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Sample records for aerosol-to-liquid particle extraction

  1. FEASIBILITY OF THE AEROSOL-TO-LIQUID PARTICLE EXTRACTION SYSTEM (ALPES) FOR COLLECTION OF VIABLE FRANCISELLA SP.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heitkamp, M

    2006-08-07

    Several Biowatch monitoring sites in the Houston area have tested positive for Francisella tularensis and there is a need to determine whether natural occurring Francisella-related microorganism(s) may be responsible for these observed positive reactions. The collection, culturing and characterization of Francisella-related natural microorganisms will provide the knowledge base to improve the future selectivity of Biowatch monitoring for Francisella. The aerosol-to-liquid particle extraction system (ALPES) is a high-efficiency, dual mechanism collection system that utilizes a liquid collection medium for capture of airborne microorganisms. Since the viability of microorganisms is preserved better in liquid medium than on air filters, this project was undertaken to determine whether Francisella philomiragia and Francisella tularensis LVS maintain acceptable viability in the continuous liquid recirculation, high direct current voltage and residual ozone concentrations which occur during ALPES operation. Throughout a series of preliminary trial runs with representative gram-negative and gram-positive microorganisms, several design modifications and improvements to the ALPES optimized liquid handling, electrical stability, sampling and overall performance for biological sampling. Initial testing with Francisella philomiragia showed viability was preserved better in PBS buffer than HBSS buffer. Trial runs at starting cell concentrations of 1.8 x 10{sup 6} and 2.5 x 10{sup 4} CFU/L showed less than a 1-log decrease in viability for F. philomiragia after 24 h in the ALPES. Francisella tularensis LVS (live vaccine strain) was used as a surrogate for virulent F. tularensis in ALPES trial runs conducted at starting cell concentrations of 10{sup 4}, 10{sup 5} and 10{sup 6} CFU/L. F. tularensis LVS was slow-growing and required highly selective growth media to prevent overgrowth by collected airborne microorganisms. In addition, one ALPES unit intake was HEPA filtered during

  2. Extracting entanglement from identical particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killoran, N; Cramer, M; Plenio, M B

    2014-04-18

    Identical particles and entanglement are both fundamental components of quantum mechanics. However, when identical particles are condensed in a single spatial mode, the standard notions of entanglement, based on clearly identifiable subsystems, break down. This has led many to conclude that such systems have limited value for quantum information tasks, compared to distinguishable particle systems. To the contrary, we show that any entanglement formally appearing amongst the identical particles, including entanglement due purely to symmetrization, can be extracted into an entangled state of independent modes, which can then be applied to any task. In fact, the entanglement of the mode system is in one-to-one correspondence with the entanglement between the inaccessible identical particles. This settles the long-standing debate about the resource capabilities of such states, in particular spin-squeezed states of Bose-Einstein condensates, while also revealing a new perspective on how and when entanglement is generated in passive optical networks. Our results thus reveal new fundamental connections between entanglement, squeezing, and indistinguishability.

  3. Particle simulation of an improved axially extracted vircator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An axially extracted virtual cathode oscillator (vircator) with a feedback annulus is proposed and configured through particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation. In this paper, the effects of the feedback mechanism are studied through PIC method. The simulated results indicate that the improved new vircator can increase the output power twice large than that of the axially-extracted conventional vircator under the same condition. On the other hand, it can narrow the bandwidth and purify the modes

  4. Particle Simulation of an Improved Axially Extracted Vircator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘振祥; 舒挺; 张建德; 钱宝良

    2003-01-01

    An axially extracted virtual cathode oscillator (vircator) with a feedback annulusis proposed and configured through particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation in Ref. [1]. In this paper,the effects of the feedback mechanism are studied through PIC method. The simulated resultsindicate that the improved new vircator can increase the output power twice large than that ofthe axially-extracted conventional vircator under the same condition. On the other hand, it cannarrow the bandwidth and purify the modes.

  5. Characterization of alloy particles extracted from spent nuclear fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, D.; Rondinella, V. V.; Fortner, J. A.; Kropf, A. J.; Eriksson, L.; Wronkiewicz, D. J.; Spahiu, K.

    2012-01-01

    We characterized, for the first time, submicro- and nanosized fission product-alloy particles that were extracted nondestructively from spent nuclear fuel, in terms of noble metal (Mo-Ru-Tc-Rh-Pd-Te) composition, atomic level homogeneity and lattice parameters. The evidences obtained in this work contribute to an improved understanding of the redox chemistry of radionuclides in nuclear waste repository environments and, in particular, of the catalytic properties of these unique metal alloy particles.

  6. Extraction of Satellite Image using Particle Swarm Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harish Kundra, V.K.Panchal, Sagar Arora, Karandeep Singh, Himashu Kaura, Jaspreet Singh Phool

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Of all tasks in photogrammetry the extraction of cartographic features is the most timeconsuming. Fully automatic acquisition of features like roads and buildings, however, appears tobe very difficult. The extraction of cartographic features form digital satellite imagery requiresinterpretation of this imagery. The knowledge one needs about the topographic objects and theirappearances in satellite images in order to recognize these objects and extract the relevantobject outlines is difficult to model and to implement in computer algorithms. This paperintroduces Particle Swarm Optimization based method of object extraction from Google Earthimage (satellite image. This paper deals with the land cover mapping by using swarm computingtechniques. The motivation of this paper is to explore the improved swarm computing algorithmsfor the satellite image object extraction.

  7. Particle beam extraction at the Orsay cryogenic coil cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We are presenting the design and the performance of the single turn extraction in the Orsay cryogenic cyclotron. After a careful shaping of the average magnetic field in the extraction area for a representative set of particles, we get the various expected corresponding νsub(r) (νsub(s)) diagrams and then the corrected diagram of the kinetic energy per nucleon T at the exit vs Z/A. The study of the accelerated orbits till the entrance in the extraction devices shows the turn separation is sufficient to allow the insertion of an electrostatic septum and satisfying energies and RF phases are obtained. The designed extraction devices are successively: an electrostatic deflector, located in a hill, with an electric field 100 kV/cm, an iron free channel, located in the following hill, having to produce a field drop 0.25 T, some magnetostatic channels for radial focusing. A quick look at the technological features of the electromagnetic channel is given proving its possibility

  8. Perceptual Dominant Color Extraction by Multidimensional Particle Swarm Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiranyaz, Serkan; Uhlmann (Eurasip Member), Stefan; Ince, Turker; Gabbouj, Moncef

    2010-12-01

    Color is the major source of information widely used in image analysis and content-based retrieval. Extracting dominant colors that are prominent in a visual scenery is of utmost importance since the human visual system primarily uses them for perception and similarity judgment. In this paper, we address dominant color extraction as a dynamic clustering problem and use techniques based on Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) for finding optimal (number of) dominant colors in a given color space, distance metric and a proper validity index function. The first technique, so-called Multidimensional (MD) PSO can seek both positional and dimensional optima. Nevertheless, MD PSO is still susceptible to premature convergence due to lack of divergence. To address this problem we then apply Fractional Global Best Formation (FGBF) technique. In order to extract perceptually important colors and to further improve the discrimination factor for a better clustering performance, an efficient color distance metric, which uses a fuzzy model for computing color (dis-) similarities over HSV (or HSL) color space is proposed. The comparative evaluations against MPEG-7 dominant color descriptor show the superiority of the proposed technique.

  9. Perceptual Dominant Color Extraction by Multidimensional Particle Swarm Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moncef Gabbouj

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Color is the major source of information widely used in image analysis and content-based retrieval. Extracting dominant colors that are prominent in a visual scenery is of utmost importance since the human visual system primarily uses them for perception and similarity judgment. In this paper, we address dominant color extraction as a dynamic clustering problem and use techniques based on Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO for finding optimal (number of dominant colors in a given color space, distance metric and a proper validity index function. The first technique, so-called Multidimensional (MD PSO can seek both positional and dimensional optima. Nevertheless, MD PSO is still susceptible to premature convergence due to lack of divergence. To address this problem we then apply Fractional Global Best Formation (FGBF technique. In order to extract perceptually important colors and to further improve the discrimination factor for a better clustering performance, an efficient color distance metric, which uses a fuzzy model for computing color (dis- similarities over HSV (or HSL color space is proposed. The comparative evaluations against MPEG-7 dominant color descriptor show the superiority of the proposed technique.

  10. Magnetic particles extracted from manganese nodules: Suggested origin from stony and iron meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelman, R.B.

    1970-01-01

    On the basis of x-ray diffraction and electron microprobe data, spherical and ellipsoidal particles extracted from manganese nodules were divided into three groups. Group I particles are believed to be derived from iron meteorites, and Group II particles from stony meteorites. Group III particles are believed to be volcanic in origin.

  11. Biosynthesis of silver fine particles and particles decorated with nanoparticles using the extract of Illicium verum (star anise) seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Carlos; Chávez, V. H. G.; Barriga-Castro, Enrique Díaz; Núñez, Nuria O.; Mendoza-Reséndez, Raquel

    2015-04-01

    Given the upsurge of new technologies based on nanomaterials, the development of sustainable methods to obtain functional nanostructures has become an imperative task. In this matter, several recent researches have shown that the biodegradable natural antioxidants of several plant extracts can be used simultaneously as reducing and stabilizing agents in the wet chemical synthesis of metallic nanoparticles, opening new opportunities to design greener synthesis. However, the challenge of these new techniques is to produce stable colloidal nanoparticles with controlled particle uniformity, size, shape and aggregation state, in similar manner than the well-established synthetic methods. In the present work, colloidal metallic silver nanoparticles have been synthesized using silver nitrate and extracts of Illicium verum (star anise) seeds at room temperature in a facile one-step procedure. The resulting products were colloidal suspensions of two populations of silver nanoparticles, one of them with particle sizes of few nanometers and the other with particles of tens of nm. Strikingly, the variation of the AgNO3/extract weight ratio in the reaction medium yielded to the variation of the spatial distribution of the nanoparticles: high AgNO3/extract concentration ratios yielded to randomly dispersed particles, whereas for lower AgNO3/extract ratios, the biggest particles appeared coated with the finest nanoparticles. This biosynthesized colloidal system, with controlled particle aggregation states, presents plasmonic and SERS properties with potential applications in molecular sensors and nanophotonic devices.

  12. Balanced and optimal bianisotropic particles: Maximizing power extracted from electromagnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Ra'di, Younes

    2013-01-01

    Here we introduce the concept of "optimal particles" for strong interactions with electromagnetic fields. We assume that a particle occupies a given electrically small volume in space and study the required optimal relations between the particle polarizabilities. In these optimal particles, the inclusion shape and material are chosen so that the particles extract the maximum possible power from given incident fields. It appears that for different excitation scenarios the optimal particles are bianisotropic chiral, omega, moving, and Tellegen particles. The optimal dimensions of the resonance canonical chiral and omega particles are found analytically. Such optimal particles have extreme properties in scattering (for example, zero backscattering or invisibility). Planar arrays of optimal particles possess extreme properties in reflection and transmission (e.g., total absorption or magnetic-wall resonance), and volumetric composites of optimal particles realize, for example, such extreme materials as the chiral...

  13. Mutagenicity of diesel exhaust particle extracts: influence of driving cycle and environmental temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, C R; Dutcher, J S; Brooks, A L; McClellan, R O; Marshall, W F; Naman, T M

    1982-01-01

    General Motors and Volkswagen diesel passenger cars (1980 and 1981 model year) were operated on a climate controlled chassis dynomometer and the particulate portion of the exhaust was collected on high volume filters. Dichloromethane extracts of the exhaust particles (soot) collected while the cars were operated under simulated highway, urban and congested urban driving cycles were assayed for mutagenicity in Salmonella strains TA-98 and TA-100. Driving pattern did not significantly influence the mutagenic potency of the exhaust particle extracts or estimates of the amount of mutagenicity emitted from the exhaust despite large differences in particle emission rates and extractable fraction of the particles. Mutagenicity of extracts of exhaust particles collected while the vehicles were operated at test chamber temperatures of 25, 50, 75 and 100 degrees F were also very similar. The results suggest that driving pattern and environmental temperature do not significantly alter the emission of genotoxic combustion products from the exhaust. PMID:6193022

  14. Mutagenicity of diesel exhaust particle extracts: influence of driving cycle and environmental temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, C R; Dutcher, J S; Brooks, A L; McClellan, R O; Marshall, W F; Naman, T M

    1982-01-01

    General Motors and Volkswagen diesel passenger cars (1980 and 1981 model year) were operated on a climate controlled chassis dynomometer and the particulate portion of the exhaust was collected on high volume filters. Dichloromethane extracts of the exhaust particles (soot) collected while the cars were operated under simulated highway, urban and congested urban driving cycles were assayed for mutagenicity in Salmonella strains TA-98 and TA-100. Driving pattern did not significantly influence the mutagenic potency of the exhaust particle extracts or estimates of the amount of mutagenicity emitted from the exhaust despite large differences in particle emission rates and extractable fraction of the particles. Mutagenicity of extracts of exhaust particles collected while the vehicles were operated at test chamber temperatures of 25, 50, 75 and 100 degrees F were also very similar. The results suggest that driving pattern and environmental temperature do not significantly alter the emission of genotoxic combustion products from the exhaust.

  15. Extraction of density distributions and particle locations from hologram images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamoto, Koji; Ikeda, Koh; Madarame, Haruki [Tokyo Univ., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Nuclear Engineering Research Lab.

    1996-10-01

    In this study, the simultaneous measurement technique for three-dimensional density and three-dimensional velocity distributions was evaluated. The Holographic Particle Image Velocimetry (HPIV) was the technique to record the three-dimensional position of the tracer particle on the hologram. When there were density distributions in the interrogation region, the plane optical wave may be modulated because of the difference of the refraction indices. Then, both of the plane wave modulated by density and the spherical wave by particle scatter were interfered with the reference beam, being recorded on the hologram. With reconstructing the hologram, the both of the modulated plane wave and spherical wave were reconstructed. Since the plane wave and spherical wave had low and high frequency, respectively, the two information could be separated using low-pass and high-pass filter. In the experiment, a jet of carbon-dioxide into air with mist were measured. Both mist particle position and the fringe shift caused by the density distribution were well observed, showing the effectiveness of the proposed technique. (author)

  16. Energy extraction and particle acceleration around a rotating black hole in Horava-Lifshitz gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Penrose process on rotational energy extraction of the black hole in the original nonprojectable Horava-Lifshitz gravity is studied. The strong dependence of the extracted energy from the special range of parameters of the Horava-Lifshitz gravity, such as parameter ΛW and specific angular momentum a, has been found. Particle acceleration near the rotating black hole in Horava-Lifshitz gravity has been studied. It is shown that the fundamental parameter of the Horava-Lifshitz gravity can impose a limitation on the energy of the accelerating particles preventing them from the infinite value.

  17. Structural Characterization of Silica Particles Extracted from Grass Stenotaphrum secundatum: Biotransformation via Annelids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Espíndola-Gonzalez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study shows the structural characterization of silica particles extracted from Stenotaphrum secundatum (St. Augustine grass using an annelid-based biotransformation process. This bioprocess starts when St. Augustine grass is turned into humus by vermicompost, and then goes through calcination and acid treatment to obtain silica particles. To determine the effect of the bioprocess, silica particles without biotransformation were extracted directly from the sample of grass. The characterization of the silica particles was performed using Infrared (FTIR and Raman spectroscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM, X-ray Diffraction (XRD, Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS, and Energy Dispersion Spectroscopy (EDS. Both types of particles showed differences in morphology and size. The particles without biotransformation were essentially amorphous while those obtained via annelids showed specific crystalline phases. The biological relationship between the metabolisms of worms and microorganisms and the organic-mineral matter causes changes to the particles' properties. The results of this study are important because they will allow synthesis of silica in cheaper and more ecofriendly ways.

  18. On Extraction of Chemical Potentials of Quarks from Particle Transverse Momentum Spectra in High Energy Collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present two methods to extract the chemical potentials of quarks in high energy collisions. The first method is based on the ratios of negatively/positively charged particles, and the temperatures extracted from the transverse momentum spectra of related hadrons are needed. The second method is based on the chemical potentials of some particles, and we also need the transverse momentum spectra of related hadrons. To extract the quark chemical potentials, we would like to propose experimental collaborations to measure simultaneously not only the transverse momentum spectra of p-, p, K-, K+, π-, and π+, but also those of D-, D+, B-, and B+ (even those of Δ++, Δ-, and Ω- in high energy nuclear collisions.

  19. On Extraction of Chemical Potentials of Quarks from Particle Transverse Momentum Spectra in High Energy Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Hong

    2015-01-01

    We present two methods to extract the chemical potentials of quarks in high energy collisions. The first method is based on the ratios of negatively/positively charged particles, and the temperatures extracted from the transverse momentum spectra of related hadrons are needed. The second method is based on the chemical potentials of some particles, and we also need the transverse momentum spectra of related hadrons. To extract the quark chemical potentials, we would like to propose experimental collaborations to measure simultaneously not only the transverse momentum spectra of anti-p, p, K^-, K^+, pion^-, and pion^+, but also those of D^-, D^+, B^-, and B^+ (even those of Delta^++, Delta^-, and Omega^-) in high energy nuclear collisions

  20. Influences of solid particles on the formation of the third phase crud during solvent extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Qi; RUAN Renman; WEN Jiankang; SONG Yongsheng; DONG Qinghai; WU Minglin; YAO Guocheng

    2007-01-01

    The influences of solid particles in leach solution on the formation of the third phase crud during solvent extraction of copper were studied.Analyzed from the point of view of pH value and surface tension,the study results showed that the solid particle is one of the most important contributors for the formation of the third phase crud. During solvent extraction,if the pH value was greater than 2.30,the number of solid particles in the mother solution increased,in which case the possibility of forming the third phase crud could also increase,and the interface tension value might grow in pace with the quantity of the third phase crud.

  1. DNA extraction of ancient animal hard tissue samples via adsorption to silica particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohland, Nadin

    2012-01-01

    A large number of subfossil and more recent skeletal remains, many of which are stored in museums and private collections, are potentially accessible for DNA sequence analysis. In order to extract the small amount of DNA preserved in these specimens, an efficient DNA release and purification method is required. In this chapter, I describe an efficient and straightforward purification and concentration method that uses DNA adsorption to a solid surface of silica particles. Comparative analysis of extraction methods has shown that this method works reliably for ancient as well as younger, museum-preserved specimens.

  2. Production of De-asphalted Oil and Fine Asphalt Particles by Supercritical Extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵锁奇; 许志明; 王仁安

    2003-01-01

    A continuous three-stage supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) process with a capacity of 1.0kg.h-1 was setup to extract petroleum residue by pentane to obtain more oil for further upgrading. A discharging system integrated to the bottom of the extractor was used to recover solvent as gas while asphalt was obtained as fine particles. The influence of operating conditions on the yield and quality of extracts, i.e., deasphalted oil (DAO) and resin, was studied in the range of temperature 150-220℃, pressure of 4.0-6.0 MPa and the mass ratio of solvent to oil feed (S/O) 2.5-5.0. The particle size distribution, apparent forms and the packing density, which vary with operating pressure, were measured. The particle structures were observed by SEM as well. With the modification to conventional processes, furnace can be eliminated for solvent recovery from asphalt phase, so as to reduce energy consumption.

  3. Feature extraction of induction motor stator fault based on particle swarm optimization and wavelet packet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Pan-pan; SHI Li-ping; HU Yong-jun; MIAO Chang-xin

    2012-01-01

    To effectively extract the interturn short circuit fault features of induction motor from stator current signal,a novel feature extraction method based on the bare-bones particle swarm optimization (BBPSO) algorithm and wavelet packet was proposed.First,according to the maximum inner product between the current signal and the cosine basis functions,this method could precisely estimate the waveform parameters of the fundamental component using the powerful global search capability of the BBPSO,which can eliminate the fundamental component and not affect other harmonic components.Then,the harmonic components of residual current signal were decomposed to a series of frequency bands by wavelet packet to extract the interturn circuit fault features of the induction motor.Finally,the results of simulation and laboratory tests demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  4. AUTOMATIC ROAD EXTRACTION FROM SATELLITE IMAGES USING EXTENDED KALMAN FILTERING AND EFFICIENT PARTICLE FILTERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenita Subash

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Users of geospatial data in government, military, industry, research, and other sectors have need foraccurate display of roads and other terrain information in areas where there are ongoing operations orlocations of interest. Hence, road extraction that is significantly more automated than the employment ofcostly and scarce human resources has become a challenging technical issue for the geospatialcommunity. An automatic road extraction based on Extended Kalman Filtering (EKF and variablestructured multiple model particle filter (VS-MMPF from satellite images is addressed. EKF traces themedian axis of a single road segment while VS-MMPF traces all road branches initializing at theintersection. In case of Local Linearization Particle filter (LLPF, a large number of particles are usedand therefore high computational expense is usually required in order to attain certain accuracy androbustness. The basic idea is to reduce the whole sampling space of the multiple model system to the modesubspace by marginalization over the target subspace and choose better importance function for modestate sampling. The core of the system is based on profile matching. During the estimation, new referenceprofiles were generated and stored in the road template memory for future correlation analysis, thuscovering the space of road profiles. .

  5. Energy extraction and particle acceleration around a rotating black hole in quintessence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oteev, Tursinbay; Abdujabbarov, Ahmadjon; Stuchlík, Zdeněk; Ahmedov, Bobomurat

    2016-08-01

    We study motion and collision of particles in the gravitational field of rotating black hole immersed in quintessential dark energy characterized with the quintessential parameter ωqin(-1;-1/3) governing the equation of state of the dark energy, and the dimensionless quintessential field parameter tilde{c}. We focus on the acceleration of particles due to collisional processes and show how the center of mass energy depends on the quintessential field parameter tilde{c}. We also make comparison of the obtained results to the collisional energetics of quintessential static black holes demonstrating the crucial role of the rotation parameter a in the particle acceleration. Finally we study the dependence of the maximal value of the efficiency of energy extraction through Penrose process for rotating black hole with quintessential field parameter tilde{c}. It is found that quintessence field decreases the energy extraction efficiency through Penrose process and when the parameter tilde{c} vanishes one can get the standard value of the efficiency coefficient for the Kerr black hole as η˜ 21 %.

  6. Estimation and Extraction of Radar Signal Features Using Modified B Distribution and Particle Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikluc, Davorin; Bujaković, Dimitrije; Andrić, Milenko; Simić, Slobodan

    2016-09-01

    The research analyses the application of particle filters in estimating and extracting the features of radar signal time-frequency energy distribution. Time-frequency representation is calculated using modified B distribution, where the estimation process model represents one time bin. An adaptive criterion for the calculation of particle weighted coefficients whose main parameters are frequency integral squared error and estimated maximum of mean power spectral density per one time bin is proposed. The analysis of the suggested estimation application has been performed on a generated signal in the absence of any noise, and consequently on modelled and recorded real radar signals. The advantage of the suggested method is in the solution of the issue of interrupted estimations of instantaneous frequencies which appears when these estimations are determined according to maximum energy distribution, as in the case of intersecting frequency components in a multicomponent signal.

  7. Micro-Sized Particle Production of Momordicas sp Extract Using Spray Dryer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maizirwan Mel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Spray drying is the most widely used industrial process involving particle formation and drying. It is highly suited for the continuous production of dry solids in either powder, granulate or agglomerate form from liquid feed-stocks as solutions, emulsions and pump able suspensions. Therefore, spray drying is an ideal process where the end-product must comply with precise quality standards regarding particle size distribution, residual moisture content, bulk density, and particle shape. In this study, Momordica sp extract product has been successfully spray dried into micro scale of powder particle and will be used as plant-based insulin. The process optimized using Taguchi method with four factors and three levels has given a good quality of the product. The average of particle size was obtained at about 11 microns.ABSTRAK: Kering sembur digunakan secara meluas dalam proses industri yang melibatkan pembentukan zarah dan pengeringan. Ia amat sesuai dalam penghasilan pepejal kering secara beterusan dalam bentuk serbuk, butiran atau gumpalan daripada simpanan suapan bendalir sebagai larutan, emulsi dan ampaian boleh dipam. Maka, kering sembur adalah proses yang ideal apabila hasil akhir harus mematuhi piawaian kualiti yang tepat berkaitan dengan pengagihan saiz zarah, kandungan kelengsaan sisa, ketumpatan pukal dan bentuk zarah. Dalam kajian ini, produk ekstrak Momordica sp (dikenali juga sebagai peria katak telah berjaya dikering sembur menjadi serbuk zarah berskala mikro dan akan digunakan sebagai insulin berasaskan tumbuhan. Proses ini dioptimumkan dengan pengunaan kaedah Taguchi empat faktor dan tiga peringkat, agar memberikan hasil produk yang berkualiti. Kadar purata saiz zarah yang terhasil adalah lebih kurang 11 mikron.KEY WORDS: micro-sized, particle, Momordica sp, spray dryer.

  8. Beryllium solubility in occupational airborne particles: Sequential extraction procedure and workplace application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousset, Davy; Durand, Thibaut

    2016-01-01

    Modification of an existing sequential extraction procedure for inorganic beryllium species in the particulate matter of emissions and in working areas is described. The speciation protocol was adapted to carry out beryllium extraction in closed-face cassette sampler to take wall deposits into account. This four-step sequential extraction procedure aims to separate beryllium salts, metal, and oxides from airborne particles for individual quantification. Characterization of the beryllium species according to their solubility in air samples may provide information relative to toxicity, which is potentially related to the different beryllium chemical forms. Beryllium salts (BeF(2), BeSO(4)), metallic beryllium (Bemet), and beryllium oxide (BeO) were first individually tested, and then tested in mixtures. Cassettes were spiked with these species and recovery rates were calculated. Quantitative analyses with matched matrix were performed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Method Detection Limits (MDLs) were calculated for the four matrices used in the different extraction steps. In all cases, the MDL was below 4.2 ng/sample. This method is appropriate for assessing occupational exposure to beryllium as the lowest recommended threshold limit values are 0.01 µg.m(-3) in France([) (1) (]) and 0.05 µg.m(-3) in the USA.([ 2 ]) The protocol was then tested on samples from French factories where occupational beryllium exposure was suspected. Beryllium solubility was variable between factories and among the same workplace between different tasks. PMID:26327570

  9. Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of yeast extracts containing rotavirus-like particles: a potential veterinary vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Limas, William A; Pastor, Ana Ruth; Esquivel-Soto, Ernesto; Esquivel-Guadarrama, Fernando; Ramírez, Octavio T; Palomares, Laura A

    2014-05-19

    Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe diarrhea in many animal species of economic interest. A simple, safe and cost-effective vaccine is required for the control and prevention of rotavirus in animals. In this study, we evaluated the use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae extracts containing rotavirus-like particles (RLP) as a vaccine candidate in an adult mice model. Two doses of 1mg of yeast extract containing rotavirus proteins (between 0.3 and 3 μg) resulted in an immunological response capable of reducing the replication of rotavirus after infection. Viral shedding in all mice groups diminished in comparison with the control group when challenged with 100 50% diarrhea doses (DD50) of murine rotavirus strain EDIM. Interestingly, when immunizing intranasally protection against rotavirus infection was observed even when no increase in rotavirus-specific antibody titers was evident, suggesting that cellular responses were responsible of protection. Our results indicate that raw yeast extracts containing rotavirus proteins and RLP are a simple, cost-effective alternative for veterinary vaccines against rotavirus.

  10. Automated 3D Particle Field Extraction and Tracking System Using Digital in-line Holography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham Eldeeb

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Digital holography for 3D particle field extraction and tracking is an active research topic. It has a great application in realizing characterization of micro-scale structures in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS with high resolution and accuracy. In-line configuration is studied in this study as the fundamental structure of a digital holography system. Digital holographic approach, not only eliminates wet chemical processing and mechanical scanning, but also enables the use of complex amplitude information inaccessible by optical reconstruction, thereby allowing flexible reconstruction algorithms to achieve optimization of specific information. However, owing to the inherently low pixel resolution of solid-state imaging sensors, digital holography gives poor depth resolution for images. This problem severely impairs the usefulness of digital holography especially in densely populated particle fields. This study describes a system that significantly improves particle axial-location accuracy by exploring the reconstructed complex amplitude information, compared with other numerical reconstruction schemes that are merely traditional optical reconstruction. Theoretical analysis and experimental results demonstrate that in-line configuration presents advantageous in enhancing the system performance. Greater flexibility of the system, higher lateral resolution and lower speckle noise can be achieved

  11. Effects of a Variety of Food Extracts and Juices on the Specific Binding Ability of Norovirus GII.4 P Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    LI, DAN; BAERT, LEEN; XIA, MING; ZHONG, WEIMING; JIANG, XI; UYTTENDAELE, MIEKE

    2014-01-01

    The effects of 13 food extracts and juices, including shellfish, fruits, and vegetables, on the binding ability of human norovirus (NoV) were examined, using P particles of human NoV GII.4 as a research surrogate. The enhancements (positive values) or reductions (negative values) of NoV P particle detection (changes in optical density at 450 nm) in the presence of different food extracts and juices as compared with P particles diluted in phosphate-buffered saline were tested by saliva-binding, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in triplicate. In the presence of different food extracts and juices at different concentrations, an increase or decrease of the receptor-binding ability of the NoV P particles was observed. Due to a higher specific binding and thus a higher accumulation of the viral particles, oysters may be contaminated with human NoV more often than other shellfish species (mussel, hard clams, and razor clams). Cranberry and pomegranate juices were shown to reduce the specific binding ability of human NoV P particles. No such binding inhibition effects were observed for the other tested extracts of fresh produce (strawberry, blackberry, blueberry, cherry tomato, spinach, romaine lettuce) or, notably, for raspberry, which has been associated with human NoV outbreaks. PMID:22980024

  12. Evaluation of Cyanex 923-coated magnetic particles for the extraction and separation of lanthanides and actinides from nuclear waste streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaibu, B.S. [Chemical Sciences Division, Regional Research Laboratory (CSIR), Thiruvananthapuram-695019 (India); Reddy, M.L.P. [Chemical Sciences Division, Regional Research Laboratory (CSIR), Thiruvananthapuram-695019 (India)]. E-mail: mlpreddy@yahoo.co.uk; Bhattacharyya, A. [Radiochemistry Division, B.A.R.C, Trombay, Mumbai-400085 (India); Manchanda, V.K. [Radiochemistry Division, B.A.R.C, Trombay, Mumbai-400085 (India)

    2006-06-15

    In the magnetically assisted chemical separation (MACS) process, tiny ferromagnetic particles coated with solvent extractant are used to selectively separate radionuclides and hazardous metals from aqueous waste streams. The contaminant-loaded particles are then recovered from the waste solutions using a magnetic field. The contaminants attached to the magnetic particles are subsequently removed using a small volume of stripping agent. In the present study, Cyanex 923 (trialkylphosphine oxide) coated magnetic particles (cross-linked polyacrylamide and acrylic acid entrapping charcoal and iron oxide, 1:1:1, particle size=1-60 {mu}m) are being evaluated for the possible application in the extraction and separation of lanthanides and actinides from nuclear waste streams. The uptake behaviour of Th(IV), U(VI), Am(III) and Eu(III) from nitric acid solutions was investigated by batch studies. The effects of sorption kinetics, extractant and nitric acid concentrations on the uptake behaviour of metal ions were systematically studied. The influence of fission products (Cs(I), Sr(II)) and interfering ions including Fe(III), Cr(VI), Mg(II), Mn(II), and Al(III) were investigated. The recycling capacity of the extractant-coated magnetic particles was also evaluated.

  13. Evaluation of Cyanex 923-coated magnetic particles for the extraction and separation of lanthanides and actinides from nuclear waste streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaibu, B. S.; Reddy, M. L. P.; Bhattacharyya, A.; Manchanda, V. K.

    2006-06-01

    In the magnetically assisted chemical separation (MACS) process, tiny ferromagnetic particles coated with solvent extractant are used to selectively separate radionuclides and hazardous metals from aqueous waste streams. The contaminant-loaded particles are then recovered from the waste solutions using a magnetic field. The contaminants attached to the magnetic particles are subsequently removed using a small volume of stripping agent. In the present study, Cyanex 923 (trialkylphosphine oxide) coated magnetic particles (cross-linked polyacrylamide and acrylic acid entrapping charcoal and iron oxide, 1:1:1, particle size=1-60 μm) are being evaluated for the possible application in the extraction and separation of lanthanides and actinides from nuclear waste streams. The uptake behaviour of Th(IV), U(VI), Am(III) and Eu(III) from nitric acid solutions was investigated by batch studies. The effects of sorption kinetics, extractant and nitric acid concentrations on the uptake behaviour of metal ions were systematically studied. The influence of fission products (Cs(I), Sr(II)) and interfering ions including Fe(III), Cr(VI), Mg(II), Mn(II), and Al(III) were investigated. The recycling capacity of the extractant-coated magnetic particles was also evaluated.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of Gold and Silver nano-particles using different leaf extracts namely Catharanthus roseus, Datura metel and Azadirachta indica and Estimation of antimicrobial activity of silver nano-particles using disc diffusion method

    OpenAIRE

    Sarbjeet Singh Gujral

    2014-01-01

    Objective: synthesis of gold and silver nano-particles using leaf extracts of Catharanthus roseus, Datura metel and Azadirachta indica and Estimation of antimicrobial activity of silver nano-particles using disc diffusion method. Method: Green approach has been utilized for the synthesis of gold and silver nano-particles. Different aqueous plant extracts has been prepared which was then utilized for the biosynthesis of gold and silver nano-particles. Estimation for the synthesis of nano-parti...

  15. Formation of hydroxyl radical from San Joaquin Valley particles extracted in a cell-free solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, H.; Anastasio, C.

    2011-06-01

    Previous studies have suggested that the adverse health effects from ambient particulate matter (PM) are linked to the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by PM. While hydroxyl radical (•OH) is the most reactive of the ROS species, there are few quantitative studies of •OH generation from PM. Here we report on •OH formation from PM collected at an urban (Fresno) and rural (Westside) site in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV) of California. We quantified •OH in PM extracts using a cell-free, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution with or without 50 μM ascorbate (Asc). The results show that generally the urban Fresno PM generates much more •OH than the rural Westside PM. The presence of Asc at a physiologically relevant concentration in the extraction solution greatly enhances •OH formation from all the samples. Fine PM (PM2.5) generally makes more •OH than the corresponding coarse PM (PMcf, i.e., 2.5 to 10 μm) normalized by air volume collected, while the coarse PM typically generates more •OH normalized by PM mass. •OH production by SJV PM is reduced on average by (97 ± 6) % when the transition metal chelator desferoxamine (DSF) is added to the extraction solution, indicating a dominant role of transition metals. By measuring calibration curves of •OH generation from copper and iron, and quantifying copper and iron concentrations in our particle extracts, we find that PBS-soluble copper is primarily responsible for •OH production by the SJV PM, while iron often makes a significant contribution. Extrapolating our results to expected burdens of PM-derived •OH in human lung lining fluid suggests that typical daily PM exposures in the San Joaquin Valley are unlikely to result in a high amount of pulmonary •OH, although high PM events could produce much higher levels of •OH, which might lead to cytotoxicity.

  16. Formation of hydroxyl radical from San Joaquin Valley particles extracted in a cell-free solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Shen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have suggested that the adverse health effects from ambient particulate matter (PM are linked to the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS by PM. While hydroxyl radical (OH is the most reactive of the ROS species, there are few quantitative studies of OH generation from PM. Here we report on OH formation from PM collected at an urban (Fresno and rural (Westside site in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV of California. We quantified OH in PM extracts using a cell-free, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS solution with or without 50 μM ascorbate (Asc. The results show that generally the urban Fresno PM generates much more OH than the rural Westside PM. The presence of Asc at a physiologically relevant concentration in the extraction solution greatly enhances OH formation from all the samples. Fine PM (PM2.5 generally makes more OH than the corresponding coarse PM (PMcf, i.e., 2.5 to 10 μm normalized by air volume collected, while the coarse PM typically generates more OH normalized by PM mass. OH production by SJV PM is reduced on average by (97 ± 6 % when the transition metal chelator desferoxamine (DSF is added to the extraction solution, indicating a dominant role of transition metals. By measuring calibration curves of OH generation from copper and iron, and quantifying copper and iron concentrations in our particle extracts, we find that PBS-soluble copper is primarily responsible for OH production by the SJV PM, while iron often makes a significant contribution. Extrapolating our results to expected burdens of PM-derived OH in human lung lining fluid suggests that typical daily PM exposures in the San Joaquin Valley are unlikely to result in a high amount of pulmonary OH, although high PM events could produce much higher levels

  17. Effect of particle size upon the extent of extraction of antioxidant power from the plants Agrimonia eupatoria, Salvia sp. and Satureja montana

    OpenAIRE

    Maria S. Gião; Pereira, Cláudia I.; Fonseca, Susana C.; Pintado, Manuela E.; Malcata, F. Xavier

    2009-01-01

    The dependence of the extent of aqueous extraction of antioxidant compounds on particle size and contact time was studied for three important medicinal plants, that are commonly used in infusions: agrimony, sage and savoury. The effect of extraction time was dependent on the plant considered; however, ca. 5 min can be taken as the minimum period required to assure an acceptable degree of extraction of those compounds. As expected, a smaller particle size led to a higher extraction...

  18. Assessment of the influence of traffic-related particles in urban dust using sequential selective extraction and oral bioaccessibility tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patinha, C; Durães, N; Sousa, P; Dias, A C; Reis, A P; Noack, Y; Ferreira da Silva, E

    2015-08-01

    Urban dust is a heterogeneous mix, where traffic-related particles can combine with soil mineral compounds, forming a unique and site-specific material. These traffic-related particles are usually enriched in potentially harmful elements, enhancing the health risk for population by inhalation or ingestion. Urban dust samples from Estarreja city and traffic-related particles (brake dust and white traffic paint) were studied to understand the relative contribution of the traffic particles in the geochemical behaviour of urban dust and to evaluate the long-term impacts of the metals on an urban environment, as well as the risk to the populations. It was possible to distinguish two groups of urban dust samples according to Cu behaviour: (1) one group with low amounts of fine particles (car brands (with more than 10 years old), composed by coarser wear particles; and (2) another group with greater amounts of fine particles (car brands (with less than 10 years old). The results obtained showed that there is no direct correlation between the geoavailability of metals estimated by sequential selective chemical extraction (SSCE) and the in vitro oral bioaccessibility (UBM) test. Thus, oral bioaccessibility of urban dust is site specific. Geoavailability was greatly dependent on particle size, where the bioaccessibility tended to increase with a reduction in particle diameter. As anthropogenic particles showed high metal concentration and a smaller size than mineral particles, urban dusts are of major concern to the populations' health, since fine particles are easily re-suspended, easily ingested, and show high metal bioaccessibility. In addition, Estarreja is a coastal city often influenced by winds, which favours the re-suspension of small-sized contaminated particles. Even if the risk to the population does not represent an acute case, it should not be overlooked, and this study can serve as baseline study for cities under high traffic influence.

  19. Particle induced X-ray emission-computed tomography analysis of an adsorbent for extraction chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Takahiro; Yokoyama, Akihito; Kitamura, Akane; Ohkubo, Takeru; Ishii, Yasuyuki; Takahatake, Yoko; Watanabe, Sou; Koma, Yoshikazu; Kada, Wataru

    2016-03-01

    Nd, which simulates minor actinides (MAs), was used for investigating residual minor actinides produced during the extraction chromatography separation of spent fuel from fast neutron reactors. A cross-sectional distribution of Nd in a minute globular adsorbent having diameter less than 50 μm was obtained using particle induced X-ray emission-computed tomography with a 3-MeV proton microbeam. The measurement area was 150 × 150 μm2 corresponding to 128 × 128 imaging pixels in projection images with 9° resolution, image reconstruction was carried out by a modified ML-EM (maximum likelihood expectation maximization) method. As a result, the cross-sectional distribution of Nd in the adsorbent was successfully obtained, and it was first revealed that Nd existed both in the central region and on the outer surface even after an elution. This implies that the internal structure of the adsorbent must be modified for improving of the recovery of MAs.

  20. Solvent extraction system for plutonium colloids and other oxide nano-particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderholm, Lynda; Wilson, Richard E; Chiarizia, Renato; Skanthakumar, Suntharalingam

    2014-06-03

    The invention provides a method for extracting plutonium from spent nuclear fuel, the method comprising supplying plutonium in a first aqueous phase; contacting the plutonium aqueous phase with a mixture of a dielectric and a moiety having a first acidity so as to allow the plutonium to substantially extract into the mixture; and contacting the extracted plutonium with second a aqueous phase, wherein the second aqueous phase has a second acidity higher than the first acidity, so as to allow the extracted plutonium to extract into the second aqueous phase. The invented method facilitates isolation of plutonium polymer without the formation of crud or unwanted emulsions.

  1. Extraction and analysis of silver and gold nanoparticles from biological tissues using single particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Evan P; Coleman, Jessica G; Bednar, Anthony J; Kennedy, Alan J; Ranville, James F; Higgins, Christopher P

    2013-12-17

    Expanded use of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) in consumer products increases the potential for environmental release and unintended biological exposures. As a result, measurement techniques are needed to accurately quantify ENP size, mass, and particle number distributions in biological matrices. This work combines single particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (spICPMS) with tissue extraction to quantify and characterize metallic ENPs in environmentally relevant biological tissues for the first time. ENPs were extracted from tissues via alkaline digestion using tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH). Method development was performed using ground beef and was verified in Daphnia magna and Lumbriculus variegatus . ENPs investigated include 100 and 60 nm Au and Ag stabilized by polyvynylpyrrolidone (PVP). Mass- and number-based recovery of spiked Au and Ag ENPs was high (83-121%) from all tissues tested. Additional experiments suggested ENP mixtures (60 and 100 nm Ag ENPs) could be extracted and quantitatively analyzed. Biological exposures were also conducted to verify the applicability of the method for aquatic organisms. Size distributions and particle number concentrations were determined for ENPs extracted from D. magna exposed to 98 μg/L 100 nm Au and 4.8 μg/L 100 nm Ag ENPs. The D. magna nanoparticulate body burden for Au ENP uptake was 613 ± 230 μg/kgww, while the measured nanoparticulate body burden for D. magna exposed to Ag ENPs was 59 ± 52 μg/kgww. Notably, the particle size distributions determined from D. magna tissues suggested minimal shifts in the size distributions of ENPs accumulated, as compared to the exposure media. PMID:24218983

  2. EXTRACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pafilis, Evangelos; Buttigieg, Pier Luigi; Ferrell, Barbra;

    2016-01-01

    therefore developed an interactive annotation tool, EXTRACT, which helps curators identify and extract standard-compliant terms for annotation of metagenomic records and other samples. Behind its web-based user interface, the system combines published methods for named entity recognition of environment...... and text-mining-assisted curation revealed that EXTRACT speeds up annotation by 15-25% and helps curators to detect terms that would otherwise have been missed.Database URL: https://extract.hcmr.gr/....

  3. Synthesis and characterization of Gold and Silver nano-particles using different leaf extracts namely Catharanthus roseus, Datura metel and Azadirachta indica and Estimation of antimicrobial activity of silver nano-particles using disc diffusion method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarbjeet Singh Gujral

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: synthesis of gold and silver nano-particles using leaf extracts of Catharanthus roseus, Datura metel and Azadirachta indica and Estimation of antimicrobial activity of silver nano-particles using disc diffusion method. Method: Green approach has been utilized for the synthesis of gold and silver nano-particles. Different aqueous plant extracts has been prepared which was then utilized for the biosynthesis of gold and silver nano-particles. Estimation for the synthesis of nano-particles were done using UV-Visible spectroscopy and Fourier- Transform infrared spectroscopy. Antimicrobial activity of silver nano-particles prepared using aqueous neem extract was investigated using disc diffusion method. Result: UV- Vis spectroscopy of prepared nano-particles was done which gave a peak at about 550 nm for gold nano-particles and around 430 nm for silver nano-particles. FTIR of collected nano-particles gave an idea about the type of bio-molecules which helped in the reduction of auric and silver salts into corresponding nano-particles. Anti-microbial activity of silver nano-particles showed that the nano-particles have better anti-microbial activity than 2% silver nitrate solution (kept as standard when experiments were performed under similar conditions. Conclusion: Gold and silver nano-particles were successfully synthesized using greener approach and anti-microbial activity of silver nano-particles prepared using aqueous neem extract was estimated against 2% AgNO3 solution. Nano-particles gave better anti-microbial activity than Silver nitrate solution.

  4. Micro-Sized Particle Production of Momordicas sp Extract Using Spray Dryer

    OpenAIRE

    Maizirwan Mel; Emirul Adzhar Yahya; and Mohd Rushdi Abu Bakar

    2011-01-01

    Spray drying is the most widely used industrial process involving particle formation and drying. It is highly suited for the continuous production of dry solids in either powder, granulate or agglomerate form from liquid feed-stocks as solutions, emulsions and pump able suspensions. Therefore, spray drying is an ideal process where the end-product must comply with precise quality standards regarding particle size distribution, residual moisture content, bulk density, and particle shape. In th...

  5. Regulation of human hepatic drug transporter activity and expression by diesel exhaust particle extract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Le Vee

    Full Text Available Diesel exhaust particles (DEPs are common environmental air pollutants primarily affecting the lung. DEPs or chemicals adsorbed on DEPs also exert extra-pulmonary effects, including alteration of hepatic drug detoxifying enzyme expression. The present study was designed to determine whether organic DEP extract (DEPe may target hepatic drug transporters that contribute in a major way to drug detoxification. Using primary human hepatocytes and transporter-overexpressing cells, DEPe was first shown to strongly inhibit activities of the sinusoidal solute carrier (SLC uptake transporters organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATP 1B1, 1B3 and 2B1 and of the canalicular ATP-binding cassette (ABC efflux pump multidrug resistance-associated protein 2, with IC50 values ranging from approximately 1 to 20 μg/mL and relevant to environmental exposure situations. By contrast, 25 μg/mL DEPe failed to alter activities of the SLC transporter organic cation transporter (OCT 1 and of the ABC efflux pumps P-glycoprotein and bile salt export pump (BSEP, whereas it only moderately inhibited those of sodium taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide and of breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP. Treatment by 25 μg/mL DEPe was next demonstrated to induce expression of BCRP at both mRNA and protein level in cultured human hepatic cells, whereas it concomitantly repressed mRNA expression of various transporters, including OATP1B3, OATP2B1, OCT1 and BSEP. Such changes in transporter expression were found to be highly correlated to those caused by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, a reference activator of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR pathway. This suggests that DEPe, which is enriched in known ligands of AhR like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, alters drug transporter expression via activation of the AhR cascade. Taken together, these data established human hepatic transporters as targets of organic chemicals containing in DEPs, which may contribute

  6. SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION OF SEMI-VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM PARTICLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    A nitrogen oxide flux chamber was modified to measure the flux of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs). Part of the modification involved the development of methods to extract SVOCs from polyurethane foam (PUF), sand, and soil. Breakthroughs and extraction efficiencies were ...

  7. The severity of alpha-particle-induced DNA damage is revealed by exposure to cell-free extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rejoining of single-strand breaks induced by α-particle and γ irradiation in plasmid DNA under two scavenging conditions has been compared. At the two scavenger conditions has been compared. At the two scavenger capacities used of 1.5 x 107 and 3 x 108s-1 using Tris-HCl as the scavenger, the ratio of single- to double-strand breaks for α particles is fivefold less than the corresponding ratios for γ irradiation. The repair of such radiation-induced single-strand breaks has been examined using a cell-free system derived from human whole-cell extracts. We show that the rejoining of single-strand breaks for both α-particle- and γ-irradiated plasmid is dependent upon the scavenging capacity and that the efficiency of rejoining of α-particle-induced single-strand breaks is significantly less than that observed for γ-ray-induced breaks. In addition, for DNA that had been irradiated under conditions that mimic the cellular environment with respect to the radical scavenging capacity, 50 of α-particle-induced single-strand breaks are converted to double-strand breaks, in contrast with only ∼12% conversion of γ-ray-induced single-strand breaks, indicating that the initial damage caused by α particles is more severe. These studies provide experimental evidence for increased clustering of damage which may have important implications for the induction of cancer by low-level α-particle sources such as domestic radon. 37 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  8. CIT alpha particle extraction and measurement: Low-Z ablation cloud profile simulation for alpha-particle diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to determine the expected properties of the ablation cloud of low-Z pellets interacting with a thermonuclear plasma, which in turn is proposed as a charge-neutralization medium for confined alpha particles, a numerical program has been developed. The physical model for this program is based on Park's low-Z pellet-plasma interaction model for the interior of the cloud adjacent to the pellet's surface out to the sonic surface (roughly, a millimeter in separation), and then propagating outward from this region using the conservation laws of enthalpy, momentum, and mass, along with the assumption of charge-state equilibrium. The effects of local heating by the plasma electrons slowing down in the cloud, and ionization of the ablatant material are treated self-consistently in the model. In collaboration with Dr. Paul Parks of General Atomics Corporation, a joint ODU-GAC research plan for modeling low-Z pellet-plasma interactions has been devised, and considerable progress has been made in its implementation. Recently, using a constraint in the ablatant flow, so that it approximates its observed flow along the magnetic field, results from the program were obtained which could be compared with the results from the GAC experiments on TEXT. The predictions of the program are in poor agreement with the TEXT data as to the dimensions of the C+3 region of the cloud along the magnetic field. The failure of the model appears to be the breakdown of the assumption that charge-state equilibrium exists in the cloud. This problem is particularly severe for the TEXT parameters so modifications in the model to include non-equilibrium effects are being implemented

  9. CIT alpha particle extraction and measurement: Low-Z ablation cloud profile simulation for alpha-particle diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to determine the expected properties of the ablation cloud of low-Z pellets interacting with a thermonuclear plasma, which in turn is proposed as a charge-neutralization medium for confined alpha particles, a numerical program has been developed. The physical model for this program is based on Parks' low-Z pellet-plasma interaction model for the interior of the cloud adjacent to the pellet's surface out to the sonic surface (roughly, a millimeter in separation) and then propagating outward from this region using the conservation laws of enthalpy, momentum, and mass, along with the assumption of charge-state equilibrium. The effects of local heating by the plasma electrons slowing down in the cloud, and ionization of the ablatant material are treated self-consistently in the model. In collaboration with Dr. Paul Parks of General Atomics Corporation, a joint ODU-GAC research plan for modeling low-Z pellet-plasma interactions has been devised, and considerable progress has been made in its implementation. Recently, using a constraint in the ablatant flow, results from the program were obtained which could be compared with the results from the GAC experiments on TEXT. The predictions of the program are in pretty good agreement with the TEXT data as to the dimensions of the C+3 region of the cloud along the magnetic field. Also a small improvement has been made in the low-Z pellet plasma-penetration program, which brings the predictions of the model in closer agreement with the carbon pellet injection experiments on TFTR. 22 refs., 3 figs

  10. Study of the composition and gas-phase release characteristics of salt material extracted from MSW ash particles using STA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvelakis, Stelios; Frandsen, Flemming; Koukios, E.G.

    2007-01-01

    The ash material generated from the MSW incineration contains large amounts of alkali metals, heavy metals, chlorine and sulfur mainly deposited as inorganic salts and/or oxides on the surface of the Si-rich ash particles. In this work, the composition and gas-phase release characteristics of salt...... material extracted from MSW ash particles using a six-stage leaching process is studied using simultaneous thermal analysis (STA). The produced results provide useful information regarding the composition of the salt material and its melting behavior that is considered to play an important role to...... deposition and corrosion problems at MSW incinerators. The results may be used to model the deposition process and to the better understanding of the corrosion process during MSW incineration....

  11. Exploiting the orbital motion of water particles for energy extraction from waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, M. Rafiuddin; Faizal, Mohammed; Prasad, Krishnil [University of the South Pacific, Suva (Fiji)

    2010-04-15

    In wave motion, the water particles are known to follow orbital paths. This orbital motion was used to drive five-bladed Savonius rotors. Experiments were performed on an array of four rotors placed in a two-dimensional (2-D) wave channel. The flow around the rotors was documented using particle image velocimetry measurements. The submergence of the rotors and the distance between them were varied, and the rotational speeds of the rotors (Nn) were recorded at different wave frequencies. It was found that rotational speeds increased with an increase in the wave frequency, as it amplified the wave height that increased the kinetic energy of the particles in their orbital motion. The rotational speeds decreased when the distance between the rotors increased. High rotational speeds are recorded when the array of the rotors is placed close to the water surface at the smallest centre-to-centre distance between the rotors

  12. Fractionation of HeLa cell nuclear extracts reveals minor small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles.

    OpenAIRE

    Krämer, A

    1987-01-01

    Upon chromatographic fractionation of HeLa cell nuclear extracts, small RNAs of 145 and 66/65 nucleotides, respectively, were detected that are distinct from the abundant small RNAs present in the extract. These RNAs are precipitated by antibodies directed against the trimethylguanosine cap structure, characteristic for small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) of the U type. The RNAs of 145 and 66/65 nucleotides appear to be associated with at least one of the proteins common to the major small nuclear ri...

  13. FOULING PREVENTION WITH FLUIDIZED PARTICLES IN EVAPORATION OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE EXTRACT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingyan Liu; Xiulun Li; Ruitai Lin; Wanda Nie; Rucheng Zhang; Ningsheng Ling

    2004-01-01

    The present investigation shows that comparing with the evaporation of vapor-liquid two-phase flow boiling system, heat transfer is enhanced by adding proper inert solid particles into the traditional Chinese medicine liquid which is under evaporation. As a result, fouling prevention effects are evident in such three-phase flow boiling evaporator.

  14. Extraction of Geometric Features of Wear Particles in Color Ferrograph Images Based on RGB Color Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Gui-ming; WANG Han-gong; ZHANG Bao-jun; PAN Wei

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyzes the potential color formats of ferrograph images, and presents the algorithms of converting the formats to RGB(Red, Green, Blue) color space. Through statistical analysis of wear par-ticles' geometric features of color ferrograph images in the RGB color space, we give the differences of ferro-graph wear panicles' geometric features among RGB color spaces and gray scale space, and calculate their respective distributions.

  15. Determination of five pyrethroids in tea drinks by dispersive solid phase extraction with polyaniline-coated magnetic particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanpeng; Sun, Ying; Gao, Yan; Xu, Bo; Wu, Qiong; Zhang, Hanqi; Song, Daqian

    2014-02-01

    The polyaniline-coated magnetic particles with bowl-shaped morphology (Fe3O4/C/PANI microbowls) were successfully prepared and characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry. The prepared microbowls were used as the magnetic adsorbent in dispersive solid phase extraction of five pyrethroids, including cyhalothrin, beta-cypermethrin, esfenvalerate, permethrin and bifenthrin in plain tea drinks. The effects of experiment factors, including amount of Fe3O4/C/PANI microbowls, pH value, ultrasound extraction time and desorption conditions, were investigated. The extraction recoveries obtained with 8 mg of magnetic microbowls were satisfactory, and the microbowls can be reused after easy washing. Thus, a simple, selective and effective method for the determination of the pyrethroids was established successfully. The results showed that the method had good linearity (r=0.9992-0.9998), and the limits of detections (LODs) were from 0.025 to 0.032 ng mL(-1). The intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviations (RSDs) were in the range of 2.4-6.1% and 3.5-8.8%, respectively. Recoveries obtained by analyzing the real tea drinks were in the range of 72.1-118.4%.

  16. A feature extraction method of the particle swarm optimization algorithm based on adaptive inertia weight and chaos optimization for Brillouin scattering spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanjun; Zhao, Yu; Fu, Xinghu; Xu, Jinrui

    2016-10-01

    A novel particle swarm optimization algorithm based on adaptive inertia weight and chaos optimization is proposed for extracting the features of Brillouin scattering spectra. Firstly, the adaptive inertia weight parameter of the velocity is introduced to the basic particle swarm algorithm. Based on the current iteration number of particles and the adaptation value, the algorithm can change the weight coefficient and adjust the iteration speed of searching space for particles, so the local optimization ability can be enhanced. Secondly, the logical self-mapping chaotic search is carried out by using the chaos optimization in particle swarm optimization algorithm, which makes the particle swarm optimization algorithm jump out of local optimum. The novel algorithm is compared with finite element analysis-Levenberg Marquardt algorithm, particle swarm optimization-Levenberg Marquardt algorithm and particle swarm optimization algorithm by changing the linewidth, the signal-to-noise ratio and the linear weight ratio of Brillouin scattering spectra. Then the algorithm is applied to the feature extraction of Brillouin scattering spectra in different temperatures. The simulation analysis and experimental results show that this algorithm has a high fitting degree and small Brillouin frequency shift error for different linewidth, SNR and linear weight ratio. Therefore, this algorithm can be applied to the distributed optical fiber sensing system based on Brillouin optical time domain reflection, which can effectively improve the accuracy of Brillouin frequency shift extraction.

  17. Characterization of Environmental Nano- and Macrocolloid Particles Extracted from Selected Soils and Biosolids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Ghezzi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental nanoparticles found in soil systems and biosolids may pose a considerable risk to groundwater quality as contaminant carriers. Little effort has been invested in the characterization of natural nanocolloids compared to corresponding macrocolloids. This study involved physicochemical, mineralogical, and morphological characterizations of nanocolloids and macrocolloids fractionated from three Kentucky soils and one biosolid. Particle size and morphology were investigated using scanning/transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. Mineralogical composition was determined by X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy analyses. Zeta potentials and cation exchange capacities assessed surface charge and chemical reactivity. The estimated average hydrodynamic diameter of nanoparticles was nearly twice the ideal 100 nm range, apparently due to irregular particle shapes and partial aggregation. Nanoparticles were also found attached to surfaces of macrocolloids, forming macro-nano aggregates and obscuring some of their physical and chemical characteristics. However, nanocolloids exhibited greater surface reactivity, likely due to their smaller size, poor crystallinity, and morphological shape distortions. In spite of some behavior modification due to nanoaggregation phenomena, nanocolloids appeared to be much more potent vectors of contaminant transport in subsurface environments than their macrosize fractions. Nevertheless, their heterogeneous nature brings to light important considerations in addressing pollution prevention and remediation challenges.

  18. Superradiance energy extraction, black-hole bombs and implications for astrophysics and particle physics

    CERN Document Server

    Brito, Richard; Pani, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    This volume gives a unified picture of the multifaceted subject of superradiance, with a focus on recent developments in the field, ranging from fundamental physics to astrophysics. Superradiance is a radiation enhancement process that involves dissipative systems. With a 60 year-old history, superradiance has played a prominent role in optics, quantum mechanics and especially in relativity and astrophysics. In Einstein's General Relativity, black-hole superradiance is permitted by dissipation at the event horizon, which allows energy extraction from the vacuum, even at the classical level. When confined, this amplified radiation can give rise to strong instabilities known as "blackhole bombs'', which have applications in searches for dark matter, in physics beyond the Standard Model and in analog models of gravity. This book discusses and draws together all these fascinating aspects of superradiance.

  19. Event patterns (particle scatter plots) extracted from charged particle spectra in $pp$ and Pb-Pb collisions at 2.76 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Ya-Hui; Fakhraddin, Sakina; Rahim, Magda A; Duan, Mai-Ying

    2016-01-01

    The transverse momentum ($p_T$) and pseudorapidity ($\\eta$) spectra of charged particles produced in proton-proton ($pp$) and lead-lead (Pb-Pb) collisions at the large hadron collider (LHC) are described by a hybrid model. In the model, the $p_T$ spectrum is described by a two-component distribution which contains an inverse power-law suggested by the QCD (Quantum Chromodynamic) calculus and an Erlang distribution resulted from a multisource thermal model. The $\\eta$ spectrum is described by a Gaussian rapidity ($y$) distribution resulted from the Landau hydrodynamic model and the two-component $p_T$ distribution, where the conversion between $y$ and $\\eta$ is accurately considered. The modelling results are in agreement with the experimental data measured by the ATLAS Collaboration in $pp$ collisions at center-of-mass energy $\\sqrt{s}=2.76$ TeV and in Pb-Pb collisions at center-of-mass energy per nucleon pair $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}=2.76$ TeV. Based on the parameter values extracted from $p_T$ and $\\eta$ or $y$ spect...

  20. cDNA microarray analysis of rat alveolar epithelial cells following exposure to organic extract of diesel exhaust particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) induce pulmonary diseases including asthma and chronic bronchitis. Comprehensive evaluation is required to know the mechanisms underlying the effects of air pollutants including DEP on lung diseases. Using a cDNA microarray, we examined changes in gene expression in SV40T2 cells, a rat alveolar type II epithelial cell line, following exposure to an organic extract of DEP. We identified candidate sensitive genes that were up- or down-regulated in response to DEP. The cDNA microarray analysis revealed that a 6-h exposure to the DEP extract (30 μg/ml) increased (>2-fold) the expression of 51 genes associated with drug metabolism, antioxidation, cell cycle/proliferation/apoptosis, coagulation/fibrinolysis, and expressed sequence tags (ESTs), and decreased (<0.5-fold) that of 20 genes. In the present study, heme oxygenase (HO)-1, an antioxidative enzyme, showed the maximum increase in gene expression; and type II transglutaminase (TGM-2), a regulator of coagulation, showed the most prominent decrease among the genes. We confirmed the change in the HO-1 protein level by Western blot analysis and that in the enzyme activity of TGM-2. The organic extract of DEP increased the expression of HO-1 protein and decreased the enzyme activity of TGM-2. Furthermore, these effects of DEP on either HO-1 or TGM-2 were reduced by N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), thus suggesting that oxidative stress caused by this organic fraction of DEP may have induced these cellular responses. Therefore, an increase in HO-1 and a decrease in TGM-2 might be good markers of the biological response to organic compounds of airborne particulate substances

  1. A comparison of hydroxyl radical and hydrogen peroxide generation in ambient particle extracts and laboratory metal solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Huiyun; Anastasio, Cort

    2012-01-01

    Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) - including superoxide ( rad O 2-), hydrogen peroxide (HOOH), and hydroxyl radical ( rad OH) - has been suggested as one mechanism underlying the adverse health effects caused by ambient particulate matter (PM). In this study we compare HOOH and rad OH production from fine and coarse PM collected at an urban (Fresno) and rural (Westside) site in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV) of California, as well as from laboratory solutions containing dissolved copper or iron. Samples were extracted in a cell-free, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution containing 50 μM ascorbate (Asc). In our laboratory solutions we find that Cu is a potent source of both HOOH and rad OH, with approximately 90% of the electrons that can be donated from Asc ending up in HOOH and rad OH after 4 h. In contrast, in Fe solutions there is no measurable HOOH and only a modest production of rad OH. Soluble Cu in the SJV PM samples is also a dominant source of HOOH and rad OH. In both laboratory copper solutions and extracts of ambient particles we find much more production of HOOH compared to rad OH: e.g., HOOH generation is approximately 30-60 times faster than rad OH generation. The formation of HOOH and rad OH are positively correlated, with roughly 3% and 8% of HOOH converted to rad OH after 4 and 24 h of extraction, respectively. Although the SJV PM produce much more HOOH than rad OH, since rad OH is a much stronger oxidant it is unclear which species might be more important for oxidant-mediated toxicity from PM inhalation.

  2. Comparison Study ofHydrogels Properties Synthesized with Micro- andNano- Size Bacterial Cellulose Particles Extracted from Nata de coco

    OpenAIRE

    Johari, N.S.; Ahmad, I.; Halib, N.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of different size of bacterial cellulose particles used in the production of hydrogel was investigated. Bacterial cellulose was extracted from nata de coco, a local dessert origin from the Philippines. Micro size particle was prepared by conventional grinding of dried sheet of bacterial cellulose whereas cellulose nanoparticle was prepared by acid hydrolysis treatment. Both were then used in hydrogels formulation with acrylic acid (in ratio of 70% of bacterial cellulose dispersi...

  3. Formation of hydroxyl radical from San Joaquin Valley particles extracted in a cell-free surrogate lung fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, H.; Anastasio, C.

    2011-09-01

    Previous studies have suggested that the adverse health effects from ambient particulate matter (PM) are linked to the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by PM in cardiopulmonary tissues. While hydroxyl radical (•OH) is the most reactive of the ROS species, there are few quantitative studies of •OH generation from PM. Here we report on •OH formation from PM collected at an urban (Fresno) and rural (Westside) site in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV) of California. We quantified •OH in PM extracts using a cell-free, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution with or without 50 μM ascorbate (Asc). The results show that generally the urban Fresno PM generates much more •OH than the rural Westside PM. The presence of Asc at a physiologically relevant concentration in the extraction solution greatly enhances •OH formation from all the samples. Fine PM (PM2.5) generally makes more •OH than the corresponding coarse PM (PMcf, i.e. with diameters of 2.5 to 10 μm) normalized by air volume collected, while the coarse PM typically generates more •OH normalized by PM mass. •OH production by SJV PM is reduced on average by (97 ± 6) % when the transition metal chelator desferoxamine (DSF) is added to the extraction solution, indicating a dominant role of transition metals. By measuring calibration curves of •OH generation from copper and iron, and quantifying copper and iron concentrations in our particle extracts, we find that PBS-soluble copper is primarily responsible for •OH production by the SJV PM, while iron often makes a significant contribution. Extrapolating our results to expected burdens of PM-derived •OH in human lung lining fluid suggests that typical daily PM exposures in the San Joaquin Valley are unlikely to result in a high amount of pulmonary •OH, although high PM events could produce much higher levels of •OH, which might lead to cytotoxicity.

  4. Formation of hydroxyl radical from San Joaquin Valley particles extracted in a cell-free surrogate lung fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Shen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have suggested that the adverse health effects from ambient particulate matter (PM are linked to the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS by PM in cardiopulmonary tissues. While hydroxyl radical (OH is the most reactive of the ROS species, there are few quantitative studies of OH generation from PM. Here we report on OH formation from PM collected at an urban (Fresno and rural (Westside site in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV of California. We quantified OH in PM extracts using a cell-free, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS solution with or without 50 μM ascorbate (Asc. The results show that generally the urban Fresno PM generates much more OH than the rural Westside PM. The presence of Asc at a physiologically relevant concentration in the extraction solution greatly enhances OH formation from all the samples. Fine PM (PM2.5 generally makes more OH than the corresponding coarse PM (PMcf, i.e. with diameters of 2.5 to 10 μm normalized by air volume collected, while the coarse PM typically generates more OH normalized by PM mass. OH production by SJV PM is reduced on average by (97 ± 6 % when the transition metal chelator desferoxamine (DSF is added to the extraction solution, indicating a dominant role of transition metals. By measuring calibration curves of OH generation from copper and iron, and quantifying copper and iron concentrations in our particle extracts, we find that PBS-soluble copper is primarily responsible for OH production by the SJV PM, while iron often makes a significant contribution. Extrapolating our results to expected burdens of PM-derived OH in human lung lining fluid suggests that typical daily PM exposures in the San Joaquin Valley are unlikely to result in a high amount of pulmonary OH, although high

  5. Global gene expression changes in human embryonic lung fibroblasts induced by organic extracts from respirable air particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Líbalová Helena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, we used cell-free assays to demonstrate the toxic effects of complex mixtures of organic extracts from urban air particles (PM2.5 collected in four localities of the Czech Republic (Ostrava-Bartovice, Ostrava-Poruba, Karvina and Trebon which differed in the extent and sources of air pollution. To obtain further insight into the biological mechanisms of action of the extractable organic matter (EOM from ambient air particles, human embryonic lung fibroblasts (HEL12469 were treated with the same four EOMs to assess changes in the genome-wide expression profiles compared to DMSO treated controls. Method For this purpose, HEL cells were incubated with subtoxic EOM concentrations of 10, 30, and 60 μg EOM/ml for 24 hours and global gene expression changes were analyzed using human whole genome microarrays (Illumina. The expression of selected genes was verified by quantitative real-time PCR. Results Dose-dependent increases in the number of significantly deregulated transcripts as well as dose-response relationships in the levels of individual transcripts were observed. The transcriptomic data did not differ substantially between the localities, suggesting that the air pollution originating mainly from various sources may have similar biological effects. This was further confirmed by the analysis of deregulated pathways and by identification of the most contributing gene modulations. The number of significantly deregulated KEGG pathways, as identified by Goeman's global test, varied, depending on the locality, between 12 to 29. The Metabolism of xenobiotics by cytochrome P450 exhibited the strongest upregulation in all 4 localities and CYP1B1 had a major contribution to the upregulation of this pathway. Other important deregulated pathways in all 4 localities were ABC transporters (involved in the translocation of exogenous and endogenous metabolites across membranes and DNA repair, the Wnt and TGF-β signaling pathways

  6. Electrical conductivity modification using silver nano particles of Jatropha Multifida L. and Pterocarpus Indicus w. extracts films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diantoro, Markus; Hidayati, Nisfi Nahari Sani; Latifah, Rodatul; Fuad, Abdulloh; Nasikhudin, Sujito, Hidayat, Arif

    2016-03-01

    Natural polymers can be extracted from leaf or stem of plants. Pterocarpus Indicus W. (PIW) and Jatropha Multifida L. (JIL) plants are good candidate as natural polymer sources. PIW and JIW polymers contain chemical compound so-called flavonoids which has C6-C3-C6 carbons conjugated configuration. The renewable type of polymer as well as their abundancy of flavonoid provide us to explore their physical properties. A number of research have been reported related to broad synthesis method and mechanical properties. So far there is no specific report of electrical conductivity associated to PIW and JIL natural polymers. In order to obtain electrical conductivity and its crystallinity of the extracted polymer films, it was induced on them a various fraction of silver nano particles. The film has been prepared by means of spin coating method on nickel substrate. It was revealed that FTIR spectra confirm the existing of rutine flavonoid. The crystallinity of the samples increase from 0.66%, to 4.11% associated to the respective various of silver fractions of 0.1 M to 0.5 M. SEM images show that there are some grains of silver in the film. The nature of electric conductivity increases a long with the addition of silver. The electrical conductivity increase significantly from 3.22 S/cm, to 542.85 S/cm. On the other hand, PIW films also shows similar trends that increase of Ag induce the increase its crystallinity as well as its electrical conductivity at semiconducting level. This result opens a prospective research and application of the green renewable polymer as optoelectronic materials.

  7. 基于粒子群的关键帧提取算法%Key frame extraction based on particle swarm optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建明; 蒋兴杰; 李广翠; 姜靓

    2011-01-01

    Key frame extraction was an important step in video retrieval. In order to effectively extract key frames of different video types, a key frame extraction algorithm based on particle swarm was proposed in this paper. This method first extracted the global motion and local motion features in each frame, and video key frame was extracted by Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) adaptively. The experimental results show that the key frame extraction algorithm for different types of video is more representative.%关键帧提取是基于内容的视频检索中的重要一步,为了能够有效地提取出不同类型视频的关键帧,提出一种基于粒子群的关键帧提取算法.该方法首先提取出视频中每帧的全局运动和局部运动特征,然后通过粒子群算法自适应地提取视频关键帧.实验结果表明,采用该算法对不同类型的视频提取出的关键帧具有较好的代表性.

  8. Assessment of the influence of traffic-related particles in urban dust using sequential selective extraction and oral bioaccessibility tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patinha, C; Durães, N; Sousa, P; Dias, A C; Reis, A P; Noack, Y; Ferreira da Silva, E

    2015-08-01

    Urban dust is a heterogeneous mix, where traffic-related particles can combine with soil mineral compounds, forming a unique and site-specific material. These traffic-related particles are usually enriched in potentially harmful elements, enhancing the health risk for population by inhalation or ingestion. Urban dust samples from Estarreja city and traffic-related particles (brake dust and white traffic paint) were studied to understand the relative contribution of the traffic particles in the geochemical behaviour of urban dust and to evaluate the long-term impacts of the metals on an urban environment, as well as the risk to the populations. It was possible to distinguish two groups of urban dust samples according to Cu behaviour: (1) one group with low amounts of fine particles (wear particles; and (2) another group with greater amounts of fine particles (test. Thus, oral bioaccessibility of urban dust is site specific. Geoavailability was greatly dependent on particle size, where the bioaccessibility tended to increase with a reduction in particle diameter. As anthropogenic particles showed high metal concentration and a smaller size than mineral particles, urban dusts are of major concern to the populations' health, since fine particles are easily re-suspended, easily ingested, and show high metal bioaccessibility. In addition, Estarreja is a coastal city often influenced by winds, which favours the re-suspension of small-sized contaminated particles. Even if the risk to the population does not represent an acute case, it should not be overlooked, and this study can serve as baseline study for cities under high traffic influence. PMID:26076813

  9. Characterization of gold nanoparticle uptake by tomato plants using enzymatic extraction followed by single-particle inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, Yongbo; Zhang, Weilan; Xue, Runmiao; Ma, Xingmao; Stephan, Chady; Shi, Honglan

    2015-03-01

    Plant uptake and accumulation of nanoparticles (NPs) represent an important pathway for potential human expose to NPs. Consequently, it is imperative to understand the uptake of accumulation of NPs in plant tissues and their unique physical and chemical properties within plant tissues. Current technologies are limited in revealing the unique characteristics of NPs after they enter plant tissues. An enzymatic digestion method, followed by single-particle inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (SP-ICP-MS) analysis, was developed for simultaneous determination of gold NP (AuNP) size, size distribution, particle concentration, and dissolved Au concentration in tomato plant tissues. The experimental results showed that Macerozyme R-10 enzyme was capable of extracting AuNPs from tomato plants without causing dissolution or aggregation of AuNPs. The detection limit for quantification of AuNP size was 20 nm, and the AuNP particle concentration detection limit was 1000 NPs/mL. The particle concentration recoveries of spiked AuNPs were high (79-96%) in quality control samples. The developed SP-ICP-MS method was able to accurately measure AuNP size, size distribution, and particle concentration in the plant matrix. The dosing study indicated that tomato can uptake AuNPs as intact particles without alternating the AuNP properties.

  10. Disturbance of water-extractable phosphorus determination by colloidal particles in a heavy clay soil from the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, G.F.; Chardon, W.J.; Salm, van der C.

    2005-01-01

    Received for publication January 25, 2005. Water extraction methods are widely used to extract phosphorus (P) from soils for both agronomic and environmental purposes. Both the presence of soil colloids in soil water filtrates, and the contribution of colloidal P to the molybdate-reactive phosphorus

  11. Electrochemical insertion and extraction of lithium-ion at nano-sized LiMn2O4 particles prepared by a spray pyrolysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nano-sized LiMn2O4 particles were prepared at 1023 K by electrospray pyrolysis in which they were directly deposited on a Pt substrate in gas phase. Cyclic voltammetry gave very sharp and symmetrical redox peaks at ca. 4.0 and 4.1 V vs. Li/Li+ owing to the insertion and extraction of lithium-ion at LiMn2O4. However, the redox peaks broadened and their peak separation in an electrode potential increased when aggregated nano-sized LiMn2O4 particles were used. In Nyquist plots, a semi-circle due to lithium-ion transfer resistance appeared at potentials above 3.90 V. The values of the lithium-ion transfer resistances were small for dispersed nano-sized LiMn2O4 particles. On the other hand, the lithium-ion transfer resistances increased and the Warburg impedance became obvious as the nano-sized LiMn2O4 particles aggregated. These results clearly indicate that the apparent rapid diffusion of lithium-ion can be attained using well-dispersed nano-sized particles of electroactive materials

  12. Extraction of total nucleic acid based on silica-coated magnetic particles for RT-qPCR detection of plant RNA virus/viroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ning; Deng, Congliang; Zhao, Xiaoli; Zhou, Qi; Ge, Guanglu; Liu, Yi; Yan, Wenlong; Xia, Qiang

    2014-02-01

    In this study, a nucleic acid extraction method based on silica-coated magnetic particles (SMPs) and RT-qPCR assay was developed to detect Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV), Lily symptomless virus (LSV), Hop stunt viroid (HSVd) and grape yellow speckle viroid 1 (GYSVd-1). The amplification sequences of RT-qPCR were reversely transcribed in vitro as RNA standard templates. The standard curves covered six or seven orders of magnitude with a detection limit of 100 copies per each assay. Extraction efficiency of the SMPs method was evaluated by recovering spiked ssRNAs from plant samples and compared to two commercial kits (TRIzol and RNeasy Plant mini kit). Results showed that the recovery rate of SMPs method was comparable to the commercial kits when spiked ssRNAs were extracted from lily leaves, whereas it was two or three times higher than commercial kits when spiked ssRNAs were extracted from grapevine leaves. SMPs method was also used to extract viral nucleic acid from15 ArMV-positive lily leaf samples and 15 LSV-positive lily leaf samples. SMPs method did not show statistically significant difference from other methods on detecting ArMV, but LSV. The SMPs method has the same level of virus load as the TRIzol, and its mean virus load of was 0.5log10 lower than the RNeasy Plant mini kit. Nucleic acid was extracted from 19 grapevine-leaf samples with SMPs and the two commercial kits and subsequently screened for HSVd and GYSVd-1 by RT-qPCR. Regardless of HSVd or GYSVd-1, SMPs method outperforms other methods on both positive rate and the viroid load. In conclusion, SMPs method was able to efficiently extract the nucleic acid of RNA viruses or viroids, especially grapevine viroids, from lily-leaf or grapevine-leaf samples for RT-qPCR detection.

  13. Size-resolved measurements of brown carbon and estimates of their contribution to ambient fine particle light absorption based on water and methanol extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J.; Bergin, M.; Guo, H.; King, L.; Kotra, N.; Edgerton, E.; Weber, R. J.

    2013-07-01

    Light absorbing organic carbon, often termed brown carbon, has the potential to significantly contribute to the visible light absorption budget, particularly at shorter wavelengths. Currently, the relative contributions of particulate brown carbon to light absorption, as well as the sources of brown carbon are poorly understood. With this in mind field measurements were made at both urban (Atlanta), and rural (Yorkville) sites in Georgia. Measurements in Atlanta were made at both a central site and a road side site adjacent to a main highway near the city center. Fine particle brown carbon optical absorption is estimated based on Mie calculations using direct size resolved measurements of chromophores in filter extracts. Size-resolved atmospheric aerosol samples were collected using a cascade impactor and analyzed for water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC), and solution light absorption spectra of water and methanol extracts. Methanol extracts were more light-absorbing than water extracts for all size ranges and wavelengths. Absorption refractive indices of the organic extracts were calculated from solution measurements for a range of wavelengths and used with Mie theory to predict the light absorption by fine particles comprised of these components, under the assumption that brown carbon and other aerosol components were externally mixed. For all three sites, chromophores were predominately in the accumulation mode with an aerodynamic mean diameter of 0.5 μm, an optically effective size range resulting in predicted particle light absorption being a factor of 2 higher than bulk solution absorption. Fine particle absorption was also measured with a Multi-Angle Absorption Photometer (MAAP) and seven-wavelength Aethalometer. Scattering-corrected aethalometer and MAAP absorption were in good agreement at 670 nm and Mie-estimated absorption based on size-resolved EC data were within 30% of these optical instruments. When applied

  14. Size-resolved measurements of brown carbon and estimates of their contribution to ambient fine particle light absorption based on water and methanol extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Liu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Light absorbing organic carbon, often termed brown carbon, has the potential to significantly contribute to the visible light absorption budget, particularly at shorter wavelengths. Currently, the relative contributions of particulate brown carbon to light absorption, as well as the sources of brown carbon are poorly understood. With this in mind field measurements were made at both urban (Atlanta, and rural (Yorkville sites in Georgia. Measurements in Atlanta were made at both a central site and a road side site adjacent to a main highway near the city center. Fine particle brown carbon optical absorption is estimated based on Mie calculations using direct size resolved measurements of chromophores in filter extracts. Size-resolved atmospheric aerosol samples were collected using a cascade impactor and analyzed for water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC, organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC, and solution light absorption spectra of water and methanol extracts. Methanol extracts were more light-absorbing than water extracts for all size ranges and wavelengths. Absorption refractive indices of the organic extracts were calculated from solution measurements for a range of wavelengths and used with Mie theory to predict the light absorption by fine particles comprised of these components, under the assumption that brown carbon and other aerosol components were externally mixed. For all three sites, chromophores were predominately in the accumulation mode with an aerodynamic mean diameter of 0.5 μm, an optically effective size range resulting in predicted particle light absorption being a factor of 2 higher than bulk solution absorption. Fine particle absorption was also measured with a Multi-Angle Absorption Photometer (MAAP and seven-wavelength Aethalometer. Scattering-corrected aethalometer and MAAP absorption were in good agreement at 670 nm and Mie-estimated absorption based on size-resolved EC data were within 30% of these optical instruments

  15. Chemical Potentials of Quarks Extracted from Particle Transverse Momentum Distributions in Heavy Ion Collisions at RHIC Energies

    OpenAIRE

    Hong Zhao; Fu-Hu Liu

    2014-01-01

    In the framework of a multisource thermal model, the transverse momentum distributions of charged particles produced in nucleus-nucleus (A-A) and deuteron-nucleus (d-A) collisions at relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) energies are investigated by a two-component revised Boltzmann distribution. The calculated results are in agreement with the PHENIX experimental data. It is found that the source temperature increases obviously with increase of the particle mass and incident energy, but it ...

  16. Size-resolved measurements of brown carbon in water and methanol extracts and estimates of their contribution to ambient fine-particle light absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J.; Bergin, M.; Guo, H.; King, L.; Kotra, N.; Edgerton, E.; Weber, R. J.

    2013-12-01

    Light absorbing organic carbon, often called brown carbon, has the potential to significantly contribute to the visible light-absorption budget, particularly at shorter wavelengths. Currently, the relative contributions of particulate brown carbon to light absorption, as well as the sources of brown carbon, are poorly understood. With this in mind size-resolved direct measurements of brown carbon were made at both urban (Atlanta), and rural (Yorkville) sites in Georgia. Measurements in Atlanta were made at both a representative urban site and a road-side site adjacent to a main highway. Fine particle absorption was measured with a multi-angle absorption photometer (MAAP) and seven-wavelength Aethalometer, and brown carbon absorption was estimated based on Mie calculations using direct size-resolved measurements of chromophores in solvents. Size-resolved samples were collected using a cascade impactor and analyzed for water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC), and solution light-absorption spectra of water and methanol extracts. Methanol extracts were more light-absorbing than water extracts for all size ranges and wavelengths. Absorption refractive indices of the organic extracts were calculated from solution measurements for a range of wavelengths and used with Mie theory to predict the light absorption by fine particles comprised of these components, under the assumption that brown carbon and other aerosol components were externally mixed. For all three sites, chromophores were predominately in the accumulation mode with an aerodynamic mean diameter of 0.5 μm, an optically effective size range resulting in predicted particle light absorption being a factor of 2 higher than bulk solution absorption. Mie-predicted brown carbon absorption at 350 nm contributed a significant fraction (20 to 40%) relative to total light absorption, with the highest contributions at the rural site where organic to elemental carbon ratios were

  17. 免聚类粒子PHD滤波多目标状态提取方法%Multi-target state extraction for free clustering particle PHD filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘益; 王平; 高颖慧

    2015-01-01

    概率假设密度粒子滤波(P-PHD)以粒子集形式反映目标的状态信息,是一种有效的多目标跟踪方法,其关键步骤是从粒子集中准确提取多目标状态信息。提出一种免聚类概率假设密度粒子滤波多目标状态提取方法,通过分解P-PHD迭代更新过程,筛选疑似真实目标量测类别,并重新分配粒子集,根据新粒子集直接提取目标状态,可避免粒子中心聚类和粒子峰值提取过程。仿真结果表明该方法具有较高状态提取精度。%The Particle Probability Hypothesis Density filter(P-PHD) has emerged as an effective way to solve the multi-target tracking problems. Multi-target states are expressed in a series of particles with weights. It is of importance to estimate the target state from those particles in the multi-target tracking procedure. A new method to extract target states without the need of clustering is proposed. The updating step of the P-PHD is decomposed. The observation categories coming of the real-target are selected and the chosen observation categories are assigned with the same number of new particles with new weights respectively. The target state is extracted from those brand new particle clouds directly and there is no need to execute the clustering and peak extraction operation. The simulation results demonstrate that the pro-posed algorithm has a better performance than the k-means method.

  18. Chemical Potentials of Quarks Extracted from Particle Transverse Momentum Distributions in Heavy Ion Collisions at RHIC Energies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of a multisource thermal model, the transverse momentum distributions of charged particles produced in nucleus-nucleus (A-A and deuteron-nucleus (d-A collisions at relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC energies are investigated by a two-component revised Boltzmann distribution. The calculated results are in agreement with the PHENIX experimental data. It is found that the source temperature increases obviously with increase of the particle mass and incident energy, but it does not show an obvious change with the collision centrality. Then, the values of chemical potentials for up, down, and strange quarks can be obtained from the antiparticle to particle yield ratios in a wide transverse momentum range. The relationship between the chemical potentials of quarks and the transverse momentum with different centralities is investigated, too.

  19. Extracting chemical potentials of quarks from ratios of negatively/positively charged particles in high-energy collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Fu-Hu; Tian, Tian; Zhao, Hong; Li, Bao-Chun [Shanxi University, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Taiyuan (China)

    2014-03-15

    The transverse momentum spectrums of π{sup -}, π{sup +}, K{sup -}, K{sup +}, anti p, and p produced in p-Pb collisions at √(s{sub NN}) = 5.02 TeV measured by the CMS Collaboration and in Pb-Pb collisions at √(s{sub NN}) = 2.76 TeV measured by the ALICE Collaboration are described by the Tsallis distribution. Then, the ratios of negatively/positively charged particles are obtained. The chemical potentials of u-quark, d-quark, s-quark, baryon number, isospin, and strangeness are obtained by using different configurations of the ratios. Comparing with the masses of final-state particles, all the six types of chemical potentials are small. (orig.)

  20. Ultrasonic-microwave method in preparation of polypyrrole-coated magnetic particles for vitamin D extraction in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Zhe; Zhang, Yan; Fan, Hongbo

    2016-07-29

    In this study, a nanocomposite of polypyrrole-coated magnetite nanoparticles (Fe3O4@PPy) was prepared by ultrasonic-microwave technique, and employed as magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) sorbent for extraction of vitamin D from milk samples. The term of the synthesis by ultrasonic-microwave technique was dramatically shortened within 4h compared to 20h by conventional stirring-heating method. The resultant composites incorporating the π-π bonding (between PPy coating and the analytes) and magnetic separation can be applied for vitamin D analysis in complicated samples. Without saponification or protein precipitation, vitamin D2 and vitamin D3 could be captured directly from milk samples by Fe3O4@PPy, and separated by magnetic field with only 0.5mL desorption solvent. The total preparation time was completed within 15min. A method for the determination of vitamin D in milk samples by the Fe3O4@PPy extraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was developed. The LODs of vitamin D2 and vitamin D3, based on signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of 3, were 0.02ng/mL and 0.05ng/mL respectively. The recoveries of vitamin D2 and vitamin D3 from milk samples were in the range of 71.9-90.3%, with relative standard deviations ranging between 3.6%-9.9%. The results indicated that the Fe3O4@PPy can be favorably used for the extraction of the vitamin D in milk samples. PMID:27371018

  1. Feature extraction and size analysis of sucrose particle image%蔗糖结晶图像的特征提取与粒度分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丹丹; 朱名日; 周光祥

    2012-01-01

    针对目前蔗糖结晶过程仍然依靠人工目测粒度现状,研究了基于计算机视觉的蔗糖结晶颗粒的粒度分析方法.将分割后的蔗糖颗粒图像进行一系列后续处理,完整地分离出蔗糖结晶颗粒与背景,提取蔗糖结晶颗粒的粒度与形状特征参数后进行表面积当量直径的粒度分析.在粒度分布图形表征及其分布矩基础上,计算表征颗粒粒度的重要参数,如均匀度、平均孔径、变异系数等参数.实现用机器视觉代替人工视觉定量定性地分析与计算粒度,避免了人工目测中以经验判断粒度带来的误差.%Nowadays towards granularity of sucrose crystallization process still relies on artificial visual, a sucrose particle size analysis method based on computer vision is presented. A complete separation of the sugar crystal particles and background is split visa a series of follow-up treatment towards image segmentation. Extract characteristic parameters about size and shape of the sucrose crystal particles, detecting particle size distribution of surface area e-quivalent diameter. Based on the graph characterization and the moment information of the crystal size distribution, calculating of the important parameters for characterization of particle size, such as uniformity, average pore diameter , coefficient of variation of parameters. Achieve machine vision instead of artificial vision, quantitative and qualitative analysis and calculation of particle size, to avoid the particle error caused by artificial visual experience.

  2. A sequential extraction procedure to determine Ra and U isotopes by alpha-particle spectrometry in selective leachates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radiochemical sequential extraction procedure has been developed in our laboratory to determine 226Ra and 234,238U by alpha spectrometry in environmental samples. This method has been validated for both radionuclides by comparing in selected samples the values obtained through its application with the results obtained by applying alternative procedures. Recoveries obtained, counting periods applied and background levels found in the alpha spectra give suitable detection limits to allow the Ra and U determination in operational forms defined in riverbed contaminated sediments. Results obtained in these speciation studies show that 226Ra and 234,238U contamination tend to be associated to precipitated forms of the sediments. (author)

  3. Extraction of a strongly focusing He+ beam from three-stage concave electrodes for alpha particle measurement system in ITER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobuchi, T; Sasao, M; Kisaki, M; Tsumori, K; Tanaka, N; Okamoto, A; Kitajima, S; Kaneko, O; Shinto, K; Wada, M

    2012-02-01

    A strongly focusing He(+) ion beam source equipped with concave multi-aperture electrodes was developed for production of He(-) through a charge exchange cell. The beam was extracted at a voltage less than 20 kV from 301 apertures distributed in an area of 100 mm φ, and focused at 750 mm distance. The beam current and the beam size of 2 A and 20 mm in diameter, respectively, were achieved with an arc power less than 10 kW. The optimum perveance was obtained at 0.02 A∕kV(1.5) at the beam energy less than 20 keV which is suitable for the conversion to He(-) in an alkali vapor cell.

  4. Kinetic freeze-out temperature and flow velocity extracted from transverse momentum spectra of final-state light flavor particles produced in collisions at RHIC and LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Hua-Rong; Liu, Fu-Hu [Shanxi University, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Shanxi (China); Lacey, Roy A. [Stony Brook University, Departments of Chemistry and Physics, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    2016-04-15

    The transverse momentum spectra of final-state light flavor particles produced in proton-proton (p-p), copper-copper (Cu-Cu), gold-gold (Au-Au), lead-lead (Pb-Pb), and proton-lead (p -Pb) collisions for different centralities at relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) and large hadron collider (LHC) energies are studied in the framework of a multisource thermal model. The experimental data measured by the STAR, CMS, and ALICE Collaborations are consistent with the results calculated by the multi-component Erlang distribution and Tsallis Statistics. The effective temperature and real temperature (kinetic freeze-out temperature) of the interacting system at the stage of kinetic freeze-out, the mean transverse flow velocity and mean flow velocity of particles, and the relationships between them are extracted. The dependences of effective temperature and mean (transverse) momentum on rest mass, moving mass, centrality, and center-of-mass energy, and the dependences of kinetic freeze-out temperature and mean (transverse) flow velocity on centrality, center-of-mass energy, and system size are obtained. (orig.)

  5. Kinetic freeze-out temperature and (radial) flow velocity extracted from transverse momentum spectra of final-state light flavor particles produced in collisions at RHIC and LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Hua-Rong; Lacey, Roy A

    2016-01-01

    The transverse momentum spectra of final-state light flavor particles produced in proton-proton (p-p), copper-copper (Cu-Cu), gold-gold (Au-Au), lead-lead (Pb-Pb), and proton-lead (p-Pb) collisions for different centralities at relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) and large hadron collider (LHC) energies are studied in the framework of a multisource thermal model. The experimental data measured by the STAR, CMS, and ALICE Collaborations are consistent with the results calculated by the multi-component Erlang distribution and Tsallis Statistics. The effective temperature and real temperature (kinetic freeze-out temperature) of interacting system at the stage of kinetic freeze-out, the mean transverse (or radial) flow velocity and mean flow velocity of particles, and the relationships between them are extracted. The dependences of effective temperature and mean (transverse) momentum on rest mass, moving mass, centrality, and center-of-mass energy, and the dependences of kinetic freeze-out temperature and mean...

  6. Detection of {alpha} particles using semiconductors. Application to the control of plutonium extraction; Detection des particules {alpha} par semiconducteurs application au controle de l'extraction du plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanguy, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-03-01

    A study is made of a particles produced by thick sources, using either diffused junction or surface barrier semiconductor detectors for controlling continuously the plutonium extraction process. For this, a presenting apparatus is described in which the solutions to be analyzed flow in contact with the detector protected by a thin mica membrane. A method is described which gives a precise recording of the spectra and which thus allows the separation of two or more {alpha} emitters present in the same solution. This method has been applied to the measurement of {sup 239}Pu in the the presence of {sup 241}Am with an accuracy of {+-}5 per cent. In the second part of the report is considered the detection of plutonium in solutions of {beta} - {gamma} emitting fission products. Pile-up is reduced by using a fast amplification chain associated to totally depleted thin detectors. Under these conditions a few mg of {sup 239}Pu can be detected in solutions of fission products having an activity of 100 curies/liter. A method is given for discriminating {alpha} and {beta} particles, it is based on the difference in the collection times for the charges liberated by these particles in the detector. (author) [French] On etudie la detection de particules {alpha} issues de sources epaisses par detecteurs semiconducteurs a jonction diffusee ou a barriere de surface pour le controle continu du procede d'extraction du plutonium. A cet effet on decrit un appareil presentateur dans lequel les solutions a analyser circulent au contact du detecteur protege par une membrane mince de mica. On decrit une methode qui permet par le trace precis des spectres de separer deux ou plusieurs emetteurs {alpha} presents dans une meme solution. Cette methode a ete appliquee a la mesure du {sup 239}Pu en presence de {sup 241}Am avec une precision de {+-} 5 pour cent. Dans la deuxieme partie on traite de la detection du plutonium dans des solutions de produits de fission emetteurs {beta} and {gamma

  7. Development of a hollow fibre liquid-phase micro extraction method coupled with capillary electrophoresis/mass spectrometry for determining nitrophenolic compounds from atmospheric particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teich, Monique; van Pinxteren, Dominik; Herrmann, Hartmut

    2014-05-01

    Nitrophenolic compounds present in the atmosphere gained a lot of attention as they are known for their negative effect on human health as well as for their phytotoxity being a cause for forest decline. Moreover, nitrophenols have the ability to absorb light in the range of near ultra violet to visible light, thus they are also contributing to the so-called brown carbon. Most of the available methods for determining nitrophenols in particulate matter are using organic solvents for extraction. Those methods are not applicable if one wants to focus only on the water-soluble fraction. Therefore, a method using a three-phase hollow fibre liquid-phase micro extraction (HF-LPME) was developed to enrich nine nitrophenolic compounds (2-Nitrophenol, 3-Nitrophenol, 4-Nitrophenol, 2-Methyl-4-nitrophenol, 3-Methyl-4-nitrophenol, 4-Nitrocatechol, 2,6-Dimethyl-4-nitrophenol, 2,4-Dinitrophenol, 3,4-Dinitrophenol) from aqueous extracts of atmospheric particles. Analysis was performed by capillary electrophoresis coupled with electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (CE-ESI-MS). The background electrolyte composition was optimised to a 20 mM ammonium acetate buffer at pH 9.7 containing 15% methanol (v/v). Persistent peak tailing during electrophoretic separation was observed for 4-Nitrocatechol. Flushing the capillary with Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) prior sample injection strongly improved the peak shape. Four extraction parameters (composition of organic liquid membrane, pH of acceptor phase, salting out effect, extraction time) and their effect on the analyte recoveries were examined. The HF-LPME consisted of 1.8 mL sample solution kept at pH 2 as donor phase and 15 µl 100 mM aqueous ammonia solution as acceptor phase inserted into a hollow fibre. Dihexyl ether was used to form a supported liquid membrane inside the pores of the hollow fibre. As a result low detection limits in the range of nmol L-1 were achieved and the developed method was found to be competitive

  8. The optimized capsid gene of porcine circovirus type 2 expressed in yeast forms virus-like particles and elicits antibody responses in mice fed with recombinant yeast extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucarey, Sergio A; Noriega, Jorge; Reyes, Paulina; Tapia, Cecilia; Sáenz, Leonardo; Zuñiga, Alejandro; Tobar, Jaime A

    2009-09-25

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2)-associated diseases are considered to be the biggest problem for the worldwide swine industry. The PCV2 capsid protein (Cap) is an important antigen for development of vaccines. At present, most anti-PCV2 vaccines are produced as injectable formulations. Although effective, these vaccines have certain drawbacks, including stress with concomitant immunosuppresion, and involve laborious and time-consuming procedures. In this study, Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used as a vehicle to deliver PCV2 antigen in a preliminary attempt to develop an oral vaccine, and its immunogenic potential in mice was tested after oral gavage-mediated delivery. The cap gene with a yeast-optimized codon usage sequence (opt-cap) was chemically synthesized and cloned into Escherichia coli/Saccharomyces cerevisiae shuttle vector, pYES2, under the control of the Gal1 promoter. Intracellular expression of the Cap protein was confirmed by Western blot analysis and its antigenic properties were compared with those of baculovirus/insect cell-produced Cap protein derived from the native PCV2 cap gene. It was further demonstrated by electron micrography that the yeast-derived PCV2 Cap protein self-assembles into virus-like particles (VLPs) that are morphologically and antigenically similar to insect cell-derived VLPs. Feeding raw yeast extract containing Cap protein to mice elicited both serum- and fecal-specific antibodies against the antigen. These results show that it is feasible to use S. cerevisiae as a safe and simple system to produce PCV2 virus-like particles, and that oral yeast-mediated antigen delivery is an alternative strategy to efficiently induce anti-PCV2 antibodies in a mouse model, which is worthy of further investigation in swine. PMID:19664739

  9. Distribution of the solvent-extractable organic compounds in fine (PM1) and coarse (PM1-10) particles in urban, industrial and forest atmospheres of Northern Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladji, Riad; Yassaa, Noureddine; Balducci, Catia; Cecinato, Angelo; Meklati, Brahim Youcef

    2009-12-20

    The distribution of the solvent-extractable organic components in the fine (PM(1)) and coarse (PM(1-10)) fractions of airborne particulate was studied for the first time in Algeria. That was done during October 2006 concurrently in a big industrial district, a busy urban area, and a forest national park located in Algiers, Boumerdes, Blida, respectively, which are the three biggest provinces of Northern Algeria. Most of the organic matter identified in both particle size ranges consisted of n-alkanes and n-alkanoic acids, with minor contributions coming from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs), oxygenated PAHs, and other polar compounds (e.g., caffeine and nicotine). The potential emission sources of airborne contaminants were reconciled by combining the values of n-alkane carbon preference index (CPI) and selected diagnostic ratios of PAHs, calculated in both size ranges. The mean cumulative concentrations of PAHs reached 3.032 ng m(-3) at the Boumerdes site, urban, 80% of which (i.e. 2.246 ng m(-3)) in the PM(1) fraction, 6.462 ng m(-3) at Rouiba-Réghaia, industrial district, (5.135 ng m(-3) or 80% in PM(1)), and 0.512 ng m(-3) at Chréa, forested mountains (0.370 ng m(-3) or 72% in PM(1)). Similar patterns were shown by all organic groups, which resulted overall enriched in the fine particles at the three sites. Carcinogenic and mutagenic potencies associated to PAHs were evaluated by multiplying the concentrations of "toxic" compounds times the corresponding potency factors normalized vs. benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), and were found to be both acceptable. PMID:19837448

  10. Bioreduction of trivalent aurum to nano-crystalline gold particles by active and inactive cells and cell-free extract of Aspergillus oryzae var. viridis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioreduction efficacy of both active (AB) and inactive (IB) cells/biomass of Aspergillus oryzae var. viridis and their respective cell-free extracts (ACE and ICE) to convert trivalent aurum to gold nanoparticles were tested in the present study. Strong plasmon resonance of gold nanoparticles was observed between 540 and 560 nm in the samples obtained from AB, IB, ACE and ICE. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were performed to examine the formation of gold nanoparticles. Comparing all four forms of A. oryzae var. viridis, ICE showed high gold nanoparticle productivity. The nanoparticles formed were quite uniform in shape and ranged in size from 10 to 60 nm. In addition some triangle, pentagon and hexagon-shaped nanoplates with size range of 30-400 nm were also synthesized especially at lower pH. Organics from the inactive cells are believed to be responsible for reduction of trivalent aurum to nano-sized gold particles. Organic content of the ICE was found to be double the amount of ACE. High productivity of gold nanoparticles by metabolic-independent process opens up an interesting area of nanoparticle synthesis using waste fungal biomass from industries.

  11. Plant-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles using parsley ( Petroselinum crispum) leaf extract: spectral analysis of the particles and antibacterial study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Kaushik; Sarkar, C. K.; Ghosh, C. K.

    2015-11-01

    Synthesis of nanomaterials may involve various routes including physical, chemical and biological approaches. Here, the biological green route was chosen to prepare silver nanoparticles from silver salts to avoid the requirement of costly instruments and involvement of hazardous chemicals as well. To make the process clean and green, leaf extract of parsley ( Petroselinum crispum) was used to synthesize Ag nanoparticles at room temperature. The formation of Ag-nanoparticles was monitored by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The presence of silver in the sample and its crystalline nature were verified by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The size distribution profile and particle size in the suspension were manipulated from dynamic light scattering (DLS) pattern. The shape, size and morphology of the biogenic nanoparticles were studied using high resolution transmission electron microscope (TEM). Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy was used to detect the biomolecules responsible for reduction of silver ions. These biogenic Ag-nanoparticles showed appreciable antibacterial efficacy against three bacteria— Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus.

  12. Removal of methyl orange from aqueous solution by Azolla filicoloides: Synthesis of Fe3O4 nano-particles and its surface modification by the extracted pectin of Azolla

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Roohan Rakhshaee; Masoud Giahi; Afshin Pourahmad

    2011-01-01

    The modified Fe3O4 nano-particles with the extracted pectin from the cell wall of Azolla filicoloides (FN-EP) can remove methyl orange as a water-soluble azo dye from waste water better than Azolla and the extracted pectin from Azolla (EPA), alone. It could be due to more crowding the main functional groups of uptake after binding pectin with nano-particles. Thermodynamic studies showed that adsorption equilibrium constant (KL) and maximum adsorption capacities (Qmax) were increased with decreasing temperature (exothermic). The maximum uptake capacity (Qmax) of dye by FN-EP in a batch reactor was 0.533, 0.498 and 0.446 mmol/g at 5, 25 and 50 ℃, respectively. The enthalpy change (AH) and entropy change (△S) were -15.31 kJ/mol and -0.02434 kJ/mol K, respectively.

  13. Production of De-asphalted Oil and Fine Asphalt Particles by Supercritical Extraction%超临界流体萃取制备脱沥青油与沥青微粒

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵锁奇; 许志明; 王仁安

    2003-01-01

    A continuous three-stage supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) process with a capacity of 1.0 kg·h-1 was setup to extract petroleum residue by pentane to obtain more oil for further upgrading. A discharging system integrated to the bottom of the extractor was used to recover solvent as gas while asphalt was obtained as fine particles. The influence of operating conditions on the yield and quality of extracts, i.e., deasphalted oil (DAO) and resin, was studied in the range of temperature 150-220℃, pressure of 4.0-6.0 MPa and the mass ratio of solvent to oil feed (S/O) 2.5-5.0. The particle size distribution, apparent forms and the packing density, which vary with operating pressure, were measured. The particle structures were observed by SEM as well. With the modification to conventional processes, furnace can be eliminated for solvent recovery from asphalt phase, so as to reduce energy consumption.

  14. First results on Fe solid-phase extraction from coastal seawater using anatase TiO{sub 2} nano-particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quetel, Christophe R.; Petrov, Ivan [Joint Research Centre - European Commission, Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, Geel (Belgium); Vassileva, Emilia [Joint Research Centre - European Commission, Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, Geel (Belgium); IAEA-Marine Environment Laboratories, Principality of Monaco (Monaco); Chakarova, Kristina; Hadjiivanov, Konstantin I. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2010-03-15

    This paper describes the application of TiO{sub 2} nano-particles (anatase form) for the solid-phase extraction of iron from coastal seawater samples. We investigated the adsorption processes by infra-red spectroscopy. We compared in batch and on-(mini)column extraction approaches (0.1 and 0.05 g TiO{sub 2} per sample, respectively), combined to external calibration and detection by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry at medium mass resolution. Globally, this titania phase was slightly more efficient with seawater than with ultra-pure water, although between pH 2 and pH 7, the Fe retention efficiency progressed more in ultra-pure water than in seawater (6.9 versus 4.8 times improvement). Different reaction schemes are proposed between Fe(III) species and the two main categories of titania sites at pH 2 (adsorption of [FeL{sub x}]{sup (3-x)+} via possibly the mediation of chlorides) and at pH 7 (adsorption of [Fe(OH){sub 2}]{sup +} and precipitation of [Fe(OH){sub 3}]{sup 0}). Under optimised conditions, the inlet system was pre-cleaned by pumping 6% HCl for {proportional_to}2 h, and the column was conditioned by aspirating ultra-pure water (1.7 g min {sup -1}) and 0.05% ammonia (0.6 g min {sup -1}) for 1 min. Then 3 g seawater sample was loaded at the same flow rate while being mixed on-line with 0.05% ammonia at 0.6 g min {sup -1} to adjust the pH to 7. The iron retained on the oxide powder was then eluted with 3 g 6% HCl (<0.002% residual salinity in the separated samples). The overall procedural blank was 220 {+-} 46 (2 s, n = 16) ng Fe kg {sup -1} (the titania was renewed in the column every 20 samples, with 2-min rinsing in between samples with 6% HCl at 1.5 g min {sup -1}). The recovery estimated from the Canadian certified reference material CASS-2 was 69.5 {+-} 7.6% (2 s, n = 4). Typically, the relative combined uncertainty (k = 2) estimated for the measurement of {proportional_to}1 {mu}g Fe kg {sup -1} (0.45 {mu}m filtered and acidified to pH 1

  15. Application of rotating coiled columns to the fractionation of soil particles and to the sequential extraction of heavy-metal species from silty, dusty, and sandy fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A complex procedure is developed for evaluating the degree of soil pollution with heavy metals, such as Zn, Pb, Cd, and Cu. Rotating coiled columns (RCCs) were used for both the fractionation of soil samples by their grain-size composition and the sequential extraction of heavy-metal species from silty, dusty, and sandy fractions. During the extraction of heavy-metal species, the soil fraction to be analyzed was retained in the column as a stationary phase, while aqueous solutions of extracting agents (mineral salts, acids, and complexing compounds) were sequentially pumped through the heterogeneous sample. The sequential extraction of element species from various soil fractions was carried out in the dynamic mode favorable to more complete extraction of metals. The use of RCCs allows the extraction of various heavy-metal species from soils to be performed in accordance with their grain size composition. The process of the extraction of metal species can be automated, and in this case the losses of sample components are reduced to a minimum

  16. Comparative study of three magnetic nano-particles (FeSO4, FeSO4/SiO2, FeSO4/SiO2/TiO2) in plasmid DNA extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahnama, H; Sattarzadeh, A; Kazemi, F; Ahmadi, N; Sanjarian, F; Zand, Z

    2016-11-15

    Recent updates on Magnetic Nano-Particles (MNPs) based separation of nucleic acids have received more attention due to their easy manipulation, simplicity, ease of automation and cost-effectiveness. It has been indicated that DNA molecules absorb on solid surfaces via hydrogen-bonding, and hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions. These properties highly depend on the surface condition of the solid support. Therefore, surface modification of MNPs may enhance their functionality and specification. In the present study, we functionalized Fe3O4 nano-particle surface utilizing SiO2 and TiO2 layer as Fe3O4/SiO2 and Fe3O4/SiO2/TiO2 and then compare their functionality in the adsorption of plasmid DNA molecules with the naked Fe3O4 nano-particles. The result obtained showed that the purity and amount of DNA extracted by Fe3O4 coated by SiO2 or SiO2/TiO2 were higher than the naked Fe3O4 nano-particles. Furthermore, we obtained pH 8 and 1.5 M NaCl as an optimal condition for desorption of DNA from MNPs. The result further showed that, 0.2 mg nano-particle and 10 min at 55 °C are the optimal conditions for DNA desorption from nano-particles. In conclusion, we recommended Fe3O4/SiO2/TiO2 as a new MNP for separation of DNA molecules from biological sources.

  17. Application of methods (sequential extraction procedures and high-pressure digestion method) to fly ash particles to determine the element constituents: A case study for BCR 176

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sequential extraction procedures and the high-pressure digestion method were selected to determine the element constituents of fly ash samples. Sequential extraction is one of the most useful methods used to measure the various elements from municipal solid waste incineration ash and contaminated soils. The extract from each step is analyzed using various techniques and equipments, and the results are then evaluated. In this work, a six-step extraction procedure modified from that of Tessier et al. and Wang et al. was performed and applied to the certified reference material BCR 176 (city waste incineration ash). Analyses were carried out by various techniques such as inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX), and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) to evaluate the characteristics of fly ash. The extraction efficiency of many elements was higher than 80%, and the relative standard deviations (RSD) for recovery of most elements were within 10%. In addition, an H2O2 + HNO3 + HF mixed acid digestion solution processed using a low-temperature evaporation procedure was selected as the optimal process for fly ash digestion. The results of this work provide information on the chemical composition, distribution, and potential mobility of the investigated elements

  18. Particle Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Health Particle Pollution Public Health Issues Particle Pollution Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Particle pollution ... see them in the air. Where does particle pollution come from? Particle pollution can come from two ...

  19. Test-methods on the test-bench: a comparison of complete exhaust and exhaust particle extracts for genotoxicity/mutagenicity assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Steiner, Sandro; Heeb, Norbert V.; Czerwinski, Jan; Comte, Pierre; Mayer, Andreas; Petri-Fink, Alke; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    With the growing number of new exhaust after-treatment systems, fuels and fuel additives for internal combustion engines, efficient and reliable methods for detecting exhaust genotoxicity and mutagenicity are needed to avoid the widespread application of technologies with undesirable effects toward public health. In a commonly used approach, organic extracts of particulates rather than complete exhaust is used for genotoxicity/mutagenicity assessment, which may reduce the reliability of the r...

  20. Protective effects of pulmonary epithelial lining fluid on oxidative stress and DNA single-strand breaks caused by ultrafine carbon black, ferrous sulphate and organic extract of diesel exhaust particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Hsiao-Chi; Cheng, Yi-Ling; Lei, Yu-Chen; Chang, Hui-Hsien; Cheng, Tsun-Jen

    2013-02-01

    Pulmonary epithelial lining fluid (ELF) is the first substance to make contact with inhaled particulate matter (PM) and interacts chemically with PM components. The objective of this study was to determine the role of ELF in oxidative stress, DNA damage and the production of proinflammatory cytokines following physicochemical exposure to PM. Ultrafine carbon black (ufCB, 15 nm; a model carbonaceous core), ferrous sulphate (FeSO(4); a model transition metal) and a diesel exhaust particle (DEP) extract (a model organic compound) were used to examine the acellular oxidative potential of synthetic ELF and non-ELF systems. We compared the effects of exposure to ufCB, FeSO(4) and DEP extract on human alveolar epithelial Type II (A549) cells to determine the levels of oxidative stress, DNA single-strand breaks and interleukin-8 (IL-8) production in ELF and non-ELF systems. The effects of ufCB and FeSO(4) on the acellular oxidative potential, cellular oxidative stress and DNA single-strand breakage were mitigated significantly by the addition of ELF, whereas there was no decrease following treatment with the DEP extract. There was no significant effect on IL-8 production following exposure to samples that were suspended in ELF/non-ELF systems. The results of the present study indicate that ELF plays an important role in the initial defence against PM in the pulmonary environment. Experimental components, such as ufCB and FeSO(4), induced the production of oxidative stress and led to DNA single-strand breaks, which were moderately prevented by the addition of ELF. These findings suggest that ELF plays a protective role against PM-driven oxidative stress and DNA damage. PMID:23261976

  1. Characterization of particle morphology of biochanin A molecularly imprinted polymers and their properties as a potential sorbent for solid-phase extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chrzanowska, Anna M.; Poliwoda, Anna, E-mail: Anna.Poliwoda@uni.opole.pl; Wieczorek, Piotr P.

    2015-04-01

    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) with biochanin A as a template were obtained using a bulk polymerization with non-covalent imprinting approach. The polymers were prepared in acetonitrile as porogen, using ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EDMA) as cross-linking agent. The synthesis, with an application of 1′,1′-azobis(cyclohexanecarbonitrile) (ACHN) as an initiator, has been performed thermally. During the synthesis process the effect of different functional monomers such as methacrylic acid (MAA), acrylamide (AA) and 4-vinylpyridine (4-VP) was investigated. The application of nitrogen sorption porosimetry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) permitted the characterization and evaluation of synthesized polymers. The adsorption capacity of obtained MIPs was checked by using the binding testing. All synthesized polymers were evaluated as solid-phase extraction (SPE) sorbents for isolation and preconcentration of biochanin A and its analogues, daidzein and genistein. The MIPs exhibited higher affinity for biochanin A over competitive compounds. - Highlights: • The molecularly imprinted polymers with biochanin A as a template were synthesized. • The surface of synthesized monoliths was formed mainly from mesopores (73–77%). • Biochanin A was effectively concentrated in each of the synthesized polymers (recovery > 89.8%). • The results show potential ability of synthesized MIPs in analysis of phytoestrogens in real samples.

  2. Protective effects of pulmonary epithelial lining fluid on oxidative stress and DNA single-strand breaks caused by ultrafine carbon black, ferrous sulphate and organic extract of diesel exhaust particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulmonary epithelial lining fluid (ELF) is the first substance to make contact with inhaled particulate matter (PM) and interacts chemically with PM components. The objective of this study was to determine the role of ELF in oxidative stress, DNA damage and the production of proinflammatory cytokines following physicochemical exposure to PM. Ultrafine carbon black (ufCB, 15 nm; a model carbonaceous core), ferrous sulphate (FeSO4; a model transition metal) and a diesel exhaust particle (DEP) extract (a model organic compound) were used to examine the acellular oxidative potential of synthetic ELF and non-ELF systems. We compared the effects of exposure to ufCB, FeSO4 and DEP extract on human alveolar epithelial Type II (A549) cells to determine the levels of oxidative stress, DNA single-strand breaks and interleukin-8 (IL-8) production in ELF and non-ELF systems. The effects of ufCB and FeSO4 on the acellular oxidative potential, cellular oxidative stress and DNA single-strand breakage were mitigated significantly by the addition of ELF, whereas there was no decrease following treatment with the DEP extract. There was no significant effect on IL-8 production following exposure to samples that were suspended in ELF/non-ELF systems. The results of the present study indicate that ELF plays an important role in the initial defence against PM in the pulmonary environment. Experimental components, such as ufCB and FeSO4, induced the production of oxidative stress and led to DNA single-strand breaks, which were moderately prevented by the addition of ELF. These findings suggest that ELF plays a protective role against PM-driven oxidative stress and DNA damage. -- Highlights: ► To determine the role of ELF in ROS, DNA damage and IL-8 after exposure to PM. ► ufCB, FeSO4 and DEP extract were used to examine the protective effects of ELF. ► PM-driven oxidative stress and DNA single-strand breakage were mitigated by ELF. ► The findings suggest that ELF has a protective

  3. Protective effects of pulmonary epithelial lining fluid on oxidative stress and DNA single-strand breaks caused by ultrafine carbon black, ferrous sulphate and organic extract of diesel exhaust particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuang, Hsiao-Chi [School of Respiratory Therapy, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Shuang Ho Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Yi-Ling; Lei, Yu-Chen [Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chang, Hui-Hsien [Institute of Environmental Health, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Tsun-Jen, E-mail: tcheng@ntu.edu.tw [Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Public Health, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2013-02-01

    Pulmonary epithelial lining fluid (ELF) is the first substance to make contact with inhaled particulate matter (PM) and interacts chemically with PM components. The objective of this study was to determine the role of ELF in oxidative stress, DNA damage and the production of proinflammatory cytokines following physicochemical exposure to PM. Ultrafine carbon black (ufCB, 15 nm; a model carbonaceous core), ferrous sulphate (FeSO{sub 4}; a model transition metal) and a diesel exhaust particle (DEP) extract (a model organic compound) were used to examine the acellular oxidative potential of synthetic ELF and non-ELF systems. We compared the effects of exposure to ufCB, FeSO{sub 4} and DEP extract on human alveolar epithelial Type II (A549) cells to determine the levels of oxidative stress, DNA single-strand breaks and interleukin-8 (IL-8) production in ELF and non-ELF systems. The effects of ufCB and FeSO{sub 4} on the acellular oxidative potential, cellular oxidative stress and DNA single-strand breakage were mitigated significantly by the addition of ELF, whereas there was no decrease following treatment with the DEP extract. There was no significant effect on IL-8 production following exposure to samples that were suspended in ELF/non-ELF systems. The results of the present study indicate that ELF plays an important role in the initial defence against PM in the pulmonary environment. Experimental components, such as ufCB and FeSO{sub 4}, induced the production of oxidative stress and led to DNA single-strand breaks, which were moderately prevented by the addition of ELF. These findings suggest that ELF plays a protective role against PM-driven oxidative stress and DNA damage. -- Highlights: ► To determine the role of ELF in ROS, DNA damage and IL-8 after exposure to PM. ► ufCB, FeSO{sub 4} and DEP extract were used to examine the protective effects of ELF. ► PM-driven oxidative stress and DNA single-strand breakage were mitigated by ELF. ► The findings

  4. Evaluation of Gravimetric Tar Determination in Particle Samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hindsgaul, Claus; Henriksen, Ulrik B.; Bentzen, Jens Dall

    2000-01-01

    A comparison of tar determination of particles from a down-draft gasifier using soxhlet extractions (with anisole, dichloromethane and acetone) and pyrolysis of the particles.......A comparison of tar determination of particles from a down-draft gasifier using soxhlet extractions (with anisole, dichloromethane and acetone) and pyrolysis of the particles....

  5. Particle-Particle-String Vertex

    OpenAIRE

    Ishibashi, Nobuyuki

    1996-01-01

    We study a theory of particles interacting with strings. Considering such a theory for Type IIA superstring will give some clue about M-theory. As a first step toward such a theory, we construct the particle-particle-string interaction vertex generalizing the D-particle boundary state.

  6. Mutagenicity of airborne particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisp, C E; Fisher, G L

    1980-09-01

    The physical and chemical properties of airborne particles are important for the interpretation of their potential biologic significance as genotoxic hazards. For polydisperse particle size distributions, the smallest, most respirable particles are generally the most mutagenic. Particulate collection for testing purposes should be designed to reduce artifact formation and allow condensation of mutagenic compounds. Other critical factors such as UV irradiation, wind direction, chemical reactivity, humidity, sample storage, and temperature of combustion are important. Application of chemical extraction methods and subsequent class fractionation techniques influence the observed mutagenic activity. Particles from urban air, coal fly ash, automobile and diesel exhaust, agricultural burning and welding fumes contain primarily direct-acting mutagens. Cigarette smoke condensate, smoke from charred meat and protein pyrolysates, kerosene soot and cigarette smoke condensates contain primarily mutagens which require metabolic activation. Fractionation coupled with mutagenicity testing indicates that the most potent mutagens are found in the acidic fractions of urban air, coal fly ash, and automobile diesel exhaust, whereas mutagens in rice straw smoke and cigarette smoke condensate are found primarily in the basic fractions. The interaction of the many chemical compounds in complex mixtures from airborne particles is likely to be important in determining mutagenic or comutagenic potentials. Because the mode of exposure is generally frequent and prolonged, the presence of tumor-promoting agents in complex mixtures may be a major factor in evaluation of the carcinogenic potential of airborne particles.

  7. Particle therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raju, M.R.

    1993-09-01

    Particle therapy has a long history. The experimentation with particles for their therapeutic application got started soon after they were produced in the laboratory. Physicists played a major role in proposing the potential applications in radiotherapy as well as in the development of particle therapy. A brief review of the current status of particle radiotherapy with some historical perspective is presented and specific contributions made by physicists will be pointed out wherever appropriate. The rationale of using particles in cancer treatment is to reduce the treatment volume to the target volume by using precise dose distributions in three dimensions by using particles such as protons and to improve the differential effects on tumors compared to normal tissues by using high-LET radiations such as neutrons. Pions and heavy ions combine the above two characteristics.

  8. Preliminary studies on the extraction of Glycospanonins in Tongkat Ali extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abirame, S.; Sivakumar, K.; Chua, L. S.; Sarmidi, M. R.

    2016-06-01

    Eurycoma longifolia, locally known as Tongkat Ali, is a famous medicinal plant in the family of Simaroubaceae and well known for its aphrodisiac properties from its water extract. The root of E. longifolia is used to extract wide range bioactive components of Tongkat Ali. Previous works standardised Tongkat Ali extracts by measuring the concentration of eurycomanone, a quassinoid marker chemical, within the overall extract. There is a newer Malaysian standard that specifies that Tongkat Ali can be standardised to glycosaponin, thus it is desired to determine how extraction parameters such as particle size, extraction temperature, and solvent type affects the glycosaponin content in the extract. The overall study is aimed to determine how the extraction parameters affect the glycosaponin amount in extract. This paper presents the preliminary work where in this study the effect of particle size on overall extract and glycosaponin quantification method development is presented. A reflux extraction method was used to extract Tongkat Ali with a particle size of 0.5 mm, 1.0 mm and 2.0 mm of raw material to study effect of particle size on overall extract. Water and methanol were the two types of solvent used for extraction to study the quantity of glycosaponin.

  9. Particle physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamal, Anwar

    2014-09-01

    Provides step-by-step derivations. Contains numerous tables and diagrams. Supports learning and teaching with numerous worked examples, questions and problems with answers. Sketches also the historical development of the subject. This textbook teaches particle physics very didactically. It supports learning and teaching with numerous worked examples, questions and problems with answers. Numerous tables and diagrams lead to a better understanding of the explanations. The content of the book covers all important topics of particle physics: Elementary particles are classified from the point of view of the four fundamental interactions. The nomenclature used in particle physics is explained. The discoveries and properties of known elementary particles and resonances are given. The particles considered are positrons, muon, pions, anti-protons, strange particles, neutrino and hadrons. The conservation laws governing the interactions of elementary particles are given. The concepts of parity, spin, charge conjugation, time reversal and gauge invariance are explained. The quark theory is introduced to explain the hadron structure and strong interactions. The solar neutrino problem is considered. Weak interactions are classified into various types, and the selection rules are stated. Non-conservation of parity and the universality of the weak interactions are discussed. Neutral and charged currents, discovery of W and Z bosons and the early universe form important topics of the electroweak interactions. The principles of high energy accelerators including colliders are elaborately explained. Additionally, in the book detectors used in nuclear and particle physics are described. This book is on the upper undergraduate level.

  10. Particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Provides step-by-step derivations. Contains numerous tables and diagrams. Supports learning and teaching with numerous worked examples, questions and problems with answers. Sketches also the historical development of the subject. This textbook teaches particle physics very didactically. It supports learning and teaching with numerous worked examples, questions and problems with answers. Numerous tables and diagrams lead to a better understanding of the explanations. The content of the book covers all important topics of particle physics: Elementary particles are classified from the point of view of the four fundamental interactions. The nomenclature used in particle physics is explained. The discoveries and properties of known elementary particles and resonances are given. The particles considered are positrons, muon, pions, anti-protons, strange particles, neutrino and hadrons. The conservation laws governing the interactions of elementary particles are given. The concepts of parity, spin, charge conjugation, time reversal and gauge invariance are explained. The quark theory is introduced to explain the hadron structure and strong interactions. The solar neutrino problem is considered. Weak interactions are classified into various types, and the selection rules are stated. Non-conservation of parity and the universality of the weak interactions are discussed. Neutral and charged currents, discovery of W and Z bosons and the early universe form important topics of the electroweak interactions. The principles of high energy accelerators including colliders are elaborately explained. Additionally, in the book detectors used in nuclear and particle physics are described. This book is on the upper undergraduate level.

  11. Particle Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, B R

    2008-01-01

    An essential introduction to particle physics, with coverage ranging from the basics through to the very latest developments, in an accessible and carefully structured text. Particle Physics: Third Edition is a revision of a highly regarded introduction to particle physics. In its two previous editions this book has proved to be an accessible and balanced introduction to modern particle physics, suitable for those students needed a more comprehensive introduction to the subject than provided by the 'compendium' style physics books. In the Third Edition the standard mod

  12. Extraction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A process is described for extracting at least two desired constituents from a mineral, using a liquid reagent which produces the constituents, or compounds thereof, in separable form and independently extracting those constituents, or compounds. The process is especially valuable for the extraction of phosphoric acid and metal values from acidulated phosphate rock, the slurry being contacted with selective extractants for phosphoric acid and metal (e.g. uranium) values. In an example, uranium values are oxidized to uranyl form and extracted using an ion exchange resin. (U.K.)

  13. Microplastic particles in sediments from Danish waters

    OpenAIRE

    Strand, Jakob; Lassen, Pia; Shashoua, Yvonne; Andersen, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    Sediment contents of microplastic particles were studied at several areas in Danish coastal and open waters in the North Sea, Skagerrak, Kattegat, Belt Sea and Baltic Sea from 2012. Isolation of microplastic particles were performed after basic digestion of natural organic matter, before applying a concentrated saline solution for extraction and finally dividing the particles into three size fractions using sieves of 38 µm, 1 mm and 5 mm. The collected particles were examined and counted usin...

  14. A semi-automated system for quantifying the oxidative potential of ambient particles in aqueous extracts using the dithiothreitol (DTT assay: results from the Southeastern Center for Air Pollution and Epidemiology (SCAPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Fang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A variety of methods are used to measure the capability of particulate matter (PM to catalytically generate reactive oxygen species (ROS in vivo, also defined as the aerosol oxidative potential. A widely used measure of aerosol oxidative potential is the dithiothreitol (DTT assay, which monitors the depletion of DTT (a surrogate for cellular antioxidants as catalyzed by the redox-active species in PM. However, a major constraint in the routine use of the DTT assay for integrating it with the large-scale health studies is its labor-intensive and time-consuming protocol. To specifically address this concern, we have developed a semi-automated system for quantifying the oxidative potential of aerosol liquid extracts using the DTT assay. The system, capable of unattended analysis at one sample per hour, has a high analytical precision (Coefficient of Variation of 12% for standards, 4% for ambient samples, and reasonably low limit of detection (0.31 nmol min−1. Comparison of the automated approach with the manual method conducted on ambient samples yielded good agreement (slope = 1.08 ± 0.12, r2 = 0.92, N = 9. The system was utilized for the Southeastern Center for Air Pollution and Epidemiology (SCAPE to generate an extensive data set on DTT activity of ambient particles collected from contrasting environments (urban, road-side, and rural in the southeastern US. We find that water-soluble PM2.5 DTT activity on a per air volume basis was spatially uniform and often well correlated with PM2.5 mass (r = 0.49 to 0.88, suggesting regional sources contributing to the PM oxidative potential in southeast US. However, the greater heterogeneity in the intrinsic DTT activity (per PM mass basis across seasons indicates variability in the DTT activity associated with aerosols from sources that vary with season. Although developed for the DTT assay, the instrument can also be used to determine oxidative potential with other acellular assays.

  15. A semi-automated system for quantifying the oxidative potential of ambient particles in aqueous extracts using the dithiothreitol (DTT) assay: results from the Southeastern Center for Air Pollution and Epidemiology (SCAPE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, T.; Verma, V.; Guo, H.; King, L. E.; Edgerton, E. S.; Weber, R. J.

    2015-01-01

    A variety of methods are used to measure the capability of particulate matter (PM) to catalytically generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) in vivo, also defined as the aerosol oxidative potential. A widely used measure of aerosol oxidative potential is the dithiothreitol (DTT) assay, which monitors the depletion of DTT (a surrogate for cellular antioxidants) as catalyzed by the redox-active species in PM. However, a major constraint in the routine use of the DTT assay for integrating it with large-scale health studies is its labor-intensive and time-consuming protocol. To specifically address this concern, we have developed a semi-automated system for quantifying the oxidative potential of aerosol liquid extracts using the DTT assay. The system, capable of unattended analysis at one sample per hour, has a high analytical precision (coefficient of variation of 15% for positive control, 4% for ambient samples) and reasonably low limit of detection (0.31 nmol min-1). Comparison of the automated approach with the manual method conducted on ambient samples yielded good agreement (slope = 1.08 ± 0.12, r2 = 0.92, N = 9). The system was utilized for the Southeastern Center for Air Pollution & Epidemiology (SCAPE) to generate an extensive data set on DTT activity of ambient particles collected from contrasting environments (urban, roadside, and rural) in the southeastern US. We find that water-soluble PM2.5 DTT activity on a per-air-volume basis was spatially uniform and often well correlated with PM2.5 mass (r = 0.49 to 0.88), suggesting regional sources contributing to the PM oxidative potential in the southeastern US. The correlation may also suggest a mechanistic explanation (oxidative stress) for observed PM2.5 mass-health associations. The heterogeneity in the intrinsic DTT activity (per-PM-mass basis) across seasons indicates variability in the DTT activity associated with aerosols from sources that vary with season. Although developed for the DTT assay, the

  16. Elementary Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parham, R.

    1974-01-01

    Presents the text of a speech given to a conference of physics teachers in which the full spectrum of elementary particles is given, along with their classification. Also includes some teaching materials available on this topic. (PEB)

  17. Higgs particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The theoretical work on models of the electroweak interaction and simple grand unified models with a nonstandard set of Higgs particles is reviewed. Emphasis is placed on light and even strictly massless Higgs particles: Goldstone and pseudo-Goldstone bosons. It is shown that such bosons arise in a natural way in the theory if the Higgs particles are in fact composite. The low-energy effective Lagrangian of these particles is studied. A detailed study is made of the problem of CP breaking in a strong interaction and of a natural solution of this problem through the introduction of a pseudo-Goldstone particle: an axion. The theory of the ''standard'' axion and its experimental status are reviewed. Possible ''invisible'' and ''visualized'' axions are discussed, as are certain astrophysical aspects of the existence of an axion. By analogy with the axion, an analysis is made of another hypothetical particle: the strictly massless Goldstone boson or arion. Model-independent properties of the arion are determined. The similarity between the arion fields and magnetic fields and the differences between these fields are shown. Possible methods for detecting an arion field are discussed. An experiment which has set a limit on the strength of the arion interaction is described. Neutral Goldstone bosons whose emission is accompanied by changes in fermion flavors (''familons'') are discussed. Two versions of the theory with a Goldstone boson (a majoron) which arises upon a spontaneous breaking of lepton number are described

  18. Particle Tunneling in the 7-Azaindole Dimer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    VANHISE,JamesR.

    2005-01-01

    Using a one dimensional quantum particle tunneling model, the proton and deuteron transfer lifetime was developed and computed in the 7-azaindole dimer, the results were compared with measurements by Douhal and thereby the effective barrier heights and widths extracted.

  19. Particle physics

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Brian R

    2017-01-01

    An accessible and carefully structured introduction to Particle Physics, including important coverage of the Higgs Boson and recent progress in neutrino physics. Fourth edition of this successful title in the Manchester Physics series. Includes information on recent key discoveries including : An account of the discovery of exotic hadrons, beyond the simple quark model; Expanded treatments of neutrino physics and CP violation in B-decays; An updated account of ‘physics beyond the standard model’, including the interaction of particle physics with cosmology; Additional problems in all chapters, with solutions to selected problems available on the book’s website; Advanced material appears in optional starred sections.

  20. Vacuum extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maagaard, Mathilde; Oestergaard, Jeanett; Johansen, Marianne;

    2012-01-01

    with daily work in the obstetric field were tested. Methods. The Delphi method was used for development of the scale. In a simulated vacuum extraction scenario first-year residents and obstetric chief physicians were rated using the developed OSATS scale for vacuum extraction to test construct validity...... of the scale. Main outcome measures. Consensus for the content of the scale. To test the scale Cronbachs alpha, interclass correlation and differential item function was calculated in the prospective study. Results. 89% completed the first and 61% completed the second Delphi round. Hereafter, consensus......Objectives. To develop and validate an Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS) scale for vacuum extraction. Design. Two part study design: Primarily, development of a procedure-specific checklist for vacuum extraction. Hereafter, validationof the developed OSATS scale for vacuum...

  1. Particle Physics

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    While biomedicine and geoscience use grids to bring together many different sub-disciplines, particle physicists use grid computing to increase computing power and storage resources, and to access and analyze vast amounts of data collected from detectors at the world's most powerful accelerators (1 page)

  2. Spice paprika oleoresin extraction under different conditions involving acetone and ethanol

    OpenAIRE

    Rafajlovska, Vesna; Slaveska-Raicki, Renata; Koleva Gudeva, Liljana; Klopceska, Jana

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the oleoresin extraction from the spice paprika under different extraction conditions that involves acetone and ethanol as an extracting solvent in percolatory system. Moreover, the influence of paprika particle size, solvent flow rate and the temperature on the extraction procedure was also studied. It was revealed that better extraction efficiency was achieved with 2 ml/min solvent flow rate. The particle size is more important when acetone for paprika oleoresin extract...

  3. Particle physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kennedy, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    Stimulated by the Large Hadron Collider and the search for the elusive Higgs Boson, interest in particle physics continues at a high level among scientists and the general public. This book includes theoretical aspects, with chapters outlining the generation model and a charged Higgs boson model as alternative scenarios to the Standard Model. An introduction is provided to postulated axion photon interactions and associated photon dispersion in magnetized media. The complexity of particle physics research requiring the synergistic combination of theory, hardware and computation is described in terms of the e-science paradigm. The book concludes with a chapter tackling potential radiation hazards associated with extremely weakly interacting neutrinos if produced in copious amounts with future high-energy muon-collider facilities.

  4. Influence of particle coating and matrix constituents on the cloud point extraction efficiency of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) and application for monitoring the formation of Ag-NPs from Ag(+).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Georg; Baumgartner, Tanja; Schuster, Michael

    2014-01-01

    For the quantification of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) in environmental samples using cloud point extraction (CPE) for selective enrichment, surface modification of the Ag-NPs and matrix effects can play a key role. In this work we validate CPE with respect to the influence of different coatings and naturally occurring matrix components. The Ag-NPs tested were functionalized with inorganic and organic compounds as well as with biomolecules. Commercially available NPs and NPs synthesized according to methods published in the literature were used. We found that CPE can extract almost all Ag-NPs tested with very good efficiencies (82-105%). Only Ag-NPs functionalized with BSA (bovine serum albumin), which is a protein with the function to keep colloids in solution, cannot be extracted. No or little effect of environmentally relevant salts, organic matter, and inorganic colloids on the CPE of AgNPs was found. Additionally we used CPE to observe the in situ formation of Ag-NPs produced by the reduction of Ag(+) with natural organic matter (NOM).

  5. Particle Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Collinson, Chris

    1995-01-01

    * Assumes no prior knowledge* Adopts a modelling approach* Numerous tutorial problems, worked examples and exercises included* Elementary topics augmented by planetary motion and rotating framesThis text provides an invaluable introduction to mechanicsm confining attention to the motion of a particle. It begins with a full discussion of the foundations of the subject within the context of mathematical modelling before covering more advanced topics including the theory of planetary orbits and the use of rotating frames of reference. Truly introductory , the style adoped is perfect for those u

  6. Particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The two main themes of this volume are the standard model of the fundamental interactions (and beyond) and astrophysics. The remarkable advances in the theoretical understanding and experimental confirmation of the standard model were reviewed in several lectures where the reader will find a thorough analysis of recent experiments as well as a detailed comparison of the standard model with experiment. On a more theoretical side, supersymmetry, supergravity and strings were discussed as well. The second theme concerns astrophysics where the school was quite successful in bridging the gap between this fascinating subject and more conventional particle physics

  7. Protein purification using magnetic adsorbent particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franzreb, M; Siemann-Herzberg, M.; Hobley, Timothy John;

    2006-01-01

    The application of functionalised magnetic adsorbent particles in combination with magnetic separation techniques has received considerable attention in recent years. The magnetically responsive nature of such adsorbent particles permits their selective manipulation and separation in the presence...... of development of protein separation using magnetic adsorbent particles and identify the obstacles that must be overcome if protein purification with magnetic adsorbent particles is to find its way into industrial practice....... of other suspended solids. Thus, it becomes possible to magnetically separate selected target species directly out of crude biological process liquors (e.g. fermentation broths, cell disruptates, plasma, milk, whey and plant extracts) simply by binding them on magnetic adsorbents before application...

  8. Time profile of the slowly extracted beam

    CERN Document Server

    Pullia, M

    1997-01-01

    An important spin-off from accelerators is the use of synchrotrons for cancer therapy. For this application a precise control of the slow extraction is needed to satisfy the medical specifications for the online measurement and control of the delivered dose. This has led to a renewed interest in the basic theory of third-order resonance extraction. In the present paper, an analytic study of the time profile of the extracted beam is made by first considering the time profile of an elementary strip of monoenergetic particles from the side of the shrinking stable triangle. This basic result is then used to predict the characteristics of the spills for the most common extraction configurations. The influence of ripples whose period is comparable to the transit time of a particle in the resonance is also analyzed. Simulations of the extraction process that confirm the analytic study are included.

  9. Targets and Secondary Beam Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noah, Etam

    2014-02-01

    Several applications make use of secondary beams of particles generated by the interaction of a primary beam of particles with a target. Spallation neutrons, bremsstrahlung photon-produced neutrons, radioactive ions and neutrinos are available to users at state-of-the-art facilities worldwide. Plans for even higher secondary beam intensities place severe constraints on the design of targets. This article reports on the main targetry challenges and highlights a variety of solutions for targetry and secondary beam extraction. Issues related to target station layout, instrumentation at the beam-target interface, safety and radioprotection are also discussed.

  10. Ultrafine particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Weschler, Charles J.; Wierzbicka, Aneta;

    2013-01-01

    Particle number (PN) concentrations (10-300 nm in size) were continuously measured over a period of ∼45 h in 56 residences of nonsmokers in Copenhagen, Denmark. The highest concentrations were measured when occupants were present and awake (geometric mean, GM: 22.3 × 103 cm-3), the lowest when th......). Candle burning occurred in half of the homes where, on average, it was responsible for almost 60% of the integrated exposure. © 2013 American Chemical Society........3 × 105 cm-3·h/day). On average, ∼90% of this exposure occurred outside of the period from midnight to 6 a.m. Source events, especially candle burning, cooking, toasting, and unknown activities, were responsible on average for ∼65% of the residential integrated exposure (51% without the unknown activities...

  11. Microfabricated particle focusing device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravula, Surendra K.; Arrington, Christian L.; Sigman, Jennifer K.; Branch, Darren W.; Brener, Igal; Clem, Paul G.; James, Conrad D.; Hill, Martyn; Boltryk, Rosemary June

    2013-04-23

    A microfabricated particle focusing device comprises an acoustic portion to preconcentrate particles over large spatial dimensions into particle streams and a dielectrophoretic portion for finer particle focusing into single-file columns. The device can be used for high throughput assays for which it is necessary to isolate and investigate small bundles of particles and single particles.

  12. Particle size characterization by ultrasonic attenuation spectra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingxu Su; Minghua Xue; Xiaoshu Cai; Zhitao Shang; Feng Xu

    2008-01-01

    This paper contributes to extracting information from signals of broadband ultrasonic attenuation spectrum for effective utilization in particle size characterization. The single particle scattering model and the coupled-phase model are formulated simultaneously, the relationship between particle size distribution and ultrasonic spectrum is established, and a convergence criterion for calculation is quantified. Demonsa'ation inversion by the optimum regularization factor method is carded out to yield typical numerical results for discussion. With the experimental set-up developed by the Institute of Particle and Two-Phase Flow Measurement (IPTFM) at the University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, sand sediment particle size is measured by attenuation spectrum and analyzed using the above inversion algorithm and theoretical models. To validate the proposed ultrasonic spectrum particle sizing method, results are compared with those obtained by microscopy.

  13. Particle kickers

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2014-01-01

    These devices are designed to provide a current pulse of 5000 Amps which will in turn generate a fast magnetic pulse that steers the incoming beam into the LHC. Today, the comprehensive upgrade of the LHC injection kicker system is entering its final stages. The upgraded system will ensure the LHC can be refilled without needing to wait for the kicker magnets to cool, thus enhancing the performance of the whole accelerator.   An upgraded kicker magnet in its vacuum tank, with an upgraded beam screen. The LHC is equipped with two kicker systems installed at the injection points (near points 2 and 8, see schematic diagram) where the particle beams coming from the SPS are injected into the accelerator’s orbit. Each system comprises four magnets and four pulse generators in which the field rises to 0.12 Tesla in less than 900 nanoseconds and for a duration of approximately 8 microseconds. Although the injection kickers only pulse 12 times to fill the LHC up with beam, the LHC beam circ...

  14. Discrete Element Modeling of Triboelectrically Charged Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogue, Michael D.; Calle, Carlos I.; Weitzman, Peter S.; Curry, David R.

    2008-01-01

    Tribocharging of particles is common in many processes including fine powder handling and mixing, printer toner transport and dust extraction. In a lunar environment with its high vacuum and lack of water, electrostatic forces are an important factor to consider when designing and operating equipment. Dust mitigation and management is critical to safe and predictable performance of people and equipment. The extreme nature of lunar conditions makes it difficult and costly to carry out experiments on earth which are necessary to better understand how particles gather and transfer charge between each other and with equipment surfaces. DEM (Discrete Element Modeling) provides an excellent virtual laboratory for studying tribocharging of particles as well as for design of devices for dust mitigation and for other purposes related to handling and processing of lunar regolith. Theoretical and experimental work has been performed pursuant to incorporating screened Coulombic electrostatic forces into EDEM, a commercial DEM software package. The DEM software is used to model the trajectories of large numbers of particles for industrial particulate handling and processing applications and can be coupled with other solvers and numerical models to calculate particle interaction with surrounding media and force fields. While simple Coulombic force between two particles is well understood, its operation in an ensemble of particles is more complex. When the tribocharging of particles and surfaces due to frictional contact is also considered, it is necessary to consider longer range of interaction of particles in response to electrostatic charging. The standard DEM algorithm accounts for particle mechanical properties and inertia as a function of particle shape and mass. If fluid drag is neglected, then particle dynamics are governed by contact between particles, between particles and equipment surfaces and gravity forces. Consideration of particle charge and any tribocharging and

  15. Isolation of technogenic magnetic particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technogenic magnetic particles (TMPs) emitted by various industrial sources, such as smelting plants, end up after atmospheric transfer on the soil surface. In the present study, we characterised the origin and composition of such particles emitted by a large iron smelting plant and deposited on particular substrates, namely tombstones, which act as a very interesting and appropriate matrix when compared to soil, tree bark, lichens or attic dust. The isolation and subsequent description of TMPs require a critical step of separation between different components of the sample and the magnetic particles; here, we described an efficient protocol that fulfils such a requirement: it resorts to water suspension, sonication, repeated magnetic extraction, sedimentation, sieving and organic matter destruction at 550 °C in some instances. The isolated TMPs displayed a noticeable crystalline shape with variable compositions: a) pure iron oxides, b) iron + Cr, Ni or Zn, and c) a complex structure containing Ca, Si, Mg, and Mn. Using Scanning Electron Microscope Energy Dispersive X-ray (SEM–EDX), we obtained profiles of various and distinct magnetic particles, which allowed us to identify the source of the TMPs. - Highlights: • The developed method offers a low-cost approach of large-scale dry deposition. • Tombstones are excellent supports for sampling these atmospheric deposits. • Smelted elements crystallise after cooling, giving typical technogenic magnetic particles (TMPs). • Coupling microscopic and bulk analyses allows identifying TMP origin. • Magnetic TMPs issued from steel industry were separated by a new technique

  16. Isolation of technogenic magnetic particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catinon, Mickaël, E-mail: mickael.catinon@gmail.com [Laboratoire LECA, UMR 5553, Equipe Pollution, Environnement, Ecotoxicologie et Ecoremédiation, Univ. J. Fourier, 38041 Grenoble (France); Ayrault, Sophie, E-mail: sophie.ayrault@lsce.ispl.fr [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement, UMR 8212, CEA-CNRS-UVSQ/IPSL, 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Boudouma, Omar, E-mail: boudouma@ccr.jussieu.fr [Service du MEB, UFR928, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 75252 Paris VI (France); Bordier, Louise, E-mail: Louise.Bordier@lsce.ipsl.fr [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement, UMR 8212, CEA-CNRS-UVSQ/IPSL, 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Agnello, Gregory, E-mail: contact@evinrude.fr [Evinrude, Espace St Germain, 38200 Vienne (France); Reynaud, Stéphane, E-mail: stephane.reynaud@ujf-grenoble.fr [Laboratoire LECA, UMR 5553, Equipe Pollution, Environnement, Ecotoxicologie et Ecoremédiation, Univ. J. Fourier, 38041 Grenoble (France); Tissut, Michel, E-mail: michel.tissut@ujf-grenoble.fr [Laboratoire LECA, UMR 5553, Equipe Pollution, Environnement, Ecotoxicologie et Ecoremédiation, Univ. J. Fourier, 38041 Grenoble (France)

    2014-03-01

    Technogenic magnetic particles (TMPs) emitted by various industrial sources, such as smelting plants, end up after atmospheric transfer on the soil surface. In the present study, we characterised the origin and composition of such particles emitted by a large iron smelting plant and deposited on particular substrates, namely tombstones, which act as a very interesting and appropriate matrix when compared to soil, tree bark, lichens or attic dust. The isolation and subsequent description of TMPs require a critical step of separation between different components of the sample and the magnetic particles; here, we described an efficient protocol that fulfils such a requirement: it resorts to water suspension, sonication, repeated magnetic extraction, sedimentation, sieving and organic matter destruction at 550 °C in some instances. The isolated TMPs displayed a noticeable crystalline shape with variable compositions: a) pure iron oxides, b) iron + Cr, Ni or Zn, and c) a complex structure containing Ca, Si, Mg, and Mn. Using Scanning Electron Microscope Energy Dispersive X-ray (SEM–EDX), we obtained profiles of various and distinct magnetic particles, which allowed us to identify the source of the TMPs. - Highlights: • The developed method offers a low-cost approach of large-scale dry deposition. • Tombstones are excellent supports for sampling these atmospheric deposits. • Smelted elements crystallise after cooling, giving typical technogenic magnetic particles (TMPs). • Coupling microscopic and bulk analyses allows identifying TMP origin. • Magnetic TMPs issued from steel industry were separated by a new technique.

  17. The kinetics of fossil resin extraction from a flotation concentrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, L.; Yu, Q.; Miller, J.D. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The kinetics of fossil resin extraction from a flotation concentrate by heptane were investigated as a function of process variables using monosize particles. Experimental results provide for a better understanding of the refining process and the basis for subsequent design and construction of a continuous resin refining circuit. Based on the effect of process variables (particle size, stirring speed, and temperature) the resin extraction rate appears to be controlled by surface solvation phenomena. The initial extraction rate was found to be inversely proportional to the initial particle size and a kinetic model is being developed to describe the experimental results.

  18. Physicist pins hopes on particle collider

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Physicist pins hopes on particle collider By Deseret Morning News Published: Monday, Dec. 31, 27 12:4 a.m. MST FONT Scott Thomas, a 187 State University graduate, is working at the frontiers of science. The theoretical physicist is crafting ways to extract fundamental secrets that seem certain to be uncovered by the Large Hadron Collider.

  19. Electroless nickel plating on polymer particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Syuji; Hamasaki, Hiroyuki; Takeoka, Hiroaki; Tsuruoka, Takaaki; Akamatsu, Kensuke; Nakamura, Yoshinobu

    2014-09-15

    Near-monodisperse, micrometer-sized polypyrrole-palladium (PPy-Pd) nanocomposite-coated polystyrene (PS) particles have been coated with Ni overlayers by electroless plating in aqueous media. Good control of the Ni loading was achieved for 1.0 μm diameter PPy-Pd nanocomposite-coated PS particles and particles of up to 20 μm in diameter could also be efficiently coated with the Ni. Laser diffraction particle size analysis studies of dilute aqueous suspensions indicated that an additional water-soluble colloidal stabilizer, poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone), in the electroless plating reaction media was crucial to obtain colloidally stable Ni-coated composite particles. Elemental microanalysis indicated that the Ni loading could be controlled between 61 and 78 wt% for the 1.0 μm-sized particles. Scanning/transmission electron microscopy studies revealed that the particle surface had a flaked morphology after Ni coating. Spherical capsules were obtained after extraction of the PS component from the Ni-coated composite particles, which indicated that the shell became rigid after Ni coating. X-ray diffraction confirmed the production of elemental Ni and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies indicated the existence of elemental Ni on the surface of the composite particles. PMID:24998053

  20. Isolation of technogenic magnetic particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catinon, Mickaël; Ayrault, Sophie; Boudouma, Omar; Bordier, Louise; Agnello, Gregory; Reynaud, Stéphane; Tissut, Michel

    2014-03-15

    Technogenic magnetic particles (TMPs) emitted by various industrial sources, such as smelting plants, end up after atmospheric transfer on the soil surface. In the present study, we characterised the origin and composition of such particles emitted by a large iron smelting plant and deposited on particular substrates, namely tombstones, which act as a very interesting and appropriate matrix when compared to soil, tree bark, lichens or attic dust. The isolation and subsequent description of TMPs require a critical step of separation between different components of the sample and the magnetic particles; here, we described an efficient protocol that fulfils such a requirement: it resorts to water suspension, sonication, repeated magnetic extraction, sedimentation, sieving and organic matter destruction at 550 °C in some instances. The isolated TMPs displayed a noticeable crystalline shape with variable compositions: a) pure iron oxides, b) iron+Cr, Ni or Zn, and c) a complex structure containing Ca, Si, Mg, and Mn. Using Scanning Electron Microscope Energy Dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX), we obtained profiles of various and distinct magnetic particles, which allowed us to identify the source of the TMPs. PMID:24419285

  1. Preparation and H2O2 oxidation of extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Yujiao; Qin Zhihong; Li Baomin

    2012-01-01

    Tongting coal (TTC) was exhaustively extracted with carbon disulfide and/N/-melthy-2-pyrolidinone (CS2/NMP) mixed solvents to afford brown particles of extract,which was characterized with proximate analyzer,transmission electron microscope (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer.The results show that the nanometer particles of extract,which were free of ash,are superfine and superclean with tract content of 0.02% Ad and particles size of about 100-150 nm.TTC and extract were then subject to oxidation with H2O2 and oxidation products were subsequently analyzed with FTIR and gas chromatography/mass spectrometer (GC/MS).The results show that extract is more reactive with H2O2 in comparison to TTC and richer in oxygen-containing species including phenols,alcohols,ethers,esters,carboxylic acids and anhydrides.

  2. Particle adhesion and removal

    CERN Document Server

    Mittal, K L

    2015-01-01

    The book provides a comprehensive and easily accessible reference source covering all important aspects of particle adhesion and removal.  The core objective is to cover both fundamental and applied aspects of particle adhesion and removal with emphasis on recent developments.  Among the topics to be covered include: 1. Fundamentals of surface forces in particle adhesion and removal.2. Mechanisms of particle adhesion and removal.3. Experimental methods (e.g. AFM, SFA,SFM,IFM, etc.) to understand  particle-particle and particle-substrate interactions.4. Mechanics of adhesion of micro- and  n

  3. Extraction of phenolics from pomegranate peels

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of different solvents, temperature conditions, solvent-solid ratios and particle sizes on solid-solvent extraction of the total phenolics, proanthocyanidins and flavonoids herein also referred to as antioxidant from pomegranate marc peel (PMP) was studied. Water, methanol, ethanol, aceto...

  4. SPS CROSS-SECTIONAL CHANGES EXTRACTION

    CERN Document Server

    Alao, Adewale

    2016-01-01

    The SPS particle accelerator has a circumference of 6.9km and uses different magnets with different apertures. This project work examine the changes in the various aperture both horizontally and vertically and extract the changes (as data) with respect to position of occurrence over the entire circumference.

  5. Review of particle properties. Particle Data Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review of the properties of leptons, mesons, and baryons is an updating of Review of Particle Properties, Particle Data Group [Rev. Mod. Phys. 48 (1976) No. 2, Part II; and Supplement, Phys. Lett. 68B (1977) 1]. Data are evaluated, listed, averaged, and summarized in tables. Numerous tables, figures, and formulae of interest to particle physicists are also included. A data booklet is available

  6. A fluid particle model

    OpenAIRE

    Español, Pep

    1997-01-01

    We present a mechanistic model for a Newtonian fluid called fluid particle dynamics. By analyzing the concept of ``fluid particle'' from the point of view of a Voronoi tessellation of a molecular fluid, we propose an heuristic derivation of a dissipative particle dynamics algorithm that incorporates shear forces between dissipative particles. The inclusion of these non-central shear forces requires the consideration of angular velocities of the dissipative particles in order to comply with th...

  7. Assessment of weathering and leaching rates of Thule hot particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, P. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Roskilde (Denmark)); Outola, I. (STUK-Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (Finland)); Nygren, U.; Ramebaeck, H. (FOI CBRN Defence and Security (Sweden)); Sidhu, R. (Institute of Energy Technology, Environmental Monitoring Section, Health and Safety Dept. (Norway))

    2010-03-15

    Within the current project a methodology for separating actinide particles originating from the Thule 1968 accident has been developed. Particles were completely isolated in water using visual and radiometric methods. The particles were attached electrostatic to a plastic support and could easily be moved to any container for leaching studies or other type of studies. Leaching and dissolution studies performed within the project indicate that some particles are relatively easily destroyed or leached while others are more refractory. The results shows that even though the oxide particles are hard to completely dissolve they release material even when exposed to weak solvents like water and salt solutions. Exposures to lung simulant fluids show relatively slow dissolution rates comparable to what is found using only water. Sequential extraction of particles shows that variation between particles is very large; some dissolve easily while some does not. Of radiological importance is the disruption of particles when exposed to dissolution. (author)

  8. Calculation Of Extraction Optics For Ion System With Plazma Emitter

    CERN Document Server

    Frolov, B A

    2004-01-01

    The 2-D code for simulating of ion optics system of positive ion extraction from a plasma source is described. Example calculation of 100 kV optics for the extraction ion IHEP gun is presented. The trajectories of particles and emittance plots are resulted. The aberrations influ-ence strongly on ion optics for considered geometry.

  9. Particle capture device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayne, John T.; Worsnop, Douglas R.

    2016-02-23

    In example embodiments, particle collection efficiency in aerosol analyzers and other particle measuring instruments is improved by a particle capture device that employs multiple collisions to decrease momentum of particles until the particles are collected (e.g., vaporized or come to rest). The particle collection device includes an aperture through which a focused particle beam enters. A collection enclosure is coupled to the aperture and has one or more internal surfaces against which particles of the focused beam collide. One or more features are employed in the collection enclosure to promote particles to collide multiple times within the enclosure, and thereby be vaporized or come to rest, rather than escape through the aperture.

  10. Green bio-oil extraction for oil crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainab, H.; Nurfatirah, N.; Norfaezah, A.; Othman, H.

    2016-06-01

    The move towards a green bio-oil extraction technique is highlighted in this paper. The commonly practised organic solvent oil extraction technique could be replaced with a modified microwave extraction. Jatropha seeds (Jatropha curcas) were used to extract bio-oil. Clean samples were heated in an oven at 110 ° C for 24 hours to remove moisture content and ground to obtain particle size smaller than 500μm. Extraction was carried out at different extraction times 15 min, 30 min, 45 min, 60 min and 120 min to determine oil yield. The biooil yield obtained from microwave assisted extraction system at 90 minutes was 36% while that from soxhlet extraction for 6 hours was 42%. Bio-oil extracted using the microwave assisted extraction (MAE) system could enhance yield of bio-oil compared to soxhlet extraction. The MAE extraction system is rapid using only water as solvent which is a nonhazardous, environment-friendly technique compared to soxhlet extraction (SE) method using hexane as solvent. Thus, this is a green technique of bio-oil extraction using only water as extractant. Bio-oil extraction from the pyrolysis of empty fruit bunch (EFB), a biomass waste from oil palm crop, was enhanced using a biocatalyst derived from seashell waste. Oil yield for non-catalytic extraction was 43.8% while addition of seashell based biocatalyst was 44.6%. Oil yield for non-catalytic extraction was 43.8% while with addition of seashell-based biocatalyst was 44.6%. The pH of bio-oil increased from 3.5 to 4.3. The viscosity of bio-oil obtained by catalytic means increased from 20.5 to 37.8 cP. A rapid and environment friendly extraction technique is preferable to enhance bio-oil yield. The microwave assisted approach is a green, rapid and environmental friendly extraction technique for the production of bio-oil bearing crops.

  11. Bichromatic particle streak velocimetry bPSV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Björn; Stapf, Julian; Berthe, André; Garbe, Christoph S.

    2012-11-01

    We propose a novel technique for three-dimensional three-component (3D3C) interfacial flow measurement. It is based on the particle streak velocimetry principle. A relatively long integration time of the camera is used for capturing the movement of tracer particles as streaks on the sensor. The velocity along these streaks is extracted by periodically changing the illumination using a known pattern. A dye with different absorption characteristics in two distinct wavelengths is used to color the fluid. The depth of particles relative to the fluid interface can then be computed from their intensities when illuminated with light sources at those two different wavelengths. Hence, from our approach, a bichromatic, periodical illumination together with an image processing routine for precisely extracting particle streak features is used for measuring 3D3C fluid flow with a single camera. The technique is applied to measuring turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection at the free air--water interface. Using Lagrangian statistics, we are able to demonstrate a clear transition from the Batchelor regime to the Richardson regime, both of which were postulated for isotropic turbulence. The relative error of the velocity extraction of our new technique was found to be below 0.5 %.

  12. Extraction of beryllium from refractory beryllium oxide with dilute ammonium bifluoride and determination by fluorescence: a multiparameter performance evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldcamp, Michael J; Goldcamp, Diane M; Ashley, Kevin; Fernback, Joseph E; Agrawal, Anoop; Millson, Mark; Marlow, David; Harrison, Kenneth

    2009-12-01

    Beryllium exposure can cause a number of deleterious health effects, including beryllium sensitization and the potentially fatal chronic beryllium disease. Efficient methods for monitoring beryllium contamination in workplaces are valuable to help prevent dangerous exposures to this element. In this work, performance data on the extraction of beryllium from various size fractions of high-fired beryllium oxide (BeO) particles (from bifluoride (ABF) solution were obtained under various conditions. Beryllium concentrations were determined by fluorescence using a hydroxybenzoquinoline fluorophore. The effects of ABF concentration and volume, extraction temperature, sample tube types, and presence of filter or wipe media were examined. Three percent ABF extracts beryllium nearly twice as quickly as 1% ABF; extraction solution volume has minimal influence. Elevated temperatures increase the rate of extraction dramatically compared with room temperature extraction. Sample tubes with constricted tips yield poor extraction rates owing to the inability of the extraction medium to access the undissolved particles. The relative rates of extraction of Be from BeO of varying particle sizes were examined. Beryllium from BeO particles in fractions ranging from less than 32 microm up to 212 microm were subjected to various extraction schemes. The smallest BeO particles are extracted more quickly than the largest particles, although at 90 degrees C even the largest BeO particles reach nearly quantitative extraction within 4 hr in 3% ABF. Extraction from mixed cellulosic-ester filters, cellulosic surface-sampling filters, wetted cellulosic dust wipes, and cotton gloves yielded 90% or greater recoveries. Scanning electron microscopy of BeO particles, including partially dissolved particles, shows that dissolution in dilute ABF occurs not just on the exterior surface but also via accessing particles' interiors due to porosity of the BeO material. Comparison of dissolution kinetics data

  13. Kinetics and thermodynamics of cottonseed oil extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxena, D. K.; Sharma, S. K.

    2011-07-01

    Petroleum derived n-hexane is commercially used in solvent extraction plants due to its higher extraction efficiency in spite of the fact that it is graded as highly toxic and hazardous. The present study is based on the use of both a much safer and non toxic solvent ethanol and n-hexane for the extraction of oil from cottonseed. The extraction data were obtained by varying temperature, solvent-solid ratio and particle size, to compare the extraction efficiency of both ethanol and n-hexane. The data show that nearly the same amount of extraction is possible at a higher solvent-solid ratio for both the solvents. This study has established that the kinetics of oil extraction follows a second order reaction mechanism. The thermodynamic analysis of the data shows that both .{delta}H degree centigrade and {delta}G degree centigrade are positive, and {delta}G degree centigrade is negative indicating that the extraction process is endothermic, irreversible, and spontaneous. (Author) 41 refs.

  14. High efficiency of collisional Penrose process requires heavy particle production

    CERN Document Server

    Ogasawara, Kota; Miyamoto, Umpei

    2015-01-01

    The center-of-mass energy of two particles can become arbitrarily large if they collide near the event horizon of an extremal Kerr black hole, which is called the Ba$\\rm \\tilde n$ados-Silk-West (BSW) effect. We consider such a high-energy collision of two particles which started from infinity and follow geodesics in the equatorial plane and investigate the energy extraction from such a high-energy particle collision and the production of particles in the equatorial plane. We analytically show that, on the one hand, if the produced particles are as massive as the colliding particles, the energy-extraction efficiency is bounded by $2.19$ approximately. On the other hand, if a very massive particle is to be produced as a result of the high-energy collision, which has negative energy and necessarily falls into the black hole, the upper limit of the energy-extraction efficiency is increased to $(2+\\sqrt{3})^2 \\simeq 13.9$. Thus, higher efficiency of the energy extraction, which is typically as large as 10, provide...

  15. Influence of process parameters on the extraction of flavanones from mandarin peel

    OpenAIRE

    Makovšek, Katja; Knez, Željko; Škerget, Mojca

    2015-01-01

    Flavanones are an important group of flavonoids that are characteristic for citrus. In the present work isolation of flavanones from mandarin peel was performed by conventional extraction using water, ethanol, acetone and aqueoussolutions of acetone and ethanol. The extracts were analysed on the content and composition of flavanones. Furthermore the DPPH radical scavengingactivity of extracts was determined. Finally, the influence of extraction parameters (particle size, extraction temperatur...

  16. Particle quality assessment and sorting for automatic and semiautomatic particle-picking techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, J; Abrishami, V; Marabini, R; de la Rosa-Trevín, J M; Zaldivar, A; Carazo, J M; Sorzano, C O S

    2013-09-01

    Three-dimensional reconstruction of biological specimens using electron microscopy by single particle methodologies requires the identification and extraction of the imaged particles from the acquired micrographs. Automatic and semiautomatic particle selection approaches can localize these particles, minimizing the user interaction, but at the cost of selecting a non-negligible number of incorrect particles, which can corrupt the final three-dimensional reconstruction. In this work, we present a novel particle quality assessment and sorting method that can separate most erroneously picked particles from correct ones. The proposed method is based on multivariate statistical analysis of a particle set that has been picked previously using any automatic or manual approach. The new method uses different sets of particle descriptors, which are morphology-based, histogram-based and signal to noise analysis based. We have tested our proposed algorithm with experimental data obtaining very satisfactory results. The algorithm is freely available as a part of the Xmipp 3.0 package [http://xmipp.cnb.csic.es].

  17. Multiscale Simulations Using Particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Jens Honore

    We are developing particle methods as a general framework for large scale simulations of discrete and continuous systems in science and engineering. The specific application and research areas include: discrete element simulations of granular flow, smoothed particle hydrodynamics and particle...... vortex methods for problems in continuum fluid dynamics, dissipative particle dynamics for flow at the meso scale, and atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of nanofluidic systems. We employ multiscale techniques to breach the atomistic and continuum scales to study fundamental problems in fluid...

  18. Beyond the God particle

    CERN Document Server

    Lederman, Leon M

    2013-01-01

    On July 4, 2012, the long-sought Higgs Boson--aka "the God Particle"--was discovered at the world's largest particle accelerator, the LHC, in Geneva, Switzerland. On March 14, 2013, physicists at CERN confirmed it. This elusive subatomic particle forms a field that permeates the entire universe, creating the masses of the elementary particles that are the basic building blocks of everything in the known world--from viruses to elephants, from atoms to quasars.

  19. A spray of particles

    CERN Multimedia

    1982-01-01

    These tracks are produced by high energy particles that have been created in the collision of a proton and an antiproton in the SPS collider at CERN. Particle detectors use electronics and complicated devices to recreate the tracks left by real particles. Such detectors are usually embedded in a strong magnetic field, causing the charged particles to follow a curved path so that they can be identified and measurements can be made of their momentum.

  20. Tracking particles by passing messages between images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chertkov, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kroc, Lukas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zdeborova, Lenka [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Krakala, Florent [ESPCI; Vergassola, M [CNRS

    2009-01-01

    Methods to extract information from the tracking of mobile objects/particles have broad interest in biological and physical sciences. Techniques based on the simple criterion of proximity in time-consecutive snapshots are useful to identify the trajectories of the particles. However, they become problematic as the motility and/or the density of the particles increases because of the uncertainties on the trajectories that particles have followed during the acquisition time of the images. Here, we report efficient methods for learning parameters of the dynamics of the particles from their positions in time-consecutive images. Our algorithm belongs to the class of message-passing algorithms, also known in computer science, information theory and statistical physics under the name of Belief Propagation (BP). The algorithm is distributed, thus allowing parallel implementation suitable for computations on multiple machines without significant inter-machine overhead. We test our method on the model example of particle tracking in turbulent flows, which is particularly challenging due to the strong transport that those flows produce. Our numerical experiments show that the BP algorithm compares in quality with exact Markov Chain Monte-Carlo algorithms, yet BP is far superior in speed. We also suggest and analyze a random-distance model that provides theoretical justification for BP accuracy. Methods developed here systematically formulate the problem of particle tracking and provide fast and reliable tools for its extensive range of applications.

  1. Atomic Particle Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellman, Hal

    1970-01-01

    This booklet tells how scientists observe the particles and electromagnetic radiation that emerges from an atomic nucleus. The equipment used falls into two general categories: counters which count each particle as it passes by, and track detectors, which make a photographic record of the particle's track.

  2. When is a Particle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drell, Sidney D.

    1978-01-01

    Gives a new definition for the concept of the elementary particle in nuclear physics. Explains why the existance of the quark as an elementary particle could be an accepted fact even though it lacks what traditionally identifies a particle. Compares this with the development which took place during the discovery of the neutrino in the early…

  3. Influência do tamanho das partículas na solubilização enzimática da proteína do farelo de soja = The influence of particle size in the enzymatic extraction of soybean meal protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura Stenzel

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a influência do tamanho das partículas na quantidade de proteína solubilizada a partir do farelo de soja. O farelo foi peneirado e cada fração foi submetida à hidrólise enzimática com as proteases Alcalase e Flavourzyme. Ashidrólises foram realizadas a 60ºC, agitação de 100 rpm, concentração de Alcalase 0,5% (proteína/proteína por 3h e concentração de Flavourzyme 1% (proteína/proteína por 5h. A quantidade de proteína solubilizada foi determinada pelo método de Lowry. A análisegranulométrica do farelo mostrou que quase metade da amostra corresponde a partículas maiores que 1,68 mm. O modelo que resultou em melhor ajuste dos dados foi o GGS, e o diâmetro médio de Sauter da amostra foi 1,150 mm. Com relação à hidrólise enzimática,para as duas enzimas foi verificada uma tendência de aumento na quantidade solubilizada para as frações mais finas e maior efetividade da Alcalase na solubilização proteica. The objective of this work was to verify the influence of particlesize in the results of enzymatic extraction of soybean meal protein. The meal was classified in homogeneous fractions, and each was subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis with Alcalase and Flavourzyme proteases. The hydrolyses were conducted at 60ºC, with agitation of 100 rpm, 0.5% concentration of Alcalase (protein/protein for three hours, and 1% concentration of Flavourzyme (protein/protein for five hours. The results were analyzed based on the amount of solubilized protein, determined through the Lowry method. The granulometric analysis of the meal showed that almost half of the sample is composed of particles larger that 1.68 mm. The model that resulted in the best adjustment of experimental data was GGS, and the Sauter mean diameter of the sample was 1.150 mm. Regarding enzymatic hydrolysis, a trend of increase in the amount of solubilized proteinwas verified for both enzymes for the finer fractions and greater

  4. Nano polypeptide particles reinforced polymer composite fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiashen; Li, Yi; Zhang, Jing; Li, Gang; Liu, Xuan; Li, Zhi; Liu, Xuqing; Han, Yanxia; Zhao, Zheng

    2015-02-25

    Because of the intensified competition of land resources for growing food and natural textile fibers, there is an urgent need to reuse and recycle the consumed/wasted natural fibers as regenerated green materials. Although polypeptide was extracted from wool by alkaline hydrolysis, the size of the polypeptide fragments could be reduced to nanoscale. The wool polypeptide particles were fragile and could be crushed down to nano size again and dispersed evenly among polymer matrix under melt extrusion condition. The nano polypeptide particles could reinforce antiultraviolet capability, moisture regain, and mechanical properties of the polymer-polypeptide composite fibers.

  5. Laser ion source for particle accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Sherwood, T R

    1995-01-01

    There is an interest in accelerating atomic nuclei to produce particle beams for medical therapy, atomic and nuclear physics, inertial confinement fusion and particle physics. Laser Ion Sources, in which ions are extracted from plasma created when a high power density laser beam pulse strikes a solid surface in a vacuum, are not in common use. However, some new developments in which heavy ions have been accelerated show that such sources have the potential to provide the beams required for high-energy accelerator systems.

  6. Supercritical extraction of sunflower oil: A central composite design for extraction variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Amit; Mohanty, Bikash; Bhargava, Ravindra

    2016-02-01

    Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction of sunflower seed for the production of vegetable oil is investigated and compared to conventional methods. The effects of extracting variables, namely pressure, temperatures, particle size, SC-CO2 flow rate and co-solvent, on SC-CO2 extraction are investigated. The maximum yield for sunflower oil is found to be about 54.37 wt%, and is obtained when SC-CO2 extraction is carried out at 80 °C, 400 bar, 0.75 mm particle and 10 g/min solvent flow with 5% co-solvent. A central composite design is used to develop the model and also to predict the optimum conditions. At optimum conditions obtained based on desirability function, 80.54 °C, 345 bar, 1.00 mm, 10.50 g/min and 7.58% ethanol, SC-CO2 extraction has performed and found that extraction yield dropped by 2.88% from the predicted value. Fatty acid composition of SC-CO2 and hexane extracted oil shows negligible difference and found high source of linoleic acid.

  7. Study on direct measurement method of vorticity from particle images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RUAN Xiaodong; FU Xin; YANG Huayong

    2007-01-01

    To overcome the shortcomings of conventional methods for vorticity measurement,a new direct measurement of vorticity (DMV) method extracting vorticity from particle images was proposed.Based on the theory of fluid flow,two matched particle patterns were extracted from particle images in the DMV method.The pattern vorticity was determined from the average angular displacement of rotation between the two matched particle patterns.The method was applied on standard particle images,and was compared with the second and third order central finite difference methods.Results show that the accuracy of DMV method is independent of the spatial resolution of the sampling,and the uncertainty errors in the velocity measurement are not propagated into the vorticity.The method is applicable for measuring vorticity of a stronger rotational flow.The time interval of image sampling should be shortened to increase the measurement ranges for higher shearing distortion flows.

  8. Electron extraction mechanisms of a micro-ECR neutralizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takao, Yoshinori; Hiramoto, Kenta; Nakagawa, Yuichi; Kasagi, Yusuke; Koizumi, Hiroyuki; Komurasaki, Kimiya

    2016-07-01

    Three-dimensional particle simulations have been conducted to analyze the mechanisms of electron extraction through the orifices of a 4.2 GHz microwave discharge microneutralizer, using a xenon electron cyclotron resonance plasma. The dimensions of the neutralizer are 20 × 20 × 4 mm3, and a ring-shaped microwave antenna and permanent magnets are employed for its discharges. The numerical model is composed of a particle-in-cell simulation with a Monte Carlo collision algorithm for charged particle motions, a finite-difference time-domain method for microwaves, and a finite element analysis for magnetostatic fields. The simulation results have shown that the electrostatic field inside the plasma source has a dominant effect on electron extraction. The extracted electrons move along the magnetic field line to the orifice entrances and the E × B drift at the orifice edge induces electron extraction.

  9. Accurate atomic quantum defects from particle-particle random phase approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Yang; Yang, Weitao

    2015-01-01

    The accuracy of calculations of atomic Rydberg excitations cannot be judged by the usual measures, such as mean unsigned errors of many transitions. We show how to use quantum defect theory to (a) separate errors due to approximate ionization potentials, (b) extract smooth quantum defects to compare with experiment, and (c) quantify those defects with a few characteristic parameters. The particle-particle random phase approximation (pp-RPA) produces excellent Rydberg transitions that are an order of magnitude more accurate than those of time-dependent density functional theory with standard approximations. We even extract reasonably accurate defects from the lithium Rydberg series, despite the reference being open-shell. Our methodology can be applied to any Rydberg series of excitations with 4 transitions or more to extract the underlying threshold energy and characteristic quantum defect parameters. Our pp-RPA results set a demanding challenge for other excitation methods to match.

  10. A fast quantum mechanics based contour extraction algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Tian; Sun, Yangguang; Ding, Mingyue

    2009-02-01

    A fast algorithm was proposed to decrease the computational cost of the contour extraction approach based on quantum mechanics. The contour extraction approach based on quantum mechanics is a novel method proposed recently by us, which will be presented on the same conference by another paper of us titled "a statistical approach to contour extraction based on quantum mechanics". In our approach, contour extraction was modeled as the locus of a moving particle described by quantum mechanics, which is obtained by the most probable locus of the particle simulated in a large number of iterations. In quantum mechanics, the probability that a particle appears at a point is equivalent to the square amplitude of the wave function. Furthermore, the expression of the wave function can be derived from digital images, making the probability of the locus of a particle available. We employed the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method to estimate the square amplitude of the wave function. Finally, our fast quantum mechanics based contour extraction algorithm (referred as our fast algorithm hereafter) was evaluated by a number of different images including synthetic and medical images. It was demonstrated that our fast algorithm can achieve significant improvements in accuracy and robustness compared with the well-known state-of-the-art contour extraction techniques and dramatic reduction of time complexity compared to the statistical approach to contour extraction based on quantum mechanics.

  11. The Particle Enigma

    CERN Document Server

    Marsh, Gerald E

    2016-01-01

    The idea that particles are the basic constituents of all matter dates back to ancient times and formed the basis of physical thought well into modern times. The debate about whether light was a wave or a stream of particles also lasted until relatively recently. It was the advent of de Broglie's work and its implications that revolutionized the concept of an elementary particle -- but unfortunately did not banish the idea of a point particle despite its difficulties in both classical and quantum physics. Some of these problems are discussed in this essay, which covers chiral oscillations, Penrose's "zigzag" picture of particles satisfying the Dirac equation, and some ideas derived from string theory.

  12. Magnetically assisted chemical separation (MACS) process: Preparation and optimization of particles for removal of transuranic elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Magnetically Assisted Chemical Separation (MACS) process combines the selectivity afforded by solvent extractants with magnetic separation by using specially coated magnetic particles to provide a more efficient chemical separation of transuranic (TRU) elements, other radionuclides, and heavy metals from waste streams. Development of the MACS process uses chemical and physical techniques to elucidate the properties of particle coatings and the extent of radiolytic and chemical damage to the particles, and to optimize the stages of loading, extraction, and particle regeneration. This report describes the development of a separation process for TRU elements from various high-level waste streams. Polymer-coated ferromagnetic particles with an adsorbed layer of octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) diluted with tributyl phosphate (TBP) were evaluated for use in the separation and recovery of americium and plutonium from nuclear waste solutions. Due to their chemical nature, these extractants selectively complex americium and plutonium contaminants onto the particles, which can then be recovered from the solution by using a magnet. The partition coefficients were larger than those expected based on liquid[liquid extractions, and the extraction proceeded with rapid kinetics. Extractants were stripped from the particles with alcohols and 400-fold volume reductions were achieved. Particles were more sensitive to acid hydrolysis than to radiolysis. Overall, the optimization of a suitable NMCS particle for TRU separation was achieved under simulant conditions, and a MACS unit is currently being designed for an in-lab demonstration

  13. Magnetically assisted chemical separation (MACS) process: Preparation and optimization of particles for removal of transuranic elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunez, L.; Kaminski, M.; Bradley, C.; Buchholz, B.A.; Aase, S.B.; Tuazon, H.E.; Vandegrift, G.F. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Landsberger, S. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

    1995-05-01

    The Magnetically Assisted Chemical Separation (MACS) process combines the selectivity afforded by solvent extractants with magnetic separation by using specially coated magnetic particles to provide a more efficient chemical separation of transuranic (TRU) elements, other radionuclides, and heavy metals from waste streams. Development of the MACS process uses chemical and physical techniques to elucidate the properties of particle coatings and the extent of radiolytic and chemical damage to the particles, and to optimize the stages of loading, extraction, and particle regeneration. This report describes the development of a separation process for TRU elements from various high-level waste streams. Polymer-coated ferromagnetic particles with an adsorbed layer of octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) diluted with tributyl phosphate (TBP) were evaluated for use in the separation and recovery of americium and plutonium from nuclear waste solutions. Due to their chemical nature, these extractants selectively complex americium and plutonium contaminants onto the particles, which can then be recovered from the solution by using a magnet. The partition coefficients were larger than those expected based on liquid[liquid extractions, and the extraction proceeded with rapid kinetics. Extractants were stripped from the particles with alcohols and 400-fold volume reductions were achieved. Particles were more sensitive to acid hydrolysis than to radiolysis. Overall, the optimization of a suitable NMCS particle for TRU separation was achieved under simulant conditions, and a MACS unit is currently being designed for an in-lab demonstration.

  14. Particle separator scroll vanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lastrina, F. A.; Mayer, J. C.; Pommer, L. M.

    1985-07-09

    An inlet particle separator for a gas turbine engine is provided with unique vanes distributed around an entrance to a particle collection chamber. The vanes are uniquely constructed to direct extraneous particles that enter the engine into the collection chamber and prevent the particles from rebounding back into the engine's air flow stream. The vanes are provided with several features to accomplish this function, including upstream faces that are sharply angled towards air flow stream direction to cause particles to bounce towards the collection chamber. In addition, throat regions between the vanes cause a localized air flow acceleration and a focusing of the particles that aid in directing the particles in a proper direction.

  15. Heart Beat Classification Using Particle Swarm Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Khazaee

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel system to classify three types of electrocardiogram beats, namely normal beats and two manifestations of heart arrhythmia. This system includes three main modules: a feature extraction module, a classifier module, and an optimization module. In the feature extraction module, a proper set combining the shape features and timing features is proposed as the efficient characteristic of the patterns. In the classifier module, a multi-class support vector machine (SVM-based classifier is proposed. For the optimization module, a particle swarm optimization algorithm is proposed to search for the best value of the SVM parameters and upstream by looking for the best subset of features that feed the classifier. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm has very high recognition accuracy. This high efficiency is achieved with only little features, which have been selected using particle swarm optimizer.

  16. What is a particle?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theoretical developments related to gravitational interaction have questioned the notion of particle in quantum field theory (QFT). For instance, uniquely defined particle states do not exist in general, in QFT on a curved spacetime. More generally, particle states are difficult to define in a background-independent quantum theory of gravity. These difficulties have led some to suggest that in general QFT should not be interpreted in terms of particle states, but rather in terms of eigenstates of local operators. Still, it is not obvious how to reconcile this view with the empirically-observed ubiquitous particle-like behavior of quantum fields, apparent for instance in experimental high-energy physics, or 'particle' physics. Here we offer an element of clarification by observing that already in flat space there exist-strictly speaking-two distinct notions of particles: globally defined n-particle Fock-states and local particle states. The last describes the physical objects detected by finite-size particle detectors and are eigenstates of local field operators. In the limit in which the particle detectors are appropriately large, global and local particle states converge in a weak topology (but not in norm). This observation has little relevance for flat-space theories-it amounts to a reminder that there are boundary effects in realistic detectors-but is relevant for gravity. It reconciles the two points of view mentioned above. More importantly, it provides a definition of the local particle state that remains well defined even when the conventional global particle states are not defined. This definition plays an important role in quantum gravity.

  17. Technology of drinks based on water extracts of rosehip, sea buckthorn and viburnum

    OpenAIRE

    Капліна, Тетяна Вікторівна; Миронов, Денис Анатольевич

    2014-01-01

    The results of developing the technology of drinks, fruit drinks and fizzes, made of plant extracts of rosehip, sea buckthorn and viburnum, previously processed in the vortex layer of ferromagnetic particles are presented in the paper. Plant extracts were prepared by the traditional infusion at a constant temperature. Processing in the vortex layer of ferromagnetic particles allows to reduce the infusion time by 4-6 times in comparison with the industrial extraction technologies.Based on the ...

  18. Proton extraction from the CERN SPS using bent silicon crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsener, K.; Fidecaro, G.; Gyr, M.; Herr, W.; Klem, J.; Mikkelsen, U.; Møller, S. P.; Uggerhøj, E.; Vuagnin, G.; Weisse, E.

    1996-10-01

    The extraction of high energy particles from a circular accelerator by means of channeling in bent crystals is an attractive alternative to classical extraction schemes, in particular for high energy proton colliders where a classical scheme becomes expensive and incompatible with normal operation. This paper reviews the ongoing extraction experiments at the CERN-SPS with bent silicon crystals. It describes the principles of beam extraction by means of a bent crystal and the different extraction schemes used: first- and multi-pass extraction and the methods to create diffusion. The limitations in tuning the accelerator to the desired impact parameters and crucial items concerning crystal preparation, bending and pre-alignment are discussed. The experimental procedures including an overview of the detection of circulating and extracted beam are given. Finally, the paper summarizes the results of these experiments together with ideas for future developments.

  19. Extracts against Various Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritika Chauhan

    2013-07-01

    The present study shows that tested lichen Parmotrema sp. extracts demonstrated a strong antimicrobial effect. That suggests the active components from methanol extracts of the investigated lichen Parmotrema sp. can be used as natural antimicrobial agent against pathogens.

  20. Extracting Electric Polarizabilities from Lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Will Detmold, William Detmold, Brian Tiburzi, Andre Walker-Loud

    2009-05-01

    Charged and neutral, pion and kaon electric polarizabilities are extracted from lattice QCD using an ensemble of anisotropic gauge configurations with dynamical clover fermions. We utilize classical background fields to access the polarizabilities from two-point correlation functions. Uniform background fields are achieved by quantizing the electric field strength with the proper treatment of boundary flux. These external fields, however, are implemented only in the valence quark sector. A novel method to extract charge particle polarizabilities is successfully demonstrated for the first time.

  1. Design of a solvent extraction process for PAH-contaminated sediments : The WAU-acetone process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rulkens, W.H.; Bruning, H.; Hasselt, H.J. van; Rienks, J.; Veen, H.J. van; Terlingen, J.P.M.

    1998-01-01

    Solvent extraction is one of the possibilities to clean-up polluted sediments. It is especially attractive when the sediment mainly consists of clay particles polluted with contaminants which are not, or not easily, biodegradable. Using acetone as extracting agent the extraction process has been inv

  2. MARS Tracking Simulations for the Mu2e Slow Extracted Proton Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagaslaev, Vladimir [Fermilab; Rakhno, Igor [Fermilab

    2015-06-01

    Particle tracking taking into account interactions with fields and materials is necessary for proper evaluation of the resonant extraction losses and geometry optimization for the extraction beam line. This paper describes the tracking simulations for the Mu2e Resonant Extraction and discusses the geometry choices made based on these simulations.

  3. Fuzzy Logic Particle Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    A new all-electronic Particle Image Velocimetry technique that can efficiently map high speed gas flows has been developed in-house at the NASA Lewis Research Center. Particle Image Velocimetry is an optical technique for measuring the instantaneous two component velocity field across a planar region of a seeded flow field. A pulsed laser light sheet is used to illuminate the seed particles entrained in the flow field at two instances in time. One or more charged coupled device (CCD) cameras can be used to record the instantaneous positions of particles. Using the time between light sheet pulses and determining either the individual particle displacements or the average displacement of particles over a small subregion of the recorded image enables the calculation of the fluid velocity. Fuzzy logic minimizes the required operator intervention in identifying particles and computing velocity. Using two cameras that have the same view of the illumination plane yields two single exposure image frames. Two competing techniques that yield unambiguous velocity vector direction information have been widely used for reducing the single-exposure, multiple image frame data: (1) cross-correlation and (2) particle tracking. Correlation techniques yield averaged velocity estimates over subregions of the flow, whereas particle tracking techniques give individual particle velocity estimates. For the correlation technique, the correlation peak corresponding to the average displacement of particles across the subregion must be identified. Noise on the images and particle dropout result in misidentification of the true correlation peak. The subsequent velocity vector maps contain spurious vectors where the displacement peaks have been improperly identified. Typically these spurious vectors are replaced by a weighted average of the neighboring vectors, thereby decreasing the independence of the measurements. In this work, fuzzy logic techniques are used to determine the true

  4. Experiments with particle damping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollkamp, Joseph J.; Gordon, Robert W.

    1998-06-01

    High cycle fatigue in jet engines is a current military concern. The vibratory stresses that cause fatigue can be reduced by adding damping. However, the high temperatures that occur in the gas turbine greatly hinder the application of mature damping technologies. One technology which may perform in the harsh environment is particle damping. Particle damping involves placing metallic or ceramic particles inside structural cavities. As the cavity vibrates, energy is dissipated through particle collisions. Performance is influenced by many parameters including the type, shape, and size of the particles; the amount of free volume for the particles to move in; density of the particles; and the level of vibration. This paper presents results from a series of experiments designed to gain an appreciation of the important parameters. The experimental setup consists of a cantilever beam with drilled holes. These holes are partially filled with particles. The types of particles, location of the particles, fill level, and other parameters are varied. Damping is estimated for each configuration. Trends in the results are studied to determine the influence of the varied parameter.

  5. Information extraction system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmond, Tracy D; Hanley, William G; Guensche, Joseph Wendell; Perry, Nathan C; Nitao, John J; Kidwell, Paul Brandon; Boakye, Kofi Agyeman; Glaser, Ron E; Prenger, Ryan James

    2014-05-13

    An information extraction system and methods of operating the system are provided. In particular, an information extraction system for performing meta-extraction of named entities of people, organizations, and locations as well as relationships and events from text documents are described herein.

  6. Exhaustive extraction of peptides by electromembrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Chuixiu; Gjelstad, Astrid; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig

    2015-01-01

    trifluoroacetate, and leu-enkephalin were extracted from 600 μL of 25 mM phosphate buffer (pH 3.5), through a supported liquid membrane (SLM) containing di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phosphate (DEHP) dissolved in an organic solvent, and into 600 μL of an acidified aqueous acceptor solution using a thin flat membrane-based EME......This fundamental work illustrates for the first time the possibility of exhaustive extraction of peptides using electromembrane extraction (EME) under low system-current conditions (... device. Mass transfer of peptides across the SLM was enhanced by complex formation with the negatively charged DEHP. The composition of the SLM and the extraction voltage were important factors influencing recoveries and current with the EME system. 1-nonanol diluted with 2-decanone (1:1 v/v) containing...

  7. LHCb unveils new particles

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefania Pandolfi

    2016-01-01

    The LHCb collaboration announces the observation of four “exotic” particles from its analysis of the LHC data.   The LHCb experimental cavern. On 28 June, the LHCb collaboration reported the observation of three new "exotic" particles and confirmation of the existence of a fourth one in data from the LHC. These particles each appear to be formed by four quarks (the fundamental constituents of the matter inside all the atoms of the universe): two quarks and two antiquarks (that is, a tetraquark). Due to their non-standard quark content, the newly observed particles have been included in the broad category of so-called exotic particles, although their exact theoretical interpretation is still under study.            The quark model, proposed by Murray Gell-Mann and George Zweig in 1964, is considered to be the most valid scheme for the classification of hadrons (all the composite particles) that has been fou...

  8. Methods for forming particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Robert V.; Zhang, Fengyan; Rodriguez, Rene G.; Pak, Joshua J.; Sun, Chivin

    2016-06-21

    Single source precursors or pre-copolymers of single source precursors are subjected to microwave radiation to form particles of a I-III-VI.sub.2 material. Such particles may be formed in a wurtzite phase and may be converted to a chalcopyrite phase by, for example, exposure to heat. The particles in the wurtzite phase may have a substantially hexagonal shape that enables stacking into ordered layers. The particles in the wurtzite phase may be mixed with particles in the chalcopyrite phase (i.e., chalcopyrite nanoparticles) that may fill voids within the ordered layers of the particles in the wurtzite phase thus produce films with good coverage. In some embodiments, the methods are used to form layers of semiconductor materials comprising a I-III-VI.sub.2 material. Devices such as, for example, thin-film solar cells may be fabricated using such methods.

  9. Particle Swarm Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venter, Gerhard; Sobieszczanski-Sobieski Jaroslaw

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show how the search algorithm known as particle swarm optimization performs. Here, particle swarm optimization is applied to structural design problems, but the method has a much wider range of possible applications. The paper's new contributions are improvements to the particle swarm optimization algorithm and conclusions and recommendations as to the utility of the algorithm, Results of numerical experiments for both continuous and discrete applications are presented in the paper. The results indicate that the particle swarm optimization algorithm does locate the constrained minimum design in continuous applications with very good precision, albeit at a much higher computational cost than that of a typical gradient based optimizer. However, the true potential of particle swarm optimization is primarily in applications with discrete and/or discontinuous functions and variables. Additionally, particle swarm optimization has the potential of efficient computation with very large numbers of concurrently operating processors.

  10. Microwave View on Particle Acceleration in Flares

    CERN Document Server

    Fleishman, Gregory D

    2013-01-01

    The thermal-to-nonthermal partition was found to vary greatly from one flare to another resulting in a broad variety of cases from 'heating without acceleration' to 'acceleration without heating'. Recent analysis of microwave data of these differing cases suggests that a similar acceleration mechanism, forming a power-law nonthermal tail up to a few MeV or even higher, operates in all the cases. However, the level of this nonthermal spectrum compared to the original thermal distribution differs significantly from one case to another, implying a highly different thermal-to-nonthermal energy partition in various cases. This further requires a specific mechanism capable of extracting the charged particles from the thermal pool and supplying them to a bulk acceleration process to operate in flares \\textit{in addition} to the bulk acceleration process itself, which, in contrast, efficiently accelerates the seed particles, while cannot accelerate the thermal particles. Within this 'microwave' view on the flare ener...

  11. Feedback Particle Filter

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Tao; Mehta, Prashant G.; Meyn, Sean P.

    2013-01-01

    A new formulation of the particle filter for nonlinear filtering is presented, based on concepts from optimal control, and from the mean-field game theory. The optimal control is chosen so that the posterior distribution of a particle matches as closely as possible the posterior distribution of the true state given the observations. This is achieved by introducing a cost function, defined by the Kullback-Leibler (K-L) divergence between the actual posterior, and the posterior of any particle....

  12. Trapping of photophoretic particles

    CERN Document Server

    Magiera, Martin P

    2014-01-01

    A trapping mechanism for self-propelled particles based on an inhomogeneous drive is presented and studied analytically as well as by computer simulations. In experiments this method can be realized using photophoretic Janus particles driven by a light source, which shines through a shading mask and leads to an accumulation of the swimmers in the shaded part. The mechanism can be traced back to a finite penetration depth of particles impinging from the illuminated part of the system into the shaded part.

  13. Music of elementary particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Note offers a new point of view on particle masses. It is shown that they are distributed following a musical scale, the chromatic tempered scale -for stable particles- subdivided into microintervals including unstable particles. A theoretical explanation, based on causality, allows one also to calculate their global distribution along the mass scale, in agreement with experiment, and indicating the existence of ''musical'' laws in the vibratory organisation of matter

  14. Music of elementary particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sternheimer, J.

    1983-12-12

    This note offers a new point of view on particle masses. It is shown that they are distributed following a musical scale, the chromatic tempered scale -for stable particles- subdivided into microintervals including unstable particles. A theoretical explanation, based on causality, allows one also to calculate their global distribution along the mass scale, in agreement with experiment, and indicating the existence of ''musical'' laws in the vibratory organisation of matter.

  15. Transit time for third order resonance extraction

    CERN Document Server

    Pullia, M

    1996-01-01

    An important spin-off from accelerators is the use of synchrotrons for cancer therapy. A precise control of the extraction from the synchrotron is needed to satisfy the medical specifications and this has led to a renewed interest in the basic theory of third-order resonance extraction. In the present paper, a complete description of the transit time in the resonance (the time between a particle becoming unstable and reaching the electrostatic septum) is developed as a basis for future work predicting spill shapes and the influence of power supply ripple. The transit time is evaluated for constant tune and for a slowly varying tune. Both cases are subdivided into particles that start close simulation and are shown to be correct to within a few percent.

  16. Resistance forces during boulder extraction from an asteroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulchitsky, Anton V.; Johnson, Jerome B.; Reeves, David M.

    2016-10-01

    Planning for NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) requires estimating the forces that appear during extraction of a boulder from the surface of an asteroid with unknown surface regolith properties. These forces are estimated for a vertical constant force or acceleration pull and a rolling, constant force, torque (peel) on a 4-m diameter spherical boulder using both analytic and discrete element method (DEM) models considering the effects of microgravity and regolith cohesion using Johnson-Kendall-Roberts (JKR) model. Estimates of the bulk asteroid regolith cohesion strength derived from lunar and asteroid regolith studies ranged from 25 Pa to 250 Pa. JKR cohesive forces at particle contacts depend on particle surface energy and effective curvature radius (particle size). DEM particle size dependent cohesion parameters are linked to estimated regolith cohesion strength by simulating shear and tension tests over a range of DEM particle surface energies resulting in the formulation of the dependence of particle surface energy as a function of cohesion strength and particle size. Maximum extraction forces occur for a vertical pull through the boulder center of mass with constant acceleration. Extraction force decreases for a constant force pull to 0.62pc S where S is the boulder surface area embedded in the regolith and pc is the cohesion strength of the regolith. Boulder extraction by peeling produces the smallest forces by up to more than a factor of 2, as the failure across the boulder surface increases progressively rather than being fully engaged as occurs during a vertical pull extraction. Variations between DEM and analytic results differed from 9% to 17% over the range of regolith cohesion values and peel extraction leverage.

  17. Particle physics experiments 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes work carried out in 1983 on experiments approved by the Particle Physics Experiments Selection Panel. The contents consist of unedited contributions from each experiment. (author)

  18. Unstable Particles near Threshold

    CERN Document Server

    Chway, Dongjin; Kim, Hyung Do

    2015-01-01

    We explore physics of unstable particles when mother particle mass is around the sum of its daughter particle masses. In this case, the conventional wave function renormalization factor is ill-defined. We propose a simple resolution of the threshold singularity problem which still allows the use of narrow width approximation by defining branching ratio in terms of spectral density. The resonance peak and shape is different for different decay channels and no single decay width can be assigned to the unstable particles. Non-exponential decay happens in all time scales.

  19. Microscopic simulation of particle detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detailed computer simulations are indispensable tools for the development and optimization of modern particle detectors. The interaction of particles with the sensitive medium, giving rise to ionization or excitation of atoms, is stochastic by its nature. The transport of the resulting photons and charge carriers, which eventually generate the observed signal, is also subject to statistical fluctuations. Together with the readout electronics, these processes - which are ultimately governed by the atomic cross-sections for the respective interactions - pose a fundamental limit to the achievable detector performance. Conventional methods for calculating electron drift lines based on macroscopic transport coefficients used to provide an adequate description for traditional gas-based particle detectors such as wire chambers. However, they are not suitable for small-scale devices such as micropattern gas detectors, which have significantly gained importance in recent years. In this thesis, a novel approach, based on semi-classical (''microscopic'') Monte Carlo simulation, is presented. As a first application, the simulation of avalanche fluctuations is discussed. It is shown that the microscopic electron transport method allows, for the first time, a quantitative prediction of gas gain spectra. Further, it is shown that the shape of avalanche size distributions in uniform fields can be understood intuitively in terms of a toy model extracted from the simulation. Stochastic variations in the number of electrons produced along a charged particle track are another determining factor for the resolution and efficiency of a detector. It is shown that the parameters characterizing primary ionization fluctuations, more specifically the so-called W value and the Fano factor, can be calculated accurately using microscopic techniques such that they need no longer be treated as free variables in the simulation. Profiting from recent progress in the determination of Penning transfer

  20. Calcitonin substitution in calcitonin deficiency reduces particle-induced osteolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grabellus Florian

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Periprosthetic osteolysis is a major cause of aseptic loosening in joint arthroplasty. This study investigates the impact of CT (calcitonin deficiency and CT substitution under in-vivo circumstances on particle-induced osteolysis in Calca -/- mice. Methods We used the murine calvarial osteolysis model based on ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE particles in 10 C57BL/6J wild-type (WT mice and twenty Calca -/- mice. The mice were divided into six groups: WT without UHMWPE particles (Group 1, WT with UHMWPE particles (Group 2, Calca -/- mice without UHMWPE particles (Group 3, Calca -/- mice with UHMWPE particles (Group 4, Calca -/- mice without UHMWPE particles and calcitonin substitution (Group 5, and Calca -/- mice with UHMWPE particle implantation and calcitonin substitution (Group 6. Analytes were extracted from serum and urine. Bone resorption was measured by bone histomorphometry. The number of osteoclasts was determined by counting the tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRACP + cells. Results Bone resorption was significantly increased in Calca -/- mice compared with their corresponding WT. The eroded surface in Calca -/- mice with particle implantation was reduced by 20.6% after CT substitution. Osteoclast numbers were significantly increased in Calca -/- mice after particle implantation. Serum OPG (osteoprotegerin increased significantly after CT substitution. Conclusions As anticipated, Calca -/- mice show extensive osteolysis compared with wild-type mice, and CT substitution reduces particle-induced osteolysis.

  1. Mixing properties of individual submicrometer aerosol particles in Vienna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Kikuo; Hitzenberger, Regina M.

    Individual aerosol particles were collected on 5 days with different meteorological conditions in March, April and June 1991 in the urban atmosphere of Vienna in Austria. The samples collected with an impactor were examined by electron microscopy. The mixing properties of submicrometer aerosol particles with radii between 0.1 and 1 μm were studied by using the dialysis (extraction) of water-soluble material. The averaged results showed that more than 85% of particles with radii between 0.1 and 0.7 μm were hygroscopic. However, more than 50% of particles with radii larger than 0.2 μm were mixed particles (hygroscopic particles with water-insoluble inclusions), and they were dominant (80%) in the size range 0.5-0.7 μm radius. The results also showed that the number proportion of mixed particles increased with increasing radius and the abundance increased with increasing particle loading in the atmosphere. The volume fraction of water-soluble material ( ɛ) in mixed particles tended to decrease with increasing radius, implying the formation of mixed particles by heterogeneous processes such as condensation and/or surface reaction. Some results of elemental composition in individual particles analyzed with an energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analyzer equipped with an electron microscope are also presented in this paper.

  2. Particle Swarm Optimisation with Spatial Particle Extension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krink, Thiemo; Vesterstrøm, Jakob Svaneborg; Riget, Jacques

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce spatial extension to particles in the PSO model in order to overcome premature convergence in iterative optimisation. The standard PSO and the new model (SEPSO) are compared w.r.t. performance on well-studied benchmark problems. We show that the SEPSO indeed managed to...

  3. Measuring masses of semi-invisibly decaying particles pair produced at hadron colliders

    OpenAIRE

    Lester, Christopher G; Summers, D. J.

    1999-01-01

    We introduce a variable useful for measuring masses of particles pair produced at hadron colliders, where each particle decays to one particle that is directly observable and another particle whose existence can only be inferred from missing transverse momenta. This variable is closely related to the transverse mass variable commonly used for measuring the $W$ mass at hadron colliders, and like the transverse mass our variable extracts masses in a reasonably model independent way. Without con...

  4. Physicochemical characterization of Baizhi particles by ultrafine pulverization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lian-Wei; Sun, Peng; Gai, Guo-Sheng; Yang, Yu-Fen; Wang, Yu-Rong

    2011-04-01

    Baizhi, as a medicinal plant, has been demonstrated to be useful for the treatment of aches and pains in China. The physicochemical characterization of Baizhi particles is greatly influenced by ultrafine pulverization. To study the physicochemical characterization of Baizhi, the raw plant material of Baizhi was ground to 6 μm particles by a high speed centrifugal sheering (HSCS) pulverizer. The micron particles were characterized by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Imperatorin is one of the active ingredients of Baizhi, and its extraction yield is determined to evaluate the chemical characterization of Baizhi powder. Imperatorin was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results show that after ultrafine pulverization, the plant cell walls are broken into pieces and the extraction yield of imperatorin is increased by 11.93% compared with the normal particles.

  5. Teaching particle physics

    CERN Document Server

    Hanley, P

    2000-01-01

    Particle physics attracts many students who hear of news from CERN or elsewhere in the media. This article examines which current A-level syllabuses include which bits of particle physics and surveys the many different types of resource available to teachers and students. (0 refs).

  6. Particle density fluctuations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aggarwal, M.M.; Ahammed, Z.; Angelis, A.L.S.; Antonenko, V.; Arefiev, V.; Astakhov, V.; Avdeitchikov, V.; Awes, T.C.; Baba, P.V.K.S.; Badyal, S.K.; Bathe, S.; Batiounia, B.; Bernier, T.; Bhalla, K.B.; Bhatia, V.S.; Blume, C.; Bucher, D.; Buesching, H.; Carlen, L.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Das, A.C.; Decowski, M.P.; Donni, P.; Dubey, A.K.; Dutta Majumdar, M.R.; Enosawa, K.; Fokin, S.; Frolov, V.; Ganti, M.S.; Garpman, S.; Gavrishcuk, O.; Geurts, F.J.M.; Glasow, R.; Guskov, B.; Gustafsson, H.A.; Gutbrod, H.H.; Hrivnacova, I.; Ippolitov, M.; Kalechofsky, H.; Kamermans, R.; Karadjev, K.; Karpio, K.; Kolb, B.W.; Kosarev, I.; Koutcheryaev, I.; Kugler, A.; Kulinich, P.; Kurata, M.; Lebedev, A.; Loehner, H.; Mahapatra, D.P.; Manko, V.; Martin, M.; Miake, Y.; Mishra, G.C.; Mohanty, B.; Morrison, D.; Mukhopadhayay, D.S.; Naef, H.; Nandi, B.K.; Nayak, S.K.; Nayak, T.K.; Nianine, A.; Nikitine, V.; Nikolaev, S.; Nishimura, S.; Nomokov, P.; Petracek, V.; Plasil, F.; Purschke, M.L.; Rak, J.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Rao, N.K.; Retiere, F.; Reygers, K.; Roland, G.; Rosselet, L.; Roufanov, I.; Rubio, J.M.; Sambyal, S.S.; Santo, R.; Sato, S.; Schlagheck, H.; Schmidt, H.-R.; Schutz, Y.; Shabratova, G.; Sibiriak, I.; Siemiarczuk, T.; Sinha, B.C.; Slavine, N.; Soederstroem, K.; Sood, G.; Soerensen, S.P.; Stankus, P.; Steinberg, P.; Stenlund, E.; Sumbera, M.; Svensson, T.; Trivedi, M.D.; Tsvetkov, A.; Tykarski, L.; Urbahn, J.; Eijinhoven, N. van; Niewenhuizen, G.J. van; Vinogradov, A.; Viyogi, Y.P.; Vodopianov, A.; Voeroes, S.; Wyslouch, B.; Young, G.R

    2003-03-10

    Event-by-event fluctuations in the multiplicities of charged particles and photons at SPS energies are discussed. Fluctuations are studied by controlling the centrality of the reaction and rapidity acceptance of the detectors. Results are also presented on the event-by-event study of correlations between the multiplicity of charged particles and photons to search for DCC-like signals.

  7. Single-particle entanglement

    OpenAIRE

    Can, M. Ali; Klyachko, Alexander; SHUMOVSKY, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    Using the approach to quantum entanglement based on the quantum fluctuations of observables, we show the existence of perfect entangled states of a single "spin-1" particle. We give physical examples related to the photons, condensed matter physics, and particle physics.

  8. RESEARCH IN PARTICLE PHYSICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kearns, Edward [Boston Universiy

    2013-07-12

    This is the final report for the Department of Energy Grant to Principal Investigators in Experimental and Theoretical Particle Physics at Boston University. The research performed was in the Energy Frontier at the LHC, the Intensity Frontier at Super-Kamiokande and T2K, the Cosmic Frontier and detector R&D in dark matter detector development, and in particle theory.

  9. When is a particle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of elementary constituents or ultimate building blocks of nature in recent years is reviewed. The quark hypothesis, neutrinos, color, hard collisions, psi and other recent resonances, flavor, quantum chromodynamics, the tau particle, and particle structure are among the ideas considered. 22 references

  10. Extraction of polyphenols from black tea--conventional and ultrasound assisted extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both, Simon; Chemat, Farid; Strube, Jochen

    2014-05-01

    Products from plant raw materials gain increasing importance in food-, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industry. By way of contrast, due to lack of detailed physico-chemical fundamentals, existing production processes are economically not optimal designed. This leads to a need for deeper understanding of the processes and furthermore a systematic process and equipment design for the potentially applicable extraction techniques. Using the example of polyphenol extraction from black tea (Kenya), the conventional and ultrasound assisted extractions are investigated. Here, the state of the art as well as a comparison between the two techniques is in focus. Especially, resulting quasi-equilibria and mass transport kinetics serves as a criteria. The physico-chemical background is discussed taking particle size distributions and scanning electron microscope (SEM) measurements into account. Conclusively, process alternatives are projected and discussed. Hence, the present study makes influences of ultrasound technique on physico-chemical characteristics during extraction a subject of discussion.

  11. Imaging alpha particle detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D.F.

    1980-10-29

    A method and apparatus for detecting and imaging alpha particles sources is described. A dielectric coated high voltage electrode and a tungsten wire grid constitute a diode configuration discharge generator for electrons dislodged from atoms or molecules located in between these electrodes when struck by alpha particles from a source to be quantitatively or qualitatively analyzed. A thin polyester film window allows the alpha particles to pass into the gas enclosure and the combination of the glass electrode, grid and window is light transparent such that the details of the source which is imaged with high resolution and sensitivity by the sparks produced can be observed visually as well. The source can be viewed directly, electronically counted or integrated over time using photographic methods. A significant increase in sensitivity over other alpha particle detectors is observed, and the device has very low sensitivity to gamma or beta emissions which might otherwise appear as noise on the alpha particle signal.

  12. DEM Particle Fracture Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Boning [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Herbold, Eric B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Homel, Michael A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Regueiro, Richard A. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2015-12-01

    An adaptive particle fracture model in poly-ellipsoidal Discrete Element Method is developed. The poly-ellipsoidal particle will break into several sub-poly-ellipsoids by Hoek-Brown fracture criterion based on continuum stress and the maximum tensile stress in contacts. Also Weibull theory is introduced to consider the statistics and size effects on particle strength. Finally, high strain-rate split Hopkinson pressure bar experiment of silica sand is simulated using this newly developed model. Comparisons with experiments show that our particle fracture model can capture the mechanical behavior of this experiment very well, both in stress-strain response and particle size redistribution. The effects of density and packings o the samples are also studied in numerical examples.

  13. Are All Particles Identical?

    CERN Document Server

    Goldstein, S; Tumulka, R; Zanghì, N; Goldstein, Sheldon; Taylor, James; Tumulka, Roderich; Zanghi, Nino

    2005-01-01

    We consider the possibility that all particles in the world are fundamentally identical, i.e., belong to the same species. Different masses, charges, spins, flavors, or colors then merely correspond to different quantum states of the same particle, just as spin-up and spin-down do. The implications of this viewpoint can be best appreciated within Bohmian mechanics, a precise formulation of quantum mechanics with particle trajectories. The implementation of this viewpoint in such a theory leads to trajectories different from those of the usual formulation, and thus to a version of Bohmian mechanics that is inequivalent to, though arguably empirically indistinguishable from, the usual one. The mathematical core of this viewpoint is however rather independent of the detailed dynamical scheme Bohmian mechanics provides, and it amounts to the assertion that the configuration space for N particles, even N ``distinguishable particles,'' is the set of all N-point subsets of physical 3-space.

  14. SPS Beam Steering for LHC Extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gianfelice-Wendt, Eliana [Fermilab; Bartosik, Hannes [CERN; Cornelis, Karel [CERN; Norderhaug Drøsdal, Lene [CERN; Goddard, Brennan [CERN; Kain, Verena [CERN; Meddahi, Malika [CERN; Papaphilippou, Yannis [CERN; Wenninger, Jorg [CERN

    2014-07-01

    The CERN Super Proton Synchrotron accelerates beams for the Large Hadron Collider to 450 GeV. In addition it produces beams for fixed target facilities which adds complexity to the SPS operation. During the run 2012-2013 drifts of the extracted beam trajectories have been observed and lengthy optimizations in the transfer lines were performed to reduce particle losses in the LHC. The observed trajectory drifts are consistent with the measured SPS orbit drifts at extraction. While extensive studies are going on to understand, and possibly suppress, the source of such SPS orbit drifts the feasibility of an automatic beam steering towards a “golden” orbit at the extraction septa, by means of the interlocked correctors, is also being investigated. The challenges and constraints related to the implementation of such a correction in the SPS are described. Simulation results are presented and a possible operational steering strategy is proposed.

  15. SPS Beam Steering for LHC Extraction

    CERN Document Server

    Gianfelice Wendt, E; Cornelis, K; Norderhaug Drosdal, L; Goddard, B; Kain, V; Meddahi, M; Papaphilippou, Y; Wenninger, J

    2014-01-01

    Beside producing beams for fixed target operation, the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) accelerates beams for injection into the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). During the 2012-2013 run drifts of the extracted beam horizontal trajectories have been observed and lengthy optimizations in the transfer lines were performed to reduce particle losses. The observed trajectory drifts are consistent with the measured SPS orbit drifts at extraction. The feasibility of an automatic beam steering towards a “golden” orbit at the extraction septa, has been therefore investigated. The challenges and constraints related to the implementation of such a correction in the SPS are described. Simulation results are presented and a possible operational steering strategy is proposed. As the observed drift is mainly horizontal, the horizontal plane only will be considered.

  16. AQUEOUS BIPHASE EXTRACTION FOR PROCESSING OF FINE COAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Osseo-Asare; X. Zeng

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this research project is to develop an aqueous biphase extraction process for the treatment of fine coals. Aqueous biphase extraction is an advanced separation technology that relies on the ability of an aqueous system consisting of a water-soluble polymer and another component, e.g., another polymer, an inorganic salt, or a nonionic surfactant, to separate into two immiscible aqueous phases. The principle behind the partition of solid particles in aqueous biphase systems is the physicochemical interaction between the solid surface and the surrounding liquid solution. In order to remove sulfur and mineral matter from fine coal with aqueous biphasic extraction, it is necessary to know the partitioning behavior of coal, as well as the inorganic mineral components. Therefore, in this research emphasis was placed on the partitioning behavior of fine coal particles as well as model fine inorganic particles in aqueous biphase systems.

  17. An Improved Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm for Seismic Wavelet Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Haiyan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available An improved particle swarm optimization algorithm is presented in this study. The new method proposes a linear time-varying acceleration co-efficient and brings in two mutations including differential mutation and random mutation. Also, some betterment is made over the bound constraints which keep the escaped particles diversity. At last, this new method is applied to seismic wavelet estimation. Numerical data tests demonstrate that the method is capable of extracting wavelets with relatively higher accuracy.

  18. Microwave-assisted Extraction of Alantolactone and Isoalantolactone from Inula helenium

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Y. M.; Wang, J.; Liu, H. B.; C Y Guo; Zhang, W. M.

    2015-01-01

    Microwave-assisted extraction was used for the extraction of alantolactone and isoalantolactone from Inula helenium. Effects of various experimental factors including ethanol concentration, particle size, microwave radiation time, the ratio of material to liquid and extraction temperature on yield of alantolactone and isoalantolactone were evaluated. The optimal extracting process of the alantolactone and isoalantolactone from the root of the Inula helenium was 1 g plant sample (sifted throug...

  19. Influence of pressure and time on extraction process using supercritical CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mićić V.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The supercritical fluid extraction (SFE by carbon dioxide (CO2 of Salvia officinalis L. was investigated. SFE by CO2 was performed at different pressure (80, 100, 150, 200 and 300 bar and constant temperature of 40ºC (all other extraction conditions, such are flow rate, particle diameter of Salvia officinalis, extraction time were kept constant. The GC-MS method was used for determination of qualitative and quantitative composition of obtained extracts and essential oils.

  20. Supercritical CO2 extraction of Tetraclinis articulata: chemical composition, antioxidant activity and mathematical modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Herzi, Nejia; Camy, Séverine; Bouajila, Jalloul; Destrac, Philippe; Romdhane, Mehrez; Condoret, Jean-Stéphane

    2013-01-01

    International audience Operating conditions for extraction from the leaves of Tetraclinis articulata using supercritical carbon diox-ide (SCCO2) were studied to focus on the feasibility of obtaining volatile and nonvolatile fractions throughthe use of different extraction pressures (90, 280 and 1000 bar). In addition, influence of temperature,static pretreatment and dynamic extraction durations, particle size and CO2flow rate were investigated.All extracts were analyzed by GC-FID/MS and th...

  1. Extraction of lutein from Marigold flower petals - Experimental kinetics and modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Hojnik, Maša; Škerget, Mojca; Knez, Željko

    2012-01-01

    The extraction kinetics behaviour of lutein from Marigold flower petals and simultaneous alkali hydrolysis has been studied. Extraction was carried out by varying following operating conditions: type of organic solvent, temperature, ratio liquid: material, concentration of alkali solution, and particle size of plant material. Experimental extraction curves were analysed with a mathematical model derived from Fick's second law. The extraction of lutein appeared to be governed by slow and fast ...

  2. The effect of air temperature on the sappan wood extract drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djaeni, M.; Triyastuti, M. S.; Asiah, N.; Annisa, A. N.; Novita, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    The sappan wood extract contain natural colour called brazilin that can be used as a food colouring and antioxidant. The product is commonly found as a dry extract powder for consummer convenience. The spray dryer with air dehumidification can be an option to retain the colour and antioxidant agent. This paper discusses the effect of air temperature on sappan wood extract drying that was mixed with maltodextrin. As responses, the particle size, final moisture content, and extract solubility degradation were observed. In all cases, the process conducted in temperature ranging 90 - 110°C can retain the brazilin quality as seen in solubility and particle size. In addition, the sappan wood extract can be fully dried with moisture content below 2%. Moreover, with the increase of air temperature, the particle size of dry extract can be smaller.

  3. Extractant Design by Covalency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaunt, Andrew James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Olson, Angela Christine [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kozimor, Stosh Anthony [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Cross, Justin Neil [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Batista, Enrique Ricardo [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Macor, Joe [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Peterman, Dean R. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Grimes, Travis [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-01-21

    This project aims to provide an electronic structure-to-function understanding of extractants for actinide selective separation processes. The research entails a multi-disciplinary approach that integrates chemical syntheses, structural determination, K-edge X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS), and Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations. In FY15, the project reached the final stage of testing the extraction performance of a new ligand design and preparing an americium-extractant complex for analysis.

  4. Predispersed solvent extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Rodarte, Alma Isabel Marín

    1988-01-01

    A new solvent extraction method has been developed for the extraction of metal and organic ions from very dilute aqueous solutions. The new method, which has been named Predispersed Solvent Extraction (POSE), is based on the principle that 1 there is no need to comminute both phases. All that is necessary is to comminute the solvent phase prior to contacting it with the feed. This is done by converting the solvent into aphrons, which are micron-sized globules encapsulated in a ...

  5. Extracting oil from coffee

    OpenAIRE

    Elkin Mauricio López Fontal

    2010-01-01

    The present work describes oil being extracted from toasted coffee by the extrusion method; two products are obtained from this process: coffee oil and pulp. Toasted coffee was used which has a high amount of sensorial compounds. It should be noted that a significant criterion in evaluating the quality of coffee lies in its aroma. When extracting oil from coffee, a significant part of toasted coffee’s aromatic content leaves with it, varying according to the extraction method. A fixed oil h...

  6. Supercritical solvent coal extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, L. E. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Yields of soluble organic extract are increased up to about 50% by the supercritical extraction of particulate coal at a temperature below the polymerization temperature for coal extract fragments (450 C.) and a pressure from 500 psig to 5,000 psig by the conjoint use of a solvent mixture containing a low volatility, high critical temperature coal dissolution catalyst such as phenanthrene and a high volatility, low critical temperature solvent such as toluene.

  7. Fingerprint Feature Extraction Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehala. G

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to design an efficient Fingerprint Feature Extraction (FFE algorithm to extract the fingerprint features for Automatic Fingerprint Identification Systems (AFIS. FFE algorithm, consists of two major subdivisions, Fingerprint image preprocessing, Fingerprint image postprocessing. A few of the challenges presented in an earlier are, consequently addressed, in this paper. The proposed algorithm is able to enhance the fingerprint image and also extracting true minutiae.

  8. Macroscopic Quantum State Analyzed Particle by Particle

    OpenAIRE

    Beduini, Federica A.; Zielińska, Joanna A.; Lucivero, Vito G.; de Icaza Astiz, Yannick A.; Mitchell, Morgan W.

    2015-01-01

    Explaining how microscopic entities collectively produce macroscopic phenomena is a fundamental goal of many-body physics. Theory predicts that large-scale entanglement is responsible for exotic macroscopic phenomena, but observation of entangled particles in naturally occurring systems is extremely challenging. Synthetic quantum systems made of atoms in optical lattices have been con- structed with the goal of observing macroscopic quantum phenomena with single-atom resolution. Serious chall...

  9. Parallel Feature Extraction System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAHuimin; WANGYan

    2003-01-01

    Very high speed image processing is needed in some application specially for weapon. In this paper, a high speed image feature extraction system with parallel structure was implemented by Complex programmable logic device (CPLD), and it can realize image feature extraction in several microseconds almost with no delay. This system design is presented by an application instance of flying plane, whose infrared image includes two kinds of feature: geometric shape feature in the binary image and temperature-feature in the gray image. Accordingly the feature extraction is taken on the two kind features. Edge and area are two most important features of the image. Angle often exists in the connection of the different parts of the target's image, which indicates that one area ends and the other area begins. The three key features can form the whole presentation of an image. So this parallel feature extraction system includes three processing modules: edge extraction, angle extraction and area extraction. The parallel structure is realized by a group of processors, every detector is followed by one route of processor, every route has the same circuit form, and works together at the same time controlled by a set of clock to realize feature extraction. The extraction system has simple structure, small volume, high speed, and better stability against noise. It can be used in the war field recognition system.

  10. Solid-particle jet formation under shock-wave acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, V; Saurel, R; Jourdan, G; Houas, L

    2013-12-01

    When solid particles are impulsively dispersed by a shock wave, they develop a spatial distribution which takes the form of particle jets whose selection mechanism is still unidentified. The aim of the present experimental work is to study particle dispersal with fingering effects in an original quasi-two-dimensional experiment facility in order to accurately extract information. Shock and blast waves are generated in the carrier gas at the center of a granular medium ring initially confined inside a Hele-Shaw cell and impulsively accelerated. With the present experimental setup, the particle jet formation is clearly observed. From fast flow visualizations, we notice, in all instances, that the jets are initially generated inside the particle ring and thereafter expelled outward. This point has not been observed in three-dimensional experiments. We highlight that the number of jets is unsteady and decreases with time. For a fixed configuration, considering the very early times following the initial acceleration, the jet size selection is independent of the particle diameter. Moreover, the influence of the initial overpressure and the material density on the particle jet formation have been studied. It is shown that the wave number of particle jets increases with the overpressure and with the decrease of the material density. The normalized number of jets as a function of the initial ring acceleration shows a power law valid for all studied configurations involving various initial pressure ratios, particle sizes, and particle materials. PMID:24483561

  11. Apparatus for measuring particle properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, D.J.; Castaneda, J.N.; Grasser, T.W.; Brockmann, J.E.

    1998-08-11

    An apparatus is described for determining particle properties from detected light scattered by the particles. The apparatus uses a light beam with novel intensity characteristics to discriminate between particles that pass through the beam and those that pass through an edge of the beam. The apparatus can also discriminate between light scattered by one particle and light scattered by multiple particles. The particle`s size can be determined from the intensity of the light scattered. The particle`s velocity can be determined from the elapsed time between various intensities of the light scattered. 11 figs.

  12. Sources for charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a basic course on charged particle sources for post-graduate students and thematic schools on large facilities and accelerator physics. A simple but precise description of the creation and the emission of charged particles is presented. This course relies on every year upgraded reference documents. Following relevant topics are considered: electronic emission processes, technological and practical considerations on electron guns, positron sources, production of neutral atoms, ionization, plasma and discharge, different types of positive and negative ion sources, polarized particle sources, materials for the construction of ion sources, low energy beam production and transport. (N.T.)

  13. Universe of Particles

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Video Productions

    2010-01-01

    The entire Universe is made up of particles. But where do they come from? What is the origin of the laws of nature? The permanent exhibition "Universe of Particles", installed on the ground floor of the Globe of Science and Innovation, invites you to discover CERN by taking you on a journey all the way back to the Big Bang. It will help you answer questions such as: What's the purpose of this research? How do you accelerate particles? How do you detect them? What are today's theories on matter and the Universe? How does this affect our daily life?

  14. Particle physics builds potential

    CERN Document Server

    Camporesi, Tiziano

    2004-01-01

    Surveys of the career prospects of particle physicists in Europe, such as that one carried out in 2000 at DELPHI, reveal that particle phycisists are much in demand. The findings are fairly independent of a student's nationality, despite the big differences in the education systems of different countries across the continent. According to the DELPHI survey, half of all physics students remain in an academic environment after graduation. For those particle physicists who leave academia, the DELPHI survey showed that about half find jobs in hi- tech industry. The bottom line is that a degree in physics offers very good job prospects and career opportunities. (Edited abstract).

  15. Marginal Stability Dynamics for Energetic Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, Herbert

    2009-11-01

    Marginal stability in plasmas characteristically sets a stiff limit to the range of that can be achieved. Below this limit, the system is governed by classical. Near marginal stability, however, plasmas may be subject to rapid processes, resulting in a system that hovers near marginality. This scenario emerged from nonlinear studies of energetic particle relaxation and may be to more general plasma transport. We describe results from several such which include. [1] Avalanches---Near marginal stability, an important point is whether an instability driven by resonant particles where the distribution function has ``free energy'' will cause global radial diffusion. For that,modes need to overlap. This process can be continuous or bursty, the latter having been recently observed in NSTX and DIII-D. [2] Frequency chirping---Recent simulations by Vann showed that marginal stability can be sustained when there is only one unstable linear mode, due to the mechanism of spontaneous frequency sweeping. Although a single mode near stability should not cause dramatic relaxation, nevertheless in the Vann simulations, the achievement of marginal stability induced a continual chirping of that had removed energy from the bulk of the region where the external beam to deposit free energy. The distribution was then found to hover near stability. This mechanism may apply to the n=0 GAM where frequency sweeping might be a mechanism for extracting energy from alpha particles in a burning plasma, thereby reducing the stored alpha particle pressure. One way to implement this is to have the n=0 geodesic acoustic modes (GAM) be preferentially excited, since energy rather than momentum (leading to spatial diffusion) is then primarily extracted from alpha particles.

  16. Relationship between surface structure and morphology of Fe3O4/silica composite nanospheres and nucleic acid extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fe3O4/silica composite nanospheres with different surface structure and morphology were synthesized by changing reaction conditions. As-synthesized nanospheres were characterized by high performance particle sizer (HPPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), nitrogen adsorption and thermogravimetry (TGA). Besides thoroughly characterization, the particles were used for DNA extraction. We found that the particle surface structure and morphology affected the nucleic acid extraction efficiency. When comparing different samples with the same silanol density (1018), the one with a surface area of 60.37 m2/g extracted DNA most effectively. Also, with increasing silanol density per surface area, DNA extraction efficiency increased.

  17. Near-wall velocity measurements by Particle-Shadow-Tracking

    CERN Document Server

    Lancien, Pierre; Métivier, François; 10.1007/s00348-007-0260-z

    2009-01-01

    We report a new method to measure the velocity of a fluid in the vicinity of a wall. The method, that we call Particle-Shadow Tracking (PST), simply consists in seeding the fluid with a small number of fine tracer particles of density close to that of the fluid. The position of each particle and of its shadow on the wall are then tracked simultaneously, allowing one to accurately determine the distance separating tracers from the wall and therefore to extract the velocity field. We present an application of the method to the determination of the velocity profile inside a laminar density current flowing along an inclined plane.

  18. Alpha-particle diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, K.M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper will focus on the state of development of diagnostics which are expected to provide the information needed for {alpha}- physics studies in the future. Conventional measurement of detailed temporal and spatial profiles of background plasma properties in DT will be essential for such aspects as determining heating effectiveness, shaping of the plasma profiles and effects of MHD, but will not be addressed here. This paper will address (1) the measurement of the neutron source, and hence {alpha}-particle birth profile, (2) measurement of the escaping {alpha}-particles and (3) measurement of the confined {alpha}-particles over their full energy range. There will also be a brief discussion of (4) the concerns about instabilities being generated by {alpha}-particles and the methods necessary for measuring these effects. 51 refs., 10 figs.

  19. Particle physics experiments 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes work carried out in 1989 on experiments approved by the Particle Physics Experiments Selection Panel of Rutherford Appleton Laboratory. The contents consist of unedited contributions from each experiment. (author)

  20. Particle physics experiments 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes work carried out in 1987 on experiments approved by the Particle Physics Experiments Selection Panel (United Kingdom). The contents consist of unedited contributions from each experiment. (author)

  1. Elementary particle physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, D. H.

    1986-01-01

    Elementary particle physics is discussed. Status of the Standard Model of electroweak and strong interactions; phenomena beyond the Standard Model; new accelerator projects; and possible contributions from non-accelerator experiments are examined.

  2. Search for Hidden Particles

    CERN Multimedia

    The SHiP Experiment is a new general-purpose fixed target facility at the SPS to search for hidden particles as predicted by a very large number of recently elaborated models of Hidden Sectors which are capable of accommodating dark matter, neutrino oscillations, and the origin of the full baryon asymmetry in the Universe. Specifically, the experiment is aimed at searching for very weakly interacting long lived particles including Heavy Neutral Leptons - right-handed partners of the active neutrinos; light supersymmetric particles - sgoldstinos, etc.; scalar, axion and vector portals to the hidden sector. The high intensity of the SPS and in particular the large production of charm mesons with the 400 GeV beam allow accessing a wide variety of light long-lived exotic particles of such models and of SUSY. Moreover, the facility is ideally suited to study the interactions of tau neutrinos.

  3. Elementary particle interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Work continues on strange particle production in weak interactions using data from a high-energy neutrino exposure in a freon bubble chamber. Meson photoproduction has also consumed considerable effort. Detector research and development activities have been carried out

  4. Particle Size Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Howard G.; Sun, Shao-Tang

    1989-01-01

    Presents a review of research focusing on scattering, elution techniques, electrozone sensing, filtration, centrifugation, comparison of techniques, data analysis, and particle size standards. The review covers the period 1986-1988. (MVL)

  5. Blog: the God particle

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "Dateline video journalist Aaron Lewis this week reprots on the search to find the elusive "God particle", which, if found, could explain to scientists how everything in the world got its mass."(1/2 page)

  6. Momentum particle swarm optimizer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yu; Qin Zheng; Wang Xianghua; He Xingshi

    2005-01-01

    The previous particle swarm optimizers lack direct mechanism to prevent particles beyond predefined search space, which results in invalid solutions in some special cases. A momentum factor is introduced into the original particle swarm optimizer to resolve this problem. Furthermore, in order to accelerate convergence, a new strategy about updating velocities is given. The resulting approach is mromentum-PSO which guarantees that particles are never beyond predefined search space without checking boundary in every iteration. In addition, linearly decreasing wight PSO (LDW-PSO) equipped with a boundary checking strategy is also discussed, which is denoted as LDWBC-PSO. LDW-PSO, LDWBC-PSO and momentum-PSO are compared in optimization on five test functions. The experimental results show that in some special cases LDW-PSO finds invalid solutions and LDWBC-PSO has poor performance, while momentum-PSO not only exhibits good performance but also reduces computational cost for updating velocities.

  7. Virtual particle therapy centre

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Particle therapy is an advanced technique of cancer radiation therapy, using protons or other ions to target the cancerous mass. This advanced technique requires a multi-disciplinary team working in a specialised centre. 3D animation: Nymus3D

  8. Particle accelerator physics

    CERN Document Server

    Wiedemann, Helmut

    2007-01-01

    Particle Accelerator Physics is an in-depth and comprehensive introduction to the field of high-energy particle acceleration and beam dynamics. Part I gathers the basic tools, recalling the essentials of electrostatics and electrodynamics as well as of particle dynamics in electromagnetic fields. Part II is an extensive primer in beam dynamics, followed in Part III by the introduction and description of the main beam parameters. Part IV is devoted to the treatment of perturbations in beam dynamics. Part V discusses the details of charged particle accleration. Part VI and Part VII introduce the more advanced topics of coupled beam dynamics and the description of very intense beams. Part VIII is an exhaustive treatment of radiation from accelerated charges and introduces important sources of coherent radiation such as synchrotrons and free-electron lasers. Part IX collects the appendices gathering useful mathematical and physical formulae, parameters and units. Solutions to many end-of-chapter problems are give...

  9. When is a particle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Particle physics, like poetry, no longer hews to its former rigid rules, hence the standard for accepting quarks as elementary consituents is less severe than the neutrino's was in the 1930's: in fact, we may never see a quark

  10. Particle physics experiments 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Rutherford Appleton laboratory report describes work carried out in 1984 on experiments approved by the Particle Physics selection panel. The contents consist of unedited contributions from each experiment. (author)

  11. The twistor particle programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Classification schemes for elementary particles are discussed using methods of twistor theory, with particular emphasis on the relationship of twistor theory to the Weinberg-Salam model and the Georgi-Glashow SU(5) model. (author)

  12. [Particle Size and Number Density Online Analysis for Particle Suspension with Polarization-Differentiation Elastic Light Scattering Spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-kang; Fang, Hui

    2016-03-01

    The basic principle of polarization-differentiation elastic light scattering spectroscopy based techniques is that under the linear polarized light incidence, the singlely scattered light from the superficial biological tissue and diffusively scattered light from the deep tissue can be separated according to the difference of polarization characteristics. The novel point of the paper is to apply this method to the detection of particle suspension and, to realize the simultaneous measurement of its particle size and number density in its natural status. We design and build a coaxial cage optical system, and measure the backscatter signal at a specified angle from a polystyrene microsphere suspension. By controlling the polarization direction of incident light with a linear polarizer and adjusting the polarization direction of collected light with another linear polarizer, we obtain the parallel polarized elastic light scattering spectrum and cross polarized elastic light scattering spectrum. The difference between the two is the differential polarized elastic light scattering spectrum which include only the single scattering information of the particles. We thus compare this spectrum to the Mie scattering calculation and extract the particle size. We then also analyze the cross polarized elastic light scattering spectrum by applying the particle size already extracted. The analysis is based on the approximate expressions taking account of light diffusing, from which we are able to obtain the number density of the particle suspension. We compare our experimental outcomes with the manufacturer-provided values and further analyze the influence of the particle diameter standard deviation on the number density extraction, by which we finally verify the experimental method. The potential applications of the method include the on-line particle quality monitoring for particle manufacture as well as the fat and protein density detection of milk products. PMID:27400522

  13. [Particle Size and Number Density Online Analysis for Particle Suspension with Polarization-Differentiation Elastic Light Scattering Spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-kang; Fang, Hui

    2016-03-01

    The basic principle of polarization-differentiation elastic light scattering spectroscopy based techniques is that under the linear polarized light incidence, the singlely scattered light from the superficial biological tissue and diffusively scattered light from the deep tissue can be separated according to the difference of polarization characteristics. The novel point of the paper is to apply this method to the detection of particle suspension and, to realize the simultaneous measurement of its particle size and number density in its natural status. We design and build a coaxial cage optical system, and measure the backscatter signal at a specified angle from a polystyrene microsphere suspension. By controlling the polarization direction of incident light with a linear polarizer and adjusting the polarization direction of collected light with another linear polarizer, we obtain the parallel polarized elastic light scattering spectrum and cross polarized elastic light scattering spectrum. The difference between the two is the differential polarized elastic light scattering spectrum which include only the single scattering information of the particles. We thus compare this spectrum to the Mie scattering calculation and extract the particle size. We then also analyze the cross polarized elastic light scattering spectrum by applying the particle size already extracted. The analysis is based on the approximate expressions taking account of light diffusing, from which we are able to obtain the number density of the particle suspension. We compare our experimental outcomes with the manufacturer-provided values and further analyze the influence of the particle diameter standard deviation on the number density extraction, by which we finally verify the experimental method. The potential applications of the method include the on-line particle quality monitoring for particle manufacture as well as the fat and protein density detection of milk products.

  14. Big Bang Day: 5 Particles - 5. The Next Particle

    CERN Multimedia

    Franck Close

    2008-01-01

    Simon Singh looks at the stories behind the discovery of 5 of the universe's most significant subatomic particles: the Electron, the Quark, the Anti-particle, the Neutrino and the "next particle". 5. The Next Particle The "sparticle" - a super symmetric partner to all the known particles could be the answer to uniting all the known particles and their interactions under one grand theoretical pattern of activity. But how do researchers know where to look for such phenomena and how do they know if they find them? Simon Singh reviews the next particle that physicists would like to find if the current particle theories are to ring true.

  15. Applications of particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Particle accelerators are now widely used in a variety of applications for scientific research, applied physics, medicine, industrial processing, while possible utilisation in power engineering is envisaged. Earlier presentations of this subject, given at previous CERN Accelerator School sessions have been updated with papers contributed to the first European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology (ECAART) held in September 1989 in Frankfurt and to the Second European Particle Accelerator Conference in Nice in June 1990. (orig.)

  16. The Least Particle Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartsock, Robert

    2011-10-01

    The Least Particle Theory states that the universe was cast as a great sea of energy. MaX Planck declared a quantum of energy to be the least value in the universe. We declare the quantum of energy to be the least particle in the universe. Stephen Hawking declared quantum mechanics to be of no value in todays gross mechanics. That's like saying the number 1 has no place in mathematics.

  17. Particle physics and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the past year, the research of the members of our group has spanned virtually all the topics at the interface of cosmology and particle physics: inflationary Universe scenarios, astrophysical and cosmological constraints on particle properties, ultra-high energy cosmic ray physics, quantum field theory in curved space-time, cosmology with extra dimensions, superstring cosmology, neutrino astronomy with large, underground detectors, and the formation of structure in the Universe

  18. ELEMENTARY PARTICLE INTERACTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EFREMENKO, YURI; HANDLER, THOMAS; KAMYSHKOV, YURI; SIOPSIS, GEORGE; SPANIER, STEFAN

    2013-07-30

    The High-Energy Elementary Particle Interactions group at UT during the last three years worked on the following directions and projects: Collider-based Particle Physics; Neutrino Physics, particularly participation in “NOνA”, “Double Chooz”, and “KamLAND” neutrino experiments; and Theory, including Scattering amplitudes, Quark-gluon plasma; Holographic cosmology; Holographic superconductors; Charge density waves; Striped superconductors; and Holographic FFLO states.

  19. Gradient Particle Magnetohydrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Maron, Jason L.; Howes, Gregory G.

    2001-01-01

    We introduce Gradient Particle Magnetohydrodynamics (GPM), a new Lagrangian method for magnetohydrodynamics based on gradients corrected for the locally disordered particle distribution. The development of a numerical code for MHD simulation using the GPM algorithm is outlined. Validation tests simulating linear and nonlinear sound waves, linear MHD waves, advection of magnetic fields in a magnetized vortex, hydrodynamical shocks, and three-dimensional collapse are presented, demonstrating th...

  20. Particles causing lung disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Kilburn, K H

    1984-01-01

    The lung has a limited number of patterns of reaction to inhaled particles. The disease observed depends upon the location: conducting airways, terminal bronchioles and alveoli, and upon the nature of inflammation induced: acute, subacute or chronic. Many different agents cause narrowing of conducting airways (asthma) and some of these cause permanent distortion or obliteration of airways as well. Terminal bronchioles appear to be particularly susceptible to particles which cause goblet cell ...

  1. Motion of Confined Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, David E

    2016-01-01

    We carry out numerical evaluations of the motion of classical particles in Minkowski Space $\\mathbb{M}^{4}$ which are confined to the inside of a bag. In particular, we analyze the structure of the paths evolving from the breaking of the dilatation symmetry, the conformal symmetry and the combination of both together. The confining forces arise directly from the corresponding nonconserved currents. We demonstrate in our evaluations that these particles under certain initial conditions move toward the interior of the bag.

  2. Feature Extraction of Mammograms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Sharma

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in women today. Early detection of the cancer can reduce mortality rate. Studies have shown that radiologists can miss the detection of a significant proportion of abnormalities in addition to having high rates of false positives. Pattern recognition in image processing requires the extraction of features from regions of the image and the processing of these features with a pattern recognition algorithm. We consider the feature extraction part of this processing; with a focus on the problem of micro calcification detection in digital mammography. For every pattern classification problem, the most important stage is feature extraction. The accuracy of the classification depends on the feature extraction stage. We have extracted textural, statistical and structural features which show promising results than most of the existing technology.

  3. Shake-The-Box: Lagrangian particle tracking at high particle image densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schanz, Daniel; Gesemann, Sebastian; Schröder, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    A Lagrangian tracking method is introduced, which uses a prediction of the particle distribution for the subsequent time-step as a mean to seize the temporal domain. Errors introduced by the prediction process are corrected by an image matching technique (`shaking' the particle in space), followed by an iterative triangulation of particles newly entering the measurement domain. The scheme was termed `Shake-The-Box' and previously characterized as `4D-PTV' due to the strong interaction with the temporal dimension. Trajectories of tracer particles are identified at high spatial accuracy due to a nearly complete suppression of ghost particles; a temporal filtering scheme further improves on accuracy and allows for the extraction of local velocity and acceleration as derivatives of a continuous function. Exploiting the temporal information enables the processing of densely seeded flows (beyond 0.1 particles per pixel, ppp), which were previously reserved for tomographic PIV evaluations. While TOMO-PIV uses statistical means to evaluate the flow (building an `anonymous' voxel space with subsequent spatial averaging of the velocity information using correlation), the Shake-The-Box approach is able to identify and track individual particles at numbers of tens or even hundreds of thousands per time-step. The method is outlined in detail, followed by descriptions of applications to synthetic and experimental data. The synthetic data evaluation reveals that STB is able to capture virtually all true particles, while effectively suppressing the formation of ghost particles. For the examined four-camera set-up particle image densities N I up to 0.125 ppp could be processed. For noise-free images, the attained accuracy is very high. The addition of synthetic noise reduces usable particle image density ( N I ≤ 0.075 ppp for highly noisy images) and accuracy (still being significantly higher compared to tomographic reconstruction). The solutions remain virtually free of ghost

  4. On Characterizing Particle Shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennis, Bryan J.; Rickman, Douglas; Rollins, A. Brent; Ennis, Brandon

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that particle shape affects flow characteristics of granular materials, as well as a variety of other solids processing issues such as compaction, rheology, filtration and other two-phase flow problems. The impact of shape crosses many diverse and commercially important applications, including pharmaceuticals, civil engineering, metallurgy, health, and food processing. Two applications studied here include the dry solids flow of lunar simulants (e.g. JSC-1, NU-LHT-2M, OB-1), and the flow properties of wet concrete, including final compressive strength. A multi-dimensional generalized, engineering method to quantitatively characterize particle shapes has been developed, applicable to both single particle orientation and multi-particle assemblies. The two-dimension, three dimension inversion problem is also treated, and the application of these methods to DEM model particles will be discussed. In the case of lunar simulants, flow properties of six lunar simulants have been measured, and the impact of particle shape on flowability - as characterized by the shape method developed here -- is discussed, especially in the context of three simulants of similar size range. In the context of concrete processing, concrete construction is a major contributor to greenhouse gas production, of which the major contributor is cement binding loading. Any optimization in concrete rheology and packing that can reduce cement loading and improve strength loading can also reduce currently required construction safety factors. The characterization approach here is also demonstrated for the impact of rock aggregate shape on concrete slump rheology and dry compressive strength.

  5. Statistics of indistinguishable particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittig, Curt

    2009-07-01

    The wave function of a system containing identical particles takes into account the relationship between a particle's intrinsic spin and its statistical property. Specifically, the exchange of two identical particles having odd-half-integer spin results in the wave function changing sign, whereas the exchange of two identical particles having integer spin is accompanied by no such sign change. This is embodied in a term (-1)(2s), which has the value +1 for integer s (bosons), and -1 for odd-half-integer s (fermions), where s is the particle spin. All of this is well-known. In the nonrelativistic limit, a detailed consideration of the exchange of two identical particles shows that exchange is accompanied by a 2pi reorientation that yields the (-1)(2s) term. The same bookkeeping is applicable to the relativistic case described by the proper orthochronous Lorentz group, because any proper orthochronous Lorentz transformation can be expressed as the product of spatial rotations and a boost along the direction of motion. PMID:19552474

  6. AGS Resonant Extraction with High Intensity Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Brookhaven AGS third integer resonant extraction system allows the AGS to provide high quality, high intensity 25.5 GeV/c proton beams simultaneously to four target stations and as many as 8 experiments. With the increasing intensities (over 7 x 1013 protons/pulse) and associated longer spill periods (2.4 to 3 seconds long), they continue to run with low losses and high quality low modulation continuous current beams. Learning to extract and transport these higher intensity beams has required a process of careful modeling and experimentation. They have had to learn how to correct for various instabilities and how to better match extraction and the transport lines to the higher emittance beams being accelerated in the AGS. Techniques employed include ''RF'' methods to smooth out momentum distributions and fine structure. They will present results of detailed multi-particle tracking modeling studies which enabled them to develop a clear understanding of beam loss mechanisms in the transport and extraction process. They report on their status, experiences, and the present understanding of the intensity limitations imposed by resonant extraction and transport to fixed target stations

  7. AGS RESONANT EXTRACTION WITH HIGH INTENSITY BEAMS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AHRENS,L.; BROWN,K.; GLENN,J.W.; ROSER,T.; TSOUPAS,N.; VANASSELT,W.

    1999-03-29

    The Brookhaven AGS third integer resonant extraction system allows the AGS to provide high quality, high intensity 25.5 GeV/c proton beams simultaneously to four target stations and as many as 8 experiments. With the increasing intensities (over 7 x 10{sup 13} protons/pulse) and associated longer spill periods (2.4 to 3 seconds long), we continue to run with low losses and high quality low modulation continuous current beams.[1] Learning to extract and transport these higher intensity beams has required a process of careful modeling and experimentation. We have had to learn how to correct for various instabilities and how to better match extraction and the transport lines to the higher emittance beams being accelerated in the AGS. Techniques employed include ''RF'' methods to smooth out momentum distributions and fine structure. We will present results of detailed multi-particle tracking modeling studies which enabled us to develop a clear understanding of beam loss mechanisms in the transport and extraction process. We will report on our status, experiences, and the present understanding of the intensity limitations imposed by resonant extraction and transport to fixed target stations.

  8. Selected Physical and Chemical Properties of Feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium) Extracts Important for Formulated Product Quality and Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Ping; Madieh, Shadi; Augsburger, Larry L.

    2008-01-01

    The objectives of this research are: (1) to assess selected formulation-relevant physical properties of several commercial Feverfew extracts, including flowability, hygroscopicity, compressibility and compactibility (2) to develop and validate a suitable extraction method and HPLC assay, and (3) to determine the parthenolide content of several commercial Feverfew extracts. Carr’s index, minimum orifice diameter and particle-particle interaction were used to evaluate powder flowability. Hygros...

  9. Concentrations of PAHs in atmospheric particles (PM-10) and roadside soil particles collected in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Nasr Yousef M. J.; Abas, M. Radzi Bin; Ketuly, Kamal Aziz; Tahir, Norhayati Mohd

    The concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in atmospheric particles and roadside soil particles were measured at eight locations in the city center and the suburb of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Atmospheric particles were collected using high-volume PM-10 sampler on glass fiber filters over 24 h average sampling period. Both types of samples were extracted with dichloromethane by ultrasonic agitation. The extracts were then fractionated on an alumina-silica column and the aromatic fraction was subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analysis. Total PAH concentrations in the atmospheric particles and roadside soil particles were found to be 6.28±4.35 ng m -3 and 0.22±0.11 μg g -1, respectively. Benzo[ g, h, i]perylene and coronene were found to be the most abundant PAHs in airborne particles at all locations. The most abundant PAHs in the roadside soil particles were fluoranthene, pyrene and phenanthrene.

  10. Utility of replica techniques for x-ray microanalysis of second phase particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray microanalysis of second phase particles in ion-milled or electropolished thin foils is often complicated by the presence of the matrix nearby. Extraction replica techniques provide a means to avoid many of the complications of thin-foil analyses. In this paper, three examples of the analysis of second phase particles are described and illustrate the improvement obtained by the use of extraction replicas for qualitative analysis, quantitative analysis, and analysis of radioactive specimens

  11. Polyhydroxyflavones as extracting reagents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The europium (3) complex with morin is studied as well as the possibility of its analytical application. The formation of two extractable complexes, one of which dominates at pH--4-7, the other one - at pH>=8.5 is shown. The electrophoresis of the extracts containing the second complex has shown the latter to have a negative charge and to be extracted into the organic phase only in the form of an ionic associate [EU(OH)2H3B]-, (where H3B- is the morin anion). The extraction constant and spectra characteristics of the comples are estimated. The extraction constant and spectral characteristics of the complex are estimated. The extraction of the Eu(3) complex with morin from an alkaline medium (NaOH) by the TBP 20% solution in isoamyl alcohol is used for the direct extraction-photometric determination of Eu(3) in compounds of the elements possessing amphoteric properties of forming ammoniates (ZnS, MoO3). The method sensitivity is 5x10-4%

  12. Electromembrane extraction of peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balchen, Marte; Reubsaet, Léon; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig

    2008-06-20

    Rapid extraction of eight different peptides using electromembrane extraction (EME) was demonstrated for the first time. During an extraction time of 5 min, the model peptides migrated from a 500 microL aqueous acidic sample solution, through a thin supported liquid membrane (SLM) of an organic liquid sustained in the pores in the wall of a porous hollow fiber, and into a 25 microL aqueous acidic acceptor solution present inside the lumen of the hollow fiber. The driving force of the extraction was a 50 V potential sustained across the SLM, with the positive electrode in the sample and the negative electrode in the acceptor solution. The nature and the composition of the SLM were highly important for the EME process, and a mixture of 1-octanol and 15% di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate was found to work properly. Using 1mM HCl as background electrolyte in the sample and 100 mM HCl in the acceptor solution, and agitation at 1050 rpm, enrichment up to 11 times was achieved. Recoveries were found to be dependent on the structure of the peptide, indicating that the polarity and the number of ionized groups were important parameters affecting the extraction efficiency. The experimental findings suggested that electromembrane extraction of peptides is possible and may be a valuable tool for future extraction of peptides. PMID:18479691

  13. Multimedia Information Extraction

    CERN Document Server

    Maybury, Mark T

    2012-01-01

    The advent of increasingly large consumer collections of audio (e.g., iTunes), imagery (e.g., Flickr), and video (e.g., YouTube) is driving a need not only for multimedia retrieval but also information extraction from and across media. Furthermore, industrial and government collections fuel requirements for stock media access, media preservation, broadcast news retrieval, identity management, and video surveillance.  While significant advances have been made in language processing for information extraction from unstructured multilingual text and extraction of objects from imagery and vid

  14. Nano-electromembrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Payán, María D Ramos; Li, Bin; Petersen, Nickolaj J.;

    2013-01-01

    ), and into approximately 8 nL phosphate buffer (pH 2.7) as acceptor phase. The driving force for the extraction was an electrical potential sustained over the SLM. The acceptor phase was located inside a fused silica capillary, and this capillary was also used for the final analysis of the acceptor phase by capillary......The present work has for the first time described nano-electromembrane extraction (nano-EME). In nano-EME, five basic drugs substances were extracted as model analytes from 200 μL acidified sample solution, through a supported liquid membrane (SLM) of 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether (NPOE...

  15. Review of Particle Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrignani, C.; Particle Data Group; et al.

    2016-10-01

    The Review summarizes much of particle physics and cosmology. Using data from previous editions, plus 3,062 new measurements from 721 papers, we list, evaluate, and average measured properties of gauge bosons and the recently discovered Higgs boson, leptons, quarks, mesons, and baryons. We summarize searches for hypothetical particles such as supersymmetric particles, heavy bosons, axions, dark photons, etc. All the particle properties and search limits are listed in Summary Tables. We also give numerous tables, figures, formulae, and reviews of topics such as Higgs Boson Physics, Supersymmetry, Grand Unified Theories, Neutrino Mixing, Dark Energy, Dark Matter, Cosmology, Particle Detectors, Colliders, Probability and Statistics. Among the 117 reviews are many that are new or heavily revised, including those on Pentaquarks and Inflation. The complete Review is published online in a journal and on the website of the Particle Data Group (http://pdg.lbl.gov). The printed PDG Book contains the Summary Tables and all review articles but no longer includes the detailed tables from the Particle Listings. A Booklet with the Summary Tables and abbreviated versions of some of the review articles is also available. Contents Abstract, Contributors, Highlights and Table of ContentsAcrobat PDF (150 KB) IntroductionAcrobat PDF (456 KB) Particle Physics Summary Tables Gauge and Higgs bosonsAcrobat PDF (155 KB) LeptonsAcrobat PDF (134 KB) QuarksAcrobat PDF (84 KB) MesonsAcrobat PDF (871 KB) BaryonsAcrobat PDF (300 KB) Searches (Supersymmetry, Compositeness, etc.)Acrobat PDF (91 KB) Tests of conservation lawsAcrobat PDF (330 KB) Reviews, Tables, and Plots Detailed contents for this sectionAcrobat PDF (37 KB) Constants, Units, Atomic and Nuclear PropertiesAcrobat PDF (278 KB) Standard Model and Related TopicsAcrobat PDF (7.3 MB) Astrophysics and CosmologyAcrobat PDF (2.7 MB) Experimental Methods and CollidersAcrobat PDF (3.8 MB) Mathematical Tools or Statistics, Monte Carlo, Group

  16. Synthesis of Silver and Gold Nanoparticles Using Antioxidants from Blackberry, Blueberry, Pomegranate, and Turmeric Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greener synthesis of Ag and Au nanoparticles is described using antioxidants from blackberry, blueberry, pomegranate, and turmeric extracts. The synthesized particles were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution TEM (HR...

  17. Characterizing gas flow from aerosol particle injectors

    CERN Document Server

    Horke, Daniel; Worbs, Lena; Küpper, Jochen

    2016-01-01

    A novel methodology for measuring gas flow from small orifices or nozzles into vacuum is presented. It utilizes a high-intensity femtosecond laser pulse to create a plasma within the gas plume produced by the nozzle, which is imaged by a microscope. Calibration of the imaging system at known chamber pressures allows for the extraction of absolute number densities, and we show detection down to helium densities of $4\\times10^{16}$~cm$^{-3}$ with a spatial resolution of a few micrometer. The technique is used to characterize the gas flow from a convergent-nozzle aerosol injector as used in single-particle diffractive imaging experiments at free-electron laser sources. Based on the measured gas-density profile we estimate the scattering background signal under typical operating conditions of single-particle imaging experiments and estimate that fewer than 50 photons per shot can be expected on the typical detector of such an experiment.

  18. Comparison of mentha extracts obtained by different extraction methods

    OpenAIRE

    Milić Slavica; Lepojević Žika; Adamović Dušan; Mujić Ibrahim; Zeković Zoran

    2006-01-01

    The different methods of mentha extraction, such as steam distillation, extraction by methylene chloride (Soxhlet extraction) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) by carbon dioxide (CO J were investigated. SFE by CO, was performed at pressure of 100 bar and temperature of40°C. The extraction yield, as well as qualitative and quantitative composition of obtained extracts, determined by GC-MS method, were compared.

  19. New particle searches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Standard Model is a remarkable result of decades of work in particle physics, but it is clearly an incomplete representation of the world. Exploring possibilities beyond the Standard Model is a major preoccupation of both theorists and experimentalists. Despite the many suggestions that are extant about the missing links within the Standard Model as well as extensions beyond it, no hard experimental evidence exists. In particular, in more than five years of experimentation both at PETRA and PEP no new particles have been found that would indicate new physics. Several reasons are possible for these negative results: the particles may be too heavy; the experiments may not be looking in the proper way; the cross sections may be too small or finally the particles may not exist. A continuing PEP program, at high luminosity will ensure that the second and third reason continue to be addressed. The higher energy e+e- storage rings such as TRISTAN and LEP will extend the mass limits. High mass particles can also be produced at the CERN collider and soon with the Tevatron collider. A concise summary of the mass limits from the PETRA experiments has been given in a recent Mark J publication. The results shown provide a convenient yardstick against which to measure future search experiments

  20. Particle physics and cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolb, E.W.

    1986-10-01

    This series of lectures is about the role of particle physics in physical processes that occurred in the very early stages of the bug gang. Of particular interest is the role of particle physics in determining the evolution of the early Universe, and the effect of particle physics on the present structure of the Universe. The use of the big bang as a laboratory for placing limits on new particle physics theories will also be discussed. Section 1 reviews the standard cosmology, including primordial nucleosynthesis. Section 2 reviews the decoupling of weakly interacting particles in the early Universe, and discusses neutrino cosmology and the resulting limits that may be placed on the mass and lifetime of massive neutrinos. Section 3 discusses the evolution of the vacuum through phase transitions in the early Universe and the formation of topological defects in the transitions. Section 4 covers recent work on the generation of the baryon asymmetry by baryon-number violating reactions in Grand Unified Theories, and mentions some recent work on baryon number violation effects at the electroweak transition. Section 5 is devoted to theories of cosmic inflation. Finally, Section 6 is a discussion of the role of extra spatial dimensions in the evolution of the early Universe. 78 refs., 32 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. Particles and Shells

    CERN Document Server

    Palazzi, P

    2003-01-01

    The current understanding of particle masses in terms of quarks and their binding energy is not satisfactory. Both in atoms and in nuclei the organizing principle of stability is the shell structure, while this does not seem to play any role for particles. In order to explore the possibility that shells might also be relevant at this inner level of aggregation, atomic and nuclear stability are expressed by "stablines", alignments of the 1/3 power of the total number of constituents of the most stable configurations. Could similar patterns be found in the particle spectrum? By analyzing the distribution of particle lifetimes as a function of mass, stability peaks are recognized for mesons and for baryons and indeed the cube roots of their masses follow two distinct stablines. Such alignments would be a strong indication that the particles themselves are shell structured assuming only that each constituent contributes a constant amount to the total mass. This is incompatible with the prevalent view that the par...

  2. Large Particle Titanate Sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-10-08

    This research project was aimed at developing a synthesis technique for producing large particle size monosodium titanate (MST) to benefit high level waste (HLW) processing at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Two applications were targeted, first increasing the size of the powdered MST used in batch contact processing to improve the filtration performance of the material, and second preparing a form of MST suitable for deployment in a column configuration. Increasing the particle size should lead to improvements in filtration flux, and decreased frequency of filter cleaning leading to improved throughput. Deployment of MST in a column configuration would allow for movement from a batch process to a more continuous process. Modifications to the typical MST synthesis led to an increase in the average particle size. Filtration testing on dead-end filters showed improved filtration rates with the larger particle material; however, no improvement in filtration rate was realized on a crossflow filter. In order to produce materials suitable for column deployment several approaches were examined. First, attempts were made to coat zirconium oxide microspheres (196 µm) with a layer of MST. This proved largely unsuccessful. An alternate approach was then taken synthesizing a porous monolith of MST which could be used as a column. Several parameters were tested, and conditions were found that were able to produce a continuous structure versus an agglomeration of particles. This monolith material showed Sr uptake comparable to that of previously evaluated samples of engineered MST in batch contact testing.

  3. Entanglement between particle partitions in itinerant many-particle states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Haque; O.S. Zozulya; K. Schoutens

    2009-01-01

    We review 'particle-partitioning entanglement' for itinerant many-particle systems. This is defined as the entanglement between two subsets of particles making up the system. We identify generic features and mechanisms of particle entanglement that are valid over whole classes of itinerant quantum s

  4. A relationship between maximum packing of particles and particle size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedors, R. F.

    1979-01-01

    Experimental data indicate that the volume fraction of particles in a packed bed (i.e. maximum packing) depends on particle size. One explanation for this is based on the idea that particle adhesion is the primary factor. In this paper, however, it is shown that entrainment and immobilization of liquid by the particles can also account for the facts.

  5. Fundamental Symmetries of the Modified Anyonic Particle

    CERN Document Server

    Nejad, Salman Abarghouei; Monemzadeh, Majid

    2015-01-01

    We try to increase the fundamental symmetries of the anyonic particle with the help of the symplectic formalism of constrained systems and gauging the model. The main idea of this approach is based on the embedding of the model in an extended phase space. After the gauging process had done, we obtain generators of gauge transformations of the model. Finally, by extracting the corresponding Poisson structure of all constraints, we compare the effect of gauging on the the phase spaces, the number of physical degrees of freedom, and canonical structures of both primary and gauged models.

  6. Cosmological Particle Production Without Bogolubov Coefficients

    CERN Document Server

    Hamilton, A J; Parikh, M K; Hamilton, Alex J.; Kabat, Daniel; Parikh, Maulik K.

    2003-01-01

    We present an efficient new technique for calculating the amount of particle production in a cosmological background. The expectation value of the number operator for a given momentum mode can be extracted from the Feynman propagator. We demonstrate the computational economy of the technique by applying it to various cosmologies. We also show that the appropriate Feynman propagator, with boundary conditions that encode the initial state, can be constructed by the method of images. Our technique uses a first-quantized approach so, unlike conventional Bogolubov transformations, it may be amenable to a string-theoretic generalization.

  7. Nuclear track radiography of 'hot' aerosol particles

    CERN Document Server

    Boulyga, S F; Kievets, M K; Lomonosova, E M; Zhuk, I V; Yaroshevich, O I; Perelygin, V P; Petrova, R I; Brandt, R; Vater, P

    1999-01-01

    Nuclear track radiography was applied to identify aerosol 'hot' particles which contain elements of nuclear fuel and fallout after Chernobyl NPP accident. For the determination of the content of transuranium elements in radioactive aerosols the measurement of the alpha-activity of 'hot' particles by SSNTD was used in this work, as well as radiography of fission fragments formed as a result of the reactions (n,f) and (gamma,f) in the irradiation of aerosol filters by thermal neutrons and high energy gamma quanta. The technique allowed the sizes and alpha-activity of 'hot' particles to be determined without extracting them from the filter, as well as the determination of the uranium content and its enrichment by sup 2 sup 3 sup 5 U, sup 2 sup 3 sup 9 Pu and sup 2 sup 4 sup 1 Pu isotopes. Sensitivity of determination of alpha activity by fission method is 5x10 sup - sup 6 Bq per particle. The software for the system of image analysis was created. It ensured the identification of track clusters on an optical imag...

  8. Big Bang Day: 5 Particles - 3. The Anti-particle

    CERN Multimedia

    Franck Close

    2008-01-01

    Simon Singh looks at the stories behind the discovery of 5 of the universe's most significant subatomic particles: the Electron, the Quark, the Anti-particle, the Neutrino and the "next particle". 3. The Anti-particle. It appears to be the stuff of science fiction. Associated with every elementary particle is an antiparticle which has the same mass and opposite charge. Should the two meet and combine, the result is annihilation - and a flash of light. Thanks to mysterious processes that occurred after the Big Bang there are a vastly greater number of particles than anti-particles. So how could their elusive existence be proved? At CERN particle physicists are crashing together subatomic particles at incredibly high speeds to create antimatter, which they hope will finally reveal what happened at the precise moment of the Big Bang to create the repertoire of elementary particles and antiparticles in existence today.

  9. Using CHIMERA detector at LNS for gamma-particle coincidences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cardella G.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We have recently evaluated the quality of γ-ray angular distributions that can be extracted in particle-gamma coincidence measurements using the CHIMERA detector at LNS. γ-rays have been detected using the CsI(Tl detectors of the spherical part of the CHIMERA array. Very clean γ-rays angular distributions were extracted in reactions induced by different stable beams impinging on 12C thin targets. The results evidenced an effect of projectile spin flip on the γ-rays angular distributions. γ-particle coincidence measurements were also performed in reactions induced by neutron rich exotic beams produced through in-flight fragmentation at LNS. In recent experiments also the Farcos array was used to improve energy and angular resolution measurements of the detected charged particles. Results obtained with both stable and radioactive beams are reported.

  10. Using CHIMERA detector at LNS for gamma-particle coincidences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardella, G.; Acosta, L.; Auditore, L.; Chatterjiee, M. B.; Castoldi, A.; De Filippo, E.; Dell'Aquila, D.; De Luca, S.; Gnoffo, B.; Guazzoni, C.; Francalanza, L.; Lanzalone, G.; Lombardo, I.; Martorana, N.; Norella, S.; Pagano, A.; Pagano, E. V.; Papa, M.; Pirrone, S.; Politi, G.; Quattrocchi, L.; Rizzo, F.; Russotto, P.; Trifirò, A.; Trimarchi, M.; Verde, G.; Vigilante, M.

    2016-05-01

    We have recently evaluated the quality of γ-ray angular distributions that can be extracted in particle-gamma coincidence measurements using the CHIMERA detector at LNS. γ-rays have been detected using the CsI(Tl) detectors of the spherical part of the CHIMERA array. Very clean γ-rays angular distributions were extracted in reactions induced by different stable beams impinging on 12C thin targets. The results evidenced an effect of projectile spin flip on the γ-rays angular distributions. γ-particle coincidence measurements were also performed in reactions induced by neutron rich exotic beams produced through in-flight fragmentation at LNS. In recent experiments also the Farcos array was used to improve energy and angular resolution measurements of the detected charged particles. Results obtained with both stable and radioactive beams are reported.

  11. Feature Extraction of Mammograms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Sharma

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deathsin women today. Early detection of the cancer can reducemortality rate. Studies have shown that radiologists canmiss the detection of a significant proportion ofabnormalities in addition to having high rates of falsepositives. Pattern recognition in image processing requiresthe extraction of features from regions of the image andthe processing of these features with a pattern recognitionalgorithm. We consider the feature extraction part of thisprocessing; with a focus on the problem of microcalcification detection in digital mammography. For everypattern classification problem, the most important stage isfeature extraction. The accuracy of the classificationdepends on the feature extraction stage. We have extractedtextural, statistical and structural features which showpromising results than most of the existing technology.

  12. The particle zoo

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2079223

    2016-01-01

    What is everything really made of? If we split matter down into smaller and infinitesimally smaller pieces, where do we arrive? At the Particle Zoo - the extraordinary subatomic world of antimatter, neutrinos, strange-flavoured quarks and yetis, gravitons, ghosts and glueballs, mindboggling eleven-dimensional strings and the elusive Higgs boson itself. Be guided around this strangest of zoos by Gavin Hesketh, experimental particle physicist at humanity's greatest experiment, the Large Hadron Collider. Concisely and with a rare clarity, he demystifies how we are uncovering the inner workings of the universe and heading towards the next scientific revolution. Why are atoms so small? How did the Higgs boson save the universe? And is there a theory of everything? The Particle Zoo answers these and many other profound questions, and explains the big ideas of Quantum Physics, String Theory, The Big Bang and Dark Matter...and, ultimately, what we know about the true, fundamental nature of reality.

  13. New particle data

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The 2002 edition of the Review of Particle Physics has been published. It appears in the July 1st edition of Physical Review D with the reference: K. Hagiwara et al., Physical Review D66, 010001 (2002). The printing of the Particle Physics Booklets is planned to be finished at the end of August, so copies are expected to arrive at CERN for distribution by mid-September. The full data are available at the Berkeley site, as well as at various other mirrors around the world. As for copies of the full Review, for which CERN is responsible for the distribution outside the Americas, the Far East and Australasia, the quantity has been reduced by 60% compared to the 2000 edition. It will thus no longer be possible for all individuals to have their personal copy. Priority will be given to ensure that copies are sent to all groups and institutes engaged in particle physics research.

  14. Particle fuel bed tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gas-cooled reactors, using packed beds of small diameter coated fuel particles have been proposed for compact, high-power systems. The particulate fuel used in the tests was 800 microns in diameter, consisting of a thoria kernel coated with 200 microns of pyrocarbon. Typically, the bed of fuel particles was contained in a ceramic cylinder with porous metallic frits at each end. A dc voltage was applied to the metallic frits and the resulting electric current heated the bed. Heat was removed by passing coolant (helium or hydrogen) through the bed. Candidate frit materials, rhenium, nickel, zirconium carbide, and zirconium oxide were unaffected, while tungsten and tungsten-rhenium lost weight and strength. Zirconium-carbide particles were tested at 2000 K in H2 for 12 hours with no visible reaction or weight loss

  15. Astrophysical Weighted Particle Magnetohydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Gaburov, Evghenii

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents applications of weighted meshless scheme for conservation laws to the Euler equations and the equations of ideal magnetohydrodynamics. The divergence constraint of the latter is maintained to the truncation error by a new meshless divergence cleaning procedure. The physics of the interaction between the particles is described by an one-dimensional Riemann problem in a moving frame. As a result, necessary diffusion which is required to treat dissipative processes is added automatically. As a result, our scheme has no free parameters that controls the physics of inter-particle interaction, with the exception of the number of the interacting neighbours which control the resolution and accuracy. The resulting equations have the form similar to SPH equations, and therefore existing SPH codes can be used to implement the weighed particle scheme. The scheme is validated in several hydrodynamic and MHD test cases. In particular, we demonstrate for the first time the ability of a meshless MHD schem...

  16. Particle accelerator physics

    CERN Document Server

    Wiedemann, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    This book by Helmut Wiedemann is a well-established, classic text, providing an in-depth and comprehensive introduction to the field of high-energy particle acceleration and beam dynamics. The present 4th edition has been significantly revised, updated and expanded. The newly conceived Part I is an elementary introduction to the subject matter for undergraduate students. Part II gathers the basic tools in preparation of a more advanced treatment, summarizing the essentials of electrostatics and electrodynamics as well as of particle dynamics in electromagnetic fields. Part III is an extensive primer in beam dynamics, followed, in Part IV, by an introduction and description of the main beam parameters and including a new chapter on beam emittance and lattice design. Part V is devoted to the treatment of perturbations in beam dynamics. Part VI then discusses the details of charged particle acceleration. Parts VII and VIII introduce the more advanced topics of coupled beam dynamics and describe very intense bea...

  17. High Energy Particle Accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    Audio Productions, Inc, New York

    1960-01-01

    Film about the different particle accelerators in the US. Nuclear research in the US has developed into a broad and well-balanced program.Tour of accelerator installations, accelerator development work now in progress and a number of typical experiments with high energy particles. Brookhaven, Cosmotron. Univ. Calif. Berkeley, Bevatron. Anti-proton experiment. Negative k meson experiment. Bubble chambers. A section on an electron accelerator. Projection of new accelerators. Princeton/Penn. build proton synchrotron. Argonne National Lab. Brookhaven, PS construction. Cambridge Electron Accelerator; Harvard/MIT. SLAC studying a linear accelerator. Other research at Madison, Wisconsin, Fixed Field Alternate Gradient Focusing. (FFAG) Oakridge, Tenn., cyclotron. Two-beam machine. Comments : Interesting overview of high energy particle accelerators installations in the US in these early years. .

  18. Edible oil from Tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus L.): mechanical pressing and aqueous enzymatic extraction methods

    OpenAIRE

    Ezeh, O.

    2016-01-01

    The tiger nut tuber of the Cyperus esculentus L. plant is an unusual storage system with similar amounts of starch and lipid. The extraction of its oil employing both mechanical pressing and aqueous enzymatic extraction (AEE) methods was investigated and an examination of the resulting products was carried out. The effects of particle size and moisture content of the tuber on the yield of tiger nut oil with pressing were initially studied. Smaller particles were found to enhance oil yields wh...

  19. Painful Bile Extraction Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    It was only in the past 20 years that countries in Asia began to search for an alternative to protect moon bears from being killed for their bile and other body parts. In the early 1980s, a new method of extracting bile from living bears was developed in North Korea. In 1983, Chinese scientists imported this technique from North Korea. According to the Animals Asia Foundation, the most original method of bile extraction is to embed a latex catheter, a narrow rubber

  20. DNA extraction by zinc.

    OpenAIRE

    Kejnovský, E; Kypr, J

    1997-01-01

    A fast, very simple and efficient method of DNA extraction is described which takes advantage of DNA sedimentation induced by millimolar concentrations of ZnCl2. The zinc-induced sedimentation is furthermore strongly promoted by submillimolar phosphate anion concentrations. Within 90% of DNA irrespective of whether a plasmid DNA or short oligonucleotides are the extracted material. The method works with plasmid DNA and oligonucleotide concentrations as low as 100 ng/ml and 10 microg/ml, respe...

  1. Genotoxicity of plant extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Vera M. F. Vargas; Régis R. Guidobono; Henriques, João A.P.

    1991-01-01

    Aqueous extracts of seven species used in Brazilian popular medicine (Achyrocline satureoides, Iodina rhombifolia, Desmodium incanum, Baccharis anomala, Tibouchina asperior, Luehea divaricata, Maytenus ilicifolia) were screened to the presence of mutagenic activity in the Ames test (Salmonella/microsome). Positive results were obtained for A. satureoides, B anomala and L. divaricata with microsomal activation. As shown elsewhere (Vargas et al., 1990) the metabolites of A. satureoides extract ...

  2. SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF RUTHENIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, H.H.; Leader, G.R.

    1959-07-14

    The separation of rathenium from aqueous solutions by solvent extraction is described. According to the invention, a nitrite selected from the group consisting of alkali nitrite and alkaline earth nitrite in an equimolecular quantity with regard to the quantity of rathenium present is added to an aqueous solution containing ruthenium tetrantrate to form a ruthenium complex. Adding an organic solvent such as ethyl ether to the resulting mixture selectively extracts the rathenium complex.

  3. Fingerprint Feature Extraction Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Mehala. G

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to design an efficient Fingerprint Feature Extraction (FFE) algorithm to extract the fingerprint features for Automatic Fingerprint Identification Systems (AFIS). FFE algorithm, consists of two major subdivisions, Fingerprint image preprocessing, Fingerprint image postprocessing. A few of the challenges presented in an earlier are, consequently addressed, in this paper. The proposed algorithm is able to enhance the fingerprint image and also extractin...

  4. WORKSHOP: Stable particle motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Particle beam stability is crucial to any accelerator or collider, particularly big ones, such as Brookhaven's RHIC heavy ion collider and the larger SSC and LHC proton collider schemes. A workshop on the Stability of Particle Motion in Storage Rings held at Brookhaven in October dealt with the important issue of determining the short- and long-term stability of single particle motion in hadron storage rings and colliders, and explored new methods for ensuring it. In the quest for realistic environments, the imperfections of superconducting magnets and the effects of field modulation and noise were taken into account. The workshop was divided into three study groups: Short-Term Stability in storage rings, including chromatic and geometric effects and correction strategies; Long-Term Stability, including modulation and random noise effects and slow varying effects; and Methods for determining the stability of particle motion. The first two were run in parallel, but the third was attended by everyone. Each group considered analytical, computational and experimental methods, reviewing work done so far, comparing results and approaches and underlining outstanding issues. By resolving conflicts, it was possible to identify problems of common interest. The workshop reaffirmed the validity of methods proposed several years ago. Major breakthroughs have been in the rapid improvement of computer capacity and speed, in the development of more sophisticated mathematical packages, and in the introduction of more powerful analytic approaches. In a typical storage ring, a particle may be required to circulate for about a billion revolutions. While ten years ago it was only possible to predict accurately stability over about a thousand revolutions, it is now possible to predict over as many as one million turns. If this trend continues, in ten years it could become feasible to predict particle stability over the entire storage period. About ninety participants

  5. Incompressible smoothed particle hydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a smoothed particle hydrodynamic model for incompressible fluids. As opposed to solving a pressure Poisson equation in order to get a divergence-free velocity field, here incompressibility is achieved by requiring as a kinematic constraint that the volume of the fluid particles is constant. We use Lagrangian multipliers to enforce this restriction. These Lagrange multipliers play the role of non-thermodynamic pressures whose actual values are fixed through the kinematic restriction. We use the SHAKE methodology familiar in constrained molecular dynamics as an efficient method for finding the non-thermodynamic pressure satisfying the constraints. The model is tested for several flow configurations

  6. Collection of particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apparatus and a method for collecting particles formed by vaporisation during a high temperature treatment of steel (eg cutting or welding) are described in which gas is drawn from the area in which the treatment is taking place through a collector in which the particles are separated magnetically. The air may be drawn by an air ejector from a hood around the treatment area. The invention has particular application where the high temperature treatment is the laser cutting of the stainless steel wrapper around a nuclear fuel sub-assembly. (author)

  7. Particle and nuclear physics

    CERN Document Server

    Faessler, Amand

    1971-01-01

    Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics, Volume 26 covers the significant advances in understanding the fundamentals of particle and nuclear physics. This volume is divided into four chapters, and begins with a brief overview of the various possible ideas beyond the standard model, the problem they address and their experimental tests. The next chapter deals with the basic physics of neutrino mass based on from a gauge theoretic point of view. This chapter considers the various extensions of the standard electroweak theory, along with their implications for neutrino physics. The discussio

  8. Composite magnetic particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This patent claim on behalf of I.C.I. Ltd., relates to the preparation and use of composite magnetic particles, comprising a low density core, and having a magnetic coating over at least a proportion of the surface. The density of such particles can be chosen to suit a range of applications, e.g. in affinity chromatography, in radioimmunoassay, in the transport of the associated component, such as a drug or enzyme, to a specific site in a living organism. (U.K.)

  9. Energetic particle physics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    F. Zonca; G.Y. Fu; S.J. Wang

    2007-01-01

    @@ The confinement properties of energetic (EsslMeV) ions are a crucial aspect of burning plasmas since they are present both as fast particles generated via additional heating and current drive systems as well as charged fusion products. In the first case, successful plasma operations rely on the possibility of controlling plasma current and flow profiles via neutral beam injection (NBI) and plasma temperature profiles by both NBI and ion cyclotron resonant heating (ICRH). In the second case, fusion alpha particles must provide a significant fraction of the local power density, which is ultimately necessary for the sustainment of the plasma burning.

  10. Review of Particle Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olive, K. A.; Particle Data Group

    2014-08-01

    The Review summarizes much of particle physics and cosmology. Using data from previous editions, plus 3,283 new measurements from 899 papers, we list, evaluate, and average measured properties of gauge bosons and the recently discovered Higgs boson, leptons, quarks, mesons, and baryons. We summarize searches for hypothetical particles such as heavy neutrinos, supersymmetric and technicolor particles, axions, dark photons, etc. All the particle properties and search limits are listed in Summary Tables. We also give numerous tables, figures, formulae, and reviews of topics such as Supersymmetry, Extra Dimensions, Particle Detectors, Probability, and Statistics. Among the 112 reviews are many that are new or heavily revised including those on: Dark Energy, Higgs Boson Physics, Electroweak Model, Neutrino Cross Section Measurements, Monte Carlo Neutrino Generators, Top Quark, Dark Matter, Dynamical Electroweak Symmetry Breaking, Accelerator Physics of Colliders, High-Energy Collider Parameters, Big Bang Nucleosynthesis, Astrophysical Constants and Cosmological Parameters. All tables, listings, and reviews (and errata) are also available on the Particle Data Group website: http://pdg.lbl.gov. Contents Abstract, Contributors, Highlights and Table of ContentsAcrobat PDF (4.4 MB) IntroductionAcrobat PDF (595 KB) Particle Physics Summary Tables Gauge and Higgs bosonsAcrobat PDF (204 KB) LeptonsAcrobat PDF (167 KB) QuarksAcrobat PDF (115 KB) MesonsAcrobat PDF (976 KB) BaryonsAcrobat PDF (384 KB) Searches (Supersymmetry, Compositeness, etc.)Acrobat PDF (120 KB) Tests of conservation lawsAcrobat PDF (383 KB) Reviews, Tables, and Plots Detailed contents for this sectionAcrobat PDF (73 KB) Constants, Units, Atomic and Nuclear PropertiesAcrobat PDF (395 KB) Standard Model and Related TopicsAcrobat PDF (8.37 MB) Astrophysics and CosmologyAcrobat PDF (3.79 MB) Experimental Methods and CollidersAcrobat PDF (3.82 MB) Mathematical Tools of Statistics, Monte Carlo, Group Theory Acrobat

  11. The particle accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the Palais de la Decouverte (in Paris) is the sole scientific vulgarization establishment in the world to operate an actual particle accelerator able to provoke different types of nuclear reactions, the author recalls some historical aspects of the concerned department since the creation of the 'Radioactivity - Atom synthesis' department in 1937. He recalls the experiments which were then performed, the installation of the particle accelerator in 1964 and its renewal. He describes what's going on in this accelerator. He gives an overview of the difficulties faced after it has been decided to move it, of the works which had to be performed, and of radiation protection measures

  12. The extraction of bitumen from western tar sands. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1990-07-01

    Topics discussed include: characterization of bitumen impregnated sandstone, water based tar sand separation technology, electrophoretic characterization of bitumen and fine mineral particles, bitumen and tar sand slurry viscosity, the hot water digestion-flotation process, electric field use on breaking water-in-oil emulsions, upgrading of bitumens and bitumen-derived liquids, solvent extraction.

  13. The extraction of bitumen from western tar sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1990-07-01

    Topics discussed include: characterization of bitumen impregnated sandstone, water based tar sand separation technology, electrophoretic characterization of bitumen and fine mineral particles, bitumen and tar sand slurry viscosity, the hot water digestion-flotation process, electric field use on breaking water-in-oil emulsions, upgrading of bitumens and bitumen-derived liquids, solvent extraction.

  14. Alpha particles in fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This collection of 39 (mostly view graph) presentations addresses various aspects of alpha particle physics in thermonuclear fusion research, including energy balance and alpha particle losses, transport, the influence of alpha particles on plasma stability, helium ash, the transition to and sustainment of a burning fusion plasma, as well as alpha particle diagnostics. Refs, figs and tabs

  15. Neutral Complex Extraction and Synergistic Extraction of Macrolide Antibiotics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Based on the theory of reactive extraction, new solvent systems were developed to replace butylacetate for extraction of macrolide antibiotics (erythromycin, kitasamycin, spiramycin meleumycin etc.). A new neutral complex solvent extraction system, fatty alcohol-kerosene (marked by E1), was used for extraction of erythromycin, one of the macrolide antibiotics. The extraction equilibrium equation is obtained, and the extraction distribution is as follows The effects of several parameters on extraction equilibrium were investigated. Furthermore, a new synergistic extraction system (marked by E2) was developed, in which another solvent was used as synergistic agent to replace the diluent kerosene in the neutral complex extraction system. Based on these new extraction systems, an improved process for extraction of erythromycin was developed, showing remarkable advantages in technology and economics owing to its low solvent consumption of 3kg per billion unit compared with 9-10 for butylacetate. The recovery process of solvent from raffinate may be eliminated.

  16. Influence of particle diameter on the colour of ground pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Tepić Aleksandra N.; Šumić Zdravko M.; Vukan Mirjana B.

    2010-01-01

    The influence of particle diameter of ground paprika on its colour was examined in this study. Six samples of industrial ground paprika, from various phases of milling, and different particle size were purchased from the factory. Extractable colour (ASTA) and surface colour (L, a

  17. High performance curcumin subcritical water extraction from turmeric (Curcuma longa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valizadeh Kiamahalleh, Mohammad; Najafpour-Darzi, Ghasem; Rahimnejad, Mostafa; Moghadamnia, Ali Akbar; Valizadeh Kiamahalleh, Meisam

    2016-06-01

    Curcumin is a hydrophobic polyphenolic compound derived from turmeric rhizome, which consists about 2-5% of the total rhizome content and is a more valuable component of turmeric. For reducing the drawbacks of conventional extraction (using organic solvents) of curcumin, the water as a clean solvent was used for extracting curcumin. Subcritical water extraction (SWE) experimental setup was fabricated in a laboratory scale and the influences of some parameters (e.g. extraction temperature, particle size, retention time and pressure) on the yield of extraction were investigated. Optimum extraction conditions such as SWE pressure of 10bar, extractive temperature of 140°C, particle size of 0.71mm and retention time of 14min were defined. The maximum amount of curcumin extracted at the optimum condition was 3.8wt%. The yield of curcumin extraction was more than 76wt% with regards to the maximum possible curcumin content of turmeric, as known to be 5%. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) images from the outer surface of turmeric, before and after extraction, clearly demonstrated the effect of each parameter; changes in porosity and hardness of turmeric that is directly related to the amount of extracted curcumin in process optimization of the extraction parameters.

  18. High performance curcumin subcritical water extraction from turmeric (Curcuma longa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valizadeh Kiamahalleh, Mohammad; Najafpour-Darzi, Ghasem; Rahimnejad, Mostafa; Moghadamnia, Ali Akbar; Valizadeh Kiamahalleh, Meisam

    2016-06-01

    Curcumin is a hydrophobic polyphenolic compound derived from turmeric rhizome, which consists about 2-5% of the total rhizome content and is a more valuable component of turmeric. For reducing the drawbacks of conventional extraction (using organic solvents) of curcumin, the water as a clean solvent was used for extracting curcumin. Subcritical water extraction (SWE) experimental setup was fabricated in a laboratory scale and the influences of some parameters (e.g. extraction temperature, particle size, retention time and pressure) on the yield of extraction were investigated. Optimum extraction conditions such as SWE pressure of 10bar, extractive temperature of 140°C, particle size of 0.71mm and retention time of 14min were defined. The maximum amount of curcumin extracted at the optimum condition was 3.8wt%. The yield of curcumin extraction was more than 76wt% with regards to the maximum possible curcumin content of turmeric, as known to be 5%. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) images from the outer surface of turmeric, before and after extraction, clearly demonstrated the effect of each parameter; changes in porosity and hardness of turmeric that is directly related to the amount of extracted curcumin in process optimization of the extraction parameters. PMID:27107245

  19. Particle Physics and Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Pralavorio, P

    2015-01-01

    Today, both particle physics and cosmology are described by few parameter Standard Models, i.e. it is possible to deduce consequence of particle physics in cosmology and vice verse. The former is examined in this lecture, in light of the recent systematic exploration of the electroweak scale by the LHC experiments. The two main results of the first phase of the LHC, the discovery of a Higgs-like particle and the absence so far of new particles predicted by "natural" theories beyond the Standard Model (supersymmetry, extra-dimension and composite Higgs) are put in a historical context to enlighten their importance and then presented extensively. To be complete, a short review from the neutrino physics, which can not be probed at LHC, is also given. The ability of all these results to resolve the 3 fundamental questions of cosmology about the nature of dark energy and dark matter as well as the origin of matter-antimatter asymmetry is discussed in each case.

  20. Astro-Particle Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Raffelt, G. G.

    1997-01-01

    Recent developments of those areas of astro-particle physics are discussed that were represented at the HEP97 conference. In particular, the current status of direct and indirect dark-matter searches and of TeV neutrino and gamma-ray astronomy will be reviewed.

  1. Supertwistors and massive particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mezincescu, Luca, E-mail: mezincescu@server.physics.miami.edu [Department of Physics, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL 33124 (United States); Routh, Alasdair J., E-mail: a.j.routh@damtp.cam.ac.uk [DAMTP, CMS, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Townsend, Paul K., E-mail: p.k.townsend@damtp.cam.ac.uk [DAMTP, CMS, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-15

    In the (super)twistor formulation of massless (super)particle mechanics, the mass-shell constraint is replaced by a “spin-shell” constraint from which the spin content can be read off. We extend this formalism to massive (super)particles (with N-extended space–time supersymmetry) in three and four space–time dimensions, explaining how the spin-shell constraints are related to spin, and we use it to prove equivalence of the massive N=1 and BPS-saturated N=2 superparticle actions. We also find the supertwistor form of the action for “spinning particles” with N-extended worldline supersymmetry, massless in four dimensions and massive in three dimensions, and we show how this simplifies special features of the N=2 case. -- Highlights: •Spin-shell constraints are related to Poincaré Casimirs. •Twistor form of 4D spinning particle for spin N/2. •Twistor proof of scalar/antisymmetric tensor equivalence for 4D spin 0. •Twistor form of 3D particle with arbitrary spin. •Proof of equivalence of N=1 and N=2 BPS massive 4D superparticles.

  2. Matter: the fundamental particles

    CERN Multimedia

    Landua, Rolf

    2007-01-01

    "The largest particle physics centre in the world is located in Europe. It straddles the Franco-Swiss border, near Geneva. At CERN - the European Organisation for Nuclear Research , which is focused on the science of nuclear matter rather than on the exploitation of atomic energy - there are over 6 500 scientists." (1 page)

  3. Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamic Simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-10-05

    This code is a highly modular framework for developing smoothed particle hydrodynamic (SPH) simulations running on parallel platforms. The compartmentalization of the code allows for rapid development of new SPH applications and modifications of existing algorithms. The compartmentalization also allows changes in one part of the code used by many applications to instantly be made available to all applications.

  4. Particles and Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgi, Howard; Wilczek, Frank; Tinyakov, Peter; Tytgat, Michel

    2013-03-01

    2011 marked the hundredth anniversary both of the famous Solvay conferences, and of the Geiger-Marsden experiment that launched the modern understanding of subatomic structure. I was asked to survey the status and prospects of particle physics for the anniversary Solvay conference, with appropriate perspective. This is my attempt.

  5. Elementary Particles and Forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigg, Chris

    1985-01-01

    Discusses subatomic particles (quarks, leptons, and others) revealed by higher accelerator energies. A connection between forces at this subatomic level has been established, and prospects are good for a description of forces that encompass binding atomic nuclei. Colors, fundamental interactions, screening, camouflage, electroweak symmetry, and…

  6. Particle physics experiments 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research programs described here were carried out in 1992 at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory and funded by the United Kingdom Science and Engineering Research Council. The area covered in these experiments is particle physics. Unedited contributions from over forty experimental programs are included. Experiments are listed according to their current status, the accelerator used and its years of operation. (UK)

  7. 'God' particle proves elusive

    CERN Document Server

    Radford, T

    2001-01-01

    For more than a decade, scientists at CERN have been hoping that a key theoretical particle called the Higgs boson, would turn up in a subatomic collision. Some of them are now though beginning to wonder if it has ever existed.

  8. Lunar Soil Particle Separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggren, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The Lunar Soil Particle Separator (LSPS) beneficiates soil prior to in situ resource utilization (ISRU). It can improve ISRU oxygen yield by boosting the concentration of ilmenite, or other iron-oxide-bearing materials found in lunar soils, which can substantially reduce hydrogen reduction reactor size, as well as drastically decreasing the power input required for soil heating

  9. Particle physics experiments 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes work carried out in 1988 on experiments approved by the Particle Physics Experiments Selection Panel. The contents consist of unedited contributions from each experiment. More than forty projects at different accelerators (SPS, ISIS, PETRA, LAMPF, LEP, HERA, BNL, ILL, LEAR) are listed. Different organisations collaborate on different projects. A brief progress report is given. References to published articles are given. (author)

  10. Energetic solar particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this review, some of the important aspects of energetic solar particles and their relation to solar physics are discussed. The major aspects of solar cosmic ray studies currently under investigation are identified and attention is focussed on the problems of the physical processes in the sun which may be responsible for these phenomena. The studies of the composition and energy spectra of solar cosmic ray nuclei are related to the basic problem of particle acceleration process in sun and to the composition of elements in solar atmosphere. The composition of higher energy (>20 MeV/amu) multiply charged nuclei of He, C, N, O, Ne, Mg, Si and Fe give information on the abundance of elements in the solar atmosphere. At lower energies (approximately 1-10 MeV/amu), the abundances of these elements show enhancements relative to solar abundances and these enhancements are believed to be due to particle acceleration mechanisms operative in the sun which are not fully understood at present. Studies of the relative abundances of H2, H3 and He3 isotopes and Li, Be, B nuclei in the solar cosmic rays can also be studied. The question of the relationship of the accelerated particles in the sun to the optical flare phenomena is discussed. Further studies of different aspects of these phenomena may give important clues to a wide ranging phenomena in the active sun. The observational methods employed for these studies are mentioned. (A.K.)

  11. Charged particle beams

    CERN Document Server

    Humphries, Stanley

    2013-01-01

    Detailed enough for a text and sufficiently comprehensive for a reference, this volume addresses topics vital to understanding high-power accelerators and high-brightness-charged particle beams. Subjects include stochastic cooling, high-brightness injectors, and the free electron laser. Humphries provides students with the critical skills necessary for the problem-solving insights unique to collective physics problems. 1990 edition.

  12. Two beautiful new particles

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    In beautiful agreement with the Standard Model, two new excited states (see below) of the Λb beauty particle have just been observed by the LHCb Collaboration. Similarly to protons and neutrons, Λb is composed of three quarks. In the Λb’s case, these are up, down and… beauty.   Although discovering new particles is increasingly looking like a routine exercise for the LHC experiments (see previous features), it is far from being an obvious performance, particularly when the mass of the particles is high. Created in the high-energy proton-proton collisions produced by the LHC, these new excited states of the Λb particle have been found to have a mass of, respectively, 5912 MeV/c2 and 5920 MeV/c2. In other words, they are over five times heavier than the proton or the neutron. Physicists only declare a discovery when data significantly show the relevant signal. In order to do that, they often have to analyse large samples of data. To ...

  13. Particle physics experiments 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Work carried out in 1982 on 52 experiments approved by the Particle Physics Experiments Selection Panel is described. Each experiment is listed under title, collaboration, technique, accelerator, year of running, status and spokesman. Unedited contributions are given from each experiment. (U.K.)

  14. Bullish on particles

    CERN Multimedia

    Turner, Michael Stanley

    2005-01-01

    Particle physics was, until recently, the flagship of U.S. physics. if not U.S. science. With ever larger "atom smasher" and such charismatic figures as J.R. Oppenheimer and Richard Feynamn, the field attracted the best and the brightest (1 page)

  15. Magnetic particle characterization-magnetophoretic mobility and particle size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chen; Boland, Eugene D; Todd, Paul W; Hanley, Thomas R

    2016-06-01

    Quantitative characterization of magnetic particles is useful for analysis and separation of labeled cells and magnetic particles. A particle velocimeter is used to directly measure the magnetophoretic mobility, size, and other parameters of magnetic particle suspensions. The instrument provides quantitative video analysis of particles and their motion. The trajectories of magnetic particles in an isodynamic magnetic field are recorded using a high-definition camera/microscope system for image collection. Image analysis software then converts the image data to the parameters of interest. The distribution of magnetophoretic mobility is determined by combining fast image analysis with velocimetry measurements. Particle size distributions have been characterized to provide a better understanding of sample quality. The results have been used in the development and operation of analyzer protocols for counting particle concentrations accurately and measuring magnetic susceptibility and size for simultaneous display for routine application to particle suspensions and magnetically labeled biological cells. © 2016 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  16. Improved estimation of anomalous diffusion exponents in single particle tracking experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Bronshtein, Eldad Kepten Irena; Garini, Yuval

    2012-01-01

    The Mean Square Displacement is a central tool in the analysis of Single Particle Tracking experiments, shedding light on various biophysical phenomena. Frequently, parameters are extracted by performing time-averages on single particle trajectories followed by ensemble averaging. This procedure however, suffers from two systematic errors when applied to particles that perform anomalous diffusion. The first is significant at short time lags and is induced by measurement errors. The second ari...

  17. Finite size effect of harmonic measure estimation in a DLA model: Variable size of probe particles

    OpenAIRE

    Menshutin, Anton Yu.; Shchur, Lev N.; Vinokour, Valery M.

    2008-01-01

    A finite size effect in the probing of the harmonic measure in simulation of diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) growth is investigated. We introduce a variable size of probe particles, to estimate harmonic measure and extract the fractal dimension of DLA clusters taking two limits, of vanishingly small probe particle size and of infinitely large size of a DLA cluster. We generate 1000 DLA clusters consisting of 50 million particles each, using an off-lattice killing-free algorithm developed ...

  18. A correction to Birks' Law in liquid argon ionization chamber simulations for highly ionizing particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a study of the performance of Birks' Law in liquid argon ionization chamber simulations as applied to highly ionizing particles, such as particles with multiple electric charges or with magnetic charge. We used Birks' Law to model recombination effects in a GEANT4 simulation of heavy ions in a liquid argon calorimeter. We then compared the simulation to published heavy-ion data to extract a highly ionizing particle correction to Birks' Law.

  19. Transuranic separation using organophophorus extractants adsorbed onto superparamagnetic carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polymeric coated ferromagnetic carriers with an absorbed layer of octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) diluted by tributyl phosphate (TBP) are being evaluated for application in the separation and the recovery of low concentrations of americium, plutonium, and uranium from nuclear waste solutions. Due to their chemical nature, these extractants selectively complex americium and plutonium contaminants onto the particles and the complexed particles can be recovered from the solution using a magnet. Physical and chemical characterization of the extractant-absorbed particles were performed by gamma and liquid scintillation counting, scanning electron microscopic (SEM) micrograph, and other physical measurements. Plutonium, americium, and uranium separations have been performed at various HNO3 and HCl concentrations. Parameters were studied to determine the limitations and capacity of the process. The status of the chemistry and application of the process to Department of Energy (DOE) remediation efforts for actinide decontamination are discussed

  20. Measurement of particle size based on digital imaging technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Hong; TANG Hong-wu; LIU Yun; WANG Hao; LIU Gui-ping

    2013-01-01

    To improve the analysis methods for the measurement of the sediment particle sizes with a wide distribution and of irregular shapes,a sediment particle image measurement,an analysis system,and an extraction algorithm of the optimal threshold based on the gray histogram peak values are proposed.Recording the pixels of the sediment particles by labeling them,the algorithm can effectively separate the sediment particle images from the background images using the equivalent pixel circles with the same diameters to represent the sediment particles.Compared with the laser analyzer for the case of blue plastic sands,the measurement results of the system are shown to be reasonably similar.The errors are mainly due to the small size of the particles and the limitation of the apparatus.The measurement accuracy can be improved by increasing the Charge-Coupled Devices (CCD) camera resolution.The analysis method of the sediment particle images can provide a technical support for the rapid measurement of the sediment particle size and its distribution.

  1. Particle Swarm Optimization Toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    The Particle Swarm Optimization Toolbox is a library of evolutionary optimization tools developed in the MATLAB environment. The algorithms contained in the library include a genetic algorithm (GA), a single-objective particle swarm optimizer (SOPSO), and a multi-objective particle swarm optimizer (MOPSO). Development focused on both the SOPSO and MOPSO. A GA was included mainly for comparison purposes, and the particle swarm optimizers appeared to perform better for a wide variety of optimization problems. All algorithms are capable of performing unconstrained and constrained optimization. The particle swarm optimizers are capable of performing single and multi-objective optimization. The SOPSO and MOPSO algorithms are based on swarming theory and bird-flocking patterns to search the trade space for the optimal solution or optimal trade in competing objectives. The MOPSO generates Pareto fronts for objectives that are in competition. A GA, based on Darwin evolutionary theory, is also included in the library. The GA consists of individuals that form a population in the design space. The population mates to form offspring at new locations in the design space. These offspring contain traits from both of the parents. The algorithm is based on this combination of traits from parents to hopefully provide an improved solution than either of the original parents. As the algorithm progresses, individuals that hold these optimal traits will emerge as the optimal solutions. Due to the generic design of all optimization algorithms, each algorithm interfaces with a user-supplied objective function. This function serves as a "black-box" to the optimizers in which the only purpose of this function is to evaluate solutions provided by the optimizers. Hence, the user-supplied function can be numerical simulations, analytical functions, etc., since the specific detail of this function is of no concern to the optimizer. These algorithms were originally developed to support entry

  2. What did we learn from the extraction experiments with bent crystals at the CERN SPS?

    CERN Document Server

    Elsener, K; Gyr, Marcel; Herr, Werner; Klem, J T; Mikkelsen, U; Weisse, E

    1998-01-01

    The feasibility and properties of particle extraction from an accelerator by means of a bent crystal were studied extensively at the CERN SPS. The main results of the experiments are presented. This includes the evidence for multipass extraction of heavy ions. These results are compared with theoretical expectations and computer simulations.

  3. Water extraction out of mortar during brick laying. An NMR study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brocken, H.J.P.

    1996-01-01

    The water extraction out of mortar during brick laying was studied by nuclear magnetic resonance. The water extraction is an important parameter that determines, e.g., the stiffness of the mortar due to compaction of the cement particles and the bond strength of the cured-mortar interfaces but allo

  4. Isoflavones hydrolisis and extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozilene Fernandes Farias dos Santos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Isoflavones are found in leguminous species and are used as phytoestrogens widely used by industry for its beneficial effects as estrogens mimicked, antioxidant action and anti-cancer activity. The identification and quantification of isoflavones in plants is a need due to the high demand of industry. Several methods are used for its extraction, using organic solvents (methanol, ethanol and acetonitrile. Samples from five legumes species from Instituto de Zootecnia (IZ, Forage Gene Bank were tested. All seeds received a hydrothermic treatment immersed in pure water at 50°C for 12 hours. Seeds were then oven-dryed. In this work we tested the extraction using only the hydrothermic treatment and hyfrothermic treatment allied to methanol extaction protocol. Seeds were grinded and half of the samples were ressuspended in PBS (phosphate Buffer and the other half were submited to 4 mL of methanol and 1% of acetic acid, soaked for 5 hours, shaked every 15 minutes, at room temperature. The five legume species that we quantify isoflavones by enzyme immunoassay (EIA were: Calopogonium mucunoides, Bauhinia sp., Cajanus cajan, Galactia martii, Leucaena leucocephala. The extraction procedure is a recomendation of AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists for isoflavone quantification. Ours results show an increase of extraction using methanol 80% plus acetic acid 1% and was obtained using solvent extraction in comparison to hydrothermic procedure alone (figure 1.

  5. Tevatron extraction microcomputer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extraction in the Fermilab Tevatron is controlled by a multi-processor Multibus microcomputer system called QXR (Quad eXtraction Regulator). QXR monitors several analog beam signals and controls three sets of power supplies: the ''bucker'' and ''pulse'' magnets at a rate of 5760 Hz, and the ''QXR'' magnets at 720 Hz. QXR supports multiple slow spills (up to a total of 35 seconds) with multiple fast pulses intermixed. It linearizes the slow spill and bucks out the high frequency components. Fast extraction is done by outputting a variable pulse waveform. Closed loop learning techniques are used to improve performance from cycle to cycle for both slow and fast extraction. The system is connected to the Tevatron clock system so that it can track the machine cycle. QXR is also connected to the rest of the Fermilab control system, ACNET. Through ACNET, human operators and central computers can monitor and control extraction through communications with QXR. The controls hardware and software both employ some standard and some specialized components. This paper gives an overview of QXR as a control system; another paper summarizes performance

  6. Hot-water Extraction of Hemicelluloses by Microwave Heating: A Study of Sugarcane Bagasse and Sawmill Shavings of Norway Spruce and Scots Pine as Raw Materials for Hemicellulose Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Gulbrandsen, Tore Aarhus

    2012-01-01

    In light of the increasing focus on sustainability and bio-mass as feedstock for energy and chemicals, extraction of hemicelluloses from different kinds of lignocellulosic materials has received much attention. This thesis has focused on the use of microwave heating in hemicellulose hot water extraction of sugarcane bagasse and softwood sawmill shavings. The effects of raw material particle size, extraction time and extraction temperature on yields and degree of polymerization in hemicellulos...

  7. Microfluidic conformal coating of non-spherical magnetic particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Byeong-Ui; Hakimi, Navid; Hwang, Dae Kun; Tsai, Scott S H

    2014-09-01

    We present the conformal coating of non-spherical magnetic particles in a co-laminar flow microfluidic system. Whereas in the previous reports spherical particles had been coated with thin films that formed spheres around the particles; in this article, we show the coating of non-spherical particles with coating layers that are approximately uniform in thickness. The novelty of our work is that while liquid-liquid interfacial tension tends to minimize the surface area of interfaces-for example, to form spherical droplets that encapsulate spherical particles-in our experiments, the thin film that coats non-spherical particles has a non-minimal interfacial area. We first make bullet-shaped magnetic microparticles using a stop-flow lithography method that was previously demonstrated. We then suspend the bullet-shaped microparticles in an aqueous solution and flow the particle suspension with a co-flow of a non-aqueous mixture. A magnetic field gradient from a permanent magnet pulls the microparticles in the transverse direction to the fluid flow, until the particles reach the interface between the immiscible fluids. We observe that upon crossing the oil-water interface, the microparticles become coated by a thin film of the aqueous fluid. When we increase the two-fluid interfacial tension by reducing surfactant concentration, we observe that the particles become trapped at the interface, and we use this observation to extract an approximate magnetic susceptibility of the manufactured non-spherical microparticles. Finally, using fluorescence imaging, we confirm the uniformity of the thin film coating along the entire curved surface of the bullet-shaped particles. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of conformal coating of non-spherical particles using microfluidics. PMID:25332731

  8. Particle physics in your pocket!

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    CERN physicists, take out your smartphones! Two new particle physics applications for Android phones have been developed by a physicist from the University of Bern: “Particle Properties” and “Particle Physics Booklet 2010”.   “When I'm on shift, I enjoy looking at the online event displays,” says Igor Kreslo from the Laboratory for High Energy Physics at the University of Bern, the physicist who has developed the two particle physics applications for Android. “Sometimes very beautiful events appear, with many different particles. I like to discuss these displays with my students, just to develop their ability to identify particles. We try to find out which particle is which and how it might decay… I think that's the best way to teach students the phenomenology of particle physics.” When scientists study particle physics, they require some vital information, such as the decay branching ...

  9. Experimental Particle Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenfeld, Carl [Univ of South Carolina; Mishra, Sanjib R. [Univ of South Carolina; Petti, Roberto [Univ of South Carolina; Purohit, Milind V. [Univ of South Carolina

    2014-08-31

    The high energy physics group at the University of South Carolina, under the leadership of Profs. S.R. Mishra, R. Petti, M.V. Purohit, J.R. Wilson (co-PI's), and C. Rosenfeld (PI), engaged in studies in "Experimental Particle Physics." The group collaborated with similar groups at other universities and at national laboratories to conduct experimental studies of elementary particle properties. We utilized the particle accelerators at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) in Illinois, the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) in California, and the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Switzerland. Mishra, Rosenfeld, and Petti worked predominantly on neutrino experiments. Experiments conducted in the last fifteen years that used cosmic rays and the core of the sun as a source of neutrinos showed conclusively that, contrary to the former conventional wisdom, the "flavor" of a neutrino is not immutable. A neutrino of flavor "e," "mu," or "tau," as determined from its provenance, may swap its identity with one of the other flavors -- in our jargon, they "oscillate." The oscillation phenomenon is extraordinarily difficult to study because neutrino interactions with our instruments are exceedingly rare -- they travel through the earth mostly unimpeded -- and because they must travel great distances before a substantial proportion have made the identity swap. Three of the experiments that we worked on, MINOS, NOvA, and LBNE utilize a beam of neutrinos from an accelerator at Fermilab to determine the parameters governing the oscillation. Two other experiments that we worked on, NOMAD and MIPP, provide measurements supportive of the oscillation experiments. Good measurements of the neutrino oscillation parameters may constitute a "low energy window" on related phenomena that are otherwise unobservable because they would occur only at energies way above the reach of conceivable accelerators. Purohit and Wilson participated in the Ba

  10. Extracting oil from coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elkin Mauricio López Fontal

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes oil being extracted from toasted coffee by the extrusion method; two products are obtained from this process: coffee oil and pulp. Toasted coffee was used which has a high amount of sensorial compounds. It should be noted that a significant criterion in evaluating the quality of coffee lies in its aroma. When extracting oil from coffee, a significant part of toasted coffee’s aromatic content leaves with it, varying according to the extraction method. A fixed oil having a high volatile load is thus obtained, presenting favourable sensory characteristics. The pulp was physically and chemically analysed to show its benefit and particular properties and, according to the results so obtained, it is a product having potential usefulness.

  11. Substoichiometric extraction of chromium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Substoichiometric extraction of chromium with tetraphenylarsonium chloride (TPACl), tri-n-octylamine (TNOA), diethylammonium diethyldithiocarbamate (DDDC) and ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (APDC) was examined in detail. Chromium can be extracted substoichiometrically in a pH range, which is 1.1-2.6 for the TPACl compound, 0.6-2.3 for the TNOA compound, 5.1-6.4 for the DDDC chelate and 3.9-4.9 for the APDC chelate. Chromium in high-purity calcium carbonate, Orchard Leaves (NBS SRM-1571) and Brewers Yeast (NBS SRM-1569) was determined by neutron activation analysis combined with substoichiometric extraction by DDDC and APDC. The values of 2.0+-0.02 ppm and 2.6+-0.2 ppm were obtained for Brewers Yeast and Orchard Leaves, respectively. These values were in good agreement with those reported by NBS. The reaction mechanism and the reaction ratio between hexavalent chromium and dithiocarbamate are also discussed. (author)

  12. Extraction of Water Treatment Coagulant from Locally Abundant Kaolin Clays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidelis Chigondo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid industrialisation is contributing to water pollution. There is a need to identify cheaper and efficient methods of removing contaminants as the demand for clean water rises. A study is carried out to investigate the extraction of alum from locally abundant kaolin clays using sulphuric acid. Alum is a coagulant that is used for raw water treatment. The kaolin clay and alum were characterized by Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. The effects of particle size, calcination temperature, calcination time, acid-kaolin clay ratio, acid concentration, leaching temperature, and leaching time on extraction efficiency were investigated. The optimum leaching conditions for the calcined kaolin clay were found to be particle size 100 µm, acid-kaolin clay weight ratio 6 : 1, acid concentration 4 M, leaching temperature 100°C, and leaching time 90 min. Under optimised conditions, 66.95% (w/w aluminum sulphate was extracted. The results showed that sulphuric acid could be used on a large scale to extract alum from kaolin clay. The extracted alum showed similar structural and physical characteristics compared with commercial alum. A dosage of 40 mg/L of the extracted alum showed effective coagulant properties with a great potential of treating raw water.

  13. Issues in the understanding of negative ion extraction for fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeuf, J. P.; Fubiani, G.; Garrigues, L.

    2016-08-01

    A number of recent papers have been devoted to the modeling of negative ion extraction using particle simulations but the published results are not entirely satisfactory and not fully consistent with experiments. Issues raised by the simulations concern the saturation of the negative ion current emitted from the caesiated plasma grid surface, its distribution along the surface, the shape of the meniscus formed around each grid aperture, the distribution and depth of the potential in the virtual cathode, and the profile of the extracted beamlet. These are important issues since they have direct impact on the properties of the extracted negative ion beam (intensity, brightness, aberration). In this paper we first summarize recently published model results that are unexpected and counter-intuitive since they predict that negative ions are extracted from regions of the grid that are directly exposed to the large extraction voltage (i.e. as in vacuum and without the need for a neutralizing background plasma). We then illustrate, with results from two-dimensional particle-in-cell Monte Carlo collision simulations, some regimes of negative ion extraction that are more consistent with the expected physics.

  14. Microwave-assisted extraction of alantolactone and isoalantolactone from inula helenium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y M Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Microwave-assisted extraction was used for the extraction of alantolactone and isoalantolactone from Inula helenium. Effects of various experimental factors including ethanol concentration, particle size, microwave radiation time, the ratio of material to liquid and extraction temperature on yield of alantolactone and isoalantolactone were evaluated. The optimal extracting process of the alantolactone and isoalantolactone from the root of the Inula helenium was 1 g plant sample (sifted through 140 mesh mixed with 15 ml of 80% ethanol solution, microwave radiation 120 s at 50°. Under these optimal conditions, the yield of alantolactone and isoalantolactone was 31.83±2.08 mg/g and 21.25±1.37 mg/g, respectively. Compared with heat reflux extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction, microwave-assisted extraction was more efficient and timesaving for the extraction of alantolactone and isoalantolactone from Inula helenium.

  15. Extraction Methods, Variability Encountered in

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodelier, P.L.E.; Nelson, K.E.

    2014-01-01

    Synonyms Bias in DNA extractions methods; Variation in DNA extraction methods Definition The variability in extraction methods is defined as differences in quality and quantity of DNA observed using various extraction protocols, leading to differences in outcome of microbial community composition as

  16. The Effect of Sericin from Various Extraction Methods on Cell Viability and Collagen Production

    OpenAIRE

    Pornanong Aramwit; Sorada Kanokpanont; Titpawan Nakpheng; Teerapol Srichana

    2010-01-01

    Silk sericin (SS) can accelerate cell proliferation and attachment; however, SS can be extracted by various methods, which result in SS exhibiting different physical and biological properties. We found that SS produced from various extraction methods has different molecular weights, zeta potential, particle size and amino acid content. The MTT assay indicated that SS from all extraction methods had no toxicity to mouse fibroblast cells at concentrations up to 40 μg/mL after 24 h incubation, b...

  17. White LED with High Package Extraction Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi Zheng; Matthew Stough

    2008-09-30

    The goal of this project is to develop a high efficiency phosphor converting (white) Light Emitting Diode (pcLED) 1-Watt package through an increase in package extraction efficiency. A transparent/translucent monolithic phosphor is proposed to replace the powdered phosphor to reduce the scattering caused by phosphor particles. Additionally, a multi-layer thin film selectively reflecting filter is proposed between blue LED die and phosphor layer to recover inward yellow emission. At the end of the project we expect to recycle approximately 50% of the unrecovered backward light in current package construction, and develop a pcLED device with 80 lm/W{sub e} using our technology improvements and commercially available chip/package source. The success of the project will benefit luminous efficacy of white LEDs by increasing package extraction efficiency. In most phosphor-converting white LEDs, the white color is obtained by combining a blue LED die (or chip) with a powdered phosphor layer. The phosphor partially absorbs the blue light from the LED die and converts it into a broad green-yellow emission. The mixture of the transmitted blue light and green-yellow light emerging gives white light. There are two major drawbacks for current pcLEDs in terms of package extraction efficiency. The first is light scattering caused by phosphor particles. When the blue photons from the chip strike the phosphor particles, some blue light will be scattered by phosphor particles. Converted yellow emission photons are also scattered. A portion of scattered light is in the backward direction toward the die. The amount of this backward light varies and depends in part on the particle size of phosphors. The other drawback is that yellow emission from phosphor powders is isotropic. Although some backward light can be recovered by the reflector in current LED packages, there is still a portion of backward light that will be absorbed inside the package and further converted to heat. Heat

  18. Ultraviolet Spectroscopy of Matrix-isolated Amorphous Carbon Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnaiter, M.; Mutschke, H.; Henning, Th.; Lindackers, D.; Strecker, M.; Roth, P.

    1996-06-01

    In view of the interstellar 217.5 nm and the circumstellar 230--250 nm extinction features, the UV extinction behavior of small matrix-isolated amorphous carbon grains is investigated experimentally. The particles were produced in a flame by burning acetylene with oxygen at low pressure. To prevent coagulation, the condensing primary soot grains (average diameter ~6 nm) were extracted by a molecular beam technique into a high-vacuum chamber. There they were deposited into a layer of solid argon, isolated from each other. The particle mass and size were controlled using a particle mass spectrometer. The measured UV extinction of the matrix-isolated particles is compared with measurements on samples produced in the conventional way by collecting carbon smoke on substrate as well as with scattering calculations for small spheres and ellipsoides. The laboratory data give a good representation of the circumstellar extinction feature observed in the spectrum of V348 Sgr.

  19. Genotoxicity of plant extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera M. F. Vargas

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous extracts of seven species used in Brazilian popular medicine (Achyrocline satureoides, Iodina rhombifolia, Desmodium incanum, Baccharis anomala, Tibouchina asperior, Luehea divaricata, Maytenus ilicifolia were screened to the presence of mutagenic activity in the Ames test (Salmonella/microsome. Positive results were obtained for A. satureoides, B anomala and L. divaricata with microsomal activation. As shown elsewhere (Vargas et al., 1990 the metabolites of A. satureoides extract also show the capacity to induce prophage and/or SOS response in microscreen phage induction assay and SOS spot chromotest.

  20. Polar Lipid Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2014-01-01

    Author: Biotechniques Polar lipids are generally extracted from dry cell material using chloroform:methanol:0.3% NaCl (1:2:0.8 v/v/v). This may be carried out by adding 9.5 ml of this mixture to 100 mg of freeze dried cells, or by adding a suitable amount of chloroform, methanol and 0.3% NaCl to the cell material, or to the aqueous methanolic phase remaining from the lipoquinone extraction. 1. The aqueous methanolic phase (4 ml total volume), together with the cell material from the ...

  1. Particle Swarm Transport in Fracture Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrak-Nolte, L. J.; Mackin, T.; Boomsma, E.

    2012-12-01

    Colloidal particles of many types occur in fractures in the subsurface as a result of both natural and industrial processes (e.g., environmental influences, synthetic nano- & micro-particles from consumer products, chemical and mechanical erosion of geologic material, proppants used in gas and oil extraction, etc.). The degree of localization and speed of transport of such particles depends on the transport mechanisms, the chemical and physical properties of the particles and the surrounding rock, and the flow path geometry through the fracture. In this study, we investigated the transport of particle swarms through artificial fracture networks. A synthetic fracture network was created using an Objet Eden 350V 3D printer to build a network of fractures. Each fracture in the network had a rectangular cross-sectional area with a constant depth of 7 mm but with widths that ranged from 2 mm to 11 mm. The overall dimensions of the network were 132 mm by 166 mm. The fracture network had 7 ports that were used either as the inlet or outlet for fluid flow through the sample or for introducing a particle swarm. Water flow rates through the fracture were controlled with a syringe pump, and ranged from zero flow to 6 ml/min. Swarms were composed of a dilute suspension (2% by mass) of 3 μm fluorescent polystyrene beads in water. Swarms with volumes of 5, 10, 20, 30 and 60 μl were used and delivered into the network using a second syringe pump. The swarm behavior was imaged using an optical fluorescent imaging system illuminated by green (525 nm) LED arrays and captured by a CCD camera. For fracture networks with quiescent fluids, particle swarms fell under gravity and remained localized within the network. Large swarms (30-60 μl) were observed to bifurcate at shallower depths resulting in a broader dispersal of the particles than for smaller swarm volumes. For all swarm volumes studied, particle swarms tended to bifurcate at the intersection between fractures. These

  2. Mutagenicity and antimutigenicity studies of air borne particles from Guangzhou

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liming Qian; Ying He; Jieming Chen [Guangzhou Normal Univ. (China)] [and others

    1997-10-01

    Guangzhou is a city of 6 million in south China. In the past decade, air pollution in Guangzhou become serious. The incidence of lung cancer increased, showing a significant correlation with the air pollution. The authors performed a series of studies of airborne particles from Guangzhou. We studied the mutagenicity of the airborne particles from the city, analysed the correlations between the mutagenicity of the organic extracts of air pollutants and meteorological condition and compared the antimutagenic effects of TP (tea polyphenols) and CHL (chlorophyllin) towards the extracts. The above studies are summarized as following: (1) the extracts of airborne particles showed very strong mutagenicity in E. Coli PQ37 and Salmonella typhimurium TA98, without S9 mix; (2) the mutagenicity of the extracts was correlated to the meteorological conditions; (3) the analysis of the effects of meteorological conditions on the mutagenicity resulted in different conclusions if different meteorological data (sampling time and periods) were used. It might be an explanation for those surprising different conclusions of the related studies appeared last few years. (4) there were no significant effect of pH (3.5-7.0) and temperature (100-200{degrees}C) on the antimutigenicity of TP and CHL, showing no deteriorate effects of the conditions of common use of the 2 antimutagens.

  3. Support vector machine based on adaptive acceleration particle swarm optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulameer, Mohammed Hasan; Sheikh Abdullah, Siti Norul Huda; Othman, Zulaiha Ali

    2014-01-01

    Existing face recognition methods utilize particle swarm optimizer (PSO) and opposition based particle swarm optimizer (OPSO) to optimize the parameters of SVM. However, the utilization of random values in the velocity calculation decreases the performance of these techniques; that is, during the velocity computation, we normally use random values for the acceleration coefficients and this creates randomness in the solution. To address this problem, an adaptive acceleration particle swarm optimization (AAPSO) technique is proposed. To evaluate our proposed method, we employ both face and iris recognition based on AAPSO with SVM (AAPSO-SVM). In the face and iris recognition systems, performance is evaluated using two human face databases, YALE and CASIA, and the UBiris dataset. In this method, we initially perform feature extraction and then recognition on the extracted features. In the recognition process, the extracted features are used for SVM training and testing. During the training and testing, the SVM parameters are optimized with the AAPSO technique, and in AAPSO, the acceleration coefficients are computed using the particle fitness values. The parameters in SVM, which are optimized by AAPSO, perform efficiently for both face and iris recognition. A comparative analysis between our proposed AAPSO-SVM and the PSO-SVM technique is presented. PMID:24790584

  4. Support Vector Machine Based on Adaptive Acceleration Particle Swarm Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Hasan Abdulameer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Existing face recognition methods utilize particle swarm optimizer (PSO and opposition based particle swarm optimizer (OPSO to optimize the parameters of SVM. However, the utilization of random values in the velocity calculation decreases the performance of these techniques; that is, during the velocity computation, we normally use random values for the acceleration coefficients and this creates randomness in the solution. To address this problem, an adaptive acceleration particle swarm optimization (AAPSO technique is proposed. To evaluate our proposed method, we employ both face and iris recognition based on AAPSO with SVM (AAPSO-SVM. In the face and iris recognition systems, performance is evaluated using two human face databases, YALE and CASIA, and the UBiris dataset. In this method, we initially perform feature extraction and then recognition on the extracted features. In the recognition process, the extracted features are used for SVM training and testing. During the training and testing, the SVM parameters are optimized with the AAPSO technique, and in AAPSO, the acceleration coefficients are computed using the particle fitness values. The parameters in SVM, which are optimized by AAPSO, perform efficiently for both face and iris recognition. A comparative analysis between our proposed AAPSO-SVM and the PSO-SVM technique is presented.

  5. Fundamentals of gas particle flow

    CERN Document Server

    Rudinger, G

    1980-01-01

    Fundamentals of Gas-Particle Flow is an edited, updated, and expanded version of a number of lectures presented on the "Gas-Solid Suspensions” course organized by the von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics. Materials presented in this book are mostly analytical in nature, but some experimental techniques are included. The book focuses on relaxation processes, including the viscous drag of single particles, drag in gas-particles flow, gas-particle heat transfer, equilibrium, and frozen flow. It also discusses the dynamics of single particles, such as particles in an arbitrary flow, in a r

  6. Effective particle magnetic moment of multi-core particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahrentorp, Fredrik; Astalan, Andrea; Blomgren, Jakob; Jonasson, Christian [Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Arvid Hedvalls backe 4, SE-411 33 Göteborg (Sweden); Wetterskog, Erik; Svedlindh, Peter [Department of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, Box 534, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Lak, Aidin; Ludwig, Frank [Institute of Electrical Measurement and Fundamental Electrical Engineering, TU Braunschweig, D‐38106 Braunschweig Germany (Germany); IJzendoorn, Leo J. van [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Westphal, Fritz; Grüttner, Cordula [Micromod Partikeltechnologie GmbH, D ‐18119 Rostock (Germany); Gehrke, Nicole [nanoPET Pharma GmbH, D ‐10115 Berlin Germany (Germany); Gustafsson, Stefan; Olsson, Eva [Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Göteborg (Sweden); Johansson, Christer, E-mail: christer.johansson@acreo.se [Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Arvid Hedvalls backe 4, SE-411 33 Göteborg (Sweden)

    2015-04-15

    In this study we investigate the magnetic behavior of magnetic multi-core particles and the differences in the magnetic properties of multi-core and single-core nanoparticles and correlate the results with the nanostructure of the different particles as determined from transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We also investigate how the effective particle magnetic moment is coupled to the individual moments of the single-domain nanocrystals by using different measurement techniques: DC magnetometry, AC susceptometry, dynamic light scattering and TEM. We have studied two magnetic multi-core particle systems – BNF Starch from Micromod with a median particle diameter of 100 nm and FeraSpin R from nanoPET with a median particle diameter of 70 nm – and one single-core particle system – SHP25 from Ocean NanoTech with a median particle core diameter of 25 nm.

  7. Effective particle magnetic moment of multi-core particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrentorp, Fredrik; Astalan, Andrea; Blomgren, Jakob; Jonasson, Christian; Wetterskog, Erik; Svedlindh, Peter; Lak, Aidin; Ludwig, Frank; van IJzendoorn, Leo J.; Westphal, Fritz; Grüttner, Cordula; Gehrke, Nicole; Gustafsson, Stefan; Olsson, Eva; Johansson, Christer

    2015-04-01

    In this study we investigate the magnetic behavior of magnetic multi-core particles and the differences in the magnetic properties of multi-core and single-core nanoparticles and correlate the results with the nanostructure of the different particles as determined from transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We also investigate how the effective particle magnetic moment is coupled to the individual moments of the single-domain nanocrystals by using different measurement techniques: DC magnetometry, AC susceptometry, dynamic light scattering and TEM. We have studied two magnetic multi-core particle systems - BNF Starch from Micromod with a median particle diameter of 100 nm and FeraSpin R from nanoPET with a median particle diameter of 70 nm - and one single-core particle system - SHP25 from Ocean NanoTech with a median particle core diameter of 25 nm.

  8. Cosmology and particle physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Michael S.

    1988-01-01

    The interplay between cosmology and elementary particle physics is discussed. The standard cosmology is reviewed, concentrating on primordial nucleosynthesis and discussing how the standard cosmology has been used to place constraints on the properties of various particles. Baryogenesis is discussed, showing how a scenario in which the B-, C-, and CP-violating interactions in GUTs provide a dynamical explanation for the predominance of matter over antimatter and for the present baryon-to-photon ratio. It is shown how the very early dynamical evolution of a very weakly coupled scalar field which is initially displaced from the minimum of its potential may explain a handful of very fundamental cosmological facts which are not explained by the standard cosmology.

  9. Optics of Biological Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Hoekstra, Alfons; Videen, Gorden

    2007-01-01

    This book covers the optics of single biological particles, both theory and experiment, with emphasis on Elastic Light Scattering and Fluorescence. It deals with the optics of bacteria (bio-aerosols), marine particles (selected phytoplankton communities) and red and white blood cells. Moreover, there are dedicated chapters on a general theory for scattering by a cell, and modelling and simulation of scattering by inhomogeneous biological cells. Finally, one chapter is dedicated to astro-biological signatures, discussing the possibilities for detecting non-terrestrial biological material. The volume has up-to-date discussions on new experimental and numerical techniques, and many examples of applications of these techniques in real-life systems, as used to detect and characterize e.g. biological warfare agents or human blood cells.

  10. Research in particle physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    This proposal presents the research accomplishments and ongoing activities of Boston University researchers in high energy physics. Some changes have been made in the structure of the program from the previous arrangement of tasks. Task B, Accelerator Design Physics, is being submitted as a separate proposal for an independent grant; this will be consistent with the nature of the research and the source of funding. We are active in seven principal areas which will be discussed in this report: Colliding Beams - physics of e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} and {bar p}p collisions; MACRO Experiment - search for magnetic monopoles and study of cosmic rays; Proton Decay - search for nucleon instability and study of neutrino interactions; Particle Theory - theoretical high energy particle physics, including two Outstanding Junior Investigator awards; Muon G-2 - measurement of the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon; SSCintcal - calorimetry for the GEM Experiment; and Muon detectors for the GEM Experiment.

  11. Research in particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This proposal presents the research accomplishments and ongoing activities of Boston University researchers in high energy physics. Some changes have been made in the structure of the program from the previous arrangement of tasks. Task B, Accelerator Design Physics, is being submitted as a separate proposal for an independent grant; this will be consistent with the nature of the research and the source of funding. We are active in seven principal areas which will be discussed in this report: Colliding Beams - physics of e+e- and bar pp collisions; MACRO Experiment - search for magnetic monopoles and study of cosmic rays; Proton Decay - search for nucleon instability and study of neutrino interactions; Particle Theory - theoretical high energy particle physics, including two Outstanding Junior Investigator awards; Muon G-2 - measurement of the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon; SSCintcal - calorimetry for the GEM Experiment; and Muon detectors for the GEM Experiment

  12. Ultralight particle dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringwald, A.

    2013-10-15

    We review the physics case for very weakly coupled ultralight particles beyond the Standard Model, in particular for axions and axion-like particles (ALPs): (i) the axionic solution of the strong CP problem and its embedding in well motivated extensions of the Standard Model; (ii) the possibility that the cold dark matter in the Universe is comprised of axions and ALPs; (iii) the ALP explanation of the anomalous transparency of the Universe for TeV photons; and (iv) the axion or ALP explanation of the anomalous energy loss of white dwarfs. Moreover, we present an overview of ongoing and near-future laboratory experiments searching for axions and ALPs: haloscopes, helioscopes, and light-shining-through-a-wall experiments.

  13. Relaxation from particle production

    CERN Document Server

    Hook, Anson

    2016-01-01

    We consider using particle production as a friction force by which to implement a "Relaxion" solution to the electroweak hierarchy problem. Using this approach, we are able to avoid superplanckian field excursions and avoid any conflict with the strong CP problem. The relaxation mechanism can work before, during or after inflation allowing for inflationary dynamics to play an important role or to be completely decoupled.

  14. Supersymmetry in particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses explicit models of the standard matter interactions with broken supersymmetry, the common feature of which is the appearance of the full spectrum of superpartners of all known particles in the 100 Gev-1 Tev region. The author states that although the details of this spectrum are in general model dependent, ways to search for these superparticles exist and can be considered according to the various options presented

  15. Cosmology and particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper comprises the contents of four lectures in which the author illustrates the two-way nature of the interplay between the fields of cosmology and particle physics by focusing on several specifics: a review of the standard cosmology, concentrating on primordial nucleosynthesis; baryogenesis; monopoles; and the case in which a very early first-order phase transition associated with spontaneous symmetry breaking has the potential to explain some very fundamental cosmological facts

  16. Unusual Subatomic Particle Discovered

    OpenAIRE

    Trulove, Susan

    2003-01-01

    Sookyung Choi of Gyeongsang University, Korea, and Stephen Olsen, professor of physics at the University of Hawaii, members of an international team of researchers at the High Energy Accelerator Organization (KEK) in Tsukuba, Japan, have announced the discovery of a new and unusual sub-atomic particle. One member of that team is Leo Piilonen of Blacksburg, professor of physics in the College of Science at Virginia Tech.

  17. A Characteristic Particle Length

    CERN Document Server

    Roberts, Mark D

    2015-01-01

    It is argued that there are characteristic intervals associated with any particle that can be derived without reference to the speed of light $c$. Such intervals are inferred from zeros of wavefunctions which are solutions to the Schr\\"odinger equation. The characteristic length is $\\ell=\\beta^2\\hbar^2/(8Gm^3)$, where $\\beta=3.8\\dots$; this length might lead to observational effects on objects the size of a virus.

  18. Radiation in Particle Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    More, R; Graziani, F; Glosli, J; Surh, M

    2010-11-19

    Hot dense radiative (HDR) plasmas common to Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) and stellar interiors have high temperature (a few hundred eV to tens of keV), high density (tens to hundreds of g/cc) and high pressure (hundreds of megabars to thousands of gigabars). Typically, such plasmas undergo collisional, radiative, atomic and possibly thermonuclear processes. In order to describe HDR plasmas, computational physicists in ICF and astrophysics use atomic-scale microphysical models implemented in various simulation codes. Experimental validation of the models used to describe HDR plasmas are difficult to perform. Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of the many-body interactions of plasmas is a promising approach to model validation but, previous work either relies on the collisionless approximation or ignores radiation. We present four methods that attempt a new numerical simulation technique to address a currently unsolved problem: the extension of molecular dynamics to collisional plasmas including emission and absorption of radiation. The first method applies the Lienard-Weichert solution of Maxwell's equations for a classical particle whose motion is assumed to be known. The second method expands the electromagnetic field in normal modes (planewaves in a box with periodic boundary-conditions) and solves the equation for wave amplitudes coupled to the particle motion. The third method is a hybrid molecular dynamics/Monte Carlo (MD/MC) method which calculates radiation emitted or absorbed by electron-ion pairs during close collisions. The fourth method is a generalization of the third method to include small clusters of particles emitting radiation during close encounters: one electron simultaneously hitting two ions, two electrons simultaneously hitting one ion, etc. This approach is inspired by the virial expansion method of equilibrium statistical mechanics. Using a combination of these methods we believe it is possible to do atomic-scale particle

  19. Particle transfer in multiregion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asymptotic calculations for reflection and transmission coefficients for particle incident on an inhomogeneous plane parallel medium are performed. The medium is assumed to consist of several different optically thick homogeneous layers. Functional relations between the reflection and transmission coefficients for the sub-layers are obtained. The invariant embedding concepts are used to calculate the albedo for sub-layers. Numerical calculations and comparisons are performed. (author)

  20. Ergodicity of particle systems

    CERN Document Server

    Dzhin Ven Chen

    2002-01-01

    The ergodicity relative to shifts, the mixing and related problems on the invariant measures for the interacting particles systems, such as the Ising ferromagnetic stochastic models, the contact processes, the systems with exception, the selector systems with three possible stochastically preconceived opinions or with many possible opinions, etc. are studied. The obtained results provide for the answers to certain questions, related to these models. The applied methods are based on duality

  1. Dynamic radioactive particle source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Murray E.; Gauss, Adam Benjamin; Justus, Alan Lawrence

    2012-06-26

    A method and apparatus for providing a timed, synchronized dynamic alpha or beta particle source for testing the response of continuous air monitors (CAMs) for airborne alpha or beta emitters is provided. The method includes providing a radioactive source; placing the radioactive source inside the detection volume of a CAM; and introducing an alpha or beta-emitting isotope while the CAM is in a normal functioning mode.

  2. The world of particles

    CERN Document Server

    Southworth, Brian

    1991-01-01

    What is our Universe made of? Where does it come from? Why does it behave as it does? We do not have all the answers to these questions but in recent years we have uncovered a lot of information about the Universe which surrounds us. This search has revealed that, beyond the evidence of our eyes, there is a seething world of tiny particles and messengers which pass between them...

  3. DELPHI: First W particles

    CERN Multimedia

    1996-01-01

    This track is an example of real data collected from the DELPHI detector on the Large Electron-Positron (LEP) collider at CERN, which ran between 1989 and 2000. These are the first pair of W particles produced at LEP2, the high energy upgrade of LEP that took place in 1996. Both Ws decay into a quark-antiquark pair, which are each seen as one of the four jets of hadrons in the detector.

  4. Supersymmetric particles at LEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors examine whether the supersymmetrization of nature at a mass scale up to 100 GeV can be confirmed or excluded by experiments with LEP. They review the qualitative features of the spectroscopy suggested by supersymmetric theories. Then they discuss possible production rates and means of detection of these particles at LEP. In this framework they make some remarks about other projects for future high energy physics machines which can be used for the study of supersymmetric phenomena. (HSI)

  5. PARTICLE BEAM TRACKING CIRCUIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, O.A.

    1959-05-01

    >A particle-beam tracking and correcting circuit is described. Beam induction electrodes are placed on either side of the beam, and potentials induced by the beam are compared in a voltage comparator or discriminator. This comparison produces an error signal which modifies the fm curve at the voltage applied to the drift tube, thereby returning the orbit to the preferred position. The arrangement serves also to synchronize accelerating frequency and magnetic field growth. (T.R.H.)

  6. Advanced coated particle fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The coated particle fuel (cpf) has been developed for use in high-temperature gas-cooled reactors, but it may find applications in other types of reactors. In JAERI, besides the development of cpf for High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor, conceptual studies of the cpf applications in actinide burner reactors and space reactors have been made. The conceptual design studies as well as the research and development of advanced coatings, ZrC and TiN, are reviewed. (author)

  7. Particle Velocity Measuring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Carl, James R. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    Method and apparatus are provided for determining the velocity of individual food particles within a liquid/solid food mixture that is cooked by an aseptic cooking method whereby the food mixture is heated as it flows through a flowline. At least one upstream and at least one downstream microwave transducer are provided to determine the minimum possible travel time of the fastest food particle through the flowline. In one embodiment, the upstream detector is not required. In another embodiment, a plurality of small dipole antenna markers are secured to a plurality of food particles to provide a plurality of signals as the markers pass the upstream and downstream transducers. The dipole antenna markers may also include a non-linear element to reradiate a harmonic frequency of a transmitter frequency. Upstream and downstream transducers include dipole antennas that are matched to the impedance of the food slurry and a signal transmission cable by various impedance matching means including unbalanced feed to the antennas.

  8. Particle ID in LHCb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Particle identification (PID) is a fundamental requirement for LHCb and is provided by CALO, MUON and RICH sub-detectors. The Calorimeters provide identification of electrons, photons and hadrons in addition to the measurement of their energies and positions. As well as being part of the LHCb trigger, the MUON system provides identification of muons to a very high level of purity, essential for many CP-sensitive measurements that have J/ψ's in their final states. Hadron identification, in particular the ability to distinguish kaons and pions, is crucial to many LHCB analyses, particularly where the final states of interest are purely hadronic. The LHCb RICH system provides this, covering a momentum range between 1 and 100 GeV/c. To maintain the integrity of the LHCb physics performance, it is essential to measure and monitor the particle identification efficiency and mis-identification fraction over time. This can be done by using specific decays, such as K-shorts, φ's, Λ's, J/ψ's and D*'s, for which pure samples can be isolated using only kinematic quantities, due to their unique decay topologies. This allows for clean samples of known particle types to be selected, which can then be used to calibrate and monitor the PID performance from data. The procedures for performing this will be presented, together with preliminary results from the 2009 and 2010 LHC runs. (author)

  9. The particle suppliers

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Particles are supplied to the LHC by six accelerators inter-connected by several kilometres of transfer lines. This represents yet another complex chain of processes whereby particles are produced, bunched, synchronised and injected into the LHC at the precise moment it's ready to receive them. In other words, for collisions to be produced at the end of the chain, all the injectors must be in perfect working order.   Among all the questions asked by the many visitors to CERN, one in particular comes up time and time again: "Why don't you just connect the LHC directly to the proton source?" In other words, why do you need this whole chain of accelerators acting as an "injector" for the LHC? Before colliding inside the LHC, particles first have to pass through no fewer than six different accelerators: the 90 keV duoplasmatron source, the 750 keV RFQ, the 50 MeV Linac 2, the 1.4 GeV synchrotron injector ("PS Booster" or PSB), the 25 GeV Proton Sy...

  10. Optimization of Microwave-Assisted Extraction Conditions for Five Major Bioactive Compounds from Flos Sophorae Immaturus (Cultivars of Sophora japonica L.) Using Response Surface Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Jin-Liang Liu; Long-Yun Li; Guang-Hua He

    2016-01-01

    Microwave-assisted extraction was applied to extract rutin; quercetin; genistein; kaempferol; and isorhamnetin from Flos Sophorae Immaturus. Six independent variables; namely; solvent type; particle size; extraction frequency; liquid-to-solid ratio; microwave power; and extraction time were examined. Response surface methodology using a central composite design was employed to optimize experimental conditions (liquid-to-solid ratio; microwave power; and extraction time) based on the results o...

  11. Constraints on rapidity-dependent initial conditions from charged particle pseudorapidity densities and two-particle correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Ke, Weiyao; Bernhard, Jonah E; Bass, Steffen A

    2016-01-01

    We study the initial three-dimensional spatial configuration of the quark-gluon plasma produced in relativistic heavy-ion collisions using centrality and rapidity-dependent measurements of charged particle pseudorapidity densities and two-particle correlations. A cumulant-generating function is used to parametrize the rapidity dependence of local entropy deposition and extend arbitrary boost-invariant initial conditions to nonzero beam rapidities. The model is compared to p+Pb and Pb+Pb single-particle distributions and systematically optimized using Bayesian parameter estimation to extract high-probability initial condition parameters. The optimized initial conditions are then compared to a number of experimental observables including two-particle rapidity correlations, the rapidity dependence of anisotropic flow, and event-plane decorrelations.

  12. Particle motion in fluidised beds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gas fluidised beds are important components in many process industries, e.g. coal combustors and granulators, but not much is known about the movement of the solids. Positron Emission Particle Tracking (PEPT) enables the movement of a single, radioactive tracer particle to be followed rapidly and faithfully. Experiments were carried out in columns sized between 70 and 240mm. diameter, operating in the bubbling regime at ambient process conditions using particles of group B and D (Geldart Classification). Particle motion was tracked and the data applied to models for particle movement at the gas distributor as well as close to other surfaces and to models for particle circulation in beds of cohesive particles. In the light of these data, models for particle and bubble interaction, particle circulation, segregation, attrition, erosion, heat transfer and fluidised bed scale-up rules were reassessed. Particle motion is directly caused by bubble motion, and their velocities were found to be equal for particles travelling in a bubble. PEPT enables particle circulation to be measured, giving a more accurate correlation for future predictions. Particle motion follows the scale-up rules based on similarities of the bubble motion in the bed. A new group of parameters was identified controlling the amount of attrition in fluidised beds and a new model to predict attrition is proposed. (author)

  13. Kinetics and thermodynamics of cottonseed oil extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saxena, Devesh K.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum derived n-hexane is commercially used in solvent extraction plants due to its higher extraction efficiency in spite of the fact that it is graded as highly toxic and hazardous. The present study is based on the use of both a much safer and non toxic solvent ethanol and n-hexane for the extraction of oil from cottonseed. The extraction data were obtained by varying temperature, solvent-solid ratio and particle size, to compare the extraction efficiency of both ethanol and n-hexane. The data show that nearly the same amount of extraction is possible at a higher solvent-solid ratio for both the solvents. This study has established that the kinetics of oil extraction follows a second order reaction mechanism. The thermodynamic analysis of the data shows that both ΔHº and ΔSº are positive, and ΔGº is negative indicating that the extraction process is endothermic, irreversible, and spontaneous.

    El n-hexano derivado del petróleo es comercialmente usado en plantas de extracción con disolventes debido a su mayor eficiencia de extracción, a pesar de que está calificado como altamente tóxico y peligroso. El presente estudio está basado en el uso de etanol, disolvente mucho más seguros y no tóxico, y n-hexano en la extracción de aceite de algodón. Los datos de extracción fueron obtenidos variando la temperatura, la proporción sólido-disolvente y el tamaño de partícula, para comparar la eficiencia de extracción del etanol y del hexano. Los datos muestran que casi la misma cantidad de extracción es posible para ambos disolventes a la proporción más alta de sólido-disolvente. Este estudio es capaz de establecer que las cinéticas de extracción de aceite siguen un mecanismo de reacción de segundo orden. El análisis termodinámico de los datos mostró que ΔHº and ΔSº son positivas, y ΔGº es negativa, indicando que el proceso de extracción es endotérmico, irreversible y espontáneo.

  14. Review and evaluation of extractants for strontium removal using magnetically assisted chemical separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, C.B.; Rogers, R.D. [Northern Illinois Univ., De Kalb, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Nunez, L.; Ziemer, M.D.; Pleune, T.T.; Vandegrift, G.F. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1995-11-01

    A literature review on extractants for strontium removal was initially performed at Northern Illinois University to assess their potential in magnetically assisted chemical separation. A series of potential strontium extractants was systematically evaluated there using radioanalytical methods. Initial experiments were designed to test the uptake of strontium from nitric acid using several samples of magnetic extractant particles that were coated with various crown ether ligands. High partition coefficient (K{sub d}) values for stimulant tank waste were obtained. Further studies demonstrated that the large partitioning was due to uncoated particles.

  15. Optimizing Simulation Times of SPS Slow Extraction using MAD-X

    CERN Document Server

    Schicho, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    The simulation time of a \\texttt{MAD-X} script employing particle tracking to model the slow-extraction process of 400 GeV protons from the SPS was studied by batching the code on the CERN computing batch service. The behaviour of the code for large numbers of particles and turns was examined and batching significantly reduced simulations times to $\\mathcal{O}(1000~\\mathrm{s)}$. Convergence studies showed that simulated quantities that are time-averaged across the spill, e.g. the rms extracted beam emittance, can be reliably simulated with more than 400 particles and in a simulation time of less than an hour.

  16. Particle Theory & Cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafi, Qaisar [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States); Barr, Steven [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States); Gaisser, Thomas [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States); Stanev, Todor [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States)

    2015-03-31

    1. Executive Summary (April 1, 2012 - March 31, 2015) Title: Particle Theory, Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology Qaisar Shafi University of Delaware (Principal Investigator) Stephen M. Barr, University of Delaware (Co-Principal Investigator) Thomas K. Gaisser, University of Delaware (Co-Principal Investigator) Todor Stanev, University of Delaware (Co-Principal Investigator) The proposed research was carried out at the Bartol Research included Professors Qaisar Shafi Stephen Barr, Thomas K. Gaisser, and Todor Stanev, two postdoctoral fellows (Ilia Gogoladze and Liucheng Wang), and several graduate students. Five students of Qaisar Shafi completed their PhD during the period August 2011 - August 2014. Measures of the group’s high caliber performance during the 2012-2015 funding cycle included pub- lications in excellent refereed journals, contributions to working groups as well as white papers, and conference activities, which together provide an exceptional record of both individual performance as well as overall strength. Another important indicator of success is the outstanding quality of the past and current cohort of graduate students. The PhD students under our supervision regularly win the top departmental and university awards, and their publications records show excellence both in terms of quality and quantity. The topics covered under this grant cover the frontline research areas in today’s High Energy Theory & Phenomenology. For Professors Shafi and Barr they include LHC related topics including supersymmetry, collider physics, fl vor physics, dark matter physics, Higgs boson and seesaw physics, grand unifi and neutrino physics. The LHC two years ago discovered the Standard Model Higgs boson, thereby at least partially unlocking the secrets behind electroweak symmetry breaking. We remain optimistic that new and exciting physics will be found at LHC 14, which explain our focus on physics beyond the Standard Model. Professors Shafi continued his

  17. Particle identification in ALICE: a Bayesian approach

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, Jaroslav; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan; Aglieri Rinella, Gianluca; Agnello, Michelangelo; Agrawal, Neelima; Ahammed, Zubayer; Ahmad, Shakeel; Ahn, Sang Un; Aiola, Salvatore; Akindinov, Alexander; Alam, Sk Noor; Silva De Albuquerque, Danilo; Aleksandrov, Dmitry; Alessandro, Bruno; Alexandre, Didier; Alfaro Molina, Jose Ruben; Alici, Andrea; Alkin, Anton; Millan Almaraz, Jesus Roberto; Alme, Johan; Alt, Torsten; Altinpinar, Sedat; Altsybeev, Igor; Alves Garcia Prado, Caio; Andrei, Cristian; Andronic, Anton; Anguelov, Venelin; Anticic, Tome; Antinori, Federico; Antonioli, Pietro; Aphecetche, Laurent Bernard; Appelshaeuser, Harald; Arcelli, Silvia; Arnaldi, Roberta; Arnold, Oliver Werner; Arsene, Ionut Cristian; Arslandok, Mesut; Audurier, Benjamin; Augustinus, Andre; Averbeck, Ralf Peter; Azmi, Mohd Danish; Badala, Angela; Baek, Yong Wook; Bagnasco, Stefano; Bailhache, Raphaelle Marie; Bala, Renu; Balasubramanian, Supraja; Baldisseri, Alberto; Baral, Rama Chandra; Barbano, Anastasia Maria; Barbera, Roberto; Barile, Francesco; Barnafoldi, Gergely Gabor; Barnby, Lee Stuart; Ramillien Barret, Valerie; Bartalini, Paolo; Barth, Klaus; Bartke, Jerzy Gustaw; Bartsch, Esther; Basile, Maurizio; Bastid, Nicole; Basu, Sumit; Bathen, Bastian; Batigne, Guillaume; Batista Camejo, Arianna; Batyunya, Boris; Batzing, Paul Christoph; Bearden, Ian Gardner; Beck, Hans; Bedda, Cristina; Behera, Nirbhay Kumar; Belikov, Iouri; Bellini, Francesca; Bello Martinez, Hector; Bellwied, Rene; Belmont Iii, Ronald John; Belmont Moreno, Ernesto; Belyaev, Vladimir; Benacek, Pavel; Bencedi, Gyula; Beole, Stefania; Berceanu, Ionela; Bercuci, Alexandru; Berdnikov, Yaroslav; Berenyi, Daniel; Bertens, Redmer Alexander; Berzano, Dario; Betev, Latchezar; Bhasin, Anju; Bhat, Inayat Rasool; Bhati, Ashok Kumar; Bhattacharjee, Buddhadeb; Bhom, Jihyun; Bianchi, Livio; Bianchi, Nicola; Bianchin, Chiara; Bielcik, Jaroslav; Bielcikova, Jana; Bilandzic, Ante; Biro, Gabor; Biswas, Rathijit; Biswas, Saikat; Bjelogrlic, Sandro; Blair, Justin Thomas; Blau, Dmitry; Blume, Christoph; Bock, Friederike; Bogdanov, Alexey; Boggild, Hans; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Bombara, Marek; Book, Julian Heinz; Borel, Herve; Borissov, Alexander; Borri, Marcello; Bossu, Francesco; Botta, Elena; Bourjau, Christian; Braun-Munzinger, Peter; Bregant, Marco; Breitner, Timo Gunther; Broker, Theo Alexander; Browning, Tyler Allen; Broz, Michal; Brucken, Erik Jens; Bruna, Elena; Bruno, Giuseppe Eugenio; Budnikov, Dmitry; Buesching, Henner; Bufalino, Stefania; Buncic, Predrag; Busch, Oliver; Buthelezi, Edith Zinhle; Bashir Butt, Jamila; Buxton, Jesse Thomas; Cabala, Jan; Caffarri, Davide; Cai, Xu; Caines, Helen Louise; Calero Diaz, Liliet; Caliva, Alberto; Calvo Villar, Ernesto; Camerini, Paolo; Carena, Francesco; Carena, Wisla; Carnesecchi, Francesca; Castillo Castellanos, Javier Ernesto; Castro, Andrew John; Casula, Ester Anna Rita; Ceballos Sanchez, Cesar; Cepila, Jan; Cerello, Piergiorgio; Cerkala, Jakub; Chang, Beomsu; Chapeland, Sylvain; Chartier, Marielle; Charvet, Jean-Luc Fernand; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Chattopadhyay, Sukalyan; Chauvin, Alex; Chelnokov, Volodymyr; Cherney, Michael Gerard; Cheshkov, Cvetan Valeriev; Cheynis, Brigitte; Chibante Barroso, Vasco Miguel; Dobrigkeit Chinellato, David; Cho, Soyeon; Chochula, Peter; Choi, Kyungeon; Chojnacki, Marek; Choudhury, Subikash; Christakoglou, Panagiotis; Christensen, Christian Holm; Christiansen, Peter; Chujo, Tatsuya; Chung, Suh-Urk; Cicalo, Corrado; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, Federico; Cleymans, Jean Willy Andre; Colamaria, Fabio Filippo; Colella, Domenico; Collu, Alberto; Colocci, Manuel; Conesa Balbastre, Gustavo; Conesa Del Valle, Zaida; Connors, Megan Elizabeth; Contreras Nuno, Jesus Guillermo; Cormier, Thomas Michael; Corrales Morales, Yasser; Cortes Maldonado, Ismael; Cortese, Pietro; Cosentino, Mauro Rogerio; Costa, Filippo; Crochet, Philippe; Cruz Albino, Rigoberto; Cuautle Flores, Eleazar; Cunqueiro Mendez, Leticia; Dahms, Torsten; Dainese, Andrea; Danisch, Meike Charlotte; Danu, Andrea; Das, Debasish; Das, Indranil; Das, Supriya; Dash, Ajay Kumar; Dash, Sadhana; De, Sudipan; De Caro, Annalisa; De Cataldo, Giacinto; De Conti, Camila; De Cuveland, Jan; De Falco, Alessandro; De Gruttola, Daniele; De Marco, Nora; De Pasquale, Salvatore; Deisting, Alexander; Deloff, Andrzej; Denes, Ervin Sandor; Deplano, Caterina; Dhankher, Preeti; Di Bari, Domenico; Di Mauro, Antonio; Di Nezza, Pasquale; Diaz Corchero, Miguel Angel; Dietel, Thomas; Dillenseger, Pascal; Divia, Roberto; Djuvsland, Oeystein; Dobrin, Alexandru Florin; Domenicis Gimenez, Diogenes; Donigus, Benjamin; Dordic, Olja; Drozhzhova, Tatiana; Dubey, Anand Kumar; Dubla, Andrea; Ducroux, Laurent; Dupieux, Pascal; Ehlers Iii, Raymond James; Elia, Domenico; Endress, Eric; Engel, Heiko; Epple, Eliane; Erazmus, Barbara Ewa; Erdemir, Irem; Erhardt, Filip; Espagnon, Bruno; Estienne, Magali Danielle; Esumi, Shinichi; Eum, Jongsik; Evans, David; Evdokimov, Sergey; Eyyubova, Gyulnara; Fabbietti, Laura; Fabris, Daniela; Faivre, Julien; Fantoni, Alessandra; Fasel, Markus; Feldkamp, Linus; Feliciello, Alessandro; Feofilov, Grigorii; Ferencei, Jozef; Fernandez Tellez, Arturo; Gonzalez Ferreiro, Elena; Ferretti, Alessandro; Festanti, Andrea; Feuillard, Victor Jose Gaston; Figiel, Jan; Araujo Silva Figueredo, Marcel; Filchagin, Sergey; Finogeev, Dmitry; Fionda, Fiorella; Fiore, Enrichetta Maria; Fleck, Martin Gabriel; Floris, Michele; Foertsch, Siegfried Valentin; Foka, Panagiota; Fokin, Sergey; Fragiacomo, Enrico; Francescon, Andrea; Frankenfeld, Ulrich Michael; Fronze, Gabriele Gaetano; Fuchs, Ulrich; Furget, Christophe; Furs, Artur; Fusco Girard, Mario; Gaardhoeje, Jens Joergen; Gagliardi, Martino; Gago Medina, Alberto Martin; Gallio, Mauro; Gangadharan, Dhevan Raja; Ganoti, Paraskevi; Gao, Chaosong; Garabatos Cuadrado, Jose; Garcia-Solis, Edmundo Javier; Gargiulo, Corrado; Gasik, Piotr Jan; Gauger, Erin Frances; Germain, Marie; Gheata, Andrei George; Gheata, Mihaela; Ghosh, Premomoy; Ghosh, Sanjay Kumar; Gianotti, Paola; Giubellino, Paolo; Giubilato, Piero; Gladysz-Dziadus, Ewa; Glassel, Peter; Gomez Coral, Diego Mauricio; Gomez Ramirez, Andres; Sanchez Gonzalez, Andres; Gonzalez, Victor; Gonzalez Zamora, Pedro; Gorbunov, Sergey; Gorlich, Lidia Maria; Gotovac, Sven; Grabski, Varlen; Grachov, Oleg Anatolievich; Graczykowski, Lukasz Kamil; Graham, Katie Leanne; Grelli, Alessandro; Grigoras, Alina Gabriela; Grigoras, Costin; Grigoryev, Vladislav; Grigoryan, Ara; Grigoryan, Smbat; Grynyov, Borys; Grion, Nevio; Gronefeld, Julius Maximilian; Grosse-Oetringhaus, Jan Fiete; Grosso, Raffaele; Guber, Fedor; Guernane, Rachid; Guerzoni, Barbara; Gulbrandsen, Kristjan Herlache; Gunji, Taku; Gupta, Anik; Gupta, Ramni; Haake, Rudiger; Haaland, Oystein Senneset; Hadjidakis, Cynthia Marie; Haiduc, Maria; Hamagaki, Hideki; Hamar, Gergoe; Hamon, Julien Charles; Harris, John William; Harton, Austin Vincent; Hatzifotiadou, Despina; Hayashi, Shinichi; Heckel, Stefan Thomas; Hellbar, Ernst; Helstrup, Haavard; Herghelegiu, Andrei Ionut; Herrera Corral, Gerardo Antonio; Hess, Benjamin Andreas; Hetland, Kristin Fanebust; Hillemanns, Hartmut; Hippolyte, Boris; Horak, David; Hosokawa, Ritsuya; Hristov, Peter Zahariev; Humanic, Thomas; Hussain, Nur; Hussain, Tahir; Hutter, Dirk; Hwang, Dae Sung; Ilkaev, Radiy; Inaba, Motoi; Incani, Elisa; Ippolitov, Mikhail; Irfan, Muhammad; Ivanov, Marian; Ivanov, Vladimir; Izucheev, Vladimir; Jacazio, Nicolo; Jacobs, Peter Martin; Jadhav, Manoj Bhanudas; Jadlovska, Slavka; Jadlovsky, Jan; Jahnke, Cristiane; Jakubowska, Monika Joanna; Jang, Haeng Jin; Janik, Malgorzata Anna; Pahula Hewage, Sandun; Jena, Chitrasen; Jena, Satyajit; Jimenez Bustamante, Raul Tonatiuh; Jones, Peter Graham; Jusko, Anton; Kalinak, Peter; Kalweit, Alexander Philipp; Kamin, Jason Adrian; Kang, Ju Hwan; Kaplin, Vladimir; Kar, Somnath; Karasu Uysal, Ayben; Karavichev, Oleg; Karavicheva, Tatiana; Karayan, Lilit; Karpechev, Evgeny; Kebschull, Udo Wolfgang; Keidel, Ralf; Keijdener, Darius Laurens; Keil, Markus; Khan, Mohammed Mohisin; Khan, Palash; Khan, Shuaib Ahmad; Khanzadeev, Alexei; Kharlov, Yury; Kileng, Bjarte; Kim, Do Won; Kim, Dong Jo; Kim, Daehyeok; Kim, Hyeonjoong; Kim, Jinsook; Kim, Minwoo; Kim, Se Yong; Kim, Taesoo; Kirsch, Stefan; Kisel, Ivan; Kiselev, Sergey; Kisiel, Adam Ryszard; Kiss, Gabor; Klay, Jennifer Lynn; Klein, Carsten; Klein, Jochen; Klein-Boesing, Christian; Klewin, Sebastian; Kluge, Alexander; Knichel, Michael Linus; Knospe, Anders Garritt; Kobdaj, Chinorat; Kofarago, Monika; Kollegger, Thorsten; Kolozhvari, Anatoly; Kondratev, Valerii; Kondratyeva, Natalia; Kondratyuk, Evgeny; Konevskikh, Artem; Kopcik, Michal; Kostarakis, Panagiotis; Kour, Mandeep; Kouzinopoulos, Charalampos; Kovalenko, Oleksandr; Kovalenko, Vladimir; Kowalski, Marek; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, Greeshma; Kralik, Ivan; Kravcakova, Adela; Krivda, Marian; Krizek, Filip; Kryshen, Evgeny; Krzewicki, Mikolaj; Kubera, Andrew Michael; Kucera, Vit; Kuhn, Christian Claude; Kuijer, Paulus Gerardus; Kumar, Ajay; Kumar, Jitendra; Kumar, Lokesh; Kumar, Shyam; Kurashvili, Podist; Kurepin, Alexander; Kurepin, Alexey; Kuryakin, Alexey; Kweon, Min Jung; Kwon, Youngil; La Pointe, Sarah Louise; La Rocca, Paola; Ladron De Guevara, Pedro; Lagana Fernandes, Caio; Lakomov, Igor; Langoy, Rune; Lara Martinez, Camilo Ernesto; Lardeux, Antoine Xavier; Lattuca, Alessandra; Laudi, Elisa; Lea, Ramona; Leardini, Lucia; Lee, Graham Richard; Lee, Seongjoo; Lehas, Fatiha; Lemmon, Roy Crawford; Lenti, Vito; Leogrande, Emilia; Leon Monzon, Ildefonso; Leon Vargas, Hermes; Leoncino, Marco; Levai, Peter; Li, Shuang; Li, Xiaomei; Lien, Jorgen Andre; Lietava, Roman; Lindal, Svein; Lindenstruth, Volker; Lippmann, Christian; Lisa, Michael Annan; Ljunggren, Hans Martin; Lodato, Davide Francesco; Lonne, Per-Ivar; Loginov, Vitaly; Loizides, Constantinos; Lopez, Xavier Bernard; Lopez Torres, Ernesto; Lowe, Andrew John; Luettig, Philipp Johannes; Lunardon, Marcello; Luparello, Grazia; Lutz, Tyler Harrison; Maevskaya, Alla; Mager, Magnus; Mahajan, Sanjay; Mahmood, Sohail Musa; Maire, Antonin; Majka, Richard Daniel; Malaev, Mikhail; Maldonado Cervantes, Ivonne Alicia; Malinina, Liudmila; Mal'Kevich, Dmitry; Malzacher, Peter; Mamonov, Alexander; Manko, Vladislav; Manso, Franck; Manzari, Vito; Marchisone, Massimiliano; Mares, Jiri; Margagliotti, Giacomo Vito; Margotti, Anselmo; Margutti, Jacopo; Marin, Ana Maria; Markert, Christina; Marquard, Marco; Martin, Nicole Alice; Martin Blanco, Javier; Martinengo, Paolo; Martinez Hernandez, Mario Ivan; Martinez-Garcia, Gines; Martinez Pedreira, Miguel; Mas, Alexis Jean-Michel; Masciocchi, Silvia; Masera, Massimo; Masoni, Alberto; Mastroserio, Annalisa; Matyja, Adam Tomasz; Mayer, Christoph; Mazer, Joel Anthony; Mazzoni, Alessandra Maria; Mcdonald, Daniel; Meddi, Franco; Melikyan, Yuri; Menchaca-Rocha, Arturo Alejandro; Meninno, Elisa; Mercado-Perez, Jorge; Meres, Michal; Miake, Yasuo; Mieskolainen, Matti Mikael; Mikhaylov, Konstantin; Milano, Leonardo; Milosevic, Jovan; Mischke, Andre; Mishra, Aditya Nath; Miskowiec, Dariusz Czeslaw; Mitra, Jubin; Mitu, Ciprian Mihai; Mohammadi, Naghmeh; Mohanty, Bedangadas; Molnar, Levente; Montano Zetina, Luis Manuel; Montes Prado, Esther; Moreira De Godoy, Denise Aparecida; Perez Moreno, Luis Alberto; Moretto, Sandra; Morreale, Astrid; Morsch, Andreas; Muccifora, Valeria; Mudnic, Eugen; Muhlheim, Daniel Michael; Muhuri, Sanjib; Mukherjee, Maitreyee; Mulligan, James Declan; Gameiro Munhoz, Marcelo; Munzer, Robert Helmut; Murakami, Hikari; Murray, Sean; Musa, Luciano; Musinsky, Jan; Naik, Bharati; Nair, Rahul; Nandi, Basanta Kumar; Nania, Rosario; Nappi, Eugenio; Naru, Muhammad Umair; Ferreira Natal Da Luz, Pedro Hugo; Nattrass, Christine; Rosado Navarro, Sebastian; Nayak, Kishora; Nayak, Ranjit; Nayak, Tapan Kumar; Nazarenko, Sergey; Nedosekin, Alexander; Nellen, Lukas; Ng, Fabian; Nicassio, Maria; Niculescu, Mihai; Niedziela, Jeremi; Nielsen, Borge Svane; Nikolaev, Sergey; Nikulin, Sergey; Nikulin, Vladimir; Noferini, Francesco; Nomokonov, Petr; Nooren, Gerardus; Cabanillas Noris, Juan Carlos; Norman, Jaime; Nyanin, Alexander; Nystrand, Joakim Ingemar; Oeschler, Helmut Oskar; Oh, Saehanseul; Oh, Sun Kun; Ohlson, Alice Elisabeth; Okatan, Ali; Okubo, Tsubasa; Olah, Laszlo; Oleniacz, Janusz; Oliveira Da Silva, Antonio Carlos; Oliver, Michael Henry; Onderwaater, Jacobus; Oppedisano, Chiara; Orava, Risto; Oravec, Matej; Ortiz Velasquez, Antonio; Oskarsson, Anders Nils Erik; Otwinowski, Jacek Tomasz; Oyama, Ken; Ozdemir, Mahmut; Pachmayer, Yvonne Chiara; Pagano, Davide; Pagano, Paola; Paic, Guy; Pal, Susanta Kumar; Pan, Jinjin; Pandey, Ashutosh Kumar; Papikyan, Vardanush; Pappalardo, Giuseppe; Pareek, Pooja; Park, Woojin; Parmar, Sonia; Passfeld, Annika; Paticchio, Vincenzo; Patra, Rajendra Nath; Paul, Biswarup; Pei, Hua; Peitzmann, Thomas; Pereira Da Costa, Hugo Denis Antonio; Peresunko, Dmitry Yurevich; Perez Lara, Carlos Eugenio; Perez Lezama, Edgar; Peskov, Vladimir; Pestov, Yury; Petracek, Vojtech; Petrov, Viacheslav; Petrovici, Mihai; Petta, Catia; Piano, Stefano; Pikna, Miroslav; Pillot, Philippe; Ozelin De Lima Pimentel, Lais; Pinazza, Ombretta; Pinsky, Lawrence; Piyarathna, Danthasinghe; Ploskon, Mateusz Andrzej; Planinic, Mirko; Pluta, Jan Marian; Pochybova, Sona; Podesta Lerma, Pedro Luis Manuel; Poghosyan, Martin; Polishchuk, Boris; Poljak, Nikola; Poonsawat, Wanchaloem; Pop, Amalia; Porteboeuf, Sarah Julie; Porter, R Jefferson; Pospisil, Jan; Prasad, Sidharth Kumar; Preghenella, Roberto; Prino, Francesco; Pruneau, Claude Andre; Pshenichnov, Igor; Puccio, Maximiliano; Puddu, Giovanna; Pujahari, Prabhat Ranjan; Punin, Valery; Putschke, Jorn Henning; Qvigstad, Henrik; Rachevski, Alexandre; Raha, Sibaji; Rajput, Sonia; Rak, Jan; Rakotozafindrabe, Andry Malala; Ramello, Luciano; Rami, Fouad; Raniwala, Rashmi; Raniwala, Sudhir; Rasanen, Sami Sakari; Rascanu, Bogdan Theodor; Rathee, Deepika; Read, Kenneth Francis; Redlich, Krzysztof; Reed, Rosi Jan; Rehman, Attiq Ur; Reichelt, Patrick Simon; Reidt, Felix; Ren, Xiaowen; Renfordt, Rainer Arno Ernst; Reolon, Anna Rita; Reshetin, Andrey; Reygers, Klaus Johannes; Riabov, Viktor; Ricci, Renato Angelo; Richert, Tuva Ora Herenui; Richter, Matthias Rudolph; Riedler, Petra; Riegler, Werner; Riggi, Francesco; Ristea, Catalin-Lucian; Rocco, Elena; Rodriguez Cahuantzi, Mario; Rodriguez Manso, Alis; Roeed, Ketil; Rogochaya, Elena; Rohr, David Michael; Roehrich, Dieter; Ronchetti, Federico; Ronflette, Lucile; Rosnet, Philippe; Rossi, Andrea; Roukoutakis, Filimon; Roy, Ankhi; Roy, Christelle Sophie; Roy, Pradip Kumar; Rubio Montero, Antonio Juan; Rui, Rinaldo; Russo, Riccardo; Ryabinkin, Evgeny; Ryabov, Yury; Rybicki, Andrzej; Saarinen, Sampo; Sadhu, Samrangy; Sadovskiy, Sergey; Safarik, Karel; Sahlmuller, Baldo; Sahoo, Pragati; Sahoo, Raghunath; Sahoo, Sarita; Sahu, Pradip Kumar; Saini, Jogender; Sakai, Shingo; Saleh, Mohammad Ahmad; Salzwedel, Jai Samuel Nielsen; Sambyal, Sanjeev Singh; Samsonov, Vladimir; Sandor, Ladislav; Sandoval, Andres; Sano, Masato; Sarkar, Debojit; Sarkar, Nachiketa; Sarma, Pranjal; Scapparone, Eugenio; Scarlassara, Fernando; Schiaua, Claudiu Cornel; Schicker, Rainer Martin; Schmidt, Christian Joachim; Schmidt, Hans Rudolf; Schuchmann, Simone; Schukraft, Jurgen; Schulc, Martin; Schutz, Yves Roland; Schwarz, Kilian Eberhard; Schweda, Kai Oliver; Scioli, Gilda; Scomparin, Enrico; Scott, Rebecca Michelle; Sefcik, Michal; Seger, Janet Elizabeth; Sekiguchi, Yuko; Sekihata, Daiki; Selyuzhenkov, Ilya; Senosi, Kgotlaesele; Senyukov, Serhiy; Serradilla Rodriguez, Eulogio; Sevcenco, Adrian; Shabanov, Arseniy; Shabetai, Alexandre; Shadura, Oksana; Shahoyan, Ruben; Shahzad, Muhammed Ikram; Shangaraev, Artem; Sharma, Ankita; Sharma, Mona; Sharma, Monika; Sharma, Natasha; Sheikh, Ashik Ikbal; Shigaki, Kenta; Shou, Qiye; Shtejer Diaz, Katherin; Sibiryak, Yury; Siddhanta, Sabyasachi; Sielewicz, Krzysztof Marek; Siemiarczuk, Teodor; Silvermyr, David Olle Rickard; Silvestre, Catherine Micaela; Simatovic, Goran; Simonetti, Giuseppe; Singaraju, Rama Narayana; Singh, Ranbir; Singha, Subhash; Singhal, Vikas; Sinha, Bikash; Sarkar - Sinha, Tinku; Sitar, Branislav; Sitta, Mario; Skaali, Bernhard; Slupecki, Maciej; Smirnov, Nikolai; Snellings, Raimond; Snellman, Tomas Wilhelm; Song, Jihye; Song, Myunggeun; Song, Zixuan; Soramel, Francesca; Sorensen, Soren Pontoppidan; Derradi De Souza, Rafael; Sozzi, Federica; Spacek, Michal; Spiriti, Eleuterio; Sputowska, Iwona Anna; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, Martha; Stachel, Johanna; Stan, Ionel; Stankus, Paul; Stenlund, Evert Anders; Steyn, Gideon Francois; Stiller, Johannes Hendrik; Stocco, Diego; Strmen, Peter; Alarcon Do Passo Suaide, Alexandre; Sugitate, Toru; Suire, Christophe Pierre; Suleymanov, Mais Kazim Oglu; Suljic, Miljenko; Sultanov, Rishat; Sumbera, Michal; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Szabo, Alexander; Szanto De Toledo, Alejandro; Szarka, Imrich; Szczepankiewicz, Adam; Szymanski, Maciej Pawel; Tabassam, Uzma; Takahashi, Jun; Tambave, Ganesh Jagannath; Tanaka, Naoto; Tarhini, Mohamad; Tariq, Mohammad; Tarzila, Madalina-Gabriela; Tauro, Arturo; Tejeda Munoz, Guillermo; Telesca, Adriana; Terasaki, Kohei; Terrevoli, Cristina; Teyssier, Boris; Thaeder, Jochen Mathias; Thakur, Dhananjaya; Thomas, Deepa; Tieulent, Raphael Noel; Timmins, Anthony Robert; Toia, Alberica; Trogolo, Stefano; Trombetta, Giuseppe; Trubnikov, Victor; Trzaska, Wladyslaw Henryk; Tsuji, Tomoya; Tumkin, Alexandr; Turrisi, Rosario; Tveter, Trine Spedstad; Ullaland, Kjetil; Uras, Antonio; Usai, Gianluca; Utrobicic, Antonija; Vala, Martin; Valencia Palomo, Lizardo; Vallero, Sara; Van Der Maarel, Jasper; Van Hoorne, Jacobus Willem; Van Leeuwen, Marco; Vanat, Tomas; Vande Vyvre, Pierre; Varga, Dezso; Vargas Trevino, Aurora Diozcora; Vargyas, Marton; Varma, Raghava; Vasileiou, Maria; Vasiliev, Andrey; Vauthier, Astrid; Vechernin, Vladimir; Veen, Annelies Marianne; Veldhoen, Misha; Velure, Arild; Vercellin, Ermanno; Vergara Limon, Sergio; Vernet, Renaud; Verweij, Marta; Vickovic, Linda; Viesti, Giuseppe; Viinikainen, Jussi Samuli; Vilakazi, Zabulon; Villalobos Baillie, Orlando; Villatoro Tello, Abraham; Vinogradov, Alexander; Vinogradov, Leonid; Vinogradov, Yury; Virgili, Tiziano; Vislavicius, Vytautas; Viyogi, Yogendra; Vodopyanov, Alexander; Volkl, Martin Andreas; Voloshin, Kirill; Voloshin, Sergey; Volpe, Giacomo; Von Haller, Barthelemy; Vorobyev, Ivan; Vranic, Danilo; Vrlakova, Janka; Vulpescu, Bogdan; Wagner, Boris; Wagner, Jan; Wang, Hongkai; Wang, Mengliang; Watanabe, Daisuke; Watanabe, Yosuke; Weber, Michael; Weber, Steffen Georg; Weiser, Dennis Franz; Wessels, Johannes Peter; Westerhoff, Uwe; Whitehead, Andile Mothegi; Wiechula, Jens; Wikne, Jon; Wilk, Grzegorz Andrzej; Wilkinson, Jeremy John; Williams, Crispin; Windelband, Bernd Stefan; Winn, Michael Andreas; Yang, Hongyan; Yang, Ping; Yano, Satoshi; Yasin, Zafar; Yin, Zhongbao; Yokoyama, Hiroki; Yoo, In-Kwon; Yoon, Jin Hee; Yurchenko, Volodymyr; Yushmanov, Igor; Zaborowska, Anna; Zaccolo, Valentina; Zaman, Ali; Zampolli, Chiara; Correia Zanoli, Henrique Jose; Zaporozhets, Sergey; Zardoshti, Nima; Zarochentsev, Andrey; Zavada, Petr; Zavyalov, Nikolay; Zbroszczyk, Hanna Paulina; Zgura, Sorin Ion; Zhalov, Mikhail; Zhang, Haitao; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhang, Yonghong; Chunhui, Zhang; Zhang, Zuman; Zhao, Chengxin; Zhigareva, Natalia; Zhou, Daicui; Zhou, You; Zhou, Zhuo; Zhu, Hongsheng; Zhu, Jianhui; Zichichi, Antonino; Zimmermann, Alice; Zimmermann, Markus Bernhard; Zinovjev, Gennady; Zyzak, Maksym

    2016-01-01

    We present a Bayesian approach to particle identification (PID) within the ALICE experiment. The aim is to more effectively combine the particle identification capabilities of its various detectors. After a brief explanation of the adopted methodology and formalism, the performance of the Bayesian PID approach for charged pions, kaons and protons in the central barrel of ALICE is studied. PID is performed via measurements of specific energy loss (dE/dx) and time-of-flight. PID efficiencies and misidentification probabilities are extracted and compared with Monte Carlo simulations using high purity samples of identified particles in the decay channels ${\\rm K}_{\\rm S}^{\\rm 0}\\rightarrow \\pi^+\\pi^-$, $\\phi\\rightarrow {\\rm K}^-{\\rm K}^+$ and $\\Lambda\\rightarrow{\\rm p}\\pi^-$ in p–Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\rm NN}}= 5.02$TeV. In order to thoroughly assess the validity of the Bayesian approach, this methodology was used to obtain corrected $p_{\\rm T}$ spectra of pions, kaons, protons, and D$^0$ mesons in pp coll...

  18. LEAR: antiproton extraction lines

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service

    1992-01-01

    Antiprotons, decelerated in LEAR to a momentum of 100 MeV/c (kinetic energy of 5.3 MeV), were delivered to the experiments in an "Ultra-Slow Extraction", dispensing some 1E9 antiprotons over times counted in hours. Beam-splitters and a multitude of beam-lines allowed several users to be supplied simultaneously.

  19. SPS extraction systems

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1973-01-01

    One of the 3-m long electrostatics septa. The septum itself consists of 0.15 mm thick molybdenum wires with a 1.5 mm pitch. Each of the two SPS extraction systems will contain four of these electrostatic septa.

  20. Fundamental principles of particle detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper goes through the fundamental physics of particles-matter interactions which is necessary for the detection of these particles with detectors. A listing of 41 concepts and detector principles are given. 14 refs., 11 figs

  1. Particle accelerator; the Universe machine

    CERN Multimedia

    Yurkewicz, Katie

    2008-01-01

    "In summer 2008, scientists will switch on one of the largest machines in the world to search for the smallest of particle. CERN's Large Hadron Collider particle accelerator has the potential to chagne our understanding of the Universe."

  2. Source Wavelet Phase Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghadeh, Diako Hariri; Morley, Christopher Keith

    2016-06-01

    Extraction of propagation wavelet phase from seismic data can be conducted using first, second, third and fourth-order statistics. Three new methods are introduced, which are: (1) Combination of different moments, (2) Windowed continuous wavelet transform and (3) Maximum correlation with cosine function. To compare different methods synthetic data with and without noise were chosen. Results show that first, second and third order statistics are not able to preserve wavelet phase. Kurtosis can preserve propagation wavelet phase but signal-to-noise ratio can affect the extracted phase using this method. So for data set with low signal-to-noise ratio, it will be unstable. Using a combination of different moments to extract the phase is more robust than applying kurtosis. The improvement occurs because zero phase wavelets with reverse polarities have equal maximum kurtosis values hence the correct wavelet polarity cannot be identified. Zero-phase wavelets with reverse polarities have minimum and maximum values for a combination of different-moments method. These properties enable the technique to handle a finite data segment and to choose the correct wavelet polarity. Also, the existence of different moments can decrease sensitivity to outliers. A windowed continuous wavelet transform is more sensitive to signal-to-noise ratio than the combination of different-moments method, also if the scale for the wavelet is incorrect it will encounter with more problems to extract phase. When the effects of frequency bandwidth, signal-to-noise ratio and analyzing window length are considered, the results of extracting phase information from data without and with noise demonstrate that combination of different-moments is superior to the other methods introduced here.

  3. Surface Chemistry at Size-Selected Nano-Aerosol Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Jeffrey

    2005-03-01

    A method has been developed to conduct surface chemistry and extract surface kinetic rates from size-selected aerosol nanoparticles. The measurements encompass broad ranges of particle size, phase, and composition. Results will be presented on the uptake of water by aerosolized soot nanoparticles of radius between 10 and 40 nm. Water uptake was monitored by tandem differential mobility analysis (T-DMA), which is capable of measuring changes in particle diameter as little as 0.2 nm. Soot particles were produced in an ethene diffusion flame and extracted into an atmospheric pressure aerosol flow tube reactor. The particles were subjected to various thermal and oxidative treatments, and the effects of these treatments on the ability of soot to adsorb monolayer quantities of water was determined. The results are important because soot nucleates atmospheric cloud particles. More generally, the results represent one of the first kinetic and mechanistic studies of gas-phase nanoparticle reactivity. Co-author: Henry Ajo, University of Minnesota

  4. Weak interactions of elementary particles

    CERN Document Server

    Okun, Lev Borisovich

    1965-01-01

    International Series of Monographs in Natural Philosophy, Volume 5: Weak Interaction of Elementary Particles focuses on the composition, properties, and reactions of elementary particles and high energies. The book first discusses elementary particles. Concerns include isotopic invariance in the Sakata model; conservation of fundamental particles; scheme of isomultiplets in the Sakata model; universal, unitary-symmetric strong interaction; and universal weak interaction. The text also focuses on spinors, amplitudes, and currents. Wave function, calculation of traces, five bilinear covariants,

  5. Effectiveness of new techniques for the extraction of fine particles from the flue gas of wood-fired boilers; Wirksamkeit neuer Abscheidetechniken in Holzfeuerungsabgasen bezueglich Feinpartikeln. Praxiserhebung zur Wirkung von Sekundaermassnahmen auf die Staubemissionen von Holzfeuerungen unter spezieller Beruecksichtigung des Feinpartikelausstosses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaegauf, Ch.; Schmid, M. [Oekozentrum Langenbruck, Langenbruck (Switzerland); Jenni, A. [Ardens GmbH, Liestal(Switzerland)

    2003-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) and the Swiss Agency for the Environment, Forests, and Landscape (SAEFL) presents the results of a project carried out by the Centre for Appropriate Technology and Social Ecology, Langenbruck, Switzerland. The project investigated the efficiency of various ways of filtering nano-sized particulate matter (PM) out of the flue gases of wood-fired boilers. The two analytical methods used to monitor PM emissions are described, as are the seven different wood-combustion systems tested along with three different methods of exhaust gas treatment. The results of the investigations, which showed that electrostatic and fabric filter systems displayed a very high particle removal efficiency, are presented. The mechanisms that probably led to the particularly high removal efficiency noted for nano-particles are discussed.

  6. Simultaneous Eye Tracking and Blink Detection with Interactive Particle Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan M. Trivedi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a system that simultaneously tracks eyes and detects eye blinks. Two interactive particle filters are used for this purpose, one for the closed eyes and the other one for the open eyes. Each particle filter is used to track the eye locations as well as the scales of the eye subjects. The set of particles that gives higher confidence is defined as the primary set and the other one is defined as the secondary set. The eye location is estimated by the primary particle filter, and whether the eye status is open or closed is also decided by the label of the primary particle filter. When a new frame comes, the secondary particle filter is reinitialized according to the estimates from the primary particle filter. We use autoregression models for describing the state transition and a classification-based model for measuring the observation. Tensor subspace analysis is used for feature extraction which is followed by a logistic regression model to give the posterior estimation. The performance is carefully evaluated from two aspects: the blink detection rate and the tracking accuracy. The blink detection rate is evaluated using videos from varying scenarios, and the tracking accuracy is given by comparing with the benchmark data obtained using the Vicon motion capturing system. The setup for obtaining benchmark data for tracking accuracy evaluation is presented and experimental results are shown. Extensive experimental evaluations validate the capability of the algorithm.

  7. Charge of dust particles in a particle chain

    CERN Document Server

    Yousefi, Razieh; Matthews, Lorin Swint; Hyde, Truell W

    2016-01-01

    Charged dust particles form structures which are extended in the vertical direction in the electrode sheath of a rf discharge when confined within a glass box. The charge on each particle as a function of height varies due to the changing plasma conditions and the wakefield of upstream particles. Here an analysis of the equilibrium state of chains of varying number of particles is analyzed to determine the charge on each particle within a vertically extended chain as well as the magnitude of the positive wakefield charge.

  8. Toxicity to chicken embryos of organic extracts from airborne particulates separated into five sizes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, H.

    1988-07-01

    The chicken embryo assay has been used for research on the toxicity of complex extracts derived from different environmental sources, as well as of individual compounds. However, only a few studies have been made on the toxicological effects of extracts derived from airborne particulate matter in chicken embryo. These studies showed that the toxic effect was due to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the particles, although their structure and quantity were the factors determining the extent of the toxicity. Airborne particulate matter is composed of particles of different sizes, which can be separated into five classes according to their size by an Andersen high-volume sampler. Each class contained many kinds of compounds such as PAHs. In this study, airborne particulate matter was extracted according to particle size, the extracts analyzed for PAHs, and tested for embryotoxicity.

  9. Random packing of digitized particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korte, de A.C.J.; Brouwers, H.J.H.

    2012-01-01

    The random packing of regularly and irregularly shaped particles has been studied extensively. Within this paper, packing is studied from the perspective of digitized particles. These digitized particles are developed for and used in cellular automata systems, which are employed for the simple mathe

  10. Planck Particles and Quantum Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crothers S. J.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The alleged existence of so-called Planck particles is examined. The various methods for deriving the properties of these "particles" are examined and it is shown that their existence as genuine physical particles is based on a number of conceptual fl aws which serve to render the concept invalid.

  11. Local particle-ghost symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Kawamura, Yoshiharu

    2015-01-01

    We study the quantization of systems with local particle-ghost symmetries. The systems contain ordinary particles including gauge bosons and their counterparts obeying different statistics. The particle-ghost symmetry is a kind of fermionic symmetry, different from the space-time supersymmetry and the BRST symmetry. Subsidiary conditions on states guarantee the unitarity of systems.

  12. Actinide recovery using aqueous biphasic extraction: Initial developmental studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaiko, D.J.; Mensah-Biney, R.; Mertz, C.J.; Rollins, A.N.

    1992-08-01

    Aqueous biphasic extraction systems are being developed to treat radioactive wastes. The separation technique involves the selective partitioning of either solutes or colloid-size particles between two scible aqueous phases. Wet grinding of plutonium residues to an average particle size of one micron will be used to liberate the plutonium from the bulk of the particle matrix. The goal is to produce a plutonium concentrate that will integrate with existing and developing chemical recovery processes. Ideally, the process would produce a nonTRU waste stream. Coupling physical beneficiation with chemical processing will result in a substantial reduction in the volume of mixed wastes generated from dissolution recovery processes. As part of this program, we will also explore applications of aqueous biphasic extraction that include the separation and recovery of dissolved species such as metal ions and water-soluble organics. The expertise and data generated in this work will form the basis for developing more cost-effective processes for handling waste streams from environmental restoration and waste management activities within the DOE community. This report summarizes the experimental results obtained during the first year of this effort. Experimental efforts were focused on elucidating the surface and solution chemistry variables which govern partitioning behavior of plutonium and silica in aqueous biphasic extraction systems. Additional efforts were directed toward the development of wet grinding methods for producing ultrafine particles with diameters of one micron or less.

  13. Actinide recovery using aqueous biphasic extraction: Initial developmental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aqueous biphasic extraction systems are being developed to treat radioactive wastes. The separation technique involves the selective partitioning of either solutes or colloid-size particles between two scible aqueous phases. Wet grinding of plutonium residues to an average particle size of one micron will be used to liberate the plutonium from the bulk of the particle matrix. The goal is to produce a plutonium concentrate that will integrate with existing and developing chemical recovery processes. Ideally, the process would produce a nonTRU waste stream. Coupling physical beneficiation with chemical processing will result in a substantial reduction in the volume of mixed wastes generated from dissolution recovery processes. As part of this program, we will also explore applications of aqueous biphasic extraction that include the separation and recovery of dissolved species such as metal ions and water-soluble organics. The expertise and data generated in this work will form the basis for developing more cost-effective processes for handling waste streams from environmental restoration and waste management activities within the DOE community. This report summarizes the experimental results obtained during the first year of this effort. Experimental efforts were focused on elucidating the surface and solution chemistry variables which govern partitioning behavior of plutonium and silica in aqueous biphasic extraction systems. Additional efforts were directed toward the development of wet grinding methods for producing ultrafine particles with diameters of one micron or less

  14. ANALYSIS OF PARTICLE-PARTICLE FORCES IN ELECTRORHEOLOGICAL FLUIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO HE-PING; LIU ZHENG-YOU; LIU YOU-YAN

    2001-01-01

    The Rayleigh identity, based on a multipole expansion theory, is extended to analyse the forces between particles in an electrorheological system. The shear modulus for chains of particles arrayed on a square lattice is calculated. It is found that the modulus increases linearly with the ratio of dielectric constants of the dispersed particles to that of the continuous phase; as the ratio becomes larger, contrary to the expectations from a simple dipole approximation, the modulus would saturate. In the case of conducting particles, the modulus varies with the frequency of the applied field. In a limiting case of perfectly conducting particles, the conductivity is also considered. It is found that the particle-particle forces are extremely sensitive to their separations from each other.

  15. Apparatus for separating particles utilizing engineered acoustic contrast capture particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaduchak, Gregory; Ward, Michael D

    2016-05-17

    An apparatus for separating particles from a medium includes a capillary defining a flow path therein that is in fluid communication with a medium source. The medium source includes engineered acoustic contrast capture particle having a predetermined acoustic contrast. The apparatus includes a vibration generator that is operable to produce at least one acoustic field within the flow path. The acoustic field produces a force potential minima for positive acoustic contrast particles and a force potential minima for negative acoustic contrast particles in the flow path and drives the engineered acoustic contrast capture particles to either the force potential minima for positive acoustic contrast particles or the force potential minima for negative acoustic contrast particles.

  16. Particle splitting in smoothed particle hydrodynamics based on Voronoi diagram

    CERN Document Server

    Chiaki, Gen

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel method for particle splitting in smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations. Our method utilizes the Voronoi diagram for a given particle set to determine the position of fine daughter particles. We perform several test simulations to compare our method with a conventional splitting method in which the daughter particles are placed isotropically over the local smoothing length. We show that, with our method, the density deviation after splitting is reduced by a factor of about two compared with the conventional method. Splitting would smooth out the anisotropic density structure if the daughters are distributed isotropically, but our scheme allows the daughter particles to trace the original density distribution with length scales of the mean separation of their parent. We apply the particle splitting to simulations of the primordial gas cloud collapse. The thermal evolution is accurately followed to the hydrogen number density of 10^12 /cc. With the effective mass resolution of ~10^-4 Msu...

  17. Particle size alterations of feedstuffs during in situ neutral detergent fiber incubation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krämer, Monika; Nørgaard, Peder; Lund, P.;

    2013-01-01

    ) 24-h rumen incubation, machine washing, and NDS extraction; and (5) 288-h rumen incubation, machine washing, and NDS extraction. Degradation profiles for potentially degradable NDF were determined and image analysis was used to estimate particle size profiles and thereby the risk for particle loss....... Particle dimensions changed during NDF determination and in situ rumen incubation and variations depended on feedstuff and treatment. Corn silage and late-cut grass silage varied most in particle area among feedstuffs, with an increase of 139% between 0 and 24. h and a decrease of 77% between 24 and 288 h...... for corn silage and a decrease of 74% for late-cut grass silage between 24- and 288-h in situ rumen incubation. Especially for late-cut grass silage residues after 288 h in situ rumen incubation, a high mass proportion in the critical zone for escape was found. Particle area decreased linearly...

  18. Mobile robot simultaneous localization and map building based on improved particle filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Maohai; Hong Bingrong; Wei Zhenhua

    2006-01-01

    We present an investigation into the use of pan tilt zoom camera and sonar sensors for simultaneous localization and mapping with artificial colored landmarks. An improved particle filter is applied to estimate a posterior of the pose of the robot, in which each particle has associated it with an entire map. The distributions of landmarks are also represented by particle sets, where separate particles are used to represent the robot and the landmarks. Hough transform is used to extract line segments from sonar observations and build map simultaneously. The key advantage of our method is that the full posterior over robot poses and landmarks can be nonlinearly approximated at every point in time by particles. Especially the landmarks are affixed on the moving robots, which can reduce the impact of the depletion problem and the impoverishment problem produced by basic particle filter. Experimental results show that this approach has advantages over the basic particle filter and the extended Kalman filter.

  19. Hadron particle theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, J.R.

    1995-05-01

    Radiation therapy with ``hadrons`` (protons, neutrons, pions, ions) has accrued a 55-year track record, with by now over 30,000 patients having received treatments with one of these particles. Very good, and in some cases spectacular results are leading to growth in the field in specific well-defined directions. The most noted contributor to success has been the ability to better define and control the radiation field produced with these particles, to increase the dose delivered to the treatment volume while achieving a high degree of sparing of normal tissue. An additional benefit is the highly-ionizing, character of certain beams, leading to creater cell-killing potential for tumor lines that have historically been very resistant to radiation treatments. Until recently these treatments have been delivered in laboratories and research centers whose primary, or original mission was physics research. With maturity in the field has come both the desire to provide beam facilities more accessible to the clinical setting, of a hospital, as well as achieving, highly-efficient, reliable and economical accelerator and beam-delivery systems that can make maximum advantage of the physical characteristics of these particle beams. Considerable work in technology development is now leading, to the implementation of many of these ideas, and a new generation of clinically-oriented facilities is beginning to appear. We will discuss both the physical, clinical and technological considerations that are driving these designs, as well as highlighting, specific examples of new facilities that are either now treating, patients or that will be doing so in the near future.

  20. Capture of soft particles on electrostatically heterogeneous collectors: brushy particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yicun; Guo, Xuhong; Kalasin, Surachate; Santore, Maria M

    2014-03-01

    This work investigated how particle softness can influence the initial adhesive capture of submicrometer colloidal particles from flow onto collecting surfaces. The study focused on the case dominated by potential attractions at the particle periphery (rather than, for instance, steric stabilization, requiring entropically costly deformations to access shorter-range van der Waals attractions.) The particles, "spherical polyelectrolyte brushes" with diameters in the range of 150-200 nm depending on the ionic strength, consisted of a polystyrene core and a corona of grafted poly(acrylic acid) chains, producing a relatively thick (20-40 nm) negative brushy layer. The adhesion of these particles was studied on electrostatically heterogeneous collecting surfaces: negatively charged substrates carrying flat polycationic patches made by irreversibly adsorbing the poly-l-lysine (PLL) polyelectrolyte. Variation in the amount of adsorbed PLL changed the net collector charge from completely negatively charged (repulsive) to positively charged (attractive). Adjustments in ionic strength varied the range of the electrostatic interactions. Comparing capture kinetics of soft brushy particles to those of similarly sized and similarly charged silica particles revealed nearly identical particle capture kinetics over the full range of collecting surface compositions at high ionic strengths. Even though the brushy particles contained an average of 5 vol % PAA in the brushy shell, with the rest being water under these conditions, their capture was indistinguishable from that of similarly charged rigid spheres. The brushy particles were, however, considerably less adherent at low ionic strengths where the brush was more extended, suggesting an influence of particle deformability or reduced interfacial charge. These findings, that the short time adhesion of brushy particles can resemble that of rigid particles, suggest that for bacteria and cell capture, modeling the cells as rigid

  1. Fluid and particle mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Michell, S J

    2013-01-01

    Fluid and Particle Mechanics provides information pertinent to hydraulics or fluid mechanics. This book discusses the properties and behavior of liquids and gases in motion and at rest. Organized into nine chapters, this book begins with an overview of the science of fluid mechanics that is subdivided accordingly into two main branches, namely, fluid statics and fluid dynamics. This text then examines the flowmeter devices used for the measurement of flow of liquids and gases. Other chapters consider the principle of resistance in open channel flow, which is based on improper application of th

  2. Cosmology and particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author reviews the standard cosmology, focusing on primordial nucleosynthesis, and discusses how the standard cosmology has been used to place constraints on the properties of various particles. Baryogenesis is examined in which the B, C, CP violating interactions in GUTs provide a dynamical explanation for the predominance of matter over antimatter and the present baryon-to-baryon ratio. Monoposes, cosmology and astrophysics are reviewed. The author also discusses supersymmetry/supergravity and cosmology, superstrings and cosmology in extra dimensions, and axions, astrophics, and cosmology

  3. Physics of windblown particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeley, Ronald; Leach, Rodman; Marshall, John R.; White, Bruce; Iversen, James D.; Nickling, William G.; Gillette, Dale; Sorensen, Michael

    1987-01-01

    A laboratory facility proposed for the Space Station to investigate fundamental aspects of windblown particles is described. The experiments would take advantage of the environment afforded in earth orbit and would be an extension of research currently being conducted on the geology and physics of windblown sediments on earth, Mars, and Venus. Aeolian (wind) processes are reviewed in the planetary context, the scientific rational is given for specific experiments to be conducted, the experiment apparatus (the Carousel Wind Tunnel, or CWT) is described, and a plan presented for implementing the proposed research program.

  4. Lectures in particle physics

    CERN Document Server

    Green, Dan

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this book on particle physics is to present the theory in a simple way. The style and organization of the material is unique in that intuition is employed, not formal theory or the Monte Carlo method. This volume attempts to be more physical and less abstract than other texts without degenerating into a presentation of data without interpretation.This book is based on four courses of lectures conducted at Fermilab. It should prove very useful to advanced undergraduates and graduate students.

  5. Where was the particle?

    OpenAIRE

    Wechsler, Sofia

    2003-01-01

    The hypothesis of empty/full waves considers that a click in a detector is triggered by a property carried by the wave-packet that impinges on that detector. Different authors call this property particle, but according to the terminology of this hypothesis, the term full wave is used in this text. The present article discusses the validity of the empty/full waves hypothesis. It is shown that the energy conservation principle imposes for a full wave a continuous trajectory from the source to t...

  6. Particle size influence on effective permittivity of particle-gas mixture with particle clusters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lijun Xu; Chang Liu; Zhang Cao; Xiaomin Li

    2013-01-01

    The influence of particle size on the effective permittivity of a particle-gas mixture in the presence of particle clusters was studied using numerical analysis involving the three-dimensional finite element method.The effective permittivity of the mixture was obtained by calculating the electrostatic energy generated in the computation domain.Numerical results show that for fixed volume fraction of particles in the mixture,the effective permittivity of the mixture increases with decreasing particle size.Static experiments were carried out by using a differential capacitance sensor with parallel plates.The variation of the effective permittivity with particle size is shown by experimental data to agree with the numerical results.The methodology described and the results obtained in this paper may be used to help modify the measurement of particles volume fraction in the presence of particle clusters when a capacitance sensor is used.

  7. The ultrasound assisted extraction of matrix elements and heavy metal fractions associated with Fe, Al and Mn oxyhydroxides from soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanišić Svetlana M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The single agent extractions of major and trace metals from soil sample were conducted by means of rotary mixer and ultrasonic bath with sonication time of 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 min. The sequential extraction according to the BCR scheme was undertaken. The obtained soil extracts were analyzed by ICP-OES and according to the results the rotary mixer assisted extraction was more efficient in the case of alkaline-earth elements. However, by the use of ultrasound several times higher amounts of matrix elements (Fe, Al and Mn and heavy metals predominantly associated with Fe, Al and Mn oxyhydroxides were extracted. The increase of the sonication time failed to improve extraction yields. The changes of the conductivity, pH, oxidoreduction potential, particle size diameter and zeta potential of colloid particles, with the sonication time increase were measured. The extraction mechanism and expressed selectivity of ultrasound is discussed and explanation is suggested.

  8. Fluid particle dynamics: a synthesis of dissipative particle dynamics and smoothed particle dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Español, Pep

    1997-01-01

    We present a generalization of dissipative particle dynamics that includes shear forces between particles. The new algorithm has the same structure as the (isothermal) smoothed particle dynamics algorithm, except that it conserves angular momentum and includes thermal fluctuations consistently with the principles of equilibrium statistical mechanics. This clarifies the connection of dissipative particle dynamics with numerical resolution algorithms of the macroscopic Navier-Stokes equations.

  9. Polarizabilities of nonreciprocal bianisotropic particles

    CERN Document Server

    Mirmoosa, M S; Asadchy, V S; Simovski, C R; Tretyakov, S A

    2014-01-01

    For two electrically small nonreciprocal scatterers an analytical electromagnetic model of polarizabilities is developed. Both particles are bianisotropic: the so-called Tellegen-omega particle and moving-chiral particle. Analytical results are compared to the full-wave numerical simulations. Both models satisfy to main physical restrictions and leave no doubts in the possibility to realize these particles experimentally. This paper is a necessary step towards applications of nonreciprocal bianisotropic particles such as perfect electromagnetic isolators, twist polarizers, thin-sheet phase shifters, and other devices.

  10. Particle acceleration in modified shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efficient particle acceleration in shocks must modify the shock structure with consequent changes in the particle acceleration. This effect is studied and analytic solutions are found describing the diffusive acceleration of particles with momentum independent diffusion coefficients in hyperbolic tangent type velocity transitions. If the input particle spectrum is a delta function, the shock smoothing replaces the truncated power-law downstream particle spectrum by a more complicated form, but one which has a power-law tail at high momenta. For a cold plasma this solution can be made completely self-consistent. Some problems associated with momentum dependent diffusion coefficients are discussed. (author)

  11. Synthesis of Biofunctional Janus Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Binghui; Wang, Man; Chen, Kui; Cheng, Zhifeng; Chen, Gaojian; Zhang, Zexin

    2015-06-01

    Janus particles with anisotropic biofunctionalities are perfect models to mimic anisotropic architectures and directional interactions that occur in nature. It is therefore highly desirable to develop reliable and efficient methods to synthesize biofunctional Janus particles. Herein, a facile method combining seeded-emulsion polymerization and thiol-click chemistry has been developed to synthesize Janus particles with glucose moieties on one side. These biofunctional Janus particles show region-selective binding of protein, which represents a big step toward biomimicry, and demonstrates the potential of the bioJanus particles for targeted drug delivery and binding. PMID:25858757

  12. Particle characterization for geothermal operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetter, O.J.; Kandarpa, V.

    1981-01-06

    A detailed summary of an ongoing evaluation of existing particle measuring methodology with emphasis on (a) adapting of existing methods in geothermal operations and (b) further development of existing instrumentation for field use is presented. The various instruments and methods used and/or suggested for particle characterization are described in detail. Theoretical and practical aspects of particle characterizations are outlined. A plan for further laboratory and field experiments is outlined. The instrumentations to be selected after some additional lab and field tests will be used in the studies on (a) formation damage through particle invasion and (b) characterizing and monitoring of particle suspensions in geothermal operations.

  13. Special features of SCF solid extraction of natural products: deoiling of wheat gluten and extraction of rose hip oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eggers R.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical CO2 extraction has shown great potential in separating vegetable oils as well as removing undesirable oil residuals from natural products. The influence of process parameters, such as pressure, temperature, mass flow and particle size, on the mass transfer kinetics of different natural products has been studied by many authors. However, few publications have focused on specific features of the raw material (moisture, mechanical pretreatment, bed compressibility, etc., which could play an important role, particularly in the scale-up of extraction processes. A review of the influence of both process parameters and specific features of the material on oilseed extraction is given in Eggers (1996. Mechanical pretreatment has been commonly used in order to facilitate mass transfer from the material into the supercritical fluid. However, small particle sizes, especially when combined with high moisture contents, may lead to inefficient extraction results. This paper focuses on the problems that appear during scale-up in processes on a lab to pilot or industrial plant scale related to the pretreatment of material, the control of initial water content and vessel shape. Two applications were studied: deoiling of wheat gluten with supercritical carbon dioxide to produce a totally oil-free (< 0.1 % oil powder (wheat gluten and the extraction of oil from rose hip seeds. Different ways of pretreating the feed material were successfully tested in order to develop an industrial-scale gluten deoiling process. The influence of shape and size of the fixed bed on the extraction results was also studied. In the case of rose hip seeds, the present work discusses the influence of pretreatment of the seeds prior to the extraction process on extraction kinetics.

  14. Automated Water Extraction Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feyisa, Gudina Legese; Meilby, Henrik; Fensholt, Rasmus;

    2014-01-01

    Classifying surface cover types and analyzing changes are among the most common applications of remote sensing. One of the most basic classification tasks is to distinguish water bodies from dry land surfaces. Landsat imagery is among the most widely used sources of data in remote sensing of water...... resources; and although several techniques of surface water extraction using Landsat data are described in the literature, their application is constrained by low accuracy in various situations. Besides, with the use of techniques such as single band thresholding and two-band indices, identifying...... an appropriate threshold yielding the highest possible accuracy is a challenging and time consuming task, as threshold values vary with location and time of image acquisition. The purpose of this study was therefore to devise an index that consistently improves water extraction accuracy in the presence...

  15. Extracting tag hierarchies

    CERN Document Server

    Tibély, Gergely; Vicsek, Tamás; Palla, Gergely

    2014-01-01

    Tagging items with descriptive annotations or keywords is a very natural way to compress and highlight information about the properties of the given entity. Over the years several methods have been proposed for extracting a hierarchy between the tags for systems with a "flat", egalitarian organization of the tags, which is very common when the tags correspond to free words given by numerous independent people. Here we present a complete framework for automated tag hierarchy extraction based on tag occurrence statistics. Along with proposing new algorithms, we are also introducing different quality measures enabling the detailed comparison of competing approaches from different aspects. Furthermore, we set up a synthetic, computer generated benchmark providing a versatile tool for testing, with a couple of tunable parameters capable of generating a wide range of test beds. Beside the computer generated input we also use real data in our studies, including a biological example with a pre-defined hierarchy betwe...

  16. Live facial feature extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO JieYu

    2008-01-01

    Precise facial feature extraction is essential to the high-level face recognition and expression analysis. This paper presents a novel method for the real-time geomet-ric facial feature extraction from live video. In this paper, the input image is viewed as a weighted graph. The segmentation of the pixels corresponding to the edges of facial components of the mouth, eyes, brows, and nose is implemented by means of random walks on the weighted graph. The graph has an 8-connected lattice structure and the weight value associated with each edge reflects the likelihood that a random walker will cross that edge. The random walks simulate an anisot-ropic diffusion process that filters out the noise while preserving the facial expres-sion pixels. The seeds for the segmentation are obtained from a color and motion detector. The segmented facial pixels are represented with linked lists in the origi-nal geometric form and grouped into different parts corresponding to facial com-ponents. For the convenience of implementing high-level vision, the geometric description of facial component pixels is further decomposed into shape and reg-istration information. Shape is defined as the geometric information that is invari-ant under the registration transformation, such as translation, rotation, and iso-tropic scale. Statistical shape analysis is carried out to capture global facial fea-tures where the Procrustes shape distance measure is adopted. A Bayesian ap-proach is used to incorporate high-level prior knowledge of face structure. Ex-perimental results show that the proposed method is capable of real-time extraction of precise geometric facial features from live video. The feature extraction is robust against the illumination changes, scale variation, head rotations, and hand inter-ference.

  17. Shibusa: extracting beauty

    OpenAIRE

    Adkins, Monty; Dickens, Pip

    2012-01-01

    Shibusa – Extracting Beauty celebrates a number of artistic endeavours: music, painting and the skill of making in general with particular reflection upon Japanese aesthetics. Composer, Monty Adkins and visual artist, Pip Dickens (through a Leverhulme Trust Award collaboration) investigate commonality and difference between the visual arts and music exploring aspects of rhythm, pattern, colour and vibration as well as outlining processes utilised to evolve new works within these practic...

  18. The Extractive Industries Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Halland, Havard; Lokanc, Martin; Nair, Arvind; Kannan, Sridar Padmanabhan

    2015-01-01

    The extractive industries (EI) sector occupies an outsize space in the economies of many developing countries. Economists, public finance professionals, and policy makers working in such countries are frequently confronted with issues that require an in-depth understanding of the sector. The objective of this volume is to provide a concise overview of EI-related topics these professionals are likely to encounter. The volume provides an overview of issues central to EI economics; discusses key...

  19. Suspended Particles: Their Role in Estuarine Biogeochemical Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, A.; Millward, G. E.

    2002-12-01

    gut. The extent of assimilation of solubilized chemical is then determined by its ability to pass the gut lining and partition into cytosolic material. In practice, KD and AE are determined experimentally by means of radiotracers added to contained suspensions or mesocosms, while operational measurement of bioavailability relies on in vitro chemical or biological (enzymatic) extraction of particles. What is lacking, however, and is identified as an ultimate goal of future research, is the ability to predict these parameters from theoretical principles and thermodynamic constants. Since many of the inherent interactions and mechanisms are controlled by particle composition and reactivity, a more immediate objective would be better characterization of the biogeochemical properties of suspended particles themselves. This includes chemical resolution of the bulk organic matter, definition of the abundance and synergistic effects of component sorbent phases, and determination of the effects of particle-seawater ion interactions on the reactivity of the particle surface.

  20. Stalking the ultimate particle

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    If you missed the ARTE programme entitled "L'Ultime Particule" broadcast in February, you have another chance to catch it in CERN's Main Auditorium on 13 March. "L'Ultime Particule" is a documentary by the French director Michel Andrieu that seeks to explain particle physics through a contemplative quest for the research physicists of matter of today and yesteryear. Invariably kitted out in a red parka and a soft hat, the programme's investigator scours the planet and the archives in search of the research physicists who are stalking the ultimate particle, the Higgs boson, in their quest to understand the structure of matter. Naturally enough, CERN is an important stage of his journey where Michel Andrieu and his team spent several days last year. Both from the physics and metaphysical points of view, "L'Ultime Particule" is worth seeing. The film's director, Michel Andrieu, will introduce his documentary and answer questions from the audience after the documentary has been shown. L'Ultime Particule by Mic...

  1. Particle physics experiments, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data taking for this experiment was completed in December 1983. The samples include approximately 19,000 (ν) and 11,000 (ν-bar) charged current events. These constitute the largest data set of interactions on free protons. Work published to date includes studies of inclusive structure functions and final state properties, exclusive final states, neutral current cross sections and production of strange and charmed particles. During the past year results have been published on the production of f2 (1270) and ν0 (770) mesons in ρp and ρ-barp charged current interactions. In the case of the f2 this represents the first observation of such production. It is found that the multiplicities are 0.047±0.017 in ρp and 0.17±0.018 in ρ-barp. The f2 mesons are mostly produced at large hadronic invariant mass W and in the forward hemisphere. The production of ν0 mesons can be observed with high statistics in both ρp and ρ-barp interactions and the differential cross section studied. The observations are compared with LUND Monte Carlo predictions, which are generally found to be too high. However qualitative features of the data are reproduced. Work continues on a precise determination of the neutral current/charged current ratio, on the study of charged and neutral current structure functions and on the production of strange particles. (author)

  2. On Particles and Primes

    CERN Document Server

    Knill, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Primes in the two complete associative normed division algebras C and H have affinities with structures seen in the standard model of particle physics. On the integers in the two algebras, there are two equivalence relations: a strong one, related to a U(1) and SU(3) symmetry allowing to permute and switch signs of the coordinates of the integers, as well as a weak relation with origins from units U(1),SU(2) in the algebra. Weak equivalence classes within the strong equivalence classes of odd primes in C case relate to leptons, the inert ones being neutrino like, and the split ones resembling electron-positron pairs. In the H case, for odd primes, the equivalence classes come in groups of two or three, leading to a caricature of hadrons featuring either mesons built by a quark pair or then baryons obtained by quark triplets. We can now list for every rational prime p all these particles and attach fractional charges to its constituents.

  3. Intermittency in particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis presents an analysis of intermittency as it appears in high energy multiparticle production. Momentum space particle distributions are scale invariant and fluctuate from events to events. This phenomenon originates from Hydrodynamics. Some results about hydrodynamics intermittency are by the way deduced using random diffusion processes and the Landau-Ginzburg equation. A phenomenological approach utilizing random cascading models is used to describe the morphology and intermittent features of particle distributions. Along these lines, a thorough study of random cascades is performed. The origin of intermittent fluctuation is to be found within the Framework of Quantum Field Theory. Indeed intermittency is intimately linked to the perturbative cascade of Quantum Chromodynamics. The long distance behaviour of perturbative QCD is intermittent at the leading collinear logarithm approximation. Moreover fluctuations of matter density along the rapidity axis suggest that the gluon cascade undergoes a phase transition towards a valley landscape where gluons are prone to get clumped within small regions. This is compatible with the so-called preconfinement

  4. Decoupling of supersymmetric particles

    CERN Document Server

    Dobado, A; Peñaranda, S

    1999-01-01

    The possibility of a heavy supersymmetric spectrum at the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model is considered and the decoupling from the low energy electroweak scale is analyzed in detail. The formal proof of decoupling of supersymmetric particles from low energy physics is stated in terms of the effective action for the particles of the Standard Model that results by integrating out all the sparticles in the limit where their masses are larger than the electroweak scale. The computation of the effective action for the standard electroweak gauge bosons W^{+-}, Z and \\gamma is performed by integrating out all the squarks, sleptons, charginos and neutralinos to one-loop. The Higgs sector is not considered in this paper. The large sparticle masses limit is also analyzed in detail. Explicit analytical formulae for the two-point functions of the electroweak gauge bosons to be valid in that limit are presented. Finally, the decoupling of sparticles in the S, T and U parameters is studied analitically. A discussion...

  5. A deep learning approach to single-particle recognition in cryo-electron microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Yanan; Mao, Youdong

    2016-01-01

    Particle extraction represents a major practical bottleneck in the structure determination of biological macromolecular complexes by single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM). We developed a deep learning-based algorithmic framework, DeepEM, for single-particle recognition from noisy cryo-EM micrographs, enabling automated particle picking, selection and verification in an integrated fashion. Our approach exhibits improved performance and high accuracy when tested on the standard KLH dataset as well as several challenging experimental cryo-EM datasets.

  6. Size dependent fluorescence tuning of naturally occurring betacyanin with silver nano particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Arindam; Thankappan, Aparna; Nampoori, V. P. N.

    2014-10-01

    Light absorption and scattering of metal nano partilces occur in very narrow range of wavelengths. This is also dependent on the geometry and shape of metal nano particles. It is also known that scattering is related to (volume)2 and absorption is related to the volume of the spherical metal nano particles. In our work we show that using this principle metal nano particles enable fluorescence tuning of dyes. In our experiment we show such tuning in naturally occurring betacyanin extracted from red beetroot. We also show that such tuning is dependent on the size variation of the silver nano particles.

  7. Particle therapy for noncancer diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bert, Christoph; Engenhart-Cabillic, Rita; Durante, Marco [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Biophysics Department, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Philipps-University Marburg, Center for Radiology, Department of Radiation Therapy, Baldinger Strasse, 35043 Marburg (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Biophysics Department, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Hochschulstrasse 3, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany) and Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Ruth-Moufang-Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2012-04-15

    Radiation therapy using high-energy charged particles is generally acknowledged as a powerful new technique in cancer treatment. However, particle therapy in oncology is still controversial, specifically because it is unclear whether the putative clinical advantages justify the high additional costs. However, particle therapy can find important applications in the management of noncancer diseases, especially in radiosurgery. Extension to other diseases and targets (both cranial and extracranial) may widen the applications of the technique and decrease the cost/benefit ratio of the accelerator facilities. Future challenges in this field include the use of different particles and energies, motion management in particle body radiotherapy and extension to new targets currently treated by catheter ablation (atrial fibrillation and renal denervation) or stereotactic radiation therapy (trigeminal neuralgia, epilepsy, and macular degeneration). Particle body radiosurgery could be a future key application of accelerator-based particle therapy facilities in 10 years from today.

  8. Plant extracts as radioprotectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several studies show that the extracts of some plants, namely containing vitamins or sulfide components, have radioprotection properties against the effects of ionizing radiation. In Syria, many of hates plants are available. This experiment was conducted in order to test the ability of ten different plants to protect against the radiation damages. These plants are Daucus carota L., Brassica oleracea L, Aloe vera L., Opuntia ficus-indica, Allium cepa L., Capsicum annuum L., Scilla maritima L., Allium sativum L., Rubus sanctus L. and Rosa canina L.Their effects on the protection of E. Coli growth after the exposure to L.D 50 of gamma radiation (100 Gy) were investigated . Two concentrations to each plant extract were tested, both were than 1%. Our results are indicating that the protection depend on plant. The radioprotection factors were ranged between 1.42 to 2.39. The best results were obtained by using the extract of Allium sativum L. (2.01), Opuntia ficus-indica (2.14) and Capsiucum annuum L. (2.39). (author) 16 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs

  9. Plant extracts as radioprotectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several studies show that the extracts of some plants, namely containing vitamins or sulfide components, have radioprotection properties against the effects of ionizing radiation. In Syria, many of hates plants are available. This experiment was conducted in order to test the ability of ten different plants to protect against the radiation damages. These plants are Daucus carota L., Brassica oleracea L, Aloe vera L., Opuntia ficus-indica, Allium cepa L., Capsicum annuum L., Scilla maritima L., Allium sativum L., Rubus sanctus L. and Rosa canina L.Their effects on the protection of E. Coli growth after the exposure to L.D 50 of gamma radiation (100 Gy) were investigated . Two concentrations to each plant extract were tested, both were than 1%. Our results are indicating that the protection depend on plant. The radioprotection factors were ranged between 1.42 to 2.39. The best results were obtained by using the extract of Allium sativum L. (2.01), Opuntia ficus-indica (2.14) and Capsiucum annuum L. (2.39). (author)

  10. Echo particle image velocimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMarchi, Nicholas; White, Christopher

    2012-12-27

    The transport of mass, momentum, and energy in fluid flows is ultimately determined by spatiotemporal distributions of the fluid velocity field.(1) Consequently, a prerequisite for understanding, predicting, and controlling fluid flows is the capability to measure the velocity field with adequate spatial and temporal resolution.(2) For velocity measurements in optically opaque fluids or through optically opaque geometries, echo particle image velocimetry (EPIV) is an attractive diagnostic technique to generate "instantaneous" two-dimensional fields of velocity.(3,4,5,6) In this paper, the operating protocol for an EPIV system built by integrating a commercial medical ultrasound machine(7) with a PC running commercial particle image velocimetry (PIV) software(8) is described, and validation measurements in Hagen-Poiseuille (i.e., laminar pipe) flow are reported. For the EPIV measurements, a phased array probe connected to the medical ultrasound machine is used to generate a two-dimensional ultrasound image by pulsing the piezoelectric probe elements at different times. Each probe element transmits an ultrasound pulse into the fluid, and tracer particles in the fluid (either naturally occurring or seeded) reflect ultrasound echoes back to the probe where they are recorded. The amplitude of the reflected ultrasound waves and their time delay relative to transmission are used to create what is known as B-mode (brightness mode) two-dimensional ultrasound images. Specifically, the time delay is used to determine the position of the scatterer in the fluid and the amplitude is used to assign intensity to the scatterer. The time required to obtain a single B-mode image, t, is determined by the time it take to pulse all the elements of the phased array probe. For acquiring multiple B-mode images, the frame rate of the system in frames per second (fps) = 1/δt. (See 9 for a review of ultrasound imaging.) For a typical EPIV experiment, the frame rate is between 20-60 fps

  11. Analysis of particle kinematics in spheronization via particle image velocimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koester, Martin; Thommes, Markus

    2013-02-01

    Spheronization is a wide spread technique in pellet production for many pharmaceutical applications. Pellets produced by spheronization are characterized by a particularly spherical shape and narrow size distribution. The particle kinematic during spheronization is currently not well-understood. Therefore, particle image velocimetry (PIV) was implemented in the spheronization process to visualize the particle movement and to identify flow patterns, in order to explain the influence of various process parameters. The spheronization process of a common formulation was recorded with a high-speed camera, and the images were processed using particle image velocimetry software. A crosscorrelation approach was chosen to determine the particle velocity at the surface of the pellet bulk. Formulation and process parameters were varied systematically, and their influence on the particle velocity was investigated. The particle stream shows a torus-like shape with a twisted rope-like motion. It is remarkable that the overall particle velocity is approximately 10-fold lower than the tip speed of the friction plate. The velocity of the particle stream can be correlated to the water content of the pellets and the load of the spheronizer, while the rotation speed was not relevant. In conclusion, PIV was successfully applied to the spheronization process, and new insights into the particle velocity were obtained.

  12. Metals separation using solvent extractants on magnetic microparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The magnetically assisted chemical separation program was initially funded by DOE EM-50 to develop processes for the efficient separation of radionuclides and other hazardous metals. This process has simulated the partnership between industry and ANL for many applications related to hazardous metal problems in industry. In-tank or near-tank hazardous metals separation using magnetic particles promises simple, compact processing at very low costs and employs mature chemical separations technologies to remove and recover hazardous metals from aqueous solutions. The selective chemical extractants are attached to inexpensive magnetic carrier particles. Surfaces of small particles composed of rare earths or ferromagnetic materials are treated to retain chemical extractants (e.g., TBP, CMPO, quaternary amines, carboxylic acid). After selective partitioning of contaminants to the surface layer, magnets are used to collect the loaded particles from the tank. The particles can be regenerated by stripping the contaminants and the selective metals can be recovered and recycled from the strip solution. This process and its related equipment are simple enough to be used for recovery/recycling and waste minimization activities at many industrial sites. Both the development of the process for hazardous and radioactive waste and the transfer of the technology will be discussed

  13. Strategy for selection of methods for separation of bioparticles from particle mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hee, P; Hoeben, M A; van der Lans, R G J M; van der Wielen, L A M

    2006-07-01

    The desired product of bioprocesses is often produced in particulate form, either as an inclusion body (IB) or as a crystal. Particle harvesting is then a crucial and attractive form of product recovery. Because the liquid phase often contains other bioparticles, such as cell debris, whole cells, particulate biocatalysts or particulate by-products, the recovery of product particles is a complex process. In most cases, the particulate product is purified using selective solubilization or extraction. However, if selective particle recovery is possible, the already high purity of the particles makes this downstream process more favorable. This work gives an overview of typical bioparticle mixtures that are encountered in industrial biotechnology and the various driving forces that may be used for particle-particle separation, such as the centrifugal force, the magnetic force, the electric force, and forces related to interfaces. By coupling these driving forces to the resisting forces, the limitations of using these driving forces with respect to particle size are calculated. It shows that centrifugation is not a general solution for particle-particle separation in biotechnology because the particle sizes of product and contaminating particles are often very small, thus, causing their settling velocities to be too low for efficient separation by centrifugation. Examples of such separation problems are the recovery of IBs or virus-like particles (VLPs) from (microbial) cell debris. In these cases, separation processes that use electrical forces or fluid-fluid interfaces show to have a large potential for particle-particle separation. These methods are not yet commonly applied for large-scale particle-particle separation in biotechnology and more research is required on the separation techniques and on particle characterization to facilitate successful application of these methods in industry. PMID:16570310

  14. Study on non-saponification extraction process for rare earth separation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Yanfei; LONG Zhiqi; HUANG Xiaowei; FENG Zongyu; CUI Dali; WANG Liangshi

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to overcome the disadvantages of ammonia-nitrogen wastewater pollution and high cost of sodium saponification in rare earth separation process.The study focused on the non-saponification extraction technology with magnesia.The influences of the content and particle size of magnesia,reaction time,reaction temperature,and O/A on cerium extraction rate were also discussed.The results showed that the hydrogen ions of extractant were exchanged by rare earth ions when organic extractant and rare earth solution were mixed with magnesia powder,and then the exchanged hydrogen dissolved magnesia to make the acidity of the system stable.The magnesium ions were not participated in the extraction reaction.Non-saponification extraction process of rare earth had been realized.The cerium extraction rate could reach up to 99% in single stage within the optimal reaction conditions.

  15. Waveform feature extraction algorithms for IceCube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IceCube Neutrino Observatory at South Pole consists of digital optical modules (DOMs) deep down in the ice equipped with photomultipliers to capture Cherenkov light induced by muons and other particles. These DOMs digitize the analogue pulse shapes of the photomultiplier signals. The large amount of information has to be condensed for later particle track and energy reconstructions. This talk presents a new framework (the NewFeatureExtractor) to extract the arrival times and the number of photons. Three algorithms have been implemented in this framework to analyze different types of waveforms. Their performance is tested by comparison between experimental and simulated data and by comparison with earlier algorithms.

  16. Effect of Hydrothermal Extraction Condition on The Content of Phenolic Compound Extracted from Rind of Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana and Its Antioxidant Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qifni Yasa Ash Shiddiqi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Xanthone is an antioxidant compound contained in the rind of mangosteen. There are some methods to extract Xanthone from rind of mangosteen, and one of them is hydrothermal extraction. Hydrothermal extraction is a method to obtain xanthone from rind of mangosteen using water at teIn this work, the effect of extraction temperature, pressure, and mode (batch and continuous, and particle size of starting material on the yield and recovery of extracted xanthone and phenolic compounds was investigated. Extraction was carried out at various temperatures (120, 150, and 180oC and pressures (1, 3, and 5 MPa and constant flow rate of 1 mL/min. The xanthone content and antioxidant efficiency of extract was examined by using spectrophotometer, while the concentration of total phenolic compounds in the extract was determined with folin ciocalteu reagent and examined using spectrophotometer In order to confirm the extracted phenolic compounds, the extract residue was analyzed by using FTIR. The experimental result showed that the increase in pressure and temperature caused an increase in total phenolic compound concentration and yield of xanthone. In addition, the result also showed that antioxidant activities were observed in the extract of mangosteen rind.

  17. An Effective Vacuum Assisted Extraction Method for the Optimization of Labdane Diterpenoids from Andrographis paniculata by Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Qi Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An effective vacuum assisted extraction (VAE technique was proposed for the first time and applied to extract bioactive components from Andrographis paniculata. The process was carefully optimized by response surface methodology (RSM. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the best results were obtained using a boiling temperature of 65 °C, 50% ethanol concentration, 16 min of extraction time, one extraction cycles and a 12:1 liquid-solid ratio. Compared with conventional ultrasonic assisted extraction and heat reflux extraction, the VAE technique gave shorter extraction times and remarkable higher extraction efficiency, which indicated that a certain degree of vacuum gave the solvent a better penetration of the solvent into the pores and between the matrix particles, and enhanced the process of mass transfer. The present results demonstrated that VAE is an efficient, simple and fast method for extracting bioactive components from A. paniculata, which shows great potential for becoming an alternative technique for industrial scale-up applications.

  18. Dissipative Particle Dynamics of Tension-induced Membrane Fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Grafmueller, Andrea; Lipowsky, Reinhard; Shillcock, Julian C.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Recent studies of tension-induced membrane fusion using dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulations are briefly reviewed. The stochastic nature of the fusion process makes it necessary to simulate a large number of fusion attempts in order to obtain reliable fusion statistics and to extract meaningful values for the fusion probability and the average fusion times. All successful fusion events follow the same pathway. In this fusion pathway, configurations of individual...

  19. Extraction of rebaudioside-A by sonication from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni leaf and decolorization of the extract by polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasmalla, Mohammed Abdalbasit A; Yang, Ruijin; Hua, Xiao

    2015-09-01

    Optimization of steviol glycosides extraction from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni leaf was carried out by investigating the effects of isopropyl alcohol concentration (60 %, v/v), time (6-24 min), temperature (30 °C) and sonic power (300-480 W) on extraction of rebaudioside A from Stevia rebaudiana leaves and decolorization of the extract by polymer (Separan AP30 and Resin ADS-7). The results showed that isopropyl alcohol was suitable for the extraction of rebaudioside A from Stevia rebaudiana leaves and the yield of rebaudioside A achieved 35.61 g/100 g when the output power was 360 W and treatment time was 18 min. The sonication had influence on the particle size of stevia leaf and the color of the extracted solution. As the sonication intensity increased, the particle size decreased. The colour of differently treated stevia solutions were significantly different (P < 0.05). Separan AP30 and adsorption resin ADS-7 were performed to remove the colour impurity. The results showed that more than 65 % of the coloured impurity was removed by Separan AP30 combined with Calcium oxide (CaO).

  20. Extraction of rebaudioside-A by sonication from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni leaf and decolorization of the extract by polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasmalla, Mohammed Abdalbasit A; Yang, Ruijin; Hua, Xiao

    2015-09-01

    Optimization of steviol glycosides extraction from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni leaf was carried out by investigating the effects of isopropyl alcohol concentration (60 %, v/v), time (6-24 min), temperature (30 °C) and sonic power (300-480 W) on extraction of rebaudioside A from Stevia rebaudiana leaves and decolorization of the extract by polymer (Separan AP30 and Resin ADS-7). The results showed that isopropyl alcohol was suitable for the extraction of rebaudioside A from Stevia rebaudiana leaves and the yield of rebaudioside A achieved 35.61 g/100 g when the output power was 360 W and treatment time was 18 min. The sonication had influence on the particle size of stevia leaf and the color of the extracted solution. As the sonication intensity increased, the particle size decreased. The colour of differently treated stevia solutions were significantly different (P < 0.05). Separan AP30 and adsorption resin ADS-7 were performed to remove the colour impurity. The results showed that more than 65 % of the coloured impurity was removed by Separan AP30 combined with Calcium oxide (CaO). PMID:26345012

  1. Particle detachment from fluid interfaces: theory vs. experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anachkov, Svetoslav E; Lesov, Ivan; Zanini, Michele; Kralchevsky, Peter A; Denkov, Nikolai D; Isa, Lucio

    2016-09-28

    Microparticle adsorption and self-assembly at fluid interfaces are strongly affected by the particle three-phase contact angle θ. On the single-particle level, θ can be determined by several techniques, including colloidal-probe AFM, the gel-trapping technique (GTT) and the freeze-fracture shadow-casting (FreSCa) method. While GTT and FreSCa provide contact angle distributions measured over many particles, colloidal-probe AFM measures the wettability of an individual (specified) particle attached onto an AFM cantilever. In this paper, we extract θ for smooth microparticles through the analysis of force-distance curves upon particle approach and retraction from the fluid interface. From each retraction curve, we determine: (i) the maximal force, Fmax; (ii) the detachment distance, Dmax; and (iii) the work for quasistatic detachment, W. To relate Fmax, Dmax and W to θ, we developed a detailed theoretical model based on the capillary theory of flotation. The model was validated in three different ways. First, the contact angles, evaluated from Fmax, Dmax and W, are all close in value and were used to calculate the entire force-distance curves upon particle retraction without any adjustable parameters. Second, the model was successfully applied to predict the experimental force-distance curve of a truncated sphere, whose cut is positioned below the point of particle detachment from the interface. Third, our theory was confirmed by the excellent agreement between the particle contact angles obtained from the colloidal-probe AFM data and the ensemble-average contact angles measured by both GTT and FreSCa. Additionally, we devised a very accurate closed-form expression for W (representing the energy barrier for particle detachment), thus extending previous results in the literature.

  2. AGRICULTURAL USES OF SEAWEEDS EXTRACTS

    OpenAIRE

    Monica Popescu

    2013-01-01

    Marine bioactive substances extracted from seaweed are currently used in food, animal feed, as a raw material in the industry and have therapeutic applications. Most of the products based on marine algae are extracted from Brown algae Ascophyllum nodosum. The use of extracts of seaweed in agriculture is beneficial because the amount of chemical fertilizers and obtaining organic yield.

  3. AGRICULTURAL USES OF SEAWEEDS EXTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Popescu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Marine bioactive substances extracted from seaweed are currently used in food, animal feed, as a raw material in the industry and have therapeutic applications. Most of the products based on marine algae are extracted from Brown algae Ascophyllum nodosum. The use of extracts of seaweed in agriculture is beneficial because the amount of chemical fertilizers and obtaining organic yield.

  4. Challenges in Managing Information Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Warren H.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation studies information extraction (IE), the problem of extracting structured information from unstructured data. Example IE tasks include extracting person names from news articles, product information from e-commerce Web pages, street addresses from emails, and names of emerging music bands from blogs. IE is all increasingly…

  5. SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF URANIUM VALUES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feder, H.M.; Ader, M.; Ross, L.E.

    1959-02-01

    A process is presented for extracting uranium salt from aqueous acidic solutions by organic solvent extraction. It consists in contacting the uranium bearing solution with a water immiscible dialkylacetamide having at least 8 carbon atoms in the molecule. Mentioned as a preferred extractant is dibutylacetamide. The organic solvent is usually used with a diluent such as kerosene or CCl/sub 4/.

  6. Parasitic slow extraction of extremely weak beam from a high-intensity proton rapid cycling synchrotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Ye [University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230029 (China); Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS, Yuquan Road 19B, Beijing 100049 (China); Tang, Jingyu, E-mail: tangjy@ihep.ac.cn [University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230029 (China); Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS, Yuquan Road 19B, Beijing 100049 (China); Yang, Zheng; Jing, Hantao [Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS, Yuquan Road 19B, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2014-02-11

    This paper proposes a novel method to extract extremely weak beam from a high-intensity proton rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS) in the parasitic mode, while maintaining the normal fast extraction. The usual slow extraction method from a synchrotron by employing third-order resonance cannot be applied in a high-intensity RCS due to a very short flat-top at the extraction energy and the strict control on beam loss. The proposed parasitic slow extraction method moves the beam to scrape a scattering foil prior to the fast beam extraction by employing either a local orbit bump or momentum deviation or their combination, so that the halo part of the beam will be scattered. A part of the scattered particles will be extracted from the RCS and guided to the experimental area. The slow extraction process can last about a few milliseconds before the beam is extracted by the fast extraction system. The method has been applied to the RCS of China Spallation Neutron Source. With 1.6 GeV in the extraction energy, 62.5 μA in the average current and 25 Hz in the repetition rate for the RCS, the proton intensity by the slow extraction method can be up to 2×10{sup 4} protons per cycle or 5×10{sup 5} protons per second. The extracted beam has also a good time structure of approximately uniform in a spill which is required for many applications such as detector tests. Detailed studies including the scattering effect in the foil, the local orbit bump by the bump magnets and dispersive orbit bump by modifying the RF pattern, the multi-particle simulations by ORBIT and TURTLE codes, and some technical features for the extraction magnets are presented.

  7. Parasitic slow extraction of extremely weak beam from a high-intensity proton rapid cycling synchrotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Ye; Tang, Jingyu; Yang, Zheng; Jing, Hantao

    2014-02-01

    This paper proposes a novel method to extract extremely weak beam from a high-intensity proton rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS) in the parasitic mode, while maintaining the normal fast extraction. The usual slow extraction method from a synchrotron by employing third-order resonance cannot be applied in a high-intensity RCS due to a very short flat-top at the extraction energy and the strict control on beam loss. The proposed parasitic slow extraction method moves the beam to scrape a scattering foil prior to the fast beam extraction by employing either a local orbit bump or momentum deviation or their combination, so that the halo part of the beam will be scattered. A part of the scattered particles will be extracted from the RCS and guided to the experimental area. The slow extraction process can last about a few milliseconds before the beam is extracted by the fast extraction system. The method has been applied to the RCS of China Spallation Neutron Source. With 1.6 GeV in the extraction energy, 62.5 μA in the average current and 25 Hz in the repetition rate for the RCS, the proton intensity by the slow extraction method can be up to 2×104 protons per cycle or 5×105 protons per second. The extracted beam has also a good time structure of approximately uniform in a spill which is required for many applications such as detector tests. Detailed studies including the scattering effect in the foil, the local orbit bump by the bump magnets and dispersive orbit bump by modifying the RF pattern, the multi-particle simulations by ORBIT and TURTLE codes, and some technical features for the extraction magnets are presented.

  8. Particle transport and deposition: basic physics of particle kinetics

    OpenAIRE

    Tsuda, Akira; Henry, Frank S.; Butler, James P.

    2013-01-01

    The human body interacts with the environment in many different ways. The lungs interact with the external environment through breathing. The enormously large surface area of the lung with its extremely thin air-blood barrier is exposed to particles suspended in the inhaled air. Whereas the particle-lung interaction may cause deleterious effects on health if the inhaled pollutant aerosols are toxic, this interaction can be beneficial for disease treatment if the inhaled particles are therapeu...

  9. Anomalous dispersions of `hedgehog' particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahng, Joong Hwan; Yeom, Bongjun; Wang, Yichun; Tung, Siu On; Hoff, J. Damon; Kotov, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Hydrophobic particles in water and hydrophilic particles in oil aggregate, but can form colloidal dispersions if their surfaces are chemically camouflaged with surfactants, organic tethers, adsorbed polymers or other particles that impart affinity for the solvent and increase interparticle repulsion. A different strategy for modulating the interaction between a solid and a liquid uses surface corrugation, which gives rise to unique wetting behaviour. Here we show that this topographical effect can also be used to disperse particles in a wide range of solvents without recourse to chemicals to camouflage the particles' surfaces: we produce micrometre-sized particles that are coated with stiff, nanoscale spikes and exhibit long-term colloidal stability in both hydrophilic and hydrophobic media. We find that these `hedgehog' particles do not interpenetrate each other with their spikes, which markedly decreases the contact area between the particles and, therefore, the attractive forces between them. The trapping of air in aqueous dispersions, solvent autoionization at highly developed interfaces, and long-range electrostatic repulsion in organic media also contribute to the colloidal stability of our particles. The unusual dispersion behaviour of our hedgehog particles, overturning the notion that like dissolves like, might help to mitigate adverse environmental effects of the use of surfactants and volatile organic solvents, and deepens our understanding of interparticle interactions and nanoscale colloidal chemistry.

  10. Formation of Bidisperse Particle Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Er, Jenn Wei; Zhao, Bing; Law, Adrian W. K.; Adams, E. Eric

    2014-11-01

    When a group of dense particles is released instantaneously into water, their motion has been conceptualized as a circulating particle thermal (Ruggerber 2000). However, Wen and Nacamuli (1996) observed the formation of particle clumps characterized by a narrow, fast moving core shedding particles into wakes. They observed the clump formation even for particles in the non-cohesive range as long as the source Rayleigh number was large (Ra > 1E3) or equivalently the source cloud number (Nc) was small (Nc < 3.2E2). This physical phenomenon has been investigated by Zhao et al. (2014) through physical experiments. They proposed the theoretical support for Nc dependence and categorized the formation processes into cloud formation, transitional regime and clump formation. Previous works focused mainly on the behavior of monodisperse particles. The present study further extends the experimental investigation to the formation process of bidisperse particles. Experiments are conducted in a glass tank with a water depth of 90 cm. Finite amounts of sediments with various weight proportions between coarser and finer particles are released from a cylindrical tube. The Nc being tested ranges from 6E-3 to 9.9E-2, which covers all the three formation regimes. The experimental results showed that the introduction of coarse particles promotes cloud formation and reduce the losses of finer particles into the wake. More quantitative descriptions of the effects of source conditions on the formation processes will be presented during the conference.

  11. Particles and nuclei, letters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present collection of letters from JINR, Dubna, contains eight separate records on independent yields of Xe isotopes at photofission of 232Th and 238U, importance of dark matter for LHC physics, the search and study of the resonances in the system of π+π- - mesons from the reaction np → npπ+π- at Pn = 5.20 GeV/c, 'γ + jet' events rate estimation for gluon distribution determination at LHC, extraction of protons with the energy of 35 MeV from the upgraded AIC-144 cyclotron, charge exchange injection for Nuclotron and Nuclotron booster, the effect of electromagnetic interactions on the proton spectrum in free neutron β-decay and accelerator and reactor

  12. The Particle Cleanliness Validation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stowers, I.F.; Ravizza, D.L.

    2001-12-21

    The Particle Cleanliness Validation System (PCVS) is a combination of a surface particle collection tool and a microscope based data, reduction system for determining the particle cleanliness of mechanical and optical surfaces at LLNL. Livermore is currently constructing the National Ignition Facility (NIF), a large 192 beam laser system for studying fusion physics. The laser is entirely enclosed. in aluminum and stainless steel vessels containing several environments; air, argon, and vacuum. It contains uncoated optics as well as hard dielectric coated and softer solgel coated optics which are, to varying degrees, sensitive to opaque particles, translucent particles, and molecular contamination. To quantify the particulate matter on structural surfaces during vendor cleaning and installation, a novel instrument has been developed to-both collect surface particles and to quantify the number and size distribution of these particles. The particles are collected on membrane filter paper which is ''swiped'' on a test surface for a proscribed distance to collect sufficient particles to significantly exceed the cleanliness of the filter paper. The swipe paper is then placed into a cassette for protection from further. contamination and transported to a microscope with x-y motorized stage and image analysis software, The surface of the swipe paper is scanned to determine both the background particle level of the paper, the cassette cover, and the portion of the paper which made contact with the test surface. The cumulative size distribution of the collected particles are displayed in size bins from 5 to 200 {micro}m. The quantity of particles exceeding 5 {micro}m is used to compute the IEST-STD-1246D cleanliness Level. Eight image analysis microscopes have been constructed for use with several dozen particle collection tools. About 30,000 cleanliness measurements have been taken to assure the clean construction and operation of the NIF laser system.

  13. Particles in Pores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Hao

    injection, and deep bed filtration during waste water treatment. The current thesis aims at better understanding the transport and fate of colloids in porous media. A number of methodologies have been applied in this study, such as developing new mathematical models for colloid filtration, comparing...... of detachment exceeding those of attachment. Bearing such a criterion in mind, the erosion of external cake, the migration of surface-associated colloids during one phase flow, and the migration of reservoir fines during two-phase flow are studied in similar fashions (Chapters 4, 5, 6). The erosion of external...... by increasing the sweep efficiency (Chapter 6). 5. Another important mechanism for particle capture is straining or size exclusion of colloids. Such phenomena are closely tied to the migration of colloids under unfavorable attachment conditions: surface-associated colloids rolling to straining sites (grain...

  14. Particles and Nuclei, Letters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present collection of letters from JINR, Dubna, contains eight separate letters on analysis of experimental data on relativistic nuclear collisions in the Lobachevski space, relativistic contribution of the final-state interaction to deuteron photodisintegration, on the charge asymmetry of the like-sign lepton pairs induced by B - B bar - production asymmetry, limits on the νe → νe neutrino oscillation parameters from an experiment at the IHEP-JINR neutrino detector, excitation of high spin isomers in photonuclear reactions, study of product formation in proton-nuclear reactions on the 129I target induced by 660-MeV protons, application of jet pumps in the cryogenic system of the Nuclotron - superconducting accelerator of relativistic particles and study of the silicon drift detector performance with inclined tracks

  15. [Medium energy particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigations currently carried out by the UCLA Particle Physics Research Group can be arranged into four programs: Pion-Nucleon Scattering; Tests of Charge Symmetry and Isospin Invariance; Light Nuclei (Strong Form Factors of 3H, 3He, 4He; Detailed Balance in pd right reversible γ3H; Interaction Dynamics); and Search for the Rare Decay Μ+ → e+ + γ (MEGA). The general considerations which led to the choice of physics problems investigated by our group are given in the next section. We also outline the scope of the research being done which includes over a dozen experiments. The main body of this report details the research carried out in the past year, the status of various experiments, and new projects

  16. Research in particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research accomplishments and current activities of Boston University researchers in high energy physics are presented. Principal areas of activity include the following: detectors for studies of electron endash positron annihilation in colliding beams; advanced accelerator component design, including the superconducting beam inflector, electrostatic quadrupoles, and the ''electrostatic muon kicker''; the detector for the MACRO (Monopole, Astrophysics, and Cosmic Ray Observatory) experiment; neutrino astrophysics and the search for proton decay; theoretical particle physics (electroweak and flavor symmetry breaking, hadron collider phenomenology, cosmology and astrophysics, new field-theoretic models, nonperturbative investigations of quantum field theories, electroweak interactions); measurement of the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon; calorimetry for the GEM experiment; and muon detectors for the GEM experiment at the Superconducting Super Collider

  17. Ultrafine particles in cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prashant; Morawska, Lidia; Birmili, Wolfram; Paasonen, Pauli; Hu, Min; Kulmala, Markku; Harrison, Roy M; Norford, Leslie; Britter, Rex

    2014-05-01

    Ultrafine particles (UFPs; diameter less than 100 nm) are ubiquitous in urban air, and an acknowledged risk to human health. Globally, the major source for urban outdoor UFP concentrations is motor traffic. Ongoing trends towards urbanisation and expansion of road traffic are anticipated to further increase population exposure to UFPs. Numerous experimental studies have characterised UFPs in individual cities, but an integrated evaluation of emissions and population exposure is still lacking. Our analysis suggests that the average exposure to outdoor UFPs in Asian cities is about four-times larger than that in European cities but impacts on human health are largely unknown. This article reviews some fundamental drivers of UFP emissions and dispersion, and highlights unresolved challenges, as well as recommendations to ensure sustainable urban development whilst minimising any possible adverse health impacts. PMID:24503484

  18. Charged-particle coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced target designs require thicker (approx. 300 μm) coatings and better surface finishes that can be produced with current coating techniques. An advanced coating technique is proposed to provide maximum control of the coating flux and optimum manipulation of the shell during processing. In this scheme a small beam of ions or particles of known incident energy are collided with a levitated spherical mandrel. Precise control of the incident energy and angle of the deposition flux optimizes the control of the coating morphology while controlled rotation and noncontact support of the shell minimizes the possibility of particulate or damage generated defects. Almost infinite variability of the incident energy and material in this process provides increased flexibility of the target designs which can be physically realized

  19. Developments in Particle Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Virdee, Tejinder S

    2001-01-01

    From the many recent developments in particle detectors we select some of the major and challenging ones. The selected developments are primarily those necessitated by the harsh environment of the LHC. The presentations made in the parallel sessions of this conference are mostly placed in the context of these developments. This includes those connected with two new experiments concepts which were presented namely: TESLA and BTeV. From the inner tracking we look at pixel detectors, silicon microstrip detectors and microstrip gas detectors; from calorimetry we consider PbWO4 scintillating crystals and the 'accordion' liquid argon calorimeter; from the muon systems we consider monitored drift tubes (MDTs), thin-gap chambers (TGCs) and resistive plate chambers (RPCs). Another subject covered, and much reported in the parallel sessions, is that of photodetectors including avalanche photodiode s (APDs), vacuum phototriodes (VPTs), hybrid photodiodes (HPDs) and visible light photon detectors (VLPCs). Finally the imp...

  20. C++ for Particle Physicists

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2004-01-01

    Please note that Paul Kunz will be giving his very popular and highly recommended C++ course again on 15 �- 19 November. The course costs 200 CHF, and advance registration is required. People with CERN EDH accounts can apply electronically directly from the Web course description page: Team Visitors should ask their Group Leader to send an e-mail to the DTO of PH Department, M. Burri, referring to the 'C++ for Particle Physicists' course and giving their name, CERN ID number, the Team account number to which the course fee should be charged, and VERY IMPORTANTLY an email address to which an invitation to the course can be sent. ENSEIGNEMENT TECHNIQUE TECHNICAL TRAINING Monique Duval 74924 technical.training@cern.ch

  1. C++ for Particle Physicists

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2004-01-01

    Please note that Paul Kunz will be giving his very popular and highly recommended C++ course again on 15 - 19 November. The course costs 200 CHF, and advance registration is required. People with CERN EDH accounts can apply electronically directly from the Web course description page: Team Visitors should ask their Group Leader to send an e-mail to the DTO of PH Department, M. Burri, referring to the 'C++ for Particle Physicists' course and giving their name, CERN ID number, the Team account number to which the course fee should be charged, and VERY IMPORTANTLY an email address to which an invitation to the course can be sent. ENSEIGNEMENT TECHNIQUE TECHNICAL TRAINING Monique Duval 74924 technical.training@cern.ch

  2. Particle processing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshio, Sakka

    2014-02-01

    In recent years, there has been strong demand for the development of novel devices and equipment that support advanced industries including IT/semiconductors, the environment, energy and aerospace along with the achievement of higher efficiency and reduced environmental impact. Many studies have been conducted on the fabrication of innovative inorganic materials with novel individual properties and/or multifunctional properties including electrical, dielectric, thermal, optical, chemical and mechanical properties through the development of particle processing. The fundamental technologies that are key to realizing such materials are (i) the synthesis of nanoparticles with uniform composition and controlled crystallite size, (ii) the arrangement/assembly and controlled dispersion of nanoparticles with controlled particle size, (iii) the precise structural control at all levels from micrometer to nanometer order and (iv) the nanostructural design based on theoretical/experimental studies of the correlation between the local structure and the functions of interest. In particular, it is now understood that the application of an external stimulus, such as magnetic energy, electrical energy and/or stress, to a reaction field is effective in realizing advanced particle processing [1-3]. This special issue comprises 12 papers including three review papers. Among them, seven papers are concerned with phosphor particles, such as silicon, metals, Si3N4-related nitrides, rare-earth oxides, garnet oxides, rare-earth sulfur oxides and rare-earth hydroxides. In these papers, the effects of particle size, morphology, dispersion, surface states, dopant concentration and other factors on the optical properties of phosphor particles and their applications are discussed. These nanoparticles are classified as zero-dimensional materials. Carbon nanotubes (CNT) and graphene are well-known one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) materials, respectively. This special issue also

  3. Particle acceleration by pulsars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evidence that pulsars accelerate relativistic particles is reviewed, with emphasis on the γ-ray observations. The current state of knowledge of acceleration in strong waves is summarized, with emphasis on the inability of consistent theories to accelerate very high energy particles without converting too much energy into high energy photons. The state of viable models for pair creation by pulsars is summarized, with the conclusion that pulsars very likely lose rotational energy in winds instead of in superluminous strong waves. The relation of the pair creation models to γ-ray observations and to soft X-ray observations of pulsars is outlined, with the conclusion that energetically viable models may exist, but none have yet yielded useful agreement with the extant data. Some paths for overcoming present problems are discussed. The relation of the favored models to cosmic rays is discussed. It is pointed out that the pairs made by the models may have observable consequences for observation of positrons in the local cosmic ray flux and for observations of the 511 keV line from the interstellar medium. Another new point is that asymmetry of plasma supply from at least one of the models may qualitatively explain the gross asymmetry of the X-ray emission from the Crab nebula. It is also argued that acceleration of cosmic ray nuclei by pulsars, while energetically possible, can occur only at the boundary of the bubbles blown by the pulsars, if the cosmic ray composition is to be anything like that of the known source spectrum

  4. Solid state speciation and potential bioavailability of depleted uranium particles from Kosovo and Kuwait

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lind, O.C. [Isotope Laboratory, Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 As (Norway)], E-mail: ole-christian.lind@umb.no; Salbu, B.; Skipperud, L. [Isotope Laboratory, Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 As (Norway); Janssens, K.; Jaroszewicz, J.; De Nolf, W. [Department of Chemistry, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, Antwerp (Belgium)

    2009-04-15

    A combination of synchrotron radiation based X-ray microscopic techniques ({mu}-XRF, {mu}-XANES, {mu}-XRD) applied on single depleted uranium (DU) particles and semi-bulk leaching experiments has been employed to link the potential bioavailability of DU particles to site-specific particle characteristics. The oxidation states and crystallographic forms of U in DU particles have been determined for individual particles isolated from selected samples collected at different sites in Kosovo and Kuwait that were contaminated by DU ammunition during the 1999 Balkan conflict and the 1991 Gulf war. Furthermore, small soil or sand samples heavily contaminated with DU particles were subjected to simulated gastrointestinal fluid (0.16 M HCl) extractions. Characteristics of DU particles in Kosovo soils collected in 2000 and in Kuwait soils collected in 2002 varied significantly depending on the release scenario and to some extent on weathering conditions. Oxidized U (+6) was determined in large, fragile and bright yellow DU particles released during fire at a DU ammunition storage facility and crystalline phases such as schoepite (UO{sub 3}.2.25H{sub 2}O), dehydrated schoepite (UO{sub 3}.0.75H{sub 2}O) and metaschoepite (UO{sub 3}.2.0H{sub 2}O) were identified. As expected, these DU particles were rapidly dissolved in 0.16 M HCl (84 {+-} 3% extracted after 2 h) indicating a high degree of potential mobility and bioavailability. In contrast, the 2 h extraction of samples contaminated with DU particles originating either from corrosion of unspent DU penetrators or from impacted DU ammunition appeared to be much slower (20-30%) as uranium was less oxidized (+4 to +6). Crystalline phases such as UO{sub 2}, UC and metallic U or U-Ti alloy were determined in impacted DU particles from Kosovo and Kuwait, while the UO{sub 2,34} phase, only determined in particles from Kosovo, could reflect a more corrosive environment. Although the results are based on a limited number of DU particles

  5. Natural Dye Extracts of Areca Catechu Nut as dye Sensitizer for Titanium dioxide Based Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    P. Murugakoothan; S. Ananth; P. Vivek; T. Arumanayagam

    2014-01-01

    A dye sensitized solar cell was fabricated using titanium dioxide nano particles sensitized by a new natural dye extracted from areca catechu nut. The natural dye extract contains tannin which is rich in gallotannic acid. The pure titanium dioxide nano particles in anatase phase were synthesized by sol-gel technique and were sensitized by the natural dye to yield photo anode material. The Powder X-Ray Diffraction, UV-vis spectra, Fourier Transform Infra Red spectroscopy, Energy Dispersive X- ...

  6. Two particle correlations from relativistic nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two particle correlations at low relative momentum have been examined using the Plastic Ball detector for the system 400 MeV/nucleon Ca + Ca. The unbound 5Li ground state yield has been extracted from the p-4He correlation and compared with a Chemical Equilibrium model along with the yield of light bound clusters. Source-size radii were measured for both Ca + Ca and Nb + Nb, at 400 MeV/nucleon from p-p correlations. The radii were found to have a cube-root dependence on the proton multiplicity of the event and the deduced thermal freezeout density was found to be about 25% of normal nuclear matter density. 15 references, 8 figures

  7. Two particle correlations from relativistic nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two particle correlations at low relative momentum have been examined using the Plastic Ball detector for the system 400 MeV/nucleon Ca + Ca. The unbound 5Li ground state yield has been extracted from the p-4He correlation and compared with a Chemical Equilibrium model along with the yield of light bound clusters. Source-size radii were measured for both Ca + Ca and Nb + Nb, at 400 MeV/nucleon from p-p correlations. The radii were found to have a cube-root dependence on the proton multiplicity of the event and the deduced thermal freezeout density was found to be about 25% of normal nuclear matter density. (orig.)

  8. Advanced analysis methods in particle physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhat, Pushpalatha C.; /Fermilab

    2010-10-01

    Each generation of high energy physics experiments is grander in scale than the previous - more powerful, more complex and more demanding in terms of data handling and analysis. The spectacular performance of the Tevatron and the beginning of operations of the Large Hadron Collider, have placed us at the threshold of a new era in particle physics. The discovery of the Higgs boson or another agent of electroweak symmetry breaking and evidence of new physics may be just around the corner. The greatest challenge in these pursuits is to extract the extremely rare signals, if any, from huge backgrounds arising from known physics processes. The use of advanced analysis techniques is crucial in achieving this goal. In this review, I discuss the concepts of optimal analysis, some important advanced analysis methods and a few examples. The judicious use of these advanced methods should enable new discoveries and produce results with better precision, robustness and clarity.

  9. Radiolysis and hydrolysis of magnetically assisted chemical separation particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The magnetically assisted chemical separation (MACS) process is designed to separate transuranic (TRU) elements out of high-level waste (HLW) or TRU waste. Magnetic microparticles (1--25 μm) were coated with octyl (phenyl)N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) dissolved in tributyl phosphate (TBP) and tested for removing TRU elements from acidic nitrate solutions. The particles were contacted with nitric acid solutions and Hanford plutonium finishing plant (PFP) simulant, irradiated with a high intensity 60Co γ-ray source, and evaluated for effectiveness in removing TRU elements from 2m HNO3 solutions. The resistance of the coatings and magnetic cores to radiolytic damage and hydrolytic degradation was investigated by irradiating samples of particles suspended in a variety of solutions with doses of up to 5 Mrad. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), magnetic susceptibility measurements, and physical observations of the particles and suspension solutions were used to assess physical changes to the particles. Processes that affect the surface of the particles dramatically alter the binding sites for TRU in solution. Hydrolysis played a larger role than radiolysis in the degradation of the extraction capacity of the particles

  10. Immersion freezing of biological particles at LACIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauss, T.; Hartmann, S.; Temkiv, T. S.; Augustin, S.; Gosewinkel Karlson, U.; Sahyoun, M. M.; Niedermeier, D.; Wex, H.; Voigtländer, J.; Raddatz, M.; Stratmann, F.

    2012-04-01

    Biological particles, especially bacteria being ubiquitous in the atmosphere, belong to the most efficient ice nuclei (IN) (Möhler, 2008) and hence might have a large impact on weather and climate. In this study, the immersion freezing behavior of different size segregated biological particles is investigated at the laminar flow tube LACIS (Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator, Hartmann et al., 2011). For these experiments, SNOMAX and outer membrane vesicles (OMV) are used as IN. SNOMAX industrially produced from Pseudomonas-syringae bacteria, which are very ice nucleation active, can be seen as a proxy for ice nucleating bacteria in general. On the surface of these bacteria, ice nucleating proteins that initiate the freezing are situated (Maki et al., 1974). Additionally, it has been found that some ice nucleating bacteria strains have the ability to produce OMV, i.e., strangulated parts of the bacterial cell consisting of the same membrane material (Phelps et al., 1986). These OMV might contain the same ice nucleating proteins on their surface and thus might be able to nucleate ice as well. The OMV used in our experiments were extracted from bacteria cultivated from rain samples collected in Denmark from 30 m height. In our experiments, the biological particles are suspended in air via atomization, size selected by means of a Differential Mobility Particle Sizer, and then fed into LACIS. In LACIS, well defined droplets are produced by activating the biological particles to cloud droplets, so that each droplet contains only one biological particle. By decreasing the temperature in LACIS, these droplets are frozen. To determine the ice fraction, i.e., the fraction of frozen droplets to all particles, the liquid and frozen droplets are distinguished by means of a newly self-built optical device, which is positioned under LACIS, using the depolarization of light scattered by a single particle. The ice fractions are measured as a function of temperature and

  11. Simulation of ion beam injection and extraction in an EBIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, L., E-mail: zhao@far-tech.com; Kim, J. S. [FAR-TECH, Inc., San Diego, California 92121 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    An example simulation of Au+ charge breeding using FAR-TECH’s integrated EBIS (electron beam ion source) modeling toolset is presented with the emphasis on ion beam injection and extraction. The trajectories of injected ions are calculated with PBGUNS (particle beam gun simulation) self-consistently by including the space charges from both ions and electrons. The ion beam, starting with initial conditions within the 100% acceptance of the electron beam, is then tracked by EBIS-PIC (particle-in-cell EBIS simulation code). In the trap, the evolution of the ion charge state distribution is estimated by charge state estimator. The extraction of charge bred ions is simulated with PBGUNS. The simulations of the ion injections show significant ion space charge effects on beam capture efficiency and the ionization efficiency.

  12. Simulation of ion beam injection and extraction in an EBIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, L.; Kim, J. S.

    2016-02-01

    An example simulation of Au+ charge breeding using FAR-TECH's integrated EBIS (electron beam ion source) modeling toolset is presented with the emphasis on ion beam injection and extraction. The trajectories of injected ions are calculated with PBGUNS (particle beam gun simulation) self-consistently by including the space charges from both ions and electrons. The ion beam, starting with initial conditions within the 100% acceptance of the electron beam, is then tracked by EBIS-PIC (particle-in-cell EBIS simulation code). In the trap, the evolution of the ion charge state distribution is estimated by charge state estimator. The extraction of charge bred ions is simulated with PBGUNS. The simulations of the ion injections show significant ion space charge effects on beam capture efficiency and the ionization efficiency.

  13. Coal extraction - environmental prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Blaine Cecil; Susan J. Tewalt

    2002-08-01

    To predict and help minimize the impact of coal extraction in the Appalachian region, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is addressing selected mine-drainage issues through the following four interrelated studies: spatial variability of deleterious materials in coal and coal-bearing strata; kinetics of pyrite oxidation; improved spatial geologic models of the potential for drainage from abandoned coal mines; and methodologies for the remediation of waters discharged from coal mines. As these goals are achieved, the recovery of coal resources will be enhanced. 2 figs.

  14. Macrophages detoxify the genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of surgical cobalt chrome alloy particles but not quartz particles on human cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, I; Shadrick, V; Davis, S; Hails, L; Schins, R; Newson, R; Fisher, J; Ingham, E; Case, C P

    2008-08-25

    Particles of surgical cobalt chrome alloy are cytotoxic and genotoxic to human fibroblasts in vitro. In vivo orthopaedic patients are exposed to cobalt chrome particles as a result of wear of a joint replacement. Many of the wear debris particles that are produced are phagocytosed by macrophages that accumulate at the site of the worn implant and are disseminated to local and distant lymph nodes the liver and the spleen. In this study we have tested whether this process of phagocytosis could have altered the cytotoxic and genotoxic properties of the cobalt chrome particles. Quartz particles have been investigated as a control. Micron-sized particles of cobalt chrome alloy were internalised by either white cells of peripheral blood or by THP-1 monocytes for 1 week and 1 day, respectively. The particles were then extracted and presented at different doses to fibroblasts for 1 day. There was a reduction of the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of the cobalt chrome particles after phagocytosis by white cells or THP-1 cells. Cobalt chrome particles that were internalised by fibroblasts also showed a reduction of their cytotoxicity but not their genotoxicity. In contrast the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of quartz particles was increased after internalisation by THP-1 cells. The surface morphology of the cobalt chrome particles but not the quartz particles was changed after phagocytosis by THP-1 cells. This study suggests that the genotoxic and cytotoxic properties of particles that fall within the size range for phagocytosis may be highly complex in vivo and depend on the combination of material type and previous phagocytosis. These results may have relevance for particle exposure from orthopaedic implants and from environmental or industrial pollution.

  15. Ensemble Equivalence for Distinguishable Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Fernández-Peralta

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Statistics of distinguishable particles has become relevant in systems of colloidal particles and in the context of applications of statistical mechanics to complex networks. In this paper, we present evidence that a commonly used expression for the partition function of a system of distinguishable particles leads to huge fluctuations of the number of particles in the grand canonical ensemble and, consequently, to nonequivalence of statistical ensembles. We will show that the alternative definition of the partition function including, naturally, Boltzmann’s correct counting factor for distinguishable particles solves the problem and restores ensemble equivalence. Finally, we also show that this choice for the partition function does not produce any inconsistency for a system of distinguishable localized particles, where the monoparticular partition function is not extensive.

  16. Fuzzy logic particle tracking velocimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernet, Mark P.

    1993-01-01

    Fuzzy logic has proven to be a simple and robust method for process control. Instead of requiring a complex model of the system, a user defined rule base is used to control the process. In this paper the principles of fuzzy logic control are applied to Particle Tracking Velocimetry (PTV). Two frames of digitally recorded, single exposure particle imagery are used as input. The fuzzy processor uses the local particle displacement information to determine the correct particle tracks. Fuzzy PTV is an improvement over traditional PTV techniques which typically require a sequence (greater than 2) of image frames for accurately tracking particles. The fuzzy processor executes in software on a PC without the use of specialized array or fuzzy logic processors. A pair of sample input images with roughly 300 particle images each, results in more than 200 velocity vectors in under 8 seconds of processing time.

  17. Particle Acceleration in Astrophysical Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Amato, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Astrophysical sources are extremely efficient accelerators. Some sources emit photons up to multi-TeV energies, a signature of the presence, within them, of particles with energies much higher than those achievable with the largest accelerators on Earth. Even more compelling evidence comes from the study of Cosmic Rays, charged relativistic particles that reach the Earth with incredibly high energies: at the highest energy end of their spectrum, these subatomic particles are carrying a macroscopic energy, up to a few Joules. Here I will address the best candidate sources and mechanisms as cosmic particle accelerators. I will mainly focus on Galactic sources such as Supernova Remnants and Pulsar Wind Nebulae, which being close and bright, are the best studied among astrophysical accelerators. These sources are held responsible for most of the energy that is put in relativistic particles in the Universe, but they are not thought to accelerate particles up to the highest individual energies, $\\approx 10^{20}$ eV...

  18. Auxiliary fields in the geometrical relativistic particle dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amador, A; Bagatella, N; Rojas, E [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Fisica e Inteligencia Artificial, Universidad Veracruzana, 91000 Xalapa, Veracruz (Mexico); Cordero, R [Departamento de Fisica, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas del I.P.N, Edificio 9, 07738 Mexico D.F (Mexico)], E-mail: aramador@gmail.com, E-mail: nbagatella@uv.mx, E-mail: cordero@esfm.ipn.mx, E-mail: efrojas@uv.mx

    2008-03-21

    We describe how to construct the dynamics of relativistic particles, following either timelike or null curves, by means of an auxiliary variables method instead of the standard theory of deformations for curves. There are interesting physical particle models governed by actions that involve higher order derivatives of the embedding functions of the worldline. We point out that the mechanical content of such models can be extracted wisely from a lower order action, which can be performed by implementing in the action a finite number of constraints that involve the geometrical relationship structures inherent to a curve and by using a covariant formalism. We emphasize our approach for null curves. For such systems, the natural time parameter is a pseudo-arclength whose properties resemble those of the standard proper time. We illustrate the formalism by applying it to some models for relativistic particles.

  19. Fabrication of nano Rhizama Chuanxiong particles and determination of tetramethylpyrazine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Yan-li; FU Zheng-yi; QUAN Cong-juan; WANG Wei-ming

    2006-01-01

    Rhizama Chuanxiong is a kind of traditional medicinal herb used to promote blood circulation and eliminate wind to relieve pain. In this work,nano Rhizoma Chuanxiong particles were successfully prepared by high speed centrifugal sheering (HSCS) pulverizer. The influence of processing parameters on the size of Rhizama Chuanxiong particles and the different properties between nano Rhizoma Chuanxiong particles and original fine powder were systematically studied by ZetaPALS light scattering granulometric analyzer and optical microscope. The content of effective ingredient tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results illustrate that general Rhizama Chuanxiong powder can be ultrafinely ground to nanometer within 50 min,and the cellular tissues of Rhizoma Chuanxiong are broken into pieces and dispersed stably and homogeneously after being ultrafinely ground. In addition,the active ingredients can dissolve out directly and fully,and the extraction ratio of TMP is increased 32.2% by HSCS processing.

  20. Supercritical fluid extraction of hops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZORAN ZEKOVIC

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Five cultivars of hop were extracted by the method of supercritical fluid extraction using carbon dioxide (SFE–CO2 as extractant. The extraction (50 g of hop sample using a CO2 flow rate of 97.725 L/h was done in the two steps: 1. extraction at 150 bar and 40°C for 2.5 h (sample of series A was obtained and, after that, the same sample of hop was extracted in the second step: 2. extraction at 300 bar and 40 °C for 2.5 h (sample of series B was obtained. The Magnum cultivar was chosen for the investigation of the extraction kinetics. For the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the obtained hop extracts, the GC-MS method was used. Two of four themost common compounds of hop aroma (a-humulene and b-caryophyllene were detected in samples of series A. In addition, isomerized a-acids and a high content of b-acids were detected. The a-acids content in the samples of series B was the highest in the extract of the Magnum cultivar (it is a bitter variety of hop. The low contents of a-acids in all the other hop samples resulted in extracts with low a-acids content, i.e., that contents were under the prescribed a-acids content.