other species, SP is also known to have potent vasodilatory and pro-inflammatory effects. The specific effects of SP are determined by the subtype of receptor present in the target tissue. There are 3 known subtypes of tachykinin receptors, distinguished by their relative affinities for SP and other tachykinins. The distribution of SP binding sites in the equine pelvic flexure was determined using 125I-Bolton Hunter SP (I-BHSP) autoradiography. Most I-BHSP binding sites were determined to be saturable and specific, therefore presumably representing tachykinin receptors. The greatest degree of I-BHSP binding occurred over very small vessels, and over the muscularis mucosae; I-BHSP binding was also intense over the circular muscle of the muscularis externa and mucosa, and present, although less intense, over the longitudinal muscle of the muscularis externa. Competition of I-BHSP with specific receptor agonists for binding sites in the equine pelvic flexure were used to determine the subtypes of tachykinin receptors present. The neurokinin-1 receptor subtype predominated in the equine pelvic flexure, followed by the neurokinin-3 receptor subtype.

  2. Benzimidazole resistance in equine cyathostomins in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunil; Garg, Rajat; Kumar, Saroj; Banerjee, P S; Ram, Hira; Prasad, A

    2016-03-15

    Benzimidazole resistance is a major hindrance to the control of equine cyathostominosis throughout the world. There is a paucity of knowledge on the level of benzimidazole resistance in small strongyles of horses in India. In the present study, allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR) that detects F200Y mutation of the isotype 1 β-tubulin gene and faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) were used for detecting benzimidazole resistance in equine cyathostomin populations in different agro-climatic zones of Uttar Pradesh, India. Results of the FECRT revealed prevalence of benzimidazole resistance in cyathostomins in an intensively managed equine farm in the mid-western plain (FECR=27.5%, LCI=0) and in working horses (extensively managed) at three locations in central plains of Uttar Pradesh (FECR=75.7-83.6%, LCI=29-57%). Post-treatment larval cultures revealed the presence of exclusively cyathostomin larvae. Genotyping of cyathostomin larvae by AS-PCR revealed that the frequency of homozygous resistant (rr) individuals and the resistant allele frequency was significantly higher (pIndia, necessitates immediate replacement of the drugs of benzimidazole group with other unrelated effective anthelmintics for management and control of equine cyathostomins.

  3. Medical records in equine veterinary practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Susan H

    2009-12-01

    Quality medical records are the cornerstone of successful equine veterinary practice. The scope and integrity of the information contained in a practice's medical records influence the quality of patient care and client service and affect liability risk, practice productivity, and overall practice value.

  4. Primary closure of equine laryngotomy incisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, C.; Karlsson, L.; Ekstrøm, C. T.;

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to report healing characteristics and complications after primary closure of equine laryngotomies and analyse factors potentially associated with complications. This retrospective case series of the medical records of horses (n = 180) undergoing laryngoplasty and laryngotomy inc...

  5. Equine Management and Production. Vocational Agriculture Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, James A.

    This basic core of instruction for equine management and production is designed to assist instructors in preparing students for successful employment or management of a one- or two-horse operation. Contents include seven instructional areas totaling seventeen units of instruction: (1) Orientation (basic horse production; handling and grooming;…

  6. Investigation of CO, C2H6 and aerosols in a boreal fire plume over eastern Canada during BORTAS 2011 using ground- and satellite-based observations and model simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Griffin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of total column measurements of CO, C2H6 and fine-mode aerosol optical depth (AOD during the "Quantifying the impact of BOReal forest fires on Tropospheric oxidants over the Atlantic using Aircraft and Satellites" (BORTAS-B campaign over eastern Canada. Ground-based observations, using Fourier transform spectrometers (FTSs and sun photometers, were carried out in July and August 2011. These measurements were taken in Halifax, Nova Scotia, which is an ideal location to monitor the outflow of boreal fires from North America, and also in Toronto, Ontario. Measurements of fine-mode AOD enhancements were highly correlated with enhancements in coincident trace gas (CO and C2H6 observations between 19 and 21 July 2011, which is typical for a smoke plume event. In this paper, we focus on the identification of the origin and the transport of this smoke plume. We use back trajectories calculated by the Canadian Meteorological Centre as well as FLEXPART forward trajectories to demonstrate that the enhanced CO, C2H6 and fine-mode AOD seen near Halifax and Toronto originated from forest fires in northwestern Ontario that occurred between 17 and 19 July 2011. In addition, total column measurements of CO from the satellite-borne Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI have been used to trace the smoke plume and to confirm the origin of the CO enhancement. Furthermore, the enhancement ratio – that is, in this case equivalent to the emission ratio (ERC2H6/CO – was estimated from these ground-based observations. These C2H6 emission results from boreal fires in northwestern Ontario agree well with C2H6 emission measurements from other boreal regions, and are relatively high compared to fires from other geographical regions. The ground-based CO and C2H6 observations were compared with outputs from the 3-D global chemical transport model GEOS-Chem, using the Fire Locating And Modeling of Burning Emissions (FLAMBE inventory

  7. Investigation of CO, C2H6 and aerosols in a boreal fire plume over eastern Canada during BORTAS 2011 using ground- and satellite-based observations, and model simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Griffin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of total column measurements of CO, C2H6 and fine mode aerosol optical depth (AOD during the "Quantifying the impact of BOReal forest fires on Tropospheric oxidants over the Atlantic using Aircraft and Satellites" (BORTAS-B campaign over Eastern Canada. Ground-based observations, using Fourier transform spectrometers (FTSs and sun photometers, were carried out in July and August 2011. These measurements were taken in Halifax, Nova Scotia, which is an ideal location to monitor the outflow of boreal fires from North America, and also in Toronto, Ontario. Measurements of fine mode AOD enhancements were highly correlated with enhancements in coincident trace gas (CO and C2H6 observations between 19 and 21 July 2011, which is typical for a smoke plume event. In this paper, we focus on the identification of the origin and the transport of this smoke plume. We use back-trajectories calculated by the Canadian Meteorological Centre as well as FLEXPART forward-trajectories to demonstrate that the enhanced CO, C2H6 and fine mode AOD seen near Halifax and Toronto originated from forest fires in Northwestern Ontario that occurred between 17 and 19 July 2011. In addition, total column measurements of CO from the satellite-borne Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI have been used to trace the smoke plume and to confirm the origin of the CO enhancement. Furthermore, the emission ratio (ERC2H6/CO and the emission factor (EFC2H6 of C2H6 (with respect to the CO emission were estimated from these ground-based observations. These C2H6 emission results from boreal fires in Northwestern Ontario agree well with C2H6 emission measurements from other boreal regions, and are relatively high compared to fires from other geographical regions. The ground-based CO and C2H6 observations were compared with outputs from the 3-D global chemical transport model GEOS-Chem, using the Fire Locating And Monitoring of Burning Emissions (FLAMBE

  8. Elevated aerosols and role of circulation parameters in aerosol vertical distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prijith, S. S.; Aloysius, Marina; Mohan, Mannil; Rao, P. V. N.

    2016-01-01

    The study examines aerosol loading in different vertical layers of the atmosphere and explores the role of atmospheric circulation parameters in vertical distribution of aerosols and in its seasonal variability. Aerosol vertical distribution over the globe is examined, using long term satellite observations, by considering aerosol loading in different layers of atmosphere upto ∼6 km altitudes from surface and fractional contribution of each of these layers to total columnar aerosol loading. Aerosols are observed residing close to the surface in most of the oceanic environments, except over certain regions which are in the close proximity of continents where upper level winds are conducive for long range aerosol transport. In contrast, considerable vertical spread in aerosol distribution with strong seasonal variability, minimum occurring in winter months and maximum in summer, is observed over the continental regions. Vertical spread in aerosol distribution is observed highest over north eastern and north western parts of Africa during northern hemispheric summer, when the convection activity peaks over these regions due to large solar insolation and associated surface heating. Seasonal variation of aerosol vertical spread over both of these regions is observed in phase with variation in atmospheric convergence and vorticity. During summer months, when the aerosol vertical spread is highest, strong surface level convergence and associated cyclonic vorticity is observed along with an upper level (700-600 hPa) divergence. The surface level convergence and upper level divergence together induce an upward flow of air which carries aerosols from ground to higher altitudes. This mechanism of aerosol vertical transport is further corroborated through the correlation and regression relations of surface convergence/vorticity with aerosol loading above different elevations and hence the study reveals role of circulation parameters in aerosol vertical distribution.

  9. Eastern Pacific Emitted Aerosol Cloud Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Russell, Lynn M.; Sorooshian, Armin; Seinfeld, John H.; Albrecht, Bruce A.; Nenes, Athanasios; Ahlm, Lars; Chen, Yi-Chun; Coggon, Matthew; Craven, Jill S.; Flagan, Richard C.; Frossard, Amanda A.; Jonsson, Haflidi; Jung, Eunsil; Lin, Jack J.; Metcalf, Andrew R.

    2013-01-01

    Aerosol–cloud–radiation interactions are widely held to be the largest single source of uncertainty in climate model projections of future radiative forcing due to increasing anthropogenic emissions. The underlying causes of this uncertainty among modeled predictions of climate are the gaps in our fundamental understanding of cloud processes. There has been significant progress with both observations and models in addressing these important questions but quantifying them correctly is nontrivi...

  10. Actinobacillus equuli subsp. equuli associated with equine valvular endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aalbæk, Bent; Østergaard, Stine; Buhl, Rikke;

    2007-01-01

    Microbiological and pathological data from a case of equine valvular endocarditis are reported. Limited information is available on the pathogenic potential of equine Actinobacillus species as several strains originate from apparently healthy horses. After the establishment of two subspecies within...... this species, this seems to be the first report of an etiological association between A. equuli subsp. equuli and equine endocarditis. Furthermore, new information on some phenotypical characteristics of this subspecies are reported, compared to previous findings...

  11. Genetic diversity of Venezuelan alphaviruses and circulation of a Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus subtype IAB strain during an interepizootic period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Gladys; Garzaro, Domingo J; Barrios, Miguel; Auguste, Albert J; Weaver, Scott C; Pujol, Flor H

    2015-07-01

    Several species of alphaviruses have been previously described in the Americas, some of which are associated with encephalitis and others are associated with arthralgia. Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) and eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) are endemic to Venezuela, with the former being responsible for major outbreaks of severe and often fatal disease in animals and humans. The aim of this study was to analyze the genetic diversity of Venezuelan alphaviruses isolated during two decades (1973-1999) of surveillance in northern Venezuela. Phylogenetic analysis indicated the circulation of a VEEV subtype IAB strain 8 years after the last reported outbreak. Thirteen strains within two subclades of South American lineage III of EEEV were also found in Venezuela. Considerable genetic variability was observed among Venezuelan Una virus strains, which were widely distributed among the clades. The first Venezuelan Mayaro sequence was also characterized.

  12. Genetic Diversity of Venezuelan Alphaviruses and Circulation of a Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Subtype IAB Strain During an Interepizootic Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Gladys; Garzaro, Domingo J.; Barrios, Miguel; Auguste, Albert J.; Weaver, Scott C.; Pujol, Flor H.

    2015-01-01

    Several species of alphaviruses have been previously described in the Americas, some of which are associated with encephalitis and others are associated with arthralgia. Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) and eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) are endemic to Venezuela, with the former being responsible for major outbreaks of severe and often fatal disease in animals and humans. The aim of this study was to analyze the genetic diversity of Venezuelan alphaviruses isolated during two decades (1973–1999) of surveillance in northern Venezuela. Phylogenetic analysis indicated the circulation of a VEEV subtype IAB strain 8 years after the last reported outbreak. Thirteen strains within two subclades of South American lineage III of EEEV were also found in Venezuela. Considerable genetic variability was observed among Venezuelan Una virus strains, which were widely distributed among the clades. The first Venezuelan Mayaro sequence was also characterized. PMID:25940191

  13. Aerosolized Antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, Marcos I; Keyt, Holly; Reyes, Luis F

    2015-06-01

    Administration of medications via aerosolization is potentially an ideal strategy to treat airway diseases. This delivery method ensures high concentrations of the medication in the targeted tissues, the airways, with generally lower systemic absorption and systemic adverse effects. Aerosolized antibiotics have been tested as treatment for bacterial infections in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), non-CF bronchiectasis (NCFB), and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). The most successful application of this to date is treatment of infections in patients with CF. It has been hypothesized that similar success would be seen in NCFB and in difficult-to-treat hospital-acquired infections such as VAP. This review summarizes the available evidence supporting the use of aerosolized antibiotics and addresses the specific considerations that clinicians should recognize when prescribing an aerosolized antibiotic for patients with CF, NCFB, and VAP.

  14. Ocular immunology in equine recurrent uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeg, Cornelia A

    2008-09-01

    Equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) is a disease with high prevalence and relevance for the equine population, since it results in blindness. Over the last decade, important advancements have been made in our understanding of the underlying immune responses in this disease. ERU is mediated by an autoaggressive Th1 response directed against several retinal proteins. Interphotoreceptor-retinoid binding protein (IRBP) and cellular retinaldehyde-binding protein (CRALBP) are capable to induce ERU-like disease in experimental horses, with the unique possibility to activate relapses in a well-defined manner. Further, proteomic evidence now suggests that retinal Mueller glial cells (RMG) may play a fatal role in uveitic disease progression by directly triggering inflammation processes through the expression and secretion of interferon-gamma. Ongoing relapses in blind eyes can be associated with stable expression of the major autoantigens in ERU retinas. This review briefly summarizes the most significant developments in uveitis immune response research.

  15. Equine immunoglobulins and organization of immunoglobulin genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Stefanie; Rusitzka, Tamara V; Diesterbeck, Ulrike S; Czerny, Claus-Peter

    2015-12-01

    Our understanding of how equine immunoglobulin genes are organized has increased significantly in recent years. For equine heavy chains, 52 IGHV, 40 IGHD, 8 IGHJ and 11 IGHC are present. Seven of these IGHCs are gamma chain genes. Sequence diversity is increasing between fetal, neonatal, foal and adult age. The kappa light chain contains 60 IGKV, 5 IGKJ and 1 IGKC, whereas there are 144 IGLV, 7 IGLJ, and 7 IGLC for the lambda light chain, which is expressed predominantly in horses. Significant transcriptional differences for IGLV and IGLC are identified in different breeds. Allotypic and allelic variants are observed for IGLC1, IGLC5, and IGLC6/7, and two IGLV pseudogenes are also transcribed. During age development, a decrease in IGLVs is noted, although nucleotide diversity and significant differences in gene usage increased. The following paper suggests a standardization of the existing nomenclature of immunoglobulin genes.

  16. Equine Septic Arthritis and Serum Amyloid A

    OpenAIRE

    Ludwig, Elsa Karen

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial infection within a joint, septic arthritis, is a serious condition in horses that can lead to long-term joint disease if the infection is not resolved quickly. Equine septic arthritis is diagnosed primarily based on clinical signs and synovial fluid cytology. Septic synovial fluid is characterized by significant elevations in total protein (TP) and total nucleated cell count (TNCC). However, in some cases it can be difficult to distinguish between septic arthritis and non-septic joi...

  17. Equine recurrent uveitis: new methods of management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilger, Brian C; Michau, Tammy Miller

    2004-08-01

    Equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) is one of the most common causes of blindness in horses. Until recently, treatment of this condition consisted only of symptomatic therapy, typically with steroidal and nonsteroidal medications. A better understanding of the disease process(es) has permitted new medical and surgical therapies that have recently been described. This article highlights clinical features of ERU, the causes of ERU, and new management and treatment options for horses with ERU.

  18. Computed tomographic anatomy of the equine foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claerhoudt, S; Bergman, E H J; Saunders, J H

    2014-10-01

    This study describes a detailed computed tomographic reference of the normal equine foot. Ten forefeet of five adult cadavers, without evidence of orthopaedic disease, were used. Computed tomography (CT) was performed on all feet. Two-millimetre thick transverse slices were obtained, and sagittal and dorsal planes were reformatted. The CT images were matched with the corresponding anatomic slices. The phalanges and the distal sesamoid bone showed excellent detail. The extensor and flexor tendons (including their attachments) could be clearly evaluated. The collateral (sesamoidean) ligaments could be readily located, but were difficult to delineate at their proximal attachment. The distal digital annular ligament could only be distinguished from the deep digital flexor tendon proximal to the distal sesamoid bone, and its proximal attachment could be identified, but not its distal insertion. Small ligaments (impar ligament, chondrosesamoidean, chondrocoronal and chondrocompedal ligaments, axial and abaxial palmar ligaments of the proximal inter-phalangeal joint) were seen with difficulty and not at all slices. The joint capsules could not be delineated from the surrounding soft tissue structures. The lateral and medial proprius palmar digital artery and vein could be visualized occasionally on some slices. The ungular cartilages, corium and hoof wall layering were seen. The nerves, the articular and fibrocartilage of the distal sesamoid bone and the chondroungular ligament could not be assessed. Computed tomography of the equine foot can be of great value when results of radiography and ultrasonography are inconclusive. Images obtained in this study may serve as reference for CT of the equine foot.

  19. Online Leader Training Course: Nebraska Equine Extension Leader Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottle, Lena; D'Angelo, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    The Nebraska Equine Advancement Level Leader Certification Program is an online learning tool that clarifies principles of the Nebraska 4-H Equine Advancement Programs. Through an online Moodle course through eXtension.org, 4-H leaders and Extension educators are able to fulfill the certification requirement from any location before allowing youth…

  20. Principles and Application of Hydrotherapy for Equine Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Melissa R

    2016-04-01

    Hydrotherapy has become a key element within equine rehabilitation protocols and is used to address range of motion, proprioception, strength, neuromotor control, pain, and inflammation. Various forms of hydrotherapy can be tailored to the individual's injury and the expected return to athletic performance. This article describes the mechanisms of action of hydrotherapies and potential use in the clinical management of equine musculoskeletal injuries.

  1. Effects of Equine Assisted Activities on Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanning, Beth A.; Baier, Margaret E. Matyastik; Ivey-Hatz, Julie; Krenek, Nancy; Tubbs, Jack D.

    2014-01-01

    Quality of life assessments were used in this study to determine the behavioral changes of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who participated in equine assisted activities. Behavioral changes of children with ASD participating in 9 weeks of equines assisted activities (EAA) (N = 10) were compared to behavioral changes of…

  2. Equine cellular therapy--from stall to bench to bedside?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burk, Janina; Badylak, Stephen F; Kelly, Jeremy; Brehm, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Pioneering clinical stem cell research is being performed in the horse, a recipient of cutting edge veterinary medicine as well as a unique animal model, paving the way for human medical applications. Although demonstrable progress has been made on the clinical front, in vitro characterization of equine stem cells is still in comparatively early stages. To translate the promising results of clinical stem cell therapy in the horse, advances must be made in the characterization of equine stem cells. Aiming to improve communication between veterinarians and other natural scientists, this review gives an overview of veterinary "bedside" achievements, focusing on stem cell therapies in equine orthopedics as well as the current state of in vitro characterization of equine multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) and equine embryonic stem cells (ESCs).

  3. Isolation of mesenchymal stem cells from equine umbilical cord blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Thomas Gadegaard; Heerkens, Tammy; Thomsen, Preben Dybdahl

    2007-01-01

    Background: There are no published studies on stem cells from equine cord blood although commercial storage of equine cord blood for future autologous stem cell transplantations is available. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been isolated from fresh umbilical cord blood of humans collected non......-invasively at the time of birth and from sheep cord blood collected invasively by a surgical intrauterine approach. Mesenchymal stem cells isolation percentage from frozen-thawed human cord blood is low and the future isolation percentage of MSCs from cryopreserved equine cord blood is therefore expectedly low......, for the first time, the isolation of mesenchymal-like stem cells from fresh equine cord blood and their differentiation into osteocytes, chondrocytes and adipocytes. This novel isolation of equine cord blood MSCs and their preliminary in vitro differentiation positions the horse as the ideal pre-clinical animal...

  4. Topical distribution of acyclovir in normal equine skin and equine sarcoids: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haspeslagh, M; Taevernier, L; Maes, A A; Vlaminck, L E M; De Spiegeleer, B; Croubels, S M; Martens, A M

    2016-06-01

    Topical acyclovir application is an owner-friendly treatment for occult equine sarcoids, without the caustic side-effects other topical treatments have. Variable clinical success rates have been described, but it is not known to what rate and extent acyclovir penetrates in and through equine skin from a topical formulation. In the current study, an in vitro Franz diffusion model was used to determine the permeation parameters for a generic 5% acyclovir cetomacrogol cream for both healthy and sarcoid equine skin. The distribution of acyclovir between different layers of both skin types was also evaluated. While acyclovir penetrated through both skin types, significantly less acyclovir permeated to the deep dermis of sarcoid skin (197.62ng/mm(3)) compared to normal skin (459.41ng/mm(3)). Within sarcoid skin samples, significantly higher acyclovir concentrations were found in the epidermis (983.59ng/mm(3)) compared to the superficial dermis (450.02ng/mm(3)) and the deep dermis. At each sample point, significantly more acyclovir permeated to the receptor fluid through normal skin compared to sarcoid skin, which is reflected in the significantly higher permeation parameters of normal skin. Normal skin was found to be more permissive for acyclovir, but even in sarcoid skin, enough acyclovir reached the deep dermis to treat a Herpes simplex virus infection. In the case of equine sarcoids, the treatment is aimed at the Bovine papillomavirus and no information is available on the susceptibility of the DNA polymerase of this virus for acyclovir. Therefore, further research is needed to determine the efficacy of acyclovir to treat equine sarcoids.

  5. The ubiquitin proteasome system plays a role in venezuelan equine encephalitis virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moushimi Amaya

    Full Text Available Many viruses have been implicated in utilizing or modulating the Ubiquitin Proteasome System (UPS to enhance viral multiplication and/or to sustain a persistent infection. The mosquito-borne Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV belongs to the Togaviridae family and is an important biodefense pathogen and select agent. There are currently no approved vaccines or therapies for VEEV infections; therefore, it is imperative to identify novel targets for therapeutic development. We hypothesized that a functional UPS is required for efficient VEEV multiplication. We have shown that at non-toxic concentrations Bortezomib, a FDA-approved inhibitor of the proteasome, proved to be a potent inhibitor of VEEV multiplication in the human astrocytoma cell line U87MG. Bortezomib inhibited the virulent Trinidad donkey (TrD strain and the attenuated TC-83 strain of VEEV. Additional studies with virulent strains of Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV and Western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV demonstrated that Bortezomib is a broad spectrum inhibitor of the New World alphaviruses. Time-of-addition assays showed that Bortezomib was an effective inhibitor of viral multiplication even when the drug was introduced many hours post exposure to the virus. Mass spectrometry analyses indicated that the VEEV capsid protein is ubiquitinated in infected cells, which was validated by confocal microscopy and immunoprecipitation assays. Subsequent studies revealed that capsid is ubiquitinated on K48 during early stages of infection which was affected by Bortezomib treatment. This study will aid future investigations in identifying host proteins as potential broad spectrum therapeutic targets for treating alphavirus infections.

  6. Vaccine failure caused an outbreak of equine influenza in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbic, Ljubo; Madic, Josip; Turk, Nenad; Daly, Janet

    2009-01-01

    In April 2004 an outbreak of equine influenza occurred at the Zagreb hippodrome, Croatia. Clinical respiratory disease of the same intensity was recorded in vaccinated and non-vaccinated horses. The equine influenza vaccine used in Croatia at the time of the outbreak contained the strains A/equine/Miami/63 (H3N8), A/equine/Fontainebleau/79 (H3N8) and A/equine/Prague/56 (H7N7). At the same time, the usual strains in vaccines used in Europe were, in accordance with the recommendation of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Expert Surveillance Panel on equine influenza, A/equine/Newmarket/1/93 (H3N8) and A/equine/Newmarket/2/93 (H3N8). At the same time, some current vaccines in the USA contained A/equine/Kentucky/97 (H3N8). Genetic characterization of the HA1 portion of the haemagglutinin (HA) gene of virus isolated from the outbreak indicated that the isolate (A/equine/Zagreb/04) was an H3N8 strain closely related to recent representative viruses of the American lineage Florida sub-lineage. In comparison with both H3N8 vaccine strains used in horses at the Zagreb hippodrome, A/equine/Zagreb/04 displayed amino acids changes localised to 4 of the 5 described antigenic sites (A-D) of subunit protein HA1. Comparison of the amino acid sequence of the HA1 subunit protein of the outbreak strain with that of A/equine/Newmarket/1/93 displayed three amino acids changes localised in antigenic sites B and C, while antigenic sites A, D and E were unchanged. The Zagreb 2004 outbreak strain had the same amino acids at antigenic sites of the HA1 subunit protein as the strain A/equine/Kentucky/97. Amino acid changes in antigenic sites between HA1 subunit of the outbreak strain and the strains used in the vaccines likely accounted for the vaccine failure and the same clinical signs in vaccinated and unvaccinated horses. Use of a recent strain in vaccines should limit future outbreaks.

  7. A Review of Evidence that Equine Influenza Viruses Are Zoonotic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Tai; Anderson, Benjamin D; Daramragchaa, Ulziimaa; Chuluunbaatar, Maitsetset; Gray, Gregory C

    2016-01-01

    Among scientists, there exist mixed opinions whether equine influenza viruses infect man. In this report, we summarize a 2016 systematic and comprehensive review of the English, Chinese, and Mongolian scientific literature regarding evidence for equine influenza virus infections in man. Searches of PubMed, Web of Knowledge, ProQuest, CNKI, Chongqing VIP Database, Wanfang Data and MongolMed yielded 2831 articles, of which 16 met the inclusion criteria for this review. Considering these 16 publications, there was considerable experimental and observational evidence that at least H3N8 equine influenza viruses have occasionally infected man. In this review we summarize the most salient scientific reports.

  8. Effects of Common Equine Endocrine Diseases on Reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Teresa A

    2016-12-01

    Endocrine diseases, such as equine metabolic syndrome and pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction, are common in domesticated horse populations, and the frequency with which these diseases are encountered and managed by equine veterinary practitioners is expected to increase as the population ages. As clinicians learn more about the effects of these diseases on equine reproductive physiology and efficiency (including effects on reproductive seasonality, ovulation efficiency, implantation, early pregnancy loss, duration of pregnancy, and lactation), strategies and guidelines for improving fertility in affected animals continue to evolve. It is hoped that further research will establish these recommendations more firmly.

  9. A Review of Evidence that Equine Influenza Viruses Are Zoonotic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai Xie

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Among scientists, there exist mixed opinions whether equine influenza viruses infect man. In this report, we summarize a 2016 systematic and comprehensive review of the English, Chinese, and Mongolian scientific literature regarding evidence for equine influenza virus infections in man. Searches of PubMed, Web of Knowledge, ProQuest, CNKI, Chongqing VIP Database, Wanfang Data and MongolMed yielded 2831 articles, of which 16 met the inclusion criteria for this review. Considering these 16 publications, there was considerable experimental and observational evidence that at least H3N8 equine influenza viruses have occasionally infected man. In this review we summarize the most salient scientific reports.

  10. TOMS Absorbing Aerosol Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Washington University St Louis — TOMS_AI_G is an aerosol related dataset derived from the Total Ozone Monitoring Satellite (TOMS) Sensor. The TOMS aerosol index arises from absorbing aerosols such...

  11. Aerosol Observation System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory — The aerosol observation system (AOS) is the primary Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) platform for in situ aerosol measurements at the surface. The principal...

  12. The potential and limitations of quantitative electromyography in equine medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnberg, Inge D; Franssen, Hessel

    2015-01-01

    This review discusses the scope of using (quantitative) electromyography (EMG) in diagnosing myopathies and neuropathies in equine patients. In human medicine, many EMG methods are available for the diagnosis, pathophysiological description and evaluation, monitoring, or rehabilitation of patients,

  13. Isolation of mesenchymal stem cells from equine umbilical cord blood

    OpenAIRE

    Thomsen Preben D; Heerkens Tammy; Koch Thomas G; Betts Dean H

    2007-01-01

    Background: There are no published studies on stem cells from equine cord blood although commercial storage of equine cord blood for future autologous stem cell transplantations is available. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been isolated from fresh umbilical cord blood of humans collected non-invasively at the time of birth and from sheep cord blood collected invasively by a surgical intrauterine approach. Mesenchymal stem cells isolation percentage from frozen-thawed human cord blood is lo...

  14. PRESENCE OF RESPIRATORY VIRUSES IN EQUINES IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalva Assunção Portari Mancini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Equines are susceptible to respiratory viruses such as influenza and parainfluenza. Respiratory diseases have adversely impacted economies all over the world. This study was intended to determine the presence of influenza and parainfluenza viruses in unvaccinated horses from some regions of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Blood serum collected from 72 equines of different towns in this state was tested by hemagglutination inhibition test to detect antibodies for both viruses using the corresponding antigens. About 98.6% (71 and 97.2% (70 of the equines responded with antibody protective titers (≥ 80 HIU/25µL H7N7 and H3N8 subtypes of influenza A viruses, respectively. All horses (72 also responded with protective titers (≥ 80 HIU/25µL against the parainfluenza virus. The difference between mean antibody titers to H7N7 and H3N8 subtypes of influenza A viruses was not statistically significant (p > 0.05. The mean titers for influenza and parainfluenza viruses, on the other hand, showed a statistically significant difference (p < 0.001. These results indicate a better antibody response from equines to parainfluenza 3 virus than to the equine influenza viruses. No statistically significant differences in the responses against H7N7 and H3N8 subtypes of influenza A and parainfluenza 3 viruses were observed according to the gender (female, male or the age (≤ 2 to 20 years-old groups. This study provides evidence of the concomitant presence of two subtypes of the equine influenza A (H7N7 and H3N8 viruses and the parainfluenza 3 virus in equines in Brazil. Thus, it is advisable to vaccinate equines against these respiratory viruses.

  15. Equine wellness care in ambulatory practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, Claudia; True, Claudia

    2012-04-01

    Clients want dependable veterinary care and to understand how the services will benefit and meet their horse’s needs. Wellness visits provide ambulatory practitioners with great opportunities to strengthen the doctor-client-patient bond; effective communication with clients during wellness visits, where new literature or facts can be presented, can offer opportunities for demonstrating the value of having the veterinarian maintain a primary role in disease control. The criteria for selecting vaccines, interpreting FECs, and diagnosing dental pathology require the continued need for veterinary involvement. When providing wellness services, veterinarians should discuss those services, the reasons for them, as well as the possibility of adverse reactions. In so doing, the veterinarian is able to clearly distinguish himself or herself from a technician who is merely giving a "shot." Although some of these services can be performed by clients and lay professionals, the knowledge and training that veterinarians bring to these tasks add benefits to the horse beyond the services provided. For example, by targeting treatment and conveying the goals and limitations of FECs and deworming to clients, the speed at which anthelmintic resistance occurs will be diminished, and veterinarians will regain control over equine parasite management. Additional client education, such as demonstrating dental pathology to clients and how veterinary treatment benefits their horse, will not only improve the health of the horse further but also solidify the veterinarian’s role in preventative medicine. While all components of a wellness program were not detailed here, services such as nutritional consultation, blood work, and lameness evaluation should be offered based on the practice’s equine population. With the increasing population of geriatric horses, dentistry, nutrition, blood work, and lameness should be assessed annually or biannually. Each practice has its own set of criteria

  16. Incidence of Burkholderia mallei infection among indigenous equines in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Praveen; Singha, Harisankar; Goyal, Sachin K; Khurana, Sandip K; Tripathi, Badri Naryan; Dutt, Abha; Singh, Dabal; Sharma, Neeraj; Jain, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Burkholderia mallei is the causative agent of glanders which is a highly contagious and fatal disease of equines. Considering the nature and severity of the disease in equines, and potential of transmission to human beings, glanders is recognised as a ‘notifiable’ disease in many countries. An increasing number of glanders outbreaks throughout the Asian continents, including India, have been noticed recently. In view of the recent re-emergence of the disease, the present study was undertaken to estimate the prevalence of glanders among indigenous equines from different parts of India. Serum samples were analysed by complement fixation test (CFT) and ELISA for the detection of B mallei specific antibodies. A total of 7794 equines, which included 4720 horses, 1881 donkeys and 1193 mules were sampled from April 2011 to December 2014 from 10 states of India. Serologically, 36 equines (pony=7, mules=10, horses=19) were found to be positive for glanders by CFT and indirect-ELISA. The highest number of cases were detected in Uttar Pradesh (n=31) followed by Himachal Pradesh (n=4) and Chhattisgarh (n=1). Isolation of B mallei was attempted from nasal and abscess swabs collected from seropositive equines. Four isolates of B mallei were cultured from nasal swabs of two mules and two ponies. Identity of the isolates was confirmed by PCR and sequencing of fliP gene fragment. The study revealed circulation of B mallei in northern India and the need for continued surveillance to support the eradication. PMID:26457190

  17. [Infection control and hygiene management in equine hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Birgit; Janssen, Traute; Gehlen, Heidrun; Vincze, Szilvia; Borchers, Kerstin; Wieler, Lothar H; Barton, Ann Kristin; Lübke-Becker, Antina

    2014-01-01

    With the rising importance of nosocomial infections in equine hospitals, increased efforts with regard to biosecurity and infection control are necessary. This even more since nosocomial infections are often associated with multi-drug resistant pathogens. Consequently, the implementation of targeted prevention programs is essential. Since nosocomial infections are usually multifactorial events, realization of only a single measure is rarely effective to overcome nosocomial spread in clinical practice. Equine patients may be colonized at admission with multi-drug resistant pathogens such as methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and/or extended spectrum beta lactamase-producing (ESBL-) Enterobacteriaceae. Regardless of their individual resistance properties, these bacteria are common and usually unnoticed colonizers of either the nasopharynx or the intestinal tract. Also viral diseases caused by equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) and EHV-4 may reach a clinic by patients which are latently infected or in the incubation period. To prevent nosocomal outbreaks, achieve an interruption in the infection chain and to eradicate infectious agents from the hospital environment, a professional hospital management is necessary. This should be adapted to both the wide range of pathogens causing nosocomial infections and the individual needs of equine patients. Amongst others, this approach includes a risk classification of equine patients at admission and information/enlightenment of the animal owners at discharge. An efficient management of inpatients, a targeted hygiene management and clear responsibilities with respect to biosecurity together with a surveillance of nosocomial infections form the cornerstone of infection control in equine hospitals.

  18. Assessment of the global impact of aerosols on tropospheric oxidants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tie, Xuexi; Madronich, Sasha; Walters, Stacy; Edwards, David P.; Ginoux, Paul; Mahowald, Natalie; Zhang, Renyi; Lou, Chao; Brasseur, Guy

    2005-02-01

    We present here a fully coupled global aerosol and chemistry model for the troposphere. The model is used to assess the interactions between aerosols and chemical oxidants in the troposphere, including (1) the conversion from gas-phase oxidants into the condensed phase during the formation of aerosols, (2) the heterogeneous reactions occurring on the surface of aerosols, and (3) the effect of aerosols on ultraviolet radiation and photolysis rates. The present study uses the global three-dimensional chemical/transport model, Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers, version 2 (MOZART-2), in which aerosols are coupled with the model. The model accounts for the presence of sulfate, soot, primary organic carbon, ammonium nitrate, secondary organic carbon, sea salt, and mineral dust particles. The simulated global distributions of the aerosols are analyzed and evaluated using satellite measurements (Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)) and surface measurements. The results suggest that in northern continental regions the tropospheric aerosol loading is highest in Europe, North America, and east Asia. Sulfate, organic carbon, black carbon, and ammonium nitrate are major contributions for the high aerosol loading in these regions. Aerosol loading is also high in the Amazon and in Africa. In these areas the aerosols consist primarily of organic carbon and black carbon. Over the southern high-latitude ocean (around 60°S), high concentrations of sea-salt aerosol are predicted. The concentration of mineral dust is highest over the Sahara and, as a result of transport, spread out into adjacent regions. The model and MODIS show similar geographical distributions of aerosol particles. However, the model overestimates the sulfate and carbonaceous aerosol in the eastern United States, Europe, and east Asia. In the region where aerosol loading is high, aerosols have important impacts on tropospheric ozone and other oxidants. The model suggests that

  19. Costs Associated with Equine Breeding in Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Cassandra L.

    There were approximately 9 million horses in the United States having a 102 billion impact on the U.S. economy (AHC, 2005). Over 1 million of those horses were involved in the breeding sector. In Kentucky, nearly 18% of the horse population have been involved in breeding. Managing an equine enterprise can be difficult, particularly given that many who undertake such endeavors do not have a background or education in business management. Kentucky Cooperative Extension has produced interactive spreadsheets to help horse owners better understand the costs associated with owning horses or managing certain equine businesses, including boarding and training operations. However, there has been little support for breeders. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to provide owners with a list of services offered for breeding and the costs associated with those services. Survey questions were created from a list of topics pertinent to equine breeding and from that list of questions, an electronic survey was created. The survey was sent via Qualtrics Survey Software to collect information on stallion and mare management costs as well as expenses related to owning and breeding. Question topics included veterinary and housing costs, management and advertising expenses, and membership fees. A total of 78 farms were selected from the 2013 breeder's listings for the Kentucky Quarter Horse Association (n = 39) and the Kentucky Thoroughbred Farm Managers' Club (n = 26), and other breed association contacts (n = 13). These farms were selected from the lists by outside individuals who were not related to the project. Participants were asked to answer all questions relevant to the farm. After the initial survey distribution, follow-up e-mails and phone calls were conducted in order to answer any questions participants might have had about the survey. Survey response rate was 32.1% (25 of 78 surveys returned). Farms in Kentucky had an average of two farm-owned and two outside

  20. Endemic Venezuelan equine encephalitis in northern Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Patricia V; Greene, Ivorlyne P; Coffey, Lark L; Medina, Gladys; Moncayo, Abelardo C; Anishchenko, Michael; Ludwig, George V; Turell, Michael J; O'Guinn, Monica L; Lee, John; Tesh, Robert B; Watts, Douglas M; Russell, Kevin L; Hice, Christine; Yanoviak, Stephen; Morrison, Amy C; Klein, Terry A; Dohm, David J; Guzman, Hilda; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P A; Guevara, Carolina; Kochel, Tadeusz; Olson, James; Cabezas, Cesar; Weaver, Scott C

    2004-05-01

    Since Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) was isolated in Peru in 1942, >70 isolates have been obtained from mosquitoes, humans, and sylvatic mammals primarily in the Amazon region. To investigate genetic relationships among the Peru VEEV isolates and between the Peru isolates and other VEEV strains, a fragment of the PE2 gene was amplified and analyzed by single-stranded conformation polymorphism. Representatives of seven genotypes underwent sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The results identified four VEE complex lineages that cocirculate in the Amazon region: subtypes ID (Panama and Colombia/Venezuela genotypes), IIIC, and a new, proposed subtype IIID, which was isolated from a febrile human, mosquitoes, and spiny rats. Both ID lineages and the IIID subtype are associated with febrile human illness. Most of the subtype ID isolates belonged to the Panama genotype, but the Colombia/Venezuela genotype, which is phylogenetically related to epizootic strains, also continues to circulate in the Amazon basin.

  1. Equine recurrent uveitis: the European viewpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiess, B M

    2010-03-01

    Equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) has always been and still is an important disease with a significant impact on the horse industry in Europe, with a prevalence of 8-10%. The need to understand and manage the disease has spurred the development of veterinary ophthalmology in general, although the aetiology of the disease remains the subject of intense discussion. It is most probably an autoimmune disease triggered, at least in Europe, in the majority of cases by Leptospira spp. The therapy of ERU has evolved over the centuries from various methods of bloodletting to rational medical therapy using mydriatics and steroidal and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, to surgical therapies, such as vitrectomy or implantation of cyclosporin-releasing devices. In Europe, pars plana vitrectomy in horses testing positive for Leptospira spp. appears to be the most successful form of therapy at the present time.

  2. Equine and human mutual welfare: a whole subject? Critical aspects and possible strategies in equine-assisted activities and therapies

    OpenAIRE

    Li Destri Nicosia, Dora

    2011-01-01

    General aim of the study is equine welfare, particularly concerning different husbandry methodic and inter-specific relational factors. Specific aim is the evaluation of possible mutual (to humans and to equines) benefits and the analysis of critical factors/strength points, of human-horse relationship within Therapeutic Riding context (TR). The peculiarities of human-horse relationship (compared to the bond with “Pet”) are analyzed, concerning their socio-anthropological, psychological, p...

  3. Immunohistochemical studies in equine recurrent uveitis (ERU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeike, A; Brügmann, M; Drommer, W

    1998-11-01

    Despite extensive clinical research, the etiology of equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) is still unknown. After an immunologic pathogenesis was established in recurrent uveitis in humans, a similar pathogenic mechanism was assumed to exist in ERU. To investigate whether immunopathologic mechanisms are involved in ERU, 20 eyes of 15 horses with ERU were examined immunohistochemically with a T cell marker, B cell marker, and anti-major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antibodies. Twenty-six eyes of 20 horses were used for investigation of MHC class II antigen expression in normal equine eyes. In 18 eyes of 14 horses, the number of T cells in the inflammatory cell population within the uvea was assessed. In 16/18 eyes (89%), the T lymphocyte fraction was > 70%. This cell population was distributed mostly in a diffuse manner throughout the uvea and also within the mantle zone of follicular lymphocytic aggregates. Foci of B lymphocytes could be found within the center of follicular aggregates in three eyes. The expression of MHC class II antigen on resident ocular cells was evaluated in 10 eyes of six horses with ERU. An increase of MHC class II antigen expression in the trabecular meshwork and on the nonpigmented ciliary epithelium was noted as was a deviant expression on proliferating Müller cells and retinal pigment epithelial cells. The predominance of T cells in the inflammatory infiltrates supports the central role of a cell-mediated immune response. Furthermore, the observation of a deviant MHC class II expression on resident ocular cells suggests that aberrant immune regulation may play a role in the pathogenesis of ERU.

  4. A new understanding of oral and dental pathology of the equine cheek teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Miriam

    2013-08-01

    Equine dental disease has a high prevalence. Because of developmental, functional, and anatomic differences, limited inference can be made from brachydont dental pathology to that of equine cheek teeth. This article reviews the pathology of equine cheek teeth and their associated oral tissues, with specific information on periodontitis, pulpitis, maxillary infundibular changes, dental fractures, dental overgrowths, mucosal ulceration, and the regenerative capacity of equine teeth.

  5. Isolation of mesenchymal stem cells from equine umbilical cord blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomsen Preben D

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are no published studies on stem cells from equine cord blood although commercial storage of equine cord blood for future autologous stem cell transplantations is available. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC have been isolated from fresh umbilical cord blood of humans collected non-invasively at the time of birth and from sheep cord blood collected invasively by a surgical intrauterine approach. Mesenchymal stem cells isolation percentage from frozen-thawed human cord blood is low and the future isolation percentage of MSCs from cryopreserved equine cord blood is therefore expectedly low. The hypothesis of this study was that equine MSCs could be isolated from fresh whole equine cord blood. Results Cord blood was collected from 7 foals immediately after foaling. The mononuclear cell fraction was isolated by Ficoll density centrifugation and cultured in a DMEM low glucose based media at 38.5°C in humidified atmosphere containing 5% CO2. In 4 out of 7 samples colonies with MSC morphology were observed. Cellular morphology varied between monolayers of elongated spindle-shaped cells to layered cell clusters of cuboidal cells with shorter cytoplasmic extensions. Positive Alizarin Red and von Kossa staining as well as significant calcium deposition and alkaline phosphatase activity confirmed osteogenesis. Histology and positive Safranin O staining of matrix glycosaminoglycans illustrated chondrogenesis. Oil Red O staining of lipid droplets confirmed adipogenesis. Conclusion We here report, for the first time, the isolation of mesenchymal-like stem cells from fresh equine cord blood and their differentiation into osteocytes, chondrocytes and adipocytes. This novel isolation of equine cord blood MSCs and their preliminary in vitro differentiation positions the horse as the ideal pre-clinical animal model for proof-of-principle studies of cord blood derived MSCs.

  6. Shipboard measurements of concentrations and properties of carbonaceous aerosols during ACE-2

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Mass concentrations of total, organic and black carbon were derived by analyzing the supermicron and submicron aerosol fractions of shipboard collected samples in the easternAtlantic Ocean as part of the second Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-2). These analyses were complemented by experiments intended to estimate the water-soluble fraction of the submicron carbonaceous material. Our results can be summarized as follows. Depending on the sample, between 35% and 80% of total aerosol c...

  7. ASPEN+ and economic modeling of equine waste utilization for localized hot water heating via fast pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ASPEN Plus based simulation models have been developed to design a pyrolysis process for the on-site production and utilization of pyrolysis oil from equine waste at the Equine Rehabilitation Center at Morrisville State College (MSC). The results indicate that utilization of all available Equine Reh...

  8. Quantitative analysis of the probability of introducing equine encephalosis virus (EEV) into The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, Egil Andreas Joor; Martínez López, Evelyn Pamela; Vos-de Jong, de Clazien; Faverjon, Céline

    2016-01-01

    Equine encephalosis is a midge-borne viral disease of equines caused by equine encephalosis virus (EEV, Orbivirus, Reoviridae), and closely related to African horse sickness virus (AHSV). EEV and AHSV share common vectors and show similar transmission patterns. Until now EEV has caused outbreaks

  9. Quantitative analysis of the probability of introducing equine encephalosis virus (EEV) into The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, E.A.J.; Martínez López, Evelyn Pamela; De Vos, Clazien; Faverjon, Céline

    2016-01-01

    Equine encephalosis is a midge-borne viral disease of equines caused by equine encephalosis virus (EEV, Orbivirus, Reoviridae), and closely related to African horse sickness virus (AHSV). EEV and AHSV share common vectors and show similar transmission patterns. Until now EEV has caused outbreaks in

  10. Impact of Asian aerosols on air quality over the United States: A perspective from aerosol-cloud-radiation coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Z.; Yu, H.; Chin, M.

    2013-12-01

    It has well been established, through satellite/ground observations, that dust and aerosols from various Asian sources can travel across the Pacific and reach North America (NA) at least on episode bases. Once reaching NA, these inflow aerosols would compete with local emissions to influence atmospheric composition and air quality over the United States (US). The previous studies, typically based on one or multiple satellite measurements in combination with global/regional model simulations, suggest that the impact of Asian dust/aerosols on US air quality tend to be small since most inflow aerosols stay aloft. On the other hand, aerosols affect many key meteorological processes that will ultimately channel down to impact air quality. Aerosols absorb and scatter solar radiation that change the atmospheric stability, thus temperature, wind, and planetary boundary layer structure that would directly alter air quality. Aerosols can serve as cloud condensation nuclei and ice nuclei to modify cloud properties and precipitation that would also affect aerosol removal and concentration. This indirect impact of Asian aerosol inflow on US air quality may be substantial and need to be investigated. This study employs the NASA Unified WRF (NU-WRF) to address the question from the aerosol-radiation-cloud interaction perspective. The simulation period was selected from April to June of 2010 during which the Asian dust continuously reached NA based on CALIPSO satellite observation. The preliminary results show that the directly-transported Asian aerosol increases surface PM2.5 concentration by less than 2 μg/m3 over the west coast areas of US, and the aerosol-radiation-cloud feedback has a profound effect on air quality over the central to eastern US. A more detailed analysis links this finding to a series of meteorological conditions modified by aerosol effects.

  11. EGG YOLK AND LDL: POSSIBILITIES FOR ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION IN EQUINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor F. Canisso

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The world horse industry exerts an important role as a job and income generation source. Reproductive technologies arises as an important tool in the service of world equine growth. Artificial insemination (AI is perhaps the biotechnology with greater impact on equine breeding; a stallion can leave hundreds of offsprings over his reproductive life if AI is efficiently used. In some countries, egg yolk is frequently used as part of equine seminal extenders. The egg yolk provides the spermatozoa “resistance factors’’ when it is added. The protective fraction of the egg yolk probably is the low density lipoproteins (LDL. Several studies have reported successful results with the addition and replacement of egg yolk by LDL. There are many citations about the use of egg yolk in seminal extenders for stallion’s cooled and frozen semen, and in the equine reproduction practice. The egg yolk dilutors are used with good fertility results. New research is needed for the better understanding of the protective effects of egg yolk and the LDL for stallion semen. The LDL would be a great solution for dilutors to artificial insemination in horse. This review discusses the use and the advantages of egg yolk and LDL as constituents of equine semen extenders.

  12. Aerosol typing - key information from aerosol studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mona, Lucia; Kahn, Ralph; Papagiannopoulos, Nikolaos; Holzer-Popp, Thomas; Pappalardo, Gelsomina

    2016-04-01

    Aerosol typing is a key source of aerosol information from ground-based and satellite-borne instruments. Depending on the specific measurement technique, aerosol typing can be used as input for retrievals or represents an output for other applications. Typically aerosol retrievals require some a priori or external aerosol type information. The accuracy of the derived aerosol products strongly depends on the reliability of these assumptions. Different sensors can make use of different aerosol type inputs. A critical review and harmonization of these procedures could significantly reduce related uncertainties. On the other hand, satellite measurements in recent years are providing valuable information about the global distribution of aerosol types, showing for example the main source regions and typical transport paths. Climatological studies of aerosol load at global and regional scales often rely on inferred aerosol type. There is still a high degree of inhomogeneity among satellite aerosol typing schemes, which makes the use different sensor datasets in a consistent way difficult. Knowledge of the 4d aerosol type distribution at these scales is essential for understanding the impact of different aerosol sources on climate, precipitation and air quality. All this information is needed for planning upcoming aerosol emissions policies. The exchange of expertise and the communication among satellite and ground-based measurement communities is fundamental for improving long-term dataset consistency, and for reducing aerosol type distribution uncertainties. Aerosol typing has been recognized as one of its high-priority activities of the AEROSAT (International Satellite Aerosol Science Network, http://aero-sat.org/) initiative. In the AEROSAT framework, a first critical review of aerosol typing procedures has been carried out. The review underlines the high heterogeneity in many aspects: approach, nomenclature, assumed number of components and parameters used for the

  13. Equine herpesvirus-1 suppresses type-I interferon induction in equine endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Sanjay; Balasuriya, Udeni B R; Horohov, David W; Chambers, Thomas M

    2015-10-15

    Equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1) is one of the most common and important respiratory viral pathogens of horses. EHV-1 in horses replicates initially in the respiratory epithelium and then spreads systematically to endothelial cells lining the small blood vessels in the uterus and spinal cord, and highly pathogenic virus strains can produce aborted fetuses or myeloencephalopathy. Like other herpes viruses, EHV-1 employs a variety of mechanisms for immune evasion. Some herpes viruses down-regulate the type-I interferon (IFN) response to infection, but such activity has not been described for EHV-1. Here, in an in vitro system utilizing an established equine endothelial cell line, we studied the temporal effect on IFN-β responses following infection with the neuropathogenic T953 strain of EHV-1. Results show that after an early induction of IFN-β, the virus actively shut down further production of IFN-β and this was correlated with expression of the viral late genes. Expression of the IFN response factor viperin, a marker of host cell type-I IFN responses, was also suppressed by T953 virus infection. EHV-1-mediated suppression of host type-I IFN responses may play an important role in EHV-1 pathogenesis and the mechanism of this, presumably involving a viral late gene product, warrants investigation.

  14. The characterization of equine herpes virus-1-infected cell polypeptides recognized by equine lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, C G; Ledger, N; Edington, N

    1988-02-01

    Ponies, without evidence of previous exposure to Equine herpes virus-1 (EHV-1), were experimentally infected with EHV-1 subtype 2 and investigated for lymphocyte transformation to virus-infected cell polypeptides, as shown by separation with gel electrophoresis. Animals made significant responses to Western blot fractions that corresponded to molecular weights of approximately 30,000, 40,000-45,000, 60,000-65,000, 80,000-95,000 and 100,000-140,000 MW. These molecular weight ranges correlated with the positions of major EHV-1 subtype 2 glycoproteins that were found at migration distances approximating to 137,000, 111,000, 90,000, 65,000 and 47,000 MW. Responses were also made to a subset of similar points on the subtype 1 profile. Hyperimmune equine serum precipitated numerous infected-cell proteins of both subtypes; in particular the recognition of polypeptides with MW of 142,000, 132,000, 114,000, and 46,000 was in agreement with the mitogenic responses. Labelling with 125I indicated that immunoprecipitated greater than 250,000, 182,000, 142,000, 132,000, 75,000, 46,000 and 32,000/34,000 MW products were exposed on the surface of infected cells.

  15. Benzimidazole resistance in equine cyathostomes in Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Várady, M; Königová, A; Corba, J

    2000-12-20

    The present study included 19 stud farms, including 243 horses, that were investigated for the occurrence of anthelmintic resistant cyathostomes. The number of horses on the farms varied from nine to more than 100, and horses of all ages were included. A minimum of seven horses were used for faecal egg count reduction (FECR) tests. The anthelmintics included were: fenbendazole (paste formulation), ivermectin (paste formulation) and pyrantel (powder). Resistance to benzimidazoles was detected on 14 farms, with FECR values ranging from 65.1 to 86.3%. Larval cultures after fenbendazole treatment revealed exclusively cyathostome larvae. Ivermectin was tested on eight farms and proved to be effective on all. Pyrantel was tested on two farms and FECR test indicated high efficacy (92-97%). Egg hatch assay (EHA) results showed that mean concentrations of thiabendazole that inhibited hatching in 50% of the eggs (ED(50)) in resistant populations were over 0.1 microg ml(-1). The results of our study suggest widespread resistance to fenbendazole in equine cyathostomes in Slovakia, and possible strategies to delay anthelmintic resistance are discussed briefly.

  16. [The surgical therapy of equine recurrent uveitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werry, H; Gerhards, H

    1992-04-01

    Equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) is the most frequently encountered cause of eye problems and blindness in horses. Classic treatment of ERU includes mydriatics, corticosteroids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Despite vigorous topical and systemic treatment, however, in many cases, the prognosis for preserving vision remains poor. Experiences with surgical treatment of chronic endogenous uveitis in human patients have shown that vision-impairing axial opacities in the vitreous body can be removed by pars plana vitrectomy, and that a considerable decrease in the frequency and severity of uveitic relapses results. So far, 11 eyes of 10 horses were subjected to vitrectomy. All horses had suffered from 3 or more uveitic attacks and had a hazy vitreous. In all cases, at discharge from the clinic, the vitreous chamber was less hazy compared to preoperative findings. At follow-up examinations, 8 eyes (8/10) had normal i.o. pressure, and 2 (2/10) had subnormal i.o. pressure and the vitreous chambers were clear or contained only small floaters. Uveitic attacks had not been observed in the operated eyes. Postoperative complications included fibrinous, or fibrinous-haemorrhagic exudate in the anterior chamber of all eyes, and in one eye, a minor haemorrhage in the vitreous chamber. Our preliminary results indicate that pars plana vitrectomy assuring proper case selection and accurate surgical technique, may contribute to improvement of vision and may delay the progression of uveitic complications in horses.

  17. Equine model for soft-tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellas, Evangelia; Rollins, Amanda; Moreau, Jodie E; Lo, Tim; Quinn, Kyle P; Fourligas, Nicholas; Georgakoudi, Irene; Leisk, Gary G; Mazan, Melissa; Thane, Kristen E; Taeymans, Olivier; Hoffman, A M; Kaplan, D L; Kirker-Head, C A

    2015-08-01

    Soft-tissue regeneration methods currently yield suboptimal clinical outcomes due to loss of tissue volume and a lack of functional tissue regeneration. Grafted tissues and natural biomaterials often degrade or resorb too quickly, while most synthetic materials do not degrade. In previous research we demonstrated that soft-tissue regeneration can be supported using silk porous biomaterials for at least 18 months in vivo in a rodent model. In the present study, we scaled the system to a survival study using a large animal model and demonstrated the feasibility of these biomaterials for soft-tissue regeneration in adult horses. Both slow and rapidly degrading silk matrices were evaluated in subcutaneous pocket and intramuscular defect depots. We showed that we can effectively employ an equine model over 6 months to simultaneously evaluate many different implants, reducing the number of animals needed. Furthermore, we were able to tailor matrix degradation by varying the initial format of the implanted silk. Finally, we demonstrate ultrasound imaging of implants to be an effective means for tracking tissue regeneration and implant degradation.

  18. Equine herpes virus 2 infection in horse populations in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruszczyk, A; Cywinska, A; Banbura, M W

    2004-01-01

    The prevalence of Equine herpesvirus 2 (EHV-2) infections in the horse populations in Poland was investigated. Peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) of 139 horses were tested. The animals were divided into four groups: clinically healthy horses, horses suffering from respiratory disorders, mares with a recent abortion and horses with diagnosed ataxia. Thirty-four virus isolates were obtained from leukocytes of the tested animals by cocultivation with equine dermal cells and were identified as EHV-2 by PCR using primers for the gB gene of EHV-2 and/or primers for the sequence located upstream of the gene homologous to the equine interleukin 10 (IL-10) gene. These results indicate that EHV-2 is prevalent in horse populations in Poland. As the virus was most frequently isolated from horses with respiratory disorders its etiological importance may be considered.

  19. Equine gastric ulcer syndrome (egus: diagnosis and therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mot, T.,

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Equine gastric ulcer syndrome is especially reported in racing horses, with a prevalence of 60-90% in adults and 25-50% in foals. The ethiology of equine gastric ulcer is polifactorial, represented by nutritional factors, stress generated by training and captivity, drugs (corticosteroids-prednisolone, dexametasone, nesteroidicanti-inflammatory drugs: flumixin-meglumine, fenilbutazone, duodenal refluence. The diagnosis is established on clinical signs and therapeutic response and it is confirmed by endoscopic exam. Therapeutically it is recommended to administer: antiacide (aluminiu hydroxide, magnesium hydroxide, inhibitors of H2 receptors(cimetidine, ranitidine, famotidine, inhibitors of protons pump (Omeprazol, Sucralphate. Diagnosis and therapeutic aspects in equine gastric ulcer syndrome are presented in this study.

  20. Automatic segmentation of equine larynx for diagnosis of laryngeal hemiplegia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehin, Md. Musfequs; Zheng, Lihong; Gao, Junbin

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents an automatic segmentation method for delineation of the clinically significant contours of the equine larynx from an endoscopic image. These contours are used to diagnose the most common disease of horse larynx laryngeal hemiplegia. In this study, hierarchal structured contour map is obtained by the state-of-the-art segmentation algorithm, gPb-OWT-UCM. The conic-shaped outer boundary of equine larynx is extracted based on Pascal's theorem. Lastly, Hough Transformation method is applied to detect lines related to the edges of vocal folds. The experimental results show that the proposed approach has better performance in extracting the targeted contours of equine larynx than the results of using only the gPb-OWT-UCM method.

  1. Aerosol mobility size spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Kulkarni, Pramod

    2007-11-20

    A device for measuring aerosol size distribution within a sample containing aerosol particles. The device generally includes a spectrometer housing defining an interior chamber and a camera for recording aerosol size streams exiting the chamber. The housing includes an inlet for introducing a flow medium into the chamber in a flow direction, an aerosol injection port adjacent the inlet for introducing a charged aerosol sample into the chamber, a separation section for applying an electric field to the aerosol sample across the flow direction and an outlet opposite the inlet. In the separation section, the aerosol sample becomes entrained in the flow medium and the aerosol particles within the aerosol sample are separated by size into a plurality of aerosol flow streams under the influence of the electric field. The camera is disposed adjacent the housing outlet for optically detecting a relative position of at least one aerosol flow stream exiting the outlet and for optically detecting the number of aerosol particles within the at least one aerosol flow stream.

  2. Discovery of a novel compound with anti-venezuelan equine encephalitis virus activity that targets the nonstructural protein 2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Hoon Chung

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Alphaviruses present serious health threats as emerging and re-emerging viruses. Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV, a New World alphavirus, can cause encephalitis in humans and horses, but there are no therapeutics for treatment. To date, compounds reported as anti-VEEV or anti-alphavirus inhibitors have shown moderate activity. To discover new classes of anti-VEEV inhibitors with novel viral targets, we used a high-throughput screen based on the measurement of cell protection from live VEEV TC-83-induced cytopathic effect to screen a 340,000 compound library. Of those, we identified five novel anti-VEEV compounds and chose a quinazolinone compound, CID15997213 (IC50 = 0.84 µM, for further characterization. The antiviral effect of CID15997213 was alphavirus-specific, inhibiting VEEV and Western equine encephalitis virus, but not Eastern equine encephalitis virus. In vitro assays confirmed inhibition of viral RNA, protein, and progeny synthesis. No antiviral activity was detected against a select group of RNA viruses. We found mutations conferring the resistance to the compound in the N-terminal domain of nsP2 and confirmed the target residues using a reverse genetic approach. Time of addition studies showed that the compound inhibits the middle stage of replication when viral genome replication is most active. In mice, the compound showed complete protection from lethal VEEV disease at 50 mg/kg/day. Collectively, these results reveal a potent anti-VEEV compound that uniquely targets the viral nsP2 N-terminal domain. While the function of nsP2 has yet to be characterized, our studies suggest that the protein might play a critical role in viral replication, and further, may represent an innovative opportunity to develop therapeutic interventions for alphavirus infection.

  3. Ingestive behavior and thermoregulatory responses of equine in grazing activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wéverton José Lima Fonseca

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article was to evaluate the main physiological responses, as well as the main patterns of ingestive behavior and physiological parameters of equines in activities grazing. Animal behavior is influenced by several factors, such as, climate, temperature, power supply, etc., thus becoming indispensable good management practices, for the animal can play to their best possible performance. The loss of heat in equines that give several ways (conduction, convection, radiation, evaporation, this occurs so that the animal can enter in their zone of thermal comfort (37.5ºC to 38.5ºC.

  4. Tools for the diagnosis of equine respiratory disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Marie-France; Lavoie, Jean-Pierre

    2003-04-01

    Respiratory disorders are among the most common problems leading horse owners to seek veterinary attention. Accurate diagnosis of these conditions allows for proper treatment to be instituted, much to the benefit of the patient and satisfaction of the client. As an introduction to this issue on equine respiratory disorders, we review some of the tools that are available to equine veterinarians for the diagnosis of respiratory disorders. Physical and endoscopic examination, radiology, diagnostic ultrasound, techniques for sampling the respiratory tract, hematology, blood gas analysis, respiratory mechanics, and some modern diagnostic tools are briefly covered.

  5. Characterization of aerosol composition, concentrations, and sources at Baengnyeong Island, Korea using an aerosol mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Taehyoung; Choi, Jinsoo; Lee, Gangwoong; Ahn, Junyoung; Park, Jin Soo; Atwood, Samuel A.; Schurman, Misha; Choi, Yongjoo; Chung, Yoomi; Collett, Jeffrey L.

    2015-11-01

    To improve understanding of the sources and chemical properties of particulate pollutants on the western side of the Korean Peninsula, an Aerodyne High Resolution Time of Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) measured non-refractory fine (PM1) particles from May to November, 2011 at Baengnyeong Island, South Korea. Organic matter and sulfate were generally the most abundant species and exhibited maximum concentrations of 36 μg/m3 and 39 μg/m3, respectively. Nitrate concentrations peaked at 32 μg/m3 but were typically much lower than sulfate and organic matter concentrations. May, September, October, and November featured the highest monthly average concentrations, with lower concentrations typically observed from June through August. Potential source contribution function (PSCF) analysis and individual case studies revealed that transport from eastern China, an area with high SO2 emissions, was associated with high particulate sulfate concentrations at the measurement site. Observed sulfate aerosol sometimes was fully neutralized by ammonium but often was acidic; the average ammonium to sulfate molar ratio was 1.49. Measured species size distributions revealed a range of sulfate particle size distributions with modes between 100 and 600 nm. Organic aerosol source regions were widespread, including contributions from eastern China and South Korea. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis indicated three "factors," or types of organic aerosol, comprising one primary, hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA) and two oxidized organic aerosol (OOA) components, including a more oxidized (MO-OOA) and a less oxidized (LO-OOA) oxidized organic aerosol. On average, HOA and OOA contributed 21% and 79% of the organic mass (OM), respectively, with the MO-OOA fraction nearly three times as abundant as the LO-OOA fraction. Biomass burning contributions to observed OM were low during the late spring/early summer agricultural burning season in eastern China, since

  6. Aerosol distribution apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, W.D.

    An apparatus for uniformly distributing an aerosol to a plurality of filters mounted in a plenum, wherein the aerosol and air are forced through a manifold system by means of a jet pump and released into the plenum through orifices in the manifold. The apparatus allows for the simultaneous aerosol-testing of all the filters in the plenum.

  7. Serologic evidence of the recent circulation of Saint Louis encephalitis virus and high prevalence of equine encephalitis viruses in horses in the Nhecolândia sub-region in South Pantanal, Central-West Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Pauvolid-Corrêa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available As in humans, sub-clinical infection by arboviruses in domestic animals is common; however, its detection only occurs during epizootics and the silent circulation of some arboviruses may remain undetected. The objective of the present paper was to assess the current circulation of arboviruses in the Nhecolândia sub-region of South Pantanal, Brazil. Sera from a total of 135 horses, of which 75 were immunized with bivalent vaccine composed of inactive Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV and Western equine encephalitis virus(WEEV and 60 were unvaccinated, were submitted to thorough viral isolation, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and neutralization tests for Saint Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV, EEEV, WEEV and Mayaro virus (MAYV. No virus was isolated and viral nucleic-acid detection by RT-PCR was also negative. Nevertheless, the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies in horses older than seven months was 43.7% for SLEV in equines regardless of vaccine status, and 36.4% for WEEV and 47.7% for EEEV in unvaccinated horses. There was no evidence of MAYV infections. The serologic evidence of circulation of arboviruses responsible for equine and human encephalitis, without recent official reports of clinical infections in the area, suggests that the Nhecolândia sub-region in South Pantanal is an important area for detection of silent activity of arboviruses in Brazil.

  8. Serologic evidence of the recent circulation of Saint Louis encephalitis virus and high prevalence of equine encephalitis viruses in horses in the Nhecolândia sub-region in South Pantanal, Central-West Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauvolid-Corrêa, Alex; Tavares, Fernando Neto; Costa, Eliane Veiga da; Burlandy, Fernanda Marcicano; Murta, Michele; Pellegrin, Aiesca Oliveira; Nogueira, Márcia Furlan; Silva, Edson Elias da

    2010-09-01

    As in humans, sub-clinical infection by arboviruses in domestic animals is common; however, its detection only occurs during epizootics and the silent circulation of some arboviruses may remain undetected. The objective of the present paper was to assess the current circulation of arboviruses in the Nhecolândia sub-region of South Pantanal, Brazil. Sera from a total of 135 horses, of which 75 were immunized with bivalent vaccine composed of inactive Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) and Western equine encephalitis virus(WEEV) and 60 were unvaccinated, were submitted to thorough viral isolation, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and neutralization tests for Saint Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV), EEEV, WEEV and Mayaro virus (MAYV). No virus was isolated and viral nucleic-acid detection by RT-PCR was also negative. Nevertheless, the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies in horses older than seven months was 43.7% for SLEV in equines regardless of vaccine status, and 36.4% for WEEV and 47.7% for EEEV in unvaccinated horses. There was no evidence of MAYV infections. The serologic evidence of circulation of arboviruses responsible for equine and human encephalitis, without recent official reports of clinical infections in the area, suggests that the Nhecolândia sub-region in South Pantanal is an important area for detection of silent activity of arboviruses in Brazil.

  9. Spatial distributions and seasonal cycles of aerosol climate effects in India seen in global climate-aerosol model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Henriksson

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Climate-aerosol interactions in India are studied by employing the global climate-aerosol model ECHAM5-HAM and the GAINS inventory for anthropogenic aerosol emissions. Seasonal cycles and spatial distributions of radiative forcing and the temperature and rainfall responses are presented for different model setups. While total aerosol radiative forcing is strongest in the summer, anthropogenic forcing is considerably stronger in winter than in summer. Local seasonal temperature anomalies caused by aerosols are mostly negative with some exceptions, e.g. Northern India in March–May and the eastern Himalayas in September–November. Rainfall increases due to the elevated heat pump (EHP mechanism and decreases due to solar dimming effects are studied. Aerosol light absorption does increase rainfall significantly in Northern India, but effects due to solar dimming and circulation work to cancel the increase. The total aerosol effect on rainfall is negative when considering all effects if assuming that aerosols have cooled the Northern Indian Ocean by 0.5 °K compared to the equator.

  10. Potential risk of equine herpes virus 1 (EHV-1) transmission by equine embryo transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebia, I; Fiéni, F; Duchamp, G; Destrumelle, S; Pellerin, J-L; Zientara, S; Vautherot, J-F; Bruyas, J-F

    2007-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether the 10 wash cycles proposed by the International Embryo Transfer Society (IETS) for bovine embryos efficiently decontaminated equine embryos exposed to equine herpes virus 1 (EHV-1) in vitro. Donor mares and stallions were individually screened and shown to be negative for the virus by PCR detection of EHV-1 DNA in blood leukocytes, semen, and uterine lavages in which embryos were recovered. Twenty embryos were recovered and randomly assigned to one of two groups: 10 embryos were exposed for 24h to infectious EHV-1 at 10(6)TCID(50)/ml, and 10 embryos were used as negative controls. Exposed embryos were washed in accordance with IETS recommendations for ruminant and porcine embryos, before being incubated for 24 h with semiconfluent rabbit kidney (RK13) cells to detect any cytopathic effects (CPE), and finally tested for the presence of EHV-1 viral DNA by PCR. The embryo washing media were also assayed for the virus on RK 13 cells and by PCR. Control embryos were neither exposed to the virus nor washed. EHV-1 was not found in the control embryos, or in the last five washes of the exposed embryos. However, the virus was detected in 7/10 of the embryos exposed to EHV-1 for 24h, as well as in the first five washes of the embryos. The gradual disappearance of EHV-1 from the 10 successive wash solutions from the exposed embryos and the detection of viral DNA in 7/10 washed embryos by PCR, demonstrated that the washing procedure was unable to remove EHV-1 and suggested that EHV-1 could be attached to the acellular layer surrounding embryos (zona pellucida or capsule) or had penetrated the embryo.

  11. Equine Welfare in England and Wales: Exploration of Stakeholders' Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horseman, Susan V; Buller, Henry; Mullan, Siobhan; Knowles, Toby G; Barr, Alistair R S; Whay, Helen R

    2017-01-01

    Investigating how those responsible for the care of nonhuman animals understand the concept of animal welfare is important for animal welfare improvement. In-depth interviews with 31 equine stakeholders were used to explore their perceptions and understanding of welfare. The results showed the stakeholders understood the concept of welfare in 4 ways. Firstly, welfare was understood in terms of the provision of resources-for example, food. Secondly, a "horse-centered" understanding of welfare was articulated; this understanding included the horses' mental state and was linked to natural behavior. Thirdly, the word welfare had negative connotations, and for some, good welfare was achieved through avoidance of negative states. Finally, interviewees discussed incidents that occurred in their own familiar contexts but suggested that these were not welfare problems. Evidence indicated that the ways in which equine stakeholders understood the concept of welfare might have been acting as a barrier to the alleviation of some equine welfare problems. There is a need for strategies aimed at improving equine welfare to consider stakeholder constructs of welfare and the ways in which these constructs are generated and acted upon.

  12. Complement-induced equine neutrophil adhesiveness and aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slauson, D O; Skrabalak, D S; Neilsen, N R; Zwahlen, R D

    1987-05-01

    Equine neutrophils (PMN) were isolated from citrated normal blood by density gradient separation on Ficoll-Hypaque to greater than 96% purity and 98% viability and an average of 3.78 x 10(7) PMN/ml. The agonist C5a des Arg was used in serial dilutions of whole zymosan-activated equine plasma (ZAP) or was partially purified from ZAP by column chromatography. Purified equine PMN exhibited rapid aggregation following incubation with C5a des Arg which was further dependent on the availability of divalent cations, especially Mg++. The microfilament disruptive agent cytochalasin B (5 micrograms/50 microliters) greatly augmented aggregation responses to C5a des Arg. Subaggregating doses of C5a des Arg promoted PMN adhesiveness as assayed on 0.5 x 10 cm borosilicate glass columns containing a 2.0 cm bed of Sephadex G-25. This C5a des Arg-induced increased adhesiveness was inhibitable by prior incubation of the PMN with either non-steroidal (0.065 M phenylbutazone) or steroidal (0.005 M dexamethasone) anti-inflammatory agents. Ultrastructural studies correlated well with functional assays and revealed marked organelle-free lamellipodia formation without PMN-PMN contact at subaggregating doses of the agonist and progressive PMN-PMN contact at aggregating doses. Equine PMN are responsive to C5a des Arg, and induced adhesiveness responses can be manipulated by anti-inflammatory agents.

  13. The microbiome associated with equine periodontitis and oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Rebekah; Lappin, David Francis; Dixon, Padraic Martin; Buijs, Mark Johannes; Zaura, Egija; Crielaard, Wim; O'Donnell, Lindsay; Bennett, David; Brandt, Bernd Willem; Riggio, Marcello Pasquale

    2016-04-14

    Equine periodontal disease is a common and painful condition and its severe form, periodontitis, can lead to tooth loss. Its aetiopathogenesis remains poorly understood despite recent increased awareness of this disorder amongst the veterinary profession. Bacteria have been found to be causative agents of the disease in other species, but current understanding of their role in equine periodontitis is extremely limited. The aim of this study was to use high-throughput sequencing to identify the microbiome associated with equine periodontitis and oral health. Subgingival plaque samples from 24 horses with periodontitis and gingival swabs from 24 orally healthy horses were collected. DNA was extracted from samples, the V3-V4 region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplified by PCR and amplicons sequenced using Illumina MiSeq. Data processing was conducted using USEARCH and QIIME. Diversity analyses were performed with PAST v3.02. Linear discriminant analysis effect size (LEfSe) was used to determine differences between the groups. In total, 1308 OTUs were identified and classified into 356 genera or higher taxa. Microbial profiles at health differed significantly from periodontitis, both in their composition (p periodontitis group samples showed higher diversity (3.16, SD 0.98) and were dominated by the genera Prevotella and Veillonella. It is concluded that the microbiomes associated with equine oral health and periodontitis are distinct, with the latter displaying greater microbial diversity.

  14. Synovial fluid as a mirror of equine joint (patho) physiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, R. van den

    2004-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a serious problem in the equine industry and an important cause of the (early) retirement of sport horses. Currently the diagnosis is usually based on X-rays, but by the time changes become radiographically visible, extensive (often irreversible) joint damage is present. This

  15. 76 FR 55213 - Commercial Transportation of Equines to Slaughter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-07

    ... designated as slaughter animals on the bill of sale. We have never used the presence or absence of.... Because equines cannot stand in a normal position with their heads raised, they cannot maintain balance as... conveyance is capable, under normal circumstances, of traversing most U.S. highways while carrying...

  16. Clinical sentinel surveillance of equine West Nile fever, Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saegerman, C.; Alba-Casals, A.; García-Bocanegra, I.;

    2016-01-01

    West Nile fever (WNF) is a viral zoonotic infection caused by a mosquito-borne flavivirus of the Flaviviridae family. According to a comparative study, the passive surveillance of horses by equine veterinarians appeared to be the most cost-effective system in the European context of WNF. Clinical...

  17. Detection of Leptospira interrogans DNA and antigen in fixed equine eyes affected with end-stage equine recurrent uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Jacqueline W; Galle, Laurence E; Kleiboeker, Steve B; Turk, James R; Schommer, Susan K; Dubielizig, Richard R; Mitchell, William J; Moore, Cecil P; Giuliano, Elizabeth A

    2007-11-01

    Equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) is the most frequent cause of blindness in horses worldwide. Leptospira has been implicated as an etiologic agent in some cases of ERU and has been detected in fresh ocular tissues of affected horses. The objective of this study was to determine the presence of Leptospira antigen and DNA in fixed equine ocular tissues affected with end-stage ERU. Sections of eyes from 30 horses were obtained. Controls included 1) 10 normal equine eyes and 2) 10 equine eyes with a nonrecurrent form of uveitis. The experimental group consisted of 10 eyes diagnosed with ERU based on clinical signs and histologic lesions. Sections were subjected to immunohistochemical staining with an array of rabbit anti-Leptospira polyclonal antibodies. DNA extractions were performed by using a commercial kit designed for fixed tissue. Real-time PCR analysis was completed on extracted DNA. The target sequence for PCR was designed from alignments of available Leptospira 16S rDNA partial sequences obtained from GenBank. Two of 10 test samples were positive for Leptospira antigen by immunohistochemical assay. Zero of 20 controls were positive for Leptospira antigen. All test samples and controls were negative for Leptospira DNA by real-time PCR analysis. Leptospira was detected at a lower frequency than that previously reported for fresh ERU-affected aqueous humor and vitreous samples. Leptospira is not frequently detectable in fixed ocular tissues of horses affected with ERU when using traditional immunohistochemical and real-time PCR techniques.

  18. Unraveling the equine lymphocyte proteome: differential septin 7 expression associates with immune cells in equine recurrent uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degroote, Roxane L; Hauck, Stefanie M; Amann, Barbara; Hirmer, Sieglinde; Ueffing, Marius; Deeg, Cornelia A

    2014-01-01

    Equine recurrent uveitis is a spontaneous, lymphocyte-driven autoimmune disease. It affects horses worldwide and presents with painful remitting-relapsing inflammatory attacks of inner eye structures eventually leading to blindness. Since lymphocytes are the key players in equine recurrent uveitis, we were interested in potential changes of their protein repertoire which may be involved in disease pathogenesis. To create a reference for differential proteome analysis, we first unraveled the equine lymphocyte proteome by two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and subsequently identified 352 protein spots. Next, we compared lymphocytes from ERU cases and healthy horses with a two-dimensional fluorescence difference in gel electrophoresis approach. With this technique, we identified seven differentially expressed proteins between conditions. One of the significantly lower expressed candidates, septin 7, plays a role in regulation of cell shape, motility and migration. Further analyses revealed T cells as the main cell type with decreased septin 7 abundance in equine recurrent uveitis. These findings point to a possible pathogenetic role of septin 7 in this sight-threatening disease.

  19. Unraveling the equine lymphocyte proteome: differential septin 7 expression associates with immune cells in equine recurrent uveitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxane L Degroote

    Full Text Available Equine recurrent uveitis is a spontaneous, lymphocyte-driven autoimmune disease. It affects horses worldwide and presents with painful remitting-relapsing inflammatory attacks of inner eye structures eventually leading to blindness. Since lymphocytes are the key players in equine recurrent uveitis, we were interested in potential changes of their protein repertoire which may be involved in disease pathogenesis. To create a reference for differential proteome analysis, we first unraveled the equine lymphocyte proteome by two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and subsequently identified 352 protein spots. Next, we compared lymphocytes from ERU cases and healthy horses with a two-dimensional fluorescence difference in gel electrophoresis approach. With this technique, we identified seven differentially expressed proteins between conditions. One of the significantly lower expressed candidates, septin 7, plays a role in regulation of cell shape, motility and migration. Further analyses revealed T cells as the main cell type with decreased septin 7 abundance in equine recurrent uveitis. These findings point to a possible pathogenetic role of septin 7 in this sight-threatening disease.

  20. Recent advances in equine abdominal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C L; Dowling, B A; Dart, A J

    2005-07-01

    Laparoscopy is a minimally invasive procedure that has applications as a diagnostic, therapeutic and prognostic technique. Specialized equipment is necessary to perform equine laparoscopy, and there is a large range of instruments, both disposable and non-disposable available. Laparoscopic procedures described include ovariectomy, cryptorchidectomy, adhesiolysis and herniorrhaphy. Laparoscopy can be performed in a standing or dorsally recumbent position, depending on surgeon preference, patient status and the procedure to be performed. Stapling equipment is frequently used in gastrointestinal surgery in horses. Advantages include decreased surgical time and a decrease in the risk of contamination. Stapling equipment is often used in creating anastomoses, both in the large and small intestines, as well as in vessel ligation. New surgical techniques intended to decrease adhesion formation include the use of carboxymethylcellulose and bioresorbable patches. Indwelling abdominal drains can be used for peritoneal lavage following surgery and also appear to decrease the risk of adhesion formation. Improvements in post-operative care, including the treatment of post-operative ileus and endotoxaemia can significantly improve the outcome of horses that have undergone surgery for abdominal disorders. Recommendations for the use of prokinetic agents in horses with ileus vary widely. Prokinetic agents include local anaesthetics, macrolide antimicrobials, cholinergic agonists and dopamine antagonists. Endotoxaemia is common in horses following surgery for gastrointestinal disorders. The antibiotic polymyxin B binds to the circulating endotoxin molecule, decreasing its half-life in the intra-vascular space and reducing associated inflammation. This drug appears to be an effective and affordable treatment option for horses with endotoxaemia. The use of specific cyclooxygenase inhibitors in veterinary medicine have been studied recently. Selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors may

  1. Intranasal location and immunohistochemical characterization of the equine olfactory epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Kupke

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The olfactory epithelium (OE is the only body site where neurons contact directly the environment and are therefore exposed to a broad variation of substances and insults. It can serve as portal of entry for neurotropic viruses which spread via the olfactory pathway to the central nervous system (CNS. For horses, it has been proposed and concluded mainly from rodent studies that different viruses, e.g. Borna disease virus (BoDV, equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1, hendra virus, influenza virus, rabies virus, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV can use this route. However, little is yet known about cytoarchitecture, protein expression and the intranasal location of the equine OE. Revealing differences in cytoarchitecture or protein expression pattern in comparison to rodents, canines or humans might help to explain varying susceptibility to certain intranasal virus infections. On the other hand, disclosing similarities especially between rodents and other species, e.g. horses would help to underscore transferability of rodent models. Analysis of the complete noses of 5 adult horses revealed that in the equine OE two epithelial subtypes with distinct marker expression exist, designated as types a and b which resemble those previously described in dogs. Detailed statistical analysis was carried out to confirm the results obtained on the descriptive level. The equine OE was predominantly located in caudodorsal areas of the nasal turbinates with a significant decline in rostroventral direction, especially for type a. Immunohistochemically, olfactory marker protein (OMP and doublecortin (DCX expression was found in more cells of OE type a, whereas expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA and tropomyosin receptor kinase A (TrkA was present in more cells of type b. Accordingly, type a resembles the mature epithelium, in contrast to the more juvenile type b. Protein expression profile was comparable to canine and rodent OE but equine type a and b were

  2. The repertoire of equine intestinal α-defensins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetens Jens

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Defensins represent an important class of antimicrobial peptides. These effector molecules of the innate immune system act as endogenous antibiotics to protect the organism against infections with pathogenic microorganisms. Mammalian defensins are classified into three distinct sub-families (α-, β- and θ-defensins according to their specific intramolecular disulfide-bond pattern. The peptides exhibit an antimicrobial activity against a broad spectrum of microorganisms including bacteria and fungi. Alpha-Defensins are primarily synthesised in neutrophils and intestinal Paneth cells. They play a role in the pathogenesis of intestinal diseases and may regulate the flora of the intestinal tract. An equine intestinal α-defensin (DEFA1, the first characterised in the Laurasiatheria, shows a broad antimicrobial spectrum against human and equine pathogens. Here we report a first investigation of the repertoire of equine intestinal α-defensins. The equine genome was screened for putative α-defensin genes by using known α-defensin sequences as matrices. Based on the obtained sequence information, a set of oligonucleotides specific to the α-defensin gene-family was designed. The products generated by reverse-transcriptase PCR with cDNA from the small intestine as template were sub-cloned and numerous clones were sequenced. Results Thirty-eight equine intestinal α-defensin transcripts were determined. After translation it became evident that at least 20 of them may code for functional peptides. Ten transcripts lacked matching genomic sequences and for 14 α-defensin genes apparently present in the genome no appropriate transcript could be verified. In other cases the same genomic exons were found in different transcripts. Conclusions The large repertoire of equine α-defensins found in this study points to a particular importance of these peptides regarding animal health and protection from infectious diseases. Moreover, these

  3. Intranasal Location and Immunohistochemical Characterization of the Equine Olfactory Epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupke, Alexandra; Wenisch, Sabine; Failing, Klaus; Herden, Christiane

    2016-01-01

    The olfactory epithelium (OE) is the only body site where neurons contact directly the environment and are therefore exposed to a broad variation of substances and insults. It can serve as portal of entry for neurotropic viruses which spread via the olfactory pathway to the central nervous system. For horses, it has been proposed and concluded mainly from rodent studies that different viruses, e.g., Borna disease virus, equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1), hendra virus, influenza virus, rabies virus, vesicular stomatitis virus can use this route. However, little is yet known about cytoarchitecture, protein expression and the intranasal location of the equine OE. Revealing differences in cytoarchitecture or protein expression pattern in comparison to rodents, canines, or humans might help to explain varying susceptibility to certain intranasal virus infections. On the other hand, disclosing similarities especially between rodents and other species, e.g., horses would help to underscore transferability of rodent models. Analysis of the complete noses of five adult horses revealed that in the equine OE two epithelial subtypes with distinct marker expression exist, designated as types a and b which resemble those previously described in dogs. Detailed statistical analysis was carried out to confirm the results obtained on the descriptive level. The equine OE was predominantly located in caudodorsal areas of the nasal turbinates with a significant decline in rostroventral direction, especially for type a. Immunohistochemically, olfactory marker protein and doublecortin (DCX) expression was found in more cells of OE type a, whereas expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and tropomyosin receptor kinase A was present in more cells of type b. Accordingly, type a resembles the mature epithelium, in contrast to the more juvenile type b. Protein expression profile was comparable to canine and rodent OE but equine types a and b were located differently within the nose and

  4. Aerosol MTF revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopeika, Norman S.; Zilberman, Arkadi; Yitzhaky, Yitzhak

    2014-05-01

    Different views of the significance of aerosol MTF have been reported. For example, one recent paper [OE, 52(4)/2013, pp. 046201] claims that the aerosol MTF "contrast reduction is approximately independent of spatial frequency, and image blur is practically negligible". On the other hand, another recent paper [JOSA A, 11/2013, pp. 2244-2252] claims that aerosols "can have a non-negligible effect on the atmospheric point spread function". We present clear experimental evidence of common significant aerosol blur and evidence that aerosol contrast reduction can be extremely significant. In the IR, it is more appropriate to refer to such phenomena as aerosol-absorption MTF. The role of imaging system instrumentation on such MTF is addressed too.

  5. Classification of Aerosol over Central Europe by Cluster Analysis of Aerosol Columnar Optical Properties and Backward Trajectory Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szkop, Artur; Pietruczuk, Aleksander; Posyniak, Michał

    2016-12-01

    A cluster analysis is applied to the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) data obtained at Belsk, Poland, as well as three nearby Central European stations (Leipzig, Minsk and Moldova) for estimation of atmospheric aerosol types. Absorption Ångstrom exponent (AAE), aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and extinction Ångstrom exponent (EAE) parameters are used. Clustering in both 2D (AOT, EAE) and 3D (AOT, EAE, AAE) is investigated. A method of air mass backward trajectory analysis is then proposed, with the receptor site at Belsk, to determine possible source regions for each cluster. Four dominant aerosol source regions are identified. The biomass burning aerosol source is localized in the vicinity of Belarusian-Ukrainian border. Slovakia and northern Hungary are found to be the source of urban/industrial pollutants. Western Poland and eastern Germany are the main sources of polluted continental aerosols. The most differentiated source region of Scandinavia, Baltic Sea and Northern Atlantic, associated with lowest values of AOT, corresponds to clean continental and possibly maritime type aerosols.

  6. Virion polypeptide heterogeneity among virulent and avirulent strains of eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walder, R; Rosato, R R; Eddy, G A

    1981-01-01

    Comparative analysis of structural virion polypeptides of 24 selected EEE virus strains, representing North and South American types, was performed by one-dimensional discontinuous sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis (PAGE). The structural proteins of different EEE virus isolates, resolved by this method, exhibited mol.wts. values in the range of 57-60 X 10(3) for (E-1), 51-54 X 10(3) for (E-2) and 35-38 X 10(3) daltons for the core (NP) nucleocapsid. The exception was the South American human lethal virus, TRVL-89287 strain, which was shown to possess only a single envelope glycoprotein. The high molecular weight envelope (E-1) glycoprotein species was absent or co-migrated adjacent to the smaller envelope (E-2) glycoprotein. Results indicated similarities in the core (NP) proteins, however greater variability in the envelope (E-/ and/or E-2) glycoproteins. Based on these variations seven distinct profiles could be observed among the EEE virus strain studied. The classification based on the patterns of structural polypeptides obtained by SDS-PAGE of these strains does not correlate well with any other previously reported in vitro characteristics (antigenic subtypes, HTP elution profiles) nor with the in vivo virulence markers.

  7. Pathogenesis of Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus in Mice and Development of a Second Generation Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    in and around hair follicles , within the epidermis and mononuclear inflammatory cells near the inoculation site. No significant histologic lesions...Neurons were the main cellular target and histologic lesions included neuronal necrosis, perivascular cuffs, mild heterophilic and histiocytic...of tissues was performed to identify virally infected cells at the various time points to elucidate target cells/tissues over the course of

  8. Aerosols Science and Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Agranovski, Igor

    2011-01-01

    This self-contained handbook and ready reference examines aerosol science and technology in depth, providing a detailed insight into this progressive field. As such, it covers fundamental concepts, experimental methods, and a wide variety of applications, ranging from aerosol filtration to biological aerosols, and from the synthesis of carbon nanotubes to aerosol reactors.Written by a host of internationally renowned experts in the field, this is an essential resource for chemists and engineers in the chemical and materials disciplines across multiple industries, as well as ideal supplementary

  9. Identificação do vírus causador de encefalomielite eqüina, Paraná, Brasil Identification of the encephalitis equine virus, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoraida Fernández

    2000-06-01

    four municipalities of Paraná State, Brazil. Mosquitoes were captured in Shannon trap and human bait. After identification, they were processed for virus isolation. Blood of equines were collected in the municipalities of Querência do Norte and Colorado. Antibodies to different Alphavirus and Flavivirus were analyzed by hemagglutination inhibition test. Specific seroneutralization reactions were performed in those sera with a positive reaction in the hemagglutination test. RESULTS: The mosquitoes genus collected were: Culex, Aedes, Mansonia, Coquillettidia, Psorophora, Sabethes, Wyeomyia, and Limatus . Even thought no virus was isolated, serologic analyses showed hemagglutinazing antibodies to Eastern equine encephalitis, Mucambo, Pixuna, Maguari, and St Luis encephalitis viruses. The neutralization test showed specific reaction to Eastern equine encephalitis virus in 12 tested sera. CONCLUSIONS: Species of mosquitoes that could be potential vectors of encephalitis, buniavirus, and other arboviruses of epidemiological importance were collected. It is believed that Eastern equine encephalitis virus affected the equines populations in the study regions because of the symptoms and antibodies for the virus in the sera detected in these equines.

  10. Serological, molecular characterization and epidemiological situation of equine influenza in the Arabic Maghreb countries between 1972 to 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Boukharta

    2014-08-01

    This finding does not corroborate the recent studies of the H3N8 subtype of equine influenza viruses which have demonstrated that the oldest equine H3N8 strains, circulating before 1990 apparently went extinct.

  11. Equine herpesvirus-1 myeloencephalopathy: a review of recent developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusterla, Nicola; David Wilson, W; Madigan, John E; Ferraro, Gregory L

    2009-06-01

    Equine herpes myeloencephalopathy (EHM), although a relatively uncommon manifestation of equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1) infection, can cause devastating losses on individual farms or boarding stables. Although outbreaks of EHM have been recognized for centuries in domestic horse populations, many aspects of this disease remained poorly characterized. In recent years, an improved understanding of EHM has emerged from experimental studies and from data collected during field outbreaks at riding schools, racetracks and veterinary hospitals throughout North America and Europe. These outbreaks have highlighted the contagious nature of EHV-1 and have prompted a re-evaluation of diagnostic procedures, treatment modalities, preventative measures and biosecurity protocols for the disease. This review concentrates on these and other selected, clinically relevant aspects of EHM.

  12. Babesiosis in equines in Pakistan: a clinical report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asif Rashid

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Equine babesiosis is a tick-borne haematological disease of equidae that can affect acutely, subacutely and chronically. The disease is manifested by intermittent fever, anaemia, icterus and haemoglobinuria. The authors describe the clinical, haematological and therapeutic aspects of babesiosis in equines at two units in Kotley and at two units in Jehlum of the Remount Veterinary and Farms Corps (RVFC. Animals on these units showed the signs of illness. On clinical examination, intermittent temperature, increased respiratory rate, anaemia, lacrimation, conjunctivitis and pale mucous membranes were observed. Haematological examination revealed a decrease in red blood cell count and haemoglobin concentration, accompanied by an increase in total white blood cell count. Cases of babesiosis in horses were successfully treated with imidocarb dipropionate at a dose rate of 4 mg/kg body weight, administered intramuscularly four times at 72 h intervals, together with supportive therapy.

  13. Characteristics and multipotency of equine dedifferentiated fat cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Daiki; Yamasaki, Atsushi; Matsuzaki, Shouta; Sunaga, Takafumi; Fujiki, Makoto; Tokunaga, Satoshi; Misumi, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells have been shown to be multipotent, similar to mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In this study, we aimed to establish and characterize equine DFAT cells. Equine adipocytes were ceiling cultured, and then dedifferentiated into DFAT cells by the seventh day of culture. The number of DFAT cells was increased to over 10 million by the fourth passage. Flow cytometry of DFAT cells showed that the cells were strongly positive for CD44, CD90, and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I; moderately positive for CD11a/18, CD105, and MHC class II; and negative for CD34 and CD45. Moreover, DFAT cells were positive for the expression of sex determining region Y-box 2 as a marker of multipotency. Finally, we found that DFAT cells could differentiate into osteogenic, chondrogenic, and adipogenic lineages under specific nutrient conditions. Thus, DFAT cells could have clinical applications in tissue regeneration, similar to MSCs derived from adipose tissue.

  14. Antimicrobial drug concentrations and sampling techniques in the equine lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winther, Lotte

    2012-08-01

    The distribution of antimicrobial drugs in the equine lung is important in designing optimal dosage regimens for the treatment of lower airway infections. Several studies in horses and other species have shown that the pharmacokinetics of a drug in the lung cannot necessarily be predicted by its behaviour in plasma, and influencing factors include the class of drug, the animal species and the chosen sampling technique. This review provides a description of the target site for bacterial lower airway infections and describes the penetration of antibiotics into lung matrices. It also offers an overview of published equine pulmonary pharmacokinetic studies and considers the different sampling methods used and the influence existing methodological problems can have on the interpretation of data. An awareness of these factors is important in establishing optimal dosage regimes to treat lower airway infections in horses.

  15. Molecular biological characterization of equine surfactant protein A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hospes, R; Hospes, B I L; Reiss, I; Bostedt, H; Gortner, L

    2002-12-01

    In the following, we describe the isolation and sequencing of the equine surfactant protein A (Sp-A) as found in both the cDNA and the genomic DNA. We found a length of the cDNA sequence of 747 bp (base pairs), in translation into amino acids of 248. Compared with the known molecular biological facts about Sp-A in other species, the cDNA sequence obtained showed highest homology with that of sheep (85.01%). The genomic DNA of equine Sp-A, as in other species, includes three introns. There were no hints for the existence of two different Sp-A genes. These results should form the basis for a better understanding of respiratory failure in foals and adult horses, and also lead to further studies on this item.

  16. New Approaches in Accountancy of the Romanian Equine Growth Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Isai

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The activity of equine growth puts many problems regarding the way of recognition, registration and valuation of equines as biological assets, but also regarding the way of calculation for the auction prices. Taking into consideration the ascendant trend of this sector, and also the diversification of its activities, accountancy faces new situations, which require to be solved in the conditions of the existent International Accounting Standards. In this respect, Romania came with certain improvements, which allow the separate registration of biological assets, their valuation at the fair value and the separate registration of the economic benefits brought by the biological assets to the entity. This paper presents a part of these aspects, in the context of the new settlements adopted in accounting by the Romanian legislation.

  17. Antigenic relatedness of equine herpes virus types 1 and 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutekunst, D E; Malmquist, W A; Becvar, C S

    1978-01-01

    Antiserums prepared in specific pathogen free (SPF) ponies were used in direct and indirect immunofluorescence, immunodiffusion, complement fixation and serum neutralization procedures to study the interrelationships of the three types of equine herpes viruses (EHV-1, EHV-2, and EHV-3). Equine cell cultures infected with each type virus fluoresced when stained with homologous conjugated antiserum. In reciprocal tests EHV-1 and EHV-3 cross-fluoresced, but EHV-2 did not cross-fluoresce. Non-infected cell cultures did not fluoresce when stained with the 3 conjugates. EHV-1 and EHV-3 cross-fluoresced in reciprocal indirect fluorescent antibody tests, but no cross-fluorescence was shown with EHV-2. Antigens representing each type of equine herpes virus reacted with their homologous antiserum in the immunodiffusion test. In reciprocal tests, a common line(s) of identity formed with EHV-1 and EHV-3; however, the precipitin line(s) was not common with EHV-2. Antigen prepared from noninfected embryonic mule skin (EMS) cell cultures did not react with any of the antiserums. Specific complement-fixing antibodies were present in antiserums when tested against their homologous antigens. In reciprocal complement fixation tests EHV-1 and EHV-3 crossreacted, but no cross-reactivity was shown with EHV-2. Significant levels of neutralizing antibody were in an antiserum when tested against homologous virus, whereas cross-neutralization was not detectable in reciprocal tests. These studies indicate that each type of equine herpes virus contains specific antigenic components, and EHV-1 and EHV-3 share a common antigen(s) that is not shared with EHV-2.

  18. Complete genome amplification of Equine influenza virus subtype 2

    OpenAIRE

    Sguazza, G. H.; Fuentealba, N. A.; Tizzano, Marco Antonio; Galosi, Cecilia Mónica; Pecoraro, M. R.

    2009-01-01

    This work reports a method for rapid amplification of the complete genome of equine influenza virus subtype 2 (H3N8). A ThermoScriptTM reverse transcriptase instead of the avian myeloblastosis virus reverse transcriptase or Moloney murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase was used. This enzyme has demonstrated higher thermal stability and is described as suitable to make long cDNA with a complex secondary structure. The product obtained by this method can be cloned, used in later...

  19. Equine Botulinum Antitoxin for the Treatment of Infant Botulism ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Vanella de Cuetos, Elida E.; Fernandez, Rafael A.; Bianco, María I.; Sartori, Omar J.; Piovano, María L.; Lúquez, Carolina; de Jong, Laura I. T.

    2011-01-01

    Infant botulism is the most common form of human botulism in Argentina and the United States. BabyBIG (botulism immune globulin intravenous [human]) is the antitoxin of choice for specific treatment of infant botulism in the United States. However, its high cost limits its use in many countries. We report here the effectiveness and safety of equine botulinum antitoxin (EqBA) as an alternative treatment. We conducted an analytical, observational, retrospective, and longitudinal study on cases ...

  20. Multi-frequency bioimpedance in equine muscle assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Adrian Paul; Elbrønd (Bibs), Vibeke Sødring; Riis-Olesen, Kiwa

    2015-01-01

    Multi-frequency BIA (mfBIA) equipment has been shown to be a non-invasive and reliable method to assess a muscle as a whole or at fibre level. In the equine world this may be the future method of assessment of training condition or of muscle injury. The aim of this study was to test if mfBIA reli.......g. myofascial release therapy and metabolic diseases, respectively....

  1. Viral DNA in horses infected with equine infectious anemia virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Rice, N R; Lequarré, Anne-Sophie; Casey, J W; Lahn, S; Stephens, R. M.; Edwards, J.

    1989-01-01

    The amount and distribution of viral DNA were established in a horse acutely infected with the Wyoming strain of equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV). The highest concentration of viral DNA were found in the liver, lymph nodes, bone marrow, and spleen. The kidney, choroid plexus, and peripheral blood leukocytes also contained viral DNA, but at a lower level. It is estimated that at day 16 postinoculation, almost all of the viral DNA was located in the tissues, with the liver alone containing...

  2. Equine pastern vasculitis: a clinical and histopathological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psalla, Dimitra; Rüfenacht, Silvia; Stoffel, Michael H; Chiers, Koen; Gaschen, Véronique; Doherr, Marcus G; Gerber, Vincent; Welle, Monika M

    2013-11-01

    Equine pastern vasculitis is clinically challenging and the underlying aetiopathogenesis is unclear. The aims of this retrospective study were to establish histopathological criteria for pastern vasculitis, to look for an underlying cause, to investigate whether the histopathological lesions are associated with a distinct clinical picture, to assess if and how the clinical picture varies, and to determine the treatment response. Skin biopsies and clinical data from 20 horses with a diagnosis of vasculitis of the distal extremities were investigated and histology was compared to biopsies from healthy horses. It was concluded that intramural inflammatory cells, leukocytoclasia with nuclear dust, thickening and oedema of the vessel walls, and microhaemorrhages are highly specific histological findings in equine pastern vasculitis. Based on the feedback from the clinicians, the lesions were mostly seen on the lateral and medial aspects of un-pigmented legs. Lesions in white skin were characterised by exudation and crusts, whereas those in pigmented skin were alopecic and characterised by scaling. The response to treatment was poor and the prognosis guarded. No association was found between any of the histopathological findings and a distinct clinical picture. An underlying cause of equine pastern vasculitis could not be identified. Considering the large number of confounding factors, the causative agents are difficult to identify, but may involve drugs or a hypersensitivity reactions to yet unknown antigens.

  3. Low-power laser effects in equine traumatology and postsurgically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antikas, Theo G.

    1991-05-01

    The present field study on 800 cases of LPL treatments in situ using a preset `blind code' was designed to verify previously published field results; and to check whether a practicing equine vet, trainer, horse owner or rider may obtain beneficial therapeutic effects in traumatology and/or post-surgery, two of the most prevailing modalities in equine sportsmedicine. With the exception of chronic infected traumas, the positive/beneficial response to LPL treatment was verified in a range of 33.3% (infected) to 100% (non-infected, surgical) of the traumas under investigation. The administration of antibiotics, a modality compatible with LPL treatment in infected injuries, increased the beneficial effects of LPL irradiation to 66.7%. This fact indicates that laser irradiation should not be considered a replacement of common therapeutic routine but simply an efficient follow up or parallel treatment that may act synergistically to the benefit of an injured equine athlete. In the case of non-infected surgical trauma, LPL-treatment was additionally found to shorten the post-surgical `inactive' time period or `comeback time' (CBT), thus bringing the horse back into its sportive capacity considerably faster than without LPL irradiation, and at a statistically significant level (p < 0.001).

  4. Molecular characterization of Rhodococcus equi isolates in equines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Rabyia; Taku, A. K.; Sharma, R. K.; Badroo, Gulzaar Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to determine the occurrence of Rhodococcus equi in equines and their environment in Jammu (R.S. Pura, Katra), molecular characterization and to determine the antibiotic resistance pattern of R. equi. Materials and Methods: A total of 96 nasopharyngeal swab samples were collected from equines. The organism was isolated on Columbia nalidixic acid agar containing 5% sheep blood as well as on sheep blood agar and was later confirmed by cultural characteristics and biochemical tests. Molecular detection of R. equi isolates was done by 16S rRNA gene amplification followed by virulence associated protein A (Vap A) gene amplification. Antibiogram was performed against five antibiotics, viz., amoxicillin, penicillin G, streptomycin, rifampicin, and methicillin. Results: During the study, 9 R. equi isolates were identified on the basis of cultural and biochemical tests. In the polymerase chain reaction based detection, 3 among the 9 rhodococcal isolates were positive for species-specific 16S rRNA gene and revealed amplicon of 450 bp for confirmation of 16S rRNA gene. None of the sample was found positive for Vap A gene. In antibiogram, R. equi isolates were found sensitive for amoxicillin, while some isolates were also found resistant to the most conventional antibiotic penicillin G. Conclusion: From this study, it was concluded that R. equi infection is prevalent in equines in Jammu region of India and the indiscriminate use of the antibiotics is leading toward the development of resistant strains of R. equi. PMID:28246441

  5. Molecular characterization of Rhodococcus equi isolates in equines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabyia Javed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to determine the occurrence of Rhodococcus equi in equines and their environment in Jammu (R.S. Pura, Katra, molecular characterization and to determine the antibiotic resistance pattern of R. equi. Materials and Methods: A total of 96 nasopharyngeal swab samples were collected from equines. The organism was isolated on Columbia nalidixic acid agar containing 5% sheep blood as well as on sheep blood agar and was later confirmed by cultural characteristics and biochemical tests. Molecular detection of R. equi isolates was done by 16S rRNA gene amplification followed by virulence associated protein A (Vap A gene amplification. Antibiogram was performed against five antibiotics, viz., amoxicillin, penicillin G, streptomycin, rifampicin, and methicillin. Results: During the study, 9 R. equi isolates were identified on the basis of cultural and biochemical tests. In the polymerase chain reaction based detection, 3 among the 9 rhodococcal isolates were positive for species-specific 16S rRNA gene and revealed amplicon of 450 bp for confirmation of 16S rRNA gene. None of the sample was found positive for Vap A gene. In antibiogram, R. equi isolates were found sensitive for amoxicillin, while some isolates were also found resistant to the most conventional antibiotic penicillin G. Conclusion: From this study, it was concluded that R. equi infection is prevalent in equines in Jammu region of India and the indiscriminate use of the antibiotics is leading toward the development of resistant strains of R. equi.

  6. Effect of Defocused CO2 Laser on Equine Tissue Perfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergh A

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Treatment with defocused CO2 laser can have a therapeutic effect on equine injuries, but the mechanisms involved are unclear. A recent study has shown that laser causes an increase in equine superficial tissue temperature, which may result in an increase in blood perfusion and a stimulating effect on tissue regeneration. However, no studies have described the effects on equine tissue perfusion. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of defocused CO2 laser on blood perfusion and to correlate it with temperature in skin and underlying muscle in anaesthetized horses. Differences between clipped and unclipped haircoat were also assessed. Eight horses and two controls received CO2 laser treatment (91 J/cm2 in a randomised order, on a clipped and unclipped area of the hamstring muscles, respectively. The significant increase in clipped skin perfusion and temperature was on average 146.3 ± 33.4 perfusion units (334% and 5.5 ± 1.5°C, respectively. The significant increase in perfusion and temperature in unclipped skin were 80.6 ± 20.4 perfusion units (264% and 4.8 ± 1.4°C. No significant changes were seen in muscle perfusion or temperature. In conclusion, treatment with defocused CO2 laser causes a significant increase in skin perfusion, which is correlated to an increase in skin temperature.

  7. A brief history of equine private practice in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.H.B. Marlow

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Horse breeding in South Africa started in 1652, shortly after the 1st European settlement in the Cape. African horsesickness posed a serious problem and after a devastating outbreak of the disease in 1719, horses were largely replaced by oxen for agricultural and transport purposes but remained important from a sporting and military point of view. Examples of the latter are the export of horses for military use to India in the mid-19th century and for use in the Crimean War in 1854, reaching a zenith in the Anglo-Boer war in which an estimated 450 000 horses succumbed. Research and disease control and initially also health services were the responsibility of state veterinary authorities. Private equine practice was pioneered by Jack Boswell in the late 1930s, mainly involving race horses and Thoroughbred studs as part of a general practice. Specialised equine private practices were only initiated 10 years later and developed further during the 2nd half of the 20th century. These developments are described in some detail, including resumés of the veterinarians involved, clinical challenges encountered, scientific advances as well as developments in the equine industry with the emphasis on Thoroughbreds and the racing community. The regulatory environment, especially regarding the import and export of horses, and the role of various organisations and associations are also briefly discussed.

  8. Temporal characteristics of aerosol physical properties at Visakhapatnam on the east coast of India during ICARB – Signatures of transport onto Bay of Bengal

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Niranjan; V Sreekanth; B L Madhavan; T Anjana Devi; B Spandana

    2008-07-01

    Realizing the importance of aerosol physical properties at the adjoining continental and coastal locations in the airmass pathways onto the oceanic region, extensive measurements of aerosol physical properties were made at Visakhapatnam (17.7°N, 83.3°E), an eastern coastal location in peninsular India during the ICARB period. The temporal variations of aerosol optical depth, near surface aerosol mass size distributions and BC mass concentrations show significantly higher aerosol optical depth and near surface mass concentrations during the first and last weeks of April 2007. The mean BC mass fraction in the fine mode aerosol was around 11%. The aerosol back scatter profiles derived from Micro Pulse Lidar indicate a clear airmass subsidence on the days with higher aerosol optical depths and near surface mass fraction. A comparison of the temporal variation of the aerosol properties at Visakhapatnam with the MODIS derived aerosol optical depth along the cruise locations indicates a resemblance in the temporal variation suggesting that the aerosol transport from the eastern coastal regions of peninsular India could significantly affect the aerosol optical properties at the near coastal oceanic regions and that the affect significantly reduced at the farther regions.

  9. Replication kinetics of neurovirulent versus non-neurovirulent equine herpesvirus type 1 strains in equine nasal mucosal explants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandekerckhove, Annelies P; Glorieux, S; Gryspeerdt, A C; Steukers, L; Duchateau, L; Osterrieder, N; Van de Walle, G R; Nauwynck, H J

    2010-08-01

    Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) is the causative agent of equine herpes myeloencephalopathy, of which outbreaks are reported with increasing frequency throughout North America and Europe. This has resulted in its classification as a potentially emerging disease by the US Department of Agriculture. Recently, it was found that a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the viral DNA polymerase gene (ORF30) at aa 752 (N-->D) is associated with the neurovirulent potential of EHV-1. In the present study, equine respiratory mucosal explants were inoculated with several Belgian isolates typed in their ORF30 as D(752) or N(752), to evaluate a possible difference in replication in the upper respiratory tract. In addition, to evaluate whether any observed differences could be attributed to the SNP associated with neurovirulence, the experiments were repeated with parental Ab4 (reference neurovirulent strain), parental NY03 (reference non-neurovirulent strain) and their N/D revertant recombinant viruses. The salient findings were that EHV-1 spreads plaquewise in the epithelium, but plaques never cross the basement membrane (BM). However, single EHV-1-infected cells could be observed below the BM at 36 h post-inoculation (p.i.) for all N(752) isolates and at 24 h p.i. for all D(752) isolates, and were identified as monocytic cells and T lymphocytes. Interestingly, the number of infected cells was two to five times higher for D(752) isolates compared with N(752) isolates at every time point analysed. Finally, this study showed that equine respiratory explants are a valuable and reproducible model to study EHV-1 neurovirulence in vitro, thereby reducing the need for horses as experimental animals.

  10. Measurement of the ambient organic aerosol volatility distribution: application during the Finokalia Aerosol Measurement Experiment (FAME-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. H. Lee

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A variable residence time thermodenuder (TD was combined with an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS and a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS to measure the volatility distribution of aged organic aerosol in the Eastern Mediterranean during the Finokalia Aerosol Measurement Experiment in May of 2008 (FAME-2008. A new method for the quantification of the organic aerosol volatility distribution was developed combining measurements of all three instruments together with an aerosol dynamics model.

    Challenges in the interpretation of ambient thermodenuder-AMS measurements include the potential resistances to mass transfer during particle evaporation, the effects of particle size on the evaporated mass fraction, the changes in the AMS collection efficiency and particle density as the particles evaporate partially in the TD, and finally potential losses inside the TD. Our proposed measurement and data analysis method accounts for all of these problems combining the AMS and SMPS measurements.

    The AMS collection efficiency of the aerosol that passed through the TD was found to be approximately 10% lower than the collection efficiency of the aerosol that passed through the bypass. The organic aerosol measured at Finokalia is approximately 2 or more orders of magnitude less volatile than fresh laboratory-generated monoterpene (α-pinene, β-pinene and limonene under low NOx conditions secondary organic aerosol. This low volatility is consistent with its highly oxygenated AMS mass spectrum. The results are found to be highly sensitive to the mass accommodation coefficient of the evaporating species. This analysis is based on the assumption that there were no significant reactions taking place inside the thermodenuder.

  11. Equine Multinodular Pulmonary Fibrosis in association with asinine herpesvirus type 5 and equine herpesvirus type 5: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Back Helena

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A standardbred gelding with a history of 10 days pyrexia and lethargy was referred to the Equine Hospital at the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences in Uppsala, Sweden. The horse had tachypnea with increased respiratory effort and was in thin body condition. Laboratory findings included leukocytosis, hyperfibrinogenemia and hypoxemia. Thoracic radiographs showed signs of pneumonia with a multifocal nodular pattern, which in combination with lung biopsy findings indicated Equine Multinodular Pulmonary Fibrosis (EMPF. EMPF is a recently described disease in adult horses with clinical signs of fever, weight loss and respiratory problems. The pathological findings include loss of functional pulmonary parenchyma due to extensive nodular interstitial fibrosis which has been related to infection with the equine herpesvirus type 5 (EHV-5. In this case, lung biopsy and tracheal wash samples tested positive for both asinine herpesvirus type 5 (AHV-5 and EHV-5 using PCR assays. The horse failed to respond to treatment and was euthanized for humane reasons. Postmortem examination confirmed the diagnosis of EMPF. This case suggests that not only EHV-5 alone should be considered in association with the development of this disease.

  12. Climatic effects of 1950–2050 changes in US anthropogenic aerosols – Part 1: Aerosol trends and radiative forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Streets

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We calculate decadal aerosol direct and indirect (warm cloud radiative forcings from US anthropogenic sources over the 1950–2050 period. Past and future aerosol distributions are constructed using GEOS-Chem and historical emission inventories and future projections from the IPCC A1B scenario. Aerosol simulations are evaluated with observed spatial distributions and 1980–2010 trends of aerosol concentrations and wet deposition in the contiguous US. Direct and indirect radiative forcing is calculated using the GISS general circulation model and monthly mean aerosol distributions from GEOS-Chem. The radiative forcing from US anthropogenic aerosols is strongly localized over the eastern US. We find that its magnitude peaked in 1970–1990, with values over the eastern US (east of 100° W of −2.0 W m−2 for direct forcing including contributions from sulfate (−2.0 W m−2, nitrate (−0.2 W m−2, organic carbon (−0.2 W m−2, and black carbon (+0.4 W m−2. The uncertainties in radiative forcing due to aerosol radiative properties are estimated to be about 50%. The aerosol indirect effect is estimated to be of comparable magnitude to the direct forcing. We find that the magnitude of the forcing declined sharply from 1990 to 2010 (by 0.8 W m−2 direct and 1.0 W m−2 indirect, mainly reflecting decreases in SO2 emissions, and project that it will continue declining post-2010 but at a much slower rate since US SO2 emissions have already declined by almost 60% from their peak. This suggests that much of the warming effect of reducing US anthropogenic aerosol sources has already been realized. The small positive radiative forcing from US BC emissions (+0.3 W m−2 over the eastern US in 2010; 5% of the global forcing from anthropogenic BC emissions worldwide suggests that a US emission control strategy focused on BC would have only limited climate benefit.

  13. Climatic Effects of 1950-2050 Changes in US Anthropogenic Aerosols. Part 1; Aerosol Trends and Radiative Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibensperger, E. M.; Mickley, L. J.; Jacob, D. J.; Chen, W.-T.; Seinfeld, J. H.; Nenes, A.; Adams, P. J.; Streets, D. G.; Kumar, N.; Rind, D.

    2012-01-01

    We calculate decadal aerosol direct and indirect (warm cloud) radiative forcings from US anthropogenic sources over the 1950-2050 period. Past and future aerosol distributions are constructed using GEOS-Chem and historical emission inventories and future projections from the IPCC A1B scenario. Aerosol simulations are evaluated with observed spatial distributions and 1980-2010 trends of aerosol concentrations and wet deposition in the contiguous US. Direct and indirect radiative forcing is calculated using the GISS general circulation model and monthly mean aerosol distributions from GEOS-Chem. The radiative forcing from US anthropogenic aerosols is strongly localized over the eastern US. We find that its magnitude peaked in 1970-1990, with values over the eastern US (east of 100 deg W) of -2.0Wm(exp-2 for direct forcing including contributions from sulfate (-2.0Wm-2), nitrate (-0.2Wm(exp-2), organic carbon (-0.2Wm(exp-2), and black carbon (+0.4Wm(exp-2). The uncertainties in radiative forcing due to aerosol radiative properties are estimated to be about 50 %. The aerosol indirect effect is estimated to be of comparable magnitude to the direct forcing. We find that the magnitude of the forcing declined sharply from 1990 to 2010 (by 0.8Wm(exp-2) direct and 1.0Wm(exp-2 indirect), mainly reflecting decreases in SO2 emissions, and project that it will continue declining post-2010 but at a much slower rate since US SO2 emissions have already declined by almost 60% from their peak. This suggests that much of the warming effect of reducing US anthropogenic aerosol sources has already been realized. The small positive radiative forcing from US BC emissions (+0.3Wm(exp-2 over the eastern US in 2010; 5% of the global forcing from anthropogenic BC emissions worldwide) suggests that a US emission control strategy focused on BC would have only limited climate benefit.

  14. "Many Secrets Are Told around Horses": An Ethnographic Study of Equine-Assisted Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Tiem, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation presents an ethnography of equine-assisted psychotherapy (EAP) based on nine months of fieldwork at "Equine Healers," a non-profit organization in central Colorado that specialized in various therapeutic modalities associated with EAP. In bridging scholarly work around animals, a literature suffused with the notion of…

  15. Effect of dietary starch source and concentration on equine fecal microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starch from corn is less susceptible to equine small intestinal digestion than starch from oats, and starch that reaches the hindgut can be utilized by the microbiota. The objective of the current study was to examine the effects of starch source on equine fecal microbiota. Thirty horses were assig...

  16. Practical aspects of equine parasite control: a review based upon a workshop discussion consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, M K; Fritzen, B; Duncan, J L; Guillot, J; Eysker, M; Dorchies, P; Laugier, C; Beugnet, F; Meana, A; Lussot-Kervern, I; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, G

    2010-07-01

    Development of resistance of several important equine parasites to most of the available anthelmintic drug classes has led to a reconsideration of parasite control strategies in many equine establishments. Routine prophylactic treatments based on simple calendar-based schemes are no longer reliable and veterinary equine clinicians are increasingly seeking advice and guidance on more sustainable approaches to equine parasite control. Most techniques for the detection of equine helminth parasites are based on faecal analysis and very few tests have been developed as diagnostic tests for resistance. Recently, some molecular and in vitro based diagnostic assays have been developed and have shown promise, but none of these are currently available for veterinary practice. Presently, the only reliable method for the detection of anthelmintic resistance is a simple faecal egg count reduction test, and clinicians are urged to perform such tests on a regular basis. The key to managing anthelmintic resistance is maintaining parasite refugia and this concept is discussed in relation to treatment strategies, drug rotations and pasture management. It is concluded that treatment strategies need to change and more reliance should now be placed on surveillance of parasite burdens and regular drug efficacy tests are also recommended to ensure continuing drug efficacy. The present review is based upon discussions held at an equine parasite workshop arranged by the French Equine Veterinary Association (Association Vétérinaire Equine Française, AVEF) in Reims, France, in October 2008.

  17. Equine deep stromal abscesses (51 cases - 2004-2009) - part 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Linde Henriksen, Michala; Andersen, Pia H; Thomsen, Preben D;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the equine deep stromal abscesses (DSA) with focus on the duration of the corneal disease, medical treatment, season of presentation, clinical appearance, and the degree of corneal vascularization. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Equine DSA diagnosed, biopsied, and surgically treated...

  18. Evolution of Asian aerosols during transpacific transport in INTEX-B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. J. Dunlea

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of aerosol composition were made with an Aerodyne High Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS on board the NSF/NCAR C-130 aircraft as part of the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment Phase B (INTEX-B field campaign over the Eastern Pacific Ocean. The HR-ToF-AMS measurements of non-refractory submicron aerosol mass are shown to compare well with other aerosol instrumentation in the INTEX-B field study. Two case studies are described for pollution layers transported across the Pacific from the Asian continent, intercepted 3–4 days and 7–10 days downwind of Asia, respectively. Aerosol chemistry is shown to be a robust tracer for air masses originating in Asia, specifically the presence of sulfate dominated aerosol is a distinguishing feature of Asian pollution layers that have been transported to the Eastern Pacific. We examine the time scales of processing for sulfate and organic aerosol in the atmosphere and show that our observations confirm a conceptual model for transpacific transport from Asia proposed by Brock et al. (2004. Our observations of both sulfate and organic aerosol in aged Asian pollution layers are consistent with fast formation near the Asian continent, followed by washout during lofting and subsequent transformation during transport across the Pacific. Our observations are the first atmospheric measurements to indicate that although secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation from pollution happens on the timescale of one day, the oxidation of organic aerosol continues at longer timescales in the atmosphere. Comparisons with chemical transport models of data from the entire campaign reveal an under-prediction of SOA mass in the MOZART model, but much smaller discrepancies with the GEOS-Chem model than found in previous studies over the Western Pacific. No evidence is found to support a previous hypothesis for significant secondary organic aerosol formation in the free troposphere.

  19. Three-dimensional structure of aerosol in China: A perspective from multi-satellite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jianping; Liu, Huan; Wang, Fu; Huang, Jingfeng; Xia, Feng; Lou, Mengyun; Wu, Yerong; Jiang, Jonathan H.; Xie, Tao; Zhaxi, Yangzong; Yung, Yuk L.

    2016-09-01

    Using eight years (2006-2014) of passive (MODIS/Aqua and OMI/Aura) and active (CALIOP/CALIPSO) satellite measurements of aerosols, we yield a three-dimensional (3D) distribution of the frequency of occurrence (FoO) of aerosols over China. As an indicator of the vertical heterogeneity of aerosol layers detected by CALIOP, two types of Most Probable Height (MPH), including MPH_FoO and MPH_AOD, are deduced. The FoO of "Total Aerosol" reveals significant geographical dependence. Eastern China showed much stronger aerosol FoD than northwestern China. The FoO vertical structures of aerosol layer are strongly dependent on altitudes. Among the eight typical ROIs analyzed, aerosol layers over the Gobi Desert have the largest occurrence probability located at an altitude as high as 2.83 km, as compared to 1.26 km over Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei. The diurnal variation (nighttime-daytime) in MPH_AOD varies from an altitude as low as 0.07 km over the Sichuan basin to 0.27 km over the Gobi Desert, whereas the magnitude of the diurnal variation in terms of MPH_AOD is six times as large as the MPH_FoO, mostly attributable to the day/night lidar SNR difference. Also, the 3D distribution of dust and smoke aerosols was presented. The multi-sensor synergized 3D observations of dust aerosols, frequently observed in the zonal belt of 38°N-45°N, is markedly different from that of smoke aerosols that are predominantly located in the eastern and southern parts. The 3D FoO distribution of dust indicates a west-to-east passageway of dust originating from the westernmost Taklimakan Desert all the way to North China Plain (NCP). The findings from the multi-sensor synergetic observations greatly improved our understanding on the long-range aerosol dispersion, transport and passageway over China.

  20. Evolution of Asian aerosols during transpacific transport in INTEX-B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunlea, E. J.; DeCarlo, Peter; Aiken, Allison; Kimmel, Joel; Peltier, R. E.; Weber, R. J.; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Collins, Donald R.; Shinozuka, Yohei; McNaughton, C. S.; Howell, S. G.; Clarke, A. D.; Emmons, L.; Apel, Eric; Pfister, G. G.; van Donkelaar, A.; Martin, R. V.; Millet, D. B.; Heald, C. L.; Jimenez, J. L.

    2009-10-01

    Measurements of aerosol composition were made with an Aerodyne High Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) on board the NSF/NCAR C-130 aircraft as part of the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment Phase B 5 (INTEX-B) field campaign over the Eastern Pacific Ocean. The HR-ToF-AMS measurements of non-refractory submicron aerosol mass are shown to compare well with other aerosol instrumentation in the INTEX-B field study. Two case studies are described for pollution layers transported across the Pacific from the Asian continent, intercepted 3–4 days and 7–10 days downwind of Asia, respectively. Aerosol chemistry is shown to 10 be a robust tracer for air masses originating in Asia, specifically the presence of sulfate dominated aerosol is a distinguishing feature of Asian pollution layers that have been transported to the Eastern Pacific. We examine the time scales of processing for sulfate and organic aerosol in the atmosphere and show that our observations confirm a conceptual model for transpacific transport from Asia proposed by Brock et al. (2004). 15 Our observations of both sulfate and organic aerosol in aged Asian pollution layers are consistent with fast formation near the Asian continent, followed by washout during lofting and subsequent transformation during transport across the Pacific. Our observations are the first atmospheric measurements to indicate that although secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from pollution happens on the timescale of one day, 20 the oxidation of organic aerosol continues at longer timescales in the atmosphere. Comparisons with chemical transport models of data from the entire campaign reveal an under-prediction of SOA mass in the MOZART model, but much smaller discrepancies with the GEOS-Chem model than found in previous studies over the Western Pacific. No evidence is found to support a previous hypothesis for significant secondary 25 organic aerosol formation in the free troposphere.

  1. Controlling equine influenza: policy networks and decision-making during the 2007 Australian equine influenza outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schemann, K; Gillespie, J A; Toribio, J-A L M L; Ward, M P; Dhand, N K

    2014-10-01

    Rapid, evidence-based decision-making is critical during a disease outbreak response; however, compliance by stakeholders is necessary to ensure that such decisions are effective - especially if the response depends on voluntary action. This mixed method study evaluated technical policy decision-making processes during the 2007 outbreak of equine influenza in Australia by identifying and analysing the stakeholder network involved and the factors driving policy decision-making. The study started with a review of the outbreak literature and published policy documents. This identified six policy issues regarding policy modifications or differing interpretations by different state agencies. Data on factors influencing the decision-making process for these six issues and on stakeholder interaction were collected using a pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 24 individuals representing 12 industry and government organizations. Quantitative data were analysed using social network analysis. Qualitative data were coded and patterns matched to test a pre-determined general theory using a method called theory-oriented process-tracing. Results revealed that technical policy decisions were framed by social, political, financial, strategic and operational considerations. Industry stakeholders had influence through formal pre-existing channels, yet specific gaps in stakeholder interaction were overcome by reactive alliances formed during the outbreak response but outside the established system. Overall, the crisis management system and response were seen as positive, and 75-100% of individuals interviewed were supportive of, had interest in and considered the outcome as good for the majority of policy decisions, yet only 46-75% of those interviewed considered that they had influence on these decisions. Training to increase awareness and knowledge of emergency animal diseases (EADs) and response systems will improve stakeholder

  2. DARE : Dedicated Aerosols Retrieval Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smorenburg, K.; Courrèges-Lacoste, G.B.; Decae, R.; Court, A.J.; Leeuw, G. de; Visser, H.

    2004-01-01

    At present there is an increasing interest in remote sensing of aerosols from space because of the large impact of aerosols on climate, earth observation and health. TNO has performed a study aimed at improving aerosol characterisation using a space based instrument and state-of-the-art aerosol retr

  3. MSA in Beijing aerosol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Hui; WANG Ying; ZHUANG Guoshun

    2004-01-01

    Methane sulphonate (MSA) and sulfate (SO42-), the main oxidation products of dimethyl sulfide (DMS), are the target of atmospheric chemistry study, as sulfate aerosol would have important impact on the global climate change. It is widely believed that DMS is mainly emitted from phytoplankton production in marine boundary layer (MBL), and MSA is usually used as the tracer of non-sea-salt sulfate (nss- SO42-) in marine and coastal areas (MSA/SO42- = 1/18). Many observations of MSA were in marine and coastal aerosols. To our surprise, MSA was frequently (>60%) detected in Beijing TSP, PM10, and PM2.5 aerosols, even in the samples collected during the dust storm period. The concentrations of MSA were higher than those measured in marine aerosols. Factor analysis, correlation analysis and meteorology analysis indicated that there was no obvious marine influence on Beijing aerosols. DMS from terrestrial emissions and dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) from industrial wastes could be the two possible precursors of MSA. Warm and low-pressure air masses and long time radiation were beneficial to the formation of MSA. Anthropogenic pollution from regional and local sources might be the dominant contributor to MSA in Beijing aerosol. This was the first report of MSA in aerosols collected in an inland site in China. This new finding would lead to the further study on the balance of sulfur in inland cities and its global biogeochemical cycle.

  4. Selection of a set of reliable reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR in normal equine skin and in equine sarcoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gasthuys Frank

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Real-time quantitative PCR can be a very powerful and accurate technique to examine gene transcription patterns in different biological conditions. One of the critical steps in comparing transcription profiles is accurate normalisation. In most of the studies published on real-time PCR in horses, normalisation occurred against only one reference gene, usually GAPDH or ACTB, without validation of its expression stability. This might result in unreliable conclusions, because it has been demonstrated that the expression levels of so called "housekeeping genes" may vary considerably in different tissues, cell types or disease stages, particularly in clinical samples associated with malignant disease. The goal of this study was to establish a reliable set of reference genes for studies concerning normal equine skin and equine sarcoids, which are the most common skin tumour in horses. Results In the present study the gene transcription levels of 6 commonly used reference genes (ACTB, B2M, HPRT1, UBB, TUBA1 and RPL32 were determined in normal equine skin and in equine sarcoids. After applying the geNorm applet to this set of genes, TUBA1, ACTB and UBB were found to be most stable in normal skin and B2M, ACTB and UBB in equine sarcoids. Conclusion Based on these results, TUBA1, ACTB and UBB, respectively B2M, ACTB and UBB can be proposed as reference gene panels for accurate normalisation of quantitative data for normal equine skin, respectively equine sarcoids. When normal skin and equine sarcoids are compared, the use of the geometric mean of UBB, ACTB and B2M can be recommended as a reliable and accurate normalisation factor.

  5. Modal aerosol dynamics modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitby, E.R.; McMurry, P.H.; Shankar, U.; Binkowski, F.S.

    1991-02-01

    The report presents the governing equations for representing aerosol dynamics, based on several different representations of the aerosol size distribution. Analytical and numerical solution techniques for these governing equations are also reviewed. Described in detail is a computationally efficient numerical technique for simulating aerosol behavior in systems undergoing simultaneous heat transfer, fluid flow, and mass transfer in and between the gas and condensed phases. The technique belongs to a general class of models known as modal aerosol dynamics (MAD) models. These models solve for the temporal and spatial evolution of the particle size distribution function. Computational efficiency is achieved by representing the complete aerosol population as a sum of additive overlapping populations (modes), and solving for the time rate of change of integral moments of each mode. Applications of MAD models for simulating aerosol dynamics in continuous stirred tank aerosol reactors and flow aerosol reactors are provided. For the application to flow aerosol reactors, the discussion is developed in terms of considerations for merging a MAD model with the SIMPLER routine described by Patankar (1980). Considerations for incorporating a MAD model into the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Regional Particulate Model are also described. Numerical and analytical techniques for evaluating the size-space integrals of the modal dynamics equations (MDEs) are described. For multimodal logonormal distributions, an analytical expression for the coagulation integrals of the MDEs, applicable for all size regimes, is derived, and is within 20% of accurate numerical evaluation of the same moment coagulation integrals. A computationally efficient integration technique, based on Gauss-Hermite numerical integration, is also derived.

  6. Marine submicron aerosol gradients, sources and sinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceburnis, Darius; Rinaldi, Matteo; Ovadnevaite, Jurgita; Martucci, Giovanni; Giulianelli, Lara; O'Dowd, Colin D.

    2016-10-01

    Aerosol principal sources and sinks over eastern North Atlantic waters were studied through the deployment of an aerosol chemistry gradient sampling system. The chemical gradients of primary and secondary aerosol components - specifically, sea salt (SS), water-insoluble organic matter (WIOM), water-soluble organic matter (WSOM), nitrate, ammonium, oxalate, amines, methanesulfonic acid (MSA) and water-soluble organic nitrogen (WSON) - were examined in great detail. Sea salt fluxes were estimated by the boundary layer box model and ranged from 0.3 to 3.5 ng m-2 s-1 over the wind speed range of 5-12 m s-1 and compared well with the derived fluxes from existing sea salt source parameterisations. The observed seasonal pattern of sea salt gradients was mainly driven by wind stress in addition to the yet unquantified effect of marine OM modifying fractional contributions of SS and OM in sea spray. WIOM gradients were a complex combination of rising and waning biological activity, especially in the flux footprint area, and wind-driven primary sea spray production supporting the coupling of recently developed sea spray and marine OM parameterisations.

  7. Ocean Emission Effects on Aerosol-Cloud Interactions: Insights from Two Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Sorooshian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Two case studies are discussed that evaluate the effect of ocean emissions on aerosol-cloud interactions. A review of the first case study from the eastern Pacific Ocean shows that simultaneous aircraft and space-borne observations are valuable in detecting links between ocean biota emissions and marine aerosols, but that the effect of the former on cloud microphysics is less clear owing to interference from background anthropogenic pollution and the difficulty with field experiments in obtaining a wide range of aerosol conditions to robustly quantify ocean effects on aerosol-cloud interactions. To address these limitations, a second case was investigated using remote sensing data over the less polluted Southern Ocean region. The results indicate that cloud drop size is reduced more for a fixed increase in aerosol particles during periods of higher ocean chlorophyll A. Potential biases in the results owing to statistical issues in the data analysis are discussed.

  8. Aerosols from biomass combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nussbaumer, T.

    2001-07-01

    This report is the proceedings of a seminar on biomass combustion and aerosol production organised jointly by the International Energy Agency's (IEA) Task 32 on bio energy and the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE). This collection of 16 papers discusses the production of aerosols and fine particles by the burning of biomass and their effects. Expert knowledge on the environmental impact of aerosols, formation mechanisms, measurement technologies, methods of analysis and measures to be taken to reduce such emissions is presented. The seminar, visited by 50 participants from 11 countries, shows, according to the authors, that the reduction of aerosol emissions resulting from biomass combustion will remain a challenge for the future.

  9. Ambient Aerosol in Southeast Asia: High Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometer Measurements Over Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, G.; Dimarco, C.; Misztal, P.; Nemitz, E.; Farmer, D.; Kimmel, J.; Jimenez, J.

    2008-12-01

    The emission of organic compounds in the troposphere is important factor in the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). A very large proportion of organic material emitted globally is estimated to arise from biogenic sources, with almost half coming from tropical and sub-tropical forests. Preliminary analyses of leave cuvette emission studies suggest that oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) is a significantly larger source of isoprene than tropical forest. Much larger sources of isoprene over oil palm allied with a larger anthropogenic component of local emissions contrast greatly with the remote tropical forest environment and therefore the character of SOA formed may differ significantly. These issues, allied with the high price of palm oil on international markets leading to increased use of land for oil palm production, could give rise to rapidly changing chemical and aerosol regimes in the tropics. It is therefore important to understand the current emissions and composition of organic aerosol over all important land-uses in the tropical environment. This in turn will lead to a greater understanding of the present, and to an improvement in predictive capacity for the future system. To help address these issues, a high resolution time of flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) was deployed in the Sabahmas (PPB OIL) oil palm plantation near Lahad Datu, in Eastern Sabah, as part of the field component of the Aerosol Coupling in the Earth System (ACES) project, part of the UK NERC APPRAISE program. This project was allied closely with measurements made of similar chemical species and aerosol components at a forest site in the Danum Valley as part of the UK Oxidant and Particle Photochemical Processes above a Southeast Asian tropical rainforest (OP3) project. Measurements of submicron non- refractory aerosol composition are presented along with some preliminary analysis of chemically resolved aerosol fluxes made with a new eddy covariance system, based on the

  10. Poisoning with equine phenylbutazone in a racetrack worker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, T A; Rose, S R

    1991-02-01

    Phenylbutazone is a potent nonsteroidal, anti-inflammatory drug often used by veterinarians to treat racetrack animals. Its use in human beings is limited because of significant adverse effects and the availability of newer, safer drugs. We report the case of a 24-year-old man who ingested 17 g of equine phenylbutazone over a 24-hour period to treat the pain of a toothache. He developed grand mal seizures, coma, hypotension, respiratory and renal failure, and hepatic injury. Serum phenylbutazone concentration obtained approximately eight hours after presentation was 900 micrograms/mL. The patient recovered during six weeks of intensive supportive care and repeated hemodialysis.

  11. Characterization of amyloid in equine recurrent uveitis as AA amyloid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostevik, L; de Souza, G A; Wien, T N; Gunnes, G; Sørby, R

    2014-01-01

    Two horses with chronic uveitis and histological lesions consistent with equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) were examined. Microscopical findings in the ciliary body included deposits of amyloid lining the non-pigmented epithelium, intracytoplasmic, rod-shaped, eosinophilic inclusions and intraepithelial infiltration of T lymphocytes. Ultrastructural examination of the ciliary body of one horse confirmed the presence of abundant extracellular deposits of non-branching fibrils (9-11 nm in diameter) consistent with amyloid. Immunohistochemistry revealed strong positive labelling for AA amyloid and mass spectrometry showed the amyloid to consist primarily of serum amyloid A1 in both cases. The findings suggest that localized, intraocular AA amyloidosis may occur in horses with ERU.

  12. Equine recurrent uveitis--a spontaneous horse model of uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeg, Cornelia A; Hauck, Stefanie M; Amann, Barbara; Pompetzki, Dirk; Altmann, Frank; Raith, Albert; Schmalzl, Thomas; Stangassinger, Manfred; Ueffing, Marius

    2008-01-01

    Equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) is an autoimmune disease that occurs with a high prevalence (10%) in horses. ERU represents the only reliable spontaneous model for human autoimmune uveitis. We already identified and characterized novel autoantigens (malate dehydrogenase, recoverin, CRALBP) by analyzing the autoantibody-binding pattern of horses affected by spontaneous recurrent uveitis (ERU) to the retinal proteome. CRALBP also seems to be relevant to human autoimmune uveitis. Proteomic screening of vitreous and retinal samples from ERU diseased cases in comparison to healthy controls has led to the identification of a series of differentially regulated proteins, which are functionally linked to the immune system and the maintenance of the blood-retinal barrier.

  13. Equine recurrent uveitis: the viewpoint from the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilger, B C

    2010-03-01

    Equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) is a common disease in horses in the USA. There have been many advances in the treatment of ERU; however, frequent misdiagnosis of ERU occurs in cases of primary corneal or uveal disease. It is critical to remember that primary uveitis (i.e. one bout of inflammation) is a different disease to ERU, which is an immune mediated recurrent uveitis. Standard symptomatic anti-inflammatory therapy is effective to control most cases of ERU; however, some horses require advanced therapy, such as placement of drug delivery devices or removal of the vitreous, when they fail to respond to the standard therapy.

  14. Climatic effects of 1950–2050 changes in US anthropogenic aerosols – Part 2: Climate response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Leibensperger

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the climate response to US anthropogenic aerosol sources over the 1950 to 2050 period by using the NASA GISS general circulation model (GCM and comparing to observed US temperature trends. Time-dependent aerosol distributions are generated from the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model applied to historical emission inventories and future projections. Radiative forcing from US anthropogenic aerosols peaked in 1970–1990 and has strongly declined since due to air quality regulations. We find that the regional radiative forcing from US anthropogenic aerosols elicits a strong regional climate response, cooling the central and eastern US by 0.5–1.0 °C on average during 1970–1990, with the strongest effects on maximum daytime temperatures in summer and autumn. Aerosol cooling reflects comparable contributions from direct and indirect (cloud-mediated radiative effects. Absorbing aerosol (mainly black carbon has negligible warming effect. Aerosol cooling reduces surface evaporation and thus decreases precipitation along the US east coast, but also increases the southerly flow of moisture from the Gulf of Mexico resulting in increased cloud cover and precipitation in the central US. Observations over the eastern US show a lack of warming in 1960–1980 followed by very rapid warming since, which we reproduce in the GCM and attribute to trends in US anthropogenic aerosol sources. Present US aerosol concentrations are sufficiently low that future air quality improvements are projected to cause little further warming in the US (0.1 °C over 2010–2050. We find that most of the potential warming from aerosol source controls in the US has already been realized over the 1980–2010 period.

  15. Emergency Protection from Aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristy, G.A.

    2001-11-13

    Expedient methods were developed that could be used by an average person, using only materials readily available, to protect himself and his family from injury by toxic (e.g., radioactive) aerosols. The most effective means of protection was the use of a household vacuum cleaner to maintain a small positive pressure on a closed house during passage of the aerosol cloud. Protection factors of 800 and above were achieved.

  16. RACORO aerosol data processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elisabeth Andrews

    2011-10-31

    The RACORO aerosol data (cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), condensation nuclei (CN) and aerosol size distributions) need further processing to be useful for model evaluation (e.g., GCM droplet nucleation parameterizations) and other investigations. These tasks include: (1) Identification and flagging of 'splash' contaminated Twin Otter aerosol data. (2) Calculation of actual supersaturation (SS) values in the two CCN columns flown on the Twin Otter. (3) Interpolation of CCN spectra from SGP and Twin Otter to 0.2% SS. (4) Process data for spatial variability studies. (5) Provide calculated light scattering from measured aerosol size distributions. Below we first briefly describe the measurements and then describe the results of several data processing tasks that which have been completed, paving the way for the scientific analyses for which the campaign was designed. The end result of this research will be several aerosol data sets which can be used to achieve some of the goals of the RACORO mission including the enhanced understanding of cloud-aerosol interactions and improved cloud simulations in climate models.

  17. Eastern Europe's Silicon Rush

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Colin

    2007-01-01

    This article presents how the fast expansion of information technology industry in eastern Slovakia is putting a strain on its labor supply. Suddenly, computer-science graduates have become one of the former Eastern Bloc's greatest assets, attracting multinational technology companies hungry for skilled programmers, technicians, and engineers.…

  18. The Eastern Partnership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian L.; Vilson, Maili

    2014-01-01

    When the EU launched the Eastern Partnership (EaP) in 2009, it did so with much rhetoric about projecting its soft power into Eastern Europe. Yet today, the EU's soft power project seems to have stalled, with developments in the region being less than favourable. This article argues that the Ea...

  19. Flying-fox species density--a spatial risk factor for Hendra virus infection in horses in eastern Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Smith

    Full Text Available Hendra virus causes sporadic but typically fatal infection in horses and humans in eastern Australia. Fruit-bats of the genus Pteropus (commonly known as flying-foxes are the natural host of the virus, and the putative source of infection in horses; infected horses are the source of human infection. Effective treatment is lacking in both horses and humans, and notwithstanding the recent availability of a vaccine for horses, exposure risk mitigation remains an important infection control strategy. This study sought to inform risk mitigation by identifying spatial and environmental risk factors for equine infection using multiple analytical approaches to investigate the relationship between plausible variables and reported Hendra virus infection in horses. Spatial autocorrelation (Global Moran's I showed significant clustering of equine cases at a distance of 40 km, a distance consistent with the foraging 'footprint' of a flying-fox roost, suggesting the latter as a biologically plausible basis for the clustering. Getis-Ord Gi* analysis identified multiple equine infection hot spots along the eastern Australia coast from far north Queensland to central New South Wales, with the largest extending for nearly 300 km from southern Queensland to northern New South Wales. Geographically weighted regression (GWR showed the density of P. alecto and P. conspicillatus to have the strongest positive correlation with equine case locations, suggesting these species are more likely a source of infection of Hendra virus for horses than P. poliocephalus or P. scapulatus. The density of horses, climate variables and vegetation variables were not found to be a significant risk factors, but the residuals from the GWR suggest that additional unidentified risk factors exist at the property level. Further investigations and comparisons between case and control properties are needed to identify these local risk factors.

  20. Cytokine gene signatures in neural tissue of horses with equine protozoal myeloencephalitis or equine herpes type 1 myeloencephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusterla, N; Wilson, W D; Conrad, P A; Barr, B C; Ferraro, G L; Daft, B M; Leutenegger, C M

    2006-09-09

    This study was designed to determine the relative levels of gene transcription of selected pathogens and cytokines in the brain and spinal cord of 12 horses with equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM), 11 with equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) myeloencephalopathy, and 12 healthy control horses by applying a real time pcr to the formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues. Total rna was extracted from each tissue, transcribed to complementary dna (cDNA) and assayed for Sarcocystis neurona, Neospora hughesi, EHV-1, equine GAPDH (housekeeping gene), tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interferon (IFN)-gamma, interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 AND IL-12 p40. S neurona cdna was detected in the neural tissue from all 12 horses with EPM, and two of them also had amplifiable cDNA of N hughesi. The relative levels of transcription of protozoal cdna ranged from 1 to 461 times baseline (mean 123). All the horses with ehv-1 myeloencephalopathy had positive viral signals by PCR with relative levels of transcription ranging from 1 to 1618 times baseline (mean 275). All the control horses tested negative for S neurona, N hughesi and EHV-1 cdna. The cytokine profiles of each disease indicated a balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory markers. In the horses with epm the pro-inflammatory Th1 cytokines (IL-8, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma) were commonly expressed but the anti-inflammatory Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-6 AND IL-10) were absent or rare. In the horses with ehv-1 the proinflammatory cytokine IL-8 was commonly expressed, but IL-10 and IFN-gamma were not, and TNF-alpha was rare. Tissue from the control horses expressed only the gene GAPDH.

  1. Patient's Guide to Aerosol Drug Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Table of Contents Page Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 ................................................................ 1. Aerosol Drug Delivery: The Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2. Aerosol Drugs: The Major Categories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 3. Aerosol Drug Delivery Devices: Small-Volume Nebulizers . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 4. Aerosol Drug ...

  2. Validation of MODIS aerosol retrievals and evaluation of potential cloud contamination in East Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Xiang-ao; CHEN Hong-bin; WANG Pu-cai

    2004-01-01

    MODIS aerosol retrievals onboard Terra/Aqua and ground truth data obtained from AERONET(Aerosol Robtic Network) solar direct radiance measurements are collocated to evaluate the quality of the former in East Asia. AERONET stations in East Asia are separated into two groups according to their locations and the preliminary validation results for each station. The validation results showed that the accuracy of MODIS aerosol retrievals in East Asia is a little worse than that obtained in other regions such as Eastern U.S., Western Europe, Brazil and so on. The primary reason is due to the improper aerosol model used in MODIS aerosol retrieval algorithm, so it is of significance to characterize aerosol properties properly according to long term ground-based remote sensing or other relevant in situ observations in order to improve MODIS retrievals in East Asia. Cloud contamination is proved to be one of large errors, which is demonstrated by the significant relation between MODIS aerosol retrievals versus cloud fraction, as well as notable improvement of linear relation between satellite and ground aerosol data after potential cloud contamination screened. Hence, it is suggested that more stringent clear sky condition be set in use of MODIS aerosol data. It should be pointed out that the improvement might be offset by other error sources in some cases because of complex relation between different errors. Large seasonal variation of surface reflection and uncertainties associated with it result in large intercepts and random error in MODIS aerosol retrievals in northern inland of East Asia. It remains to be a big problem to retrieve aerosols accurately in inland characterized by relatively larger surface reflection than the requirement in MODIS aerosol retrieval algorithm.

  3. A fresh look at the anatomy and physiology of equine mastication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Padraic M; du Toit, Nicole; Staszyk, Carsten

    2013-08-01

    There have been many significant and interesting developments in equine dental anatomy during the past 20 years that are of major clinical significance in better understanding the physiology of equine mastication, the etiopathogenesis of some dental disorders, and their safe treatment. The many recent significant developments include descriptions of the enamel infolding of cheek teeth and of infundibular anatomy, including the frequent absence of cementum infilling in many infundibulae, which can lead to infundibular caries. Many important developments in equine dental anatomy are summarized in this article.

  4. An important fingerprint of wildfires on the European aerosol load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Barnaba

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Wildland fires represent the major source of fine aerosols, i.e., atmospheric particles with diameters <1 μm. The largest numbers of these fires occur in Africa, Asia and South America, but a not negligible fraction also occurs in Eastern Europe and former USSR countries, particularly in the Russian Federation, Ukraine and Kazakhstan. Besides the impact of large forest fires, recent studies also highlighted the crucial role played by routine agricultural fires in Eastern Europe and Russia on the Arctic atmosphere. An evaluation of the impact of these fires over Europe is currently not available. The assessment of the relative contribution of fires to the European aerosol burden is hampered by the complex mixing of natural and anthropogenic particle types across the continent. In this study we use long term (2002–2007 satellite-based fires and aerosol data coupled to atmospheric trajectory modelling in the attempt to estimate the wildfires contribution to the European aerosol optical thickness (AOT. Based on this dataset, we provide evidence that fires-related aerosols play a major role in shaping the AOT yearly cycle at the continental scale. In general, the regions most impacted by wildfires emissions and/or transport are Eastern and Central Europe as well as Scandinavia. Conversely, a minor impact is found in Western Europe and in the Western Mediterranean. We estimate that in spring 5 to 35% of the European fine fraction AOT (FFAOT is attributable to wildland fires. The estimated impact maximizes in April (20–35% in Eastern and Central Europe as well as in Scandinavia and in the Central Mediterranean. An important contribution of wildfires to the FFAOT is also found in summer over most of the continent, particularly in August over Eastern Europe (28% and the Mediterranean regions, from Turkey (34% to the Western Mediterranean (25%. Although preliminary, our results suggest that this fires-related, continent-wide haze plays a not

  5. Venous hemogasometry of equines finalists in 90 km endurance races

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinthia B.S. Dumont

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Front of exercise, the organic systems may suffer water-electrolyte and acid-base imbalances, particularly in the case of blood gases, demonstrating variations from different causes, whether respiratory and/or metabolic. Understanding the physiological adaptations to exercise is essential in the search for the optimum performance. In this way, this study measured the venous blood gases (pO2, pCO2, as well as the oxygen saturation (SatO2 in healthy equines, Arabian horses finalists in 90km endurance races. A total of fourteen Arabian horses were evaluated, nine males and five females, between six and 12 years old, finalists in 90km endurance races. There was a significant reduction in pO2, pCO2 and SatO2 after the exercise, however, the values remained within the normality range, and did not change the athletic performance of the animals, indicating a temporary alteration, assuming thus a character of physiological response to the exercise performed. The equines, finalists in 90 Km endurance races, demonstrated efficient ventilatory process, without any alterations in the athletic performance, being adapted to the type of exercise imposed.

  6. Characterization of mesenchymal stem cells derived from equine adipose tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Carvalho

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell therapy has shown promising results in tendinitis and osteoarthritis in equine medicine. The purpose of this work was to characterize the adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AdMSCs in horses through (1 the assessment of the capacity of progenitor cells to perform adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation; and (2 flow cytometry analysis using the stemness related markers: CD44, CD90, CD105 and MHC Class II. Five mixed-breed horses, aged 2-4 years-old were used to collect adipose tissue from the base of the tail. After isolation and culture of AdMSCs, immunophenotypic characterization was performed through flow cytometry. There was a high expression of CD44, CD90 and CD105, and no expression of MHC Class II markers. The tri-lineage differentiation was confirmed by specific staining: adipogenic (Oil Red O, osteogenic (Alizarin Red, and chondrogenic (Alcian Blue. The equine AdMSCs are a promising type of adult progenitor cell for tissue engineering in veterinary medicine.

  7. [Equine exudative canker: an (auto-)immune disease?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongbloets, A M C; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M M; Meeus, P J H M; Back, W

    2005-02-15

    Equine canker is a chronic, hyperplastic, exudative pododermatitis affecting one or more feet. Although many causes and treatments have been suggested, the cause of the disease is still unknown and most probably multifactorial. Local treatments include radical surgical debridement of the diseased hoof tissue and application of caustic substances, antibiotics, and pressure bandaging. Nevertheless, the number of recurrences is high (45%). This article presents a 3-year-old New Forest pony-cross mare in which all horny structures (frogs, coronets, spurs, chestnuts) of all feet were affected. Bacteriological and fungal cultures of the frogs were found negative for the pathogens tested. Papilloma virus was not found. Clinical findings raised the hypothesis that the non-specific hyperplastic inflammation of these horn-like structures might have been caused by an (auto-)immune reaction. On the basis of the clinical findings, the pony was treated with surgical debridement of the frogs of a diagonal pair of feet and oral administration of prednisolone (1 mg/kg sid). The frogs, coronets, spurs, and chestnuts of all four feet healed completely within 8 weeks, thus making an (auto-)immune reaction more likely. In conclusion, this case report raised the hypothesis that an aspecific, hyperplastic inflammation of all four feet ('equine canker') and other horny structures may be caused by an (auto-)immune reaction, and that corticosteroids (prednisolone 1 mg/kg sid per os) are effective as treatment.

  8. Drug contamination of the equine racetrack environment: a preliminary examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, S A

    2008-10-01

    Advances in analytical technology now make it feasible to detect and confirm exceptionally low concentrations (pg to fg/mL) of drugs and their metabolites in equine biological fluids. These new capabilities complicate the regulatory interpretation of drug positives and bring into question the fair application of medication rules. Such approaches and policies are further complicated by the possibility that drug positives may arise from contamination of the equine environment on the backstretch of the race track. This manuscript provides data demonstrating that the general environment of the backstretch in which horses live is contaminated with therapeutic drugs and drugs of human origin. The major contaminants are nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as flunixin, phenylbutazone and naproxen, present in the soil in stalls, on stall surfaces, in the dust that circulates and in the lagoon waters that accumulate on the backstretch. The presence of caffeine and cotinine suggest other possible vectors for contamination by humans. Concentrations of these compounds as well as their frequency of occurrence are provided.

  9. Physical metrology of aerosols; Metrologie physique des aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulaud, D.; Vendel, J. [CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire

    1996-12-31

    The various detection and measuring methods for aerosols are presented, and their selection is related to aerosol characteristics (size range, concentration or mass range), thermo-hydraulic conditions (carrier fluid temperature, pressure and flow rate) and to the measuring system conditions (measuring frequency, data collection speed, cost...). Methods based on aerosol dynamic properties (inertial, diffusional and electrical methods) and aerosol optical properties (localized and integral methods) are described and their performances and applications are compared

  10. LIDAR Measurements of the Vertical Distribution of Aerosol Optical and Physical Properties over Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    The vertical structure of aerosol optical and physical properties was measured by Lidar in Eastern Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia, from June 2008 to May 2009. Lidar measurements were supplemented with surface-based measurements of PM2.5 and PM10 mass and chemical ...

  11. The Effect of PEI and PVP-Stabilized Gold Nanoparticles on Equine Platelets Activation: Potential Application in Equine Regenerative Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateusz Hecold

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to assess the effect of different stabilizing agents, for example, polyethylenimine (PEI and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP, on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs and their influence on equine platelet activation and release of particular growth factors. The gold nanoparticles were produced by chemical reduction of chloroauric acid. UV-Vis spectroscopy confirmed the presence of gold nanoparticles in investigated solutions. The AuNPs were incubated with whole blood at various concentrations. The morphology of platelets in PRP prepared from the blood incubated with AuNPs was characterized by scanning transmission electron microscopy, whereas the concentrations of growth factors and cytokines were evaluated by ELISA assays. The most promising results were obtained with equine platelets incubated with 5% AuNPs stabilized by PEI, which lead to secretion of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, and fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF-1 and simultaneously cause decrease in concentration of interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1α. The qRT-PCR confirmed ELISA test results. The incubation with 5% AuNPs stabilized by PEI leads to upregulation of BMP-2 and VEGF transcripts of mRNA level and to downregulating expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6. Obtained data shed a promising light on gold nanoparticle application for future regenerative medicine application.

  12. Generation of aerosolized drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, R K; Niven, R W

    1994-01-01

    The expanding use of inhalation therapy has placed demands on current aerosol generation systems that are difficult to meet with current inhalers. The desire to deliver novel drug entities such as proteins and peptides, as well as complex formulations including liposomes and microspheres, requires delivery systems of improved efficiency that will target the lung in a reproducible manner. These efforts have also been spurred by the phase out of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and this has included a directed search for alternative propellants. Consequently, a variety of new aerosol devices and methods of generating aerosols are being studied. This includes the use of freon replacement propellants, dry powder generation systems, aqueous unit spray systems and microprocessor controlled technologies. Each approach has advantages and disadvantages depending upon each principle of action and set of design variables. In addition, specific drugs may be better suited for one type of inhaler device vs. another. The extent to which aerosol generation systems achieve their goals is discussed together with a summary of selected papers presented at the recent International Congress of Aerosols in Medicine.

  13. Characterization of intense aerosol episodes in the Mediterranean basin from satellite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkikas, Antonis; Hatzianastassiou, Nikos; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos

    2014-05-01

    The properties and distribution of aerosols over the broader Mediterranean region are complex since particles of different nature are either produced within its boundaries or transported from other regions. Thus, coarse dust aerosols are transported primarily from Sahara and secondarily from Middle East, while fine polluted aerosols are either produced locally from anthropogenic activities or they are transported from neighbouring or remote European areas. Also during summer biomass aerosols are transported towards the Mediterranean, originating from massive and extended fires occurring in northern Balkans and Eastern Europe and favoured by the prevailing synoptic conditions. In addition, sea-salt aerosols originate from the Mediterranean Sea or the Atlantic Ocean. Occasionally, aerosols are encountered at very high concentrations (aerosol episodes or events) significantly affecting atmospheric dynamics and climate as well as human health. Given the coexistence of different aerosols as internal and external mixtures characterizing and discriminating between the different types of aerosol episodes is a big challenge. A characterization and classification of intense aerosol episodes in the Mediterranean basin (March 2000 - February 2007) is attempted in the present study. This is achieved by implementing an objective and dynamic algorithm which uses daily aerosol optical properties derived from satellite measurements, namely MODIS-Terra, Earth Probe (EP)-TOMS and OMI-Aura. The aerosol episodes are first classified into strong and extreme ones, according to their intensity, by means of aerosol optical depth at 550nm (AOD550nm). Subsequently, they are discriminated into the following aerosol types: (i) biomass/urban-industrial (BU), (ii) desert dust (DD), (iii) sea-salt like (SS), (iv) mixed (MX) and (v) undetermined (UN). The classification is based on aerosol optical properties accounting for the particles' size (Ångström exponent, Effective radius), the

  14. Potential sensitivity of photosynthesis and isoprene emission to direct radiative effects of atmospheric aerosol pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strada, Susanna; Unger, Nadine

    2016-04-01

    A global Earth system model is applied to quantify the impacts of direct anthropogenic aerosol effective radiative forcing on gross primary productivity (GPP) and isoprene emission. The impacts of different pollution aerosol sources (anthropogenic, biomass burning, and non-biomass burning) are investigated by performing sensitivity experiments. The model framework includes all known light and meteorological responses of photosynthesis, but uses fixed canopy structures and phenology. On a global scale, our results show that global land carbon fluxes (GPP and isoprene emission) are not sensitive to pollution aerosols, even under a global decline in surface solar radiation (direct + diffuse) by ˜ 9 %. At a regional scale, GPP and isoprene emission show a robust but opposite sensitivity to pollution aerosols in regions where forested canopies dominate. In eastern North America and Eurasia, anthropogenic pollution aerosols (mainly from non-biomass burning sources) enhance GPP by +5-8 % on an annual average. In the northwestern Amazon Basin and central Africa, biomass burning aerosols increase GPP by +2-5 % on an annual average, with a peak in the northwestern Amazon Basin during the dry-fire season (+5-8 %). The prevailing mechanism varies across regions: light scattering dominates in eastern North America, while a reduction in direct radiation dominates in Europe and China. Aerosol-induced GPP productivity increases in the Amazon and central Africa include an additional positive feedback from reduced canopy temperatures in response to increases in canopy conductance. In Eurasia and northeastern China, anthropogenic pollution aerosols drive a decrease in isoprene emission of -2 to -12 % on an annual average. Future research needs to incorporate the indirect effects of aerosols and possible feedbacks from dynamic carbon allocation and phenology.

  15. Spatial characteristics of aerosol physical properties over the northeastern parts of peninsular India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niranjan, K.; Melleswara Rao, B.; Brahmanandam, P.S.; Madhavan, B.L.; Sreekanth, V. [Dept. of Physics, Andhra Univ., Visakhapatnam (India); Krishna Moorthy, K. [Space Physics Lab., Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, Trivandrum (India)

    2005-07-01

    Measurements on aerosol spectral optical depths and near surface mass-size distributions made at several locations in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Orissa and Chattisgarh, constituting the northeastern part of the peninsular India during the ISRO-GBP land campaign-I-show significant regional variations in aerosol physical properties. Higher spectral optical depths, were observed in the coastal regions and over southern latitudes. The optical depths, size index ''{alpha}'' and the near surface aerosol mass concentrations indicate a relative abundance of nucleation mode aerosols in the northern latitudes, in contrast to the dominance of the accumulation mode aerosols at the eastern coastal and southern latitudes. The airmass pathways derived from the back trajectory analysis indicate that the higher aerosol population in the accumulation mode, and consequently the higher optical depths in the southern locations, could be due to the transport of aerosol from the polluted north Indian regions via the oceanic region over the Bay of Bengal, where significant particle growth is expected, increasing the population of accumulation mode aerosols over these regions. (orig.)

  16. Spatial characteristics of aerosol physical properties over the northeastern parts of peninsular India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Niranjan

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Measurements on aerosol spectral optical depths and near surface mass-size distributions made at several locations in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Orissa and Chattisgarh, constituting the northeastern part of the peninsular India during the ISRO-GBP land campaign-I show significant regional variations in aerosol physical properties. Higher spectral optical depths were observed in the coastal regions and over southern latitudes compared to interior continental regions and northern latitudes. The optical depths, size index "α" and the near surface aerosol mass concentrations indicate a relative abundance of nucleation mode aerosols in the northern latitudes, in contrast to the dominance of the accumulation mode aerosols at the eastern coastal and southern latitudes. The airmass pathways derived from the back trajectory analysis indicate that the higher aerosol population in the accumulation mode, and consequently the higher optical depths in the southern locations, could be due to the transport of aerosol from the polluted north Indian regions via the oceanic region over the Bay of Bengal, where significant particle growth is expected, increasing the population of accumulation mode aerosols over these regions.

  17. Equine deep stromal abscesses (51 cases - 2004-2009) - Part 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Michala de Linde; Andersen, Pia Haubro; Mietelka, Kristy

    2014-01-01

    To investigate histopathologic and immunohistochemical aspects of equine deep stromal abscesses (DSA) with a focus on the histopathologic diagnosis, presumptive etiology, and the immunohistochemical expression of three angiogenesis-related factors: vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF...

  18. Purification of the envelope glycoproteins of western equine encephalitis virus by glass wool column chromatography.

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, K.; Simizu, B

    1980-01-01

    Glass wool column chromatography was used for separation of the two glycoproteins of western equine encephalitis virus. Cross-contamination of each protein separated was confirmed to be negligible by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

  19. A surgical approach to the lateral compartment of the equine guttural pouch in the standing horse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muñoz, Juan A.; Stephen, Jennifer; Baptiste, Keith Edward;

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility, efficacy and complications following lavage and drainage of the laterial compartment (LC) of the equine guttural pounch (GP) using a modified Garm´s technique (MGT)...

  20. Quantitative analysis of the probability of introducing equine encephalosis virus (EEV) into The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Egil Andreas Joor; Martínez López, Evelyn Pamela; De Vos, Clazien J; Faverjon, Céline

    2016-09-01

    Equine encephalosis is a midge-borne viral disease of equines caused by equine encephalosis virus (EEV, Orbivirus, Reoviridae), and closely related to African horse sickness virus (AHSV). EEV and AHSV share common vectors and show similar transmission patterns. Until now EEV has caused outbreaks in Africa and Israel. This study aimed to provide insight in the probability of an EEV outbreak in The Netherlands caused by infected vectors or hosts, the contribution of potential source areas (risk regions) to this probability, and the effectiveness of preventive measures (sanitary regimes). A stochastic risk model constructed for risk assessment of AHSV introduction was adapted to EEV. Source areas were categorized in risk regions (high, low, and very low risk) based on EEV history and the presence of competent vectors. Two possible EEV introduction pathways were considered: importation of infected equines and importation of infected vectors along with their vertebrate hosts. The probability of EEV introduction (PEEV) was calculated by combining the probability of EEV release by either pathway and the probability of EEV establishment. The median current annual probability of EEV introduction by an infected equine was estimated at 0.012 (90% uncertainty interval 0.002-0.020), and by an infected vector at 4.0 10(-5) (90% uncertainty interval 5.3 10(-6)-2.0 10(-4)). Equines from high risk regions contributed most to the probability of EEV introduction with 74% on the EEV introduction by equines, whereas low and very low risk regions contributed 18% and 8%, respectively. International movements of horses participating in equestrian events contributed most to the probability of EEV introduction by equines from high risk regions (86%), but also contributed substantially for low and very low risk regions with 47% and 56%. The probability of introducing EEV into The Netherlands is much higher than the probability of introducing AHSV with equines from high risk countries

  1. Chemical aerosol Raman detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, R. L.; Farrar, L. W.; Di Cecca, S.; Amin, M.; Perkins, B. G.; Clark, M. L.; Jeys, T. H.; Sickenberger, D. W.; D'Amico, F. M.; Emmons, E. D.; Christesen, S. D.; Kreis, R. J.; Kilper, G. K.

    2017-03-01

    A sensitive chemical aerosol Raman detector (CARD) has been developed for the trace detection and identification of chemical particles in the ambient atmosphere. CARD includes an improved aerosol concentrator with a concentration factor of about 40 and a CCD camera for improved detection sensitivity. Aerosolized isovanillin, which is relatively safe, has been used to characterize the performance of the CARD. The limit of detection (SNR = 10) for isovanillin in 15 s has been determined to be 1.6 pg/cm3, which corresponds to 6.3 × 109 molecules/cm3 or 0.26 ppb. While less sensitive, CARD can also detect gases. This paper provides a more detailed description of the CARD hardware and detection algorithm than has previously been published.

  2. Gene Knockdown of Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus E2 Glycoprotein Using DNA-Directed RNA Interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    e _s~u~m mary - Introduction: Alphaviruses are a large family of RNA viruses that can cause acute infection resulting in arthritis and encephalitis...One of the important alphaviruses is the Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. This virus has been linked to a number of outbreaks in both North and... replication of VEE virus in vitro. Bhogal, H.S., McLaws, L.J., and Jager, S.J. 2006. Gene Knockdown of Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus E2

  3. Current Status of the Equine Sector in the Central Baltic Region (Finland, Latvia and Sweden)

    OpenAIRE

    Lunner Kolstrup, Christina; Pinzke, Stefan; Löfqvist, Lotta; Järvinen, Maija; Korpa, Viola; Paula, Līga; Kursitis, Andis

    2013-01-01

    This report covers basic descriptions and characteristics of the equine sector, including statistics on number of horses, horse farms, employment, current structure and recent dynamics in the horse sector in Finland, Latvia and Sweden and also the mobility (e.g. trade, import, export and tourism) within the Central Baltic Region. The information was gathered through literature reviews, round table discussions and interviews with equine organisations and stakeholders, and through visits to far...

  4. Prevalence of Brucella abortus antibodies in equines of a tropical region of Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Acosta-González, Rosa I.; González-Reyes, Ismael; Flores-Gutiérrez, Gerardo H.

    2006-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to determinate the seroprevalence rate of equine brucellosis in the state of Tamaulipas, Mexico. Serum samples from 420 equines were analyzed with the Rose Bengal test at cell concentrations of 3% (RBT-3%) and 8% (RBT-8%), and positive results were confirmed with the Rivanol test (RT). Risk factors were determined with the prevalence ratio (PR) and the use of variables generated from a questionnaire administered to the animals’ owners. Serum from 1 stalli...

  5. Serological survey for equine viral arteritis in several municipalities in the Orinoquia region of Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Agustín Góngora O; María Barrandeguy; Karl Ciuoderis A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTObjective. The goal of this study was to determine the current status of the Equine Arteritis virus (EAV) in horse populations in the Orinoquia region of Colombia. Materials and methods. A transversal study was conducted by serological survey of equine (n=100) from 11 municipalities of the Colombian Orinoquia region. Serum samples were tested by virus seroneutralization assay according to the guidelines provided by the World Organization for Animal Health. Results. After testing was c...

  6. Functional anatomy of the equine temporomandibular joint: Collagen fiber texture of the articular surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, K.; Schulz-Kornas, E; Arzi, B.; Failing, K.; Vogelsberg, J; Staszyk, C

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade, the equine masticatory apparatus has received much attention. Numerous studies have emphasized the importance of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) in the functional process of mastication. However, ultrastructural and histological data providing a basis for biomechanical and histopathological considerations are not available. The aim of the present study was to analyze the architecture of the collagen fiber apparatus in the articular surfaces of the equine TMJ to reveal ty...

  7. Equine assisted therapy for children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Jakše, Tina

    2012-01-01

    Equine assisted therapy is presented as one of possible approaches when helping individuals with special needs. This work includes explanation of basic conceptions from the fields of equine assisted therapy and autism spectrum disorders. Motives for inclusion individuals with autism spetrcum disorders to this form of therapy are presented. Study was planned based on presented findings and carried out during school year 2009/2010. The purpose of this study is to ascertain possible effects of e...

  8. Re-reading the IPCC Report: Aerosols, Droughts and ENSO Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, K. A.

    2008-12-01

    The Technical Summary of Working Group One in the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report states that "changes in aerosols may have affected precipitation and other aspects of the hydrologic cycle more strongly than other anthropogenic forcing agents" and that "Simulations also suggest that absorbing aerosols, particularly black carbon, can reduce the solar radiation reaching the surface and can warm the atmosphere at regional scales, affecting the vertical temperature profile and the large-scale atmospheric circulation". Taking these two statements at face value I first identify eight seasonal, anthropogenic, regional scale, aerosol plumes which now occur each year and then report the correlation of the aerosol optical depth (AOD) of some of these plumes with climate anomalies in the higher latitudes and with ENSO events. The eight identified aerosol plumes vary significantly in extent and AOD inter annually. They have also increased in geographic extent and AOD over recent decades as the population in the tropics, the origin of the majority of these plumes, has increased dramatically requiring increased levels of agriculture and commercial activity. I show that: the AOD of the South East Asian Plume, occurring from late July to November, correlates with four characteristics of drought in south eastern Australia; the aerosol index of the Middle East Plume correlates negatively with rainfall in Darfur; and the volume of tephra ejected by volcanoes in south east Asia correlates: negatively with rainfall and water inflows into the Murray River in south eastern Australia; and positively with ENSO events over the period 1890/91 to 2006. I conclude that aerosol plumes over south eastern Asia are the cause of drought in south eastern Australia and ENSO events and confirm the statements made in the IPCC Report with respect to these aerosol plumes. I propose a new component of surface aerosol radiative forcing, Regional Dimming, which interferes with the seasonal movement of the

  9. Stratospheric Aerosol Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pueschel, Rudolf, F.; Gore, Warren J. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Stratospheric aerosols affect the atmospheric energy balance by scattering and absorbing solar and terrestrial radiation. They also can alter stratospheric chemical cycles by catalyzing heterogeneous reactions which markedly perturb odd nitrogen, chlorine and ozone levels. Aerosol measurements by satellites began in NASA in 1975 with the Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement (SAM) program, to be followed by the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) starting in 1979. Both programs employ the solar occultation, or Earth limb extinction, techniques. Major results of these activities include the discovery of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) in both hemispheres in winter, illustrations of the impacts of major (El Chichon 1982 and Pinatubo 1991) eruptions, and detection of a negative global trend in lower stratospheric/upper tropospheric aerosol extinction. This latter result can be considered a triumph of successful worldwide sulfur emission controls. The SAGE record will be continued and improved by SAGE III, currently scheduled for multiple launches beginning in 2000 as part of the Earth Observing System (EOS). The satellite program has been supplemented by in situ measurements aboard the ER-2 (20 km ceiling) since 1974, and from the DC-8 (13 km ceiling) aircraft beginning in 1989. Collection by wire impactors and subsequent electron microscopic and X-ray energy-dispersive analyses, and optical particle spectrometry have been the principle techniques. Major findings are: (1) The stratospheric background aerosol consists of dilute sulfuric acid droplets of around 0.1 micrometer modal diameter at concentration of tens to hundreds of monograms per cubic meter; (2) Soot from aircraft amounts to a fraction of one percent of the background total aerosol; (3) Volcanic eruptions perturb the sulfuric acid, but not the soot, aerosol abundance by several orders of magnitude; (4) PSCs contain nitric acid at temperatures below 195K, supporting chemical hypotheses

  10. The ultrastructure of camel blood platelets: a comparative study with human, bovine, and equine cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gader, Abdel Galil M Abdel; Ghumlas, Abeer K Al; Hussain, Mansour F; Haidari, Ahmed Al; White, James G

    2008-02-01

    Previous studies indicated that the camel has a very active haemostatic mechanism with a short bleeding time and thrombocytosis. However, platelet function, when tested by agonist-induced aggregation and PFA 100 closure time, showed marked inhibition compared to humans. Since camels are also far more resistant to long exposure to excessive heat and high body temperature than humans, it seemed worthwhile to explore fundamental morphological differences between human and camel platelets and those from other species. The present study has examined the ultrastructure of camel platelets and compared them with the fine structures of human, bovine and equine thrombocytes. Camel platelets, like bovine and equine cells, are discoid in shape and about two-thirds the size of human platelets. A circumferential coil of microtubular supports the disk-like form of camel platelets. Their cytoplasm, like bovine and equine platelets, is filled with alpha granule twice as large as those in human platelets, but lacking the organized matrix of equine alpha granules. Dense bodies are present in camel platelets with whip-like extensions not present on bovine or equine thrombocytes, but found on occasional human platelet dense bodies. Camel platelets, like bovine and equine thrombocytes, lack an open canalicular system (OCS) and must secrete granule products by fusion with the cell wall rather than an OCS. Future studies will determine if the differences in ultrastructural anatomy protect camel platelets from heat more than human thrombocytes.

  11. Development of an antigen-capture ELISA for the detection of equine influenza virus nucleoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yuanyuan; Guo, Wei; Zhao, Liping; Li, Hongmei; Lu, Gang; Wang, Zheng; Wang, Guibin; Liu, Cuiyun; Xiang, Wenhua

    2011-07-01

    An antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (AC-ELISA) was developed for the detection of the equine influenza virus (EIV), employing monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies against the A/equine/Xingjiang/2007 (H3N8) nucleoprotein (NP). Immunoglobulin G antibodies were purified and used as capture or detector antibodies. The specificity of the optimized AC-ELISA was evaluated using EIV, equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1), equine herpesvirus 4 (EHV-4), equine arteritis virus (EAV) and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), resulting in only EIV specimens yielding a strong signal. A minimal concentration of 50 ng/ml EIV protein was detected in Nonidet P40-treated virus preparations. Virus from the nasal swabs of equines infected experimentally were detected from days 3 to 7 post-infection using this AC-ELISA, with results confirmed by virus isolation and multi reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Both H3N8 and H7N7 EIV subtypes were AC-ELISA positive, indicating that this assay is suitable for the detection of all EIV subtypes.

  12. Descriptive epidemiology of equine influenza in India (2008-2009: temporal and spatial trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partap S. Narwal

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Equine influenza is a contagious viral disease that affects all members of the family Equidae, i.e. horses, donkeys and mules. The authors describe the pattern of equine influenza outbreaks in a number of states of India from July 2008 to June 2009. The disease was first reported in June 2008 in Katra (Jammu and Kashmir and spread to ten other states within a year. All outbreaks of equine influenza in the various states were confirmed by laboratory investigations (virus isolation and/or serological confirmation based on haemagglutination inhibition [HI] assays of paired samples before declaring them as equine influenza virus-affected state(s. The virus (H3N8 was reported from various locations in the country including Katra, Mysore (Karnataka, Ahmedabad (Gujarat, Gopeshwar and Uttarkashi (Uttarakhand and was isolated in 9- to 11-day-old embryonated chicken eggs. The virus was confirmed as H3N8 by HI assays with standard serum and amplification of full-length haemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Serum samples (n = 4 740 of equines from 13 states in India screened by HI revealed 1 074 (22.65% samples as being positive for antibodies to equine influenza virus (H3N8.

  13. Evaluation of the presence of equine viral herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) and equine viral herpesvirus 4 (EHV-4) DNA in stallion semen using polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebia-Fellah, Imen; Léauté, Anne; Fiéni, Francis; Zientara, Stéphan; Imbert-Marcille, Berthe-Marie; Besse, Bernard; Fortier, Guillaume; Pronost, Stephane; Miszczak, Fabien; Ferry, Bénédicte; Thorin, Chantal; Pellerin, Jean-Louis; Bruyas, Jean-François

    2009-06-01

    In the horse, the risk of excretion of two major equine pathogens (equine herpesvirus types 1 (EHV-1) and 4 (EHV-4)) in semen is unknown. The objective of our study was to assess the possible risks for the horizontal transmission of equine rhinopneumonitis herpesviruses via the semen and the effect of the viruses on stallion fertility. Samples of stallion semen (n=390) were gathered from several different sources. Examination of the semen involved the detection of viral DNA using specific PCR. The mean fertility of the stallions whose sperm tested positive for viral DNA and the mean fertility of stallions whose sperm did not contain viral DNA, were compared using the Student's t-test. EHV-4 viral DNA was not detected in any of the semen samples. EHV-1 DNA was identified in 51 of the 390 samples, (13%). One hundred and eighty-two samples came from 6 studs and there was significant difference (pherpes viruses in other species.

  14. Recent advances in diagnosing pathogenic equine gastrointestinal helminths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ulla Vestergaard; Howe, D. K.; Olsen, Susanne Nautrup;

    2013-01-01

    the needs for reliable and practical diagnostic tools for detection of major parasites infecting equines. The current, widely used coprological techniques are important and useful, but they do have considerable limitations as they are incapable of diagnosing the pathogenic migrating stages. Species...... for diagnosing A. perfoliata infection, but interpretation is complicated by the fact that horses not harbouring tapeworms can maintain elevated antibody titres. Recent work with a coproantigen ELISA has shown promise for reliable detection of current A. perfoliata infection. Perhaps most remarkable is the fact...... that the pathogenic larval stages of cyathostomins and large strongyles cannot be detected by any of the available diagnostics. With the lengthy prepatency periods characterizing these parasites, there is a huge need for developing such assays. The recent identification of a possible diagnostic marker for encysted...

  15. An outbreak of equine influenza at a harness horse racetrack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemen, M J; Frank, R A; Babish, J B

    1985-04-01

    An outbreak of an influenza-like illness affected approximately 1/3 of the 1050 race horses stabled at a standardbred racetrack and resulted in a 3-day suspension of racing. A/Equi-2 influenza virus was isolated from 1 affected horse and 8 of 10 horses sampled seroconverted. Threshold protective levels of HI antibody against A/Equi-2 influenza virus were not demonstrated in unaffected horses. Resistance in unaffected horses was assumed to result from other factors following previous exposure. Few of the horses had been vaccinated against equine influenza. It was felt that an outbreak of this magnitude might have been prevented if a vaccination program had been followed.

  16. Four cases of equine motor neuron disease in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    SASAKI, Naoki; IMAMURA, Yui; SEKIYA, Akio; ITOH, Megumi; FURUOKA, Hidefumi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In this study, fasciculation of the limbs and tongue was observed in four horses kept by a riding club. Neurogenic muscle atrophy was also observed in biopsy of pathological tissues. In addition, in two cases that subjected to autopsy, Bunina-like bodies of inclusion in the cell bodies of neurons in the spinal cord ventral horn were confirmed, leading to a diagnosis of equine motor neuron disease (EMND). Serum vitamin E concentrations varied between 0.3 and 0.4µg/ml, which is significantly lower than the levels in normal horses. Although lack of vitamin E is speculated to be a contributory factor for development of EMND, no significant improvement was observed following administration of vitamin E.

  17. Auditive Discrimination of Equine Gaits by Parade Horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duilio Cruz-Becerra

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine parade horses’ auditory discriminationamong four types of equine gaits: paso-fino (“fine step”, trote-reunido(“two-beat trot”, trocha (“trot”, and galope-reunido (“gallop”. Two experimentallynaïve horses were trained to discriminate the sound of their owngait (paso-fino or fine step, through an experimental module that dispensedfood if the subject pressed a lever after hearing a sound reproduction of aparticular gait. Three experimental phases were developed, defined by theperiod of exposure to the sounds (20, 10, and 5 seconds, respectively. Thechoice between pairs of sounds including the horse’s own gait (fine stepand two-beat trot; fine step and gallop; and fine step and trot was reinforceddifferentially. The results indicate that the fine step horses are able todiscriminate their own gait from others, and that receptivity to their ownsounds could be included in their training regime.

  18. Expression of serum amyloid a in equine wounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette Aamand; Jacobsen, Stine; Berg, Lise Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    higher (P healing with EGT formation than in body and limb wounds with normal healing. In body wounds and limb wounds with normal healing SAA expression was very low, in EGT SAA expression levels varied from low to very high. CONCLUSIONS SAA is a major equine acute phase protein......, which is produced in the liver and several extrahepatic tissues during inflammatory conditions. This study shows that cells in EGT derived from horses produce SAA. This may be related to the length of the inflammatory phase of the wound healing, which is short (approximately 3 days) in wounds......OBJECTIVES Aberrant wound healing with formation of exuberant granulation tissue (EGT) occurs frequently in horses and may affect their athletic career and quality of life. The objective of the study was to determine mRNA expression levels of serum amyloid A (SAA) in normal and aberrant wound...

  19. Duration of immunity induced by an adjuvanted and inactivated equine influenza, tetanus and equine herpesvirus 1 and 4 combination vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldens, J G; Kersten, A J; Weststrate, M W; van den Hoven, R

    2001-11-01

    An adjuvanted vaccine containing inactivated equine influenza, herpesvirus antigens, and tetanus toxoid was administered to young seronegative foals of 8 months of age by deep intramuscular injection in the neck (Group A). The first two vaccinations were given 4 weeks apart. The third was administered 6 months later. Another group of foals (Group B) was vaccinated according to the same scheme at the same time with monovalent equine herpes virus (EHV) vaccine (EHV1.4) vaccine. Antibody responses to the equine influenza (single radial haemolysis; SRH) and tetanus (ToBi ELISA) components of the vaccines were examined from first vaccination until 1 year after the third vaccination. The influenza components of the combination vaccine induced high antibody titres at two weeks after the second vaccination whereafter titres declined until the time of the third vaccination. After the third vaccination, the titres rose rapidly again to remain high for at least 1 year. Antibody titres against tetanus peaked only after the third vaccination but remained high enough to offer protective immunity for at least 1 year. Foals vaccinated with monovalent EHV1.4 remained seronegative for influenza and tetanus throughout the study. Four and a half months after the third vaccination of groups A and B, a third group of animals was vaccinated twice with monovalent EHV1.4 vaccine 4 weeks apart (Group C). Two weeks after the administration of the second dose in the later group, all groups (A, B, C and an unvaccinated control group D) were challenged with EHV-4. Vaccinated foals (Group A, B, C) showed a clear reduction of clinical symptoms and virus excretion after EHV-4 challenge compared with the unvaccinated control foals. No difference could be demonstrated among the vaccinated groups, suggesting that the combination vaccine protects as well as the monovalent vaccine. In EHV1.4-vaccinated foals both antigenic fractions induced clear protection up to 6 months after vaccination (9). It can

  20. Immune response against equine gammaherpesvirus in Icelandic horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svansson, Vilhjálmur; Roelse, Mieke; Olafsdóttir, Gudbjörg; Thorsteinsdóttir, Lilja; Torfason, Einar G; Torsteinsdóttir, Sigurbjörg

    2009-06-12

    Horses are hosts to two types of gammaherpesviruses, equine herpes virus (EHV) 2 and 5. While EHV-2 is ubiquitous in adult horses, EHV-5 has been less frequently described. Due to strong serological cross-reactivity, EHV-2 and -5 cannot be discriminated in broad spectrum antibody tests and are thus commonly referred to as gamma-EHV. Total IgG and IgG subclass response against gamma-EHV were determined in serum from 41 healthy Icelandic horses, thereof 20 adults, 10 foals aged 10 months, and 11 foals aged 1-4 months. Additionally, in 10 of the adult horses, interferon (IFN)-gamma and interleukin (IL)-4 expression were measured by real-time PCR in white blood cells upon in vitro stimulation with EHV-2. With the exception of one orphan foal, all tested individuals were seropositive for gamma-EHV. All but one adult had high titer of EHV-specific IgG4/7 (IgGb) in combination with much lower titer of IgG1 (IgGa) and IgG3/5 (IgG(T)), indicating a stabilized response. IgG titer and subclasses in the foals showed considerably more variation, possibly dependant on maternal antibodies and/or recent infection. In all the 10 horses tested for cytokine expression, IFN-gamma production exceeds production of IL-4. These results indicate that equine gammaherpesvirus infection is characterized by an induction of IgG1, IgG4/7 and IgG3/5 with prevailing IgG4/7 and cytokine profile dominated by IFN-gamma. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the cytokine and IgG subclass response against gamma-EHV in horses.

  1. RNA sequencing of the exercise transcriptome in equine athletes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Capomaccio

    Full Text Available The horse is an optimal model organism for studying the genomic response to exercise-induced stress, due to its natural aptitude for athletic performance and the relative homogeneity of its genetic and environmental backgrounds. Here, we applied RNA-sequencing analysis through the use of SOLiD technology in an experimental framework centered on exercise-induced stress during endurance races in equine athletes. We monitored the transcriptional landscape by comparing gene expression levels between animals at rest and after competition. Overall, we observed a shift from coding to non-coding regions, suggesting that the stress response involves the differential expression of not annotated regions. Notably, we observed significant post-race increases of reads that correspond to repeats, especially the intergenic and intronic L1 and L2 transposable elements. We also observed increased expression of the antisense strands compared to the sense strands in intronic and regulatory regions (1 kb up- and downstream of the genes, suggesting that antisense transcription could be one of the main mechanisms for transposon regulation in the horse under stress conditions. We identified a large number of transcripts corresponding to intergenic and intronic regions putatively associated with new transcriptional elements. Gene expression and pathway analysis allowed us to identify several biological processes and molecular functions that may be involved with exercise-induced stress. Ontology clustering reflected mechanisms that are already known to be stress activated (e.g., chemokine-type cytokines, Toll-like receptors, and kinases, as well as "nucleic acid binding" and "signal transduction activity" functions. There was also a general and transient decrease in the global rates of protein synthesis, which would be expected after strenuous global stress. In sum, our network analysis points toward the involvement of specific gene clusters in equine exercise

  2. RNA sequencing of the exercise transcriptome in equine athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capomaccio, Stefano; Vitulo, Nicola; Verini-Supplizi, Andrea; Barcaccia, Gianni; Albiero, Alessandro; D'Angelo, Michela; Campagna, Davide; Valle, Giorgio; Felicetti, Michela; Silvestrelli, Maurizio; Cappelli, Katia

    2013-01-01

    The horse is an optimal model organism for studying the genomic response to exercise-induced stress, due to its natural aptitude for athletic performance and the relative homogeneity of its genetic and environmental backgrounds. Here, we applied RNA-sequencing analysis through the use of SOLiD technology in an experimental framework centered on exercise-induced stress during endurance races in equine athletes. We monitored the transcriptional landscape by comparing gene expression levels between animals at rest and after competition. Overall, we observed a shift from coding to non-coding regions, suggesting that the stress response involves the differential expression of not annotated regions. Notably, we observed significant post-race increases of reads that correspond to repeats, especially the intergenic and intronic L1 and L2 transposable elements. We also observed increased expression of the antisense strands compared to the sense strands in intronic and regulatory regions (1 kb up- and downstream) of the genes, suggesting that antisense transcription could be one of the main mechanisms for transposon regulation in the horse under stress conditions. We identified a large number of transcripts corresponding to intergenic and intronic regions putatively associated with new transcriptional elements. Gene expression and pathway analysis allowed us to identify several biological processes and molecular functions that may be involved with exercise-induced stress. Ontology clustering reflected mechanisms that are already known to be stress activated (e.g., chemokine-type cytokines, Toll-like receptors, and kinases), as well as "nucleic acid binding" and "signal transduction activity" functions. There was also a general and transient decrease in the global rates of protein synthesis, which would be expected after strenuous global stress. In sum, our network analysis points toward the involvement of specific gene clusters in equine exercise-induced stress, including

  3. Phylogenetic characterisation of the G(L) sequences of equine arteritis virus isolated from semen of asymptomatic stallions and fatal cases of equine viral arteritis in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Erik; Storgaard, Torben; Holm, Elisabeth

    2001-01-01

    The study describes for the first time the phylogenetic relationship between equine arteritis virus (EAV) isolated from asymptomatic virus-shedding stallions and fatal cases of equine viral arteritis (EVA) in an European country. EAV was isolated from three dead foals and an aborted foetus during...... three different outbreaks of EVA. From these fatalities, the complete open reading frame 5, encoding the EAV GL protein, was amplified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and subjected to nucleotide sequence analysis. Furthermore, DNA sequences were obtained from virus isolated from semen...

  4. Cryopreservation of Equine Embryos and First Report of a Native Colombian Breed Born by Transfer of an Equine Vitrified Embryo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadya Nathalie Martínez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to report on the success of a cryopreservation procedure of equine embryos to achieve a viable pregnancy. Equine embryos were collected on day 6-6.5 (<300 μm, n = 24 and subjected to two cryopreservation techniques: group 1 (n = 12, vitrified, exposing them to a VS1 (Gli [1.4 M] 5 min, VS2 (Gli [1.4 M] + EG [3.6 M] and VS3 (Gli [3.4M] + EG [4.6 M] 1 min solution. They were packed in 0.25 ml straws and immersed in liquid nitrogen; group 2 (n = 12, slow freezing: exposed to a freezing solution (1.8 M EG + 0.1 M sucrose for 10 minutes, packed into 0.25 ml straws, brought to the embryos freezer, exposed to a freezing curve and immersed in liquid nitrogen. Following defrosting, cryoprotectants were removed from the 24 embryos in one step; they were submerged in culture medium DMEM/F12 + 10% of fetal bovine serum (FBS and incubated under controlled atmosphere (5% CO2, 5% N2, 90% O2 for 48 h. Embryonic development was evaluated in 75% of the vitrified embryos (n = 4; 20% of the embryos were subjected to slow freezing (n = 1. No significant difference was observed in the groups regarding embryonic development, but a greater survival tendency on the vitrified embryos was noted. Also, one of these vitrified embryos was transferred to a receiver, achieving a viable pregnancy and the birth of a living foal.

  5. Technical Report Series on Global Modeling and Data Assimilation. Volume 32; Estimates of AOD Trends (2002 - 2012) Over the World's Major Cities Based on the MERRA Aerosol Reanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provencal, Simon; Kishcha, Pavel; Elhacham, Emily; daSilva, Arlindo M.; Alpert, Pinhas; Suarez, Max J.

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Global Modeling and Assimilation Office has extended the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Application (MERRA) tool with five atmospheric aerosol species (sulfates, organic carbon, black carbon, mineral dust and sea salt). This inclusion of aerosol reanalysis data is now known as MERRAero. This study analyses a ten-year period (July 2002 - June 2012) MERRAero aerosol reanalysis applied to the study of aerosol optical depth (AOD) and its trends for the aforementioned aerosol species over the world's major cities (with a population of over 2 million inhabitants). We found that a proportion of various aerosol species in total AOD exhibited a geographical dependence. Cities in industrialized regions (North America, Europe, central and eastern Asia) are characterized by a strong proportion of sulfate aerosols. Organic carbon aerosols are dominant over cities which are located in regions where biomass burning frequently occurs (South America and southern Africa). Mineral dust dominates other aerosol species in cities located in proximity to the major deserts (northern Africa and western Asia). Sea salt aerosols are prominent in coastal cities but are dominant aerosol species in very few of them. AOD trends are declining over cities in North America, Europe and Japan, as a result of effective air quality regulation. By contrast, the economic boom in China and India has led to increasing AOD trends over most cities in these two highly-populated countries. Increasing AOD trends over cities in the Middle East are caused by increasing desert dust.

  6. Characterisation of equine satellite cell transcriptomic profile response to β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szcześniak, Katarzyna A; Ciecierska, Anna; Ostaszewski, Piotr; Sadkowski, Tomasz

    2016-10-01

    β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) is a popular ergogenic aid used by human athletes and as a supplement to sport horses, because of its ability to aid muscle recovery, improve performance and body composition. Recent findings suggest that HMB may stimulate satellite cells and affect expressions of genes regulating skeletal muscle cell growth. Despite the scientific data showing benefits of HMB supplementation in horses, no previous study has explained the mechanism of action of HMB in this species. The aim of this study was to reveal the molecular background of HMB action on equine skeletal muscle by investigating the transcriptomic profile changes induced by HMB in equine satellite cells in vitro. Upon isolation from the semitendinosus muscle, equine satellite cells were cultured until the 2nd day of differentiation. Differentiating cells were incubated with HMB for 24 h. Total cellular RNA was isolated, amplified, labelled and hybridised to microarray slides. Microarray data validation was performed with real-time quantitative PCR. HMB induced differential expressions of 361 genes. Functional analysis revealed that the main biological processes influenced by HMB in equine satellite cells were related to muscle organ development, protein metabolism, energy homoeostasis and lipid metabolism. In conclusion, this study demonstrated for the first time that HMB has the potential to influence equine satellite cells by controlling global gene expression. Genes and biological processes targeted by HMB in equine satellite cells may support HMB utility in improving growth and regeneration of equine skeletal muscle; however, the overall role of HMB in horses remains equivocal and requires further proteomic, biochemical and pharmacokinetic studies.

  7. Eastern Pacific Ocean Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    The promotion of interaction among investigators of all oceanographic disciplines studying the eastern Pacific Ocean was the goal of the 1990 Eastern Pacific Ocean Conference (EPOC), held October 17-19 on the snow-covered slopes of Mt. Hood, Oreg. Thirty oceanographers representing all disciplines attended.Dick Barber, Duke University Marine Lab, Beaufort, N.C., chaired a session on the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean, emphasizing issues related to biological activity. Steve Ramp of the Naval Postgraduate School in Montery, Calif., chaired a session on recent results from northern and central California experiments. On October 19, following an early morning earthquake, a business meeting and discussions regarding a collaboration in future experiments were held.

  8. The effects of mineral dust particles, aerosol regeneration and ice nucleation parameterizations on clouds and precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Teller

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the effects of aerosol particles on the formation of convective clouds and precipitation in the Eastern Mediterranean sea with a special emphasis on the role of mineral dust particles in these processes. We used a new detailed numerical cloud microphysics scheme that has been implemented in the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF model in order to study aerosol-cloud interaction in 3-D configuration based on realistic meteorological data. Using a number of case studies we tested the contribution of mineral dust particles and different ice nucleation parameterizations to precipitation development. In this study we also investigated the importance of recycled (regenerated aerosols that had been released to the atmosphere following the evaporation of cloud droplets.

    The results showed that increased aerosol concentration due to the presence of mineral dust enhanced the formation of ice crystals. The dynamic evolution of the cloud system sets the time periods and regions in which heavy or light precipitation occurred in the domain. The precipitation rate, the time and duration of precipitation were affected by the aerosol properties only at small area scales (with areas of about 20 km2. Changes of the ice nucleation scheme from ice supersaturation dependent parameterization to a recent approach of aerosol concentration and temperature dependent parameterization modified the ice crystals concentrations but did not affect the total precipitation in the domain. Aerosol regeneration modified the concentration of cloud droplets at cloud base by dynamic recirculation of the aerosols but also had only a minor effect on precipitation.

    The major conclusion from this study is that the effect of mineral dust particles on clouds and total precipitation is limited by the properties of the atmospheric dynamics and the only effect of aerosol on precipitation may come from significant increase in the concentration

  9. Potential Impact of South Asian Anthropogenic Aerosols on Northern Hemisphere Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollasina, M. A.; Ming, Y.; Ramaswamy, V.

    2014-12-01

    South Asia has one of the world's highest aerosol loading due to the dramatic increase of anthropogenic emissions from the 1950s associated with rapid urbanization and population growth. The possible large-scale impact of the late 20th century increase of South Asian aerosol emissions on climate away from the source regions was studied by means of historical ensemble experiments with a state-of-the-art coupled climate model with fully interactive aerosols and a representation of both direct and indirect aerosol effects. The key characteristics of the northern hemisphere responses are examined separately for winter and summer, and show that regional aerosols induce significant planetary-scale teleconnection patterns. In both seasons, the large-scale aerosol imprint originates from substantial changes in the regional precipitation distribution. During the winter, in response to anomalous surface cooling in the northern Indian Ocean, aerosols cause a westward shift of convection over the eastern Indian Ocean and compensating subsidence to the west and over the Maritime continent. During the summer, aerosols are collocated with rainfall, and cause a widespread drying over South Asia mostly by indirect effects. In both cases, the impact of the regional diabatic heating anomaly propagates remotely by exciting a northern hemisphere wave-train which, enhanced by regional feedbacks, leads to remarkable changes in near-surface climate, including circulation and temperature, over Eurasia, the northern Pacific and North America. Depending on the region, the induced anomalies may have opposite signs between the two seasons, and may thus contribute to reinforcing or dampening those due greenhouse gases. These results underscore the potential influence of Asian aerosols on global climate, which is a compelling problem as regional aerosol loading will continue to be large in the coming decades.

  10. Extremely large anthropogenic-aerosol contribution to total aerosol load over the Bay of Bengal during winter season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Kaskaoutis

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Ship-borne observations of spectral aerosol optical depth (AOD have been carried out over the entire Bay of Bengal (BoB as part of the W-ICARB cruise campaign during the period 27 December 2008–30 January 2009. The results reveal a pronounced temporal and spatial variability in the optical characteristics of aerosols mainly due to anthropogenic emissions and their dispersion controlled by local meteorology. The highest aerosol amount, with mean AOD500>0.4, being even above 1.0 on specific days, is found close to the coastal regions in the western and northern parts of BoB. In these regions the Ångström exponent is also found to be high (~1.2–1.25 indicating transport of strong anthropogenic emissions from continental regions, while very high AOD500 (0.39±0.07 and α380–870 values (1.27±0.09 are found over the eastern BoB. Except from the large α380–870 values, an indication of strong fine-mode dominance is also observed from the AOD curvature, which is negative in the vast majority of the cases, suggesting dominance of an anthropogenic-pollution aerosol type. On the other hand, clean maritime conditions are rather rare over the region, while the aerosol types are further examined through a classification scheme based on the relationship between α and dα. It was found that even for the same α values the fine-mode dominance is larger for higher AODs showing the strong continental influence over the marine environment of BoB. Furthermore, there is also an evidence of aerosol-size growth under more turbid conditions indicative of coagulation and/or humidification over specific BoB regions. The results obtained using OPAC model show significant fraction of soot aerosols (~6 %–8 % over the eastern and northwestern BoB, while coarse-mode sea salt particles are found to dominate in the southern parts of BoB.

  11. Influence of Delhi Pollution on Aerosol Properties Over Greater Noida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, M.; Singh, R. P.; Kumar, R.

    2015-12-01

    Influence of Delhi Pollution on Aerosol Properties over Greater NoidaManish Sharma1, Ramesh P. Singh2 and Rajesh Kumar3 1Research and Technology Development Centre, Sharda University, Greater Noida, India. 2School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Schmid College of Science, Chapman University, Orange 92866, USA 3School of Basic Sciences and Research, Sharda University, Greater Noida, India. Delhi capital of India is highly polluted during winter and summer seasons. Due to dominant westerly winds the air mass influence its neighboring city Greater Noida which is located 60 km south east of Delhi. Detailed analysis of multi satellite data and ground observations have been carried out during 2001-2015. The ground observation and satellite data show dynamic aerosol optical parameters over Greater Noida. During winter and summer seasons, dominant westerly wind outflow pollutants of Delhi that mix with the local anthropogenic emissions of Greater Noida influencing aerosol properties at different pressure levels. The characteristics of trace gases and aerosol parameters over Delhi and Greater Noida will be presented. The air quality is severely affected from the outflow of pollutants from Delhi which is threat to people living in the area. Due to dominant winds the air mass further transported towards eastern parts of Indo-Gangetic plains affecting weather conditions of the major cities.

  12. Lidar Aerosol Profiles Measured From Halifax During Summer 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, L.; Duck, T. J.; Doyle, J.; Harris, R.; Beauchamp, S.

    2007-12-01

    Measurements of aerosol profiles in the troposphere and lower stratosphere were obtained with a high-power Raman Lidar from Halifax, Nova Scotia (44.63N, 63.58W) on the East Coast of Canada during Summer 2007. Observations throughout the troposphere at high temporal resolution were made possible by using a new dual-receiver setup. The lidar was operated in clear-sky conditions, and several long duration (> 80 hours) data sets were obtained. The measurements reveal the presence of boundary-layer aerosols during episodes of pollution transport from the Eastern US and Canada, and are compared with surface measurements of ozone and other species. Boundary layer development, entrainment and mixing are evident in the data. Structured plumes at higher altitudes are traced back to biomass burning events throughout North America. Aerosols were also observed on two occasions at 15 km in altitude, and are most likely due to pyroconvection. The measurements are being used to help understand transport and mixing processes, and to form a climatology of aerosol export from North America during the summer months.

  13. Modelling the background aerosol climatologies (1989-2010) for the Mediterranean basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Guerrero, Pedro; Jerez, Sonia

    2014-05-01

    Aerosol levels and composition are influenced by multiple atmospheric physico-chemical processes that can affect them from its release point (as primary aerosol), or via gas-to-particle conversion processes that give rise to secondary aerosols. The contribution of the various aerosol sources, the role of long-range transport and the contribution of primary and secondary particulate matter to the ambient aerosol concentrations over Europe are not well known (Kulmala et al., 2009). Focusing on the Mediterranean, Querol et al. (2009) point out that there is a lack of studies on the variability of particulate matter (PM) along the Mediterranean basin, necessary for understanding the special features that differentiate aerosol processes between the western, eastern and central Mediterranean basins. In this perspective, modelling systems based on state-of-science chemistry transport models (CTMs) are fundamental elements to investigate the transport and chemistry of pollutants behaviour at different scales and to assess the impact of emissions in aerosol levels and composition. Therefore, this study aims to summarise the results on the levels and chemical composition of aerosols along the Mediterranean basin, highlighting the marked gradient between the western-central-eastern coasts. Special attention is paid to the analysis of the seasonality of PM composition and levels. For this purpose, the regional modelling system WRF-CHIMERE-EMEP has been implemented for conducting a full transient simulation for the ERA-Interim period (1989-2010) using year-to-year changing EMEP emissions. The domain of study covers Europe with a horizontal resolution of 25 km and a vertical resolution of 23 layers in the troposphere; however the analysis focuses on the Mediterranean area. The PM levels and composition are compared to the measured values reported by the EMEP network, showing a good agreement with observations for both western and eastern Mediterranean. The modelling results for

  14. Sea Spray Aerosols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butcher, Andrew Charles

    a relationship between plunging jet particle ux, oceanic particle ux, and energy dissipation rate in both systems. Previous sea spray aerosol studies dissipate an order of magnitude more energy for the same particle ux production as the open ocean. A scaling factor related to the energy expended in air...... emissions produced directly from bubble bursting as the result of air entrainment from breaking waves and particles generated from secondary emissions of volatile organic compounds. In the first paper, we study the chemical properties of particles produced from several sea water proxies with the use...... jet in high concentrations of surface active organics and brackish water salinities. The jet produces particles with less cloud condensation activity, implying an increase in organic material in aerosol particles produced by the plunging jet over the frit. In the second paper we determine...

  15. Quantifying the effect of organic aerosol aging and intermediate-volatility emissions on regional-scale aerosol pollution in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bin; Wang, Shuxiao; Donahue, Neil M.; Jathar, Shantanu H.; Huang, Xiaofeng; Wu, Wenjing; Hao, Jiming; Robinson, Allen L.

    2016-06-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is one of the least understood constituents of fine particles; current widely-used models cannot predict its loadings or oxidation state. Recent laboratory experiments demonstrated the importance of several new processes, including aging of SOA from traditional precursors, aging of primary organic aerosol (POA), and photo-oxidation of intermediate volatility organic compounds (IVOCs). However, evaluating the effect of these processes in the real atmosphere is challenging. Most models used in previous studies are over-simplified and some key reaction trajectories are not captured, and model parameters are usually phenomenological and lack experimental constraints. Here we comprehensively assess the effect of organic aerosol (OA) aging and intermediate-volatility emissions on regional-scale OA pollution with a state-of-the-art model framework and experimentally constrained parameters. We find that OA aging and intermediate-volatility emissions together increase OA and SOA concentrations in Eastern China by about 40% and a factor of 10, respectively, thereby improving model-measurement agreement significantly. POA and IVOCs both constitute over 40% of OA concentrations, and IVOCs constitute over half of SOA concentrations; this differs significantly from previous apportionment of SOA sources. This study facilitates an improved estimate of aerosol-induced climate and health impacts, and implies a shift from current fine-particle control policies.

  16. Aerosol Observing System (AOS) Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jefferson, A

    2011-01-17

    The Aerosol Observing System (AOS) is a suite of in situ surface measurements of aerosol optical and cloud-forming properties. The instruments measure aerosol properties that influence the earth’s radiative balance. The primary optical measurements are those of the aerosol scattering and absorption coefficients as a function of particle size and radiation wavelength and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) measurements as a function of percent supersaturation. Additional measurements include those of the particle number concentration and scattering hygroscopic growth. Aerosol optical measurements are useful for calculating parameters used in radiative forcing calculations such as the aerosol single-scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, mass scattering efficiency, and hygroscopic growth. CCN measurements are important in cloud microphysical models to predict droplet formation.

  17. Aerosol characterization during project POLINAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagen, D.E.; Hopkins, A.R.; Paladino, J.D.; Whitefield, P.D. [Missouri Univ., Rolla, MO (United States). Cloud and Aerosol Sciences Lab.; Lilenfeld, H.V. [McDonnell Douglas Aerospace-East, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The objectives of the aerosol/particulate characterization measurements of project POLINAT (POLlution from aircraft emissions In the North ATlantic flight corridor) are: to search for aerosol/particulate signatures of air traffic emissions in the region of the North Atlantic Flight Corridor; to search for the aerosol/particulate component of large scale enhancement (`corridor effects`) of air traffic related species in the North Atlantic region; to determine the effective emission indices for the aerosol/particulate component of engine exhaust in both the near and far field of aircraft exhaust plumes; to measure the dispersion and transformation of the aerosol/particulate component of aircraft emissions as a function of ambient condition; to characterize background levels of aerosol/particulate concentrations in the North Atlantic Region; and to determine effective emission indices for engine exhaust particulates for regimes beyond the jet phase of plume expansion. (author) 10 refs.

  18. Acidic aerosol in urban air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, M.; Yamaoka, S.; Miyazaki, T.; Oka, M.

    1982-01-01

    The distribution and chemical composition of acidic aerosol in Osaka City were investigated. Samples were collected at five sites in the city from June to September, 1979. Acidic aerosol was determined by the acid-base titration method, sulfate ion by barium chloride turbidimetry, nitrate ion by the xylenol method, and chloride ion by the mercury thiocyanate method. The concentration of acidic aerosol at five sites ranged from 7.7 micrograms per cubic meter to 10.0 micrograms per cubic meter, but mean concentrations in the residential area were slightly higher than those in the industrial area. When acidic aerosol concentrations were compared with concentrations of sulfate, nitrate, and chloride ions, a significant correlation was found between acidic aerosol and sulfate ion. The sum of the ion equivalents of the three types showed good correlation with the acidic aerosol equivalent during the whole period.

  19. Equine cytochrome P450 2B6 — Genomic identification, expression and functional characterization with ketamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, L.M.; Demmel, S. [Division Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University Bern, Laenggassstr. 124, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Pusch, G.; Buters, J.T.M. [ZAUM — Center of Allergy and Environment, Helmholtz Zentrum München/Technische Universität München, Biedersteiner Str. 29, 80802 München (Germany); Thormann, W. [Clinical Pharmacology Laboratory, Institute for Infectious Diseases, University of Bern, Murtenstrasse 35, 3010 Bern (Switzerland); Zielinski, J. [Division Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University Bern, Laenggassstr. 124, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Leeb, T. [Institute of Genetics, Vetsuisse Faculty, University Bern, Bremgartenstr. 109, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Mevissen, M. [Division Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University Bern, Laenggassstr. 124, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Schmitz, A., E-mail: andrea.schmitz@vetsuisse.unibe.ch [Division Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University Bern, Laenggassstr. 124, 3012 Bern (Switzerland)

    2013-01-01

    Ketamine is an anesthetic and analgesic regularly used in veterinary patients. As ketamine is almost always administered in combination with other drugs, interactions between ketamine and other drugs bear the risk of either adverse effects or diminished efficacy. Since cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) play a pivotal role in the phase I metabolism of the majority of all marketed drugs, drug–drug interactions often occur at the active site of these enzymes. CYPs have been thoroughly examined in humans and laboratory animals, but little is known about equine CYPs. The characterization of equine CYPs is essential for a better understanding of drug metabolism in horses. We report annotation, cloning and heterologous expression of the equine CYP2B6 in V79 Chinese hamster fibroblasts. After computational annotation of all CYP2B genes, the coding sequence (CDS) of equine CYP2B6 was amplified by RT-PCR from horse liver total RNA and revealed an amino acid sequence identity of 77% and a similarity of 93.7% to its human ortholog. A non-synonymous variant c.226G>A in exon 2 of the equine CYP2B6 was detected in 97 horses. The mutant A-allele showed an allele frequency of 82%. Two further variants in exon 3 were detected in one and two horses of this group, respectively. Transfected V79 cells were incubated with racemic ketamine and norketamine as probe substrates to determine metabolic activity. The recombinant equine CYP2B6 N-demethylated ketamine to norketamine and produced metabolites of norketamine, such as hydroxylated norketamines and 5,6-dehydronorketamine. V{sub max} for S-/and R-norketamine formation was 0.49 and 0.45 nmol/h/mg cellular protein and K{sub m} was 3.41 and 2.66 μM, respectively. The N-demethylation of S-/R-ketamine was inhibited concentration-dependently with clopidogrel showing an IC{sub 50} of 5.63 and 6.26 μM, respectively. The functional importance of the recorded genetic variants remains to be explored. Equine CYP2B6 was determined to be a CYP

  20. Assessment of theileria equi and babesia caballi infections in equine populations in Egypt by molecular, serological and hematological approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Equine piroplasmosis caused by Theileria equi, Babesia caballi, or both, cause significant economic losses in the equine industry and remains uncontrolled in Egypt. Methods: T. equi and B. caballi infections were assessed in blood from 88 horses and 51 donkeys from different localities ...

  1. Equine trypanosomosis in the Central River Division of the Gambia: A study of veterinary gate-clinic consultation records

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhollander, S.; Jallow, A.; Mbodge, K.; Kora, S.; Sanneh, M.; Gaye, M.; Bos, J.F.F.P.; Leak, S.; Berkvens, D.; Geerts, S.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this,study was to provide epidemiological information of equine trypanosomosis in the Central River Division (CRD) of The Gambia. Therefore, 2285 consultations records of equines, admitted in a gate-clinic at Sololo in CRD, were studied retrospectively. The data were recorded in the

  2. From collagen to tenocyte : How the equine superficial digital flexor tendon responds to physiologic challenges and physical therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Yi-Lo

    2005-01-01

    Introduction Injuries to the equine superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) play a prominent role in the orthopaedic disorders and form an important threat to both the equine athletic potential and welfare. Therefore this thesis aims at in-depth understanding the development of ECM composition in

  3. A Healing Space: The Experiences of First Nations and Inuit Youth with Equine-Assisted Learning (EAL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell, Colleen Anne; Chalmers, Darlene; Bresette, Nora; Swain, Sue; Rankin, Deb; Hopkins, Carol

    2011-01-01

    The Nimkee NupiGawagan Healing Centre (NNHC) in Muncey, ON provides residential treatment to First Nations and Inuit youth who abuse solvents. As a complement to its culture-based programming, in 2008 the centre began offering weekly equine-assisted learning (EAL) curriculum to its clients in partnership with the Keystone Equine Centre and the…

  4. Liquid storage of equine semen : Assessing the effect of d-penicillamine on longevity of ejaculated and epididymal stallion sperm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brogan, P T; Beitsma, M; Henning, H; Gadella, B M; Stout, T A E

    2015-01-01

    Short-term storage of equine sperm at 5°C in an extender containing milk and/or egg yolk components is common practice in the equine breeding industry. Sperm motility, viability, DNA integrity and, consequently, fertilizing ability decline over time, partly due to reactive oxygen species (ROS) gener

  5. Antigenic and genetic evolution of equine influenza a (H3N8) virus from 1968 to 2007

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Lewis; J.M. Daly; C.A. Russell (Colin); D.L. Horton; E. Skepner (Eugene); N.A. Bryant; D.F. Burke; A.S. Rash; J.L.N. Wood; T.M. Chambers; R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron); J.A. Mumford; D.M. Elton; D.J. Smith (Derek James)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractEquine influenza virus is a major respiratory pathogen in horses, and outbreaks of disease often lead to substantial disruption to and economic losses for equestrian industries. The hemagglutinin (HA) protein is of key importance in the control of equine influenza because HA is the prima

  6. Trajectories of Positive and Negative Behavior during Participation in Equine Facilitated Learning Program for Horse-Novice Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendry, Patricia; Roeter, Stephanie; Smith, Annelise; Jacobson, Sue; Erdman, Phyllis

    2013-01-01

    To explore the efficacy of equine programming to support positive behavioral development of horse-novice youth, researchers examined trajectories of behavioral change of 5-8th grade students as they participate in an equine facilitated learning program. Behaviors were rated and analyzed to examine group trajectories of change. Results indicated…

  7. 9 CFR 75.4 - Interstate movement of equine infectious anemia reactors and approval of laboratories, diagnostic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... IN HORSES, ASSES, PONIES, MULES, AND ZEBRAS Equine Infectious Anemia (swamp Fever) § 75.4 Interstate..., including name, age, sex, breed, color, and markings. Reactor. Any horse, ass, mule, pony or zebra which is... to prevent the transmission of equine infectious anemia to other horses, asses, ponies, mules,...

  8. Diagnostic methods applied to analysis of an outbreak of equine influenza in a riding school in which vaccine failure occurred

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maanen, van C.; Essen, van G.J.; Minke, J.; Daly, J.M.; Yates, P.J.

    2003-01-01

    An outbreak of equine influenza H3N8 in a riding school is described retrospectively with emphasis on diagnosis and putative vaccine failure. In March 1995 an outbreak of equine influenza occurred among 11 horses in a riding school, where most horses had received basic primary immunizations and seve

  9. Structural Illumination of Equine MHC Class I Molecules Highlights Unconventional Epitope Presentation Manner That Is Evolved in Equine Leukocyte Antigen Alleles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Shugang; Liu, Jun; Qi, Jianxun; Chen, Rong; Zhang, Nianzhi; Liu, Yanjie; Wang, Junya; Wu, Yanan; Gao, George Fu; Xia, Chun

    2016-02-15

    MHC class I (MHC I)-restricted virus-specific CTLs are implicated as critical components in the control of this naturally occurring lentivirus and in the protective immune response to the successfully applied attenuated equine infectious anemia virus vaccine in the horse. Nevertheless, the structural basis for how the equine MHC I presents epitope peptides remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the binding of several equine infectious anemia virus-derived epitope peptides by the ability to refold recombinant molecules and by thermal stability, and then by determining the x-ray structure of five peptide-MHC I complexes: equine MHC class I allele (Eqca)-N*00602/Env-RW12, Eqca-N*00602/Gag-GW12, Eqca-N*00602/Rev-QW11, Eqca-N*00602/Gag-CF9, and Eqca-N*00601/Gag-GW12. Although Eqca-N*00601 and Eqca-N*00602 differ by a single amino acid, Eqca-N*00601 exhibited a drastically different peptide presentation when binding a similar CTL epitope, Gag-GW12; the result makes the previously reported function clear to be non-cross-recognition between these two alleles. The structures plus Eqca-N*00602 complexed with a 9-mer peptide are particularly noteworthy in that we illuminated differences in apparent flexibility in the center of the epitope peptides for the complexes with Gag-GW12 as compared with Env-RW12, and a strict selection of epitope peptides with normal length. The featured preferences and unconventional presentations of long peptides by equine MHC I molecules provide structural bases to explain the exceptional anti-lentivirus immunity in the horse. We think that the beneficial reference points could serve as an initial platform for other human or animal lentiviruses.

  10. Comparison of gene-specific DNA methylation patterns in equine induced pluripotent stem cell lines with cells derived from equine adult and fetal tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Catherine H; Greve, Line; Novakofski, Kira D; Fortier, Lisa A

    2012-07-01

    Cellular pluripotency is associated with expression of the homeobox transcription factor genes NANOG, SOX2, and POU5F1 (OCT3/4 protein). Some reports suggest that mesenchymal progenitor cells (MPCs) may express increased quantities of these genes, creating the possibility that MPCs are more "pluripotent" than other adult cell types. The objective of this study was to determine whether equine bone marrow-derived MPCs had gene expression or DNA methylation patterns that differed from either early fetal-derived or terminally differentiated adult cells. Specifically, this study compared DNA methylation of the NANOG and SOX2 promoter regions and concurrent gene expression of NANOG, SOX2, and POU5F1 in equine induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, fetal fibroblasts, fetal brain cells, adult chondrocytes, and MPCs. Results indicate that NANOG and POU5F1 were not detectable in appreciable quantities in tissues other than the equine iPS cell lines. Equine iPS cells expressed large quantities of all three genes examined. Significantly increased quantities of SOX2 were noted in iPS cells and both fetal-derived cell types compared with adult cells. MPCs and adult chondrocytes expressed equivalent, low quantities of SOX2. Further, NANOG and SOX2 expression inversely correlated with the DNA methylation pattern in the promoter region, such that as gene expression increased, DNA methylation decreased. The equine iPS cell lines examined demonstrated DNA methylation and gene expression patterns that were consistent with pluripotency features described in other species. Results do not support previous reports that NANOG, SOX2, and POU5F1 are poised for increased activity in MPCs compared with other adult cells.

  11. Characterization of extracellular matrix macromolecules in primary cultures of equine keratinocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollitt Christopher C

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most research to date involving laminins and extracellular matrix protein function in both normal and pathological conditions involves in vitro culture of keratinocytes. Few methods are established to allow for prolonged propagation of keratinocytes from equine tissues, including the hoof lamellae. In this study we modified cell isolation and culture techniques to allow for proliferation and sub-culturing of equine lamellar keratinocytes. Additionally, the production and processing of extracellular matrix molecules by skin and lamellar keratinocytes were studied. Results Physical and proteolytic tissue separation in combination with media containing a calcium concentration of 0.6 mM in combination with additional media supplements proved optimal for proliferation and subculture of equine lamellar keratinocytes on collagen coated substratum. Immunofluorescence and immunoblotting studies confirmed that equine skin and lamellar keratinocytes produce Ln-332 in vitro and processing of this molecule follows that of other species. As well, matrix components including integrin alpha-6 (α6 and the hemidesmsome proteins, bullous pemphigoid antigen 1 (BP180 bullous pemphigoid antigen 2 (BP230 and plectin are also expressed. Conclusions Isolation of equine keratinocytes and study of the matrix and adhesion related molecules produced by them provides a valuable tool for future work in the veterinary field.

  12. Equine hepatocytes: isolation, cryopreservation, and applications to in vitro drug metabolism studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibany, Khaled A; Tötemeyer, Sabine; Pratt, Stefanie L; Paine, Stuart W

    2016-10-01

    Despite reports of the successful isolation of primary equine hepatocytes, there are no published data regarding the successful cryopreservation of these isolated cells. In this study, a detailed description of the procedures for isolation, cryopreservation, and recovery of equine hepatocytes are presented. Furthermore, the intrinsic clearance (Clint) and production of metabolites for three drugs were compared between freshly isolated and recovered cryopreserved hepatocytes. Primary equine hepatocytes were isolated using a two-step collagenase perfusion method, with an average cell yield of 2.47 ± 2.62 × 10(6) cells/g of perfused liver tissue and viability of 84.1 ± 2.62%. These cells were cryopreserved with William's medium E containing 10% fetal bovine serum with 10% DMSO. The viability of recovered cells, after a 30% Percoll gradient, was 77 ± 11% and estimated recovery rate was approximately 27%. These purified cells were used to determine the in vitro Clint of three drugs used in equine medicine; omeprazole, flunixin, and phenylbutazone, via the substrate depletion method. Cryopreserved suspensions gave a comparable estimation of Clint compared to fresh cells for these three drugs as well as producing the same metabolites. This work paves the way for establishing a bank of cryopreserved equine hepatocytes that can be used for estimating pharmacokinetic parameters such as the hepatic metabolic in vivo clearance of a drug as well as producing horse-specific drug metabolites.

  13. Otoscopic, cytological, and microbiological examination of the equine external ear canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, Sandra J; Frank, Linda A; Buchanan, Benjamin R; Donnell, Robert L; Morandi, Federica

    2006-06-01

    Otoscopic examination and cytology of the equine ear would be beneficial in diseases such as head trauma, headshaking, otitis externa secondary to otitis media, vestibular disease, aural neoplasia and aural pruritus secondary to parasites. In practice, otic examinations of horses are rarely done due to the perceived difficulty in visualizing the equine external ear canal and tympanic membrane, as well as the need for chemical restraint. In this study, the proximal external ear canal was examined in live horses using a handheld otoscope and in cadaver heads using video otoscopy. Visualization of the proximal ear canal of the sedated horse could be done with a handheld otoscope, but more sedation or general anaesthesia and a video otoscope would be required to adequately visualize the tympanic membrane in the live horse. The proximal ear canals of 18 horses were examined cytologically and cultured aerobically. In three horses, both ears were sampled. No cells or organisms were seen on cytological examination of 11/21 ears. Nine of the 21 ears were sterile when cultured. Ten of the 21 ears had mixed growth with low numbers of organisms (Corynebacterium sp. being most common). Two of the 21 ears had heavy growth of a single organism (Corynebacterium sp. and Staphylococcus intermedius, respectively). Equine cadaver heads were examined in cross-section by computed tomography (CT) imaging and histopathology in order to further understand the anatomy of the equine external ear canal. Equine practitioners should be aware that otic examination is possible and may provide important diagnostic information.

  14. Prevalence of antibodies against influenza virus in non-vaccinated equines from the Brazilian Pantanal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaíva e Silva, Lucas; Borges, Alice Mamede Costa Marques; Villalobos, Eliana Monteforte Cassaro; Lara, Maria do Carmo Custodio Souza Hunold; Cunha, Elenice Maria Siquetin; de Oliveira, Anderson Castro Soares; Braga, Isis Assis; Aguiar, Daniel Moura

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of antibodies against Equine Influenza Virus (EIV) was determined in 529 equines living on ranches in the municipality of Poconé, Pantanal area of Brazil, by means of the hemagglutination inhibition test, using subtype H3N8 as antigen. The distribution and possible association among positive animal and ranches were evaluated by the chi-square test, spatial autoregressive and multiple linear regression models. The prevalence of antibodies against EIV was estimated at 45.2% (95% CI 30.2 - 61.1%) with titers ranging from 20 to 1,280 HAU. Seropositive equines were found on 92.0% of the surveyed ranches. Equine from non-flooded ranches (66.5%) and negativity in equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) (61.7%) were associated with antibodies against EIV. No spatial correlation was found among the ranches, but the ones located in non-flooded areas were associated with antibodies against EIV. A negative correlation was found between the prevalence of antibodies against EIV and the presence of EIAV positive animals on the ranches. The high prevalence of antibodies against EIV detected in this study suggests that the virus is circulating among the animals, and this statistical analysis indicates that the movement and aggregation of animals are factors associated to the transmission of the virus in the region.

  15. PREVALENCE OF ANTIBODIES AGAINST INFLUENZA VIRUS IN NON-VACCINATED EQUINES FROM THE BRAZILIAN PANTANAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Gaíva E Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of antibodies against Equine Influenza Virus (EIV was determined in 529 equines living on ranches in the municipality of Poconé, Pantanal area of Brazil, by means of the hemagglutination inhibition test, using subtype H3N8 as antigen. The distribution and possible association among positive animal and ranches were evaluated by the chi-square test, spatial autoregressive and multiple linear regression models. The prevalence of antibodies against EIV was estimated at 45.2% (95% CI 30.2 - 61.1% with titers ranging from 20 to 1,280 HAU. Seropositive equines were found on 92.0% of the surveyed ranches. Equine from non-flooded ranches (66.5% and negativity in equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV (61.7% were associated with antibodies against EIV. No spatial correlation was found among the ranches, but the ones located in non-flooded areas were associated with antibodies against EIV. A negative correlation was found between the prevalence of antibodies against EIV and the presence of EIAV positive animals on the ranches. The high prevalence of antibodies against EIV detected in this study suggests that the virus is circulating among the animals, and this statistical analysis indicates that the movement and aggregation of animals are factors associated to the transmission of the virus in the region.

  16. DISCOVERING BEIJING Eastern Promise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Dongcheng District, literally meaning eastern city, covers Beijing’s downtown area to the northeast of the central axis of old Beijing. The district has a total area of 25 square km and a population of 600,000. With a large number of cultural and historical sites and tourist attractions,

  17. Eastern Frequency Response Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, N.W.; Shao, M.; Pajic, S.; D' Aquila, R.

    2013-05-01

    This study was specifically designed to investigate the frequency response of the Eastern Interconnection that results from large loss-of-generation events of the type targeted by the North American Electric Reliability Corp. Standard BAL-003 Frequency Response and Frequency Bias Setting (NERC 2012a), under possible future system conditions with high levels of wind generation.

  18. Evaluation of a positioning method for equine lateral stifle scintigrams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathis Marion

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The current lack of a standardized protocol for positioning of the gamma camera relative to the horse limb in a lateral stifle scintigram, and thus the reliance on subjective positioning, may be a cause of diagnostic error and inter-operator variability due to variations of the view angle. The aims of this study were to develop a reliable method to obtain a lateral scintigram of the equine stifle based on fixed anatomical landmarks and measure the resulting foot to gamma camera angle on sequential measurements of the same horse and of different horses Methods Technetium filled capsules were glued on the skin on sites adjacent to the origin of the medial and lateral femorotibial collateral ligaments in 22 horses using ultrasound guidance. A lateral view of the stifle was defined as the image where the two radioactive point sources were aligned vertically (point sources guided method. Five sequential lateral acquisitions (one to five of the stifle with the point sources vertically aligned were acquired in each horse, and the angle between the mid-sagittal foot-axis and the vertical axis of the gamma camera (FC angle was measured for each of these acquisitions Results For acquisition group one to five, the mean of the means FC angle was 91.6 ± 2° (2SD and the coefficient of variation (COV was 1.1%. In the 22 horses the 95% CI for the mean FC angles was 91.6° ± 12.1° (2SD and the COV was 6.6%. Conclusions The use of point sources to guide gamma camera position results in less variation in the lateral scintigram than if the distal limb is used as guidance due to a difference in FC angle between horses. The point source guided positioning method is considered suitable as a reference standard method to obtain lateral scintigrams of the equine stifle, and it will be of value in clinical scintigraphy and research. The use of alignment of specifically located point sources may also be applied in other regions to

  19. Damage assessment of the equine sperm membranes by fluorimetric technique

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    Eneiva Carla Carvalho Celeghini

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available To validate a practical technique of simultaneous evaluation of the plasma, acrosomal and mitochondrial membranes in equine spermatozoa three fluorescent probes (PI, FITC-PSA and MITO were associated. Four ejaculates from three stallions (n=12 were diluted in TALP medium and split into 2 aliquots, 1 aliquot was flash frozen in liquid nitrogen to induce damage in cellular membranes. Three treatments were prepared with the following fixed ratios of fresh semen: flash frozen semen: 100:0 (T100, 50:50 (T50, and 0:100 (T0. A 150-µL aliquot of diluted semen of each treatment was added of 2 µL of PI, 2 µL of MITO and 80 µL of FITC-PSA; incubated at 38.5ºC/8 min, and sperm cells were evaluated by epifluorescent microscopy. Based in regression analysis, this could be an efficient and practical technique to assess damage in equine spermatozoa, as it was able to determine the sperm percentage more representative of the potential to fertilize the oocyte.Para validar uma técnica prática de avaliação simultânea das membranas plasmática, acrossomal e mitocondrial em espermatozóides eqüinos três sondas fluorescentes (PI, FITC-PSA e MITO foram associadas. Quatro ejaculados de três garanhões (n=12 foram diluídos em meio TALP e divididos em duas alíquotas, uma alíquota foi submetida a flash frozen em nitrogênio líquido para induzir danos nas membranas celulares. Três tratamentos foram preparados com as seguintes proporções de sêmen fresco: sêmen flash frozen: 100:0 (T100, 50:50 (T50, e 0:100 (T0. Uma amostra de 150 µL de sêmen diluído de cada tratamento foi adicionada de 2 µL de PI, 2 µL de MITO e 80 µL de FITC-PSA; incubadas à 38,5ºC/8 min, e as células espermáticas foram avaliadas por microscopia de epifluorescência. Baseados na análise de regressão esta é uma técnica eficiente e prática para determinar danos em espermatozóides eqüinos, capaz de determinar a porcentagem de espermatozóides mais representativa do

  20. Assessment of pollution aerosols sources above the Straits of Dover using lead isotope geochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deboudt, K; Flament, P; Weis, D; Mennessier, J P; Maquinghen, P

    1999-09-15

    We assess the capability of lead isotopes to study the transport of pollution aerosols above the Straits of Dover by collecting atmospheric aerosols above the Eastern Channel and the Southern Bight of the North Sea. During the same period, we characterized the lead isotopic signature of the main industrial sources on the French coast near the Straits of Dover. Urban and automobile-derived aerosols were also collected. Due to the phasing out of lead in gasoline, the urban isotopic composition (206Pb/207Pb = 1.158 +/- 0.003) has become more radiogenic, although it is highly variable. On a regional scale, major industrial emissions have a well-defined isotopic composition (1.13 isotopic compositions, it can be shown that lead aerosols originating from eastern Europe have an isotopic signature (1.145 isotopic composition of west-European lead aerosols (1.111 < 206Pb/207Pb < 1.142). The influence of remote North American sources is suggested, with caution, due to uncertainties in meteorological calculations.

  1. Topics in current aerosol research

    CERN Document Server

    Hidy, G M

    1971-01-01

    Topics in Current Aerosol Research deals with the fundamental aspects of aerosol science, with emphasis on experiment and theory describing highly dispersed aerosols (HDAs) as well as the dynamics of charged suspensions. Topics covered range from the basic properties of HDAs to their formation and methods of generation; sources of electric charges; interactions between fluid and aerosol particles; and one-dimensional motion of charged cloud of particles. This volume is comprised of 13 chapters and begins with an introduction to the basic properties of HDAs, followed by a discussion on the form

  2. Composition of Aerosols Over the Continential U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-07-12

    term associated with sulfate. For ammonium sulfate D =4.5, for bisulfate D = 3.8, and D =1 for sulfuric acid . In order to estimate the organics via the... ammonium sulfate. Figure 16. The 3rd quarter aerosol constituents at each eastern location. The sulfate is assumed to be in the form of sulfuric acid , and...degree of neutralization by ammonium . The three common forms of particulate sulfate are ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4), bisulfate (NH4 HSO4), and sulfuric

  3. Potential emission flux to aerosol pollutants over Bengal Gangetic plain through combined trajectory clustering and aerosol source fields analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, D. Bharath; Verma, S.

    2016-09-01

    A hybrid source-receptor analysis was carried out to evaluate the potential emission flux to winter monsoon (WinMon) aerosols over Bengal Gangetic plain urban (Kolkata, Kol) and semi-urban atmospheres (Kharagpur, Kgp). This was done through application of fuzzy c-mean clustering to back-trajectory data combined with emission flux and residence time weighted aerosols analysis. WinMon mean aerosol optical depth (AOD) and angstrom exponent (AE) at Kol (AOD: 0.77; AE: 1.17) were respectively slightly higher than and nearly equal to that at Kgp (AOD: 0.71; AE: 1.18). Out of six source region clusters over Indian subcontinent and two over Indian oceanic region, the cluster mean AOD was the highest when associated with the mean path of air mass originating from the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian sea clusters at Kol and that from the Indo-Gangetic plain (IGP) cluster at Kgp. Spatial distribution of weighted AOD fields showed the highest potential source of aerosols over the IGP, primarily over upper IGP (e.g. Punjab, Haryana), lower IGP (e.g. Uttarpradesh) and eastern region (e.g. west Bengal, Bihar, northeast India) clusters. The emission flux contribution potential (EFCP) of fossil fuel (FF) emissions at surface (SL) of Kol/Kgp, elevated layer (EL) of Kol, and of biomass burning (BB) emissions at SL of Kol were primarily from upper, lower, upper/lower IGP clusters respectively. The EFCP of FF/BB emissions at Kgp-EL/SL, and that of BB at EL of Kol/Kgp were mainly from eastern region and Africa (AFR) clusters respectively. Though the AFR cluster was constituted of significantly high emission flux source potential of dust emissions, the EFCP of dust from northwest India (NWI) was comparable to that from AFR at Kol SL/EL.

  4. Troponin assays in the assessment of the equine myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, T M; Pyle, W G; Maxie, M G; Pearl, D L; Physick-Sheard, P W

    2014-05-01

    In 2000, troponin assays were adopted as the test of choice for detection of myocardial injury in man. This decision was made after extensive testing and followed a 60 year search for a biomarker of myocardial damage with sufficient analytical sensitivity and specificity. This has led to proliferation of assays for use in human medicine, each requiring extensive testing and validation before it could be made available on the open market for human use. The search for ever-more analytically sensitive assays and for a standard reference material continues. The adoption of troponin testing in veterinary medicine followed shortly after its development for use in man, providing a much-needed means of detecting and monitoring myocardial damage in horses. However, application of these tests in veterinary medicine has exclusively involved use of assays designed for and clinically validated in human patients. There is no mandated requirement for test validation in veterinary medicine and, while many of these assays have been shown to be capable of detecting equine troponin, the wide diversity of available tests, lack of validation, absence of protocols for their use and lack of standardisation make their application problematic. The objective of this review article is to address this issue, offering guidance where data are available and encouraging caution where there are none. Ultimately, the overall goal of this review is to examine critically the use of troponin assays in the horse and to promote the accurate and appropriate interpretation of valid results.

  5. Epidemiology, electrolytes balance and treatment strategy of equine anhidrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshad Zahoor,

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This research work was designed to study the prevalence, electrolytes balance and treatment strategy of equine anhidrosis in Faisalabad, Pakistan. The study was conducted in the hottest month of summer (June-September. Anhidrosis was diagnosed by clinical signs and subsequent intra- dermal adrenaline and salbutamol injections. Overall prevalence of anhidrosis in horses was 13.2% of the total tested horses. Prevalence of anhidrosis was high during months of July and August. Further, it was observed that 612 years old horses are more susceptible to this syndrome. Serum analysis showed that sodium and chloride were significantly low and potassium concentration was significantly high in anhidrotic horses. Diseased horses showed positive response to the treatment of iodinated casein and germinated wheat and the clinical signs disappeared gradually. It was concluded from this study that horses are vulnerable to the attack of anhidrosis during warmer months of summer affecting serum electrolytes profile. Further, iodinated casein and germinated wheat have excellent therapeutic potential against this syndrome.

  6. Infection control and biosecurity in equine disease control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weese, J S

    2014-11-01

    Infectious diseases are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in horses, along with economic costs and broader impacts associated with the loss of members of a species that generates income, acts as a working animal and is a companion. Endemic diseases continue to challenge, emerging diseases are an ever-present threat and outbreaks can be both destructive and disruptive. While infectious diseases can never be completely prevented, measures can be introduced to restrict the entry of pathogens into a population or limit the implications of the presence of a pathogen. Objective research regarding infection control and biosecurity in horses is limited, yet a variety of practical infection prevention and control measures can be used. Unfortunately, infection control can be challenging, because of the nature of the equine industry (e.g. frequent horse movement) and endemic pathogens, but also because of lack of understanding or motivation to try to improve practices. Recognition of the basic concepts of infection control and biosecurity, and indeed the need for measures to control infectious diseases, is the foundation for successful infection prevention and control.

  7. Equine Odontoclastic Tooth Resorption and Hypercementosis: Histopathologic Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedley, R C; Earley, E T; Galloway, S S; Baratt, R M; Rawlinson, J E

    2015-09-01

    Equine odontoclastic tooth resorption and hypercementosis (EOTRH) is a painful progressive condition of older horses that involves multiple teeth, including canines and incisors. EOTRH is uncommonly recognized by veterinary pathologists and in some cases may be misdiagnosed as cementoblastoma. The cause is unknown. The goals of this study were to describe the histopathologic features of EOTRH in 17 affected horses from the United States and to increase awareness of this condition. Samples ranged from affected tooth to the entire rostral mandible and maxilla. Affected teeth exhibited cemental hyperplasia and lysis. The marked proliferation of cementum in severe cases caused bulbous enlargement of the intra-alveolar portions of affected teeth. Several teeth contained necrotic debris, bacteria, and plant material in the regions of cemental lysis. All horses exhibited dentinal lysis in at least affected tooth, and several contained necrotic debris in these regions. Endodontic disease was often present with inflammation, lysis, necrotic debris, fibrosis, and/or a thin rim of atubular mineralized tissue in the pulp cavity. Periodontal disease was a common feature that was primarily characterized by moderate lymphoplasmacytic inflammation. Resorption with secondary hypercementosis appears to begin on the external surface of the teeth rather than within the pulp cavity. Distinguishing EOTRH from other diseases requires a complete history that includes the number and location of affected teeth, a gross description of regional hard/soft tissue health, and radiographic findings.

  8. State of the art: stem cells in equine regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, M J; Jarazo, J

    2015-03-01

    According to Greek mythology, Prometheus' liver grew back nightly after it was removed each day by an eagle as punishment for giving mankind fire. Hence, contrary to popular belief, the concept of tissue and organ regeneration is not new. In the early 20th century, cell culture and ex vivo organ preservation studies by Alexis Carrel, some with famed aviator Charles Lindbergh, established a foundation for much of modern regenerative medicine. While early beliefs and discoveries foreshadowed significant accomplishments in regenerative medicine, advances in knowledge within numerous scientific disciplines, as well as nano- and micromolecular level imaging and detection technologies, have contributed to explosive advances over the last 20 years. Virtually limitless preparations, combinations and applications of the 3 major components of regenerative medicine, namely cells, biomaterials and bioactive molecules, have created a new paradigm of future therapeutic options for most species. It is increasingly clear, however, that despite significant parallels among and within species, there is no 'one-size-fits-all' regenerative therapy. Likewise, a panacea has yet to be discovered that completely reverses the consequences of time, trauma and disease. Nonetheless, there is no question that the promise and potential of regenerative medicine have forever altered medical practices. The horse is a relative newcomer to regenerative medicine applications, yet there is already a large body of work to incorporate novel regenerative therapies into standard care. This review focuses on the current state and potential future of stem cells in equine regenerative medicine.

  9. Use of firocoxib for the treatment of equine osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donnell JR

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Josh R Donnell, David D Frisbie Department of Clinical Sciences, Orthopedic Research Center, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA Abstract: This review presents the pathogenesis and medical treatment of equine osteoarthritis (OA, focusing on firocoxib. Inhibition of prostaglandin E2 remains a fundamental treatment for decreasing clinical symptoms (ie, pain and lameness associated with OA in horses. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, which inhibit the production of prostaglandin E2 from the arachidonic acid pathway, continue to be a mainstay for the clinical treatment of OA. Firocoxib is a cyclooxygenase (COX-2-preferential NSAID that has been shown to be safe and to have a 70% oral bioavailability in the horse. Three clinical reports identified symptom-modifying effects (reduction in pain and/or lameness in horses with OA administered the once-daily recommended dose (0.1 mg/kg of oral firocoxib following 7 days of administration. Other reports have suggested that a one-time loading dose (0.3 mg/kg of firocoxib provides an earlier (1–3 days onset of action compared to the recommended dose. It is noteworthy that OA disease-modifying effects have been reported in horses for other COX-2-preferential NSAIDs (meloxicam and carprofen, but have not been attributed to firocoxib due to a lack of investigation to date. Keywords: horse, osteoarthritis, firocoxib, COX-2 inhibitor, NSAID

  10. Role of prostaglandins in intrauterine migration of the equine conceptus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, T A; Allen, W R

    2001-05-01

    Between at least day 9 and day 16 after ovulation the spherical equine conceptus migrates continuously throughout the uterine lumen, propelled by peristaltic myometrial contractions. This unusually long period of intrauterine movement ensures that the conceptus delivers its anti-luteolytic signal to the entire endometrium to achieve luteostasis. The present experiment tested the hypothesis that prostaglandins stimulate the myometrial contractions that result in the migration of the conceptus. Serial ultrasonographic examinations of the uteri of eight mares performed during 2 h periods between day 10 and day 18 of gestation recorded the pattern of conceptus migration before and after treatment with the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor flunixin meglumine. Conceptus mobility was high between day 10 and day 14 after ovulation (4.3 +/- 0.8, 4.7 +/- 0.8 and 4.3 +/- 0.9 changes of location per h on day 10, day 12 and day 14, respectively), but was reduced immediately and markedly by an i.v. injection of flunixin meglumine (3.8 +/- 1.5, 1.8 +/- 0.8 and 0.7 +/- 0.2 location changes per h), thereby implicating prostaglandins as the primary stimulus for the myometrial contractions that drive migration of the conceptus.

  11. Clinical Sentinel Surveillance of Equine West Nile Fever, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saegerman, C; Alba-Casals, A; García-Bocanegra, I; Dal Pozzo, F; van Galen, G

    2016-04-01

    West Nile fever (WNF) is a viral zoonotic infection caused by a mosquito-borne flavivirus of the Flaviviridae family. According to a comparative study, the passive surveillance of horses by equine veterinarians appeared to be the most cost-effective system in the European context of WNF. Clinical data issued from a passive epidemiosurveillance network from September 2010 to December 2011 on horses in Spain were statistically compared and used to develop a predictive diagnostic decision tree, both with the aim to improve the early clinical detection of WNF in horses. Although clinical signs were variable in horses affected by WNF, four clinical signs and the month of occurrence were identified as useful indicators to distinguish between WNF-related and WNF-unrelated cases. The signs that pointed out a presumptive diagnosis of WNF in horses were cranial nerves deficits, limb paralysis, photophobia and nasal discharge. Clinical examination of horses with neurological signs that are not vaccinated against WNV could provide important clues for the early clinical detection of WNF and therefore serve as an alert for possible human viral infections. The study of the clinical pattern of WNF in horses is of importance to enhance awareness and better understanding and to optimize surveillance designs for clinical detection of WNF in horses in advance of epidemic activity affecting humans.

  12. Aerosol absorption and radiative forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Stier

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available We present a comprehensive examination of aerosol absorption with a focus on evaluating the sensitivity of the global distribution of aerosol absorption to key uncertainties in the process representation. For this purpose we extended the comprehensive aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM by effective medium approximations for the calculation of aerosol effective refractive indices, updated black carbon refractive indices, new cloud radiative properties considering the effect of aerosol inclusions, as well as by modules for the calculation of long-wave aerosol radiative properties and instantaneous aerosol forcing. The evaluation of the simulated aerosol absorption optical depth with the AERONET sun-photometer network shows a good agreement in the large scale global patterns. On a regional basis it becomes evident that the update of the BC refractive indices to Bond and Bergstrom (2006 significantly improves the previous underestimation of the aerosol absorption optical depth. In the global annual-mean, absorption acts to reduce the short-wave anthropogenic aerosol top-of-atmosphere (TOA radiative forcing clear-sky from –0.79 to –0.53 W m−2 (33% and all-sky from –0.47 to –0.13 W m−2 (72%. Our results confirm that basic assumptions about the BC refractive index play a key role for aerosol absorption and radiative forcing. The effect of the usage of more accurate effective medium approximations is comparably small. We demonstrate that the diversity in the AeroCom land-surface albedo fields contributes to the uncertainty in the simulated anthropogenic aerosol radiative forcings: the usage of an upper versus lower bound of the AeroCom land albedos introduces a global annual-mean TOA forcing range of 0.19 W m−2 (36% clear-sky and of 0.12 W m−2 (92% all-sky. The consideration of black carbon inclusions on cloud radiative properties results in a small global annual-mean all-sky absorption of 0.05 W

  13. Multi-year investigations of aerosols from an island station, Port Blair, in the Bay of Bengal: climatology and source impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseema Beegum, S.; Krishna Moorthy, K.; Gogoi, Mukunda M.; Babu, S. Suresh; Pandey, S. K.

    2012-08-01

    Long-term measurements of spectral aerosol optical depth (AOD) using multi-wavelength solar radiometer (MWR) for a period of seven years (from 2002 to 2008) from the island location, Port Blair (11.63° N, 92.7° E, PBR) in the Bay of Bengal (BoB), along with the concurrent measurements of the size distribution of near-surface aerosols, have been analyzed to delineate the climatological features of aerosols over eastern BoB. In order to identity the contribution of different aerosol types from distinct sources, concentration weighted trajectory (CWT) analysis has been employed. Climatologically, AODs increase from January to reach peak value of ~0.4 (at 500 nm) in March, followed by a weak decrease towards May. Over this general pattern, significant modulations of intra-seasonal time scales, caused by the changes in the relative strength of distinctively different sources, are noticed. The derivative (α') of the Angstrom wavelength exponent α in the wavelength domain, along with CWT analysis, are used to delineate the different important aerosol types that influence this remote island. Corresponding changes in the aerosol size distributions are inferred from the numerical inversion of the spectral AODs as well from (surface) measurements. The analyses revealed that advection plays a major role in modifying the aerosol properties over the remote island location, the potential sources contributing to the accumulation mode (coarse mode) aerosols over eastern BoB being the East Asia and South China regions (Indian mainland and the oceanic regions).

  14. Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus activity in the Gulf Coast region of Mexico, 2003-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Paige Adams

    Full Text Available Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV has been the causative agent for sporadic epidemics and equine epizootics throughout the Americas since the 1930s. In 1969, an outbreak of Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE spread rapidly from Guatemala and through the Gulf Coast region of Mexico, reaching Texas in 1971. Since this outbreak, there have been very few studies to determine the northward extent of endemic VEEV in this region. This study reports the findings of serologic surveillance in the Gulf Coast region of Mexico from 2003-2010. Phylogenetic analysis was also performed on viral isolates from this region to determine whether there have been substantial genetic changes in VEEV since the 1960s. Based on the findings of this study, the Gulf Coast lineage of subtype IE VEEV continues to actively circulate in this region of Mexico and appears to be responsible for infection of humans and animals throughout this region, including the northern State of Tamaulipas, which borders Texas.

  15. Structural and biomechanical aspects of equine sacroiliac joint function and their relationship to clinical disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, L M; Jeffcott, L B; Jasiewicz, J; McGowan, C M

    2008-06-01

    Pain originating from the sacroiliac joint (SIJ) in horses has long been associated with poor performance, yet specific diagnosis of sacroiliac dysfunction (SID) has been difficult to achieve. Clinical presentation of SID appears to fall into two categories. The first, presenting as pain and poor performance, is responsive to local analgesia of periarticular structures with poorly defined pathology. The second presents primarily as poor performance with bony pathological changes as a result of chronic instability. Diagnostic tests based on biomechanics as well as manual provocation for SIJ pain have formed the basis of tests currently used to diagnose SIJ dysfunction in humans. This review summarises the anatomy and biomechanics of the equine SIJ and current biomechanical, innervation and motor control concepts in human SID. The relationship between abnormal SIJ motion and altered neuromotor control with clinical disease of the equine SIJ are discussed. Future utilisation of these principles to develop new diagnostic and management tools for the equine SID is promising.

  16. High prevalence of West Nile virus in equines from the two provinces of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohaib, A; Saqib, M; Beck, C; Hussain, M H; Lowenski, S; Lecollinet, S; Sial, A; Asi, M N; Mansoor, M K; Saqalein, M; Sajid, M S; Ashfaq, K; Muhammad, G; Cao, S

    2015-07-01

    This study describes the first large-scale serosurvey on West Nile virus (WNV) conducted in the equine population in Pakistan. Sera were collected from 449 equids from two provinces of Pakistan during 2012-2013. Equine serum samples were screened using a commercial ELISA kit detecting antibodies against WNV and related flaviviruses. ELISA-positive samples were further investigated using virus-specific microneutralization tests (MNTs) to identify infections with Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), WNV and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV). Anti-WNV antibodies were detected in 292 samples by ELISA (seroprevalence 65.0%) and WNV infections were confirmed in 249 animals by MNT. However, there was no animal found infected by JEV or TBEV. The detection of WNV-seropositive equines in Pakistan strongly suggests a widespread circulation of WNV in Pakistan.

  17. Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Activity in the Gulf Coast Region of Mexico, 2003–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, A. Paige; Navarro-Lopez, Roberto; Ramirez-Aguilar, Francisco J.; Lopez-Gonzalez, Irene; Leal, Grace; Flores-Mayorga, Jose M.; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P. A.; Saxton-Shaw, Kali D.; Singh, Amber J.; Borland, Erin M.; Powers, Ann M.; Tesh, Robert B.; Weaver, Scott C.; Estrada-Franco, Jose G.

    2012-01-01

    Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) has been the causative agent for sporadic epidemics and equine epizootics throughout the Americas since the 1930s. In 1969, an outbreak of Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) spread rapidly from Guatemala and through the Gulf Coast region of Mexico, reaching Texas in 1971. Since this outbreak, there have been very few studies to determine the northward extent of endemic VEEV in this region. This study reports the findings of serologic surveillance in the Gulf Coast region of Mexico from 2003–2010. Phylogenetic analysis was also performed on viral isolates from this region to determine whether there have been substantial genetic changes in VEEV since the 1960s. Based on the findings of this study, the Gulf Coast lineage of subtype IE VEEV continues to actively circulate in this region of Mexico and appears to be responsible for infection of humans and animals throughout this region, including the northern State of Tamaulipas, which borders Texas. PMID:23133685

  18. Serological survey for equine viral arteritis in several municipalities in the Orinoquia region of Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Góngora O.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The goal of this study was to determine the current status of the Equine Arteritis virus (EAV in horse populations in the Orinoquia region of Colombia. Materials and methods. A transversal study was conducted by serological survey of equine (n=100 from 11 municipalities of the Colombian Orinoquia region. Serum samples were tested by virus seroneutralization assay according to the guidelines provided by the World Organization for Animal Health. Results. After testing was carried out no positives samples to EAV were found in the population analyzed. Conclusions. Although the sample size of the population screened in this study does not represent the total equine population size for the region or the country, data obtained has shown the absence of EAV infection in these animals. However, a wider study area including other regions of the country, with a feasible statistical design, would determine if this infection continues to be an exotic disease for Colombia.

  19. ELA-DRA polymorphisms are not associated with Equine Arteritis Virus infection in horses from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalemkerian, P B; Metz, G E; Peral-Garcia, P; Echeverria, M G; Giovambattista, G; Díaz, S

    2012-12-01

    Polymorphisms at Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) genes have been associated with resistance/susceptibility to infectious diseases in domestic animals. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate whether polymorphisms of the DRA gene the Equine Lymphocyte Antigen is associated with susceptibility to Equine Arteritis Virus (EAV) infection in horses in Argentina. The equine DRA gene was screened for polymorphisms using Pyrosequencing® Technology which allowed the detection of three ELA-DRA exon 2 alleles. Neither allele frequencies nor genotypic differentiation exhibited any statistically significant (P-values=0.788 and 0.745) differences between the EAV-infected and no-infected horses. Fisher's exact test and OR calculations did not show any significant association. As a consequence, no association could be established between the serological condition and ELA-DRA.

  20. The Influenza NS1 Protein: What Do We Know in Equine Influenza Virus Pathogenesis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Barba

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Equine influenza virus remains a serious health and potential economic problem throughout most parts of the world, despite intensive vaccination programs in some horse populations. The influenza non-structural protein 1 (NS1 has multiple functions involved in the regulation of several cellular and viral processes during influenza infection. We review the strategies that NS1 uses to facilitate virus replication and inhibit antiviral responses in the host, including sequestering of double-stranded RNA, direct modulation of protein kinase R activity and inhibition of transcription and translation of host antiviral response genes such as type I interferon. Details are provided regarding what it is known about NS1 in equine influenza, especially concerning C-terminal truncation. Further research is needed to determine the role of NS1 in equine influenza infection, which will help to understand the pathophysiology of complicated cases related to cytokine imbalance and secondary bacterial infection, and to investigate new therapeutic and vaccination strategies.

  1. Particle water and pH in the eastern Mediterranean: source variability and implications for nutrient availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougiatioti, Aikaterini; Nikolaou, Panayiota; Stavroulas, Iasonas; Kouvarakis, Giorgos; Weber, Rodney; Nenes, Athanasios; Kanakidou, Maria; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos

    2016-04-01

    Particle water (liquid water content, LWC) and aerosol pH are important parameters of the aerosol phase, affecting heterogeneous chemistry and bioavailability of nutrients that profoundly impact cloud formation, atmospheric composition, and atmospheric fluxes of nutrients to ecosystems. Few measurements of in situ LWC and pH, however, exist in the published literature. Using concurrent measurements of aerosol chemical composition, cloud condensation nuclei activity, and tandem light scattering coefficients, the particle water mass concentrations associated with the aerosol inorganic (Winorg) and organic (Worg) components are determined for measurements conducted at the Finokalia atmospheric observation station in the eastern Mediterranean between June and November 2012. These data are interpreted using the ISORROPIA-II thermodynamic model to predict the pH of aerosols originating from the various sources that influence air quality in the region. On average, closure between predicted aerosol water and that determined by comparison of ambient with dry light scattering coefficients was achieved to within 8 % (slope = 0.92, R2 = 0.8, n = 5201 points). Based on the scattering measurements, a parameterization is also derived, capable of reproducing the hygroscopic growth factor (f(RH)) within 15 % of the measured values. The highest aerosol water concentrations are observed during nighttime, when relative humidity is highest and the collapse of the boundary layer increases the aerosol concentration. A significant diurnal variability is found for Worg with morning and afternoon average mass concentrations being 10-15 times lower than nighttime concentrations, thus rendering Winorg the main form of particle water during daytime. The average value of total aerosol water was 2.19 ± 1.75 µg m-3, contributing on average up to 33 % of the total submicron mass concentration. Average aerosol water associated with organics, Worg, was equal to 0.56 ± 0.37 µg m-3; thus, organics

  2. Polymorphism at expressed DQ and DR loci in five common equine MHC haplotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Donald; Tallmadge, Rebecca L; Binns, Matthew; Zhu, Baoli; Mohamoud, Yasmin Ali; Ahmed, Ayeda; Brooks, Samantha A; Antczak, Douglas F

    2017-03-01

    The polymorphism of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II DQ and DR genes in five common equine leukocyte antigen (ELA) haplotypes was determined through sequencing of mRNA transcripts isolated from lymphocytes of eight ELA homozygous horses. Ten expressed MHC class II genes were detected in horses of the ELA-A3 haplotype carried by the donor horses of the equine bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library and the reference genome sequence: four DR genes and six DQ genes. The other four ELA haplotypes contained at least eight expressed polymorphic MHC class II loci. Next generation sequencing (NGS) of genomic DNA of these four MHC haplotypes revealed stop codons in the DQA3 gene in the ELA-A2, ELA-A5, and ELA-A9 haplotypes. Few NGS reads were obtained for the other MHC class II genes that were not amplified in these horses. The amino acid sequences across haplotypes contained locus-specific residues, and the locus clusters produced by phylogenetic analysis were well supported. The MHC class II alleles within the five tested haplotypes were largely non-overlapping between haplotypes. The complement of equine MHC class II DQ and DR genes appears to be well conserved between haplotypes, in contrast to the recently described variation in class I gene loci between equine MHC haplotypes. The identification of allelic series of equine MHC class II loci will aid comparative studies of mammalian MHC conservation and evolution and may also help to interpret associations between the equine MHC class II region and diseases of the horse.

  3. Aerosol particles at a high-altitude site on the Southeast Tibetan Plateau, China: Implications for pollution transport from South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhuzi; Cao, Junji; Shen, Zhenxing; Xu, Baiqing; Zhu, Chongshu; Chen, L.-W. Antony; Su, Xiaoli; Liu, Suixin; Han, Yongming; Wang, Gehui; Ho, Kinfai

    2013-10-01

    aerosol samples were collected from 16 July 2008 to 26 July 2009 at Lulang, a high-altitude (>3300m above sea level) site on the southeast Tibetan Plateau (TP); objectives were to determine chemical characteristics of the aerosol and identify its major sources. We report aerosol (total suspended particulate, TSP) mass levels and the concentrations of selected elements, carbonaceous species, and water-soluble inorganic ions. Significant buildup of aerosol mass and chemical species (organic carbon, element carbon, nitrate, and sulfate) occurred during the premonsoon, while lower concentrations were observed during the monsoon. Seasonal variations in aerosol and chemical species were driven by precipitation scavenging and atmospheric circulation. Two kinds of high-aerosol episodes were observed: one was enriched with dust indicators (Fe and Ca2+), and the other was enhanced with organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC), SO42-, NO3-, and Fe. The TSP loadings during the latter were 3 to 6 times those on normal days. The greatest aerosol optical depths (National Centers for Environmental Protection/National Center for Atmospheric Research reanalysis) occurred upwind, in eastern India and Bangladesh, and trajectory analysis indicates that air pollutants were transported from the southwest. Northwesterly winds brought high levels of natural emissions (Fe, Ca2+) and low levels of pollutants (SO42-, NO3-, K+, and EC); this was consistent with high aerosol optical depths over the western deserts and Gobi. Our work provides evidence that both geological and pollution aerosols from surrounding regions impact the aerosol population of the TP.

  4. Aerosol dynamics in porous media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghazaryan, Lilya

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis, a computational model was developed for the simulation of aerosol formation through nucleation, followed by condensation and evaporation and filtration by porous material. Understanding aerosol dynamics in porous media can help improving engineering models that are used in various in

  5. Detection of Cryptosporidium and Giardia doudenalis in equines in Nineveh, Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. T. Butty

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 107 fecal samples of equines from different regions in Nineveh, were colleted from January 2007 till December 2007 and examined for Cryptosporidium sp., and Giardia doudenalis by using different methods (wet mount, flotation, lugol's iodine, modified Ziehl Nelsecn (hot and Giemsa stain Just for Giardia doudenalis. The animal age examined ranged from 4 to 10 years. The total prevalence of cryptosporidium sp. was 27.10% (29 out of 107, while the prevalence of Giardia doudenalis was 19.63% (21 out of 107. This study represents the first trial to explore cryptosporidiosis, giardiasis in equines as in Nineveh there is no survey of these intestinal protozoa.

  6. Influence of equine growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-I and its interaction with gonadotropins on in vitro maturation and cytoskeleton morphology in equine oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, G R; Lorenzo, P L; Carneiro, G F; Ball, B A; Pegoraro, L M C; Pimentel, C A; Liu, I K M

    2013-09-01

    In horses, successful in vitro fertilization procedures are limited by our inability to consistently mature equine oocytes by in vitro methods. Growth hormone (GH) is an important regulator of female reproduction in mammals, playing an important role in ovarian function, follicular growth and steroidogenesis. The objectives of this research were to investigate: the effects of equine growth hormone (eGH) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) on the in vitro maturation (IVM) of equine oocytes, and the effects of eGH in addition to estradiol (E2), gonadotropins (FSH and LH) and fetal calf serum (FCS) on IVM. We also evaluated the cytoskeleton organization of equine oocytes after IVM with eGH. Equine oocytes were aspirated from follicles <30 mm in diameter and matured for 30 h at 38.5°C in air with 5% CO2. In experiment 1, selected cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were randomly allocated as follows: (a) control (no additives); (b) 400 ng/ml eGH; (c) 200 ng/ml IGF-I; (d) eGH + IGF-I; and (e) eGH + IGF-I + 200 ng/ml anti-IGF-I. In addition to these treatment groups, we also added 1 μg/ml E2, 5 IU/ml FSH, 10 IU/ml LH and 10% FCS in vitro (experiment 2). Oocytes were stained with markers for microtubules (anti-α-tubulin antibody), microfilaments (AlexaFluor 488 Phalloidin) and chromatin (TO-PRO3-iodide) and assessed via confocal microscopy. No difference was observed when eGH and IGF-I was added into our IVM system. However, following incubation with eGH alone (40%) and eGH, E2, gonadotropins and FCS (36.6%) oocytes were classified as mature v. 17.6% of oocytes in the control group (P < 0.05). Matured equine oocytes showed that a thin network of filaments concentrated within the oocyte cortex and microtubules at the metaphase spindle showed a symmetrical barrel-shaped structure, with chromosomes aligned along its midline. We conclude that the use of E2, gonadotropins and FCS in the presence of eGH increases the number of oocytes reaching oocyte competence.

  7. Prevalence of equine herpesvirus type 2 (EHV-2) DNA in ocular swabs and its cell tropism in equine conjunctiva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchers, K; Ebert, M; Fetsch, A; Hammond, T; Sterner-Kock, A

    2006-12-20

    Equine herpes virus 2 (EHV-2), a gamma(2)-herpesvirus, is common in horses of all ages. Its role as a primary pathogen is unclear but there is an association between EHV-2, respiratory disease and keratoconjunctivitis. The purpose of this study was to gain more information on the prevalence of EHV-2 DNA in conjunctival swabs from horses with and without ocular disease and to define the anatomical site and cell type harbouring viral genome or antigen. By polymerase chain reaction (PCR) 22 out of 77 (28.6%) ocular swabs of clinically healthy and only 4 out of 48 (8.3%) samples from diseased horses were positive. To define the main virus reservoir ocular tissue from 13 randomly selected horses without pathological evidence of ocular disease were analysed by nested PCR. In two horses optic nerve, lacrimal gland and conjunctiva, in further two cases lacrimal gland and conjunctiva and in four horses the conjunctiva only were EHV-2 PCR positive. For specifying the target cell we focused on conjunctivae and selected 3 out of 15 clinically healthy slaughterhouse horses positive for EHV-2 by PCR. In situ hybridisation on sections of these paraffin embedded conjunctivae localized viral genome in histiocyte-like cells of the submucosa. Immunohistochemical staining with an EHV-2 or S100 specific polyclonal antiserum demonstrated that Langerhans cells were co-localized in the same region of the sample section where virus positive cells were detected. Furthermore, we concluded that detection of viral antigen revealed a productive virus infection.

  8. Aerosols indirectly warm the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Mauritsen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available On average, airborne aerosol particles cool the Earth's surface directly by absorbing and scattering sunlight and indirectly by influencing cloud reflectivity, life time, thickness or extent. Here we show that over the central Arctic Ocean, where there is frequently a lack of aerosol particles upon which clouds may form, a small increase in aerosol loading may enhance cloudiness thereby likely causing a climatologically significant warming at the ice-covered Arctic surface. Under these low concentration conditions cloud droplets grow to drizzle sizes and fall, even in the absence of collisions and coalescence, thereby diminishing cloud water. Evidence from a case study suggests that interactions between aerosol, clouds and precipitation could be responsible for attaining the observed low aerosol concentrations.

  9. An Indigenously Developed Insecticidal Aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. N. Varma

    1969-10-01

    Full Text Available A total of 6 "Test" insecticidal aerosols (TA-I to VI indigenously produced were tested during the years 1966-67 as suitable replacements for imported aerosols.TA-I produced deep yellow staining and a yellowish spray mist. Its capacity was only 120 ml fluid. TA-III types II and III containing modified aerosol formulation with "Esso solvent 3245" and mineral turpentine oil (Burmah Shelland Freon 12 11 (all indigenouswere comparable to he "SRA" in insecticidial efficacy. The container was also manufactured in the country and it compared well with the "SRA" in construction, resistance against rough usage and mechanical function. They were both finally approved for introduction in the services as replacement for imported aerosols. TA-IV performed well in inscticidial assessment, but the aerosols formulation. TA-V and VI were similar to TA-III types II and III respectively.

  10. Fine mode aerosol chemistry over a rural atmosphere near the north-east coast of Bay of Bengal in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adak, Anandamay; Chatterjee, Abhijit; Ghosh, Sanjay; Raha, Sibaji; Roy, Arindam

    2016-07-01

    A study was conducted on the chemical characterization of fine mode aerosol or PM2.5 over a rural atmosphere near the coast of Bay of Bengal in eastern India. Samples were collected and analyzed during March 2013 - February 2014. The concentration of PM2.5 was found span over a wide range from as low as 3 µg m-3 to as high as 180 µg m-3. The average concentration of PM2.5 was 62 µg m-3. Maximum accumulation of fine mode aerosol was observed during winter whereas minimum was observed during monsoon. Water soluble ionic species of fine mode aerosol were characterized over this rural atmosphere. In spite of being situated near the coast of Bay of Bengal, we observed significantly higher concentrations for anthropogenic species like ammonium and sulphate. The concentrations of these two species were much higher than the sea-salt aerosols. Ammonium and sulphate contributed around 30 % to the total fine mode aerosols. Even dust aerosol species like calcium also showed higher concentrations. Chloride to sodium ratio was found to be much less than that in standard sea-water indicating strong interaction between sea-salt and anthropogenic aerosols. Use of fertilizers in various crop fields and human and animal wastes significantly increased ammonium in fine mode aerosols. Dust aerosol species were accumulated in the atmosphere which could be due to transport of finer dust species from nearby metropolis or locally generated. Non-sea-sulphate and nitrate showed significant contributions in fine mode aerosols having both local and transported sources. Source apportionment shows prominent emission sources of anthropogenic aerosols from local anthropogenic activities and transported from nearby Kolkata metropolis as well.

  11. Serological evidence of widespread circulation of West Nile virus and other flaviviruses in equines of the Pantanal, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauvolid-Corrêa, Alex; Campos, Zilca; Juliano, Raquel; Velez, Jason; Nogueira, Rita Maria Ribeiro; Komar, Nicholas

    2014-02-01

    A recent study reported neutralizing antibodies to West Nile virus (WNV) in horses from four ranches of southern Pantanal. To extend that study, a serosurvey for WNV and 11 Brazilian flaviviruses was conducted with 760 equines, 238 sheep and 61 caimans from 17 local cattle ranches. Among the tested equines, 32 were collected from a ranch where a neurologic disorder outbreak had been recently reported. The sera were initially screened by using a blocking ELISA and then titrated by 90% plaque-reduction neutralization test (PRNT90) for 12 flaviviruses. Employing the criterion of 4-fold greater titer, 78 (10.3%) equines were seropositive for Ilheus virus, 59 (7.8%) for Saint Louis encephalitis virus, 24 (3.2%) for WNV, two (0.3%) for Cacipacore virus and one (0.1%) for Rocio virus. No serological evidence was found linking the neurological disease that affected local equines to WNV. All caimans and sheep were negative by blocking ELISA for flaviviruses. There were no seropositive equines for Bussuquara, Iguape, Yellow fever and all four Dengue virus serotypes. The detection of WNV-seropositive equines in ten ranches and ILHV and SLEV-seropositive equines in fourteen ranches of two different sub-regions of Pantanal is strong evidence of widespread circulation of these flaviviruses in the region.

  12. Venezuelan equine encephalitis emergence: Enhanced vector infection from a single amino acid substitution in the envelope glycoprotein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brault, Aaron C.; Powers, Ann M.; Ortiz, Diana; Estrada-Franco, Jose G.; Navarro-Lopez, Roberto; Weaver, Scott C.

    2004-01-01

    In 1993 and 1996, subtype IE Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) virus caused epizootics in the Mexican states of Chiapas and Oaxaca. Previously, only subtype IAB and IC VEE virus strains had been associated with major outbreaks of equine and human disease. The IAB and IC epizootics are believed to emerge via adaptation of enzootic (sylvatic, equine-avirulent) strains for high titer equine viremia that results in efficient infection of mosquito vectors. However, experimental equine infections with subtype IE equine isolates from the Mexican outbreaks demonstrated neuro-virulence but little viremia, inconsistent with typical VEE emergence mechanisms. Therefore, we hypothesized that changes in the mosquito vector host range might have contributed to the Mexican emergence. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the susceptibility of the most abundant mosquito in the deforested Pacific coastal locations of the VEE outbreaks and a proven epizootic vector, Ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus. The Mexican epizootic equine isolates exhibited significantly greater infectivity compared with closely related enzootic strains, supporting the hypothesis that adaptation to an efficient epizootic vector contributed to disease emergence. Reverse genetic studies implicated a Ser → Asn substitution in the E2 envelope glycoprotein as the major determinant of the increased vector infectivity phenotype. Our findings underscore the capacity of RNA viruses to alter their vector host range through minor genetic changes, resulting in the potential for disease emergence. PMID:15277679

  13. Appropriate threshold levels of cardiac beat-to-beat variation in semi-automatic analysis of equine ECG recordings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mette Flethøj; Kanters, Jørgen K.; Pedersen, Philip Juul

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although premature beats are a matter of concern in horses, the interpretation of equine ECG recordings is complicated by a lack of standardized analysis criteria and a limited knowledge of the normal beat-to-beat variation of equine cardiac rhythm. The purpose of this study was to de......Background: Although premature beats are a matter of concern in horses, the interpretation of equine ECG recordings is complicated by a lack of standardized analysis criteria and a limited knowledge of the normal beat-to-beat variation of equine cardiac rhythm. The purpose of this study...... was to determine the appropriate threshold levels of maximum acceptable deviation of RR intervals in equine ECG analysis, and to evaluate a novel two-step timing algorithm by quantifying the frequency of arrhythmias in a cohort of healthy adult endurance horses. Results: Beat-to-beat variation differed......, range 1–24). Conclusions: Beat-to-beat variation of equine cardiac rhythm varies according to HR, and threshold levels in equine ECG analysis should be adjusted accordingly. Standardization of the analysis criteria will enable comparisons of studies and follow-up examinations of patients. A small number...

  14. Atmospheric and aerosol chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeill, V. Faye [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Ariya, Parisa A. (ed.) [McGill Univ. Montreal, QC (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry; McGill Univ. Montreal, QC (Canada). Dept. of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences

    2014-09-01

    This series presents critical reviews of the present position and future trends in modern chemical research. Short and concise reports on chemistry, each written by the world renowned experts. Still valid and useful after 5 or 10 years. More information as well as the electronic version of the whole content available at: springerlink.com. Christian George, Barbara D'Anna, Hartmut Herrmann, Christian Weller, Veronica Vaida, D. J. Donaldson, Thorsten Bartels-Rausch, Markus Ammann Emerging Areas in Atmospheric Photochemistry. Lisa Whalley, Daniel Stone, Dwayne Heard New Insights into the Tropospheric Oxidation of Isoprene: Combining Field Measurements, Laboratory Studies, Chemical Modelling and Quantum Theory. Neil M. Donahue, Allen L. Robinson, Erica R. Trump, Ilona Riipinen, Jesse H. Kroll Volatility and Aging of Atmospheric Organic Aerosol. P. A. Ariya, G. Kos, R. Mortazavi, E. D. Hudson, V. Kanthasamy, N. Eltouny, J. Sun, C. Wilde Bio-Organic Materials in the Atmosphere and Snow: Measurement and Characterization V. Faye McNeill, Neha Sareen, Allison N. Schwier Surface-Active Organics in Atmospheric Aerosols.

  15. The role of IKKβ in Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moushimi Amaya

    Full Text Available Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV belongs to the genus Alphavirus, family Togaviridae. VEEV infection is characterized by extensive inflammation and studies from other laboratories implicated an involvement of the NF-κB cascade in the in vivo pathology. Initial studies indicated that at early time points of VEEV infection, the NF-κB complex was activated in cells infected with the TC-83 strain of VEEV. One upstream kinase that contributes to the phosphorylation of p65 is the IKKβ component of the IKK complex. Our previous studies with Rift valley fever virus, which exhibited early activation of the NF-κB cascade in infected cells, had indicated that the IKKβ component underwent macromolecular reorganization to form a novel low molecular weight form unique to infected cells. This prompted us to investigate if the IKK complex undergoes a comparable macromolecular reorganization in VEEV infection. Size-fractionated VEEV infected cell extracts indicated a macromolecular reorganization of IKKβ in VEEV infected cells that resulted in formation of lower molecular weight complexes. Well-documented inhibitors of IKKβ function, BAY-11-7082, BAY-11-7085 and IKK2 compound IV, were employed to determine whether IKKβ function was required for the production of infectious progeny virus. A decrease in infectious viral particles and viral RNA copies was observed with inhibitor treatment in the attenuated and virulent strains of VEEV infection. In order to further validate the requirement of IKKβ for VEEV replication, we over-expressed IKKβ in cells and observed an increase in viral titers. In contrast, studies carried out using IKKβ(-/- cells demonstrated a decrease in VEEV replication. In vivo studies demonstrated that inhibitor treatment of TC-83 infected mice increased their survival. Finally, proteomics studies have revealed that IKKβ may interact with the viral protein nsP3. In conclusion, our studies have revealed that the host IKK

  16. Equine botulinum antitoxin for the treatment of infant botulism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanella de Cuetos, Elida E; Fernandez, Rafael A; Bianco, María I; Sartori, Omar J; Piovano, María L; Lúquez, Carolina; de Jong, Laura I T

    2011-11-01

    Infant botulism is the most common form of human botulism in Argentina and the United States. BabyBIG (botulism immune globulin intravenous [human]) is the antitoxin of choice for specific treatment of infant botulism in the United States. However, its high cost limits its use in many countries. We report here the effectiveness and safety of equine botulinum antitoxin (EqBA) as an alternative treatment. We conducted an analytical, observational, retrospective, and longitudinal study on cases of infant botulism registered in Mendoza, Argentina, from 1993 to 2007. We analyzed 92 medical records of laboratory-confirmed cases and evaluated the safety and efficacy of treatment with EqBA. Forty-nine laboratory-confirmed cases of infant botulism demanding admission in intensive care units and mechanical ventilation included 31 treated with EqBA within the 5 days after the onset of signs and 18 untreated with EqBA. EqBA-treated patients had a reduction in the mean length of hospital stay of 23.9 days (P = 0.0007). For infants treated with EqBA, the intensive care unit stay was shortened by 11.2 days (P = 0.0036), mechanical ventilation was reduced by 11.1 days (P = 0.0155), and tube feeding was reduced by 24.4 days (P = 0.0001). The incidence of sepsis in EqBA-treated patients was 47.3% lower (P = 0.0017) than in the untreated ones. Neither sequelae nor adverse effects attributable to EqBA were noticed, except for one infant who developed a transient erythematous rash. These results suggest that prompt treatment of infant botulism with EqBA is safe and effective and that EqBA could be considered an alternative specific treatment for infant botulism when BabyBIG is not available.

  17. Equine Botulinum Antitoxin for the Treatment of Infant Botulism ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanella de Cuetos, Elida E.; Fernandez, Rafael A.; Bianco, María I.; Sartori, Omar J.; Piovano, María L.; Lúquez, Carolina; de Jong, Laura I. T.

    2011-01-01

    Infant botulism is the most common form of human botulism in Argentina and the United States. BabyBIG (botulism immune globulin intravenous [human]) is the antitoxin of choice for specific treatment of infant botulism in the United States. However, its high cost limits its use in many countries. We report here the effectiveness and safety of equine botulinum antitoxin (EqBA) as an alternative treatment. We conducted an analytical, observational, retrospective, and longitudinal study on cases of infant botulism registered in Mendoza, Argentina, from 1993 to 2007. We analyzed 92 medical records of laboratory-confirmed cases and evaluated the safety and efficacy of treatment with EqBA. Forty-nine laboratory-confirmed cases of infant botulism demanding admission in intensive care units and mechanical ventilation included 31 treated with EqBA within the 5 days after the onset of signs and 18 untreated with EqBA. EqBA-treated patients had a reduction in the mean length of hospital stay of 23.9 days (P = 0.0007). For infants treated with EqBA, the intensive care unit stay was shortened by 11.2 days (P = 0.0036), mechanical ventilation was reduced by 11.1 days (P = 0.0155), and tube feeding was reduced by 24.4 days (P = 0.0001). The incidence of sepsis in EqBA-treated patients was 47.3% lower (P = 0.0017) than in the untreated ones. Neither sequelae nor adverse effects attributable to EqBA were noticed, except for one infant who developed a transient erythematous rash. These results suggest that prompt treatment of infant botulism with EqBA is safe and effective and that EqBA could be considered an alternative specific treatment for infant botulism when BabyBIG is not available. PMID:21918119

  18. The rabbit as an infection model for equine proliferative enteropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampieri, Francesca; Allen, Andrew L; Pusterla, Nicola; Vannucci, Fabio A; Antonopoulos, Aphroditi J; Ball, Katherine R; Thompson, Julie; Dowling, Patricia M; Hamilton, Don L; Gebhart, Connie J

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate the susceptibility of rabbits to Lawsonia intracellularis obtained from a case of clinical equine proliferative enteropathy (EPE). This is a preliminary step toward developing a rabbit infection model for studying pathogenesis and therapy of EPE in horses. Nine does were equally assigned to 3 groups. Animals in 2 groups (Group 1 and Group 2) were orally inoculated with different doses of cell-cultured L. intracellularis. Controls (Group 3) were sham-inoculated. Feces and blood were collected before the rabbits were infected and at 7, 14, and 21 days post-infection (DPI). Serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) titers were measured using an immunoperoxidase monolayer assay (IPMA) and fecal samples were analyzed with quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). A doe from each group was euthanized at 7, 14, and 21 DPI for collection and evaluation of intestinal samples. Tissues were stained by routine hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) method and immunohistochemistry (IHC) with L. intracellularis-specific mouse monoclonal antibody. At 14 DPI, serologic responses were detected in both infected groups, which maintained high titers through to 21 DPI. Lawsonia intracellularis DNA was detected in the feces of Group 2 on 7 DPI and in both infected groups on 14 DPI. Gross lesions were apparent in Group 1 and Group 2 on 14 DPI. Immunohistochemistry confirmed L. intracellularis antigen within cells of rabbits in Group 1 and Group 2 on 7, 14, and 21 DPI. No lesions, serologic response, shedding, or IHC labeling were found in Group 3 rabbits. This study describes an EPE rabbit model that simulates natural infection, as typical lesions, immune response, and fecal shedding were present.

  19. The rabbit as an infection model for equine proliferative enteropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampieri, Francesca; Allen, Andrew L.; Pusterla, Nicola; Vannucci, Fabio A.; Antonopoulos, Aphroditi J.; Ball, Katherine R.; Thompson, Julie; Dowling, Patricia M.; Hamilton, Don L.; Gebhart, Connie J.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate the susceptibility of rabbits to Lawsonia intracellularis obtained from a case of clinical equine proliferative enteropathy (EPE). This is a preliminary step toward developing a rabbit infection model for studying pathogenesis and therapy of EPE in horses. Nine does were equally assigned to 3 groups. Animals in 2 groups (Group 1 and Group 2) were orally inoculated with different doses of cell-cultured L. intracellularis. Controls (Group 3) were sham-inoculated. Feces and blood were collected before the rabbits were infected and at 7, 14, and 21 days post-infection (DPI). Serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) titers were measured using an immunoperoxidase monolayer assay (IPMA) and fecal samples were analyzed with quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). A doe from each group was euthanized at 7, 14, and 21 DPI for collection and evaluation of intestinal samples. Tissues were stained by routine hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) method and immunohistochemistry (IHC) with L. intracellularis-specific mouse monoclonal antibody. At 14 DPI, serologic responses were detected in both infected groups, which maintained high titers through to 21 DPI. Lawsonia intracellularis DNA was detected in the feces of Group 2 on 7 DPI and in both infected groups on 14 DPI. Gross lesions were apparent in Group 1 and Group 2 on 14 DPI. Immunohistochemistry confirmed L. intracellularis antigen within cells of rabbits in Group 1 and Group 2 on 7, 14, and 21 DPI. No lesions, serologic response, shedding, or IHC labeling were found in Group 3 rabbits. This study describes an EPE rabbit model that simulates natural infection, as typical lesions, immune response, and fecal shedding were present. PMID:24082402

  20. International Cooperative for Aerosol Prediction Workshop on Aerosol Forecast Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Angela; Reid, Jeffrey S.; Colarco, Peter R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this workshop was to reinforce the working partnership between centers who are actively involved in global aerosol forecasting, and to discuss issues related to forecast verification. Participants included representatives from operational centers with global aerosol forecasting requirements, a panel of experts on Numerical Weather Prediction and Air Quality forecast verification, data providers, and several observers from the research community. The presentations centered on a review of current NWP and AQ practices with subsequent discussion focused on the challenges in defining appropriate verification measures for the next generation of aerosol forecast systems.

  1. Aerosol Seasonal Variations over Urban-Industrial Regions in Ukraine According to AERONET and POLDER Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milinevsky, G.; Danylevsky, V.; Bovchaliuk, V.; Bovchaliuk, A.; Goloub, Ph.; Dubovik, O.; Kabashnikov, V.; Chaikovsky, A.; Miatselskaya, N.; Mishchenko, M.; Sosonkin, M.

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents an investigation of aerosol seasonal variations in several urban-industrial regions in Ukraine. Our analysis of seasonal variations of optical and physical aerosol parameters is based on the sun-photometer 2008-2013 data from two urban ground-based AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) sites in Ukraine (Kyiv, Lugansk) as well as on satellite POLDER instrument data for urban-industrial areas in Ukraine. We also analyzed the data from one AERONET site in Belarus (Minsk) in order to compare with the Ukrainian sites. Aerosol amount and optical depth (AOD) values in the atmosphere columns over the large urbanized areas like Kyiv and Minsk have maximum values in the spring (April-May) and late summer (August), whereas minimum values are observed in late autumn. The results show that fine-mode particles are most frequently detected during the spring and late summer seasons. The analysis of the seasonal AOD variations over the urban-industrial areas in the eastern and central parts of Ukraine according to both ground-based and POLDER data exhibits the similar traits. The seasonal variation similarity in the regions denotes the resemblance in basic aerosol sources that are closely related to properties of aerosol particles. The behavior of basic aerosol parameters in the western part of Ukraine is different from eastern and central regions and shows an earlier appearance of the spring and summer AOD maxima. Spectral single-scattering albedo, complex refractive index and size distribution of aerosol particles in the atmosphere column over Kyiv have different behavior for warm (April-October) and cold seasons. The seasonal features of fine and coarse aerosol particle behavior over the Kyiv site were analyzed. A prevailing influence of the fine-mode particles on the optical properties of the aerosol layer over the region has been established. The back-trajectory and cluster analysis techniques were applied to study the seasonal back trajectories and prevailing

  2. The GRAPE aerosol retrieval algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. E. Thomas

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The aerosol component of the Oxford-Rutherford Aerosol and Cloud (ORAC combined cloud and aerosol retrieval scheme is described and the theoretical performance of the algorithm is analysed. ORAC is an optimal estimation retrieval scheme for deriving cloud and aerosol properties from measurements made by imaging satellite radiometers and, when applied to cloud free radiances, provides estimates of aerosol optical depth at a wavelength of 550 nm, aerosol effective radius and surface reflectance at 550 nm. The aerosol retrieval component of ORAC has several incarnations – this paper addresses the version which operates in conjunction with the cloud retrieval component of ORAC (described by Watts et al., 1998, as applied in producing the Global Retrieval of ATSR Cloud Parameters and Evaluation (GRAPE data-set.

    The algorithm is described in detail and its performance examined. This includes a discussion of errors resulting from the formulation of the forward model, sensitivity of the retrieval to the measurements and a priori constraints, and errors resulting from assumptions made about the atmospheric/surface state.

  3. A vectored equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) vaccine elicits protective immune responses against EHV-1 and H3N8 equine influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Walle, Gerlinde R; May, Maeva A; Peters, Sarah T; Metzger, Stephan M; Rosas, Cristina T; Osterrieder, Nikolaus

    2010-01-22

    Vaccination is commonly used to control equine respiratory pathogens such as equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) and equine influenza virus (EIV). Here, we describe the generation and characterization of a recombinant EHV-1 modified live virus vaccine (MLV) based on a recent abortogenic EHV-1 strain, NY03. The immunogenicity and efficacy of the MLV was tested in horses in an EHV-1 vaccination/challenge experiment using the highly virulent neurovirulent EHV-1 strain OH03. Induction of a robust EHV-1-specific immune response was observed. Upon challenge infection, vaccinated horses were partially protected against disease as demonstrated by a significant reduction in clinical signs, nasal shedding and viremia levels. In addition, the NY03-based MLV was used to express the EIV H3 protein and immunogenicity was tested in horses. Expression of H3 was readily detected in NY03-H3-infected cells in vitro. Vaccination of horses resulted in the induction of a robust serological immune responses against two recent but genetically distinct EIV representatives, VA05 and NY-99, which were above the threshold predicted to be protective against development of clinical disease.

  4. Serological detection of St. Louis encephalitis virus and West Nile virus in equines from Santa Fe, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauro, Laura; Marino, Betina; Diaz, Luis Adrian; Lucca, Eduardo; Gallozo, Debora; Spinsanti, Lorena; Contigiani, Marta

    2012-06-01

    St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) and West Nile virus (WNV) present ecological and antigenic similarities and are responsible for serious human diseases. In addition, WNV is a significant pathogen in terms of equine health. The purpose of our study was to analyse the seroprevalence of SLEV and WNV in equine sera collected in Santa Fe Province, Argentina. The seroprevalence determined using the plaque reduction neutralisation test was 12.2% for SLEV, 16.2% for WNV and 48.6% for a combination of both viruses. These results provide evidence of the co-circulation of SLEV and WNV in equines in Santa Fe.

  5. 1,5 iodonaphthyl Azide Inactivated V3526 Protects against Aerosol Challenge with Virulent Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-02

    Research Institute of Infectious Diseases , Fort Detrick, MD 21702. *Correspondence should be addressed to: Dr. Radha K. Maheshwari, 4301 Jones Bridge...immunization was done with equal volumes of saline for each route of immunization. Serum was collected by retro-orbital bleed from animals in all the groups...United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID), Frederick, MD. Research was conducted under an IACUC approved protocol

  6. Pre-monsoon aerosol characteristics over the Indo-Gangetic Basin: implications to climatic impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, A. K.; Tiwari, S.; Devara, P. C. S.; Bisht, D. S.; Srivastava, Manoj K.; Tripathi, S. N.; Goloub, P.; Holben, B. N.

    2011-05-01

    Sun/sky radiometer observations over the Indo-Gangetic Basin (IGB) region during pre-monsoon (from April-June 2009) have been processed to analyze various aerosol characteristics in the central and eastern IGB region, represented by Kanpur and Gandhi College, respectively, and their impacts on climate in terms of radiative forcing. Monthly mean aerosol optical depth (AOD at 500 nm) and corresponding Angstrom Exponent (AE at 440-870 nm, given within the brackets) was observed to be about 0.50 (0.49) and 0.51 (0.65) in April, 0.65 (0.74) and 0.67 (0.91) in May and 0.69 (0.45) and 0.77 (0.71) in June at Kanpur and Gandhi College, respectively. Results show a positive gradient in AOD and AE from central to eastern IGB region with the advancement of the pre-monsoon, which may be caused due to diverse geographical location of the stations having different meteorological conditions and emission sources. Relatively lower SSA was observed at the eastern IGB (0.89) than the central IGB (0.92) region during the period, which suggests relative dominance of absorbing aerosols at the eastern IGB as compared to central IGB region. The absorbing aerosol optical properties over the station suggest that the atmospheric absorption over central IGB region is mainly due to dominance of coarse-mode dust particles; however, absorption over eastern IGB region is mainly due to dominance of fine-particle pollution. The derived properties from sun/sky radiometer during pre-monsoon period are used in a radiative-transfer model to estimate aerosol radiative forcing at the top-of-the atmosphere (TOA) and at the surface over the IGB region. Relatively large TOA and surface cooling was observed at the eastern IGB as compared to the central IGB region. This translates into large heating of the atmosphere ranging from 0.45 to 0.55 K day-1 at Kanpur and from 0.45 to 0.59 K day-1 at Gandhi College.

  7. Effects of inulin chain length on fermentation by equine fecal bacteria and Streptococcus bovis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fructans from pasture can be fermented by Gram-positive bacteria (e.g., Streptococcus bovis) in the equine hindgut, increasing production of lactic acid and decreasing pH. The degree of polymerization (DP) of fructans has been suggested to influence fermentation rates. The objective of the current ...

  8. [Neurological disorders caused by equine herpesvirus type 1 and cauda equina neuritis in horses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M M; Binkhorst, G J

    1984-12-15

    The differences in aetiology, symptomatology, pathomorphology, diagnosis and therapy between the nervous form (paralytic form) of Equine Herpes Virus, type 1, and Neuritis Caudae Equinae are reviewed. The conclusion is that in most cases it is possible to differentiate between these two clinical syndromes.

  9. Experimental transmission of equine hepacivirus in horses as a model for hepatitis C virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Equine hepacivirus (EHCV; non-primate hepacivirus) is a hepatotropic member of the Flaviviridae family that infects horses. Although EHCV is the closest known relative to hepatitis C virus (HCV), its complete replication kinetics in vivo have not been described, and direct evidence that it causes he...

  10. Concepts for the clinical use of stem cells in equine medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Thomas Gadegaard; Berg, Lise Charlotte; Betts, Dean H.

    2008-01-01

    Stem cells from various tissues hold great promise for their therapeutic use in horses, but so far efficacy or proof-of-principle has not been established. The basic characteristics and properties of various equine stem cells remain largely unknown, despite their increasingly widespread experimen...

  11. Application of optical coherence tomography enhances reproducibility of arthroscopic evaluation of equine joints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niemelä, Tytti; Virén, Tuomas; Liukkonen, Jukka; te Moller, Nikae; Puhakka, Pia H.; Jurvelin, Jukka S.; Tulamo, R.M.; Töyräs, Juha

    2014-01-01

    Background: Arthroscopy is widely used in various equine joints for diagnostic and surgical purposes. However, accuracy of defining the extent of cartilage lesions and reproducibility in grading of lesions are not optimal. Therefore, there is a need for new, more quantitative arthroscopic methods. A

  12. Climatic influences on development and survival of free-living stages of equine strongyles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin Krarup; Kaplan, Ray M.; Thamsborg, Stig Milan;

    2007-01-01

    Development of resistance to anthelmintic drugs by horse strongyles constitutes a growing threat to equine health because it is unknown when the new drug xlasses can be exoected on the market. Consequently, parasite control strategies should attemt to maintain drug efficacy for as long as possible...

  13. Diarrhea-associated pathogens, lactobacilli and cellulolytic bacteria in equine feces: responses to antibiotic challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antibiotics are important to equine medicine, but antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) can lead to poor performance and even mortality. AAD is attributed to disruption of the hindgut microbiota, which permits proliferation of pathogenic microbes. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects o...

  14. Prevalence and Antibiogram study of Rhodococcus equi in equines of Jammu and Kashmir, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, Irfan Ahmad; Kumar, Bablu; Taku, Anil; Bhardwaj, Rajinder Kumar; Bhat, Mohd Altaf; Badroo, Gulzar Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Rhodococcus equi infection in equines of Jammu and Kashmir, India, and evaluate the zoonotic threat posed by this organism to equine owners and tourists. One hundred and forty-one samples (98 samples from adult animals ≥5 years old and 43 samples from foals less than 6 months old) were collected in duplicate from nasopharyngeal tract of equines for isolation and direct PCR. A total of 12 isolates of R. equi were recovered, of which 9 were from foals and 3 from adult animals. Therefore, the present study recorded prevalence rates of 20.93% and 3.06% among foals and adult equines respectively. The prevalence rates were found to be 25.58% and 4.08% by 16S rRNA species-specific PCR among foals and adult animals respectively. Thus, the PCR-based assay was found to be more sensitive and helped in quick detection of R. equi than the culture based method which is time consuming and laborious. However, the culture-based method is still preferred due to some limitations of PCR. The antibiogram of the isolates revealed that erythromycin and rifampicin were the most effective antimicrobials with 100% sensitivity, followed by amoxicillin (66.67%), lincomycin (58.3%) and kanamycin (58.3%). The results also revealed that resistance was highest for penicillin G (50%), followed by kanamycin (25%) and streptomycin (25%).

  15. EX VIVO COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHIC EVALUATION OF MORPHOLOGY VARIATIONS IN EQUINE CERVICAL VERTEBRAE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veraa, Stefanie; Bergmann, Wilhelmina; van den Belt, Antoon Jan; Wijnberg, Inge; Back, Willem

    2016-01-01

    Diagnostic imaging is one of the pillars in the clinical workup of horses with clinical signs of cervical spinal disease. An improved awareness of morphologic variations in equine cervical vertebrae would be helpful for interpreting findings. The aim of this anatomic study was to describe CT variati

  16. Equine metabolic myopathies with emphasis on the diagnostic approach - Comparison with human myopathies - A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westermann, C. M.; Dorland, L.; Wijnberg, I. D.; van der Kolk, J. H.

    2007-01-01

    This review gives an overview of the presently known human and equine metabolic myopathies with emphasis on the diagnostic approach. Metabolic myopathies are muscle disorders caused by a biochemical defect of the skeletal muscle energy system, which results in inefficient muscle performance. Myopath

  17. Topographical mapping of biochemical properties of articular cartilage in the equine fetlock joint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brama, P.A.J.; Tekoppele, J.M.; Bank, R.A.; Karssenberg, D.; Barneveld, A.; Weeren, P.R. van

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate topographical differences in the biochemical composition of the extracellular matrix of articular cartilage of the normal equine fetlock joint. Water content, DNA content, glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content and a number of characteristics of the collagen network (t

  18. Effect of cytokines and ovarian steroids on equine endometrial function: an in vitro study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galvao, A.; Valente, L.; Skarzynski, D.J.; Szostek, A.; Piotrowska-Tomala, K.; Rebordao, M.R.; Mateus, L.; Ferreira-Dias, G.

    2013-01-01

    Regulation of immune-endocrine interactions in the equine endometrium is not fully understood. The aims of the present study were to: (1) investigate the presence of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF), interferon gamma (IFNG), Fas ligand (FASLG) and their receptors in the mare endometrium throughout

  19. The influence of casein and urea as nitrogen sources on in vitro equine caecal fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos, A.S.; Ferreira, L.M.M.; Martin-Rosset, W.; Cotovio, M.; Silva, F.; Bennett, R.N.; Cone, J.W.; Bessa, R.J.B.; Rodrigues, M.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    To access the fermentative response of equine caecal microbial population to nitrogen availability, an in vitro study was conducted using caecal contents provided with adequate energy sources and nitrogen as limiting nutrient. Two nitrogen (N) sources were provided, protein (casein) and non-protein

  20. Horses for Courses: Exploring the Limits of Leadership Development through Equine-Assisted Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Simon

    2014-01-01

    This article draws on insights taken from Lacanian psychoanalysis to rethink and resituate notions of the self and subjectivity within the theory and practice of experiential leadership development. Adopting an autoethnographic approach, it describes the author's own experience as a participant in a program of equine-assisted learning or…

  1. Chondrogenic potential of mesenchymal stromal cells derived from equine bone marrow and umbilical cord blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Lise Charlotte; Koch, Thomas Gadegaard; Heerkens, T.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Orthopaedic injury is the most common cause of lost training days or premature retirement in the equine athlete. Cell-based therapies are a potential new treatment option in musculo-skeletal diseases. Mesenthymal stromal cells (MSC) have been derived from multiple sources in the horse...

  2. 78 FR 9577 - Importation of Horses From Contagious Equine Metritis-Affected Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 93 RIN 0579-AD31 Importation of Horses From... the regulations regarding the importation of horses from countries affected with contagious equine metritis (CEM) by incorporating an additional certification requirement for imported horses 731 days of...

  3. 76 FR 52547 - Importation of Horses From Contagious Equine Metritis-Affected Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 93 RIN 0579-AD31 Importation of Horses From... importation of horses from countries affected with contagious equine metritis. We are also delaying the.... ``Subpart C--Horses,'' Sec. Sec. 93.300 through 93.326, pertains to the importation of horses into...

  4. Horses for Courses: Exploring the Limits of Leadership Development through Equine-Assisted Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Simon

    2014-01-01

    This article draws on insights taken from Lacanian psychoanalysis to rethink and resituate notions of the self and subjectivity within the theory and practice of experiential leadership development. Adopting an autoethnographic approach, it describes the author's own experience as a participant in a program of equine-assisted learning or…

  5. 76 FR 16683 - Importation of Horses From Contagious Equine Metritis-Affected Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    ... Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 93 RIN 0579-AD31 Importation of Horses From Contagious Equine Metritis-Affected... comments. SUMMARY: We are amending the regulations regarding the importation of horses from countries... imported horses 731 days of age or less and adding new testing protocols for test mares and...

  6. Sequence analysis of trinucleotide repeat microsatellites from an enrichment library of the equine genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozaki, T; Inoue, S; Mashima, S; Ohta, M; Miura, N; Tomita, M

    2000-04-01

    Microsatellites are useful tools for the construction of a linkage map and parentage testing of equines, but only a limited number of equine microsatellites have been elucidated. Thus, we constructed the equine genomic library enriched for DNA fragments containing (CAG)n repeats. The enriched method includes hybridization-capture of repeat regions using biotin-conjugated oligonucleotides, nucleotide substrate-biased polymerase reaction with the oligonucleotides and subsequent PCR amplification, because these procedures are useful for the cloning of less abundant trinucleotide microsatellites. Microsatellites containing (CAG)n repeats were obtained at the ratio of one per 3-4 clones, indicating an enrichment value about 10(4)-fold, resulting in less time consumption and less cost for cloning. In this study, 66 different microsatellites, (CAG)n repeats, were identified. The number of complete simple CAG repeats in our clones ranged 4-33, with an average repeat length of 8.8 units. The microsatellites were useful as sequence-tagged site (STS) markers. In addition, some clones containing (CAG)n repeats showed homology to human (CAG)n-containing genes, which have been previously mapped. These results indicate that the clones might be a useful tool for chromosome comparison between equines and humans.

  7. Glucose homeostasis and the enteroinsular axis in the horse a possible role in equine metabolic syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf-Roelfsema, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    One of the principal components of equine metabolic syndrome (EMS) is hyperinsulinaemia combined with insulin resistance. It has long been known that hyperinsulinaemia occurs after the development of insulin resistance. But it is also known that hyperinsulinaemia itself can induce insulin resistance

  8. Continuing evolution of equine influenza virus in Central Asia, 2007-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamendin, Kobey; Kydyrmanov, A; Kasymbekov, Y; Khan, E; Daulbayeva, K; Asanova, S; Zhumatov, K; Seidalina, A; Sayatov, M; Fereidouni, S R

    2014-09-01

    Equine influenza (EI) continues to be an important respiratory pathogen of horses worldwide. Since 2007 several outbreaks of EI have occurred in Central Asian countries, including Kazakhstan, western Mongolia, India and western China. Phylogenetic analysis showed that two H3N8 equine influenza virus (EIV) isolates from Kazakhstan, A/equine/Almaty/26/2007 and A/equine/South Kazakhstan/236/12, were related to Florida sublineage 2, with high similarity to EIVs circulating in the same period in neighbouring countries. New outbreaks of EI during 2011 and 2012 in Kazakhstan and other Central Asian countries were caused by viruses of the same lineage. Genetic characterization of the viruses showed formation of a small EIV cluster with specific genetic signatures and continued evolution of this lineage in Central Asia between 2007 and 2012. The main genetic changes were observed in hemagglutinin gene without any antigenic drift. Although no vaccination policy was carried out in Kazakhstan, application of Florida clade 2-based vaccines is recommended.

  9. Effectiveness of a Standardized Equine-Assisted Therapy Program for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgi, Marta; Loliva, Dafne; Cerino, Stefania; Chiarotti, Flavia; Venerosi, Aldina; Bramini, Maria; Nonnis, Enrico; Marcelli, Marco; Vinti, Claudia; De Santis, Chiara; Bisacco, Francesca; Fagerlie, Monica; Frascarelli, Massimo; Cirulli, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    In this study the effectiveness of an equine-assisted therapy (EAT) in improving adaptive and executive functioning in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) was examined (children attending EAT, n = 15, control group n = 13; inclusion criteria: IQ > 70). Therapeutic sessions consisted in structured activities involving horses and…

  10. eDPS Aerosol Collection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venzie, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-10-13

    The eDPS Aerosol Collection project studies the fundamental physics of electrostatic aerosol collection for national security applications. The interpretation of aerosol data requires understanding and correcting for biases introduced from particle genesis through collection and analysis. The research and development undertaken in this project provides the basis for both the statistical correction of existing equipment and techniques; as well as, the development of new collectors and analytical techniques designed to minimize unwanted biases while improving the efficiency of locating and measuring individual particles of interest.

  11. Instrumentation for tropospheric aerosol characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Z.; Young, S.E.; Becker, C.H.; Coggiola, M.J. [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Wollnik, H. [Giessen Univ. (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    A new instrument has been developed that determines the abundance, size distribution, and chemical composition of tropospheric and lower stratospheric aerosols with diameters down to 0.2 {mu}m. In addition to aerosol characterization, the instrument also monitors the chemical composition of the ambient gas. More than 25.000 aerosol particle mass spectra were recorded during the NASA-sponsored Subsonic Aircraft: Contrail and Cloud Effects Special Study (SUCCESS) field program using NASA`s DC-8 research aircraft. (author) 7 refs.

  12. Aerosol transport over the Gangetic basin during ISRO-GBP land campaign-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aloysius, M.; Mohan, M.; Parameswaran, K.; George, S.K.; Nair, P.R. [Indian Space Research Organisation, Trivandrum (India). Space Physics Lab.

    2008-07-01

    MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) Level-3 aerosol optical depth (AOD) data and NCEP (National Centre for Environmental Prediction) reanalysis winds were incorporated into an aerosol flux continuity equation, for a quantitative assessment of the sources of aerosol generation over the Ganga basin in the winter month of December 2004. Preliminary analysis on the aerosol distribution and wind fields showed wind convergence to be an important factor which, supported by the regional topography, confines aerosols in a long band over the Indo Gangetic plain (IGP) stretching from the west of the Thar desert into the Head-Bay-of-Bengal. The prevailing winds of the season carry the aerosols from Head-Bay-of-Bengal along the east coast as far as the southern tip of the peninsular India. A detailed examination of MODIS data revealed significant day-to-day variations in aerosol loading in localised pockets over the central and eastern parts of the Indo Gangetic plain during the second half of December, with AOD values even exceeding unity. Aerosols over the Ganga basin were dominated by fine particles (geometric mean radius {proportional_to}0.05-0.1{mu}m) while those over the central and western India were dominated by large particles (geometric mean radius {proportional_to}0.3-0.7{mu}m). Before introducing it into the flux equation, the MODIS derived AOD was validated through a comparison with the ground-based measurements collected at Kharagpur and Kanpur; two stations located over the Ganga basin. The strength of the aerosol generation computed using the flux equation indicated the existence of aerosol sources whose locations almost coincided with the concentration of thermal power plants. The quantitative agreement between the source strength and the power plant concentration, with a correlation coefficient 0.85, pointed to thermal power plants as substantial contributors to the high aerosol loading over the Ganga Basin in winter. The layout of aerosol

  13. Aerosol transport over the Gangetic basin during ISRO-GBP land campaign-II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Aloysius

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Level-3 aerosol optical depth (AOD data and NCEP (National Centre for Environmental Prediction reanalysis winds were incorporated into an aerosol flux continuity equation, for a quantitative assessment of the sources of aerosol generation over the Ganga basin in the winter month of December 2004. Preliminary analysis on the aerosol distribution and wind fields showed wind convergence to be an important factor which, supported by the regional topography, confines aerosols in a long band over the Indo Gangetic plain (IGP stretching from the west of the Thar desert into the Head-Bay-of-Bengal. The prevailing winds of the season carry the aerosols from Head-Bay-of-Bengal along the east coast as far as the southern tip of the peninsular India. A detailed examination of MODIS data revealed significant day-to-day variations in aerosol loading in localised pockets over the central and eastern parts of the Indo Gangetic plain during the second half of December, with AOD values even exceeding unity. Aerosols over the Ganga basin were dominated by fine particles (geometric mean radius ~0.05–0.1μm while those over the central and western India were dominated by large particles (geometric mean radius ~0.3–0.7μ. Before introducing it into the flux equation, the MODIS derived AOD was validated through a comparison with the ground-based measurements collected at Kharagpur and Kanpur; two stations located over the Ganga basin. The strength of the aerosol generation computed using the flux equation indicated the existence of aerosol sources whose locations almost coincided with the concentration of thermal power plants. The quantitative agreement between the source strength and the power plant concentration, with a correlation coefficient 0.85, pointed to thermal power plants as substantial contributors to the high aerosol loading over the Ganga Basin in winter. The layout of aerosol sources also nearly

  14. Influence of future air pollution mitigation strategies on total aerosol radiative forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kloster

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available We apply different aerosol and aerosol precursor emission scenarios reflecting possible future control strategies for air pollution in the ECHAM5-HAM model, and simulate the resulting effect on the Earth's radiation budget. We use two opposing future mitigation strategies for the year 2030: one in which emission reduction legislation decided in countries throughout the world are effectively implemented (current legislation; CLE 2030 and one in which all technical options for emission reductions are being implemented independent of their cost (maximum feasible reduction; MFR 2030.

    We consider the direct, semi-direct and indirect radiative effects of aerosols. The total anthropogenic aerosol radiative forcing defined as the difference in the top-of-the-atmosphere radiation between 2000 and pre-industrial times amounts to −2.05 W/m2. In the future this negative global annual mean aerosol radiative forcing will only slightly change (+0.02 W/m2 under the "current legislation" scenario. Regionally, the effects are much larger: e.g. over Eastern Europe radiative forcing would increase by +1.50 W/m2 because of successful aerosol reduction policies, whereas over South Asia it would decrease by −1.10 W/m2 because of further growth of emissions. A "maximum feasible reduction" of aerosols and their precursors would lead to an increase of the global annual mean aerosol radiative forcing by +1.13 W/m2. Hence, in the latter case, the present day negative anthropogenic aerosol forcing cloud be more than halved by 2030 because of aerosol reduction policies and climate change thereafter will be to a larger extend be controlled by greenhouse gas emissions.

    We combined these two opposing future mitigation strategies for a number of experiments focusing on different sectors and regions. In addition, we performed sensitivity studies to estimate the importance of future changes in

  15. Influence of future air pollution mitigation strategies on total aerosol radiative forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kloster

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available We apply different aerosol and aerosol precursor emission scenarios reflecting possible future control strategies for air pollution in the ECHAM5-HAM model, and simulate the resulting effect on the Earth's radiation budget. We use two opposing future mitigation strategies for the year 2030: one in which emission reduction legislation decided in countries throughout the world are effectively implemented (current legislation; CLE 2030 and one in which all technical options for emission reductions are being implemented independent of their cost (maximum feasible reduction; MFR 2030.

    We consider the direct, semi-direct and indirect radiative effects of aerosols. The total anthropogenic aerosol radiative forcing defined as the difference in the top-of-the-atmosphere radiation between 2000 and pre-industrial times amounts to −2.00 W/m2. In the future this negative global annual mean aerosol radiative forcing will only slightly change (+0.02 W/m2 under the "current legislation" scenario. Regionally, the effects are much larger: e.g. over Eastern Europe radiative forcing would increase by +1.50 W/m2 because of successful aerosol reduction policies, whereas over South Asia it would decrease by −1.10 W/m2 because of further growth of emissions. A "maximum feasible reduction" of aerosols and their precursors would lead to an increase of the global annual mean aerosol radiative forcing by +1.13 W/m2. Hence, in the latter case, the present day negative anthropogenic aerosol forcing could be more than halved by 2030 because of aerosol reduction policies and climate change thereafter will be to a larger extent be controlled by greenhouse gas emissions.

    We combined these two opposing future mitigation strategies for a number of experiments focusing on different sectors and regions. In addition, we performed sensitivity studies to estimate the importance of future changes in

  16. Aerosol measurement program strategy for global aerosol backscatter model development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowdle, David A.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose was to propose a balanced program of aerosol backscatter research leading to the development of a global model of aerosol backscatter. Such a model is needed for feasibility studies and systems simulation studies for NASA's prospective satellite-based Doppler lidar wind measurement system. Systems of this kind measure the Doppler shift in the backscatter return from small atmospheric aerosol wind tracers (of order 1 micrometer diameter). The accuracy of the derived local wind estimates and the degree of global wind coverage for such a system are limited by the local availability and by the global scale distribution of natural aerosol particles. The discussions here refer primarily to backscatter model requirements at CO2 wavelengths, which have been selected for most of the Doppler lidar systems studies to date. Model requirements for other potential wavelengths would be similar.

  17. Meteorological and aerosol effects on marine cloud microphysical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, K. J.; Russell, L. M.; Modini, R. L.; Frossard, A. A.; Ahlm, L.; Corrigan, C. E.; Roberts, G. C.; Hawkins, L. N.; Schroder, J. C.; Bertram, A. K.; Zhao, R.; Lee, A. K. Y.; Lin, J. J.; Nenes, A.; Wang, Z.; Wonaschütz, A.; Sorooshian, A.; Noone, K. J.; Jonsson, H.; Toom, D.; Macdonald, A. M.; Leaitch, W. R.; Seinfeld, J. H.

    2016-04-01

    Meteorology and microphysics affect cloud formation, cloud droplet distributions, and shortwave reflectance. The Eastern Pacific Emitted Aerosol Cloud Experiment and the Stratocumulus Observations of Los-Angeles Emissions Derived Aerosol-Droplets studies provided measurements in six case studies of cloud thermodynamic properties, initial particle number distribution and composition, and cloud drop distribution. In this study, we use simulations from a chemical and microphysical aerosol-cloud parcel (ACP) model with explicit kinetic drop activation to reproduce observed cloud droplet distributions of the case studies. Four cases had subadiabatic lapse rates, resulting in fewer activated droplets, lower liquid water content, and higher cloud base height than an adiabatic lapse rate. A weighted ensemble of simulations that reflect measured variation in updraft velocity and cloud base height was used to reproduce observed droplet distributions. Simulations show that organic hygroscopicity in internally mixed cases causes small effects on cloud reflectivity (CR) (modal peak near 0.1 µm). Differences in simulated droplet spectral widths (k) caused larger differences in CR than organic hygroscopicity in cases with organic mass fractions of 60% or less for the cases shown. Finally, simulations from a numerical parameterization of cloud droplet activation suitable for general circulation models compared well with the ACP model, except under high organic mass fraction.

  18. Spatio-temporal variability of satellite derived aerosol optical thickness and ground measurements over East China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fei; Shi, Tongguang

    2016-04-01

    Two-year records of Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Intermediate Product (IP) data on the aerosol optical thickness (AOT) at 550 nm were evaluated by comparing them with sun-sky radiometer measurements from the Chinese sun hazemeter network (CSHNET) and the aerosol robotic network (AERONET). The monthly and seasonal variations in the aerosol optical properties over eastern China were then investigated using collocated VIIRS IP data and CSHNET and AERONET measurements.Results show that the performances of the current VIIRS IP AOT retrievals at the provisional stage were consistent with ground measurements. Similar characteristics of seasonal and monthly variations were found among the measurements, though the observational methodologies were different, showing maxima in the summer and spring and minima in the winter and autumn.

  19. Lung cancer mortality and exposure to atmospheric aerosol particles in Guangzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tie, Xuexi; Wu, Dui; Brasseur, Guy

    In recent years, China and other emerging countries have been experiencing severe air pollution problems with high concentrations of atmospheric aerosol particles. Satellite measurements indicate that the aerosol loading of the atmosphere in highly populated regions of China is about 10 times higher than, for example, in Europe and in the Eastern United States. The exposure to extremely high aerosol concentrations might lead to important human health effects, including respiratory and cardiovascular diseases as well as lung cancers. Here, we analyze 52-year historical surface measurements of haze data in the Chinese city of Guangzhou, and show that the dramatic increase in the occurrence of air pollution events between 1954 and 2006 has been followed by a large enhancement in the incidence of lung cancer.

  20. Dominance of pollutant aerosols over an urban region and its impact on boundary layer temperature profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukdar, Shamitaksha; Jana, Soumyajyoti; Maitra, Animesh

    2017-01-01

    Collocated measurements of aerosol optical depth (AOD) and black carbon at different wavelengths over Kolkata, an urban region in eastern India, have been used to calculate aerosol single-scattering albedo (SSA). The wavelength dependence of SSA and AOD has been presented to discriminate the aerosol types over this highly populated metropolitan area. The spectral pattern shows that SSA decreases with wavelength for most of the time in a year and corresponding Ångström coefficient is greater than unity. These optical properties indicate the dominance of fine-mode pollutant particles over the city. The temperature lapse rate profile within the surface boundary layer has been found to be significantly influenced by the heating effect of fine-mode pollutants, and consequently, the growth of the convective processes in the lower troposphere is notably affected. In addition, a back trajectory analysis has also been presented to indicate that transported air masses can have significant impact on spectral pattern of SSA.

  1. Spatial variability of aerosol and black carbon concentrations in the troposphere of the Russian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, Valerii S.; Panchenko, Mikhail V.; Paris, Jean D.; Nédéléc, Philippe; Chernov, Dmitry G.; Shmargunov, Vladimir P.

    2015-11-01

    A cycle of flights of the Optik TU-134 Flying Laboratory of IAO SB RAS over regions of Western Siberia and the Russian Arctic (55.0-74.8°N, 61.3-82.9°E) was carried out on October 15-17 of 2014 within the framework of the YAK-AEROSIB Russian—French Project. The mass concentrations of submicron aerosol and Black Carbon (BC) in the troposphere up to a height of 8.5 km were measured in the flights. The ranges of variability were 0.3-20 μg/m3 for the aerosol concentration and 0.02-1 μg/m3 for the BC concentration. In the subpolar latitudes of 71-74.8°N, the lower levels of aerosol (0.8-6 μg/m3) and BC (0.02-0.3 μg/m3) were observed. The comparison of the results of airborne sensing in 2008 and 2014 has shown that in the Western Subartic the aerosol and BC concentrations in the vertical profiles up to six times exceeded those observed in the Eastern Subarctic (0.3-1 μg/m3 and 10-50 ng/m3). The excess of the mean integral BC concentrations and the aerosol optical depth was, on average, 2-2.5 times (0.16 mg/m2; 0.02). In the region of the Kara Sea at heights of 0.5-2 and 4-6 km, the excess of the aerosol content in the western sector in comparison with the eastern one was, on average, 2 times, while for the black carbon the excess achieved 7 times at heights of 1-2 km (0.25- 0.035 μg/m3). The mean integral concentrations of aerosol and black carbon ˜ 1.3 times exceeded those in the clearer eastern region of the sea (0.31 mg/m2; 0.049). The obtained estimates indicate the decrease of the aerosol and BC concentrations in the subpolar latitudes of the Russian Federation from the west to the east.

  2. Global analysis of the relation between aerosols and short-lived trace gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Veefkind

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The spatial and temporal correlations between concurrent satellite observations of aerosol optical thickness (AOT from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS and tropospheric columns of nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and formaldehyde from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI are used to infer information on the global composition of aerosol particles. When averaging the satellite data over large regions and longer time periods, we find significant correlation between MODIS AOT and OMI trace gas columns for various regions in the world. This suggests that enhanced aerosol and trace gas concentrations originate from common sources, such as fossil fuel combustion, biomass burning, and organic compounds released from the biosphere. This leads us to propose that satellite-inferred AOT to NO2 ratios for regions with comparable photochemical regimes can be used as indicators for the relative (local efficiency of combustion processes. Indeed, satellites observe low AOT to NO2 ratios over the eastern United States and western Europe, and high AOT to NO2 ratios over comparably industrialized regions in eastern Europe and China. Emission databases and OMI SO2 observations over these regions suggest a much stronger sulfur contribution to aerosol formation than over the well-regulated areas of the eastern United States and western Europe. Furthermore, satellite observations show AOT to NO2 ratios are a factor 100 higher over biomass burning regions than over industrialized areas, reflecting the unregulated burning practices with strong primary particle emissions in the tropics compared to the heavily controlled combustion processes in the industrialized Northern Hemisphere. Simulations with a global chemistry transport model (GEOS-Chem capture most of these differences, providing some confidence in our understanding of aerosol sources, formation mechanisms, and sinks. Wintertime

  3. An epidemiological analysis of equine welfare data from regulatory inspections by the official competent authorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchens, P L; Hultgren, J; Frössling, J; Emanuelson, U; Keeling, L J

    2016-12-09

    Determining welfare status in a population is the first step in efforts to improve welfare. The primary objective of this study was to explore a new epidemiological approach for analysis of data from official competent authorities that pertain to compliance with animal welfare legislation. We reviewed data already routinely collected as part of Swedish official animal welfare inspections for 2010-13, using a checklist containing 45 checkpoints (CPs). These covered animal-, resource- and management-based measures of equine welfare. The animal-based CPs were measures that directly related to the animal and included social contact, body condition, hoof condition and cleanliness. Non-compliance with one or more of the animal-based CPs was used as a binary outcome of poor equine welfare; 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using the exact binomial distribution. Associations were determined using multivariable logistic regression, adjusting for clustering on premises. Resource- and management-based CPs (model inputs) were reduced by principal component analysis. Other input factors included premises characteristics (e.g. size, location) and inspection characteristics (e.g. type of inspection). There were 30 053 premises with horses from 21 counties registered by the Swedish Board of Agriculture. In total 13 321 inspections of premises were conducted at 28.4% (n=8532) of all registered premises. For random inspections, the premises-prevalence of poor equine welfare was 9.5% (95% CI 7.5, 11.9). Factors associated with poor equine welfare were non-compliance with requirements for supervision, care or feeding of horses, facility design, personnel, stable hygiene, pasture and exercise area maintenance, as well as the owner not being notified of the inspection, a previous complaint or deficiency, spring compared with autumn, and not operating as a professional equine business. Horses at premises compliant with stabling and shelter requirements had significantly better

  4. A Modeling Study of Seasonal Variation of Atmospheric Aerosols over East Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jiawei; HAN Zhiwei

    2012-01-01

    In this study,a regional air quality model system (RAQMS) was applied to investigate the spatial distributions and seasonal variations of atmospheric aerosols in 2006 over East Asia.Model validations demonstrated that RAQMS was able to reproduce the evolution processes of aerosol components reasonably well.Ground-level PM10 (particles with aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm) concentrations were highest in spring and lowest in summer and were characterized by three maximum centers:the Taklimakan Desert (~ 1000μg m-3),the Gobi Desert (~ 400 μg m-3),and the Huabei Plain (~ 300 μg m-3) of China.Vertically,high PM10 concentrations ranging from 100 μg m-3 to 250μg m-3 occurred from the surface to an altitude of 6000 m at 30°-45°N in spring.In winter,the vertical gradient was so large that most aerosols were restricted in the boundary layer.Both sulfate and ammonium reached their highest concentrations in autumn,while nitrate reached its maximum level in winter.Black carbon and organic carbon aerosol concentrations reached maximums in winter.Soil dust were strongest in spring,whereas sea salt exerted the strongest influence on the coastal regions of eastern China in summer.The estimated burden of anthropogenic aerosols was largest in winter (1621 Gg) and smallest in summer (1040 Gg).The sulfate burden accounted for ~42% of the total anthropogenic aerosol burden.The dust burden was about twice the anthropogenic aerosol burden,implying the potentially important impacts of the natural aerosols on air quality and climate over East Asia.

  5. Aerosol and Cloud-Nucleating Particle Observations during an Atmospheric River Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMott, P. J.; McCluskey, C. S.; Petters, M.; Suski, K. J.; Levin, E. J.; Hill, T. C. J.; Atwood, S. A.; Schill, G. P.; Rocci, K.; Boose, Y.; Martin, A.; Cornwell, G.; Al-Mashat, H.; Moore, K.; Prather, K. A.; Rothfuss, N.; Taylor, H.; Leung, L. R.; Tomlinson, J. M.; Mei, F.; Hubbe, J. M.; Rosenfeld, D.; Spackman, J. R.; Fairall, C. W.; Creamean, J.; White, A. B.; Kreidenweis, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    The multi-agency CalWater 2015 project occurred over North Central CA and the Eastern Pacific during January to March 2015 (Spackman et al., this session). The goals of the campaign were to document the structure of atmospheric rivers (ARs) that deliver much of the water vapor associated with major winter storms along the U.S. West Coast and to investigate the modulating effect of aerosols on precipitation. Aerosol sources that may influence orographic cloud properties for air lifted over the mountains in California in winter include pollution, biomass burning, soil dusts and marine aerosols, but their roles will also be influenced by transport, vertical stratification, and scavenging processes. We present results from a comprehensive study of aerosol distributions, compositions, and cloud nucleating properties during an intense winter storm during February 2015, including data from an NSF-supported measurement site at Bodega Bay, from the DOE-ARM Cloud Aerosol Precipitation Experiment that included sampling on the NOAA RV Ron Brown offshore and the G-1 aircraft over ocean and land, and with context provided by other NOAA aircraft and remote sensing facilities. With a special focus on the coastal site, we discuss changes in aerosol distributions, aerosol hygroscopicity, and number concentrations of fluorescent particles, cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), and ice nucleating particles (INPs) during the AR event. We compare with periods preceding and following the event. For example, total aerosol number and surface area concentrations at below 0.5 μm diameter decreased from typical values of a few thousand cm-3 and 100 μm2 cm-3, respectively, to a few hundred cm-3 and 10 μm2cm-3 at Bodega Bay during the AR event. CCN concentrations were similarly lower, but hygroscopicity parameter (kappa) increased from typical values of 0.2 to values > 0.5 during the AR.INP and fluorescent particle number concentrations were generally lower during the AR event than at any other

  6. Overview of the Megacity Aerosol Experiment: Mexico City (MAX-Mex)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffney, J. S.

    2007-05-01

    Tropospheric aerosols can play an important role the radiative balance of the globe. This is due to their ability to scatter and absorb solar radiation. The sign of this forcing will depend on their chemical composition and size, their lifetimes, and position in the atmosphere. Major sources of aerosols are now coming from megacities: Cities with more than 10 million population. As part of the MILAGRO campaign, the Megacity Aerosol Experiment: Mexico City was conducted by the Atmospheric Science Program of the Climate Change Research Division of the Department of Energy in collaboration with the scientists supported by NSF, NASA, and Mexican agencies. The preliminary results of the study will be overviewed and highlights of the efforts from both ground based and airborne measurements presented. Data from the study confirm that the megacity plumes are significant sources of both primary and secondary aerosols into the regional scale, and black carbon and secondary aerosols are contributing to single scattering albedos in the Valley of Mexico and downwind that are substantially reduced when compared to other areas (such as the eastern United States). The potential of biomass burning as well as megacity plumes contributing to a decrease in the aerosol single scattering albedos (aerosol direct effects) on regional scales will be discussed. This work was performed as part of the Department of Energy's Megacity Aerosol Experiment - Mexico City under the support of the Atmospheric Science Program. "This researchwas supported by the Office of Science (BER), U. S. Department of Energy, Grant No. DE-FG02-07ER64328.

  7. The Finokalia Aerosol Measurement Experiment – 2008 (FAME-08: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pikridas

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A month (4 May to 8 June 2008 of ambient aerosol, air ion and gas phase sampling (Finokalia Aerosol Measurement Experiment 2008, FAME-08 was conducted at Finokalia, on the island of Crete, Greece. The purpose of the study was to characterize the physical and chemical properties of aged aerosol and to investigate new particle formation. Measurements included aerosol and air ion size distributions, size-resolved chemical composition, organic aerosol thermal volatility, water uptake and particle optical properties (light scattering and absorption. Statistical analysis of the aerosol mass concentration variations revealed the absence of diurnal patterns suggesting the lack of strong local sources. Sulfates accounted for approximately half of the particulate matter less than 1 micrometer in diameter (PM1 and organics for 26%. The PM1 organic aerosol fraction was highly oxidized with 80% water soluble. The supermicrometer particles were dominated by crustal components (50%, sea salt (24% and nitrates (16%. The organic carbon to elemental carbon (OC/EC ratio correlated with ozone measurements but with a one-day lag. The average OC/EC ratio for the study period was equal to 5.4. For three days air masses from North Africa resulted in a 6-fold increase of particulate matter less than 10 micrometers in diameter (PM10 and a decrease of the OC/EC ratio by a factor of 2. Back trajectory analysis, based on FLEXPART footprint plots, identified five source regions (Athens, Greece, Africa, other continental and marine, each of which influenced the PM1 aerosol composition and properties. Marine air masses had the lowest PM1 concentrations and air masses from the Balkans, Turkey and Eastern Europe the highest.

  8. The Finokalia Aerosol Measurement Experiment – 2008 (FAME-08: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pikridas

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A month (4 May to 8 June 2008 of ambient aerosol, air ion and gas phase sampling (Finokalia Aerosol Measurement Experiment 2008, FAME-08 was conducted at Finokalia, on the island of Crete, Greece. The purpose of the study was to characterize the physical and chemical properties of aged aerosol and to investigate new particle formation. Measurements included aerosol and air ion size distributions, size-resolved chemical composition, organic aerosol thermal volatility, water uptake and particle optical properties (light scattering and absorption. Statistical analysis of the aerosol mass concentration variations revealed the absence of diurnal patterns suggesting the lack of strong local sources. Sulfates accounted for approximately half of the particulate matter less than 1 micrometer in diameter (PM1 and organics for 28%. The PM1 organic aerosol fraction was highly oxidized with 80% water soluble. The supermicrometer particles were dominated by crustal components (50%, sea salt (24% and nitrates (16%. The organic carbon to elemental carbon (OC/EC ratio correlated with ozone measurements but with a one-day lag. The average OC/EC ratio for the study period was equal to 5.4. For three days air masses from North Africa resulted in a 6-fold increase of particulate matter less than 10 micrometers in diameter (PM10 and a decrease of the OC/EC ratio by a factor of 2. Back trajectory analysis, based on FLEXPART footprint plots, identified five source regions (Athens, Greece, Africa, other continental and marine, each of which influenced the PM1 aerosol composition and properties. Marine air masses had the lowest PM1 concentrations and air masses from the Balkans, Turkey and Eastern Europe the highest.

  9. The impact of stratospheric volcanic aerosol on decadal-scale climate predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmreck, Claudia; Pohlmann, Holger; Illing, Sebastian; Kadow, Christopher

    2016-04-01

    The possibility of a large future volcanic eruption provides arguably the largest uncertainty concerning the evolution of the climate system on the time scale of a few years; but also the greatest opportunity to learn about the behavior of the climate system, and our models thereof. So the question emerges how large will the uncertainty be for future decadal climate predictions if no volcanic aerosol is taken into account? And how strong has volcanic aerosol affected decadal prediction skill on annual and multi-year seasonal scales over the CMIP5 hindcast period? To understand the impact of volcanic aerosol on multi-year seasonal and decadal climate predictions we performed CMIP5-type hindcasts without volcanic aerosol using the German MiKlip prediction system system baseline 1 from 1961 to 1991 and compared them to the corresponding simulations including aerosols. Our results show that volcanic aerosol significantly affects the prediction skill for global mean surface air temperature in the first five years after strong volcanic eruptions. Also on the regional scale a volcanic imprint on decadal-scale variability is detectable. Neglecting volcanic aerosol leads to a reduced prediction skill over the tropical and subtropical Atlantic, Indic and West Pacific but to an improvement over the tropical East-Pacific, where the model has in general no skill. Multi-seasonal differences in the skill for seasonal-mean temperatures are evident over Continental Europe with significant skill loss due to neglection of volcanic aerosol in boreal winter over central Europe, Scandinavia and over south-eastern Europe and the East-Mediterranean in boreal summer.

  10. Stratospheric aerosol geoengineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robock, Alan

    2015-03-01

    The Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project, conducting climate model experiments with standard stratospheric aerosol injection scenarios, has found that insolation reduction could keep the global average temperature constant, but global average precipitation would reduce, particularly in summer monsoon regions around the world. Temperature changes would also not be uniform; the tropics would cool, but high latitudes would warm, with continuing, but reduced sea ice and ice sheet melting. Temperature extremes would still increase, but not as much as without geoengineering. If geoengineering were halted all at once, there would be rapid temperature and precipitation increases at 5-10 times the rates from gradual global warming. The prospect of geoengineering working may reduce the current drive toward reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and there are concerns about commercial or military control. Because geoengineering cannot safely address climate change, global efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to adapt are crucial to address anthropogenic global warming.

  11. Aerosol Transmission of Filoviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berhanu Mekibib

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Filoviruses have become a worldwide public health concern because of their potential for introductions into non-endemic countries through international travel and the international transport of infected animals or animal products. Since it was first identified in 1976, in the Democratic Republic of Congo (formerly Zaire and Sudan, the 2013–2015 western African Ebola virus disease (EVD outbreak is the largest, both by number of cases and geographical extension, and deadliest, recorded so far in medical history. The source of ebolaviruses for human index case(s in most outbreaks is presumptively associated with handling of bush meat or contact with fruit bats. Transmission among humans occurs easily when a person comes in contact with contaminated body fluids of patients, but our understanding of other transmission routes is still fragmentary. This review deals with the controversial issue of aerosol transmission of filoviruses.

  12. Stratospheric aerosol geoengineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robock, Alan [Department of Environmental Sciences, Rutgers University, 14 College Farm Road, New Brunswick, NJ 08901 (United States)

    2015-03-30

    The Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project, conducting climate model experiments with standard stratospheric aerosol injection scenarios, has found that insolation reduction could keep the global average temperature constant, but global average precipitation would reduce, particularly in summer monsoon regions around the world. Temperature changes would also not be uniform; the tropics would cool, but high latitudes would warm, with continuing, but reduced sea ice and ice sheet melting. Temperature extremes would still increase, but not as much as without geoengineering. If geoengineering were halted all at once, there would be rapid temperature and precipitation increases at 5–10 times the rates from gradual global warming. The prospect of geoengineering working may reduce the current drive toward reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and there are concerns about commercial or military control. Because geoengineering cannot safely address climate change, global efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to adapt are crucial to address anthropogenic global warming.

  13. Ex vivo penetration of low-level laser light through equine skin and flexor tendons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duesterdieck-Zellmer, Katja F; Larson, Maureen K; Plant, Thomas K; Sundholm-Tepper, Andrea; Payton, Mark E

    2016-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To measure penetration efficiencies of low-level laser light energy through equine skin and to determine the fraction of laser energy absorbed by equine digital flexor tendons (superficial [SDFT] and deep [DDFT]). SAMPLE Samples of skin, SDFTs, and DDFTs from 1 metacarpal area of each of 19 equine cadavers. PROCEDURES A therapeutic laser with wavelength capabilities of 800 and 970 nm was used. The percentage of energy penetration for each wavelength was determined through skin before and after clipping and then shaving of hair, through shaved skin over SDFTs, and through shaved skin, SDFTs, and DDFTs (positioned in anatomically correct orientation). Influence of hair color; skin preparation, color, and thickness; and wavelength on energy penetration were assessed. RESULTS For haired skin, energy penetration was greatest for light-colored hair and least for dark-colored hair. Clipping or shaving of skin improved energy penetration. Light-colored skin allowed greatest energy penetration, followed by medium-colored skin and dark-colored skin. Greatest penetration of light-colored skin occurred with the 800-nm wavelength, whereas greatest penetration of medium- and dark-colored skin occurred with the 970-nm wavelength. As skin thickness increased, energy penetration of samples decreased. Only 1% to 20% and 0.1% to 4% of energy were absorbed by SDFTs and DDFTs, respectively, depending on skin color, skin thickness, and applied wavelength. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that most laser energy directed through equine skin was absorbed or scattered by the skin. To achieve delivery of energy doses known to positively affect cells in vitro to equine SDFTs and DDFTs, skin preparation, color, and thickness and applied wavelength must be considered.

  14. Equine cloning: in vitro and in vivo development of aggregated embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambini, Andrés; Jarazo, Javier; Olivera, Ramiro; Salamone, Daniel F

    2012-07-01

    The production of cloned equine embryos remains highly inefficient. Embryo aggregation has not yet been tested in the equine, and it might represent an interesting strategy to improve embryo development. This study evaluated the effect of cloned embryo aggregation on in vitro and in vivo equine embryo development. Zona-free reconstructed embryos were individually cultured in microwells (nonaggregated group) or as 2- or 3-embryo aggregates (aggregated groups). For in vitro development, they were cultured until blastocyst stage and then either fixed for Oct-4 immunocytochemical staining or maintained in in vitro culture where blastocyst expansion was measured daily until Day 17 or the day on which they collapsed. For in vivo assays, Day 7-8 blastocysts were transferred to synchronized mares and resultant vesicles, and cloned embryos were measured by ultrasonography. Embryo aggregation improved blastocyst rates on a per well basis, and aggregation did not imply additional oocytes to obtain blastocysts. Embryo aggregation improved embryo quality, nevertheless it did not affect Day 8 and Day 16 blastocyst Oct-4 expression patterns. Equine cloned blastocysts expanded and increased their cell numbers when they were maintained in in vitro culture, describing a particular pattern of embryo growth that was unexpectedly independent of embryo aggregation, as all embryos reached similar size after Day 7. Early pregnancy rates were higher using blastocysts derived from aggregated embryos, and advanced pregnancies as live healthy foals also resulted from aggregated embryos. These results indicate that the strategy of aggregating embryos can improve their development, supporting the establishment of equine cloned pregnancies.

  15. Airborne measurements of aerosol optical properties related to early spring transport of mid-latitude sources into the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Adam de Villiers

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Airborne lidar and in-situ measurements of the aerosol properties were conducted between Svalbard Island and Scandinavia in April 2008. Evidence of aerosol transport from Europe and Asia is given. The analysis of the aerosol optical properties based on a multiwavelength lidar (355, 532, 1064 nm including depolarization at 355 nm aims at distinguishing the role of the different aerosol sources (Siberian wild fires, Eastern Asia and European anthropogenic emissions. Combining, first aircraft measurements, second FLEXPART simulations with a calculation of the PBL air fraction originating from the three different mid-latitude source regions, and third level-2 CALIPSO data products (i.e. backscatter coefficient, depolarisation and color ratio in aerosol layers along the transport pathways, appears a valuable approach to identify the role of the different aerosol sources even after a transport time larger than 4 days. Above Asia, CALIPSO data indicate more depolarisation (up to 15% and largest color ratio (>0.5 for the northeastern Asia emissions (i.e. an expected mixture of Asian pollution and dust, while low depolarisation together with smaller and quasi constant color ratio (≈0.3 are observed for the Siberian biomass burning emissions. A similar difference is visible between two layers observed by the aircraft above Scandinavia. The analysis of the time evolution of the aerosol optical properties revealed by CALIPSO between Asia and Scandinavia shows a gradual decrease of the aerosol backscatter, depolarisation ratio and color ratio which suggests the removal of the largest particles in the accumulation mode. A similar study conducted for a European plume has shown aerosol optical properties intermediate between the two Asian sources with color ratio never exceeding 0.4 and moderate depolarisation ratio being always less than 8%, i.e. less aerosol from the accumulation mode.

  16. MAC-v1: A new global aerosol climatology for climate studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinne, Stefan; O'Donnel, Declan; Stier, Philip; Kloster, Silvia; Zhang, Kai; Schmidt, Hauke; Rast, Sebastian; Giorgetta, Marco; Eck, Tom F.; Stevens, Bjorn

    2013-12-01

    an uncertainty of ±0.2 W/m2) is attributed to anthropogenic activities. Based on past and projected aerosol emission data, the global anthropogenic direct aerosol impact (i.e., ToA cooling) is currently near the maximum and is projected to drop by 2100 to about -0.3 W/m2. The reported global averages are driven by considerable spatial and temporal variability. To better convey this diversity, regional and seasonal distributions of aerosol optical properties and their radiative effects are presented. On regional scales, the anthropogenic direct aerosol forcing can be an order of magnitude stronger than the global average and it can be of either sign. It is also shown that maximum anthropogenic impacts have shifted during the last 30 years from the U.S. and Europe to eastern and southern Asia.

  17. Do atmospheric aerosols form glasses?

    OpenAIRE

    Zobrist, B.; Marcolli, C.; Pedernera, D. A.; Koop, T.

    2008-01-01

    A new process is presented by which water soluble organics might influence ice nucleation, ice growth, chemical reactions and water uptake of aerosols in the upper troposphere: the formation of glassy aerosol particles. Glasses are disordered amorphous (non-crystalline) solids that form when a liquid is cooled without crystallization until the viscosity increases exponentially and molecular diffusion practically ceases. The glass transition temperatures, Tg

  18. Regional Warming from Aerosol Removal over the United States: Results from a Transient 2010-2050 Climate Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickley, L. J.; Leibensperger, E. M.; Jacob, D. J.; Rind, D.

    2012-01-01

    We use a general circulation model (NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies GCM 3) to investigate the regional climate response to removal of aerosols over the United States. We perform a pair of transient 2010e2050 climate simulations following a scenario of increasing greenhouse gas concentrations, with and without aerosols over the United States and with present-day aerosols elsewhere. We find that removing U.S. aerosol significantly enhances the warming from greenhouse gases in a spatial pattern that strongly correlates with that of the aerosol. Warming is nearly negligible outside the United States, but annual mean surface temperatures increase by 0.4e0.6 K in the eastern United States. Temperatures during summer heat waves in the Northeast rise by as much as 1e2 K due to aerosol removal, driven in part by positive feedbacks involving soil moisture and low cloud cover. Reducing U.S. aerosol sources to achieve air quality objectives could thus have significant unintended regional warming consequences.

  19. Measurement of ambient aerosol hydration state at Great Smoky Mountains National Park in the southeastern United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. F. Taylor

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We present results from two field deployments of a unique tandem differential mobility analyzer (TDMA configuration with two primary capabilities: identifying alternative stable or meta-stable ambient aerosol hydration states associated with hysteresis in aerosol hydration behavior and determining the actual Ambient hydration State (AS-TDMA. This data set is the first to fully classify the ambient hydration state of aerosols despite recognition that hydration state significantly impacts the roles of aerosols in climate, visibility and heterogeneous chemistry. The AS-TDMA was installed at a site in eastern Tennessee on the border of Great Smoky Mountains National Park for projects during the summer of 2006 and winter of 2007–2008. During the summer, 12% of the aerosols sampled in continuous AS-TDMA measurements were found to posses two possible hydration states under ambient conditions. In every case, the more hydrated of the possible states was occupied. The remaining 88% did not posses multiple possible states. In continuous measurements during the winter, 49% of the aerosols sampled possessed two possible ambient hydration states; the remainder possessed only one. Of those aerosols with multiple possible ambient hydration states, 65% occupied the more hydrated state; 35% occupied the less hydrated state. This seasonal contrast is supported by differences in the fine particulate (PM2.5 composition and ambient RH as measured during the two study periods. In addition to seasonal summaries, this work includes case studies depicting the variation of hydration state with changing atmospheric conditions.

  20. CALIPSO Observations of Aerosol Properties Near Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshak, Alexander; Varnai, Tamas; Yang, Weidong

    2010-01-01

    Clouds are surrounded by a transition zone of rapidly changing aerosol properties. Characterizing this zone is important for better understanding aerosol-cloud interactions and aerosol radiative effects as well as for improving satellite measurements of aerosol properties. We present a statistical analysis of a global dataset of CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation) Lidar observations over oceans. The results show that the transition zone extends as far as 15 km away from clouds and it is ubiquitous over all oceans. The use of only high confidence level cloud-aerosol discrimination (CAD) data confirms the findings. However, the results underline the need for caution to avoid biases in studies of satellite aerosol products, aerosol-cloud interactions, and aerosol direct radiative effects.

  1. Devices and methods for generating an aerosol

    KAUST Repository

    Bisetti, Fabrizio

    2016-03-03

    Aerosol generators and methods of generating aerosols are provided. The aerosol can be generated at a stagnation interface between a hot, wet stream and a cold, dry stream. The aerosol has the benefit that the properties of the aerosol can be precisely controlled. The stagnation interface can be generated, for example, by the opposed flow of the hot stream and the cold stream. The aerosol generator and the aerosol generation methods are capable of producing aerosols with precise particle sizes and a narrow size distribution. The properties of the aerosol can be controlled by controlling one or more of the stream temperatures, the saturation level of the hot stream, and the flow times of the streams.

  2. Monitoring acute equine visceral pain with the Equine Utrecht University Scale for Composite Pain Assessment (EQUUS-COMPASS) and the Equine Utrecht University Scale for Facial Assessment of Pain (EQUUS-FAP): A scale-construction study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loon, Johannes P A M; Van Dierendonck, Machteld C

    2015-12-01

    Although recognition of equine pain has been studied extensively over the past decades there is still need for improvement in objective identification of pain in horses with acute colic. This study describes scale construction and clinical applicability of the Equine Utrecht University Scale for Composite Pain Assessment (EQUUS-COMPASS) and the Equine Utrecht University Scale for Facial Assessment of Pain (EQUUS-FAP) in horses with acute colic. A cohort follow-up study was performed using 50 adult horses (n = 25 with acute colic, n = 25 controls). Composite pain scores were assessed by direct observations, Visual Analog Scale (VAS) scores were assessed from video clips. Colic patients were assessed at arrival, and on the first and second mornings after arrival. Both the EQUUS-COMPASS and EQUUS-FAP scores showed high inter-observer reliability (ICC = 0.98 for EQUUS-COMPASS, ICC = 0.93 for EQUUS-FAP, P scores was found (ICC = 0.63, P <0.001). The cut-off value for differentiation between healthy and colic horses for the EQUUS-COMPASS was 5, and for differentiation between conservatively treated and surgically treated or euthanased patients it was 11. For the EQUUS-FAP, cut-off values were 4 and 6, respectively. Internal sensitivity and specificity were good for both EQUUS-COMPASS (sensitivity 95.8%, specificity 84.0%) and EQUUS-FAP (sensitivity 87.5%, specificity 88.0%). The use of the EQUUS-COMPASS and EQUUS-FAP enabled repeated and objective scoring of pain in horses with acute colic. A follow-up study with new patients and control animals will be performed to further validate the constructed scales that are described in this study.

  3. The dental cavities of equine cheek teeth: three-dimensional reconstructions based on high resolution micro-computed tomography

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Recent studies reported on the very complex morphology of the pulp system in equine cheek teeth. The continuous production of secondary dentine leads to distinct age-related changes of the endodontic cavity. Detailed anatomical knowledge of the dental cavities in all ages is required to explain the aetiopathology of typical equine endodontic diseases. Furthermore, data on mandibular and maxillary pulp systems is in high demand to provide a basis for the development of endo...

  4. Meteorological and Aerosol effects on Marine Cloud Microphysical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, K. J.; Russell, L. M.; Modini, R. L.; Frossard, A. A.; Ahlm, L.; Roberts, G.; Hawkins, L. N.; Schroder, J. C.; Wang, Z.; Lee, A.; Abbatt, J.; Lin, J.; Nenes, A.; Wonaschuetz, A.; Sorooshian, A.; Noone, K.; Jonsson, H.; Albrecht, B. A.; Desiree, T. S.; Macdonald, A. M.; Seinfeld, J.; Zhao, R.

    2015-12-01

    Both meteorology and microphysics affect cloud formation and consequently their droplet distributions and shortwave reflectance. The Eastern Pacific Emitted Aerosol Cloud Experiment (EPEACE) and the Stratocumulus Observations of Los-Angeles Emissions Derived Aerosol-Droplets (SOLEDAD) studies provide detailed measurements in 6 case studies of both cloud thermodynamic properties and initial particle number distribution and composition, as well as the resulting cloud drop distribution and composition. This study uses simulations of a detailed chemical and microphysical aerosol-cloud parcel (ACP) model with explicit kinetic drop activation to reproduce the observed cloud droplet distribution and composition. Four of the cases examined had a sub-adiabatic lapse rate, which was shown to have fewer droplets due to decreased maximum supersaturation, lower LWC and higher cloud base height, consistent with previous findings. These detailed case studies provided measured thermodynamics and microphysics that constrained the simulated droplet size distribution sufficiently to match the droplet number within 6% and the size within 19% for 4 of the 6 cases, demonstrating "closure" or consistency of the measured composition with the measured CCN spectra and the inferred and modeled supersaturation. The contribution of organic components to droplet formation shows small effects on the droplet number and size in the 4 marine cases that had background aerosol conditions with varying amounts of coastal, ship or other non-biogenic sources. In contrast, the organic fraction and hygroscopicity increased the droplet number and size in the cases with generated smoke and cargo ship plumes that were freshly emitted and not yet internally mixed with the background particles. The simulation results show organic hygroscopicity causes small effects on cloud reflectivity (smoke plume which increased absolute cloud reflectivity fraction by 0.02 and 0.20 respectively. In addition, the ACP model

  5. Modeling regional secondary organic aerosol using the Master Chemical Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingyi; Cleveland, Meredith; Ziemba, Luke D.; Griffin, Robert J.; Barsanti, Kelley C.; Pankow, James F.; Ying, Qi

    2015-02-01

    A modified near-explicit Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM, version 3.2) with 5727 species and 16,930 reactions and an equilibrium partitioning module was incorporated into the Community Air Quality Model (CMAQ) to predict the regional concentrations of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the eastern United States (US). In addition to the semi-volatile SOA from equilibrium partitioning, reactive surface uptake processes were used to simulate SOA formation due to isoprene epoxydiol, glyoxal and methylglyoxal. The CMAQ-MCM-SOA model was applied to simulate SOA formation during a two-week episode from August 28 to September 7, 2006. The southeastern US has the highest SOA, with a maximum episode-averaged concentration of ∼12 μg m-3. Primary organic aerosol (POA) and SOA concentrations predicted by CMAQ-MCM-SOA agree well with AMS-derived hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA) and oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA) urban concentrations at the Moody Tower at the University of Houston. Predicted molecular properties of SOA (O/C, H/C, N/C and OM/OC ratios) at the site are similar to those reported in other urban areas, and O/C values agree with measured O/C at the same site. Isoprene epoxydiol is predicted to be the largest contributor to total SOA concentration in the southeast US, followed by methylglyoxal and glyoxal. The semi-volatile SOA components are dominated by products from β-caryophyllene oxidation, but the major species and their concentrations are sensitive to errors in saturation vapor pressure estimation. A uniform decrease of saturation vapor pressure by a factor of 100 for all condensable compounds can lead to a 150% increase in total SOA. A sensitivity simulation with UNIFAC-calculated activity coefficients (ignoring phase separation and water molecule partitioning into the organic phase) led to a 10% change in the predicted semi-volatile SOA concentrations.

  6. Field and Laboratory Studies of Atmospheric Organic Aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coggon, Matthew Mitchell

    This thesis is the culmination of field and laboratory studies aimed at assessing processes that affect the composition and distribution of atmospheric organic aerosol. An emphasis is placed on measurements conducted using compact and high-resolution Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometers (AMS). The first three chapters summarize results from aircraft campaigns designed to evaluate anthropogenic and biogenic impacts on marine aerosol and clouds off the coast of California. Subsequent chapters describe laboratory studies intended to evaluate gas and particle-phase mechanisms of organic aerosol oxidation. The 2013 Nucleation in California Experiment (NiCE) was a campaign designed to study environments impacted by nucleated and/or freshly formed aerosol particles. Terrestrial biogenic aerosol with > 85% organic mass was observed to reside in the free troposphere above marine stratocumulus. This biogenic organic aerosol (BOA) originated from the Northwestern United States and was transported to the marine atmosphere during periodic cloud-clearing events. Spectra recorded by a cloud condensation nuclei counter demonstrated that BOA is CCN active. BOA enhancements at latitudes north of San Francisco, CA coincided with enhanced cloud water concentrations of organic species such as acetate and formate. Airborne measurements conducted during the 2011 Eastern Pacific Emitted Aerosol Cloud Experiment (E-PEACE) were aimed at evaluating the contribution of ship emissions to the properties of marine aerosol and clouds off the coast of central California. In one study, analysis of organic aerosol mass spectra during periods of enhanced shipping activity yielded unique tracers indicative of cloud-processed ship emissions (m/z 42 and 99). The variation of their organic fraction (f42 and f 99) was found to coincide with periods of heavy (f 42 > 0.15; f99 > 0.04), moderate (0.05 < f42 < 0.15; 0.01 < f99 < 0.04), and negligible (f42 < 0.05; f99 < 0.01) ship influence. Application of

  7. Physical and optical properties of aerosols over an urban location in Spain: seasonal and diurnal variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Lyamani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of aerosol optical properties and aerosol number size distribution obtained during the period from December 2005 to November 2007 at Granada, an urban site in south-eastern Spain, are analyzed. Large variations of the measured variables have been found, and related to variations in emissions sources and meteorological conditions. High values of aerosol absorption and scattering coefficients are obtained during winter and low values are measured during summer. This seasonal pattern in the surface aerosol optical properties is opposite to the seasonal cycle showed by columnar aerosol optical depth. The differences in the seasonal features of the surface and column-integrated data are related to seasonal variations in the aerosol vertical distribution, aerosol sources and boundary layer height. In winter the number density of "fine" particles (0.5s, presents an evident seasonal cycle with values of 1.8±0.2, 1.6±0.3, 1.3±0.3 and 1.4±0.3 in winter, spring, summer and autumn, respectively. This suggests the presence of a large fraction of submicron particles at the site, especially during winter. The aerosols measured in this study contain a large fraction of absorbing material as indicated by the average single-scattering albedo that has values of 0.65±0.07, 0.66±0.06, 0.70±0.06 and 0.73±0.06 in autumn, winter, spring and summer, respectively. The aerosol scattering albedo obtained in the surface boundary layer of Granada is below the critical value of 0.86 that determines the shift from cooling to warming. These results put in evidence the need of efforts to reduce absorbing particles (black carbon emissions to avoid the possible warming that would result from the

  8. Physical and optical properties of aerosols over an urban location in Spain: seasonal and diurnal variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Lyamani

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of aerosol optical properties and aerosol number size distribution obtained during the period from December 2005 to November 2007 at Granada, an urban site in south-eastern Spain, are analyzed. Large variations of the measured variables have been found, and related to variations in emissions sources and meteorological conditions. High values of aerosol absorption and scattering coefficients are obtained during winter and low values are measured during summer. This seasonal pattern in the surface aerosol optical properties is opposite to the seasonal cycle showed by columnar aerosol optical depth. The differences in the seasonal features of the surface and column-integrated data are related to seasonal variations in the aerosol vertical distribution, aerosol sources and boundary layer height. In winter the number density of fine particles (0.5s, presents an evident seasonal cycle with values of 1.8±0.2, 1.6±0.3, 1.3±0.3 and 1.4±0.3 in winter, spring, summer and autumn, respectively. This suggests the presence of a large fraction of submicron particles at the site, especially during winter. Urban aerosols in Granada contain a large fraction of absorbing material as indicated by the average single-scattering albedo that has values of 0.65±0.07, 0.66±0.06, 0.70±0.06 and 0.73±0.06 in autumn, winter, spring and summer, respectively. The aerosol scattering albedo obtained in the surface boundary layer of Granada is below the critical value of 0.86 that determines the shift from cooling to warming. These results put in evidence the need of efforts to reduce absorbing particles (black carbon emissions to avoid the possible warming that would result from the reductions of

  9. Sero-epidemiology of equine toxoplasmosis using a latex agglutination test in the three metropolises of Punjab, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saqib, M; Hussain, M H; Sajid, M S; Mansoor, M K; Asi, M N; Fadya, A A K; Zohaib, A; Sial, A U R; Muhammad, G; Ullah, I

    2015-06-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a serious threat for livestock in addition to being of zoonotic significance. In this study, serodiagnosis of equine toxoplasmosis was conducted in a randomly selected population from the 3 metropolises of Punjab, Pakistan. To this end, 272 draught equines were screened using a commercial latex agglutination assay kit. Association of probable risk factors of equine toxoplasmosis was also documented. A total of 91 (33.5%) equines were found sero-positive for Toxoplama (T.) gondii having antibody titers ranging between 1:32 to 1:612. The highest rates of seropositive cases were observed in donkeys (58.7%) followed by mules (28.6%) and horses (23.5%). Age, sex and species of draught equines were found not to be statistically (p>0.05) associated with the distribution of T. gondii antibodies. The results of the study provided a baseline data for the exposure of equine population in this area. In addition, it is recommended that the contiguous population of domestic ruminants and possible reservoirs such as feral cats should be screened in order to explore the potential risk for the human population in Pakistan.

  10. The study of aerobic bacterial flora of the upper respiratory tract of equines from Jammu and Kashmir region of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Ahmad Mir

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim:To isolate aerobic bacterial micro flora residing in the upper respiratory tract of equines used by the pilgrims and tourists in Jammu & Kashmir. Materials and Methods:88 apparently healthy equines and 53 equines with respiratory tract diseases were used in this study. Swab samples were collected from the upper respiratory tract of equines. Isolation and identification of the bacteria was conducted under aerobic conditions. Each of the sample processed yielded at least one type of bacteria species. Results: A total of 321 bacterial isolates were recovered from both groups of equines. The majority of the isolates were Gram positive (84.11% and the rest were Gram negative (15.88%. Bacterial isolates identified in order of the magnitude were Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus (17.44%, Micrococcus spp. (9.96%, Corynebacterium (9.65%, Staphylococcus intermedius (9.65%, Staphylococcus aureus (8.72%, Bacillus spp. (7.16%, Streptococcus pneumonia (5.60%, Staphylococcus chromogens (5.60%, Streptococcus equismilis (5.29%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (5.29%, Rhodococcus equi (3.73%, Escherichia coli (3.73%, Klebsiella pneumoniae (3.42%, Proteus vulgaris (3.42%, and Streptococcus equisubsp. equi(1.24%. Conclusion: The present study reveals the predominance of Gram positive bacteria in both healthy and diseased animals. Bacteria were recovered at a higher rate from diseased equines than from apparently healthy animals. Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicuswas mainly found to be associated with respiratory tract infections.

  11. Spatial heterogeneity in near surface aerosol characteristics across the Brahmaputra valley

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Binita Pathak; Arup Borgohain; Pradip Kumar Bhuyan; Shyam Sundar Kundu; S Sudhakar; Mukunda M Gogoi; Toshihiko Takemura

    2014-06-01

    In order to examine the spatial variability of the aerosol characteristics across the Brahmaputra valley, a land campaign was conducted during late winter (February 3–March 2) 2011. Measurements of particulate matter (PM, PM10, PM2.5) and black carbon (BC) concentrations were made onboard an interior redesigned vehicle. The length of the campaign trail stretched about 700 km, covering the longitude belt of 89.97°–95.55°E and latitude belt of 26.1°–27.6°N, comprising 13 measurement locations. The valley is divided into three sectors longitudinally: western sector (R1: 89.97°–91.75°E), middle sector (R2: 92.5°–94.01°E) and eastern sector (R3: 94.63°–95.55°E). Spatial heterogeneity in aerosol distribution has been observed with higher PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations at the western and middle sectors compared to the eastern sector. The locations in the western sector are found to be rich in BC compared to the other two sectors and there is a gradual decrease in BC concentrations from west to east of the Brahmaputra valley. Two hotspots within the western and middle sectors with high PM and BC concentrations have been identified. The associated physico-optical parameters of PM reveal abundance of PM2.5 aerosols along the entire valley. High population density in the western and middle sectors, together with the contribution of remote aerosols, leads to higher anthropogenic aerosols over those regions. Spectral Radiation-Transport Model for Aerosol Species (SPRINTARS) slightly underestimates the measured PM10 and PM2.5 at the eastern sector while the model overestimates the measurements at a number of locations in the western sector. In general, BC is underestimated by the model. The variation of BC within the campaign trail has not been adequately captured by the model leading to higher variance in the western locations as compared to the middle and eastern locations.

  12. Study of Aerosol Chemical Composition Based on Aerosol Optical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Austin; Aryal, Rudra

    2015-03-01

    We investigated the variation of aerosol absorption optical properties obtained from the CIMEL Sun-Photometer measurements over three years (2012-2014) at three AERONET sites GSFC; MD Science_Center and Tudor Hill, Bermuda. These sites were chosen based on the availability of data and locations that can receive different types of aerosols from land and ocean. These absorption properties, mainly the aerosol absorption angstrom exponent, were analyzed to examine the corresponding aerosol chemical composition. We observed that the retrieved absorption angstrom exponents over the two sites, GSFC and MD Science Center, are near 1 (the theoretical value for black carbon) and with low single scattering albedo values during summer seasons indicating presence of black carbon. Strong variability of aerosol absorption properties were observed over Tudor Hill and will be analyzed based on the air mass embedded from ocean side and land side. We will also present the seasonal variability of these properties based on long-range air mass sources at these three sites. Brent Holben, NASA GSFC, AERONET, Jon Rodriguez.

  13. Global simulations of aerosol processing in clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Hoose

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available An explicit and detailed representation of in-droplet and in-crystal aerosol particles in stratiform clouds has been introduced in the global aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM. The new scheme allows an evaluation of the cloud cycling of aerosols and an estimation of the relative contributions of nucleation and collision scavenging, as opposed to evaporation of hydrometeors in the global aerosol processing by clouds. On average an aerosol particle is cycled through stratiform clouds 0.5 times. The new scheme leads to important changes in the simulated fraction of aerosol scavenged in clouds, and consequently in the aerosol wet deposition. In general, less aerosol is scavenged into clouds with the new prognostic treatment than what is prescribed in standard ECHAM5-HAM. Aerosol concentrations, size distributions, scavenged fractions and cloud droplet concentrations are evaluated and compared to different observations. While the scavenged fraction and the aerosol number concentrations in the marine boundary layer are well represented in the new model, aerosol optical thickness, cloud droplet number concentrations in the marine boundary layer and the aerosol volume in the accumulation and coarse modes over the oceans are overestimated. Sensitivity studies suggest that a better representation of below-cloud scavenging, higher in-cloud collision coefficients, or a reduced water uptake by seasalt aerosols could reduce these biases.

  14. Global simulations of aerosol processing in clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Hoose

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available An explicit and detailed representation of in-droplet and in-crystal aerosol particles in stratiform clouds has been introduced in the global aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM. The new scheme allows an evaluation of the cloud cycling of aerosols and an estimation of the relative contributions of nucleation and collision scavenging, as opposed to evaporation of hydrometeors in the global aerosol processing by clouds. On average an aerosol particle is cycled through stratiform clouds 0.5 times. The new scheme leads to important changes in the simulated fraction of aerosol scavenged in clouds, and consequently in the aerosol wet deposition. In general, less aerosol is scavenged into clouds with the new prognostic treatment than what is prescribed in standard ECHAM5-HAM. Aerosol concentrations, size distributions, scavenged fractions and cloud droplet concentrations are evaluated and compared to different observations. While the scavenged fraction and the aerosol number concentrations in the marine boundary layer are well represented in the new model, aerosol optical thickness, cloud droplet number concentrations in the marine boundary layer and the aerosol volume in the accumulation and coarse modes over the oceans are overestimated. Sensitivity studies suggest that a better representation of below-cloud scavenging, higher in-cloud collision coefficients, or a reduced water uptake by seasalt aerosols could reduce these biases.

  15. Simulation of GOES-R ABI aerosol radiances using WRF-CMAQ: a case study approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, S. A.

    2014-04-01

    In anticipation of the upcoming GOES-R launch we simulate visible and near-infrared reflectances of the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) for cases of high aerosol loading containing regional haze and smoke over the eastern United States. The simulations are performed using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF), Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE), and Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) models. Geostationary, satellite-derived, biomass-burning emissions are also included as an input to CMAQ. Using the CMAQ aerosol concentrations and Mie calculations, radiance is computed from the discrete ordinate atmospheric radiative transfer model. We present detailed methods for deriving aerosol extinction from WRF and CMAQ outputs. Our results show that the model simulations create a realistic set of reflectances in various aerosol scenarios. The simulated reflectances provide distinct spectral features of aerosols which are then compared to data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). We also present a simple technique to synthesize green band reflectance (which will not be available on the ABI), using the model-simulated blue and red band reflectance. This study is an example of the use of air quality modeling in improving products and techniques for Earth-observing missions.

  16. Simulation of GOES-R ABI aerosol radiances using WRF-CMAQ: a case study approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Christopher

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The primary focus of this paper is to simulate visible and near-infrared reflectances of the GOES-R Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI for cases of high aerosol loading containing regional haze and smoke over the eastern United States. The simulations are performed using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF, Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE, and Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ models. Geostationary satellite-derived biomass burning emissions are also included as an input to CMAQ. Using the CMAQ aerosol concentrations and Mie calculations, radiance is computed from the discrete ordinate atmospheric radiative transfer model. We present detailed methods for deriving aerosol extinction from WRF and CMAQ outputs. Our results show that the model simulations create a realistic set of reflectance in various aerosol scenarios. The simulated reflectance provides distinct spectral features of aerosols which is then compared to data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS. We also present a simple technique to synthesize green band reflectance (which will not be available on the ABI, using the model-simulated blue and red band reflectance. This study is an example of the use of air quality modeling in improving products and techniques for Earth observing missions.

  17. Size-resolved CCN distributions and activation kinetics of aged continental and marine aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bougiatioti

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We present size-segregated measurements of cloud condensation nucleus (CCN activity of aged aerosol sampled at Finokalia, Crete, during the Finokalia Aerosol Measurement Experiment of summer 2007 (FAME07. From analysis of the data, hygroscopicity and activation kinetics distributions are derived. The CCN are found to be highly hygroscopic, (expressed by a size- and time-averaged hygroscopicity parameter κ ~ 0.22, with the majority of particles activating at ~0.5–0.6% supersaturation. Air masses originating from Central-Eastern Europe tend to be associated with higher CCN concentrations and slightly lower hygroscopicity (κ ~ 0.18 than for other airmass types. The particles were always well mixed, as reflected by the high activation ratios and narrow hygroscopicity distribution widths. Smaller particles (~30 nm were found to be more hygroscopic (~0.1 κ units higher than the larger ones (~100 nm. The particles with diameters less than 80 nm exhibited a diurnal hygroscopicity cycle (with κ peaking at ~14:00 h local time, consistent with photochemical aging and volatilization of less hygroscopic material from the aerosol. Use of bulk chemical composition and the aerosol number distribution results in excellent CCN closure when applying Köhler theory in its simplest form. Using asymptotic and threshold droplet growth analysis, the "aged" organics present in the aerosol were found not to suppress or delay the water uptake kinetics of particles in this environment.

  18. Aerus-GEO: newly available satellite-derived aerosol optical depth product over Europe and Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrer, D.; Roujean, J. L.; Ceamanos, X.; Six, B.; Suman, S.

    2015-12-01

    The major difficulty in detecting the aerosol signal from visible and near-infrared remote sensing observations is to reach the proper separation of the components related to the atmosphere and the surface. A method is proposed to circumvent this issue by exploiting the directional and temporal dimensions of the satellite signal through the use of a semi-empirical kernel-driven model for the surface/atmosphere coupled system. This algorithm was implemented by the ICARE Data Center (http://www.icare.univ-lille1.fr), which operationally disseminates a daily AOD product at 670 nm over the MSG disk since 2014. The proposed method referred to as AERUS-GEO (Aerosol and surface albEdo Retrieval Using a directional Splitting method - application to GEO data) is applied to three spectral bands (0.6 mm, 0.8 mm, and 1.6 mm) of MSG (Meteosat Second Generation) observations, which scan Europe, Africa, and the Eastern part of South America every 15 minutes. The daily AOD estimates at 0.63μm has been extensively validated. In contrast, the Angstrom coefficient is still going through validation and we will show the differences between the MSG derived Angstrom exponent with that of CAMS (Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service) near-real time aerosol product. The impact of aerosol type on the aerosol radiative forcing will be presented as a part of future development plan.

  19. Black carbon aerosol mixing state, organic aerosols and aerosol optical properties over the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMeeking, G. R.; Morgan, W. T.; Flynn, M.; Highwood, E. J.; Turnbull, K.; Haywood, J.; Coe, H.

    2011-05-01

    Black carbon (BC) aerosols absorb sunlight thereby leading to a positive radiative forcing and a warming of climate and can also impact human health through their impact on the respiratory system. The state of mixing of BC with other aerosol species, particularly the degree of internal/external mixing, has been highlighted as a major uncertainty in assessing its radiative forcing and hence its climate impact, but few in situ observations of mixing state exist. We present airborne single particle soot photometer (SP2) measurements of refractory BC (rBC) mass concentrations and mixing state coupled with aerosol composition and optical properties measured in urban plumes and regional pollution over the UK. All data were obtained using instrumentation flown on the UK's BAe-146-301 large Atmospheric Research Aircraft (ARA) operated by the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM). We measured sub-micron aerosol composition using an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) and used positive matrix factorization to separate hydrocarbon-like (HOA) and oxygenated organic aerosols (OOA). We found a higher number fraction of thickly coated rBC particles in air masses with large OOA relative to HOA, higher ozone-to-nitrogen oxides (NOx) ratios and large concentrations of total sub-micron aerosol mass relative to rBC mass concentrations. The more ozone- and OOA-rich air masses were associated with transport from continental Europe, while plumes from UK cities had higher HOA and NOx and fewer thickly coated rBC particles. We did not observe any significant change in the rBC mass absorption efficiency calculated from rBC mass and light absorption coefficients measured by a particle soot absorption photometer despite observing significant changes in aerosol composition and rBC mixing state. The contributions of light scattering and absorption to total extinction (quantified by the single scattering albedo; SSA) did change for different air masses, with lower SSA observed in

  20. Black carbon aerosol mixing state, organic aerosols and aerosol optical properties over the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMeeking, G. R.; Morgan, W. T.; Flynn, M.; Highwood, E. J.; Turnbull, K.; Haywood, J.; Coe, H.

    2011-09-01

    Black carbon (BC) aerosols absorb sunlight thereby leading to a positive radiative forcing and a warming of climate and can also impact human health through their impact on the respiratory system. The state of mixing of BC with other aerosol species, particularly the degree of internal/external mixing, has been highlighted as a major uncertainty in assessing its radiative forcing and hence its climate impact, but few in situ observations of mixing state exist. We present airborne single particle soot photometer (SP2) measurements of refractory BC (rBC) mass concentrations and mixing state coupled with aerosol composition and optical properties measured in urban plumes and regional pollution over the United Kingdom. All data were obtained using instrumentation flown on the UK's BAe-146-301 large Atmospheric Research Aircraft (ARA) operated by the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM). We measured sub-micron aerosol composition using an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) and used positive matrix factorization to separate hydrocarbon-like (HOA) and oxygenated organic aerosols (OOA). We found a higher number fraction of thickly coated rBC particles in air masses with large OOA relative to HOA, higher ozone-to-nitrogen oxides (NOx) ratios and large concentrations of total sub-micron aerosol mass relative to rBC mass concentrations. The more ozone- and OOA-rich air masses were associated with transport from continental Europe, while plumes from UK cities had higher HOA and NOx and fewer thickly coated rBC particles. We did not observe any significant change in the rBC mass absorption efficiency calculated from rBC mass and light absorption coefficients measured by a particle soot absorption photometer despite observing significant changes in aerosol composition and rBC mixing state. The contributions of light scattering and absorption to total extinction (quantified by the single scattering albedo; SSA) did change for different air masses, with lower SSA

  1. Black carbon aerosol mixing state, organic aerosols and aerosol optical properties over the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. R. McMeeking

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Black carbon (BC aerosols absorb sunlight thereby leading to a positive radiative forcing and a warming of climate and can also impact human health through their impact on the respiratory system. The state of mixing of BC with other aerosol species, particularly the degree of internal/external mixing, has been highlighted as a major uncertainty in assessing its radiative forcing and hence its climate impact, but few in situ observations of mixing state exist. We present airborne single particle soot photometer (SP2 measurements of refractory BC (rBC mass concentrations and mixing state coupled with aerosol composition and optical properties measured in urban plumes and regional pollution over the United Kingdom. All data were obtained using instrumentation flown on the UK's BAe-146-301 large Atmospheric Research Aircraft (ARA operated by the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM. We measured sub-micron aerosol composition using an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS and used positive matrix factorization to separate hydrocarbon-like (HOA and oxygenated organic aerosols (OOA. We found a higher number fraction of thickly coated rBC particles in air masses with large OOA relative to HOA, higher ozone-to-nitrogen oxides (NOx ratios and large concentrations of total sub-micron aerosol mass relative to rBC mass concentrations. The more ozone- and OOA-rich air masses were associated with transport from continental Europe, while plumes from UK cities had higher HOA and NOx and fewer thickly coated rBC particles. We did not observe any significant change in the rBC mass absorption efficiency calculated from rBC mass and light absorption coefficients measured by a particle soot absorption photometer despite observing significant changes in aerosol composition and rBC mixing state. The contributions of light scattering and absorption to total extinction (quantified by the single scattering albedo; SSA did change for

  2. Factors Affecting Aerosol Radiative Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingxu; Lin, Jintai; Ni, Ruijing

    2016-04-01

    Rapid industrial and economic growth has meant a large amount of aerosols in the atmosphere with strong radiative forcing (RF) upon the climate system. Over parts of the globe, the negative forcing of aerosols has overcompensated for the positive forcing of greenhouse gases. Aerosol RF is determined by emissions and various chemical-transport-radiative processes in the atmosphere, a multi-factor problem whose individual contributors have not been well quantified. In this study, we analyze the major factors affecting RF of secondary inorganic aerosols (SIOAs, including sulfate, nitrate and ammonium), primary organic aerosol (POA), and black carbon (BC). We analyze the RF of aerosols produced by 11 major regions across the globe, including but not limited to East Asia, Southeast Asia, South Asia, North America, and Western Europe. Factors analyzed include population size, per capita gross domestic production (GDP), emission intensity (i.e., emissions per unit GDP), chemical efficiency (i.e., mass per unit emissions) and radiative efficiency (i.e., RF per unit mass). We find that among the 11 regions, East Asia produces the largest emissions and aerosol RF, due to relatively high emission intensity and a tremendous population size. South Asia produce the second largest RF of SIOA and BC and the highest RF of POA, in part due to its highest chemical efficiency among all regions. Although Southeast Asia also has large emissions, its aerosol RF is alleviated by its lowest chemical efficiency. The chemical efficiency and radiative efficiency of BC produced by the Middle East-North Africa are the highest across the regions, whereas its RF is lowered by a small per capita GDP. Both North America and Western Europe have low emission intensity, compensating for the effects on RF of large population sizes and per capita GDP. There has been a momentum to transfer industries to Southeast Asia and South Asia, and such transition is expected to continue in the coming years. The

  3. MISR Aerosol Climatology Product V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This product is 1)the microphysical and scattering characteristics of pure aerosol upon which routine retrievals are based;2)mixtures of pure aerosol to be compared...

  4. CATS Aerosol Typing and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Matt; Yorks, John; Scott, Stan; Palm, Stephen; Hlavka, Dennis; Hart, William; Nowottnick, Ed; Selmer, Patrick; Kupchock, Andrew; Midzak, Natalie; Trepte, Chip; Vaughan, Mark; Colarco, Peter; da Silva, Arlindo

    2016-01-01

    The Cloud Aerosol Transport System (CATS), launched in January of 2015, is a lidar remote sensing instrument that will provide range-resolved profile measurements of atmospheric aerosols and clouds from the International Space Station (ISS). CATS is intended to operate on-orbit for at least six months, and up to three years. Status of CATS Level 2 and Plans for the Future:Version. 1. Aerosol Typing (ongoing): Mode 1: L1B data released later this summer; L2 data released shortly after; Identify algorithm biases (ex. striping, FOV (field of view) biases). Mode 2: Processed Released Currently working on correcting algorithm issues. Version 2 Aerosol Typing (Fall, 2016): Implementation of version 1 modifications Integrate GEOS-5 aerosols for typing guidance for non spherical aerosols. Version 3 Aerosol Typing (2017): Implementation of 1-D Var Assimilation into GEOS-5 Dynamic lidar ratio that will evolve in conjunction with simulated aerosol mixtures.

  5. Miniature Sensor for Aerosol Mass Measurements Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR project seeks to develop a miniature sensor for mass measurement of size-classified aerosols. A cascade impactor will be used to classify aerosol sample...

  6. Aerosol Emission during Human Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi, Sima; Ristenpart, William

    2016-11-01

    The traditional emphasis for airborne disease transmission has been on coughing and sneezing, which are dramatic expiratory events that yield easily visible droplets. Recent research suggests that normal speech can release even larger quantities of aerosols that are too small to see with the naked eye, but are nonetheless large enough to carry a variety of pathogens (e.g., influenza A). This observation raises an important question: what types of speech emit the most aerosols? Here we show that the concentration of aerosols emitted during healthy human speech is positively correlated with both the amplitude (loudness) and fundamental frequency (pitch) of the vocalization. Experimental measurements with an aerodynamic particle sizer (APS) indicate that speaking in a loud voice (95 decibels) yields up to fifty times more aerosols than in a quiet voice (75 decibels), and that sounds associated with certain phonemes (e.g., [a] or [o]) release more aerosols than others. We interpret these results in terms of the egressive airflow rate associated with each phoneme and the corresponding fundamental frequency, which is known to vary significantly with gender and age. The results suggest that individual speech patterns could affect the probability of airborne disease transmission.

  7. Characterising Brazilian biomass burning emissions using WRF-Chem with MOSAIC sectional aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Archer-Nicholls

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA field campaign took detailed in-situ flight measurements of aerosol during the 2012 dry season to characterise biomass burning aerosol and improve understanding of its impacts on weather and climate. Developments have been made to the Weather research and Forecast model with chemistry (WRF-Chem model to improve the representation of biomass burning aerosol in the region by coupling a sectional aerosol scheme to the plume rise parameterisation. Brazilian Biomass Burning Emissions Model (3BEM fire emissions are used, prepared using PREP-CHEM-SRC, and mapped to CBM-Z and MOSAIC species. Model results have been evaluated against remote sensing products, AERONET sites, and four case studies of flight measurements from the SAMBBA campaign. WRF-Chem predicted layers of elevated aerosol loadings (5–20 μg sm−3 of particulate organic matter at high altitude (6–8 km over tropical forest regions, while flight measurements showed a sharp decrease above 2–4 km altitude. This difference was attributed to the plume-rise parameterisation overestimating injection height. The 3BEM emissions product was modified using estimates of active fire size and burned area for the 2012 fire season, which reduced the fire size. The enhancement factor for fire emissions was increased from 1.3 to 5 to retain reasonable aerosol optical depths (AOD. The smaller fire size lowered the injection height of the emissions, but WRF-Chem still showed elevated aerosol loadings between 4–5 km altitude. Over eastern Cerrado (savannah-like regions, both modelled and measured aerosol loadings decreased above approximately 4 km altitude. Compared with MODIS satellite data and AERONET sites, WRF-Chem represented AOD magnitude well (between 0.3–1.5 over western tropical forest fire regions in the first half of the campaign, but tended to over-predict them in the second half, when precipitation was more significant. Over eastern

  8. Characterising Brazilian biomass burning emissions using WRF-Chem with MOSAIC sectional aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Archer-Nicholls

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA field campaign took detailed in situ flight measurements of aerosol during the 2012 dry season to characterise biomass burning aerosol and improve understanding of its impacts on weather and climate. Developments have been made to the Weather Research and Forecast model with chemistry (WRF-Chem model to improve the representation of biomass burning aerosol in the region, by coupling a sectional aerosol scheme to the plume-rise parameterisation. Brazilian Biomass Burning Emissions Model (3BEM fire emissions are used, prepared using PREP-CHEM-SRC, and mapped to CBM-Z and MOSAIC species. Model results have been evaluated against remote sensing products, AERONET sites, and four case studies of flight measurements from the SAMBBA campaign. WRF-Chem predicted layers of elevated aerosol loadings (5–20 μg sm−3 of particulate organic matter at high altitude (6–8 km over tropical forest regions, while flight measurements showed a sharp decrease above 2–4 km altitude. This difference was attributed to the plume-rise parameterisation overestimating injection height. The 3BEM emissions product was modified using estimates of active fire size and burned area for the 2012 fire season, which reduced the fire size. The enhancement factor for fire emissions was increased from 1.3 to 5 to retain reasonable aerosol optical depths (AODs. The smaller fire size lowered the injection height of the emissions, but WRF-Chem still showed elevated aerosol loadings between 4–5 km altitude. Over eastern cerrado (savannah-like regions, both modelled and measured aerosol loadings decreased above approximately 4 km altitude. Compared with MODIS satellite data and AERONET sites, WRF-Chem represented AOD magnitude well (between 0.3–1.5 over western tropical forest fire regions in the first half of the campaign, but tended to over-predict them in the second half, when precipitation was more significant. Over eastern

  9. Fatal epizootic equine herpesvirus 1 infections in new and unnatural hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlsein, Peter; Lehmbecker, Annika; Spitzbarth, Ingo; Algermissen, Dorothee; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Böer, Michael; Kummrow, Maja; Haas, Ludwig; Grummer, Beatrice

    2011-05-05

    In a zoological collection, four black bears (Ursus americanus) died from neurological disease within six months. Independently in a geographically different zoo, two Thomson's gazelles (Eudorcas thomsoni) and 18 guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus f. dom.) suffered from neurological disorders. In addition, guinea pigs showed abortions and stillbirths. All affected animals displayed a non suppurative meningoencephalitis with intranuclear inclusion bodies. Immunohistology demonstrated equine herpes virus antigen and ultrastructurally herpes viral particles were detected. Virus isolation and molecular analysis identified neurotropic equine herpesvirus (EHV) 1 strains in both epizootics. There is serological evidence of a possible virus transmission from other equids to the affected animals. Cross-species transmission of EHV-1 should be considered in the management of captive wild equids and ungulates, particularly with respect to fatal disease in irreplaceable species.

  10. Equine infectious anemia on Marajo Island at the mouth of the Amazon river

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayra F.Q.R. Freitas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Equine infectious anemia (EIA is a transmissible and incurable disease caused by a lentivirus, the equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV. There are no reports in the literature of this infection in Equidae on Marajo Island. The objective of this study was to diagnose the disease in the municipalities of Cachoeira do Arari, Salvaterra, Santa Cruz do Arari and Soure, on Marajó Island, state of Pará, Brazil. For serological survey samples were collected from 294 horses, over 5-month-old, males and females of puruca and marajoara breeds and from some half-breeds, which were tested by immunodiffusion in Agar gel (AGID. A prevalence of 46.26% (136/294 positive cases was found. EIA is considered endemic in the municipalities studied, due to the ecology of the region with a high numbered population of bloodsucking insect vectors and the absence of official measures for the control of the disease.

  11. Optical coherence tomography enables accurate measurement of equine cartilage thickness for determination of speed of sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhakka, Pia H; Te Moller, Nikae C R; Tanska, Petri; Saarakkala, Simo; Tiitu, Virpi; Korhonen, Rami K; Brommer, Harold; Virén, Tuomas; Jurvelin, Jukka S; Töyräs, Juha

    2016-08-01

    Background and purpose - Arthroscopic estimation of articular cartilage thickness is important for scoring of lesion severity, and measurement of cartilage speed of sound (SOS)-a sensitive index of changes in cartilage composition. We investigated the accuracy of optical coherence tomography (OCT) in measurements of cartilage thickness and determined SOS by combining OCT thickness and ultrasound (US) time-of-flight (TOF) measurements. Material and methods - Cartilage thickness measurements from OCT and microscopy images of 94 equine osteochondral samples were compared. Then, SOS in cartilage was determined using simultaneous OCT thickness and US TOF measurements. SOS was then compared with the compositional, structural, and mechanical properties of cartilage. Results - Measurements of non-calcified cartilage thickness using OCT and microscopy were significantly correlated (ρ = 0.92; p measurement of articular cartilage thickness. Although SOS measurements lacked accuracy in thin equine cartilage, the concept of SOS measurement using OCT appears promising.

  12. Desing of a virtual interactive tutorial of the equine encephalon macroscopic anatomy for veterinary students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Venegas Cortes

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to answer the problem of what could be the most appropriate innovative didactic to improve the learning process of equine encephalon anatomy in the School of Veterinary Medicine of La Salle University, this project began to design, apply and evaluate a didactic prototype Computerized Educative Media CEM in macroscopic anatomy of equine encephalon, to improve the «significant learning» in this subject. The project was developed in three phases regarding the Galviz software engineering, as well as the selected environment for learning, within the framework of the conceptual Novak maps, the significant learning of Ausubel, and the test of usability adapted and applied to the anatomy students, as a MEC evaluation.

  13. Determination of flunixin in equine urine and serum by capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, X; Meleka-Boules, M; Chen, C L; Ceska, D M; Tiffany, D M

    1997-04-25

    A capillary electrophoresis (CE) and a solid-phase extraction method was developed for the determination of flunixin in equine urine and serum. The suitable CE run conditions were described. The factors affecting flunixin recovery rates were investigated and optimum solid-phase extraction conditions for flunixin in equine urine and serum were established. Limits of detection and quantitation were 3.4 and 5.6 ng/ml for serum and 16.9 and 33.1 ng/ml for urine, respectively. The recoveries exceeded 96% for urine and 79% for serum. Urine samples from race horses and urine and serum samples from a mare administrated with flunixin were analyzed with this procedure.

  14. Candidate Vectors and Rodent Hosts of Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus, Chiapas, 2006–2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deardorff, Eleanor R.; Estrada-Franco, Jose G.; Freier, Jerome E.; Navarro-Lopez, Roberto; Da Rosa, Amelia Travassos; Tesh, Robert B.; Weaver, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    Enzootic Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) has been known to occur in Mexico since the 1960s. The first natural equine epizootic was recognized in Chiapas in 1993 and since then, numerous studies have characterized the etiologic strains, including reverse genetic studies that incriminated a specific mutation that enhanced infection of epizootic mosquito vectors. The aim of this study was to determine the mosquito and rodent species involved in enzootic maintenance of subtype IE VEEV in coastal Chiapas. A longitudinal study was conducted over a year to discern which species and habitats could be associated with VEEV circulation. Antibody was rarely detected in mammals and virus was not isolated from mosquitoes. Additionally, Culex (Melanoconion) taeniopus populations were found to be spatially related to high levels of human and bovine seroprevalence. These mosquito populations were concentrated in areas that appear to represent foci of stable, enzootic VEEV circulation. PMID:22144461

  15. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in frequent in equines from an endemic area in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz Manuel Aguilar

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available In an endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Rio de Janeiro State where a mule had been found infected, a systematic search among equines was performed, resulting in the detection of Leishmania parasites in skin lesions of 30.8% of the animals, which included horses and mules. The eventual role of equines in the epidemiology of the human disease is being investigated.O achado de uma mula infectada num foco endêmico de leishmaniose tegumentar no Rio de Janeiro, levou-nos a procurar sistematicamente infecções por Leishmania em equinos, resultando no encontro de 30,8% de parasitados, incluindo cavalos e mulas. A possibilidade de esses animais participarem da cadeia epidemiológica da leishmaniose humana está sendo investigada.

  16. Different pattern of haemagglutinin immunoreactivity of equine influenza virus strains isolated in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwaśnik Małgorzata

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The immunoreactivity of haemagglutinin (HA polypeptides of equine influenza virus was compared among the strains isolated in Poland, using H3 monoclonal antibody. A stronger signal in immunoblot reaction was observed for A/equi/Pulawy/2008 HA polypeptides compared to A/equi/Pulawy/2006, despite the fact that both strains are phylogenetically closely related and belong to Florida clade 2 of American lineage. The strongest signal, observed in the case of A/equi/Pulawy/2008, seemed to be connected with the presence of G135, I213, E379, and/or V530 instead of R135, M213, G379, and I530 present in A/equi/Pulawy/2006 HA sequence. This implies that point mutations within amino acid sequences of HA polypeptides of equine influenza virus may change their immunoreactivity even when they are not located within five basic antigenic sites.

  17. Ultrastructural aspects of feeding and secretion-excretion by the equine parasite Strongylus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobarak, M S; Ryan, M F

    1999-06-01

    Light, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy were employed to provide further data on the putative origins of the immunogenic secretory-excretory product (ESP) of Strongylus vulgaris (Looss 1900). The sharply delineated but superficial attachment to the equine caecum by the mouth leaves behind an oval area devoid of epithelial cells. Attachment does not extend deeply enough to reach the muscularis mucosa layer of the equine intestine. The progressive digestion of the ingested plug of tissue (epithelial cells, blood cells and mucous) was visualized. The coelomocytes, floating cells and membranous structures located in the pseudocoelom and intimately associated with the digestive, excretory and reproductive systems, and with the somatic muscles are described. The secretory-excretory system comprises two, ventrally-located, secretory-excretory glands connected to tubular elements. These glands synthesize granules of various sizes and densities that are delineated.

  18. Origins of atmospheric aerosols. Basic concepts on aerosol main physical properties; L`aerosol atmospherique: ses origines quelques notions sur les principales proprietes physiques des aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renoux, A. [Paris-12 Univ., 94 - Creteil (France). Laboratoire de Physique des aerosols et de transferts des contaminations

    1996-12-31

    Natural and anthropogenic sources of atmospheric aerosols are reviewed and indications of their concentrations and granulometry are given. Calculation of the lifetime of an atmospheric aerosol of a certain size is presented and the various modes of aerosol granulometry and their relations with photochemical and physico-chemical processes in the atmosphere are discussed. The main physical, electrical and optical properties of aerosols are also presented: diffusion coefficient, dynamic mobility and relaxation time, Stokes number, limit rate of fall, electrical mobility, optical diffraction

  19. Serosurveillance of infectious agents in equines of the Central Valley of Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, D; Romero-Zuñiga, J J; Dolz, G

    2014-01-01

    Blood samples from 181 equines from the Central Valley of Costa Rica were collected in the year 2012 to determine the presence of antibodies against selected infectious agents in horses and to determine the risk factors associated with these agents. The presence of antibodies against Equine Infectious Anemia Virus (EIAV), Equine Herpes Virus 1 and 4 (EHV-1 and EHV-4), West Nile Virus (WNV), Influenza A Virus (IAV), Equine Viral Arteritis Virus (EVAV), Babesia caballi, Theileria equi, Neospora caninum and Chlamydia abortus was determined using commercial assays, and risk factors associated with seropositivity to the different infectious agents was established. The most seroprevalent agent detected was EHV-4 (96.7%), followed by WNV (44.2%), and IAV (41.8%). Horses >3 years, used for work or sports, and with access to pastures, had significantly increased probability to be seropositive to WNV, whereas horses used for breeding and recreational purposes, being stabled, and without access to pastures, had significantly greater probability to be seropositive to IAV. Seroprevalence to B. caballi (19.9%) was lower than to T. equi (38.1%). For B. caballi, access to pastures was determined as a risk factor, whereas being older than 3 years was established as a risk factor for T. equi. Low seroprevalences were determined for EHV-1 (5.0%), EVAV (5.0%), C. abortus (4.8%), and N. caninum (4.4%). Mares having history of abortion were more likely to be seropositive to EHV-1, whereas horses >3 years, used for work and sports, and mares having multiple parturitions, were more likely to be seropositive to N. caninum. None of the horses were seropositive to EIAV. Earlier, only diseases caused by EIAV, WNV and piroplasmosis were reported in Costa Rica. The present study however, determined the presence of carriers for EHV-1, EHV-4, and EIAV.

  20. Effects of stress on pain in horses and incorporating pain scales for equine practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Ann E

    2010-12-01

    The stress response represents an animal's attempt to reestablish the body's homeostasis after injury, intense physical activity, or psychological strain. Two different neuroendocrine pathways may be activated in stressful situations: the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis, leading to increased cortisol levels, and the sympathoadrenomedullar system, leading to increased catecholamine levels. By applying some of the evaluation methods described in this article in the appropriate clinical situations, equine veterinarians can almost certainly improve their ability to recognize and manage pain in horses.