WorldWideScience

Sample records for aerosolized biological agents

  1. Autonomous Detection of Aerosolized Biological Agents by Multiplexed Immunoassay with PCR Confirmation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindson, B J; McBride, M T; Makarewicz, A J; Henderer, B D; Setlur, U S; Smith, S M; Gutierrez, D M; Metz, T R; Nasarabadi, S L; Venkateswaran, K S; Farrow, S W; Colston, Jr., B W; Dzenitis, J M

    2004-05-27

    The autonomous pathogen detection system (APDS) is an automated, podium-sized instrument that continuously monitors the air for biological threat agents (bacteria, viruses, and toxins). The system has been developed to warn of a biological attack in critical or high-traffic facilities and at special events. The APDS performs continuous aerosol collection, sample preparation, and detection using multiplexed immunoassay followed by confirmatory PCR using real-time TaqMan assays. We have integrated completely reusable flow-through devices that perform DNA extraction and PCR amplification. The fully integrated system was challenged with aerosolized Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, Bacillus globigii and botulinum toxoid. By coupling highly selective antibody and DNA based assays, the probability of an APDS reporting a false positive is extremely low.

  2. Detection of aerosolized biological agents by immunoassay followed by autonomous PCR confirmation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzenitis, J M; Hindson, B J; McBride, M T; Makarewicz, A J; Henderer, B D; Sathyam, U S; Smith, S M; Gutierrez, D M; Metz, T R; Venkateswaran, K S; Colston, B W; Farrow, S W

    2003-12-15

    An Autonomous Pathogen Detection System (APDS) unit is an automated, podium-sized system that monitors the air for all three biological threat agents (bacteria, viruses, and toxins). The system has been developed under the auspices of the U. S. Department of Energy and Department of Homeland Security by the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to protect people in critical or high-traffic facilities and at special events. The system performs continuous aerosol collection, sample preparation, and multiplexed biological tests using advanced immunoassays as the primary screen. Over ten agents are assayed at once, and results are reported hourly. R&D work this year focused on incorporating polymerase chain-reaction (PCR) techniques for detecting DNA as confirmation of immunoassay positives. The primary objective of the Dugway testing was to demonstrate the APDS with immunoassay identification and PCR confirmation of bacteria. A secondary objective was to demonstrate immunoassay identification of a protein toxoid (denatured toxin) aerosol release. A total of 12 agent trials were conducted over 14 days of testing, for a total of four work weeks at Dugway. Both testing objectives were achieved with multiple releases and clear identifications. The APDS was shown to be effective for identifying aerosolized Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, Bacillus globigii, and botulinum toxoid. The two areas for improvement were operational as opposed to hardware-related. The first was slowing the PCR thermal cycling to achieve stronger signals, which was demonstrated during the later phases of testing. The second area is to improve the parameters for autonomous PCR triggering; this is one of the focuses of the upcoming year's work.

  3. Biological aerosol background characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatny, Janet; Fountain, Augustus W., III

    2011-05-01

    To provide useful information during military operations, or as part of other security situations, a biological aerosol detector has to respond within seconds or minutes to an attack by virulent biological agents, and with low false alarms. Within this time frame, measuring virulence of a known microorganism is extremely difficult, especially if the microorganism is of unknown antigenic or nucleic acid properties. Measuring "live" characteristics of an organism directly is not generally an option, yet only viable organisms are potentially infectious. Fluorescence based instruments have been designed to optically determine if aerosol particles have viability characteristics. Still, such commercially available biological aerosol detection equipment needs to be improved for their use in military and civil applications. Air has an endogenous population of microorganisms that may interfere with alarm software technologies. To design robust algorithms, a comprehensive knowledge of the airborne biological background content is essential. For this reason, there is a need to study ambient live bacterial populations in as many locations as possible. Doing so will permit collection of data to define diverse biological characteristics that in turn can be used to fine tune alarm algorithms. To avoid false alarms, improving software technologies for biological detectors is a crucial feature requiring considerations of various parameters that can be applied to suppress alarm triggers. This NATO Task Group will aim for developing reference methods for monitoring biological aerosol characteristics to improve alarm algorithms for biological detection. Additionally, they will focus on developing reference standard methodology for monitoring biological aerosol characteristics to reduce false alarm rates.

  4. Biological aerosol warner and analyser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlemmer, Harry; Kürbitz, Gunther; Miethe, Peter; Spieweck, Michael

    2006-05-01

    The development of an integrated sensor device BiSAM (Biological Sampling and Analysing Module) is presented which is designed for rapid detection of aerosol or dust particles potentially loaded with biological warfare agents. All functional steps from aerosol collection via immuno analysis to display of results are fully automated. The core component of the sensor device is an ultra sensitive rapid analyser PBA (Portable Benchtop Analyser) based on a 3 dimensional immuno filtration column of large internal area, Poly HRP marker technology and kinetic optical detection. High sensitivity despite of the short measuring time, high chemical stability of the micro column and robustness against interferents make the PBA an ideal tool for fielded sensor devices. It is especially favourable to combine the PBA with a bio collector because virtually no sample preparation is necessary. Overall, the BiSAM device is capable to detect and identify living micro organisms (bacteria, spores, viruses) as well as toxins in a measuring cycle of typically half an hour duration. In each batch up to 12 different tests can be run in parallel together with positive and negative controls to keep the false alarm rate low.

  5. Spectrally-resolved fluorescence cross sections of aerosolized biological live agents and simulants using five excitation wavelengths in a BSL-3 laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yong-Le; Hill, Steven C; Santarpia, Joshua L; Brinkley, Kelly; Sickler, Todd; Coleman, Mark; Williamson, Chatt; Gurton, Kris; Felton, Melvin; Pinnick, Ronald G; Baker, Neal; Eshbaugh, Jonathan; Hahn, Jerry; Smith, Emily; Alvarez, Ben; Prugh, Amber; Gardner, Warren

    2014-04-01

    A system for measuring spectrally-resolved fluorescence cross sections of single bioaerosol particles has been developed and employed in a biological safety level 3 (BSL-3) facility at Edgewood Chemical and Biological Center (ECBC). It is used to aerosolize the slurry or solution of live agents and surrogates into dried micron-size particles, and to measure the fluorescence spectra and sizes of the particles one at a time. Spectrally-resolved fluorescence cross sections were measured for (1) bacterial spores: Bacillus anthracis Ames (BaA), B. atrophaeus var. globigii (BG) (formerly known as Bacillus globigii), B. thuringiensis israelensis (Bti), B. thuringiensis kurstaki (Btk), B. anthracis Sterne (BaS); (2) vegetative bacteria: Escherichia coli (E. coli), Pantoea agglomerans (Eh) (formerly known as Erwinia herbicola), Yersinia rohdei (Yr), Yersinia pestis CO92 (Yp); and (3) virus preparations: Venezuelan equine encephalitis TC83 (VEE) and the bacteriophage MS2. The excitation wavelengths were 266 nm, 273 nm, 280 nm, 365 nm and 405 nm. PMID:24718194

  6. Systems for Detection and Identification of Biological Aerosols (Review Paper)

    OpenAIRE

    Eva Švabenska

    2012-01-01

    Easy and inexpensive manufacturing of biological weapons, their complicated detection, expensive protection, difficult treating of affected individuals, selective impact only for people, animals or plants, are all factors making an effective defense against biological warfare agents very difficult. The aim of this study is an introduction to the systems for the detection and identification of biological aerosols containing dangerous bioagents. The basic techniques used for detection and ident...

  7. Francisella tularensis - potential biological agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francisella tularensis is a small, nonmotile, aerobic, gram-negative coccobacillus capable of surviving for weeks at low temperatures in water, moist soil, hay, straw, or decaying animal carcasses. F. tularensis is the causative of the zoonotic disease tularemia. This bacterium was first identified in ground squirrels in Tulare County, California (1912). The human disease was recognized and described by Edward Francis (1922) as tularemia, and the agent was renamed Francisella tularensis in his honor. F. tularensis is one of the most infectious bacterial pathogens known, as few as 10-50 organisms can cause disease. Humans can become incidentally infected through diverse environmental exposures: bites by infected arthropods; handling infectious animal tissues or fluids; direct contact with or ingestion of contaminated food, water, or soil and inhalation of infective aerosols. Humans can develop severe and sometimes fatal illness, but do not transmit the disease to others. F. tularensis have few subspecies: 1) F. tularensis subsp. tularensis (type A), highly virulent, found only in North America. The bacterium is transmitted among animals and from animals to humans by ticks, occasionally deerfly, or by aerosols; 2) F. tularensis subsp. holarctica (type B), moderately virulent, occurs in Euroasia and North America, mainly associated with streams, lakes, ponds, rivers and semi-aquatic animals such as muskrats and beavers (water-borne disease). Type B tularemia has been observed during war times (during Second World War 100 000 cases occurred each year, in Kosovo in 2000 and 2003 over 300 cases each year); 3) F. tularensis subsp. mediasiatica, rarely reported, isolated only in Kazahstan and Turkmenistan; 4) F. tularensis subsp. novicida is of low virulence, isolated in USA, Canada, Spain and Australia; 5) F. tularensis subsp. philomiragia, is of low virulence, associated with salt water (Atlantic, Mediterranean). Tularemia is very rear in Macedonia, but in 1996 an

  8. Biological effects of mutagenic agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is an increasing body of evidence that mutagenic agents (biological, chemical and physical) play an important role in the etiology of human diseases. Mutations may occur in the germinal as well as in the somatic cells. Mutations of the germ cells may result on infertility or fertilization of damaged cells, the later leading to abortion or birth of a malformed fetus. Somatic-cells mutations may have various biological effects, depending on the period of the human life at which the mutation occurs. If it occurs during the prenatal life, a teratogenic or carcinogenic effect will be observed. If the somatic cell is damaged during the postnatal life, this will lead to neoplastic transformation. Therefore it is extremely important to know the mutagenic, teratogenic and carcinogenic effects of various biological, chemical and physical agents in order to eliminate them from our environment. (author). 13 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  9. Biologic agents in juvenile spondyloarthropathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsicas, María Martha; Russo, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    The juvenile spondyloarthropathies (JSpA) are a group of related rheumatic diseases characterized by involvement of peripheral large joints, axial joints, and entheses (enthesitis) that begin in the early years of life (prior to 16(th) birthday).The nomenclature and concept of spondyloarthropathies has changed during the last few decades. Although there is not any specific classification of JSpA, diseases under the spondyloarthropathy nomenclature umbrella in the younger patients include: the seronegative enthesitis and arthropathy (SEA) syndrome, juvenile ankylosing spondylitis, reactive arthritis, and inflammatory bowel disease-associated arthritis. Moreover, the ILAR criteria for Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis includes two categories closely related to spondyloarthritis: Enthesitis-related arthritis and psoriatic arthritis.We review the pathophysiology and the use of biological agents in JSpA. JSpA are idiopathic inflammatory diseases driven by an altered balance in the proinflammatory cytokines. There is ample evidence on the role of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-17 in the physiopathology of these entities. Several non-biologic and biologic agents have been used with conflicting results in the treatment of these complex diseases. The efficacy and safety of anti-TNF agents, such as etanercept, infliximab and adalimumab, have been analysed in controlled and uncontrolled trials, usually showing satisfactory outcomes. Other biologic agents, such as abatacept, tocilizumab and rituximab, have been insufficiently studied and their role in the therapy of SpA is uncertain. Interleukin-17-blocking agents are promising alternatives for the treatment of JSpA patients in the near future. Recommendations for the treatment of patients with JSpA have recently been proposed and are discussed in the present review. PMID:26968522

  10. Sensors for detecting biological agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim E. Sapsford

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Biological agents including viruses, bacteria, and other naturally occurring pathogenic organisms, along with the toxins they produce, are considered far harder to detect and defend against than chemical agents. Here we provide an overview of the predominant molecular sensing technologies for the detection of these agents. This includes biosensing strategies based upon use of antibodies, genomic analysis, biochemical testing, other recognition interactions, and cellular-based responses. We survey some popular sensing approaches, illustrate them with current examples showing how they have been applied, and discuss their intrinsic benefits and potential liabilities. Lastly, within the context of security applications, some approaches for integrating sensing technologies into field-portable devices are discussed.

  11. Colitis associated with biological agents

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    Hugh James Freeman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past, there has been considerable focus on a host of drugs and chemicals that may produce colonic toxicity. Now, a variety of new biological monoclonal antibody agents, usually administered by infusion, have appeared in the clinical realm over the last decade or so to treat different chronic inflammatory or malignant disorders.For some of these agents, adverse effects have been documented, including apparently new forms of immune-mediated inflammatory bowel disease. In some, only limited symptoms have been recorded, but in others, severe colitis with serious complications, such as bowel perforation has been recorded. In others, adverse effects may have a direct vascular or ischemic basis, while other intestinal effects may be related to a superimposed infection. Some new onset cases of ulcerative colitis or Crohn’s disease may also be attributed to the same agents used to treat these diseases, or be responsible for disease exacerbation. Dramatic and well documented side effects have been observed with ipilimumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody developed to reduce and overcome cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4, a key negative feedback regulator of the T-cell anti-tumor response. This agent has frequently been used in the treatment of different malignancies, notably, malignant melanoma. Side effects with this agent occur in up to 40% and these are believed to be largely immune-mediated. One of these is a form of enterocolitis that may be severe, and occasionally, fatal. Other agents include rituximab (an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, bevacizumab (a monoclonal antibody against the vascular endothelial growth factor and anti-tumor necrosis factor agents, including infliximab, adalimumab and etanercept.

  12. Monitoring biological aerosols using UV fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eversole, Jay D.; Roselle, Dominick; Seaver, Mark E.

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus has been designed and constructed to continuously monitor the number density, size, and fluorescent emission of ambient aerosol particles. The application of fluorescence to biological particles suspended in the atmosphere requires laser excitation in the UV spectral region. In this study, a Nd:YAG laser is quadrupled to provide a 266 nm wavelength to excite emission from single micrometer-sized particles in air. Fluorescent emission is used to continuously identify aerosol particles of biological origin. For calibration, biological samples of Bacillus subtilis spores and vegetative cells, Esherichia coli, Bacillus thuringiensis and Erwinia herbicola vegetative cells were prepared as suspensions in water and nebulized to produce aerosols. Detection of single aerosol particles, provides elastic scattering response as well as fluorescent emission in two spectral bands simultaneously. Our efforts have focuses on empirical characterization of the emission and scattering characteristics of various bacterial samples to determine the feasibility of optical discrimination between different cell types. Preliminary spectroscopic evidence suggest that different samples can be distinguished as separate bio-aerosol groups. In addition to controlled sample results, we will also discuss the most recent result on the effectiveness of detection outdoor releases and variations in environmental backgrounds.

  13. Generation and characterization of biological aerosols for laser measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Yung-Sung; Barr, E.B.

    1995-12-01

    Concerns for proliferation of biological weapons including bacteria, fungi, and viruses have prompted research and development on methods for the rapid detection of biological aerosols in the field. Real-time instruments that can distinguish biological aerosols from background dust would be especially useful. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is developing a laser-based, real-time instrument for rapid detection of biological aerosols, and ITRI is working with SNL scientists and engineers to evaluate this technology for a wide range of biological aerosols. This paper describes methods being used to generate the characterize the biological aerosols for these tests. In summary, a biosafe system has been developed for generating and characterizing biological aerosols and using those aerosols to test the SNL laser-based real-time instrument. Such tests are essential in studying methods for rapid detection of airborne biological materials.

  14. Biological warfare agents as threats to potable water.

    OpenAIRE

    Burrows, W D; Renner, S E

    1999-01-01

    Nearly all known biological warfare agents are intended for aerosol application. Although less effective as potable water threats, many are potentially capable of inflicting heavy casualties when ingested. Significant loss of mission capability can be anticipated even when complete recovery is possible. Properly maintained field army water purification equipment can counter this threat, but personnel responsible for the operation and maintenance of the equipment may be most at risk of exposur...

  15. A decontamination study of simulated chemical and biological agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive decontamination scheme of the chemical and biological agents, including airborne agents and surface contaminating agents, is presented. When a chemical and biological attack occurs, it is critical to decontaminate facilities or equipments to an acceptable level in a very short time. The plasma flame presented here may provide a rapid and effective elimination of toxic substances in the interior air in isolated spaces. As an example, a reaction chamber, with the dimensions of a 22 cm diameter and 30 cm length, purifies air with an airflow rate of 5000 l/min contaminated with toluene, the simulated chemical agent, and soot from a diesel engine, the simulated aerosol for biological agents. Although the airborne agents in an isolated space are eliminated to an acceptable level by the plasma flame, the decontamination of the chemical and biological agents cannot be completed without cleaning surfaces of the facilities. A simulated sterilization study of micro-organisms was carried out using the electrolyzed ozone water. The electrolyzed ozone water very effectively kills endospores of Bacillus atrophaeus (ATCC 9372) within 3 min. The electrolyzed ozone water also kills the vegetative micro-organisms, fungi, and virus. The electrolyzed ozone water, after the decontamination process, disintegrates into ordinary water and oxygen without any trace of harmful materials to the environment

  16. Detection of biological warfare agents using ultra violet-laser induced fluorescence LIDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Deepti; Kumar, Deepak; Maini, Anil K.; Sharma, Ramesh C.

    This review has been written to highlight the threat of biological warfare agents, their types and detection. Bacterial biological agent Bacillus anthracis (bacteria causing the disease anthrax) which is most likely to be employed in biological warfare is being discussed in detail. Standoff detection of biological warfare agents in aerosol form using Ultra violet-Laser Induced Fluorescence (UV-LIF) spectroscopy method has been studied. Range-resolved detection and identification of biological aerosols by both nano-second and non-linear femto-second LIDAR is also discussed. Calculated received fluorescence signal for a cloud of typical biological agent Bacillus globigii (Simulants of B. anthracis) at a location of ˜5.0 km at different concentrations in presence of solar background radiation has been described. Overview of current research efforts in internationally available working UV-LIF LIDAR systems are also mentioned briefly.

  17. Respiratory Protection Against Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.K. Prasad

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Chemical and biological warfare (CBW agents pose unavoidable threat, both to soldiers and civilians.Exposure to such deadly agents amidst the CBW agents contaminated environment can be avoided bytaking proper protective measures. Respiratory protection is indispensable when the soldiers or civiliansare surrounded by such deadly environment as contamination-free air is needed for respiration purposes.In this context, an attempt has been made to review the literature for the past five decades on developmentof various protective devices for respiratory protection against aerosols, gases, and vapours of CBWagents. This review covers structural, textural, and adsorption properties of materials used in gas filtersand mechanical filters for the removal of CBW agents.Defence Science Journal, 2008, 58(5, pp.686-697, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.58.1692

  18. Introduction: Aerosol delivery of orally inhaled agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Timothy E; Devadason, Sunalene G; Kuehl, Philip J

    2012-12-01

    Deposition scintigraphy methods have been used extensively to provide qualitative and quantitative data on aerosol drug deposition in the lungs. However, differences in methodology among the different centers performing these studies have limited the application of these techniques, especially in regulatory roles. As an introduction to the standardized techniques developed by the International Society for Aerosols in Medicine (ISAM) Regulatory Affairs Networking Group, we present potential advantages of the use of standard techniques for deposition scintigraphy. Specifically, we propose that standardized techniques would allow for better comparisons between labs and would facilitate multicenter studies. They would allow for improved methods of establishing equivalence and could be better utilized to establish dosing for new medications. They would allow for the performance of more accurate dose ranging or multidose studies and complement pharmacokinetic studies of new inhaled medications. Standardized techniques could help to establish the relationship between the deposition of drug in the lungs and clinical effect, and may also facilitate clinical measurements of deposited dose for medications with narrow therapeutic indices. In the sections that follow, we discuss the best techniques used to perform deposition scintigraphy through planar, single-photon emission computed tomography, and positron emission tomography modalities and propose a detailed set of standardized methods for each. These include methods for radiolabel validation, radiolabel accountability and mass balance, and imaging acquisition and analysis. PMID:23215846

  19. History of chemical and biological warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szinicz, L

    2005-10-30

    Chemical and biological warfare agents constitute a low-probability, but high-impact risk both to the military and to the civilian population. The use of hazardous materials of chemical or biological origin as weapons and for homicide has been documented since ancient times. The first use of chemicals in terms of weapons of mass destruction goes back to World War I, when on April 22, 1915 large amounts of chlorine were released by German military forces at Ypres, Belgium. Until around the 1970s of the 20th century, the awareness of the threat by chemical and biological agents had been mainly confined to the military sector. In the following time, the development of increasing range delivery systems by chemical and biological agents possessors sensitised public attention to the threat emanating from these agents. Their proliferation to the terrorists field during the 1990s with the expanding scale and globalisation of terrorist attacks suggested that these agents are becoming an increasing threat to the whole world community. The following article gives a condensed overview on the history of use and development of the more prominent chemical and biological warfare agents. PMID:16111798

  20. Size and compositional analyses of biologically active aerosols from a CO2 and diode laser plume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modern medical procedures, including laser surgery, can generate fine aerosols that may carry biologically active agents. With such procedures becoming more commonplace, it is evident that we need to look at the health implications on hospital staff when dealing with highly contagious patients with bacterial and/or viral infections, such as AIDS. The focus of this study is not to determine what portion that population is actually harmful, only to deduce what segment is still biologically active after vaporization from tissues. We have developed procedures to collect and analyze aerosols by size (from >10 μm to less than 0.07 μm) and by time (from minutes to ∼4 hour increments). Health relevant size cuts for aerosols in a work environment have been adopted by the International Organization for Standardization and the Comite of European de Normalisation. We examined both the nature of the aerosols generated and the efficiency of hospital masks used by personnel in screening aerosols and simulated conditions under which aerosols might be inhaled. Four sets of data were recorded: Mask filtered physical, mask filtered biological, unfiltered physical and unfiltered biological. A combination of PIXE analyses on impactor and filter samples were matched with filters and strips plated on agarose plates and counted for colony forming units to determine the biologically active subset of the population. (author)

  1. Psoriatic arthritis: treatment strategies using biologic agents

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    C. Palazzi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The traditional management of psoriatic arthritis (PsA includes NSAIDs, corticosteroids and DMARDs. Advancement in the knowledge of the immunopathogenesis of PsA has been associated with the development of biologic agents which have revolutionized the management of the disease. Among biologics drugs, there are the 4 currently availablee anti-TNFα blocking agents (etanercept, infliximab, adalimumab and golimumab which are more effective than traditional DMARDs on symptoms/signs of inflammation, quality of life, function, and in inhibiting the progression of the structural joint damage. Despite of the high cost, TNF inhibitors are costeffective on both the musculoskeletal and skin manifestations of psoriatic disease.

  2. Biologic agents in the treatment of glomerulonephritides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, See Cheng; Liew, Adrian

    2015-11-01

    Current immunosuppression strategies in the treatment of glomerulonephritides remain unsatisfactory, especially in glomerular diseases that are frequently relapsing or are resistant to treatment. Toxicities associated with the use of drugs with non-specific targets for the immune response result in treatment non-compliance, and increase morbidity and mortality in these patients. Advances in our understanding of the immunopathogenesis of glomerulonephritis and the availability of biologics have led to their successful use in the treatment of immune-mediated glomerular diseases. Biologics are usually very large complex molecules, often produced using recombinant DNA technology and manufactured in a living system such as a microorganism, or plant or animal cells. They are novel agents that can target specific immune cell types, cytokines or immune pathways involved in the pathogenesis of these disorders. It is attractive to consider that, given their specific mode of action, these agents can potentially offer a more directed and effective immunosuppression, with side-effect profiles that are much more desirable. However, there have been few randomized controlled trials comparing biologic agents to conventional immunosuppression, and in many of these studies the side-effect profiles have been disappointingly similar. In this review, we will examine the rationale, efficacy and safety of some commonly used biologics in the treatment of primary and secondary glomerulonephritides. We will also discuss some of the key challenges that may be encountered with the use of biologics in treating glomerulonephritis in the future. PMID:26040770

  3. The ice nucleation activity of biological aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grothe, H.; Pummer, B.; Bauer, H.; Bernardi, J.

    2012-04-01

    Primary Biological Aerosol Particles (PBAPs), including bacteria, spores and pollen may be important for several atmospheric processes. Particularly, the ice nucleation caused by PBAPs is a topic of growing interest, since their impact on ice cloud formation and thus on radiative forcing, an important parameter in global climate is not yet fully understood. In laboratory model studies we investigated the ice nucleation activity of selected PBAPs. We studied the immersion mode freezing using water-oil emulsion, which we observed by optical microscopy. We particularly focused on pollen. We show that pollen of different species strongly differ in their ice nucleation behavior. The average freezing temperatures in laboratory experiments range from 240 K to 255 K. As the most efficient nuclei (silver birch, Scots pine and common juniper pollen) have a distribution area up to the Northern timberline, their ice nucleation activity might be a cryoprotective mechanism. For comparison the ice nucleation activity of Snomax, fungal spores, and mushrooms will be discussed as well. In the past, pollen have been rejected as important atmospheric IN, as they are not as abundant in the atmosphere as bacteria or mineral dust and are too heavy to reach higher altitudes. However, in our experiments (Pummer et al. 2011) it turned out that water, which had been in contact with pollen and then been separated from the bodies, nucleates as good as the pollen grains themselves. So the ice nuclei have to be easily-suspendable macromolecules (100-300 kDa) located on the pollen. Once extracted, they can be distributed further through the atmosphere than the heavy pollen grains and so augment the impact of pollen on ice cloud formation even in the upper troposphere. It is widely known, that material from the pollen, like allergens and sugars, can indeed leave the pollen body and be distributed independently. The most probable mechanism is the pollen grain bursting by rain, which releases

  4. Biological agents targeting beyond TNF-alpha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Rashmi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Biological agents represent an important addition to the therapies for immuno-inflammatory conditions and have a great impact on the disease course and quality of life of these patients. However, recent reports of serious infections like tuberculosis, demyelinating and neurodegenerative diseases, pancytopenia, cardiovascular diseases, etc. after anti-TNF therapy raised questions on their safety. Hence, focus is shifted towards drugs targeting cytokine checkpoints in the inflammatory cascades beyond TNF-a. Existing therapeutic targets include the biological agents acting as antagonists of various inflammatory cytokines (Anakinra, Tocilizumab, Atlizumab and modulators of CD80 or CD86-CD28 co-stimulatory signal (Abatacept, CD2 receptors on T-cells (Alefacept, CD11a, subunit of leukocyte function-associated antigen 1 (Efalizumab, vitronectin receptor and CD20 antigen on pre-B, immature and mature B cells (Rituximab. With the introduction of these novel molecules the future for immunomodulatory intervention in rheumatology, asthma, crohn′s disease, septic shock etc. looks very promising. These novel therapeutic agents could truly give a new hope to the clinician to modify the disease and achieve tangible improvements in the lives of the patients.

  5. Feasibility Study of Passive Aerosol Sampler for Bio-Agent Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keating, G

    2003-03-05

    We propose to establish the feasibility of a passive aerosol sampler for bio-agent collection through laboratory experiments and theoretical analysis. The passive sampler, unlike the typical active sampler, does not require pumps and complex fixtures, and thereby allows for large-scale field monitoring not possible with current active samplers. We plan to conduct experiments using model (both biological and non-biological) aerosols generated in an instrumented test chamber and compare the particles collected on various passive samplers to conventional filter samplers, commercial aerosol measuring instruments and to conventional surface swipes. Theoretical analysis will be used to design prototype passive samplers and to compare experimental results with theory. A successful feasibility study will be used to seek outside funding for applications that will greatly enhance current LLNL programs such as NARAC's atmospheric dispersal modeling, NAI's programs in bioagent monitoring in public locations and fixed sampling stations, and EPD's environmental monitoring and decontamination research. In addition, the feasibility study will position us favorably for responding to new calls for proposals by NIH and EPA for large scale environmental studies.

  6. Biological agents in management of osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tella, Sri Harsha; Gallagher, J Christopher

    2014-11-01

    Osteoporosis is a skeletal disease associated with an imbalance between formation and resorption, leading to net loss of bone mass, loss of bone microarchitecture, and development of fractures. Bone resorption is primarily due to an activation of osteoclastogenesis and an increase in receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) expression, a cytokine involved in the final pathway of the osteoclast cycle.Recent studies of genetic diseases led to the discovery of the wingless-type (Wnt) signaling pathway that plays a major role in bone formation. Further work showed that sclerostin produced by osteocytes and the Dickkopf (DKK1) protein secreted in bone were negative regulators of the Wnt signaling bone formation pathway that act directly by binding to the co-receptors LRP5 and LRP6 of WnT and thereby inhibiting the anabolic Wnt pathway. This understanding of the bone remodeling led to the discovery of new biological drugs that target these pathways and have been evaluated in clinical trials.The current article discusses the role of these newer "biological" agents in management of osteoporosis. Denosumab, a human monoclonal antibody that specifically binds RANKL, blocks the binding of RANK to its ligand markedly reducing bone resorption, increases bone density, and reduces fractures and is approved for osteoporosis. Parathyroid hormone PTH 1-34 (teriparatide) stimulates bone formation through inhibition of sclerostin, DKK1, and frizzled protein; increases BMD; improves microarchitecture; and decreases fractures and is approved for osteoporosis. The anti-sclerostin antibodies (romosozumab, blosozumab) increase bone mass by neutralizing the negative effects of sclerostin on the Wnt signaling pathway. These biologics are being evaluated now in a clinical trial and early data looks promising. Cathepsin K is a proteolytic enzyme that degrades bone matrix and inhibitors such as odanacatib show increasing bone density and perhaps decreased fractures. The

  7. Transport and characterization of ambient biological aerosol near Laurel, MD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Santarpia

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial aerosol have been observed and studied in the ambient environment since the mid nineteenth century. These studies have sought to provide a better understanding of the diversity, variability and factors that control the biological aerosol population. In this study, we show comparisons between diversity of culturable bacteria and fungi, using culture and clinical biochemical tests, and 16S rRNA diversity using Affymetrix PhyloChips. Comparing the culturable fraction and surveying the total 16S rRNA of each sample provides a comprehensive look at the bacterial population studied and allows comparison with previous studies. Thirty-six hour back-trajectories of the air parcels sampled, over the two day period beginning 4 November 2008, provide information on the sources of aerosol sampled on the campus of Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory in Laurel, MD. This study indicates that back-trajectory modeling of air parcels may provide insights into the observed diversity of biological aerosol.

  8. Modeling LIDAR Detection of Biological Aerosols to Determine Optimum Implementation Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheen, David M.; Aker, Pam M.

    2007-09-19

    This report summarizes work performed for a larger multi-laboratory project named the Background Interferent Measurement and Standards project. While originally tasked to develop algorithms to optimize biological warfare agent detection using UV fluorescence LIDAR, the current uncertainties in the reported fluorescence profiles and cross sections the development of any meaningful models. It was decided that a better approach would be to model the wavelength-dependent elastic backscattering from a number of ambient background aerosol types, and compare this with that generated from representative sporulated and vegetative bacterial systems. Calculations in this report show that a 266, 355, 532 and 1064 nm elastic backscatter LIDAR experiment will allow an operator to immediately recognize when sulfate, VOC-based or road dust (silicate) aerosols are approaching, independent of humidity changes. It will be more difficult to distinguish soot aerosols from biological aerosols, or vegetative bacteria from sporulated bacteria. In these latter cases, the elastic scattering data will most likely have to be combined with UV fluorescence data to enable a more robust categorization.

  9. Two-photon excited fluorescence from biological aerosol particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We used a 40 MHz mode-locked 524 nm laser source to evaluate the utility of sub-picosecond excitation of fluorescence from 2-photon absorption in biological aerosols. Individual particles of biological composition, as well as other calibration particles, suspended in an inlet air flow were illuminated and measured as they passed through an optical chamber. To our knowledge, this was the first demonstration of 2-photon excited fluorescence from micron-sized particles composed of micro-organisms. We also observed a high fluorescence signal at visible wavelengths, which was not present with single-photon excitation.

  10. HOT AEROSOL FIRE EXTINGUISHING AGENTS AND THE ASSOCIATED TECHNOLOGIES: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaotian Zhang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractSince the phase out of Halon extinguishers in the 1980s, hot aerosol fire suppression technology has gained much attention. Unlike traditional inert gas, foam, water mist and Halon fire suppression agents, hot aerosol fire extinguishing agents do not need to be driven out by pressurized gases and can extinguish class A, B, C, D and K fires at 30 to 200 g/m3. Generally, hot aerosol fire extinguishing technology has developed from a generation I oil tank suppression system to a generation III strontium salt based S-type system. S-type hot aerosol fire extinguishing technology greatly solves the corrosion problem of electrical devices and electronics compared to potassium salt based generation I & II hot aerosol fire extinguishing technology. As substitutes for Halon agents, the ODP and GWP values of hot fire extinguishing aerosols are nearly zero, but those fine aerosol particles can cause adverse health effects once inhaled by human. As for configurations of hot aerosol fire extinguishing devices, fixed or portable cylindrical canisters are the most common among generation II & III hot aerosol fire extinguishers across the world, while generation I hot aerosol fire suppression systems are integrated with the oil tank as a whole. Some countries like the U.S., Australia, Russia and China, etc. have already developed standards for manufacturing and quality control of hot aerosol fire extinguishing agents and norms for hot aerosol fire extinguishing system design under different fire protection scenarios. Coolants in hot aerosol fire suppression systems, which are responsible for reducing hot aerosol temperature to avoid secondary fire risk are reviewed for the first time. Cooling effects are generally achieved through vaporization and endothermic chemical decomposition of coolants. Finally, this review discussed areas applying generation I, II or III hot aerosol fire suppression technologies. The generation III hot aerosol fire extinguishing

  11. HOT AEROSOL FIRE EXTINGUISHING AGENTS AND THE ASSOCIATED TECHNOLOGIES: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaotian Zhang; Mohd Halim Shah Ismail,; Fakhrul-Razi b. Ahmadun; Norhafizah bt. Hj. Abdullah; Choi Hee

    2015-01-01

    AbstractSince the phase out of Halon extinguishers in the 1980s, hot aerosol fire suppression technology has gained much attention. Unlike traditional inert gas, foam, water mist and Halon fire suppression agents, hot aerosol fire extinguishing agents do not need to be driven out by pressurized gases and can extinguish class A, B, C, D and K fires at 30 to 200 g/m3. Generally, hot aerosol fire extinguishing technology has developed from a generation I oil tank suppression system to a generati...

  12. Deposition of biological aerosols on HVAC heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many biologically active materials are transported as bioaerosols 1-10(micro)m in diameter. These particles can deposit on cooling and heating coils and lead to serious indoor air quality problems. This paper investigates several of the mechanisms that lead to aerosol deposition on fin and tube heat exchangers. A model has been developed that incorporates the effects of several deposition mechanisms, including impaction, Brownian and turbulent diffusion, turbophoresis, thermophoresis, diffusiophoresis, and gravitational settling. The model is applied to a typical range of air velocities that are found in commercial and residential HVAC systems 1 - 6 m/s (200 - 1200 ft/min), particle diameters from 1 - 8(micro)m, and fin spacings from 3.2 - 7.9 fins/cm (8 - 16 fins/inch or FPI). The results from the model are compared to results from an experimental apparatus that directly measures deposition on a 4.7 fins/cm (12 FPI) coil. The model agrees reasonably well with this measured data and suggests that cooling coils are an important sink for biological aerosols and consequently a potential source of indoor air quality problems

  13. Deposition of biological aerosols on HVAC heat exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegel, Jeffrey; Walker, Ian

    2001-09-01

    Many biologically active materials are transported as bioaerosols 1-10 {micro}m in diameter. These particles can deposit on cooling and heating coils and lead to serious indoor air quality problems. This paper investigates several of the mechanisms that lead to aerosol deposition on fin and tube heat exchangers. A model has been developed that incorporates the effects of several deposition mechanisms, including impaction, Brownian and turbulent diffusion, turbophoresis, thermophoresis, diffusiophoresis, and gravitational settling. The model is applied to a typical range of air velocities that are found in commercial and residential HVAC systems 1 - 6 m/s (200 - 1200 ft/min), particle diameters from 1 - 8 {micro}m, and fin spacings from 3.2 - 7.9 fins/cm (8 - 16 fins/inch or FPI). The results from the model are compared to results from an experimental apparatus that directly measures deposition on a 4.7 fins/cm (12 FPI) coil. The model agrees reasonably well with this measured data and suggests that cooling coils are an important sink for biological aerosols and consequently a potential source of indoor air quality problems.

  14. Biomedicines—Moving Biologic Agents into Approved Treatment Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Cornetta

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of biologic agents for therapeutic purposes, or biomedicines, has seen an active area of research both at the bench and in clinical trials. There is mounting evidence that biologic products can provide effective therapy for diseases that have been unresponsive to traditional pharmacologic approaches. Monoclonal antibody therapy for cancer and rheumatologic diseases has become a well accepted part of disease treatment plans. Gene therapy products have been approved in China and Europe. Bioengineering of new agents capitalizing on microRNA biology, nanoparticle technology, stem cell biology, and an increasing understanding of immunology predict a rich future for product development. [...

  15. Ecological Complexity and the Success of Fungal Biological Control Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Knudsen, Guy R.; Louise-Marie C. Dandurand

    2014-01-01

    Fungal biological control agents against plant pathogens, especially those in soil, operate within physically, biologically, and spatially complex systems by means of a variety of trophic and nontrophic interspecific interactions. However, the biocontrol agents themselves are also subject to the same types of interactions, which may reduce or in some cases enhance their efficacy against target plant pathogens. Characterization of these ecologically complex systems is challenging, but a number...

  16. Rapid - PCR ( LightCycler ) in diagnosis of biological agents

    OpenAIRE

    Taleski, Vaso; Hadfield, Ted

    2001-01-01

    Although the historic use of biological weapons has been infrequent, a belief that state sponsored armies or terrorist organizations will use this type of weapon has never been greater which demands a capability for rapid medical response and early intervention. Molecular diagnostic methods, based on DNA amplification known as PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) are promising tools in fast and specific detection and identification of biological agent(s). The R.A.P.I.D.TM - PCR ( Ruggedized Adv...

  17. Nonpathogenic Fusarium as a Biological Control Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kaur

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium oxysporum is an important fungal group among the soil bone microflora. These strains are well-known for inducing wilt or root rots in important agricultural crops worldwide and some occur only as a saprophytes in rhizosphere of plants. There are certain strains which are nonpathogenic and protect plants from pathogenic strains. Based on phenotypic and genetic studies F. oxysporum showed a great diversity among its populations. The nonpathogenic strains, which were first isolated from suppressive soils strains showed several modes of action against pathogenic strains and thus exploited as biocontrol agents. These nonpathogenic strains suppress pathogens by competing for nutrients in the soil, reduce their chlamydospore germination, compete for infection sites on the root and induce systemic resistance in plant when invade host plant species before the pathogen. The nonpathogenic strains are formulated in talc and charcoal based media and commercial formulations are also available. These strains of Fusarium has been successfully combined with other biocontrol agents to obtain a effective biocontrol of plant pathogens. For application of nonpathogenic Fusarium under field condition some additional research is needed in several areas including: field studies and integration into production systems; risk assessment; and genetic improvement of biocontrol agents.

  18. Microbiology and atmospheric processes: chemical interactions of primary biological aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Deguillaume

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the influence of primary biological aerosols (PBA on atmospheric chemistry and vice versa through microbiological and chemical properties and processes. Several studies have shown that PBA represent a significant fraction of air particulate matter and hence affect the microstructure and water uptake of aerosol particles. Moreover, airborne micro-organisms, namely fungal spores and bacteria, can transform chemical constituents of the atmosphere by metabolic activity. Recent studies have emphasized the viability of bacteria and metabolic degradation of organic substances in cloud water. On the other hand, the viability and metabolic activity of airborne micro-organisms depend strongly on physical and chemical atmospheric parameters such as temperature, pressure, radiation, pH value and nutrient concentrations. In spite of recent advances, however, our knowledge of the microbiological and chemical interactions of PBA in the atmosphere is rather limited. Further targeted investigations combining laboratory experiments, field measurements, and modelling studies will be required to characterize the chemical feedbacks, microbiological activities at the air/snow/water interface supplied to the atmosphere.

  19. Decontamination of biological warfare agents by a microwave plasma torch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A portable arc-seeded microwave plasma torch running stably with airflow is described and applied for the decontamination of biological warfare agents. Emission spectroscopy of the plasma torch indicated that this torch produced an abundance of reactive atomic oxygen that could effectively oxidize biological agents. Bacillus cereus was chosen as a simulant of Bacillus anthracis spores for biological agent in the decontamination experiments. Decontamination was performed with the airflow rate of 0.393 l/s, corresponding to a maximum concentration of atomic oxygen produced by the torch. The experimental results showed that all spores were killed in less than 8 s at 3 cm distance, 12 s at 4 cm distance, and 16 s at 5 cm distance away from the nozzle of the torch

  20. Carbon Nanotubes: Detection of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Om Kumar

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Discovery of carbon nanotubes has great impact on the development of newer methodologies and devicesuseful for the analysis of various types of chemicals. The functionalisation of CNTs with biomolecules relatedto chemical and biological warfare agents makes these useful for the detection of these agents. The detectionsensitivity can be increased manyfold. Various types of chemical and biological sensors were developed usingvarious type of carbon nanotubes as well as nano particles of different metals.Defence Science Journal, 2008, 58(5, pp.617-625, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.58.1684

  1. Effect of biologic agents on radiographic progression of rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel J Tobón

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Gabriel J Tobón1, Alain Saraux1,2, Valérie Devauchelle-Pensec1,21Immunology Laboratory, Morvan Hospital, Université de Bretagne Occidentale, Brest, France; 2Rheumatology Unit, Hôpital de la Cavale Blanche, CHU Brest, FranceAbstract: The treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA has benefited over the last few years from the introduction of biologic agents whose development was based on new insights into the immunological factors involved in the pathogenesis of RA and the development of joint damage. These biological agents have been proven effective in RA patients with inadequate responses to synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs. Preventing joint damage is now the primary goal of RA treatment, and guidelines exist for the follow-up of joint abnormalities. Most biologic agents produced high clinical and radiological response rates in patients with established or recent-onset RA. Thus, for the first time, obtaining a remission is a reasonable treatment goal in RA patients. Factors that are crucial to joint damage control are: early initiation of DMARDs, use of intensive treatments including biological agents, and close monitoring of clinical disease activity and radiographic progression. However, some patients remain unresponsive to all available treatments and continue to experience joint damage progression. A major objective now is to identify patients at high risk for severe joint damage, in order to tailor the treatment regimen to their specific needs.Keywords: rheumatoid arthritis, radiographic progression, biologics

  2. Biological availability of lead in a paint aerosol. 1. Physical and chemical characterization of a lead paint aerosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalman, D; Schumacher, R; Covert, D; Eaton, D L

    1984-09-01

    This study was conducted to determine the physical and chemical characteristics of an aerosol of lead-based paint, generated in an industrial spray operation, that might influence the biological availability of lead present in inhaled aerosols. Paint aerosols were collected, and mass-size distribution was determined using a portable cascade impactor under actual occupational conditions. Approx. 2% of the particulate mass collected was in the respirable range (less than 10 micron mean aerodynamic diameter), although the maximum airborne concentration of lead was found to be 2-3 mg/m3. The lead concentration in a dried aerosol was very resistant to chemical digestion. Analysis by X-ray diffraction, atomic absorption spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy showed approx. 11% lead by dry weight, although the wet weight concentration of lead reported by the manufacturer was 12.8%. PMID:6485003

  3. Biologic agents for rheumatoid arthritis: 2008 and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweiss, Nadera J; Hushaw, Linda L

    2009-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic disease with a complex underlying pathology and varied presentation in patients. Several novel biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs have become available for the treatment of RA. Agents in late-stage clinical trials include golimumab and certolizumab, which are anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha agents; ocrelizumab, an anti-CD20 agent; and tocilizumab, an inhibitor of interleukin-6. As treatment options for RA expand, nursing care will play an increasingly important role in empowering patients through interventions such as patient education and adverse effect management. PMID:19142153

  4. Current laboratory methods for biological threat agent identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henchal, E A; Teska, J D; Ludwig, G V; Shoemaker, D R; Ezzell, J W

    2001-09-01

    The authors present an integrated approach for the identification of biological threat agents. The methods used have been used extensively in field exercises and during response to incidents of biological terrorism. A diagnostic system, which integrates the clinical diagnosis or medical intelligence with immunodiagnostic tests, rapid gene amplification assays, and standard culture, provides results of the highest quality and confidence. In the future, selected reagents and technologies will be distributed through a network of civilian and military laboratories. PMID:11572145

  5. Pyrazine-Derived Disulfide-Reducing Agent for Chemical Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Lukesh, John C.; Wallin, Kelly K.; Raines, Ronald T.

    2014-01-01

    For fifty years, dithiothreitol (DTT) has been the preferred reagent for the reduction of disulfide bonds in proteins and other biomolecules. Herein we report on the synthesis and characterization of 2,3-bis(mercaptomethyl)pyrazine (BMMP), a readily accessible disulfide-reducing agent with reactivity under biological conditions that is markedly superior to DTT and other known reagents.

  6. Experimental study of contamination by inhalation of radioactive iodine aerosols. Biological balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several articles have been published concerning research into contamination produced by inhalation of radioactive iodine aerosols in monkeys. Results dealing with the biological balance of this contamination are presented and discussed in this report. (author)

  7. The influence of the workplace-related biological agents on the immune systems of emergency medical personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewczyńska, Aleksandra; Depczyńska, Daria; Borecka, Anna; Winnicka, Izabela; Kubiak, Leszek; Skopińska-Różewska, Ewa; Niemcewicz, Marcin; Kocik, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    Emergency medical services workers' (EMSWs) acute exposures to many biological agents are frequent and well recognised in their workplaces, as well as occupational diseases resulting from some of these exposures. At the same time, there is only scant information on the adverse effects of chronic exposure to biological hazard factors on the immune systems of EMSWs. In the Polish legislation system, the Ordinance of the Minister of Health about harmful biological agents in the workplace and ways of protecting workers from exposure to those agents is an implement of Directive 2000/54/EC, which deals thoroughly with those issues in European Union Countries. Emergency medical services workers play an essential role as primary providers of pre-hospital emergency medical care, and they are part of the integral components of disaster response. Traumatic experiences can affect emergency medical staff immune systems negatively, by functioning as a chronic stressor. Conscious use of biological agents in workplaces such as microbial laboratories can be easily controlled and monitored. However, risk assessment is more difficult for workers when they are exposed unintentionally to biological agents. Exposure to bio-aerosols is considered especially harmful. This review summarises available information about biological risk factors for emergency medical services workers, and some information about the influence of these factors on their immune systems. PMID:26557040

  8. Functional Agents to Biologically Control Deoxynivalenol Contamination in Cereal Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ye; Tan, Yanglan; Liu, Na; Liao, Yucai; Sun, Changpo; Wang, Shuangxia; Wu, Aibo

    2016-01-01

    Mycotoxins, as microbial secondary metabolites, frequently contaminate cereal grains and pose a serious threat to human and animal health around the globe. Deoxynivalenol (DON), a commonly detected Fusarium mycotoxin, has drawn utmost attention due to high exposure levels and contamination frequency in the food chain. Biological control is emerging as a promising technology for the management of DON contamination. Functional biological control agents (BCAs), which include antagonistic microbes, natural fungicides derived from plants and detoxification enzymes, can be used to control DON contamination at different stages of grain production. In this review, studies regarding different biological agents for DON control in recent years are summarized for the first time. Furthermore, this article highlights the significance of BCAs for controlling DON contamination, as well as the need for more practical and efficient BCAs concerning food safety. PMID:27064760

  9. The Use of Biologic Agents in Athletes with Knee Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopka, Michaela; Bradley, James P

    2016-07-01

    Biologic agents are gaining popularity in the management of bony and soft tissue conditions about the knee. They are becoming the mainstay of nonoperative therapy in the high-demand athletic population. The most well-studied agents include platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and stem cells-both of which have shown promise in the treatment of various conditions. Animal and clinical studies have demonstrated improved outcomes following PRP treatment in early osteoarthritis of the knee, as well as in chronic patellar tendinopathy. Early clinical evidence also lends support for PRP in the augmentation of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Research investigating the role of biologic agents in collateral ligament and meniscal injuries is ongoing. Studies assessing the utility of stem cells have shown encouraging results in the setting of osteoarthritis. Unfortunately, strict regulations by the FDA continue to restrict their application in clinical practice. A major limitation in the interpretation of current data is the significant variability in the harvesting and preparation of both PRP and stem cells. As the volume and quality of evidence continue to grow, biologic agents are poised to become an integral component of comprehensive patient care throughout all orthopedic specialties. PMID:27206071

  10. Infrared differential-absorption Mueller matrix spectroscopy and neural network-based data fusion for biological aerosol standoff detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrieri, Arthur H; Copper, Jack; Owens, David J; Roese, Erik S; Bottiger, Jerold R; Everly, Robert D; Hung, Kevin C

    2010-01-20

    An active spectrophotopolarimeter sensor and support system were developed for a military/civilian defense feasibility study concerning the identification and standoff detection of biological aerosols. Plumes of warfare agent surrogates gamma-irradiated Bacillus subtilis and chicken egg white albumen (analytes), Arizona road dust (terrestrial interferent), water mist (atmospheric interferent), and talcum powders (experiment controls) were dispersed inside windowless chambers and interrogated by multiple CO(2) laser beams spanning 9.1-12.0 microm wavelengths (lambda). Molecular vibration and vibration-rotation activities by the subject analyte are fundamentally strong within this "fingerprint" middle infrared spectral region. Distinct polarization-modulations of incident irradiance and backscatter radiance of tuned beams generate the Mueller matrix (M) of subject aerosol. Strings of all 15 normalized elements {M(ij)(lambda)/M(11)(lambda)}, which completely describe physical and geometric attributes of the aerosol particles, are input fields for training hybrid Kohonen self-organizing map feed-forward artificial neural networks (ANNs). The properly trained and validated ANN model performs pattern recognition and type-classification tasks via internal mappings. A typical ANN that mathematically clusters analyte, interferent, and control aerosols with nil overlap of species is illustrated, including sensitivity analysis of performance. PMID:20090802

  11. Treatment of relapsing polychondritis in the era of biological agents.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCarthy, Eoghan M

    2012-02-01

    Relapsing polychondritis (RP) is a rare disorder, often requiring high doses of immunosuppressive therapy to control its potentially life-threatening consequences. The advent of biological agents has added to the armamentarium available to treat RP, but the lack of controlled trials, along with the small numbers of patients and disease heterogeneity means that new therapies are prescribed without the benefits of rigorous clinical research. Thus, information on individual cases is of value in expanding our knowledge of the use of biologic agents in rare conditions. We report on the use of rituximab in a patient who subsequently developed catastrophic aortic incompetence, and we review the literature in relation to the use of this drug in RP.

  12. Biologic Agents for Periodontal Regeneration and Implant Site Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Suárez-López del Amo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The advancement of molecular mediators or biologic agents has increased tremendously during the last decade in periodontology and dental implantology. Implant site development and reconstruction of the lost periodontium represent main fields in which these molecular mediators have been employed and investigated. Different growth factors trigger different reactions in the tissues of the periodontium at various cellular levels. Proliferation, migration, and differentiation constitute the main target areas of these molecular mediators. It was the purpose of this comprehensive review to describe the origin and rationale, evidence, and the most current understanding of the following biologic agents: Recombinant Human Platelet-Derived Growth Factor-BB (rhPDGF-BB, Enamel Matrix Derivate (EMD, Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP and Platelet-Rich Fibrin (PRF, Recombinant Human Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 (rhFGF-2, Bone Morphogenic Proteins (BMPs, BMP-2 and BMP-7, Teriparatide PTH, and Growth Differential Factor-5 (GDF-5.

  13. Biologic Agents for Periodontal Regeneration and Implant Site Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-López del Amo, Fernando; Monje, Alberto; Padial-Molina, Miguel; Tang, ZhiHui; Wang, Hom-Lay

    2015-01-01

    The advancement of molecular mediators or biologic agents has increased tremendously during the last decade in periodontology and dental implantology. Implant site development and reconstruction of the lost periodontium represent main fields in which these molecular mediators have been employed and investigated. Different growth factors trigger different reactions in the tissues of the periodontium at various cellular levels. Proliferation, migration, and differentiation constitute the main target areas of these molecular mediators. It was the purpose of this comprehensive review to describe the origin and rationale, evidence, and the most current understanding of the following biologic agents: Recombinant Human Platelet-Derived Growth Factor-BB (rhPDGF-BB), Enamel Matrix Derivate (EMD), Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) and Platelet-Rich Fibrin (PRF), Recombinant Human Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 (rhFGF-2), Bone Morphogenic Proteins (BMPs, BMP-2 and BMP-7), Teriparatide PTH, and Growth Differential Factor-5 (GDF-5). PMID:26509173

  14. Characteristics of biological aerosols in dairy processing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Y J; Frank, J F

    1990-03-01

    The viable aerosol in dairy processing plant environments was characterized by using an Andersen six-stage sieve sampler and a Reuter centrifugal sampler. Artificially introduced Serratia marcescens were detected in the air during drain flooding and after rinsing the floor with a pressured water hose, thus illustrating the ability of a specific microorganism to be disseminated from drains and wet surfaces via physical disruption activities often observed in food plants. Once a high concentration of wet viable aerosol was generated, it took 40 or more min to return to the background level in the absence of forced ventilation or other activity. The greatest reduction in viable particles occurred during the first 10 min. Estimated mean aerosol particle sizes were decreased from approximately 4.6 to 3.2 mu with time lapse. The estimated mean aerosol particle sizes from actual dairy processing plant environments ranged from approximately 4.3 to 5.3 mu. In addition, a more heavily contaminated dairy processing environment contained larger aerosol particles. These results indicate that the RCS sampler will often overestimate the true aerosol concentration in highly contaminated air, because mean particle sizes are over 4 mu in diameter. PMID:2187913

  15. Leaf microbiota of strawberries as affected by biological control agents

    OpenAIRE

    Sylla, Justine; Alsanius, Beatrix W; Krüger, Erika; Reineke, Annette; Strohmeier, Stephan; Wohanka, Walter

    2013-01-01

    The increasing use of biological control agents (BCAs) against Botrytis cinerea in strawberry raises the question of whether there are any undesirable impacts of foliar applications of BCAs on nontarget microorganisms in the phyllosphere. Therefore, our objective was to investigate this issue within a field study. Strawberry plants were repeatedly sprayed with three BCAs—namely, RhizoVital 42 fl. (Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42), Trianum-P (Trichoderma harzianum T22), and Naturalis (Beauver...

  16. Effect of biologic agents on radiographic progression of rheumatoid arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Devauchelle, Valerie

    2010-01-01

    Gabriel J Tobón1, Alain Saraux1,2, Valérie Devauchelle-Pensec1,21Immunology Laboratory, Morvan Hospital, Université de Bretagne Occidentale, Brest, France; 2Rheumatology Unit, Hôpital de la Cavale Blanche, CHU Brest, FranceAbstract: The treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has benefited over the last few years from the introduction of biologic agents whose development was based on new insights into the immunological factors involved in the pathogen...

  17. Potential of Biological Agents in Decontamination of Agricultural Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Javaid, Muhammad Kashif; Ashiq, Mehrban; Tahir, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Pesticides are widely used for the control of weeds, diseases, and pests of cultivated plants all over the world, mainly since the period after the Second World War. The use of pesticides is very extensive to control harm of pests all over the globe. Persistent nature of most of the synthetic pesticides causes serious environmental concerns. Decontamination of these hazardous chemicals is very essential. This review paper elaborates the potential of various biological agents in decontaminatio...

  18. Handheld hyperspectral imager for standoff detection of chemical and biological aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinnrichs, Michele; Jensen, James O.; McAnally, Gerard

    2004-08-01

    Pacific Advanced Technology has developed a small hand held imaging spectrometer, Sherlock, for gas leak and aerosol detection and imaging. The system is based on a patented technique, (IMSS Image Multi-spectral Sensing), that uses diffractive optics and image processing algorithms to detect spectral information about objects in the scene of the camera. This cameras technology has been tested at Dugway Proving Ground and Dstl Porton Down facilities looking at Chemical and Biological agent simulants. In addition to Chemical and Biological detection, the camera has been used for environmental monitoring of green house gases and is currently undergoing extensive laboratory and field testing by the Gas Technology Institute, British Petroleum and Shell Oil for applications for gas leak detection and repair. In this paper we will present some of the results from the data collection at the TRE test at Dugway Proving Ground during the summer of 2002 and laboratory testing at the Dstl facility at Porton Down in the UK in the fall of 2002.

  19. Aerosol delivery of antimicrobial agents during mechanical ventilation: current practice and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalopoulos, Argyris; Metaxas, Eugenios I; Falagas, Matthew E

    2011-03-01

    Critically ill patients, who develop ventilator-associated pneumonia during prolonged mechanical ventilation, often require antimicrobial agents administered through the endotracheal or the tracheotomy tube. The delivery of antibiotics via the respiratory tract has been established over the past years as an alternative route in order to deliver high concentrations of antimicrobial agents directly to the lungs and avoid systemic toxicity. Since the only formal indications for inhaled/aerosolized antimicrobial agents is for patients suffering from cystic fibrosis, consequently the majority of research and published studies concerns this group of patients. Newer devices and new antibiotic formulations are currently off-label used in ambulatory cystic fibrosis patients whereas similar data for the mechanically ventilated patients do not yet exist. PMID:21235473

  20. Genetically engineered biological agents in therapy for systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Aleksandrovna Aseeva

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is a prototype for chronic autoimmune disease. Its prevalence is 20 to 70 cases per 100,000 women and varies by race and ethnicity. Despite considerable progress in traditional therapy, many problems associated with the management of these patients need to be immediately solved: thus, 50-80% are found to have activity signs and/or frequent exacerbations and about 30% of the patients have to stop work; Class IV lupus nephritis increases the risk of terminalrenal failure. In the past 20 years great progress has been made in studying the pathogenesis of SLE: biological targets to affect drugs have been sought and fundamentally new therapeutic goals defined. Belimumab is the first genetically biological agent specially designed to treat SLE, which is rightly regarded as one of the most important achievements of rheumatology in the past 50 years.

  1. Genetically engineered biological agents in therapy for systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Aleksandrovna Aseeva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is a prototype for chronic autoimmune disease. Its prevalence is 20 to 70 cases per 100,000 women and varies by race and ethnicity. Despite considerable progress in traditional therapy, many problems associated with the management of these patients need to be immediately solved: thus, 50-80% are found to have activity signs and/or frequent exacerbations and about 30% of the patients have to stop work; Class IV lupus nephritis increases the risk of terminalrenal failure. In the past 20 years great progress has been made in studying the pathogenesis of SLE: biological targets to affect drugs have been sought and fundamentally new therapeutic goals defined. Belimumab is the first genetically biological agent specially designed to treat SLE, which is rightly regarded as one of the most important achievements of rheumatology in the past 50 years.

  2. Micro-radiography of biological samples with medical contrast agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dammer, J., E-mail: jiri.dammer@lf1.cuni.cz [Charles University in Prague, First Faculty of Medicine, Salmovská 1, 120 00 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Hospital Na Bulovce, Department of Radiological Physics, Budinova 2, 180 81 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Czech Technical University in Prague, Horska 3a/22, 128 00 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Weyda, F. [Faculty of Science, University of South Bohemia, Branisovska 31, 370 05 Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic); Benes, J. [Charles University in Prague, First Faculty of Medicine, Salmovská 1, 120 00 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Sopko, V. [Hospital Na Bulovce, Department of Radiological Physics, Budinova 2, 180 81 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Czech Technical University in Prague, Horska 3a/22, 128 00 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Gelbic, I. [Biology Centre, AS CR, Institute of Entomology, Department of Biochemistry and Physiology, Branisovska 31, CZ-37005 Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic)

    2013-12-01

    Micro-radiography is an imaging technique that uses X-rays to study the internal structures of objects. This fast and easy imaging tool is based on differential X-ray attenuation by various tissues and structures within biological samples. The experimental setup described is based on the semiconductor pixel X-ray detector Medipix2 and X-ray micro-focus tube. Our micro-radiographic system has been recently used not only for the examination of internal structures of various arthropods and other biological objects but also for tracing some processes in selected model species (we used living larvae of mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus). Low concentrations of iodine, lanthanum or gold particles were used as a tracer (contrast agent). Such contrast agents increase the absorption of X-rays and allow a better visibility of internal structures of model organisms (especially the various cavities, pores, etc.). In addition, the movement of tracers in selected timing experiments demonstrates some physiological functions of digestive and excretory system.

  3. Micro-radiography of biological samples with medical contrast agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micro-radiography is an imaging technique that uses X-rays to study the internal structures of objects. This fast and easy imaging tool is based on differential X-ray attenuation by various tissues and structures within biological samples. The experimental setup described is based on the semiconductor pixel X-ray detector Medipix2 and X-ray micro-focus tube. Our micro-radiographic system has been recently used not only for the examination of internal structures of various arthropods and other biological objects but also for tracing some processes in selected model species (we used living larvae of mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus). Low concentrations of iodine, lanthanum or gold particles were used as a tracer (contrast agent). Such contrast agents increase the absorption of X-rays and allow a better visibility of internal structures of model organisms (especially the various cavities, pores, etc.). In addition, the movement of tracers in selected timing experiments demonstrates some physiological functions of digestive and excretory system

  4. The use of contrast agent for imaging biological samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dammer, J; Sopko, V; Jakubek, J [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Czech Technical University in Prague, Horska 3a/22, CZ 12800 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Weyda, F, E-mail: jiri.dammer@utef.cvut.cz [Biological center of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Institute of Entomology, Branisovska 31, CZ-37005 Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic)

    2011-01-15

    The technique of X-ray transmission imaging has been available for over a century and is still among the fastest and easiest approaches to the studies of internal structure of biological samples. Recent advances in semiconductor technology have led to the development of new types of X-ray detectors with direct conversion of interacting X-ray photon to an electric signal. Semiconductor pixel detectors seem to be specially promising; compared to the film technique, they provide single-quantum and real-time digital information about the objects being studied. We describe the recently developed radiographic apparatus, equipped with Medipix2 semiconductor pixel detector. The detector is used as an imager that counts individual photons of ionizing radiation, emitted by an X-ray tube (micro- or nano-focus FeinFocus). Thanks to the wide dynamic range of the Medipix2 detector and its high spatial resolution better than 1{mu}m, the setup is particularly suitable for radiographic imaging of small biological samples, including in-vivo observations with contrast agent (Optiray). Along with the description of the apparatus we provide examples of the use iodine contrast agent as a tracer in various insects as model organisms. The motivation of our work is to develop our imaging techniques as non-destructive and non-invasive. Microradiographic imaging helps detect organisms living in a not visible environment, visualize the internal biological processes and also to resolve the details of their body (morphology). Tiny live insects are an ideal object for our studies.

  5. Primary and Secondary Organic Marine Aerosol and Oceanic Biological Activity: Recent Results and New Perspectives for Future Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Rinaldi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important natural aerosol systems at the global level is marine aerosol that comprises both organic and inorganic components of primary and secondary origin. The present paper reviews some new results on primary and secondary organic marine aerosol, achieved during the EU project MAP (Marine Aerosol Production, comparing them with those reported in the recent literature. Marine aerosol samples collected at the coastal site of Mace Head, Ireland, show a chemical composition trend that is influenced by the oceanic biological activity cycle, in agreement with other observations. Laboratory experiments show that sea-spray aerosol from biologically active sea water can be highly enriched in organics, and the authors highlight the need for further studies on the atmospheric fate of such primary organics. With regard to the secondary fraction of organic aerosol, the average chemical composition and molecular tracer (methanesulfonic-acid, amines distribution could be successfully characterized by adopting a multitechnique analytical approach.

  6. Comparison and Analysis of Biological Agent Category Lists Based On Biosafety and Biodefense

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Deqiao; Zheng, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Biological agents pose a serious threat to human health, economic development, social stability and even national security. The classification of biological agents is a basic requirement for both biosafety and biodefense. We compared and analyzed the Biological Agent Laboratory Biosafety Category list and the defining criteria according to the World Health Organization (WHO), the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the European Union (EU) and China. We also compared and analyzed the Biologic...

  7. Chemiluminescence assay for the detection of biological warfare agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langry, K; Horn, J

    1999-11-05

    A chemiluminescent homogeneous immunoassay and a hand-size multiassay reader are described that could be used for detecting biological materials. The special feature of the assay is that it employs two different antibodies that each bind to a unique epitope on the same antigen. Each group of epitope-specific antibodies has linked to it an enzyme of a proximal-enzyme pair. One enzyme of the pair utilizes a substrate in high concentration to produce a second substrate required by the second enzyme. This new substrate enables the second enzyme to function. The reaction of the second enzyme is configured to produce light. This chemiluminescence is detected with a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. The proximal pair enzymes must be in close proximity to one another to allow the second enzyme to react with the product of the first enzyme. This only occurs when the enzyme-linked antibodies are attached to the antigen, whether antigen is a single protein with multiple epitopes or the surface of a cell with a variety of different antigens. As a result of their juxtaposition, the enzymes produce light only in the presence of the biological material. A brief description is given as to how this assay could be utilized in a personal bio-agent detector system.

  8. High-throughput assay for optimising microbial biological control agent production and delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lack of technologies to produce and deliver effective biological control agents (BCAs) is a major barrier to their commercialization. A myriad of variables associated with BCA cultivation, formulation, drying, storage, and reconstitution processes complicates agent quality maximization. An efficie...

  9. Concentrations, size distributions and temporal variations of fluorescent biological aerosol particles in southern tropical India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valsan, Aswathy; Krishna R, Ravi; CV, Biju; Huffman, Alex; Poschl, Ulrich; Gunthe, Sachin

    2015-04-01

    Biological aerosols constitute a wide range of dead and alive biological materials and structures that are suspended in the atmosphere. They play an important role in the atmospheric physical, chemical and biological processes and health of living being by spread of diseases among humans, plants, and, animals. The atmospheric abundance, sources, physical properties of PBAPs as compared to non-biological aerosols, however, is poorly characterized. The Indian tropical region, where large fraction of the world's total population is residing, experiences a distinctive meteorological phenomenon by means of Indian Summer Monsoon (IMS). Thus, the properties and characteristics of biological aerosols are also expected to be very diverse over the Indian subcontinent depending upon the seasons. Here we characterize the number concentration and size distribution of Fluorescent Biological Aerosol Particles (FBAP) at a high altitude continental site, Munnar (10.09 N, 77.06 E; 1605 m asl) in South India during the South-West monsoon, which constitute around 80 percent of the annual rainfall in Munnar. Continuous three months measurements (from 01 June 2014 to 21 Aug 2104) FBAPs were carried out at Munnar using Ultra Violet Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (UVAPS) during IMS. The mean number and mass concentration of coarse FBAP averaged over the entire campaign was 1.7 x 10-2 cm-3 and 0.24 µg m-3 respectively, which corresponds to 2 percent and 6 percent of total aerosol particle number and mass concentration. In agreement to other previous measurements the number size distribution of FBAP also peaks at 3.2 micron indicating the strong presence of fungal spores. This was also supported by the Scanning Electron Microscopic analysis of bioaerosols on filter paper. They also displayed a strong diurnal cycle with maximum concentration occurring at early morning hours. During periods of heavy and continuous rain where the wind is consistently blowing from South-West direction it was

  10. Fluorescent biological aerosol particles measured with the Waveband Integrated Bioaerosol Sensor WIBS-4: laboratory tests combined with a one year field study

    OpenAIRE

    Toprak, E.; Schnaiter, M.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper bioaerosol measurements conducted with the Waveband Integrated Bioaerosol Sensor mark 4 (WIBS-4) are presented. The measurements comprise aerosol chamber characterization experiments and a one-year ambient measurement period at a semi-rural site in South Western Germany. This study aims to investigate the sensitivity of WIBS-4 to biological and non-biological aerosols and detection of biological particles in the ambient aerosol. Several types of biological and non-biological aer...

  11. A review of research on common biological agents and their impact on environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological agents are unique class of microorganisms which can be used to produce the disease in large populations of humans, animals and plants. If used for hostile purposes, any disease-causing microorganism could be considered a weapon. The use of biological agents is not a new concept and history is replete with examples of biological weapon use. Before the twenty century, biological warfare took on three main forms by deliberate poisoning of food and water with infectious material, use of microorganisms or toxins in some form of weapon system, and use of biologically inoculated fabrics. Four kinds of biological warfare agents are bacteria, viruses, rickettsiae, fungi. These are distinguished by being living organisms, that reproduce within their host victims, who then become contagious with a deadly multiplier effect, bacteria, viruses, or fungi or toxin found in nature can be used to kill or injure people. Biological agents may be used for an isolated assassination, as well as to cause incapacitation or death to thousands. These biological agents represent a dangerous military threat because they are alive, and are therefore unpredictable and uncontrollable once released. The act of bioterrorism can range from a simple hoax to the actual use of biological weapons. Biological agents have the potential to make an environment more dangerous over time. If the environment is contaminated, a long-term threat to the population could be created. This paper discusses common biological agents, their mode of action in living organisms and possible impact on the environment. (author)

  12. Potential of Biological Agents in Decontamination of Agricultural Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaid, Muhammad Kashif; Ashiq, Mehrban; Tahir, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Pesticides are widely used for the control of weeds, diseases, and pests of cultivated plants all over the world, mainly since the period after the Second World War. The use of pesticides is very extensive to control harm of pests all over the globe. Persistent nature of most of the synthetic pesticides causes serious environmental concerns. Decontamination of these hazardous chemicals is very essential. This review paper elaborates the potential of various biological agents in decontamination of agricultural soils. The agricultural crop fields are contaminated by the periodic applications of pesticides. Biodegradation is an ecofriendly, cost-effective, highly efficient approach compared to the physical and chemical methods which are expensive as well as unfriendly towards environment. Biodegradation is sensitive to the concentration levels of hydrogen peroxide and nitrogen along with microbial community, temperature, and pH changes. Experimental work for optimum conditions at lab scale can provide very fruitful results about specific bacterial, fungal strains. This study revealed an upper hand of bioremediation over physicochemical approaches. Further studies should be carried out to understand mechanisms of biotransformation. PMID:27293964

  13. Bioforensics: Characterization of biological weapons agents by NanoSIMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, P K; Ghosal, S; Leighton, T J; Wheeler, K E; Hutcheon, I D

    2007-02-26

    The anthrax attacks of Fall 2001 highlight the need to develop forensic methods based on multiple identifiers to determine the origin of biological weapons agents. Genetic typing methods (i.e., DNA and RNA-based) provide one attribution technology, but genetic information alone is not usually sufficient to determine the provenance of the material. Non-genetic identifiers, including elemental and isotopic signatures, provide complementary information that can be used to identify the means, geographic location and date of production. Under LDRD funding, we have successfully developed the techniques necessary to perform bioforensic characterization with the NanoSIMS at the individual spore level. We have developed methods for elemental and isotopic characterization at the single spore scale. We have developed methods for analyzing spore sections to map elemental abundance within spores. We have developed rapid focused ion beam (FIB) sectioning techniques for spores to preserve elemental and structural integrity. And we have developed a high-resolution depth profiling method to characterize the elemental distribution in individual spores without sectioning. We used these newly developed methods to study the controls on elemental abundances in spores, characterize the elemental distribution of in spores, and to study elemental uptake by spores. Our work under this LDRD project attracted FBI and DHS funding for applied purposes.

  14. Potential of Biological Agents in Decontamination of Agricultural Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaid, Muhammad Kashif; Ashiq, Mehrban; Tahir, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Pesticides are widely used for the control of weeds, diseases, and pests of cultivated plants all over the world, mainly since the period after the Second World War. The use of pesticides is very extensive to control harm of pests all over the globe. Persistent nature of most of the synthetic pesticides causes serious environmental concerns. Decontamination of these hazardous chemicals is very essential. This review paper elaborates the potential of various biological agents in decontamination of agricultural soils. The agricultural crop fields are contaminated by the periodic applications of pesticides. Biodegradation is an ecofriendly, cost-effective, highly efficient approach compared to the physical and chemical methods which are expensive as well as unfriendly towards environment. Biodegradation is sensitive to the concentration levels of hydrogen peroxide and nitrogen along with microbial community, temperature, and pH changes. Experimental work for optimum conditions at lab scale can provide very fruitful results about specific bacterial, fungal strains. This study revealed an upper hand of bioremediation over physicochemical approaches. Further studies should be carried out to understand mechanisms of biotransformation. PMID:27293964

  15. Potential of Biological Agents in Decontamination of Agricultural Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Kashif Javaid

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides are widely used for the control of weeds, diseases, and pests of cultivated plants all over the world, mainly since the period after the Second World War. The use of pesticides is very extensive to control harm of pests all over the globe. Persistent nature of most of the synthetic pesticides causes serious environmental concerns. Decontamination of these hazardous chemicals is very essential. This review paper elaborates the potential of various biological agents in decontamination of agricultural soils. The agricultural crop fields are contaminated by the periodic applications of pesticides. Biodegradation is an ecofriendly, cost-effective, highly efficient approach compared to the physical and chemical methods which are expensive as well as unfriendly towards environment. Biodegradation is sensitive to the concentration levels of hydrogen peroxide and nitrogen along with microbial community, temperature, and pH changes. Experimental work for optimum conditions at lab scale can provide very fruitful results about specific bacterial, fungal strains. This study revealed an upper hand of bioremediation over physicochemical approaches. Further studies should be carried out to understand mechanisms of biotransformation.

  16. Chamber bioaerosol study: human emissions of size-resolved fluorescent biological aerosol particles

    OpenAIRE

    Bhangar, Seema; Adams, Rachel I.; Pasut, Wilmer; Huffman, Alex; Arens, Edward A.; Taylor, John W; Bruns, Tom D; Nazaroff, William W

    2015-01-01

    Humans are a prominent source of airborne biological particles in occupied indoor spaces, but few studies have quantified human bioaerosol emissions. The chamber investigation reported here employs a fluorescence-based technique to evaluate bioaerosols with high temporal and particle size resolution. In a 75-m3 chamber, occupant emission rates of coarse (2.5–10 μm) fluorescent biological aerosol particles (FBAPs) under seated, simulated office-work conditions averaged 0.9 ± 0.3 million partic...

  17. 75 FR 69396 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for a Biological Control Agent for Arundo donax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-12

    ... Assessment for a Biological Control Agent for Arundo donax AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service... the control of Arundo donax (giant reed, Carrizo cane). The environmental assessment considers the... a biological control agent to reduce the severity of Arundo donax infestations. We are making...

  18. 75 FR 64984 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for a Biological Control Agent for Hawkweeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-21

    ... Assessment for a Biological Control Agent for Hawkweeds AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service... the control of hawkweeds (Hieracium spp.). The environmental assessment considers the effects of, and... States as a biological control agent to reduce the severity of infestations of hawkweeds. We are...

  19. Insect pathogens as biological control agents: Back to the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, L A; Grzywacz, D; Shapiro-Ilan, D I; Frutos, R; Brownbridge, M; Goettel, M S

    2015-11-01

    The development and use of entomopathogens as classical, conservation and augmentative biological control agents have included a number of successes and some setbacks in the past 1years. In this forum paper we present current information on development, use and future directions of insect-specific viruses, bacteria, fungi and nematodes as components of integrated pest management strategies for control of arthropod pests of crops, forests, urban habitats, and insects of medical and veterinary importance. Insect pathogenic viruses are a fruitful source of microbial control agents (MCAs), particularly for the control of lepidopteran pests. Most research is focused on the baculoviruses, important pathogens of some globally important pests for which control has become difficult due to either pesticide resistance or pressure to reduce pesticide residues. Baculoviruses are accepted as safe, readily mass produced, highly pathogenic and easily formulated and applied control agents. New baculovirus products are appearing in many countries and gaining an increased market share. However, the absence of a practical in vitro mass production system, generally higher production costs, limited post application persistence, slow rate of kill and high host specificity currently contribute to restricted use in pest control. Overcoming these limitations are key research areas for which progress could open up use of insect viruses to much larger markets. A small number of entomopathogenic bacteria have been commercially developed for control of insect pests. These include several Bacillus thuringiensis sub-species, Lysinibacillus (Bacillus) sphaericus, Paenibacillus spp. and Serratia entomophila. B. thuringiensis sub-species kurstaki is the most widely used for control of pest insects of crops and forests, and B. thuringiensis sub-species israelensis and L. sphaericus are the primary pathogens used for control of medically important pests including dipteran vectors. These pathogens

  20. Number size distribution measurements of biological aerosols under contrasting environments and seasons from southern tropical India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valsan, Aswathy; Cv, Biju; Krishna, Ravi; Huffman, Alex; Poschl, Ulrich; Gunthe, Sachin

    2016-04-01

    Biological aerosols constitute a wide range of dead and alive biological materials and structures that are suspended in the atmosphere. They play an important role in the atmospheric physical, chemical and biological processes and health of living being by spread of diseases among humans, plants, and, animals. The atmospheric abundance, sources, physical properties of PBAPs as compared to non-biological aerosols, however, is poorly characterized. Though omnipresent, their concentration and composition exhibit large spatial and temporal variations depending up on their sources, land-use, and local meteorology. The Indian tropical region, which constitutes approximately 18% of the world's total population exhibits vast geographical extend and experiences a distinctive meteorological phenomenon by means of Indian Summer Monsoon (IMS). Thus, the sources, properties and characteristics of biological aerosols are also expected to have significant variations over the Indian subcontinent depending upon the location and seasons. Here we present the number concentration and size distribution of Fluorescent Biological Aerosol Particles (FBAP) from two contrasting locations in Southern tropical India measured during contrasting seasons using Ultra Violet Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (UV-APS). Measurements were carried out at a pristine high altitude continental site, Munnar (10.09 N, 77.06 E; 1605 m asl) during two contrasting seasons, South-West Monsoon (June-August, 2014) and winter (Jan - Feb, 2015) and in Chennai, a coastal urban area, during July - November 2015. FBAP concentrations at both the locations showed large variability with higher concentrations occurring at Chennai. Apart from regional variations, the FBAP concentrations also exhibited variations over two different seasons under the same environmental condition. In Munnar the FBAP concentration increased by a factor of four from South-West Monsoon to winter season. The average size distribution of FBAP at both

  1. Biological toxin warfare: threat, proliferation, and the effects of neutron energy on BTW agents

    OpenAIRE

    Swartz, Jeffrey R.

    1995-01-01

    The threat of biological weapons presents a special military challenge. Biological toxin warfare (BTW) agents are more potent than chemical warfare agents. Depending on the yield of the nuclear weapon, a biological weapon also can have a higher lethality than nuclear weapons. This thesis examines existing international restricions on the proliferation of BTW technology and identifies their shortcomings. These loopholes contribute to the eay availability of the technology necessary to examine ...

  2. Mass-spectrometric identification of primary biological particle markers and application to pristine submicron aerosol measurements in Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Schneider

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The detection of primary biological material in submicron aerosol by means of thermal desorption/electron impact ionization aerosol mass spectrometry was investigated. Mass spectra of amino acids, carbohydrates, small peptides, and proteins, all of which are key building blocks of biological particles, were recorded in laboratory experiments. Several characteristic marker fragments were identified. The intensity of the marker signals relative to the total organic mass spectrum allows for an estimation of the content of primary biological material in ambient organic aerosol. The developed method was applied to mass spectra recorded during AMAZE-08, a field campaign conducted in the pristine rainforest of the central Amazon Basin, Brazil, during the wet season of February and March 2008. The low abundance of identified marker fragments places upper limits of 7.5% for amino acids and 5.6% for carbohydrates on the contribution of primary biological aerosol particles (PBAP to the submicron organic aerosol mass concentration during this time period. Upper limits for the absolute submicron concentrations for both compound classes range from 0.01 to 0.1 μg m−3. Carbohydrates and proteins (composed of amino acids make up for about two thirds of the dry mass of a biological cell. Thus, our findings suggest an upper limit for the PBAP mass fraction of about 20% to the submicron organic aerosol measured in Amazonia during AMAZE-08.

  3. Feasibility Study of Using Short Wave Infrared Cavity Ringdown Spectroscopy (SWIR-CRDS) for Biological Agent Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aker, Pam M.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Williams, Richard M.; Valentine, Nancy B.

    2007-10-01

    This project focused on determining the feasibility of using short wave infrared (SWIR) cavity ring down spectroscopy (CRDS) as a means for real-time detection of biological aerosols. The first part of the project involved identifying biological agent signatures that could be detected with SWIR CRDS. After an exhaustive search of the open literature it was determined that whole biological spores and/or cells would not be good candidates for direct SWIR CRDS probing because they have no unique SWIR signatures. It was postulated that while whole cells or spores are not good candidates for SWIR CRDS detection, their pyrolysis break-down products might be. A literature search was then conducted to find biological pyrolysis products with low molecular weights and high symmetry since these species most likely would have overtone and combination vibrational bands that can be detected in the SWIR. It was determined that pyrrole, pyridine and picolinamide were good candidates for evaluation. These molecules are formed when proteins and porphyrins, proteins and dipicolinic acid, and dipicolinic acid are pyrolyzed, respectively. The second part of the project involved measuring quantitative SWIR spectra of pyrrole, pyridine and picolinamide in PNNL’s FTIR Spectroscopy Laboratory. Spectral information about these molecules, in the vapor phase is sparse – there were only a few prior studies that measured line positions and no information on absorption cross sections. Absorption cross sections are needed in order to estimate the SWIR CRDS detection sensitivity, and line position determines what type of laser will be needed for the sensor. The results of the spectroscopy studies allowed us to estimate the SWIR CRDS detection sensitivity for pyrrole to be 3 x 1012 molec cm-3 or 0.1 ppmv, and for pyridine it was 1.5 x 1015 molec cm-3 or 0.6 ppmv. These detection sensitivity limits are close what we have measured for ammonia. Given these detection limits we then estimated the

  4. Biological soil crusts: a fundamental organizing agent in global drylands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belnap, J.; Zhang, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Ecosystem function is profoundly affected by plant community composition, which is ultimately determined by factors that govern seed retention. Dryland ecosystems constitute ~35% of terrestrial surfaces, with most soils in these regions covered by biological soil crusts (biocrusts), a community whose autotrophs are dominated by cyanobacteria, lichens, and mosses. Studies at 550 sites revealed that plant community composition was controlled by the interaction among biocrust type, disturbance regime, and external morphology of seeds. In bare soils (due to disturbance), all seed types were present in the seedbank and plant community. As biocrusts became better developed (i.e., the cover of lichens and mosses increased), they more strongly filtered out seeds with appendages. Thus, soils under late successional biocrusts contained seedbanks dominated by smooth seeds and vascular plants growing in late successional biocrusts were dominated by those with smooth seeds. Therefore, the tension between the removal of biocrusts by soil surface disturbance and their recovery creates a shifting mosaic of plant patch types in both space and time. Because changes in vascular plant communities reverberate throughout both below ground and above ground food webs and thus affect multiple trophic levels, we propose that biocrusts are a fundamental organizing agent in drylands worldwide. Future increased demand for resources will intensify land use both temporally and spatially, resulting in an increased rate of biocrust loss across larger areas. As a result, we can expect shifts in the composition and distribution of plant communities, accompanied by concomitant changes in many aspects of dryland ecosystems. Conceptual model of shifting dryland plant mosaics through space and time. Within the large circles, soil surface type changes with time in the same space, going from bare uncrusted soil (B) to cyanobacterial biocrust (C) to lichen/moss (L/M) biocrust. Disturbance (D) drives the

  5. Treatment of psoriasis with biologic agents in Malta

    OpenAIRE

    Mercieca, Liam; Boffa, Michael J.; Clark, Eileen; Scerri, Lawrence; Aquilina, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Biologic therapy has revolutionalised the treatment of moderate to severe psoriasis leading to improved clinical outcomes and quality of life scores. This study aims to determine current biologic use in psoriatic patients at our Dermatology department at Sir Paul Boffa hospital, Malta. Method: All patients who were administered biologic therapy for psoriasis in Malta until the end of 2014 were included. Data included demographic details, disease dur...

  6. Detection of biological particles in ambient air using Bio-Aerosol Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McJimpsey, E L; Steele, P T; Coffee, K R; Fergenson, D P; Riot, V J; Woods, B W; Gard, E E; Frank, M; Tobias, H J; Lebrilla, C

    2006-03-16

    The Bio-Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (BAMS) system is an instrument used for the real time detection and identification of biological aerosols. Particles are drawn from the atmosphere directly into vacuum and tracked as they scatter light from several continuous wave lasers. After tracking, the fluorescence of individual particles is excited by a pulsed 266nm or 355nm laser. Molecules from those particles with appropriate fluorescence properties are subsequently desorbed and ionized using a pulsed 266nm laser. Resulting ions are analyzed in a dual polarity mass spectrometer. During two field deployments at the San Francisco International Airport, millions of ambient particles were analyzed and a small but significant fraction were found to have fluorescent properties similar to Bacillus spores and vegetative cells. Further separation of non-biological background particles from potential biological particles was accomplished using laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry. This has been shown to enable some level of species differentiation in specific cases, but the creation and observation of higher mass ions is needed to enable a higher level of specificity across more species. A soft ionization technique, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) is being investigated for this purpose. MALDI is particularly well suited for mass analysis of biomolecules since it allows for the generation of molecular ions from large mass compounds that would fragment under normal irradiation. Some of the initial results from a modified BAMS system utilizing this technique are described.

  7. Detection of biological particles in ambient air using Bio-Aerosol Mass Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Bio-Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (BAMS) system is an instrument used for the real time detection and identification of biological aerosols. Particles are drawn from the atmosphere directly into vacuum and tracked as they scatter light from several continuous wave lasers. After tracking, the fluorescence of individual particles is excited by a pulsed 266nm or 355nm laser. Molecules from those particles with appropriate fluorescence properties are subsequently desorbed and ionized using a pulsed 266nm laser. Resulting ions are analyzed in a dual polarity mass spectrometer. During two field deployments at the San Francisco International Airport, millions of ambient particles were analyzed and a small but significant fraction were found to have fluorescent properties similar to Bacillus spores and vegetative cells. Further separation of non-biological background particles from potential biological particles was accomplished using laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry. This has been shown to enable some level of species differentiation in specific cases, but the creation and observation of higher mass ions is needed to enable a higher level of specificity across more species. A soft ionization technique, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) is being investigated for this purpose. MALDI is particularly well suited for mass analysis of biomolecules since it allows for the generation of molecular ions from large mass compounds that would fragment under normal irradiation. Some of the initial results from a modified BAMS system utilizing this technique are described

  8. Mass-spectrometric identification of primary biological particle markers: indication for low abundance of primary biological material in the pristine submicron aerosol of Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Schneider

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The abundance of marker compounds for primary biological particles in submicron aerosol was investigated by means of aerosol mass spectrometry. Mass spectra of amino acids, carbohydrates, small peptides, and proteins, all of which are key building blocks of biological particles, were recorded in laboratory experiments. Several characteristic marker peaks were identified. The identified marker peaks were compared with mass spectra recorded during AMAZE-08, a field campaign conducted in the pristine rainforest of the Central Amazon Basin, Brazil, during the wet season of February and March 2008. The low abundance of identified marker peaks places upper limits of 7.5 % for amino acids and 5.6 % for carbohydrates on the contribution of primary biological aerosol particles (PBAPs to the submicron organic aerosol mass concentration during this time period. Upper limits for the absolute submicron concentrations for both compound classes range from 0.01 to 0.1 μg m−3. Carbohydrates and protein amino acids make up for about two thirds of the dry mass of a biological cell. Thus, our findings suggest an upper limit for the PBAPs mass fraction of about 20 % to the submicron organic aerosol.

  9. 75 FR 39437 - Optimizing the Security of Biological Select Agents and Toxins in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... appropriate practices for physical security and cyber security for facilities that possess Tier 1 agents. The..., 2010. [FR Doc. 2010-16864 Filed 7-7-10; 11:15 am] Billing code 3195-W0-P ... Executive Order 13546--Optimizing the Security of Biological Select Agents and Toxins in the United...

  10. 75 FR 28232 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for a Biological Control Agent for Hemlock Woolly...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-20

    ... Control Agent for Hemlock Woolly Adelgid AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION... Plant Health Inspection Service has prepared an environmental assessment relative to the control of... a biological control agent to reduce the severity of hemlock woolly adelgid infestations. We...

  11. 77 FR 46373 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for a Biological Control Agent for Hemlock Woolly...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    ... Control Agent for Hemlock Woolly Adelgid AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION... prepared an environmental assessment relative to the release of Symnus coniferarum to control hemlock... of Symnus coniferarum into the eastern United States for use as a biological control agent to...

  12. Biological agents with potential for misuse: a historical perspective and defensive measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological and chemical agents capable of producing serious illness or mortality have been used in biowarfare from ancient times. Use of these agents has progressed from crude forms in early and middle ages, when snakes and infected cadavers were used as weapons in battles, to sophisticated preparations for use during and after the second World War. Cults and terrorist organizations have attempted the use of biological agents with an aim to immobilize populations or cause serious harm. The reasons for interest in these agents by individuals and organizations include relative ease of acquisition, potential for causing mass casualty or panic, modest financing requirement, availability of technology, and relative ease of delivery. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has classified Critical Biological Agents into three major categories. This classification was based on several criteria, which include severity of impact on human health, potential for delivery in a weapon, capacity to cause panic and special needs for development, and stockpiling of medication. Agents that could cause the greatest harm following deliberate use were placed in category A. Category B included agents capable of producing serious harm and significant mortality but of lower magnitude than category A agents. Category C included emerging pathogens that could be developed for mass dispersion in future and their potential as a major health threat. A brief description of the category A bioagents is included and the pathophysiology of two particularly prominent agents, namely anthrax and smallpox, is discussed in detail. The potential danger from biological agents and their ever increasing threat to human populations have created a need for developing technologies for their early detection, for developing treatment strategies, and for refinement of procedures to ensure survival of affected individuals so as to attain the ultimate goal of eliminating the threat from intentional use of

  13. Anti-tick biological control agents: assessment and future perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samish, M., H.; Ginsberg, H.S.; Glazer, I.

    2008-01-01

    Widespread and increasing resistance to most available acaracides threatens both global livestock industries and public health. This necessitates better understanding of ticks and the diseases they transmit in the development of new control strategies. Ticks: Biology, Disease and Control is written by an international collection of experts and covers in-depth information on aspects of the biology of the ticks themselves, various veterinary and medical tick-borne pathogens, and aspects of traditional and potential new control methods. A valuable resource for graduate students, academic researchers and professionals, the book covers the whole gamut of ticks and tick-borne diseases from microsatellites to satellite imagery and from exploiting tick saliva for therapeutic drugs to developing drugs to control tick populations. It encompasses the variety of interconnected fields impinging on the economically important and biologically fascinating phenomenon of ticks, the diseases they transmit and methods of their control.

  14. Probiotic Bacteria as Biological Control Agents in Aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    Verschuere, L.; Rombaut, G.; Sorgeloos, P.; Verstraete, W.

    2000-01-01

    There is an urgent need in aquaculture to develop microbial control strategies, since disease outbreaks are recognized as important constraints to aquaculture production and trade and since the development of antibiotic resistance has become a matter of growing concern. One of the alternatives to antimicrobials in disease control could be the use of probiotic bacteria as microbial control agents. This review describes the state of the art of probiotic research in the culture of fish, crustace...

  15. Biological agents and biosimilars: Essential information for the internist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasina, Luca; Casadei, Gianluigi; Nobili, Alessandro

    2016-09-01

    Biologics embrace a wide range of substances synthesized by cells or living organisms by means of different biological processes, including recombinant DNA technology, controlled gene expression, or antibody technologies. A biosimilar establishes similarity to the reference medicinal product in terms of quality characteristics, biological activity, safety, and efficacy based on a comprehensive comparability exercise. Minimizing development costs and accelerating their market access create a convergence of interests between health services, worried about sustainability, and generic manufacturers. While the demonstration of bioequivalence is sufficient for small synthetic molecules, this approach is not scientifically applicable to a copy of biological drug constituted by large and complex molecules, which are similar but not identical to the originator and are also subject to different post-translational processes. Internists should be confident that the development process of biosimilars ensures a comparable risk-to-benefit balance with the originators. On the basis of available evidence and pharmacovigilance network, there are no grounds to believe that the use of a biosimilar carries more risks for the patient than the use of an originator. Since the first biosimilar was authorized in Europe in 2006, no clinical alerts have raised red flags about the established EMA biosimilar pathway. In this article, we discuss some of the most frequent concerns raised by clinicians about biosimilars and try to explains the scientific principles underlying the biosimilar concept established in the EU in order to license biosimilar drugs. PMID:27342030

  16. Evaluation of hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis methods for discrimination of primary biological aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Crawford

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present improved methods for discriminating and quantifying primary biological aerosol particles (PBAPs by applying hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis to multi-parameter ultraviolet-light-induced fluorescence (UV-LIF spectrometer data. The methods employed in this study can be applied to data sets in excess of 1 × 106 points on a desktop computer, allowing for each fluorescent particle in a data set to be explicitly clustered. This reduces the potential for misattribution found in subsampling and comparative attribution methods used in previous approaches, improving our capacity to discriminate and quantify PBAP meta-classes. We evaluate the performance of several hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis linkages and data normalisation methods using laboratory samples of known particle types and an ambient data set. Fluorescent and non-fluorescent polystyrene latex spheres were sampled with a Wideband Integrated Bioaerosol Spectrometer (WIBS-4 where the optical size, asymmetry factor and fluorescent measurements were used as inputs to the analysis package. It was found that the Ward linkage with z-score or range normalisation performed best, correctly attributing 98 and 98.1 % of the data points respectively. The best-performing methods were applied to the BEACHON-RoMBAS (Bio–hydro–atmosphere interactions of Energy, Aerosols, Carbon, H2O, Organics and Nitrogen–Rocky Mountain Biogenic Aerosol Study ambient data set, where it was found that the z-score and range normalisation methods yield similar results, with each method producing clusters representative of fungal spores and bacterial aerosol, consistent with previous results. The z-score result was compared to clusters generated with previous approaches (WIBS AnalysiS Program, WASP where we observe that the subsampling and comparative attribution method employed by WASP results in the overestimation of the fungal spore concentration by a factor of 1.5 and the

  17. Evaluation of hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis methods for discrimination of primary biological aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, I.; Ruske, S.; Topping, D. O.; Gallagher, M. W.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper we present improved methods for discriminating and quantifying primary biological aerosol particles (PBAPs) by applying hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis to multi-parameter ultraviolet-light-induced fluorescence (UV-LIF) spectrometer data. The methods employed in this study can be applied to data sets in excess of 1 × 106 points on a desktop computer, allowing for each fluorescent particle in a data set to be explicitly clustered. This reduces the potential for misattribution found in subsampling and comparative attribution methods used in previous approaches, improving our capacity to discriminate and quantify PBAP meta-classes. We evaluate the performance of several hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis linkages and data normalisation methods using laboratory samples of known particle types and an ambient data set. Fluorescent and non-fluorescent polystyrene latex spheres were sampled with a Wideband Integrated Bioaerosol Spectrometer (WIBS-4) where the optical size, asymmetry factor and fluorescent measurements were used as inputs to the analysis package. It was found that the Ward linkage with z-score or range normalisation performed best, correctly attributing 98 and 98.1 % of the data points respectively. The best-performing methods were applied to the BEACHON-RoMBAS (Bio-hydro-atmosphere interactions of Energy, Aerosols, Carbon, H2O, Organics and Nitrogen-Rocky Mountain Biogenic Aerosol Study) ambient data set, where it was found that the z-score and range normalisation methods yield similar results, with each method producing clusters representative of fungal spores and bacterial aerosol, consistent with previous results. The z-score result was compared to clusters generated with previous approaches (WIBS AnalysiS Program, WASP) where we observe that the subsampling and comparative attribution method employed by WASP results in the overestimation of the fungal spore concentration by a factor of 1.5 and the underestimation of

  18. Agent-based Models in Synthetic Biology: Tools for Simulation and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.V.Krishnamurthy

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe a multiset of agents based modeling and simulation paradigm for synthetic biology. The multiset of agents –based programming paradigm, can be interpreted as the outcome arising out of deterministic, nondeterministic or stochastic interaction among elements in a multiset object space, that includes the environment. These interactions are like chemical reactions and the evolution of the multiset can emulate the system biological functions. Since the reaction rules are inherently parallel, any number of actions can be performed cooperatively or competitively among the subsets of elements, so that the elements evolve toward equilibrium or emergent state. Practical realization of this paradigm for system biological simulation is achieved through the concept of transactional style programming with agents, as well as soft computing (neural- network principles. Also we briefly describe currently available tools for agent-based-modeling, simulation and animation.

  19. Biologically hazardous agents at work and efforts to protect workers' health: a review of recent reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rim, Kyung-Taek; Lim, Cheol-Hong

    2014-06-01

    Because information on biological agents in the workplace is lacking, biological hazard analyses at the workplace to securely recognize the harmful factors with biological basis are desperately needed. This review concentrates on literatures published after 2010 that attempted to detect biological hazards to humans, especially workers, and the efforts to protect them against these factors. It is important to improve the current understanding of the health hazards caused by biological factors at the workplace. In addition, this review briefly describes these factors and provides some examples of their adverse health effects. It also reviews risk assessments, protection with personal protective equipment, prevention with training of workers, regulations, as well as vaccinations. PMID:25180133

  20. A short history of anti-rheumatic therapy - VII. Biological agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gatto

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of biological agents has been a major turning-point in the treatment of rheumatic diseases, particularly in rheumatoid arthritis. This review describes the principle milestones that have led, through the knowledge of the structure and functions of nucleic acids, to the development of production techniques of the three major families of biological agents: proteins, monoclonal antibodies and fusion proteins. A brief history has also been traced of the cytokines most involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory rheumatic diseases (IL-1 and TNF and the steps which have led to the use of the main biological drugs in rheumatology: anakinra, infliximab, adalimumab, etanercept and rituximab.

  1. Multispectral analysis of biological agents to implement a quick tool for stand-off biological detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carestia, M.; Pizzoferrato, R.; Lungaroni, M.; Gabriele, J.; Ludovici, G. M.; Cenciarelli, O.; Gelfusa, M.; Murari, A.; Malizia, A.; Gaudio, P.

    2015-10-01

    With the aim of identifying an approach to exploit the differences in the fluorescence signatures of biological agents BAs, we have investigated the response of some BAs simulants to a set of different excitation wavelengths in the UV spectral range (i.e. 266, 273, 280, 300, 340, 355 nm). Our preliminary results on bacterial spores and vegetative forms, dispersed in water, showed that the differences in the fluorescence spectra can be enhanced, and more easily revealed, by using different excitation wavelengths. Specifically, the photo luminescence (PL) spectra coming from different species of Bacillus, in the form of spores (used as simulants of Bacillus anthracis), show significant differences under excitation at all the wavelengths, with slightly larger differences at 300, 340, 355 nm. On the other hand, the vegetative forms of two Bacillus species, did not show any appreciable difference, i.e. the PL spectra are virtually identical, for the excitation wavelengths of 266, 273, 280 nm. Conversely, small yet appreciable difference appear at 300, 340, 355 nm. Finally, large difference appear between the spore and the vegetative form of each species at all the wavelengths, with slightly larger variations at 300, 340, 355 nm. Together, these preliminary results support the hypothesis that a multi-wavelength approach could be used to improve the sensitivity and specificity of UV-LIF based BAs detection systems. The second step of this work concerns the application of a Support Vector Regression (SVR) method, as evaluated in our previous work to define a methodology for the setup of a multispectral database for the stand-off detection of BAs.

  2. Fluorescent biological aerosol particles (FBAPs) measured with the Waveband Integrated Bioaerosol Sensor WIBS-4: laboratory tests combined with a one year field study

    OpenAIRE

    Toprak, E.; Schnaiter, M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper bioaerosol measurements conducted with the Waveband Integrated Bioaerosol Sensor mark 4 (WIBS-4) are presented. The measurements comprise aerosol chamber characterization experiments and a one-year ambient measurement period at a semi-rural site in South Western Germany. This study aims to investigate the sensitivity of WIBS-4 to biological and non-biological aerosols, performance of WIBS-4 for discrimination of several types of aerosols, and the detection and identificat...

  3. Observations of fluorescent and biological aerosol at a high-altitude site in central France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Gabey

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Total bacteria, fungal spore and yeast counts were compared with ultraviolet-light-induced fluorescence (UV-LIF measurements of ambient aerosol at the summit of the Puy de Dôme (PdD mountain in central France (1465 m a.s.l, which represents a background elevated site. Bacteria, fungal spores and yeast were enumerated by epifluorescence microscopy (EFM and found to number 2.2 to 23 L−1 and 0.8 to 2 L−1, respectively. Bacteria counts on two successive nights were an order of magnitude larger than in the intervening day. A wide issue bioaerosol spectrometer, version 3 (WIBS-3 was used to perform UV-LIF measurements on ambient aerosol sized 0.8 to 20 μm. Mean total number concentration was 270 L−1 (σ = 66 L−1, found predominantly in a size mode at 2 μm for most of the campaign. Total concentration (fluorescent + non-fluorescent aerosol peaked at 500 L−1 with a size mode at 1 μm because of a change in air mass origin lasting around 48 h. The WIBS-3 features two excitation and fluorescence detection wavelengths corresponding to different biological molecules, although non-biological interferents also contribute. The mean fluorescent particle concentration after short-wave (280 nm; associated with tryptophan excitation was 12 L−1 (σ = 6 L−1, and did not vary much throughout the campaign. In contrast, the mean concentration of particles fluorescent after long-wave (370 nm; associated with NADH excitation was 95 L−1 (σ = 25 L−1, and a nightly rise and subsequent fall of up to 100 L−1 formed a strong diurnal cycle in the latter. The two fluorescent populations exhibited size modes at 3 μm and 2 to 3 μm, respectively. A hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis algorithm was applied to the data and used to extract different particle factors. A cluster concentration time series representative of bacteria was identified. This was found to exhibit a diurnal cycle with a maximum peak appearing during the day. Analysis of organic

  4. Terahertz signatures of biological-warfare-agent simulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Globus, Tatiana; Woolard, Dwight L.; Khromova, Tatyana; Partasarathy, Ramakrishnan; Majewski, Alexander; Abreu, Rene; Hesler, Jeffrey L.; Pan, Shing-Kuo; Ediss, Geoff

    2004-09-01

    This work presents spectroscopic characterization results for biological simulant materials measured in the terahertz gap. Signature data have been collected between 3 cm-1 and 10 cm-1 for toxin Ovalbumin, bacteria Erwinia herbicola, Bacillus Subtilis lyophilized cells and RNA MS2 phage, BioGene. Measurements were conducted on a modified Bruker FTIR spectrometer equipped with the noise source developed in the NRAL. The noise source provides two orders of magnitude higher power in comparison with a conventional mercury lamp. Photometric characterization of the instrument performance demonstrates that the expected error for sample characterization inside the interval from 3 to 9.5 cm-1 is less then 1%.

  5. Integrative biological studies of anti-tumour agents

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, L. A.

    2009-01-01

    3, 11-difluoro-6, 8, 13-trimethyl-8H- quino [4, 3, 2-kl] acridinium methosulfate (RHPS4) is a member of a series of pentacyclic acridines developed at the University of Nottingham, which bind to, and stabilise the structure of G-quadruplex DNA and inhibit the action of telomerase at sub-micromolar concentrations in the cell free TRAP assay and limit cancer cell growth therefore leading to the conclusion that RHPS4 has potential anti-tumour activity. Previous biological studies, however, have...

  6. Naphthoflavones as Antiproliferative Agents: Design, Synthesis and Biological Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dinesh; Singh, Onkar; Nepali, Kunal; Bedi, Pms; Qayum, Arem; Singh, Shashank; Jain, Subheet K

    2016-01-01

    The present study involves the design and synthesis of naphthoflavones as antiproliferative agents. The strategy presents naphthoflavones as hybrids of naphthyl based chalcones and flavones. A panel of human cancer cell lines were employed for the cytotoxicity studies. DK-13 exhibited significant cytoxicity against MiaPaCa-2 cell lines with IC50 value of 1.93 μM and 5.63 μM against MCF-7 cell lines. The compound DK-13 was found to induce apoptosis evidenced through phase contrast microscopy, DAPI staining, and mitochondrial membrane potential loss. The cell phase distribution studies indicated an increase from 11.26 % (control sample) to 55.19 % (sample treated with 20 μM compound DK-13) in the apoptotic population. PMID:26845133

  7. A Bayesian Dose-finding Design for Oncology Clinical Trials of Combinational Biological Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Chunyan; Yuan, Ying; Ji, Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Treating patients with novel biological agents is becoming a leading trend in oncology. Unlike cytotoxic agents, for which efficacy and toxicity monotonically increase with dose, biological agents may exhibit non-monotonic patterns in their dose-response relationships. Using a trial with two biological agents as an example, we propose a dose-finding design to identify the biologically optimal dose combination (BODC), which is defined as the dose combination of the two agents with the highest efficacy and tolerable toxicity. A change-point model is used to reflect the fact that the dose-toxicity surface of the combinational agents may plateau at higher dose levels, and a flexible logistic model is proposed to accommodate the possible non-monotonic pattern for the dose-efficacy relationship. During the trial, we continuously update the posterior estimates of toxicity and efficacy and assign patients to the most appropriate dose combination. We propose a novel dose-finding algorithm to encourage sufficient exploration of untried dose combinations in the two-dimensional space. Extensive simulation studies show that the proposed design has desirable operating characteristics in identifying the BODC under various patterns of dose-toxicity and dose-efficacy relationships. PMID:24511160

  8. The use contrast agent for imaging biological samples

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dammer, J.; Weyda, František; Sopko, V.; Jakůbek, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 6, C01096 (2011), s. 1-7. ISSN 1748-0221. [International Workshop on Radiation Imaging Detectors /12./. Cambridge, 11.07.2010-15.7.2010] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06005 Grant ostatní: Research Program(CZ) 6840770029; Research Program(CZ) 6840770040; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA600550614; GA MŠk(CZ) 2B06007; GA MŠk(CZ) 1PO4LA211; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06041 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : x-ray radiography and digital radiography (DR) * x-ray detectors * inspections with x-rays Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 1.869, year: 2011

  9. Probiotic bacteria as biological control agents in aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschuere, L; Rombaut, G; Sorgeloos, P; Verstraete, W

    2000-12-01

    There is an urgent need in aquaculture to develop microbial control strategies, since disease outbreaks are recognized as important constraints to aquaculture production and trade and since the development of antibiotic resistance has become a matter of growing concern. One of the alternatives to antimicrobials in disease control could be the use of probiotic bacteria as microbial control agents. This review describes the state of the art of probiotic research in the culture of fish, crustaceans, mollusks, and live food, with an evaluation of the results obtained so far. A new definition of probiotics, also applicable to aquatic environments, is proposed, and a detailed description is given of their possible modes of action, i.e., production of compounds that are inhibitory toward pathogens, competition with harmful microorganisms for nutrients and energy, competition with deleterious species for adhesion sites, enhancement of the immune response of the animal, improvement of water quality, and interaction with phytoplankton. A rationale is proposed for the multistep and multidisciplinary process required for the development of effective and safe probiotics for commercial application in aquaculture. Finally, directions for further research are discussed. PMID:11104813

  10. Regional-scale simulations of fungal spore aerosols using an emission parameterization adapted to local measurements of fluorescent biological aerosol particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hummel

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Fungal spores as a prominent type of primary biological aerosol particles (PBAP have been incorporated into the COSMO-ART regional atmospheric model, using and comparing three different emission parameterizations. Two literature-based emission rates derived from fungal spore colony counts and chemical tracer measurements were used as a parameterization baseline for this study. A third, new emission parameterization was adapted to field measurements of fluorescent biological aerosol particles (FBAP from four locations across Northern Europe. FBAP concentrations can be regarded as a lower estimate of total PBAP concentrations. Size distributions of FBAP often show a distinct mode at approx. 3 μm, corresponding to a diameter range characteristic for many fungal spores. Previous studies have suggested the majority of FBAP in several locations are dominated by fungal spores. Thus, we suggest that simulated fungal spore concentrations obtained from the emission parameterizations can be compared to the sum of total FBAP concentrations. A comparison reveals that parameterized estimates of fungal spore concentrations based on literature numbers underestimate measured FBAP concentrations. In agreement with measurement data, the model results show a diurnal cycle in simulated fungal spore concentrations, which may develop partially as a consequence of a varying boundary layer height between day and night. Measured FBAP and simulated fungal spore concentrations also correlate similarly with simulated temperature and humidity. These meteorological variables, together with leaf area index, were chosen to drive the new emission parameterization discussed here. Using the new emission parameterization on a model domain covering Western Europe, fungal spores in the lowest model layer comprise a fraction of 15% of the total aerosol mass over land and reach average number concentrations of 26 L−1. The results confirm that fungal spores and biological particles

  11. Observations of fluorescent and biological aerosol at a high-altitude site in Central France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Gabey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Total bacteria, fungal spore and yeast counts were compared with UV Light-Induced Fluorescence (UV-LIF measurements of ambient aerosol at the summit of the Puy de Dôme (pdD mountain in Central France (1465 m a.s.l, which represents a background elevated site. Bacteria, fungal spores and yeast were enumerated by epifluorescence microscopy (EFM and found to number 2.2 to 23 L−1 and 0.8 to 2 L−1, respectively. Bacteria counts on two successive nights were an order of magnitude larger than in the intervening day.

    A Wide Issue Bioaerosol Spectrometer, version 3 (WIBS-3 was used to perform UV-LIF measurements on ambient aerosol sized 0.8 to 20 μm. Mean total number concentration was 270 L−1 (σ = 66 L−1 found predominantly in a size mode at 2 μm for most of the campaign. Total concentration (fluorescent + non-fluorescent aerosol peaked at 500 L−1 with a size mode at 1 μm because of a change in air mass origin lasting around 48 h. The WIBS-3 features two excitation and fluorescence detection wavelengths corresponding to different biological molecules. The mean fluorescent particle concentration after short-wave (280 nm; Tryptophan excitation was 12 L−1 (σ = 6 L−1, and did not vary much through the campaign. In contrast the mean concentration of particles fluorescent after long-wave (370 nm; NADH excitation was 95 L−1 (σ = 25 L−1, and a nightly rise and subsequent fall of up to 100 L−1 formed a strong diurnal cycle in the latter. The fluorescent populations exhibited size modes at 3 μm and 2 to 3 μm, respectively. A hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis algorithm was applied to the data and used to extract different particle factors. A cluster concentration time series representative of bacteria was identified. This was found to exhibit a diurnal cycle with a maximum peak appearing during the day.

  12. Control of Lymantria dispar L. by biological agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGGuo-cai; WANGYue-jie; YANGXiao-guang

    2005-01-01

    The experiment on control of Lymantria dispar L by using different kinds of biological measures, including nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV) of Lymantria dispar L., BtMP-342, sex-attractant as well as botanical insecticide, was carried out in the forest regions of Inner Mongolia in 2003. Two concentrations (2.632×106 PIB·ml-1 and 2.632×107 PIB·ml-1) of Lymantria dispar L. NPV were sprayed on the 2rd-instar-larvae of L. dispar and 70% and 77.8% control effect were obtained respectively. BtMP0-342 was applied to the 3rd- and 4th-instar larvae and the control effect was around 80%. The sex-attractant provided by Canada Pacific Forestry Research Center also showed a good result in trapping L. dispar adults. The self-produced botanical insecticide, which was extracted from a kind of poisonous plant distributed in Daxing'an Mountains, China, exhibited a good control result in controlling the larvae of L. dispar, and 82% mortality was observed when spraying primary liquid of the botanical insecticide on the 3rd-5th-instar-larvae in lab.

  13. Studies of biological aerosols as ice nuclei: Existing constraints and new measurements (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demott, P. J.; Prenni, A. J.; Georgakopoulos, D. G.; Franc, G. D.; Sullivan, R. C.; Kreidenweis, S. M.

    2009-12-01

    The sources, abundance and nature of atmospheric particles that serve as ice nuclei (IN) for cold cloud formation remain some of the most important, yet poorly-characterized, features of aerosol-cloud interactions that indirectly affect climate. Although much is known about mineral dusts as important sources of atmospheric IN, much less is known about various carbonaceous particles, which also make up a significant fraction of atmospheric IN based on past elemental composition measurements. Among carbonaceous IN and other known atmospheric IN, certain biological particles (bacteria with a known IN gene) are the most efficient ice nucleators. These bacteria are highly efficient at freezing water at just a few degrees below 0°C. This characteristic has raised the possibility that these and other biological particles may represent a population in the atmosphere that influences mixed-phase clouds, precipitation and climate in important and dynamic ways. Significant, enigmatic, questions are the activation properties, source strengths, and number concentrations (and their variability) of all biological ice nuclei in cold cloud regions of the free troposphere. In this presentation we describe constraints on the contribution of biological particles to atmospheric IN populations based on our existing IN measurements, and based on measurements of specific known biological IN in air and precipitation made by other groups. Then we describe new measurement efforts targeted toward identification of the proportion of active IN as a function of temperature below 0°C that are of biological origin, using an ice nucleation instrument to activate and measure total IN concentrations, collection of activated particles, and analyses of the IN using the same DNA analyses used for identifying biological particles and biological IN types in total air and precipitation samples. This new method permits direct quantification of the number concentrations of biological IN. Our first studies

  14. Agentes Biológicos en el tratamiento de la Artritis Reumatoide Biological Agents in the Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Francisco Díaz-Coto

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available El mayor conocimiento inmuno-patológico de la artritis reumatoide permitió mediante una sofisticada tecnología molecular elaborar antagonistas contra blancos específicos en diversos pasos de la inmuno patogenia de la enfermedad. Existe una amplia evidencia sobre la eficacia, tolerabilidad y seguridad de estos agentes en diferentes escenarios clínicos de la artritis reumatoide. La introducción de estos agentes biológicos en el arsenal terapéutico de la artritis reumatoide ha marcado un hito en su evolución y pronóstico artritis reumatoide.A better understanding of the immuno-pathological rheumatoid arthritis enabled by sophisticated molecular technology to develop antagonists against specific targets in various steps of the immune pathogenesis of the disease. There is ample evidence on the efficacy, tolerability and safety of these agents in different clinical scenarios of rheumatoid arthritis. The introduction of biological agents in the armamentarium of rheumatoid arthritis has marked a milestone in its evolution and prognosis rheumatoid arthritis.

  15. The R.A.P.I.D. System – Rapid Response in Detection of Biological Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Taleski, Vaso; Hafield, Ted

    2006-01-01

    Biological agents (BA) today present the greatest danger of all weapons of mass destruction. A belief that terrorist organizations, groups or individuals, or state sponsored armies, will use this type of weapon, has never been greater, especially after the intentional distribution of anthrax spores through the USA mail delivery system. Different problems during initial stages of biological attack arising from variety and number of clinical and environmental samples, costs, preparedness an...

  16. Physicochemical and biological study of a renal scintigraphy agent: the DMSA - 99mTc complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research thesis deals with the study of the dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) marked with 99mTc, a recently developed scintigraphy agent used for the kidney isotopic exploration. The author notably studied the relationships between the physicochemical properties of solutions of dimercaptosuccinic acid marked with 99mTc and the biological distribution of 99mTc in order to reach a better understanding of the biological mechanism which results in technetium fixation to the kidney

  17. Chamber bioaerosol study: human emissions of size-resolved fluorescent biological aerosol particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhangar, S; Adams, R I; Pasut, W; Huffman, J A; Arens, E A; Taylor, J W; Bruns, T D; Nazaroff, W W

    2016-04-01

    Humans are a prominent source of airborne biological particles in occupied indoor spaces, but few studies have quantified human bioaerosol emissions. The chamber investigation reported here employs a fluorescence-based technique to evaluate bioaerosols with high temporal and particle size resolution. In a 75-m(3) chamber, occupant emission rates of coarse (2.5-10 μm) fluorescent biological aerosol particles (FBAPs) under seated, simulated office-work conditions averaged 0.9 ± 0.3 million particles per person-h. Walking was associated with a 5-6× increase in the emission rate. During both walking and sitting, 60-70% or more of emissions originated from the floor. The increase in emissions during walking (vs. while sitting) was mainly attributable to release of particles from the floor; the associated increased vigor of upper body movements also contributed. Clothing, or its frictional interaction with human skin, was demonstrated to be a source of coarse particles, and especially of the highly fluorescent fraction. Emission rates of FBAPs previously reported for lecture classes were well bounded by the experimental results obtained in this chamber study. In both settings, the size distribution of occupant FBAP emissions had a dominant mode in the 3-5 μm diameter range. PMID:25704637

  18. Update on the use of systemic biologic agents in the treatment of noninfectious uveitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasadhika S

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Sirichai Pasadhika,1 James T Rosenbaum2 1Department of Ophthalmology, Southern Arizona Veterans Administration Health Care System, Tucson, AZ, USA; 2Legacy Devers Eye Institute, Portland, OR, USA Abstract: Uveitis is one of the leading causes of blindness worldwide. Noninfectious uveitis may be associated with other systemic conditions, such as human leukocyte antigen B27-related spondyloarthropathies, inflammatory bowel disease, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, Behçet's disease, and sarcoidosis. Conventional therapy with corticosteroids and immunosuppressive agents (such as methotrexate, azathioprine, mycophenolate mofetil, and cyclosporine may not be sufficient to control ocular inflammation or prevent non-ophthalmic complications in refractory patients. Off-label use of biologic response modifiers has been studied as primary and secondary therapeutic agents. They are very useful when conventional immunosuppressive therapy has failed or has been poorly tolerated, or to treat concomitant ophthalmic and systemic inflammation that might benefit from these medications. Biologic therapy, primarily infliximab, and adalimumab, have been shown to be rapidly effective for the treatment of various subtypes of refractory uveitis and retinal vasculitis, especially Behçet's disease-related eye conditions and the uveitis associated with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Other agents such as golimumab, abatacept, canakinumab, gevokizumab, tocilizumab, and alemtuzumab may have great future promise for the treatment of uveitis. It has been shown that with proper monitoring, biologic therapy can significantly improve quality of life in patients with uveitis, particularly those with concurrent systemic symptoms. However, given high cost as well as the limited long-term safety data, we do not routinely recommend biologics as first-line therapy for noninfectious uveitis in most patients. These agents should be used with caution by experienced clinicians. The present

  19. Evaluation of hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis methods for discrimination of primary biological aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Crawford

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present improved methods for discriminating and quantifying Primary Biological Aerosol Particles (PBAP by applying hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis to multi-parameter ultra violet-light induced fluorescence (UV-LIF spectrometer data. The methods employed in this study can be applied to data sets in excess of 1×106 points on a desktop computer, allowing for each fluorescent particle in a dataset to be explicitly clustered. This reduces the potential for misattribution found in subsampling and comparative attribution methods used in previous approaches, improving our capacity to discriminate and quantify PBAP meta-classes. We evaluate the performance of several hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis linkages and data normalisation methods using laboratory samples of known particle types and an ambient dataset. Fluorescent and non-fluorescent polystyrene latex spheres were sampled with a Wideband Integrated Bioaerosol Spectrometer (WIBS-4 where the optical size, asymmetry factor and fluorescent measurements were used as inputs to the analysis package. It was found that the Ward linkage with z-score or range normalisation performed best, correctly attributing 98 and 98.1 % of the data points respectively. The best performing methods were applied to the BEACHON-RoMBAS ambient dataset where it was found that the z-score and range normalisation methods yield similar results with each method producing clusters representative of fungal spores and bacterial aerosol, consistent with previous results. The z-score result was compared to clusters generated with previous approaches (WIBS AnalysiS Program, WASP where we observe that the subsampling and comparative attribution method employed by WASP results in the overestimation of the fungal spore concentration by a factor of 1.5 and the underestimation of bacterial aerosol concentration by a factor of 5. We suggest that this likely due to errors arising from misatrribution

  20. Rapid Detection of Biological and Chemical Threat Agents Using Physical Chemistry, Active Detection, and Computational Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Myung; Dong, Li; Fu, Rong; Liotta, Lance; Narayanan, Aarthi; Petricoin, Emanuel; Ross, Mark; Russo, Paul; Zhou, Weidong; Luchini, Alessandra; Manes, Nathan; Chertow, Jessica; Han, Suhua; Kidd, Jessica; Senina, Svetlana; Groves, Stephanie

    2007-01-01

    Basic technologies have been successfully developed within this project: rapid collection of aerosols and a rapid ultra-sensitive immunoassay technique. Water-soluble, humidity-resistant polyacrylamide nano-filters were shown to (1) capture aerosol particles as small as 20 nm, (2) work in humid air and (3) completely liberate their captured particles in an aqueous solution compatible with the immunoassay technique. The immunoassay technology developed within this project combines electrophoretic capture with magnetic bead detection. It allows detection of as few as 150-600 analyte molecules or viruses in only three minutes, something no other known method can duplicate. The technology can be used in a variety of applications where speed of analysis and/or extremely low detection limits are of great importance: in rapid analysis of donor blood for hepatitis, HIV and other blood-borne infections in emergency blood transfusions, in trace analysis of pollutants, or in search of biomarkers in biological fluids. Combined in a single device, the water-soluble filter and ultra-sensitive immunoassay technique may solve the problem of early warning type detection of aerosolized pathogens. These two technologies are protected with five patent applications and are ready for commercialization.

  1. Enhancement of biological control agents for use against forest insect pests and diseases through biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavicek, James M.

    1991-01-01

    Research and development efforts in our research group are focused on the generation of more efficacious biological control agents through the techniques of biotechnology for use against forest insect pests and diseases. Effective biological controls for the gypsy moth and for tree fungal wilt pathogens are under development. The successful use of Gypchek, a formulation of the Lymantria dispar nuclear polyhedrosis virus (LdNPV), in gypsy moth control programs has generated considerable interest in that agent. As a consequence of its specificity, LdPNV has negligible adverse ecological impacts compared to most gypsy moth control agents. However, LdNPV is not competitive with other control agents in terms of cost and efficacy. We are investigating several parameters of LdNPV replication and polyhedra production in order to enhance viral potency and efficacy thus mitigating the current disadvantages of LdNPV for gypsy moth control, and have identified LdNPV variants that will facilitate these efforts. Tree endophytic bacteria that synthesize antifungal compounds were identified and an antibiotic compound from one of these bacteria was characterized. The feasibility of developing tree endophytes as biological control agents for tree vascular fungal pathogens is being investigated.

  2. Risk assessment and stakeholder perceptions in novel biological control agent release: YST as a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of risk assessment are to learn about whether a candidate agent would be safe to use in the environment where release is planned, and to present such information in a clear, understandable format to regulators, stakeholders, and the public. Plant pathogens evaluated for biological co...

  3. Rheumatoid arthritis therapy with genetically engineered biological agents in the Republic of Karelia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Mikhailovna Marusenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers whether a current treatment option for rheumatoid arthritis with genetically engineered biological agents that selectively block the activity of individual proinflammatory mediators and cell surface antigens involved in autoimmune inflammation may be performed in Karelia, which can achieve control of the disease, retard its progression, and improve prognosis.

  4. Rheumatoid arthritis therapy with genetically engineered biological agents in the Republic of Karelia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Mikhailovna Marusenko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers whether a current treatment option for rheumatoid arthritis with genetically engineered biological agents that selectively block the activity of individual proinflammatory mediators and cell surface antigens involved in autoimmune inflammation may be performed in Karelia, which can achieve control of the disease, retard its progression, and improve prognosis.

  5. Rheumatoid arthritis therapy with genetically engineered biological agents in the Republic of Karelia

    OpenAIRE

    Irina Mikhailovna Marusenko

    2013-01-01

    The paper considers whether a current treatment option for rheumatoid arthritis with genetically engineered biological agents that selectively block the activity of individual proinflammatory mediators and cell surface antigens involved in autoimmune inflammation may be performed in Karelia, which can achieve control of the disease, retard its progression, and improve prognosis.

  6. Is 'class effect' relevant when assessing the benefit/risk profile of a biologic agent?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterry, W.; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de

    2012-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic, genetically predisposed skin disorder, characterised by thickened scaly plaques. Although no therapy is recognised as curative, therapies aimed at symptom control include biologic agents that are generally designed to block molecular activation of cellular pathways of a patho

  7. Trichogramma spp. as biological control agents in the Philippines: history and current practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trichogramma parasitoids have long been recognized as important and viable biological control agents against lepidopteran pests of rice, corn and sugarcane in the Philippines. We describe the history of research and use of Trichogramma spp. in the Philippines in three main areas: 1) field surveys – ...

  8. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) detection for chemical and biological agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fei; Stokes, David L.; Wabuyele, Musundi B.; Griffin, Guy D.; Vass, Arpad A.; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2004-07-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra of chemical agent simulants such as dimethyl methylphonate (DMMP), pinacolyl methylphosphonate (PMP), diethyl phosphoramidate (DEPA), and 2-chloroethyl ethylsulfide (CEES), and biological agent simulants such as bacillus globigii (BG), erwinia herbicola (EH), and bacillus thuringiensis (BT) were obtained from silver oxide film-deposited substrates. Thin AgO films ranging in thickness from 50 nm to 250 nm were produced by chemical bath deposition onto glass slides. Further Raman intensity enhancements were noticed in UV irradiated surfaces due to photo-induced Ag nanocluster formation, which may provide a possible route to producing highly useful plasmonic sensors for the detection of chemical and biological agents upon visible light illumination.

  9. Novel fluorescence-based integrated sensor for chemical and biological agent detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye-Mason, Greg; Leuschen, Martin; Wald, Lara; Paul, Kateri; Hancock, Lawrence F.; Fagan, Steve; Krouse, Justin; Hutchinson, Kira D.

    2004-12-01

    There is a renewed interest in the development of chemical and biological agent sensors due to the increased threat of weapons deployment by terrorist organizations and rogue states. Optically based sensors address the needs of military and homeland security forces in that they are reliable, rapidly deployed, and can provide continuous monitoring with little to no operator involvement. Nomadics has developed optically based chemical weapons sensors that utilize reactive fluorescent chromophores initially developed by Professor Tim Swager at MIT. The chromophores provide unprecedented sensitivity and selectivity toward toxic industrial chemicals and certain chemical weapon agents. The selectivity is based upon the reactivity of the G-class nerve agents (phosphorylation of acetylcholinesterase enzyme) that makes them toxic. Because the sensor recognizes the reactivity of strong electrophiles and not molecular weight, chemical affinity or ionizability, our system detects a specific class of reactive agents and will be able to detect newly developed or modified agents that are not currently known. We have recently extended this work to pursue a combined chemical/biological agent sensor system incorporating technologies based upon novel deep ultraviolet (UV) light emitting diodes (LEDs) developed out of the DARPA Semiconductor UV Optical Sources (SUVOS) program.

  10. Implications of Rheumatic Disease and Biological Response-Modifying Agents in Plastic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, David M; Borah, Gregory L

    2015-12-01

    The preoperative evaluation for any reconstructive or aesthetic procedure requires a detailed history of existing medical conditions and current home medications. The prevalence of rheumatic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, gout, and psoriasis is high, but the impact of these chronic illnesses on surgical outcome and the side effects of the powerful medications used for treatment are often underappreciated. In this review, the authors highlight key perioperative considerations specific to rheumatologic diseases and their associated pharmacologic therapies. In particular, the authors discuss the perioperative management of biological response-modifying agents, which have largely become the new standard of therapy for many rheumatic diseases. The literature reveals three key perioperative concerns with biological therapy for rheumatic disease: infection, wound healing delays, and disease flare. However, data on specific perioperative complications are lacking, and it remains controversial whether withholding biological therapy before surgery is of benefit. The risk of these adverse events is influenced by several factors: age, sex, class of biological agent, duration of exposure, dosage, onset and severity of disease, and type of surgical procedure. Overall, it remains best to develop an individualized plan. In younger patients with recent onset of biological therapy, it is reasonable to withhold therapy based on 3 to 5 half-lives of the specific agent. In older patients with a substantial history of rheumatic disease, the decision to discontinue therapy must be weighed and decided carefully in conjunction with the rheumatologist. PMID:26595025

  11. Portable Raman device for detection of chemical and biological warfare agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wabuyele, Musundi B.; Martin, Matthew E.; Yan, Fei; Stokes, David L.; Mobley, Joel; Cullum, Brian M.; Wintenberg, Alan; Lenarduzzi, Roberto; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2005-04-01

    This paper describes a compact, self-contained, cost effective, and portable Raman Integrated Tunable Sensor (RAMiTs) for screening a wide variety of chemical and biological agents for homeland defense applications. The instrument is a fully-integrated, tunable, "point-and-shoot" Raman monitor based on solid-state acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) technology. It can provide direct identification and quantitative analysis of chemical and biological samples in a few seconds under field conditions. It also consists of a 830-nm diode laser for excitation, and an avalanche photodiode for detection. Evaluation of this instrument has been performed by analyzing several standard samples and comparing the results those obtained using a conventional Raman system. In addition to system evaluation, this paper will also discuss potential applications of the RAMiTs for detection of chemical and biological warfare agents.

  12. Biological Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... LABOR UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Occupational Safety & Health Administration About OSHA A to Z Index Contact Us ... OF LABOR Career & Internships | Contact Us Occupational Safety & Health Administration 200 Constitution Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20210 800- ...

  13. Deposition and clearance of monodisperse aerosols in the calf lung: effects of particle size and a mucolytic agent (bromhexine)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, C P; Webster, A J

    1987-01-01

    Mucociliary clearance and retention of monodisperse aerosols of radiolabelled polystyrene particles of both 3.3 microns and 5 microns diameter were investigated in four healthy calves and two sick calves. The effect of the mucolytic agent bromhexine was also assessed at two dosage levels. There were significant differences (P less than 0.05) in clearance rate constant between calves, but similar patterns of clearance for each calf. These characteristics of mechanical lung clearance did not vary over a two month period. Values of clearance rate constant and percentage retention varied significantly (P less than 0.001) between the two different particle sizes, 5 microns particles giving faster clearance and lower retention of particles than 3.3 microns particles. Bromhexine at the recommended dose of 1.6 mg/kg 0.75 caused a significant (P less than 0.05) increase in clearance rate in both healthy and sick calves, but affected percentage retention only in sick calves. This study illustrates the variation in mucociliary clearance rates shown by individuals and also underlines the importance of particle size in aerosols used for studies of pulmonary deposition and clearance. The work also indicates that bromhexine may be of use in the therapy of respiratory disease in calves. PMID:3651885

  14. Environmental distribution and population biology of Candidatus Accumulibacter, a primary agent of Biological Phosphorus Removal

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, S. Brook; Warnecke, Falk; Madejska, Julita; McMahon, Katherine D.; Hugenholtz, Philip

    2008-01-01

    Members of the uncultured bacterial genus Candidatus Accumulibacter are capable of intracellular accumulation of inorganic phosphate (Pi) in activated sludge wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) performing enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR), but were also recently shown to inhabit freshwater and estuarine sediments. Additionally, metagenomic sequencing of two bioreactor cultures enriched in Candidatus Accumulibacter, but housed on separate continents, revealed the potential for glob...

  15. How psoriasis patients perceive, obtain, and use biologic agents: Survey from an academic medical center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamangar, Faranak; Isip, Leah; Bhutani, Tina; Dennis, Madison; Heller, Misha M; Lee, Eric S; Nie, Hong; Liao, Wilson

    2013-02-01

    The availability of new biologic agents for the treatment of psoriasis provides hope for improved quality of life outcomes. However, the way patients come to use biologics, the potential barriers they encounter, and their attitudes towards using these medications are still not well studied. Here, we conducted a survey of 106 psoriasis patients at an academic medical center to discern patient attitudes towards biologics. We found that most patients learn of biologics through their physician and perform follow-up research using the Internet. Most patients did not find it difficult to make the decision to start a biologic. Difficulty in obtaining biologics was associated with age less than 55 (p = 0.01), lower income level (p = 0.007), and lack of insurance (p = 0.04). Patients were found to have high satisfaction and compliance rates on biologics. Of patients who missed a dose of their biologic, this was mainly due to logistical reasons such as not having the medication or forgetting to take it, rather than being depressed or overwhelmed. Patients with lower income levels had increased cut backs in personal expenses due to co-payments (p = 0.001). Among respondents, the mean annual out-of-pocket expense for a biologic was $557.12 per year, with a range of $0-7000. PMID:22007699

  16. nab-Paclitaxel in combination with biologically targeted agents for early and metastatic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megerdichian, Christine; Olimpiadi, Yuliya; Hurvitz, Sara A

    2014-06-01

    Taxanes are highly active chemotherapeutic agents used in the treatment of early-stage and metastatic breast cancer. Novel formulations have been developed to improve efficacy and decrease toxicity associated with these cytotoxic agents. nab-Paclitaxel is a biologically interactive, solvent-free, 130-nm-sized albumin-bound paclitaxel, developed to avoid the Cremophor vehicle used in solvent-based paclitaxel. Based on a pivotal phase 3 study, nab-paclitaxel was shown to be safely infused at a significantly higher dose of paclitaxel than the doses used with standard paclitaxel therapy, and had a shorter infusion time, no premedication, and higher response rates. It is now approved in the United States for treatment of breast cancer after failure of combination chemotherapy for metastatic disease or relapse within 6 months of adjuvant therapy, and has demonstrated promising efficacy and favorable tolerability. Recently, several phase 2 and 3 studies have suggested a role for nab-paclitaxel in combination with biologically targeted agents for the treatment of early- and late-stage breast cancer. This review will discuss the findings of clinical trials evaluating nab-paclitaxel in combination with biologically targeted therapeutic agents for breast cancer in the neoadjuvant, adjuvant, and metastatic settings. PMID:24560997

  17. Biological effects in lung cells In vitro of exhaust aerosols from a gasoline passenger car with and without particle filter

    OpenAIRE

    Bisig, Christoph; Steiner, Sandro; Comte, Pierre; Czerwinski, Jan; Mayer, Andreas; Petri-Fink, Alke; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Exhaust aerosol from gasoline passenger cars is a complex mixture of a particulate fraction as well as volatile compounds. In contrary to the observed adverse effects of diesel exhaust particles the gasoline exhaust has, however, received little attention so far. The aim of this study was to perform a comparison of exhaust composition and biological responses from freshly produced non-filtered exhaust as well as from exhaust filtered with a noncoated gasoline particle filter (GPF). A 3D model...

  18. Population regulation of a classical biological control agent: larval density dependence in Neochetina eichhorniae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), a biological control agent of water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J R U; Rees, M; Ajuonu, O

    2006-04-01

    The release of classical biological control agents has reduced the economic, environmental and social problems caused by water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes; however, additional control measures are needed in some locations. Water hyacinth plants were treated with different densities of eggs of the weevil Neochetina eichhorniae Warner, one of the main control agents, under different nutrient regimes in a controlled experiment. Plants were destructively sampled and the development of N. eichhorniae was assessed. The survival of first and second instars declined as larval density increased. Plant nutrient status did not directly affect the mortality rate of larvae, but at higher nutrient concentrations larvae developed faster and were larger at a given developmental stage. It is argued that the density dependence operating in N. eichhorniae occurs through an interaction between young larvae and leaf longevity. Consequently, events which disrupt water hyacinth leaf dynamics, e.g. frost or foliar herbicides, will have a disproportionately large effect on the control agents and may reduce the level of control of the host. PMID:16556335

  19. Medical applications of nanoparticles in biological imaging, cell labeling, antimicrobial agents, and anticancer nanodrugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ravina; Nalwa, Hari Singh

    2011-08-01

    This article reviews the applications of nanotechnology in the fields of medical and life sciences. Nanoparticles have shown promising applications from diagnosis to treatment of various types of diseases including cancer. In this review, we discuss the applications of nanostructured materials such as nanoparticles, quantum dots, nanorods, nanowires, and carbon nanotubes in diagnostics, biomarkers, cell labeling, contrast agents for biological imaging, antimicrobial agents, drug delivery systems, and anticancer nanodrugs for treatment of cancer and other infectious diseases. The adverse affects of nanoparticles on human skin from daily use in cosmetics and general toxicology of nanoscale materials are also reviewed. PMID:21870454

  20. Fluorescent biological aerosol particles measured with the Waveband Integrated Bioaerosol Sensor WIBS-4: laboratory tests combined with a one year field study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Toprak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper bioaerosol measurements conducted with the Waveband Integrated Bioaerosol Sensor mark 4 (WIBS-4 are presented. The measurements comprise aerosol chamber characterization experiments and a one-year ambient measurement period at a semi-rural site in South Western Germany. This study aims to investigate the sensitivity of WIBS-4 to biological and non-biological aerosols and detection of biological particles in the ambient aerosol. Several types of biological and non-biological aerosol samples, including fungal spores, bacteria, mineral dust, ammonium sulphate, combustion soot, and fluorescent polystyrene spheres, were analyzed by WIBS-4 in the laboratory. The results confirm the sensitivity of the ultraviolet light-induced fluorescence (UV-LIF method to biological fluorophores and show the good discrimination capabilities of the two excitation wavelengths/detection wavebands method applied in WIBS-4. However, a weak cross-sensitivity to non-biological fluorescent interferers remains and is discussed in this paper.

    All the laboratory studies have been undertaken in order to prepare WIBS-4 for ambient aerosol measurements. According to the one-year ambient aerosol study, number concentration of fluorescent biological aerosol particles (FBAP show strong seasonal and diurnal variability. The highest number concentration of FBAP was measured during the summer term and decreased towards the winter period when colder and drier conditions prevail. Diurnal FBAP concentrations start to increase after sunset and reach maximum values during the late night and early morning hours. On the other hand, the total aerosol number concentration was almost always higher during daytime than during nighttime and a sharp decrease after sunset was observed. There was no correlation observed between the FBAP concentration and the meteorological parameters temperature, precipitation, wind direction and wind speed. However, a clear correlation was

  1. Fluorescent biological aerosol particles measured with the Waveband Integrated Bioaerosol Sensor WIBS-4: laboratory tests combined with a one year field study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toprak, E.; Schnaiter, M.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper bioaerosol measurements conducted with the Waveband Integrated Bioaerosol Sensor mark 4 (WIBS-4) are presented. The measurements comprise aerosol chamber characterization experiments and a one-year ambient measurement period at a semi-rural site in South Western Germany. This study aims to investigate the sensitivity of WIBS-4 to biological and non-biological aerosols and detection of biological particles in the ambient aerosol. Several types of biological and non-biological aerosol samples, including fungal spores, bacteria, mineral dust, ammonium sulphate, combustion soot, and fluorescent polystyrene spheres, were analyzed by WIBS-4 in the laboratory. The results confirm the sensitivity of the ultraviolet light-induced fluorescence (UV-LIF) method to biological fluorophores and show the good discrimination capabilities of the two excitation wavelengths/detection wavebands method applied in WIBS-4. However, a weak cross-sensitivity to non-biological fluorescent interferers remains and is discussed in this paper. All the laboratory studies have been undertaken in order to prepare WIBS-4 for ambient aerosol measurements. According to the one-year ambient aerosol study, number concentration of fluorescent biological aerosol particles (FBAP) show strong seasonal and diurnal variability. The highest number concentration of FBAP was measured during the summer term and decreased towards the winter period when colder and drier conditions prevail. Diurnal FBAP concentrations start to increase after sunset and reach maximum values during the late night and early morning hours. On the other hand, the total aerosol number concentration was almost always higher during daytime than during nighttime and a sharp decrease after sunset was observed. There was no correlation observed between the FBAP concentration and the meteorological parameters temperature, precipitation, wind direction and wind speed. However, a clear correlation was identified between the FBAP

  2. Biological behavior of mixed LMFBR-fuel-sodium aerosols in rodents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clearance of 239Pu from lung and other tissues was determined after nose-only exposure of rats to mixed aerosols of sodium-LMFBR fuel or to LMFBR fuels only. The rates of clearance from lung and from total body were both higher after exposure to the mixed sodium-fuel than after exposure to fuel-only aerosols

  3. Biological effects of radiation in combination with other physical, chemical or biological agents. Annex L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Annex considers the combined action of radiation with potentially important environmental conditions. Since there is a scarcity of systematic data on which an analysis of combined effects can be based, this Annex will be more hypothetical and will attempt to suggest definitions, to identify suitable methods of analysis, to select from a large amount of diffuse information the conditions and the data of importance for further consideration and to provide suggestions for future research. For humans in environmental circumstances the UNSCEAR Committee has been unable to document any clear case of synergistic interaction between radiation and other agents, which could lead to substantial modifications of the risk estimates for significant sections of the population

  4. Structural, spectroscopic and biological investigation of copper oxides nanoparticles with various capping agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powder composed of copper oxides nanoparticles with various capping agents has been synthesized and characterized with the use of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), glycol propylene, glycerin and glycerin plus ammonia were used as capping agents. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies showed that nanoparticles form agglomerates with the size from 80 to 120 nm while particles size determined from the XRD experiment was in the range from 7 to 21 nm. XPS and XRD experiments revealed that depending on capping and reducing agents used in the synthesis nanoparticles are composed of Cu2O, CuO or a mixture of them. The biological activity test performed for a selected sample where the capping agent was glycerin plus ammonia has shown promising killing/inhibiting behavior, very effective especially for Gram negatives bacteria. - Highlights: • We obtained copper oxide nanoparticles in a powder form. • Several capping agents were tested. • Structural and chemical tests showed that the main component were Cu2O and CuO. • The size of nanoparticles was in the range 7–21 nm. • Nanoparticles with glycerin and ammonia capping agent showed good antibacterial properties

  5. Structural, spectroscopic and biological investigation of copper oxides nanoparticles with various capping agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, A., E-mail: ana.maria.nowak@gmail.com [A. Chelkowski Institute of Physics, University of Silesia, Katowice (Poland); Szade, J.; Talik, E.; Ratuszna, A. [A. Chelkowski Institute of Physics, University of Silesia, Katowice (Poland); Ostafin, M. [Agricultural University of Cracow, Department of Microbiology, Krakow (Poland); Peszke, J. [A. Chelkowski Institute of Physics, University of Silesia, Katowice (Poland)

    2014-06-01

    Powder composed of copper oxides nanoparticles with various capping agents has been synthesized and characterized with the use of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), glycol propylene, glycerin and glycerin plus ammonia were used as capping agents. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies showed that nanoparticles form agglomerates with the size from 80 to 120 nm while particles size determined from the XRD experiment was in the range from 7 to 21 nm. XPS and XRD experiments revealed that depending on capping and reducing agents used in the synthesis nanoparticles are composed of Cu{sub 2}O, CuO or a mixture of them. The biological activity test performed for a selected sample where the capping agent was glycerin plus ammonia has shown promising killing/inhibiting behavior, very effective especially for Gram negatives bacteria. - Highlights: • We obtained copper oxide nanoparticles in a powder form. • Several capping agents were tested. • Structural and chemical tests showed that the main component were Cu{sub 2}O and CuO. • The size of nanoparticles was in the range 7–21 nm. • Nanoparticles with glycerin and ammonia capping agent showed good antibacterial properties.

  6. Agreements and Discrepancies between FDA Reports and Journal Papers on Biologic Agents Approved for Rheumatoid Arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amarilyo, Gil; Furst, Daniel E; Woo, Jennifer M P;

    2016-01-01

    reports on biologic agents developed for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. METHODS: Available data on FDA-approved drugs were extracted from the website, and a systematic literature search was conducted to identify matching studies in peer-reviewed medical journals. Outcome measures were the American...... odds ratios. A ratio of odds ratios not equal to 1 was categorized as a discrepancy. RESULTS: FDA reports were available for 8 of 9 FDA-approved biologic agents for rheumatoid arthritis; all identified trials (34) except one were published in peer-reviewed journals. Overall, discrepancies were noted......BACKGROUND: Sponsors that seek to commercialize new drugs apply to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) which independently analyzes the raw data and reports the results on its website. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine if there are differences between the FDA assessments and journal...

  7. Variability of Botrytis cinerea sensitivity to pyrrolnitrin, an antibiotic produced by biological control agents.

    OpenAIRE

    Ajouz, Sakhr; Walker, Anne Sophie; Fabre, Frédéric; Leroux, Pierre; Nicot, Philippe; Bardin, Marc

    2011-01-01

    To establish a baseline sensitivity of Botrytis cinerea to pyrrolnitrin, an antibiotic produced by several biological control agents, 204 isolates were tested for sensitivity to pyrrolnitrin using a spore germination assay. The results showed that the isolates exhibited a wide range of sensitivity to pyrrolnitrin, with an 8.4-fold difference in EC50 (effective concentration to reduce spore germination by 50% comparing to the control) values between the least and the most sensitive isolates. T...

  8. Interaction of Ulocladium atrum, a Potential Biological Control Agent, with Botrytis cinerea and Grapevine Plantlets

    OpenAIRE

    Sébastien Ronseaux; Essaid Ait Barka; Christophe Clément

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of biological control agent, Ulocladium atrum (isolates U13 and U16) in protecting Vitis vinifera L. cv. Chardonnay against gray mold disease caused by Botrytis cinerea, and simulation of the foliar defense responses was investigated. A degraded mycelium structure during cultural assay on potato dextrose agar revealed that U. atrum isolates U13 and U16 were both antagonistic to B. cinerea, mainly when isolates were inoculated two days before Botrytis. Under in vitro conditio...

  9. PCR Based Systems in Rapid Detection and Identification of Biological Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Taleski, Vaso

    2012-01-01

    Of all weapons of mass destruction, biological weapons (BW) today present the greatest danger. A belief that state sponsored armies or terrorist organizations, groups or individuals will use this type of weapon has never been greater which demands a capability for rapid medical response and early intervention. The specter of potential BA is well known and includes: anti-human, anti-plant and anti-animal agents. Unusual outbreaks of illnesses might be essential suspicion in recognizing of deli...

  10. Canada thistle biological control agents on two South Dakota wildlife refuges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, C.C.; Larson, D.L.; Larson, J.L.

    2006-01-01

    We monitored populations of Canada thistle biocontrol agents Cassida rubiginosa, Ceutorhynchus litura, Larinus (= Hadroplantus) planus, Urophora cardui, Orellia (= Terellia) ruficauda, and Rhinocyllus conicus on Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense) at two national wildlife refuges in South Dakota from 1999 through 2003. C. litura, U. cardui, O. ruficauda, and R. conicus were present on both refuges. Agent populations were low except for C. litura, which was present in up to 90% of stems in some plots. C. litura infestation did not reduce thistle flowering, stem length, or over-winter survival. There was no change in thistle stem numbers over the study period and no difference in stem numbers in areas of high C. litura populations compared to areas of low C. litura populations. Our results suggest that insect biological control agents are inadequate for reduction of Canada thistle in southern South Dakota.

  11. Viability and stability of biological control agents on cotton and snap bean seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, M L; Des Jardin, E A; Batson, W E; Caceres, J; Brannen, P M; Howell, C R; Benson, D M; Conway, K E; Rothrock, C S; Schneider, R W; Ownley, B H; Canaday, C H; Keinath, A P; Huber, D M; Sumner, D R; Motsenbocker, C E; Thaxton, P M; Cubeta, M A; Adams, P D; Backman, P A; Fajardo, J; Newman, M A; Pereira, R M

    2001-08-01

    Cotton and snap bean were selected for a multi-year, multi-state regional (south-eastern USA) research project to evaluate the efficacy of both commercial and experimental bacterial and fungal biological control agents for the management of damping-off diseases. The goal for this portion of the project was to determine the viability and stability of biological agents after application to seed. The biological seed treatments used included: (1) Bacillaceae bacteria, (2) non-Bacillaceae bacteria, (3) the fungus Trichoderma and (4) the fungus Beauveria bassiana. Seed assays were conducted to evaluate the following application factors: short-term (seed treatment; quality (i.e. isolate purity); compatibility with chemical pesticides and other biocontrol agents; application uniformity between years and plant species. For the bacterial treatments, the Bacillaceae genera (Bacillus and Paenibacillus) maintained the greatest population of bacteria per seed, the best viability over time and the best application uniformity across years and seed type. The non-Bacillaceae genera Burkholderia and Pseudomonas had the least viability and uniformity. Although Beauveria bassiana was only evaluated one year, the seed fungal populations were high and uniform. The seed fungal populations and uniformity for the Trichoderma isolates were more variable, except for the commercial product T-22. However, this product was contaminated with a Streptomyces isolate in both the years that it was evaluated. The study demonstrated that Bacillaceae can be mixed with Trichoderma isolates or with numerous pesticides to provide an integrated pest control/growth enhancement package. PMID:11517723

  12. Interaction of Ulocladium atrum, a Potential Biological Control Agent, with Botrytis cinerea and Grapevine Plantlets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Ronseaux

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of biological control agent, Ulocladium atrum (isolates U13 and U16 in protecting Vitis vinifera L. cv. Chardonnay against gray mold disease caused by Botrytis cinerea, and simulation of the foliar defense responses was investigated. A degraded mycelium structure during cultural assay on potato dextrose agar revealed that U. atrum isolates U13 and U16 were both antagonistic to B. cinerea, mainly when isolates were inoculated two days before Botrytis. Under in vitro conditions, foliar application of U. atrum protected grapevine leaves against gray mold disease. An increase in chitinase activity was induced by the presence of U. atrum isolates indicating that the biological control agents triggered plant defense mechanisms. Moreover, U13 has the potential to colonize the grapevine plantlets and to improve their growth. The ability of U. atrum isolates to exhibit an antagonistic effect against B. cinerea in addition to their aptitude to induce plant resistance and to promote grapevine growth may explain a part of their biological activity. Hence, this study suggests that U. atrum provides a suitable biocontrol agent against gray mold in grapevines.

  13. Cardiocladius oliffi (Diptera: Chironomidae as a potential biological control agent against Simulium squamosum (Diptera: Simuliidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Michael D

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The control of onchocerciasis in the African region is currently based mainly on the mass drug administration of ivermectin. Whilst this has been found to limit morbidity, it does not stop transmission. In the absence of a macrofilaricide, there is a need for an integrated approach for disease management, which includes vector control. Vector control using chemical insecticides is expensive to apply, and therefore the use of other measures such as biological control agents is needed. Immature stages of Simulium squamosum, reared in the laboratory from egg masses collected from the field at Boti Falls and Huhunya (River Pawnpawn in Ghana, were observed to be attacked and fed upon by larvae of the chironomid Cardiocladius oliffi Freeman, 1956 (Diptera: Chironomidae. Methods Cardiocladius oliffi was successfully reared in the rearing system developed for S. damnosum s.l. and evaluated for its importance as a biological control agent in the laboratory. Results Even at a ratio of one C. oliffi to five S. squamosum, they caused a significant decrease in the number of adult S. squamosum emerging from the systems (treatments. Predation was confirmed by the amplification of Simulium DNA from C. oliffi observed to have fed on S. squamosum pupae. The study also established that the chironomid flies could successfully complete their development on a fish food diet only. Conclusion Cardiocladius oliffi has been demonstrated as potential biological control agent against S. squamosum.

  14. Biological effects of repeated exposure of beagle dogs to relatively insoluble aerosols of 144Ce. IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This experiment is being conducted to study the behavior and long-term biological effects in Beagle dogs of 144Ce inhaled in fused aluminosilicate particles in repeated inhalation exposures for comparison with similar data from dogs that were exposed only once to a similar aerosol. Four groups of nine dogs each were exposed once every eight weeks for two years (13 exposures) to achieve specified exposure goals. The 144Ce-exposed dogs received increasing or relatively constant beta radiation dose rates in contrast to the steadily decreasing dose rate seen after a single inhalation exposure. Exposures in the first and second groups were planned to yield a cumulative absorbed dose to lung of approximately equal to 35,000 rads and those in the third group approximately equal to 17,000 rads within two years after the first exposure. Singly exposed dogs that had died with pulmonary tumors when this experiment was initiated had cumulative doses to death of 29,000 to 61,000 rads. All 13 exposures have been completed. One dog in the 4.5-μCi 144Ce/kg body weight group died at 771 days after first exposure with emaciation, adrenal cortical degeneration and bone marrow aplasia. One control dog died accidentally during anesthesia. During the past year, two additional dogs have died. One dog in the repeated 2.5-μCi 144Ce/kg body weight group died at 1256 days after the first exposure with radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis and a control dog died at 1052 days with autoimmune hemolytic anemia. The remaining 32 dogs appear to be in good physical condition except for a persistent lymphopenia at approximately equal to 4 years after the first exposure. They are being maintained for life span observations

  15. Biology, host specificity tests, and risk assessment of the sawfly Heteroperreyia hubrichi, a potential biological control agent of Schinus terebinthifolius in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract. Heteroperreyia hubrichi Malaise (Hymenoptera: Pergidae), a foliage feeding sawfly of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae), was studied to assess its suitability as a classical biological control agent of this invasive weed in Hawaii. Nochoice host-specificity tests we...

  16. Advanced Algorithms for Rapidly Reconstructing Clandestine Releases of Biological Agents in Urban Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinn, J.H.; Hall, C.H.; Neher, L.A.; Wilder, F.J.; Gouveia, D.W.; Layton, D.W.; Daniels, J.I.

    2000-02-25

    As the United States plays a greater role in the 21st Century as global peacekeeper and international defender of human rights and democratic principles, there is an increasing likelihood that it will become the focus of acts of terrorism. Such acts of terrorism--sometimes described as ''asymmetric''--could involve the threat or use of weapons of mass destruction (WMD), particularly those considered unconventional, which include ones designed to release chemical or biological agents. In fact, biological agents are of great concern because, as noted by D.A. Henderson of the Center for Civilian Biodefense Studies at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, MD, ''... with shortages of hospital space, vaccines, antibiotics, there would be chaos.'' (Williams, 2000). Unfortunately, potential aggressor nations, terrorist groups, and even individuals, can, for a modest cost and effort, develop covert capabilities for manufacturing, transporting, and offensively using biological weapons of mass destruction. Furthermore, there is evidence to indicate that terrorist increasingly are targeting civilian populations--in order to inflict indiscriminate casualties--as well as other more traditional targets such as symbolic buildings or organizations (see Tucker, 1999), which suggest that introducing rapid treatment after a biological event may be more practical than concentrating on prevention (see Siegrist, 1999), especially because sensors are unlikely to be placed in all major urban areas to detect even an atmospheric biological release. For these reasons, and because symptoms for the majority of those effected may not occur or be directly identified for several days, early identification of a covert undetected biological event (CUBE) will contribute to timely medical intervention, which can save many lives.

  17. The influence of biological and aerosol parameters of inhaled short-lived radon decay products on human lung dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this article is to assess the influence of biological and aerosol parameters on human lung dose with regard to a comparison with the corresponding recommended dose values of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The dose conversion factor which gives the relationship between effective dose and potential alpha energy concentration of inhaled short-lived radon decay products (218Po, 214Pb, 214Bi/214Po) is calculated with a dosimetric approach. The calculations are based on a lung dose model with a structure that is related to the recently recommended ICRP respiratory tract model. Because of the short half-lives of the investigated nuclides, simplifying modification of the model were possible. Firstly, the underlying assumptions of the model are described. Secondly, important input parameters of the model are varied to assess the uncertainty of the dose conversion factor due to uncertainty of these parameters. The main emphasis is focused on biological and aerosol parameter variability like variation of breathing rate and breathing mode, clearance rates, critical cells for the induction of lung cancer, particle size and dispersion of the activity size distributions. The possible range of dose conversion factors is discussed both for indoor and mine aerosol conditions in the framework of the presented dose model. The investigation shows that the dosimetric approach leads to a dose conversion convention which is a factor of more than two times higher than the recommended epidemiological values of the ICRP of 3.9 mSv.WLM-1 for the public and 5.1 mSv.WLM-1 at working places. The dosimetric results yield both for indoor and mine aerosol conditions dose conversion factors in the range of 10 mSv.WLM-1 to 15 mSv.WLM-1 depending on breathing mode. (author)

  18. Aerosolized antimicrobial agents based on degradable dextran nanoparticles loaded with silver carbene complexes

    KAUST Repository

    Ornelas-Megiatto, Cátia

    2012-11-05

    Degradable acetalated dextran (Ac-DEX) nanoparticles were prepared and loaded with a hydrophobic silver carbene complex (SCC) by a single-emulsion process. The resulting particles were characterized for morphology and size distribution using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The average particle size and particle size distribution were found to be a function of the ratio of the organic phase to the surfactant containing aqueous phase with a 1:5 volume ratio of Ac-DEX CH2Cl2 (organic):PBS (aqueous) being optimal for the formulation of nanoparticles with an average size of 100 ± 40 nm and a low polydispersity. The SCC loading was found to increase with an increase in the SCC quantity in the initial feed used during particle formulation up to 30% (w/w); however, the encapsulation efficiency was observed to be the best at a feed ratio of 20% (w/w). In vitro efficacy testing of the SCC loaded Ac-DEX nanoparticles demonstrated their activity against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria; the nanoparticles inhibited the growth of every bacterial species tested. As expected, a higher concentration of drug was required to inhibit bacterial growth when the drug was encapsulated within the nanoparticle formulations compared with the free drug illustrating the desired depot release. Compared with free drug, the Ac-DEX nanoparticles were much more readily suspended in an aqueous phase and subsequently aerosolized, thus providing an effective method of pulmonary drug delivery. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  19. Detection of Chemical/Biological Agents and Stimulants using Quadrupole Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detection of Chemical/Biological Agents and Simulants A new detector for chemical and biological agents is being developed for the U. S. Army under the Chemical and Biological Mass Spectrometer Block II program. The CBMS Block II is designed to optimize detection of both chemical and biological agents through the use of direct sampling inlets[I], a multi- ported sampling valve and a turbo- based vacuum system to support chemical ionization. Unit mass resolution using air as the buffer gas[2] has been obtained using this design. Software to control the instrument and to analyze the data generated from the instrument has also been newly developed. Detection of chemical agents can be accomplished. using the CBMS Block II design via one of two inlets - a l/ I 6'' stainless steel sample line -Chemical Warfare Air (CW Air) or a ground probe with enclosed capillary currently in use by the US Army - CW Ground. The Block II design is capable of both electron ionization and chemical ionization. Ethanol is being used as the Cl reagent based on a study indicating best performance for the Biological Warfare (BW) detection task (31). Data showing good signal to noise for 500 pg of methyl salicylate injected into the CW Air inlet, 50 ng of dimethylmethylphosphonate exposed to the CW Ground probe and 5 ng of methyl stearate analyzed using the pyrolyzer inlet were presented. Biological agents are sampled using a ''bio-concentrator'' unit that is designed to concentrate particles in the low micron range. Particles are collected in the bottom of a quartz pyrolyzer tube. An automated injector is being developed to deliver approximately 2 pL of a methylating reagent, tetramethylamonium- hydroxide to 'the collected particles. Pyrolysis occurs by rapid heating to ca. 55OOC. Biological agents are then characterized by their fatty acid methyl ester profiles and by other biomarkers. A library of ETOH- Cl/ pyrolysis MS data of microorganisms used for a recently published study[3] has been

  20. THE APPLICATION OF SINGLE PARTICLE AEROSOL MASS SPECTROMETRY FOR THE DETECTION AND IDENTIFICATION OF HIGH EXPLOSIVES AND CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, A

    2006-10-23

    Single Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (SPAMS) was evaluated as a real-time detection technique for single particles of high explosives. Dual-polarity time-of-flight mass spectra were obtained for samples of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazinane (RDX), and pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN); peaks indicative of each compound were identified. Composite explosives, Comp B, Semtex 1A, and Semtex 1H were also analyzed, and peaks due to the explosive components of each sample were present in each spectrum. Mass spectral variability with laser fluence is discussed. The ability of the SPAMS system to identify explosive components in a single complex explosive particle ({approx}1 pg) without the need for consumables is demonstrated. SPAMS was also applied to the detection of Chemical Warfare Agent (CWA) simulants in the liquid and vapor phases. Liquid simulants for sarin, cyclosarin, tabun, and VX were analyzed; peaks indicative of each simulant were identified. Vapor phase CWA simulants were adsorbed onto alumina, silica, Zeolite, activated carbon, and metal powders which were directly analyzed using SPAMS. The use of metal powders as adsorbent materials was especially useful in the analysis of triethyl phosphate (TEP), a VX stimulant, which was undetectable using SPAMS in the liquid phase. The capability of SPAMS to detect high explosives and CWA simulants using one set of operational conditions is established.

  1. Spacer/linker based synthesis and biological evaluation of mutual prodrugs as antiinflammatory agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velingkar V

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mutual prodrugs of some antiinflammatory agents were synthesized with the aim of improving the therapeutic index through prevention of gastrointestinal complications and to check the efficiency of release of the parent drug in presence of spacer. These mutual prodrugs were synthesized by direct condensation method using dicyclohexyl carbodiimide as a coupling agent and glycine as a spacer. The title compounds were characterized by spectral techniques and the release of the parent drug from mutual prodrug was studied in two different non-enzymatic buffer solutions at pH 1.2, pH 7.4 and in 80% human plasma. All mutual prodrugs exhibited encouraging hydrolysis profile in 80% human plasma. Biological activity of title compounds was studied by carrageenan-induced paw edema method. From the results obtained, it was concluded that these compounds retain the antiinflammatory action.

  2. Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of anti-EV71 agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Yang, Bailing; Hao, Fei; Wang, Ping; He, Haiying; Huang, Lei; Zhang, Xuan; Zhang, Shengbin; Peng, Xuanjia; Yin, Ke; Hu, Jiao; Chen, Xinsheng; Gu, Zhengxian; Wang, Li; Shen, Liang; Hu, Guoping; Li, Ning; Li, Jian; Chen, Shuhui; Xiao, Wei; Wang, Zhenzhong; Guo, Qingming; Chang, Xiujuan; Zhang, Lanjun; Cai, Qixu; Lin, Tianwei

    2016-07-15

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major causative agent of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), which can spread its infections to the central nervous and other systems with severe consequences. In this article, design, chemical synthesis, and biological evaluation of various anti-EV71 agents which incorporate Michael acceptors are described. Further SAR study demonstrated that lactone type of Michael acceptor provided a new lead of anti-EV71 drug candidates with high anti-EV71 activity in cell-based assay and enhanced mouse plasma stability. One of the most potent compounds (2K, cell-based anti-EV71 EC50=0.028μM), showed acceptable stability profile towards mouse plasma, which resulted into promising pharmacokinetics in mouse via IP administration. PMID:27234148

  3. Opportunities for improving risk communication during the permitting process for entomophagous biological control agents: A review of current systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concerns about potentially irreversible non-target impacts from the importation and release of entomophagous biological control agents (BCAs) have resulted in increasingly stringent import requirements by National Plant Protection Organizations. Despite numerous scientific publications on the poten...

  4. Determination of gadolinium-based MRI contrast agents in biological and environmental samples: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Telgmann, Lena [University of Münster, Institute of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Münster (Germany); Sperling, Michael [University of Münster, Institute of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Münster (Germany); European Virtual Institute for Speciation Analysis (EVISA), Münster (Germany); Karst, Uwe, E-mail: uk@uni-muenster.de [University of Münster, Institute of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Münster (Germany)

    2013-02-18

    Highlights: ► All major methods for the analysis of Gd-based MRI contrast agents are discussed. ► Biological and environmental samples are covered. ► Pharmacokinetics and species transformation can be investigated. ► The figures of merit as limit of detection and analysis time are described. -- Abstract: The development of analytical methods and strategies to determine gadolinium and its complexes in biological and environmental matrices is evaluated in this review. Gadolinium (Gd) chelates are employed as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) since the 1980s. In general they were considered as safe and well-tolerated, when in 2006, the disease nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) was connected to the administration of MRI contrast agents based on Gd. Pathogenesis and etiology of NSF are yet unclear and called for the development of several analytical methods to obtain elucidation in this field. Determination of Gd complex stability in vitro and in vivo, as well as the quantification of Gd in body fluids like blood and urine was carried out. Separation of the Gd chelates was achieved with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and capillary electrophoresis (CE). For detection, various methods were employed, including UV–vis absorbance and fluorescence spectroscopy, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). A second challenge for analysts was the discovery of high concentrations of anthropogenic Gd in surface waters draining populated areas. The source could soon be determined to be the increasing administration of Gd complexes during MRI examinations. Identification and quantification of the contrast agents was carried out in various surface and groundwater samples to determine the behavior and fate of the Gd chelates in the environment. The improvement of limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantification (LOQ) was and still is the goal of past and ongoing

  5. Size-Resolved Identification, Characterization, and Quantification of Primary Biological Organic Aerosol at a European Rural Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzetti, Carlo; Daellenbach, Kaspar R; Hueglin, Christoph; Fermo, Paola; Sciare, Jean; Kasper-Giebl, Anneliese; Mazar, Yinon; Abbaszade, Gülcin; El Kazzi, Mario; Gonzalez, Raquel; Shuster-Meiseles, Timor; Flasch, Mira; Wolf, Robert; Křepelová, Adéla; Canonaco, Francesco; Schnelle-Kreis, Jürgen; Slowik, Jay G; Zimmermann, Ralf; Rudich, Yinon; Baltensperger, Urs; El Haddad, Imad; Prévôt, André S H

    2016-04-01

    Primary biological organic aerosols (PBOA) represent a major component of the coarse organic matter (OMCOARSE, aerodynamic diameter > 2.5 μm). Although this fraction affects human health and the climate, its quantification and chemical characterization currently remain elusive. We present the first quantification of the entire PBOACOARSE mass and its main sources by analyzing size-segregated filter samples collected during the summer and winter at the rural site of Payerne (Switzerland), representing a continental Europe background environment. The size-segregated water-soluble OM was analyzed by a newly developed offline aerosol mass spectrometric technique (AMS). Collected spectra were analyzed by three-dimensional positive matrix factorization (3D-PMF), showing that PBOA represented the main OMCOARSE source during summer and its contribution to PM10 was comparable to that of secondary organic aerosol. We found substantial cellulose contributions to OMCOARSE, which in combination with gas chromatography mass spectrometry molecular markers quantification, underlined the predominance of plant debris. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis instead revealed that the sum of bacterial and fungal spores mass represented only a minor OMCOARSE fraction (<0.1%). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) analysis of C and N binding energies throughout the size fractions revealed an organic N increase in the PM10 compared to PM1 consistent with AMS observations. PMID:26900965

  6. Use of Biologic Agents in Combination with Other Therapies for the Treatment of Psoriasis

    OpenAIRE

    Cather, Jennifer C.; Crowley, Jeffrey J.

    2014-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder, which is associated with a significant negative impact on a patient’s quality of life. Traditional therapies for psoriasis are often not able to meet desired treatment goals, and high-dose and/or long-term use is associated with toxicities that can result in end-organ damage. An improved understanding of the involvement of cytokines in the etiology of psoriasis has led to the development of biologic agents targeting tumor necrosis factor (TNF...

  7. LANL organic analysis detection capabilities for chemical and biological warfare agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansell, G.B.; Cournoyer, M.E.; Hollis, K.W.; Monagle, M.

    1996-12-31

    Organic analysis is the analytical arm for several Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) research programs and nuclear materials processes, including characterization and certification of nuclear and nonnuclear materials used in weapons, radioactive waste treatment and waste certification programs. Organic Analysis has an extensive repertoire of analytical technique within the group including headspace gas, PCBs/pesticides, volatile organics and semivolatile organic analysis. In addition organic analysis has mobile labs with analytic capabilities that include volatile organics, total petroleum hydrocarbon, PCBs, pesticides, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and high explosive screening. A natural extension of these capabilities can be applied to the detection of chemical and biological agents,

  8. Biological agents: investigation into leprosy and other infectious diseases before indication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antônio, João Roberto; Soubhia, Rosa Maria Cordeiro; Paschoal, Vania Del Arco; Amarante, Carolina Forte; Travolo, Ana Regina Franchi

    2013-01-01

    Biological agents are widely used for various immune-mediated diseases, with remarkable effectiveness in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis and Crohn's disease. However, attention needs to be drawn to the adverse effects of these therapies and the risk of reactivating underlying granulomatous infectious diseases such as tuberculosis, leprosy, syphilis, leishmaniasis, among others. The objective of this paper is to describe a case of leprosy in a patient with RA using anti-TNF alfa, demonstrating the need for systematic investigation of skin lesions suggestive of leprosy in patients who require rheumatoid arthritis therapeutic treatment, especially in endemic regions like Brazil. PMID:24346871

  9. Synthesis, analysis and biological evaluation of novel indolquinonecryptolepine analogues as potential anti-tumour agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gresley, A; Gudivaka, V; Carrington, S; Sinclair, A; Brown, J E

    2016-03-21

    A small library of cryptolepine analogues were synthesised incorporating halogens and/or nitrogen containing side chains to optimise their interaction with the sugar-phosphate backbone of DNA to give improved binding, interfering with topoisomerase II hence enhancing cytotoxicity. Cell viability, DNA binding and Topoisomerase II inhibition is discussed for these compounds. Fluorescence microscopy was used to investigate the uptake of the synthesised cryptolepines into the nucleus. We report the synthesis and anti-cancer biological evaluation of nine novel cryptolepine analogues, which have greater cytotoxicity than the parent compound and are important lead compounds in the development of novel potent and selective indoloquinone anti-neoplastic agents. PMID:26893255

  10. Love-Wave Sensors Combined with Microfluidics for Fast Detection of Biological Warfare Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Matatagui; José Luis Fontecha; María Jesús Fernández; Isabel Gràcia; Carles Cané; José Pedro Santos; María Carmen Horrillo

    2014-01-01

    The following paper examines a time-efficient method for detecting biological warfare agents (BWAs). The method is based on a system of a Love-wave immunosensor combined with a microfluidic chip which detects BWA samples in a dynamic mode. In this way a continuous flow-through of the sample is created, promoting the reaction between antigen and antibody and allowing a fast detection of the BWAs. In order to prove this method, static and dynamic modes have been simulated and different concentr...

  11. Passive Detection of Biological Aerosols in the Atmosphere with a Fourier Transform Instrument (FTIR)—the Results of the Measurements in the Laboratory and in the Field

    OpenAIRE

    Błęcka, M. I.; Rataj, M.; Szymański, G.

    2012-01-01

    Fourier Transform Infrared Radiation (FTIR) spectroscopy is one of the most powerful methods for the detection of gaseous constituents, aerosols, and dust in planetary atmospheres. Infrared spectroscopy plays an important role in searching for biomarkers, organics and biological substances in the Universe. The possibility of detection and identifications with FTIR spectrometer of bio-aerosol spores (Bacillus atrophaeus var. globigii=BG) in the atmosphere is discussed in this paper. We describ...

  12. Fluorescent biological aerosol particles (FBAPs measured with the Waveband Integrated Bioaerosol Sensor WIBS-4: laboratory tests combined with a one year field study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Toprak

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper bioaerosol measurements conducted with the Waveband Integrated Bioaerosol Sensor mark 4 (WIBS-4 are presented. The measurements comprise aerosol chamber characterization experiments and a one-year ambient measurement period at a semi-rural site in South Western Germany. This study aims to investigate the sensitivity of WIBS-4 to biological and non-biological aerosols, performance of WIBS-4 for discrimination of several types of aerosols, and the detection and identification of biological particles in the ambient aerosol. Several types of biological and non-biological aerosol samples including spores, bacteria, pollen, mineral dust, ammonium sulphate, combustion soot, and fluorescent polystyrene spheres were analysed by WIBS-4 in the laboratory. The results confirm the sensitivity of the Ultra Violet Light Induced Fluorescence (UV-LIF method to biological fluorophores and show the good discrimination capabilities of the two wavelengths excitation/two wavebands detection method applied in WIBS-4. However, a weak cross-sensitivity to non-biological fluorescent interferers remains and is discussed in this paper.

    All the laboratory studies have been undertaken in order to prepare WIBS-4 for ambient aerosol measurements. According to the one year ambient aerosol study, number concentration of fluorescent biological aerosol particles (FBAP show strong seasonal and diurnal variability. The highest number concentration of FBAP was measured during the summer term and it decreases towards the winter period when colder and drier conditions are prevailing. Diurnal FBAP concentrations start to increase after sunset and reach maximum values during the late night and early morning hours. On the other hand the total aerosol number concentration was always higher during day time than during night time and a sharp decrease after sunset was observed. There was no correlation observed between the FBAP concentration and the meteorological

  13. Fluorescent biological aerosol particles (FBAPs) measured with the Waveband Integrated Bioaerosol Sensor WIBS-4: laboratory tests combined with a one year field study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toprak, E.; Schnaiter, M.

    2012-07-01

    In this paper bioaerosol measurements conducted with the Waveband Integrated Bioaerosol Sensor mark 4 (WIBS-4) are presented. The measurements comprise aerosol chamber characterization experiments and a one-year ambient measurement period at a semi-rural site in South Western Germany. This study aims to investigate the sensitivity of WIBS-4 to biological and non-biological aerosols, performance of WIBS-4 for discrimination of several types of aerosols, and the detection and identification of biological particles in the ambient aerosol. Several types of biological and non-biological aerosol samples including spores, bacteria, pollen, mineral dust, ammonium sulphate, combustion soot, and fluorescent polystyrene spheres were analysed by WIBS-4 in the laboratory. The results confirm the sensitivity of the Ultra Violet Light Induced Fluorescence (UV-LIF) method to biological fluorophores and show the good discrimination capabilities of the two wavelengths excitation/two wavebands detection method applied in WIBS-4. However, a weak cross-sensitivity to non-biological fluorescent interferers remains and is discussed in this paper. All the laboratory studies have been undertaken in order to prepare WIBS-4 for ambient aerosol measurements. According to the one year ambient aerosol study, number concentration of fluorescent biological aerosol particles (FBAP) show strong seasonal and diurnal variability. The highest number concentration of FBAP was measured during the summer term and it decreases towards the winter period when colder and drier conditions are prevailing. Diurnal FBAP concentrations start to increase after sunset and reach maximum values during the late night and early morning hours. On the other hand the total aerosol number concentration was always higher during day time than during night time and a sharp decrease after sunset was observed. There was no correlation observed between the FBAP concentration and the meteorological parameters temperature

  14. Phenotypic charactheristics of fluorescent pseudomonss, biological control agent of lincat disease of temanggung tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NINING NURUL AZIZAH

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescent pseudomonass isolated from local plants-rishosphere in temanggung controlled lincat disease of tobacco. This report describe phenotypic charactheristics of the bacteria in order to be used as a base for the development of the bacteria as a biological control agent of lincat disease. Phenotypic charactheristics of six isolates of fluorescent Pseudomonass which controlled lincat disease in the field were determined in the laboratory of Plant Bacteriology, Faculty of Agriculture, Gadjah Mada University. Plant pathogenicity tests were conducted by hypersensitive reaction into tobacco leaf and inoculation to tobacco plants. Antagonism test between fluorescent Pseudomonass and other candidate of biological control agents were also conducted. The results indicated that the bacteria were rod shape, Gram negative, positive reaction in catalase and oxidase tests. Nitrate reduce to nitrite, arginine was hydrolysed, fluorescent pigment were produced on King’s B medium, levan formation positive and all bacteria denitrifiy. The bacteria used urea, tween 80 and amylum were not hydrolised, poly--hydroxybutyrate was not accumulated in the cells. Negative reactions were observed for lysine decarboxylation, indol production, VP/MR reaction, and gelatn liquefation. Some compounds could be used as solely carbon sources. All isolates grew on the medium containing 2% NaCl. The best pH for growth was 6-7 and all isolates grew at 20-41C. Negative result were obtained for hypersensitive reaction and pathogenicity tests.

  15. Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A novel and efficient biological control agent for Colletotrichum acutatum during pre-harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Marcos Roberto; Klein, Mariana Nadjara; Ferraz, Luriany Pompeo; da Silva, Aline Caroline; Kupper, Katia Cristina

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we evaluated the efficiency of six isolates of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in controlling Colletotrichum acutatum, the causal agent of postbloom fruit drop that occur in pre-harvest citrus. We analyzed the mechanisms of action involved in biological control such as: production of antifungal compounds, nutrient competition, detection of killer activity, and production of hydrolytic enzymes of the isolates of S. cerevisiae on C. acutatum and their efficiency in controlling postbloom fruit drop on detached citrus flowers. Our results showed that all six S. cerevisiae isolates produced antifungal compounds, competed for nutrients, inhibited pathogen germination, and produced killer activity and hydrolytic enzymes when in contact with the fungus wall. The isolates were able to control the disease when detached flowers were artificially inoculated, both preventively and curatively. In this work we identified a novel potential biological control agent for C. acutatum during pre-harvest. This is the first report of yeast efficiency for the biocontrol of postbloom fruit drop, which represents an important contribution to the field of biocontrol of diseases affecting citrus populations worldwide. PMID:25960430

  16. The Effects of Biological Agents on Melanocytic Nevi: A Preliminary Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurşah Doğan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of our study was to evaluate the changes of the melanocytic nevi during the biological agent therapy. Methods: For this purpose, 40 index nevi of 25 adult patients who were treated with infliximab, adalimumab, etanercept or rituximab were included in this study. All of the patients underwent clinical and dermoscopic evaluation before the beginning of the treatment, 6 months and 1 year after the beginning of the treatment. Among dermoscopic examination methods, pattern analysis, ABCD score system and three-point checklist were performed. Results: In terms of the diameter of the index nevi, there was no statistically significant difference between the first examination and that of the sixth month, but differences was observed between the first examination and that of the twelfth month. There was also no statistically significant difference in total dermoscopy scores calculated by ABCD score system application on 31 nevi at the times of assessment. At the end of the study, we detected 24 new nevi formation in 7 patients, whom all of were over 35 years of age, however no eruptive nevi or melanoma formation were observed. Conclusion: An increase in the diameters of the present nevi and formation of new nevi may be seen with biological agent therapy in one-year-follow-up.

  17. The influence of flower morphology and nectar quality on the longevity of a parasitoid biological control agent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vattala, H.D.; Wratten, S.D.; Phillips, C.B.; Wäckers, F.L.

    2006-01-01

    Conservation biological control aims to enhance the efficacy of arthropod biological control agents, such as parasitoids, partly by providing them with access to floral nectar. However, the suitability of a flower species for providing nectar to a parasitoid is dependent on the morphologies of the p

  18. Evaluation of biological control agents for mosquitoes control in artificial breeding places

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Salim Abadi Yaser; Vatandoost Hassan; Rassi Yavar; Abai Mohammad Reza; Sanei Dehkordi Ali Reza; Paksa Azim

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the entomological impact of chlorpyrifos-methyl,Bacillus thuringiensis, andGambusia affinis on mosquitoes control in artificial breeding places.Methods:A Latin square design with 4 replicates was performed in order to evaluate the efficacy of chlorpyrifos-methyl,Bacillus thuringiensis, andGambusia affinis on larva. The larvicide was applied at the dosage of 100 mg a.h/ha,Bacillus thuringiensis at the recommended dosage and 10 fishes per m2 were applied at 1í1 m2 artificial breeding sites. The larval densities for both anopheline and culicine were counted according to larvae /10 dippers prior and 24 h after application.Results:All three control agents are effective for mosquito density reduction, and the difference between the three agents and the control is significant (P<0.05). There is also significant difference among chlorpyrifos-methyl,Bacillus thuringiensis andGambusia affinis.Bacillus thuringiensisexhibited more reduction on mosquito larval density than fish and larvicide (P<0.05).Conclusions:Bacillus thuringiensis in comparison with two other agents is the appropriate method for larviciding in the breeding places. Although long term assessing for biological activities as well as monitoring and mapping of resistance is required.

  19. Degradation of biological weapons agents in the environment: implications for terrorism response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Amy L; Wilkening, Dean A

    2005-04-15

    We investigate the impact on effective terrorism response of the viability degradation of biological weapons agents in the environment. We briefly review the scientific understanding and modeling of agent environmental viability degradation. In general, agent susceptibility to viability loss is greatest for vegetative bacteria, intermediate for viruses, and least for bacterial spores. Survival is greatest in soil and progressively decreases in the following environments: textiles, water, hard surfaces, and air. There is little detailed understanding of loss mechanisms. We analyze the time behavior and sensitivity of four mathematical models that are used to represent environmental viability degradation (the exponential, probability, and first- and second-order catastrophic decay models). The models behave similarly at short times (representation of the hazard. For longer time phenomena, including decontamination, the current model capabilities are likely insufficient. Finally, we implement each model in a simple numerical integration of anthrax dispersion, viability degradation, and dose response. Decay models spanning the current knowledge of airborne degradation result in vastly different predicted hazard areas. This confounds attempts to determine necessary medical and decontamination measures. Hence,the current level of understanding and representation of environmental viability degradation in response models is inadequate to inform appropriate emergency response measures. PMID:15884371

  20. Assessment of tuberculosis infection during treatment with biologic agents in a BCG-vaccinated pediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atikan, Basak Yildiz; Cavusoglu, Cengiz; Dortkardesler, Merve; Sozeri, Betul

    2016-02-01

    Biologic therapies, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) blockers, are commonly used to treat rheumatological diseases in childhood. Screening patients for tuberculosis (TB) is highly recommended before starting therapy with TNF-α blockers. Despite appropriate screening, TB still remains a problem in patients receiving anti-TNF therapy in countries where TB is not endemic. TB in anti-TNF-treated patients is often diagnosed late due to altered presentation, and this delay results in high morbidity and mortality with a high proportion of extrapulmonary and disseminated disease. The aim of this study is to show the course of TB disease in children who are on biologic therapy, in an era where many of the children are BCG-vaccinated and TB is intermediately endemic. We recruited 71 patients with several types of inflammatory diseases. Six of them had a positive test result during TB screening and began taking isoniazid (INH) prophylactically. During the 3 years of follow-up, none of these patients developed TB disease. Biologic agents can be safely used in a BCG-vaccinated pediatric population, as long as patients are closely monitored to ensure that any cases of TB will be detected early. PMID:25515621

  1. Hybridization of an invasive shrub affects tolerance and resistance to defoliation by a biological control agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Wyatt I.; Friedman, Jonathan M.; Gaskin, John F.; Norton, Andrew P.

    2014-01-01

    Evolution has contributed to the successful invasion of exotic plant species in their introduced ranges, but how evolution affects particular control strategies is still under evaluation. For instance, classical biological control, a common strategy involving the utilization of highly specific natural enemies to control exotic pests, may be negatively affected by host hybridization because of shifts in plant traits, such as root allocation or chemical constituents. We investigated introgression between two parent species of the invasive shrub tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) in the western United States, and how differences in plant traits affect interactions with a biological control agent. Introgression varied strongly with latitude of origin and was highly correlated with plant performance. Increased levels of T. ramosissima introgression resulted in both higher investment in roots and tolerance to defoliation and less resistance to insect attack. Because tamarisk hybridization occurs predictably on the western U.S. landscape, managers may be able to exploit this information to maximize control efforts. Genetic differentiation in plant traits in this system underpins the importance of plant hybridization and may explain why some biological control releases are more successful than others.

  2. EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ); Scientific Opinion on the maintenance of the list of QPS biological agents intentionally added to food and feed (2011 update)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine

    EFSA is requested to assess the safety of a broad range of biological agents (including microorganisms and viruses) in the context of notifications for market authorisation as sources of food and feed additives, enzymes and plant protection products. The qualified presumption of safety (QPS......) assessment was developed by EFSA for its own use to provide a generic risk assessment approach applicable across EFSA’s scientific Panels, for biological agents notified for intentional use in the whole food chain. The safety of unambiguously defined biological agents at the highest taxonomic unit that is...... recommendations. The anamorph yeast form Phaffia rhodozyma of Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous was included on the QPS list and to the qualification for yeasts ‘absence of resistance to antimycotics used for medical treatment of yeast infections’, the sentence was added that ‘in the case of Saccharomyces cerevisiae...

  3. Springtime precipitation effects on the abundance of fluorescent biological aerosol particles and HULIS in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Siyao; Ren, Hong; Fan, Songyun; Sun, Yele; Wang, Zifa; Fu, Pingqing

    2016-07-01

    Bioaerosols and humic-like substances (HULIS) are important components of atmospheric aerosols, which can affect regional climate by acting as cloud condensation nuclei and some of which can damage human health. Up to date, release of bioaerosols and HULIS initiated by precipitation is still poorly understood. Here we present different release processes for bioaerosols, non-bioaerosols and HULIS during a precipitation event in Beijing, China. Large fungal-spore-like aerosols were emitted at the onset and later weak stage of precipitation, the number concentration of which increased by more than two folds, while the number concentration of bacteria-like particles doubled when the precipitation strengthened. Besides, a good correlation between protein-like substances that were measured simultaneously by on-line and off-line fluorescence techniques consolidated their applications to measure bioaerosols. Furthermore, our EEM results suggest that the relative contribution of water-soluble HULIS to microbial materials was enhanced gradually by the rain event.

  4. Aerosol studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the continuing studies of the effects of very severe reactor accidents, an effort was made to develop, test, and improve simple, effective, and inexpensive methods by which the average citizen, using only materials readily available, could protect his residence, himself, and his family from injury by toxic aerosols. The methods for protection against radioactive aerosols should be equally effective against a clandestine biological attack by terrorists. The results of the tests to date are limited to showing that spores of the harmless bacterium, bacillus globegii (BG), can be used as a simulant for the radioactive aerosols. An aerosol generator of Lauterbach type was developed which will produce an essentially monodisperse aerosol at the rate of 109 spores/min. Analytical techniques have been established which give reproducible results. Preliminary field tests have been conducted to check out the components of the system. Preliminary tests of protective devices, such as ordinary vacuum sweepers, have given protection factors of over 1000

  5. A new method for assessing the contribution of Primary Biological Atmospheric Particles to the mass concentration of the atmospheric aerosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrino, Cinzia; Marcovecchio, Francesca

    2016-02-01

    Primary Biologic Atmospheric Particles (PBAPs) constitute an interesting and poorly investigated component of the atmospheric aerosol. We have developed and validated a method for evaluating the contribution of overall PBAPs to the mass concentration of atmospheric particulate matter (PM). The method is based on PM sampling on polycarbonate filters, staining of the collected particles with propidium iodide, observation at epifluorescence microscope and calculation of the bioaerosol mass using a digital image analysis software. The method has been also adapted to the observation and quantification of size-segregated aerosol samples collected by multi-stage impactors. Each step of the procedure has been individually validated. The relative repeatability of the method, calculated on 10 pairs of atmospheric PM samples collected side-by-side, was 16%. The method has been applied to real atmospheric samples collected in the vicinity of Rome, Italy. Size distribution measurements revealed that PBAPs was mainly in the coarse fraction of PM, with maxima in the range 5.6-10 μm. 24-h samples collected during different period of the year have shown that the concentration of bioaerosol was in the range 0.18-5.3 μg m(-3) (N=20), with a contribution to the organic matter in PM10 in the range 0.5-31% and to the total mass concentration of PM10 in the range 0.3-18%. The possibility to determine the concentration of total PBAPs in PM opens up interesting perspectives in terms of studying the health effects of these components and of increasing our knowledge about the composition of the organic fraction of the atmospheric aerosol. PMID:26680730

  6. Love-Wave Sensors Combined with Microfluidics for Fast Detection of Biological Warfare Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matatagui, Daniel; Fontecha, José Luis; Fernández, María Jesús; Gràcia, Isabel; Cané, Carles; Santos, José Pedro; Horrillo, María Carmen

    2014-01-01

    The following paper examines a time-efficient method for detecting biological warfare agents (BWAs). The method is based on a system of a Love-wave immunosensor combined with a microfluidic chip which detects BWA samples in a dynamic mode. In this way a continuous flow-through of the sample is created, promoting the reaction between antigen and antibody and allowing a fast detection of the BWAs. In order to prove this method, static and dynamic modes have been simulated and different concentrations of BWA simulants have been tested with two immunoreactions: phage M13 has been detected using the mouse monoclonal antibody anti-M13 (AM13), and the rabbit immunoglobulin (Rabbit IgG) has been detected using the polyclonal antibody goat anti-rabbit (GAR). Finally, different concentrations of each BWA simulants have been detected with a fast response time and a desirable level of discrimination among them has been achieved. PMID:25029282

  7. Endophytic colonization of tomato plants by the biological control agent Clonostachys rosea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyer, Anna Kaja; Jørgensen, Hans Jørgen Lyngs; Amby, Daniel Buchvaldt;

    Fungal endophytes live naturally inside plants without causing symptoms. On the contrary, they can promote plant growth and increase tolerance to abiotic and biotic stress. These beneficial effects have increased the agricultural interest for exploitation of fungal isolates with an endophytic life......-style. Clonostachys rosea occurs naturally world-wide and is capable of colonizing many different habitats. The fungus is primarily known as a versatile biological control agent. However, it has also been reported as a plant endophyte in, e.g., soybean, red clover and cacao. The C. rosea isolate IK726 efficiently...... controls seed- and soil-borne diseases and can furthermore promote plant growth. However, it is not known whether IK726 can colonize plants internally and therefore, the objective of the present study was to examine the possibility of an endophytic life-style of IK726 in tomato. Tomato seeds were sown...

  8. Love-Wave Sensors Combined with Microfluidics for Fast Detection of Biological Warfare Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Matatagui

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The following paper examines a time-efficient method for detecting biological warfare agents (BWAs. The method is based on a system of a Love-wave immunosensor combined with a microfluidic chip which detects BWA samples in a dynamic mode. In this way a continuous flow-through of the sample is created, promoting the reaction between antigen and antibody and allowing a fast detection of the BWAs. In order to prove this method, static and dynamic modes have been simulated and different concentrations of BWA simulants have been tested with two immunoreactions: phage M13 has been detected using the mouse monoclonal antibody anti-M13 (AM13, and the rabbit immunoglobulin (Rabbit IgG has been detected using the polyclonal antibody goat anti-rabbit (GAR. Finally, different concentrations of each BWA simulants have been detected with a fast response time and a desirable level of discrimination among them has been achieved.

  9. Love-wave sensors combined with microfluidics for fast detection of biological warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matatagui, Daniel; Fontecha, José Luis; Fernández, María Jesús; Gràcia, Isabel; Cané, Carles; Santos, José Pedro; Horrillo, María Carmen

    2014-01-01

    The following paper examines a time-efficient method for detecting biological warfare agents (BWAs). The method is based on a system of a Love-wave immunosensor combined with a microfluidic chip which detects BWA samples in a dynamic mode. In this way a continuous flow-through of the sample is created, promoting the reaction between antigen and antibody and allowing a fast detection of the BWAs. In order to prove this method, static and dynamic modes have been simulated and different concentrations of BWA simulants have been tested with two immunoreactions: phage M13 has been detected using the mouse monoclonal antibody anti-M13 (AM13), and the rabbit immunoglobulin (Rabbit IgG) has been detected using the polyclonal antibody goat anti-rabbit (GAR). Finally, different concentrations of each BWA simulants have been detected with a fast response time and a desirable level of discrimination among them has been achieved. PMID:25029282

  10. Environmental risk assessment for Neodryinus typhlocybae, biological control agent against Metcalfa pruinosa, for Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudrun Strauss

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The potential environmental risks of Neodryinus typhlocybae, a parasitic wasp from North America, were evaluated with regard to its safe use as an exotic biocontrol agent for the planthopper Metcalfa pruinosa in Austria. Following an earlier host range study of N. typhlocybae conducted in the laboratory, the present study assessed the potential for establishment and spread as well as negative indirect effects on non-target organisms. The potential release sites in Austria were analysed for matching of the climatic requirements for establishment of N. typhlocybae. The two proposed release locations, Vienna and Graz, have a predominantly similar climate to the parasitoid’s region of origin, though the comparably cooler mean summer temperatures might result in a low emergence rate of the partial second generation. The natural spread potential of N. typhlocybae was reviewed and is considered to be sufficiently good for released individuals to reach nearby sites infested with M. pruinosa. However, a perceptible spreading of N. typhlocybae females only occurs a few years after release and seems to be strongly dependent on the host density. Gelis areator, a hyperparasitoid of N. typhlocybae known to occur in Austria, might have negative effects on the population of the beneficial organism. Advantages and disadvantages of chemical and biological control methods against M. pruinosa were evaluated. It is concluded that N. typhlocybae is very well suited as a biological control agent for M. pruinosa in Austria, as no adverse effects on non-target species are expected but its release offers advantages with regard to sustainable and environmentally friendly pest management.

  11. A systematic screen of FDA-approved drugs for inhibitors of biological threat agents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter B Madrid

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The rapid development of effective medical countermeasures against potential biological threat agents is vital. Repurposing existing drugs that may have unanticipated activities as potential countermeasures is one way to meet this important goal, since currently approved drugs already have well-established safety and pharmacokinetic profiles in patients, as well as manufacturing and distribution networks. Therefore, approved drugs could rapidly be made available for a new indication in an emergency. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A large systematic effort to determine whether existing drugs can be used against high containment bacterial and viral pathogens is described. We assembled and screened 1012 FDA-approved drugs for off-label broad-spectrum efficacy against Bacillus anthracis; Francisella tularensis; Coxiella burnetii; and Ebola, Marburg, and Lassa fever viruses using in vitro cell culture assays. We found a variety of hits against two or more of these biological threat pathogens, which were validated in secondary assays. As expected, antibiotic compounds were highly active against bacterial agents, but we did not identify any non-antibiotic compounds with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity. Lomefloxacin and erythromycin were found to be the most potent compounds in vivo protecting mice against Bacillus anthracis challenge. While multiple virus-specific inhibitors were identified, the most noteworthy antiviral compound identified was chloroquine, which disrupted entry and replication of two or more viruses in vitro and protected mice against Ebola virus challenge in vivo. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The feasibility of repurposing existing drugs to face novel threats is demonstrated and this represents the first effort to apply this approach to high containment bacteria and viruses.

  12. Functionalized gold nanoparticle supported sensory mechanisms applied in detection of chemical and biological threat agents: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Smart sensors are needed for detection of chemical and biological threat agents. ► Smart sensors detect analytes with rapid speed, high sensitivity and selectivity. ► Functionalized gold nanoparticles (GNPs) can potentially smart sense threat agents. ► Functionalized GNPs support multiple analytical methods for sensing threat agents. ► Threat agents of all types can be detected using functionalized GNPs. - Abstract: There is a great necessity for development of novel sensory concepts supportive of smart sensing capabilities in defense and homeland security applications for detection of chemical and biological threat agents. A smart sensor is a detection device that can exhibit important features such as speed, sensitivity, selectivity, portability, and more importantly, simplicity in identifying a target analyte. Emerging nanomaterial based sensors, particularly those developed by utilizing functionalized gold nanoparticles (GNPs) as a sensing component potentially offer many desirable features needed for threat agent detection. The sensitiveness of physical properties expressed by GNPs, e.g. color, surface plasmon resonance, electrical conductivity and binding affinity are significantly enhanced when they are subjected to functionalization with an appropriate metal, organic or biomolecular functional groups. This sensitive nature of functionalized GNPs can be potentially exploited in the design of threat agent detection devices with smart sensing capabilities. In the presence of a target analyte (i.e., a chemical or biological threat agent) a change proportional to concentration of the analyte is observed, which can be measured either by colorimetric, fluorimetric, electrochemical or spectroscopic means. This article provides a review of how functionally modified gold colloids are applied in the detection of a broad range of threat agents, including radioactive substances, explosive compounds, chemical warfare agents, biotoxins, and

  13. Functionalized gold nanoparticle supported sensory mechanisms applied in detection of chemical and biological threat agents: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upadhyayula, Venkata K.K., E-mail: Upadhyayula.Venkata@epa.gov [Oak Ridge Institute of Science and Education (ORISE), MC-100-44, PO Box 117, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2012-02-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Smart sensors are needed for detection of chemical and biological threat agents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Smart sensors detect analytes with rapid speed, high sensitivity and selectivity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Functionalized gold nanoparticles (GNPs) can potentially smart sense threat agents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Functionalized GNPs support multiple analytical methods for sensing threat agents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Threat agents of all types can be detected using functionalized GNPs. - Abstract: There is a great necessity for development of novel sensory concepts supportive of smart sensing capabilities in defense and homeland security applications for detection of chemical and biological threat agents. A smart sensor is a detection device that can exhibit important features such as speed, sensitivity, selectivity, portability, and more importantly, simplicity in identifying a target analyte. Emerging nanomaterial based sensors, particularly those developed by utilizing functionalized gold nanoparticles (GNPs) as a sensing component potentially offer many desirable features needed for threat agent detection. The sensitiveness of physical properties expressed by GNPs, e.g. color, surface plasmon resonance, electrical conductivity and binding affinity are significantly enhanced when they are subjected to functionalization with an appropriate metal, organic or biomolecular functional groups. This sensitive nature of functionalized GNPs can be potentially exploited in the design of threat agent detection devices with smart sensing capabilities. In the presence of a target analyte (i.e., a chemical or biological threat agent) a change proportional to concentration of the analyte is observed, which can be measured either by colorimetric, fluorimetric, electrochemical or spectroscopic means. This article provides a review of how functionally modified gold colloids are applied in the detection of a broad

  14. Preparation and biological behavior of 99m Tc(V)-DMS as a tumor imaging agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new 99m Tc - labelled radiopharmaceutical has been developed for tumor imaging under commercial name of DMS-PENTATEC. We used for the preparation 2,3 meso dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), as ligand, and SnCl2 x 2H2O, as reducing agent. The mass ratio DMSA: SnCl2 is 1:0.43 in the mixture of inositol, ascorbic acid and natrium chloride as the antioxidant system. The labelling with 99m Tc was performed at an alkaline pH (7.5 - 8.5) with the result of a new coordination complex DMS - 99m Tc(V) with higher uptake by the tumor cells. The biological studies were made on Wistar London rats with Walker tumors. After intravenous (i.v.) administration of 30 mCi DMS - 99m Tc(V), the biodistribution measurements were carried out at 5 min, 15 min, 30 min and 60 min for the tumors and following organs: blood, liver, spleen, kidneys. The DMS - 99m Tc(V) accumulates quantitatively in the tumor 30 min after i.v. injection. The present study provides a good basis for DMS-99'm Tc(V) clinical application as a tumor imaging agent, mainly for head and neck squamous cell carcinomas, medullar thyroid cancers and soft-tissue tumors. (authors)

  15. Isolation, characterization, and identification of biological control agent for potato soft rot in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M M; Ali, M E; Khan, A A; Akanda, A M; Uddin, Md Kamal; Hashim, U; Abd Hamid, S B

    2012-01-01

    A total of 91 isolates of probable antagonistic bacteria of potato soft rot bacterium Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora (Ecc) were extracted from rhizospheres and endophytes of various crop plants, different soil varieties, and atmospheres in the potato farming areas of Bangladesh. Antibacterial activity of the isolated probable antagonistic bacteria was tested in vitro against the previously identified most common and most virulent soft rot causing bacterial strain Ecc P-138. Only two isolates E-45 and E-65 significantly inhibited the in vitro growth of Ecc P-138. Physiological, biochemical, and carbon source utilization tests identified isolate E-65 as a member of the genus Bacillus and the isolate E-45 as Lactobacillus sp. The stronger antagonistic activity against Ecc P-138 was found in E-65 in vitro screening and storage potatoes. E-65 reduced the soft rot infection to 22-week storage potatoes of different varieties by 32.5-62.5% in model experiment, demonstrating its strong potential to be used as an effective biological control agent for the major pectolytic bacteria Ecc. The highest (62.5%) antagonistic effect of E-65 was observed in the Granola and the lowest (32.7%) of that was found in the Cardinal varieties of the Bangladeshi potatoes. The findings suggest that isolate E-65 could be exploited as a biocontrol agent for potato tubers. PMID:22645446

  16. Development of a rapid method for the automatic classification of biological agents' fluorescence spectral signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carestia, Mariachiara; Pizzoferrato, Roberto; Gelfusa, Michela; Cenciarelli, Orlando; Ludovici, Gian Marco; Gabriele, Jessica; Malizia, Andrea; Murari, Andrea; Vega, Jesus; Gaudio, Pasquale

    2015-11-01

    Biosecurity and biosafety are key concerns of modern society. Although nanomaterials are improving the capacities of point detectors, standoff detection still appears to be an open issue. Laser-induced fluorescence of biological agents (BAs) has proved to be one of the most promising optical techniques to achieve early standoff detection, but its strengths and weaknesses are still to be fully investigated. In particular, different BAs tend to have similar fluorescence spectra due to the ubiquity of biological endogenous fluorophores producing a signal in the UV range, making data analysis extremely challenging. The Universal Multi Event Locator (UMEL), a general method based on support vector regression, is commonly used to identify characteristic structures in arrays of data. In the first part of this work, we investigate fluorescence emission spectra of different simulants of BAs and apply UMEL for their automatic classification. In the second part of this work, we elaborate a strategy for the application of UMEL to the discrimination of different BAs' simulants spectra. Through this strategy, it has been possible to discriminate between these BAs' simulants despite the high similarity of their fluorescence spectra. These preliminary results support the use of SVR methods to classify BAs' spectral signatures.

  17. BSim: an agent-based tool for modeling bacterial populations in systems and synthetic biology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E Gorochowski

    Full Text Available Large-scale collective behaviors such as synchronization and coordination spontaneously arise in many bacterial populations. With systems biology attempting to understand these phenomena, and synthetic biology opening up the possibility of engineering them for our own benefit, there is growing interest in how bacterial populations are best modeled. Here we introduce BSim, a highly flexible agent-based computational tool for analyzing the relationships between single-cell dynamics and population level features. BSim includes reference implementations of many bacterial traits to enable the quick development of new models partially built from existing ones. Unlike existing modeling tools, BSim fully considers spatial aspects of a model allowing for the description of intricate micro-scale structures, enabling the modeling of bacterial behavior in more realistic three-dimensional, complex environments. The new opportunities that BSim opens are illustrated through several diverse examples covering: spatial multicellular computing, modeling complex environments, population dynamics of the lac operon, and the synchronization of genetic oscillators. BSim is open source software that is freely available from http://bsim-bccs.sf.net and distributed under the Open Source Initiative (OSI recognized MIT license. Developer documentation and a wide range of example simulations are also available from the website. BSim requires Java version 1.6 or higher.

  18. BSim: an agent-based tool for modeling bacterial populations in systems and synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorochowski, Thomas E; Matyjaszkiewicz, Antoni; Todd, Thomas; Oak, Neeraj; Kowalska, Kira; Reid, Stephen; Tsaneva-Atanasova, Krasimira T; Savery, Nigel J; Grierson, Claire S; di Bernardo, Mario

    2012-01-01

    Large-scale collective behaviors such as synchronization and coordination spontaneously arise in many bacterial populations. With systems biology attempting to understand these phenomena, and synthetic biology opening up the possibility of engineering them for our own benefit, there is growing interest in how bacterial populations are best modeled. Here we introduce BSim, a highly flexible agent-based computational tool for analyzing the relationships between single-cell dynamics and population level features. BSim includes reference implementations of many bacterial traits to enable the quick development of new models partially built from existing ones. Unlike existing modeling tools, BSim fully considers spatial aspects of a model allowing for the description of intricate micro-scale structures, enabling the modeling of bacterial behavior in more realistic three-dimensional, complex environments. The new opportunities that BSim opens are illustrated through several diverse examples covering: spatial multicellular computing, modeling complex environments, population dynamics of the lac operon, and the synchronization of genetic oscillators. BSim is open source software that is freely available from http://bsim-bccs.sf.net and distributed under the Open Source Initiative (OSI) recognized MIT license. Developer documentation and a wide range of example simulations are also available from the website. BSim requires Java version 1.6 or higher. PMID:22936991

  19. Comparing Effects of Biologic Agents in Treating Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Multiple Treatment Comparison Regression Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingunn Fride Tvete

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis patients have been treated with disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs and the newer biologic drugs. We sought to compare and rank the biologics with respect to efficacy. We performed a literature search identifying 54 publications encompassing 9 biologics. We conducted a multiple treatment comparison regression analysis letting the number experiencing a 50% improvement on the ACR score be dependent upon dose level and disease duration for assessing the comparable relative effect between biologics and placebo or DMARD. The analysis embraced all treatment and comparator arms over all publications. Hence, all measured effects of any biologic agent contributed to the comparison of all biologic agents relative to each other either given alone or combined with DMARD. We found the drug effect to be dependent on dose level, but not on disease duration, and the impact of a high versus low dose level was the same for all drugs (higher doses indicated a higher frequency of ACR50 scores. The ranking of the drugs when given without DMARD was certolizumab (ranked highest, etanercept, tocilizumab/ abatacept and adalimumab. The ranking of the drugs when given with DMARD was certolizumab (ranked highest, tocilizumab, anakinra/rituximab, golimumab/ infliximab/ abatacept, adalimumab/ etanercept [corrected]. Still, all drugs were effective. All biologic agents were effective compared to placebo, with certolizumab the most effective and adalimumab (without DMARD treatment and adalimumab/ etanercept (combined with DMARD treatment the least effective. The drugs were in general more effective, except for etanercept, when given together with DMARDs.

  20. Biological effects of repeated inhalation exposure of Beagle dogs to relatively insoluble aerosols of 144Ce. VI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beagle dogs were exposed repeatedly to a relatively insoluble form of 144Ce (in fused aluminosilicate particles) to study the deposition, retention and long-term biological effects for comparison with data from dogs that were exposed only once to a similar aerosol. Four groups of nine dogs each were exposed once every 8 weeks for 2 years (13 exposures) to achieve specified exposure goals. These goals were: to increase the lung burden by 2.5 μCi 144Ce/kg body weight with each exposure; to reestablish lung burdens of 9 or 4.5 μCi 144Ce/kg body weight and to expose controls to fused aluminosilicate particles containing nonradioactive cerium. With these exposure sequences, the 144Ce-exposed dogs received increasing or relatively constant beta radiation dose rates in contrast to the steadily decreasing dose rate seen after a single inhalation exposure. Following completion of the exposure series, the dogs are being observed for the development of long-term biological effects. To date, 11 dogs have died or were euthanized, nine exposed dogs and two controls. Although pulmonary hemangiosarcomas were a prominent finding in dogs exposed once to the same aerosol at a level that led to cumulative doses to lung similar to these repeatedly exposed dogs, only one has been observed in the repeatedly exposed dogs. Other effects of note to date include three pulmonary carcinomas, two hemangiosarcomas of the tracheobronchial lymph nodes and one splenic hemangiosarcoma. Observations are continuing on the surviving 18 exposed and seven control dogs

  1. Abundance of fluorescent biological aerosol particles at temperatures conducive to the formation of mixed-phase and cirrus clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twohy, Cynthia H.; McMeeking, Gavin R.; DeMott, Paul J.; McCluskey, Christina S.; Hill, Thomas C. J.; Burrows, Susannah M.; Kulkarni, Gourihar R.; Tanarhte, Meryem; Kafle, Durga N.; Toohey, Darin W.

    2016-07-01

    Some types of biological particles are known to nucleate ice at warmer temperatures than mineral dust, with the potential to influence cloud microphysical properties and climate. However, the prevalence of these particle types above the atmospheric boundary layer is not well known. Many types of biological particles fluoresce when exposed to ultraviolet light, and the Wideband Integrated Bioaerosol Sensor takes advantage of this characteristic to perform real-time measurements of fluorescent biological aerosol particles (FBAPs). This instrument was flown on the National Center for Atmospheric Research Gulfstream V aircraft to measure concentrations of fluorescent biological particles from different potential sources and at various altitudes over the US western plains in early autumn. Clear-air number concentrations of FBAPs between 0.8 and 12 µm diameter usually decreased with height and generally were about 10-100 L-1 in the continental boundary layer but always much lower at temperatures colder than 255 K in the free troposphere. At intermediate temperatures where biological ice-nucleating particles may influence mixed-phase cloud formation (255 K ≤ T ≤ 270 K), concentrations of fluorescent particles were the most variable and were occasionally near boundary-layer concentrations. Predicted vertical distributions of ice-nucleating particle concentrations based on FBAP measurements in this temperature regime sometimes reached typical concentrations of primary ice in clouds but were often much lower. If convection was assumed to lift boundary-layer FBAPs without losses to the free troposphere, better agreement between predicted ice-nucleating particle concentrations and typical ice crystal concentrations was achieved. Ice-nucleating particle concentrations were also measured during one flight and showed a decrease with height, and concentrations were consistent with a relationship to FBAPs established previously at the forested surface site below. The vertical

  2. Springtime precipitation effects on the abundance of fluorescent biological aerosol particles and HULIS in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Siyao; Ren, Hong; Fan, Songyun; Sun, Yele; Wang, Zifa; Fu, Pingqing

    2016-01-01

    Bioaerosols and humic-like substances (HULIS) are important components of atmospheric aerosols, which can affect regional climate by acting as cloud condensation nuclei and some of which can damage human health. Up to date, release of bioaerosols and HULIS initiated by precipitation is still poorly understood. Here we present different release processes for bioaerosols, non-bioaerosols and HULIS during a precipitation event in Beijing, China. Large fungal-spore-like aerosols were emitted at the onset and later weak stage of precipitation, the number concentration of which increased by more than two folds, while the number concentration of bacteria-like particles doubled when the precipitation strengthened. Besides, a good correlation between protein-like substances that were measured simultaneously by on-line and off-line fluorescence techniques consolidated their applications to measure bioaerosols. Furthermore, our EEM results suggest that the relative contribution of water-soluble HULIS to microbial materials was enhanced gradually by the rain event. PMID:27470588

  3. Pochonia chlamydosporia: Advances and Challenges to Improve Its Performance as a Biological Control Agent of Sedentary Endo-parasitic Nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzanilla-López, Rosa H.; Esteves, Ivania; Finetti-Sialer, Mariella M.; Hirsch, Penny R.; Ward, Elaine; Devonshire, Jean; Hidalgo-Díaz, Leopoldo

    2013-01-01

    The nematophagous fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia var. chlamydosporia is one of the most studied biological control agents against plant (semi-) endo-parasitic nematodes of the genera Globodera, Heterodera, Meloidogyne, Nacobbus and, more recently, Rotylenchulus. In this paper we present highlights from more than three decades of worldwide research on this biological control agent. We cover different aspects and key components of the complex plant-fungus-nematode tri-trophic interaction, an interaction that needs to be addressed to ensure the efficient use of P. chlamydosporia as a biopesticide as part of an integrated pest management approach. PMID:23589653

  4. The potential of TaqMan Array Cards for detection of multiple biological agents by real-time PCR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip A Rachwal

    Full Text Available The TaqMan Array Card architecture, normally used for gene expression studies, was evaluated for its potential to detect multiple bacterial agents by real-time PCR. Ten PCR assays targeting five biological agents (Bacillus anthracis, Burkholderia mallei, Burkholderia pseudomallei, Francisella tularensis, and Yersinia pestis were incorporated onto Array Cards. A comparison of PCR performance of each PCR in Array Card and singleplex format was conducted using DNA extracted from pure bacterial cultures. When 100 fg of agent DNA was added to Array Card channels the following levels of agent detection (where at least one agent PCR replicate returned a positive result were observed: Y. pestis 100%, B. mallei & F. tularensis 93%; B. anthracis 71%; B. pseudomallei 43%. For B. mallei & pseudomallei detection the BPM2 PCR, which detects both species, outperformed PCR assays specific to each organism indicating identification of the respective species would not be reproducible at the 100 fg level. Near 100% levels of detection were observed when 100 fg of DNA was added to each PCR in singleplex format with singleplex PCRs also returning sporadic positives at the 10 fg per PCR level. Before evaluating the use of Array Cards for the testing of environmental and clinical sample types, with potential levels of background DNA and PCR inhibitors, users would therefore have to accept a 10-fold reduction in sensitivity of PCR assays on the Array Card format, in order to benefit for the capacity to test multiple samples for multiple agents. A two PCR per agent strategy would allow the testing of 7 samples for the presence of 11 biological agents or 3 samples for 23 biological agents per card (with negative control channels.

  5. Comparison of long-term drug survival and safety of biologic agents in patients with psoriasis vulgaris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gniadecki, R; Bang, B; Bryld, L E;

    2015-01-01

    has a significantly longer drug survival than the anti-TNF-α agents. Switching from one biologic to another is associated with an impairment of drug survival. Preventing loss of efficacy is a major area of medical need in the biologic therapy of psoriasis and the strategies that improve drug survival......BACKGROUND: Drug survival (time to drug discontinuation) has recently emerged as an important parameter reflecting the long-term therapeutic performance in a real-life setting. Biologic drug survival in psoriasis is mainly limited by a gradual loss of efficacy over time. Previous studies have been...... and to analyse the factors that influence drug survival. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data were extracted from the prospective registry DERMBIO covering all patients with psoriasis vulgaris treated with biologic agents in the academic centres in Denmark. Drug survival was analysed using the Kaplan...

  6. Innate positive chemotaxis to pollen from crops and banker plants in predaceous biological control agents: towards new field lures?

    OpenAIRE

    Shu Li; Xiaoling Tan; Nicolas Desneux; Giovanni Benelli; Jing Zhao; Xinhai Li; Fan Zhang; Xiwu Gao; Su Wang

    2015-01-01

    Predator-prey interactions form the core of biological control of arthropod pests. Which tools can be used to monitor and collect carnivorous arthropods in natural habitats and targeted crops? Eco-friendly and effective field lures are urgently needed. In this research, we carried out olfactometer experiments assess innate positive chemotaxis to pollen of seven crop and banker plant by two important predatory biological control agents: the coccinellid Propylea japonica (Thunberg) and the anth...

  7. Paradoxical reactions under TNF-α blocking agents and other biological agents given for chronic immune-mediated diseases: an analytical and comprehensive overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussirot, Éric; Aubin, François

    2016-01-01

    Paradoxical adverse events (PAEs) have been reported during biological treatment for chronic immune-mediated diseases. PAEs are defined as the occurrence during biological agent therapy of a pathological condition that usually responds to this class of drug. A wide range of PAEs have been reported including dermatological, intestinal and ophthalmic conditions, mainly with antitumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α) agents. True PAEs include psoriasis, Crohn's disease and hidradenitis suppurativa. Other PAEs may be qualified as borderline and include uveitis, scleritis, sarcoidosis and other granulomatous diseases (granuloma annulare, interstitial granulomatous dermatitis), vasculitis, vitiligo and alopecia areata. Proposed hypotheses to explain these PAEs include an imbalance in cytokine production, the differential immunological properties between the monoclonal antibodies and TNF-α soluble receptor, an unopposed type I interferon production and a shift towards a Th1/Th2 profile. Data from registries suggest that the risk for paradoxical psoriasis is low and non-significant. We discuss management of these PAEs, which depends on the type and severity of the adverse events, pre-existing treated conditions and the possibility of alternative therapeutic options for the underlying disease. Paradoxical adverse events are not restricted to anti-TNF-α agents and close surveillance of new available biological drugs (anti-interleukin-17/23, anti-integrin) is warranted in order to detect the occurrence of new or as yet undescribed events. PMID:27493788

  8. Estimation of the solubility of radioactive aerosol particles in biological liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solubility of aerosol 'hot' particles sampled in 1987 in the town of Pripyat in the simulated lung fluid (SLF) (Gamble or Ringer solution) and in 0.1 M HCl was studied under static conditions. Leaching of radionuclides from the 'hot' particles in SFL decreases in the order 137Cs > 90Sr >> 239+240Pu > 241Am, and in 0.1 M HCl in the order 90Sr > 241Am >> 137Cs > 239+240Pu. The degree of passing into 0.1 M HCl solution for 90Sr and 241Am was estimated at 3.3-21 and 2.7-17%, respectively. Depending on the particle size, 0.06-2.2% of 241Am and 0.2-1.8% of 239+240Pu passes into SLF within 28 days

  9. Spectroscopic characterization of biological agents using FTIR, normal Raman and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-Pineda, Tatiana; Soto-Feliciano, Kristina; De La Cruz-Montoya, Edwin; Pacheco Londoño, Leonardo C.; Ríos-Velázquez, Carlos; Hernández-Rivera, Samuel P.

    2007-04-01

    FTIR, Raman spectroscopy and Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) requires a minimum of sample allows fast identification of microorganisms. The use of this technique for characterizing the spectroscopic signatures of these agents and their stimulants has recently gained considerable attention due to the fact that these techniques can be easily adapted for standoff detection from considerable distances. The techniques also show high sensitivity and selectivity and offer near real time detection duty cycles. This research focuses in laying the grounds for the spectroscopic differentiation of Staphylococcus spp., Pseudomonas spp., Bacillus spp., Salmonella spp., Enterobacter aerogenes, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and E. coli, together with identification of their subspecies. In order to achieve the proponed objective, protocols to handle, cultivate and analyze the strains have been developed. Spectroscopic similarities and marked differences have been found for Spontaneous or Normal Raman spectra and for SERS using silver nanoparticles have been found. The use of principal component analysis (PCA), discriminate factor analysis (DFA) and a cluster analysis were used to evaluate the efficacy of identifying potential threat bacterial from their spectra collected on single bacteria. The DFA from the bacteria Raman spectra show a little discrimination between the diverse bacterial species however the results obtained from the SERS demonstrate to be high discrimination technique. The spectroscopic study will be extended to examine the spores produced by selected strains since these are more prone to be used as Biological Warfare Agents due to their increased mobility and possibility of airborne transport. Micro infrared spectroscopy as well as fiber coupled FTIR will also be used as possible sensors of target compounds.

  10. Purpureocillium lilacinum, potential agent for biological control of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex lundii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffré, D; Folgarait, P J

    2015-09-01

    Many leaf-cutter ant species are well known pests in Latin America, including species of the genera Acromyrmex and Atta. An environmentally friendly strategy to reduce the number of leafcutter ants and avoid indiscriminate use of chemical pesticides is biological control. In this work we evaluated the effectiveness of a strain of the entomopathogen Purpureocillium lilacinum, against worker ants from six Acromyrmex lundii field colonies, after immersions in pure suspensions at a concentration of 1×10(6)conidiaml(-1). Survival of ants treated with P. lilacinum was significantly lower than that recorded in controls, and median lethal time (LT50) was 6-7days. P. lilacinum was responsible for 85.6% (80.6-89.7) of the mortality in inoculated ants, in which we found that the percentage of other entomopathogens that naturally infected ants decreased also, suggesting a good competitive capability of the fungus. Horizontal transmission to non-inoculated ants was also evidenced, given that 58.5% (41.9-64.2) of them died because of P. lilacinum. Moreover, we tested pathogenicity for three concentrations of this strain (1.0×10(4), 10(6) and 10(8)conidiaml(-1)) and found a significantly faster mortality of ants and greater median percentage of infection at 10(8)conidiaml(-1) of P. lilacinum. CL50 value was 2.8×10(5)conidiaml(-1). We thus propose the use of P. lilacinum as a biological control agent of leafcutter ants in crops and plantations. PMID:26205173

  11. Fungal biological control agents for integrated management of Culicoides spp. (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae of livestock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. W. Narladkar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana had wide host range against insects and hence these are being exploited as fungal bio-pesticide on a large scale. Both fungi are proved pesticides against many crop pests and farmers are well acquainted with their use on the field. Thus, research was aimed to explore the potency of these fungal spores against larval and adult Culicoides midges, a pest of livestock. Materials and Methods: In-vitro testing of both fungal biological control agents was undertaken in Petri dishes against field collected Culicoides larvae, while in plastic beakers against field collected blood-engorged female Culicoides midges. In-vivo testing was undertaken by spraying requisite concentration of fungal spores on the drainage channel against larvae and resting sites of adult Culicoides midges in the cattle shed. Lethal concentration 50 (LC50 values and regression equations were drawn by following probit analysis using SPSS statistical computerized program. Results: The results of this study revealed LC50 values of 2692 mg and 3837 mg (108 cfu/g for B. bassiana and M. anisopliae, respectively, against Culicoides spp. larvae. Death of Culicoides larvae due to B. bassiana showed greenish coloration in the middle of the body with head and tail showed intense blackish changes, while infection of M. anisopliae resulted in death of Culicoides larvae with greenish and blackish coloration of body along with total destruction, followed by desquamation of intestinal channel. The death of adult Culicoides midges were caused by both the fungi and after death growth of fungus were very well observed on the dead cadavers proving the efficacy of the fungus. Conclusion: Preliminary trials with both funguses (M. anisopliae, B. bassiana showed encouraging results against larvae and adults of Culicoides spp. Hence, it was ascertained that, these two fungal molecules can form a part of biological control and

  12. Terapia com agentes biológicos na criança e no adolescente Treatment with biologic agents in child and adolescent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Maisse Suehiro

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Revisar os mecanismos fisiopatológicos e novos alvos terapêuticos, os agentes biológicos disponíveis, principais indicações e a evidência científica atual para o uso de terapias biológicas na população pediátrica. FONTES DE DADOS: Pesquisa na base de dados Medline e SciELO, nas línguas inglesa e portuguesa, entre 2000 e 2009. As palavras-chave usadas foram "agentes biológicos", "crianças" e "adolescentes". SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Os agentes biológicos são uma importante opção terapêutica para tratar as doenças autoimunes refratárias às terapias convencionais na infância e na adolescência. Com exceção da artrite idiopática juvenil, a maioria dos estudos em outras doenças autoimunes não é controlada. CONCLUSÕES: Os agentes biológicos têm demonstrado eficácia no tratamento de doenças autoimunes pediátricas como artrite idiopática juvenil, miopatias idiopáticas inflamatórias, lúpus eritematoso juvenil, vasculites, uveítes crônicas, doenças inflamatórias intestinais e púrpura trombocitopênica imune crônica, assim como no linfoma não-Hodgkin. Considerando-se o custo elevado e os potenciais eventos adversos, o uso desses agentes deve ser individualizado e acompanhado por especialista.OBJECTIVE: To review the physiopathology and new therapeutical targets, the available biologic agents, the main indications and the current scientific evidence for the use of biological therapies in the pediatric population. DATA SOURCES: A bibliographical search was obtained from Medline and SciELO databases in English and Portuguese from 2000 to 2009. The key-words included were "biologic agent", "children" and "adolescent". DATA SYNTHESIS: Biologic agents are important therapeutic options to treat refractory autoimmune diseases to conventional therapies in childhood and adolescence. Excluding juvenile idiopathic arthritis, the majority of studies in other autoimmune diseases are uncontrolled trials. CONCLUSIONS

  13. 75 FR 28233 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for a Biological Control Agent for Asian Citrus Psyllid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-20

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Availability of an Environmental Assessment for a Biological Control Agent for Asian Citrus Psyllid AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION... Plant Health Inspection Service has prepared an environmental assessment relative to the control...

  14. Life history of Parafreutreta regalis, (diptera:tephritidae), a candidate agent for biological control of delairea odorata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cape-ivy, Delairea odorata Lamaire, is an ornamental vine, native to the eastern part of South Africa, which has escaped into natural areas in many countries and become a serious pest. Exploratory surveys in South Africa located several potential biological control agents. One of these is Parafreu...

  15. Comparison of traditional and molecular analytical methods for detecting biological agents in raw and drinking water following ultrafiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francy, D.S.; Bushon, R.N.; Brady, A.M.G.; Bertke, E.E.; Kephart, C.M.; Likirdopulos, C.A.; Mailot, B.E.; Schaefer, F. W., III; Lindquist, H.D. Alan

    2009-01-01

    Aims: To compare the performance of traditional methods to quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for detecting five biological agents in large-volume drinking-water samples concentrated by ultrafiltration (UF). Methods and Results: Drinking-water samples (100 l) were seeded with Bacillus anthracis, Cryptospordium parvum, Francisella tularensis, Salmonella Typhi, and Vibrio cholerae and concentrated by UF. Recoveries by traditional methods were variable between samples and between some replicates; recoveries were not determined by qPCR. Francisella tularensis and V. cholerae were detected in all 14 samples after UF, B. anthracis was detected in 13, and C. parvum was detected in 9 out of 14 samples. Numbers found by qPCR after UF were significantly or nearly related to those found by traditional methods for all organisms except for C. parvum. A qPCR assay for S. Typhi was not available. Conclusions: qPCR can be used to rapidly detect biological agents after UF as well as traditional methods, but additional work is needed to improve qPCR assays for several biological agents, determine recoveries by qPCR, and expand the study to other areas. Significance and Impact of the Study: To our knowledge, this is the first study to compare the use of traditional and qPCR methods to detect biological agents in large-volume drinking-water samples. ?? 2009 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. Life history and host range of Oxydia vesulia transpeneus, an unsuitable biological control agent of Brazilian peppertree

    Science.gov (United States)

    The suitability of Oxydia vesulia (Cramer) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) was assessed as a potential biological control agent of the invasive weed Brazilian Peppertree Schinus terebinthifolia. Larvae were collected in Brazil feeding on the plant in its native range and colonized in quarantine where lif...

  17. Effect of host-plant genotypes on the performance of three candidate biological control agents of Schinus terebinthifolius in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazilian pepper is a weed in Florida, California and Hawaii that originates from South America. In Florida we have found two distinct types of Brazilian pepper plant and a hybrid between these two types. To control this weed, three biological control agents are being evaluated from Brazil. These ar...

  18. Efficiacy of bumble bee disseminated biological control agents for control of Botrytis Blossom blight of Rabbiteye Blueberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botrytis blossom blight caused by Botrytis cinerea may cause severe crop loss in rabbiteye blueberry, necessitating applications of expensive fungicides. Commercial bumble bees, Bombus impatiens, were tested as vectors of the fungicidal biological control agents (BCAs), Prestop® Gliocladium catenula...

  19. HIGHLY SELECTIVE SENSORS FOR CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL WARFARE AGENTS, INSECTICIDES AND VOCS BASED ON A MOLECULAR SURFACE IMPRINTING TECHNIQUE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract was given as an oral platform presentation at the Pittsburgh Conference, Orlando FL (March 5-9, 2006). Research described is the development of sensors based on molecular surface imprinting. Applications include the monitoring of chemical and biological agents and inse...

  20. Functionalized gold nanoparticle supported sensory mechanisms applied in detection of chemical and biological threat agents: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyayula, Venkata K K

    2012-02-17

    There is a great necessity for development of novel sensory concepts supportive of smart sensing capabilities in defense and homeland security applications for detection of chemical and biological threat agents. A smart sensor is a detection device that can exhibit important features such as speed, sensitivity, selectivity, portability, and more importantly, simplicity in identifying a target analyte. Emerging nanomaterial based sensors, particularly those developed by utilizing functionalized gold nanoparticles (GNPs) as a sensing component potentially offer many desirable features needed for threat agent detection. The sensitiveness of physical properties expressed by GNPs, e.g. color, surface plasmon resonance, electrical conductivity and binding affinity are significantly enhanced when they are subjected to functionalization with an appropriate metal, organic or biomolecular functional groups. This sensitive nature of functionalized GNPs can be potentially exploited in the design of threat agent detection devices with smart sensing capabilities. In the presence of a target analyte (i.e., a chemical or biological threat agent) a change proportional to concentration of the analyte is observed, which can be measured either by colorimetric, fluorimetric, electrochemical or spectroscopic means. This article provides a review of how functionally modified gold colloids are applied in the detection of a broad range of threat agents, including radioactive substances, explosive compounds, chemical warfare agents, biotoxins, and biothreat pathogens through any of the four sensory means mentioned previously. PMID:22244163

  1. Fluorescent biological aerosol particle measurements at a tropical high-altitude site in southern India during the southwest monsoon season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valsan, A. E.; Ravikrishna, R.; Biju, C. V.; Pöhlker, C.; Després, V. R.; Huffman, J. A.; Pöschl, U.; Gunthe, S. S.

    2016-08-01

    An ultraviolet aerodynamic particle sizer (UV-APS) was continuously operated for the first time during two seasons to sample the contrasting winds during monsoon and winter to characterize the properties of fluorescent biological aerosol particles (FBAPs), at a high-altitude site in India. Averaged over the entire monsoon campaign (1 June-21 August 2014), the arithmetic mean number and mass concentrations of coarse-mode (> 1 µm) FBAPs were 0.02 cm-3 and 0.24 µg m-3, respectively, which corresponded to ˜ 2 and 6 % of total aerosol loading, respectively. Average FBAP number size distribution exhibited a peak at ˜ 3 µm, which is attributed to the fungal spores, as supported by scanning electron microscope (SEM) images, and these results are consistent with previous studies made for FBAPs. During 11 weeks of measurements the variability of the total coarse-mode particle number (TAP) concentration was high compared to that observed in FBAP number concentrations. The TAP and FBAP number concentrations measured at this site were strongly dependent on changes in wind direction and rainfall. During periods of westerly/southwesterly winds with heavy persistent rainfall, the TAP and FBAP concentrations exhibited very low values (1.3 and 0.005 cm-3, respectively) with no significant diurnal variations, whereas during periods of northerly winds with scattered rainfall FBAPs exhibited relatively high concentration values (0.05 cm-3) with pronounced diurnal variations, which were strongly coupled with diurnal variations in meteorological parameters. The campaign-averaged FBAP number concentrations were shown to correlate with daily patterns of meteorological parameters and were positively correlated with relative humidity (RH; R2 = 0.58) and negatively with temperature (R2 = 0.60) and wind speed (R2 = 0.60). We did not observe any significant positive correlation with precipitation as reported by previous researchers from selected areas. These measurement results confirm the

  2. Metarhizium anisopliae as a Biological Control Agent Against Hyalomma anatolicum (Acari: Ixodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.T. Shigidi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Sudan, ticks and Tick-borne Diseases (TBDs with subsequent costs of control and treatment are causing substantial economic loss. Control of ticks is mainly by chemical insecticides. The rising environmental hazards and problem of resistance has motivated research on biological agents as alternative methods of control. The present study aims at controlling livestock ticks using fungi for their unique mode of action besides their ability to adhere to the cuticle, to germinate and penetrate enzymatically. The study was conducted to evaluate the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae for tick control as an alternative mean to chemical acaricides. Pathogenicity of the fungus was tested on different developmental stages of the tick Hyalomma anatolicum. The fungus induced high mortality to flat immature stages. It, also, affected reproductive potential of the females. Egg laid, hatching percent, fertility and moulting percent of immature stages were significantly (p≤0.05 reduced. It was, also, shown that the fungus had ability to adhere to the cuticle and penetrate the integument of the tick. Conidia of the fungus were isolated from their internal tissues. This phenomenon is important in considering fungi as bioinsecticides. Infection of eggs laid by treated engorged female ticks, with the fungus might demonstrate suggesting transovarian transmission. The use of M. anisopliae to control ticks is discussed.

  3. Identification and Characterization of Lysobacter enzymogenes as a Biological Control Agent Against Some Fungal Pathogens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Guo-liang; HU Bai-shi; JIANG Ying-hua; LIU Feng-quan

    2009-01-01

    Strain OH11, a Gram-negative, nonspore forming, rod-shaped bacterium with powerful antagonistic activity, was isolated from rhizosphere of green pepper in Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences of China and characterized to determine its taxonomic position. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain OH11 belongs to the Gammaproteobacteria and had the highest degree of sequence similarity to Lysobacter enzymogenes strain C3 (AY074793) (99%), Lysobacter enzyrnogenes strain N4-7 (U89965) (99%), Lysobacter antibioticus strain (AB019582) (97%), and Lysobacter gummosus strain (AB16136) (97%). Chemotaxonomic data revealed that strain OH11 possesses a quinine system with Q-8 as the predominant compound and C15:0 iso,C17:1 iso w9c as the predominant iso-branched fatty acids,all of which corroborated the assignment of strain OH11 to the genus Lysobacter. Results of DNA-DNA hybridization and physiological and biochemical tests clearly showed that strain OH11 was classified as Lysobacter enzymogenes. Strain OH11 could produce protease, chitinase, and β-1,3-glucanase. It showed strong in vitro antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotinia scletotiorum, and several other phytopathogenic fungi. This is the first report of identification and characterization of Lysobacter enzymogenes as a biological control agent of plant diseases in China.

  4. Detection of biological warfare agents with fiber-optic microsphere-based DNA arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Linan; Walt, David R.

    2005-11-01

    Biological warfare agents (BWAs) pose significant threats to both military forces and civilian populations. The increased concern about bioterrorism has promoted the development of rapid, sensitive, and reliable detection systems to provide an early warning for detecting the release of BWAs. We have developed a high-density DNA array to detect BWAs in real environmental samples with fast response times and high sensitivity. An optical fiber bundle containing approximately 50,000 individual 3.1 μm diameter fibers was chemically etched to yield an array of microwells and used as the substrate for the array. 50-mer single-stranded DNA probes designed to be specific for target BWAs were covalently attached to 3.1-μm microspheres, and the microspheres were distributed into the microwells to form a randomized high-density DNA array. We demonstrated the applicability of this DNA array for the identification of Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki, a BWA simulant, in real samples. PCR was used to amplify the sequences, introduce fluorescent labels into the target molecules, and provide a second level of specificity. After hybridization of test solutions to the array, analysis was performed by evaluating the specific responses of individual probes on the array.

  5. Capillary zone electrophoresis analysis and detection of mid-spectrum biological warfare agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulet, C.A.; Townsley, C.

    1995-04-01

    DRE Suffield has initiated a research program to develop methods and equipment for field detection and laboratory identification of mid-spectrum agents, molecules of biological origin such as proteins, peptides and toxins. In this study, a highly efficient and reproducible capillary zone electrophoresis method was developed to separate and identify a series of nine peptides of defence interest: bradykinin, bradykinin fragment 1-5, substance P,ARG8-vasopressin, luteinizing hormone releasing hormone, bombesin, leucine enkephalin, methionine enkephalin, and oxytocin. Using a 50 micrometer x 47 cm capillary column, 22.5 kV separation voltage and a 100 mM pH 2.5 phosphate buffer, all nine peptide could separated in under 10 minutes. Three strategies, which could be used in a fully automated field detection and identification system, were demonstrated for the identification of unknown peptides: comparison of migration times, comparison of electrophoretic mobilities, and co-injection of multiple reference standards. These experiments demonstrate that a separation based analytical method such as capillary electrophoresis could form the basis of a generic detection system for mid-spectrum protein and peptide toxins.

  6. Biological evaluation of Phellinus linteus-fermented broths as anti-inflammatory agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Jung; Lien, Hsiu-Man; Chang, Hsiao-Yun; Huang, Chao-Lu; Liu, Jau-Jin; Chang, Yun-Chieh; Chen, Chia-Chang; Lai, Chih-Ho

    2014-07-01

    Phellinus linteus and its constituent hispolon induce potent anti-inflammatory activity in macrophages. Efficient production of the effective constituent and the biological function of P. linteus in the regulation of innate sensing have rarely been investigated. The aim of this study was to efficiently manufacture P. linteus-fermented broth containing the effective constituent, hispolon, and evaluate its immunoregulatory functions in macrophages. Four distinct fermented broths (PL1-4) and the medium dialyzate (MD) were prepared to screen suitable culture conditions for the mycelial growth of P. linteus. The P. linteus-fermented broth exhibited a dose-responsive inhibition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production by murine macrophages. In addition, the P. linteus-fermented broths suppressed macrophage LPS-mediated nuclear factor (NF)-κB activity and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Among the tested samples from P. linteus, PL4 contained vast amounts of hispolon and showed the greatest anti-inflammatory activity in both the RAW264.7 cells and murine primary peritoneal exudate macrophages (PEMs). This study demonstrates that the purification of the effective constituent from P. linteus-fermented broth may enable the production of a potent therapeutic agent for anti-inflammation in macrophages. PMID:24503424

  7. Proceedings First Workshop on Applications of Membrane computing, Concurrency and Agent-based modelling in POPulation biology

    CERN Document Server

    Milazzo, Paolo; 10.4204/EPTCS.33

    2010-01-01

    This volume contains the papers presented at the first International Workshop on Applications of Membrane Computing, Concurrency and Agent-based Modelling in Population Biology (AMCA-POP 2010) held in Jena, Germany on August 25th, 2010 as a satellite event of the 11th Conference on Membrane Computing (CMC11). The aim of the workshop is to investigate whether formal modelling and analysis techniques could be applied with profit to systems of interest for population biology and ecology. The considered modelling notations include membrane systems, Petri nets, agent-based notations, process calculi, automata-based notations, rewriting systems and cellular automata. Such notations enable the application of analysis techniques such as simulation, model checking, abstract interpretation and type systems to study systems of interest in disciplines such as population biology, ecosystem science, epidemiology, genetics, sustainability science, evolution and other disciplines in which population dynamics and interactions...

  8. Abundance of fluorescent biological aerosol particles at temperatures conducive to the formation of mixed-phase and cirrus clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Twohy, C. H.; McMeeking, G. R.; DeMott, Paul J.; McCluskey, Christina; Hill, TC J.; Burrows, Susannah M.; Kulkarni, Gourihar R.; Tanarhte, M.; Kafle, D. N.; Toohey, D. W.

    2016-07-08

    Some types of biological particles are known to efficiently nucleate ice at relatively warm temperatures in the atmosphere, with the potential to influence cloud microphysical properties and climate. However, the prevalence of these particle types above the atmospheric boundary layer is not well known. Many types of biological particles fluoresce when exposed to ultraviolet light, and the Wideband Integrated Bioaerosol Sensor takes advantage of this characteristic to perform real-time measurements of fluorescent biological aerosol particles (FBAP). This relatively new instrument was flown on the National Center for Atmospheric Research Gulfstream-V aircraft to measure concentrations of fluorescent biological particles from different potential sources and at various altitudes over the U. S. western plains states in early autumn. Clear-air concentrations of FBAP larger than 0.8 µm in diameter usually decreased with height, and generally were about 10-100 L-1 in the continental boundary layer, but were always much lower in the free troposphere at temperatures colder than about 255K. Ice nucleating particle number concentrations measured during one flight also showed a decrease with height, and were consistent with a relationship to FBAP established previously at the surface at the same location. At intermediate ambient temperatures where biological ice nucleating particles may influence mixed-phase cloud formation (255K≤T≤270K), concentrations of fluorescent particles were the most variable, and were occasionally near boundary layer values. Predicted vertical profiles of ice nucleating particle concentrations based on FBAP measurements in this temperature regime sometimes reached typical ice crystal concentrations in clouds, but were often much lower. If convection was assumed to lift boundary layer FBAP particles without losses to the free troposphere, better agreement between predicted ice-nucleating particle concentrations and typical ice crystal number

  9. Suppressive composts from organic wastes as agents of biological control of fusariosis in Tatartan Republic (Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumerova, Raushaniya; Galitskaya, Polina; Beru, Franchesca; Selivanovskaya, Svetlana

    2015-04-01

    pepton agar, the composts and their water extracts were checked towards their ability to inhibit growth of F. oxysporum. It was shown that three composts - CD, FPM and RD - possessed suppressiveness towards the model phytopathogen. From these three wastes, 28 bacterial and fungal strains were isolated and, in their turn, checked towards their ability to inhibit F. oxysporum. It was demonstrated that five of the isolated strains are highly suppressive to model test-object (the growth area of F. oxysporum did not exceed 30%), six of the stains were moderate suppressive (the growth area of F. oxysporum ranged from 35% to 60%), and other strains did not cause negative effects for the model phytopathogen. Further, we will check the composts and the isolated strains using the model system "soil - tomato plant - phytopathogen". As a result, effective composts and strains will be recommended as agents for biological control of fungal diseases in the region. Besides, the structure of bacterial and fungal community of the composts with suppressive properties will be assessed using 454-pyrosequencing.

  10. Laboratory evaluation of two native fishes from tropical North Queensland as biological control agents of subterranean Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, B M; Wang, J; Williams, Y; Hearnden, M N; Kay, B H

    2001-06-01

    The ability of 2 freshwater fishes, eastern rainbow fish Melanotaenia splendida splendida and fly-specked hardyhead Craterocephalus stercusmuscarum stercusmuscarum, native to North Queensland to prey on immature Aedes aegypti was evaluated under laboratory conditions. The predation efficiency of the 2 species was compared to the exotic guppy, Poecilia reticulata, which is commonly used as a biological control agent of mosquito larvae. Of the 3 fish species tested, M. s. splendida was shown to be the most promising agent for the biological control of Ae. aegypti that breed in wells. Melanotaenia s. splendida consumed significantly greater numbers of immature Ae. aegypti than P. reticulata, irrespective of developmental stage or light conditions. Unlike C s. stercusmuscarum, M. s. splendida could be handled, transported, and kept in captivity for extended periods with negligible mortality. However, M. s. splendida was also an efficient predator of Litoria caerulea tadpoles, a species of native frog found in wells during the dry season. This result may limit the usefulness of M. s. splendida as a biological control agent of well-breeding Ae. aegypti and suggests that predacious copepods, Mesocyclops spp., are more suitable. However, the use of M. s. splendida as a mosquito control agent in containers that are unlikely to support frog populations (e.g., aquaculture tanks and drinking troughs) should be given serious consideration. PMID:11480819

  11. Reducing Mortality from Terrorist Releases of Chemical and Biological Agents: I. Filtration for Ventilation Systems in Commercial Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thatcher, Tracy L.; Daisey, Joan M.

    1999-09-01

    There is growing concern about potential terrorist attacks involving releases of chemical and/or biological (CB) agents, such as sarin or anthrax, in and around buildings. For an external release, the CB agent can enter the building through the air intakes of a building's mechanical ventilation system and by infiltration through the building envelope. For an interior release in a single room, the mechanical ventilation system, which often recirculates some fraction of the air within a building, may distribute the released CB agent throughout the building. For both cases, installing building systems that remove chemical and biological agents may be the most effective way to protect building occupants. Filtration systems installed in the heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems of buildings can significantly reduce exposures of building occupants in the event of a release, whether the release is outdoors or indoors. Reduced exposures can reduce the number of deaths from a terrorist attack. The purpose of this report is to provide information and examples of the design of filtration systems to help building engineers retrofit HVAC systems. The report also provides background information on the physical nature of CB agents and brief overviews of the basic principles of particle and vapor filtration.

  12. Predicting the host range of Nystalea ebalea: secondary plant chemistry and host selection by a surrogate biological control agent of Schinus terebinthifolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    The safety of weed biological control depends upon the selection and utilization of the target weed by the agent while causing minimal harm to non-target species. Selection of weed species by biological control agents is determined by the presence of behavioral cues, generally host secondary plant c...

  13. 以有机酸钾盐为可燃剂的气溶胶灭火剂试验%Experimental study on aerosol fire extinguishing agent with organic acid potassium as combustible material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鹏; 李玉

    2011-01-01

    用1 m密闭试验葙进行灭火性能试验,采用半分法得出两种以有机酸钾盐为主要可燃剂的气溶胶灭火剂的配方,并对比其灭火时间.在热气溶胶灭火剂中添加碳酸钾作为热耗散剂,以降低反应速度,减小火焰外喷.用兰利法进行试验,得出了两种灭火剂的99%概率灭火效能,在70~75 g/m之间.经测量,气溶胶灭火剂的燃烧产物是低毒的.气溶胶灭火剂在灭火时的不确定度很大,应以概率论的方法研究其灭火能力.%An airtight box with 1 m3 was used to test fire extinguishing performance; two kinds of aerosol fire extinguishing agents with organic acid potassium as combustible material were got by split- half method, and the fire- extinguishing time was compared. Potassium carbonate was added into aerosol fire extinguishing agents as heat dissipative agents to slow down the reaction and reduce the flame. Langlie method was used in experiments, the 99% application density of these twa extinguishing agents were got, between 70~75 g/m3. At last, the toxicity of combustion product of these two aerosol fire extinguishing agents was tested to be low. The application of probability theory in the study of fire extinguishing performance of aerosol fire extinguishing agent is necessary because of the uncertainty of putting out fire by aerosol fire extinguishing agents.

  14. Preliminary assessment of the interaction of introduced biological agents with biofilms in water distribution systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinclair, Michael B.; Caldwell, Sara; Jones, Howland D. T.; Altman, Susan Jeanne; Souza, Caroline Ann; McGrath, Lucas K.

    2005-12-01

    Basic research is needed to better understand the potential risk of dangerous biological agents that are unintentionally or intentionally introduced into a water distribution system. We report on our capabilities to conduct such studies and our preliminary investigations. In 2004, the Biofilms Laboratory was initiated for the purpose of conducting applied research related to biofilms with a focus on application, application testing and system-scale research. Capabilities within the laboratory are the ability to grow biofilms formed from known bacteria or biofilms from drinking water. Biofilms can be grown quickly in drip-flow reactors or under conditions more analogous to drinking-water distribution systems in annular reactors. Biofilms can be assessed through standard microbiological techniques (i .e, aerobic plate counts) or with various visualization techniques including epifluorescent and confocal laser scanning microscopy and confocal fluorescence hyperspectral imaging with multivariate analysis. We have demonstrated the ability to grow reproducible Pseudomonas fluorescens biofilms in the annular reactor with plate counts on the order of 10{sup 5} and 10{sup 6} CFU/cm{sup 2}. Stationary phase growth is typically reached 5 to 10 days after inoculation. We have also conducted a series of pathogen-introduction experiments, where we have observed that both polystyrene microspheres and Bacillus cereus (as a surrogate for B. anthracis) stay incorporated in the biofilms for the duration of our experiments, which lasted as long as 36 days. These results indicated that biofilms may act as a safe harbor for bio-pathogens in drinking water systems, making it difficult to decontaminate the systems.

  15. Surface plasmon resonance detection of biological warfare agent Staphylococcal enterotoxin B using high affinity monoclonal antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel sensitive method was developed for the detection as well as quantification of Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) using surface plasmon resonance (SPR). It is well known that the amount of SEB needed to cause the intoxication to human beings is very less and this concentration (0.02 μg/kg) is highly dangerous, hence, it is used as biological warfare agent. Thus, the need to develop a reliable and potential detection system against SEB is warranted. In the present work, SEB antibody was immobilized on carboxymethyldextran modified gold chip. The immobilization of SEB antibody and interaction of antigen with immobilized antibody were in-situ characterized by SPR and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. A sample solution containing SEB antigen was injected in a working channel and the results revealed linearity in the concentration from 2.0 to 32.0 pM with a detection limit of 1.0 pM. By using kinetic evaluation software, KD (equilibrium constant) and Bmax (maximum binding capacity of analyte) values were calculated and found to be 13 pM and 424.23, respectively. Moreover, the thermodynamic parameter, change in Gibb's free energy was deduced and found to be -62.08 kJ/mol and this value shows the spontaneous interaction between SEB antigen and SEB antibody. In order to optimize the detection method, temperature and pH variation studies were also performed. Interference study was conducted to know the selectivity for the antigen-antibody interaction of SEB. The selectivity efficiency of SEB, SEC, SEA and SED were 100, 27.15, 20.01 and 12.05%, respectively towards SEB antibody.

  16. Multiple functional UV devices based on III-Nitride quantum wells for biological warfare agent detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qin; Savage, Susan; Persson, Sirpa; Noharet, Bertrand; Junique, Stéphane; Andersson, Jan Y.; Liuolia, Vytautas; Marcinkevicius, Saulius

    2009-02-01

    We have demonstrated surface normal detecting/filtering/emitting multiple functional ultraviolet (UV) optoelectronic devices based on InGaN/GaN, InGaN/AlGaN and AlxGa1-xN/AlyGa1-yN multiple quantum well (MQW) structures with operation wavelengths ranging from 270 nm to 450 nm. Utilizing MQW structure as device active layer offers a flexibility to tune its long cut-off wavelength in a wide UV range from solar-blind to visible by adjusting the well width, well composition and barrier height. Similarly, its short cut-off wavelength can be adjusted by using a GaN or AlGaN block layer on a sapphire substrate when the device is illuminated from its backside, which further provides an optical filtering effect. When a current injects into the device under forward bias the device acts as an UV light emitter, whereas the device performs as a typical photodetector under reverse biases. With applying an alternating external bias the device might be used as electroabsorption modulator due to quantum confined Stark effect. In present work fabricated devices have been characterized by transmission/absorption spectra, photoresponsivity, electroluminescence, and photoluminescence measurements under various forward and reverse biases. The piezoelectric effect, alloy broadening and Stokes shift between the emission and absorption spectra in different InGaN- and AlGaN-based QW structures have been investigated and compared. Possibilities of monolithic or hybrid integration using such multiple functional devices for biological warfare agents sensing application have also be discussed.

  17. The importance of molecular tools in classical biological control of weeds: Two case studies with yellow starthistle candidate biological agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molecular analyses may play a primary role in the process of host-specificity evaluation at species and population levels; here are reported two examples of their application with new candidate biocontrol agents for yellow starthistle (YST). Ceratapion basicorne is a root-crown boring weevil that sh...

  18. Ambient measurements of biological aerosol particles near Killarney, Ireland: a comparison between real-time fluorescence and microscopy techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Healy

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Primary biological aerosol particles (PBAP can contribute significantly to the coarse particle burden in many environments, may thus influence climate and precipitation systems as cloud nuclei, and can spread disease to humans, animals, and plants. Measurements of PBAP in natural environments taken at high time- and size- resolution are, however, sparse and so large uncertainties remain in the role that biological particles play in the Earth system. In this study two commercial real-time fluorescence particle sensors and a Sporewatch single-stage particle impactor were operated continuously from 2 August to 2 September 2010 at a rural sampling location in Killarney National Park in south western Ireland. A cascade impactor was operated periodically to collect size-resolved particles during exemplary periods. Here we report the first ambient comparison of the waveband integrated bioaerosol sensor (WIBS-4 with the ultraviolet aerodynamic particle sizer (UV-APS and also compare these real-time fluorescence techniques with results of fluorescence and optical microscopy of impacted samples. Both real-time instruments showed qualitatively similar behaviour, with increased fluorescent bioparticle concentrations at night when relative humidity was highest and temperature was lowest. The fluorescent particle number from the FL3 channel of the WIBS-4 and from the UV-APS were strongly correlated and dominated by a 3 μm mode in the particle size distribution. The WIBS FL2 channel exhibited particle modes at approx. 1 and 3 μm, and each were correlated with the concentration of fungal spores commonly observed in air samples collected at the site (ascospores, basidiospores, Ganoderma spp.. The WIBS FL1 channel exhibited variable multi-modal distributions turning into a broad featureless single mode after averaging and exhibited poor correlation with fungal spore concentrations, which may be due to the detection of bacterial and non-biological fluorescent

  19. Ambient measurements of biological aerosol particles near Killarney, Ireland: a comparison between real-time fluorescence and microscopy techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, D. A.; Huffman, J. A.; O'Connor, D. J.; Pöhlker, C.; Pöschl, U.; Sodeau, J. R.

    2014-08-01

    Primary biological aerosol particles (PBAPs) can contribute significantly to the coarse particle burden in many environments. PBAPs can thus influence climate and precipitation systems as cloud nuclei and can spread disease to humans, animals, and plants. Measurement data and techniques for PBAPs in natural environments at high time- and size resolution are, however, sparse, and so large uncertainties remain in the role that biological particles play in the Earth system. In this study two commercial real-time fluorescence particle sensors and a Sporewatch single-stage particle impactor were operated continuously from 2 August to 2 September 2010 at a rural sampling location in Killarney National Park in southwestern Ireland. A cascade impactor was operated periodically to collect size-resolved particles during exemplary periods. Here we report the first ambient comparison of a waveband integrated bioaerosol sensor (WIBS-4) with a ultraviolet aerodynamic particle sizer (UV-APS) and also compare these real-time fluorescence techniques with results of fluorescence and optical microscopy of impacted samples. Both real-time instruments showed qualitatively similar behavior, with increased fluorescent bioparticle concentrations at night, when relative humidity was highest and temperature was lowest. The fluorescent particle number from the FL3 channel of the WIBS-4 and from the UV-APS were strongly correlated and dominated by a 3 μm mode in the particle size distribution. The WIBS FL2 channel exhibited particle modes at approx. 1 and 3 μm, and each was correlated with the concentration of fungal spores commonly observed in air samples collected at the site (ascospores, basidiospores, Ganoderma spp.). The WIBS FL1 channel exhibited variable multimodal distributions turning into a broad featureless single mode after averaging, and exhibited poor correlation with fungal spore concentrations, which may be due to the detection of bacterial and non-biological fluorescent

  20. Direct Deposition of Gas Phase Generated Aerosol Gold Nanoparticles into Biological Fluids - Corona Formation and Particle Size Shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Christian R.; Messing, Maria E.; Lundqvist, Martin; Schollin, Alexander; Deppert, Knut; Pagels, Joakim H.; Rissler, Jenny; Cedervall, Tommy

    2013-01-01

    An ongoing discussion whether traditional toxicological methods are sufficient to evaluate the risks associated with nanoparticle inhalation has led to the emergence of Air-Liquid interface toxicology. As a step in this process, this study explores the evolution of particle characteristics as they move from the airborne state into physiological solution. Airborne gold nanoparticles (AuNP) are generated using an evaporation-condensation technique. Spherical and agglomerate AuNPs are deposited into physiological solutions of increasing biological complexity. The AuNP size is characterized in air as mobility diameter and in liquid as hydrodynamic diameter. AuNP:Protein aggregation in physiological solutions is determined using dynamic light scattering, particle tracking analysis, and UV absorption spectroscopy. AuNPs deposited into homocysteine buffer form large gold-aggregates. Spherical AuNPs deposited in solutions of albumin were trapped at the Air-Liquid interface but was readily suspended in the solutions with a size close to that of the airborne particles, indicating that AuNP:Protein complex formation is promoted. Deposition into serum and lung fluid resulted in larger complexes, reflecting the formation of a more complex protein corona. UV absorption spectroscopy indicated no further aggregation of the AuNPs after deposition in solution. The corona of the deposited AuNPs shows differences compared to AuNPs generated in suspension. Deposition of AuNPs from the aerosol phase into biological fluids offers a method to study the protein corona formed, upon inhalation and deposition in the lungs in a more realistic way compared to particle liquid suspensions. This is important since the protein corona together with key particle properties (e.g. size, shape and surface reactivity) to a large extent may determine the nanoparticle effects and possible translocation to other organs. PMID:24086363

  1. Environmental Technology Verification: Supplement to Test/QA Plan for Biological and Aerosol Testing of General Ventilation Air Cleaners; Bioaerosol Inactivation Efficiency by HVAC In-Duct Ultraviolet Light Air Cleaners

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Air Pollution Control Technology Verification Center has selected general ventilation air cleaners as a technology area. The Generic Verification Protocol for Biological and Aerosol Testing of General Ventilation Air Cleaners is on the Environmental Technology Verification we...

  2. The effect of biological and chemical control agents on the health status of the very early potato cultivar Rosara

    OpenAIRE

    Cwalina-Ambroziak Bożena; Damszel Marta Maria; Głosek-Sobieraj Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    The external appearance and quality of table potatoes are determined, among other factors, by the health status of the plants during the growing season. Chemical control methods are often combined with biocontrol agents to effectively fight potato pathogens. Potatoes of the very early cultivar Rosara were grown in experimental plots. The plots were located in Tomaszkowo (NE Poland, 2007-2009). The experiment involved the following treatments: 1) biological control − mycorrhizal Glomus spp. in...

  3. Radiochemical and biological evaluation of a new brain serotonin1A receptor imaging agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiochemical and biological evaluations are made of a new bidentate radioligand as a potential brain serotonin1A (5-HT1A) receptor imaging agent. The bidentate part of the complex was a derivative of the well known serotonin1A receptor antagonist molecule, namely WAY 100635; the monodentate parts were thiocresol, thiosalicylic acid and thio-2-naphthol. The labelling procedure was performed through the 99mTc(V)-glucoheptonate precursor. The bidentate + monodentate complex formed during the reaction in the case of thiocresol was identified as 99TcO(o-CH3-C6H4-N(CH2-CH2)2N-CH2CH2S)( p-C6H4CH3)2 (99mTc-1). Its labelling efficiency and stability were determined by thin layer chromatography, the organic solvent extraction method and high performance liquid chromagraphy. The biodistribution of the labelled compound was found by using male Wistar rats. On the basis of these data, kinetic curves were constructed for different organs and the dosimetry for humans was calculated. The brain uptake and pharmacokinetics were followed by planar and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging in rats. Average brain count density was calculated and different regional count densities (counts/gram tissue) were obtained for the hippocampus and other receptor-rich regions. A detailed SPECT study was carried out after administration of 99mTc-1 to a cynomolgus monkey (Macaca cynomolgus). The results found show that, of three investigated aromatic thiol compounds, the labelling efficiency was the highest in the case of thiocresol as the monodentate part. Therefore all further studies were carried out using thiocresol. The labelling efficiency of this bidentate complex was about 80%, and the molecule was stable for up to one hour. The biodistribution data show that more than 0.1% of the injected dose is present in the rat brains a few minutes after administration, and the metabolic pathway is through the hepatobiliary system. From the results obtained with the study of the

  4. Preferences of patients and health professionals for route and frequency of administration of biologic agents in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huynh, Tuan Khai; Ostergaard, Ann; Egsmose, Charlotte;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the preferences of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and health professionals (HPs) for the route and frequency of administration of biologic drugs. METHODS: One hundred and seven RA patients treated with biological agents for intravenous or subcutaneous use, 35 biologic...

  5. Lead exposures and biological responses in military weapons systems: Aerosol characteristics and acute lead effects among US Army artillerymen: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Stebbings, J.H.; Peterson, D.P.; Johnson, S.A.; Kumar, R.; Goun, B.D.; Janssen, I.; Trier, J.E.

    1993-03-01

    This study was to determine the concentration and chemical nature of lead (Pb) aerosols produced during the firing of artillery and to determine the exposures and biological responses of crew members exposed to lead aerosols during such firing. The concentrations of lead-containing aerosols at crew positions depended on wind conditions, with higher concentrations when firing into a head wind. Aerosol concentrations were highest in the muzzle blast zone. Concentrations of lead in the blood of crew members rose during the first 12 days of exposure to elevated airborne lead concentrations and then leveled off. There was no rapid decrease in blood lead concentrations after completion of firing. Small decreases in hematocrit and small increases in free erythrocyte porphyrin were correlated with increasing exposure to airborne lead. These changes were reversed by seven weeks after firing. Changes in nerve conduction velocity had borderline statistical significance to airborne lead exposure. In measuring nerve conduction velocity, differences in skin temperature must be taken into account.

  6. Agents, assemblers, and ANTS: scheduling assembly with market and biological software mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth-Fejel, Tihamer T.

    2000-06-01

    Nanoscale assemblers will need robust, scalable, flexible, and well-understood mechanisms such as software agents to control them. This paper discusses assemblers and agents, and proposes a taxonomy of their possible interaction. Molecular assembly is seen as a special case of general assembly, subject to many of the same issues, such as the advantages of convergent assembly, and the problem of scheduling. This paper discusses the contract net architecture of ANTS, an agent-based scheduling application under development. It also describes an algorithm for least commitment scheduling, which uses probabilistic committed capacity profiles of resources over time, along with realistic costs, to provide an abstract search space over which the agents can wander to quickly find optimal solutions.

  7. Biologically inspired autonomous agent navigation using an integrated polarization analyzing CMOS image sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarkaer, M.; San Segundo Bello, D.; Van Hoof, C.; Theuwissen, A.

    2010-01-01

    The navigational strategies of insects using skylight polarization are interesting for applications in autonomous agent navigation because they rely on very little information for navigation. A polarization navigation sensor using the Stokes parameters to determine the orientation is presented. The

  8. Biological effects of repeated inhalation exposure of Beagle dogs to relatively insoluble aerosols of 144Ce. V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The behavior and long-term biological effects in Beagle dogs of 144Ce inhaled in fused aluminosilicate particles in repeated inhalation exposures are being studied for comparison with data from dogs that were exposed only once to a similar aerosol. Four groups of nine dogs each were exposed once every 8 weeks for 2 years (13 exposures) to achieve specified exposure goals. These goals were: to increase the lung burden by 2.5 μCi 144Ce/kg body weight with each exposure in the first group; to reestablish lung burdens of 9 or 4.5 μCi 144Ce/kg body weight in the second and third groups, respectively; and to expose controls (fourth group) to fused aluminosilicate particles containing stable cerium. With these exposure sequences, the 144Ce-exposed dogs received increasing or relatively constant beta radiation dose rates in contrast to the steadily decreasing dose rate seen after a single inhalation exposure. Exposures in the first and second groups were planned to yield a cumulative absorbed dose to lung of approx. = 35,000 rads and those in the third group approx. = 17,000 rads within two years after the first exposure. All 13 exposures have been completed. During the past year, one dog in the 9.0 μCi 144Ce/kg body weight group died at 1558 days after the first exposure with autoimmune hemolytic anemia. The remaining 24 144Ce-exposed and seven control dogs generally appear to be in good physical condition with exception of a persistent lymphopenia at approx. = 5 years after the first exposure. They are continuing to be maintained for life span observations

  9. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Novel Gigantol Derivatives as Potential Agents in Prevention of Diabetic Cataract

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Jie; Lu, Chuanjun; Li, Xue; Fang, Hua; Wan, Wencheng; Yang, Qiaohong; Sun, Xiaosheng; Wang, Meiling; Hu, Xiaohong; Chen, C.-Y. Oliver; Wei, Xiaoyong

    2015-01-01

    As a continuation of our efforts directed towards the development of natural anti-diabetic cataract agents, gigantol was isolated from Herba dendrobii and was found to inhibit both aldose reductase (AR) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity, which play a significant role in the development and progression of diabetic cataracts. To improve its bioefficacy and facilitate use as a therapeutic agent, gigantol (compound 14f) and a series of novel analogs were designed and synthesized...

  10. Ship diesel emission aerosols: A comprehensive study on the chemical composition, the physical properties and the molecular biological and toxicological effects on human lung cells of aerosols from a ship diesel engine operated with heavy or light diesel fuel oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, R.; Buters, J.; Öder, S.; Dietmar, G.; Kanashova, T.; Paur, H.; Dilger, M.; Mülhopt, S.; Harndorf, H.; Stengel, B.; Rabe, R.; Hirvonen, M.; Jokiniemi, J.; Hiller, K.; Sapcariu, S.; Berube, K.; Sippula, O.; Streibel, T.; Karg, E.; Schnelle-Kreis, J.; Lintelmann, J.; Sklorz, M.; Arteaga Salas, M.; Orasche, J.; Müller, L.; Reda, A.; Passig, J.; Radischat, C.; Gröger, T.; Weiss, C.

    2013-12-01

    The Virtual Helmholtz Institute-HICE (www.hice-vi.eu) addresses chemical & physical properties, transformation processes and health effects of anthropogenic combustion emissions. This is performed by thorough comprehensive chemical and physical characterization of combustion aerosols (including application of advantageous on-line methods) and studying of biological effects on human lung cell-cultures. A new ALI air-liquid-interface (ALI) exposition system and a mobile S2-biological laboratory were developed for the HICE-measurements. Human alveolar basal epithelial cells (A549 etc.) are ALI-exposed to fresh, diluted (1:40-1:100) combustion aerosols and subsequently were toxicologically and molecular-biologically characterized (e.g. proteomics). By using stable isotope labeling technologies (13C-Glucose/metabolomics; 2H-Lysine/SILAC-proteomics), high sensitivity and accuracy for detection of molecular-biological effects is achievable even at sub-toxic effect dose levels. Aerosols from wood combustion and ship diesel engine (heavy/light fuel oil) have been investigated. The effect of wood combustion and ship diesel PM e.g. on the protein expression of ALI-exposed A549 cells was compared. Filtered aerosol is used as gas-reference for the isotope labeling based method (SILAC). Therefore the effects of wood combustion- and shipping diesel-PM can be directly compared. Ship diesel aerosol causes a broader distribution in the observed fold changes (log2), i.e. more proteins are significantly up-/down-regulated in case of shipping diesel PM-exposure. This corresponds to a stronger biological reaction if compared to wood combustion-PM exposure. The chemical analysis results on wood combustion- and ship diesel-PM depict more polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)/oxidized-PAH but less of some transition metals (V, Fe) in the wood combustion case. Interestingly, alkylated PAH are considerably more abundant in shipping PM, suggesting that PAH/Oxy-PAH may be less relevant for

  11. Fluorescence spectra and biological activity of aerosolized bacillus spores and MS2 bacteriophage exposed to ozone at different relative humidities in a rotating drum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological aerosols (bioaerosols) released into the environment may undergo physical and chemical transformations when exposed to atmospheric constituents such as solar irradiation, reactive oxygenated species, ozone, free radicals, water vapor and pollutants. Aging experiments were performed in a rotating drum chamber subjecting bioaerosols, Bacillus thuringiensis Al Hakam (BtAH) spores and MS2 bacteriophages to ozone at 0 and 150 ppb, and relative humidities (RH) at 10%, 50%, and 80+%. Fluorescence spectra and intensities of the aerosols as a function of time in the reaction chamber were measured with a single particle fluorescence spectrometer (SPFS) and an Ultra-Violet Aerodynamic Particle Sizer® Spectrometer (UV-APS). Losses in biological activity were measured by culture and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) assay. For both types of aerosols the largest change in fluorescence emission was between 280 and 400 nm when excited at 263 nm followed by fluorescence emission between 380 and 700 nm when excited at 351 nm. The fluorescence for both BtAH and MS2 were observed to decrease significantly at high ozone concentration and high RH when excited at 263 nm excitation. The decreases in 263 nm excited fluorescence are indicative of hydrolysis and oxidation of tryptophan in the aerosols. Fluorescence measured with the UV-APS (355-nm excitation) increased with time for both BtAH and MS2 aerosols. A two log loss of MS2 bacteriophage infectivity was observed in the presence of ozone at ~50% and 80% RH when measured by culture and normalized for physical losses by q-PCR. Viability of BtAH spores after exposure could not be measured due to the loss of genomic material during experiments, suggesting degradation of extracelluar DNA attributable to oxidation. The results of these studies indicate that the physical and biological properties of bioaerosols change significantly after exposure to ozone and water vapor. - Highlights: • Bacillus spores and MS2

  12. Efficacy of biological agents administered as monotherapy in rheumatoid arthritis: a Bayesian mixed-treatment comparison analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Migliore A

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Alberto Migliore,1 Emanuele Bizzi,1 Colin Gerard Egan,2 Mauro Bernardi,3 Lea Petrella4 1Rheumatology Unit, San Pietro Fatebenefratelli Hospital, Rome, 2Primula Multimedia SRL, Pisa, 3Department of Statistical Sciences, University of Padova, Padova, 4MEMOTEF Department, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy Background: Biological agents provide an important therapeutic alternative for rheumatoid arthritis patients refractory to conventional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs. Few head-to-head comparative trials are available.Purpose: The aim of this meta-analysis was to compare the relative efficacy of different biologic agents indicated for use as monotherapy in rheumatoid arthritis.Methods: A systemic literature search was performed on electronic databases to identify articles reporting double-blind randomized controlled trials investigating the efficacy of biologic agents indicated for monotherapy. Efficacy was assessed using American College of Rheumatology (ACR 20, 50, and 70 criteria at 16–24 weeks. Relative efficacy was estimated using Bayesian mixed-treatment comparison models. Outcome measures were expressed as odds ratio and 95% credible intervals.Results: Ten randomized controlled trials were selected for data extraction and analysis. Mixed-treatment comparison analysis revealed that tocilizumab offered 100% probability of being the best treatment for inducing an ACR20 response versus placebo, methotrexate, adalimumab, or etanercept. Likewise, for ACR50 and ACR70 outcome responses, tocilizumab had a 99.8% or 98.7% probability of being the best treatment, respectively, compared to other treatments or placebo. Tocilizumab increased the relative probability of being the best treatment (vs methotrexate by 3.2-fold (odds ratio: 2.1–3.89 for all ACR outcomes.Conclusion: Tocilizumab offered the greatest possibility of obtaining an ACR20, ACR50, and ACR70 outcome vs other monotherapies or placebo. Keywords: biologics, meta

  13. [Review of risks of biological agents and preventive measures to safeguard the health of compost production workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giubileo, L; Sarti, A M; Bianchi, L A; Calcaterra, E; Colombi, A

    1998-01-01

    A review of studies made in the compost production industry showed the biological agents posing a risk for workers were fungi and thermophile bacteria, gram-negative bacteria and endotoxins, with a prevalent inhalation exposure to airborne contaminated dusts. Medical examinations revealed cases of extrinsic allergic alveolitis due to A. fumigatus, and more frequently irritative and infectious disorders occurring especially in conditions of poor environmental hygiene and macroscopic dust pollution. For the evaluation of the air dispersion of microorganisms, which is high in compost transport and turning operations, at present no exposure limit values are available for biological agents; nevertheless, the concentrations measured were often higher than the limit values proposed for other manufacturing sectors by individual authors and by regulatory agencies in Europe, and were comparable to values observed in other industrial settings for which adverse health effects have been shown. Although the number of studies available are few in number, the results suggest that the hazards posed by microorganisms and the poor environmental hygiene conditions often encountered can undoubtedly be a source of risk for workers, which at present is difficult to establish but significant considering the high airborne concentrations of contaminated dust. Besides technical measures to avoid environmental macroscopic dispersion of dusts, measurement of airborne microbiological contaminants is also recommended. Health surveillance needs to be aimed at identifying subjects with hypersusceptibility to the infectious action of the pathogenetic and/or allergenic agents or with hypersensitivity to the same, and also to periodic control of respiratory organs. PMID:9847532

  14. Effects of pollutant accumulation by the invasive weed saltcedar (Tamarix ramosissima) on the biological control agent Diorhabda elongata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydroponic greenhouse studies were used to investigate the effect of four anthropogenic pollutants (perchlorate (ClO4-), selenium (Se), manganese (Mn), and hexavalent chromium (Cr (VI))) on the biological control agent Diorhabda elongata Brulle. Contaminant concentrations were quantified for experimental Tamarix ramosissima Ledab. plants and D. elongata beetles. Growth of larvae was significantly reduced by Se contamination, but was not affected by the presence of perchlorate, Mn, or Cr (VI). All of the contaminants were transferred from plants to D. elongata beetles. Only Cr (VI) was accumulated at greater levels in beetles than in their food. Because T. ramosissima grows in disturbed areas, acquires salts readily, and utilizes groundwater, this plant is likely to accumulate anthropogenic pollutants in contaminated areas. This study is one of the first to investigate the potential of an anthropogenic pollutant to influence a weed biological control system. - The presence of Se, but not perchlorate, Mn, or Cr (VI), in foliage of the invasive weed saltcedar was shown to reduce growth of the biological control agent Diorhabda elongata

  15. Effects of pollutant accumulation by the invasive weed saltcedar (Tamarix ramosissima) on the biological control agent Diorhabda elongata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, Mary A. [Department of Entomology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States)], E-mail: mary.sorensen@ucr.edu; Parker, David R. [Department of Environmental Science, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Trumble, John T. [Department of Entomology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States)

    2009-02-15

    Hydroponic greenhouse studies were used to investigate the effect of four anthropogenic pollutants (perchlorate (ClO{sub 4}{sup -}), selenium (Se), manganese (Mn), and hexavalent chromium (Cr (VI))) on the biological control agent Diorhabda elongata Brulle. Contaminant concentrations were quantified for experimental Tamarix ramosissima Ledab. plants and D. elongata beetles. Growth of larvae was significantly reduced by Se contamination, but was not affected by the presence of perchlorate, Mn, or Cr (VI). All of the contaminants were transferred from plants to D. elongata beetles. Only Cr (VI) was accumulated at greater levels in beetles than in their food. Because T. ramosissima grows in disturbed areas, acquires salts readily, and utilizes groundwater, this plant is likely to accumulate anthropogenic pollutants in contaminated areas. This study is one of the first to investigate the potential of an anthropogenic pollutant to influence a weed biological control system. - The presence of Se, but not perchlorate, Mn, or Cr (VI), in foliage of the invasive weed saltcedar was shown to reduce growth of the biological control agent Diorhabda elongata.

  16. Substituted 3-Benzylcoumarins as Allosteric MEK1 Inhibitors: Design, Synthesis and Biological Evaluation as Antiviral Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Xu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to find novel antiviral agents, a series of allosteric MEK1 inhibitors were designed and synthesized. Based on docking results, multiple optimizations were made on the coumarin scaffold. Some of the derivatives showed excellent MEK1 binding affinity in the appropriate enzymatic assays and displayed obvious inhibitory effects on the ERK pathway in a cellular assay. These compounds also significantly inhibited virus (EV71 replication in HEK293 and RD cells. Several compounds showed potential as agents for the treatment of viral infective diseases, with the most potent compound 18 showing an IC50 value of 54.57 nM in the MEK1 binding assay.

  17. Biological evaluation of 99mTc-Voriconazole as a potential agent for diagnosis of fungal infections by gamma scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spread of HIV has led to an increase of fungal infections such as candidiasis and invasive aspergillosis. Several types of antifungals are used to treat them and some of them can be radiolabeled with a gamma emitting agent to allow detection by scintigraphy of foci of infection. Voriconazole is a triazole agent, suitable for the synthesis of a complex linked with the precursor [99mTc(H2O)3(CO)3]+. The aim of his work was to label and determine the physicochemical and biological characteristics of voriconazole with 99mTc for the early detection of fungal infections. Radiochemical purity was determined by HPLC and the complex remained stable during at least 120 min. In vivo studies in rats bearing either sterile inflammation, infection with C. Albicans or A. Niger showed differentiation of the processes not only in biodistribution but also in scintigraphic images

  18. Scientific Opinion on the maintenance of the list of QPS biological agents intentionally added to food and feed (2012 update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available EFSA is requested to assess the safety of a broad range of biological agents in the context of notifications for market authorisation as sources of food and feed additives, enzymes and plant protection products. The qualified presumption of safety (QPS assessment was developed for safety risk assessments to provide a harmonised generic pre-assessment to support EFSA’s scientific Panels. The safety of unambiguously defined biological agents at the highest taxonomic unit appropriate for the purpose for which an application is intended and the completeness of the body of knowledge are assessed. Identified safety concerns for a taxonomic unit are where possible and reasonable in number reflected as ‘qualifications’ with a recommendation for the QPS list. The list of QPS recommended biological agents is reviewed and updated annually. Therefore, the only valid list is the one in the most recently published scientific opinion. The 2012 update reviews microorganisms previously assessed including bacteria, yeasts, filamentous fungi and viruses used for plant protection purposes. The BIOHAZ Panel confirmed all taxonomic units previously recommended for the QPS list. The notifications were reviewed. Bacillus firmus was re-evaluated and not recommended for the QPS list. A new recommendation was made for Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides. Carnobacterium maltaromaticum was assessed for the first time and not recommended for the QPS list. Qualifications for the taxonomic units included in the QPS recommended list were reviewed and confirmed. Filamentous fungi and enterococci were not recommended for the QPS list following updating and reviewing of current scientific knowledge. For Enterococcus faecium recent data indicate a possible distinction between pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains. This is considered too recent knowledge for a QPS recommendation, considering the recent information on the evolution of the epidemiology of Enterococcus infections in

  19. 76 FR 3076 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for a Biological Control Agent for Air Potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-19

    ... Control Agent for Air Potato AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of... Inspection Service has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) relative to the control of air potato... severity of air potato infestations. We are making the EA available to the public for review and...

  20. Synthesis and biological evaluation of andrographolide derivatives as potent anti-HIV agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin Wang; Jing Li; Wen Long Huang; Hui Bin Zhang; Hai Qian; Yong Tang Zheng

    2011-01-01

    A series of Andro derivatives were described and evaluated for their anti-HIV activity in vitro. Compound 10 and 16b, of which TI were >10, had some anti-HTV-1 activity in vitro. Therein, compound 10 which was the best potent compound, could serve as a new lead for further development of anti-AIDS agents.

  1. Synthesis, biological evaluation and QSAR study of a series of substituted quinazolines as antimicrobial agents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buha, V. M.; Rana, D. N.; Chhabria, M. T.; Chikhalia, K. H.; Mahajan, B. M.; Brahmkshatriya, Pathik; Shah, N. K.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 9 (2013), s. 4096-4109. ISSN 1054-2523 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : antimicrobial agents * quantitative structure-activity relationship * genetic function approximation * quinazoline Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.612, year: 2012

  2. Detection and Quantification of Plectosphaerella cucumerina, a Potential Biological Control Agent of Potato Cyst Nematodes, by Using Conventional PCR, Real-Time PCR, Selective Media, and Baiting

    OpenAIRE

    Atkins, S. D.; Clark, I M; Sosnowska, D.; Hirsch, P. R.; Kerry, B. R.

    2003-01-01

    Potato cyst nematodes (PCN) are serious pests in commercial potato production, causing yield losses valued at approximately $300 million in the European Community. The nematophagous fungus Plectosphaerella cucumerina has demonstrated its potential as a biological control agent against PCN populations by reducing field populations by up to 60% in trials. The use of biological control agents in the field requires the development of specific techniques to monitor the release, population size, sp...

  3. Size distributions and temporal variations of biological aerosol particles in the Amazon rainforest characterized by microscopy and real-time UV-APS fluorescence techniques during AMAZE-08

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Huffman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available As a part of the AMAZE-08 campaign during the wet season in the rainforest of central Amazonia, an ultraviolet aerodynamic particle sizer (UV-APS was operated for continuous measurements of fluorescent biological aerosol particles (FBAP. In the coarse particle size range (> 1 μm the campaign median and quartiles of FBAP number and mass concentration were 7.3 × 104 m−3 (4.0–13.2 × 104 m−3 and 0.72 μg m−3 (0.42–1.19 μg m−3, respectively, accounting for 24% (11–41% of total particle number and 47% (25–65% of total particle mass. During the five-week campaign in February–March 2008 the concentration of coarse-mode Saharan dust particles was highly variable. In contrast, FBAP concentrations remained fairly constant over the course of weeks and had a consistent daily pattern, peaking several hours before sunrise, suggesting observed FBAP was dominated by nocturnal spore emission. This conclusion was supported by the consistent FBAP number size distribution peaking at 2.3 μm, also attributed to fungal spores and mixed biological particles by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, light microscopy and biochemical staining. A second primary biological aerosol particle (PBAP mode between 0.5 and 1.0 μm was also observed by SEM, but exhibited little fluorescence and no true fungal staining. This mode may have consisted of single bacterial cells, brochosomes, various fragments of biological material, and small Chromalveolata (Chromista spores. Particles liquid-coated with mixed organic-inorganic material constituted a large fraction of observations, and these coatings contained salts likely from primary biological origin. We provide key support for the suggestion that real-time laser-induce fluorescence (LIF techniques using 355 nm excitation provide size-resolved concentrations of FBAP as a lower limit for the atmospheric abundance of biological particles in a pristine

  4. Reproductive Requirements and Life Cycle of Iberorhyzobius rondensis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), Potential Biological Control Agent of Matsucoccus feytaudi (Hemiptera: Matsucoccidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, C; Jactel, H; van Halder, I; Branco, M

    2015-06-01

    Several pine bast scales (Hemiptera: Matsucoccidae) are important pests of pine trees in the Northern Hemisphere. Some species are invasive and cause significant economic and environmental impacts. Such is the case with Matsucoccus feytaudi Ducasse, an invasive pest of maritime pine forests in Southeastern France, Italy, and Corsica. The ladybird Iberorhyzobius rondensis (Eizaguirre) is a recently described species that is endemic to the Iberian Peninsula and is a potential candidate for the biological control of M. feytaudi. However, little is known of the biology of I. rondensis. As part of the risk assessment study for a classical biological control program, the phenology and reproductive mechanisms of the beetle were analyzed. I. rondensis is univoltine and is seasonally synchronized with the phenology of the prey M. feytaudi, which is also univoltine. An obligatory reproductive diapause of 5-6 mo and the need to feed on the eggs of the prey to begin oviposition emerged as the two primary mechanisms that assure life cycle synchronization of the ladybird with its prey. Female fecundity was also higher when the ladybirds were fed M. feytaudi eggs. Life cycle synchronization with M. feytaudi and reproduction triggered by consumption of prey eggs indicate that I. rondensis is a promising biological control agent of the pine bast scale. PMID:26313991

  5. In search of uracil derivatives as bioactive agents. Uracils and fused uracils: Synthesis, biological activity and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pałasz, Aleksandra; Cież, Dariusz

    2015-06-01

    This review article is an effort to summarize recent developments in researches providing uracil derivatives with promising biological potential. This article also aims to discuss potential future directions on the development of more potent and specific uracil analogues for various biological targets. Uracils are considered as privileged structures in drug discovery with a wide array of biological activities and synthetic accessibility. Antiviral and anti-tumour are the two most widely reported activities of uracil analogues however they also possess herbicidal, insecticidal and bactericidal activities. Their antiviral potential is based on the inhibition of key step in viral replication pathway resulting in potent activities against HIV, hepatitis B and C, the herpes viruses etc. Uracil derivatives such as 5-fluorouracil or 5-chlorouracil were the first pharmacological active derivatives to be generated. Poor selectivity limits its therapeutic application, resulting in high incidences of gastrointestinal tract or central nervous toxicity. Numerous modifications of uracil structure have been performed to tackle these problems resulting in the development of derivatives exhibiting better pharmacological and pharmacokinetic properties including increased bioactivity, selectivity, metabolic stability, absorption and lower toxicity. Researches of new uracils and fused uracil derivatives as bioactive agents are related with modifications of substituents at N(1), N(3), C(5) and C(6) positions of pyrimidine ring. This review is an endeavour to highlight the progress in the chemistry and biological activity of the uracils, predominately after the year 2000. In particular are presented synthetic methods and biological study for such analogues as: 5-fluorouracil or 5-chlorouracil derivatives, tegafur analogues, arabinopyranonucleosides of uracil, glucopyranonucleosides of uracil, liposidomycins, caprazamycins or tunicamycins, tritylated uridine analogues, nitro or cyano

  6. Association Between Changes in Coronary Artery Disease Progression and Treatment With Biologic Agents for Severe Psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjuler, Kasper Fjellhaugen; Bøttcher, Morten; Vestergaard, Christian;

    2016-01-01

    , controlled, observer-blinded clinical study at a tertiary dermatology university hospital clinic enrolled patients with severe psoriasis initiating biological therapy and matched controls not receiving systemic therapy from April 11, 2011, through June 30, 2014. Interventions: Biological therapy approved for...... index remained unchanged from baseline to follow-up in the intervention group (mean [SD] baseline, 7.1 [1.5], follow-up, 7.1 [1.7]; P = .91), while controls demonstrated statistically nonsignificant progression (baseline, 8.3 [1.6], follow-up, 8.9 [2.2]; P = .06). Conclusions and Relevance: Clinically...

  7. Short cationic lipopeptides as effective antibacterial agents: Design, physicochemical properties and biological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, Fazren; Elliott, Alysha G; Marasini, Nirmal; Ramu, Soumya; Ziora, Zyta; Kavanagh, Angela M; Blaskovich, Mark A T; Cooper, Matthew A; Skwarczynski, Mariusz; Toth, Istvan

    2016-05-15

    The spread of drug-resistant bacteria has imparted a sense of urgency in the search for new antibiotics. In an effort to develop a new generation of antibacterial agents, we have designed de novo charged lipopeptides inspired by natural antimicrobial peptides. These short lipopeptides are composed of cationic lysine and hydrophobic lipoamino acids that replicate the amphiphilic properties of natural antimicrobial peptides. The resultant lipopeptides were found to self-assemble into nanoparticles. Some were effective against a variety of Gram-positive bacteria, including strains resistant to methicillin, daptomycin and/or vancomycin. The lipopeptides were not toxic to human kidney and liver cell lines and were highly resistant to tryptic degradation. Transmission electron microscopy analysis of bacteria cells treated with lipopeptide showed membrane-damage and lysis with extrusion of cytosolic contents. With such properties in mind, these lipopeptides have the potential to be developed as new antibacterial agents against drug-resistant Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:27048775

  8. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Novel 1-Alkyltryptophan Analogs as Potential Antitumor Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Chen Wang

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available To seek novel antitumor agents, we designed and synthesized new 1-tryptophan analogs based on tryptophan catabolism. 1-Alkyltryptophan analogues including 1-ethyltryptophan (1-ET, 1-propyltryptophan (1-PT, 1-isopropyltryptophan (1-isoPT and 1-butyltryptophan (1-BT were synthesized from tryptophan. We examined whether those compounds had the antiproliferative effects on SGC7901 and HeLa cells line by using MTT assay in vitro, respectively. Compared to tryptophan, all targeted compounds efficiently inhibited proliferation of two cancer cell lines at 2 mmol/L for 48 hours. Among these tryptophan analogs, 1-BT showed the most powerful cytotoxicity against SGC7901 and HeLa cells at 1 mmol/L and 2 mmol/L concentration. These data suggest that some specific tryptophan analogs could be developed as potential anti-neoplastic agents.

  9. Evaluation of biological control agents for managing cucurbit powdery mildew on greenhouse-grown melon

    OpenAIRE

    Torés Montosa, Juan Antonio

    2007-01-01

    An evaluation was made of the ability of two mycoparasite-based products AQ10® (Ampelomyces quisqualis) and Mycotal® (Lecanicillium lecanii), as well as three strains of Bacillus subtilis, to manage powdery mildew disease, caused by Podosphaera fusca on melon seedlings maintained under different regimes of relative humidity and on plants grown under greenhouse conditions in Spain. In every case fungal and bacterial biocontrol agents (BCAs) performed better under conditions of high relative hu...

  10. Life cycle of Puccinia crupinae, a candidate fungal biological control agent for Crupina vulgaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crupina vulgaris (Common crupina, Asteraceae) is an introduced weed pest in the western United States. An isolate of the rust fungus Puccinia crupinae from the Greece is currently under evaluation as a candidate for biological control of C. crupina in a Biosafety Level 3 (BL-3) containment greenhou...

  11. Adaptive evolution of a generalist parasitoid: implications for the effectiveness of biological control agents

    OpenAIRE

    Zepeda-Paulo, Francisca A; Ortiz-Martínez, Sebastián A; Figueroa, Christian C.; Lavandero, Blas

    2013-01-01

    The use of alternative hosts imposes divergent selection pressures on parasitoid populations. In response to selective pressures, these populations may follow different evolutionary trajectories. Divergent natural selection could promote local host adaptation in populations, translating into direct benefits for biological control, thereby increasing their effectiveness on the target host. Alternatively, adaptive phenotypic plasticity could be favored over local adaptation in temporal and spat...

  12. Evaluation of the biological and scanning distribution of hydroxyapatite-153Sm radiotherapeutic agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fixation of 153Sm labeled hydroxyapatite (HA) in the synovial capsule and extra articular localization were evaluated by means of biological distribution tests and gamma scanning studies. These were carried out using HA-153Sm with particle size ranging between 5 and μm, and radiochemical purity above 99%. Animal models used were wistar rats and new zealand rabbits. Rabbits were injected with 7,4 MBq of HA-153Sm while rats received between 1,85 and 92,6 MBq of HA-153Sm. In both cases injection was given in the intra articular area. After injection, scanning images were obtained in rabbits on the 1st, 3rd and 7st day and in rats on the 2nd and 7th day. Biological distribution studies are conducted in the 2 hours to 9 days range in rats and one the 7th day in rabbits. No extra articular localization of HA-153Sm was found in scanning conducted on rabbits by the 1st, 3rd and 7st day after injection, neither on rats by the 2nd and 7th day. Biological distributions for rabbits and rats show localization above 99% in the intra articular area, during the evaluated periods of time. The evaluations of the biological distribution and the scintigraphic images show that fixation of HA-153Sm in the synovial capsule up to the 9th day is very high

  13. Does phylogeny explain the host choice behaviour of potential biological control agents for Brassicaceae weeds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four invasive Brassicaceae are currently being studied for biological control at the CABI Centre in Switzerland. A phylogenetic approach to host testing has so far been hampered by the fact that the evolutionary relationships of taxa within the Brassicaceae were unclear. Recently, a new phylogeny of...

  14. Metabolic behavior of bacterial biological control agents in soil and plant rhizospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological control provides an attractive alternative to chemical pesticides for the control of plant diseases. To date, however, few biocontrol products have been developed successfully at the commercial level. This stems largely from variability in disease control performance that is often obser...

  15. Differential detection of a surrogate biological threat agent (Bacillus globigii) with a portable surface plasmon resonance biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adducci, Benjamin A; Gruszewski, Hope A; Khatibi, Piyum A; Schmale, David G

    2016-04-15

    New methods and technology are needed to quickly and accurately detect potential biological warfare agents, such as Bacillus anthracis, causal agent of anthrax in humans and animals. Here, we report the detection of a simulant of B. anthracis (B. globigii) alone and in a mixture with a different species of Bacillus to test non-specific interference using a portable surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor (SPIRIT 4.0, Seattle Sensor Systems). Both direct capture and antibody amplification were used to determine the limit of detection for spores of B. globigii, and to detect spores of B. globigii in a mixed sample containing another Bacillus spp. Spores of B. globigii were detected by anti-B. globigii (anti-Bg) coated sensors by direct capture at a concentration of 10(7)spores/mL, and with a secondary antibody amplification at a concentration of 10(5)spores/mL. Spores of B. globigii were differentially detected in a 1:1 mixture with B. pumilus spores from equal concentrations (10(7)spores/mL) with a secondary antibody amplification. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the differential detection of B. globigii with SPR in a mixed sample containing at least one additional Bacillus spp., highlighting the potential for SPR to detect any target bacterium in a mixed sample of closely related species. With the availability of portable instrumentation to accurately detect biological warfare agents such as B. anthracis, emergency responders can implement protocols in a timely fashion, limiting the amount of exposed individuals. PMID:26606307

  16. STUDY OF MICROBIAL DIVERSITY OF FUNGAL COMMUNITIES FROM RHIZOSPHERE AND PHYLOSPHERE OF STRAWBERRY TREATED WITH CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL AGENTS FOR THE CONTROL OF PATHOGENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabi-Mirela Matei

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The negative impact of long term utilization of pesticides on yields quality, as well as on the human health made scientific community to seek new ways, less expensive and environmental friendly for protecting cultivated plants against pathogens. Biological control agents of microbial origin represented by living selected strains or their metabolites are more and more frequently utilized for protecting horticultural plants intensely consumed by European population, such as strawberry. A green house experiment was designed to compare the structure of rhizospheric and phylospheric microflora of strawberry cv. Senga Sengana, sensible to Botrytis cinerea (the agent of grey mould treated with systemic and contact fungicides, as well as with four biological control preparations of microbial origin administrated on plant leaves or in the soil. The structure of fungal communities in rhizosphere and phylosphere of strawberry cv. Senga Sengana varied as a function of the nature of control agent and the method of administration. Non significant influence on soil fungal community diversity index and species number was registered after the treatment with chemical and biological control agents, but significant increments were induced in time by control agents as compared with both non-treated control and chemical pesticides. Fungal community structure from strawberry leaves was not significantly influenced by chemical and biological control agents. The most favourable influence on fungal communities registered for bio-control agents E1 and E2 due to

  17. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Novel Gigantol Derivatives as Potential Agents in Prevention of Diabetic Cataract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Wu

    Full Text Available As a continuation of our efforts directed towards the development of natural anti-diabetic cataract agents, gigantol was isolated from Herba dendrobii and was found to inhibit both aldose reductase (AR and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS activity, which play a significant role in the development and progression of diabetic cataracts. To improve its bioefficacy and facilitate use as a therapeutic agent, gigantol (compound 14f and a series of novel analogs were designed and synthesized. Analogs were formulated to have different substituents on the phenyl ring (compounds 4, 5, 8, 14a-e, substitute the phenyl ring with a larger steric hindrance ring (compounds 10, 17c or modify the carbon chain (compounds 17a, 17b, 21, 23, 25. All of the analogs were tested for their effect on AR and iNOS activities and on D-galactose-induced apoptosis in cultured human lens epithelial cells. Compounds 5, 10, 14a, 14b, 14d, 14e, 14f, 17b, 17c, 23, and 25 inhibited AR activity, with IC50 values ranging from 5.02 to 288.8 μM. Compounds 5, 10, 14b, and 14f inhibited iNOS activity with IC50 ranging from 432.6 to 1188.7 μM. Compounds 5, 8, 10, 14b, 14f, and 17c protected the cells from D-galactose induced apoptosis with viability ranging from 55.2 to 76.26%. Of gigantol and its analogs, compound 10 showed the greatest bioefficacy and is warranted to be developed as a therapeutic agent for diabetic cataracts.

  18. Optics of Biological Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Hoekstra, Alfons; Videen, Gorden

    2007-01-01

    This book covers the optics of single biological particles, both theory and experiment, with emphasis on Elastic Light Scattering and Fluorescence. It deals with the optics of bacteria (bio-aerosols), marine particles (selected phytoplankton communities) and red and white blood cells. Moreover, there are dedicated chapters on a general theory for scattering by a cell, and modelling and simulation of scattering by inhomogeneous biological cells. Finally, one chapter is dedicated to astro-biological signatures, discussing the possibilities for detecting non-terrestrial biological material. The volume has up-to-date discussions on new experimental and numerical techniques, and many examples of applications of these techniques in real-life systems, as used to detect and characterize e.g. biological warfare agents or human blood cells.

  19. Molecular Sleds and More: Novel Antiviral Agents via Single-Molecule Biology (441st Brookhaven Lecture)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangel, Wally (Ph.D., Biology Department)

    2008-10-15

    Vaccines are effective against viruses such as polio and measles, but vaccines against other important viruses, such as HIV and flu viruses, may be impossible to obtain. These viruses change their genetic makeup each time they replicate so that the immune system cannot recognize all their variations. Hence it is important to develop new antiviral agents that inhibit virus replication. During this lecture, Dr. Mangel will discuss his group's work with a model system, the human adenovirus, which causes, among other ailments, pink eye, blindness and obesity. Mangel's team has developed a promising drug candidate that works by inihibiting adenovirus proteinase, an enzyme necessary for viral replication.

  20. Characterization and mechanism of action of the biological control agent Pantoea agglomerans EPS125

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno González, M. del Carmen

    2006-01-01

    La soca EPS125 ha mostrat ser un efectiu agent de control biològic de diferents patògens fúngics de postcollita en diferents fruits. Degut a la seva elevada eficàcia, es va plantejar desenvolupar aquesta soca comercialment i per aquest motiu en el present treball es plantejà complementar la informació necessària pel seu registre. D'acord amb els resultats obtinguts mitjançant proves fenotípiques i genotípiques, la soca EPS125 queda inclosa dins l'espècie Pantoea agglomerans (Enterobacter aggl...

  1. Synthesis, biological evaluation and SAR studies of benzimidazole derivatives as H1-antihistamine agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Jian Wang; Mei Yang Xi; Ji Hua Fu; Fu Rong Zhang; Gui Fang Cheng; Da Li Yin; Qi Dong You

    2012-01-01

    A series of benzimidazole derivatives have been designed,synthesized and evaluated for H1 antihtistamine activity.Six compounds have showed potent antihistamine H1 activity.The primary SAR analysis indicated that benzyl or benzylidinyl substituted on the exo-nitrogen atom and C2 of the benzimidazole were significant.Further experiments indicated that compound 17d displayed excellent activity to reduce mast cell degranulation,moderate anti-PAF activity and decreased potency on hERG compared to astermizole.Hence compound 17d could serve as anti-altergic agent for further development.

  2. Synthesis, molecular modeling and biological evaluation of dithiocarbamates as novel antitubulin agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yong; Ma, Gao-Yuan; Yang, Ying; Cheng, Kui; Zheng, Qing-Zhong; Mao, Wen-Jun; Shi, Lei; Zhao, Jing; Zhu, Hai-Liang

    2010-06-15

    A series of novel dithiocarbamate compounds with the chalcone scaffold have been designed and synthesized, and their biological activities were also evaluated as potential antiproliferation and antitubulin polymerization inhibitors. Compound 2n showed the most potent biological activity in vitro, which inhibited the growth of MCF-7 cells with IC(50) of 0.04+/-0.01 microM and the polymerization of tubulin with IC(50) of 6.8+/-0.6 microM. To understand the tubulin-inhibitor interaction and the selectivity of the most active compound towards tubulin, molecular modeling studies were performed to dock compound 2n into the colchicine binding site, which suggested probable inhibition mechanism. PMID:20493717

  3. Climate warming increases biological control agent impact on a non-target species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xinmin; Siemann, Evan; He, Minyan; Wei, Hui; Shao, Xu; Ding, Jianqing

    2015-01-01

    Climate change may shift interactions of invasive plants, herbivorous insects and native plants, potentially affecting biological control efficacy and non-target effects on native species. Here, we show how climate warming affects impacts of a multivoltine introduced biocontrol beetle on the non-target native plant Alternanthera sessilis in China. In field surveys across a latitudinal gradient covering their full distributions, we found beetle damage on A. sessilis increased with rising temperature and plant life history changed from perennial to annual. Experiments showed that elevated temperature changed plant life history and increased insect overwintering, damage and impacts on seedling recruitment. These results suggest that warming can shift phenologies, increase non-target effect magnitude and increase non-target effect occurrence by beetle range expansion to additional areas where A. sessilis occurs. This study highlights the importance of understanding how climate change affects species interactions for future biological control of invasive species and conservation of native species. PMID:25376303

  4. Climate warming increases biological control agent impact on a non-target species

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Xinmin; Siemann, Evan; He, Minyan; Wei, Hui; Shao, Xu; Ding, Jianqing

    2014-01-01

    Climate change may shift interactions of invasive plants, herbivorous insects and native plants, potentially affecting biological control efficacy and non-target effects on native species. Here, we show how climate warming affects impacts of a multivoltine introduced biocontrol beetle on the non-target native plant Alternanthera sessilis in China. In field surveys across a latitudinal gradient covering their full distributions, we found beetle damage on A. sessilis increased with rising tempe...

  5. The Use and Exchange of Biological Control Agents for Food and Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.C.van; Lenteren; M.J.W.Cock; J.Brodeur; B.Barratt; F.Bigler; K.Bolckmans; F.Haas; P.G.Mason; J.R.P.Parra

    2010-01-01

    The report sets out to summarize the past and current situation regarding the practice of biologicalcontrol inrelationtothe use and exchange of genetic resources relevant for BCAs.It considers the twomain categories of biological control:classical and augmentative.Allowing access to BCAs for use inanother country imposes no risk of liability to the source country.Local scientific knowledge abouthabitats,fauna andflora,can be helpful

  6. Establishing a new marketplace for biologic therapy with biosimilar agents: importance of extrapolation of data

    OpenAIRE

    Bressler B; Dingermann T

    2015-01-01

    Brian Bressler,1 Theo Dingermann2 1St Paul’s Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 2Institute of Pharmaceutical Biology, Frankfurt, Germany Abstract: Despite their enormous value for our health care system, biopharmaceuticals have become a serious threat to the system itself due to their high cost. Costs may be warranted if the medicine is new and innovative; however, it is no longer an innovation when its patent protection expires. As patents and exclusiviti...

  7. A medicoeconomic review of early intervention with biologic agents in the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Odes S; Greenberg D

    2014-01-01

    Shmuel Odes,1 Dan Greenberg21Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, Israel; 2Department of Health Systems Management, Faculty of Health Sciences and Guilford Glazer Faculty of Business and Management, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, IsraelAbstract: The treatment of inflammatory bowel disease with standard therapy fails to control the disease in many patients. Biologic therapy has an increasing ...

  8. Aerosols Science and Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Agranovski, Igor

    2011-01-01

    This self-contained handbook and ready reference examines aerosol science and technology in depth, providing a detailed insight into this progressive field. As such, it covers fundamental concepts, experimental methods, and a wide variety of applications, ranging from aerosol filtration to biological aerosols, and from the synthesis of carbon nanotubes to aerosol reactors.Written by a host of internationally renowned experts in the field, this is an essential resource for chemists and engineers in the chemical and materials disciplines across multiple industries, as well as ideal supplementary

  9. Establishing a new marketplace for biologic therapy with biosimilar agents: importance of extrapolation of data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bressler B

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Brian Bressler,1 Theo Dingermann2 1St Paul’s Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 2Institute of Pharmaceutical Biology, Frankfurt, Germany Abstract: Despite their enormous value for our health care system, biopharmaceuticals have become a serious threat to the system itself due to their high cost. Costs may be warranted if the medicine is new and innovative; however, it is no longer an innovation when its patent protection expires. As patents and exclusivities expire on biological drugs, biosimilar products defined as highly similar to reference biologics are being marketed. The goal of biosimilar development is to establish a high degree of biosimilarity, not to reestablish clinical efficacy and safety. Current sophisticated analytical methods allow the detection of even small changes in quality attributes and can therefore enable sensitive monitoring of the batch-to-batch consistency and variability of the manufacturing process. The European Medicines Agency (EMA, US Food and Drug Administration (FDA, and Health Canada have determined that a reduced number of nonclinical and clinical comparative studies can be sufficient for approval with clinical data from the most sensitive indication extrapolated to other indications. Extrapolation of data is a scientifically based principle, guided by specific criteria, and if approved by the EMA, FDA, and/or Health Canada is appropriate. Enablement of extrapolation of data is a core principle of biosimilar development, based on principles of comparability and necessary to fully realize cost savings for these drugs. Keywords: biosimilars, Inflectra, infliximab, pharmacoeconomics, Canada, Europe 

  10. Design, Synthesis, and Biological Evaluation of Novel Selenium (Se-NSAID) Molecules as Anticancer Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plano, Daniel; Karelia, Deepkamal N; Pandey, Manoj K; Spallholz, Julian E; Amin, Shantu; Sharma, Arun K

    2016-03-10

    The synthesis and anticancer evaluation of novel selenium-nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (Se-NSAID) hybrid molecules are reported. The Se-aspirin analogue 8 was identified as the most effective agent in reducing the viability of different cancer cell lines, particularly colorectal cancer (CRC) cells, was more selective toward cancer cells than normal cells, and was >10 times more potent than 5-FU, the current therapy for CRC. Compound 8 inhibits CRC growth via the inhibition of the cell cycle in G1 and G2/M phases and reduces the cell cycle markers like cyclin E1 and B1 in a dose dependent manner; the inhibition of the cell cycle may be dependent on the ability of 8 to induce p21 expression. Furthermore, 8 induces apoptosis by activating caspase 3/7 and PARP cleavage, and its longer exposure causes increase in intracellular ROS levels in CRC cells. Taken together, 8 has the potential to be developed further as a chemotherapeutic agent for CRC. PMID:26750401

  11. Preliminary experiment of fluorescent X-ray computed tomography to detect dual agents for biological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Q; Takeda, T; Yuasa, T; Hasegawa, Y; Wu, J; Thet-Thet-Lwin; Hyodo, K; Dilmanian, F A; Itai, Y; Akatsuka, T

    2001-05-01

    The simultaneous observation of various information, such as blood flow, tissue metabolism and distribution of receptors, is quite important in order to understand the functional state of biomedical objects. The simultaneous detectability of contrast agents by fluorescent X-ray computed tomography (FXCT) with synchrotron radiation is examined in this study. The system consisted of a silicon (111) double-crystal monochromator, an X-ray slit system, a scanning table, a PIN diode, a highly purified germanium detector and an X-ray charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. The monochromatic X-ray beam energy was adjusted to 37.0 keV and collimated into a pencil beam of 1 x 1 mm. The fluorescent spectra of the K alpha lines for iodine and xenon were detected simultaneously. FXCT could image the distribution of both iodine and xenon agents in a phantom clearly and the contrast ratio was significantly better than that of transmission X-ray computed tomography images. PMID:11486409

  12. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Novel Resveratrol-NSAID Derivatives as Anti-inflammatory Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wei; Ma, Yan-Yan; Zhang, Kun; Zhou, Ai-Yu; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Huaqian; Du, Zhiyun; Zhao, Deng-Gao

    2016-06-01

    Long-term use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may cause serious side effects such as gastric mucosal damage. Resveratrol, a naturally dietary polyphenol, exhibited anti-inflammatory activity and a protective effect against gastric mucosa damage induced by NSAIDs. In this regard, we synthesized a series of resveratrol-based NSAIDs derivatives and evaluated their anti-inflammatory activity against nitric oxide (NO) overproduction in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. We identified mono-substituted resveratrol-ibuprofen combination 21 as the most potent anti-inflammatory agent, which is more active than a physical mixture of ibuprofen and resveratrol, individual ibuprofen, or individual resveratrol. In addition, compound 21 exerted potent inhibitory effects on the LPS-induced expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β). Furthermore, compound 21 significantly increased the survival rate in an LPS-induced acute inflammatory model and produced markedly less gastric damage than ibuprofen. It was found that compound 21 may be a potent anti-inflammatory agent for the treatment of inflammation-related diseases. PMID:27009373

  13. Innate positive chemotaxis to pollen from crops and banker plants in predaceous biological control agents: towards new field lures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shu; Tan, Xiaoling; Desneux, Nicolas; Benelli, Giovanni; Zhao, Jing; Li, Xinhai; Zhang, Fan; Gao, Xiwu; Wang, Su

    2015-01-01

    Predator-prey interactions form the core of biological control of arthropod pests. Which tools can be used to monitor and collect carnivorous arthropods in natural habitats and targeted crops? Eco-friendly and effective field lures are urgently needed. In this research, we carried out olfactometer experiments assess innate positive chemotaxis to pollen of seven crop and banker plant by two important predatory biological control agents: the coccinellid Propylea japonica (Thunberg) and the anthocorid Orius sauteri (Poppius). We compared the attractiveness of pollens from crops and banker plants to that of common prey homogenates (aphids and thrips, respectively). Attractiveness of the tested odor sources was checked via field trapping experiments conducted in organic apple orchards and by release-recapture assays in organic greenhouse tomato crops. Maize and canola pollen were attractive to both P. japonica and O. sauteri, in laboratory and field assays. P. japonica was highly attracted by balm mint pollen, whereas O. sauteri was attracted by alfalfa pollen. Our results encourage the use of pollen from crops and banker plants as low-cost and eco-friendly attractors to enhance the monitoring and attraction of arthropod predators in biological control programs. PMID:26235136

  14. Isolation and characterization of soil Streptomyces species as potential biological control agents against fungal plant pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista-Martínez, Zahaed

    2014-05-01

    The use of antagonist microorganisms against fungal plant pathogens is an attractive and ecologically alternative to the use of chemical pesticides. Streptomyces are beneficial soil bacteria and potential candidates for biocontrol agents. This study reports the isolation, characterization and antagonist activity of soil streptomycetes from the Los Petenes Biosphere Reserve, a Natural protected area in Campeche, Mexico. The results showed morphological, physiological and biochemical characterization of six actinomycetes and their inhibitory activity against Curvularia sp., Aspergillus niger, Helminthosporium sp. and Fusarium sp. One isolate, identified as Streptomyces sp. CACIS-1.16CA showed the potential to inhibit additional pathogens as Alternaria sp., Phytophthora capsici, Colletotrichum sp. and Rhizoctonia sp. with percentages ranging from 47 to 90 %. This study identified a streptomycete strain with a broad antagonist activity that could be used for biocontrol of plant pathogenic fungi. PMID:24310522

  15. Efficacy of Bacillus subtilis V26 as a biological control agent against Rhizoctonia solani on potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Khedher, Saoussen; Kilani-Feki, Olfa; Dammak, Mouna; Jabnoun-Khiareddine, Hayfa; Daami-Remadi, Mejda; Tounsi, Slim

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of the strain Bacillus subtilis V26, a local isolate from the Tunisian soil, to control potato black scurf caused by Rhizoctonia solani. The in vitro antifungal activity of V26 significantly inhibited R. solani growth compared to the untreated control. Microscopic observations revealed that V26 caused considerable morphological deformations of the fungal hyphae such as vacuolation, protoplast leakage and mycelia crack. The most effective control was achieved when strain V26 was applied 24h prior to inoculation (protective activity) in potato slices. The antagonistic bacterium V26 induced significant suppression of root canker and black scurf tuber colonization compared to untreated controls with a decrease in incidence disease of 63% and 81%, respectively, and promoted plant growth under greenhouse conditions on potato plants. Therefore, B. subtilis V26 has a great potential to be commercialized as a biocontrol agent against R. solani on potato crops. PMID:26563555

  16. Synthesis, molecular modeling, and biological evaluation of novel chiral thiosemicarbazone derivatives as potent anticancer agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taşdemir, Demet; Karaküçük-İyidoğan, Ayşegül; Ulaşli, Mustafa; Taşkin-Tok, Tuğba; Oruç-Emre, Emİne Elçİn; Bayram, Hasan

    2015-02-01

    A series of new chiral thiosemicarbazones derived from homochiral amines in both enantiomeric forms were synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro antiproliferative activity against A549 (human alveolar adenocarcinoma), MCF-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma), HeLa (human cervical adenocarcinoma), and HGC-27 (human stomach carcinoma) cell lines. Some of compounds showed inhibitory activities on the growth of cancer cell lines. Especially, compound exhibited the most potent activity (IC50 4.6 μM) against HGC-27 as compared with the reference compound, sindaxel (IC50 10.3 μM), and could be used as a lead compound to search new chiral thiosemicarbazone derivatives as antiproliferative agents. PMID:25399965

  17. Radiosynthesis and biological evaluation of 99mTc-carboxymethylthioethyl iminodiacetic acid as renal imaging agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ligand carboxymethylthioethyl iminodiacetic acid (CMT-IDA), an analogue of nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) has been radiolabeled with technetium-99m to study its renal clearance and determine its potential as a renal tubular imaging agent. (99mTc(CO)3CMT-IDA)2- could be obtained in >98% radiochemical purity as determined by HPLC. Stability, hydrophilicity and plasma protein binding studies were carried out and were found to be comparable to that of (99mTc(CO)3NTA)2-. Biodistribution studies were carried out in normal Swiss mice at 10 min. p.i. and 2 h.p.i. The complex has shown renal clearance of (71.0±5.9)% ID at 10 min. p.i., which increased to (84.1±10.6)% at 2 h.p.i., with no major uptake in vital organs. (author)

  18. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of new rhodacyanine analogues as potential antitumor agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Xiong Li; Xin Zhai; Wei Ke Liao; Wu Fu Zhu; Ying He; Ping Gong

    2012-01-01

    In an attempt to develop potent antitumor agents,new rhodacyanine analogues containing the pyridinium ring (5a-5h),the isoquinolinium ring (6a-6c) and the quinolinium ring (7a-7e) linked to the rhodanine ring via N-N covalent bond were designed,synthesized and evaluated for antitumor activity against human lung cancer cell line (H460) by MTT assay in vitro.Most of the tested compounds showed enhanced antitumor activity with IC50 values ranging from 0.006 to 9.2 μmol/L as compared to the lead compound MKT-077.Among them,the most promising compound 7d (IC50 =0.006 μmol/L) was 216.7 times more active than MKT-077 (IC50 =1.3 μmol/L).The preliminary structure-activity relationship of the target compounds was discussed.

  19. Biological effects of radiation and chemical agents with special regard to repair processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is reasonably certain that the introduction or increase of pollutants in the environment can augment mutagenic and carcinogenic effects. These effects are operationally definable, but the genetic organization and the underlying mechanisms of DNA repair, mutagenesis and carcinogenesis are so complex as to make the extrapolation of results from mutagenicity test data to carcinogenicity somewhat uncertain. The subject is reviewed. Recent discoveries in gene organization and expression include overlapping genes in bacteriophages, split genes, processing of RNA and splicing, translocation of genes in eukaryotes, inactivation of the X-chromosome in mammals, etc. Apart from the genetic regulation, plasmids, insertion sequences and mutators can additionally affect mutation frequency. Cancers due to gene mutations, viruses, chemicals and physical agents are known. However, little is known about the epigenetic mechanisms involved. The value of mutagenicity test data is beyond question, but in view of the extraordinary complexities encountered our extrapolations will be more sound if the data have the underpinning of basic information. (author)

  20. Effect of contrast agent administration on consequences of dosimetry and biology in radiotherapy planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, Ching-Jung [Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hua 1st Road, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan 333 Taiwan (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan 333 Taiwan (China); Yang, Pei-Ying [Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hua 1st Road, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan 333 Taiwan (China); Chao, Tsi-Chian, E-mail: chaot@mail.cgu.edu.tw [Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hua 1st Road, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan 333 Taiwan (China); Tu, Shu-Ju, E-mail: sjtu@mail.cgu.edu.tw [Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hua 1st Road, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan 333 Taiwan (China)

    2015-06-01

    In the treatment planning of radiation therapy, patients may be administrated with contrast media in CT scanning to assist physicians for accurate delineation of the target or organs. However, contrast media are not used in patients during the treatment delivery. In particular, contrast media contain materials with high atomic numbers and dosimetric variations may occur between scenarios where contrast media are present in treatment planning and absent in treatment delivery. In this study we evaluate the effect of contrast media on the dosimetry and biological consequence. An analytical phantom based on AAPM TG 119 and five sets of CT images from clinical patients are included. Different techniques of treatment planning are considered, including 1-field AP, 2-field AP+PA, 4-field box, 7-field IMRT, and RapidArc. RapidArc is a recent technique of volumetric modulated arc therapy and is used in our study of contrast media in clinical scenarios. The effect of RapidArc on dosimetry and biological consequence for administration of contrast media in radiotherapy is not discussed previously in literature. It is shown that dose difference is reduced as the number of external beams is increased, suggesting RapidArc may be favored to be used in the treatment planning enhanced by contrast media. Linear trend lines are fitted for assessment of percent dose differences in the planning target volume versus concentrations of contrast media between plans where contrast media are present and absent, respectively.

  1. Effect of contrast agent administration on consequences of dosimetry and biology in radiotherapy planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the treatment planning of radiation therapy, patients may be administrated with contrast media in CT scanning to assist physicians for accurate delineation of the target or organs. However, contrast media are not used in patients during the treatment delivery. In particular, contrast media contain materials with high atomic numbers and dosimetric variations may occur between scenarios where contrast media are present in treatment planning and absent in treatment delivery. In this study we evaluate the effect of contrast media on the dosimetry and biological consequence. An analytical phantom based on AAPM TG 119 and five sets of CT images from clinical patients are included. Different techniques of treatment planning are considered, including 1-field AP, 2-field AP+PA, 4-field box, 7-field IMRT, and RapidArc. RapidArc is a recent technique of volumetric modulated arc therapy and is used in our study of contrast media in clinical scenarios. The effect of RapidArc on dosimetry and biological consequence for administration of contrast media in radiotherapy is not discussed previously in literature. It is shown that dose difference is reduced as the number of external beams is increased, suggesting RapidArc may be favored to be used in the treatment planning enhanced by contrast media. Linear trend lines are fitted for assessment of percent dose differences in the planning target volume versus concentrations of contrast media between plans where contrast media are present and absent, respectively

  2. Psyttalia ponerophaga (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) as a potential biological control agent of olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sime, K R; Daane, K M; Kirk, A; Andrews, J W; Johnson, M W; Messing, R H

    2007-06-01

    The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), is a newly invasive, significant threat to California's olive industry. As part of a classical biological control programme, Psyttalia ponerophaga (Silvestri) was imported to California from Pakistan and evaluated in quarantine. Biological parameters that would improve rearing and field-release protocols and permit comparisons to other olive fruit fly biological control agents were measured. Potential barriers to the successful establishment of P. ponerophaga, including the geographic origins of parasitoid and pest populations and constraints imposed by fruit size, were also evaluated as part of this investigation. Under insectary conditions, all larval stages except neonates were acceptable hosts. Provided a choice of host ages, the parasitoids' host-searching and oviposition preferences were a positive function of host age, with most offspring reared from hosts attacked as third instars. Immature developmental time was a negative function of tested temperatures, ranging from 25.5 to 12.4 days at 22 and 30 degrees C, respectively. Evaluation of adult longevity, at constant temperatures ranging from 15 to 34 degrees C, showed that P. ponerophaga had a broad tolerance of temperature, living from 3 to 34 days at 34 and 15 degrees C, respectively. Lifetime fecundity was 18.7 +/- 2.8 adult offspring per female, with most eggs deposited within 12 days after adult eclosion. Olive size affected parasitoid performance, with lower parasitism levels on hosts feeding in larger olives. The implications of these findings are discussed with respect to field manipulation and selection of parasitoid species for olive fruit fly biological control in California and worldwide. PMID:17524155

  3. Biological Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Workplace Plans School Emergency Plans Main Content Biological Threats Biological agents are organisms or toxins that can ... for Disease Control and Prevention . Before a Biological Threat Unlike an explosion, a biological attack may or ...

  4. Fluorescent biological aerosol particle concentrations and size distributions measured with an ultraviolet aerodynamic particle sizer (UV-APS in Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Huffman

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Primary biological aerosol particles (PBAPs, including bacteria, spores and pollen, are essential for the spread of organisms and disease in the biosphere, and numerous studies have suggested that they may be important for atmospheric processes, including the formation of clouds and precipitation. The atmospheric abundance and size distribution of PBAPs, however, are largely unknown. At a semi-urban site in Mainz, Germany, we used an ultraviolet aerodynamic particle sizer (UV-APS to measure fluorescent biological aerosol particles (FBAPs, which can be regarded as viable bioaerosol particles representing a lower limit for the actual abundance of PBAPs. Fluorescence of non-biological aerosol components are likely to influence the measurement results obtained for fine particles (<1 μm, but not for coarse particles (1–20 μm.

    Averaged over the four-month measurement period (August–December 2006, the mean number concentration of coarse FBAPs was ~3×10−2 cm−3, corresponding to ~4% of total coarse particle number. The mean mass concentration of FBAPs was ~1 μg m−3, corresponding to ~20% of total coarse particle mass. The FBAP number size distributions exhibited alternating patterns with peaks at various diameters. A pronounced peak at ~3 μm was essentially always observed and can be described by the following campaign-average lognormal fit parameters: geometric mean diameter 3.2 μm, geometric standard deviation 1.3, number concentration 1.6×10−2 cm−3. This peak is likely due to fungal spores or agglomerated bacteria, and it exhibited a pronounced diel cycle with maximum intensity during early/mid-morning. FBAP peaks around ~1.5 μm, ~5 μm, and ~13 μm were also observed, but less pronounced and less frequent. These may be explained by single bacterial cells, larger fungal spores, and pollen grains, respectively.

    The observed number concentrations and

  5. Fluorescent biological aerosol particle concentrations and size distributions measured with an Ultraviolet Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (UV-APS in Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Huffman

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Primary Biological Aerosol Particles (PBAPs, including bacteria, spores and pollen, are essential for the spread of organisms and disease in the biosphere, and numerous studies have suggested that they may be important for atmospheric processes, including the formation of clouds and precipitation. The atmospheric abundance and size distribution of PBAPs, however, are largely unknown. At a semi-urban site in Mainz, Germany we used an Ultraviolet Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (UV-APS to measure Fluorescent Biological Aerosol Particles (FBAPs, which provide an estimate of viable bioaerosol particles and can be regarded as an approximate lower limit for the actual abundance of PBAPs. Fluorescence of non-biological aerosol components are likely to influence the measurement results obtained for fine particles (<1 μm, but not for coarse particles (1–20 μm.

    Averaged over the four-month measurement period (August–December 2006, the mean number concentration of coarse FBAPs was ~3×10−2 cm−3, corresponding to ~4% of total coarse particle number. The mean mass concentration of FBAPs was ~1μg m−3, corresponding to ~20% of total coarse particle mass. The FBAP number size distributions exhibited alternating patterns with peaks at various diameters. A pronounced peak at ~3 μm was essentially always observed and can be described by the following campaign-average lognormal fit parameters: geometric mean diameter 3.2 μm, geometric standard deviation 1.3, number concentration 1.6×10−2 cm−3. This peak is likely due to fungal spores or agglomerated bacteria, and it exhibited a pronounced diel cycle (24-h with maximum intensity during early/mid-morning. FBAP peaks around ~1.5 μm, ~5 μm, and ~13 μm were also observed, but less pronounced and less frequent. These may be single bacterial cells, larger fungal spores, and pollen grains, respectively.

    The observed number

  6. Synthesis and biological evaluation of 125I-erythropoietin as a potential radiopharmaceutical agent for tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erythropoietin (EPO) is a glycoprotein hormone responsible for regulating erythropoiesis. Expression of EPO and EPO receptors (EPOr) has recently been demonstrated in some neoplastic cell lines and tumours, suggesting a potential new target for therapy. In this work, EPO was labeled with iodine-125 using the lactoperoxidase method, known to prevent damage to protein during radioiodination, and labeling conditions were optimized. In vitro stability studies have shown that 125I-EPO is radiochemically stable for 20 days after radiolabeling. In vitro cell binding studies have demonstrated very low binding (125I-EPO. In mice with induced melanoma, only a residual fixation in the tumour was evident. Further studies are warranted on other tumoral cell lines to better understand the binding process and internalization into cells. Studies on EPO labeled with carbon-11 could be valuable, since there is a greater chance of preserving the biological activity of the protein using this method. (author)

  7. Capillary zone electrophoresis analysis and detection of mid-spectrum biological warfare agents. Suffield memorandum No. 1463

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulet, C.A.

    1995-12-31

    Mid-spectrum biological warfare agents such as proteins, peptides, and toxins are often difficult to analyze and often require individually developed assay methods for detection and identification. In this regard, capillary electrophoresis is an important, emerging technique for separation and quantitation of peptides and proteins, providing separation efficiencies up to two orders of magnitude greater than high performance liquid chromatography. The technique can also analyze a broad range of compounds, has a simple instrument design which can be automated, and has low sample volume requirements. In this study, a highly efficient and reproducible capillary zone electrophoresis method was developed to separate and identify a series of nine peptides of defense interest including bradykinin, leucine enkephalin, and oxytocin. The paper demonstrates three strategies which could be used in a fully automated field detection and identification system for unknown peptides.

  8. Design, Synthesis, and Biological Evaluation of Artemisinin-Indoloquinoline Hybrids as Potent Antiproliferative Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A series of artemisinin-indoloquinoline hybrids were designed and synthesized in an attempt to develop potent and selective anti-tumor agents. Compounds 7a–7f, 8 and 9 were prepared and characterized. Their antiproliferative activities against MV4-11, HCT-116, A549, and BALB/3T3 cell lines in vitro were tested. Nearly all of the tested compounds (7–9, except for compounds 7d and 7e against HCT-116 showed an increased antitumor activity against HCT-116 and A549 cell lines when compared to the dihydroartemisinin control. Especially for the artemisinin-indoloquinoline hybrid 8, with an 11-aminopropylamino-10H-indolo[3,2-b]quinoline substituent, the antiproliferative activity against the A549 cell line had improved more than ten times. The IC50 value of hybrid 8 against A549 cell lines was decreased to 1.328 ± 0.586 μM, while dihydroartemisin showed IC50 value of >20 µM in the same cell line. Thus, these results have proven that the strategy of introducing a planar basic fused aromatic moiety, such as the indoloquinoline skeleton, could improve the antiproliferative activity and selectivity towards cancer cell lines.

  9. Preparation and preliminary biological evaluation of 99Tcm-TADP as bone imaging agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Xiaohong; LUO Shineng; NIU Guosai; YE Wanzhong; YANG Min; WANG Hongyong; XIA Yongmei

    2008-01-01

    TADP, 2-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)-1-hydroxyethane-1,1-diphosphonic acid, was synthesized by three step reactions from the raw material 1H-1,2,4-triazole. 99Tcm-TADP was prepared with 5 mg TADP at Ph 7.0 by joining 99TcmO4 with SnCl2·2H2O in aqueous solution for 10 min at room temperature. Both labeling yield and radiochemical purity of 99Tcm-TADP were more than 95%. The biodistribution in rats and bone scan in rabbits were also studied. The uptake of organ was expressed as %ID/g. The results showed that the bone uptake is up to 17.17%ID/g which is the maximum of bone uptake at 30 min after injection of 99Tcm-TADP in rats, bone-to-muscle and bone-to-blood uptake ratios were 61.32 and 13.21, respectively. The clear bone image of rabbit was obtained at 120 min after injection of 99Tcm-TADP and clearance in soft tissue was visible. The preparation of 99Tcm-TADP was convenient and 99Tcm-TADP exhibited high uptake in bone, and it would be a potential new bone imaging agent.

  10. Synthesis and biological evaluation of new naphthalene substituted thiosemicarbazone derivatives as potent antifungal and anticancer agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altıntop, Mehlika Dilek; Atlı, Özlem; Ilgın, Sinem; Demirel, Rasime; Özdemir, Ahmet; Kaplancıklı, Zafer Asım

    2016-01-27

    New thiosemicarbazone derivatives (1-10) were obtained via the reaction of 4-(naphthalen-1-yl)thiosemicarbazide with fluoro-substituted aromatic aldehydes. The synthesized compounds were evaluated for their in vitro antifungal effects against pathogenic yeasts and molds using broth microdilution assay. Ames and umuC assays were carried out to determine the genotoxicity of the most effective antifungal derivatives. Furthermore, all compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic effects on A549 human lung adenocarcinoma and NIH/3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblast cell lines using XTT test. Among these derivatives, 4-(naphthalen-1-yl)-1-(2,3-difluorobenzylidene)thiosemicarbazide (1) and 4-(naphthalen-1-yl)-1-(2,5-difluorobenzylidene)thiosemicarbazide (3) can be identified as the most promising antifungal derivatives due to their notable inhibitory effects on Candida species and no cytotoxicity against NIH/3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblast cell line. According to Ames and umuC assays, compounds 1 and 3 were classified as non-mutagenic compounds. On the other hand, 4-(naphthalen-1-yl)-1-(2,4-difluorobenzylidene)thiosemicarbazide (2) can be considered as the most promising anticancer agent against A549 cell line owing to its notable inhibitory effect on A549 cells with an IC50 value of 31.25 μg/mL when compared with cisplatin (IC50 = 16.28 μg/mL) and no cytotoxicity against NIH/3T3 cells. PMID:26706351

  11. Radioiodination and biological evaluation of Cladribine as potential agent for tumor imaging and therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayoumi, Noha Anwer; Amin, Abeer M.; El-Kolaly, Mohamed T. [Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt). Hot Lab Center; Ismail, Nasser S.M.; Abouzid, Khaled A.M. [Ain-Shams Univ., Cairo (Egypt). Pharmaceutical Chemistry Dept.

    2015-07-01

    Cladribine, a purine analogue antimetabolite, was radioiodinated with {sup 125}I via direct electrophilic substitution reaction. The maximum radiochemical yield (92.5 ± 0.8%) was obtained when the reaction was done at ambient temperature for 30 min using 100 μg of Cladribine and 10 μg N-chlorosuccinamide (NCS) in 150 μL of 0.2 M phosphate buffer, pH 7. In vitro stability studies of HPLC purified {sup 125}I-Cladribine sample dissolved in 0.5 ml of 0.2 M phosphate buffer pH 7 at ambient temperature showed that {sup 125}I-Cladribine is stable up to 12 h post labeling. Biodistribution results revealed excretion of {sup 125}I-Cladribine mainly by kidneys. The uptake of {sup 125}I-Cladribine in the induced Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma was 2.8 ± 0.4%ID/g at 1 h post injection with maximum tumor/muscle ratio of 5.5. The good uptake of {sup 125}I-Cladribine confirms the molecular docking studies results which indicate that iodinated Cladribine binds with polymerase enzyme with a good-CDOCKER energy. As a result, radioiodinated Cladribine may be used as a valuable agent for tumor diagnosis and therapy.

  12. Use of the Crohn's disease activity index in clinical trials of biological agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The Crohn's disease activity index (CDAI) has been commonly used to assess the effects of treatment with different agents in Crohn's disease (CD). However, these studies may be compromised, if the results compared to a placebo or standard therapy group (in the absence of a placebo) substantially differ from the expected response. In addition, significant concerns have been raised regarding the reliability and validity of the CDAI. Reproducibility of the CDAI may be limited as significant inter-observer error has been recorded, even if measurements are done by experienced clinicians with expertise in the diagnosis and treatment of CD. Finally, many CDAI endpoints are open to subjective interpretation and have the potential for manipulation. This is worrisome as there is the potential for significant financial gain, if the results of a clinical trial appear to provide a positive result. Physicians caring for patients should be concerned about the positive results in clinical trials that are sponsored by industry, even if the trials involve respected centers and the results appear in highly ranked medical journals.

  13. Removal of the antiviral agent oseltamivir and its biological activity by oxidative processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestankova, Hana; Schirmer, Kristin; Escher, Beate I; von Gunten, Urs; Canonica, Silvio

    2012-02-01

    The antiviral agent oseltamivir acid (OA, the active metabolite of Tamiflu(®)) may occur at high concentrations in wastewater during pandemic influenza events. To eliminate OA and its antiviral activity from wastewater, ozonation and advanced oxidation processes were investigated. For circumneutral pH, kinetic measurements yielded second-order rate constants of 1.7 ± 0.1 × 10(5) and 4.7 ± 0.2 × 10(9) M(-1) s(-1) for the reaction of OA with ozone and hydroxyl radical, respectively. During the degradation of OA by both oxidants, the antiviral activity of the treated aqueous solutions was measured by inhibition of neuraminidase activity of two different viral strains. A transient, moderate (two-fold) increase in antiviral activity was observed in solutions treated up to a level of 50% OA transformation, while for higher degrees of transformation the activity corresponded to that caused exclusively by OA. OA was efficiently removed by ozonation in a wastewater treatment plant effluent, suggesting that ozonation can be applied to remove OA from wastewater. PMID:22230064

  14. Removal of the antiviral agent oseltamivir and its biological activity by oxidative processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The antiviral agent oseltamivir acid (OA, the active metabolite of Tamiflu®) may occur at high concentrations in wastewater during pandemic influenza events. To eliminate OA and its antiviral activity from wastewater, ozonation and advanced oxidation processes were investigated. For circumneutral pH, kinetic measurements yielded second-order rate constants of 1.7 ± 0.1 × 105 and 4.7 ± 0.2 × 109 M−1 s−1 for the reaction of OA with ozone and hydroxyl radical, respectively. During the degradation of OA by both oxidants, the antiviral activity of the treated aqueous solutions was measured by inhibition of neuraminidase activity of two different viral strains. A transient, moderate (two-fold) increase in antiviral activity was observed in solutions treated up to a level of 50% OA transformation, while for higher degrees of transformation the activity corresponded to that caused exclusively by OA. OA was efficiently removed by ozonation in a wastewater treatment plant effluent, suggesting that ozonation can be applied to remove OA from wastewater. - Highlights: ► Oseltamivir acid (OA) is oxidized by ozone and hydroxyl radical. ► Kinetics: We determined rate constants for the reaction with these oxidants. ► The specific activity of OA as neuraminidase inhibitor disappeared during oxidation. ► Ozonation and advanced oxidation can effectively remove OA from wastewaters. - Ozone and hydroxyl radical treatment processes can degrade aqueous oseltamivir acid and remove its antiviral activity.

  15. Decontamination of chemical and biological warfare (CBW) agents using an atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) [A. Schuetze et al., IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 26, 1685 (1998)] is a nonthermal, high pressure, uniform glow plasma discharge that produces a high velocity effluent stream of highly reactive chemical species. The discharge operates on a feedstock gas (e.g., He/O2/H2O), which flows between an outer, grounded, cylindrical electrode and an inner, coaxial electrode powered at 13.56 MHz rf. While passing through the plasma, the feedgas becomes excited, dissociated or ionized by electron impact. Once the gas exits the discharge volume, ions and electrons are rapidly lost by recombination, but the fast-flowing effluent still contains neutral metastable species (e.g., O2*, He*) and radicals (e.g., O, OH). This reactive effluent has been shown to be an effective neutralizer of surrogates for anthrax spores and mustard blister agent. Unlike conventional wet decontamination methods, the plasma effluent does not cause corrosion and it does not destroy wiring, electronics, or most plastics, making it highly suitable for decontamination of sensitive equipment and interior spaces. Furthermore, the reactive species in the effluent rapidly degrade into harmless products leaving no lingering residue or harmful by-products. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  16. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Liguzinediol Mono- and Dual Ester Prodrugs as Promising Inotropic Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The potent positive inotropic effect, together with the relatively low safety risk of liguzinediol (LZDO, relative to currently available inotropic drugs, has prompted us to intensively research and develop LZDO as a potent positive inotropic agent. In this study, to obtain LZDO alternatives for oral chronic administration, a series of long-chain fatty carboxylic mono- and dual-esters of LZDO were synthesized, and preliminarily evaluated for physicochemical properties and bioconversion. Enhanced lipophilic properties and decreased solubility of the prodrugs were observed as the side chain length increased. All esters showed conspicuous chemical stability in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4. Moreover, the enzymatic hydrolysis of esters in human plasma and human liver microsomes confirmed that the majority of esters were converted to LZDO, with release profiles that varied due to the size and structure of the side chain. In vivo pharmacokinetic studies following oral administration of monopivaloyl (M5, monodecyl (M10 and monododecyl (M12 esters demonstrated the evidently extended half-lives relative to LZDO dosed alone. In particular the monopivaloyl ester M5 exhibited an optimal pharmacokinetic profile with appropriate physiochemical characteristics.

  17. Radioiodination and biological evaluation of Cladribine as potential agent for tumor imaging and therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cladribine, a purine analogue antimetabolite, was radioiodinated with 125I via direct electrophilic substitution reaction. The maximum radiochemical yield (92.5 ± 0.8%) was obtained when the reaction was done at ambient temperature for 30 min using 100 μg of Cladribine and 10 μg N-chlorosuccinamide (NCS) in 150 μL of 0.2 M phosphate buffer, pH 7. In vitro stability studies of HPLC purified 125I-Cladribine sample dissolved in 0.5 ml of 0.2 M phosphate buffer pH 7 at ambient temperature showed that 125I-Cladribine is stable up to 12 h post labeling. Biodistribution results revealed excretion of 125I-Cladribine mainly by kidneys. The uptake of 125I-Cladribine in the induced Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma was 2.8 ± 0.4%ID/g at 1 h post injection with maximum tumor/muscle ratio of 5.5. The good uptake of 125I-Cladribine confirms the molecular docking studies results which indicate that iodinated Cladribine binds with polymerase enzyme with a good-CDOCKER energy. As a result, radioiodinated Cladribine may be used as a valuable agent for tumor diagnosis and therapy.

  18. Biologic agents for rheumatoid arthritis treatment%类风湿关节炎的生物制剂治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈龙; 袁国华

    2011-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a common disabling diease, seriously affecting the patients' quality of life. Traditional drugs treatment for rheumatoid arthritis include nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs, corticosteroids, and disease modifying antirheumatic drugs,however,these drugs are often not satisfied to control the condition of refractory rheumatoid arthritis,and resulting in severe joint damage. Recently , the emergence of multiple biological agents brought hope to the treatment of refractory rheumatoid arthritis patients These agents play an important role in the control of rheumatic conditions and the improvement of quality of life in PtA patients.%类风湿关节炎(rheumatoid arthritis,RA)是一种常见的致残性疾病,严重影响患者的生活质量.传统的RA药物治疗主要包括非甾体抗炎药、糖皮质激素以及慢作用药物,然而这些药物常常不能满意控制那些难治性RA患者的病情,最终导致关节进行性破坏.近年,由于多种生物制剂的出现,为治疗难治性RA带来了希望,这些生物制剂在控制风湿病情和改善生活质量方面发挥了重要作用.

  19. Transport behavior of surrogate biological warfare agents in a simulated landfill: Effect of leachate recirculation and water infiltration

    KAUST Repository

    Saikaly, Pascal

    2010-11-15

    An understanding of the transport behavior of biological warfare (BW) agents in landfills is required to evaluate the suitability of landfills for the disposal of building decontamination residue (BDR) following a bioterrorist attack on a building. Surrogate BW agents, Bacillus atrophaeus spores and Serratia marcescens, were spiked into simulated landfill reactors that were filled with synthetic building debris (SBD) and operated for 4 months with leachate recirculation or water infiltration. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) was used to monitor surrogate transport. In the leachate recirculation reactors, <10% of spiked surrogates were eluted in leachate over 4 months. In contrast, 45% and 31% of spiked S. marcescens and B. atrophaeus spores were eluted in leachate in the water infiltration reactors. At the termination of the experiment, the number of retained cells and spores in SBD was measured over the depth of the reactor. Less than 3% of the total spiked S. marcescens cells and no B. atrophaeus spores were detected in SBD. These results suggest that significant fractions of the spiked surrogates were strongly attached to SBD. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  20. Fibrous Filter to Protect Building Environments from Polluting Agents: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavhan, Md. Vaseem; Mukhopadhyay, Arunangshu

    2016-04-01

    This paper discusses the use of fibrous filter to protect the building environments from air born polluting agents and especially of concern chemical, biological and radiological agents. Air-filtration includes removal of particulate from air and toxic gases from air. In air filtration, particulate which are mostly biological and radioactive types of agents can be removed by using mechanical and electrostatic filters. Some biological agents, which cannot be removed by air filtration alone, special techniques like antimicrobial finish, UV germicides, coated filters etc. are required. Biocide agent can be added into the fibre itself by grafting reaction to impart antimicrobial activity. Chemical agents like toxic gases can be removed by integrating adsorbents and sorbents in filters or by fibre modifications. It is also possible to impart catalytic conversion properties into the fibre to remove volatile gasous. Radioactive agents can be removed by particulate filter if present in the form of aerosol or by gas cleaning by the use of specific fibre impregnate.

  1. Synthesis and biological evaluation of some polymethoxylated fused pyridine ring systems as antitumor agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostom, Sherif A F; Hassan, Ghada S; El-Subbagh, Hussein I

    2009-10-01

    A series of 3,5-bis(arylidene)-4-piperidones like chalcone analogues carrying variety of methoxylated aryl groups, pyrazolo[4,3-c]pyridines, pyrido[4,3-d]pyrimidines, and pyrido[3,2-c]pyridines, carrying an arylidene moiety, and some pyrano[3,2-c]pyridines, like flavone and coumarin isosteres, were synthesized and screened for their in-vitro antitumor activity at the National Cancer Institute (NCI, USA). The tested compounds 7, 9, 10, 12, 13, 15, 17, and 19 exhibited a broad spectrum of antitumor activity. Compounds belonging to the pyrazolo[4,3-c]pyridine series proved to be more active than those of the pyrido[3,2-c]pyridine and pyrano[3,2-c]pyridine analogues, in which the monomethoxylated derivatives showed better antitumor activity when compared with their corresponding dimethoxylated congeners. Compound 7 is considered to be the most active member identified in this study with a broad spectrum of activity against 22 different tumor cell lines belonging to the nine subpanels employed, and a particular effectiveness against the breast cancer T-47D cell line (GI 54.7%). The pyrano[3,2-c]pyridine heterocyclic system 19 proved to be the most active antitumor agent among the six-membered fused pyridines, with variable activity against 18 different tumor cell lines, and special activity against the non-small cell lung cancer Hop-92 and ovarian cancer OVCAR-4 cell lines (GI values 63.9 and 48.5%, respectively). PMID:19714673

  2. A new bone imaging agent, 99Tcm-BIPrDP, its preparation and biological properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the feasibility of 99Tcm-1-hydroxy-3-(2-butyl-1H-imidazol-1-yl) propane-1, 1-diphosphonic acid (BIPrDP) as a new bone imaging agent. Methods: BIPrDP was synthesized by three steps from the raw material 2-butyl-1H-imidazole. 99Tcm-BIPrDP were prepared with mixed BIPrDP (50 mg/ml, 100 μl) and freshly eluted Na99TcmO4 (37.0 MBq) in the presence of the reducing agent SnCl2 (1 rng/ml, 100 μl) at boiling temperature for 30 min. The labeling yield and stability of 99Tcm-BIPrDP were measured with TLC. Partition coefficient in octanol-water and plasma protein binding ratio to human heparin anticoagulation plasma of 99Tcm-BIPrDP was checked. ICR mice were sacrificed at 5, 10, 15, 30, 60, 120 and 240 min after tail vein injection of 0.2 ml (7.4 MBq) freshly prepared 99Tcm-BIPrDP.Samples of blood, heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, bone, muscle, gonad, intestine, stomach and brain were taken, weighed and the gamma counts measured. The biodistribution of the radiolabeled compound in different organs was calculated and expressed as % ID/g. Bone-to-organ uptake ratios were calculated by the % ID/g values. The kinetics of blood clearance was calculated. Bone imaging was performed in New Zealand rabbit after intravenous injection of 99Tcm-BIPrDP. One-way analysis of variance was used to analyze the % ID/g at different times points. Results: Radiolabeling yield of 99Tcm-BIPrDP was more than 95% and the labeled complex was stable at least up to 6 h in vitro. The octanol-water partition coefficients (log P) for 99Tcm-BIPrDP were-2.396 ± 0.035 and-2.242 ± 0.025 at pH values of 7.0 and 7.4, respectively. The plasma protein binding rate of 99Tcm-BIPrDP was (47.07 ± 0.05)%. The bone uptake of 99Tcm-BIPrDP in mice reached a maximum of 19.20 % ID/g at 30 min after injection, and this high level of uptake persisted 4 h later at 18.98 % ID/g. Kidney uptake was highest among all the non-target organs,but decreased from 24.50 % ID/g at 5 min to 5.22 % ID/g at 4 h

  3. Chemical composition and biological evaluation of Physalis peruviana root as hepato-renal protective agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gengaihi, Souad E; Hassan, Emad E; Hamed, Manal A; Zahran, Hanan G; Mohammed, Mona A

    2013-03-01

    This study was designed to investigate the potential of Physalis peruviana root as a functional food with hepato-renal protective effects against fibrosis. The chemical composition of the plant root suggested the presence of alkaloids, withanolides and flavonoids. Five compounds were isolated and their structures elucidated by different spectral analysis techniques. One compound was isolated from the roots: cuscohygrine. The biological evaluation was conducted on different animal groups; control rats, control treated with ethanolic root extract, CCl(4) group, CCl(4) treated with root extract, and CCl(4) treated with silymarin as a standard herbal drug. The evaluation used the oxidative stress markers malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and nitric oxide (NO). The liver function indices; aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST & ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), bilirubin, and total hepatic protein were also estimated. Kidney disorder biomarkers; creatinine, urea, and serum protein were also evaluated. The results suggested safe administration, and improvement of all the investigated parameters. The liver and kidney histopathological analysis confirmed the results. In conclusion, P. peruviana succeeded in protecting the liver and kidney against fibrosis. Further studies are needed to discern their pharmacological applications and clinical uses. PMID:23419022

  4. Display technology on filamentous phage in the search for anti-infective biological agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Santiago Vispo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The causes of antibiotic resistance are complex. The phage display technology has been used mainly to produce monoclonal antibodies (MAbs and peptides directed against cancer or inflammatory disease targets. Today, this technology is recognized as a powerful tool for selecting novel peptides and antibodies that can bind to a wide range of antigens, ranging from whole cells to proteins and lipid targets. In this review, we highlight research that exploits the phage display technology to discover new drugs against infectious diseases, with a focus on antimicrobial peptides and antibodies. Methods: Basic and recent literature review was made, mainly focused on general aspects of phage display technology and the application in the search of new peptides or antibodies of pharmaceutical use to combat the infectious diseases transmitted by bacteria and virus. Results: Updated information on the selected topics is shown, with a guiding and practical approach aimed at researchers in the field of molecular biology to continue deepening the technology with special emphasis in the applications that have been developed in Cuba. Conclusions: Advances in methods of screening, manufacturing, and humanization technologies show that phage display technology can significantly contribute in the fight against clinically important pathogens.

  5. Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel conjugates of camptothecin and 5-Flurouracil as cytotoxic agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Liu, E-mail: yqliu@lzu.edu.c [Lanzhou Jiaotong University (China). Environmental and Municipal Engineering School; Chun-Yan Zhaob; Ying-Qian Liu [Lanzhou University (China). School of Pharmacy

    2011-07-01

    A series of novel conjugates of camptothecin and 5-fluorouracil were first synthesized and their cytotoxic activities against two human tumor cell lines (SGC-7901 and A-549) as well as in vitro pharmacokinetic determination of lactone stability were studied. Among these compounds, most tested conjugates showed comparable or superior cytotoxic activities to 2, but less potent compared with 1. Particularly, conjugates 10b and 10d were highly active against A-549 with IC{sub 50} values of 0.45 and 0.38 {mu}mol L{sup -1}, respectively. Also, the in vitro pharmacokinetic determination of lactone levels of representative compound 10b showed that the biological life span of their lactone forms in human and mouse plasma significantly increased compared with their mother compound 1. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) method was then applied for developing linear models to predict the cytotoxic activities of these derivatives that have not yet been synthesized or experimentally tested. In addition, molecular docking was used to clarify the binding mode of these derivatives to human DNA topoisomerase I. The important hydrogen-bonding interactions were observed between these derivatives and their receptor. The results from molecular modeling and QSAR study can guide the design of novel conjugates with higher antitumor activity. (author)

  6. Soluble metals in the atmosphere and their biological implications: A study to identify important aerosol components by statistical analysis of PIXE data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multivariate statistical analysis has been applied to time series measurements of aerosol elemental composition from PIXE analysis of filter samples, and principal components have been resolved that represent distinct particle types in an external mixture in the atmosphere. In this study, it is argued that a combination of chemical and statistical analyses of the data may be more powerful in determining chemical species in atmospheric aerosols than studies that employ mainly direct chemical analysis of chemical species in unresolved mixtures of aerosol particle samples. Sulfur is generally associated with mineral dust elements. It is reasoned that the association may represent sulfuric acid coatings on particles that can lead to mineral dissolution and solubilization of significant amounts of aluminum, iron, and other metals. Upon wet or dry deposition to the surface, the fluxes of these metals in biologically-available form may be sufficient to affect primary productivity in the world ocean and cause ecological damage in lakes. As a consequence, the fluxes of biogenic trace gases to the atmosphere may be changed, possible leading to changes in the tropospheric concentration of ozone. The inputs to lakes of soluble aluminum, which is toxic to fish, may be partly by deposition directly from the atmosphere, thus not limited to leaching of soils by acid deposition. Human inhalation of soluble aluminum and other solubilized mineral metals may account, in part, for the observed geographic pattern of deaths attributed to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) that show high rates in cities of the Western US and the southeast region, but low in most of the midwest and northeast

  7. The effect of biological and chemical control agents on the health status of the very early potato cultivar Rosara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cwalina-Ambroziak Bożena

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The external appearance and quality of table potatoes are determined, among other factors, by the health status of the plants during the growing season. Chemical control methods are often combined with biocontrol agents to effectively fight potato pathogens. Potatoes of the very early cultivar Rosara were grown in experimental plots. The plots were located in Tomaszkowo (NE Poland, 2007-2009. The experiment involved the following treatments: 1 biological control − mycorrhizal Glomus spp. inoculum was applied to the roots, − tubers were dressed and plants were sprayed with Polyversum three times during the growing season, 2 chemical control - at two-week intervals, plants were sprayed with the following fungicides: Infinito 687.5 SC and Tanos 50 WG, Valbon 72 WG and Tanos 50 WG. In the control treatment, potato plants were not protected against pathogens. During the growing season, the severity of late blight and early blight was evaluated on a nine-point scale. The composition of fungal communities colonising potato stems was analysed. The fungistatic properties of the fungicides used in the field experiment were evaluated in an in vitro test. The symptoms of infections caused by Phytophthora infestans and Alternaria spp. were significantly reduced in the treatment which used the integrated chemical and biological control. The least diverse fungal community was isolated from fungicide-treated plants. In the in vitro test, fungicides at all analysed concentrations inhibited the linear mycelial growth of selected pathogens.

  8. P-solubilizing Fungi as Biological Control Agents to Increase Growth and Prevent Moler Disease on Red Onion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadiwiyono

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This research aim to obtain phosphate-solubilizing fungi have antagonistic ability to Fusarium oxysporum f. cepae, and increase soil available-P. The experiment was hold in April 2013 to February 2014. Antagonistic capability was observed in two stages i.e. in vitro test which was conducted in the Laboratory of Soil Biology and Biotechnology, while in vivo test in green house, Faculty of Agriculture, Sebelas Maret University Surakarta. The experimental design used was completely randomized design (CRD. The treatment factors of in vitro test were kinds of phosphate solubilizing fungi and incubation time with Pikovkaya liquid medium, while the treatment factor of in vivo test was isolates combination of phosphate solubilizing fungi. Each treatment combination was repilcate three times. The observated variable included soil available phosphate, shallot height, shoot dry weight, moler disease intensity, infection rate, and area under the disease progress curve. The research obtained 3 isolates of fungi with high potential as inoculums of P-solubilizing biofertilizer and biological control agents against moler desease of red onion. The resullt showed that mix of JK12 isolate (isolated from Entisol of Bantul District and isolate of JK14 (from Andisol of Tawangmangu sub district demonstrated the highest ability in solubilizing phosphate and suppressing moler disease of red onion.

  9. Studies on the use ofEchinostoma revolutum larvae as an agent for biological control of Fasciola gigantica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarwitri Endah Estuningsih

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of Echinostoma revolutum larvae as an agent for biological control of Fasciola gigantica has been studied in the laboratory of Parasitology, Balitvet. Infection of Lymnaea rubiginosa with Echinostoma revolutum increased the growth and mortality rates of the snails and completely suppressed their egg production . These effects were attributed to a destruction of gonads and other organs of the snails by echinostome rediae, production of which commenced during the second week after the infection. From laboratory studies with L. rubiginosa, there was an evidence of strong antagonism between larvae of E. revolutum and larvae of F. gigantica. Concurrent infection of L. rubiginosa with miracidia of F. gigantica and E. Revolutum resulted in that all snails were infected with E. revolutum only, when they were dissected 30 days later. In contrast, 94% of the snails which were exposed to miracidia of F. gigantica only, were infected with larvae of this species after 30 days . When L. rubiginosa were infected with F. gigantica 20 days previously were exposed to infection with E. revolutum and examined 30 days later, it was found that 77% of the snails had a single infection with E. revolutum, 16 % were infected with F. Gigantica only, and the remaining 7% had common infection. It was concluded that the dominant antagonism of E. revolutum over F. gigantica in L. rubiginosa and the reduction of fecundity and longevity ofsnails infected with E. revolutum could be useful for biological control of F. gigantica.

  10. Development of Quantitative Real-Time PCR Assays for Detection and Quantification of Surrogate Biological Warfare Agents in Building Debris and Leachate▿

    OpenAIRE

    Pascal E. Saikaly; Barlaz, Morton A.; de los Reyes, Francis L.

    2007-01-01

    Evaluation of the fate and transport of biological warfare (BW) agents in landfills requires the development of specific and sensitive detection assays. The objective of the current study was to develop and validate SYBR green quantitative real-time PCR (Q-PCR) assays for the specific detection and quantification of surrogate BW agents in synthetic building debris (SBD) and leachate. Bacillus atrophaeus (vegetative cells and spores) and Serratia marcescens were used as surrogates for Bacillus...

  11. Calcium phytate: A promising lung perfusion agent without risk of biological contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Lung ventilation and perfusion imaging has evolved over the years and its routine use has become widespread, where more than 70% of pulmonary thromboembolism can be diagnosed through the ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy. This non-invasive diagnostic tool offers information on the lung functional vascular bed. Historically the human Albumin macroaggregates and/or microspheres have been the selection radiopharmaceuticals to carry out the lung perfusion studies, where different formulations for diagnostic kits have been developed. However, due to the potential danger that represents the use of haemoderivates in the transmission of viral illnesses, specifically the Hepatitis C and the VIH, our country suspended at the beginning of the last decade the import of these kits. As a result of this decision we tried to obtain a reagent kit based on non-derived blood particles that were big enough to be caught by pulmonary capillaries and to allow its use in the lung perfusion imaging. For this purpose was used phytate, because of the Inositol hexaphosphoric acid (phytic acid) forms complex with numerous cations, many of which show a markedly lower solubility to that of the sodium phytate in biological systems, being the chosen cation Ca2+. The experiments were carried out starting from a complete factorial design of the type 22, where the employed variables were: Ca2+ concentration varied ranging from 5 to 15 mg of Ca2+ for a Ca2+:Phytate molar ratio of 4.6:1 and 13.8:1, respectively. Addition order of reagents, pre-supposing that this last influenced in the size of the particles: Variant 1: Ca-Tc/Phytate; Variant 2: Tc-Phytate/Ca. (author)

  12. Correlation between biological agents and levels of heavy metals in municipal sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozek, Urszula; Kłapeć, Teresa

    2008-01-01

    deposition of sludge on plots (over 6 months) causes a significant decrease of cadmium level, a decrease in the amount of Salmonella bacteria, and total elimination of Toxocara eggs. In the majority of cases no significant correlation was observed between the level of heavy metals and biological contaminants. A weak correlation was found between the concentrations of lead and chromium and the presence of the eggs of helminths (ATT), as well as between the concentration of zinc and the presence of Salmonella bacteria. PMID:19061266

  13. New developments in the treatment of osteoarthritis – focus on biologic agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torrero JI

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Jose Ignacio Torrero,1 Carlos Martínez2 1BioTrauma Centre, Escaldes, Principality of Andorra; 2University of Illinois Hospital and Health Sciences System, Chicago, IL, USA Abstract: Osteoarthritis (OA is one of the most common diseases around the world. Medical, social, and financial consequences oblige clinicians, surgeons, and researchers to focus on finding the best treatment option, to eradicate and stop this degenerative joint disease, in order to avoid surgical options which in many instances are over-indicated. Noninvasive treatments, such as anti-inflammatory drugs, physiotherapy, orthotic devices, dietary supplements, have demonstrated lack of effectiveness. The possibility to perform intra-articular injections with hyaluronic acid, corticosteroids, or the newest but criticized treatment based on platelet-rich plasma (PRP has changed the management of OA disease. The use of PRP has led to many differences in treatment since there is a lack of consensus about protocols, indications, number of doses, cost-effectiveness, and duration of the treatment. Many publications have suggested efficacy in tendon injuries, but when PRP has been indicated to treat cartilage injuries, things are more inconsistent. Some authors have reported their experience treating OA with PRP, and it seems that, if well indicated, it is an option as a supplementary therapy. Therefore, we need to understand that OA is a mechanical disease which not only produces changes in radiographs, but also affects the quality of life. Pathogenesis of OA has been well explained, providing us new knowledge and future possibilities to improve the clinical approach. From basic science to surgery, there is a great field we all need to contribute to, because the general population is aging and total joint replacements should not be the only solution for OA. So herein is an actual review of the developments for treating OA with biologics, intended to be useful for the population inside

  14. Statistical characterisation of bio-aerosol background in an urban environment

    OpenAIRE

    Jamriska, Milan; DuBois, Timothy C.; Skvortsov, Alex

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we statistically characterise the bio-aerosol background in an urban environment. To do this we measure concentration levels of naturally occurring microbiological material in the atmosphere over a two month period. Naturally occurring bioaerosols can be considered as noise, as they mask the presence of signals coming from biological material of interest (such as an intentionally released biological agent). Analysis of this 'biobackground' was undertaken in the 1-10 um size rang...

  15. New testosterone derivatives as semi-synthetic anticancer agents against prostate cancer: synthesis and preliminary biological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Nathalie; Bruneau, Julie; Fortin, Sebastien; Brasseur, Kevin; Leblanc, Valerie; Asselin, Eric; Berube, Gervais

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) is a major health issue in the world. Treatments of localized PC are quite efficient and usually involve surgery, radiotherapy and/or hormonal therapy. Metastatic PC is however rarely curable to this day. Treatments of metastatic PC involve radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormonal treatment such as orchiectomy, antiandrogens and luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists. The suppression of tumor growth by hormonal treatment is efficient but overtime resistance still occurs and the disease progresses. Thus, more urgently than ever there is a need for discovery of new treatment options for castration-resistant PC (CRPC). Hence, we designed and tested a series of amide derivatives located at position 7α of testosterone as prospective "natural" or "semisynthetic" anticancer agents against CRPC with the goal of discovering therapeutic alternatives for the disease. This manuscript describes an efficient path towards the target molecules that are made in only 6 or 7 chemical steps from testosterone in good overall yields. This strategy can be used to make several compounds of interest that present higher biological activity than the classic antiandrogen; cyproterone acetate (3). The best testosterone-7α-amide was the N-2-pyridylethylamide (25) which was as active as the antiandrogen cyproterone acetate (3) on androgen-dependent LNCaP cells and 2.7 times more active on androgen-independent PC3 prostate cancer cells. The results obtained show the synthetic feasibility and the potential for future development of this unique class of semi-synthetic anticancer agents that offer the premise of new treatment modalities for patients afflicted with CRPC. PMID:25675439

  16. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of novel benzimidazole-2-substituted phenyl or pyridine propyl ketene derivatives as antitumour agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lin-tao; Jiang, Zhi; Shen, Jia-jia; Yi, Hong; Zhan, Yue-chen; Sha, Ming-quan; Wang, Zhen; Xue, Si-tu; Li, Zhuo-rong

    2016-05-23

    A series of novel benzimidazole-2-subsituted phenyl or pyridine propyl ketene derivatives were designed and synthesized. The biological activities of these derivatives were then evaluated as potential antitumour agents. These compounds were assayed for growth-inhibitory activity against HCT116, MCF-7 and HepG2 cell lines in vitro. The IC50 values of compounds A1 and A7 against the cancer cells were 0.06-3.64 μM and 0.04-9.80 μM, respectively. Their antiproliferative activities were significantly better than that of 5-Fluorouracil (IC50: 56.96-174.50 μM) and were close to that of Paclitaxel (IC50: 0.026-1.53 μM). The activity of these derivatives was over 100 times more effective than other reported structures of chalcone analogues (licochalcone A). A preliminary mechanistic study suggested that these compounds inhibit p53-MDM2 binding. Compounds A1, A7 and A9 effectively inhibited tumour growth in BALB/c mice with colon carcinoma HCT116 cells. The group administered 200 mg/kg of compound A7 showed a 74.6% tumour growth inhibition with no signs of toxicity at high doses that was similar to the inhibition achieved with the 12.5 mg/kg irinotecan positive control (70.2%). Therefore, this class of benzimidazole-2-subsituted phenyl or pyridine propyl ketene derivatives represents a promising lead structure for the development of possible p53-MDM2 inhibitors as new antitumour agents. PMID:27017265

  17. V-type nerve agents phosphonylate ubiquitin at biologically relevant lysine residues and induce intramolecular cyclization by an isopeptide bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Christian; Breyer, Felicitas; Blum, Marc-Michael; Thiermann, Horst; Worek, Franz; John, Harald

    2014-08-01

    Toxic organophosphorus compounds (e.g., pesticides and nerve agents) are known to react with nucleophilic side chains of different amino acids (phosphylation), thus forming adducts with endogenous proteins. Most often binding to serine, tyrosine, or threonine residues is described as being of relevance for toxicological effects (e.g., acetylcholinesterase and neuropathy target esterase) or as biomarkers for post-exposure analysis (verification, e.g., albumin and butyrylcholinesterase). Accordingly, identification of novel protein targets might be beneficial for a better understanding of the toxicology of these compounds, revealing new bioanalytical verification tools, and improving knowledge on chemical reactivity. In the present study, we investigated the reaction of ubiquitin (Ub) with the V-type nerve agents Chinese VX, Russian VX, and VX in vitro. Ub is a ubiquitous protein with a mass of 8564.8 Da present in the extra- and intracellular space that plays an important physiological role in several essential processes (e.g., proteasomal degradation, DNA repair, protein turnover, and endocytosis). Reaction products were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight- mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and μ-high-performance liquid chromatography online coupled to UV-detection and electrospray ionization MS (μHPLC-UV/ESI MS). Our results originally document that a complex mixture of at least mono-, di, and triphosphonylated Ub adducts was produced. Surprisingly, peptide mass fingerprint analysis in combination with MALDI and ESI MS/MS revealed that phosphonylation occurred with high selectivity in at least 6 of 7 surface-exposed lysine residues that are essential for the biological function of Ub. These reaction products were found not to age. In addition, we herein report for the first time that phosphonylation induced intramolecular cyclization by formation of an isopeptide bond between the ε-amino group of a formerly phosphonylated

  18. Patients' and rheumatologists' preferences for the attributes of biological agents used in the treatment of rheumatic diseases in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nolla JM

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Joan M Nolla,1 Manuel Rodríguez,2 Emilio Martin-Mola,3 Enrique Raya,4 Isabel Ibero,5 Gonzalo Nocea,6 Belén Aragon,6 Luis Lizán,7 Miriam Prades7 1Department of Rheumatology, Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, Barcelona, Spain; 2Department of Rheumatology, Complejo Hospitalario de Ourense, Ourense, Spain; 3Department of Rheumatology, Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid, Spain; 4Department of Rheumatology, Hospital Universitario San Cecilio, Granada, Spain; 5Hospital General de Elda, Alicante, Spain; 6Outcomes Research, MSD, Madrid, Spain; 7Outcomes’10, Castellón, Spain Purpose: To define importance values assigned to attributes of biological agents (BAs by Spanish patients with rheumatic diseases (rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and psoriatic arthritis and rheumatologists.Patients and methods: This was an observational, cross-sectional design based upon a rank-based full-profile conjoint analysis. A literature review and four focus groups were undertaken to identify attributes and levels. An orthogonal matrix, combining the selected levels of attributes, was used to define scenarios. Participants ranked eight scenarios from 1 (most preferred to 8 (least preferred. The relative importance (RI of attributes was calculated. Multivariate regression analysis was performed to identify the characteristics that influenced the values of RI. A total of 488 patients (male 50.9%, mean age 50.6 [standard deviation {SD} 12.06] years, rheumatoid arthritis 33.8%, ankylosing spondylitis 32.4%, psoriatic arthritis 33.8%; mean time since diagnosis 12.6 [SD 8.2] years and 136 rheumatologists (male 50.4%, mean age 46.4 [SD 9.1] years, mean time of practice 16.7 [SD 8.8] years participated.Results: The ideal BAs for patients and physicians, respectively, should allow pain relief and improvement of functional capacity (RI 39% and 44.7%, with low risk of adverse events (RI 24.9% and 30.5%, a long time prior to perceiving the need for a new dose

  19. Influence of Temperature, Humidity, and Plant Terpenoid Profiles on Life History Characteristics of Boreioglycaspis melaleucae (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), a Biological Control Agent of the Invasive Tree Melaleuca quinquenervia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although the introduced weed biological control agent Boreioglycaspis melaleucae Moore is widely established among stands of its host Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) Blake (Myrtaceae) in south Florida, it’s population densities decline markedly during summer months. We investigated the hypothesis tha...

  20. Natural enemies of balloon vine, Cardiospermum grandiflorum Swartz (Sapindaceae), in Argentina and their potential use as biological control agents in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exploratory field surveys of the natural enemies associated with balloon vine, Cardiospermum grandiflorum (Sapindaceae), an environmental weed in South Africa, Australia and other countries, were conducted in northern Argentina from 2005 to 2009, to search for suitable biological control agents. The...

  1. Caffeine-based gold(I) N-heterocyclic carbenes as possible anticancer agents: synthesis and biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Benoît; Stefan, Loic; Pirrotta, Marc; Monchaud, David; Bodio, Ewen; Richard, Philippe; Le Gendre, Pierre; Warmerdam, Elena; de Jager, Marina H; Groothuis, Geny M M; Picquet, Michel; Casini, Angela

    2014-02-17

    A new series of gold(I) N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) complexes based on xanthine ligands have been synthesized and characterized by mass spectrometry, NMR, and X-ray diffraction. The compounds have been tested for their antiproliferative properties in human cancer cells and nontumorigenic cells in vitro, as well as for their toxicity in healthy tissues ex vivo. The bis-carbene complex [Au(caffein-2-ylidene)2][BF4] (complex 4) appeared to be selective for human ovarian cancer cell lines and poorly toxic in healthy organs. To gain preliminary insights into their actual mechanism of action, two biologically relevant in cellulo targets were studied, namely, DNA (more precisely a higher-order DNA structure termed G-quadruplex DNA that plays key roles in oncogenetic regulation) and a pivotal enzyme of the DNA damage response (DDR) machinery (poly-(adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1), strongly involved in the cancer resistance mechanism). Our results indicate that complex 4 acts as an efficient and selective G-quadruplex ligand while being a modest PARP-1 inhibitor (i.e., poor DDR impairing agent) and thus provide preliminary insights into the molecular mechanism that underlies its antiproliferative behavior. PMID:24499428

  2. Duddingtonia flagrans, Monacrosporium thaumasium and Pochonia chlamydosporia as possible biological control agents of Oxyuris equi and Austroxyuris finlaysoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, F R; Araújo, J V; Silva, A R; Araujo, J M; Carvalho, R O; Campos, A K; Tavela, A O; Ferreira, S R; Frassy, L N; Alves, C D F

    2010-03-01

    The action of four fungal isolates of the species Duddingtonia flagrans (AC001), Monacrosporium thaumasium (NF34a) and Pochonia chlamydosporia (VC1 and VC4) on eggs of Oxyuris equi and Austroxyuris finlaysoni was evaluated in two assays (A and B). Eggs of O. equi (Test A) and A. finlaysoni (Test B) were plated on Petri dishes with 2% water-agar with grown fungal isolates and control without fungus. After 5, 10 and 15 days, 100 eggs were collected and classified according to the following parameters: type 1 effect, physiological and biochemical effect without morphological damage to the eggshell; type 2 effect, lytic effect with morphological alteration of the eggshell and embryo; and type 3 effect, lytic effect with morphological alteration of the eggshell and embryo, hyphal penetration and internal egg colonization. Pochonia chlamydosporia isolates VC1 and VC4 showed ovicidal activity for type 1, 2 and 3 effects on eggs of O. equi and eggs of A. finlaysoni. In vitro assays A and B showed that P. chlamydosporia had a negative influence on eggs of O. equi and A. finlaysoni and can be considered as a potential biological control agent of nematodes. PMID:19570314

  3. Biology and host preferences of Cryptorhynchus melastomae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), a possible biocontrol agent for Miconia calvescens (Melastomataceae) in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Elisabeth; Johnson, M Tracy; Chacón, Eduardo; Anderson, Robert S; Wheeler, Terry A

    2010-12-01

    The introduced plant Miconia calvescens (Melastomataceae) poses a grave threat to Hawaii's native ecosystems and biodiversity. One potential candidate for classical biological control is Cryptorhynchus melastomae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Cryptorhynchinae), a stem-boring weevil from Central and South America. This weevil feeds on M. calvescens in its native Costa Rica and has been successfully reared under greenhouse conditions. Comparison of its environmental conditions in Costa Rica with those in the Miconia infested areas of Hawaii indicates the latter is a suitable habitat for C. melastomae. C. melastomae has one or two generations per year. Adults feed on new stems, petioles, leaf buds, veins, and lamina, whereas larvae mine the stem until pupation. Adults appear to prefer saplings for oviposition and feeding. Under greenhouse conditions both adults and larvae can seriously damage and kill small M. calvescens. Preliminary host testing indicates that C. melastomae may be family specific on Melastomataceae. However, because Hawaii lacks native melastomes and has many other serious melastome weeds, a family specific insect may be suitable as a biocontrol agent in this case. PMID:22182550

  4. Synthesis, physicochemical characterization, and biological activities of new carnosine derivatives stable in human serum as potential neuroprotective agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertinaria, Massimo; Rolando, Barbara; Giorgis, Marta; Montanaro, Gabriele; Guglielmo, Stefano; Buonsanti, M Federica; Carabelli, Valentina; Gavello, Daniela; Daniele, Pier Giuseppe; Fruttero, Roberta; Gasco, Alberto

    2011-01-27

    The synthesis and the physicochemical and biological characterization of a series of carnosine amides bearing on the amido group alkyl substituents endowed with different lipophilicity are described. All synthesized products display carnosine-like properties differentiating from the lead for their high serum stability. They are able to complex Cu(2+) ions at physiological pH with the same stoichiometry as carnosine. The newly synthesized compounds display highly significant copper ion sequestering ability and are capable of protecting LDL from oxidation catalyzed by Cu(2+) ions, the most active compounds being the most hydrophilic ones. All the synthesized amides show quite potent carnosine-like HNE quenching activity; in particular, 7d, the member of the series selected for this kind of study, is able to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and to protect primary mouse hippocampal neurons against HNE-induced death. These products can be considered metabolically stable analogues of carnosine and are worthy of additional investigation as potential neuroprotective agents. PMID:21182325

  5. Efficacy of genetically engineered biological agents in the treatment of uveitis associated with rheumatic diseases in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V V Neroyev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of incorporating genetically engineered biological agents (GEBAs into a combination treatment regimen for rheumatic diseases (RD (juvenile idiopathic arthritis, Behcet's disease in relation to associated uveitis of varying severity was studied in 92 children aged 2 to 17 years. The follow-up lasted 1.5 to 49 months. Twenty-three patients took consecutively 2 to 5 GEBAs. When infliximab was used, remission of uveitis occurred in 21% of 38 children and the disease activity and/or recurrence rates reduced in an additional 21%. These were in 45 and 38.6% of 44 patients on adalimumab (ADA and in 27.8 and 27.8% of 18 patients on abatacept, respectively. There was an association of the efficiency of therapy with the severity of uveitis at the start of treatment. The use of ADA induced a steady remission of panuveitis resistant to therapy with glucocorticoids and cyclosporine in both patients with Behcet's disease. One of 4 rituximab-treated patients achieved a steady remission. Tocilizumab therapy caused an exacerbation of uveitis in 1 patient. The postoperative period showed no inflammatory complications in most cases (37 operations, 26 eyes, 20 patients. No local adverse reactions were seen; systemic reactions occurred in 14% of the patients, this caused GEBAs to be discontinued in 7%. There is evidence for a need for further investigations into the efficacy of GEBAs in RD-associated uveitis in children in order to define success criteria, differentiated indications, and therapy regimens.

  6. Biology and host range of Tecmessa elegans (Lepidoptera:Notodontidae) a leaf-feeding moth evaluated as a potential biological control agent for Schinus terebinthifolius (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    During surveys for natural enemies that could potentially be used as classical biological control agents of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Brazilian pepper) which is invasive in the USA, the caterpillar, Tecmessa elegans Schaus (Lepidoptera: Notodontidae), was recorded feeding on the leaves of the ...

  7. Study of primary biological aerosols to characterize their diversity in particulate matter over the Indian tropical region: assessment for climatic and health impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyamvada R, H.; Muthalagu, A.; R, R.; Verma, R. S.; Philip, L.; Desprès, V.; Poeschl, U.; Gunthe, S. S.

    2015-12-01

    Primary Biological Aerosol Particles (PBAPs) are ubiquitous in the Earth's atmosphere and can influence the biosphere, climate, and public health (Després et al., 2012).To study the importance of the PBAPs, it is important to have an understanding about their origin, seasonal abundance and diversity. The study of PBAPs over the Indian tropical region becomes important as it hosts ~ 18% of the world population and has a distinct climate with a systematic and cyclic monsoon season which is different from the continental climates in Europe and America. In this study, the PBAPs were characterized by the application of molecular genetic techniques involving DNA extraction, PCR amplifications, cloning and DNA sequencing. In addition, characterization of the fungal source emissions was performed to better understand the diversity, abundance, and relative contribution of the fungal aerosols. For the present study, DNA analysis was performed on a one-year air filter set of PM10 (particulate matter ≤10 mm) covering three distinct meteorological seasons, i.e. summer, monsoon, and winter. The results from DNA analysis revealed the presence of bacteria and fungi in the filter samples. The fungal source characterization performed by the DNA analysis revealed the ratio of Basidiomycota to Ascomycota to be 96:4, which is consistent with previously reported studies from airborne fungal communities in the European continental boundary layer air (Fröhlich-Nowoisky et al., 2009). In the study region, the highest species richness was found to be present in the family Agaricaceae (25.3%) followed by Polyporaceae (15.3%) and Marasmiaceae (10.81%). Agaricaceae, Polyporaceae and Psathyrellaceae were dominant families in the study region and the families like Clavariaceae, Nectriaceae, Phanerochaetachae, Pleurotaceae and Strophariaceae were found to be rare. The results will next be compared with the diversity and types of the fungi found in ambient PM10. More details will be presented.

  8. Similar effects of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, glucocorticoids, and biologic agents on radiographic progression in rheumatoid arthritis: meta-analysis of 70 randomized placebo-controlled or drug-controlled studies, including 112 comparisons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels; Jürgens, Gesche

    2010-01-01

    To define the differences in effects on joint destruction in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients between therapy with single and combination disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), glucocorticoids, and biologic agents.......To define the differences in effects on joint destruction in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients between therapy with single and combination disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), glucocorticoids, and biologic agents....

  9. Possible reasons for the inefficacy of genetically engineered biological agents in rheumatoid arthritis and ways of its prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Vladimirovna Chichasova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetically engineered biological agents (GEBAs have held a firm place in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Patients are selected for this treatment in accordance with international and Russian guidelines. The question as to whether GEBAs should be added to therapy with disease-modifying anti-inflammatory drugs (DMAIDs is raised after there is an inadequate response to therapy with two DMAIDs, one of which should be methotrexate. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α inhibitors as a first-line drug are indicated only in high RA activity. There are few predictors of the efficacy of GEBAs. It is noted that in accordance with the principles of the Treatment to Target program, RA is treated under control of monthly estimated scores in patients with high/moderate disease activity; if there is no remission (with low disease activity being an alternative aim after three months it is decided whether to correct therapy. In routine practice, when the effect of GEBAs, which is observed in many patients in the first week of treatment, appears, physicians often begin to discontinue symptomatic drugs and at times to decrease the dose or withdraw DMAIDs, which may result in the progression of symptoms of arthritis and which may be misinterpreted as the inadequate or none effect of GEBAs. There are objective reasons for the possible inefficacy of GEBAs. The valid predictor for a response to inhibitors of TNF-α is its baseline expression by synovial membrane cells. It is also important to take into account the nature of previous GEBA therapy. All GEBAs are noted to be highly effective when applying a weighed approach to selecting and managing patients; in so doing, rapid discontinuation of symptomatic therapy should be avoided.

  10. Demonstration Exercise of a Validated Sample Collection Method for Powders Suspected of Being Biological Agents in Georgia 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    August 7, 2006 the state of Georgia conducted a collaborative sampling exercise between the Georgia National Guard 4th Civil Support Team Weapons of Mass Destruction (CST-WMD) and the Georgia Department of Human Resources Division of Public Health demonstrating a recently validated bulk powder sampling method. The exercise was hosted at the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center (FLETC) at Glynn County, Georgia and involved the participation of the Georgia Emergency Management Agency (GEMA), Georgia National Guard, Georgia Public Health Laboratories, the Federal Bureau of Investigation Atlanta Office, Georgia Coastal Health District, and the Glynn County Fire Department. The purpose of the exercise was to demonstrate a recently validated national sampling standard developed by the American Standards and Test Measures (ASTM) International; ASTM E2458 Standard Practice for Bulk Sample Collection and Swab Sample Collection of Visible Powders Suspected of Being Biological Agents from Nonporous Surfaces. The intent of the exercise was not to endorse the sampling method, but to develop a model for exercising new sampling methods in the context of existing standard operating procedures (SOPs) while strengthening operational relationships between response teams and analytical laboratories. The exercise required a sampling team to respond real-time to an incident cross state involving a clandestine bio-terrorism production lab found within a recreational vehicle (RV). Sample targets consisted of non-viable gamma irradiated B. anthracis Sterne spores prepared by Dugway Proving Ground. Various spore concentration levels were collected by the ASTM method, followed by on- and off-scene analysis utilizing the Center for Disease Control (CDC) Laboratory Response Network (LRN) and National Guard Bureau (NGB) CST mobile Analytical Laboratory Suite (ALS) protocols. Analytical results were compared and detailed surveys of participant evaluation comments were examined. I will present

  11. Patients’ and rheumatologists’ preferences for the attributes of biological agents used in the treatment of rheumatic diseases in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolla, Joan M; Rodríguez, Manuel; Martin-Mola, Emilio; Raya, Enrique; Ibero, Isabel; Nocea, Gonzalo; Aragon, Belén; Lizán, Luis; Prades, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To define importance values assigned to attributes of biological agents (BAs) by Spanish patients with rheumatic diseases (rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and psoriatic arthritis) and rheumatologists. Patients and methods This was an observational, cross-sectional design based upon a rank-based full-profile conjoint analysis. A literature review and four focus groups were undertaken to identify attributes and levels. An orthogonal matrix, combining the selected levels of attributes, was used to define scenarios. Participants ranked eight scenarios from 1 (most preferred) to 8 (least preferred). The relative importance (RI) of attributes was calculated. Multivariate regression analysis was performed to identify the characteristics that influenced the values of RI. A total of 488 patients (male 50.9%, mean age 50.6 [standard deviation {SD} 12.06] years, rheumatoid arthritis 33.8%, ankylosing spondylitis 32.4%, psoriatic arthritis 33.8%; mean time since diagnosis 12.6 [SD 8.2] years) and 136 rheumatologists (male 50.4%, mean age 46.4 [SD 9.1] years, mean time of practice 16.7 [SD 8.8] years) participated. Results The ideal BAs for patients and physicians, respectively, should allow pain relief and improvement of functional capacity (RI 39% and 44.7%), with low risk of adverse events (RI 24.9% and 30.5%), a long time prior to perceiving the need for a new dose (RI 16.4% and 12.4%), and self-administration at home (RI 19.7% and 12.5%), as identified through their preferences. Conclusion Although efficacy and safety are paramount for patients and rheumatologists to make a choice regarding BAs, the need for a low frequency of administration and the administration method also play a role as preference attributes for BAs. PMID:27382258

  12. Distinct Regions of Right Temporal Cortex Are Associated with Biological and Human-Agent Motion: Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Neuropsychological Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Zaizhu; Bi, Yanchao; Chen, Jing; Chen, Quanjing; He, Yong; Caramazza, Alfonso

    2013-01-01

    In human lateral temporal cortex, some regions show specific sensitivity to human motion. Here we examine whether such effects reflect a general biological-nonbiological organizational principle or a process specific to human-agent processing by comparing processing of human, animal, and tool motion in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment with healthy participants and a voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) study of patients with brain damage (77 stroke patients). The...

  13. Agreements and Discrepancies between FDA Reports and Journal Papers on Biologic Agents Approved for Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Meta-Research Project

    OpenAIRE

    Gil Amarilyo; Daniel E Furst; Woo, Jennifer M P; Wen Li; Henning Bliddal; Robin Christensen; Simon Tarp

    2016-01-01

    Background Sponsors that seek to commercialize new drugs apply to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) which independently analyzes the raw data and reports the results on its website. Objectives This study sought to determine if there are differences between the FDA assessments and journal reports on biologic agents developed for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Methods Available data on FDA-approved drugs were extracted from the website, and a systematic literature search was conduc...

  14. Biologic

    CERN Document Server

    Kauffman, L H

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we explore the boundary between biology and the study of formal systems (logic). In the end, we arrive at a summary formalism, a chapter in "boundary mathematics" where there are not only containers but also extainers ><, entities open to interaction and distinguishing the space that they are not. The boundary algebra of containers and extainers is to biologic what boolean algebra is to classical logic. We show how this formalism encompasses significant parts of the logic of DNA replication, the Dirac formalism for quantum mechanics, formalisms for protein folding and the basic structure of the Temperley Lieb algebra at the foundations of topological invariants of knots and links.

  15. Organic aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organic aerosols scatter solar radiation. They may also either enhance or decrease concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei. This paper summarizes observed concentrations of aerosols in remote continental and marine locations and provides estimates for the sources of organic aerosol matter. The anthropogenic sources of organic aerosols may be as large as the anthropogenic sources of sulfate aerosols, implying a similar magnitude of direct forcing of climate. The source estimates are highly uncertain and subject to revision in the future. A slow secondary source of organic aerosols of unknown origin may contribute to the observed oceanic concentrations. The role of organic aerosols acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) is described and it is concluded that they may either enhance or decrease the ability of anthropogenic sulfate aerosols to act as CCN

  16. Biological Agents Influencing Physical Process in a Stream: A Case Study in Response to Human-Induced Alteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sondossi, H. A.; Bienz, C.

    2013-12-01

    We present a case study of the Upper Williamson River, a major tributary to Upper Klamath Lake (UKL), to demonstrate illustrate the importance of biophysical interactions. The Klamath River is called 'the upside-down river' by some, due to its peculiar longitudinal profile--low-gradient at the headwaters east of the Cascade Range and steeper close to the mouth as it crosses the Cascades. The Upper Williamson River, as with other tributaries of UKL, flows through highly erodible volcanic ash (pumice) deposits of the Mazama eruption ~7,000 years ago, which created Crater Lake. There is little or no gravel in the broad, shallow alluvial valley of the River. We make the case that in this particular setting, the role of biological agents (e.g., riparian vegetation) is even more prominent than in settings with normal silica-derived sediment. Therefore, typical agricultural practices (removal of woody riparian vegetation, livestock grazing and trampling, etc.) cause rapid and severe channel response and therefore habitat degradation. However, when appropriately restored the recovery is also rapid and drastic. This spring-fed stream with few tributaries in the study area conveys relatively stable discharge, and has good water quality particularly in the upper reaches. It historically supported a population of native redband trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdnerii), and the candidate species (for listing under the Endangered Species Act) Oregon spotted frog (Rana pretiosa) and countless other avian species. In the late 20th Century, after decades of heavy grazing and active removal of willows from the floodplain, the River banks were nearly bare and unstable. The channel was wide, shallow, and smooth. Consequently, poor water quality, particularly high temperature rendered the stream extremely poor habitat. With controlled grazing, re-establishment of willow galleries, and addition of large woody debris (LWD) the channel has recovered to a narrower, deeper cross-section, with

  17. Aerosol MALDI mass spectrometry for bioaerosol analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kleefsman, W.A.

    2008-01-01

    In the thesis Aerosol MALDI mass spectrometry for bioaerosol analysis is described how the aerosol mass spectrometer of the TU Delft has been further developed for the on-line analysis of bioaerosols. Due to the implemented improvements mass spectra with high resolution and a high mass range can be obtained from single protein containing aerosol particles. Fluorescence is used to select the biological fraction of an aerosol: when a particle emits fluorescence when irradiated with UV-laser lig...

  18. Marine aerosols

    OpenAIRE

    Saltzman, Es

    2009-01-01

    The aerosol over the world oceans plays an important role in determining the physical and chemical characteristics of the Earth's atmosphere and its interactions with the climate system. The oceans contribute to the aerosols in the overlying atmosphere by the production and emission of aerosol particles and precursor gases. The marine aerosol, in turn, influences the biogeochemistry of the surface ocean through long distance transport and deposition of terrestrial and marine-derived nutrients...

  19. PRODUCTION OF FUNGAL BIOLOGICAL CONTROL AGENTS THROUGH SOLID STATE FERMENTATION: A CASE STUDY ON PAECILOMYCES LILACINUS AGAINST ROOT-KNOT NEMATODES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Brand

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Root-knot nematodes cause annual losses of about USD $100 billion worldwide. Development of natural resistance to nematicides by nematodes and the tendency to withdraw chemical pesticides/nematicides from the market led to the search for new methods of control. Biological control of root-knot nematodes with Paecilomyces lilacinus is being investigated thoroughly, but there is a lack of information on the production systems. Solid state fermentation is a suitable ecofriendly biological process for the mass production of biological control agents. Conidiospores produced are cost-effective and show good stability and viability for field applications on a commercial scale. Studies on bioreactor design are essential for scaling up solid-state fermentation processes, but they are scarce yet. We did an in-depth analysis on the production of fungal spores by solid state fermentation for commercial scale application against root-knot nematodes.

  20. Study on the uptake and distribution of gadolinium based contrast agents in biological samples using laser ablation with inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadolinium based contrast agents are used for magnetic resonance imaging. After their excretion by medicated patients they reach surface water passing waste water treatment plants where they are not removed sufficiently. The behavior of the contrast agents in the environment and the interaction with organisms was investigated in this work due to the toxicity of the free Gd3+ ion and the associated risks, such as accumulation in the human food chain. In this work, the two elemental analytical imaging methods laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence analysis (SRXRF) have been used to investigate the uptake, distribution, and excretion of Gd-based contrast agents by various biological systems. Both methods were analytically characterized and compared for this application. The detection limits of gadolinium were determined under optimized conditions by LA-ICP-MS and SRXRF. With calibration by remains of dried elemental standard droplets detection limits of 0.78 pg absolute amount of gadolinium (LA-ICP-MS), respectively 89 pg (SRXRF) were reached. Based on filamentous algae as water plants the uptake and the excretion of Gd-based contrast agents were revealed. The dependence on concentration of the contrast agent in the exposition solution and the independence of temporal uptake within one to seven days were studied for duckweed. By LA-ICP-MS gadolinium was quantified in a leaf of cress plant. The verification of the results was performed by SRXRF and ICP-MS after digestion. Furthermore, the uptake and distribution of Gd-based contrast agents in higher organisms (water flea) were observed. The exact location of gadolinium was resolved by three-dimensional μ-computed tomography by the comparison of an exposed with a Gd-free water flea. In all studies, gadolinium was detected in the investigated exposed model organisms. It can be concluded that the contrast agents were taken from the environment.

  1. Biological effects of repeated inhalation exposure of beagle dogs to aerosols of 144Ce in fused clay particles I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This experiment was initiated to study the biological behavior and long-term effects of repeated inhalation exposures to 144Ce in fused clay particles compared with those seen in Beagle dogs that received a single exposure as young adults. The 36 dogs, divided into four equal groups, are exposed every 8 weeks to achieve the following: to maintain lung burdens of 9 and 4.5 μCi 144Ce/kg body weight in the first and second groups, respectively; to increase the lung burden by 2.5 μCi 144Ce/kg body weight in the third group with each exposure and to expose controls (fourth group) to fused clay containing stable cerium. With these exposure sequences, the 144Ce-exposed dogs will receive increasing or maintained β dose rates in contrast to the steadily decreasing dose rate seen after a single inhalation exposure. Exposures to the first and third groups will produce a cumulative absorbed dose to lung of approximately equal to 35,000 rads and those to the second group will yield approximately equal to 17,000 rads within 2 yr after the first exposure. Single exposure dogs that had died with pulmonary neoplasia when this experiment was initiated had cumulative doses to death of 29,000 to 61,000 rads. Six of the planned 13 exposures have been completed to date. All exposed dogs are surviving and will be maintained for lifespan observation. (U.S.)

  2. Risks and benefits of combining immunosuppressives and biological agents in inflammatory bowel disease: is the synergy worth the risk?

    OpenAIRE

    Hanauer, Stephen B.

    2007-01-01

    Since the introduction of infliximab to treat Crohn's disease, combination therapy with immunosuppressants has reduced immunogenicity, without impacting efficacy. The availability of novel anti‐TNF agents and potential combined toxicities question the risk/benefit of combination therapies.

  3. Biological control agents for suppression of post-harvest diseases of potatoes: strategies on discovery and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    As used in plant pathology, the term "biological control" or its short form “biocontrol” commonly refers to the decrease in the inoculum or the disease-producing activity of a pathogen accomplished through one or more organisms, including the host plant but excluding man. Biological control of plant...

  4. Accelerator mass spectrometry analysis of 14C-oxaliplatin concentrations in biological samples and 14C contents in biological samples and antineoplastic agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoguchi, Teiko; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Konno, Noboru; Shiraishi, Tadashi; Kato, Kazuhiro; Tokanai, Fuyuki

    2015-10-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is expected to play an important role in microdose trials. In this study, we measured the 14C concentration in 14C-oxaliplatin-spiked serum, urine and supernatant of fecal homogenate samples in our Yamagata University (YU) - AMS system. The calibration curves of 14C concentration in serum, urine and supernatant of fecal homogenate were linear (the correlation coefficients were ⩾0.9893), and the precision and accuracy was within the acceptance criteria. To examine a 14C content of water in three vacuum blood collection tubes and a syringe were measured. 14C was not detected from water in these devices. The mean 14C content in urine samples of 6 healthy Japanese volunteers was 0.144 dpm/mL, and the intra-day fluctuation of 14C content in urine from a volunteer was little. The antineoplastic agents are administered to the patients in combination. Then, 14C contents of the antineoplastic agents were quantitated. 14C contents were different among 10 antineoplastic agents; 14C contents of paclitaxel injection and docetaxel hydrate injection were higher than those of the other injections. These results indicate that our quantitation method using YU-AMS system is suited for microdosing studies and that measurement of baseline and co-administered drugs might be necessary for the studies in low concentrations.

  5. Biological evaluation of 99mTC cis-Pt iminoacetic acid complexes as tumour imaging agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biodistributions of three new 99mTc labelled cis-platinum bifunctional tumour imaging agents were examined in mice bearing a certain type of sarcoma between 15 minutes and 24 hours post injection. The three complexes were excreted primarily via the renal pathway into the urine but at quite different rates. All complexes had some affinity for the tumour, but complexes III had the greatest, with tumour to blood and tumour to muscle rates at 24 hours in excess of 10:1 and 18:1. Biodistribution results were calculated using Tiscon Program. Suggesting that the three complexes may be useful as tumour imaging agents. (M.E.L.)

  6. Similar effects of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, glucocorticoids, and biologic agents on radiographic progression in rheumatoid arthritis: meta-analysis of 70 randomized placebo-controlled or drug-controlled studies, including 112 comparisons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels; Jürgens, Gesche

    2010-01-01

    To define the differences in effects on joint destruction in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients between therapy with single and combination disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), glucocorticoids, and biologic agents....

  7. Efforts to establish a biological control agent against incipient infestations of Old World climbing fern in southwest Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    When available, field-adapted insects should be selected for colonization and redistribution, because they appear to offer better prospects for establishment than lab-reared insects. Small founder populations of monophagous biocontrol agents that depend on a patchy, rare host plant are susceptible t...

  8. Toxins as weapons of mass destruction. A comparison and contrast with biological-warfare and chemical-warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, J M

    2001-09-01

    Toxins are toxic chemical compounds synthesized in nature by living organisms. Classifiable by molecular weight, source, preferred targets in the body, and mechanism of action, they include the most potent poisons on the planet, although considerations of production, weaponization, delivery, environmental stability, and host factors place practical limits on their use as WMD. The two most important toxin threats on the battlefield or in bioterrorism are probably botulinum toxin (a series of seven serotypes, of which botulinum toxin A is the most toxic for humans) and SEB, an incapacitating toxin. Ricin and the trichothecene mycotoxins, including T-2 mycotoxin, are of lesser concern but are still potential threats. Botulinum toxin is a neurotoxin, ricin and trichothecene mycotoxins are membrane-damaging proteins, and SEB is a superantigen capable of massive nonspecific activation of the immune system. The clinical intoxications resulting from exposure to and absorption (usually by inhalation) of these agents reflect their underlying pathophysiology. Because of the hybrid nature of toxins, they have sometimes been considered CW agents and sometimes BW agents. The current trend seems to be to emphasize their similarities to living organisms and their differences from CW agents, but examination of all three groups relative to a number of factors reveals both similarities and differences between toxins and each of the other two categories of non-nuclear unconventional WMD. The perspective that groups toxins with BW agents is logical and very useful for research and development and for administrative and treaty applications, but for medical education and casualty assessment, there are real advantages in clinician use of assessment techniques that emphasize the physicochemical behavior of these nonliving, nonreplicating, intransmissible chemical poisons. PMID:11577702

  9. Do changes in prescription practice in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with biological agents affect treatment response and adherence to therapy? Results from the nationwide Danish DANBIO Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hetland, M L; Lindegaard, H M; Hansen, A;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prescription practice for tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) inhibitors has changed towards treating patients with lower disease activity. OBJECTIVE: To determine the trend in treatment response in cohorts of patients with rheumatoid arthritis who started TNFalpha inhibitor...... treatment between 2000 and 2005. METHODS: 1813 patients with RA starting treatment with biological agents in 2000-5 were registered prospectively in the nationwide DANBIO Registry. Baseline disease activity and 12 months' treatment responses were determined in cohorts based on start year (2000/1; 2002; 2003...

  10. Synthesis of Caffeic Acid Amides Bearing 2,3,4,5-Tetra-hydrobenzo[b][1,4]dioxocine Moieties and Their Biological Evaluation as Antitumor Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Wen Yuan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A series of caffeic acid amides D1-D17 bearing 2,3,4,5-tetrahydrobenzo-[b][1,4]dioxocine units has been synthesized and their biological activities evaluated for potential antiproliferative and EGFR inhibitory activity. Of all the compounds studied, compound D9 showed the most potent inhibitory activity (IC50 = 0.79 μM for HepG2 and IC50 = 0.36 μM for EGFR. The structures of compounds were confirmed by 1H-NMR, ESI-MS and elemental analysis. Among all, the structure of compound D9 ((E-N-(4-ethoxyphenyl-3-(2,3,4,5-tetrahydrobenzo[b][1,4]dioxocin-8-ylacrylamide was also determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Compound D9 was found to be a potential antitumor agent according to biological activity, molecular docking, apoptosis assay and inhibition of HepG2.

  11. Dissolution of LMFBR fuel-sodium aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aerosols of either LMFBR fuel or PuO2 are essentially insoluble in water or biological fluids. If either of these aerosols is exposed to sodium metal vapor, the resulting aerosol is much more soluble in aqueous solutions. Preferential dissolution of uranium from mixed sodium-fuel aerosols makes the plutonium more readily soluble than for sodium-PuO2 aerosol. Ultrafiltration of the dissolution test solvent revealed the plutonium to be associated with particles between 2 nm and 10 nm in diameter, in both cases

  12. Structure of a prereaction complex between the nerve agent sarin, its biological target acetylcholinesterase, and the antidote HI-6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allgardsson, Anders; Berg, Lotta; Akfur, Christine; Hörnberg, Andreas; Linusson, Anna; Ekström, Fredrik J.

    2016-01-01

    Organophosphorus nerve agents interfere with cholinergic signaling by covalently binding to the active site of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE). This inhibition causes an accumulation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, potentially leading to overstimulation of the nervous system and death. Current treatments include the use of antidotes that promote the release of functional AChE by an unknown reactivation mechanism. We have used diffusion trap cryocrystallography and density functional theory (DFT) calculations to determine and analyze prereaction conformers of the nerve agent antidote HI-6 in complex with Mus musculus AChE covalently inhibited by the nerve agent sarin. These analyses reveal previously unknown conformations of the system and suggest that the cleavage of the covalent enzyme–sarin bond is preceded by a conformational change in the sarin adduct itself. Together with data from the reactivation kinetics, this alternate conformation suggests a key interaction between Glu202 and the O-isopropyl moiety of sarin. Moreover, solvent kinetic isotope effect experiments using deuterium oxide reveal that the reactivation mechanism features an isotope-sensitive step. These findings provide insights into the reactivation mechanism and provide a starting point for the development of improved antidotes. The work also illustrates how DFT calculations can guide the interpretation, analysis, and validation of crystallographic data for challenging reactive systems with complex conformational dynamics. PMID:27140636

  13. Structure of a prereaction complex between the nerve agent sarin, its biological target acetylcholinesterase, and the antidote HI-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allgardsson, Anders; Berg, Lotta; Akfur, Christine; Hörnberg, Andreas; Worek, Franz; Linusson, Anna; Ekström, Fredrik J

    2016-05-17

    Organophosphorus nerve agents interfere with cholinergic signaling by covalently binding to the active site of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE). This inhibition causes an accumulation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, potentially leading to overstimulation of the nervous system and death. Current treatments include the use of antidotes that promote the release of functional AChE by an unknown reactivation mechanism. We have used diffusion trap cryocrystallography and density functional theory (DFT) calculations to determine and analyze prereaction conformers of the nerve agent antidote HI-6 in complex with Mus musculus AChE covalently inhibited by the nerve agent sarin. These analyses reveal previously unknown conformations of the system and suggest that the cleavage of the covalent enzyme-sarin bond is preceded by a conformational change in the sarin adduct itself. Together with data from the reactivation kinetics, this alternate conformation suggests a key interaction between Glu202 and the O-isopropyl moiety of sarin. Moreover, solvent kinetic isotope effect experiments using deuterium oxide reveal that the reactivation mechanism features an isotope-sensitive step. These findings provide insights into the reactivation mechanism and provide a starting point for the development of improved antidotes. The work also illustrates how DFT calculations can guide the interpretation, analysis, and validation of crystallographic data for challenging reactive systems with complex conformational dynamics. PMID:27140636

  14. Design, Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Novel 5H-Chromenopyridines as Potential Anti-Cancer Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souvik Banerjee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A novel series of 5H-chromenopyridines was identified as anticancer agents in our continuing effort to discover and develop new small molecule anti-proliferative agents. Based on our initial lead SP-6-27 compound, we designed and synthesized novel tricyclic 5H-thiochromenopyridine and 5H-chromenopyridine analogs to evaluate the impact of an additional ring, as well as conformational flexibility on cytotoxic activity against human melanoma and glioma cell lines. All of the 5H-thiochromenopyridines have been achieved in good yields (89%–93% using a single-step, three-component cyclization without the need for purification. The 5H-chromenopyridine analog of the potent 5H-thiochromenopyride was obtained in a good yield upon purification. All newly-prepared 5H-thiochromenopyridines showed good to moderate cytotoxicity against three melanoma and two glioma cell lines (3–15 μM. However, the 5H-chromenopyridine analogue that we prepared in our laboratory lost cytotoxic activity. The moderate cytotoxic activity of 5H-thiochromenopyridines shows the promise of developing chromenopyridines as potential anticancer agents.

  15. Preparation and Preliminary Biological Evaluation of {sup 177}Lu-DOTA folate as Potential Folate Receptor Targeting Therapeutic Agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Kang-Hyuk; Hong, Young-Don; Pyun, Mi-Sun; Lee, So-Young; Felipe, Fenelope; Yoon, Sun-Ha; Choi, Sun-Ju [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-10-15

    Folic Acid (FA) and FA derivatives are overexpressed on several tumor cells. The cell-membrane folic acid receptors are known to be responsible for the cellular accumulation of FA and FA analogs, such as methotrexate and folic acid. Folate has been characterized to have high affinity for the folate-receptor positive cells and tissues and considered to be useful as diagnostic imaging and therapeutic agent. In 1940s, Folate analogue, aminopterin, was first used for treatment of leukemia and recently, many folate derivatives were tried for cancer-treatment agent as well as visualization of folate receptor. Many researchers tried to conjugate folic acid with macromolecules or low molecular weight chelators through its alpha or gamma carboxylate. However, despite the reduced binding affinity, FAs are still recognized by the folate receptor. Therefore, we focused to develop folate-based radiopharmaceutical that has the potential to be used as a therapeutic agent. We report here the synthesis and the radiolabeling of {sup 177}Lu-DOTA as well as the biodistribution data of our developed compound.

  16. The Potential Role of Nuclear Techniques in Support of the Production of Biological Control Agents of Insect Pests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While nuclear techniques could play a vital role in enabling cost-effective mass production of beneficial insects for use in augmentative biological control, surprisingly little use has been made of these techniques or ionizing radiation produced by other means (e.g., x-rays or electron beams from linear accelerators) for mass rearing beneficial insects. This technology has been available for quite some time, having been used to reproductively sterilize screwworm flies as early as 1951 (Bushland and Hopkins). Similarly, gamma radiation has been accepted internationally for human food preservation and disinfestation for many years (Anon., 1995). Quite a number of gamma radiation sources exist at or near USDA ARS and APHIS facilities throughout the U.S., as well as in many universities. Still, relatively little use has been made of this approach to assist in mass rearing of beneficial insects for use in augmentative biological control. As pointed out by Benbrook (1996), pest management is at a crossroads, and there still is a great need for new, biointensive pest management strategies. Nuclear techniques should play an increasing role in the future, as the overall thrust of biological control moves more and more toward augmentative releases (Knipling, 1992). It is the intent of this presentation to review some of the existing and potential uses that can be made of nuclear techniques and other sources of ionizing radiation in support of the biological control of insect pests. (author)

  17. Host range determination of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. salsolae, a biological control agent of tumbleweed: from BLUPs to biomass loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Host range tests were conducted with Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. salsolae (CGS) in quarantine to determine whether the fungus is safe to release in N. America for biological control of tumbleweed (Salsola tragus L., Chenopodiaceae). Ninety-two accessions were analyzed from 19 families and...

  18. Biological conversion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, C.D.

    A system for bioconversion of organic material comprises a primary bioreactor column wherein a biological active agent (zymomonas mobilis) converts the organic material (sugar) to a product (alcohol), a rejuvenator column wherein the biological activity of said biological active agent is enhanced, and means for circulating said biological active agent between said primary bioreactor column and said rejuvenator column.

  19. Development of Laser Warning and Detection Technology for Chemical/Biological Agents%生化战剂激光侦检技术的发展概述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴慧云; 孙振海; 黄志松; 生甡; 王华; 徐卸古

    2013-01-01

    Application of chemical/biological agents in terrorism and unmilitary fields induce serious impact to the public safety. Principles of laser warning and detection technology for chemical/biological agents based on Mie scattering signals, Rayleigh scattering signals, Raman scattering signals, absorption signals and laser induced fluorescence signals are described. The key technologies in the laser warning and detection system are analyzed, the laser warning and detection technology development profiles in the United States, Russia, German and France are introduced.%生化战剂在恐怖主义活动和非军事领域的非法使用对社会公共安全造成了严重的威胁.分析了基于米氏散射、瑞利散射、拉曼散射、吸收光谱和诱导荧光光谱信号的生化战剂激光侦察报警和快速检测技术的基本原理,说明了生化战剂激光侦检系统的关键技术,回顾了美、俄、德、法等国生化战剂激光侦检技术的发展情况.

  20. Connecting Water Quality With Air Quality Through Microbial Aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dueker, M. Elias

    Aerosol production from surface waters results in the transfer of aquatic materials (including nutrients and bacteria) to air. These materials can then be transported by onshore winds to land, representing a biogeochemical connection between aquatic and terrestrial systems not normally considered. In urban waterfront environments, this transfer could result in emissions of pathogenic bacteria from contaminated waters. Despite the potential importance of this link, sources, near-shore deposition, identity and viability of microbial aerosols are largely uncharacterized. This dissertation focuses on the environmental and biological mechanisms that define this water-air connection, as a means to build our understanding of the biogeochemical, biogeographical, and public health implications of the transfer of surface water materials to the near-shore environment in both urban and non-urban environments. The effects of tidal height, wind speed and fog on coastal aerosols and microbial content were first quantified on a non-urban coast of Maine, USA. Culture-based, culture-independent, and molecular methods were used to simultaneously sample microbial aerosols while monitoring meteorological parameters. Aerosols at this site displayed clear marine influence and high concentrations of ecologically-relevant nutrients. Coarse aerosol concentrations significantly increased with tidal height, onshore wind speed, and fog presence. Tidal height and fog presence did not significantly influence total microbial aerosol concentrations, but did have a significant effect on culturable microbial aerosol fallout. Molecular analyses of the microbes settling out of near-shore aerosols provided further evidence of local ocean to terrestrial transport of microbes. Aerosol and surface ocean bacterial communities shared species and in general were dominated by organisms previously sampled in marine environments. Fog presence strengthened the microbial connection between water and land through

  1. Synthesis and biological evaluation of 18F-FB-NGA as a hepatic asialoglycoprotein receptor PET imaging agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGP-R) is a hepatic membrane receptor that uniquely exists on the surface of mammalian hepatocytes, and has been used as target of liver functional imaging agents for many years. We labeled the Galactosyl-neoglycoalbumin (NGA) with 18F to get a PET molecular probe 18F-FB-NGA and evaluated its ability as a liver functional PET imaging agent. The 18F-FB-NGA was prepared with NGA by conjugation with N- succinimidyl-4-18F-fluorobenzoate (18F-SFB) and purified with PD-10 desalting column. The radiolabeling yield and radiochemical purity of 18F-FB-NGA were determined by radio-HPLC. Starting with 18F-F-, the total time for '18F-FB -NGA was about 120±310 min. The decay-corrected radiochemical yield is about 25-30%. The radiochemical purity of purified 18F-FB-NGA was more than 98%. Labeled with 185-1850 MBq 18F-SFB, the specific activity of 18F-FB- NGA was estimated to be 7.83-78.3 TBq/mmol. Biodistribution of 18F-FB-NGA in normal mice was investigated after injection through the tail vein. The results showed that the liver accumulated 39.4 7±3.42 and 12.12±6.11% ID/g at 10 and 30 min after injection, respectively. Dynamic MicroPET images in mice were acquired with and without block after injection of the radiotracer, respectively. High liver activity accumulation was observed at 5 min after injection in normal group. On the contrary, the liver accumulation was significantly lower after block, indicating the specific binding to ASGP-R. 18F-FB-NGA is probably a potential PET liver imaging agent. (authors)

  2. Synthesis and biological evaluation of non-glucose glycoconjugated N-hydroyxindole class LDH inhibitors as anticancer agents

    OpenAIRE

    Di Bussolo, Valeria; Calvaresi, Emilia C.; Granchi, Carlotta; Del Bino, Linda; Frau, Ileana; Lang, Maria Chiara Dasso; Tuccinardi, Tiziano; Macchia, Marco; Martinelli, Adriano; Hergenrother, Paul J.; Minutolo, Filippo

    2015-01-01

    Inhibitors of human lactate dehydrogenase A (LDH-A) are promising therapeutic agents against cancer. The development of LDH-A inhibitors that possess cellular activities has so far proved to be particularly challenging, since the enzyme’s active site is narrow and highly polar. In the recent past, we were able to develop a glucose-conjugated N-hydroxyindole-based LDH-A inhibitor designed to exploit the sugar avidity expressed by cancer cells (the Warburg effect). Herein we describe a structur...

  3. Polarization resolved angular optical scattering of aerosol particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redding, B.; Pan, Y.; Wang, C.; Videen, G.; Cao, Hui

    2014-05-01

    Real-time detection and identification of bio-aerosol particles are crucial for the protection against chemical and biological agents. The strong elastic light scattering properties of airborne particles provides a natural means for rapid, non-invasive aerosol characterization. Recent theoretical predictions suggested that variations in the polarization dependent angular scattering cross section could provide an efficient means of classifying different airborne particles. In particular, the polarization dependent scattering cross section of aggregate particles is expected to depend on the shape of the primary particles. In order to experimentally validate this prediction, we built a high throughput, sampling system, capable of measuring the polarization resolved angular scattering cross section of individual aerosol particles flowing through an interrogating volume with a single shot of laser pulse. We calibrated the system by comparing the polarization dependent scattering cross section of individual polystyrene spheres with that predicted by Mie theory. We then used the system to study different particles types: Polystyrene aggregates composed 500 nm spheres and Bacillus subtilis (BG, Anthrax simulant) spores composed of elongated 500 nm × 1000 nm cylinder-line particles. We found that the polarization resolved scattering cross section depends on the shape of the constituent elements of the aggregates. This work indicates that the polarization resolved scattering cross section could be used for rapid discrimination between different bio-aerosol particles.

  4. Phenolic compounds and biological effects of edible Rumex scutatus and Pseudosempervivum sempervivum: potential sources of natural agents with health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savran, Ahmet; Zengin, Gokhan; Aktumsek, Abdurrahman; Mocan, Andrei; Glamoćlija, Jasmina; Ćirić, Ana; Soković, Marina

    2016-07-13

    The present study outlines a chemical characterization and further effects beneficial to health of edible Rumex scutatus and Pseudosempervivum sempervivum, in addition to presenting the antioxidant, enzyme inhibitory effects and antimicrobial properties of different extracts. The phenolic compounds composition of the extracts was assessed by RP-HPLC-DAD, outlining benzoic acid and rutin as major constituents in P. sempervivum and rutin and hesperidin in R. scutatus. Moreover, further biological effects were tested on key enzymes involved in diabetes mellitus, Alzheimer's disease and skin melanogenesis revealing an important tyrosinase inhibitory effect of Pseudosempervivum water extract. Moreover, both species possessed antimicrobial properties towards bacteria and fungi relevant to public health. Accordingly, we find that R. scutatus and P. sempervivum can be considered as novel functional foods because they are rich sources of biologically active compounds that provide health benefits. PMID:27364042

  5. The Potential Role of Nuclear Techniques to Facilitate the Use of Biological Control Agents, an Industrial Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological control is a critical component of Integrated Pest Management (IPM). One strategy of biological control includes augmentation with mass-reared predator and parasitic arthropods (natural enemies). These living organisms must be produced, delivered, and applied in such a manner as to achieve the desired outcome. Increased production and use of natural enemies can be achieved by addressing current constraints, including: high cost of production, very limited storage time, shipping difficulties, inefficient application technology, lack of understanding of the role of these organisms in insect pest management, and lack of enabling regulations. The appropriate use of nuclear techniques could benefit the industry and facilitate the use of these natural enemies if cost-effective, safe, readily accessible facilities are made available. (author)

  6. Stratospheric aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stratospheric aerosol measurements can provide both spatial and temporal data of sufficient resolution to be of use in climate models. Relatively recent results from a wide range of instrument techniques for measuring stratospheric aerosol parameters are described. Such techniques include impactor sampling, lidar system sensing, filter sampling, photoelectric particle counting, satellite extinction-sensing using the sun as a source, and optical depth probing, at sites mainly removed from tropospheric aerosol sources. Some of these techniques have also had correlative and intercomparison studies. The main methods for determining the vertical profiles of stratospheric aerosols are outlined: lidar extinction measurements from satellites; impactor measurements from balloons and aircraft; and photoelectric particle counter measurements from balloons, aircraft, and rockets. The conversion of the lidar backscatter to stratospheric aerosol mass loading is referred to. Absolute measurements of total solar extinction from satellite orbits can be used to extract the aerosol extinction, and several examples of vertical profiles of extinction obtained with the SAGE satellite are given. Stratospheric mass loading can be inferred from extinction using approximate linear relationships but under restrictive conditions. Impactor sampling is essentially the only method in which the physical nature of the stratospheric aerosol is observed visually. Vertical profiles of stratospheric aerosol number concentration using impactor data are presented. Typical profiles using a dual-size-range photoelectric dustsonde particle counter are given for volcanically disturbed and inactive periods. Some measurements of the global distribution of stratospheric aerosols are also presented. Volatility measurements are described, indicating that stratospheric aerosols are composed primarily of about 75% sulfuric acid and 25% water

  7. SYNTHESIS AND BIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF 1,3,4-OXADIAZOLE DERIVATIVES AS POTENTIAL ANTIBACTERIAL AND ANTIFUNGAL AGENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Palak K. Parikh; Hiren M. Marvaniya; Dhrubo Jyoti Sen

    2011-01-01

    1,3,4 oxadiazole derivatives are the heterocyclic compounds with very important biological activities such as anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antifungal, antiviral, analgesic, antimycobacterial, antidepressant and antiamoebic. 1, 3, 4 oxadiazole was synthesized by condensation reaction between 2- hydroxybenzohydrazine and carbon disulfide. This derivative on treatment with different aromatic halides produced the desired final products. The in-vitro antibacterial activity of synthesized comp...

  8. Trichogramma chilonis (Hymenoptera : trichogrammatidae) as a biological control agent of Chilo sacchariphagus (Lepidoptera, Crambidae) in Reunion Island : initial field trials

    OpenAIRE

    Soula B.,; Goebel F.R.,; Caplong P.,; Karimjee H.,; Tibere R.,; Tabone, Elisabeth

    2003-01-01

    The spotted stalk borer, Chilo sacchariphagus Bojer, is a major pest of sugarcane in southern Asia, the Indian Ocean islands and Mozambique in southern Africa. Since 1999, a biological control programme has been developed on this pest in Reunion Island through a partnership between research and development organisations. Trichogramma chilonis Ishii has been shown to be the most naturally efficient parasitoid of the borer in Reunion, following a comparison of the bionomics of di...

  9. Abatacept with methotrexate versus other biologic agents in treatment of patients with active rheumatoid arthritis despite methotrexate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guyot, Patricia; Taylor, Peter; Christensen, Robin;

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was to compare the efficacy in terms of Health Assessment Questionnaire change from baseline (HAQ CFB), 50% improvement in American College of Rheumatology criterion (ACR-50) and Disease Activity Score in 28 joints (DAS28) defined remission (<2.6) between abatacept and othe...... biologic disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who have inadequate response to methotrexate (MTX-IR)....

  10. Virtual fetal pig dissection as an agent of knowledge acquisition and attitudinal change in female high school biology students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Rebecca Scudari

    One way to determine if all students can learn through the use of computers is to introduce a lesson taught completely via computers and compare the results with those gained when the same lesson is taught in a traditional manner. This study attempted to determine if a virtual fetal pig dissection can be used as a viable alternative for an actual dissection for females enrolled in high school biology classes by comparing the knowledge acquisition and attitudinal change between the experimental (virtual dissection) and control (actual dissection) groups. Two hundred and twenty-four students enrolled in biology classes in a suburban all-girl parochial high school participated in this study. Female students in an all-girl high school were chosen because research shows differences in science competency and computer usage between the genders that may mask the performance of females on computer-based tasks in a science laboratory exercise. Students who completed the virtual dissection scored significantly higher on practical test and objective tests that were used to measure knowledge acquisition. Attitudinal change was measured by examining the students' attitudes toward dissections, computer usage in the classroom, and toward biology both before and after the dissections using pre and post surveys. Significant results in positive gain scores were found in the virtual dissection group's attitude toward dissections, and their negative gain score toward virtual dissections. Attitudinal changes toward computers and biology were not significant. A purposefully selected sample of the students were interviewed, in addition to gathering a sample of the students' daily dissection journals, as data highlighting their thoughts and feelings about their dissection experience. Further research is suggested to determine if a virtual laboratory experience can be a substitute for actual dissections, or may serve as an enhancement to an actual dissection.

  11. The safety profile of a cationic lipid-mediated cystic fibrosis gene transfer agent following repeated monthly aerosol administration to sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alton, Eric W F W; Baker, Alison; Baker, Eilidh; Boyd, A Christopher; Cheng, Seng H; Coles, Rebecca L; Collie, D David S; Davidson, Heather; Davies, Jane C; Gill, Deborah R; Gordon, Catherine; Griesenbach, Uta; Higgins, Tracy; Hyde, Stephen C; Innes, J Alastair; McCormick, Dominique; McGovern, Michael; McLachlan, Gerry; Porteous, David J; Pringle, Ian; Scheule, Ronald K; Shaw, Darren J; Smith, Sionagh; Sumner-Jones, Stephanie G; Tennant, Peter; Vrettou, Christina

    2013-12-01

    Clinically effective gene therapy for Cystic Fibrosis has been a goal for over 20 years. A plasmid vector (pGM169) that generates persistent expression and reduced host inflammatory responses in mice has raised prospects for translation to the clinic. The UK CF Gene Therapy Consortium is currently evaluating long-term repeated delivery of pGM169 complexed with the cationic lipid GL67A in a large Multidose Trial. This regulatory-compliant evaluation of aerosol administration of nine doses of pGM169/GL67A at monthly intervals, to the sheep lung, was performed in preparation for the Multidose Trial. All sheep tolerated treatment well with no adverse effects on haematology, serum chemistry, lung function or histopathology. Acute responses were observed in relation to bronchoalveolar cellularity comprising increased neutrophils and macrophage numbers 1 day post-delivery but these increases were transient and returned to baseline. Importantly there was no cumulative inflammatory effect or lung remodelling with successive doses. Molecular analysis confirmed delivery of pGM169 DNA to the airways and pGM169-specific mRNA was detected in bronchial brushing samples at day 1 following doses 1, 5 and 9. In conclusion, nine doses of pGM169/GL67A were well tolerated with no significant evidence of toxicity that would preclude adoption of a similar strategy in CF patients. PMID:24090839

  12. Real-Time Agent-Based Modeling Simulation with in-situ Visualization of Complex Biological Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seekhao, Nuttiiya; Shung, Caroline; JaJa, Joseph; Mongeau, Luc; Li-Jessen, Nicole Y. K.

    2016-01-01

    We present an efficient and scalable scheme for implementing agent-based modeling (ABM) simulation with In Situ visualization of large complex systems on heterogeneous computing platforms. The scheme is designed to make optimal use of the resources available on a heterogeneous platform consisting of a multicore CPU and a GPU, resulting in minimal to no resource idle time. Furthermore, the scheme was implemented under a client-server paradigm that enables remote users to visualize and analyze simulation data as it is being generated at each time step of the model. Performance of a simulation case study of vocal fold inflammation and wound healing with 3.8 million agents shows 35× and 7× speedup in execution time over single-core and multi-core CPU respectively. Each iteration of the model took less than 200 ms to simulate, visualize and send the results to the client. This enables users to monitor the simulation in real-time and modify its course as needed. PMID:27547508

  13. Year-round observations of water-soluble ionic species and trace metals in Sapporo aerosols: implication for significant contributions from terrestrial biological sources in Northeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Pavuluri

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available High aerosol loadings are prevalent in the atmosphere of East Asia, where the aerosols impact the Earth's climate system and human health; however, their sources and seasonal variations are not clearly understood. To better understand the sources of water-soluble ionic species and trace metals in Northeast Asia, we studied atmospheric aerosol samples collected in Sapporo, northern Japan for one-year period. SO42− (average 3.47 ± 1.03 μg m−3 was found as the most abundant ionic species, which accounted for on average 43 ± 15% of the measured total ionic mass followed by Cl− (13 ± 12% ≈ NO3− ≈ Na+ > NH4+ > Ca2+ > Mg2+ > K+ > MSA−. Among the metals determined, Ca was found as the most abundant (45 ± 5.2% followed by Fe (27 ± 4.5%, Al (21± 3.1%, Zn (3.2 ± 1.7, Ti, Mn, Ni, Pb, Cu, V, As, Cr and Cd. Based on factor analysis, linear relations of selected species with biomarkers, and backward air mass trajectories, we found that long-range atmospheric transport of soil dust (∼ 33% from arid regions of Mongolia and/or Northeast China is a major source for Sapporo aerosols as well as terrestrial biogenic emissions (≥ 24% including microbial activities and biomass burning mostly from distant source region(s (e.g. Siberia. We also found that the contributions of soil dust to the aerosols maximized in early spring whereas those of vegetational emissions maximized in spring/summer. Contributions of microbial activities to aerosols peaked in autumn whereas forest fires/biomass burning peaked in autumn/winter. On the contrary, fossil fuel combustion/industrial activities and oceanic emissions to Sapporo aerosols are suggested to be rather minor. This study also suggests that fungal spores contribute to some trace metals (i.e. Ni, Cu, As while pollen contributes to Zn in aerosols.

  14. A process-based model of soil structure to assess the impact of biological agents, climate and reduced tillage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Couteulx, Alexis; Pérès, Guénola; Wolf, Cédric; Hallaire, Vincent

    2014-05-01

    Soil structure can be defined as the spatial arrangement of voids and solids in soil. It is a dynamic soil property due to agents' activity such as (i) mechanical action of soil tillage (ii) earthworms through their burrowing activity and faeces production and (iii) climate impact due to rain or temperature. Soil structure is often studied because of its impacts on soil functional properties, e.g. water percolation, soil water conductivity. In a context of farming practices shift towards non-ploughing techniques, it is needed to evaluate impacts on soil structure and consequently on its functional properties. Existing models have adopted two strategies to simulate soil structure: (i) to use of measured parameters to adjust a theoretical model or (ii) to build a soil structure by simulating processes that are its base. The first strategy does not deal with the difficulty to access soil structure by itself because input measured parameters are needed. The second one starts from either a virgin structure or a structure coming from strategy (i). This starting structure is then altered according to one structuring agent. At present, there is a need for such dynamic models of soil structure. They must be explicit (3D) and common for a large set of structuring agents too. They must also deal with several issues: e.g. to memorize the many voids and solids building up the soil structure or the need to be fast enough to simulate soil structure dynamics for a month, a year, etc. A first proposal, based on the strong assumption that soil is fractal, was made by Marilleau et al. (2008). In our model three structuring agents were chosen: tillage, earthworm's activity and solid particles settlement due to climate. It first focuses on the building of a computerized soil structure which is a common base to simulate the agents. It aims at being as generic as possible by using an object-oriented structure. The concept of voxel is used to split the soil into elementary units and each

  15. Synthesis and Biological evaluation of substituted 4-Phenyl -1,3-Thiazole derivatives as potential Anti-Inflammatory agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apexa D Patel

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Thiazole derivatives are the heterocyclic compounds with very important biological activities such as anti inflammatory, antibacterial, antiviral, It K inhibiting, PI3K inhibiting, NF-kb inhibiting activities etc. substituted 4-phenyl -1, 3- thiazole moiety was synthesised by cyclo condensation reaction between substituted benzoyl thiourea derivatives and ethylchloro acetate. These derivatives on hydrolysis produced the desired final compounds. Also energy minimization of proposed structure was done which gives the distance between different functional groups of basic moiety, which is identical to the reference compound. These compounds were screened for in vivo antiinflammatory activity by carrageen induced rat paw edema method.

  16. Preparation and Biological Evaluation of 99mTc- TMPP as a Novel Agent for Tumor Diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TMPP( 5,10,15, 20 tetrakis (4-methoxyphenyl) 21 H, 23 H porphyrin) was labeled with technetium - 99m via direct labeling technique using stannous chloride as a reducing agent. The optimum conditions that gave high labeling yield (95.2%) of 99mTc- TMPP complex were achieved by using 3 mg TMPP, 100 μ gSnCl2 .2H2O, at ph 3 and 30 min reaction time. Accumulation of 99mTc-TMPP complex was studied in tumor bearing mice. After intravenous injection of 99mTc-TMPP complex, tumor radioactivity uptake was high compared to normal muscle uptake and it was 7.76 folds after 30 min. Tumor to blood ratio was 2.36 after 30 min

  17. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of 5-fluorouracil-derived benzimidazoles as novel type of potential antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xue-Jie; Jeyakkumar, Ponmani; Avula, Srinivasa Rao; Zhou, Qian; Zhou, Cheng-He

    2016-06-01

    A series of 5-fluorouracil benzimidazoles as novel type of potential antimicrobial agents were designed and synthesized for the first time. Bioactive assay manifested that some of the prepared compounds exhibited good or even stronger antibacterial and antifungal activities against the tested strains in comparison with reference drugs norfloxacin, chloromycin and fluconazole. Noticeably, 3-fluorobenzyl benzimidazole derivative 5c gave remarkable antimicrobial activities against Saccharomyces cerevisiae, MRSA and Bacillus proteus with MIC values of 1, 2 and 4μg/mL, respectively. Experimental research revealed that compound 5c could effectively intercalate into calf thymus DNA to form compound 5c-DNA complex which might block DNA replication and thus exert antimicrobial activities. Molecular docking indicated that compound 5c should bind with DNA topoisomerase IA through three hydrogen bonds by the use of fluorine atom and oxygen atoms in 5-fluorouracil with the residue Lys 423. PMID:27117429

  18. Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel fluconazole analogues bearing 1,3,4-oxadiazole moiety as potent antifungal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jun; Yang, Fan; Zhang, Lei; Chai, Xiaoyun; Zhao, Qingjie; Yu, Shichong; Zou, Yan; Meng, Qingguo; Wu, Qiuye

    2015-04-01

    A novel series of fluconazole based mimics incorporating 1,3,4-oxadiazole moiety were designed and synthesized. All the title compounds were characterized by (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR, and Q-TOF-MS. Preliminary results revealed that most of analogues exhibited significant antifungal activity against seven pathogenic fungi. Compounds 9g and 9k (MIC80 ≤ 0.125 μg/mL, respectively) were found more potent than the positive controls itraconazole and fluconazole as broad-spectrum antifungal agents. The observed docking results showed that the 1,3,4-oxadiazole moiety enhanced the affinity binding to the cytochrome P450 14α-demethylase (CYP51). PMID:24838380

  19. Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of combretastatin nitrogen-containing derivatives as inhibitors of tubulin assembly and vascular disrupting agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Keith A; Siles, Rogelio; Hadimani, Mallinath B; Mugabe, Benon E; Ackley, J Freeland; Studerus, Scott W; Edvardsen, Klaus; Trawick, Mary Lynn; Garner, Charles M; Rhodes, Monte R; Pettit, George R; Pinney, Kevin G

    2006-05-01

    A series of analogs with nitro or serinamide substituents at the C-2'-, C-5'-, or C-6'-position of the combretastatin A-4 (CA4) B-ring was synthesized and evaluated for cytotoxic effects against heart endothelioma cells, blood flow reduction to tumors in SCID mice, and as inhibitors of tubulin polymerization. The synthesis of these analogs typically featured a Wittig reaction between a suitably functionalized arylaldehyde and an arylphosphonium salt followed by separation of the resultant E- and Z-isomers. Several of these nitrogen-modified CA4 derivatives (both amino and nitro) demonstrate significant inhibition of tubulin assembly as well as cytotoxicity and in vivo blood flow reduction. 2'-Aminostilbenoid 7 and 2'-amino-3'-hydroxystilbenoid 29 proved to be the most active in this series. Both compounds, 7 and 29, have the potential for further pro-drug modification and development as vascular disrupting agents for treatment of solid tumor cancers and certain ophthalmological diseases. PMID:16442292

  20. Biological control agent of larger black flour beetles (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae): a nuisance pest developing in cotton gin trash piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nansen, Christian; Stokes, Bryan; James, Jacob; Porter, Patrick; Shields, Eilson J; Wheeler, Terry; Meikle, William G

    2013-04-01

    The larger black flour beetles, Cynaeus angustus (LeConte) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), feeds on saprophytic fungi found in gin trash piles and occasionally becomes a nuisance pest in adjacent homes and businesses. The potential of Steinernema carpocapsae 'NY 001,' as a potential control agent of larger black flour beetle under experimental conditions was examined with particular reference to the importance of soil moisture content. Without prospects of insecticides being labeled for control of larger black flour beetle in gin trash, the data presented here support further research into applications of entomopathogenic nematodes underneath gin trash piles as a way to minimize risk of larger black flour beetle populations causing nuisance to nearby homes and businesses. PMID:23786050

  1. Biological evaluation of an ornithine-modified 99mTc-labeled RGD peptide as an angiogenesis imaging agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Radiolabeled RGD peptides that specifically target integrin ανβ3 have great potential in early tumor detection through noninvasive monitoring of tumor angiogenesis. Based on previous findings of our group on radiopeptides containing positively charged aminoacids, we developed a new cyclic cRGDfK derivative, c(RGDfK)-(Orn)3-CGG. This new peptide availing the polar linker (Orn)3 and the 99mTc-chelating moiety CGG (Cys-Gly-Gly) is appropriately designed for 99mTc-labeling, as well as consequent conjugation onto nanoparticles. Methods: A tumor imaging agent, c(RGDfK)-(Orn)3-[CGG-99mTc], is evaluated with regard to its radiochemical, radiobiological and imaging characteristics. Results: The complex c(RGDfK)-(Orn)3-[CGG-99mTc] was obtained in high radiochemical yield (> 98%) and was stable in vitro and ex vivo. It presented identical to the respective, fully analytically characterized 185/187Re complex retention time in RP-HPLC. In contrary to other RGD derivatives, we showed that the new radiopeptide exhibits kidney uptake and urine excretion due to the ornithine linker. High tumor uptake (3.87 ± 0.48% ID/g at 60 min p.i.) was observed and was maintained relatively high even at 24 h p.i. (1.83 ± 0.05 % ID/g), thus providing well-defined scintigraphic imaging. Accumulation in other organs was negligible. Blocking experiments indicated target specificity for integrin receptors in U87MG glioblastoma cells. Conclusion: Due to its relatively high tumor uptake, renal elimination and negligible abdominal localization, the new 99mTc-RGD peptide is considered promising in the field of imaging ανβ3-positive tumors. However, the preparation of multifunctional SPECT/MRI contrast agents (RGD-conjugated nanoparticles) for dual modality imaging of integrin expressing tumors should be further investigated

  2. Synthesis, biological evaluation, and baboon PET imaging of the potential adrenal imaging agent cholesteryl-p-[18f]fluorobenzoate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cholesteryl-p-[18F]fluorobenzoate ([18F]CFB) was investigated as a potential adrenal positron emission tomography (PET) imaging agent for the diagnostic imaging of adrenal disorders. We describe the synthesis, biodistribution, adrenal autoradiography, and baboon PET imaging of [18F]CFB. The synthesis of [18F]CFB was facilitated by the use of a specially designed microwave cavity that was instrumental in effecting 70-83% incorporation of fluorine-18 in 60 s via [18F]fluoro-for-nitro exchange. Tissue distribution studies in mature female Sprague-Dawley rats showed good accumulation of [18F]CFB in the steroid-secreting tissues, adrenals and ovaries, at 1 h postinjection. The effectiveness of [18F]CFB to accumulate in diseased adrenals was shown through biodistribution studies in hypolipidemic rats, which showed a greater than threefold increase in adrenal uptake at 1 h and increased adrenal/liver and adrenal/kidney ratios. Analysis of the metabolites at 1 h in the blood, adrenals, spleen, and ovaries of hypolipidemic and control rats showed the intact tracer representing greater than 86%, 93%, 92%, and 82% of the accumulated activity, respectively. [18F]CFB was confirmed to selectively accumulate in the adrenal cortex versus the adrenal medulla by autoradiography. Normal baboon PET imaging with [18F]CFB effectively showed adrenal localization as early as 15 min after injection of the tracer, with enhanced adrenal contrast seen at 60-70 min. These results suggest that [18F]CFB may be useful as an adrenal PET imaging agent for assessing adrenal disorders

  3. EFSA BIOHAZ Panel (EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards), 2014. Statement on the update of the list of QPS-recommended biological agents intentionally added to food or feed as notified to EFSA 1: Suitability of taxonomic units notified to EFSA until October 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Hald, Tine; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    2014-01-01

    EFSA is requested to assess the safety of a broad range of biological agents in the context of notifications for market authorisation as sources of food and feed additives, enzymes and plant protection products. The qualified presumption of safety (QPS) assessment was developed to provide a harmonised generic pre-assessment to support safety risk assessments performed by EFSA’s scientific Panels. The safety of unambiguously defined biological agents (at the highest taxonomic unit appropriate ...

  4. Phylogenetics and genetic diversity of the Cotesia flavipes complex of parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), biological control agents of lepidopteran stemborers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muirhead, Kate A; Murphy, Nicholas P; Sallam, Nader; Donnellan, Stephen C; Austin, Andrew D

    2012-06-01

    The Cotesia flavipes complex of parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) are economically important for the biological control of lepidopteran stemboring pests associated with gramineous crops. Some members of the complex successfully parasitize numerous stemborer pest species, however certain geographic populations have demonstrated variation in the range of hosts that they parasitize. In addition, the morphology of the complex is highly conserved and considerable confusion surrounds the identity of species and host-associated biotypes. We generated nucleotide sequence data for two mtDNA genes (COI, 16S) and three anonymous nuclear loci (CfBN, CfCN, CfEN) for the C. flavipes complex. To analyze genetic variation and relationships among populations we used (1) concatenated mtDNA and nDNA data, (2) a nDNA multilocus network approach, and (3) two species tree inference methods, i.e. Bayesian estimation of species trees (BEST) and Bayesian inference of species trees from multilocus data with (*)BEAST. All phylogenetic analyses provide strong support for monophyly of the complex and the presence of at least four species, C. chilonis (from China and Japan), C. sesamiae (from Africa), C. flavipes (originating from the Indo-Asia region but introduced into Africa and the New World), and C. nonagriae (from Australia and Papua New Guinea). Haplotype diversity of geographic populations relates to historical biogeographic barriers and biological control introductions, and reflects previous reports of ecological variation in these species. Strong discordance was found between the mitochondrial and nuclear markers in the Papua New Guinea haplotypes, which may be an outcome of hybridization and introgression of C. flavipes and C. nonagriae. The position of Cotesia flavipes from Japan was not well supported in any analysis and was the sister taxon to C. nonagriae (mtDNA, (*)BEAST), C. flavipes (nDNA) or C. flavipes+C. nonagriae (BEST) and, may represent a cryptic species. The

  5. Atmospheric Degradation Initiated by OH Radicals of the Potential Foam Expansion Agent, CF3(CF2)2CH═CH2 (HFC-1447fz): Kinetics and Formation of Gaseous Products and Secondary Organic Aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Elena; González, Sergio; Cazaunau, Mathieu; Chen, Hui; Ballesteros, Bernabé; Daële, Véronique; Albaladejo, José; Mellouki, Abdelwahid

    2016-02-01

    The assessment of the atmospheric impact of the potential foam expansion agent, CF3(CF2)2CH═CH2 (HFC-1447fz), requires the knowledge of its degradation routes, oxidation products, and radiative properties. In this paper, the gas-phase reactivity of HFC-1447fz with OH radicals is presented as a function of temperature, obtaining kOH (T = 263-358 K) = (7.4 ± 0.4) × 10(-13)exp{(161 ± 16)/T} (cm(3)·molecule(-1)·s(-1)) (uncertainties: ±2σ). The formation of gaseous oxidation products and secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) from the OH + HFC-1447fz reaction was investigated in the presence of NOx at 298 K. CF3(CF2)2CHO was observed at low- and high-NOx conditions. Evidence of SOA formation (ultrafine particles in the range 10-100 nm) is reported with yields ranging from 0.12 to 1.79%. In addition, the absolute UV (190-368 nm) and IR (500-4000 cm(-1)) absorption cross-sections of HFC-1447fz were determined at room temperature. No appreciable absorption in the solar actinic region (λ > 290 nm) was observed, leaving the removal by OH radicals as the main atmospheric loss process for HFC-1447fz. The major contribution of the atmospheric loss of HFC-1447fz is due to OH reaction (84%), followed by ozone (10%) and chlorine atoms (6%). Correction of the instantaneous radiative efficiency (0.36 W m(-2)·ppbv(-1)) with the relatively short lifetime of HFC-1447fz (ca. 8 days) implies that its global warming potential at a time horizon of 100 year is negligible (0.19) compared to that of HCFC-141b (782) and to that of modern foam-expansion blowing agents (148, 882, and 804 for HFC-152a, HFC-245fa and HFC-365mfc, respectively). PMID:26704369

  6. Performance verification of a LIF-LIDAR technique for stand-off detection and classification of biological agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtanowski, Jacek; Zygmunt, Marek; Muzal, Michał; Knysak, Piotr; Młodzianko, Andrzej; Gawlikowski, Andrzej; Drozd, Tadeusz; Kopczyński, Krzysztof; Mierczyk, Zygmunt; Kaszczuk, Mirosława; Traczyk, Maciej; Gietka, Andrzej; Piotrowski, Wiesław; Jakubaszek, Marcin; Ostrowski, Roman

    2015-04-01

    LIF (laser-induced fluorescence) LIDAR (light detection and ranging) is one of the very few promising methods in terms of long-range stand-off detection of air-borne biological particles. A limited classification of the detected material also appears as a feasible asset. We present the design details and hardware setup of the developed range-resolved multichannel LIF-LIDAR system. The device is based on two pulsed UV laser sources operating at 355 nm and 266 nm wavelength (3rd and 4th harmonic of Nd:YAG, Q-switched solid-state laser, respectively). Range-resolved fluorescence signals are collected in 28 channels of compound PMT sensor coupled with Czerny-Turner spectrograph. The calculated theoretical sensitivities are confronted with the results obtained during measurement field campaign. Classification efforts based on 28-digit fluorescence spectral signatures linear processing are also presented.

  7. SYNTHESIS AND BIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF 1,3,4-OXADIAZOLE DERIVATIVES AS POTENTIAL ANTIBACTERIAL AND ANTIFUNGAL AGENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palak K. Parikh

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available 1,3,4 oxadiazole derivatives are the heterocyclic compounds with very important biological activities such as anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antifungal, antiviral, analgesic, antimycobacterial, antidepressant and antiamoebic. 1, 3, 4 oxadiazole was synthesized by condensation reaction between 2- hydroxybenzohydrazine and carbon disulfide. This derivative on treatment with different aromatic halides produced the desired final products. The in-vitro antibacterial activity of synthesized compound was tested against Gram-positive and Gram-negative microorganisms (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 9144, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Pseudomonas aeruginosa MTCC No. 1688, Gram negative: Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 by filter paper disc method. The in-vitro antifungal activity was tested against Candida albicans by filter paper disc method. All the compounds showed good activity against all cultures.

  8. Delphastus catalinae and Coleomegilla maculata lengi (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) as biological control agents of the greenhouse whitefly, trialeurodes vaporariorum (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Eric; Labrecque, Claude; Coderre, Daniel

    2004-11-01

    Predation efficacy and compatibility of the predatory lady beetles Coleomegilla maculata lengi Timberlake and Delphastus catalinae (Horn) against the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) were studied in laboratory on glabrous fuchsia (Fuchsia hybrida Voss cv Lena Corolla) and pubescent poinsettia plants (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd ex Klotzch cv Dark Red Annette Hegg). On glabrous plants (fuchsia), fourth-instar and adults of C maculata were the most efficient, both against whitefly eggs and pupae. On pubescent plants (poinsettia), the larger stages of C maculata were negatively affected and less efficient than adults of D catalinae. The presence of plant structure did not affect the voracity of either predator species. Finally, the simultaneous use of both predator species generated inter-specific competition. These results provide recommendations for biological control of whitefly in horticultural greenhouses. PMID:15532680

  9. Metabolic stability and biological evaluation of 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC as somatostatin receptor positive tumor imaging agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vivo imaging of tumours using radio labelled somatostatin (SST) analogues has become an accepted clinical tool in oncology. Somatostatin receptors (SSTRs) are over expressed in the majority of tumors like neuroendocrine tumors, small cell lung cancer, breast cancer, gliomas and lymphoma. Evidence on the over expression of somatostatin receptors by primary and metastatic malignant disease, mainly of neuroendocrine origin, has prompted a worldwide search for radiolabelled somatostatin analogues for use in somatostatin receptor mediated tumour imaging (SRI). The over-expression of SSTRs by neuroendocrine tumors provides the basis for imaging cancerous from other tissues by the administration of SSTR-binding radiotracers followed by gamma camera scintigraphy. The new somatostatin analogue HYNIC-TOC was successfully biologically evaluated. The new derivative has the potentiality for SSTR imaging in SSTR-positive tumors

  10. Synthesis, Photophysical, and Biological Evaluation of Sulfated Polyglycerol Dendronized Perylenebisimides (PBIs)--A Promising Platform for Anti-Inflammatory Theranostic Agents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heek, T; Kühne, C; Depner, H; Achazi, K; Dernedde, J; Haag, R

    2016-03-16

    A set of four water-soluble perylene bisimides (PBI) based on sulfated polyglycerol (PGS) dendrons were developed, their photophysical properties determined via UV/vis and fluorescence spectroscopy, and their performance as possible anti-inflammatory agents evaluated via biological in vitro studies. It could be shown that in contrast to charge neutral PG-PBIs the introduction of the additional electrostatic repulsion forces leads to a decrease in the dendron generation necessary for aggregation suppression, allowing the preparation of PBIs with fluorescence quantum yields of >95% with a considerable decreased synthetic effort. Furthermore, the values determined for L-selectin binding down to the nanomolar range, their limited impact on blood coagulation, and their minor activation of the complement system renders these systems ideal for anti-inflammatory purposes. PMID:26890394

  11. Synthesis and biological evaluation of cyclic analogs of L-carnitine as potential agents in the treatment of myocardial ischemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woster, P.M.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to synthesize a number of cyclic, rigid analogs of L-carnitine, having a variety of predetermined positional and stereochemical orientations, to be used as probes into the spatial and conformational requirements of the enzyme known as carnitine/acylcarnitine translocase. The ability of these analogs to serve as substrates for this enzyme was to be determined by assessing the degree to which they initiate efflux of {sup 14}C-L-carnitine from isolated heart mitochondria. Toward this end, synthesis of several such analogs was attempted, resulting in the isolation and characterization of 9 cyclic analogs of carnitine, 5 of which are previously unreported. Bioevaluation of these synthetic carnitine analogs was conducted in a previously described assay system. Rat heart mitochondria were isolated by differential centrifugation and prepared for the study by incubation with {sup 14}C-L-carnitine. Efflux of radiolabeled carnitine was then monitored in the presence of the compound being evaluated. This represents the first instance in which non-naturally occurring analogs of L-carnitine have been shown to undergo transport via this mitochondrial translocase, suggesting the possibility that cyclic carnitine analogs may find utility as agents in the treatment of myocardial ischemia.

  12. Synthesis and biological evaluation of cyclic analogs of L-carnitine as potential agents in the treatment of myocardial ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this research was to synthesize a number of cyclic, rigid analogs of L-carnitine, having a variety of predetermined positional and stereochemical orientations, to be used as probes into the spatial and conformational requirements of the enzyme known as carnitine/acylcarnitine translocase. The ability of these analogs to serve as substrates for this enzyme was to be determined by assessing the degree to which they initiate efflux of 14C-L-carnitine from isolated heart mitochondria. Toward this end, synthesis of several such analogs was attempted, resulting in the isolation and characterization of 9 cyclic analogs of carnitine, 5 of which are previously unreported. Bioevaluation of these synthetic carnitine analogs was conducted in a previously described assay system. Rat heart mitochondria were isolated by differential centrifugation and prepared for the study by incubation with 14C-L-carnitine. Efflux of radiolabeled carnitine was then monitored in the presence of the compound being evaluated. This represents the first instance in which non-naturally occurring analogs of L-carnitine have been shown to undergo transport via this mitochondrial translocase, suggesting the possibility that cyclic carnitine analogs may find utility as agents in the treatment of myocardial ischemia

  13. Continued biological investigations of boron-rich oligomeric phosphate diesters (OPDs). Tumor-selective boron agents for BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinical success of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy will rely on the selective intracellular delivery of high concentrations of boron-10 to tumor tissue. In order for a boron agent to facilitate clinical success, the simultaneous needs of obtaining a high tumor dose, high tumor selectivity, and low systemic toxicity must be realized. Boron-rich oligomeric phosphate diesters (OPDs) are a class of highly water-soluble compounds containing up to 40% boron by weight. Previous work in our groups demonstrated that once placed in the cytoplasm of tumor cells, OPDs quickly accumulate within the cell nucleus. The objective of the current study was to determine the biodistribution of seven different free OPDs in BALB/c mice bearing EMT6 tumors. Fructose solutions containing between 1.4 and 6.4 micrograms of boron per gram of tissue were interveinously injected in mice seven to ten days after tumor implantation. At intervals during the study, animals were euthanized and samples of tumor, blood, liver, kidney, brain and skin were collected and analyzed for boron content using ICP-AES. Tumor boron concentrations of between 5 and 29 ppm were achieved and maintained over the 72-hour time course of each experiment. Several OPDs demonstrated high tumor selectivity with one oligomer exhibiting a tumor to blood ratio of 35:1. The apparent toxicity of each oligomer was assessed through animal behavior during the experiment and necropsy of each animal upon sacrifice. (author)

  14. A cloud point extraction for spectrophotometric determination of ultra- trace antimony without chelating agent in environmental and biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on a simple, sensitive and reliable method for the cloud point extraction of antimony (Sb) and its subsequent spectrophotometric detection. It is based on the color reaction of Sb (III) with iodide in acidic medium and subsequent micelle-mediated extraction of tetraiodoantimonate using a non-ionic surfactant in the absence of any chelating agent. The effects of reaction and extraction parameters were optimized. The calibration plot is linear in the range of 0.80-95 ng mL-1 of antimony in the sample solution, with a regression coefficient (r) of 0.9994 (for n=9). The detection limit (at SNR=3) is 0.23 ng mL-1, and the relative standard deviations at 10 and 70 ng mL-1 of antimony are 3.32 and 1.85 % (at n=8), respectively. The method compared favorably to other methods and was applied to determine antimony in seawater, anti-leishmania drug (glucantime), and human serum. (author)

  15. Synthesis and biological evaluation of 177Lu-DOTA-porphyrin conjugate: a potential agent for targeted tumor radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel unsymmetrically substituted water soluble porphyrin derivative namely, 5-(p-aminopropylene-oxyphenyl)-10,15,20-tris-(p-carboxymetylene-oxyphenyl) porphyrin was synthesized and coupled with a bifunctional chelating agent, viz. p-NCS-benzyl-DOTA (p-isothiocyanatobenzyl-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid) for developing a suitable conjugate for use in targeted tumor therapy. The porphyrin-p-NCS-benzyl-DOTA conjugate was radiolabeled with 177Lu in good radiolabeling yield. Biodistribution studies performed in Swiss mice bearing fibrosarcoma tumors revealed high tumor uptake (5.33±1.11% injected activity per gm of tumor) within 30 min post-injection. The complex exhibited favorable tumor to blood and tumor to muscle ratios at various post-administration time points. Fast clearance of the non-accumulated activity was observed mostly through the renal pathway. Scintigraphic imaging studies performed in Swiss mice bearing fibrosarcoma tumors also exhibited selective accumulation of activity in the tumor.

  16. Etanercept Suppresses Arteritis in a Murine Model of Kawasaki Disease: A Comparative Study Involving Different Biological Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuji Ohashi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Coronary arteritis, a complication of Kawasaki disease (KD, can be refractory to immunoglobulin (IVIG treatment. To determine the most effective alternative therapy, we compared the efficacy of different agents in a mouse model of KD. Vasculitis was induced by injection of Candida albicans water-soluble fractions (CAWS into a DBA/2 mouse, followed by administration of IVIG, etanercept, methylprednisolone (MP, and cyclosporine-A (CsA. At 2 and 4 weeks, the mice were sacrificed, and plasma cytokines and chemokines were measured. CAWS injection induced active inflammation in the aortic root and coronary arteries. At 2 weeks, the vasculitis was reduced only by etanercept, and this effect persisted for the subsequent 2 weeks. At 4 weeks, IVIG and CsA also attenuated the inflammation, but the effect of etanercept was more significant. MP exerted no apparent effect at 2 or 4 weeks. The suppressive effect exerted by etanercept on cytokines, such as interleukin- (IL-6, IL-12, IL-13, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, was more evident than that of others. The extent of arteritis correlated with the plasma TNF-α levels, suggesting a pivotal role of TNF-α in KD. In conclusion, etanercept was most effective in suppressing CAWS-induced vasculitis and can be a new therapeutic intervention for KD.

  17. Synthesis and biological evaluation of 12-N-p-chlorobenzyl sophoridinol derivatives as a novel family of anticancer agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Chongwen; Ye, Cheng; Li, Yinghong; Zhao, Wuli; Shao, Rongguang; Song, Danqing

    2016-05-01

    Taking 12-N-p-chlorobenzyl sophoridinol 2 as a lead, a series of novel sophoridinic derivatives with various 3'-substituents at the 11-side chain were synthesized and evaluated for their anticancer activity from sophoridine (1), a natural antitumor medicine. Among them, the sophoridinic ketones 5a-b, alkenes 7a-b and sophoridinic amines 14a-b displayed reasonable antiproliferative activity with IC50 values ranging from 3.8 to 5.4 μmol/L. Especially, compounds 5a and 7b exhibited an equipotency in both adriamycin (AMD)-susceptible and resistant MCF-7 breast carcinoma cells, indicating a different mechanism from AMD. The primary mechanism of action of 5a was to arrest the cell cycle at the G0/G1 phase, consistent with that of parent compound 1. Thus, we consider 12-chlorobenzyl sophoridinic derivatives with a tricyclic scaffold to be a new class of promising antitumor agents with an advantage of inhibiting drug-resistant cancer cells. PMID:27175333

  18. Aerosol delivery of DNA/liposomes to the lung for cystic fibrosis gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Lee A; Nunez-Alonso, Graciela A; McLachlan, Gerry; Hyde, Stephen C; Gill, Deborah R

    2014-06-01

    Abstract Lung gene therapy is being evaluated for a range of acute and chronic diseases, including cystic fibrosis (CF). As these therapies approach clinical realization, it is becoming increasingly clear that the ability to efficiently deliver gene transfer agents (GTAs) to target cell populations within the lung may prove just as critical as the gene therapy formulation itself in terms of generating positive clinical outcomes. Key to the success of any aerosol gene therapy is the interaction between the GTA and nebulization device. We evaluated the effects of aerosolization on our preferred formulation, plasmid DNA (pDNA) complexed with the cationic liposome GL67A (pDNA/GL67A) using commercially available nebulizer devices. The relatively high viscosity (6.3±0.1 cP) and particulate nature of pDNA/GL67A formulations hindered stable aerosol generation in ultrasonic and vibrating mesh nebulizers but was not problematic in the jet nebulizers tested. Aerosol size characteristics varied significantly between devices, but the AeroEclipse II nebulizer operating at 50 psi generated stable pDNA/GL67A aerosols suitable for delivery to the CF lung (mass median aerodynamic diameter 3.4±0.1 μm). Importantly, biological function of pDNA/GL67A formulations was retained after nebulization, and although aerosol delivery rate was lower than that of other devices (0.17±0.01 ml/min), the breath-actuated AeroEclipse II nebulizer generated aerosol only during the inspiratory phase and as such was more efficient than other devices with 83±3% of generated aerosol available for patient inhalation. On the basis of these results, we have selected the AeroEclipse II nebulizer for the delivery of pDNA/GL67A formulations to the lungs of CF patients as part of phase IIa/b clinical studies. PMID:24865497

  19. Biological Control of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Causal Agent of Sunflower Head and Stem Rot Disease, by Use of Soil borne Actinomycetes Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Baniasadi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: High level of biosafety and non adverse effects on the environment of biocontrol strategies of pest management, are priorities of tomorrow's world agriculture. Actinomycetes are active biocontrol agents due to their antagonistic properties against wide range of plant pathogens particularly fungi. Fungal pathogens are liable for a big part of damages in agriculture economy. Approach: In the present research antifungal bioactivity of 50 isolates of Actinomycetes collected from soils of Kerman province of Iran was investigated against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib., the causal agent of stem rot in sunflower, through agar disc method and dual culture bioassays. The Streptomyces isolate No. 363 was propagated in submerged cultures and active crude was prepared upon which several biological characterizations performed. Greenhouse studies were achieved to confirm laboratory results. Results: Among the tested Streptomyces isolates, 10 isolates revealed antagonistic properties in dual culture procedure from which isolate No. 363 showed highest bioactivity. The active metabolite of Streptomyces isolate No. 363 was polar and well soluble in H2O. Using agar-disc method, progressive growth of the pathogen was highly reduced by the antagonist through exhibiting ability to constitute fungus-free zones of inhibitions. The results indicated that isolate No. 363 was a proper candidate for field biocontrol studies. Conclusion: Results may open a horizon for production of resistant transgenic plants having antifungal properties originated from biologically active Streptomyces spp. recognition and production of effective metabolite(s of Streptomyces spp. which was responsible for antifungal activities will be our commercial goal due to rich reserves of soil borne Actinomycetes in Iran.

  20. Synthesis and biological evaluation of a novel class of curcumin analogs as anti-inflammatory agents for prevention and treatment of sepsis in mouse model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao C

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Chengguang Zhao,1,2,* Yali Zhang,1,2,* Peng Zou,1 Jian Wang,3 Wenfei He,2 Dengjian Shi,2 Huameng Li,2 Guang Liang,2 Shulin Yang1 1School of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing, 2Chemical Biology Research Center, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 3Department of Orthopedics, The 1st Affiliated Hospital, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: A novel class of asymmetric mono-carbonyl analogs of curcumin (AMACs were synthesized and screened for anti-inflammatory activity. These analogs are chemically stable as characterized by UV absorption spectra. In vitro, compounds 3f, 3m, 4b, and 4d markedly inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 in a dose-dependent manner, with IC50 values in low micromolar range. In vivo, compound 3f demonstrated potent preventive and therapeutic effects on LPS-induced sepsis in mouse model. Compound 3f downregulated the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2 MAPK and suppressed IκBα degradation, which suggests that the possible anti-inflammatory mechanism of compound 3f may be through downregulating nuclear factor kappa binding (NF-κB and ERK pathways. Also, we solved the crystal structure of compound 3e to confirm the asymmetrical structure. The quantitative structure–activity relationship analysis reveals that the electron-withdrawing substituents on aromatic ring of lead structures could improve activity. These active AMACs represent a new class of anti-inflammatory agents with improved stability, bioavailability, and potency compared to curcumin. Our results suggest that 3f may be further developed as a potential agent for prevention and treatment of sepsis or other inflammation-related diseases. Keywords: asymmetric mono-carbonyl analogs of curcumin (AMACs

  1. Optimizing Nesidiocoris tenuis (Hemiptera: Miridae) as a biological control agent: mathematical models for predicting its development as a function of temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-García, Héctor; Román-Fernández, Luis R; Sáenz-Romo, María G; Pérez-Moreno, Ignacio; Marco-Mancebón, Vicente S

    2016-04-01

    For optimal application of Nesidiocoris tenuis as a biological control agent, adequate field management and programmed mass rearing are essential. Mathematical models are useful tools for predicting the temperature-dependent developmental rate of the predator. In this study, the linear model and nonlinear models Logan type III, Lactin and Brière were estimated at constant temperatures and validated at alternating temperatures and under field conditions. N. tenuis achieved complete development from egg to adult at constant temperatures between 15 and 35°C with high survivorship (>80%) in the range 18-32°C. The total developmental time decreased from a maximum at 15°C (76.74 d) to a minimum at 33°C (12.67 d) and after that, increased to 35°C (13.98 d). Linear and nonlinear developmental models all had high accuracy (R a 2 >0.86). The maximum developmental rate was obtained between 31.9°C (Logan type III and Brière model for N1) and 35.6°C (for the egg stage in the Brière model). Optimal survival and the highest developmental rate fell within the range 27-30°C. The field validation revealed that the Logan type III and Lactin models offered the best predictions (95.0 and 94.5%, respectively). The data obtained on developmental time and mortality at different temperatures are useful for mass rearing this predator, and the developmental models are valuable for using N. tenuis as a biological control agent. PMID:26700327

  2. The effect of the combination of two biological control agents, Mirabilis jalapa and Bacillus thuringiensis, to Spodoptera litura's immune response and their mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulina, Dina; Anggraeni, Tjandra

    2014-03-01

    Biological control provides a safer alternative to reduce the population of agricultural pest. Mirabilis jalapa is one of many promising biopesticides which contains chemical substances that have a feeding deterrent property against insects. This biopesticide may not kill insect directly but will weaken their overall physiological condition. In this study, we investigated the immune response of common pestSpodoptera litura after exposure of M. jalapa extract. We also used Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) delta endotoxin (LC50) on 3 hours after exposure of M. jalapa extract to see the synergism properties of both biopesticide agents. Microscopic observation revealed that at least 5 types of haemocyte were found in S. litura. In control group, plasmatocyte were found at 59.98%, prohaemocyte 20.73%, granullar cell 12.74%, oenocytoid 3.33% and spherule cell 3.20%. These proportion was differ significantly in the treatment group. Exposure to 0.1% and 0.2%(w/v) of M. jalapa extract increased the total number of haemocytes as much as 38.08% and 64.15% respectively. In contrast, exposure to 0.4% and 0.8%(w/v) reduced the number of haemocytes to 37.02% and 51.04% respectively. In term of phagocytic activity, the proportion of phagocytosing cells were 47.62% in control group, and in 0.1% and 0.2% (w/v) M. jalapa treatment group the proportion decreased to 28% and 26.88% respectively. In the concentration of 0.4% and 0.8%, phagocytic activity did not occur. Addition of biological agents Bt (LC50 concentration) to see mortality 3 hours after M. jalapa application did not show significant differences. S. litura mortality rate were found only 50%; this suggests that the combination of M. jalapa and Bt biopesticides in 3-hour intervals within 24 hours showed no increase in mortality.

  3. Diversity of endophytic fungal community of cacao (Theobroma cacao L. and biological control of Crinipellis perniciosa, causal agent of Witches' Broom Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The basidiomycete fungus Crinipellis perniciosa (Stahel Singer is the causal agent of Witches' Broom Disease of Cacao (Theobroma cacao L. which is the main factor limiting cacao production in the Americas. Pod losses of up to 90% are experienced in affected areas as evidenced by the 50% drop in production in Bahia province, Brazil following the arrival of the C. perniciosa in the area in 1989. The disease has proven particularly difficult to control and many farmers in affected areas have given up cacao cultivation. In order to evaluate the potential of endophytes as a biological control agent of this phytopathogen, the endophytic fungal community of resistant and susceptible cacao plants as well as affected branches was studied between 2001 and 2002. The fungal community was identified by morphological traits and rDNA sequencing as belonging to the genera Acremonium, Blastomyces, Botryosphaeria, Cladosporium, Colletotrichum, Cordyceps, Diaporthe, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Gibberella, Gliocladium, Lasiodiplodia, Monilochoetes, Nectria, Pestalotiopsis, Phomopsis, Pleurotus, Pseudofusarium, Rhizopycnis, Syncephalastrum, Trichoderma, Verticillium and Xylaria. These fungi were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo by their ability to inhibit C. perniciosa. Among these, some were identified as potential antagonists, but only one fungus (Gliocladium catenulatum reduced the incidence of Witches' Broom Disease in cacao seedlings to 70%.

  4. Effect of Two Biological Formulations Based on Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas fluorescens on Control of Didymella applanata, the Causal Agent of Red Raspberry Cane Spur Blight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Shternshis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In vitro and in vivo studies were conducted to estimate the efficacy of the two microbial formulations based on Bacillus subtilis Cohn. and Pseudomonas fluorescens Mig. on the fungus Didymella applanata (Niessl. Sacc., the causal agent of red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L. spur blight. In vitro, both bacteria reduced the growth of D. applanata. In inoculation experiments with raspberry canes in two cultivars with different susceptibility to D. applanata, these antagonistic bacteria suppressed fungal development by reducing the lesions area and the number of D. applanata fruiting bodies. Field trials of two biological formulations under natural conditions showed a significant suppression of the disease. B. subtilis and P. fluorescens included in the formulations revealed antagonistic activity towards D. applanata that depended on the red raspberry cultivar and weather conditions. In all cases, B. subtilis showed better results than P. fluorescens in biocontrol of the raspberry spur blight. This study demonstrated for the first time the ability of the biocontrol agents B. subtilis and P. fluorescens to suppress red raspberry cane spur blight, a serious worldwide disease.

  5. Biological Control of Rhizoctonia solani, the Causal Agent of Rice Sheath Blight by Antagonistics Bacteria in Greenhouse and Field Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostapha Niknejad Kazempour

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas fluorescens isolates that inhibited growth of Rhizoctonia solani Kühn, the rice sheath blight pathogen were collected the rhizosplane and surrounding soil of healthy and rice sheath blight disease in farming of the Guilan province, Iran. Two hundred eighty eight isolates tested and among them only antagonistic ability of 8 isolates were demonstrated by using the dual culture method. According to the results of biochemical and morphological trials all isolates were identified as P. fluorescens biovar 3. By determining the effects of volatile metabolites, secretion of extracellular and antibiotics of these isolates inhibited mycelial growth of R. solani in vitro. All P. fluorescens isolates produced siderophore on King`s medium B, inhibited the mycelial growth of the R. solani. Antagonistics isolates reduced the germination and cause the lysis of sclerotia of R. solani. In greenhouse conditions antagonistic isolates were used by seed coating, soil drenching and foliar spray. Statistical analysis of data indicated that there existed significant differences between seed, soil and plant treatments. All of the isolates in seed coating are more effective. In the field conditions foliar spray of isolate B41 mixed with benlate were applied. The disease intensity in B41 isolate for seed coating, soil drenching and seed coating + foliar spray were 10.5, 11.75 and 18.75%, respectively, while the control plants showed 52% disease intensity. These results suggest that the P. fluorescens isolates studied have an excellent potential to be used as biocontrol agents of R. solani in rice at the field conditions.

  6. Synthesis, biological evaluation and molecular modeling of novel series of pyridine derivatives as anticancer, anti-inflammatory and analgesic agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helal, M. H.; El-Awdan, S. A.; Salem, M. A.; Abd-elaziz, T. A.; Moahamed, Y. A.; El-Sherif, A. A.; Mohamed, G. A. M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a combined synthesis; characterization, computational and biological activity studies of novel series of pyridines heterocyclic compounds. The compounds have been characterized by elemental analyses and spectral like IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and MS studies. Michael addition of substituted-2-methoxycarbonylacetanilide 2a,b on the α-substituted cinnamonitriles 3a-d gave the corresponding 2-pyridone derivatives 5-10. Structures of the titled compounds cited in this article were elucidated by spectrometric data (IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and MS). The molecular modeling of the synthesized compounds has been drawn and their molecular parameters were calculated. Also, valuable information is obtained from the calculation of molecular parameters including electronegativity, net dipole moment of the compounds, total energy, electronic energy, binding energy, HOMO and LUMO energy. Various in vitro antitumor as well as in vivo anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of the synthesized compounds were investigated. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of test compounds was performed using carrageenan induced paw edema in rats. All the tested compounds showed moderate to good activity. The SAR results indicate that all compounds showed moderate to good activity, among these 7 and 10 compounds having -N(CH3)2 group are most effective.

  7. Synthesis and biological evaluation of {sup 125}I-erythropoietin as a potential radiopharmaceutical agent for tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clemente, Goncalo dos Santos, E-mail: goncaloclemente@uc.pt [University of Coimbra (Portugal). Inst. of Nuclear Sciences Applied to Health; Duarte, Vera Lucia Serra [Polytechnical Institute of Lisbon (Portugal). Higher School of Health Technology

    2011-01-15

    Erythropoietin (EPO) is a glycoprotein hormone responsible for regulating erythropoiesis. Expression of EPO and EPO receptors (EPOr) has recently been demonstrated in some neoplastic cell lines and tumours, suggesting a potential new target for therapy. In this work, EPO was labeled with iodine-125 using the lactoperoxidase method, known to prevent damage to protein during radioiodination, and labeling conditions were optimized. In vitro stability studies have shown that {sup 125}I-EPO is radiochemically stable for 20 days after radiolabeling. In vitro cell binding studies have demonstrated very low binding (<2%) of EPO to normal and neoplastic cell lines tested. As expected, the biodistribution in healthy mice exhibited comparatively high rates of fixation in the organs of the excretory system. Thyroid also proved to be a critical organ which may indicate in vivo dissociation of {sup 125}I-EPO. In mice with induced melanoma, only a residual fixation in the tumour was evident. Further studies are warranted on other tumoral cell lines to better understand the binding process and internalization into cells. Studies on EPO labeled with carbon-11 could be valuable, since there is a greater chance of preserving the biological activity of the protein using this method. (author)

  8. Antipredator defense of biological control agent Oxyops vitiosa is mediated by plant volatiles sequestered from the host plant Melaleuca quinquenervia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, G S; Massey, L M; Southwell, I A

    2002-02-01

    The weevil Oxyops vitiosa is an Australian species imported to Florida, USA, for the biological control of the invasive weed species Melaleuca quinquenervia. Larvae of this species feed on leaves of their host and produce a shiny orange secretion that covers the integument. When this secretion is applied at physiological concentrations to dog food bait, fire ant consumption and visitation are significantly reduced. Gas chromatographic analysis indicates that the larval secretion qualitatively and quantitatively resembles the terpenoid composition of the host foliage. When the combination of 10 major terpenoids from the O. vitiosa secretion was applied to dog food bait, fire ant consumption and visitation were reduced. When these 10 terpenoids were tested individually, the sesquiterpene viridiflorol was the most active component in decreasing fire ant consumption. Fire ant visitation was initially (15 min after initiation of the study) decreased for dog food bait treated with viridiflorol and the monoterpenes 1,8-cineole and alpha-terpineol. Fire ants continued to avoid the bait treated with viridiflorol at 18 microg/mg dog food for up to 6 hr after the initiation of the experiment. Moreover, ants avoided bait treated with 1.8 microg/mg for up to 3 hr. The concentrations of viridiflorol, 1,8-cineole, and alpha-terpineol in larval washes were about twice that of the host foliage, suggesting that the larvae sequester these plant-derived compounds for defense against generalist predators. PMID:11925069

  9. Synthesis and biological distribution of 99mTc-norfloxacin complex, a novel agent for detecting sites of infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The optimization of the radiolabeling yield of ciprofloxacin analogous, norfloxacin, with technetium-99m (99mTc) was described. Dependence of the labeling yield of 99mTc-norfloxacin complex on the concentration of norfloxacin, SnCl2 · 2H2O content, pH of the reaction mixture and reaction time was studied. Norfloxacin was labeled with 99mTc at pH 3 with a labeling yield of 95.4% by using 5 mg norfloxacin, 50 μg SnCl2 · 2H2O and 30 min reaction time. The formed 99mTc-norfloxacin complex was stable for a time up to 3 h. Biological distribution of 99mTc-norfloxacin complex was investigated in experimentally induced inflammation rats using Staphylococcus aureus (bacterial infection model) and heat killed Staphylococcus aureus and turpentine oil (sterile inflammation model). In case of bacterial infection, the T/NT value for 99mTc-norfloxacin complex was found to be 6.9 ± 0.4 which was higher than that of the commercially available 99mTc-ciprofloxacin under the same experimental condition. (author)

  10. Use of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices as biological control agent of the nematode Nacobbus aberrans parasitizing tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Marro

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The plant-parasitic nematode Nacobbus aberrans is an endoparasite that induces gall formation in the roots and causes severe losses to diverse crops. Some populations of this nematode show preference for certain hosts, revealing the existence of "races/groups" with different behaviour and making nematode management difficult. A possible biological control alternative to reduce the damage caused by this species may be the use of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF. In the present work, the effect of Glomus intraradices on tomato plants inoculated with the nematode at transplanting and three weeks later was tested. At 60 days, the following parameters were estimated: percentage of AMF colonization, root and aerial dry weight, number of galls and egg masses, and reproduction factor (RF=final population/initial population of N. aberrans. AMF colonization was higher in the presence of the nematode. The use of AMF favoured tomato biomass and reduced the number of galls and RF on the plants inoculated with the nematode at transplanting.

  11. Temporal dynamics of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) and two species of flea beetles (Aphthona spp.) used as biological control agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, D.L.; Grace, J.B.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the biological control program of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) in a large natural area, Theodore Roosevelt National Park, western North Dakota, USA. Aphthona lacertosa and Aphthona nigriscutis have been released at more than 1800 points in the 18,600-ha South Unit of the park beginning in 1989; most releases have occurred since 1994. We established permanent vegetation plots throughout the infested area of the park and determined stem counts and biomass of leafy spurge and abundance of the two flea beetle species at these plots each year from 1999 to 2001. Both biomass and stem counts declined over the 3 years of the study. Both species of flea beetle are well established within the park and have expanded into areas where they were not released. A. nigriscutis was more abundant than A. lacertosa in the grassland areas we surveyed, but in all other habitats abundances were similar. Using structural equation models, only A. lacertosa could be shown to have a significant effect on counts of mature stems of leafy spurge. A. nigriscutis numbers were positively correlated with stem counts of mature stems. Previous year's stem counts had the greatest influence on change in stem counts over each 2-year time step examined with structural equation models.

  12. Temporal dynamics of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) and two species of flea beetle (Aphthona spp.) used as biological control agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, D.L.; Grace, J.B.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the biological control program of leafy spurge {Euphorbia esula) in a large natural area, Theodore Roosevelt National Park, western North Dakota, USA. Aphthona lacertosa and Aphthona nigriscutis have been released at more than 1800 points in the 18,600-ha South Unit of the park beginning in 1989; most releases have occurred since 1994. We established permanent vegetation plots throughout the infested area of the park and determined stem counts and biomass of leafy spurge and abundance of the two flea beetle species at these plots each year from 1999 to 2001. Both biomass and stem counts declined over the 3 years of the study. Both species of flea beetle are well established within the park and have expanded into areas where they were not released. A. nigriscutis was more abundant than A. lacertosa in the grassland areas we surveyed but in all other habitats abundances were similar. Using structural equation models, only A. lacertosa could be shown to have a significant effect on counts of mature stems of leafy spurge. A. nigriscutis numbers were positively correlated with stem counts of mature stems. Previous year's stem counts had the greatest influence on change in stem counts over each 2-year time step examined with structural equation models.

  13. EFSA BIOHAZ Panel (EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards), 2013. Scientific Opinion on the maintenance of the list of QPS biological agents intentionally added to food and feed (2013 update)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licht, Tine Rask; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    the one in the most recently published scientific opinion. The 2013 update reviews previously assessed microorganisms including bacteria, yeasts, filamentous fungi, oomycetes and viruses used for plant protection purposes. All taxonomic units previously recommended for the QPS list had their status...... taxonomic units included in the QPS recommended list were reviewed and confirmed. Filamentous fungi and enterococci were not recommended for the QPS list following updating and reviewing of current scientific knowledge....... harmonised generic pre-assessment to support safety risk assessments performed by EFSA’s scientific Panels. The safety of unambiguously defined biological agents (at the highest taxonomic unit appropriate for the purpose for which an application is intended), and the completeness of the body of knowledge are...

  14. Evaluation of cellulose substrates treated with Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff Sorokin as a biological control agent against the termite Microcerotermes diversus Silvestri (Isoptera: Termitidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Habibpour

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This article is the first report on the promising effect of an entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff Sorokin to control populations of Microcerotermes diversus Silvestri. Biological control is an alternative to the long-term usage of chemical pesticides. M. anisopliae, the causal agent of green muscardine disease of insects, is an important fungus in biological control of insect pests. Bait systems can eliminate entire colonies of subterranean termites. Baiting reduces adverse environmental impacts caused by organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides in the control of termites and creates sustainable protection of buildings against their invasion. Treated-sawdust bait was applied by two methods: a combination of treated sawdust and untreated filter paper, and b combination of treated sawdust and untreated sawdust. When combinations of treated sawdust and untreated sawdust were used, LC50 and LC90 were 8.4×106 and 3.9×107 (spore/ml, respectively. With the use of improved bait formula and more virulent strains, we hope to achieve better control of termite colonies and enable pathogens to become a useful element in the Integrated Pest Management system.

  15. Tropospheric Aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buseck, P. R.; Schwartz, S. E.

    2003-12-01

    It is widely believed that "On a clear day you can see forever," as proclaimed in the 1965 Broadway musical of the same name. While an admittedly beautiful thought, we all know that this concept is only figurative. Aside from Earth's curvature and Rayleigh scattering by air molecules, aerosols - colloidal suspensions of solid or liquid particles in a gas - limit our vision. Even on the clearest day, there are billions of aerosol particles per cubic meter of air.Atmospheric aerosols are commonly referred to as smoke, dust, haze, and smog, terms that are loosely reflective of their origin and composition. Aerosol particles have arisen naturally for eons from sea spray, volcanic emissions, wind entrainment of mineral dust, wildfires, and gas-to-particle conversion of hydrocarbons from plants and dimethylsulfide from the oceans. However, over the industrial period, the natural background aerosol has been greatly augmented by anthropogenic contributions, i.e., those produced by human activities. One manifestation of this impact is reduced visibility (Figure 1). Thus, perhaps more than in other realms of geochemistry, when considering the composition of the troposphere one must consider the effects of these activities. The atmosphere has become a reservoir for vast quantities of anthropogenic emissions that exert important perturbations on it and on the planetary ecosystem in general. Consequently, much recent research focuses on the effects of human activities on the atmosphere and, through them, on the environment and Earth's climate. For these reasons consideration of the geochemistry of the atmosphere, and of atmospheric aerosols in particular, must include the effects of human activities. (201K)Figure 1. Impairment of visibility by aerosols. Photographs at Yosemite National Park, California, USA. (a) Low aerosol concentration (particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm, PM2.5=0.3 μg m-3; particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter less than 10

  16. Interactions between nematophagous fungi and consequences for their potential as biological agents for the control of potato cyst nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Helen; Gray, Simon N; Crump, David H

    2003-01-01

    The efficacies of three nematophagous fungi, Paecilomyces lilacinus, Plectosphaerella cucumerina and Pochonia chlamydosporia, for controlling potato cyst nematodes (PCN) as part of an Integrated Pest Management (IPM) regime were studied. The compatibility of the nematophagous fungi with commonly used chemical pesticides and their ability to compete with the soil fungi Rhizoctonia solani, Chaetomium globosum, Fusarium oxysporum, Penicillium bilaii and Trichoderma harzianum were tested in vitro. Paecilomyces lilacinus was the most successful competitor when the ability to grow and inhibit growth of an opposing colony at both 10 and 20 degrees C was considered. P. lilacinus also showed potential for control of the soil-borne fungal pathogen R. solani, releasing a diffusable substance in vitro which inhibited its growth and caused morphological abnormalities in its hyphae. Pochonia chlamydosporia was least susceptible to growth inhibition by other fungi at 20 degrees in vitro, but the isolate tested did not grow at 10 degrees. Plectosphaerella cucumerina was a poor saprophytic competitor. Radial growth of Paecilomyces lilacinus and Plectosphaerella cucumerina was slowed, but not prevented, when grown on potato dextrose agar incorporating the fungicides fenpiclonil and tolclofos-methyl, and was not inhibited by the addition of pencycuron or the nematicide oxamyl. Radial growth of Pochonia chlamydosporia was partially inhibited by all the chemical pesticides tested. The efficacy of Paecilomyces lilacinus as a control agent for R. solani was further investigated in situ. Treatment with P. lilacinus significantly reduced the symptoms of Rhizoctonia disease on potato stems in a pot trial. The effectiveness of P. lilacinus and P. cucumerina against PCN was also tested in situ. Three application methods were compared; incorporating the fungi into alginate pellets, Terra-Green inoculated with the fungi and applying conidia directly to the tubers. Both formulations containing P

  17. Optical micro resonance based sensor schemes for detection and identification of nano particles and biological agents in situ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saetchnikov, Vladimir A.; Tcherniavskaia, Elina A.; Schweiger, Gustav; Ostendorf, Andreas

    2010-05-01

    A novel emerging technique for the label-free analysis of nano particles including biomolecules using optical micro cavity resonance is being developed. Various schemes based on a mechanically fixed microspheres as well as microspheres melted by laser on the tip of a standard single mode fiber have been investigated to make further development for microbial application. Water solutions of ethanol, HCl, glucose, vitamin C and biotin have been used to test refractive index changes by monitoring the magnitude of the whispering gallery modes spectral shift. Particular efforts were made for effective fixing of the micro spheres in the water flow, an optimal geometry for micro resonance observation and material of microsphere the most appropriate for microbial application. Optical resonance in free micro spheres from PMMA fixed in micro channels produced by photolithography has been observed under the laser power of less then 1 microwatt. Resonance shifts of C reactive protein water solutions as well as albumin solutions in pure water and with HCl modelling blood have been investigated. Introducing controlled amount of glass gel nano particles into sensor microsphere surrounding were accompanied by both correlative resonance shift (400 nm in diameter) and total reconstruct of resonance spectra (57 nm in diameter). Developed schemes have been demonstrated to be a promising technology platform for sensitive, lab-on-chip type sensor of diagnostic tools for different biological molecules, e.g. proteins, oligonucleotides, oligosaccharides, lipids, small molecules, viral particles, cells as well as in different experimental contexts e.g. proteomics, genomics, drug discovery, and membrane studies.

  18. Radiosynthesis and biological evaluation of an 18F-labeled derivative of the novel pyrazolopyrimidine sedative-hypnotic agent indiplon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Gamma amino butyric acid type A (GABAA) receptors are involved in a variety of neurological and psychiatric diseases, which have promoted the development and use of radiotracers for positron emission tomography imaging. Radiolabeled benzodiazepine antagonists such as flumazenil have most extensively been used for this purpose so far. Recently, the non-benzodiazepine pyrazolopyrimidine derivative indiplon with higher specificity for the α1 subtype of the GABAA receptor has been introduced for treatment of insomnia. The aim of this study was the development and biological evaluation of an 18F-labeled derivative of indiplon. Methods: Both [18F]fluoro-indiplon and its labeling precursor were synthesized by two-step procedures starting from indiplon. The radiosynthesis of [18F]fluoro-indiplon was performed using the bromoacetyl precursor followed by multiple-stage purification using semipreparative HPLC and solid phase extraction. Stability, partition coefficients, binding affinities and regional brain binding were determined in vitro. Biodistribution and radiotracer metabolism were studied in vivo. Results: [18F]Fluoro-indiplon was readily accessible in good yields (38-43%), with high purity and high specific radioactivity (>150 GBq/μmol). It displays high in vitro stability and moderate lipophilicity. [18F]Fluoro-indiplon has an affinity to GABAA receptors comparable to indiplon (K i=8.0 nM vs. 3.4 nM). In vitro autoradiography indicates high [18F]fluoro-indiplon binding in regions with high densities of GABAA receptors. However, ex vivo autoradiography and organ distribution studies show no evidence of specific binding of [18F]fluoro-indiplon. Furthermore, the radiotracer is rapidly metabolized with high accumulation of labeled metabolites in the brain. Conclusions: Although [18F]fluoro-indiplon shows good in vitro features, it is not suitable for in vivo imaging studies because of its metabolism. Structural modifications are needed to develop

  19. Preparation and biological distribution of 99mTc-cefazolin complex, a novel agent for detecting sites of infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The optimization of the radiolabeling yield of cefazolin with 99mTc was described. Dependence of the labeling yield of 99mTc-cefazolin complex on the amounts of cefazolin and SnCl2·2H2O, pH and reaction time was studied. Cefazolin was labeled with 99mTc with a labeling yield of 89.5 % by using 1 mg cefazolin, 5 μg SnCl2·2H2O at pH 4 and 30 min reaction time. The radiochemical purity of 99mTc-cefazolin was evaluated with ITLC. The formed 99mTc-cefazolin complex was stable for a time up to 3 h, after that the labeling yield decreased 64.0 % at 8 h. Biological distribution of 99mTc-cefazolin complex was investigated in experimentally induced inflammation mice, in the left thigh, using Staphylococcus aureus (bacterial infection model) and turpentine oil (sterile inflammation model). Both thighs of the mice were dissected and counted and the ratio of bacterial infected thigh/contralateral thigh was then evaluated. In case of bacterial infection, T/NT for 99mTc-cefazolin complex was 8.57 ± 0.4 after 0.5 h, which was higher than that of the commercially available 99mTc-ciprofloxacin under the same experimental conditions. The ability of 99mTc-cefazolin to differentiate between septic and aseptic inflammation indicates that 99mTc-cefazolin could undergo further clinical trials to be used for imaging sites of infection. (author)

  20. Synthesis characterization and biological evaluation of a novel mixed ligand 99mTc complex as potential brain imaging agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One approach in the design of neutral oxotechnetium complexes is based on the simultaneous substitution of a tridentate dianionic ligand and a monodentate monoanionic coligand on a [Tc(V)O]+3 precursor. Following this ''mixed ligand'' concept, a novel 99mTc complex with N,N-bis(2-mercaptoethyl)-N'N'-diethylethylenediamine as ligand and 1-octanethiol as coligand is prepared and evaluated as potential brain radiopharmaceutical. Preparation of the complex at tracer level was accomplished by using 99mTc-glucoheptonate as precursor. The substitution was optimized and a coligand/ligand ratio of 5 was selected. Under this conditions the labeling yield was over 80% and a major product (with radiochemical purity > 80%) was isolated by HPLC methods and used for biological evaluation. Chemical characterization at carrier level was developed using the corresponding rhenium complex as structural model. The Re complex was also prepared by substitution method and isolated as a crystalline product. The crystals were characterized by UV-vis and IR spectra and elemental analysis. Results were consistent with the expected ReOLC structure. X ray crystallographic study demonstrated that the complex adopts a distorted trigonal bipyramidal geometry. The basal plane is defined by the SS atoms of the ligand and the oxo group, while the N of the ligand and the S of the colligand occupy the two apical positions. All sulphur atoms underwent ionization leading to the formation of a neutral compound. 99Tc complex was also prepared. Although it was not isolated due to the small amount of reagents employed, the HPLC profile was identical to the one observed for the rhenium complex suggesting the same chemical structure. Biodistribution in mice demonstrated early brain uptake, fast blood clearance, excretion through hepatobiliary system and a brain/blood ratio that increased significantly with time. (author)

  1. Low-power ultraviolet lidar for standoff detection of BW agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Coorg R.; Huang, Wen; Bufton, Jack; Achey, Alexander; Dawson, Jeffrey; Serino, Robert M.; Shi, Wenhui

    2004-08-01

    A compact ultraviolet lidar stand-off sensor was recently developed and field-tested for detection of bio warfare (BW) agent stimulant aerosols and interferents. It employed a low-power (~5mW), continuous-wave, 375nm semiconductor ultraviolet optical source (SUVOS) laser diode that was modulated at high-speed with a pseudo-random (PR) code to provide range-resolved lidar detection of both aerosol elastic scattering and fluorescence. The sensor incorporated a 150mm diameter receiver telescope and 3 photon-counting detection channels centered at 375nm, 440nm, and 550nm. Aerosol elastic and fluorescence lidar profiles were obtained by correlating the signal photon-counts with the PR code. Tests of the lidar were performed first with simulants released in the Large Aerosol Chamber at Edgewood Chemical and Biological Center, MD at a lidar range of only 7.5m. The second phase of testing was done at Dugway Proving Ground, UT. Here the lidar was continuously scanned (+/- 13°) in a horizontal plane to detect downwind simulant and interferent aerosol disseminations at ranges of several hundred meters. Preliminary analyses of these tests show that the lidar detected fluorescence from the BW simulants at ranges up to 100m, and elastic scattering from aerosols up to 350m.

  2. The Aerosol/Cloud/Ecosystems Mission (ACE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeberl, Mark

    2008-01-01

    The goals and measurement strategy of the Aerosol/Cloud/Ecosystems Mission (ACE) are described. ACE will help to answer fundamental science questions associated with aerosols, clouds, air quality and global ocean ecosystems. Specifically, the goals of ACE are: 1) to quantify aerosol-cloud interactions and to assess the impact of aerosols on the hydrological cycle and 2) determine Ocean Carbon Cycling and other ocean biological processes. It is expected that ACE will: narrow the uncertainty in aerosol-cloud-precipitation interaction and quantify the role of aerosols in climate change; measure the ocean ecosystem changes and precisely quantify ocean carbon uptake; and, improve air quality forecasting by determining the height and type of aerosols being transported long distances. Overviews are provided of the aerosol-cloud community measurement strategy, aerosol and cloud observations over South Asia, and ocean biology research goals. Instruments used in the measurement strategy of the ACE mission are also highlighted, including: multi-beam lidar, multiwavelength high spectra resolution lidar, the ocean color instrument (ORCA)--a spectroradiometer for ocean remote sensing, dual frequency cloud radar and high- and low-frequency micron-wave radiometer. Future steps for the ACE mission include refining measurement requirements and carrying out additional instrument and payload studies.

  3. EFSA BIOHAZ Panel (EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards), 2014. Statement on the update of the list of QPS-recommended biological agents intentionally added to food or feed as notified to EFSA 1: Suitability of taxonomic units notified to EFSA until October 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    harmonised generic pre-assessment to support safety risk assessments performed by EFSA’s scientific Panels. The safety of unambiguously defined biological agents (at the highest taxonomic unit appropriate for the purpose for which an application is intended), and the completeness of the body of knowledge are...... assessed. Identified safety concerns for a taxonomic unit are, where possible and reasonable in number, reflected as ‘qualifications’ in connection with a recommendation for a QPS status. A total of 99 biological agents were notified to EFSA between May 2013 and October 2014. From those, 26 biological...... agents already had a QPS status and were not further evaluated, and 54 were also not included as they are filamentous fungi or enterococci, biological groups which have been excluded from the QPS activities since 2014. The remaining 19 notifications were considered for the assessment of the suitability...

  4. Potential Use of Entomopathogenic Virus Native to Sumatra Island as Biological Control Agent of Setora nitens L. (Lepidoptera:Limacodidae, the Main Pest of Oilpalm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suparman Suparman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Slug caterpillars Setora nitens, have been appearing to be more serious insect pest of oil palm as it might cause frond damages up to 90%. Many effort had been made to control the caterpillars using insecticides but the insects are still existing and causing significant damages to the palm. Microbial insecticide, especially the one developed from indigenous entomopathogenic virus, is a promising method of controlling the insect since its toxicity to non target animals and humans is extremely low. A conventional way of controlling S. nitens using crude sap of infected larvae has been applied in several oil palm plantations in Sumatra Island, but various improvements are required to make the method more effective, efficient, widely acceptable and scientifically justified. A research on the potential use of entomopathogenic virus native to Sumatra Island as biological control agent of slug caterpillar was conducted to comprehend the pathogenicity and virulence of the entomopathogenic virus and to reveal the morphological identify of its particle. The results showed that the use of virus infecting caterpillars to control the insect was quite successful in term of increasing the number of infected caterpillars and reducing the rate of population development in the field. The use of homogenized infected caterpillars to orally infect healty S. nitens caterpillars resulted in the symptoms characteristics to viral infections appeared in all treated caterpillars with various extent of symptom developments. Some caterpillars could spine cocons but failed to release adult moth. Purification of the virus particles from infected caterpillars resulted in the apperarance of white band in the sucrose gradient indicated the presence of viral RNA. Electron microscopic observation showed that the white band in the sucrose gradient contained sphericle shape of virus particles justifying that the agent infecting S. nitens caterpillars is a virus which still need

  5. Decontamination Strategy for Large Area and/or Equipment Contaminated with Chemical and Biological Agents using a High Energy Arc Lamp (HEAL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoske, Richard [ORNL; Kennedy, Patrick [ORNL; Duty, Chad E [ORNL; Smith, Rob R [ORNL; Huxford, Theodore J [ORNL; Bonavita, Angelo M [ORNL; Engleman, Greg [ORNL; Vass, Arpad Alexander [ORNL; Griest, Wayne H [ORNL; Ilgner, Ralph H [ORNL; Brown, Gilbert M [ORNL

    2009-04-01

    A strategy for the decontamination of large areas and or equipment contaminated with Biological Warfare Agents (BWAs) and Chemical Warfare Agents (CWAs) was demonstrated using a High Energy Arc Lamp (HEAL) photolysis system. This strategy offers an alternative that is potentially quicker, less hazardous, generates far less waste, and is easier to deploy than those currently fielded by the Department of Defense (DoD). For example, for large frame aircraft the United States Air Force still relies on the combination of weathering (stand alone in environment), air washing (fly aircraft) and finally washing the aircraft with Hot Soapy Water (HSW) in an attempt to remove any remaining contamination. This method is laborious, time consuming (upwards of 12+ hours not including decontamination site preparation), and requires large amounts of water (e.g., 1,600+ gallons for a single large frame aircraft), and generates large amounts of hazardous waste requiring disposal. The efficacy of the HEAL system was demonstrated using diisopropyl methyl phosphonate (DIMP) a G series CWA simulant, and Bacillus globigii (BG) a simulant of Bacillus anthracis. Experiments were designed to simulate the energy flux of a field deployable lamp system that could stand-off 17 meters from a 12m2 target area and uniformly expose a surface at 1360 W/m2. The HEAL system in the absence of a catalyst reduced the amount of B. globigii by five orders of magnitude at a starting concentration of 1.63 x 107 spores. In the case of CWA simulants, the HEAL system in the presence of the catalyst TiO2 effectively degraded DIMP sprayed onto a 100mm diameter Petri dish in 5 minutes.

  6. Design, synthesis, and in vitro biological evaluation of novel 6-methyl-7-substituted-7-deaza purine nucleoside analogs as anti-influenza A agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Cai; Sun, Chenghai; Liu, Xiao; Zhou, Yiqian; Hussain, Muzammal; Wan, Junting; Li, Minke; Li, Xue; Jin, Ruiliang; Tu, Zhengchao; Zhang, Jiancun

    2016-05-01

    Among many subtypes of influenza A viruses, influenza A(H1N1) and A(H3N2) subtypes are currently circulating among humans (WHO report 2014-15). Therapeutically, the emergence of viral resistance to currently available drugs (adamantanes and neuraminidase inhibitors) has heightened alarms for developing novel drugs that could address diverse targets in the viral replication cycle in order to improve treatment outcomes. To this regard, the design and synthesis of nucleoside analog inhibitors as potential anti-influenza A agents is a very active field of research nowadays. In this study, we designed and synthesized a series of hitherto unknown 6-methyl-7-substituted-7-deaza purine nucleoside analogs, and evaluated for their biological activities against influenza A virus strains, H1N1 and H3N2. From the viral inhibition assay, we identified some effective compounds, among which, compounds 5x (IC50 = 5.88 μM and 6.95 μM for H1N1 and H3N2, respectively) and 5z (IC50 = 3.95 μM and 3.61 μM for H1N1 and H3N2, respectively) demonstrated potent anti-influenza A activity. On the basis of selectivity index, we conceive that compound 5x may serve as a chemical probe of interest for further lead optimization studies with a general aim of developing novel and effective anti-influenza A virus agents. PMID:26802557

  7. Radiation sensitizations at DNA-level by chemical and biological agents. Coordinated programme on improvement of radiotherapy of cancer using modifiers of radiosensitivity of cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation sensitization by chemical agents at DNA level is discussed. Procaine, Halothan and Metronidazole showed no significant effect on unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) in mouse spleen cells, investigated by autoradiography and no effect on rejoining of DNA single strand breaks after gamma or UV irradiation. Oxyphenbutazon and prednisolone reduced the replicative DNA synthesis in vitro and in vivo but there was only little effect on DNA repair in the in vivo experiments. These two substances showed also a small reduction in poly(ADP-ribose) synthesis (PAR synthesis). 5-methoxypsoralen (5-MOP) and 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) in combination with UV irradiation showed that 5-MOP was more toxic than mutagen, but induced much less DNA crosslinks than 8-MOP. Autoradiographic studies of radiation sensitization by biological agents showed significant inhibition of UDS in Yoshida tumor cells after acute mycoplasma infection in rats. Nucleoid sedimentation studies showed only in the case of Yoshida tumor cells after mycoplasma infection a dramatic effect in the sedimentation behaviour. Sensitization of cells by changing chromatin structure was also studied. Benzamide, 3-NH2-benzamide, 3-Methoxybenzamide, Spermine, Theophyllin and Caffeine were tested in different concentrations on replicative DNA synthesis, UDS after UV irradiation and PAR synthesis Chinese hamster ovary cells. 5-Methoxybenzamide was the strongest sensitizer and inhibitor of the PAR synthesis, and was used in further experiments. Results of KFA Juelich on sensitization of a mamma-adenocarcinoma EO 771 on C57 B1 mice are given. Replicative DNA synthesis, DNA repair and PAR synthesis were compared in spleen cells and adenocarcinoma cells after treatment with 5-Methoxybenzamide. An inhibitory effect on UDS could be shown only in adenocarcinoma cells but not in the mice spleen cells

  8. Agreements and Discrepancies between FDA Reports and Journal Papers on Biologic Agents Approved for Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Meta-Research Project.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Amarilyo

    Full Text Available Sponsors that seek to commercialize new drugs apply to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA which independently analyzes the raw data and reports the results on its website.This study sought to determine if there are differences between the FDA assessments and journal reports on biologic agents developed for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.Available data on FDA-approved drugs were extracted from the website, and a systematic literature search was conducted to identify matching studies in peer-reviewed medical journals. Outcome measures were the American College of Rheumatology response criteria ACR20 (efficacy and withdrawal due to adverse events (safety. As effect size odds ratios were estimated for each active trial arm vs. control arm (i.e. for both sources: FDA and journal report, followed by calculation of the ratios of the FDA and journal report odds ratios. A ratio of odds ratios not equal to 1 was categorized as a discrepancy.FDA reports were available for 8 of 9 FDA-approved biologic agents for rheumatoid arthritis; all identified trials (34 except one were published in peer-reviewed journals. Overall, discrepancies were noted for 20 of the 33 evaluated trials. Differences in the apparent benefit reporting were found in 39% (24/61 pairwise comparisons and in 11 cases these were statistically significant; the FDA report showed greater benefit than the journal publication in 15 comparisons and lesser benefit in 9. Differences in the reported harms were found in 51% (28/55 pairwise comparisons and were statistically significant in 5. The "signal" in FDA reports showed a less harmful effect than the journal publication in 17 comparisons whereas a more harmful effect in 11. The differences were attributed to differences in analytic approach, patient inclusion, rounding effect, and counting discrepancies. However, no differences were categorized as critical.There was no empirical evidence to suggest biased estimates between the two

  9. Biology of the introduced biocontrol agent Microctonus hyperodae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and its host Listronotus bonariensis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in northern New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Gary M

    2013-10-01

    The South American weevil Listronotus bonariensis (Kuschel) is an important pest of pastures in New Zealand. As a component of management strategies for this pest, the South American parasitoid Microctonus hyperodae Loan (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) was released in northern New Zealand during 1991 as a biological control agent. Over the subsequent 5-6 yr, the reproductive biology of M. hyperodae and its relationship to, and effects on, the reproductive phenology and fitness of L. bonariensis were studied at three sites. M. hyperodae was first recovered in the field in December 1991. Subsequently, the incidence of parasitism in L. bonariensis increased to seasonal maxima of 75-90%. There was variable synchrony between parasitoid generations and the two generations of its host, leading to marked seasonal variation in rates of parasitism and parasitoid abundance. Despite marked inter-year variation, abundance of host adult and egg populations declined in the presence of parasitoids. Parasitized host females had lower ovarian maturity scores, had lower egg loads, and exhibited less investment in wing muscle development than females that had escaped parasitism. There was almost complete elimination of egg maturation in parasitized females and these hosts contributed little to population recruitment. Rate of buildup and seasonal maxima in parasitism, frequency of superparasitism, adult abundances, and wing muscle development in adult L. bonariensis varied among the three sites in a manner that was only partially related to climate differences across the 1.83° gradient of latitude. Site effects were weak to absent in measures of reproductive condition in L. bonariensis females. PMID:24331602

  10. Biological evaluation of 153Sm and 166Ho complexes with macrocyclic ligands containing acetate pendant arms as potential agents for therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the development of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals it is essential to choose the appropriate beta-emitter as well as the carrier biomolecule. Different carrier biomolecules, namely antibodies and peptides, have been linked to different beta-emitters (153Sm, 166Ho and 177Lu) using tetraaza macrocycles as bifunctional chelators. The cavity size of these chelators, the rigidity of the macrocyclic backbone and the nature of the pendant arms seems to play an important role on the thermodynamic stability and kinetic inertness of the radiocomplexes and on their biological behaviour. In our research group we have been exploring the possibility of using tetraazamacrocycles with different cavity size, pendant arms and rigidity for preparing 153Sm and 166Ho complexes useful for therapeutical applications and/or bone pain palliation. In this communication we present the results obtained when we reacted trita and teta with 153Sm and 166Ho. The complexes are formed in good yields (> 98%), are hydrophilic and present an overall negative charges, as well as low plasmatic protein binding. Good in vitro stability in physiological media and human serum was also found for all the complexes. The biodistribution studies in mice are also presented and have shown that 153Sm/166Ho-trita and 166Ho-teta have rapid tissue clearance, comparably to the corresponding dota complexes. In contrast, 153Sm-teta has a significant lower total excretion and a significant liver and muscle uptake. Our results indicate that 153Sm/166Ho-trita form very stable complexes in vivo. However, teta, which has a larger cavity size, forms less stable complexes with the larger ion Sm3+. The biological profile of 153Sm/166Ho-trita is very interesting for the evaluation of these complexes as therapeutical agents when conjugated to biomolecules

  11. MonitorNet: the Italian multi-centre observational study aimed at estimating the risk/benefit profile of biologic agents in real-world rheumatology practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfriso, P; Salaffi, F; Montecucco, C M; Bombardieri, S; Todesco, S

    2009-01-01

    MonitorNet is a database established by the Italian Society of Rheumatology (SIR) in January 2007 and funded by the Italian Medicines Agency (AIFA), for the active long-term follow-up of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis treated with biologic agents. All hospital Rheumatology Units in Italy were invited to participate in a non-interventional, observational, epidemiological study. The study is conducted in a routine clinical setting (real-world practice) where biologics are prescribed on the basis of current recommendations. In this report we describe the design, methodology, and present preliminary data of the study. At the time of the analysis (April 2009) the database included 3510 patients: 2469 (70.3%) with established RA, 675 (19.2%) with PsA and 366 (10.4%) with AS. The cumulative follow up period was 8,787 patient-years (RA: 8,388, PsA: 157; AS: 242). There were 1,538 adverse events in 938 (26.7%) patients. Infections were recorded in 630 patients, skin-related adverse events in 142 and post-infusion reactions in 90. A total of 30 malignancies were reported. An interim analysis of efficacy was conducted on 2,148 RA patients. Seven hundred and thirty-one patients (35.8%) achieved EULAR remission (defined as DAS28<2.4). When assessed with the more restrictive CDAI and SDAI criteria, the frequency of remission was lower (17.9% and 14.7% respectively). Availability of funding for this study provided an opportunity to organize a collaborative national network of rheumatology clinics to develop a large multicentre observational study. PMID:19633800

  12. Biological alterations resulting from chronic lung irradiation. I. The pulmonary lipid composition, physiology, and pathology after inhalation by beagle dogs of 144Ce-labeled fused clay aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three groups of four beagle dogs inhaled a 144Ce-labeled fused clay aerosol; two additional dogs per group, exposed to a stable cerium-labeled fused clay aerosol, were used as controls. At monthly intervals, one diaphragmatic lobe of each of two dogs exposed to 144Ce and one control animal from each group was lavaged with isotonic saline. The recovered lavage solutions were centrifuged to isolate lung cells (mostly macrophages) and surfactant for lipid analyses. The groups were sacrificed at 2, 4, and 6 mo after exposure, when the lungs of the dogs exposed to 144Ce had average cumulative radiation doses of 23, 36, and 59 krad, respectively. Chronic irradiation of the lung resulted in a progressive radiation pneumonitis which was assessed clinically and pathologically at various intervals. At sacrifice, the lungs were analyzed for 144Ce and the right apical and diaphragmatic lobes were minced and lyophilized and the lipids were extracted. Total lipids from all lung samples were determined gravimetrically and individual compounds were identified, isolated, and quantitated. The quantities of lipid in lung tissue, in pulmonary cells, and in surfactant increased as a function of time and radiation dose. Neutral lipids (sterol esters and triglycerides) accounted for most of the increase. (U.S.)

  13. Indoor aerosols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morawska, L.; Afshari, Alireza; N. Bae, G.;

    2013-01-01

    understanding of the risks posed by personal exposure to indoor aerosols. Limited studies assessing integrated daily residential exposure to just one particle size fraction, ultrafine particles, show that the contribution of indoor sources ranged from 19% to 76%. This indicates a strong dependence on resident...

  14. Assessment of Proton Microbeam Analysis of 11B for Quantitative Microdistribution Analysis of Boronated Neutron Capture Agent Analogs in Biological Tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose is to assess the 11B(p, α) 8Be* nuclear reaction for quantitatively mapping the in-vivo sub-cellular distribution of boron within gliosarcoma tumors treated with boronated neutron capture therapy agent (NCTA) analogs. Intracranial tumors were produced in Fisher 344 rats using a 9L gliosarcoma model. Fourteen days later, the majority of rats were treated with f-boronophenylalanine and sacrificed 30 or 180 minutes after intravenous injection. Freeze dried tumor cryosections were imaged using the 11B(p, α) 8Be* nuclear reaction and proton microbeams obtained from the nuclear microprobe at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. With 11B(p, α) 8Be* analysis, 11B distributions within cells can be quantitatively imaged with spatial resolutions down to 1.5 μm, minimum detection limits of 0.8 mg/kg and acquisition times of several hours. These capabilities offer advantages over alpha track autoradiography, electron energy loss spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) for 11B quantitation in tissues. However, the spatial resolution, multi-isotope capability and analysis times achieved with SIMS are superior to those achieved with 11B(p, α) 8Be* analysis. When accuracy in quantitation is crucial, the 11B(p, α) 8Be* reaction is well suited for assessing the microdistribution of 11B. Otherwise, SIMS may well be better suited to image the microdistribution of boron associated with NCTAs in biological tissues.

  15. Synthesis, characterization and biological evaluation of novel 4'-fluoro-2'-hydroxy-chalcone derivatives as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and analgesic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdellatif, Khaled R A; Elshemy, Heba A H; Salama, Samir A; Omar, Hany A

    2015-06-01

    In an effort to develop safe and potent anti-inflammatory agents, a series of novel 4'-fluoro-2'-hydroxychalcones 5a-d and their dihydropyrazole derivatives 6a-d was prepared. It was synthesized via aldol condensation of 4'-fluoro-2'-hydroxyacetophenone with appropriately substituted aldehydes followed by cyclization with hydrazine hydrate. All the synthesized compounds were evaluated for their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cyclooxygenase inhibition selectivity and analgesic activities. The dimethoxychalcone 5a and its dihydropyrazole derivative 6a showed the highest antioxidant activity, while the monomethoxychalcone 5d and its dihydropyrazole derivative 6d showed the highest analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. It was also found that there is a close correlation between 4'-fluoro-2'-hydroxychalcones 5a-d and their dihydropyrazole derivatives 6a-d in the screened biological activities. To explain the correlation between the synthesized chalcones and their dihydropyrazole derivatives, especially for the anti-inflammatory activity, docking studies were performed. PMID:25198887

  16. Synthesis of technetium-99m labeled clinafloxacin (99mTc-CNN) complex and biological evaluation as a potential Staphylococcus aureus infection imaging agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study synthesis of the 99mTc-CNN complex and its efficacy as a prospective Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) infection imaging agent was assessed. The 99mTc-CNN complex was characterized in terms of stability in saline, serum, in vitro binding with S. aureus and in vivo percent absorption in male Wister rats (MWR) infected with live and heat killed S. aureus. Radiochemically the 99mTc-CNN complex showed stable behavior in saline and serum at different intervals. At 30 min after reconstitution the complex showed maximum radiochemical purity (RCP) yield of 97.55 ± 0.22%. The RCP yield decreased to 90.50 ± 0.18% within 240 min. In serum, 18.15% unwanted side product was appeared within 16 h of the incubation. In vitro saturated binding with S. aureus was observed at different intervals with a 62.00% maximum at 90 min. Normal percent in vivo uptake was observed in MWR artificially infected with live S. aureus with a five times higher in the infected muscle as compared to the inflamed and normal muscles. No difference in the percent uptake of the complex in MWR infected with heat killed S. aureus in the infected, inflamed and normal muscles were observed. Based on the promising in vitro and in vivo radiochemical and biological characteristics, we recommend the 99mTc-CNN complex for in vivo localization of the S. aureus infectious foci. (author)

  17. Radiocomplexation and biological characterization of the 99mTcN-trovafloxacin dithiocarbamate. A novel methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection imaging agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiolabeling of trovafloxacin dithiocarbamate (TVND) with technetium-99m using [99mTc-N]2+ core was investigated and biologically assessed as prospective infection imaging agent. The achievability of the 99mTcN-TVND complex as a future MRSA infection radiotracer was investigated in artificially methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infected male Sprague-Dawley rats (MSDR). Radiochemically the 99mTcN-TVND complex was characterized in terms of radiochemical purity (RCP) in saline, in vitro permanence in serum, in vitro binding with MRSA and biodistribution in living and heat killed MRSA infected MSDR. Radiochemically the complex showed stability in saline with a 97.90 ± 0.22% yield and serum at 37 deg C up to 4 h. The 99mTcN-TVND complex showed saturated in vitro binding with MRSA. Normal in vivo uptake in the MRSA infected MDRS was observed with a five fold uptake in the infected muscle as compared to inflamed and normal muscles. The high RCP values, in vitro permanence in serum, better in vitro binding with MRSA, biodistribution behavior and the target to non-target (infected to inflamed muscle) ratios posed the 99mTcN-TVND complex as a promising MRSA infection radiotracer. (author)

  18. Aerosol filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the work on the development of fibre metallic prefilters to be placed upstream of HEPA filters for the exhaust gases of nuclear process plants. Investigations at ambient and high temperature were carried out. Measurements of the filtration performance of Bekipor porous webs and sintered mats were performed in the AFLT (aerosol filtration at low temperature) unit with a throughput of 15 m3/h. A parametric study on the influence of particle size, fibre diameter, number of layers and superficial velocity led to the optimum choice of the working parameters. Three selected filter types were then tested with polydisperse aerosols using a candle-type filter configuration or a flat-type filter configuration. The small-diameter candle type is not well suited for a spraying nozzles regeneration system so that only the flat-type filter was retained for high-temperature tests. A high-temperature test unit (AFHT) with a throughput of 8 to 10 m3/h at 4000C was used to test the three filter types with an aerosol generated by high-temperature calcination of a simulated nitric acid waste solution traced with 134Cs. The regeneration of the filter by spray washing and the effect of the regeneration on the filter performance was studied for the three filter types. The porous mats have a higher dust loading capacity than the sintered web which means that their regeneration frequency can be kept lower

  19. TOMS Absorbing Aerosol Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Washington University St Louis — TOMS_AI_G is an aerosol related dataset derived from the Total Ozone Monitoring Satellite (TOMS) Sensor. The TOMS aerosol index arises from absorbing aerosols such...

  20. Biological evaluation of a technetium-99m-labeled integrated tropane-BAT and its piperidine congener as potential dopamine transporter imaging agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kieffer, Davy M. [Laboratory of Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry, University of Leuven, UZ Gasthuisberg, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium); Vanbilloen, Hubert P. [Radiopharmacy, UZ Gasthuisberg, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium); Cleynhens, Bernard J. [Radiopharmacy, UZ Gasthuisberg, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium); Terwinghe, Christelle Y. [Radiopharmacy, UZ Gasthuisberg, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium); Mortelmans, Luc [Nuclear Medicine, UZ Gasthuisberg, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium); Bormans, Guy M. [Laboratory of Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry, University of Leuven, UZ Gasthuisberg, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium); Verbruggen, Alfons M. [Laboratory of Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry, University of Leuven, UZ Gasthuisberg, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium)]. E-mail: alfons.verbruggen@uz.kuleuven.ac.be

    2006-01-15

    Introduction: Recently, we have reported modification of {sup 99m}Tc-TRODAT-1 by integrating the N2S2 metal chelating unit and the tropane skeleton. Results of a preliminary biodistribution study in rats were promising with respect to brain uptake. The present report deals with the further biological characterization of the {sup 99m}Tc-labelled integrated TRODAT derivatives ({sup 99m}Tc-TropaBAT and {sup 99m}Tc-norchloro-TropaBAT) and with the synthesis and biological evaluation of a novel {sup 99m}Tc-labelled piperidine-based derivative ({sup 99m}Tc-PipBAT). Methods: Biodistribution of all radiolabelled complexes was studied in normal mice. A more detailed ex vivo intracerebral distribution study of the two {sup 99m}Tc-TropaBAT complexes was additionally performed in normal rats. Autoradiography of brain sections of normal mice (with or without pretreatment with FP-{beta}-CIT or haloperidol) and rats was performed. Affinity for the dopamine transporter (DAT) was also assessed in vitro in the presence or absence of cocaine. Results: Both {sup 99m}Tc-TropaBAT complexes show a slightly higher brain uptake than {sup 99m}Tc-TRODAT-1, but the striatum/cerebellum activity ratio is less favourable. Nevertheless, significant striatal uptake was detected after ex vivo autoradiography, but this uptake was also observed after pretreatment with FP-{beta}-CIT. Unexpectedly, no striatal uptake was detected after in vitro incubation of mouse brain sections with the tracer agents. For {sup 99m}Tc-PipBAT, neither brain uptake nor in vitro striatal uptake was found. Conclusion: Both {sup 99m}Tc-TropaBAT complexes exhibit similar diffusion into brain as {sup 99m}Tc-TRODAT-1, and ex vivo autoradiography shows significant striatal uptake. However, the inferior striatum/cerebellum activity ratio, the striatal uptake in mice pretreated with FP-{beta}-CIT or haloperidol, and the lack of striatal uptake during in vitro incubation prove that the DAT is not targeted. Brain uptake disappears

  1. Comparison of aerosol and bioaerosol collection on air filters

    OpenAIRE

    Miaskiewicz-Peska, Ewa; Lebkowska, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Air filters efficiency is usually determined by non-biological test aerosols, such as potassium chloride particles, Arizona dust or di-ethyl-hexyl-sebacate (DEHS) oily liquid. This research was undertaken to asses, if application of non-biological aerosols reflects air filters capacity to collect particles of biological origin. The collection efficiency for non-biological aerosol was tested with the PALAS set and ISO Fine Test Dust. Flow rate during the filtration process was 720 l/h, and par...

  2. Meta-analysis Reveals That the Genus Pseudomonas Can Be a Better Choice of Biological Control Agent against Bacterial Wilt Disease Caused by Ralstonia solanacearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Murugesan; Subramanian, Dharaneedharan; Yoon, Ee; Kwon, Taehoon; Chun, Se-Chul

    2016-06-01

    Biological control agents (BCAs) from different microbial taxa are increasingly used to control bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum. However, a quantitative research synthesis has not been conducted on the role of BCAs in disease suppression. Therefore, the present study aimed to meta-analyze the impacts of BCAs on both Ralstonia wilt disease suppression and plant (host) growth promotion. The analysis showed that the extent of disease suppression by BCAs varied widely among studies, with effect size (log response ratio) ranging from -2.84 to 2.13. The disease incidence and severity were significantly decreased on average by 53.7% and 49.3%, respectively. BCAs inoculation also significantly increased fresh and dry weight by 34.4% and 36.1%, respectively on average. Also, BCAs inoculation significantly increased plant yield by 66%. Mean effect sizes for genus Pseudomonas sp. as BCAs were higher than for genus Bacillus spp. Among antagonists tested, P. fluorescens, P. putida, B. cereus, B. subtilis and B. amyloliquefaciens were found to be more effective in general for disease reduction. Across studies, highest disease control was found for P. fluorescens, annual plants, co-inoculation with more than one BCA, soil drench and greenhouse condition were found to be essential in understanding plant responses to R. solanacearum. Our results suggest that more efforts should be devoted to harnessing the potential beneficial effects of these antagonists, not just for plant growth promoting traits but also in mode of applications, BCAs formulations and their field studies should be considered in the future for R. solanacearum wilt disease suppression. PMID:27298597

  3. Assessment of Proton Microbeam Analysis of 11B for Quantitative Microdistribution Analysis of Boronated Neutron Capture Agent Analogs in Biological Tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bench, G; Grant, P G; Ueda, D L; Autry-Conwell, S A; Hou, Y; Boggan, J E

    2002-12-04

    Purpose: To assess the {sup 11}B(p, {alpha}){sup 8}Be* nuclear reaction for quantitatively mapping the in-vivo sub-cellular distribution of boron within gliosarcoma tumors treated with boronated neutron capture therapy agent (NCTA) analogs. Materials and Methods: Intracranial tumors were produced in Fisher 344 rats using a 9L gliosarcoma model. Fourteen days later, the majority of rats were treated with f-boronophenylalanine and sacrificed 30 or 180 minutes after intravenous injection. Freeze dried tumor cryosections were imaged using the {sup 11}B(p, {alpha}){sup 8}Be* nuclear reaction and proton microbeams obtained from the nuclear microprobe at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Results/Discussion: With{sup 11}B(p, {alpha}){sup 8}Be* analysis, {sup 11}B distributions within cells can be quantitatively imaged with spatial resolutions down to 1.5 {micro}m, minimum detection limits of 0.8 mg/kg and acquisition times of several hours. These capabilities offer advantages over alpha track autoradiography, electron energy loss spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) for 'B quantitation in tissues. However, the spatial resolution, multi-isotope capability and analysis times achieved with SIMS are superior to those achieved with {sup 11}B(p, {alpha}){sup 8}Be* analysis. Conclusions: When accuracy in quantitation is crucial, the assessing the microdistribution of {sup 11}B. {sup 11}B(p, {alpha}){sup 8}Be* reaction is well suited for Otherwise, SIMS may well be better suited to image the microdistribution of boron associated with NCTAs in biological tissues.

  4. Aerosol Observation System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory — The aerosol observation system (AOS) is the primary Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) platform for in situ aerosol measurements at the surface. The principal...

  5. Rapid Detection and Identification of Biogenic Aerosol Releases and Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, J.; Macher, J.; Ghosal, S.; Ahmed, K.; Hemati, K.; Wall, S.; Kumagai, K.

    2011-12-01

    Biogenic aerosols can be important contributors to aerosol chemistry, cloud droplet and ice nucleation, absorption and scattering of radiation, human health and comfort, and plant, animal, and microbial ecology. Many types of bioaerosols, e.g., fungal spores, are released into the atmosphere in response to specific climatological and meteorological conditions. The rapid identification of bioaerosol releases is thus important for better characterization of the above phenomena, as well as enabling public officials to respond quickly and appropriately to releases of infectious agents or biological toxins. One approach to rapid and accurate bioaerosol detection is to employ sequential, automated samples that can be fed directly into an image acquisition and data analysis device. Raman spectroscopy-based identification of bioaerosols, automated analysis of microscopy images, and automated detection of near-monodisperse peaks in aerosol size-distribution data were investigated as complementary approaches to traditional, manual methods for the identification and counting of fungal and actinomycete spores. Manual light microscopy is a widely used analytical technique that is compatible with a number of air sample formats and requires minimal sample preparation. However, a major drawback is its dependence on a human analyst's ability to distinguish particles and accurately count, size, and identify them. Therefore, automated methods, such as those evaluated in this study, have the potential to provide cost-effective and rapid alternatives if demonstrated to be accurate and reliable. An exploratory examination of individual spores for several macro- and microfungi (those with and without large fruiting bodies) by Raman microspectroscopy found unique spectral features that were used to identify fungi to the genus level. Automated analyses of digital spore images accurately recognized and counted single fungal spores and clusters. An automated procedure to discriminate near

  6. Studies on the Asian sawflies of Formosempria Takeuchi (Hymenoptera, Tenthredinidae, with notes on the suitability of F. varipes Takeuchi as a biological control agent for skunk vine, Paederia foetida L. (Rubiaceae in Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Smith

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Formosempria Takeuchi, 1929, is distributed in southeastern Asia from Taiwan and China to Vietnam, Myanmar, and possibly northern India. Three species are included: F. crassicornis Wei & Nie, 2002, F. shanensis Malaise, 1961, and F. varipes Takeuchi, 1929 (= F. annamensis Malaise, 1961, syn. n.; = F. metallica Wei, 2003, syn. n.. Formosempria varipes was reared from larvae feeding on Paederia foetida L. (Rubiaceae in Hong Kong and was a potential biological agent for the invasive P. foetida in Florida. Larval feeding tests indicate more than one species of Paederia are suitable hosts for F. varipes and further study for use as a biological control agent in Florida is unwarranted. Descriptions and illustration of the species are given, and life history notes on F. varipes are presented.

  7. Release-Recovery in the Field and Reproductive Success in the Lab of Laricobius osakensis (Coleopera: Derodontidae) a Biological  Control Agent for the Hemlock Woolly Adelgid, Adelges tsugae

    OpenAIRE

    Mooneyham, Katlin L

    2015-01-01

    The hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA), Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) is a small, non-native insect that feeds on hemlock (Tsuga spp.) species native to the eastern United States. One biological control agent, Laricobius osakensis, shows promise due to its voracious feeding on and synchronous life cycle with HWA. This beetle species is originally from Japan and has undergone all the necessary testing while in quarantine, gaining permission for field release in 2010. Field releases be...

  8. Pre-release Evaluation of Laricobius osakensis Montgomery and Shiyake (Coleoptera: Derodontidae), a Potential Biological Control Agent for the Hemlock Woolly Adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), in the Eastern United States

    OpenAIRE

    Marques Cota Vieira, Ligia Maria

    2013-01-01

    Hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand, is an invasive pest threatening eastern (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carrière) and Carolina hemlock (T. caroliniana Englem.) forests in the eastern US. A new predator, Laricobius osakensis Montgomery and Shiyake, has been found in association with A. tsugae in Japan. Laricobius osakensis was evaluated in a series of pre-release studies to assess its potential as a biological control agent for A. tsugae. Host-range studies indicated that L. osakensis is...

  9. Characterization of aerosols produced by surgical procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, H.C.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Lundgren, D.L.; Guilmette, R.A.; Snipes, M.B.; Jones, R.K. [Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Turner, R.S. [Lovelace Health Systems, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-07-01

    In many surgeries, especially orthopedic procedures, power tools such as saws and drills are used. These tools may produce aerosolized blood and other biological material from bone and soft tissues. Surgical lasers and electrocautery tools can also produce aerosols when tissues are vaporized and condensed. Studies have been reported in the literature concerning production of aerosols during surgery, and some of these aerosols may contain infectious material. Garden et al. (1988) reported the presence of papilloma virus DNA in the fumes produced from laser surgery, but the infectivity of the aerosol was not assessed. Moon and Nininger (1989) measured the size distribution and production rate of emissions from laser surgery and found that particles were generally less than 0.5 {mu}m diameter. More recently there has been concern expressed over the production of aerosolized blood during surgical procedures that require power tools. In an in vitro study, the production of an aerosol containing the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was reported when power tools were used to cut tissues with blood infected with HIV. Another study measured the size distribution of blood aerosols produced by surgical power tools and found blood-containing particles in a number of size ranges. Health care workers are anxious and concerned about whether surgically produced aerosols are inspirable and can contain viable pathogens such as HIV. Other pathogens such as hepatitis B virus (HBV) are also of concern. The Occupational Safety and Health funded a project at the National Institute for Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute to assess the extent of aerosolization of blood and other tissues during surgical procedures. This document reports details of the experimental and sampling approach, methods, analyses, and results on potential production of blood-associated aerosols from surgical procedures in the laboratory and in the hospital surgical suite.

  10. Nitrate aerosols today and in 2030: importance relative to other aerosol species and tropospheric ozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Bauer

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Ammonium-nitrate aerosols are expected to become more important in the future atmosphere due to the expected increase in nitrate precursor emissions and the decline of ammonium-sulphate aerosols in wide regions of this planet. The GISS climate model is used in this study, including atmospheric gas- and aerosol phase chemistry to investigate current and future (2030, following the SRES A1B emission scenario atmospheric compositions. A set of sensitivity experiments was carried out to quantify the individual impact of emission- and physical climate change on nitrate aerosol formation. We found that future nitrate aerosol loads depend most strongly on changes that may occur in the ammonia sources. Furthermore, microphysical processes that lead to aerosol mixing play a very important role in sulphate and nitrate aerosol formation. The role of nitrate aerosols as climate change driver is analyzed and set in perspective to other aerosol and ozone forcings under pre-industrial, present day and future conditions. In the near future, year 2030, ammonium nitrate radiative forcing is about –0.14 W/m2 and contributes roughly 10% of the net aerosol and ozone forcing. The present day nitrate and pre-industrial nitrate forcings are –0.11 and –0.05 W/m2, respectively. The steady increase of nitrate aerosols since industrialization increases its role as a non greenhouse gas forcing agent. However, this impact is still small compared to greenhouse gas forcings, therefore the main role nitrate will play in the future atmosphere is as an air pollutant, with annual mean near surface air concentrations rising above 3 μg/m3 in China and therefore reaching pollution levels, like sulphate aerosols, in the fine particle mode.

  11. Nitrate aerosols today and in 2030: a global simulation including aerosols and tropospheric ozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Bauer

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Nitrate aerosols are expected to become more important in the future atmosphere due to the expected increase in nitrate precursor emissions and the decline of ammonium-sulphate aerosols in wide regions of this planet. The GISS climate model is used in this study, including atmospheric gas- and aerosol phase chemistry to investigate current and future (2030, following the SRES A1B emission scenario atmospheric compositions. A set of sensitivity experiments was carried out to quantify the individual impact of emission- and physical climate change on nitrate aerosol formation. We found that future nitrate aerosol loads depend most strongly on changes that may occur in the ammonia sources. Furthermore, microphysical processes that lead to aerosol mixing play a very important role in sulphate and nitrate aerosol formation. The role of nitrate aerosols as climate change driver is analyzed and set in perspective to other aerosol and ozone forcings under pre-industrial, present day and future conditions. In the near future, year 2030, ammonium nitrate radiative forcing is about −0.14 W/m² and contributes roughly 10% of the net aerosol and ozone forcing. The present day nitrate and pre-industrial nitrate forcings are −0.11 and −0.05 W/m², respectively. The steady increase of nitrate aerosols since industrialization increases its role as a non greenhouse gas forcing agent. However, this impact is still small compared to greenhouse gas forcings, therefore the main role nitrate will play in the future atmosphere is as an air pollutant, with annual mean near surface air concentrations, in the fine particle mode, rising above 3 μg/m³ in China and therefore reaching pollution levels, like sulphate aerosols.

  12. 一种生物黏泥处理剂TA-11的制备及评价%Preparation and property evaluation of a kind of biological slime treating agent TA-11

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张迪彦; 姚光源; 张久志

    2016-01-01

    将合成的杂环有机硫杀菌剂及双季铵盐与异噻唑啉酮、二硫氰甲烷溶剂复配,制成一种水处理用生物黏泥处理剂TA-11,对其杀菌效果及黏泥剥离效果进行考察,并在某大型化工企业现场应用。研究结果表明,该水处理用生物黏泥处理剂的杀菌率较常用杀菌剂的杀菌率高,加药量为50 mg/L时,黏泥剥离能力在80%以上。%Synthesized heterocyclic organic sulfur bactericidal agent,and bis-quaternary ammonium salt are compo-sited with isothiazolone and disulfide acetonitrile solvent ,in order to prepare a kind of biological slime treating agent TA-11,for water treatment. Its sterilizing effect and slime stripping effect are investigated. It has been applied to a large-scale chemical engineering enterprise. Research results show that the sterilizing rate of biological slime treatment agent is higher than that of commonly used sterilizing agent. When its dosage is 50 mg/L ,the slime strip-ping ability is above 80%.

  13. Spatial occurrence and hatch of field eggs of the tadpole shrimp Triops newberryi (Notostraca: Triopsidae), a potential biological control agent of immature mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Tianyun; Mulla, Mir S

    2002-06-01

    The tadpole shrimp (TPS), Triops newberryi (Packard) (Notostraca: Triopsidae) is a potential biological control agent for immature mosquitoes breeding in ephemeral habitats. The occurrence of TPS eggs in soil and their hatch were investigated in 11 flood-irrigated date gardens in the Coachella Valley of southern California in 1999. Each garden was sampled several times after the rows were recently irrigated. All these date gardens harbored from very few to a large number of eggs in the soil. Overall, the average density of total eggs on ranches with clay loam soil was significantly higher than that on ranches with silt loam soil. The average densities of total eggs were significantly lower on the ranches that were disked compared to those on the ranches that were undisked before sampling. Two types of eggs were found and designated as "fresh" (yellowish to brownish) and "old" (blackish) eggs. This is the first time that these dimorphic eggs have been reported. The density of fresh eggs was lower than that of old eggs in most soil samples. The date gardens with high egg densities were sampled for determination of vertical occurrence, where soil was sampled up to 38.5 cm deep. Fresh eggs were recovered from soil in depths up to 25.6 cm, but the densities progressively declined with depth. The old eggs, however, were recovered from all soil depths studied, and there was no obvious relationship between soil depth and their density. This pattern of vertical occurrence of TPS eggs is the result of frequent disking for weed control and fruit harvest. Hatch of TPS eggs in surface soil samples ranged from 0 to 7.2 per 100 g dried soil. Hatch of viable eggs had an inverse relationship with soil depth. No TPS hatched out from the soil samples taken deeper than 15.4 cm. Fresh and old eggs distinguished by color were subjected to hatching tests. Fresh eggs exhibited high hatch, with hatching rates of 35.5-45.0% and 40.2-60.3% for the 1st and 1st plus the 2nd hydrations

  14. Studies on the biological behaviour of uranium-plutonium mixed oxide aerosols: Inhalation experiments with rats and in vitro studies with alveolar macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The retention of spherical and of irregularly shaped (U, Pu) mixed oxides in rat lung was analyzed after inhalation and intratracheal instillation. Their biological behaviour was relatively independent of particle shape and application route with only a few percent of radioactivity being transferred to other organs. In vivo and in vitro uptake and intracellular distribution in rat and bovine alveolar macrophages were analyzed as dependent on various parameters. In addition, detailed electron microscopic studies were performed demonstrating particles within membrane limited vacuoles as well as lying free in the cytoplasm. Under in vitro conditions the uptake process was finished after a few hours. After differential centrifugation of lung or macrophage homogenates the particles sedimented in the first (1000 g) fraction. (orig.)

  15. Nanostructured thermites based on iodine pentoxide for bio agent defeat systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobosyan, Mkhitar; Kazansky, Alexander; Martirosyan, Karen

    2011-10-01

    The risk for bioterrorist events involving the intentional airborne release of contagious agents has led to development of new approaches for bio agent defeat technologies both indoors and outdoors. Novel approaches to defeat harmful biological agents have generated a strong demand for new active materials. The preferred solutions are to neutralize the biological agents within the immediate target area by using aerosolized biocidal substances released in situ by high energetic reactions. By using nano-thermite reactions, with energy release up to 25 kJ/cc, based on I2O5/Al nanoparticles we intend to generate high quantity of vaporized iodine for spatial deposition onto harmful bacteria for their destruction. In this report, the effect of reaction product on growth and survival of Escherichia coli (E-coli) expressing GFP (Green Fluorescent Protein) was investigated. Moreover, we developed an approach to increase sensitivity of the detection. The study has shown that I2O5/Al nanosystem is extremely effective to disinfect harmful biological agents such (E-coli) bacteria in seconds.

  16. Aerosol typing - key information from aerosol studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mona, Lucia; Kahn, Ralph; Papagiannopoulos, Nikolaos; Holzer-Popp, Thomas; Pappalardo, Gelsomina

    2016-04-01

    Aerosol typing is a key source of aerosol information from ground-based and satellite-borne instruments. Depending on the specific measurement technique, aerosol typing can be used as input for retrievals or represents an output for other applications. Typically aerosol retrievals require some a priori or external aerosol type information. The accuracy of the derived aerosol products strongly depends on the reliability of these assumptions. Different sensors can make use of different aerosol type inputs. A critical review and harmonization of these procedures could significantly reduce related uncertainties. On the other hand, satellite measurements in recent years are providing valuable information about the global distribution of aerosol types, showing for example the main source regions and typical transport paths. Climatological studies of aerosol load at global and regional scales often rely on inferred aerosol type. There is still a high degree of inhomogeneity among satellite aerosol typing schemes, which makes the use different sensor datasets in a consistent way difficult. Knowledge of the 4d aerosol type distribution at these scales is essential for understanding the impact of different aerosol sources on climate, precipitation and air quality. All this information is needed for planning upcoming aerosol emissions policies. The exchange of expertise and the communication among satellite and ground-based measurement communities is fundamental for improving long-term dataset consistency, and for reducing aerosol type distribution uncertainties. Aerosol typing has been recognized as one of its high-priority activities of the AEROSAT (International Satellite Aerosol Science Network, http://aero-sat.org/) initiative. In the AEROSAT framework, a first critical review of aerosol typing procedures has been carried out. The review underlines the high heterogeneity in many aspects: approach, nomenclature, assumed number of components and parameters used for the

  17. Bioseguridad con énfasis en contaminantes biológicos en trabajadores de la salud Bio-security with emphasis in biological polluting agents in health workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Ardila

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Los trabajadores de la salud del servicio de urgencias están expuestos frecuentemente a diferentes peligros, entre ellos a la exposición de los contaminantes biológicos. Estudio de carácter descriptivo, con el objetivo de caracterizar socio-demográficamente a los trabajadores, además de verificar el nivel de aplicación de las normas de bioseguridad, en el servicio de urgencias de una institución de salud en la ciudad de Bogota-Colombia 68.3 % de los trabajadores se encuentra vinculados mediante contrato en la modalidad de prestación de servicios, el 31.7%, esta vinculado en la modalidad de término indefinido. El 44.6% del personal no ha recibido capacitación sobre el tema de bioseguridad, un 42.4 % no aplican la técnica adecuada de lavado de manos. En relación con el aspecto de re-encapuchar las agujas, se encontró que el 31% realizan esta práctica. El 100% de los trabajadores tienen el esquema completo de la vacuna Hepatitis B, pero el mismo porcentaje no tiene medición de anticuerpos de hepatitis B. Es fundamental el suministro de elementos de protección personal y dotación de elementos y recipientes que contribuyan a la bioseguridad. Se deben realizar actividades pedagógicas para sensibilizar y crear conciencia crítica a la organización y todo el personal que labora en el área de urgencias, sobre los peligros y consecuencias a que se exponen en su lugar de trabajo.Health workers of the emergency service are frequently exposed to different dangers, among them the contact with biological polluting agents. This is a study of descriptive character, with the objective to characterize workers on social demographic aspects, and also to verify the level of application of the bio-security norms at the emergency services of a health institution in the city of Bogota, Colombia. 68,3% of the workers are with a contract in the modality of benefit of services, the 31,7%, are in the modality of indefinite term. 44,6% of the personnel

  18. Total aerosol effect: forcing or radiative flux perturbation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohmann, Ulrike; Storelvmo, Trude; Jones, Andy; Rotstayn, Leon; Menon, Surabi; Quaas, Johannes; Ekman, Annica; Koch, Dorothy; Ruedy, Reto

    2009-09-25

    Uncertainties in aerosol forcings, especially those associated with clouds, contribute to a large extent to uncertainties in the total anthropogenic forcing. The interaction of aerosols with clouds and radiation introduces feedbacks which can affect the rate of rain formation. Traditionally these feedbacks were not included in estimates of total aerosol forcing. Here we argue that they should be included because these feedbacks act quickly compared with the time scale of global warming. We show that for different forcing agents (aerosols and greenhouse gases) the radiative forcings as traditionally defined agree rather well with estimates from a method, here referred to as radiative flux perturbations (RFP), that takes these fast feedbacks and interactions into account. Thus we propose replacing the direct and indirect aerosol forcing in the IPCC forcing chart with RFP estimates. This implies that it is better to evaluate the total anthropogenic aerosol effect as a whole.

  19. Application of Surfactant Micellar Solutions as Extractants and Mobile Phases for TLC-Determination of Purine Bases and Doping Agents in Biological Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Victorovna Yedamenko

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Separation of caffeine and its metabolites (theophylline and theobromine and doping agents (spironolactone, propranolol, and ephedrine and determination of caffeine in serum sample and propranolol and ephedrine in urine were studied on normal-phase thin layers (“Sorbfil-UV-254”. Aqueous organic solvents and aqueous micellar surfactant solutions were compared as the mobile phases for separation. The acceptable separation of purine bases and doping agents was achieved by micellar Thin Layer Chromatography and normal-phase Thin Layer Chromatography. Anionic surfactant solution with added 1-propanol was the best eluent as for caffeine, theophylline, and theobromine separation, as for doping agents. The best characteristics of caffeine extraction from serum, and propranolol and ephedrine from urine were achieved when micellar eluent based on non-ionic Tween-80 surfactant was used. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17807/orbital.v7i1.632

  20. Aerosol mobility size spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Kulkarni, Pramod

    2007-11-20

    A device for measuring aerosol size distribution within a sample containing aerosol particles. The device generally includes a spectrometer housing defining an interior chamber and a camera for recording aerosol size streams exiting the chamber. The housing includes an inlet for introducing a flow medium into the chamber in a flow direction, an aerosol injection port adjacent the inlet for introducing a charged aerosol sample into the chamber, a separation section for applying an electric field to the aerosol sample across the flow direction and an outlet opposite the inlet. In the separation section, the aerosol sample becomes entrained in the flow medium and the aerosol particles within the aerosol sample are separated by size into a plurality of aerosol flow streams under the influence of the electric field. The camera is disposed adjacent the housing outlet for optically detecting a relative position of at least one aerosol flow stream exiting the outlet and for optically detecting the number of aerosol particles within the at least one aerosol flow stream.

  1. Radiological features and therapeutic responses of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease in rheumatoid arthritis patients receiving biological agents: a retrospective multicenter study in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Mori, Shunsuke; Tokuda, Hitoshi; Sakai, Fumikazu; Johkoh, Takeshi; Mimori, Akio; Nishimoto, Norihiro; Tasaka, Sadatomo; Hatta, Kazuhiro; Matsushima, Hidekazu; Kaise, Shunji; Kaneko, Atsushi; Makino, Shigeki; Minota, Seiji; Yamada, Takashi; Akagawa, Shinobu

    2011-01-01

    Objective This study was performed to evaluate the radiological features of and therapeutic responses to pulmonary disease caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in the setting of biological therapy for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods We conducted a retrospective chart review of 13 patients from multiple centers who had developed pulmonary NTM disease during biological therapy for RA, including infliximab, etanercept, adalimumab, and tocilizumab. Results Most cases were asymptomatic o...

  2. PRODUCTION OF FUNGAL BIOLOGICAL CONTROL AGENTS THROUGH SOLID STATE FERMENTATION: A CASE STUDY ON PAECILOMYCES LILACINUS AGAINST ROOT-KNOT NEMATODES

    OpenAIRE

    Brand, D; C. R. Soccol; A. Sabu; S. Roussos

    2010-01-01

    Root-knot nematodes cause annual losses of about USD $100 billion worldwide. Development of natural resistance to nematicides by nematodes and the tendency to withdraw chemical pesticides/nematicides from the market led to the search for new methods of control. Biological control of root-knot nematodes with Paecilomyces lilacinus is being investigated thoroughly, but there is a lack of information on the production systems. Solid state fermentation is a suitable ecofriendly biological process...

  3. Indirect treatment comparison of abatacept with methotrexate versus other biologic agents for active rheumatoid arthritis despite methotrexate therapy in the United kingdom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guyot, Patricia; Taylor, Peter C; Christensen, Robin;

    2012-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of abatacept and alternative biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARD) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and an inadequate response to methotrexate (MTX) in the United Kingdom.......To compare the efficacy of abatacept and alternative biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARD) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and an inadequate response to methotrexate (MTX) in the United Kingdom....

  4. Effect of Farm Manure Decomposed by RW Biological Promoting Corrosion Agent on Flue-cured Tobacco Yield and Quality%RW生物促腐剂腐熟农家肥对烤烟产质量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋志清; 普伟松; 张福全; 陈鹏

    2011-01-01

    为寻找适应烤烟生产的生物有机肥施肥方法,采用大区对比试验研究了RW生物促腐剂腐熟农家肥对烤烟生长及经济性状等方面的影响.结果表明,施用促腐剂腐熟农家肥的烟田产量、产值、均价和上等烟比例分别为2 085.45 kg/hm2、30 159.42元/hm2、14.46元/kg和43.49%.说明,促腐剂腐熟农家肥施入大田后有利于烟株生长发育,烟叶长势良好,能有效降低烟草花叶病的发生,可提高烟叶产质量.%Effect of farm manure decomposed by RW biological promoting corrosion agent on fluecured tobacco growth and economic characters were studied by regional contrast test to find out the suitable organic manure fertilizing method for flue-cured tobacco production. The results showed that the yield,production value, mean price and first-class tobacco rate of fields fertilized with farm manure decomposed by RW biological promoting corrosion agent were 2 085.45 kg/hm2, 30 159.42 Yuan/hm2 ,14.46 Yuan/kg and 43.49% ,respectively,which indicate that RW biological promoting corrosion agent is beneficial for tobacco plant growth and development, flue-cured tobacco yield and quality are enhanced as the tobacco plant has a good growth vigor and low incidence of tobacco mosaic.

  5. Sistema de núcleos conceptuales de la asignatura Agentes Biológicos de la carrera de Medicina System of conceptual nuclei related to the Biological Agents subject in the medical career

    OpenAIRE

    Rebeca M. Laird Pérez; Ruth Merino Cajide; Zunilda Bello Fernández; Orlando Serrano Barrera

    2008-01-01

    OBJETIVO: proponer un sistema de núcleos conceptuales para ser abordados en el proceso docente-educativo de la asignatura Agentes Biológicos de la carrera de Medicina. MÉTODOS: se realizó una investigación pedagógica en la Facultad "Dr. Zoilo E. Marinello Vidaurreta" de Las Tunas durante los meses de noviembre y diciembre de 2005. Para determinar los elementos constituyentes del sistema se empleó la modelación. RESULTADOS: con un enfoque sistémico se definieron los conceptos, se identificaron...

  6. Facility of aerosol filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Said invention relates to a facility of aerosol filtration, particularly of sodium aerosols. Said facility is of special interest for fast reactors where sodium fires involve the possibility of high concentrations of sodium aerosols which soon clog up conventional filters. The facility intended for continuous operation, includes at the pre-filtering stage, means for increasing the size of the aerosol particles and separating clustered particles (cyclone separator)

  7. Aerosol satellite remote sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veefkind, Joris Pepijn

    2001-01-01

    Aerosols are inportant for many processes in the atmosphere. Aerosols are a leading uncertainty in predicting global climate change, To a large extent this uncertainty is caused by a lack of knowledge on the occurrence and concentration of aerosols. On global scale, this information can only be o

  8. Protection of air in premises and environment against beryllium aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitkolov, N.Z.; Vishnevsky, E.P.; Krupkin, A.V. [Research Inst. of Industrial and Marine Medicine, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1998-01-01

    First and foremost, the danger of beryllium aerosols concerns a possibility of their inhalation. The situation is aggravated with high biological activity of the beryllium in a human lung. The small allowable beryllium aerosols` concentration in air poses a rather complex and expensive problem of the pollution prevention and clearing up of air. The delivery and transportation of beryllium aerosols from sites of their formation are defined by the circuit of ventilation, that forms aerodynamics of air flows in premises, and aerodynamic links between premises. The causes of aerosols release in air of premises from hoods, isolated and hermetically sealed vessels can be vibrations, as well as pulses of temperature and pressure. Furthermore, it is possible the redispersion of aerosols from dirty surfaces. The effective protection of air against beryllium aerosols at industrial plants is provided by a complex of hygienic measures: from individual means of breath protection up to collective means of the prevention of air pollution. (J.P.N.)

  9. Total aerosol effect: radiative forcing or radiative flux perturbation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Lohmann

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Uncertainties in aerosol radiative forcings, especially those associated with clouds, contribute to a large extent to uncertainties in the total anthropogenic forcing. The interaction of aerosols with clouds and radiation introduces feedbacks which can affect the rate of precipitation formation. In former assessments of aerosol radiative forcings, these effects have not been quantified. Also, with global aerosol-climate models simulating interactively aerosols and cloud microphysical properties, a quantification of the aerosol forcings in the traditional way is difficult to define properly. Here we argue that fast feedbacks should be included because they act quickly compared with the time scale of global warming. We show that for different forcing agents (aerosols and greenhouse gases the radiative forcings as traditionally defined agree rather well with estimates from a method, here referred to as radiative flux perturbations (RFP, that takes these fast feedbacks and interactions into account. Based on our results, we recommend RFP as a valid option to compare different forcing agents, and to compare the effects of particular forcing agents in different models.

  10. Total aerosol effect: radiative forcing or radiative flux perturbation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Koch

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Uncertainties in aerosol radiative forcings, especially those associated with clouds, contribute to a large extent to uncertainties in the total anthropogenic forcing. The interaction of aerosols with clouds and radiation introduces feedbacks which can affect the rate of rain formation. In former assessments of aerosol radiative forcings, these effects have not been quantified. Also, with global aerosol-climate models simulating interactively aerosols and cloud microphysical properties, a quantification of the aerosol forcings in the traditional way is difficult to properly define. Here we argue that fast feedbacks should be included because they act quickly compared with the time scale of global warming. We show that for different forcing agents (aerosols and greenhouse gases the radiative forcings as traditionally defined agree rather well with estimates from a method, here referred to as radiative flux perturbations (RFP, that takes these fast feedbacks and interactions into account. Based on our results, we recommend RFP as a valid option to compare different forcing agents, and to compare the effects of particular forcing agents in different models.

  11. A characterization of Arctic aerosols on the basis of aerosol optical depth and black carbon measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Stone

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aerosols, transported from distant source regions, influence the Arctic surface radiation budget. When deposited on snow and ice, carbonaceous particles can reduce the surface albedo, which accelerates melting, leading to a temperature-albedo feedback that amplifies Arctic warming. Black carbon (BC, in particular, has been implicated as a major warming agent at high latitudes. BC and co-emitted aerosols in the atmosphere, however, attenuate sunlight and radiatively cool the surface. Warming by soot deposition and cooling by atmospheric aerosols are referred to as “darkening” and “dimming” effects, respectively. In this study, climatologies of spectral aerosol optical depth AOD (2001–2011 and Equivalent BC (EBC (1989–2011 from three Arctic observatories and from a number of aircraft campaigns are used to characterize Arctic aerosols. Since the 1980s, concentrations of BC in the Arctic have decreased by more than 50% at ground stations where in situ observations are made. AOD has increased slightly during the past decade, with variations attributed to changing emission inventories and source strengths of natural aerosols, including biomass smoke and volcanic aerosol, further influenced by deposition rates and airflow patterns.

  12. Possible application of a nematophagous fungus as a biological control agent of parasitic nematodes on commercial sheep farms in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Faedo

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Biological control of parasitic nematodes of livestock is currently under development and represents another tool that may be integrated into helminth parasite control strategies. This paper presents a brief introduction to commercial sheep farming in South Africa and currently available nematode parasite control methods. These include the FAMACHA(r clinical assay, strategies of pasture management, dilution of resistant worm species by introduction of susceptible worms, breed resistant sheep and nutritional supplementation. The purpose of this paper is to outline the principles of biological control using nematophagous fungi and how it may be applied on sheep farms in South Africa.

  13. Synthesis, metal complexation and biological evaluation of a novel semi-rigid bifunctional chelating agent for 99mTc labelling

    OpenAIRE

    Le Gal, Julien; Michaud, Sandra; Gressier, Marie; Coulais, Yvon; Benoist, Eric

    2006-01-01

    A novel bifunctional chelating agent bearing an aromatic ring has been synthesised and characterised. This ligand formed well-defined oxorhenium complexes. The analogous 99mTcO-complex was obtained in an excellent yield with high radiochemical purity (>95%). The biodistribution of the 99mTo-complex after intravenous injection studied in normal rats showed that the activity was excreted mainly via renal-urinary pathway indicating its use for labelling peptides with 99mTc.

  14. F1 Sterile insect technique: a novel approach for risk assessment of Episimus unguiculus (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), a candidate biological control agent of Schinus terebinthifolus in the Continental USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal regulations mandate that researchers in the field of classical weed biological control follow the precautionary principle when proposing the release of an organism that can affect our environment. However, the host range observed in traditional laboratory cage experiments typically is broad...

  15. Management of plant pathogens and pests using microbial biological control agents. In: Trigiano, R.N. and Ownley, B.H., editors. Plant Pathology Concepts and Laboratory Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    All parts of plants face continual attack by plant pathogens and insects. Some insects are vectors of pathogens. Plant pests can be controlled by a variety of methods including application of pesticides but one of the most stainable and environmentally friendly approaches is biological control. Mic...

  16. Best linear unbiased prediction of host range of the facultative parasite Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. salsolae, a potential biological control agent of Russian thistle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumbleweed or Russian thistle (Salsola tragus L.) is an introduced invasive weed in N. America. It is widely distributed in the U.S. and is a target of biological control efforts. The facultative parasitic fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.) Penz. & Sacc. in Penz. f. sp. salsolae is a po...

  17. Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, causing anthracnose of mile-a-minute (Persicaria perfoliata) in Turkey, is a potential biological control agent of this weed in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mile-a-minute (Persicaria perfoliata (L.) H. Gross; family Polygonaceae) is an exotic annual barbed vine that has invaded the northeastern USA, Mississippi, and Oregon. In July of 2010, in a search for potential biological control pathogens, diseased P. perfoliata plants were found along the Firtina...

  18. The interactions of Tropical soda apple mosaic tobamovirus and Gratiana boliviana (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), an introduced biological control agent of tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum Dunal (Solanaceae) (TSA) is a South American invasive plant of rangelands, pastures and natural areas in Florida. A chrysomelid beetle from South America, Gratiana boliviana Spaeth, has been released at >300 locations in Florida for biological control of TSA sinc...

  19. Potential of the strain of entomopathogenic fungus Isaria fumosorosea CCM 8637 as a biological control agent against Cameraria ohridella and other pests

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zemek, Rostislav; Prenerová, Eva; Awad, Mona; Hussein, Hany

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 15, - (2012), s. 79-80. ISSN 1335-258X R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06005 Grant ostatní: European Social Fund(CZ) CZ.1.07/2.4.00/12.0082 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : biological control * horse chestnut leaf miner * Colorado potato beatle

  20. Releases, distribution and abundance of Gratiana boliviana (Coleoptera:Chrysomelidae), a biological control agent of tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum, Solanaceae), in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    A biological control program against tropical soda apple (TSA) (Solanum viarum Dunal (Solanaceae)) released 176,643 Gratiana boliviana Spaeth (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in Florida from 2003 to 2008. The spatial distribution of releases was clustered with more beetles released in south/central Flor...