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Sample records for aeromonas spp como

  1. Caracterização de Aeromonas spp isoladas de neonatos hospitalizados Characterization of Aeromonas spp isolates from newborns hospitalized

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Aeromonas spp é reconhecida como patogênica para o homem após o consumo de água e alimentos contaminados. Na presente investigação, foram avaliadas 2.323 amostras de swabs retais de neonatos hospitalizados no Rio de Janeiro objetivando o isolamento de Aeromonas. As amostras foram coletadas e enviadas ao Laboratório de Referência Nacional de Cólera e outras enteroinfecções bacterianas, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz. Os swabs foram submetidos ao enriquecimento em água peptonada ...

  2. Interlaboratorium vergelijking van het onderzoek naar Aeromonas spp. in drinkwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havelaar AH; During M; Versteegh JFM

    1986-01-01

    Door middel van onderzoek van zes kunstmatig besmette gesimuleerde monsters drinkwater ( 4 Aeromonas spp., 1 Klebsiella oxytoca, 1 Pseudomonas aeruginosa) werd een vergelijking gemaakt van de resultaten van Aeromonas onderzoek in 14 laboratoria. De tellingen in de deelnemende laboratoria vertoonde

  3. Aeromonas spp.: ubiquitous or specialized bugs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Maria Elena; Fasolato, Luca; Montemurro, Filomena; Novelli, Enrico; Cardazzo, Barbara

    2014-04-01

    The genus Aeromonas comprises ubiquitous bacteria that are known to play several roles in the environment. These bacteria were first described as fish pathogens, but their presence was documented in other reservoirs, such as animals and humans. Today, these bacteria are described as emerging pathogens, but their effective role in human pathogenicity is still controversial. In addition, their taxonomy is heavily debated, as species distinction is often difficult to achieve. To study the interspecies relationships and to investigate their connection with the environment, a multilocus sequence typing scheme previously developed for Aeromonas spp. was applied to 258 strains, and the genetic data were analysed by population software. Sampling was a fundamental step, including several of the main sources of Aeromonas: fish, food products and human cases of disease. The objective was to characterize the isolates and to find potential associations among them according to the following: species, sharing of virulence factors, source and adaptation to a specific habitat. The strains were characterized and demonstrated exceptionally high nucleotide variability in the Aeromonas genus. Among the sampled sources, different species distributions were found, highlighting the occurrence of adaptation processes towards specific habitats.

  4. Aeromonas spp. in het Nederlandse drinkwater; een orienterend onderzoek

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteegh JFM; During M; Havelaar AH; Koot W

    1986-01-01

    In dit rapport worden uitvoering en resultaten van een orienterend onderzoek naar het voorkomen van Aeromonas spp. in het Nederlandse drinkwater in 1985 besproken. Het bleek dat in 71% van de onderzochte monsters (rein water "af pompstation" en water uit het distributienet) in 100 ml gee

  5. MONITORING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF UV DISINFECTION OF AEROMONAS SPP. USING SELECTIVE AND NON-SELECTIVE MEDIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research was initiated to determine the sensitivity of Aeromonas spp. to ultraviolet (UV) disinfection. Aeromonas hydrophila is a contaminant listed on the USEPA's 1998 CCL. Three different Aeromonas spp. (A. hydrophila, A. sobria and A. caviae) were tested using membrane fi...

  6. Aeromonas spp.: evaluation of genomic diversity and biofilm forming ability

    OpenAIRE

    Craveiro, Sara Sofia Pereira, 1986-

    2013-01-01

    Tese de mestrado. Biologia (Microbiologia Aplicada). Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2013 Aeromonas spp. are ubiquitous bacteria widely distributed among aquatic environments. Their persistence in water distribution systems is related to their ability to form biofilms, even in the presence of residual chlorine. Once in distribution water systems, aeromonads can contaminate drinking water, food processing facilities and food products. Moreover, members of this genus are known...

  7. Isolation and Antimicrobial Testing of Aeromonas spp., Citrobacter spp., Cronobacter spp., Enterobacter spp., Escherichia spp., Klebsiella spp., and Trabulsiella spp. from the Gallbladder of Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelopoulou, Grammato; Filioussis, Georgios; Kritas, Spyridon; Kantere, Maria; Burriel, Angeliki R

    2015-01-01

    The presence of Gram-negative bacteria species, other than Salmonella spp., in the gallbladder of pigs was examined. Isolated Gram-negative bacteria were assigned to species using the Microgen™ GnA+B-ID Systems. Of the 64 isolated strains 43 were identified as Escherichia coli, seven as Enterobacter spp., three each as Klebsiella spp., Citrobacterfreundii, Aeromonas hydrophila and Cronobacter sakazakii and one each as Escherichiafergusonii and Trabulsiella guamensis. Their antibiograms showed very high resistance to ampicillin, amoxicillin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. It was concluded that the pigs' gallbladder is a reservoir of potentially pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria for pork consumers.

  8. Isolation of Aeromonas spp. from Food Products: Emerging Aeromonas Infections and Their Significance in Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhazmi, Mohammad Ismail

    2015-01-01

    Aeromonas spp. are opportunistic pathogens causing a broad spectrum of human illnesses like gastroenteritis, chronic diarrhea, wound infections, peritonitis, urinary tract infections, and septicemia. Their ability to grow in foods stored in a refrigerator poses a substantial threat for human consumption. We investigated the prevalence of Aeromonas from commercial food products across Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A total of 250 samples were randomly collected and processed for the isolation and identification of Aeromonas by morphological and biochemical means and for their identification by PCR. A total of 102 strains of Aeromonas were isolated, including 47% from raw meat samples, 34% from raw fish samples, and 18.6% from milk and dairy products; 56.8% were identified as A. hydrophila and 43.1% as A. sobria. Antibiotic susceptibility tests done revealed 100% sensitivity to chloramphenicol, colistin, ciprofloxacin, and nitrofurantoin. 16S rDNA PCR revealed the presence of the 953 bp fragment in all the strains. The present investigation suggested the occurrences of A. sobria and A. hydrophila in human consumable stored and refrigerated foods.

  9. Bactérias do gênero Aeromonas em abatedouro de frangos Contamination by Aeromonas spp. in poultry slaughterhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.N. Costa

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Analisaram-se 200 amostras de diferentes produtos e locais do fluxograma de abate de frangos com o objetivo de identificar os pontos de contaminação da carne de frango por Aeromonas. Das 25 amostras analisadas para cada um dos oito pontos estudados foram isoladas Aeromonas spp. em nove (36% amostras de penas, em 14 (56% de fezes, em 18 (72% de carcaças não evisceradas, evisceradas e resfriadas e em 20 (80% de água do pré-resfriamento. Não foram isoladas Aeromonas spp. da água de abastecimento da indústria e da água do tanque de escaldagem. Foram identificadas as espécies, Aeromonas hydrophila em 39 (15,2% amostras, A. sobria em 69 (26,9%, A. caviae em 87 (34%, A. veronii em 18 (7%, A. schubertii em três (1,2%, A. trota em duas (0,8% e A. jandaei em uma (0,4%. O resultado sugere que independente do controle higiênico-sanitário adotado na indústria, as carcaças de frangos podem se contaminar já a partir de sua obtenção, determinando o aparecimento de Aeromonas em carcaças resfriadas e prontas para a comercialização.Two hundred samples of poultry meat were analyzed in order to evaluate contamination by Aeromonas spp. in eight sites of a slaughterhouse, with 25 samples obtained in each site. Aeromonas spp. was found in nine (36.0% samples of feathers, 14 (56.0% samples of stools, 18 (72.0% carcasses after pre-evisceration, post-evisceration, and cooling, as well as in 20 (80.0% samples of chilling water. The microorganism was not found in samples from either the supplying water or the tank for scalding water. Aeromonahydrophila was identified in 39 (15.2% samples, whereas A. sobria, A. caviae, A. veronii, A. schubertii, A. trota, and A. jandaei were identified in, respectively, 69 (26.9%, 87 (34.0%, 18 (7.0%, three (1.2%, two (0.8%, and one (0.4% samples. In addition, bacteria dissemination may occur during slaughtering and regardless the hygienic-sanitary control followed by the industry, poultry carcasses may be contaminated

  10. Isolation and Seroprevalence of Aeromonas spp. Among Common Food Animals Slaughtered in Nagpur, Central India.

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    Gowda, Tanuja K G M; Reddy, Vishwanatha R A P; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Zade, Nandkishor N; Chaudhari, Sandeep P; Khan, Waqar A; Shinde, Shilpa V; Patil, Archana R

    2015-07-01

    Aeromonads are ubiquitous foodborne pathogens with a global distribution. Animal-origin foods and contaminated animals are the main sources of Aeromonas infection to humans. So far little is known about the occurrence of Aeromonas spp. in food-producing animals in India. The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence and seroprevalence of Aeromonas species from 50 each of meat, blood, and sera samples collected from cattle, buffaloes, goats, and pigs slaughtered in and around Nagpur, Central India. Alkaline peptone water and ampicillin dextrin agar were used to isolate Aeromonas spp. An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was standardized by use of whole-cell antigen (WC) and outer membrane protein (OMP) of Aeromonas hydrophila (MTCC 646). Aeromonads were isolated from 44 (22%) of the meat samples, and 1 (0.5%) from the blood samples. Seroprevalence by indirect ELISA-based WC antigen was estimated as 68% in cattle, 44% in buffaloes, 60% in goats, and 30% in pigs. OMP-based ELISA yielded a seroprevalence of 56%, 48%, 52%, and 22% in cattle, buffaloes, goats, and pigs, respectively. The results revealed that OMP-based ELISA and WC-based ELISA were in agreement with one another. Isolation along with high seropositivity demonstrates the presence of foodborne Aeromonas spp. in the Nagpur city of Central India.

  11. Molecular characterization of fluoroquinolone-resistant Aeromonas spp. isolated from imported shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakir, Zakiya; Khan, Saeed; Sung, Kidon; Khare, Sangeeta; Khan, Ashraf; Steele, Roger; Nawaz, Mohamed

    2012-11-01

    Sixty-three nalidixic acid-resistant Aeromonas sp. isolates were obtained from imported shrimp. Phylogenetic analysis of gyrB sequences indicated that 18 were A. enteropelogenes, 26 were A. caviae, and 19 were A. sobria. Double missense mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) of gyrA at codon 83 (Ser→Val/Ile) and codon 92 (Leu→Met) coupled with a point mutation of parC at codon 80 (Ser→Ile/Phe) conferred high levels of quinolone resistance in the isolates. A majority of A. enteropelogenes and A. caviae strains harbored toxin genes, whereas only a few A. sobria strains harbored these genes. The fluoroquinolone-resistant Aeromonas spp. exhibited higher cytotoxicity than fluoroquinolone-sensitive, virulent Aeromonas spp. to rat epithelial cells.

  12. Prevalence and diversity of Aeromonas and Vibrio spp. in coastal waters of Southern Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dumontet, S.; Krovacek, K.; Svenson, S.B.

    2000-01-01

    A survey was undertaken to examine sea water and sediment for the presence of Vibrio and Aeromonas spp. along approximately 900 km of coast in Southern Italy during early and late summer. A quantitative analysis was also done to evaluate the water fecal contamination at the stations examined...

  13. The occurrence of Aeromonas spp. in the bottled mineral water, well water and tap water from the municipal supplies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise de Oliveira Scoaris

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the occurrence of Aeromonas sp in the bottled mineral water, well water and tap water from the municipal supplies. Positive samples were found for Aeromonas spp. 12.7% from the mineral water, 8.3% from the artesian water and 6.5% from the tap water. The recovery of Aeromonas spp. was significantly higher in the bottled mineral and artesian water than in the tap water from municipal supplies. The occurrence of the Aeromonas spp. did not correlate significantly with the contamination indicator bacteria (i.e. total coliforms in the artesian water samples. However, a significant correlation was found between Aeromonas spp. and total coliforms in the both mineral water and tap water samples. The presence or absence of a correlation between the indicator bacteria and Aeromonas could reflect the occasional appearance of the pathogen in the drinking water and the different rates of survival and recovery of these agents compared with those fecal indicators. The finding that 41.6, 14.8 and 9.0 % of the artesian water, bottled mineral water and tap water, respectively, sampled in the current study failed to meet the Brazilian standard for total coliforms in the drinking water should therefore be of concern.A porcentagem de amostras positivas para Aeromonas foi de 12.7% para água mineral, 8.3% para água de poço artesiano e 6.5% para água do sistema público de abastecimento. O isolamento de Aeromonas spp. foi significativamente maior em água mineral e água de poço artesiano do que em água do sistema público. A ocorrência de Aeromonas spp. não teve correlação significativa com os indicadores de contaminação tradicionalmente utilizados (coliformes totais em amostras de água de poço artesiano. No entanto, esta correlação foi positiva e significativa em água mineral e água do sistema público. A presença ou ausência de correlação entre bactérias indicadoras e a presença de Aeromonas pode refletir o

  14. Active Shiga-Like Toxin Produced by Some Aeromonas spp., Isolated in Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma-Martínez, Ingrid; Guerrero-Mandujano, Andrea; Ruiz-Ruiz, Manuel J.; Hernández-Cortez, Cecilia; Molina-López, José; Bocanegra-García, Virgilio; Castro-Escarpulli, Graciela

    2016-01-01

    Shiga-like toxins (Stx) represent a group of bacterial toxins involved in human and animal diseases. Stx is produced by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, Shigella dysenteriae type 1, Citrobacter freundii, and Aeromonas spp.; Stx is an important cause of bloody diarrhea and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). The aim of this study was to identify the stx1/stx2 genes in clinical strains and outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) of Aeromonas spp., 66 strains were isolated from children who live in Mexico City, and Stx effects were evaluated in Vero cell cultures. The capacity to express active Stx1 and Stx2 toxins was determined in Vero cell cultures and the concentration of Stx was evaluated by 50% lethal dose (LD50) assays, observing inhibition of damaged cells by specific monoclonal antibodies. The results obtained in this study support the hypothesis that the stx gene is another putative virulence factor of Aeromonas, and since this gene can be transferred horizontally through OMVs this genus should be included as a possible causal agents of gastroenteritis and it should be reported as part of standard health surveillance procedures. Furthermore, these results indicate that the Aeromonas genus might be a potential causative agent of HUS. PMID:27725813

  15. An investigation of the bactericidal activity of selected essential oils to Aeromonas spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clifford E. Starliper

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diseases of fishes caused by Aeromonas spp. are common, have broad host ranges and may cause high mortality. Treatments of captive-reared populations using antimicrobials are limited with concerns for bacterial resistance development and environmental dissemination. This study was done to determine whether selected plant-derived essential oils were bactericidal to Aeromonas spp. Initially, twelve essential oils were evaluated using a disk diffusion assay to an isolate of A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, cause of fish furunculosis. The greatest zones of inhibition were obtained with oils of cinnamon Cinnamomum cassia, oregano Origanum vulgare, lemongrass Cymbopogon citratus and thyme Thymus vulgaris. Minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC’s were determined for these four oils, Allimed® (garlic extract, Allium sativum and colloidal silver to sixty-nine isolates representing nine Aeromonas spp. The lowest mean MBCs (0.02–0.04% were obtained with three different sources of cinnamon oil. MBCs for three sources of oregano and lemongrass oils ranged from 0.14% to 0.30% and 0.10% to 0.65%, respectively, and for two thyme oils were 2.11% and 2.22%. The highest concentration (5% of Allimed® tested resulted in MBCs to twelve isolates. A concentration of silver greater than 15 mg/L would be required to determine MBCs for all but one isolate.

  16. [Detection of the first QnrS gene positivity in aquatic Aeromonas spp. isolates in Turkey].

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    Onuk, Ertan Emek; Tanrıverdi Çaycı, Yeliz; Çoban, Ahmet Yılmaz; Çiftci, Alper; Balta, Fikri; Didinen, Behire Işıl; Pekmezci, Gökmen Zafer; Altun, Soner; Söğüt Ünlü, Mehtap; Deveci, Aydın

    2015-01-01

    Aeromonas spp. are oxidase positive, gram-negative, facultative anaerobic bacilli that are widely distributed in aquatic environments. A.hydrophila, A.sobria and A.bestiarum may cause severe infections in both human and cold-blooded animals. Environmental persistance of quinolones that are widely used in both human and veterinary medicine plays an important role in the selection of resistant mutants. Plasmid-mediated resistance is one of the main mechanisms involved in quinolone resistance, and qnr, qepA, aac(6')-Ib-cr, oqxAB genes are identified as resistance determinants. Determination of various types of qnr gene in different bacteria mainly in Enterobacteriaceae, suggests that they are widely distributed in nature. Recently, plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance was defined among Aeromonas species isolated from water. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of qnr genes among aquatic Aeromonas spp. in Turkey. A total of 45 Aeromonas strains isolated from water and fishes collected from three different geographical regions (Aegean, Mediterranean and Blacksea) in Turkey, were included in the study. The isolates were identified at species level by the use of 16S rDNA-RFLP (Restriction fragment length polymorphism) analysis and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (M-PCR). Among the isolates, 20 were identified as A.sobria, 10 as A.hydrophila, nine as A.salmonicida, four as A.bestiarum and two as A.veronii. The plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinants, qnrA, qnrB, qnrC and qnrS genes, were investigated by M-PCR, and sequence analysis was performed for nine qnr-positive isolates. According to the sequence analysis of the genes, qnr genes were characterized in six A.sobria, in two A.bestiarum and in one A.hydrophila isolate (9/45; 20%). When the sequence was compared with GenBank database, this gene was found as qnrS2. All qnrS-positive Aeromonas spp. isolates were ciprofloxacin-susceptible, while five of them were resistant to nalidixic acid

  17. Phylogenetic diversity, antibiotic resistance and virulence traits of Aeromonas spp. from untreated waters for human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Maria João; Martínez-Murcia, Antonio; Esteves, Ana Cristina; Correia, António; Saavedra, Maria José

    2012-10-15

    It is well known that water constitutes an important contamination route for microorganisms. This is especially true for Aeromonas which are widespread in untreated and treated waters. In this study, Portuguese untreated waters not regularly monitored were screened for the presence and diversity of aeromonads. A total of 206 isolates were discriminated by RAPD-PCR and 80 distinct strains were identified by gyrB based phylogenetic analysis. The most frequently detected species were Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas bestiarum and Aeromonas media. The antibiotic susceptibility profile of these strains was determined and showed a typical profile of the genus. Nonetheless, the percentage of resistant strains to tetracycline, chloramphenicol and/or trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole was lower than that reported for clinical isolates and isolates recovered from aquacultures and other environments historically subjected to antibiotic contamination. This suggests that the existence of such pressures in those environments selects for resistant Aeromonas. A similar trend for integron presence was found. Genes coding for CphA and TEM, and tet(A), (E), (C) or (D) genes were found in 28%, 1%, and 10% of the strains, respectively. 10% of the strains contained an integron. Variable regions of seven class 1 integrons and one class 2 integron were characterised. Furthermore, strains displayed virulence related phenotypes such as extracellular lipolytic and proteolytic activities as well as aerolysin related genes (43% of strains). The ascV and aexT genes were found in 16% and 3% of strains respectively and, in some cases, concomitantly in the same specimen. This study shows that diverse Aeromonas spp. presenting distinct antibiotic resistance features and putative virulence traits are frequently present in waters for human and animal consumption in Portugal. Genes associated to antibiotic resistance and microbial virulence previously identified in organisms with human health significance

  18. Virulence and antimicrobial susceptibility of clinical and environmental strains of Aeromonas spp. from northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelo-Branco, Débora de Souza Collares Maia; Guedes, Glaucia Morgana de Melo; Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa; Moreira, José Luciano Bezerra; Cordeiro, Rossana de Aguiar; Sales, Jamille Alencar; Riello, Giovanna Barbosa; de Alencar, Lucas Pereira; Paiva, Manoel de Araújo Neto; Vasconcelos, David Caldas; de Menezes, Isis Sousa Bezerra; de Ponte, Yago Brito; Sampaio, Célia Maria de Souza; Monteiro, André Jalles; Bandeira, Tereza de Jesus Pinheiro Gomes

    2015-08-01

    The aims of the present study were to isolate and identify clinical and environmental strains of Aeromonas spp. by means of biochemical tests and the automated method VITEK 2 and to investigate the presence of the virulence genes cytotoxic enterotoxin (act), hemolysin (asa-1), and type III secretion system (ascV), and also the in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of the strains. From the clinical isolates, 19 Aeromonas hydrophila, 3 Aeromonas veronii bv. sobria, and 1 Aeromonas caviae were identified, while from the environmental strains, 11 A. hydrophila, 22 A. veronii bv. sobria, 1 A. veronii bv. veronii, and 1 A. caviae were recovered. The gene act was detected in 69.5% of clinical isolates, asa-1 in 8.6%, and ascV in 34.7%. In the environmental strains, the detection rates were 51.4%, 45.7%, and 54.2% for the genes act, asa-1, and ascV, respectively. Resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanate and piperacillin-tazobactam was observed in 15 and 3 clinical strains, respectively, and resistance to ceftazidime, meropenem, imipenem, ciprofloxacin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was observed in 1 strain for each drug. Resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanate and piperacillin-tazobactam was detected in 17 and 1 environmental strain, respectively. Higher resistance percentages were observed in clinical strains, but environmental strains also showed this phenomenon and presented a higher detection rate of virulence genes. Thus, it is important to monitor the antimicrobial susceptibility and pathogenic potential of the environmental isolates.

  19. Prevalence, virulence and antimicrobial resistance patterns of Aeromonas spp. isolated from children with diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltan Dallal, Mohammad Mehdi; Mazaheri Nezhad Fard, Ramin; Kavan Talkhabi, Morteza; Aghaiyan, Leyla; Salehipour, Zohre

    2016-01-01

    Background Aeromonas spp. cause various intestinal and extraintestinal diseases. These bacteria are usually isolated from fecal samples, especially in children under five years old. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of Aeromonas spp. and their antimicrobial resistance profile in children with diarrhea referred to the Children Medical Center in Tehran, between 2013 and 2014. Methods A total number of 391 stool samples were collected from children with ages between 1 day and 14 years old, with diarrhea (acute or chronic), referred to the Children Hospital, Tehran, Iran, between 2013 and 2014. Samples were enriched in alkaline peptone water broth for 24 hours at 37 °C and then cultured. Suspicious colonies were analyzed through biochemical tests. Furthermore, antimicrobial susceptibility tests were carried out for the isolates. Isolates were further studied for act, ast, alt, aerA and hlyA virulence genes using polymerase chain reaction. Results In total, 12 isolates (3.1%) were identified as Aeromonas spp.; all were confirmed using the API-20E test. Of these isolates, five A. caviae (42%), four A. veronii (33%) and three A. hydrophila (25%) were identified in cases with gastroenteritis. Second to ampicillin (which was included in the growth medium used), the highest rate of antimicrobial resistance was seen against nalidixic acid and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (5 isolates each, 41.6%) and the lowest rate of antimicrobial resistance was seen against gentamicin, amikacin and cefepime (none of the isolates). Results included 76.4% act, 64.7% ast, 71.5% alt, 83.3% aerA and 11.7% hlyA genes. Conclusion Aeromonas spp. are important due to their role in diarrhea in children; therefore, isolation and identification of these fecal pathogens should seriously be considered in medical laboratories. Since virulence genes play a significant role in gastroenteritis symptoms caused by these bacteria, Aeromonas species that include virulence genes are potentially

  20. Occurrence, molecular characterization, and antimicrobial susceptibility of Aeromonas spp. in marine species of shrimps cultured at inland low salinity ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Yutaka; Hamano, Kaoru; Tsutsui, Isao; Aue-Umneoy, Dusit; Ban, Masatoshi; Satomi, Masataka

    2015-05-01

    We aimed to document the risk of Aeromonas spp. in marine shrimp species cultured in inland low salinity ponds in Thailand. In 14 of 18 shrimp samples retrieved from inland grow-up ponds, Aeromonas spp. were detected at ranges from 4667 to 1,500,000 CFU/g body weight. The phylogenetic tree constructed with the gyrB and cpn60 concatenated sequences indicated that the 87 isolates consisted of Aeromonas veronii (70%), Aeromonas aquariorum (18%), Aeromonas caviae (7%), Aeromonas jandaei (2%), and Aeromonas schubertii (2%). The potential virulence of the isolates was examined by phenotypic and PCR assays. Hemolytic activity and the extracellular activity of lipase, DNase, and gelatinase were observed in most isolates (94-99%). PCR revealed the presence of 9 genes related to virulence in the 87 isolates: act (75%), aer (74%), alt (30%), ast (1%), ascV (34%), aexT (24%), fla (92%), ela (34%), and lip (24%). The susceptibility profiles to 14 antimicrobial agents of isolates were typical for the genus, but resistance to cefotaxime, a third-generation cephalosporin, and imipenem were found in two A. aquariorum and in three A. veronii isolates, respectively. These resistances were confirmed by determining minimum inhibitory concentrations. Our results indicate that the microbiological risk posed by Aeromonas should be considered for marine shrimp species that are cultured in low-salinity ponds. These shrimps may also be a vehicle for the transfer of different genotypes of Aeromonas and antibiotic-resistant determinants to regions worldwide through trade.

  1. Characterization of integrons and tetracycline resistance determinants in Aeromonas spp. isolated from South African aquaculture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Liezl; Chenia, Hafizah Y

    2007-03-20

    An increasing incidence of multidrug resistance amongst Aeromonas spp. isolates, which are both fish pathogens and emerging opportunistic human pathogens, has been observed worldwide. This can be attributed to the horizontal transfer of mobile genetic elements, viz.: plasmids and class 1 integrons. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of 37 Aeromonas spp. isolates, from tilapia, trout and koi aquaculture systems, were determined by disc-diffusion testing. The plasmid content of each isolate was examined using the alkaline lysis protocol. Tet determinant type was determined by amplification using two degenerate primer sets and subsequent HaeIII restriction. The presence of integrons was determined by PCR amplification of three integrase genes, as well as gene cassettes, and the qacEDelta1-sulI region. Thirty-seven Aeromonas spp. isolates were differentiated into six species by aroA PCR-RFLP, i.e., A. veronii biovar sobria, A. hydrophila, A. encheleia, A. ichtiosoma, A. salmonicida, and A. media. High levels of resistance to tetracycline (78.3%), amoxicillin (89.2%), and augmentin (86.5%) were observed. Decreased susceptibility to erythromycin was observed for 67.6% of isolates. Although 45.9% of isolates displayed nalidixic acid resistance, majority of isolates were susceptible to the fluoroquinolones. The MAR index ranged from 0.12 to 0.59, with majority of isolates indicating high-risk contamination originating from humans or animals where antibiotics are often used. Plasmids were detected in 21 isolates, with 14 of the isolates displaying multiple plasmid profiles. Single and multiple class A family Tet determinants were observed in 27% and 48.7% of isolates, respectively, with Tet A being the most prevalent Tet determinant type. Class 1 integron and related structures were amplified and carried different combinations of the antibiotic resistance gene cassettes ant(3'')Ia, aac(6')Ia, dhfr1, oxa2a and/or pse1. Class 2 integrons were also amplified, but the

  2. Influence of food system conditions on N-acyl-L-homoserine lactones production by Aeromonas spp.

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    Medina-Martínez, M S; Uyttendaele, M; Demolder, V; Debevere, J

    2006-12-01

    Eleven of 13 Aeromonas strains were shown to produce AHLs. Results of TLC showed that N-butanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (C4-HSL) was the main AHL produced in LB medium at 30 degrees C. The influence of different carbon sources, temperature, pH values and salt concentrations on AHL production was determined in eight A. hydrophila and one A. caviae strain. Additionally a quantitative study of C4-HSL production by A. hydrophila strain 519 under different conditions was performed. Positive results were found in the AHL induction assay for some Aeromonas strains in cultures in LB agar incubated at 12 degrees C after 72-96 h. The induction of the sensor strains by Aeromonas spp. occurred in LB medium supplemented with all carbon sources in a concentration of 0.5%. The production of C4-HSL by A. hydrophila 519 was found until 3.5% (w/v) of NaCl. For pHs close to the neutrality the C4-HSL production by A. hydrophila was evident after 24-48 h of incubation. A. hydrophila 519 produced C4-HSL under anaerobic conditions. Also, the AHL production by Aeromonas strains was studied in simulate agar of shrimp, fish and some vegetables. The production of AHLs was evident by almost all the test strains in shrimp simulated agar. In fish agar only for one of three fish species tested, positive results were found. Induction assay in vegetables simulated agar showed principally negative results, probably because of the presence of inhibitory compounds in these vegetables.

  3. Population dynamics and antimicrobial susceptibility of Aeromonas spp. along a salinity gradient in an urban estuary in Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Camila Magalhães; Evangelista-Barreto, Norma Suely; Vieira, Regine Helena Silva Dos Fernandes; Mendonça, Kamila Vieira; de Sousa, Oscarina Viana

    2014-12-15

    The main objective of this study was to quantify population and identify culturable species of Aeromonas in sediment and surface water collected along a salinity gradient in an urban estuary in Northeastern Brazil. Thirty sediment samples and 30 water samples were collected from 3 sampling locations (A, B and C) between October 2007 and April 2008. The Aeromonas count was 10-7050CFU/mL (A), 25-38,500CFU/mL (B) andAeromonas caviae, A. sobria, A. trota, A. salmonicida and A. allosaccharophila) were identified among 41 isolates. All strains were sensitive to chloramphenicol and ceftriaxone, whereas 33 (80, 4%) strains were resistant to at least 2 of the 9 antibiotics tested. Resistance to erythromycin was mostly plasmidial. In conclusion, due to pollution, the Cocó River is contaminated by pathogenic strains of Aeromonas spp. with a high incidence of antibacterial resistance, posing a serious risk to human health.

  4. 气单胞菌和嗜水气单胞菌双重PCR检测方法的建立%Development of a duplex PCR for detection of Aeromonas spp.and Aeromonas hydrophila

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘晓艺; 沈锦玉; 郝贵杰; 姚嘉贇; 徐洋; 尹文林; 孙逢明; 吴颖蕾

    2011-01-01

    Aeromonas is one of the major pathogens which frequently cause the bacterial diseases in freshwater fish terrapin and crustaceans. Aeromonas hydrophila caused economic losses widely. In order to detect Aeromonas spp. And Aeromonas hydrophila, two pairs of specific primers were designed according to the glycerophospholipid-cholesterol acyltransferase (GCAT) gene of Aeromonas spp. And the 16S rRNA gene of Aeromonas hydrophila. So a duplex PCR assay was developed to amplify the 16S rRNA gene and the GCAT gene. The reaction conditions of the duplex PCR were optimized and PCR products were sequenced. Meanwhile, the specificity of duplex PCR was studied. Five Aeromonas hydrophila strains,seven Aeromonas strains and the other five strains of non Aeromonas were tested by duplex PCR. The results showed that the GCAT gene and the 16S rRNA gene could be amplified from Aeromonas hydrophila strains,but only the GCAT gene from the other Aeromonas species and neither from the other five strains. It could be concluded that the duplex PCR was specific and could be used in quick diagnose Aeromonas hydrophila and Aeromonas spp.%针对GenBank中登录的气单胞菌属(Aeromonas)的毒力基因甘油磷脂胆固醇酰基转移酶基因(GCA T)和嗜水气单胞菌(Aeromonash ydrophila)的16S rRNA基因的保守区设计2对特异性引物.通过进行双重PCR反应体系优化,PCR产物的测序鉴定和特异性试验,建立了一种能同时检测气单胞菌(Aeromonas spp.)和嗜水气单胞菌的双重PCR检测方法.用此方法对5株嗜水气单胞菌、7株其他不同种的气单胞菌和5株非气单胞菌属菌株进行双重PCR检测.结果显示,气单胞菌和嗜水气单胞菌在GCAT基因的扩增区都能得到有效扩增,其中嗜水气单胞菌能同时在16S rRNA基因扩增区得到有效扩增,而非气单胞菌属的菌株,在此两扩增区都为阴性,表明此检测方法可靠且可行.

  5. AEROMONAS SPP BACTEREMIA OF RAINBOW TROUT FRY (ONCORHYNCHUS MYKISS: BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF THE CAUSATIVE ORGANISM AND ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY

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    Damir Kapetanović

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas hydrophila and other members of Aeromonas genus are ubiquitus in aquatic environment and make part of normal bacterial flora of rainbow trout. Aeromonas spp. infections are worldwide registered. Here we present our experience and knowledge on Aeromonas bacteremia, which causes mortality of rainbow trout fry. Rainbow trout fry, 7 month old, started to die in November 2003. Fish samples (17 samples of dead and moribund fish were delivered to the Laboratory for aquaculture. With Api 20 NE tests Aeromonas hydrophila / caviae type I was identified with an average probability of 99.9 % (one test against, as well as Aeromonas hydrophila / caviae type II with an average probability of 99.5 % (one test against from liver, spleen, kidney, intestines and damaged eye. All of isolated and identified samples were tested for antibiotic susceptibility by disc diffusion method. The test showed that specimens were most sensitive on flumequin, and relatively less sensitive on chloramphenicol and enrofloxacin. Therapy was successfully applied with Flubactin®.

  6. Distribution of 13 virulence genes among clinical and environmental Aeromonas spp. in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravena-Román, M; Inglis, T J J; Riley, T V; Chang, B J

    2014-11-01

    We evaluated the pathogenic potential of 98 clinical and 31 environmental Aeromonas isolates by detecting the presence of 13 virulence genes using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method. The majority (96 %) of the strains contained at least one of the virulence genes. The overall distribution was aerA/haem (77 %), alt (53 %), lafA (51 %), ast (39 %), flaA (32 %), aspA (29 %), vasH (26 %), ascV (16 %) and aexT (13 %). No amplification products were detected for the genes encoding a bundle-forming pilus (BfpA and BfpG) or a Shiga-like toxin (stx-1 and stx-2). Five or more virulence genes were detected in 42 % of environmental and 24 % of clinical isolates. Among the major species, 48 % of A. hydrophila and 42 % of A. dhakensis isolates harboured five or more virulence genes compared with 19 % in A. veronii bv. sobria and none in A. caviae isolates. Our results suggest that, in Western Australia, strains of A. dhakensis and A. hydrophila are potentially more virulent than those of A. veronii bv. sobria and A. caviae, although the pathogenic potential of Aeromonas spp. is probably strain- rather than species-dependent.

  7. Aeromonas spp. isolated from oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorea from a natural oyster bed, Ceará, Brazil Aeromonas spp. isoladas de ostras (Crassostrea rhizophorea coletadas em um criadouro natural, Ceará, Brazil

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    Norma S. Evangelista-Barreto

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Between April and October 2002, thirty fortnightly collections of oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorea from a natural oyster bed at the Cocó River estuary in the Sabiaguaba region (Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil were carried out, aiming to isolate Aeromonas spp. strains. Oyster samples were submitted to the direct plating (DP and the presence/absence (P/A methods. Aeromonas were identified in 15 (50% samples analyzed by the DP method and in 13 (43% analyzed by the P/A method. A. caviae, A. eucrenophila, A. media, A. sobria, A. trota, A. veronii bv. sobria, A. veronii bv. veronii and Aeromonas sp. were isolated. The predominant species was A. veronii (both biovars, which was identified in 13 (43% samples, followed by A. media in 11 (37% and A. caviae in seven (23%. From the 59 strains identified, 28 (48% presented resistance to at least one of the eight antibiotics tested.Foram realizadas 30 coletas quinzenais, entre abril e outubro de 2002, de ostras (Crassostrea rhizophorea de um criadouro natural, no estuário do rio Cocó (Fortaleza/Ceará/Brasil, objetivando-se isolar cepas de Aeromonas spp. As amostras de ostras foram submetidas aos métodos de plaqueamento direto (PD e presença/ausência (P/A. Foram identificadas Aeromonas em 15 (50% amostras analisadas pelo método PD e em 13 (43% pelo método P/A. Foram isoladas: A. caviae, A. eucrenophila, A. media, A. sobria, A. trota, A. veronii bv. sobria, A. veronii bv. veronii e Aeromonas sp. A espécie predominate foi A. veronii (ambos biovars, identificada em 13 (43% amostras, seguida de A. media em 11 (37% e A. caviae em 7 (23%. Das 59 cepas identificadas, 28 (48% apresentaram resistência a pelo menos um, dos oitos antibióticos testados.

  8. Quinolone resistant Aeromonas spp. as carriers and potential tracers of acquired antibiotic resistance in hospital and municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Ana Rita; Nunes, Olga C; Manaia, Célia M

    2016-01-15

    Members of the genus Aeromonas are recognized carriers of antibiotic resistance in aquatic environments. However, their importance on the spread of resistance from hospital effluents to the environment is poorly understood. Quinolone resistant Aeromonas spp. (n = 112) isolated from hospital effluent (HE) and from raw (RWW) and treated wastewater (TWW) of the receiving urban wastewater treatment plant (UWTP) were characterized. Species identification and genetic intraspecies diversity were assessed based on the 16S rRNA, cpn60 and gyrB genes sequence analysis. The antibiotic resistance phenotypes and genotypes (qnrA, qnrB, qnrC, qnrD, qnrS, qnrVC; qepA; oqxAB; aac(6′)-Ib-cr; blaOXA; incU) were analyzed in function of the origin and taxonomic group. Most isolates belonged to the species Aeromonas caviae and Aeromonas hydrophila (50% and 41%, respectively). The quinolone and the beta-lactamase resistance genes aac(6′)-Ib-cr and blaOXA, including gene blaOXA-101, identified for the first time in Aeromonas spp., were detected in 58% and 56% of the isolates, respectively, with identical prevalence in HE and UWTP wastewater. In contrast, the gene qnrS2 was observed mainly in isolates from the UWTP (51%) and rarely in HE isolates (3%), suggesting that its origin is not the clinical setting. Bacterial groups and genes that allow the identification of major routes of antibiotic resistance dissemination are valuable tools to control this problem. In this study, it was concluded that members of the genus Aeromonas harboring the genes aac(6′)-Ib-cr and blaOXA are relevant tracers of antibiotic resistance dissemination in wastewater habitats, while those yielding the gene qnrS2 allow the traceability from non-clinical sources.

  9. Interlaboratorium vergelijking van het onderzoek naar Aeromonas spp. in drinkwater (tweede onderzoek)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteegh JFM; During M; Heisterkamp SH; Havelaar AH

    1988-01-01

    Door middel van kwantitatief onderzoek naar Aeromonas-bacterien in drie verschillende monsters water (De Bilt, De Meent en De Laak) werd een vergelijking gemaakt van de resultaten van Aeromonas onderzoek in 15 laboratoria in het kader van het deelproject: "Aeromonas in drinkwater". Varian

  10. Aeromonas spp. and microbial indicators in raw drinking water source Aeromonas sp. e indicadores microbiológicos em fontes de água não tratada

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    Marisa Di Bari

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas species are autochtonous in the aquatic environment and some of them have been associated with health effects like wound infections, septicemia and diarrhoeal illness. In this study, the occurrence of Aeromonas spp. and microbial indicators in raw drinking water from wells, springs, fountains and mineral waters was evaluated. A total of 126 water samples was analyzed for Aeromonas spp. by the membrane filtration technique using ADA media and by P/A test. Typical colonies of Aeromonas spp. were submitted to biochemical tests for species differentiation. Toxin production was tested using Y-1 mouse adrenal cells. Coliforms and heterotrophic bacteria were enumerated by membrane filtration and pour plate techniques, respectively. P. aeruginosa, C. perfringens and fecal streptococci were determined by P/A method. Aeromonas spp. were isolated in 36.5% of the samples, whereas total and thermotolerant coliforms were detected in 51.2% and in 23.8% of the samples, respectively. C. perfringens, fecal streptococci and P. aeruginosa were present in 16.5%, 20.4% and 3.8% of the samples, respectively. The concentrations of heterotrophic bacteria were higher than 1,0x10³ CFU/mL in 52.5% of the samples. A. hydrophila was the most frequent species, followed by A. allosaccharophila,A. jandaei,A.sobria and HG2. A heat label toxin was detected in 13 from the 58 strains tested. These data show that the drinking water sources analyzed can represent a risk for human health. It is important to consider that wells and springs are used as drinking water supply in poor areas and rural regions, where undernourished people more susceptible to infections by these microorganisms predominate.Bactérias do gênero Aeromonas são naturais no ambiente aquático e algumas espécies podem causar infecções em humanos como feridas, septicemia e diarréia. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a ocorrência de Aeromonas sp. em 126 amostras de água de poços, nascentes, fontes e

  11. Use of Aeromonas spp. as general indicators of antimicrobial susceptibility among bacteria in aquatic environments in Thailand

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    Masaru eUsui

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobials are widely used, not only for treating human infections, but also for treatment of livestock and in fish farms. Human habitats in Southeastern Asian countries are located in close proximity to aquatic environments. As such, the human populations within these regions are at risk of exposure to antimicrobial resistant bacteria (ARB, and thereby disseminating antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs. In this study, we collected water samples from 15 sites (5 sites in Chao Phraya River, 2 sites at the mouth of Chao Phraya River, 3 sites in Ta Chin River, and 5 sites at city canals and 12 sites (6 sites at city canals, 2 sites at chicken farms, 2 sites at pig farms, and 2 samples from sites at pig farms that were subsequently treated at a biogas plant in Thailand in 2013 and 2014, respectively. In total, 117 Aeromonas spp. were isolated from the water samples, and these organisms exhibited various antimicrobial susceptibility profiles. Moreover, there was a significant correlation between the environmental concentration of tetracyclines and the rates of tetracycline resistance in the isolated Aeromonas spp. Notably, however, the concentration and resistance rates of tetracycline in samples derived from pig farms were higher than those of samples harvested from other aquatic environments. These findings suggest that the high concentrations of antimicrobials observed in these aquatic environments likely select for ARGs. Furthermore, they indicate that Aeromonas spp. comprise an effective marker for monitoring antimicrobial resistance in aquatic environments.

  12. Use of Aeromonas spp. as General Indicators of Antimicrobial Susceptibility among Bacteria in Aquatic Environments in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usui, Masaru; Tagaki, Chie; Fukuda, Akira; Okubo, Torahiko; Boonla, Chanchai; Suzuki, Satoru; Seki, Kanako; Takada, Hideshige; Tamura, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobials are widely used, not only for treating human infections, but also for treatment of livestock and in fish farms. Human habitats in Southeastern Asian countries are located in close proximity to aquatic environments. As such, the human populations within these regions are at risk of exposure to antimicrobial resistant bacteria, and thereby disseminating antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs). In this study, we collected water samples from 15 sites (5 sites in Chao Phraya River, 2 sites at the mouth of Chao Phraya River, 3 sites in Ta Chin River, and 5 sites at city canals) and 12 sites (6 sites at city canals; 2 sites at chicken farms; 2 sites at pig farms; and 2 samples from sites at pig farms, which were subsequently treated at a biogas plant) in Thailand in 2013 and 2014, respectively. In total, 117 Aeromonas spp. were isolated from the water samples, and these organisms exhibited various antimicrobial susceptibility profiles. Notably, there was a significant correlation between the environmental concentration of tetracyclines and the rates of tetracycline resistance in the isolated Aeromonas spp.; however, both the concentration and rates of tetracycline resistance in samples derived from pig farms were higher than those of samples harvested from other aquatic environments. These findings suggest that the high concentrations of antimicrobials observed in these aquatic environments likely select for ARGs. Furthermore, they indicate that Aeromonas spp. comprise an effective marker for monitoring antimicrobial resistance in aquatic environments.

  13. Identification of antibiotic resistance cassettes in class 1 integrons in Aeromonas spp. strains isolated from fresh fish (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarria-Guzmán, Yohanna; López-Ramírez, María Patricia; Chávez-Romero, Yosef; Ruiz-Romero, Erick; Dendooven, Luc; Bello-López, Juan Manuel

    2014-05-01

    Forty-six Aeromonas spp. strains were isolated from fresh fish and investigated for their antimicrobial susceptibility, detection of Class 1 integrons by PCR, and arrangement of gene cassettes. Selected isolates were further characterized by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-PCR. Twenty isolates were found to carry Class 1 integrons. Amplification of the variable regions of the integrons revealed diverse bands ranging in size from 150 to 1,958 pb. Sequence analysis of the variable regions revealed the presence of several gene cassettes, such as adenylyl transferases (aadA2 and aadA5), dihydrofolate reductases (dfrA17 and dfrA1), chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (catB3), β-lactamase (oxa2), lincosamide nucleotidil transferase (linF), aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme (apha15), and oxacillinase (bla OXA-10). Two open reading frames with an unknown function were identified as orfC and orfD. The aadA2 cassette was the most common integron found in this study. Interestingly, five integrons were detected in the plasmids that might be involved in the transfer of resistance genes to other bacteria. This is a first report of cassette encoding for lincosamides (linF) resistance in Aeromonas spp. Implications on the incidence of integrons in isolates of Aeromonas spp. from fresh fish for human consumption, and its possible consequences to human health are discussed.

  14. Antimicrobial susceptibility, hemolysis, and hemagglutination among Aeromonas spp. isolated from water of a bovine abattoir Perfil de resistência/sensibilidade e virulência de espécies de Aeromonas isoladas de amostras de água obtidas em abatedouro bovino

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    Delmar Bizani

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Aeromonas spp. in food has been demonstrated. They are often introduced from water, which is the natural habitat of many species and is thought to be the main source of contamination. The occurrence of Aeromonas spp. was investigated in 70 water samples of a bovine abattoir. Aeromonas spp. were present in 21.4% of water samples. A. hydrophila was isolated from 11.4% of supplying water samples and from 25.7% of the water drained from carcasses, whereas A. sobria was sole isolated from 5.7% of supplying water samples. Although greater number of positive samples were from water drained from carcasses, only A. hydrophila isolates were present. This suggests that the supplying water is the source of contamination. The antibiotic susceptibility testing revealed all strains were resistant to b-lactam antibiotics. However, the susceptibility to other antimicrobials was variable, being A. hydrophila more resistant than A. sobria strains. The investigation for virulence factors revealed positive reactions of hemolysis and hemagglutination. The results indicate that Aeromonas spp. are present in the supplying water system. These microorganisms may be a potential contaminant of carcasses and widespread in derived food.A presença de bactérias do gênero Aeromonas nos alimentos tem sido demonstrada. Normalmente destacam-se os alimentos que durante sua industrialização entraram em contato com a água, a qual é tida como habitat natural das diversas espécies e principal fonte de contaminação. Objetivando determinar a ocorrência de espécies de Aeromonas, bem como aspectos relacionados a sua virulência como capacidade de hemólise e hemoaglutinação, foram analisadas 70 amostras de água divididas entre água de abastecimento e de escoamento de lavagem das carcaças. De acordo com os resultados obtidos verificou-se a ocorrência de Aeromonas spp. em 21,4% das amostras. A. hydrophila obteve o maior índice de isolamento, 11,4% em

  15. HOST GENE CELL RESEARCH FOR DETERMINING VIRULENCE OF AEROMONAS SPP. COLLECTED FROM ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) is interested in assessing health risks associated with emerging or potential waterborne pathogens. To this end, the Agency has established a Candidate Contaminant List (CCL) that includes Aeromonas hydrophila an...

  16. Evaluation of the MALDI-TOF MS profiling for identification of newly described Aeromonas spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vávrová, Andrea; Balážová, Tereza; Sedláček, Ivo; Tvrzová, Ludmila; Šedo, Ondrej

    2015-09-01

    The genus Aeromonas comprises primarily aquatic bacteria and also serious human and animal pathogens with the occurrence in clinical material, drinking water, and food. Aeromonads are typical for their complex taxonomy and nomenclature and for limited possibilities of identification to the species level. According to studies describing the use of MALDI-TOF MS in diagnostics of aeromonads, this modern chemotaxonomical approach reveals quite high percentage of correctly identified isolates. We analyzed 64 Aeromonas reference strains from the set of 27 species. After extending the range of analyzed Aeromonas species by newly described ones, we proved that MALDI-TOF MS procedure accompanied by Biotyper tool is not a reliable diagnostic technique for aeromonads. We obtained quite high percentage of false-positive, incorrect, and uncertain results. The identification of newly described species is accompanied with misidentifications that were observed also in the case of pathogenic aeromonads.

  17. Diversity and antibiotic resistance of Aeromonas spp. in drinking and waste water treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueira, Vânia; Vaz-Moreira, Ivone; Silva, Márcia; Manaia, Célia M

    2011-11-01

    The taxonomic diversity and antibiotic resistance phenotypes of aeromonads were examined in samples from drinking and waste water treatment plants (surface, ground and disinfected water in a drinking water treatment plant, and raw and treated waste water) and tap water. Bacteria identification and intra-species variation were determined based on the analysis of the 16S rRNA, gyrB and cpn60 gene sequences. Resistance phenotypes were determined using the disc diffusion method. Aeromonas veronii prevailed in raw surface water, Aeromonas hydrophyla in ozonated water, and Aeromonas media and Aeromonas puntacta in waste water. No aeromonads were detected in ground water, after the chlorination tank or in tap water. Resistance to ceftazidime or meropenem was detected in isolates from the drinking water treatment plant and waste water isolates were intrinsically resistant to nalidixic acid. Most of the times, quinolone resistance was associated with the gyrA mutation in serine 83. The gene qnrS, but not the genes qnrA, B, C, D or qepA, was detected in both surface and waste water isolates. The gene aac(6')-ib-cr was detected in different waste water strains isolated in the presence of ciprofloxacin. Both quinolone resistance genes were detected only in the species A. media. This is the first study tracking antimicrobial resistance in aeromonads in drinking, tap and waste water and the importance of these bacteria as vectors of resistance in aquatic environments is discussed.

  18. In vitro antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extracts obtained from Ficus spp. leaves against the fish pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila

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    Tkachenko Halyna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study was to determine in vitro antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extracts obtained from the leaves of various Ficus species against Aeromonas hydrophila isolated locally from infected rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum with the aim of providing scientific rationale for the use of the plant in the treatment of bacterial infections induced by Aeromonas spp. in fish. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done on Muller-Hinton agar with the disc diffusion method. In the present study, most ethanolic extracts proved effective against the A. hydrophila tested, with 10-12 mm inhibition zones observed. A. hydrophila demonstrated the highest susceptibility to F. pumila. Among various species of Ficus with moderate activity against A. hydrophila, the highest antibacterial activities were noted for F. benghalensis, F. benjamina, F. deltoidea, F. hispida, and F. lyrata. Thus, Ficus can be used as a natural antiseptic and antimicrobial agent in veterinary practice. Further investigations need to be conducted to isolate and identify the bioactive compounds that can then be subjected to detailed pharmacological studies and the development of clinical applications. The alarming rate of increasing resistance in bacterial pathogens in aquaculture environments means that medicinal plants with antibacterial properties are very important as natural resources of new active compounds.

  19. [Aeromonas spp. and Plesiomonas shigelloides in bivalves, mud, and water from the Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, E; Antillón, F

    1989-06-01

    Bivalves, mud, and surface water were collected at three different sites of the Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica, in search of Aeromonas spp. and Plesiomonas shigelloides. For their isolation, these bacteria were enriched in alkaline peptone water and streaked on MacConkey agar and on brilliant green bile inositol agar. This was followed by the biochemical tests necessary for their identification. Thirty-five strains of A. hydrophila, 58 of A. caviae, 43 of A. sobria, and 7 of P. shigelloides were isolated. None of these predominated nor was there any indication of a seasonal distribution along the 15 month's duration of the study. Seven strains of A. hydrophila and two of A. sobria showed the biochemical characteristics associated with toxin production (positive Voges-Proskauer and lysine decarboxylase tests). These species are widely distributed in the gulf and there is risk of contracting an infection while bathing or when eating raw bivalves from this area.

  20. Adhesion, invasion, intracellular survival and cytotoxic activity of strains of Aeromonas spp. in HEp-2, Caco-2 and T-84 cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Paula Azevedo; Pereira, Ana Claudia Machado; Ferreira, Andréa Fonseca; de Mattos Alves, Maria Angélica; Rosa, Ana Cláudia Paula; Freitas-Almeida, Angela Corrêa

    2015-05-01

    The genus Aeromonas contains important pathogen for both humans and other animals, being responsible for the etiology of intestinal and extraintestinal diseases. The pathology caused by these bacteria involves several virulence factors, such as the ability to produce toxins, adhesion and invasion. The properties conferred by these factors have been extensively studied in experiments of interaction between bacterial strains and cell culture. We evaluate the interaction of eight Aeromonas spp. strains, previously isolated from human faeces, food and water with HEp-2, Caco-2 and T-84 cell lines. Cytotoxic effects, the pattern of adhesion, invasive capacity and intracellular survival were analyzed. The results showed that Aeromonas strains were adherent to three cells lines in 6 h of incubation, displaying the aggregative adherence pattern. Among eight strains studied, 50% produced cytotoxic effects on HEp-2 cells, while none of the strains produced cytotoxic effects on Caco-2 and T-84 cells at 48 h. This study demonstrated that subsets of Aeromonas isolated from different sources were able to invade intestinal (T-84, Caco-2) and epithelial (HEp-2) cell lines cultivated in vitro surviving in intracellular environments up to 72 h. Finally, our results support the pathogenic potential of Aeromonas, especially those of food and clinical sources.

  1. MONITORING FOR AEROMONAS SPECIES AFTER TREATMENT WITH COMMON DRINKING WATER DISINFECTANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sensitivity of Aeromonas spp. To free chlorine, chloramine and ultraviolet (UV) disinfection was determined. Aeromonas hydrophila is a contaminant listed on the USEPA's 1998 Contaminant Candidate List (CCL). Experiments using free chlorine indicated that the Aeromonas spp. ...

  2. Distribution of Aeromonas Species in the Intestinal Tracts of River Fish

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    Aeromonas isolates were obtained from fish intestines, water, and sediments from an urban river and identified by the DNA-DNA microplate hybridization method. The isolates were Aeromonas veronii (22%), Aeromonas caviae (18%), Aeromonas hydrophila (13%), Aeromonas sobria (8%), Aeromonas jandaei (7%), and other Aeromonas spp. (33%). Aeromonas species occurred at high densities with high incidences, regardless of season. The results strongly suggest that aeromonads are indigenous in fish intesti...

  3. A molecular study on the prevalence and virulence potential of Aeromonas spp. recovered from patients suffering from diarrhea in Israel.

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    Yigal Senderovich

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Species of the genus Aeromonas are native inhabitants of aquatic environments and have recently been considered emerging human pathogens. Although the gastrointestinal tract is by far the most common anatomic site from which aeromonads are recovered, their role as etiologic agents of bacterial diarrhea is still disputed. Aeromonas-associated diarrhea is a phenomenon occurring worldwide; however, the exact prevalence of Aeromonas infections on a global scale is unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The prevalence and virulence potential of Aeromonas in patients suffering from diarrhea in Israel was studied using molecular methods. 1,033 diarrheal stools were sampled between April and September 2010 and Aeromonas species were identified in 17 (∼2% patients by sequencing the rpoD gene. Aeromonas species identity and abundance was: A. caviae (65%, A. veronii (29% and Aeromonas taiwanensis (6%. This is the first clinical record of A. taiwanensis as a diarrheal causative since its recent discovery from a wound infection in a patient in Taiwan. Most of the patients (77% from which Aeromonas species were isolated were negative for any other pathogens. The patients ranged from 1 to 92 years in age. Aeromonas isolates were found to possess different virulence-associated genes: ahpB (88%, pla/lip/lipH3/apl-1 (71%, act/hlyA/aerA (35%, alt (18%, ast (6%, fla (65%, lafA (41%, TTSS ascV (12%, TTSS ascF-ascG (12%, TTSS-dependent ADP-ribosylating toxins aexU (41% and aexT (6% in various combinations. Most of the identified strains were resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics but susceptible to third-generation cephalosporin antibiotics. CONCLUSIONS: Aeromonas may be a causative agent of diarrhea in patients in Israel and therefore should be included in routine bacteriological screenings.

  4. Diversity of Clavulanic Acid-Inhibited Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases in Aeromonas spp. from the Seine River, Paris, France▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girlich, Delphine; Poirel, Laurent; Nordmann, Patrice

    2011-01-01

    Environmental Aeromonas sp. isolates resistant to ceftazidime were recovered during an environmental survey performed with water samples from the Seine River, in Paris, France, in November 2009. Selected isolates were identified by sequencing of the 16S rRNA and rpoB genes. PCR and cloning experiments were used to identify broad-spectrum-β-lactamase-encoding genes and their genetic context. Clavulanic acid-inhibited extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL) genes were identified in 71% of the Aeromonas sp. isolates. A variety of ESBL genes were detected, including blaVEB-1a, blaSHV-12, blaPER-1, blaPER-6, blaTLA-2, and blaGES-7, suggesting an aquatic reservoir of those ESBL genes. Moreover, the repeated elements and different insertion sequences were identified in association with the blaPER-6 and the blaVEB-1a genes, respectively, indicating a wide diversity of mobilization events, making Aeromonas spp. a vehicle for ESBL dissemination. PMID:21149627

  5. Incidence of Aeromonas spp. infection in fish and chicken meat and its related public health hazards: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Kumar Praveen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas is recognized to cause a variety of diseases in man. In humans, they are associated with intestinal and extraintestinal infections. With the growing importance of Aeromonas as an emerging pathogen, it is important to combat this organism. It is indisputable that Aeromonas strains may produce many different putative virulence factors such as enterotoxins, hemolysins or cytotoxins, and antibiotic resistance against different antibiotics. The ability of these bacteria to grow competitively at 5°C may be indicative of their potential as a public health hazard. Comprehensive enteric disease surveillance strategies, prevention and education are essential for meeting the challenges in the years ahead. It is important for us to promote the value of enteric cultures when patients have a gastrointestinal illness or bloody diarrhea or when multiple cases of enteric disease occur after a common exposure. With the growing importance of Aeromonas as an emerging pathogen, it is important to combat this organism. It is indisputable that Aeromonas strains may produce many different putative virulence factors, such as enterotoxins, hemolysins or cytotoxins. It has been established that aerolysin is a virulence factor contributing to the pathogenesis of Aeromonas hydrophila infection. Fish and chicken play an important role in the transmission of this pathogen to humans. In the present study, the high prevalence of toxin-producing strains was found among the Aeromonas isolates. The ability of these bacteria to grow competitively at 5°C may be indicative of their potential as a public health hazard. The present review was constructed with a view to highlight the zoonotic importance of Aeromonas pathogen in fish and chicken meat.

  6. Aeromonas spp. e Plesiomonas shigelloides isoladas a partir de mexilhões (Perna perna in natura e pré-cozidos no Rio de Janeiro, RJ Aeromonas spp. and Plesiomonas shigelloides isolated from in natura and precooked mussels (Perna perna in Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Soares Pereira

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O ecossistema aquático é o habitat de mexilhões (Perna perna, animais filtradores que refletem a qualidade ambiental através de análise microbiológica de sua carne. No presente trabalho avaliou-se a presença de patógenos emergentes (Aeromonas hydrophila e Plesiomonas shigelloides, em mexilhões in natura e pré-cozidos coletados por pescadores da Estação Experimental de Cultivo de Mexilhões situada em Jurujuba, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro. Foram analisadas 86 amostras de mexilhões (43 in natura e 43 pré-cozidos as quais foram submetidas a enriquecimento em Água Peptonada Alcalina (APA acrescida de 1 e 3% de Cloreto de Sódio (NaCl e em solução Salina de Butterfield, incubadas a 37ºC por 24 horas. Em seguida, foram semeadas em Ágar Seletivo para Pseudomonas-Aeromonas (GSP, Ágar Tiossulfato Citrato Bile Sacarose (TCBS e Ágar Inositol Bile Verde Brilhante (IBB. A análise geral dos resultados permitiu a identificação de Areomonas spp e Plesiomonas shigelloides em 86% das amostras de mexilhões in natura e pré-cozidas avaliadas. A posterior caracterização bioquímica permitiu a identificação das espécies Aeromonas media (37,10%, A. hydrophila (15,50%, A. caviae (14,80%, A. veronii biogrupo veronii (11,60%, Aeromonas sp. (7,36%, A. sobria (4,20%, A. trota (4,20%, A. schubertii (1,31%, A. jandaei (1,31%, A. veronii biogrupo sobria (0,52% e Plesiomonas shigelloides (2,10%. A relevância epidemiológica desses microrganismos em casos de gastrenterite humana, após consumo de mexilhões crus ou parcialmente cozidos, revela a importância de alertar as autoridades de Saúde Pública no Brasil, sobre a presença desses patógenos na cadeia alimentar e seus riscos para a saúde humana.The aquatic ecosystem is the habitat of mussels, filtrating animals that reflect the ambient quality through microbiological analysis. In the present investigation, we evaluated the presence of emergent pathogens (Aeromonas hydrophila and Plesiomonas

  7. Inventarisatie van Aeromonas spp. in het drinkwater van 21 pompstations in de periode september 1985-december 1986 (deel II)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteegh JFM; During M; Havelaar AH

    1987-01-01

    In de periode september 1985-december 1986 is in samenwerking met een aantal drinkwaterbedrijven een inventariserend onderzoek uitgevoerd naar het voorkomen van Aeromonas-bacterien in verschillende typen drinkwater geproduceerd op 21 drinkwaterpompstations. Nadat in de loop van het onderzoek duidel

  8. Inventarisatie van Aeromonas spp. in het drinkwater van 21 pompstations in de periode september 1985-december 1986 (deel I)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteegh JFM; During M; Havelaar AH

    1987-01-01

    In de periode september 1985-december 1986 is in samenwerking met een aantal drinkwaterbedrijven een inventariserend onderzoek uitgevoerd naar het voorkomen van Aeromonas-bacterien in verschillende typen drinkwater geproduceerd op 21 drinkwaterpompstations. Nadat in de loop van het onderzoek duidel

  9. Novo meio seletivo-indicador para detecção de Aeromonas e Plesiomonas: ágar UNISC New selective indicator medium for detection of Aeromonas and Plesiomonas: UNISC agar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Pereira da Rocha

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se um novo meio seletivo-indicador (ágar UNISC para o isolamento de enteropatógenos clássicos e Aeromonas e Plesiomonas shigelloides. A capacidade de fermentação da xilose é indicada pela coloração amarela (fermentadores ou azul (não fermentadores que, aliada à prova da oxidase, constitui-se em indicador para a detecção de Aeromonas spp e Plesiomonas shigelloides. A produtividade e seletividade, avaliadas pelos índice de contagem absoluta e índice de contagem relativa indicam-no como uma alternativa aos coprocultivos clássicos porque permite, num só meio, o isolamento de Escherichia coli, Shigella spp, Salmonella spp, bem como, Aeromonas spp e Plesiomonas shigelloides, favorecendo o diagnóstico laboratorial das gastroenterites.We evaluated a new selective indicator medium (UNISC Agar for isolation of classical enteropathogens, Aeromonas spp and Plesiomonas shigelloides. The xylose fermentation capacity is indicated by a yellow color (fermenting agents or blue (no fermenting agent. This, together with the oxidase test, establishes it as an indicator for detecting Aeromonas and Plesiomonas shigelloides. Its productivity and selectivity, as assessed using the absolute count index and relative count index, indicate it as an alternative to the classical feces culturing media. This is because, in a single medium, it enables isolation of Escherichia coli, Shigella spp and Salmonella spp, in addition to Aeromonas and Plesiomonas shigelloides, thereby favoring the laboratory diagnosis of gastroenteritis.

  10. 猪肉解冻过程中损伤型气单胞菌检测方法的优化%Optimization of Detecting Injured Aeromonas spp. During Pork Thawing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董庆利; 梁娜

    2012-01-01

    为优化解冻猪肉中损伤型气单胞菌的检测方法,取-18℃冷冻48 h的猪肉解冻后分别应用含0.6%酵母浸膏的胰酪胨大豆琼脂(TSAYE)、营养琼脂(NA)和气单胞菌选择性琼脂(ASA)比较损伤性气单胞菌修复效果,进而对优选的培养基分别添加2%和4%的NaCl,探讨气单胞菌的耐盐度。通过向气单胞菌的选择性培养基中分别添加1.0%、1.5%、2.0%、2.5%和3.0%的NaCl,经差异显著性分析得出合适的气单胞菌损伤培养基,最后以损伤培养基总菌数与选择性培养基之比作为修复率来比较磷酸缓冲液(PBS)、缓冲蛋白胨水(BP)和营养肉汤(NB)三种不同修复介质的差异。结果表明,TSAYE优于NA和ASA用于损伤性气单胞菌的修复,TSAYE+1.5%NaCl为合适的损伤培养基,损伤型气单胞菌的数量可以添加1.5%NaCl前后的菌落数之差来计数。同时,25℃下TSAYE+NB修复介质为损伤型气单胞菌的适宜修复条件,修复时间为1 h。%In order to optimize the method for detection of injured Aeromonas spp.,thawed pork inoculated with Aeromonas spp.after frozen for 48 h under-18℃ was detected using Tryptic Soy Agar with 0.6% Yeast Extract(TSAYE),Nutrient Agar(NA) and Aeromonas Selective Agar(ASA),respectively.Then the selected medium was supplemented with 2% and 4% NaCl respectively for the study of salt-tolerance of Aeromonas spp.Furthermore,the medium was supplemented with 1.0%,1.5%,2.0%,2.5% and 3.0% NaCl,respectively,for selecting the proper injured Aeromonas spp.culture based on the analysis of variance.Moreover,the optimized comparison of repair substrate was conducted on the ratio of injuring and selecting medium counting,which based on the Phosphate Buffer System(PBS),Buffer Peptone water(BP) and Nutrient Broth(NB),respectively.Results showed that TSAYE was more appropriate than NA and ASA for the repair medium of Aeromonas spp.,and TSAYE with 1.5% NaCl could be used for counting injured

  11. Determinación de factores de virulencia en cepas de Aeromonas spp., aisladas a partir de pescado

    OpenAIRE

    William Suárez Q.; Fanny Herrera A.

    2012-01-01

    RESUMENObjetivo. Investigar la incidencia de cinco marcadores fenotípicos de virulencia en cepas de Aeromonas aisladas a partir de muestras de pescado expendido en Pamplona, Colombia. Materiales y métodos. Se utilizaron 47 cepas identificadas previamente. Se evaluaron: actividad hemolítica en agar sangre, suplementado con 5% de eritrocitos de cordero y agar sangre suplementado con 5% eritrocitos de sangre humana; actividad proteolítica en agar Mueller-Hinton suplementado al 10% (p/v) con lech...

  12. Comparative in vitro activities of selected antimicrobial agents against Aeromonas species and Plesiomonas shigelloides.

    OpenAIRE

    1985-01-01

    The in vitro antimicrobial susceptibilities of fecal isolates of Aeromonas caviae, Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas sobria, and Plesiomonas shigelloides were tested by agar dilution. This in vitro study suggested that ciprofloxacin, enoxacin, norfloxacin, tetracycline, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole might be effective oral agents for treatment of diarrhea involving Aeromonas spp. or P. shigelloides.

  13. Determinación de factores de virulencia en cepas de Aeromonas spp., aisladas a partir de pescado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Suárez Q.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Investigar la incidencia de cinco marcadores fenotípicos de virulencia en cepas de Aeromonas aisladas a partir de muestras de pescado expendido en Pamplona, Colombia. Materiales y métodos. Se utilizaron 47 cepas identificadas previamente. Se evaluaron: actividad hemolítica en agar sangre, suplementado con 5% de eritrocitos de cordero y agar sangre suplementado con 5% eritrocitos de sangre humana; actividad proteolítica en agar Mueller-Hinton suplementado al 10% (p/v con leche descremada, actividad lipolítica en agar tributirina; actividad desoxirribonucleasas en agar DNAsa. Resultados. Se encontró que las cepas de A. hydrophila, A. veronii GH 8, A. jandaei, A. veronii GH 10 y A. eucrenophila, demostraron capacidad hemolítica, proteolítica, lipolítica y nucleasa. Todas las cepas de A. popoffii fueron β-hemolíticas en agar sangre humana, proteolíticas y con actividad DNAsa. Las cepas de A. caviae, coincidieron en ser hemolíticas y lipolitícas, mientras que la cepa de A. schubertii, manifestó la presencia de actividad hemolítica y DNAsa. Conclusiones. La frecuencia de los factores de virulencia en las cepas estudiadas fue: el 87% demostraron producción de nucleasas; el 83% fueron β-hemolíticas sobre eritrocitos humanos; el 68% expresaron producción de lipasas, el 63% fueron proteolíticas y el 53% resultaron ser hemolíticas sobre eritrocitos de cordero, indicando estos datos el posible potencial patógeno de las cepas. Estos resultados mostraron que el pescado comercializado en Pamplona, puede ser una fuente importante de especies de Aeromonas que expresan factores asociados a la virulencia para el hombre.

  14. EXTRACCIÓN DE PRODUCTOS EXTRACELULARES DE Aeromonas hydrophila Y SUS EFECTOS EN TILAPIA ROJA (Oreochromis spp. Y CACHAMA BLANCA (Piaractus brachypomus Aeromonas hydrophila Extracelullar Products Extraction and its Effects on Tilapia Roja (Oreochromis spp. and Cachama Blanca (Piaractus brachypomus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J FIGUEROA

    Full Text Available Se obtuvo un extracto crudo toxigénico (ECT de A. hydrophila en diversos medios de cultivo como caldo BHI con extracto de levadura, soya tripticasa (TSB y medio de sales mínimas (MSM. Además, se usaron diversas técnicas de concentración como la precipitación con solventes ácidos y concentración por deshidratación a 4 ºC; como técnica integrada de cultivo y concentración se usó el cultivo sobre papel celofán. Los extractos se pasaron por columna de cromatografía (QAE-Sephadex A-50 y se les efectuó electroforesis en SDS-PAGE. Se midió la actividad biológica in vitro (actividad hemolítica y proteolítica e in vivo (toxicidad en peces. Los resultados indican que para la cepa de trabajo utilizada y bajo nuestras condiciones de cultivo (28 ºC el medio óptimo para la obtención de extracto es el MSM, y la técnica de concentración más adecuada es la deshidratación a 4 ºC. El extracto obtenido en TBS tuvo una actividad hemolítica de 128 UH/µL, proteolítica de 38,4 UP/µL, produjo alta mortalidad en peces y severas lesiones multiorgánicas. La electroforesis reveló bandas nítidas de 50 a 52 kDa y 63 a 68 kDa, que pueden corresponder a β hemolisina y a α hemolisina y otras tenues de 30 a 36 kDa que pueden corresponder a la metaloproteasa termoestable.A toxigenic raw extract of A. hydrophila was obtained from diverse culture medium (BHI with extract of yeast, (TSB y minimum salt medium (MSM and diverse concentration techniques. Extracts were processed by Sephadex A-50 (QAE and SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Biological activity was measured in vitro (hemolytic and proteolitic activity and in vivo (toxicity in fish. The results indicate that the optimal culture condition was 28 ºC and MSM was the optimum medium to extract. Dehydration at 4 ºC was the most adequate concentration technique. TBS extract obtained had an hemolytic activity of 128 UH/µL and a proteolitic activity of 38.4 UP/µL and produced high fish mortality and

  15. EVALUATING VIRULENCE OF WATERBORNE AND CLINCIAL AEROMONAS ISOLATES USING GENE EXPRESSION AND MORTALITY IN NEONATAL MICE FOLLOWED BY ASSESSING CELL CULTURE'S ABILITY TO PREDICT VIRULENCE BASED ON TRANSCRIPTIONAL RESPONSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The virulence of multiple Aeromonas spp. were assessed using two models, a neonatal mouse assay and a mouse intestinal cell culture. Transcriptional responses to both infection models were assessed using microarrays. After artificial infection with a variety of Aeromonas spp., ...

  16. OVERVIEW: DISINFECTION OF HELICOBACTER PYLORI AND AEROMONAS SPECIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helicobacter pylori and Aeromonas hydrophila are contaminants listed on the USEPA's 1998 Contaminant Candidate List (CCL).The sensitivity of H. pylori to chlorine and of Aeromonas spp. to inactivation by free chlorine, chloramine and ultraviolet (UV) was examined. Selective and...

  17. Skin and soft-tissue infections caused by Aeromonas species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, C M; Lai, C C; Tang, H J; Ko, W C; Hsueh, P-R

    2013-04-01

    This study investigated the clinical characteristics of patients with skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTIs) due to Aeromonas species. Patients with SSTIs caused by Aeromonas species during the period from January 2009 to December 2011 were identified from a computerized database of a regional hospital in southern Taiwan. The medical records of these patients were retrospectively reviewed. A total of 129 patients with SSTIs due to Aeromonas species were identified. A. hydrophila (n = 77, 59.7 %) was the most common pathogen, followed by A. veronii biovar sobria (n = 22, 17.1 %), A. veronii biovar veronii (n = 20, 15.5 %), A. caviae (n = 9, 7.0 %), and A. schubertii (n = 1, 0.8 %). The most common isolates obtained from patients with polymicrobial infections were Klebsiella species (n = 33), followed by Enterococcus spp. (n = 24), Enterobacter spp. (n = 21), Escherichia coli (n = 17), Staphylococcus spp. (n = 17), Streptococcus spp. (n = 17), and Acinetobacter spp. (n = 15). Liver cirrhosis and concomitant bacteremia were more common among patients with monomicrobial Aeromonas SSTIs than among patients with polymicrobial SSTIs. Nine (7 %) patients required limb amputations. The in-hospital mortality rate was 1.6 %. In conclusion, Aeromonas species should be considered as important causative pathogens of SSTIs, and most infections are polymicrobial. In addition, the clinical presentation differs markedly between patients with monomicrobial and those with polymicrobial Aeromonas SSTIs.

  18. Aeromonas spp. e Plesiomonas shigelloides isoladas a partir de mexilhões (Perna perna) in natura e pré-cozidos no Rio de Janeiro, RJ

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    O ecossistema aquático é o habitat de mexilhões (Perna perna), animais filtradores que refletem a qualidade ambiental através de análise microbiológica de sua carne. No presente trabalho avaliou-se a presença de patógenos emergentes (Aeromonas hydrophila e Plesiomonas shigelloides), em mexilhões in natura e pré-cozidos coletados por pescadores da Estação Experimental de Cultivo de Mexilhões situada em Jurujuba, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro. Foram analisadas 86 amostras de mexilhões (43 in natura e...

  19. Effectiveness of radiation processing in elimination of Aeromonas from food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagar, Vandan [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Bandekar, Jayant R., E-mail: jrb@barc.gov.i [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2011-08-15

    Genus Aeromonas has emerged as an important human pathogen because it causes a variety of diseases including gastroenteritis and extra-intestinal infections. Contaminated water, sprouts, vegetables, seafood and food of animal origin have been considered to be the important sources of Aeromonas infection. In the present study, radiation sensitivity of indigenous strains of Aeromonas spp. from different food samples was evaluated. The decimal reduction dose (D{sub 10}) values of different Aeromonas isolates in saline at 0-4 {sup o}C were in the range of 0.031-0.046 kGy. The mixed sprouts, chicken and fish samples were inoculated with a cocktail of five most resistant isolates (A. salmonicida Y567, A. caviae A85, A. jandaei A514A, A. hydrophila CECT 839{sup T} and A. veronii Y47) and exposed to {gamma} radiation to study the effectiveness of radiation treatment in elimination of Aeromonas. D{sub 10} values of Aeromonas cocktail in mixed sprouts, chicken and fish samples were found to be 0.081{+-}0.001, 0.089{+-}0.003 and 0.091{+-}0.003 kGy, respectively. Radiation treatment with a 1.5 kGy dose resulted in complete elimination of 10{sup 5} CFU/g of Aeromonas spp. from mixed sprouts, chicken and fish samples. No recovery of Aeromonas was observed in the 1.5 kGy treated samples stored at 4 {sup o}C up to 12 (mixed sprouts) and 7 days (chicken and fish samples), even after enrichment and selective plating. This study demonstrates that a 1.5 kGy dose of irradiation treatment could result in complete elimination of 10{sup 5} CFU/g of Aeromonas spp. from mixed sprouts, chicken and fish samples.

  20. Effectiveness of radiation processing in elimination of Aeromonas from food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagar, Vandan; Bandekar, Jayant R.

    2011-08-01

    Genus Aeromonas has emerged as an important human pathogen because it causes a variety of diseases including gastroenteritis and extra-intestinal infections. Contaminated water, sprouts, vegetables, seafood and food of animal origin have been considered to be the important sources of Aeromonas infection. In the present study, radiation sensitivity of indigenous strains of Aeromonas spp. from different food samples was evaluated. The decimal reduction dose (D10) values of different Aeromonas isolates in saline at 0-4 °C were in the range of 0.031-0.046 kGy. The mixed sprouts, chicken and fish samples were inoculated with a cocktail of five most resistant isolates (A. salmonicida Y567, A. caviae A85, A. jandaei A514A, A. hydrophila CECT 839T and A. veronii Y47) and exposed to γ radiation to study the effectiveness of radiation treatment in elimination of Aeromonas. D10 values of Aeromonas cocktail in mixed sprouts, chicken and fish samples were found to be 0.081±0.001, 0.089±0.003 and 0.091±0.003 kGy, respectively. Radiation treatment with a 1.5 kGy dose resulted in complete elimination of 105 CFU/g of Aeromonas spp. from mixed sprouts, chicken and fish samples. No recovery of Aeromonas was observed in the 1.5 kGy treated samples stored at 4 °C up to 12 (mixed sprouts) and 7 days (chicken and fish samples), even after enrichment and selective plating. This study demonstrates that a 1.5 kGy dose of irradiation treatment could result in complete elimination of 105 CFU/g of Aeromonas spp. from mixed sprouts, chicken and fish samples.

  1. A prospective study on Aeromonas in outpatients with diarrhea in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karoline de Campos Prediger

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas spp. were identified in five (2,7% of 182 diarrheal stool cultures, A. caviae was predominant, resistant mainly to ampicillin and cephalotin. This is the first study showing the presence of Aeromonas spp. in diarrheal stools of outpatients in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil.

  2. Isolation and antibiotic sensitivity of Aeromonas from children with diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiyanti Meiyanti

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas species are gram-negative, motile, facultative anaerobic, rod shaped, oxidase positive bacteria of the recently assigned family Aeromonadaceae. The significance of Aeromonas species as causative agent of human diarrhoea has recently been established. The aim of the present study was to investigate the distribution, and antibiotic sensitivity of Aeromonas in nonhospitalized children with diarrhea.One hundred and seventeen rectal swabs from children with diarhhea were cultured for isolation of Aeromonas organisms as the etiological agents. In addition to Aeromonas, other enteric pathogens were also isolated. Overall, the isolates of enteric pathogens amounted to 36.8%, consisting of Salmonella, Shigella, Aeromonas, and Vibrio. Aeromonas was only found in 5.1% of cultures, with a ratio of A. caviae and A. hydrophila of 2:1, while Salmonella made up the majority of causative organisms with an isolation frequency of 18.8%, followed by Shigella with 11.1%. In this study no isolates of Vibrio cholerae O1 were found as etiological agents of diarrhea; however, V. cholerae non-O1 and V. parahaemolyticus were found in small numbers (<1%. All isolates of Aeromonas were resistant to ampicillin and tetracycline, but sensitive to ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone, as were the other enteric pathogens. Although the frequency of isolation of these enteric pathogens was higher than for Vibrio spp., their role in infective diarrhea was less clearcut in comparison with Salmonella and Shigella.

  3. Use of Aeromonas as a process indicator during swine carcass dressing and cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Samuel A.; Yu, Linda S. L.

    1999-01-01

    Using starch ampicillin agar, qualitative and quantitative determinations of Aeromonas spp. were made at several sites during swine carcass dressing and cutting. Aeromonas spp. were observed at all sites surveyed. Levels increased during shackling and passage through the first and middle polisher/washers, and significantly decreased during the singeing steps. Passage through the final polisher/washer caused a small increase in levels in Aeromonas spp. and these levels then remained constant during the rest of the carcass dressing operation. Aeromonas spp. were also isolated from the room where the carcasses were cut into wholesale cuts and cuts for further processing. Presumptive Aeromonas spp. cultures isolated from the different sites were confirmed as belonging to the genus Aeromonas and then speciated using the biochemical scheme of Joseph and Carnahan; 81% of the cultures were identified at A. hydrophila. Since most isolates were A. hydrophila, determination of the origin of isolates from different sites in the processing plant must await utilizing molecular biotyping techniques on the cultures. These results indicate the Aeromonas spp. occurs extensively in the swine dressing environment and thus represents a possible public health hazard and potential spoilage concern. Changes in cleaning and sanitizing of equipment may be necessary during swine carcass dressing and cutting to guard against this pathogen.

  4. Aeromonas aquatica sp. nov., Aeromonas finlandiensis sp. nov. and Aeromonas lacus sp. nov. isolated from Finnish waters associated with cyanobacterial blooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaz-Hidalgo, R; Latif-Eugenín, F; Hossain, M J; Berg, K; Niemi, R M; Rapala, J; Lyra, C; Liles, M R; Figueras, M J

    2015-05-01

    Three groups of Aeromonas strains isolated from Finland lakes experiencing cyanobacterial blooms could not be assigned to any known species of this genus on the basis of 16S rRNA and rpoD gene sequences. The Multilocus Phylogenetic Analysis (MLPA) of the concatenated sequence of seven genes (gyrB, rpoD, recA, dnaJ, gyrA, dnaX and atpD; 4093bp) showed that the three groups of strains did not cluster with any known Aeromonas spp. and formed three independent lineages. This was confirmed by performing the analysis with their closest relatives using 15 genes (the latter 7 and cpn60, dnaK, gltA, mdh, radA, rpoB, tsf, zipA; 8751bp). Furthermore, ANI results between the genomes of the type strains of the three potential new species and those of their close relatives were all Aeromonas species on the basis of several phenotypic characters. This polyphasic study revealed that the 3 groups of strains represent 3 novel Aeromonas species for which the names Aeromonas aquatica sp. nov. (type strain AE235T=CECT 8025T=LMG 26712T), Aeromonas finlandiensis sp. nov. (type strain 4287DT=CECT 8028T=LMG 26709T) and Aeromonas lacus sp. nov. (type strain AE122T=CECT 8024T=LMG 26710T) are proposed.

  5. Aeromonas hydrophila urinary tract infection in pregnancy- Case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latha Ragunathan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A case of a pregnant woman without previous or concomitant disease, who developed an Aeromonas hydrophila urinarytract infection (UTI at 12 weeks gestation, is reported. A brief review of the literature on the association and incidenceof Aeromonas spp in urinary infections and also in association with pregnancy is presented. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2012;2(1: 26-28

  6. 冷却猪肉阴性样品中气单胞菌概率分布的影响与优选%Effect and optimization of Aeromonas spp probability distribution in negative samples of chilled pork

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董庆利; 宋筱瑜; 丁甜; 刘箐

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to verify the effects of pathogen in the negative samples on quantitative microbiological risk assessment ( QMRA) . Previous research on QMRA of Aeromonas spp. in chilled pork was taken as an example,and two scenarios of Aeromonas spp. in the negative samples,zero and maximum value ( detection limit) ,respectively,were simulated in quantitative exposure assessment. The predictive food⁃poison probability of the two scenarios was 33�6% and 69�3%,respectively,and these values were higher than the previous results of 22�1% based on Jarvis function to estimate the possible pathogen distribution in negative samples significantly ( P<0�01) . Moreover,Akaike Information Criterion ( AIC) , Bayesian Information Criterion ( BIC) , X2 , and other parameters were applied for evaluating pathogen in negative sample with different continuous probability distributions. Exponential distribution proved to be better than Logistic, Normal, Triangle and Uniform with AIC values equaling to -41�24 and -135�62 under the two simulated scenarios, respectively, lower than the results of other distributions. In conclusion,pathogen distribution in negative sample should be noted and further optimized during QMRA in future.%探讨不同阴性样品中致病菌污染水平对定量风险评估结果的影响。以冷却猪肉中气单胞菌定量暴露评估为例,设定阴性样品中致病菌为零值和最大值(检测限)2种极端场景,由此预测冷却猪肉中因气单胞菌导致食物中毒的概率分别为33�6%和69�3%,显著高于根据Jarvis经典公式模拟阴性样品的结果(22�1%,P<0�01)。同时,应用赤池信息量准则( AIC)、贝叶斯信息准则( BIC)和卡方检验( X2)等评价参数,对阴性样品污染水平的不同连续型概率分布进行了比较,表明上述两种极端场景下应用指数分布最优,AIC分别为-41�24和-135�62,低于逻辑、正态、

  7. El alga Sargassum spp. como alternativa para reducir el contenido de colesterol en el huevo

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Carrillo; Bahena, A.; Casas, M.; M.E. Carranco; C.C. Calvo; E. Ávila; F. Pérez-Gil

    2012-01-01

    Para determinar el efecto que tiene en el contenido de colesterol del huevo la adición del alga marina (AM) Sargassum spp. en la dieta de gallinas ponedoras, se utilizaron 225 gallinas Leghorn, de 19 semanas de edad, distribuidas al azar en cinco tratamientos (0, 2, 4, 6 y 8 % del alga marina). El experimento tuvo una duración de cinco semanas, durante las que se registraron las variables productivas. La calidad física se evaluó en 75 huevos por tratamiento. Se tomaron 35 piezas de cada trata...

  8. High frequency of coinfecting enteropathogens in Aeromonas-associated diarrhea of hospitalized Peruvian infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazzaglia, G; Sack, R B; Salazar, E; Yi, A; Chea, E; Leon-Barua, R; Guerrero, C E; Palomino, J

    1991-06-01

    Rectal swabs from 391 infants less than 18 months of age who were hospitalized with acute diarrhea and from 138 similarly aged healthy infants were examined for the etiologic agents of diarrhea. Aeromonas spp. were recovered from 205 of 391 (52.4%) diarrheic patients, whereas they were recovered from 12 of 138 (8.7%) controls (P less than 10(-11). Among the 205 Aeromonas-positive diarrheic patients, 118 (57.6%) were found to be coinfected with other common enteropathogens. Of the 164 Aeromonas-positive initial diarrheic specimens, 82 (50.0%) had one or more other enteropathogens present; 30 patients were coinfected with rotavirus, 20 with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, 16 with Campylobacter spp., 14 with Shigella spp., 13 with enteropathogenic E. coli, 4 with Vibrio spp., 1 with Salmonella spp., and 1 with Plesiomonas spp. of Aeromonas strains from cases compared with that from controls supports an etiologic role for this organism. However, frequent concomitant infections with other well-recognized enteropathogens and a lack of disease correlation with common Aeromonas phenotypes suggest that only a subset of Aeromonas strains may be diarrhea causing and that such strains may be common to several of the existing species.

  9. EXTRACCIÓN DE PRODUCTOS EXTRACELULARES DE Aeromonas hydrophila Y SUS EFECTOS EN TILAPIA ROJA (Oreochromis spp. Y CACHAMA BLANCA (Piaractus brachypomus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M RODRÍGUEZ

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se obtuvo un extracto crudo toxigénico (ECT de A. hydrophila en diversos medios de cul- tivo como caldo BHI con extracto de levadura, soya tripticasa (TSB y medio de sales mínimas (MSM. Además, se usaron diversas técnicas de concentración como la preci- pitación con solventes ácidos y concentración por deshidratación a 4 oC; como técnica integrada de cultivo y concentración se usó el cultivo sobre papel celofán. Los extractos se pasaron por columna de cromatografía (QAE-Sephadex A-50 y se les efectuó elec- troforesis en SDS-PAGE. Se midió la actividad biológica in vitro (actividad hemolítica y proteolítica e in vivo (toxicidad en peces. Los resultados indican que para la cepa de trabajo utilizada y bajo nuestras condiciones de cultivo (28 oC el medio óptimo para la obtención de extracto es el MSM, y la técnica de concentración más adecuada es la deshidratación a 4 oC. El extracto obtenido en TBS tuvo una actividad hemolítica de 128 UH/μL, proteolítica de 38,4 UP/μL, produjo alta mortalidad en peces y severas le- siones multiorgánicas. La electroforesis reveló bandas nítidas de 50 a 52 kDa y 63 a 68 kDa, que pueden corresponder a β hemolisina y a α hemolisina y otras tenues de 30 a 36 kDa que pueden corresponder a la metaloproteasa termoestable.

  10. Oral Challenge with Aeromonas in Protein-Malnourished Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    precipitaion after boiling. SRBC. sheep diarrhoea (RITARD) model (25) have red blood cells (hmolysis): Yt. adrenal cell culture; CHO. Chinese hamster...did not seem to affect the susceptibility of mice to deficient substitute for colostrum was not available. Aeromonas spp. infection, but there may be

  11. Genotypic and phenotypic identification of Aeromonas species and CphA-mediated carbapenem resistance in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Holly A; Heney, Claire; Sidjabat, Hanna E; George, Narelle M; Bergh, Haakon; Anuj, Snehal N; Nimmo, Graeme R; Paterson, David L

    2016-05-01

    Infection caused by Aeromonas spp. ranges from superficial wound infection to life-threatening septicemia. Carbapenem resistance due to metallo-beta-lactamase, CphA encoded by the cphA gene, is a significant problem. This study defines Aeromonas spp. causing clinical disease in Queensland, Australia. Phenotypic tests for carbapenemase detection were assessed. One hundred Aeromonas isolates from blood (22), wound (46), sterile sites (11), stool (18), eye (2), and sputum (1) were characterized by rpoB and gyrB sequencing. Meropenem susceptibility by VITEK2, disk diffusion, and E-test MIC were determined. Carbapenemase production was assessed by Carba NP test and cphA by PCR. Gene sequencing identified isolates as Aeromonas dhakensis (39), Aeromonas veronii (21), Aeromonas hydrophila (20), Aeromonas caviae (14), Aeromonas jandaei (4), Aeromonas bestiarum (1), and Aeromonas sanarellii (1). Disk diffusion and E-test failed to detect resistance in isolates with presence of cphA. Carba NP was performed with 97.4% sensitivity and 95.7% specificity. Carbapenem resistance gene cphA was detected in A. veronii (21; 100%), A. hydrophila (18; 90%), A. dhakensis (34; 87.2%), A. jandaei (3; 75%), and A. bestiarum (1; 100%) but not A. caviae. We found that A. dhakensis was the predominant species, a previously unrecognized pathogen in this region.

  12. 不同试验条件下猪肉中气单胞菌生长预测模型的建立和验证%Establishment and Validation of Growth Predictive Model of Aeromonas spp.from Pork Under Different Experimental Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董庆利; 高翠; 丁甜; 余华星

    2012-01-01

    采用响应曲面模型(RSM)研究温度、pH、初始菌浓度对冷却猪肉中气单胞菌Aeromonas spp.生长的影响.应用Gompertz模型对不同试验条件下气单胞菌的生长曲线进行拟合,一级模型的参数生长率(U)和迟滞期(LPD)采用RSM方法构建冷却猪肉中气单胞菌生长的二级模型.然后随机选择试验组合对建立的方程进行验证,并应用计算均方误差(MSE)、准确因子(AF)和偏差因子(BF)的方法对建立的生长预测方程进行数学检验.结果表明,修正的Gompertz模型可以较好地模拟不同试验条件下冷却猪肉中气单胞菌的生长情况(R2>0.96),温度、pH和初始菌浓度对气单胞菌生长影响显著(P<0.05),数学检验参数MSE较小,AF和BF接近1.0,均在可接受范围,用RSM方法建立的生长预测模型可以较好地模拟冷却猪肉中气单胞菌在不同试验条件下的生长情况.%The purpose of this paper was to study the effects of temperature, pH and inoculation level on the growth parameters of Aeromonas spp. In chilled pork under laboratory conditions. The curves generated within different conditions were fitted by Gompertz function as primary model. Then two parameters ( growth rate and lag-time) of the growth curves were modeled using a quadratic polynomial equation of response surface model ( RSM ) as secondary model. Additional experimental conditions within the research domain were randomly selected for model validation, and mathematical testing were also applied for the developed models, including the mean square error ( MSE ) , accuracy factor (AF) and bias factor ( BF). The results indicated that modified Gompertz function could be used to model Aeromonas spp. Growth under different experimental condtions (R >0. 96). Moreover, the temperature, pH and inoculation level on the growth of Aeromonas spp. Were significant ( P < 0. 05) , and RSM with lower MSE and acceptable AF and BF values provided a useful and accurate method of

  13. The impact of quorum sensing on the virulence of Aeromonas hydrophila and Aeromonas salmonicida towards burbot (Lota lota L.) larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natrah, F M I; Alam, Md Iftakharul; Pawar, Sushant; Harzevili, A Shiri; Nevejan, Nancy; Boon, Nico; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Bossier, Peter; Defoirdt, Tom

    2012-09-14

    In this study, the link between quorum sensing in Aeromonas spp. and its virulence towards burbot (Lota lota) was investigated. High mortality occurred in burbot juveniles challenged with Aeromonas salmonicida HN-00, but not in juveniles challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila AH-1N. Meanwhile, both A. hydrophila AH-1N and A. salmonicida HN-00 were virulent towards larvae. The effect of quorum sensing on the virulence of A. hydrophila AH-1N towards burbot larvae was further investigated using quorum sensing mutants (N-(butyryl)-L-homoserine lactone production and receptor mutants). Challenge with these mutants resulted in higher survival of burbot larvae when compared to challenge with the wild type, and the addition of the signal molecule N-butyryl-L-homoserine lactone restored the virulence of the quorum sensing production mutant. Moreover, quorum sensing inhibitors protected the burbot larvae from both Aeromonas strains. Finally, the freshwater micro-algae Chlorella saccharophila and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, which are able to interfere with quorum sensing, also protected burbot from the pathogens. However, QS interference was unlikely to be the only mechanism. This study revealed that the virulence of Aeromonas spp. towards burbot is regulated by quorum sensing and that quorum sensing inhibitors and micro-algae are promising biocontrol agents.

  14. Insight into the mobilome of Aeromonas strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta ePiotrowska

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The mobilome is a pool of genes located within mobile genetic elements (MGE, such as plasmids, IS elements, transposons, genomic/pathogenicity islands, and integron-associated gene cassettes. These genes are often referred to as flexible and may encode virulence factors, toxic compounds as well as resistance to antibiotics. The phenomenon of MGE transfer between bacteria, known as horizontal gene transfer (HGT, is well documented. The genes present on MGE are subject to continuous processes of evolution and environmental changes, largely induced or significantly accelerated by man. For bacteria, the only chance of survival in an environment contaminated with toxic chemicals, heavy metals and antibiotics is the acquisition of genes providing the ability to survive in such conditions. The process of acquiring and spreading antibiotic resistance genes (ARG is of particular significance, as it is important for the health of humans and animals. Therefore, it is important to thoroughly study the mobilome of Aeromonas spp. that is widely distributed in various environments, causing many diseases in fishes and humans. This review discusses the recently published information on MGE prevalent in Aeromonas spp. with special emphasis on plasmids belonging to different incompatibility groups, i.e., IncA/C, IncU, IncQ, IncF, IncI and ColE-type. The vast majority of plasmids carry a number of different transposons (Tn3, Tn21, Tn1213, Tn1721, Tn4401, the 1st, 2nd or 3rd class of integrons, IS elements (e.g. IS26, ISPa12, ISPa13, ISKpn8, ISKpn6 and encode determinants such as antibiotic and mercury resistance genes, as well as virulence factors. Although the actual role of Aeromonas spp. as a human pathogen remains controversial, species of this genus may pose a serious risk to human health. This is due to the considerable potential of their mobilome, particularly in terms of antibiotic resistance and the possibility of the horizontal transfer of resistance

  15. Estudio anatomopatológico de aislados de Leptospira spp., provenientes de Nicaragua en Mesocricetus auratus como biomodelo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willian Jirón T.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. El objetivo de este trabajo fue caracterizar en el biomodelo Mesocricetus auratus la sintomatología y lesiones anatomopatológicas que provocan 5 aislados clínicos de Leptospira spp., provenientes de Nicaragua. Materiales y métodos. Con este fin se inocularon 50 hámster por vía i.p con 1mL del cultivo de cada una de las cepas en fase exponencial teniendo una concentración celular de 7.5 x 106 leptospira/mL (10 animales por cepa, evaluándose signos de la enfermedad, mortalidad durante 14 días, lesiones anatomopatológicas macroscópicas y microscópicas mediante tinción con hematoxilina-eosina y tinción de Warthyn Starryn. Resultados. Todas las cepas presentaron alta mortalidad, mostrando un cuadro tanto clínico, como lesional característico de la infección experimental. Además, causaron la muerte al 100% de los animales entre el tercer y décimo día postinfección. En el estudio anatomopatológico la cepa del serogrupo Ballum y la del serogrupo Pomona produjeron focos de hemorragias específicamente en el riñón y pulmones. De forma similar ocurrió una congestión hepática y renal, mientras que la hemorragia renal fue observada con mayor frecuencia en la cepa del serogrupo Pomona, diferenciándose del resto de las cepas que mostraron esta lesión con menos frecuencia. Conclusiones. Este trabajo permitió una mayor caracterización de estas cepas siendo utilizadas como futuras candidatas vacunales frente a una nueva epidemia de Leptospirosis en Nicaragua.

  16. Aeromonas in Arab countries: 1995-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghenghesh, Khalifa Sifaw; Rahouma, Amal; Zorgani, Abdulaziz; Tawil, Khaled; Al Tomi, Abdurazzaq; Franka, Ezzadin

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this review is to provide information on the prevalence, clinical syndromes, and antimicrobial resistance and therapy of Aeromonas spp. infections in Arab countries. The data were obtained by an English language literature search from 1995 to 2014 of Medline and PubMed for papers using the search terms "Aeromonas+name of Arab country (i.e. Algeria, Egypt, etc.)". Additional data were obtained from a Google search using the aforementioned terms. The organisms have been reported from diarrheal children, patients with cholera-like diarrhea, an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis and from different types of animals, foods and water source in several Arab countries in the Middle East and North Africa with predominance of A. hydrophila, A. caviae and A. sobria. Using molecular techniques few studies reported genes encoding several toxins from aeromonads isolated from different sources. Among the antimicrobials examined in the present review third generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides showed excellent activity and can be employed in the treatment of Aeromonas-associated human infections in Arabic countries. Whenever possible, treatment should be guided by the susceptibility testing results of the isolated organism. In the future, studies employing molecular testing methods are required to provide data on circulating genospecies and their modes of transmission in the community, and on their mechanisms of resistance to antimicrobials. Microbiology laboratories and research centers are encouraged to look for these organisms in clinical, food and water sources to attain a better understanding of the public health risks from these organisms in Arab countries.

  17. CHLORINE DISINFECTION OF AEROMONAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The bacterial genus Aeromonas is currently listed on the USEPA's Candidate Contaminant List (CCL). Resistance to chemical disinfection is an essential aspect regarding all microbial groups listed on the CCL. This study was designed to determine the inactivation kinetics of Aeromo...

  18. Importância de Cryptosporidium spp. como causa de diarréia em bezerros Importance of Cryptosporidium spp. as a cause of diarrhea in calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco L.F. Feitosa

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a presença de oocistos de Cryptosporidium spp. em amostras de fezes de 14 bezerros e de suas mães até a oitava semana pós parição. A maior taxa de excreção de oocistos foi verificada em bezerros com sete dias de idade. Das vacas, 42,8% foram positivas para Cryptosporidium no período pós-parto. Em outra etapa deste estudo, foram acompanhados 57 bezerros positivos para Cryptosporidium, com até 30 dias de idade, provenientes de 32 propriedades leiteiras, e estudouse o grau de eliminação dos oocistos com a possível ocorrência de diarréia. Em todos os animais positivos para Cryptosporidium foi pesquisada a presença de bactérias enteropatogênicas, vírus (Rotavirus e Coronavirus e protozoários (Eimeria spp..The aim of this research was to evaluate the shedding of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in fecal samples from 14 calves from one dairy farm, from birth until 60 days old and from cows until eight weeks after parturition. The higher percentage of oocysts excreted was observed in 7-day-old calves. In the post-partum period 43.7% of cows were positive for Cryptosporidium oocysts. Further analyses were accomplished in 57 calves from another 32 milk farms, previously known as positive for Cryptosporidium, through oocysts fecal screening and clinical signs analyses until calves were 30 days old. Fecal samples from all animals that presented diarrhea were screened for the presence of bacteria, virus (Rotavirus and Coronavirus and protozoa (Eimeria spp..

  19. Caracterización toxicológica de las macroalgas marinas Hypnea spp y Sargasun spp para la futura utilización en la alimentación y la salud animal como humana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Barrios González

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available El estudio y la investigación creciente en la industria alimenticia, farmacológica así como en la cosmeticología ha provocado que se analicen variantes novedosas como las macroalgas marinas. La moderna agricultura como ciencia, además del cultivo y explotación racional de los peces, crustáceos y moluscos, contempla una importante área de investigación y desarrollo como lo son las macroalgas marinas. Las algas constituyen el primer eslabón de la cadena trófica que más eficientemente aprovecha la energía radiante, la transforma y almacena en forma de energía molecular y la pone a disposición de los otros niveles tróficos de los ecosistemas marinos. En países desarrollados se han efectuado intentos de la utilización de macroalgas marinas para la alimentación suplementaria animal aunque en la actualidad no existen investigaciones publicadas sobre dicha práctica en países subtropicales y tropicales como Cuba, país de grandes extensiones costeras, con una flora rica, variada, exuberante y típicamente caribeña, no se ha explotado suficientemente este importante recurso natural, Barrios (2002. Los estudios Toxicológico realizados por el Centro Nacional de Sanidad Agropecuaria de Cuba CENSA y el Grupo de Investigaciones Novedosas y de Impacto (GINI de la Universidad de Matanzas Camilo Cienfuegos realizados a las macroalgas marinas dargassum spp e Hypnea Spp, demostraron la inocuidad de las mismas por lo que se considera desde el punto de vista toxicológico un candidato seguro y fiable para la Industria alimenticia, la cosmeticología y la farmacología ya sea animal como humana.

  20. Bioprospecção de isolados de Bacillus spp. como potenciais promotores de crescimento de Eucalyptus urograndis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ligia de Lima Moreira

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar características bioquímicas de interesse agronômico e correlação com a promoção de crescimento de plantas em isolados de Bacillus sp. originários da rizosfera de eucalipto. O trabalho foi conduzido em laboratório e casa de vegetação. A partir do isolamento de bactérias da rizosfera de plantas, oriundas de diferentes municípios da região oeste paulista, conseguiu-se 127 isolados de Bacillus spp. Foram realizados testes bioquímicos para caracterização dos isolados bacterianos quanto ao antagonismo a fungos fitopatogênicos, produção de auxinas, produção de amônia e atividade enzimática. Na etapa final foi avaliado o potencial dos isolados, caracterizados previamente em condições de laboratório, para promoção de crescimento de plantas, utilizando-se a inoculação das bactérias em mudas de eucalipto e cultivo das plantas em casa de vegetação durante 90 dias. Avaliou-se variáveis de crescimento do eucalipto objetivando-se selecionar os melhores isolados e também correlacionar as diferentes variáveis analisadas no trabalho. O protocolo de bioprospecção de Bacillus sp. na rizosfera foi válido para se encontrar rizobactérias promissoras no aumento do crescimento do eucalipto. Foram selecionados cinco isolados como promissores para ação no crescimento de eucalipto. O potencial antagônico a fungos fitopatogênicos e produção de amônia apresentados pelos isolados de rizobactérias foi útil na fase inicial de seleção de rizobactérias promotoras do crescimento de eucalipto, pois apresentou correlação significativa com o crescimento das plantas.

  1. Alphitobius diaperinus spp como veiculador de Clostridium perfringens em granjas avícolas do interior paulista - Brasil Alphitobius diaperinus spp as a vector of Clostridium perfringens in broiler houses in the state of São Paulo - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Vittori

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O besouro Alphitobius diaperinus spp (cascudinho é visto como uma importante praga da avicultura mundial. Por suas características comportamentais e hábitos biológicos que dificultam seu controle, é considerado um vetor de agentes patogênicos. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi investigar o cascudinho como possível vetor de Clostridium perfringens em granjas avícolas industriais, localizadas em diferentes regiões do interior Paulista. Através de métodos bacteriológicos convencionais, em 40 amostras analisadas, foram encontradas contagens significativas de Clostridium perfringens em todas elas. A partir dos resultados obtidos, pôde-se demonstrar o potencial deste inseto como vetor do agente responsável pela enterite necrótica.The Alphitobius diaperinus spp (lesser mealworm is considered an important world poultry plague. Due to its behavior characteristics and biological habits that make its control difficult it is considered a vector of pathogenic agents. The objective of this research was to investigate the little mealworm as possible vector of Clostridium perfringens in broiler houses, located in different parts of the state of São Paulo. Through conventional bacteriological methods, 40 samples of little mealworm collected were analyzed. Clostridium perfringens was found in all of the samples and the potential of this insect as vector of the necrotic enteritis was demonstrated.

  2. Aeromonas spp. simultaneously harbouring bla(CTX-M-15), bla(SHV-12), bla(PER-1) and bla(FOX-2), in wild-growing Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) from Adriatic Sea, Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maravić, Ana; Skočibušić, Mirjana; Samanić, Ivica; Fredotović, Zeljana; Cvjetan, Svjetlana; Jutronić, Marinka; Puizina, Jasna

    2013-09-02

    Aeromonas species are becoming renowned as emerging pathogens by increasingly giving rise to a wide spectrum of food and waterborne infections in humans. Another worrisome feature of aeromonads is the growing frequency of antibiotic resistance as a consequence of their prominent diversity in terms of resistance determinants. This study aimed at determining the antimicrobial resistance pattern, prevalence and characterization of acquired β-lactamases, including extended-spectrum-β-lactamases (ESBLs) and AmpC cephalosporinases, as well as the presence of class 1 and 2 integrons, in Aeromonas isolates from wild-growing Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) of the eastern coast of Adriatic Sea, Croatia. Isolates were tested for susceptibility to 16 antibiotics and β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitor combinations. Cephalosporin-resistant isolates were further screened by PCR for genes encoding AmpC (bla(FOX), bla(CMY), bla(MOX), bla(LAT), bla(BIL), bla(DHA), bla(ACC), bla(MIR), bla(ACT)), ESBLs (bla(TEM), bla(SHV), bla(CTX-M), bla(PER), bla(VEB), bla(GES/IBC), bla(OXA)) and integrases (intI1, intI2, intI3). Location of bla genes was characterized by plasmid DNA fingerprinting and Southern blot hybridization. Plasmids carrying ESBL genes were investigated for transferability by conjugation and PCR-based replicon typed. Out of 147 Aeromonas isolates recovered, 30 (20%) demonstrated multiple resistance profile, with co-resistance most frequently detected against penicillins, piperacillin/sulbactam and tetracycline. ESBL-encoding genes were detected in 21 (13 Aeromonas caviae and 8 Aeromonas hydrophila) isolates, with bla(CTX-M-15) gene identified in 19 and bla(SHV-12) in 12 isolates. Among them, 10 isolates simultaneously harboured bla(CTX-M-15) and bla(SHV-12), while 3 isolates additionally carried an AmpC β-lactamase bla(FOX-2) gene. bla(PER-1) gene was identified in a single isolate also harbouring the bla(CTX-M-15) gene. While bla(SHV-12) was chromosomally

  3. Envolvimento de Aeromonas em surto de doença diarréica aguda em São Bento do Una, Pernambuco Aeromonas associated with an acute diarrhea outbreak in São Bento do Una, Pernambuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Hofer

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available No primeiro semestre de 2004, ocorreu um surto de diarréia em São Bento do Una, Pernambuco, registrando-se 2.170 casos. Nas 582 coproculturas realizadas, 145 (25% revelaram um enteropatógeno bacteriano, destacando 114 casos (19,5% com a participação de Aeromonas, representadas por Aeromonas caviae (57/9,8%, Aeromonas veronii biovar sobria (23/3,9%, Aeromonas veronii biovar veronii (15/2,6% e outras espécies (19/3,2%. Nos 31 episódios restantes (5,3%, foram detectados: V. cholerae O1 Ogawa toxigênico (18/3,1%, Salmonella spp (8/1,4%, Shigella spp (3/0,5% e Vibrio cholerae não O1/não O139 (2/0,3%.An acute diarrhea outbreak, with 2170 cases, was described during January to July, 2004, in São Bento do Una, Pernambuco. 582 stools were examined and an enteric pathogen was recovered in 25% (145 patients. Aeromonas species were the most frequent (114-19.5% and the main isolates were Aeromonas caviae (57-9.8%, Aeromonas veronii biovar sobria (23-3.9%, Aeromonas veronii biovar veronii (15-2.6% and other species (19-3.2%. The other isolated enteropathogens were Vibrio cholerae O1-Ogawa toxigenic (18-3.1%, Salmonella spp (8-1.4%, Shigella spp (3-0.5% and Vibrio cholerae non-O1/non-O139 (2-0.3%.

  4. Determination of the Viability of Aeromonas hydrophila in Different Types of Water by Flow Cytometry, and Comparison with Classical Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Pianetti, Anna; Falcioni, Tania; Bruscolini, Francesca; Sabatini, Luigia; Sisti, Elivio; Papa, Stefano

    2005-01-01

    The presence of Aeromonas spp. in water can represent a risk for human health. Therefore, it is important to know the physiological status of these bacteria and their survival in the environment. We studied the behavior of a strain of Aeromonas hydrophila in river water, spring water, brackish water, mineral water, and chlorinated drinking water, which had different physical and chemical characteristics. The bacterial content was evaluated by spectrophotometric and plate count techniques. Flo...

  5. Molecular detection of the Aeromonas virulence aerolysin gene in retail meats from different animal sources in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Kamelia; Aly, Magdy; Kheader, Afaf; Mabrok, Khaled

    2012-05-01

    Meat commonly contain the same Aeromonas spp. which occur in human diarrhoeal and non-diarrhoeal faecal samples. Motile Aeromonas were isolated from 5.6% of total 302 samples. The distribution of the isolates were 5.9 and 5.2% in fresh and frozen samples, respectively. Of the 302 samples taken of the four animal meat species investigated, the genus Aeromonas were isolated in 12.3% of the fresh samples collected from buffalo meat, in 6.5% of the samples collected from sheep meat and 14.0% from the samples collected from the cattle frozen meat samples. The camel meat did not reveal any Aeromonas isolates. Aeromonas hydrophila was isolated as the most prevalent species with 6.8%, followed by Aeromonas caviae with 2.7% and Aeromonas sobria with 2.1% from the total meat samples. Aerolysin toxin gene (aerA) was detected in 3/17 isolates of A. hydrophila isolated from contaminated meat. Infection due to bacterial pathogen with such virulent factor through contact with contaminated meat while handling them, poses health hazards to humans.

  6. Desarrollo de una PCR múltiple para la identificación de Staphylococcus spp. como causa de mastitis caprina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RA Ruiz-Romero

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La mastitis se refiere a la inflamación de la glándula mamaria, a pesar de las pérdidas económicas que produce en cabras lecheras, existe poca información acerca de la situación epidemiológica de la enfermedad en México. El objetivo de este estudio fue desarrollar una reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR múltiple para el diagnóstico de Staphylococcus spp como agente involucrado en mastitis caprina. Se colectaron muestras de leche de cabras clínicamente sanas en sistemas de producción intensivo y semi-intensivo de dos granjas ubicadas en Tequisquiapan, Querétaro, México. La PCR múltiple se desarrolló para identificar a los Staphylococcus coagulasa-negativos (SCN y a Staphylococcus aureus. Para lograr la identificación del género Staphylococcus spp se utilizó el par de iniciadores correspondientes a la región 16s RNAr, para el caso de S. aureus se utilizaron 2 pares de iniciadores, el primer par de iniciadores corresponden al gen clfA y el segundo par corresponden al gen coa de S. aureus. Se realizó la PCR múltiple a 30 muestras de leche de cabra en donde se pudo detectar a S. aureus y a SCN, sin embargo, estos estudios son preliminares por lo que se requiere de estudios posteriores para evaluar la sensibilidad y especificidad de esta técnica.

  7. Clinical and biochemical significance of toxin production by Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindschuh, M; Pickering, L K; Cleary, T G; Ruiz-Palacios, G

    1987-05-01

    Production of cytotoxin and enterotoxin by Aeromonas strains obtained from stools of 50 children in Mexico and Texas and from blood of 9 children with sepsis was determined. Results were correlated with clinical features of infected children as well as with biochemical traits of Aeromonas strains. Cytotoxin was produced by 40 of 42 Aeromonas strains (95%) isolated from stools of children with diarrhea, by all 8 isolates from stools of well children, and by all 9 isolates from children with sepsis. There was no difference in the quantities (amount of cytotoxin per milligram of protein required to kill 50% of the cells) of cytotoxin produced and in clinical manifestations among the groups. None of the isolates produced a toxin that could be neutralized by antiserum raised against Shiga toxin produced by Shigella dysenteriae 1 60R. Heat-labile-like enterotoxin (LT) was produced by 26 of 42 stool isolates (62%), while only 1 of the 42 isolates (2%) produced enterotoxinlike activity in suckling mice; 65% of the cytotoxin-producing strains also produced an LT-like material. All strains from blood produced LT-like material, and 2 of 6 (33%) produced activity in suckling mice. All strains produced hemolysin; 37 of 57 (65%) were Voges-Proskauer positive; 27 of 57 (47%) were lysine decarboxylase positive by API 20E strips, none were positive for lysine decarboxylose production by lysin-iron agar slants at 24 h, but 17 of 54 (31%) were positive at 48 h. There was no correlation between biochemical reactions and enterotoxin or cytotoxin production. There appears to be no correlation between toxin production by Aeromonas spp. and gastroenteritis.

  8. Occurrence of motile Aeromonas in municipal drinking water and distribution of genes encoding virulence factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pablos, Manuel; Rodríguez-Calleja, Jose M; Santos, Jesús A; Otero, Andrés; García-López, María-Luisa

    2009-10-31

    Aeromonas-associated cases of gastroenteritis are generally considered waterborne. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential microbiological risk associated with the presence of these bacteria in public drinking water. Over a period of one year, 132 drinking-water samples were monitored in León (NW of Spain, 137,000 inhabitants) for mandatory drinking-water standards and the occurrence of Aeromonas spp. Samples were taken at the municipal water treatment plant, one storage facility, and two public artesian drinking-water fountains. Because of low numbers of coliforms or Clostridium perfringens, the non-compliance rate with microbial standards was 3.8% whereas the percentage of positive samples for motile mesophilic Aeromonas was 26.5%. For all but two samples, Aeromonas was recovered between October and early March when the temperature was below 14 degrees C and the residual chlorine ranged from 0.21 to 0.72 mg/l. An apparent relationship was observed between rainfall and the incidence of Aeromonas. The 35 selected Aeromonas isolates were identified as A. caviae and A. media. The alt and laf genes were present in all isolates, the aerA gene was present in six isolates, and the four remaining genes investigated (hlyA, ast, stx1 and stx2) were absent. The combinations of putative virulence genes were: aerA(-)/hlyA(-)/alt(+)/ast(-)/laf(+)/stx1(-)/stx2(-) (82.9%) and aerA(+)/hlyA(-)/alt(+)/ast(-)/laf(+)/stx1(-)/stx2(-) (17.1%). None of the isolates bore plasmids. As Aeromonas strains harbouring two or more virulence-associated genes have the potential to cause disease by direct transmission via drinking water or by water use in food preparation, it would be advisable to control excessive numbers of these bacteria in drinking-water supplies.

  9. Phylogenetic diversity of Aeromonas from "alheira," a traditional Portuguese meat product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, M C; Martins, C; Martínez-Murcia, A J; Saavedra, M J

    2012-08-01

    "Alheira" is a traditional smoked meat sausage produced in the north of Portugal, representing an important economic resource for the region. This meat product has been subjected to research studies with the aim of detecting the presence of common foodborne pathogens, but, to our knowledge, isolation of emerging foodborne Aeromonas from alheira has never been previously described. Present work attempts to evaluate the Aeromonas species diversity of 84 isolates of Aeromonas spp. collected from 32 alheira samples. All presumptive Aeromonas isolates were subjected to genotyping by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-polymerase chain reaction analysis. The isolates presenting a different pattern were subjected to gyrB gene sequencing for species classification, and the species A. hydrophila, A. salmonicida, A. caviae, A. media, and A. allosaccharophila were identified. The Aeromonas species diversity found has not been previously described in any other meat product evaluated in previous studies. It is also important to highlight the presence of A. hydrophila and A. caviae because they were previously associated with illness in humans, including gastroenteritis.

  10. Molecular detection and antimicrobial resistance of Aeromonas from houseflies (Musca domestica in Iran

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    Davood Ommi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study aimed to report the molecular detection and antimicrobial resistance of Aeromonas among houseflies (Musca domestica in Shahrekord and Isfahan provinces of Iran. Materials and methods. Flies were caught from household kitchens, cattle farms, animal hospitals, human hospitals, slaughter house and poultry farms and put in collection separate sterile tubes. Isolation was accomplished by culture of flies in alkaline peptone water followed by identification with Aeromonas-specific Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR. Results. Out of 600 houseflies 73 (12.2% were infected with Aeromonas spp. Significantly higher frequencies of Aeromonas were isolated in Shahrekord province (13.0%; 39/300 than in Isfahan province (11.3%; 34/300. The recovery frequencies of the organisms were significantly lower in kitchens as compared to those in cattle farms and hospital wards which were similar. Higher proportions of infected flies were obtained during summer whereas low proportions were obtained during winter. Conclusions. It is concluded that houseflies do harbor diarrheagenic pathogens, including Aeromonas especially during summer. The carried organisms are resistant to a number of antimicrobials at different levels. Thus, future plans aimed at stemming infections caused by these organisms should take flies into account. Control efforts of infections caused by this particular bacterium should therefore take into account Musca domestica.

  11. Molecular characterization of antibiotic resistance in Pseudomonas and Aeromonas isolates from catfish of the Mekong Delta, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hoang Nam Kha; Van, Thi Thu Hao; Nguyen, Huu Thinh; Smooker, Peter M; Shimeta, Jeff; Coloe, Peter J

    2014-07-16

    A collection of 116 motile Pseudomonas spp. and 92 Aeromonas spp. isolated from 15 Vietnamese intensive catfish farms was analyzed to examine the molecular antibiotic resistance characteristics and the transferability of resistance markers within and between species. High levels of resistance to ampicillin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, nalidixic acid, chloramphenicol, and nitrofurantoin were observed. The percentage of multiple drug resistance of Pseudomonas spp. and Aeromonas spp. isolates was 96.6% and 61.9%, respectively. The multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) index mean values of 0.457 and 0.293 of Pseudomonas and Aeromonas isolates, respectively, indicated that these isolates were exposed to high risk sources of contamination where antibiotics were commonly used. Approximately 33% of Pseudomonas spp. and 28% of Aeromonas spp. isolates from catfish contained class 1 integrons, but no class 2 integrons were detected. Several common resistance genes including aadA, dfrA and catB were harbored in class 1 integrons. Large plasmids (>55 kb) were frequently detected in 50% and 71.4% of the plasmids extracted from Pseudomonas and Aeromonas isolates, respectively. Conjugation and transformation experiments demonstrated the successful transfer of all or part of the resistance phenotypes of catfish isolates to the recipient strains, including laboratory strains and strains isolated from this study. These results highlight the likely role of catfish bacteria as a reservoir of antibiotic resistant, Gram-negative bacteria harboring a pool of mobile genetic elements that can readily be transferred intra- and interspecies. To our knowledge, this is the first report on molecular characterization of antibiotic resistance of bacteria isolated from catfish in Vietnam.

  12. Identification of hydroxy fatty acids in Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas sobria, and Aeromonas caviae.

    OpenAIRE

    1985-01-01

    Gas-liquid chromatographic analysis of fatty acid methyl esters obtained from clinical isolates of Aeromonas hydrophila, A. sobria, and A. caviae revealed the presence of two hydroxy fatty acid species, 3-OH 12:0 and 3-OH 14:0.

  13. Virulent Aeromonas hydrophila in channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, we investigated factors that predisposed catfish to motile aeromonas septicemia (MAS) caused by virulent Aeromonas hydrophila (vAh). Our results revealed that wounding on fish body surface was a prerequisite for vAh infection and disease development. A reproducible waterborne challeng...

  14. Phenotypic and Genetic Diversity of Aeromonas Species Isolated from Fresh Water Lakes in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khor, Wei Ching; Puah, Suat Moi; Tan, Jin Ai Mary Anne; Puthucheary, S D; Chua, Kek Heng

    2015-01-01

    Gram-negative bacilli of the genus Aeromonas are primarily inhabitants of the aquatic environment. Humans acquire this organism from a wide range of food and water sources as well as during aquatic recreational activities. In the present study, the diversity and distribution of Aeromonas species from freshwater lakes in Malaysia was investigated using glycerophospholipid-cholesterol acyltransferase (GCAT) and RNA polymerase sigma-factor (rpoD) genes for speciation. A total of 122 possible Aeromonas strains were isolated and confirmed to genus level using the API20E system. The clonality of the isolates was investigated using ERIC-PCR and 20 duplicate isolates were excluded from the study. The specific GCAT-PCR identified all isolates as belonging to the genus Aeromonas, in agreement with the biochemical identification. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using the rpoD gene sequence and all 102 isolates were identified as: A. veronii 43%, A. jandaei 37%, A. hydrophila 6%, A. caviae 4%, A. salmonicida 2%, A. media 2%, A. allosaccharophila 1%, A. dhakensis 1% and Aeromonas spp. 4%. Twelve virulence genes were present in the following proportions--exu 96%, ser 93%, aer 87%, fla 83%, enolase 70%, ela 62%, act 54%, aexT 33%, lip 16%, dam 16%, alt 8% and ast 4%, and at least 2 of these genes were present in all 102 strains. The ascV, aexU and hlyA genes were not detected among the isolates. A. hydrophila was the main species containing virulence genes alt and ast either present alone or in combination. It is possible that different mechanisms may be used by each genospecies to demonstrate virulence. In summary, with the use of GCAT and rpoD genes, unambiguous identification of Aeromonas species is possible and provides valuable data on the phylogenetic diversity of the organism.

  15. Phenotypic and Genetic Diversity of Aeromonas Species Isolated from Fresh Water Lakes in Malaysia.

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    Wei Ching Khor

    Full Text Available Gram-negative bacilli of the genus Aeromonas are primarily inhabitants of the aquatic environment. Humans acquire this organism from a wide range of food and water sources as well as during aquatic recreational activities. In the present study, the diversity and distribution of Aeromonas species from freshwater lakes in Malaysia was investigated using glycerophospholipid-cholesterol acyltransferase (GCAT and RNA polymerase sigma-factor (rpoD genes for speciation. A total of 122 possible Aeromonas strains were isolated and confirmed to genus level using the API20E system. The clonality of the isolates was investigated using ERIC-PCR and 20 duplicate isolates were excluded from the study. The specific GCAT-PCR identified all isolates as belonging to the genus Aeromonas, in agreement with the biochemical identification. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using the rpoD gene sequence and all 102 isolates were identified as: A. veronii 43%, A. jandaei 37%, A. hydrophila 6%, A. caviae 4%, A. salmonicida 2%, A. media 2%, A. allosaccharophila 1%, A. dhakensis 1% and Aeromonas spp. 4%. Twelve virulence genes were present in the following proportions--exu 96%, ser 93%, aer 87%, fla 83%, enolase 70%, ela 62%, act 54%, aexT 33%, lip 16%, dam 16%, alt 8% and ast 4%, and at least 2 of these genes were present in all 102 strains. The ascV, aexU and hlyA genes were not detected among the isolates. A. hydrophila was the main species containing virulence genes alt and ast either present alone or in combination. It is possible that different mechanisms may be used by each genospecies to demonstrate virulence. In summary, with the use of GCAT and rpoD genes, unambiguous identification of Aeromonas species is possible and provides valuable data on the phylogenetic diversity of the organism.

  16. ESTUDIO DE LA PATOGENICIDAD DE DIFERENTES ESPECIES DE Aeromonas EN LA TRUCHA ARCOÍRIS (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    OpenAIRE

    Zepeda Velázquez, Andrea Paloma

    2015-01-01

    El género Aeromonas incluye bacterias que habitan naturalmente el medio acuático, capaces de infectar diferentes especies animales, incluido el humano. Las enfermedades causadas por este género ocasionan pérdidas económicas significativas para la industria trutícola. Con el objeto de conocer la patogenicidad y virulencia de diferentes especies de Aeromonas spp., en la trucha arcoíris (Oncorhynchus mykiss), en el presente estudio se caracterizaron las lesiones macroscópicas e histológicas pres...

  17. Aeromonas hydrophila and Aeromonas veronii predominate among potentially pathogenic ciprofloxacin- and tetracycline-resistant aeromonas isolates from Lake Erie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skwor, Troy; Shinko, Jasmine; Augustyniak, Alexander; Gee, Christopher; Andraso, Greg

    2014-02-01

    Members of the genus Aeromonas are ubiquitous in nature and have increasingly been implicated in numerous diseases of humans and other animal taxa. Although some species of aeromonads are human pathogens, their presence, density, and relative abundance are rarely considered in assessing water quality. The objectives of this study were to identify Aeromonas species within Lake Erie, determine their antibiotic resistance patterns, and assess their potential pathogenicity. Aeromonas strains were isolated from Lake Erie water by use of Aeromonas selective agar with and without tetracycline and ciprofloxacin. All isolates were analyzed for hemolytic ability and cytotoxicity against human epithelial cells and were identified to the species level by using 16S rRNA gene restriction fragment length polymorphisms and phylogenetic analysis based on gyrB gene sequences. A molecular virulence profile was identified for each isolate, using multiplex PCR analysis of six virulence genes. We demonstrated that Aeromonas comprised 16% of all culturable bacteria from Lake Erie. Among 119 Aeromonas isolates, six species were identified, though only two species (Aeromonas hydrophila and A. veronii) predominated among tetracycline- and ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates. Additionally, both of these species demonstrated pathogenic phenotypes in vitro. Virulence gene profiles demonstrated a high prevalence of aerolysin and serine protease genes among A. hydrophila and A. veronii isolates, a genetic profile which corresponded with pathogenic phenotypes. Together, our findings demonstrate increased antibiotic resistance among potentially pathogenic strains of aeromonads, illustrating an emerging potential health concern.

  18. Presumptive and Definitive Identification of Aeromonas from infected Ornamental Gold fish (Carassius auratus auratus)

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The paper deals with the presumptive identification of Aeromonas, definitive identification of two species of Aeromonas i.e. Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas salmonicida in various organs of Gold fish infected with red disease.

  19. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibilities of Vibrio, salmonella, and Aeromonas isolates from various uncooked seafoods in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodring, Joseph; Srijan, Apichai; Puripunyakom, Paksathorn; Oransathid, Wilawan; Wongstitwilairoong, Boonchai; Mason, Carl

    2012-01-01

    Uncooked seafood samples were collected from open markets and supermarkets in Bangkok, Thailand, and were examined for the presence of Vibrio, Salmonella, and Aeromonas species from January to February 2008. From 120 samples, 272 bacterial isolates were identified through biochemical testing. Of all sea bass, shrimp, oyster, and blood cockle samples (30 of each) that were processed for culture, 114 (95%) samples had at least one detectable isolate of Vibrio, Salmonella, or Aeromonas, leaving only 6 (5%) samples free of them. All oyster sample (100%) had at least one pathogen, followed by sea bass (97%), blood cockles (97%), and shrimp (90%). Overall, 111 (92%) of all samples had detectable Vibrio spp., 32 (27%) had detectable Aeromonas spp., and 25 (21%) had detectable Salmonella enterica. There was no overall difference between positive samples collected from fresh markets versus supermarkets (relative risk, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.89 to 1.05). Resistance to ampicillin among isolated pathogens was relatively high (56%), while resistance to 12 other antibiotics, including azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, was relatively low (0, 0, and 3%, respectively). Study results indicate that uncooked seafood in Bangkok, Thailand, commonly harbors enteric pathogens and that consumption of uncooked seafood should be avoided to reduce foodborne illnesses.

  20. Aeromonas Hydrophila: A Re-Emerging Pathogen

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Lakshmanaperumalsamy, P.; Thayumanavan, T.; Subashkumar, R.

    ) and for this reason Aeromonas is easily isolated from retail market finfish. Another known reservoir is shellfish, particularly, oysters (Abeyta et al., 1986). Thayumanavan et al., (2003) reported 37 % of the freshly caught seafood (finfish and prawn) collected form... marketed fish and prawn of South India. International Journal of Food Microbiology 76, 165 ? 168. Vivekanandhan, G., Hatha A.A.M., Lakshmanaperumalsamy, P., Prevalence of Aeromonas hydrophila in fish and prawns from the seafood market of Coimbatore, South...

  1. Experimental induction of motile Aeromonas septicemia in channel catfish by waterborne challenge with virulent Aeromonas hydrophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motile Aeromonas septicemia (MAS), caused by virulent clonal isolates of Aeromonas hydrophila (vAh), is emerging as a major disease in catfish aquaculture in the Southeastern United States. Predisposing conditions leading to vAh infection in catfish were however largely unknown. The objective of thi...

  2. Infection and disease progress of motile Aeromonas septicemia caused by virulent Aeromonas hydrophila in channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motile Aeromonas septicemia (MAS), caused by virulent clonal isolates of Aeromonas hydrophila (vAh), is emerging as a major disease in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) aquaculture in the Southeastern United States. Predisposing conditions leading to vAh infection in catfish were however largely...

  3. Aeromonas flagella and colonisation mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, Rebecca; Balboa, Sabela; Parker, Jennifer L; Shaw, Jonathan G

    2014-01-01

    Aeromonas species are inhabitants of aquatic environments and are able to cause disease in humans and fish among other animals. In aquaculture, they are responsible for the economically important diseases of furunculosis and motile Aeromonas septicaemia (MAS). Whereas gastroenteritis and wound infections are the major human diseases associated with the genus. As they inhabit and survive in diverse environments, aeromonads possess a wide range of colonisation factors. The motile species are able to swim in liquid environments through the action of a single polar flagellum, the flagellin subunits of which are glycosylated; although essential for function the biological role of glycan addition is yet to be determined. Approximately 60% of aeromonads possess a second lateral flagella system that is expressed in viscous environments for swarming over surfaces; both flagellar systems have been shown to be important in the initial colonisation of surfaces. Subsequently, other non-flagellar colonisation factors are employed; these can be both filamentous and non-filamentous. The aeromonads possess a number of fimbrial systems with the bundle-forming MSHA type IV pilus system, having a major role in human cell adherence. Furthermore, a series of outer-membrane proteins have also been implicated in the aeromonad adhesion process. A number of strains are also capable of cell invasion and that maybe linked with the more invasive diseases of bacteraemia or wound infections. These strains employ cell surface factors that allow the colonisation of these niches that protect them from the host's immune system such as S-layers, capsules or particular lipopolysaccharides.

  4. Resistensi Bakteri Aeromonas sp. Isolat Ikan Piranha (Pygosentrus nattereri Bali Safari And Marine Park terhadap Antibiotik

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    Ni Made Herawati

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Piranha (Pygosentrus nattereri is a fish that has been conserved at Conservation Center of Bali Safari and Marine Park. In May 2012 there was a case that twelve Piranhas suffered from illness and two of them died without any specific clinical signs. The dead Piranhas were necropsied and the tissues or parts of organs were collected for microbial examination interests. Spesies specific bacterial examination was also included using Microgen GNA TM + B-ID system test The bacterial examination found that the fishes were infected by Aeromonas hydropila and Aeromonas veronii. Further examination about antibiotic resistance tests showed that those Aeromonas spp were resistant to chloramphenicol and a combination of trimethoprim and sulphamethoxazole. It can be suggested that, next, the usage of other antibiotics is strongly recommended for the case of Piranha infected by Aeromonas spp at Bali Safari and Marine Park. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; text-align:justify; line-height:150%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;}

  5. Determination of microbial diversity of Aeromonas strains on the basis of multilocus sequence typing, phenotype, and presence of putative virulence genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Maria Elena; Fasolato, Luca; Montemurro, Filomena; Rosteghin, Marina; Manfrin, Amedeo; Patarnello, Tomaso; Novelli, Enrico; Cardazzo, Barbara

    2011-07-01

    The genus Aeromonas has been described as comprising several species associated with the aquatic environment, which represents their principal reservoir. Aeromonas spp. are commonly isolated from diseased and healthy fish, but the involvement of such bacteria in human infection and gastroenteritis has frequently been reported. The primary challenge in establishing an unequivocal link between the Aeromonas genus and pathogenesis in humans is the extremely complicated taxonomy. With the aim of clarifying taxonomic relationships among the strains and phenotypes, a multilocus sequencing approach was developed and applied to characterize 23 type and reference strains of Aeromonas spp. and a collection of 77 field strains isolated from fish, crustaceans, and mollusks. All strains were also screened for putative determinants of virulence by PCR (ast, ahh1, act, asa1, eno, ascV, and aexT) and the production of acylated homoserine lactones (AHLs). In addition, the phenotypic fingerprinting obtained from 29 biochemical tests was submitted to the nonparametric combination (NPC) test methodology to define the statistical differences among the identified genetic clusters. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) achieved precise strain genotyping, and the phylogenetic analysis of concatenated sequences delineated the relationship among the taxa belonging to the genus Aeromonas, providing a powerful tool for outbreak traceability, host range diffusion, and ecological studies. The NPC test showed the feasibility of phenotypic differentiation among the majority of the MLST clusters by using a selection of tests or the entire biochemical fingerprinting. A Web-based MLST sequence database (http://pubmlst.org/aeromonas) specific for the Aeromonas genus was developed and implemented with all the results.

  6. Biliary tract infections caused by Aeromonas species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, C M; Lai, C C; Tang, H J; Ko, W C; Hsueh, P-R

    2013-02-01

    This study investigated the clinical and microbiological characteristics of patients with Aeromonas infections of the biliary tract. Patients with bile cultures positive for Aeromonas species during the period July 2004 to December 2011 were identified from a computerized database of a hospital in Taiwan. Patients with Aeromonas infections of the biliary tract were further identified. During the study period, a total of 1,142 isolates of Aeromonas species were obtained from 750 patients. Of those patients, 91 (12.1 %) had Aeromonas infections of the biliary tract. The annual incidence (episodes per 10,000 patient-days) of biliary tract infections caused by all Aeromonas species was 0.31 in 2007, 0.12 in 2010, and 0.27 in 2011. A. hydrophila was the most common species isolated (n = 41, 45.1 %), followed by A. caviae (n = 30, 33.0 %), A. veronii biovar sobria (n = 15, 16.5 %), and A. veronii biovar veronii (n = 5, 5.5 %). The majority of patients (n = 77, 84.6 %) had polymicrobial infections. Hepatobiliary stones (n = 50, 54.9 %) and hepatobiliary cancer (n = 38, 41.8 %) were the most common underlying diseases, followed by diabetes mellitus (n = 29, 31.9 %) and liver cirrhosis (n = 7, 7.7 %). The in-hospital mortality rate was 8.8 %. Infection-related mortality was associated with underlying immunocompromised condition (p = 0.044) and use of mechanical ventilation (p = 0.004), but was not associated with inappropriate antibiotic usage or concomitant bacteremia (n = 8, 8.8 %). In conclusion, biliary tract infections caused by Aeromonas species are not uncommon and can develop in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients; however, patients with underlying hepatobiliary diseases are particularly susceptible to these infections.

  7. Characterization of mercury-resistant clinical Aeromonas species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Valdespino, Abigail; Celestino-Mancera, Martin; Villegas-Rodríguez, Viridiana Lorena; Curiel-Quesada, Everardo

    2013-12-01

    Mercury-resistant Aeromonas strains isolated from diarrhea were studied. Resistance occurs via mercuric ion reduction but merA and merR genes were only detected in some strains using PCR and dot hybridization. Results indicate a high variability in mer operons in Aeromonas. To our knowledge, this is the first report of mercury-resistant clinical Aeromonas strains.

  8. Characterization of mercury-resistant clinical Aeromonas species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail Pérez-Valdespino

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Mercury-resistant Aeromonas strains isolated from diarrhea were studied. Resistance occurs via mercuric ion reduction but merA and merR genes were only detected in some strains using PCR and dot hybridization. Results indicate a high variability in mer operons in Aeromonas. To our knowledge, this is the first report of mercury-resistant clinical Aeromonas strains.

  9. Aeromonas caviae septicemia in immunocompetent gastrointestinal carriers

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    M. Dwivedi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas caviae strains have been isolated from blood and stool cultures of three immunocompetent patients, residents of Northern India, who presented with community acquired septicemia without any recent history of diarrhea. Cell culture infectivity test performed on Hep-2 cells have shown substantial degree of invasiveness in the isolated strains. This case unleashes a possibility of asymptomatic gastrointestinal carriage of such strains of A. caviae in a very large population of India, as several areas of India have very high rates of Aeromonas induced acute diarrhea/gastroenteritis (up to 13%. It needs to be appraised further in India as well as other countries having high rates of Aeromonas induced acute diarrhea/gastroenteritis.

  10. Aeromonas phages encode tRNAs for their overused codons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakaran, Ramanandan; Chithambaram, Shivapriya; Xia, Xuhua

    2014-01-01

    The GC-rich bacterial species, Aeromonas salmonicida, is parasitised by both GC-rich phages (Aeromonas phages - phiAS7 and vB_AsaM-56) and GC-poor phages (Aeromonas phages - 25, 31, 44RR2.8t, 65, Aes508, phiAS4 and phiAS5). Both the GC-rich Aeromonas phage phiAS7 and Aeromonas phage vB_AsaM-56 have nearly identical codon usage bias as their host. While all the remaining seven GC-poor Aeromonas phages differ dramatically in codon usage from their GC-rich host. Here, we investigated whether tRNA encoded in the genome of Aeromonas phages facilitate the translation of phage proteins. We found that tRNAs encoded in the phage genome correspond to synonymous codons overused in the phage genes but not in the host genes.

  11. Herida antebraquial infectada por Aeromonas hydrophila

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    Se presenta un caso de celulitis por Aeromonas hydrophila, en un paciente de 23 años, tras una herida antebraquial producida en el medio acuático. La celulitis se resolvió mediante desbridamiento agresivo y quimioterapia. En los controles posteriores no se han apreciado déficits funcionales tras la infección. A case of Aeromonas hidrophila cellulitis developped in a 23-year-old patient, after aquatic environment forearm wound is presented. His cellulitis was effectively resolve...

  12. Evidence of increased antibiotic resistance in phylogenetically-diverse Aeromonas isolates from semi-intensive fish ponds treated with antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant J Patil

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The genus Aeromonas is ubiquitous in aquatic environments encompassing a broad range of fish and human pathogens. Aeromonas strains are known for their enhanced capacity to acquire and exchange antibiotic resistance genes and therefore, are frequently targeted as indicator bacteria for monitoring antimicrobial resistance in aquatic environments. This study evaluated temporal trends in Aeromonas diversity and antibiotic resistance in two adjacent semi-intensive aquaculture facilities to ascertain effects of antibiotic treatment on antimicrobial resistance. In the first facility, sulfadiazine-trimethoprim was added prophylactically upon fingerling stocking and water column-associated Aeromonas were monitored periodically over an eleven-month fish-fattening cycle to assess temporal dynamics in taxonomy and antibiotic resistance. In the second facility, Aeromonas were isolated from fish skin ulcers sampled over a three-year period and from pond water samples to assess associations between pathogenic strains to those in the water column. A total of 1200 Aeromonas spp. were isolated, initially screened for sulfadiazine resistance and further screened against five additional antibiotics. In both facilities, strong correlations were observed between sulfadiazine resistance and trimethoprim and tetracycline resistances, whereas correlations between sulfadiazine resistance and ceftriaxone, gentamycin and chloramphenicol resistances were low. Abundance of multi-drug resistant strains as well as sul1, tetA and intI1 gene-harboring strains was significantly higher in profiles sampled during the fish cycle than those isolated prior to stocking and these genes were extremely abundant in the pathogenic strains. Five phylogenetically-distinct Aeromonas clusters were revealed using partial rpoD gene sequence analysis. Interestingly, prior to fingerling stocking the diversity of water column strains was high, and representatives from all five clusters were

  13. Quorum Sensing Regulation in Aeromonas hydrophila

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, Christian; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Givskov, Michael;

    2010-01-01

    We present detailed results on the C4-HSL-mediated quorum sensing (QS) regulatory system of the opportunistic Gram-negative bacterium Aeromonas hydrophila. This bacterium contains a particularly simple QS system that allows for a detailed modeling of kinetics. In a model system (i...

  14. Multilocus phylogenetic analysis of the genus Aeromonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Murcia, Antonio J; Monera, Arturo; Saavedra, M Jose; Oncina, Remedios; Lopez-Alvarez, Monserrate; Lara, Erica; Figueras, M Jose

    2011-05-01

    A broad multilocus phylogenetic analysis (MLPA) of the representative diversity of a genus offers the opportunity to incorporate concatenated inter-species phylogenies into bacterial systematics. Recent analyses based on single housekeeping genes have provided coherent phylogenies of Aeromonas. However, to date, a multi-gene phylogenetic analysis has never been tackled. In the present study, the intra- and inter-species phylogenetic relationships of 115 strains representing all Aeromonas species described to date were investigated by MLPA. The study included the independent analysis of seven single gene fragments (gyrB, rpoD, recA, dnaJ, gyrA, dnaX, and atpD), and the tree resulting from the concatenated 4705 bp sequence. The phylogenies obtained were consistent with each other, and clustering agreed with the Aeromonas taxonomy recognized to date. The highest clustering robustness was found for the concatenated tree (i.e. all Aeromonas species split into 100% bootstrap clusters). Both possible chronometric distortions and poor resolution encountered when using single-gene analysis were buffered in the concatenated MLPA tree. However, reliable phylogenetic species delineation required an MLPA including several "bona fide" strains representing all described species.

  15. Aeromonas chitinase degrades chironomid egg masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laviad, Sivan; Golan, Amnon; Shaked, Tamar; Vaizel-Ohayon, Dalit; Halpern, Malka; Pick, Elah

    2016-02-01

    Chironomids are freshwater insects that undergo a complete metamorphosis of four life stages. Chironomid egg masses can be degraded by Vibrio cholerae and some Aeromonas species. Egg mass degradation by V. cholerae requires haemagglutinin protease activity. Our aim was to identify the egg mass degrading (EMD) factor secreted by Aeromonas dhkanesis 3K1C15. Following the hypothesis that the EMD factor of A. dhkanesis is also a protease, secreted proteases were screened, but none of them proved to have the same properties as the EMD factor. Using conventional protein purification methods, we found that the active fraction included chitinases. We further confirmed chitin as a building block of the egg masses. Interestingly, by supplementing bacterial growth media with chitin, we observed unexpected EMD factor activity in Aeromonas isolates that initially were not able to degrade egg masses. Accordingly, we concluded that although strain 3K1C15 secretes chitinases constitutively, most Aeromonas strains secrete chitinases inductively. Induction of chitinases in nature presumably occurs when bacteria are attached to the egg mass habitat, in which chitin is abundant. Considering that chitinases are highly conserved across bacteria phyla, we assume that the role of this enzyme in the bacteria-insect interplay could be wider than is currently thought.

  16. The use of successive milking as a procedure for the elimination of infection on due to Prototheca spp in cases of bovine clinical mastitis. (A case report / Utilização de ordenhas sucessivas como procedimento para eliminação de infecção por prototheca spp de casos de mastite clínica bovina (relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Kiyoe Shimada

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This work relates the case of two animals (Black and White Holstein from a bovine milking herd, from north of Paraná State, in which mastitis due Prototheca spp was diagnosed. As a procedure for the infection elimination, it was opted for the use of successive milking performed six times daily, during eight days. The animals were followed up through mycological cultures from milk Samples after 15, 30 and 60 days from the beginning of the procedure. The clinical signs regressed after three days and the mycologicai cultures were negative after the 15th day.O presente trabalho relata um caso de dois animais HPB de um rebanho bovino leiteiro, da região norte do Estado do Paraná, dos quais diagnosticou-se mastite clínica por Prototheca spp. Como procedimento para eliminação da infecção optou-se peta utilização de ordenhas sucessivas praticadas seis vezes diariamente durante oito dias. Os animais foram acompanhados através de culturas micológicas das amostras de leite após 15, 30 e 60 dias do inicio do procedimento. Os sinais clínicos regrediram após três dias, e a partir do 15° dia as culturas foram negativas.

  17. Resistance of Salmonds Against Aeromonas Salmonicida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holten-Andersen, Lars; Dalsgaard, Inger; Buchmann, Kurt

    2011-01-01

    Furunculosis, caused by Aeromonas salmonicida, continues to be a health problem for the growing salmonid aquaculture. Despite effective vaccination programs regular outbreaks occur at Danish trout farms calling for repeated antibiotic treatment. We hypothesized that a difference in natural...... susceptibility to this disease might exist between Baltic salmon and the widely used rainbow trout. Hence, a cohabitation challenge model was applied to investigate the relative susceptibility to infection with Aeromonas salmonicida in rainbow trout and Baltic salmon. The course of infection was monitored daily...... over a 30-day period post challenge and the results were summarized in mortality curves. A. salmonicida was recovered from mortalities during the entire test period. At day 30 the survival was 6.2 % and 34.0 % for rainbow trout and Baltic salmon, respectively. Significant differences in susceptibility...

  18. Aeromonas dhakensis, an increasingly recognized human pathogen

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    Po Lin eChen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas dhakensis was first isolated from children with diarrhea in Dhaka, Bangladesh and described in 2002. In the past decade, increasing evidence indicate this species is widely distributed in the environment and can cause a variety of infections both in human and animals, especially in coastal areas. A. dhakensis is often misidentified as A. hydrophila, A. veronii or A. caviae by commercial phenotypic tests in the clinical laboratory. Correct identification relies on molecular methods. Increasingly used matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS may be able to identify Aeromonas specie rapidly and accurately. A. dhakensis has shown its potent virulence in different animal models and clinical infections. Although several virulence factors had been reported, no single mechanism is conclusive. Characteristically A. dhakensis is the principal species causing soft tissue infection and bacteremia, especially among patients with liver cirrhosis or malignancy. Of note, A. dhakensis bacteremia is more lethal than bacteremia due to other Aeromonas species. The role of this species in gastroenteritis remains controversial. Third generation cephalosporins and carbapenems should be used cautiously in the treatment of severe A. dhakensis infection due to the presence of AmpC β-lactamase and metallo-β-lactamase genes, and optimal regimens may be cefepime or fluoroquinolones. Studies of bacterial virulence factors and associated host responses may provide the chance to understand the heterogeneous virulence between species. The hypothesis A. dhakensis with varied geographic prevalence and enhanced virulence that compared to other Aeromonas species warrants more investigations.

  19. Análise fenotípica e genotípica da virulência de Staphylococcus spp. e de sua dispersão clonal como contribuição ao estudo da mastite bovina Phenotypic and genotypic analysis of virulence in Staphylococcus spp. and its clonal dispersion as a contribution to the study of bovine mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane F. Marques

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A mastite é uma inflamação da glândula mamária causada principalmente por bactérias, dentre as quais o gênero Staphylococcus ocupa um papel importante. Bactérias pertencentes a este gênero são caracterizadas por expressar fatores de virulência que permitem sua persistência e disseminação no hospedeiro. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar fenogenotipicamente os fatores de virulência de isolados de Staphylococcus spp. a partir de casos de mastite bovina. Foram analisadas 272 amostras de leite provenientes de oito propriedades da região Sul-Fluminense do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Após identificação, obteve-se um total de 250 isolados de Staphylococcus spp. Estes foram submetidos às provas fenotípicas de detecção da produção de "slime" em microplaca e em ágar vermelho congo; produção de hemolisinas e sinergismo hemolítico; produção de caseinase e DNase. Posteriormente foram submetidos à técnica de PCR para detecção dos genes de produção de cápsula (cap5 e cap8, fibronectina (fnbA,e fnbB, "slime" (icaA e icaD e hemolisinas (hla e hlb. Do total avaliado, 58% (145/250 foi identificado como Staphylococcus spp. coagulase-negativos e 42% (105/250 como Staphylococcus spp. coagulase-positivos, destes 36,2% (38/105 foram identificados como S. aureus, 11,4% (12/105 como S. intermedius e 3,8% (4/105 como pertencentes ao grupo SIG. Apenas 6,4% (16/250 dos isolados foram produtores de α-hemólise, 4,8% (12/250 de β-hemólise e, 1,6% (4/250 de α e β-hemólise. A produção de caseinase foi observada em 66,4% (166/250, e a produção de "slime" avaliada pela técnica da microplaca em 76,8% (192/250 dos isolados, respectivamente. A DNase foi detectada em ECNs (38/145 e S. aureus (14/38. Os marcadores genéticos avaliados para a produção de slime, icaA e icaD apresentaram nenhuma ou leve concordância com a produção fenotípica, respectivamente, utilizando o coeficiente Kappa. Tal dado parece indicar que outros

  20. Aislamiento y caracterización de cepas nativas de Lactobacillus spp. para su uso como probióticos en la industria láctea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Vázquez

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available La utilización de fermentos en la elaboración de productos lácteos es una práctica diaria a nivel industrial. En nuestro país los mismos son comprados a multinacionales extranjeras que se dedican a producir y comercializar fermentos; muchos de los cuales incorporan bacterias probióticas. Los probióticos pueden definirse como microorganismos que luego de ser consumidos en cantidades adecuadas, confieren algún efecto benéfico en el huésped. En el presente trabajo se realizó el aislamiento de una cepa de Lactobacillus de origen humano. Se identificó por tinción gram, prueba catalasa, crecimiento en anaerobiosis y aerobiosis y un test API 50 CH. Con el objetivo de probar propiedades probióticas de la cepa se llevaron a cabo estudios de resistencia al pH, tolerancia a sales biliares y se realizó un Modelo Gástrico in vitro. Los resultados permiten afirmar que estamos en presencia de una cepa nativa de Lactobacillus acidophilus caracterizada fenotípicamente con un 97% de confianza. Presentaría la habilidad de sobrevivir al pasaje a través del tubo digestivo ya que resistió la exposición a un pH similar al estomacal, pudo crecer en un medio con sales biliares y sobrevivió a la acción conjunta de la pepsina y una simulación de jugo gástrico; características que permiten clasificarla como posible cepa probiótica.Abstract  The use of starters to elaborate dairy products is a current practice in the industry. In our Country we import these starters from foreign companies dedicated to make and sale it, and most of them include probiotic bacterias. Probiotics can be defined as microorganisms that after be consumed in adequate amount, can give some advantageous effect to the host. In this study a strain of Lactobacillus was isolated from a human. The identification was done through gram stain, catalase test, aerobic and anaerobic growth, and an API 50 CH test. In order to prove the probiotic properties of the strain, studies of p

  1. Análise fenotípica e genotípica da virulência de Staphylococcus spp. e de sua dispersão clonal como contribuição ao estudo da mastite bovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane F. Marques

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A mastite é uma inflamação da glândula mamária causada principalmente por bactérias, dentre as quais o gênero Staphylococcus ocupa um papel importante. Bactérias pertencentes a este gênero são caracterizadas por expressar fatores de virulência que permitem sua persistência e disseminação no hospedeiro. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar fenogenotipicamente os fatores de virulência de isolados de Staphylococcus spp. a partir de casos de mastite bovina. Foram analisadas 272 amostras de leite provenientes de oito propriedades da região Sul-Fluminense do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Após identificação, obteve-se um total de 250 isolados de Staphylococcus spp. Estes foram submetidos às provas fenotípicas de detecção da produção de "slime" em microplaca e em ágar vermelho congo; produção de hemolisinas e sinergismo hemolítico; produção de caseinase e DNase. Posteriormente foram submetidos à técnica de PCR para detecção dos genes de produção de cápsula (cap5 e cap8, fibronectina (fnbA,e fnbB, "slime" (icaA e icaD e hemolisinas (hla e hlb. Do total avaliado, 58% (145/250 foi identificado como Staphylococcus spp. coagulase-negativos e 42% (105/250 como Staphylococcus spp. coagulase-positivos, destes 36,2% (38/105 foram identificados como S. aureus, 11,4% (12/105 como S. intermedius e 3,8% (4/105 como pertencentes ao grupo SIG. Apenas 6,4% (16/250 dos isolados foram produtores de α-hemólise, 4,8% (12/250 de β-hemólise e, 1,6% (4/250 de α e β-hemólise. A produção de caseinase foi observada em 66,4% (166/250, e a produção de "slime" avaliada pela técnica da microplaca em 76,8% (192/250 dos isolados, respectivamente. A DNase foi detectada em ECNs (38/145 e S. aureus (14/38. Os marcadores genéticos avaliados para a produção de slime, icaA e icaD apresentaram nenhuma ou leve concordância com a produção fenotípica, respectivamente, utilizando o coeficiente Kappa. Tal dado parece indicar que outros

  2. Complete genome sequence of Aeromonas hydrophila AL06-06

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeromonas hydrophila occurs in freshwater environments and infects fish and mammals. In this work, we report the complete genome sequence of Aeromonas hydrophila AL06-06, which was isolated from diseased goldfish and is being used for comparative genomic studies with A. hydrophila strains causing ba...

  3. Draft genome sequence of Aeromonas hydrophila TN97-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeromonas hydrophila is an opportunistic Gram-negative species causing disease in fish and mammals. The genus Aeromonas affects a variety of aquatic organisms and lives in diverse aquatic ecosystems (1). There are 39 A. hydrophila genomes currently available in GenBank. In the current study, we repo...

  4. CHARACTERIZATION OF AEROMONAS VIRULENCE USING AN IMMUNOCOMPROMISED MOUSE MODEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    An immunocompromised mouse model was used to characterize Aeromonas strains for their ability to cause opportunistic, extraintestinal infections. A total of 34 isolates of Aeromonas (A. hydrophila [n = 12]), A. veronii biotype sobria [n = 7], A. caviae [n = 4], A. enchelia [n = 4...

  5. Chitin degradation and metabolism by virulent Aeromonas hydropila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeromonas hydrophila is the causal agent of motile Aeromonas septicemia (MAS) in catfish and other warm-water fishes. Severe outbreak of MAS caused by virulent A. hydrophila (vAh) was reported in 2009 in the Southeastern United States; the disease has since resulted in loss of millions of pounds of ...

  6. Chironomid egg masses harbour the clinical species Aeromonas taiwanensis and Aeromonas sanarellii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaz-Hidalgo, Roxana; Shakèd, Tamar; Laviad, Sivan; Halpern, Malka; Figueras, María J

    2012-12-01

    Bacteria of the genus Aeromonas are found worldwide in aquatic environments and may produce human infections. In 2010, two new clinical species, Aeromonas sanarellii and Aeromonas taiwanensis, were described on the basis of one strain recovered from wounds of hospitalized patients in Taiwan. So far, only four environmental isolates of A. sanarellii and one of A. taiwanensis have been recorded from waste water in Portugal and an additional clinical strain of A. taiwanensis from the faeces of a patient with diarrhoea in Israel. In the present study, strains belonging to these two species were identified from chironomid egg masses from the same area in Israel by sequencing the rpoD gene. This represents a new environmental habitat for these novel species. The first data on the virulence genes and antibiotic susceptibility are provided. The isolates of these two new species possess multiple virulence genes and are sensitive to amikacin, aztreonam, cefepime, cefoxatime, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, piperacillin-tazobactam, tigecycline, tobramycin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and imipenem. The key phenotypic tests for the differentiation of these new species from their closest relative Aeromonas caviae included the utilization of citrate, growth at 45 °C in sheep blood agar and acid production of cellobiose.

  7. Reassessment of the Enteropathogenicity of Mesophilic Aeromonas Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teunis, Peter; Figueras, Maria J.

    2016-01-01

    Cases of Aeromonas diarrhea have been described all over the world. The genus Aeromonas includes ca. 30 species, of which 10 have been isolated in association with gastroenteritis. The dominating species that account for ca. 96% of the identified strains are Aeromonas caviae, A. veronii, A. dhakensis, and A. hydrophila. However, the role of Aeromonas as a true enteropathogen has been questioned on the basis of the lack of outbreaks, the non-fulfillment of Koch’s postulates and the low numbers of acute illnesses in the only existing human challenge study. In the present study we reassess the enteropathogenicity of Aeromonas using dose response models for microbial infection and acute illness. The analysis uses the data from the human challenge study and additional data from selected outbreak investigations where the numbers exposed and the dose were reported, allowing their inclusion as “natural experiments”. In the challenge study several cases of asymptomatic shedding were found (26.3%, 15/57), however, only 3.5% (2/57) of those challenged with Aeromonas developed acute enteric symptoms (i.e., diarrhea). The “natural experiments” showed a much higher risk of illness associated with exposure to Aeromonas, even at moderate to low doses. The median dose required for 1% illness risk, was ~1.4 × 104 times higher in the challenge study (1.24 × 104 cfu) compared to natural exposure events (0.9 cfu). The dose response assessment presented in this study shows that the combined challenge and outbreak data are consistent with high infectivity of Aeromonas, and a wide range of susceptibility to acute enteric illness. To illustrate the outcomes, we simulate the risk associated with concentrations of Aeromonas found in different water and food matrices, indicating the disease burden potentially associated with these bacteria. In conclusion this study showed that Aeromonas is highly infectious, and that human susceptibility to illness may be high, similar to

  8. AEROMONAS SALMONICIDA INFECTION IN VACCINATED RAINBOW TROUT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chettri, Jiwan Kumar; Skov, Jakob; Mohammad, Rezkar Jaafar

    In vivo testing of any candidate vaccine is influenced by the choice of challenge method and the external environmental conditions. In the present study, a comparative challenge study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of different vaccines against the bacterial pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida...... in saltwater condition produced less mortality compared to freshwater, probably due to the growth inhibition of A. salmonicida in saline condition which was also verified by in vitro assay. One of the experimental vaccines emulsified in water in oil adjuvant showed a protection comparable...... effects due to oil adjuvants, and the importance of choice of challenge methods used will be discussed....

  9. Characterization of Virulence Properties of Aeromonas veronii Isolated from Diseased Gibel Carp (Carassius gibelio)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jingjing; Zhang, Xiaojun; Gao, Xiaojian; Jiang, Qun; Wen, Yi; Lin, Li

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas veronii is a kind of opportunistic pathogen to fish and humans, significantly impending aquaculture production. Recently, we isolated two A. veronii strains, named GYC1 and GYC2, from diseased Gibel carp (Carassius gibelio) in China. Based on gyrB (DNA gyrase B subunit) genes of GYC1 and GYC2, the constructed phylogenetic tree showed that the two strains were clustered with A. veronii. Sixteen virulence genes related to the pathogenicity of Aeromonas spp. were subjected to PCR assay. The genes of ompAI, ompAII, lafA, act, aer, fla, gcaT and acg were detected in the two strains, while genes of hly, ahp, lip, ast and alt were not detected. Additionally, genes eprCAI, ela and exu were only detected in the strain GYC1. Furthermore, the results of extracellular enzyme analysis revealed that the two isolates can produce hemolysin, caseinase, esterase, amylase and lecithinase, which were closely related to the pathogenicity of the two strains. However, the results showed that there was no gelatinase activity in either strain. According to the antibiotic resistant assay, the two strains were sensitive to cephalosporins and aminoglycosides, while they were resistant to penicillins and quinolones. Through this study, the virulence characteristics, including virulence genes and extracellular enzymes, the pathogenicity of A. veronii was clarified, enhancing the understanding about this pathogenic bacterium and providing the theoretical basis in disease control. PMID:27043558

  10. Characterization of Virulence Properties of Aeromonas veronii Isolated from Diseased Gibel Carp (Carassius gibelio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jingjing; Zhang, Xiaojun; Gao, Xiaojian; Jiang, Qun; Wen, Yi; Lin, Li

    2016-04-01

    Aeromonas veronii is a kind of opportunistic pathogen to fish and humans, significantly impending aquaculture production. Recently, we isolated two A. veronii strains, named GYC1 and GYC2, from diseased Gibel carp (Carassius gibelio) in China. Based on gyrB (DNA gyrase B subunit) genes of GYC1 and GYC2, the constructed phylogenetic tree showed that the two strains were clustered with A. veronii. Sixteen virulence genes related to the pathogenicity of Aeromonas spp. were subjected to PCR assay. The genes of ompAI, ompAII, lafA, act, aer, fla, gcaT and acg were detected in the two strains, while genes of hly, ahp, lip, ast and alt were not detected. Additionally, genes eprCAI, ela and exu were only detected in the strain GYC1. Furthermore, the results of extracellular enzyme analysis revealed that the two isolates can produce hemolysin, caseinase, esterase, amylase and lecithinase, which were closely related to the pathogenicity of the two strains. However, the results showed that there was no gelatinase activity in either strain. According to the antibiotic resistant assay, the two strains were sensitive to cephalosporins and aminoglycosides, while they were resistant to penicillins and quinolones. Through this study, the virulence characteristics, including virulence genes and extracellular enzymes, the pathogenicity of A. veronii was clarified, enhancing the understanding about this pathogenic bacterium and providing the theoretical basis in disease control.

  11. Resistencia a antibioticos y presencia de plasmidos en: Aeromonas hydrophila, Vibrio fluvialis y Vibrio furnissii, aislados de Carassius auratus auratus

    OpenAIRE

    Pilar Negrete Redondo; Jorge Romero Jarero; José Luis Arredondo Figueroa

    2004-01-01

    Se aislaron e identificaron 70 cepas bacterianas del riñón de peces de ornato Carassius auratus con signos y lesiones de infección. Las especies bacterianas aisladas e identificadas, Aeromonas hydrophila, Vibrio fluvialis y Vibrio furnissii, han sido descritas como causantes de diarrea en humano y como patógeno muy agresivo en cultivos de Ciprinus carpio. Por esta razón se ha hecho mal uso y abuso de antibióticos para evitar y controlar la presencia de esta bacteria en los cultivos. El uso fu...

  12. Characterization and virulence potential of phenotypically diverse Aeromonas veronii isolates recovered from moribund freshwater ornamental fishes of Kerala, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreedharan, Krishnan; Philip, Rosamma; Singh, Isaac Sarojani Bright

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the involvement of Aeromonas spp. in eliciting disease outbreaks in freshwater ornamental fishes across the state of Kerala, India. We investigated three incidences of disease, in which the moribund fishes exhibited clinical signs such as haemorrhagic septicemia (in gouramy, Trichogaster sp.), dropsy (in Oscar, Astronotus ocellatus) and tail rot/fin rot (in gold fish, Carassius carassius). Pure cultures (n = 20 from each fish; 60 in total) of Aeromonas spp. were recovered from the abdominal fluid as well as from internal organs of affected fishes, although they could not be identified to species level because of the variations in their phenotypic characters. The molecular fingerprinting of the isolates using Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus PCR proved the genetic diversity of the isolates from the three sites. The phylogenetic trees constructed using concatenated sequences (using 16S rRNA, gyrA, gyrB and rpoD genes) indicated that they were related to Aeromonas veronii. They exhibited marked cytotoxic and haemolytic activity, which were responsible for the pathogenic potential of the isolates. The isolates possessed multiple virulence genes such as enterotoxins (act and alt), haemolytic toxins (aerA and hlyA), genes involved in type III secretion system (ascV, aexT and ascF-ascG), glycerophospholipid-cholesterol acyltransferase (gcat) and a type IV pilus (tapA) gene, as determined by PCR. Virulence of representative isolates to goldfish was also tested, and we found LD(50) values of 10(4.07)-10(5.35) cfu/fish. Furthermore, the organisms could be recovered as pure cultures from the lesions as well as from the internal organs.

  13. Histopathological findings in farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) naturally infected with 3 different Aeromonas species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zepeda-Velázquez, Andrea Paloma; Vega-Sánchez, Vicente; Salgado-Miranda, Celene; Soriano-Vargas, Edgardo

    2015-07-01

    This study describes the macroscopic and microscopic lesions in farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) naturally infected with genetically identified Aeromonas salmonicida, A. hydrophila, and A. veronii species. The genus Aeromonas includes bacteria that naturally inhabit both waterways and organisms. At least 27 Aeromonas species have been identified to date, some of which can cause significant economic losses in aquaculture. As up to 68.8% of Aeromonas isolates may be misidentified in routine biochemical and phenotypic tests, however, reported cases of Aeromonas infection in fish may be wrongly identified. Our findings confirmed that the 3 Aeromonas species studied are associated with septicemia and dermal lesions in rainbow trout.

  14. Emerging Aeromonas Species Infections and Their Significance in Public Health

    OpenAIRE

    Igbinosa, Isoken H.; Ehimario U. Igumbor; Farhad Aghdasi; Mvuyo Tom; Anthony I. Okoh

    2012-01-01

    Aeromonas species are ubiquitous bacteria in terrestrial and aquatic milieus. They are becoming renowned as enteric pathogens of serious public health concern as they acquire a number of virulence determinants that are linked with human diseases, such as gastroenteritis, soft-tissue, muscle infections, septicemia, and skin diseases. Proper sanitary procedures are essential in the prevention of the spread of Aeromonas infections. Oral fluid electrolyte substitution is employed in the preventio...

  15. Pneumonia caused by Aeromonas species in Taiwan, 2004-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, C M; Lai, C C; Tsai, H Y; Wu, C J; Tang, H J; Ko, W C; Hsueh, P-R

    2013-08-01

    We investigated the clinical characteristics of patients with pneumonia caused by Aeromonas species. Patients with pneumonia caused by Aeromonas species during the period 2004 to 2011 were identified from a computerized database of a regional hospital in southern Taiwan. The medical records of these patients were retrospectively reviewed. Of the 84 patients with pneumonia due to Aeromonas species, possible Aeromonas pneumonia was diagnosed in 58 patients, probable Aeromonas pneumonia was diagnosed in 18 patients, and pneumonia due to Aeromonas was conclusively diagnosed in 8 patients. Most of the cases of Aeromonas pneumonia developed in men and in patients of advanced age. A. hydrophila (n = 50, 59.5 %) was the most common pathogen, followed by A. caviae (n = 24, 28.6 %), A. veronii biovar sobria (n = 7, 8.3 %), and A. veronii biovar veronii (n = 3, 3.6 %). Cancer (n = 37, 44.0 %) was the most common underlying disease, followed by diabetes mellitus (n = 27, 32.1 %). Drowning-associated pneumonia developed in 6 (7.1 %) patients. Of 47 patients who were admitted to the intensive care ward, 42 patients developed acute respiratory failure and 24 of those patients died. The overall in-hospital mortality rate was significantly associated with liver cirrhosis, cancer, initial presentation of shock, and usage of mechanical ventilation. In conclusion, Aeromonas species should be considered as one of the causative pathogens of severe pneumonia, especially in immunocompromised patients, and should be recognized as a cause of drowning-associated pneumonia. Cirrhosis, cancer, and shock as the initial presenting symptom are associated with poor outcome.

  16. Post-traumatic osteomyelitis due to aeromonas species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunasekaran L

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of Aeromonas osteomyelitis due to injury in a sewage worker. He presented with cellulitis of the left foot. Radiographs showed evidence of osteomyelitis involving the head and neck of the fifth metatarsal. Aeromonas species was isolated from the tissue and swab from the foot. The head and neck of the fifth metatarsal were excised and the patient improved on 4 weeks of intravenous meropenem followed by 4 weeks of oral clindamycin and ciprofloxacin.

  17. Aeromonas hydrophila Sepsis Mimicking Vibrio vulnificus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Se Young; Nam, Hyun Min; Park, Kun; Park, Seok Don

    2011-09-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is a facultatively anaerobic, asporogenous gram-negative rod that has often been regarded as an opportunistic pathogen in hosts with impairment of a local or general defense mechanism. A 68-year-old alcoholic woman presented with shock and gangrene on the right arm. At first, her clinical presentations were severe painful erythematous swelling that worsened within a few hours with development of gangrene, edema, and blisters. Bullous fluid and blood cultures yielded A. hydrophila. Histopathological findings of sections obtained from the vesicle revealed subepidermal vesicles; necrosis of the epidermis, papillary dermis, and subcutaneous fat; and massive hemorrhage in the subcutis. Despite all efforts to save the patient, she died 8 hours after admission. Clinical features of A. hydrophila sepsis resemble those of Vibrio vulnificus sepsis. Therefore, in addition to the case report, we compared the cultural, biochemical, and morphological differences between A. hydrophila and V. vulnificus for facilitation of early and accurate identification of the causative agent.

  18. Peritonitis bacteriana espontánea y bacteriemia por Aeromonas hydrophila Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and bacteraemia due to Aeromonas hydrophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. García-Irure

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available La peritonitis bacteriana es una complicación frecuente en los pacientes cirróticos. De los gérmenes etiológicos, Aeromonas es muy poco frecuente. Presentamos un caso clínico de un paciente cirrótico con peritonitis y bacteriemia por Aeromonas hydrophila. Este microorganismo es un bacilo gramnegativo de la familia Vibrionaceae. En el ser humano produce gastroenteritis con mucha frecuencia. De forma excepcional puede dar origen a infecciones extraintestinales, sobre todo en pacientes inmunodeprimidos. La peritonitis por Aeromonas se ha descrito en asociación a peritonitis bacteriana espontánea en pacientes cirróticos, en pacientes en diálisis peritoneal y en casos de peritonitis secundaria a perforación intestinal.Bacterial peritonitis is a frequent complication in cirrhotic patients. Amongst the aetiological germs, Aeromonas is very infrequent. We present the clinical case of a cirrhotic patient with peritonitis and bacteraemia due to Aeromonas hydrophila. This micro-organism is a Gram-negative bacillus of the Vibrionaceae family. It very frequently produces gastroenteritis in the human being. Exceptionally it can give rise to extraintestinal infections, especially in immunodepressed patients. Peritonitis due to Aeromonas has been described in association with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in cirrhotic patients, in patients on peritoneal dialysis and in cases of peritonitis secondary to intestinal perforation.

  19. Aeromonas caviae strain induces Th1 cytokine response in mouse intestinal tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeromonas caviae has been associated with human gastrointestinal disease. Strains of this species typically lack virulence factors (VFs) such as enterotoxins and hemolysins that are produced by other human pathogens of the Aeromonas genus,. Microarray profiling of...

  20. UTILIZAÇÃO DE RESÍDUOS DA MADEIRA DE Pinus spp. COMO SUBSTITUIÇÃO AO AGREGADO MIÚDO NA PRODUÇÃO DE BLOCOS DE CONCRETO PARA ALVENARIA ESTRUTURAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adauto José Miranda de Lima

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This research was developed with the objective of evaluating the potential use of residues of the production of Pinus spp. sawnwood, as substitution to the fine aggregate of the concrete used for the production of blocks for structural masonry. The evaluation of the physical characteristics (density, porosity and water absorption and mechanics (compression and tension strength of the concrete was evaluated in agreement with the ABNT normalization. Substitutions of the fine aggregate were tested by percentages of 0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% of residue of Pinus spp. in natura, Pinus spp. in natura and with addition of 4,5% CaCl 2 .2H 2 O and residue of Pinus spp. pre-treated with extraction in cold water for 48 hours (AF-48H. The compositions were initially used for the production, in laboratory, of cylindrical specimens of 50 mm diameter, by the use of a molding system for vibrate-compression and later, for producing blocks, with optimized compositions, in vibrate-press commercial machine. Satisfactory results were obtained with substitutions of up to 50% of the mineral fine aggregate for the residue of Pinus spp.

  1. Biochemical characteristics, serogroups, and virulence factors of aeromonas species isolated from cases of diarrhoea and domestic water samples in Chennai

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    Alavandi S

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The objective of the present study was to delineate the differences between the clinical and environmental Aeromonas species with respect to their biochemical characteristics, serogrouping and virulence factors, in order to find a phenotypic marker of enteropathogenicity. METHODS: A total of 55 Aeromonas spp. inclusive of 19 isolates from cases of diarrhoea, and 36 from water samples comprising, 10 isolates of A. hydrophila, 21 isolates each of A. sobria, and A. caviae, two isolates of A. jandaei and one isolate of A. veronii were subjected to analysis of their biochemical characteristics, serogrouping, and virulence factors. RESULTS: Among the differences recorded in the biochemical characteristics in the three major species, the most striking characteristic was fermentation of lactose, which was observed in all the 11 A. caviae isolates recovered from water samples. None of the 10 clinical isolates of A. caviae tested fermented lactose. The clinical Aeromonas isolates belonged to seven typable serogroups, O:13, O:14, O:16, O:21, O:27, O:32 and O:35. The environmental isolates belonged to eight different serogroups, such as, O:3, O:11, O:14, O:16, O:18, O:28, O:64 and O:78 and were predominated by serotypes O:18 and O:64. Among the virulence factors tested, 89% of the environmental isolates produced b haemolysin, while only 62.3% of clinical isolates were able to do so. There was no significant difference between the clinical and environmental aeromonads with respect to their enterotoxigenicity in suckling mice in vivo, cytotoxicity in vitro in Vero cell monolayers, and ability to produce siderophores. CONCLUSION: Efforts to delineate the differences between the clinical and environmental Aeromonas spp. did not reveal significant difference between them. However, difference was observed with respect to their ability to produce b haemolysin, wherein, higher percentage of environmental isolates was haemolytic. The results also suggest

  2. Aeromonas australiensis sp. nov., isolated from irrigation water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravena-Román, Max; Beaz-Hidalgo, Roxana; Inglis, Timothy J J; Riley, Thomas V; Martínez-Murcia, Antonio J; Chang, Barbara J; Figueras, Maria Jose

    2013-06-01

    A Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic bacillus, designated strain 266(T), was isolated from an irrigation water system in the south-west of Western Australia. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence confirmed that strain 266(T) belonged to the genus Aeromonas, with the nearest species being Aeromonas fluvialis (99.6% similarity to the type strain, with 6 nucleotide differences) followed by Aeromonas veronii and Aeromonas allosaccharophila (both 99.5%). Analysis of gyrB and rpoD sequences suggested that strain 266(T) formed a phylogenetic line independent of other species in the genus. This was confirmed using the concatenated sequences of six housekeeping genes (gyrB, rpoD, recA, dnaJ, gyrA and dnaX) that also indicated that A. veronii and A. allosaccharophila were the nearest relatives. DNA-DNA reassociation experiments and phenotypic analysis further supported the conclusion that strain 266(T) represents a novel species, for which the name Aeromonas australiensis sp. nov. is proposed, with type strain 266(T) (=CECT 8023(T) =LMG 26707(T)). [corrected].

  3. Enhancement of protective immunity in European eel(Anguilla anguilla)against Aeromonas hydrophila and Aeromonas sobria by a recombinant Aeromonas outer membrane protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruizhang Guan; Jing Xiong; Wenshu Huang; Songlin Guo

    2011-01-01

    To develop a vaccine,which can simultaneously prevent the diseases caused by various pathogenic bacteria in fish,we try to find a conserved outer membrane protein(OMP)antigen from different bacterial pathogens.In this study,an OMP fragment of 747 by(named as Omp-G),whichwas highly conserved in seven Aeromonas OMP sequences from the NCBI database,was amplified by PCR from one Aeromonas sobria strain(1110)and two Aeromonas hydrophila strains(1327 and B33)with the designed specific primers.The sequence was cloned into pGEX-2T(6 × His-tag)vector,expressed in Escherichia coli system,and then the recombinant protein(named as rOmp-G)was purified with nickel chelating affinity chromatography.The purified romp-G showed a good immunogenicity in rabbits and well-conserved characteristics in these three pathogens by enzyme-linked immunosorbed assay.Furthermore,the rOmp-G also showed good immunogenicity in eels(Anguilla anguilla)for eliciting significantly increased specific antibodies(P<0.01),and providing higher protection efficiencies(P<0.05)after the pathogens challenge.The values of the relative percent survival in eels were 70% and 50% for two A.hydrophila strain challenge,and 75% for A.sobria strain challenge.This is the first report of a potential vaccination in eels that simultaneously provide protectiveness against different Aeromonas pathogens with a conserved partial OMP.

  4. Salmonella spp.: The egg as vehicle of transmission and the implications of antimicrobial resistance for public health/ Salmonella spp.: O ovo como veículo de transmissão e as implicações da resistência antimicrobiana para a saúde pública

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza Cristina Rocha Moreira de Oliveira

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Salmonelosis is one of the most prevalent foodborne diseases in Brazil and around the world, presenting a continuous and marked increase in the number of related cases since the 70’s. The main foods associated to salmonelosis transmission are eggs and egg products, with handling practices playing an important role in bacterial dissemination by allowing cross contamination in the cooking surroundings. In Parana State, egg emerges as the food responsible for the most of outbreaks since 1993. Besides, the use of antibiotics for animal production, with profilatic, terapeutic or growth promotion objectives, have contributed to the emergence of resistant Salmonella strains, which may difficult the treatment of extraintestinal infections caused by the bacteria. Thus, this work aimed to review Salmonella contamination of eggs and egg products and the consequences of its antimicrobial resistance for public health.A salmonelose é uma das doenças transmitidas por alimentos de maior prevalência, no Brasil e no mundo, apresentando um aumento acentuado e contínuo no número de casos relatados desde a década de 70. Os principais alimentos incriminados na veiculação de salmonelose são ovos e seus derivados, sendo que a manipulação desempenha um papel importante na disseminação da bactéria, por propiciar contaminação cruzada no ambiente de preparo de alimentos. No Estado do Paraná, o ovo aparece como o alimento incriminado na maior parte dos surtos de salmonelose desde 1993. Além disso, o emprego de antibióticos na produção animal, com objetivos profiláticos, terapêuticos e ou de promoção de crescimento, tem contribuído para a emergência de cepas de Salmonella resistentes a estes fármacos, o que pode dificultar o tratamento de infecções extra-intestinais causadas pela bactéria. Desta forma, este trabalho teve por objetivo revisar a contaminação de ovos e derivados por Salmonella spp. e as implicações da resist

  5. Arcobacter spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Filipović, Ivana; Zdolec, Nevijo; Benussi Skukan, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    Bakterije roda Arcobacter pripadaju porodici Campylobacteriaceae, no od Campylobacter vrsta razlikuje se po sposobnosti rasta na 15 °C i u aerobnim uvjetima. Ove bakterije izolirane su iz oboljelih životinja, ljudi, ali i s trupova životinja nakon klaoničke obrade, te svježeg mesa, kao i vode. Farmske životinje, posebice perad, smatraju se rezervoarima bakterije. Razvijene su različite mikrobiološke metode za izolaciju Arcobacter spp., ali standardni protokol još uvijek ne postoji. Za brzu i ...

  6. Traveller's diarrohea caused by Aeromonas hydrophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Martín Delgado

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas hydrophila is a bacteria frequently found in fresh water and saline water. Certain strains of the species have been known to cause disease in fish and amphibians for several years, although some controversy exists about its ability to cause illness in humans. Nevertheless, either through open wounds or contaminated food or water, it can give rise to infection. However, almost all articles refer to isolated cases, rather than to outbreaks.In most cases it produces gastroenteritis in healthy people, whilst possibly causing septicemia in people with low inmmunity.In 1998, there was concern in the hotel sector due to a considerable rise in the number of cases of gastroenteritis among tourists holidaying in certain areas of the coast of the island of Tenerife.The Public Health Services of the Canarian Community iniciated an epidemiological study in order to establish the magnitude of the problem and the associated factors.The inicial analysis showed a large number of tourists affected but not seriously, and only in one particular area of the coast. This suggested traveller’s diarrohea probably associated with contaminated drinking water.

  7. Classification of a hypervirulent Aeromonas hydrophila pathotype responsible for epidemic outbreaks in warm-water fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cody Robert Rasmussen-Ivey

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Lineages of hypervirulent Aeromonas hydrophila (vAh are the cause of persistent outbreaks of motile Aeromonas septicemia in warm-water fishes worldwide. Over the last decade, in the People’s Republic of China and in the United States, this virulent lineage of A. hydrophila has resulted in annual losses of millions of tons of farmed carp and catfish. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that US catfish and Asian carp isolates of A. hydrophila affiliated with sequence type 251 (ST251 share a recent common ancestor. To address the genomic context for the putative intercontinental transfer and subsequent geographic spread of this pathogen, we conducted a core genome phylogenetic analysis on 61 Aeromonas spp. genomes, of which 40 were affiliated with A. hydrophila and 26 were epidemic strains. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that all ST251 strains form a coherent lineage affiliated with A. hydrophila. Within this lineage, conserved genetic loci were identified that are unique within A. hydrophila as well as genes that are present in consistently higher copy numbers than in non-epidemic A. hydrophila isolates. In addition, results from analyses of representative ST251 isolates supports that multiple lineages are present within US vAh isolated from Mississippi, whereas vAh isolated from Alabama appear clonal. This is the first report of genomic heterogeneity within US vAh isolates, with some Mississippi isolates showing closer affiliation with the Asian grass carp isolate ZC1 than with other vAh isolated in the US. To evaluate the biological significance of the identified heterogeneity, comparative disease challenges were conducted with representatives of different vAh genotypes revealing that isolate ZC1 yielded significantly lower mortality in channel catfish, relative to Alabama and Mississippi vAh isolates. Like other Asian vAh isolates, the ZC1 lineage contains all core genes for a complete type VI secretion system (T6SS. In contrast, more

  8. Classification of a Hypervirulent Aeromonas hydrophila Pathotype Responsible for Epidemic Outbreaks in Warm-Water Fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen-Ivey, Cody R.; Hossain, Mohammad J.; Odom, Sara E.; Terhune, Jeffery S.; Hemstreet, William G.; Shoemaker, Craig A.; Zhang, Dunhua; Xu, De-Hai; Griffin, Matt J.; Liu, Yong-Jie; Figueras, Maria J.; Santos, Scott R.; Newton, Joseph C.; Liles, Mark R.

    2016-01-01

    Lineages of hypervirulent Aeromonas hydrophila (vAh) are the cause of persistent outbreaks of motile Aeromonas septicemia in warm-water fishes worldwide. Over the last decade, this virulent lineage of A. hydrophila has resulted in annual losses of millions of tons of farmed carp and catfish in the People's Republic of China and the United States (US). Multiple lines of evidence indicate US catfish and Asian carp isolates of A. hydrophila affiliated with sequence type 251 (ST251) share a recent common ancestor. To address the genomic context for the putative intercontinental transfer and subsequent geographic spread of this pathogen, we conducted a core genome phylogenetic analysis on 61 Aeromonas spp. genomes, of which 40 were affiliated with A. hydrophila, with 26 identified as epidemic strains. Phylogenetic analyses indicate all ST251 strains form a coherent lineage affiliated with A. hydrophila. Within this lineage, conserved genetic loci unique to A. hydrophila were identified, with some genes present in consistently higher copy numbers than in non-epidemic A. hydrophila isolates. In addition, results from analyses of representative ST251 isolates support the conclusion that multiple lineages are present within US vAh isolated from Mississippi, whereas vAh isolated from Alabama appear clonal. This is the first report of genomic heterogeneity within US vAh isolates, with some Mississippi isolates showing closer affiliation with the Asian grass carp isolate ZC1 than other vAh isolated in the US. To evaluate the biological significance of the identified heterogeneity, comparative disease challenges were conducted with representatives of different vAh genotypes. These studies revealed that isolate ZC1 yielded significantly lower mortality in channel catfish, relative to Alabama and Mississippi vAh isolates. Like other Asian vAh isolates, the ZC1 lineage contains all core genes for a complete type VI secretion system (T6SS). In contrast, more virulent US isolates

  9. Reclassification of Aeromonas hydrophila subsp. dhakensis Huys et al. 2002 and Aeromonas aquariorum Martínez-Murcia et al. 2008 as Aeromonas dhakensis sp. nov. comb nov. and emendation of the species Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaz-Hidalgo, Roxana; Martínez-Murcia, Antonio; Figueras, Maria José

    2013-05-01

    Previous studies indicate that Aeromonas aquariorum and Aeromonas hydrophila subsp. dhakensis are the same taxon and suggest that they should be synonymized. Using a polyphasic approach, the phenotypic and phylogenetic relationship of A. aquariorum with the 3 defined A. hydrophila subspecies (i.e. dhakensis, hydrophila, ranae) was investigated. Phylogenetic trees derived from the 16S rRNA, rpoD or gyrB genes and a multilocus phylogenetic analysis (with the concatenated sequences of gyrB, rpoD, recA, dnaJ and gyrA) confirmed that both A. aquariorum and A. hydrophila subsp. dhakensis are a unique taxon, different from the other A. hydrophila subspecies, corroborating the phenotypic and DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH) results. A formal synonymization of A. aquariorum and A. hydrophila subsp. dhakensis and a reclassification of both as Aeromonas dhakensis sp. nov. comb nov. is therefore proposed.

  10. Susceptibility of Aeromonas Hydophila Isolates to Antimicrobial Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Stojanov

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas hydrophila is a microorganism widely distributed in nature: in water, soil, food. It is also part of the normal bacterial flora of many animals. As an opportune microorganism it is a secondary biological agent that contributes to the occurrence of a fish disease and its deterioration. Frequently, its presence is an indication of bad zoohygiene and zootechnical conditions in fish ponds. Reduced quality and quantity of feed, mechanical injuries, parasitosis, seasonal oscillation in temperature present some of the factors that produce favorable conditions for bacterial proliferation of aeromonas in fish ponds, so clinical symptoms of the disease occur. Aeromonas is almost always present in clinical isolates and may be unjustly accused for bad health of fish. Antibiotic therapy is applied even when the clinical findings are clear, what certainly effects the susceptibility to chemotherapeutics. The subject of our work was bacteriological examination of the material obtained from the carps with the observed skin changes and the carps without these changes. Also, antimicrobial susceptibility of Aeromonas hydrophila was tested. The aim of this research was to determined the presence of Aeromonas hydrophilia in the carp ponds and to test antibiotic susceptibility. The material consisted of the samples from the fish ponds where the carps were with and without changed skin. The method the isolation of Aeromonas hydrophila was used. The diffusion disk technique was used for testing antibiotic susceptibility. The isolates were tested for their susceptibility to Florephenikol, Flumequine, Olaqindox and Oxitetracycline. The obtained results point that antimicrobial susceptibility was the same regardless of the origin of the samples, i.e. the resistance was the same for both groups of samples (the strains isolated from the fish with skin changes and the strains from fish without changes on skin. The strains were highly resistant: 35% were resistant to

  11. Determination of the viability of Aeromonas hydrophila in different types of water by flow cytometry, and comparison with classical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pianetti, Anna; Falcioni, Tania; Bruscolini, Francesca; Sabatini, Luigia; Sisti, Elivio; Papa, Stefano

    2005-12-01

    The presence of Aeromonas spp. in water can represent a risk for human health. Therefore, it is important to know the physiological status of these bacteria and their survival in the environment. We studied the behavior of a strain of Aeromonas hydrophila in river water, spring water, brackish water, mineral water, and chlorinated drinking water, which had different physical and chemical characteristics. The bacterial content was evaluated by spectrophotometric and plate count techniques. Flow cytometric determination of viability was carried out using a dual-staining technique that enabled us to distinguish viable bacteria from damaged and membrane-compromised bacteria. The traditional methods showed that the bacterial content was variable and dependent on the type of water. The results obtained from the plate count analysis correlated with the absorbance data. In contrast, the flow cytometric analysis results did not correlate with the results obtained by traditional methods; in fact, this technique showed that there were viable cells even when the optical density was low or no longer detectable and there was no plate count value. According to our results, flow cytometry is a suitable method for assessing the viability of bacteria in water samples. Furthermore, it permits fast detection of bacteria that are in a viable but nonculturable state, which are not detectable by conventional methods.

  12. Aeromonas species isolated from PINTADO fish (Pseudoplatystoma sp: virulence factors and drug susceptibility

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    Vera Lúcia Mores Rall

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas has been described as an emergent foodborne pathogen of increasing importance. In this study, we report that 48% of 50 Pintado fish samples collected at the retail market of São Paulo city were positive for Aeromonas sp, as detected by the direct plating method. When the presence/absence method was used, the positivity was 42%. A. caviae was the most frequent species, followed by A. hydrophila and A. sobria. Production of cytotoxic enterotoxin, observed in suckling mouse assay, was detected in 67% of A. sobria strains, in 60% of A. hydrophila strains and in 40% of A. caviae strains. In vitro tests, performed with HEp-2 cells, showed that 88% of A. hydrophila, 27% of A. sobria and 13% of A. caviae strains were positive for this toxin. The in vivo production of cytotonic enterotoxin, tested after heating the filtrates at 56ºC for 20 minutes, was detected in 17% of A. sobria, in 10% of A. caviae and in none of A. hydrophila strains in vivo. All analyzed strains did not alter HEp-2 cells. 20% and 16% of A. sobria and A. caviae isolates, respectively, presented capacity to adhere to HEp-2 cells. In counterpart, invasion of HEp-2 cells was not observed in any isolate. The Aeromonas isolates were sensitive to the majority of the antimicrobiol agents tested.Bactérias do gênero Aeromonas têm sido descritas como patógenos emergentes de importância crescente em alimentos. Neste estudo, relatamos que 48% das amostras de peixe "Pintado" coletado no comércio de São Paulo, foram positivas para Aeromonas sp quando isoladas pelo método de plaqueamento direto. Quando o método Presença/Ausência foi utilizado, a porcentagem de positividade foi de 42%. A. caviae foi a espécie mais freqüente, seguida por A. hydrophila e A. sobria. Produção de enterotoxina citotóxica, determinada em camundongos recém-nascidos, foi observada em 67% das cepas de A. sobria, em 60% das de A. hydrophila e em 40% das de A. caviae. No teste in vitro em c

  13. SENSITIVITY OF DIFFERENT AEROMONAS SPECIES TO COPPER AND SILVER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeromonas bacteria are common flora in surface and ground waters and are considered to be human pathogens. They can also be found in municipally treated drinking water, likely as a component of biofilms, as found in distribution system pipes and point of use water filters. It ...

  14. Characterization of atypical Aeromonas salmonicida by different methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Austin, B.; Austin, D.A.; Dalsgaard, Inger;

    1998-01-01

    Fifty two isolates of atypical Aeromonas salmonicida, recovered from a wide range of hosts and geographical locations, were heterogeneous in terms of molecular and phenotypic characteristics, and represented taxa which could not be accommodated by the current classification of four subspecies...

  15. Production and properties of lipase of Aeromonas sobria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Eizo; Ito, Hidenobu; Kobayashi, Hidetomo; Yamanaka, Hiroyasu; Takeda, Yoshifumi; Balakrish Nair, Gopinath; Arimoto, Sakae; Negishi, Tomoe; Okamoto, Keinosuke

    2012-05-01

    Aeromonas have been isolated from a wide variety of aquatic environments. However the number of Aeromonas in sea water is extremely small compared to that in fresh water. In in vitro culture, Aeromonas can grow in mediums containing NaCl at a concentration of 3.0%, this concentration corresponding to that of sea water. It is unclear why the number of Aeromonas is low in sea water. Exoproteins of bacteria are thought to be important for bacterial growth and survival in the environment. Previously, the present authors have shown that mediums containing 3.0% NaCl suppress production of two proteases, serine protease and metalloprotease. In this experiment, other exoproteins whose production is influenced by the amount of NaCl in the medium were analyzed. A protein whose production is repressed in medium containing 3.0% NaCl was found and purified. Biological assay of the purified protein showed that it degrades tributyrin and hydrolyzes para-nitrophenyl-fatty acylesters. These results show that the protein is a lipase. Subsequently, the nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding the lipase was determined and the amount of mRNA of the lipase gene in the cells measured. It was found that transcription of the gene is not inhibited by NaCl in the medium. This result indicates that the lipase might be synthesized, but the folding process to become an active structure does not progress smoothly in a medium containing 3.0% NaCl.

  16. Genome Sequence of Hypervirulent Aeromonas hydrophila Strain HZAUAH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Lin; Deng, Limei; Dong, Xingxing; Wei, Shun; Li, Jinquan

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aeromonas hydrophila, a zoonotic bacterium found in an expansive range of aquatic ecosystems, has been reported to cause severe diseases in fish, amphibians, reptiles, and mammals, including humans. Herein, we report the draft genome of the hypervirulent A. hydrophila strain HZAUAH isolated from a crucian in China. PMID:28302770

  17. Clinical implications of species identification in monomicrobial Aeromonas bacteremia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Jung Wu

    Full Text Available Advances in Aeromonas taxonomy have led to the reclassification of aeromonads. Hereon, we aimed to re-evaluate the characteristics of Aeromonas bacteremia, including those of a novel species, Aeromonas dhakensis.A retrospective study of monomicrobial Aeromonas bacteremia at a medical center in southern Taiwan from 2004-2011 was conducted. Species identification was based on rpoB sequencing. Of bacteremia of 153 eligible patients, A. veronii (50 isolates, 32.7%, A. dhakensis (48, 31.4%, A. caviae (43, 28.1%, and A. hydrophila (10, 6.5% were the principal causative species. A. dhakensis and A. veronii bacteremia were mainly community-acquired and presented as primary bacteremia, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, or skin and soft-tissue infection, whereas A. caviae was associated with hospital-onset bacteremia. The distribution of the AmpC β-lactamase and metallo-β-lactamase genes was species-specific: bla(AQU-1, bla(MOX, or bla(CepH was present in A. dhakensis, A. caviae, or A. hydrophila, respectively, and bla(CphA was present in A. veronii, A. dhakensis, and A. hydrophila. The cefotaxime resistance rates of the A. caviae, A. dhakensis, and A. hydrophila isolates were higher than that of A. veronii (39.5%%, 25.0%, and 30% vs. 2%, respectively. A. dhakensis bacteremia was linked to the highest 14-day sepsis-related mortality rate, followed by A. hydrophila, A. veronii, and A. caviae bacteremia (25.5%, 22.2%, 14.0%, and 4.7%, respectively; P = 0.048. Multivariate analysis revealed that A. dhakensis bacteremia, active malignancies, and a Pitt bacteremia score ≥ 4 was an independent mortality risk factor.Characteristics of Aeromonas bacteremia vary between species. A. dhakensis prevalence and its associated poor outcomes suggest it an important human pathogen.

  18. The improved PCR of the fstA (ferric siderophore receptor) gene differentiates the fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida from other Aeromonas species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaz-Hidalgo, Roxana; Latif-Eugenín, Fadua; Figueras, María José

    2013-10-25

    The members of the genus Aeromonas are autochthonous of aquatic ecosystems and several species have been associated to septicaemia, ulcerative and haemorrhagic diseases in fish, causing significant mortality in both wild and farmed, freshwater and marine fish species. The species Aeromonas salmonicida is generally recognized as the most important fish pathogen responsible for epidemic outbreaks of furunculosis in salmonids, also being able to produce infections in other cultured fish such as turbot, halibut, sea bream or goldfish. New species, i.e. Aeromonas aquariorum, Aeromonas tecta and Aeromonas piscicola, have recently been discovered and isolated from diseased fish. The species A. piscicola and Aeromonas bestiarum are practically impossible to differentiate phenotypically and genetically (when using the 16S rRNA gene) from each other and from A. salmonicida. In the present study, two previously described PCR protocols, based on the fstA and gyrB genes, for the specific detection of A. salmonicida were re-evaluated with the type strains of all Aeromonas species and with a set of A. piscicola and A. bestiarum strains. Contrary to what had been published previously it was demonstrated that the gyrB-PCR is not specific for A. salmonicida because of cross-reactions with other Aeromonas species. However, in agreement with previous results, A. salmonicida was detected on the basis of the fstA-PCR, for which an improved protocol was proposed.

  19. Hemolytic Activity and Siderophore Production in Different Aeromonas Species Isolated from Fish

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Jesús A.; González, César J.; Otero, Andrés; García-López, María-Luisa

    1999-01-01

    The hemolytic activity and siderophore production of several strains of motile aeromonads were determined. The hemolytic activity of Aeromonas caviae and Aeromonas eucrenophila was enhanced after trypsinization of the samples. The enhancement of hemolysis was observed in strains that carried an aerolysin-like gene, detected by a PCR procedure. Siderophore production was demonstrated in all but one strain of Aeromonas jandaei. No apparent relationship was observed between the presence of plasm...

  20. Antibiotic resistance in Aeromonas upstream and downstream of a water resource recovery facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisar, Cindy R; Henderson, Samantha K; Askew, Maegan L; Risenhoover, Hollie G; McAndrews, Chrystle R; Kennedy, S Dawn; Paine, C Sue

    2014-09-01

    Aeromonas strains isolated from sediments upstream and downstream of a water resource recovery facility (WRRF) over a two-year time period were tested for susceptibility to 13 antibiotics. Incidence of resistance to antibiotics, antibiotic resistance phenotypes, and diversity (based on resistance phenotypes) were compared in the two populations. At the beginning of the study, the upstream and downstream Aeromonas populations were different for incidence of antibiotic resistance (p resistance phenotypes (p antibiotic resistance in Aeromonas in stream sediments fluctuates considerably over time and (2) suggest that WRRF effluent does not, when examined over the long- term, affect antibiotic resistance in Aeromonas in downstream sediment.

  1. Incidence of Aeromonas bacteremia in Southern Taiwan: vibrio and Salmonella bacteremia as comparators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chi-Jung; Chen, Po-Lin; Tang, Hung-Jen; Chen, Hung-Mo; Tseng, Fan-Chen; Shih, Hsin-I; Hung, Yuan-Pin; Chung, Chih-Huan; Ko, Wen-Chien

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the investigation was to describe the incidence of Aeromonas bacteremia in a city with a population of about 1.87 million inhabitants, located in southern Taiwan, between 2008 and 2010. Such data were compared with the incidences of Vibrio and Salmonella bacteremia in the same period and the incidence of Aeromonas bacteremia in other countries in the literature. The data revealed the average annual incidences of bacteremia due to Aeromonas, Vibrio, and Salmonella species were 76, 38, and 103 cases/million inhabitants, respectively. The incidence of Aeromonas bacteremia was higher than those in Western countries.

  2. Interaction of Aeromonas strains with lactic acid bacteria via Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatje, E; Neuman, C; Katouli, M

    2014-01-01

    The genus Aeromonas includes some species that have now been identified as human pathogens of significant medical importance. We investigated the ability of 13 selected Aeromonas strains belonging to nine species isolated from clinical cases (n = 5), environmental waters (n = 5), and fish (n = 3) to adhere to and translocate Caco-2 cells in the absence and presence of two lactic acid bacteria (LAB), i.e., Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium breve. Aeromonas isolates were also assessed for their cytotoxicity, the presence of virulence genes, and hemolysin production. Among the clinical isolates, one strain of Aeromonas veronii biovar veronii and two strains of Aeromonas hydrophila carried cytotoxin (act), heat-labile toxin (alt), hemolysin (hlyA), and aerolysin (aerA) genes, were cytotoxic to Vero cells, produced hemolysin, and showed higher adherence to Caco-2 cells. In contrast, this was seen in only one environmental strain, a strain of A. veronii biovar sobria. When Aeromonas strains were coinoculated with LAB onto Caco-2 cells, their level of adhesion was reduced. However, their rate of translocation in the presence of LAB increased and was significantly (P Aeromonas and LAB strains could have a detrimental effect on the Caco-2 cells, allowing the Aeromonas to translocate more readily, or the presence of the LAB stimulated the Aeromonas strains to produce more toxins and/or increase their translocation rate.

  3. Detection of Aeromonas hydrophila Using Fiber Optic Microchannel Sensor

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    Samla Gauri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This research focuses on the detection of Aeromonas hydrophila using fiber optic microchannel biosensor. Microchannel was fabricated by photolithography method. The fiber optic was chosen as signal transmitting medium and light absorption characteristic of different microorganisms was investigated for possible detection. Experimental results showed that Aeromonas hydrophila can be detected at the region of UV-Vis spectra between 352 nm and 354 nm which was comparable to measurement provided by UV spectrophotometer and also theoretical calculation by Beer-Lambert Absorption Law. The entire detection can be done in less than 10 minutes using a total volume of 3 μL only. This result promises good potential of this fiber optic microchannel sensor as a reliable, portable, and disposable sensor.

  4. Assessment of indicator bacteria and Aeromonas spp. in surface and nontraditional irrigation water: a conserve study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: The use of surface and nontraditional irrigation water (SNIW) (pond, tidal and non-tidal river water, reclaimed wastewater) is one way to conserve groundwater. However, SNIW may serve as reservoirs and vehicles for under-recognized enteric pathogens, spreading localized contamination d...

  5. Dynamics of a Class 1 integron located on plasmid or chromosome in two Aeromonas spp. strains

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    Abigail Perez-Valdespino

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Integrons are non-mobile bacterial genetic elements that carry different cassettes conferring antibiotic resistance. Cassettes can excise or integrate by action of an integron-encoded integrase, enabling bacteria to face environmental challenges. In this work the functionality and dynamics of two integrons carrying the same cassette arrangement (dfrA12-orfF-aadA2, but located on plasmid or chromosome in two different strains were studied. In order to demonstrate the functionality of the Class 1 integrase, circular cassette integration intermediaries were PCR amplified by PCR using extrachromosomal DNA extracted from bacteria grown in the presence or absence of cassette-encoded antibiotics. Circular aadA2 and dfrA12-orfF-aadA2 cassettes were detected in cultures grown either in the presence or absence of antibiotics in both strains. No dfrA12-orfF circular intermediates could be detected under any culture conditions. These results show that both integrons are functional. However, these elements show different dynamics and functionality since the presence of streptomycin led to detectable gene rearrangements in the variable region only in the strain with the plasmid-born integron. In addition, complete integration products were demonstrated using a receptor molecule carrying an empty integron. In this case integration products were observed in both strains even in the absence of antibiotics, but they were more evident in the strain with the plasmid-located integron when streptomycin was present in the culture medium. This suggests that integrons in the two strains respond differently to streptomycin even though DNA sequences upstream the intI1 gene, including the lexA boxes of both integrons are identical.

  6. Dynamics of a Class 1 Integron Located on Plasmid or Chromosome in Two Aeromonas spp. Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Valdespino, Abigail; Lazarini-Martínez, Alfredo; Rivera-González, Alejandro X.; García-Hernández, Normand; Curiel-Quesada, Everardo

    2016-01-01

    Integrons are non-mobile bacterial genetic elements that carry different cassettes conferring antibiotic resistance. Cassettes can excise or integrate by action of an integron-encoded integrase, enabling bacteria to face environmental challenges. In this work, the functionality and dynamics of two integrons carrying the same cassette arrangement (dfrA12–orfF–aadA2), but located on plasmid or chromosome in two different strains were studied. In order to demonstrate the functionality of the Class 1 integrase, circular cassette integration intermediaries were PCR amplified by PCR using extrachromosomal DNA extracted from bacteria grown in the presence or absence of cassette-encoded antibiotics. Circular aadA2 and dfrA12–orfF–aadA2 cassettes were detected in cultures grown either in the presence or absence of antibiotics in both strains. No dfrA12–orfF circular intermediates could be detected under any culture conditions. These results show that both integrons are functional. However, these elements show different dynamics and functionality since the presence of streptomycin led to detectable gene rearrangements in the variable region only in the strain with the plasmid-born integron. In addition, complete integration products were demonstrated using a receptor molecule carrying an empty integron. In this case, integration products were observed in both strains even in the absence of antibiotics, but they were more evident in the strain with the plasmid-located integron when streptomycin was present in the culture medium. This suggests that integrons in the two strains respond differently to streptomycin even though DNA sequences upstream the intI1 gene, including the lexA boxes of both integrons are identical. PMID:27733851

  7. Evolutionary Roots and Diversification of the Genus Aeromonas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanglas, Ariadna; Albarral, Vicenta; Farfán, Maribel; Lorén, J. G.; Fusté, M. C.

    2017-01-01

    Despite the importance of diversification rates in the study of prokaryote evolution, they have not been quantitatively assessed for the majority of microorganism taxa. The investigation of evolutionary patterns in prokaryotes constitutes a challenge due to a very scarce fossil record, limited morphological differentiation and frequently complex taxonomic relationships, which make even species recognition difficult. Although the speciation models and speciation rates in eukaryotes have traditionally been established by analyzing the fossil record data, this is frequently incomplete, and not always available. More recently, several methods based on molecular sequence data have been developed to estimate speciation and extinction rates from phylogenies reconstructed from contemporary taxa. In this work, we determined the divergence time and temporal diversification of the genus Aeromonas by applying these methods widely used with eukaryotic taxa. Our analysis involved 150 Aeromonas strains using the concatenated sequences of two housekeeping genes (approximately 2,000 bp). Dating and diversification model analyses were performed using two different approaches: obtaining the consensus sequence from the concatenated sequences corresponding to all the strains belonging to the same species, or generating the species tree from multiple alignments of each gene. We used BEAST to perform a Bayesian analysis to estimate both the phylogeny and the divergence times. A global molecular clock cannot be assumed for any gene. From the chronograms obtained, we carried out a diversification analysis using several approaches. The results suggest that the genus Aeromonas began to diverge approximately 250 millions of years (Ma) ago. All methods used to determine Aeromonas diversification gave similar results, suggesting that the speciation process in this bacterial genus followed a rate-constant (Yule) diversification model, although there is a small probability that a slight

  8. Screening and Characterization of a Bioflocculant Produced by Aeromonas sp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective To isolate the bioflocculant-producing bacteria from activated sludge and investigate the flocculating characteristics of the newly isolated bioflocculant. Methods Bacteria were screened from activated sludge samples to isolate bioflocculant-producing bacteria. Flocculating activity was used as a measure of the flocculating capability of the bioflocculant.Results A novel bioflocculant-producing bacterium was isolated, which was identified to belong to genus Aeromonas and named as Aeromonas sp. N11. Flocculating activity increased in the presence of K+, Na+, or Ca2+. The highest flocculating activities for kaolin suspension were obtained in acidic pH ranges, and optimum pHs for it were 3.0, 4.0, and 5.0 with 1 mmol/L K+, Ca+, and Na+ present, respectively. The highest flocculating activities for soil suspension were observed at pH 8.0. The bioflocculant had a good flocculating activity and could achieve a flocculating activity of 92.4% for kaolin suspension at a Conclusion The bioflocculant produced by Aeromonas sp. N11 has strong flocculating activity and high stability, which affords high possibility of its practical use.

  9. Antimicrobial activity of some of the south-Indian spices against serotypes of Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes and Aeromonas hydrophila Atividade antimicrobiana de condimentos do sul da India sobre Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes e Aeromonas hydrophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.N. Indu

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial activity of extracts of Allium sativum (garlic, Myristica fragrans (nutmeg, Zingiber officinale (ginger, Allium cepa (onion and Piper nigrum (pepper has been evaluated against 20 different serogroups of Escherichia coli, 8 serotypes of Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes and Aeromonas hydrophila. Garlic extract showed excellent antibacterial activity against all the test organisms, except L. monocytogenes. Nutmeg showed good anti-listerial activity, although activity against E. coli and Salmonella were serotype dependent. Both garlic and nutmeg extracts were effective against A. hydrophila. Extracts of ginger showed inhibitory activity against two serogroups of E. coli: as O8 (enterotoxigenic E. coli and O88 only. Extracts of onion and pepper did not show any antibacterial activity against the test organisms.Avaliou-se a atividade antimicrobiana de extratos de alho (Allium sativum, noz-moscada (Mysritica frangrans, gengibre (Zingiber officinale cebola (Allium cepa e pimenta do reino (Piper nigrum sobre 20 sorotipos de Escherichia coli, 8 sorotipos de Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes e Aeromonas hydrophila. O alho apresentou atividade antimicrobiana excelente sobre todos os microrganismos testados, excepto L. monocytogenes. A noz-moscada apresentou boa atividade antilisteria, emboara atividade sobre E. coli e Salmonella tenha sido sorotipo-dependente. Tanto alho como noz-moscada foram eficientes contra A. hydrophila. O extrato de gengibre apresentou atividade inibitória sobre dois sorotipos de E. coli: 08 (enterotoxigenico e 088. Os extratos de cebola e pimenta do reino não apresentaram nenhuma atividade contra os microrganismos testados.

  10. Hematologia e sinais clínicos de Piaractus mesopotamicus infectados experimentalmente com Aeromonas hydrophila = Hematology and clinical signs of Piaractus mesopotamicus experimentally infected with Aeromonas hydrophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Ruas Moraes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este ensaio teve como objetivo avaliar as respostas hematológicas e a ocorrência de sinais clínico-patológicos de Piaractus mesopotamicus infectados experimentalmente por Aeromonas hydrophila. Foram utilizados 324 pacus, P. mesopotamicus, com peso de 102,84 ±27,1 g, distribuídos em 27 caixas de 300 L de capacidade, sendo 14 peixes por caixa. Os peixes foram mantidos nas caixas durante um mês, recebendo dieta balanceada, período em que se evitou qualquer tipo de manejo estressante. Passado esse período, foram infectadoscom 6 x 106 UFC de A. hydrophila, injetada via intraperitoneal. As coletas e análises de sangue foram realizadas 24h antes da infecção experimental e 24h após a infecção. Os resultados permitem concluir que a infecção por A. hydrophila em P. mesopotamicus écaracterizada por escurecimento da derme e sinais clínicos-patológicos relacionados à hemorragia, anemia normocítica-hipocrômica, redução nos níveis de proteínas, globulinasplasmáticas e eosinófilos, leucopenia, linfopenia, trombocitopenia, neutrofilia e monocitose. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hematological response and clinical sign of Piaractus mesopotamicus infected byAeromonas hydrophila. Were used 324 pacus, P. mesopotamicus weighing 102.84 ± 27.1 g distributed in 27 water tanks with 300 L of capacity, 14 fish per tank. The fish were kept in the water tanks during one month, receiving appropriate diet. In this period was avoidedstressing management. After this period, the fish were infected with 6 × 108 cfu of A. hydrophila fish-1, injected intraperitoneally. The blood collection was carried 24h before experimental infection and 24h after its. The A. hydrophila infection in P. mesopotamicus ischaracterized by dark skin and clinical signs related to hemorrhage, hypochromic normocytic anemia, decrease on plasmatic proteins and globulins levels, leucopenia, lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia, eosinophilia, neutrophilia and monocytosis.

  11. Biological control of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida infection in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) using Aeromonas phage PAS-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J H; Choresca, C H; Shin, S P; Han, J E; Jun, J W; Park, S C

    2015-02-01

    The potential control efficacy of Aeromonas phage PAS-1 was evaluated against Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida infection in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) model in this study. The phage was co-cultured with the virulent A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida strain AS05 that possesses the type III secretion system (TTSS) ascV gene, and efficient bacteriolytic activity was observed against the bacteria. The administration of PAS-1 in rainbow trout demonstrated that the phage was cleared from the fish within 200 h post-administration, and a temporal neutralizing activity against the phage was detected in the sera of phage-administrated fish. The administration of PAS-1 (multiplicity of infection: 10 000) in A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida infected rainbow trout model showed notable protective effects, with increased survival rates and mean times to death. These results demonstrated that Aeromonas phage PAS-1 could be considered as an alternative biological control agent against A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida infections in rainbow trout culture.

  12. Identificación de dos spp de Ipomoea y evaluación in vitro del extracto metanólico como problema de intoxicación en cabras.

    OpenAIRE

    Mila Arango, Roberta

    2013-01-01

    El desconocimiento de distintas plantas tóxicas y la ingesta de éstas por rebaños caprinos en temporada de sequía, ha provocado que muchos casos de intoxicación no se diagnostiquen o sean confundidos con otras causas, provocando altos índices de morbilidad y mortalidad en rebaños caprinos. El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo principal, la identificación de los metabolitos secudarios presentes en dos especies arbustivas de la Mixteca baja de Oaxaca causantes de intoxicación en cabras. Se ev...

  13. Chitin degradation and utilization by virulent Aeromonas hydrophila strain ML10-51K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virulent Aeromonas hydrophila (vAh) is one of the most important bacterial pathogens that causes persistent outbreaks of motile Aeromonas septicemia (MAS) in warm-water fishes. Among factors associated with MAS outbreaks, the survivability of this pathogen in aquatic environments is of great concern...

  14. Complete genome sequence of channel catfish epidemic isolate Aeromonas hydrophila ML09-119

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeromonas hydrophila is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped, mesophilic bacteria that infects both aquatic poikilothermic animals and mammals, including humans. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of Aeromonas hydrophila ML-09-119, which represents a clonal group of A. hydrophila isolates causing ...

  15. Classification of a hypervirulent Aeromonas hydrophila pathotype responsible for epidemic outbreaks in warm-water fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lineages of hypervirulent Aeromonas hydrophila (vAh) are the cause of persistent outbreaks of motile Aeromonas septicemia in warm-water fishes worldwide. Over the last decade, this virulent lineage of A. hydrophila has resulted in annual losses of millions of tons of farmed carp and catfish in the P...

  16. Diarrea del viajero asociada a Aeromonas hydrophila Traveller's diarrohea caused by Aeromonas hydrophila

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    M. L. Pita Toledo

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas hydrophila es una bacteria que se encuentra frecuentemente en aguas dulces y salobres. Desde hace varios años se conoce que determinadas cepas de la especie pueden causar enfermedad en pescados y en anfibios, existiendo cierta controversia sobre su patogeneicidad en humanos. No obstante, puede dar lugar a infección en personas, que la adquieren bien a través de heridas abiertas o bien por ingestión de alimentos o agua contaminados. Sin embargo, en prácticamente la totalidad de las publicaciones se hace referencia a casos aislados más que a brotes producidos por esta bacteria. Generalmente la infección por A. hydrophila da lugar a gastroenteritis en personas sanas, pudiendo generar una septicemia en individuos inmunodeprimidos.En 1998 se produjo una alarma en el sector hotelero por un incremento considerable de los casos de gastroenteritis entre los turistas que acudían durante sus vacaciones a determinadas zonas costeras de la isla de Tenerife.Tras tener conocimiento de la situación, la Dirección General de Salud Pública inició una investigación epidemiológica con el objetivo de conocer la magnitud real del problema detectado e identificar los factores asociados a la misma, para poner en marcha las medidas correctoras y de control necesarias. El análisis inicial permitió determinar que se trataba de un proceso de gran magnitud en su extensión aunque de carácter leve, que afectaba únicamente a los turistas en una zona costera en concreto, compatible por lo tanto con la diarrea del viajero, planteándose un origen probablemente hídrico.Aeromonas hydrophila is a bacteria frequently found in fresh water and saline water. Certain strains of the species have been known to cause disease in fish and amphibians for several years, although some controversy exists about its ability to cause illness in humans. Nevertheless, either through open wounds or contaminated food or water, it can give rise to infection. However, almost

  17. Aeromonas detection and characterization using genus-specific PCR and single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delamare, Ana Paula Longaray; Lucena, Roberto Francisco; Thomazi, Guilherme; Ferrarini, Shana; Zacaria, Jucimar; Echeverrigaray, Sergio

    2012-10-01

    Based on sequence alignment, oligonucleotide primers targeting the Aeromonas extracellular lipase gene were developed for PCR detection of member of the genus. A pair of primers designed for conserved regions of the gene amplified a 276 bp sequence in all Aeromonas species and tested strains, but did not have a positive result with other Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, showing high specificity and sensitivity. Selective enrichment in alkaline peptone water, followed by centrifugation, and direct usage of cells suspension as template, detected initial populations of 10 c.f.u. ml⁻¹. Single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis of the PCR products allowed the characterization of Aeromonas strains with a high discriminatory power (Simpson's index = 0.988). The method presented here provides a useful tool for the rapid detection of Aeromonas and the characterization of Aeromonas isolates.

  18. Genome sequencing and annotation of Aeromonas sp. HZM

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    Patric Chua

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We report the draft genome sequence of Aeromonas sp. strain HZM, isolated from tropical peat swamp forest soil. The draft genome size is 4,451,364 bp with a G + C content of 61.7% and contains 10 rRNA sequences (eight copies of 5S rRNA genes, single copy of 16S and 23S rRNA each. The genome sequence can be accessed at DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession no. JEMQ00000000.

  19. Effect of solar irradiation on extracellular enzymes of Aeromonas proteolytica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, B. G.

    1973-01-01

    The bacterium Aeromonas proteolytica was selected for studying the effects of solar irradiation on extracellular enzymes because it produces an endopeptidase that is capable of degrading proteins and a hemolysin that is active in lysing human erythrocytes. Possible alterations in the rate of enzyme production in response to the test conditions are currently underway and are not available for this preliminary report. Completed viability studies are indicative that little difference exists among the survival curves derived for cells exposed to various components of ultraviolet irradiation in space.

  20. Total protein electrophoresis and RAPD fingerprinting analysis for the identification of Aeromonas at the species level Análise eletroforética de proteínas totais e marcadores de RAPD na identificação de Aeromonas ao nível de espécie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Longaray Delamare

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Fifteen well-defined strains of Aeromonas of thirteen species were analyzed by SDS protein electrophoretic analysis (SDS-PAGE and random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis (RAPD. The comparison between the patterns obtained by both methods allowed differentiating all the strains. Clusters formed by the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic averages applied to protein data correlates with the genetic and biochemical information about the species. The results show that protein fingerprinting has the potential to differentiate Aeromonas species, but the low qualitative variation indicates that this technique is not efficient for the characterization of strains within a species. Conversely, RAPD fingerprinting allows the identification of strains but the high variability limits its potential as an aiding method for species identification.Quinze linhagens de Aeromonas pertencentes a treze espécies foram avaliadas através de eletroforese de proteínas totais (SDS-PAGE e segmentos de DNA amplificados ao acaso (RAPD. A comparação entre os padrões obtidos por ambos métodos permitiu diferenciar todas as linhagens. Agrupamentos formados com base nos dados protéicos mostraram relação com informações bioquímicas e genéticas a respeito das espécies. Os resultados mostraram que análises protéicas têm potencial para diferenciar espécies de Aeromonas, mas a baixa variação qualitativa indica que esta técnica não é eficiente para a caracterização entre linhagens dentro de espécies. Ao contrário, marcadores de RAPD permitem identificar linhagens, mas a alta variabilidade limita seu potencial como método auxiliar na identificação de espécies.

  1. Detection of antibiotic resistance, virulence gene determinants and biofilm formation in Aeromonas species isolated from cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igbinosa, Isoken H; Igbinosa, Etinosa O; Okoh, Anthony I

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to assess the antibiogram of Aeromonas strains recovered from cattle faeces and the potential pathogenic status of the isolates. The antibiogram of the Aeromonas isolates demonstrated total resistance to clindamycin oxacillin, trimethoprim, novobiocin and ticarcillin. However, Aeromonas strains were sensitive to cefotaxime, oxytetracycline and tobramycin. The Aeromonas strains from Lovedale and Fort Cox farms were found to possess some virulence genes. The percentage distribution was aer 71.4%, ast 35.7%, fla 60.7%, lip 35.7% and hlyA 25% for Lovedale farm and aer 63.1%, alt 10.5%, ast 55.2%, fla 78.9%, lip 21% and hlyA 35.9% for Fort Cox farm. Class 1 integron was present in 27% of Aeromonas isolates; the bla TEM gene was present in 34.8%, while the blaP1 class A β-lactamase gene was detected in 12.1% of the isolates. Approximately 86% of the isolates formed a biofilm on microtitre plates. The presence of multiple antibiotic resistance and virulence genes in Aeromonas isolates from cattle faeces reveals the pathogenic and infectious importance of these isolates and is of great significance to public health. The possession of a biofilm-forming capability by such isolates may lead to difficulty during the management of infection related to Aeromonas species.

  2. [AEROMONAS BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM BITHYNIIDAE MOLLUSKS AND THEIR HABITATS: SPECIES COMPOSITION AND BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES. COMMUNICATION 1].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanova, T F; Bukharin, O V; Kataeva, L V; Perunova, N B; Karpukhina, N F

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the species composition and biological properties of Aeromonas bacteria isolated from Bithyniidae mollusks and their habitat (a water reservoir). The Bithyniidae mollusks and water from their habitat were the material to be studied. A total of 176 Aeromonas strains were isolated from the mollusks and water. A. veronii, A. hydrophila, and A. ichthiosmia were most common in the mollusks and A. veronii and A. ichthiosmia were in the water. All the strains isolated had hemolytic activity and no lysozyme or plasma coagulase activity. The magnitude of lecithinase and antilysozymic activities and biofilm formation of the Aeromonas bacteria varied with the isolation source of their strains.

  3. Lippia alba essential oil promotes survival of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) infected with Aeromonas sp.

    OpenAIRE

    FERNANDO J. SUTILI; Cunha,Mauro A.; Rosangela E. Ziech; Krewer,Carina C.; CARLA C. ZEPPENFELD; Heldwein, Clarissa G.; Gressler, Leticia T.; Berta M. Heinzmann; Agueda C. de Vargas; BERNARDO BALDISSEROTTO

    2015-01-01

    In vitro and in vivo activity of the Lippia alba essential oil (EO) against Aeromonas sp. was evaluated. In the in vitro assay the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and a minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of EO for Aeromonas cells were determined using the microdilution method. Twenty five strains of Aeromonas sp. isolated from infected fish obtained from local fish farms were used. MIC and MBC values were 2862 and 5998 µg mL-1 for L. alba EO and 0.5 and 1.2 µg mL-1 for ...

  4. Incidence and toxigenicity of Aeromonas hydrophila in seafood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, G J; Chen, T H

    1996-08-01

    Three selective media, Oxoid Aeromonas agar (OA), blood ampicillin agar (BA) and starch ampicillin agar (SA) were used to evaluate the presence of Aeromonas hydrophila in 66 samples of oyster, shrimp, fish and surimi products. Oyster had the highest incidence, with 50% positive, whilst no A. hydrophila was found in the surimi. Of the three selective media, BA displayed the highest recovery rate of A. hydrophila from seafood. Forty-eight isolates from this survey were tested for their capability to produce hemolysin and cytotoxin. Hemolysin was produced by 79.2% of the isolates and cytotoxin was produced by 91.7% of the isolates in brain heart infusion broth. One of the toxin-producing isolates from oyster, strain 8-169, was further tested for growth and toxin production in oyster, shrimp and fish at various temperatures. This particular isolate grew best and had highest toxin production in oyster. Hemolysin and cytotoxin were produced earlier at 28 degrees C than at 37 degrees C, and titers of hemolysin were also higher at 28 degrees C. At 5 degrees C, it was able to grow and produce hemolysin in oyster.

  5. A comparative study of clinical Aeromonas dhakensis and Aeromonas hydrophila isolates in southern Taiwan: A. dhakensis is more predominant and virulent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, P-L; Wu, C-J; Chen, C-S; Tsai, P-J; Tang, H-J; Ko, W-C

    2014-07-01

    Aeromonas dhakensis, often phenotypically identified as Aeromonas hydrophila, is an important human pathogen. The present study aimed to compare the clinical and biological features of A. dhakensis and A. hydrophila isolates from human wounds. A total of 80 Aeromonas wound isolates collected between January 2004 and April 2011 were analysed. The species was identified by the DNA sequence matching of rpoD and gyrB (or rpoB if necessary). Most of the Aeromonas isolates were identified as A. dhakensis (37, 46.3%), and 13 (16.3%) as A. hydrophila. Both species alone can cause severe skin and soft-tissue infections. More A. dhakensis isolates were found in wounds exposed to environmental water (32.4% vs 0%, p 0.042). More biofilm formation was noted among A. dhakensis isolates (mean optical density at 570 nm, 1.23 ± 0.09 vs 0.78 ± 0.21, p 0.03). The MICs of ceftriaxone, imipenem and gentamicin for A. dhakensis isolates were higher (p Aeromonas wound isolates, and more virulent than A. hydrophila.

  6. Draft genome sequences of three Aeromonas hybrophila isolates from catfish and tilapia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeromonas hydrophila is a Gram-negative bacteria that is particularly adapted to freshwater environments and can cause severe infections in fish and humans. Here we report the draft genomes of three A. hydrophila catfish and tilapia isolates....

  7. IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF AEROMONAS ISOLATES FROM DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Members of the bacterial genus Aeromonas are commonly isolated from both fresh and salt waters worldwide and some are believed to cause infections in humans, including gastroenteritis and wound infections. Currently, aeromonads are on the United States Environmental Protection A...

  8. Aeromonas hydrophila meningitis and fulminant sepsis in preterm newborn: A case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Kali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal meningitis is a lethal infection occurring in the 1st month of life. The risk of developing permanent neurological sequels is high among the neonates who survive. Bacterial pathogens are commonly associated with this condition. Aeromonas is a Gram-negative bacteria of aquatic habitat. Although isolation of Aeromonas species from neonates with blood stream infection is infrequently reported, neonatal meningitis caused by Aeromonas is exceedingly rare. We present a case of fulminant sepsis and meningitis caused by Aeromonas hydrophila in a preterm newborn male. The bacteria was isolated in culture from blood and cerebrospinal fluid. In spite of targeted antibiotics and supportive therapy, the baby failed to respond and died on the 12th day of life.

  9. Anti-biogram and resistogram profiling of Aeromonas species isolated from Malaysian aquatic sources

    OpenAIRE

    Olumide Adedokun Odeyemi; Asmat Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate antibiotics and heavy metals resistance profile of Aeromonas species isolated from Kuala Gula and Kuala Sepetang, Perak. Methods: Isolated Aeromonas species were subjected to 12 antibiotics: penicillin G 10 units, tetracycline 30 µg, novobiocin 5 µg, nitrofurantoin 100 µg, ampicillin 10 µg, chloramphenicol 10 µg, fluconazole 25 µg, gentamicin 10 µg, streptomycin 10 µg and 25 µg, kanamycin 30 µg, and vancomycin 30 µg and 5 heavy metals: MnSO4.H2O, Cr(NO...

  10. Correlation of the Suicide Phenomenon in Aeromonas Species with Virulence and Enteropathogenicity

    OpenAIRE

    1989-01-01

    Certain strains of mesophilic aeromonads (Aeromonas hydrophila, A. sorbria, and A. caviae), when grown in broth containing 0.5% glucose, undergo growth inhibition concomitant with acetate accumulation. Because these strains are nonviable after 24 h, this phenomenon is termed suicide. We investigated suicidal strains of Aeromonas species as a means of understanding animal virulence and enteropathogenicity. To assess virulence, batches of five white mice were inoculated intraperitoneally with 1...

  11. Mortality of therapeutic fish Garra rufa caused by Aeromonas sobria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juraj Majtn; Jaroslaverny; Alena Ofkan; Peter Tak; Milan Koznek

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate a case of mass mortality of Garra rufa (G. rufa) from a fish hatchery farm in Slovakia. Methods: Causative bacterial agent was swabbing out of affected fish skin area and subsequently identified using commercial test system. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined by the disk diffusion method. Results: Infected G. rufa was characterized by abnormal swimming behaviour, bleeding of skin lesions and local haemorrhages. Despite of using recommended aquatic antibiotic treatment no improvement was achieved and Aeromonas sobria (A. sobria) was identified as a causative agent of fish mortality. Due to massive fish mortality, antibiotic susceptibility of pure isolated culture of A. sobria was evaluated employing eight antibiotics against human infections. A. sobria was resistant only against one antibiotic, namely ampicilin. Conclusions: These results indicate that A. sobria can act as a primary pathogen of G. rufa and may be a potential risk factor for immunodeficient or immunoincompetent patients during the ichthyotherapy.

  12. Isolation of Aeromonas hydrophila from the American alligator, Alligator mississippiensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorden, R.W. (Univ. of Southern Colorado, Pueblo); Hazen, T.C.; Esch, G.W.; Fliermans, C.B.

    1979-04-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila was isolated from the internal organs of nine adult alligators, Alligator mississippiensis, which died without apparent cause, suggesting the bacterium may have been a factor. One hundred and twenty-three alligators ranging in age from six months to over 10 years were captured from five locations in the southeastern United States and sampled for A. hydrophila. The bacterium was isolated from the oral cavity of 85% of the animals, on the external jaw area from over 50% and from 70% of the internal tissue samples. A. hydrophila is ubiquitous with alligators in their natural habitats, but apparently does not cause clinical disease. However, stress factors such as trapping, handling, and warm water tempertures may be conducive to the rapid proliferation of the bacteria, thereby facilitating disease.

  13. Identification of clinical aeromonas species by rpoB and gyrB sequencing and development of a multiplex PCR method for detection of Aeromonas hydrophila, A. caviae, A. veronii, and A. media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Søren; Al-Shuweli, Suzan; Yapici, Seval; Jensen, Joan N; Olsen, Katharina E P

    2015-02-01

    Conventional identification of Aeromonas species based on biochemical methods is challenged by the heterogeneous nature of the species. Here, we present a new multiplex PCR method directed toward the gyrB and rpoB genes that identifies four Aeromonas species, A. hydrophila, A. media, A. veronii, and A. caviae, and we describe the application of this method on a Danish strain collection.

  14. Identification and molecular characterization of the homogentisate pathway responsible for pyomelanin production, the major melanin constituents in Aeromonas media WS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Wang

    Full Text Available The pigmentation of many Aeromonas species has been thought to be due to the production of a L-DOPA (L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine based melanin. However, in this study we found that although L-DOPA synthesis occurs in the high-melanin-yielding Aeromonas media strain WS, it plays a minor, if any, role in pigmentation. Instead, the pigmentation of A. media strain WS is due to the production of pyomelanin through HGA (homogentisate. Gene products of phhA (encodes phenylalanine hydroxylase, tyrB and aspC (both encode aromatic amino acid aminotransferase, and hppD (encodes 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase constitute a linear pathway of converting phenylalanine to HGA and disruption of any one of these genes impairs or blocks pigmentation of A. media strain WS. This HGA biosynthesis pathway is widely distributed in Aeromonas, but HGA is only detectable in the cultures of pigmented Aeromonas species. Heterologous expression of HppD from both pigmented and non-pigmented Aeromonas species in E. coli leads to the production of pyomelanin and thus pigmentation, suggesting that most Aeromonas species have the critical enzymes to produce pyomelanin through HGA. Taken together, we have identified a widely conserved biosynthesis pathway of HGA based pyomelanin in Aeromonas that may be responsible for pigmentation of many Aeromonas species.

  15. Identification and molecular characterization of the homogentisate pathway responsible for pyomelanin production, the major melanin constituents in Aeromonas media WS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, He; Qiao, Yunqian; Chai, Baozhong; Qiu, Chenxi; Chen, Xiangdong

    2015-01-01

    The pigmentation of many Aeromonas species has been thought to be due to the production of a L-DOPA (L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine) based melanin. However, in this study we found that although L-DOPA synthesis occurs in the high-melanin-yielding Aeromonas media strain WS, it plays a minor, if any, role in pigmentation. Instead, the pigmentation of A. media strain WS is due to the production of pyomelanin through HGA (homogentisate). Gene products of phhA (encodes phenylalanine hydroxylase), tyrB and aspC (both encode aromatic amino acid aminotransferase), and hppD (encodes 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase) constitute a linear pathway of converting phenylalanine to HGA and disruption of any one of these genes impairs or blocks pigmentation of A. media strain WS. This HGA biosynthesis pathway is widely distributed in Aeromonas, but HGA is only detectable in the cultures of pigmented Aeromonas species. Heterologous expression of HppD from both pigmented and non-pigmented Aeromonas species in E. coli leads to the production of pyomelanin and thus pigmentation, suggesting that most Aeromonas species have the critical enzymes to produce pyomelanin through HGA. Taken together, we have identified a widely conserved biosynthesis pathway of HGA based pyomelanin in Aeromonas that may be responsible for pigmentation of many Aeromonas species.

  16. AQU-1, a chromosomal class C β-lactamase, among clinical Aeromonas dhakensis isolates: distribution and clinical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chi-Jung; Wang, Hsuan-Chen; Chen, Po-Lin; Chang, Ming-Chung; Sunny Sun, H; Chou, Pei-Hsin; Ko, Wen-Chien

    2013-11-01

    Aeromonas dhakensis, a recently described Aeromonas sp. formerly called Aeromonas aquariorum, is associated with human infections. In this study, a chromosomal gene, blaAQU-1, was identified in A. dhakensis AAK1 that constitutes a 1143-bp open reading frame and is 87% identical to the gene encoding CepH in Aeromonas hydrophila. An Escherichia coli TOP10 cell transformant harbouring blaAQU-1 was resistant to cefotaxime but not to cefepime. mRNA expression of blaAQU-1 in the cefotaxime-resistant mutant strain AAK1m was 70-fold higher than in the wild strain AAK1. In all 16 A. dhakensis isolates (the major species of 51 consecutive Aeromonas blood isolates collected from June 1999 to June 2001) as well as in A. aquariorum MDC47(T) and A. hydrophila subsp. dhakensis LMG 19562(T), but not in the reference strains or clinical isolates of other A. hydrophila subspecies, Aeromonas caviae, Aeromonas veronii or Aeromonas enteropelogenes, blaAQU-1-related genes were detected by PCR. Overall, 13 (81%) of the 16 A. dhakensis blood isolates exhibited either cefotaxime resistance or the in vitro emergence of derepressed cefotaxime-resistant mutants. In vivo selection of an A. dhakensis resistant mutant was noted in a burn patient undergoing cefotaxime monotherapy. These observations suggest that AQU-1 is a chromosomal cephalosporinase in A. dhakensis. Cefotaxime monotherapy for severe A. dhakensis infections should be used cautiously.

  17. Aeromonas sp.F3胶原酶性质的研究%Characteristies of collagenase from Aeromonas sp.F3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白杨; 钱斯日古楞; 王红英; 马蕾

    2011-01-01

    Aeromonas sp. F3 was screened from marine mud for hydrolyzing collagen. The characteristics of collagenase from Aeromonas sp. F3 were investigated via single-factor test. Thermal treatment at 50 ℃ for 40 min resulted in obvious deactivation. The optimum reaction temperature and pH was 40 ℃ and 8. 6. Collagenase activity was activated by Ca2+ at 0. 5 mmol/L. The molecular weight of the hydrolyzate was under 30 ku.%海洋污泥中筛选得到的Aeromonas sp.F3所产的胞外酶对胶原蛋白有水解作用.以海洋微生物Aeromonas sp.F3为酶源,采用单因素试验法对其所产的胶原酶性质进行了研究,包括该胶原酶的酶解条件及热稳定性,并对该胶原酶水解鱼皮的效果进行了分析.结果表明,微生物Aeromonas sp.F3源胶原酶在50℃热处理40 min之后明显失活,该胶原酶的最适反应温度为40℃,最适pH为8.6,金属离子Ca2在0.5 mmol/L时对酶有激活作用.该酶在其最适条件下,对鱼皮胶原有显著水解效能,其水解产物的分子质量在30 ku以下.

  18. Haloalkaliphilic Streptomyces spp. AJ8 isolated from solar salt works and its' pharmacological potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenifer, John Selesteen Charles Adlin; Donio, Mariathason Birdilla Selva; Michaelbabu, Mariavincent; Vincent, Samuel Gnana Prakash; Citarasu, Thavasimuthu

    2015-12-01

    Antagonistic Streptomyces spp. AJ8 was isolated and identified from the Kovalam solar salt works in India. The antimicrobial NRPS cluster gene was characterized by PCR, sequencing and predict the secondary structure analysis. The secondary metabolites will be extracted from different organic solvent extraction and studied the antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral and anticancer activities. In vitro antagonistic activity results revealed that, Streptomyces spp. AJ8 was highly antagonistic against Staphylococcus aureus, Aeromonas hydrophila WPD1 and Candida albicans. The genomic level identification revealed that, the strain was confirmed as Streptomyces spp. AJ8 and submitted the NCBI database (KC603899). The NRPS gene was generated a single gene fragment of 781 bp length (KR491940) and the database analysis revealed that, the closely related to Streptomyces spp. SAUK6068 and S. coeruleoprunus NBRC15400. The secondary metabolites extracted with ethyl acetate was effectively inhibited the bacterial and fungal growth at the ranged between 7 and 19.2 mm of zone of inhibition. The antiviral activity results revealed that, the metabolite was significantly (P < 0.001) controlled the killer shrimp virus white spot syndrome virus at the level of 85 %. The metabolite also suppressed the L929 fibroblast cancer cells at 35.7 % viability in 1000 µg treatment.

  19. Ocorrência de bactérias do gênero Aeromonas em queijo-de-minas frescal artesanal Occurrence of the genus Aeromonas in minas frescal cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.C.C. Bulhões

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisadas 160 amostras de queijo-de-minas frescal artesanal, adquiridas no comércio varejista dos municípios de Poços de Caldas - MG e Jaboticabal - SP, a fim de verificar a ocorrência de bactérias do gênero Aeromonas no produto. Oitenta e duas (51,2% encontravam-se contaminadas pelos microrganismos, com populações que variavam de 5,0×10³ a 4,0×10(5 UFC/grama. Foram identificadas as espécies Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas caviae, Aeromonas schubertii, além de cepas consideradas atípicas. Os resultados evidenciam que bactérias do gênero Aeromonas podem ser veiculadas através do queijo tipo minas frescal artesanal e devem servir de alerta aos serviços de saúde pública.One hundred and sixty samples of homemade minas frescal cheese, obtained at the retail trade in the municipalities of Poços de Caldas-MG and Jaboticabal-SP, were analyzed for occurrence of the genus Aeromonas. Eighty two samples (51.2% were contaminated by these microorganisms with populations that ranged from 5.0 x 10³ to 4.0 x 10(5 CFU/g. The species Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas caviae, Aeromonas schubertii, were identified, along with atypical strains. The results show that Aeromonas bacteria genus can be transmitted through the homemade minas frescal cheese and they should serve of alert to the public health services.

  20. Enterobacter asburiae and Aeromonas hydrophila: soft tissue infection requiring debridement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koth, Kevin; Boniface, James; Chance, Elisha A; Hanes, Marina C

    2012-06-01

    Enterobacter asburiae and Aeromonas hydrophila are gram-negative bacilli that have been isolated in soil and water. Enterobacter asburiae can cause an array of diseases, and exposure to A hydrophila can cause soft tissue infections, including necrotizing faciitis.A healthy-appearing 22-year-old man presented with an innocuous soft tissue injury to his leg due to an all-terrain vehicle crash. He received intravenous antibiotics and was discharged with prophylactic oral antibiotics. After the rapid onset of high fevers (102°F-103°F) <24 hours postinjury, he returned to the emergency department. Emergent surgical debridement was performed, and broad-spectrum intravenous antibiotics were started. Fevers persisted, and the patient underwent repeat extensive surgical debridement and antibiotic bead placement <30 hours after the initial surgical debridement and broad-spectrum antibiotics. Intraoperative cultures found E asburiae and A hydrophila in the wound. Following a long course of antibiotics and a skin graft, he fully recovered and had no functional deficits 1 year postoperatively.Extensive research revealed that these organisms are rare in soft tissue infections. E asburiae is opportunistic but has not been reported as a primary wound organism, and A hydrophila infections have been reported following motor vehicle crashes involving wound contamination. At presentation, it is challenging to determine rare organisms in a timely fashion; however, emergent extensive surgical intervention of an accelerated aberrant disease process should be considered to avoid catastrophic outcomes.

  1. Physiological control of amonabactin biosynthesis in Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barghouthi, S; Young, R; Arceneaux, J E; Byers, B R

    1989-01-01

    Amonabactin is a siderophore from Aeromonas hydrophila which is produced in two biologically active forms composed of the phenolate 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB), lysine, glycine, and either trytophan (amonabactin T) or phenylalanine (amonabactin P). Amonabactin biosynthetic mutants (generated by chemical mutagenesis) that either produced no amonabactin or overproduced the siderophore were isolated and identified on chrome azurol S siderophore detection agar. Amonabactin-negative mutants were of two categories. One type produced no phenolates and used exogenous DHB to synthesize amonabactin (both forms) while the other type excreted DHB but not amonabactin. This suggests an amonabactin biosynthetic pathway composed of two segments, one producing DHB and the other assembling amonabactin from DHB and the amino acids. Overproduction mutants used amonabactin poorly or not at all, indicating that they contained lesions in amonabactin utilization. Adding the analog D-tryptophan to wild-type A. hydrophila cultures reduced synthesis of both amonabactin T and amonabactin P and lengthened the lag phase in iron restricted medium. The tryptophan and phenylalanine forms of amonabactin may be synthesized by a single assembly pathway that contains a novel enzyme (sensitive to D-tryptophan) which inserts either tryptophan or phenylalanine into amonabactin.

  2. Aeromonas cavernicola sp. nov., isolated from fresh water of a brook in a cavern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Murcia, Antonio; Beaz-Hidalgo, Roxana; Svec, Pavel; Saavedra, Ma José; Figueras, Ma José; Sedlacek, Ivo

    2013-02-01

    Aeromonas P2973 was isolated from the water of a brook in a cavern in the Czech Republic. This isolate could not be biochemically identified at the species level, considering all updated species descriptions. Subsequent extensive phenotypic characterisation, DNA-DNA hybridisation, 16S rRNA gene sequencing and a Multi-Locus Phylogenetic Analysis (MLPA) of the concatenated sequence of 7 housekeeping genes (gyrB, rpoD, recA, dnaJ, gyrA, dnaX and atpD; 4705 bp) was employed in an attempt to ascertain the taxonomy of this isolate. Based on this polyphasic approach, we describe a novel species of the genus Aeromonas, for which the name Aeromonas cavernicola sp. nov. is proposed, with strain CCM7641(T) (DSM24474(T), CECT7862(T)) as the type strain.

  3. Bartonella spp. in Bats, Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    BAI, YING; Kosoy, Michael; Recuenco, Sergio; Alvarez, Danilo; Moran, David; Turmelle, Amy; Ellison, James; Garcia, Daniel L.; Estevez, Alejandra; Lindblade, Kim; Rupprecht, Charles

    2011-01-01

    To better understand the role of bats as reservoirs of Bartonella spp., we estimated Bartonella spp. prevalence and genetic diversity in bats in Guatemala during 2009. We found prevalence of 33% and identified 21 genetic variants of 13 phylogroups. Vampire bat–associated Bartonella spp. may cause undiagnosed illnesses in humans.

  4. Spontaneous aeromonas peritonitis%自发性气单胞菌腹膜炎

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆天雨

    2011-01-01

    自发性气单胞菌腹膜炎的发生在肝硬化腹水患者中并不罕见.本文就如何诊断及预防自发性气单胞菌腹膜炎,提高患者预后综述如下.%Spontaneous aeromonas peritonitis is a common complication in hepatocirrhosis patients with hepatic ascites.The aim of this review is to discuss how to diagnose and prevent spontaneous Aeromonas peritonitis.

  5. Identification of atypical Aeromonas salmonicida : Inter-laboratory evaluation and harmonization of methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Inger; Gudmundsdottir, B.K.; Helgason, S.;

    1998-01-01

    The atypical isolates of Aeromonas salmonicida are becoming increasingly important as the frequency of isolation of bacteria belonging to this group continues to rise. The primary object of this study was to compare and evaluate the results obtained in various laboratories concerning the biochemi......The atypical isolates of Aeromonas salmonicida are becoming increasingly important as the frequency of isolation of bacteria belonging to this group continues to rise. The primary object of this study was to compare and evaluate the results obtained in various laboratories concerning...

  6. Antibiotic resistance profiling and phenotyping of Aeromonas species isolated from aquatic sources

    OpenAIRE

    Olumide A. Odeyemi; Ahmad, Asmat

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate antibiotics resistance pattern and phenotyping of Aeromonas species isolated from different aquatic sources in Melaka, Malaysia. A total of 53 Aeromonas species were isolated from the following sources: sediment (n = 13), bivalve (n = 10), sea cucumber (n = 16) and sea water (n = 14) and resistance to 12 antibiotics – Tetracycline (30 μg), Kanamycin (30 μg), Oxytetracycline (30 μg), Ampicillin (10 μg), Streptomycin (10 μg), Gentamicin (10 μg), Sulphamethoxazole...

  7. Antibiotic resistance profiling and phenotyping of Aeromonas species isolated from aquatic sources

    OpenAIRE

    Olumide A. Odeyemi; Asmat Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate antibiotics resistance pattern and phenotyping of Aeromonas species isolated from different aquatic sources in Melaka, Malaysia. A total of 53 Aeromonas species were isolated from the following sources: sediment (n = 13), bivalve (n = 10), sea cucumber (n = 16) and sea water (n = 14) and resistance to 12 antibiotics – Tetracycline (30 μg), Kanamycin (30 μg), Oxytetracycline (30 μg), Ampicillin (10 μg), Streptomycin (10 μg), Gentamicin (10 μg), Sulphamethoxazole...

  8. Levels of enzymes in leukaemic mice treated withAeromonas L-asparaginase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benny, P J; Muraleedhara Kurup, G; Sreejith, K

    1999-07-01

    L-asparaginase isolated in our laboratory fromAeromonas has been found to be antileukaemic. In the present study changes in the levels of serum enzymes in leukaemic mice and under treatment withAeromonas L-asparaginase has been compared. A significant increase in the levels of serum lactate dehydrogenase with tumour growth and a decrease during therapy was observed. A significant decrease in alanine transaminase activity during tumour growth and an increase during treatment was noticed. Increased levels of aspartate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase was observed during enzyme therapy. Total acid phosphatase was found to be increased during tumour growth and decreased considerably during treatment.

  9. Metabolism of proteins and glycoproteins in tumour bearing mice treated with Aeromonas L-asparaginase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benny, P J; Muraleedhara, K G; Sreejith, K; Jayashree, G

    1996-12-01

    L-asparaginase, isolated in our laboratory, from Aeromonas had been found to be antileukaemic. In the present study, changes in the levels of proteins and glycoproteins in leukaemic mice and under treatment with Aeromonas L-asparaginase have been compared. Levels of protein bound hexose, fucose and sialic acid which were increased during leukaemia attained normal levels when treated with L-asparaginase. The increased blood urea level declined significantly during enzyme therapy. Effects of L-asparaginase are compared with 'Leunase', a commercially available drug used in the treatment of leukaemia.

  10. Properties of hemolysin and protease produced by Aeromonas trota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eizo Takahashi

    Full Text Available We examined the properties of exotoxins produced by Aeromonas trota (A. enteropelogenes, one of the diarrheagenic species of Aeromonadaceae. Nine of 19 A. trota isolates that grew on solid media containing erythrocytes showed hemolytic activity. However, the hemolytic activities of the culture supernatants of these hemolytic strains of A. trota were markedly lower than those of A. sobria when cultured in liquid medium, and the amount of hemolysin detected by immunoblotting using antiserum against the hemolysin produced by A. sobria was also low. A mouse intestine loop assay using living bacterial cells showed that A. trota 701 caused the significant accumulation of fluid, and antiserum against the hemolysin produced suppressed the enterotoxic action of A. trota 701. These results indicated that A. trota 701 was diarrheagenic and the hemolysin produced was the causative agent of the enterotoxic activity of A. trota. The hemolysin in A. sobria was previously shown to be secreted in a preform (inactive form and be activated when the carboxy-terminal domain was cleaved off by proteases in the culture supernatant. Since mature hemolysin was detected in the culture supernatants of A. trota, we analyzed the extracellular protease produced by A. trota. Fifteen of 19 A. trota isolates that grew on solid media containing skim milk showed proteolytic activity. We subsequently found that most A. trota isolates possessed the serine protease gene, but not the metalloprotease gene. Therefore, we determined the nucleotide sequence of the serine protease gene and its chaperone A. trota gene. The results obtained revealed that the deduced amino acid sequences of serine protease and the chaperone were homologous to those of A. sobria with identities of 83.0% and 75.8%, respectively.

  11. Immunomodulating effect of inositol hexaphosphate against Aeromonas hydrophila-endotoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-El-Saad, Abdel-Aziz S A

    2007-01-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) administration on endotoxemia as an example of the systemic inflammatory response. Mice were divided into three groups as follows: First group, remained as a naive group injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with PBS (pH 7.4; 0.2 ml/mice) at intervals parallel to the treated groups. The second group was injected i.p. with the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Aeromonas hydrophila once a week for four weeks at a dose of LPS suspension: 20 mg/kg mice/week. The third group was injected with the same LPS dose and synergistically intubated with IP6 three times a week for four weeks at a total dose of 4 0mg/kg. At different experimental periods (1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks), six animals from each group were sacrificed under mild diethyl ether anesthesia. Blood and sera were taken for the estimation of phagocytic activity, electrophoretic pattern of proteins and immunoglobulin levels. Also, a slice of liver was homogenized to estimate the respiratory burst enzymes activities and nitric acid synthesis. Histopathological changes of hepatic tissues were investigated. In the LPS-treated group, marked increase in the phagocytic activities and nitric oxide synthesis, and a decrease in hepatocyte catalase, total peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities were observed. The histopathological features revealed a degeneration and highly mitotic division within the hepatic nuclei in addition to some karyomegaly and nuclear pyknosis. During the treatment period, liver sections of the LPS+IP6 group showed somewhat regenerative features. Reduction in the toxicity of free radicals by IP6 was observed and the IP6 effect seemed to be responsible for the observed ameliorative influence.

  12. Adhesins of Bartonella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, Fiona; Schmidgen, Thomas; Kaiser, Patrick O; Linke, Dirk; Kempf, Volkhard A J

    2011-01-01

    Adhesion to host cells represents the first step in the infection process and one of the decisive features in the pathogenicity of Bartonella spp. B. henselae and B. quintana are considered to be the most important human pathogenic species, responsible for cat scratch disease, bacillary angiomatosis, trench fever and other diseases. The ability to cause vasculoproliferative disorders and intraerythrocytic bacteraemia are unique features of the genus Bartonella. Consequently, the interaction with endothelial cells and erythrocytes is a focus in Bartonella research. The genus harbours a variety of trimeric autotransporter adhesins (TAAs) such as the Bartonella adhesin A (BadA) of B. henselae and the variably expressed outer-membrane proteins (Vomps) of B. quintana, which display remarkable variations in length and modular construction. These adhesins mediate many of the biologically-important properties of Bartonella spp. such as adherence to endothelial cells and extracellular matrix proteins and induction of angiogenic gene programming. There is also significant evidence that the laterally acquired Trw-conjugation systems of Bartonella spp. mediate host-specific adherence to erythrocytes. Other potential adhesins are the filamentous haemagglutinins and several outer membrane proteins. The exact molecular functions of these adhesins and their interplay with other pathogenicity factors (e.g., the VirB/D4 type 4 secretion system) need to be analysed in detail to understand how these pathogens adapt to their mammalian hosts.

  13. Cold Shock Exoribonuclease R(VacB) is involved in Aeromonas hydrophila Virulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, we cloned and sequenced a virulence-associated gene (vacB) from a clinical isolate SSU of Aeromonas hydrophila. We identified this gene based on our recently annotated genome sequence of the environmental isolate ATCC 7966T of A. hydrophila and the vacB gene of Shi...

  14. Cold Shock Exoribonuclease R (VacB) is Involved in Aeromonas hydrophila Pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, we cloned and sequenced a virulence-associated gene (vacB) from a clinical isolate SSU of Aeromonas hydrophila. We identified this gene based on our recently annotated genome sequence of the environmental isolate ATCC 7966T of A. hydrophila and the vacB gene of Shi...

  15. Draft genome sequences of four virulent aeromonas hydrophila strains from catfish aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since 2009, a clonal group of virulent Aeromonas hydrophila (VAh) strains has been causing severe disease in the catfish aquaculture industry in the Southeastern United States. Here, we report draft genomes of four A. hydrophila isolates from catfish aquaculture that represent this clonal group....

  16. A Mouse Model for Characterization of Gastrointestinal Colonization Rates Among Environmental Aeromonas Isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    The colonization rates of ten different environmental isolates of Aeromonas were determined using a novel mouse-streptomycin pre-treatment method. A novel streptomycin pre-treatment prepared animals with a transient alteration in colon flora that allowed colonization by Aeromon...

  17. Immunization with recombinant aerolysin and hemolysin protected channel catfish against virulent Aeromonas hydrophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeromonas hydrophila is emerging as one of the major concerns in catfish aquaculture in the Southeastern United States due to recent outbreaks of motile aeromonad septicemia (MAS) caused by virulent clonal isolates. There is no effective vaccine currently available for the prevention of MAS. In this...

  18. Function of a recombinant Chitinase derived from a virulent Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from diseased channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    A chitinase was identified in extracellular products of a virulent Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from diseased channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Bioactive recombinant chitinase (rChi-Ah) was produced in Escherichia coli. Purified rChi-Ah had optimal activity at temperature of 42°C and pH 6.5. T...

  19. Virulence diversity among bacteremic Aeromonas isolates: ex vivo, animal, and clinical evidences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Lin Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to compare virulence among different Aeromonas species causing bloodstream infections. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Nine of four species of Aeromonas blood isolates, including A. dhakensis, A. hydrophila, A. veronii and A. caviae were randomly selected for analysis. The species was identified by the DNA sequence matching of rpoD. Clinically, the patients with A. dhakensis bacteremia had a higher sepsis-related mortality rate than those with other species (37.5% vs. 0%, P = 0.028. Virulence of different Aeromonas species were tested in C. elegans, mouse fibroblast C2C12 cell line and BALB/c mice models. C. elegans fed with A. dhakensis and A. caviae had the lowest and highest survival rates compared with other species, respectively (all P values <0.0001. A. dhakensis isolates also exhibited more cytotoxicity in C2C12 cell line (all P values <0.0001. Fourteen-day survival rate of mice intramuscularly inoculated with A. dhakensis was lower than that of other species (all P values <0.0001. Hemolytic activity and several virulence factor genes were rarely detected in the A. caviae isolates. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Clinical data, ex vivo experiments, and animal studies suggest there is virulence variation among clinically important Aeromonas species.

  20. Molecular characterization of Aeromonas species isolated from farmed eels (Anguilla japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Seung-Won; You, Myung-Jo; Cho, Ho-Seong; Lee, Chang-Seop; Kwon, Joong-Ki; Shin, Gee-Wook

    2013-05-31

    Seventy Aeromonas strains were identified by phylogenetic analysis using housekeeping genes (gyrB and rpoD) in order to investigate etiological agents for aeromoniasis in farmed eels (Anguilla japonica). The phylogenetic analysis showed that Aeromonas aquariorum (n=22, 31.4%) was the predominant species among the investigated eel strains, followed by Aeromonas caviae (n=16, 22.9%), A. veronii (n=13, 18.6%), A. hydrophila (n=12, 17.1%), A. jandaei (n=4, 5.7%), A. media (n=2, 2.9%), and A. trota (n=1, 1.4%). The potential virulence of the present strains was estimated by performing PCR assays using the following seven virulence genes: cytotoxic enterotoxin (act), two cytotonic enterotoxins (alt and ast), glycerophospholipid:cholesterol acyltransferase (gcaT), DNase (exu), lipase (lip), and flagellin (fla). The detection rates of act, alt, ast, gcaT, exu, lip, and fla among all 70 strains were 91.4%, 55.7%, 27.1%, 97.1%, 95.7%, 100%, and 98.6%, respectively. In genotyping of enterotoxin genes, act(+)/alt(+)/ast(+), act(+)/alt(+)/ast(-), and act(+)/alt(-)/ast(-) genotypes were prevalent in A. hydrophila (8/12 strains), A. aquariorum (13/22 strains), and A. caviae (14/16 strains), respectively, suggesting a high heterogeneity among Aeromonas species. In this study, A. aquariorum, which has been an unrecorded species in Korea, can be an etiological agent for aeromoniasis of eel.

  1. Molecular characterization of a functional type VI secretion system from a clinical isolate of Aeromonas hydrophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our laboratory recently molecularly characterized the type II secretion system (T2SS)-associated cytotoxic enterotoxin (Act) and the T3SS-secreted AexU effector from a diarrheal isolate SSU of Aeromonas hydrophila. The role of these toxin proteins in the pathogenesis of A. hydrop...

  2. Molecular characterization of Shewanella and Aeromonas isolates associated with spoilage of Common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaz-Hidalgo, Roxana; Agüeria, Daniela; Latif-Eugenín, Fadua; Yeannes, Maria I; Figueras, Maria J

    2015-01-01

    Storage in ice is a common way of preserving commercial fish species but some microorganisms can still contaminate and participate in the spoilage of the product; therefore, identification of potential harmful microbes is important. Thirteen colonies were isolated from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) that had been stored in ice, whose phenotypic identification revealed that they belonged to the genera Aeromonas (n = 5) and Shewanella (n = 8). Molecular genotyping with ERIC-PCR showed clonality only among two of the five Aeromonas isolates and for two groups (n = 3; n = 2) of the eight Shewanella isolates. Sequencing the rpoD gene showed that four Aeromonas isolates belonged to the species Aeromonas salmonicida and one to A. sobria. Of the eight Shewanella, seven isolates cluster with Shewanella putrefaciens and one with Shewanella profunda in the 16S rRNA phylogenetic tree. However, analysis of the gyrB gene showed that these eight isolates could constitute a new species closely related to S. baltica. The Shewanella and A. salmonicida isolates produce off-odours and reduce trimethylamine oxide, indicating that they might contribute to the spoilage of the fish.

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of Marine-Derived Aeromonas caviae CHZ306, a Potential Chitinase Producer Strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimpel, Cristina Kraemer; Guimaraes, Ana Marcia Sa; Pessoa, Adalberto; Rivera, Irma Nelly Gutierrez

    2016-01-01

    We report here a draft genome sequence of Aeromonas caviae CHZ306, a marine-derived bacterium with the ability to hydrolyze chitin and express high levels of chitinases. The assembly resulted in 65 scaffolds with approximately 4.78 Mb. Genomic analysis revealed different genes encoding chitin-degrading enzymes that can be used for chitin derivative production. PMID:27856589

  4. Recovery of atypical Aeromonas salmonicida from ulcerated fish from the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiklund, T.; Tabolina, I; Bezgachina, T.V.

    1999-01-01

    Ulcerated fish of six different species were collected during the BMB/ICES Sea-going Workshop "Fish Diseases and Parasites in the Baltic Sea", 25 November to 8 December 1994, and examined for bacteriological infections. Atypical Aeromonas salmonicida strains were isolated from the majority...

  5. Humoral immune response of catfish immunized with extracellular products of Aeromonas hydrophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeromonas hydrophila is emerging as one of the major concerns in catfish aquaculture in the Southeastern United States due to recent outbreaks of motile aeromonad septicemia (MAS) caused by the pathogen. Prophylactic treatment is being sought to prevent MAS. Since multiple virulence associated facto...

  6. Detection and quantification of virulent Aeromonas hydrophila in channel catfish tissues following waterborne challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of this study was to understand the pathogenesis of motile aeromonas septicemia caused by virulent A. hydrophila (vAh) in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus. Adipose fin clipped catfish were challenged with vAh using waterborne challenge method and the distribution of vAh in catfish tissue...

  7. Direct evidence of recombination in the recA gene of Aeromonas bestiarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanglas, Ariadna; Albarral, Vicenta; Farfán, Maribel; Lorén, J Gaspar; Fusté, M Carmen

    2016-03-01

    Two hundred and twenty-one strains representative of all Aeromonas species were characterized using the recA gene sequence, assessing its potential as a molecular marker for the genus Aeromonas. The inter-species distance values obtained demonstrated that recA has a high discriminatory power. Phylogenetic analysis, based on full-length gene nucleotide sequences, revealed a robust topology with clearly separated clusters for each species. The maximum likelihood tree showed the Aeromonas bestiarum strains in a well-defined cluster, containing a subset of four strains of different geographical origins in a deep internal branch. Data analysis provided strong evidence of recombination at the end of the recA sequences in these four strains. Intergenomic recombination corresponding to partial regions of the two adjacent genes recA and recX (248 bp) was identified between A. bestiarum (major parent) and Aeromonas eucrenophila (minor parent). The low number of recombinant strains detected (1.8%) suggests that horizontal flow between recA sequences is relatively uncommon in this genus. Moreover, only a few nucleotide differences were detected among these fragments, indicating that recombination has occurred recently. Finally, we also determined if the recombinant fragment could have influenced the structure and basic functions of the RecA protein, comparing models reconstructed from the translated amino acid sequences of our A. bestiarum strains with known Escherichia coli RecA structures.

  8. Aeromonas rivipollensis sp. nov., a novel species isolated from aquatic samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, Elisabet; Balcázar, José Luis

    2015-12-01

    Two gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, motile and rod-shaped bacteria, strains P2G1(T) and P1A11, were isolated from the Ter River in Ripoll, Spain. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that both strains are closely related to each other and that their closest relatives were Aeromonas media ATCC 33907(T) (99.4%) and Aeromonas hydrophila ATCC 7966(T) (99.3%). Multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) based on the partial sequences of gyrA, gyrB, rpoD, recA, and dnaJ genes suggested that these two strains represent a novel species that clustered with A. media ATCC 33907(T). This was further supported by DNA-DNA hybridization analysis between P2G1(T) and A. media LMG 9073(T). Phenotypic features also allowed their differentiation from closely related species. These two strains should, therefore, be considered to represent a novel species within the genus Aeromonas, for which the name Aeromonas rivipollensis sp. nov. is proposed.

  9. Characterization of atypical Aeromonas salmonicida isolates by ribotyping and plasmid profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl; Dalsgaard, Inger; Larsen, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    A total of 38 strains of atypical Aeromonas salmonicida, three oxidase-negative but otherwise typical Aer. salmonicida, three typical Aer. salmonicida, and two reference strains, isolated from several countries and fish species were examined with respect to rRNA gene restriction patterns (ribotypes...

  10. Molecular Characterization of a Functional Type VI Secretion System from a Clinical Isolate of Aeromonas hydrophilia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our laboratory recently molecularly characterized the type II secretion system (T2SS)-associated cytotoxic enterotoxin (Act) and the T3SS-secreted AexU effector from a diarrheal isolate SSU of Aeromonas hydrophila. The role of these toxin proteins in the pathogenesis of A. hydrop...

  11. Draft Genome Sequences of Three Aeromonas hydrophila Isolates from Catfish and Tilapia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekedar, Hasan C.; Kumru, Salih; Kalindamar, Safak; Karsi, Attila; Waldbieser, Geoffrey C.; Sonstegard, Tad; Schroeder, Steven G.; Liles, Mark R.; Griffin, Matt J.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aeromonas hydrophila is a Gram-negative bacterium that is particularly adapted to freshwater environments and can cause severe infections in fish and humans. Here, we report the draft genomes of three A. hydrophila catfish and tilapia isolates. PMID:28104665

  12. Antibiotic Susceptibility Profile of Aeromonas Species Isolated from Wastewater Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isoken H. Igbinosa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Aeromonas species isolated from Alice and Fort Beaufort wastewater treatment plant in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined using the disc diffusion method, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay was employed for the detection of antibiotics resistance genes. Variable susceptibilities were observed against ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid, gentamicin, minocycline, among others. Aeromonas isolates from both locations were 100% resistant to penicillin, oxacillin, ampicillin, and vancomycin. Higher phenotypic resistance was observed in isolates from Fort Beaufort compared to isolates from Alice. Class A pse1 β-lactamase was detected in 20.8% of the isolates with a lower detection rate of 8.3% for blaTEM gene. Class 1 integron was present in 20.8% of Aeromonas isolates while class 2 integron and TetC gene were not detected in any isolate. The antibiotic resistance phenotypes observed in the isolates and the presence of β-lactamases genes detected in some isolates are of clinical and public health concern as this has consequences for antimicrobial chemotherapy of infections associated with Aeromonas species. This study further supports wastewater as potential reservoirs of antibiotic resistance determinants in the environment.

  13. Lippia alba essential oil promotes survival of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) infected with Aeromonas sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutili, Fernando J; Cunha, Mauro A; Ziech, Rosangela E; Krewer, Carina C; Zeppenfeld, Carla C; Heldwein, Clarissa G; Gressler, Leticia T; Heinzmann, Berta M; Vargas, Agueda C; Baldisserotto, Bernardo

    2015-03-01

    In vitro and in vivo activity of the Lippia alba essential oil (EO) against Aeromonas sp. was evaluated. In the in vitro assay the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and a minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of EO for Aeromonas cells were determined using the microdilution method. Twenty five strains of Aeromonas sp. isolated from infected fish obtained from local fish farms were used. MIC and MBC values were 2862 and 5998 µg mL-1 for L. alba EO and 0.5 and 1.2 µg mL-1 for gentamicin, respectively. In the in vivo assay silver catfish juveniles (Rhamdia quelen) (7.50 ± 1.85 g and 10.0 ± 1.0 cm) with typical injuries associated to Aeromonas infection were divided into four treatments (in triplicate n=10): untreated fish (negative control), 10 mg L-1 of gentamicin, and 20 or 50 µL L-1 of EO. Fish were maintained in aerated 20 L plastic boxes. After 10 days survival of silver catfish infected with Aermonas sp. and treated with essential oil (50 µL L-1) was greater than 90%.

  14. Clinical manifestations of bacteremia caused by Aeromonas species in southern Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Jen Tang

    Full Text Available This study is conducted to investigate the clinical characteristics of patients with bacteremia caused by Aeromonas species.Patients with bacteremia caused by Aeromonas species during the period 2009 to 2013 were identified from a computerized database of a regional hospital in southern Taiwan. The medical records of these patients were retrospectively reviewed.A total of 91 patients with bacteremia due to Aeromonas species were identified. In addition to 16 (17.6% primary bacteremia, the most common source of secondary infection is peritonitis (n = 27, 29.7%, followed by biliary tract infection (n = 18, 19.8%, and SSTI (n = 12, 13.2%, pneumonia (n = 9, 9.9%, catheter-related bloodstream infection (n =  5, 5.5%, and genitourinary tract infection (n = 4, 4.4%. A. hydrophila (n = 35, 38.5% was the most common pathogen, followed by A. veronii biovar sobria (n = 31, 34.1%, A. caviae (n = 14, 15.4%, and A. veronii biovar veronii (n = 9, 9.9%. Forty-three (47.3% patients were classified as healthcare-associated infections (HCAI causes by Aeromonas species, and patients with HCAI were more likely to have cancer, and receive immunosuppressant than patients with community-acquired bacteremia. The overall outcomes, including rate of ICU admission, acute respiratory failure, and mortality were 33.3%, 28.6%, and 23.1%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that the in-hospital day mortality was significantly associated only with underlying cancer (P <.001, and initial shock (P <.001.Aeromonas species should be considered one of the causative pathogens of healthcare-associated bacteremia, especially in immunocompromised patients. In addition, it can be associated with high fatality. Cancer and initial shock were the poor prognostic factors.

  15. IDENTIFICATION OF DIFFERENT FUSARIUM SPP. IN ALLIUM SPP. IN GERMANY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehnke, B; Karlovsky, P; Pfohl, K; Gamliel, A; Isack, Y; Dehne, H W

    2015-01-01

    In 2013 Allium cepa bulbs from different fields in Northern and Southern Germany, seeds and sets from onion breeders were analysed for infestation with Fusarium species. The same investigation was done in 2014 with different edible Allium spp. from local markets. Different Fusarium spp. were isolated and identified by morphological characterisation. 24 different Fusarium spp. were identified. The diversity of Fusarium spp. and the intensity of infestation was higher on edible bulbs compared to the younger sets and seeds. The analysed onions and other edible Allium spp. from local markets showed also high contents of different Fusarium species. The most prevalent identified Fusarium sp. in the analysed Allium spp. in Germany was Fusarium oxysporum which can cause the Fusarium Basal Rot, followed by Fusarium solani. Fusarium proliferatum, which can cause the Fusarium Salmon Blotch in onions, could be detected in about half of the sampled onion fields and in approximately 10% of all analysed onions from fields. Also in the onion sets, on the surface of the seeds and in other edible Allium spp. F. proliferatum could be identified. Besides F. proliferatum, further mycotoxin producing Fusarium spp. like Fusarium equiseti or Fusarium tricinctum were identified. Other Fusarium spp. like Fusarium sporotrichioides and Fusarium poae were first described in Allium sp. in this study. The two most prevalent Fusarium spp. F. oxysporum and F. solani are able to produce mycotoxins like enniatins, fumonisins, moniliformin and T-2 toxins. Fusarium sp. like F. proliferatum, F. equiseti and F. tricinctum are able to produce additional toxins like beauvericins, zearalenone and diacetoscirpenol. This high number of Fusarium spp., which are able to produce a broad spectrum of different mycotoxins, could be a potential health risk for human beings and livestock.

  16. The Animal Model Determines the Results of Aeromonas Virulence Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Alejandro; Saraceni, Paolo R.; Merino, Susana; Figueras, Antonio; Tomás, Juan M.; Novoa, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    The selection of an experimental animal model is of great importance in the study of bacterial virulence factors. Here, a bath infection of zebrafish larvae is proposed as an alternative model to study the virulence factors of Aeromonas hydrophila. Intraperitoneal infections in mice and trout were compared with bath infections in zebrafish larvae using specific mutants. The great advantage of this model is that bath immersion mimics the natural route of infection, and injury to the tail also provides a natural portal of entry for the bacteria. The implication of T3SS in the virulence of A. hydrophila was analyzed using the AH-1::aopB mutant. This mutant was less virulent than the wild-type strain when inoculated into zebrafish larvae, as described in other vertebrates. However, the zebrafish model exhibited slight differences in mortality kinetics only observed using invertebrate models. Infections using the mutant AH-1ΔvapA lacking the gene coding for the surface S-layer suggested that this protein was not totally necessary to the bacteria once it was inside the host, but it contributed to the inflammatory response. Only when healthy zebrafish larvae were infected did the mutant produce less mortality than the wild-type. Variations between models were evidenced using the AH-1ΔrmlB, which lacks the O-antigen lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and the AH-1ΔwahD, which lacks the O-antigen LPS and part of the LPS outer-core. Both mutants showed decreased mortality in all of the animal models, but the differences between them were only observed in injured zebrafish larvae, suggesting that residues from the LPS outer core must be important for virulence. The greatest differences were observed using the AH-1ΔFlaB-J (lacking polar flagella and unable to swim) and the AH-1::motX (non-motile but producing flagella). They were as pathogenic as the wild-type strain when injected into mice and trout, but no mortalities were registered in zebrafish larvae. This study demonstrates

  17. Survival and recovery of Aeromonas hydrophila in water: development of methodology for testing bottled water in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, D W; McCormick, J K; Bowen, B

    1994-02-01

    Proposed changes to the Regulations for bottled water in the Food and Drugs Act of Canada include criteria for Aeromonas hydrophila (0 colony-forming units/100 mL water). The development of the methodology used to support these proposed Regulations and the survival of A. hydrophila in inoculated water are described. The methodology used in the isolation of A. hydrophila includes the use of hydrophobic grid membrane filters (HGMF), a resuscitation step on tryptic soy agar, and selective plating on membrane-Aeromonas-trehalose agar and Aeromonas medium. Aeromonas hydrophila proliferated and survived in inoculated water for up to 60 days or longer depending on the other contaminating bacteria. The presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa enhanced the survival of A. hydrophila and enabled this bacteria to survive for more than 60 days.

  18. [Activity of doripenem against Pseudomonas spp. and Acinetobacter spp. rods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogiel, Tomasz; Deptuła, Aleksander; Gospodarek, Eugenia

    2009-01-01

    Doripenem, the newest carbapenem was approved in 2008 by the European Medicines Agency for the treatment of complicated intra-abdominal infections and complicated urinary tract infections. Its spectrum of activity is similar to that of meropenem and imipenem/cilastatin. The aim of this study was to compare in vitro activity of doripenem against nonfermentative Gram-negative rods. A total of 235 strains of Pseudomonas spp. (74.9%) and Acinetobacter spp. (25.1%) were included into the study. Strains were isolated in The Department of Clinical Microbiology of the University Hospital No 1 in Bydgoszcz and identified using ID GN tests (bioMérieux). To determine susceptibility to doripenem and other carbapenems disc-diffusion method was applied. Percentage of doripenem resistant strains reached 28.4% and 39.0% for Pseudomonas spp. and Acinetobacter spp, respectively. All doripenem sensitive or intermediate Acinetobacter spp. strains were simultaneously sensitive to imipenem and meropenem. Activity of imipenem and meropenem among doripenem resistant Acinetobacter spp. were represented by 60.9% and 56.5% strains, respectively. Activity of imipenem and meropenem among doripenem resistant Pseudomonas spp. strains were represented by 12.0% and 18.0%, respectively. Occurence of one doripenem sensitive Pseudomonas spp. strain simultaneously resistant to imipenem and meropenem was observed.

  19. Reciprocal immune benefit based on complementary production of antibiotics by the leech Hirudo verbana and its gut symbiont Aeromonas veronii

    OpenAIRE

    Aurélie Tasiemski; François Massol; Virginie Cuvillier-Hot; Céline Boidin-Wichlacz; Emmanuel Roger; Franck Rodet; Isabelle Fournier; Frédéric Thomas; Michel Salzet

    2015-01-01

    International audience; The medicinal leech has established a long-term mutualistic association with Aeromonas veronii, a versatile bacterium which can also display free-living waterborne and fish-or human-pathogenic lifestyles. Here, we investigated the role of antibiotics in the dynamics of interaction between the leech and its gut symbiont Aeromonas. By combining biochemical and molecular approaches, we isolated and identified for the first time the antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) produced b...

  20. A rapid MALDI-TOF MS identification database at genospecies level for clinical and environmental Aeromonas strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Benagli

    Full Text Available The genus Aeromonas has undergone a number of taxonomic and nomenclature revisions over the past 20 years, and new (subspecies and biogroups are continuously described. Standard identification methods such as biochemical characterization have deficiencies and do not allow clarification of the taxonomic position. This report describes the development of a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS identification database for a rapid identification of clinical and environmental Aeromonas isolates.

  1. Phenotypical characteristics, genetic identification, and antimicrobial sensitivity of Aeromonas species isolated from farmed rainbow trout (Onchorynchus mykiss) in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Sánchez, Vicente; Acosta-Dibarrat, Jorge; Vega-Castillo, Fernando; Castro-Escarpulli, Graciela; Aguilera-Arreola, Ma Guadalupe; Soriano-Vargas, Edgardo

    2014-02-01

    In the present study, Aeromonas isolates from diseased and healthy farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in Mexico, were characterized phenotypically and identified to species level by using 16S rDNA RFLP-PCR. A total of 50 isolates were included in the study and 10 Aeromonas species identified. The species A. veronii biovar sobria (22%), A. hydrophila (20%) and A. bestiarum (20%) were the most predominant. All isolates (100%) were resistant to cephalothin.

  2. Reciprocal immune benefit based on complementary production of antibiotics by the leech Hirudo verbana and its gut symbiont Aeromonas veronii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasiemski, Aurélie; Massol, François; Cuvillier-Hot, Virginie; Boidin-Wichlacz, Céline; Roger, Emmanuel; Rodet, Franck; Fournier, Isabelle; Thomas, Frédéric; Salzet, Michel

    2015-12-04

    The medicinal leech has established a long-term mutualistic association with Aeromonas veronii, a versatile bacterium which can also display free-living waterborne and fish- or human-pathogenic lifestyles. Here, we investigated the role of antibiotics in the dynamics of interaction between the leech and its gut symbiont Aeromonas. By combining biochemical and molecular approaches, we isolated and identified for the first time the antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) produced by the leech digestive tract and by its symbiont Aeromonas. Immunohistochemistry data and PCR analyses evidenced that leech AMP genes are induced in the gut epithelial cells when Aeromonas load is low (starved animals), while repressed when Aeromonas abundance is the highest (post blood feeding). The asynchronous production of AMPs by both partners suggests that these antibiotic substances (i) provide them with reciprocal protection against invasive bacteria and (ii) contribute to the unusual simplicity of the gut microflora of the leech. This immune benefit substantially reinforces the evidence of an evolutionarily stable association between H. verbana and A. veronii. Altogether these data may provide insights into the processes making the association with an Aeromonas species in the digestive tract either deleterious or beneficial.

  3. Diversidad intraespecífica y factores de virulencia en el “complejo de especies de Aeromonas hydrophila” (A. Hydrophila, A. Salmonicida, A. Bestiarum).

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    [spa] El género Aeromonas está constituido actualmente por 26 especies reconocidas, algunas de las cuales incluyen varias subespecies. Son habitantes ubicuos del agua dulce, pero también de aguas cloradas, salobres y marinas. Se han obtenido cepas de Aeromonas de una amplia variedad de alimentos, y se han aislado de muestras clínicas. Algunas especies de Aeromonas son causantes de infecciones intestinales y extraintestinales aunque los mecanismos por los que causan diarreas bacterianas no ...

  4. 我国嗜水气单胞菌感染研究概况%Research Survey on Infection of Aeromonas hydrophila in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈翠珍

    2012-01-01

    主要从嗜水气单胞菌感染的发现、人的嗜水气单胞菌感染、动物的嗜水气单胞菌感染、诊断要点及防控等方面对我国嗜水气单胞菌感染进行了综述。%In this report, infection of Aeromonas hydrophila overview in China was reviewed from several as- pects including the occurrence of Aeromonas hydrophila infection ,Aeromonas hydrophila infection in human be- ing and animal, diagnosis, as well as the control strategies of Aeromonas hydrophila infection.

  5. [Role of Aeromonas in the monitoring of a hydroecosystem in the Volga-Caspian area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obukhova, O V; Lartseva, L V; Lisitskaia, I A

    2011-01-01

    The paper gives data obtained over many years on the quantity of bacteria of the genus Aeromonas in the hydroecosystems of the delta of the Volga and Caspian Sea and in commercial fishes (sturgeon (Acipenseridae), pike perch (Stizostedion), carp (Cyprinus carpio), silurus (Silurus glanis), etc.). It provides a detailed analysis of their seasonal trends and spatial distribution, markers of their pathogenicity, and antibiotic resistance. The findings suggest that Aeromonas is a causative agent of sapronoses and meets the criteria for natural focal infections. They show a wide range of tolerance to the abiotic factors of hydroecosystems, as well as mixotrophy and autrophic nutrition in the environment and they are of great sanitary and hygienic importance.

  6. Pathogenicity of Aeromonas hydrophila, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Proteus mirabilis to brown tree frogs (Litoria ewingii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schadich, Ermin; Cole, Anthony L J

    2010-04-01

    Bacterial dermatosepticemia, a systemic infectious bacterial disease of frogs, can be caused by several opportunistic gram-negative bacterial species including Aeromonas hydrophila, Chryseobacterium indologenes, Chryseobacterium meningosepticum, Citrobacter freundii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Serratia liquifaciens. Here we determined the pathogenicity of 3 bacterial species (Aeromonas hydrophila, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Proteus mirabilis) associated with an outbreak of fatal dermatosepticemia in New Zealand Litoria ewingii frogs. A bath challenge method was used to expose test frogs to individual bacterial species (2 x 10(7) cfu/mL in pond water); control frogs were exposed to uninfected pond water. None of the control frogs or those exposed to A. hydrophila or P. mirabilis showed any morbidity or mortality. Morbidity and mortality was 40% among frogs exposed to K. pneumonia, and the organism was reisolated from the hearts, spleens, and livers of affected animals.

  7. Lipid metabolism in tumour bearing mice treated withAeromonas L-asparaginase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benny, P J; Kurup, G M; Sreejith, K

    1997-07-01

    The anticancerous drug isolated in our laboratory from estuarineAeromonas was characterised and is found to be an enzyme, L-asparaginase. The antileukaemic effect of this drug was studied in mice by inducing leukaemia with Ehrlich ascites cell lines. It was compared with commercially available drug, Leunase, isolated fromE. coli. The lipid profiles in mice during leukaemia and under treatment was studied. The decreased levels of cholesterol and increased levels of triglycerides and phospholipids in serum, liver and kidney were observed in tumour bearing mice. Significant changes in the above values were observed with enzyme therapy. It could bring some of the values to near normal level. L-asparaginase fromAeromonas was found to be more effective.

  8. Experimental challenge studies in Vietnamese catfish, Pangasianodon hypophthalmus (Sauvage), exposed to Edwardsiella ictaluri and Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crumlish, M; Thanh, P C; Koesling, J; Tung, V T; Gravningen, K

    2010-09-01

    The two main diseases in the pangasius catfish industry are bacillary necrosis of Pangasianodon (BNP) and motile aeromonas septicaemia (MAS), where the aetiological agents have been identified as Edwardsiella ictaluri and Aeromonas hydrophila, respectively. In this study, apparently healthy Pangasianodon hypophthalmus were exposed to E. ictaluri, A. hydrophila or both bacterial species by intraperitoneal injection or immersion. There were 20 fish per treatment group, and the bacterial isolates used for the study were recovered from natural infections of BNP or MAS in farmed Vietnamese P. hypophthalmus. The results of the experimental infections mimicked the natural disease outbreaks reported from these pathogens in P. hypophthalmus. Furthermore, it was clearly demonstrated that E. ictaluri was only recovered from the fish exposed to the bacterium and not recovered from the animals receiving A. hydrophila.

  9. The Social Life of Aeromonas through Biofilm and Quorum Sensing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talagrand-Reboul, Emilie; Jumas-Bilak, Estelle; Lamy, Brigitte

    2017-01-01

    Bacteria of the genus Aeromonas display multicellular behaviors herein referred to as “social life”. Since the 1990s, interest has grown in cell-to-cell communication through quorum sensing signals and biofilm formation. As they are interconnected, these two self-organizing systems deserve to be considered together for a fresh perspective on the natural history and lifestyles of aeromonads. In this review, we focus on the multicellular behaviors of Aeromonas, i.e., its social life. First, we review and discuss the available knowledge at the molecular and cellular levels for biofilm and quorum sensing. We then discuss the complex, subtle, and nested interconnections between the two systems. Finally, we focus on the aeromonad multicellular coordinated behaviors involved in heterotrophy and virulence that represent technological opportunities and applied research challenges. PMID:28163702

  10. Identificação e resistência a antimicrobianos de espécies de Aeromonas móveis isoladas de peixes e ambientes aquáticos Identification and antimicrobial resistance of motile Aeromonas isolated from fish and aquatic environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Hirsch

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de se verificar a diversidade de espécies de Aeromonas móveis e seu perfil de susceptibilidade a antimicrobianos em pisciculturas comerciais, foram selecionadas oito tilapiculturas localizadas na região do Alto Rio Grande, Minas Gerais. De cada propriedade foram coletadas três amostras de peixes em estádio de pré-abate (vivos e saudáveis, uma amostra de água do tanque e uma amostra da água de abastecimento do sistema. De cada peixe foram coletadas amostras de lavado superficial e do parênquima renal. Diluições seriadas adequadas de cada amostra foram plaqueadas em TSA-ampicilina (10 mg/l e as amostras de rim em Ágar Sangue de cavalo a 5%. A partir de colônias isoladas positivas para o teste da oxidase foram realizados testes para identificação do gênero (testes presuntivos e das espécies de Aeromonas (testes bioquímicos. O perfil de antibiograma foi obtido pelo teste de difusão de discos de antibióticos em Ágar Mueller Hinton. Foram obtidos 75 isolados diferenciados em nove espécies de Aeromonas: A. jandaei, A. hydrophila, A. trota, A. caviae, A. sobria, A. eucrenophila, A. veronii bt veronii, A. schubertii, A. media, além de amostras classificadas como Aeromonas atípicas. Do total isolado, oito amostras foram provenientes da superfície corpórea de peixes, 14 da água de abastecimento e 53 da água do tanque. Não houve isolamento a partir dos espécimes de parênquima renal. Em relação ao perfil de resistência, 93% dos isolados foram resistentes à eritromicina, 36% à tetraciclina, 13% ao ác. nalidíxico, 9% à gentamicina, 8% à nitrofurantoína, 8% à canamicina, 5% à norfloxacina, 4% ao cloranfenicol e 3% às sulfonamidas. Dentre os isolados analisados, 43% apresentaram índice de múltipla resistência a antimicrobianos (MAR igual ou superior a 22%, ou seja, resistência a dois ou mais drogas das nove testadas. Os dados apontam para um risco iminente, tanto pelo isolamento de amostras

  11. Natural transformation as a mechanism of horizontal gene transfer among environmental Aeromonas species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddleston, Jennifer R; Brokaw, Joshua M; Zak, John C; Jeter, Randall M

    2013-06-01

    Aeromonas species are common inhabitants of aquatic environments and relevant as human pathogens. Their potential as pathogens may be related in part to lateral transfer of genes associated with toxin production, biofilm formation, antibiotic resistance, and other virulence determinants. Natural transformation has not been characterized in aeromonads. DNA from wild-type, prototrophic strains that had been isolated from environmental sources was used as donor DNA in transformation assays with auxotrophs as the recipients. Competence was induced in 20% nutrient broth during the stationary phase of growth. Optimal transformation assay conditions for one chosen isolate were in Tris buffer with magnesium or calcium, pH 5-8, and a saturating concentration of 0.5 μg of DNA per assay (3.3 ng of DNA μl⁻¹) at 30°C. Sodium was also required and could not be replaced with ammonium, potassium, or lithium. The maximal transformation frequency observed was 1.95 × 10⁻³ transformants (recipient cell)⁻¹. A survey of environmental Aeromonas auxotrophic recipients (n=37), assayed with donor DNA from other wild-type environmental aeromonads under optimal assay conditions, demonstrated that 73% were able to act as recipients, and 100% were able to act as donors to at least some other aeromonads. Three different transformation groups were identified based on each isolates' ability to transform other strains with its DNA. The transformation groups roughly corresponded to phylogenetic groups. These results demonstrate that natural transformation is a general property of Aeromonas environmental isolates with implications for the genetic structures of coincident Aeromonas populations.

  12. Rapid biochemical screening for Salmonella, Shigella, Yersinia, and Aeromonas isolates from stool specimens.

    OpenAIRE

    De Ryck, R; Struelens, M. J.; Serruys, E

    1994-01-01

    Four screens for the rapid (4 to 6 h) biochemical detection of pathogens from enteric isolation media are described. The Salmonella screen consisted of Kligler iron agar (KIA), motility-indole-urea-tryptophan-deamination semisolid medium (MIU-TDA), and the o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside (ONPG) test; the Shigella screen consisted of KIA, MIU-TDA, the ONPG test, and the lysine decarboxylation-indole test; the Yersinia screen consisted of a rhamnose broth; the Aeromonas screen consisted ...

  13. ANTIBIOTICS RESISTANCE AND PUTATIVE VIRULENCE FACTORS OF AEROMONAS HYDROPHILA ISOLATED FROM ESTUARY

    OpenAIRE

    Olumide Adedokun Odeyemi; Ahmad Asmat; Gires Usup

    2012-01-01

    This study aim to investigate antibiotics resistance profile and putative virulence factors of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from estuary. Bacteria used for this study were isolated from water and sediment samples obtained from Sungai Melayu, Johor, Malaysia. Serially diluted 100 µL water and 1g sediment were inoculated on modified Rimler - Shott (mRS) agar. Colonies with distinct cultural characteristics were picked for further studies. Isolates were tested for biofilm productions, protease ...

  14. Necrotizing Fasciitis Caused by Inconspicuous Infection of Aeromonas hydrophila in an Immunocompromised Host

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Chun Liao

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of serious necrotizing fasciitis due to Aeromonas hydrophila without a suggestive history of routes of pathogen invasion in a 60-year-old male. Despite prompt broad-spectrum antibiotic and extensive surgical therapies, the patient died within 72 hours following initial presentation. Our experience suggests clinicians be highly alert to the disease when an immunocompromised patient featured fulminant soft-tissue infection in the endemic area.

  15. PROBIOTIK Bacillus firmus UNTUK PENGENDALIAN PENYAKIT Aeromonas hydrophila PADA BUDIDAYA IKAN LELE DUMBO, Clarias gariepinus

    OpenAIRE

    Angela Mariana Lusiastuti; Tuti Sumiati; Wartono Hadie

    2013-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui efektivitas pemberian bakteri probiotik Bacillus firmus terhadap ketahanan benih ikan lele dumbo (Clarias gariepinus) yang diinfeksi Aeromonas hydrophila. Probiotik diberikan melalui media budidaya dengan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL) menggunakan lima perlakuan dan tiga ulangan yang diaplikasikan untuk pengendalian penyakit motile aromonas septicemia (MAS). Perlakuan tersebut adalah A (tanpa penambahan bakteri probiotik B. firmus (sebagai control), B (...

  16. A culture independent method for the detection of Aeromonas sp. from water samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadua Latif-Eugenín

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Aeromonas is present in a wide variety of water environments and is recognised as potentially pathogenic to humans and animals. Members of this genus are often confused with Vibrio when using automated, commercial identification systems that are culture-dependent. This study describes a polymerase chain reaction (PCR detection method for Aeromonas that is culture- independent and that targets the glycerophospholopid-cholesterol acyltransferase (gcat gene, which is specific for this genus. The GCAT-PCR was 100% specific in artificially inoculated water samples, with a detection limit that ranged from 2.5 to 25 cfu/mL. The success at detecting this pathogen in 86 water samples using the GCAT-PCR method was identical to the conventional culturing method when a pre-enrichment step was carried out, yielding 83.7% positive samples. On the other hand, without a pre-enrichment step, only 77.9% of the samples were positive by culturing and only 15.1% with the GCATPCR. However, 83.7% positive samples were obtained for the GCAT-PCR when the water volume for the DNA extraction was increased from 400 μL to 4 mL. The proposed molecular method is much faster (5 or 29 h than the culturing method (24 or 48 h whether performed directly or after a pre-enrichment step and it will enable the fast detection of Aeromonas in water samples helping to prevent a possible transmission to humans.

  17. Toxin Production by Aeromonas sobria in Natural Environments: River Water vs. Seawater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramamurthy,Thandavarayan

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas are water-borne pathogens. They are halotolerant, which means that they can survive in environments whose salt content corresponds to that of seawater (3.0% NaCl. However, the presence of Aeromonas in seawater is extremely rare compared with that in river water. In this study, we tested the ability of Aeromonas sobria to produce toxins in river water and seawater. First, we cultured A. sobria on skim milk agar plates supplemented with either river water (SARW or seawater (SASW. The bacteria grew on both plates. A clear zone around the bacteria was generated in SARW. However, such a zone was not observed in SASW, suggesting that proteases were not generated in SASW. Subsequently, we cultured A. sobria in a nutrient broth supplemented with either river water (NRW or with seawater (NSW, and examined the protease activity of their culture supernatants. The protease activity of the culture supernatant from NSW was extremely low compared to that from NRW. The immunoblotting analysis showed that serine protease (ASP was not produced by the culture in NSW. By contrast, aerolysin-like hemolysin was produced in all conditions examined in this study. This indicates that the salinity of water is deeply involved in the production of ASP by A. sobria.

  18. Anti-biogram and resistogram profiling of Aeromonas species isolated from Malaysian aquatic sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olumide Adedokun Odeyemi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate antibiotics and heavy metals resistance profile of Aeromonas species isolated from Kuala Gula and Kuala Sepetang, Perak. Methods: Isolated Aeromonas species were subjected to 12 antibiotics: penicillin G 10 units, tetracycline 30 µg, novobiocin 5 µg, nitrofurantoin 100 µg, ampicillin 10 µg, chloramphenicol 10 µg, fluconazole 25 µg, gentamicin 10 µg, streptomycin 10 µg and 25 µg, kanamycin 30 µg, and vancomycin 30 µg and 5 heavy metals: MnSO4.H2O, Cr(NO3.9H2O, CuSO4, Pb(NO32, HgCl2. Results: Results from this study revealed that isolates from the two sources-displayed varied resistance. Isolates from Kuala Sepetang showed 91%, 66%, 61%, and 52% resistance to vancomycin, Novobiocin, streptomycin and gentamycin while Kuala Gula isolates showed 76%, 93%, 28% and 14% respectively. High rate of resistance was shown to be against lead (Pb, Chromium (Cr, copper (Cu and Manganese (Mn with minimum inhibitory concentration ranging from 2 560 µg/mL to >5 120 µg/mL. Low resistance to mercury was observed among isolates from Kuala Gula. Conclusions: This study showed that there was widespread of both heavy metals and antibiotics resistance among Aeromonas isolates from the two marine sources with isolates from Kuala Sepetang showing more resistance thereby posing danger to both aquatic animals and human health.

  19. DAYA HAMBAT EKSTRAK METANOL RUMPUT LAUT (Euchema spinosum TERHADAP BAKTERI Aeromonas hydrophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Yunus

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Rumput laut secara tradisional telah lama dimanfaatkan sebagai bahan makanan, kosmetik dan obat-obatan, karena kaya akan mineral, elemen makro dan elemen  mikro lainnya, disamping itu rumput laut juga berfungsi sebagai bahan antimikroba seperti penyakit bakteri Aeromonas hydrophila yang sering menginfeksi ikan pada budidaya air tawar sehingga banyak merugikan petani. Oleh karena itu, maka perlu dilakukan penelitian tentang konsentrasi ekstrak metanol rumput laut yang efektif. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui konsentrasi ekstrak metanol rumput laut Eucheuma spinosum yang tepat untuk menghambat pertumbuhan bakteri Aeromonas hydrophyla. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah metode eksperimen, Pertama menggunakan Uji MIC  konsentrasi sebagai berikut : 25%; 12,5%; 6,25%; 3,125%; 1,56%; 0,78%; 0,39%; 0,195%; 0,098%; 0,049%; 0,025%; dan 0,0125%. Kedua menggunakan Uji Cakram konsentrasi 3%, 6%, 9%, 12%, dan 0%  sebagai kontrol. Hasil uji MIC setelah dibandingkan dengan kontrol positif sangat rendah yaitu sebesar 0,049%, hasil ini menunjukkan bahwa konsentrasi tersebut menghambat pertumbuhan bakteri Aeromnas hydrophila. Pada hasil uji cakram kemampuan ekstrak rumput laut pada konsentrasi 3%, 6% dan 9% dalam menghambat bakteri Aeromons hydrophila bersifat bakteriostatik, sedangkan pada konsentrasi 12% bersifat bakteriosidal.  Kata Kunci : Eucheuma spinosum, Polifenol, Aeromonas hydrophila

  20. Synthesis and evaluation of bactericidal properties of CuO nanoparticles against Aeromonas hydrophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayedeh Fatemeh Shaffiey

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available   Objective(s: CuO is one of the most important transition metal oxides due to its captivating properties. It is used in various technological applications such as high critical temperature superconductors, gas sensors, in photoconductive applications, and so on. Recently, it has been used as an antimicrobial agent against various bacterial species.   Materials and Methods: Here, we synthesized CuO nanoparticles (NPs and explored the antibacterial activity of CuO NPs preparation. Results: Single crystalline nanoparticles of copper oxide having almost uniform particle size of 5-6 nm has been synthesized by a facile and versatile route. XRD spectra confirmed the formation of single phase CuO NPs. Transmission electron microscopy results corroborate well with XRD results. The technique employed is free from toxic solvents, organics and amines, is based on a simple reaction of copper sulfate and de-ionized water (DI, and their bactericidal effects against of Aeromonas hydrophila ATCC 7966T bacteria were investigated. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC with liquid culture for all of the Aeromonas hydrophila culture Medias was done. Conclusion: Present study confirms that Copper oxide nanoparticles have great promise as antimicrobial agent against Aeromonas hydrophila

  1. Aeromonas hydrophila-associated septicemia in captive crocodiles (Crocodylus johnstoni and Crocodylus porosus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Yoon-Seok; Park, Heejin; Cho, Hyun-Ung; Cho, Ara; Islam, Mohammad Rafiqul; Cho, Ho-Seong; Lim, Chae Woong; Kim, Bumseok

    2011-12-01

    Five 25-yr-old crocodiles (Crocodylus johnstoni and Crocodylus porosus) were diagnosed with Aeromonas hydrophila-associated septicemia accelerated by improper thermoregulation. At necropsy, pulmonary congestion and pleural effusion were the main lesions in the thorax. Necrotizing enteritis, intestinal hemorrhage, fibrinous serositis, hepatitis, and pancreatitis were observed in the abdominal cavities of all five crocodiles. Aeromonas hydrophila was identified in the pleural effusions and abdominal ascites of all necropsied crocodiles by using an API system 20NE. Aeromonas hydrophila infection and evaluation of virulence were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction targeting the 16S rRNA and extracellular hemolysin gene. The crocodiles in the present case were housed in an indoor facility at a private zoo that failed to optimize land and water portions of the enclosure, exposing the animals to impeded thermoregulation, and it is suggested that the pathogenesis was accelerated by the improper thermoregulation-induced stress. This is the first description of A. hydrophila pathogenicity associated with impeded thermoregulation in reptiles.

  2. Anti-biogram and resistogram profiling of Aeromonas species isolated from Malaysian aquatic sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Olumide Adedokun Odeyemi; Asmat Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate antibiotics and heavy metals resistance profile of Aeromonas species isolated from Kuala Gula and Kuala Sepetang, Perak. Methods: Isolated Aeromonas species were subjected to 12 antibiotics: penicillin G 10 units, tetracycline 30 µg, novobiocin 5 µg, nitrofurantoin 100 µg, ampicillin 10 µg, chloramphenicol 10 µg, fluconazole 25 µg, gentamicin 10 µg, streptomycin 10 µg and 25 µg, kanamycin 30 µg, and vancomycin 30 µg and 5 heavy metals: MnSO4.H2O, Cr(NO3).9H2O, CuSO4, Pb(NO3)2, HgCl2. Results: Results from this study revealed that isolates from the two sources-displayed varied resistance. Isolates from Kuala Sepetang showed 91%, 66%, 61%, and 52% resistance to vancomycin, Novobiocin, streptomycin and gentamycin while Kuala Gula isolates showed 76%, 93%, 28% and 14% respectively. High rate of resistance was shown to be against lead (Pb), Chromium (Cr), copper (Cu) and Manganese (Mn) with minimum inhibitory concentration ranging from 2 560 µg/mL to>5120 µg/mL. Low resistance to mercury was observed among isolates from Kuala Gula. Conclusions: This study showed that there was widespread of both heavy metals and antibiotics resistance among Aeromonas isolates from the two marine sources with isolates from Kuala Sepetang showing more resistance thereby posing danger to both aquatic animals and human health.

  3. SELEKSI KANDIDAT PROBIOTIK ANTI AEROMONAS HYDROPHILA UNTUK PENGENDALIAN PENYAKIT IKAN AIR TAWAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Mariana Lusiastuti

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Secara dasar ada tiga model kerja probiotik yaitu menekan populasi mikroba melalui kompetisi dengan memproduksi senyawa anti-mikroba atau melalui kompetisi nutrisi dan tempat pelekatan di dinding usus, mengubah keseimbangan metabolisme mikroba dengan meningkatkan atau menurunkan aktivitas enzim dan menstimulasi imunitas dengan meningkatkan antibodi dan aktivitas makrofag. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah memperoleh mikroba yang berpotensi sebagai kandidat probiotik untuk dapat diaplikasikan di dalam menekan atau menghambat bakteri patogen sebagai langkah pengendalian penyakit pada ikan air tawar. Penelitian ini terdiri atas dua tahap, tahap pertama adalah tahap seleksi yang dimulai dari koleksi dan isolasi bakteri kandidat probiotik dan tahap kedua adalah tahap pengujian bakteri kandidat probiotik secara in vitro menggunakan metode daya hambat dan menguji daya patogenisitas bakteri. Total isolat bakteri yang diperoleh adalah 72 isolat, dan hanya enam isolat terpilih sebagai kandidat probiotik anti Aeromonas hydrophila. Probiotik anti A. hydrophila adalah sebagai berikut: Chromobacterium lividum, Alcaligenes faecalis, Aeromonas caviae, Bacteriodes serpens, Bacillus firmus, Aeromonas caviae = A. hydrophila Sub sp. Anaerogenes.

  4. Occurrence of potential pathogenic Aeromonas species in tropical seafood, aquafarms and mangroves off Cochin coast in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alphonsa Vijaya Joseph

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The genus Aeromonas include gram-negative, motile, facultative anaerobic, rod shaped and oxidase positive bacteria comprising several species, associated with the aquatic environment. Aeromonas species have been implicated in human pathogenesis and are linked with gastroenteritis, muscle infections, septicemia, and skin diseases. In fish they are renowned as enteric pathogens causing haemorrhagic septicemia, fin rot, soft tissue rot and furunculosis resulting in major die-offs and fish kills. Aim: This study reports the occurrence of potential pathogenic Aeromonas sp. in tropical seafood (Squids, Prawns and Mussels, aquafarms and mangroves of Cochin, Kerala, South India. Materials and Methods :Tropical seafood (Squid, Prawn and Mussel, sediment and water samples from aquafarms and associated mangroves were screened for Aeromonas contamination. The isolates were identified by 16S rDNA sequence analysis and subjected to morphological and biochemical characterization. Haemolytic assay was used for determining pathogenicity of the organisms. Antibiotic susceptibility against 12 antibiotics were performed and the MAR index was calculated. Results: A total of 134 isolates were recovered from the samples of which 15 were identified as Aeromonas species by 16S rDNA sequence analysis and were assigned to 5 species namely, A. hydrophila, A. enteropelogenes, A. caviae, A. punctataand A. aquarorium. Morphological, biochemical and phylogenetic analyses revealed relatedness and variability among the strains. All the isolates were haemolytic on blood agar indicating their pathogenicity. The isolates exhibited varying degrees of resistance to vancomycin (86.66%, ampicillin (46.66%, nalidixic acid (20%, tetracycline (6.66%, co-trimaxozole (6.66% and rifampicin (6.66% and were susceptible to antibiotics like gentamycin, streptomycin, trimethoprim, azithromycin, cefixime and chloramphenicol. 20% of Aeromonas sp. showed MAR index > 0.2 indicative of the

  5. Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Aeromonas recovered from the metropolitan area of Valencia (Spain): diseases spectrum and prevalence in the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteve, C; Alcaide, E; Giménez, M J

    2015-01-01

    Aeromonas infections are rare in Europe and often related to traveller's diarrhoea. A total of 185 Aeromonas isolates from river water, fish and clinical sources, recovered during a 1-year period, were used to investigate the disease spectrum and impact of multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains. They were all identified by biochemical tests and 25% of them were also identified by sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 21 antimicrobials were determined for all isolates by broth microdilution/E-strips methods, and susceptibility was assessed according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Strains pathogenicity was determined by using Swiss Webster mice as the animal model. Aeromonas diseases had an incidence of around 20 cases/million inhabitants in the metropolitan area of Valencia (Spain). Acute gastroenteritis in children with no history of travel abroad was the main pathology. These cases were related to A. caviae, A. veronii biovar sobria, A. hydrophila and A. dhakensis. A significant incidence of A. caviae in humans was found, while the other species were equally present in clinical and environmental origins. A. jandaei, A. bestiarum and A. media had mainly an environmental distribution. The prevalence of MDR Aeromonas was maximal in clinical samples, and resistance phenotypes were significantly related to this source. 7.2% of environmental Aeromonas was resistant to at least five drugs; most of them were moderately virulent for mice and, in addition, belonged to clinically significant species. The present study demonstrates a diseases spectrum similar to that reported in tropical countries, and also that pathogenic and heavily MDR Aeromonas are present in environmental reservoirs. MDR Aeromonas from any source analysed were susceptible to aztreonam, netilmicin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, cefepime and fluoroquinolones.

  6. Isolation and Characterization of a New Subspecies of Aeromonas salmonicida (Aeromonas salmonicida subsp.Flounderacida subsp.Nov.) from Stone Flounder(Kareius bicoloratus L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xiaojun(张晓君); Zhan Wenbin; Chen Cuizhen; Fang Hai

    2004-01-01

    Biological properties were studied to appropriate pathogenic bacteria which were isolated from di-seased (or dead) stone flounder (Kareius bicoloratus L.) which expressed bacterial septicaemia, including morphological characteristics, colony characteristics, physiological and biochemical characteristics and serum homology of isolates, the results showed that the isolates belonged to a new subspecies of A.salmonicida. In addition, the representative strains have been re-checked and detected the mol% G+C ratio of the DNA by China Center for Type Culture Collection (CCTCC), the examined strains were also regarded as a new subspecies of A.salmonicida, and designated as Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. flounderacida subsp.nov.by its isolated fish (Kareius bicoloratus). Molecular identification of analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the 16S rRNA gene were applied, the results showed high similarity (99%) with the 16S rRNA gene of Aeromonas salmonicida from GenBank database. Cluster analysis of phylogenetic tree revealed that the representative strain formed separately bootstrap-supported cluster.

  7. EPA Method 1682: Salmonella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Method 1682 describes procedures for analysis of solid samples (biosolids) and may be adapted for assessment of water, liquid, particulate and aerosol samples contaminated with Salmonella spp. using culture and immunoassay.

  8. TUBERCULOSIS COMO ENFERMEDAD OCUPACIONAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Ticona, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Existe evidencia suficiente para declarar a la tuberculosis como enfermedad ocupacional en diversos profesionales especialmente entre los trabajadores de salud. En el Perú están normados y reglamentados los derechos laborales inherentes a la tuberculosis como enfermedad ocupacional, como la cobertura por discapacidad temporal o permanente. Sin embargo, estos derechos aún no han sido suficientemente socializados. En este trabajo se presenta información sobre el riesgo de adquirir tuberculosis en el lugar de trabajo, se revisan las evidencias para declarar a la tuberculosis como enfermedad ocupacional en trabajadores de salud y se presenta la legislación peruana vigente al respecto. PMID:22858771

  9. Mutation in the S-ribosylhomocysteinase (luxS) gene involved in quorum sensing affects biofilm formation and virulence in a clinical isolate of Aeromonas hydrophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    A diarrheal isolate SSU of Aeromonas hydrophila produces a cytotoxic enterotoxin (Act) with cytotoxic, enterotoxic, and hemolytic activities. Our laboratory has characterized from the above Aeromonas strain, in addition to Act, the type 3- and T6-secretion systems and their effec...

  10. Predicting Virulence of Aeromonas Isolates Based-on Changes in Transcription of c-jun and c-fos in Human Tissue Culture Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aims: To assess virulence of Aeromonas isolates based on the change in regulation of c-jun and c-fos in the human intestinal tissue culture cell line Caco-2. Methods and Results: Aeromonas cells were added to Caco-2 cells at approximately a one to one ratio. After 1, 2 and 3 ...

  11. Complete genome sequence of the highly virulent Aeromonas hydrophila AL09-71 isolated from disease channel catfish from West Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    The highly virulent Aeromonas hydrophila isolate AL09-71 was cultured from infected channel catfish during the 2009 disease outbreak in West Alabama. The complete genome of this highly virulent Aeromonas hydrophila isolate AL09-71 is 5,023,861 bp in size. The genome has 4489 coding sequences, 11 cop...

  12. Aeromonas surface glucan attached through the O-antigen ligase represents a new way to obtain UDP-glucose.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Merino

    Full Text Available We previously reported that A. hydrophila GalU mutants were still able to produce UDP-glucose introduced as a glucose residue in their lipopolysaccharide core. In this study, we found the unique origin of this UDP-glucose from a branched α-glucan surface polysaccharide. This glucan, surface attached through the O-antigen ligase (WaaL, is common to the mesophilic Aeromonas strains tested. The Aeromonas glucan is produced by the action of the glycogen synthase (GlgA and the UDP-Glc pyrophosphorylase (GlgC, the latter wrongly indicated as an ADP-Glc pyrophosphorylase in the Aeromonas genomes available. The Aeromonas glycogen synthase is able to react with UDP or ADP-glucose, which is not the case of E. coli glycogen synthase only reacting with ADP-glucose. The Aeromonas surface glucan has a role enhancing biofilm formation. Finally, for the first time to our knowledge, a clear preference on behalf of bacterial survival and pathogenesis is observed when choosing to produce one or other surface saccharide molecules to produce (lipopolysaccharide core or glucan.

  13. Aeromonas surface glucan attached through the O-antigen ligase represents a new way to obtain UDP-glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, Susana; Bouamama, Lamiaa; Knirel, Yuriy A; Senchenkova, Sofya N; Regué, Miguel; Tomás, Juan M

    2012-01-01

    We previously reported that A. hydrophila GalU mutants were still able to produce UDP-glucose introduced as a glucose residue in their lipopolysaccharide core. In this study, we found the unique origin of this UDP-glucose from a branched α-glucan surface polysaccharide. This glucan, surface attached through the O-antigen ligase (WaaL), is common to the mesophilic Aeromonas strains tested. The Aeromonas glucan is produced by the action of the glycogen synthase (GlgA) and the UDP-Glc pyrophosphorylase (GlgC), the latter wrongly indicated as an ADP-Glc pyrophosphorylase in the Aeromonas genomes available. The Aeromonas glycogen synthase is able to react with UDP or ADP-glucose, which is not the case of E. coli glycogen synthase only reacting with ADP-glucose. The Aeromonas surface glucan has a role enhancing biofilm formation. Finally, for the first time to our knowledge, a clear preference on behalf of bacterial survival and pathogenesis is observed when choosing to produce one or other surface saccharide molecules to produce (lipopolysaccharide core or glucan).

  14. Two novel temperate bacteriophages co-existing in Aeromonas sp. ARM81 - characterization of their genomes, proteomes and DNA methyltransferases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziewit, Lukasz; Radlinska, Monika

    2016-08-01

    Aeromonas species are causative agents of a wide spectrum of diseases in animals and humans. Although these bacteria are commonly found in various environments, little is known about their phages. Thus far, only one temperate Aeromonas phage has been characterized. Whole-genome sequencing of an Aeromonas sp. strain ARM81 revealed the presence of two prophage clusters. One of them is integrated into the chromosome and the other was maintained as an extrachromosomal, linear plasmid-like prophage encoding a protelomerase. Both prophages were artificially and spontaneously inducible. We separately isolated both phages and compared their genomes with other known viruses. The novel phages show no similarity to the previously characterized Aeromonas phages and might represent new evolutionary lineages of viruses infecting Aeromonadaceae. Apart from the comparative genomic analyses of these phages, complemented with their structural and molecular characterization, a functional analysis of four DNA methyltransferases encoded by these viruses was conducted. One of the investigated N6-adenine-modifying enzymes shares sequence specificity with a Dam-like methyltransferase of its bacterial host, while another one is non-specific, as it catalyzes adenine methylation in various sequence contexts. The presented results shed new light on the diversity of Aeromonas temperate phages.

  15. Characterization of Aeromonas strains isolated from Indian foods using rpoD gene sequencing and whole cell protein analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagar, Vandan; Shashidhar, Ravindranath; Bandekar, Jayant R

    2013-04-01

    Aeromonas are responsible for causing gastroenteritis and extra-intestinal infections in humans. Twenty-two Aeromonas strains isolated from different food sources were re-identified up to species level using rpoD gene sequence analysis. Biochemical tests and 16S rRNA gene sequencing were insufficient to identify Aeromonas till species level. However, incorporation of additional biochemical tests lead to correct identification of 95.5 % strains up to species level. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing was useful to identify Aeromonas isolates at the genus level only. Sequences of the rpoD gene showed greater discriminatory power than 16S rRNA gene and provided conclusive discrimination of the strains for which the phenotypic species identification was uncertain. All these 22 strains were accurately identified up to species level by rpoD gene as A. salmonicida (6), A. veronii bv. veronii (4), A. caviae (3), A. hydrophila (2), A. veronii bv. sobria (2), A. jandaei (1), A. trota (1), A. sobria (1), A. allosaccharophila (1) and A. bivalvium (1). All these strains were also characterized using whole cell protein (WCP) analysis by gradient SDS-PAGE and showed different whole cell protein (WCP) profile [22-28 polypeptide bands (~10 to >97 kDa)], indicating high genetic diversity. The present work emphasizes the use of molecular methods such as rpoD gene sequencing along with comprehensive biochemical tests for the rapid and accurate identification of Aeromonas isolates till species level. The WCP profile can be subsequently used to characterize Aeromonas isolates below species level.

  16. El donjuanismo como conocimiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Cortés Ahumada

    1965-07-01

    Full Text Available ¡Don Juan! ¡Como un estudiante! ¡Como un infante! ¡Como un pirata! Se trata, por tanto, de pensar sobre el donjuanismo. Pero no bien acabo de escribir esta palabra, o mejor todavía, de balbucir una meditación acerca de esta perspectiva dinámica y en extremo viviente, porque aún sin saber nada de él algo de nosotros se dispara en emotivas tensiones y sensuales distensiones, cuando caigo en la cuenta de que el tema es sumamente complejo.

  17. Thracides phidon (Cramer (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae: Hesperiinae: Novo registro em plantios comerciais de Heliconia spp. na região Amazônica do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Ribeiro

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Lepidoptera desfolhadores podem danificar cultivos de flores tropicais, mas existem poucos relatos desses insetos em plantas de Heliconia spp. O objetivo dessa pesquisa foi registrar uma nova ocorrência de Thracides phidon (Cramer (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae, Hesperiinae como desfolhadora de Heliconia spp. em plantios comerciais na região Amazônica do Brasil.

  18. Thracides phidon (Cramer) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae: Hesperiinae): Novo registro em plantios comerciais de Heliconia spp. na região Amazônica do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Ribeiro; Isabela Carvalho; Gabriely Souza; Hany Fouad; Walkymário Lemos

    2012-01-01

    Lepidoptera desfolhadores podem danificar cultivos de flores tropicais, mas existem poucos relatos desses insetos em plantas de Heliconia spp. O objetivo dessa pesquisa foi registrar uma nova ocorrência de Thracides phidon (Cramer) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae, Hesperiinae) como desfolhadora de Heliconia spp. em plantios comerciais na região Amazônica do Brasil.

  19. Impact of thermal loading and other water quality parameters on the epizootiology of Aeromonas hydrophila infections of centrarchids. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esch, G.W.; Hazen, T.C.

    1983-01-01

    Red-sore disease is a rather recent problem for those involved in the sport and commercial fishing industries in the southeastern United States. The causative, or etiological, agent for red-sore disease is the widespread and commonly occurring bacterium, Aeromonas hydrophila. The disease is characterized by both external and internal lesions with serious damage to internal organs ultimately causing death of the host. Evidence points to the existence of several strains of Aeromonas hydrophila with some more virulent than others. The prevalence of the disease is related to elevated water temperature and body condition.

  20. Emerging extra-intestinal infections with Aeromonas hydrophila in coastal region of southern Karnataka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhopadhyay C

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aeromonas species are gram-negative rods usually isolated from the gastrointestinal tract. They have been occasionally reported as a cause of extra-intestinal infections such as cellulitis, cholangitis, necrotizing fascitis, meningitis, bacteremia, or peritonitis in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients . Aim: To determine the role and possible pathogenesis of Aeromonas in extra-intestinal infections.Settings and Design: Retrospective analysis carried out at Kasturba Hospital Manipal, Karnataka in the months of January and February 2007. Materials and Methods: Clinical manifestations and management of eight cases of extra-intestinal infections caused by A. hydrophila , from the south Karnataka coastal region were reviewed. The isolates were identified with the help of biochemical tests using standard guidelines.Results: All patients acquired Aeromonas infections in the community. Five (62.5% had underlying illnesses, such as liver disease, diabetes mellitus or malignancy. Five (62.5% had polymicrobial infections, and three (37.5% were complicated with bacteremia. These included three patients with ulcers or abscess over the lower leg, two with cellulitis due to snake bite and one each with pelvic inflammatory disease, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and pneumonia. A. hydrophila was found to be a causative agent of pelvic inflammatory disease or cellulitis following sea snake bite, and such a clinical scenario has not been previously described. Seven patients survived the illness. Conclusions: Isolation of A. hydrophila from extra-intestinal specimens demands utmost clinical and microbiological vigilance in diagnosis, since the organism can cause serious infections among immunocompromised as well as immunocompetent individuals.

  1. Functional genomic characterization of virulence factors from necrotizing fasciitis-causing strains of Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grim, Christopher J; Kozlova, Elena V; Ponnusamy, Duraisamy; Fitts, Eric C; Sha, Jian; Kirtley, Michelle L; van Lier, Christina J; Tiner, Bethany L; Erova, Tatiana E; Joseph, Sandeep J; Read, Timothy D; Shak, Joshua R; Joseph, Sam W; Singletary, Ed; Felland, Tracy; Baze, Wallace B; Horneman, Amy J; Chopra, Ashok K

    2014-07-01

    The genomes of 10 Aeromonas isolates identified and designated Aeromonas hydrophila WI, Riv3, and NF1 to NF4; A. dhakensis SSU; A. jandaei Riv2; and A. caviae NM22 and NM33 were sequenced and annotated. Isolates NF1 to NF4 were from a patient with necrotizing fasciitis (NF). Two environmental isolates (Riv2 and -3) were from the river water from which the NF patient acquired the infection. While isolates NF2 to NF4 were clonal, NF1 was genetically distinct. Outside the conserved core genomes of these 10 isolates, several unique genomic features were identified. The most virulent strains possessed one of the following four virulence factors or a combination of them: cytotoxic enterotoxin, exotoxin A, and type 3 and 6 secretion system effectors AexU and Hcp. In a septicemic-mouse model, SSU, NF1, and Riv2 were the most virulent, while NF2 was moderately virulent. These data correlated with high motility and biofilm formation by the former three isolates. Conversely, in a mouse model of intramuscular infection, NF2 was much more virulent than NF1. Isolates NF2, SSU, and Riv2 disseminated in high numbers from the muscular tissue to the visceral organs of mice, while NF1 reached the liver and spleen in relatively lower numbers on the basis of colony counting and tracking of bioluminescent strains in real time by in vivo imaging. Histopathologically, degeneration of myofibers with significant infiltration of polymorphonuclear cells due to the highly virulent strains was noted. Functional genomic analysis provided data that allowed us to correlate the highly infectious nature of Aeromonas pathotypes belonging to several different species with virulence signatures and their potential ability to cause NF.

  2. A foodborne outbreak of Aeromonas hydrophila in a college, Xingyi City, Guizhou, China, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Zeng

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: On 12 May 2012, over 200 college students with acute diarrhoea were reported to the Guizhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention. We conducted an investigation to identify the agent and mode of transmission and to recommend control measures.Methods: A suspected case was a person at the college with onset of more than two of the following symptoms: diarrhoea (more than three loose stools in 24 hours, abdominal pain, vomiting or fever (> 37.5C between 6 and 15 May 2012. A confirmed case also had a positive Aeromonas hydrophila culture from a stool sample. A retrospective-cohort study of 902 students compared attack rates (AR by dining place, meals and food history. We reviewed the implicated premise, its processes and preparation of implicated food.Results: We identified 349 suspected cases (AR = 14% and isolated Aeromonas hydrophila from three stools of 15 cases. Students who ate in cafeteria A were more likely to be ill compared to those eating in other places (relative risk [RR]: 3.1, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.0–4.8. The cohort study implicated cold cucumber (RR: 2.6, 95% CI: 2.0–3.3 and houttuynia dishes (RR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.4–2.3. Environmental investigation showed that vegetables were washed in polluted water from a tank close to the sewage ditch, then left at 30°C for two hours before serving. The Escherichia coli count of the tank was well above the standard for drinking water.Conclusion: This outbreak of Aeromonas hydrophila was most probably caused by salad ingredients washed in contaminated tank water. We recommended enhancing training of foodhandlers, ensuring tanks and sewerage systems comply with appropriate standards and adequate monitoring of drinking water sources.

  3. Effect of the Glutaraldehyde on the Bacteriostatic and Bactericide of Aeromonas%戊二醛对气单胞菌的抑菌杀菌效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭凤霞; 陈和东; 叶聪

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究戊二醛对气单胞菌的杀菌效果,为戊二醛在水产养殖上的合理使用提供依据.[方法]以气单胞菌属标准株ATCC7966和分离自养殖环境及患病鱼的气单胞菌为试验菌株,通过肉汤二倍稀释法研究.[结果]戊二醛在低浓度时能抑制气单胞菌的生长增殖,高浓度杀灭细菌,其对7株气单胞菌的最小抑菌浓度(MIC)均为7.8mg/L,其最小杀菌浓度为62.5 mg/L( ATCC7966、Aeromonas sp.T3、Aeromonas sp.T5、Aeromonas sp.T6)和125 mg/L( Aeromonas sp.T1、Aeromonas sp.T2、Aeromonas sp.T4).[结论]为戊二醛的合理使用提供一定的依据.%[Objective] The basis of the reasonable utilization of glutaraldehyde in aquaculture production was provided through the research on its effect on the bactericide of Aeromonas. [Method] The standard strain of Aeromonas - - ATCC7966 and the Aeromonas strain isolated from fish - raising environment or from diseased fish was taken as the tested strain and the efficacy of the glutaraldehyde on the bacteriostatic and bactericide of Aeromonas was determined with the method of double broth dilution. [ Results ] The results showed that the glutaraldehyde could inhibit the growth of bacterium at the low concentration and kill the bacterium at the high concentration. The minimal inhibitory concentration ( MIC) of glutaraldehyde to 7 Aeromonas strains was 7. 8mg/l and the minimal bactericidal concentration( MBC) of glutaraldehyde to 4 Aeromonas strains including ATCC7966, Aeromonas sp. T3, Aeromonas sp. T5 and Aeromonas sp. T6 was 62.5 mg/1 and 3 Aeromonas strains including Aeromonas sp. Tl, Aeromonas sp. T2 and Aeromonas sp. T4 was 125mg/l. [ Conclusion] The experimental results could provide the scientific basis of the reasonable application of glutaraldehyde.

  4. Effects of temperature on biochemical reactions and drug resistance of virulent and avirulent Aeromonas salmonicida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahnel, G.B.; Gould, R.W.

    1982-01-01

    Incubation temperatures of 11°, 18° and 28° did not substantially affect biochemical reactions of either virulent or avirulent forms of Aeromonas salmonicida subspecies salmonicida. The only change observed, amygdalin fermentation, was positive at 11° and 18° but negative at 28°C. Several isolates utilized sucrose, a characteristic not normally recognized for A. salmonicida subspecies salmonicida.Antimicrobial susceptibility screening indicated resistance to novobiocin increased at the higher incubation temperatures. Standardized drug sensitivity testing procedures and precise zone diameter interpretive standards for bacterial fish pathogens are needed.

  5. Diabetic Foot Due to Aeromonas Hydrophila and Pseudomonas Oryzihabitans: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysel Talan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Foot infections are the most common cause of amputations in diabetic patients. The main predisposing reasons for the development of foot ulcers and subsequent infection in diabetic patients are sensory neuropathy, vascular insufficiency and immune system abnormalities due to hyperglycemia. Limb-threatening infections are often polymicrobial. Staphylococcus aureus, group B streptococci, enterococci and facultative gram-negative bacilli are the most common pathogens. Here, we present two cases of diabetic foot infected by extremely rare microorganisms: Aeromonas hydrophila, and Pseudomonas (Flavimonas oryzihabitans. Turk Jem 2014; 18: 100-102

  6. Structure of the O-specific polysaccharide from the lipopolysaccharide of Aeromonas sobria strain Pt312.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turska-Szewczuk, Anna; Pietras, Hubert; Duda, Katarzyna A; Kozińska, Alicja; Pękala, Agnieszka; Holst, Otto

    2015-02-11

    The O-specific polysaccharide (OPS) obtained by mild-acid degradation of the lipopolysaccharide from Aeromonas sobria strain Pt312 was studied by sugar and methylation analyses along with 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy, including 2D 1H,1H COSY, TOCSY, NOESY, 1H-detected 1H,13C HSQC, and HMBC experiments. The sequence of the sugar residues was determined using 1H,1H NOESY and 1H,13C HMBC experiments. It was found that the OPS was built up of disaccharide repeating units composed of GlcpNAc and non-stoichiometrically O-acetylated Rhap residues, and had the structure.

  7. Rapid biochemical screening for Salmonella, Shigella, Yersinia, and Aeromonas isolates from stool specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ryck, R; Struelens, M J; Serruys, E

    1994-06-01

    Four screens for the rapid (4 to 6 h) biochemical detection of pathogens from enteric isolation media are described. The Salmonella screen consisted of Kligler iron agar (KIA), motility-indole-urea-tryptophan-deamination semisolid medium (MIU-TDA), and the o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside (ONPG) test; the Shigella screen consisted of KIA, MIU-TDA, the ONPG test, and the lysine decarboxylation-indole test; the Yersinia screen consisted of a rhamnose broth; the Aeromonas screen consisted of a xylose agar plate. When tested on 2,102 fresh isolates and 71 stock strains, the screens correctly detected 212 enteric pathogens (sensitivity, 100%), with a specificity of 98.1%.

  8. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of Aeromonas hydrophilia metallo-[beta]-lactamase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, N.; Toney, J.H.; Fitzgerald, P.M.D. (Merck)

    2010-07-20

    The CphA metallo-{beta}-lactamase from Aeromonas hydrophilia has been expressed, purified and crystallized by the hanging-drop vapor-diffusion method using ammonium sulfate as the precipitant. The crystals exhibit orthorhombic symmetry (P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2), with unit-cell parameters a = 40.75, b = 42.05, c = 128.88 {angstrom}. There is one monomer in the asymmetric unit and the solvent content is estimated to be 44% by volume. A data set extending to 1.8 {angstrom} has been measured.

  9. Taxonomía y epidemiología del género aeromonas

    OpenAIRE

    Alperi Vega, Anabel

    2009-01-01

    Durante la presente tesis doctoral se ha establecido la presencia de variabilidad interoperónica en el gen ARNr 16S de Aeromonas y observado que ésta afectaba a la taxonomía del género, limitando la identificación de A. caviae, A. media y A. veronii. La secuenciación del gen rpoD permitió identificar las cepas con variabilidad interoperónica a nivel de especie y reconocer 5 nuevas especies del género: A. fluvialis, A. taiwanensis, A. sanarelii, A. piscicola y A. rivuli. En colaboración con d...

  10. El derecho como hecho o como norma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto José Vernengo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Para el historiador, antiguamente, y para el sociólogo, en nuestros días, el derecho es un fenómeno empírico. El derecho de una sociedad es un dato de su realidad: historiador o sociólogo tienen que buscar el derecho en alguna experiencia empírica accesible. Sin embargo, no es fácil toparse con el derecho de una sociedad, como, por caso, con el derecho argentino actual, pues no sabemos muy bien a qué datos de la realidad apuntar. Aquéllos que discernimos aparecen teñidos por alguna concepción previa que tengamos sobre qué haya de entenderse por derecho. (...

  11. Aeromonas species in stabilization ponds in the arid region of Marrakesh, Morocco, and relation to fecal-pollution and climatic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boussaid, A; Baleux, B; Hassani, L; Lesne, J

    1991-12-01

    During the period 12 July 1985 to 23 December 1987, water samples were collected in two-week intervals for estimates ofAeromonas species in a waste treatment system located in the arid region of Marrakech, Morocco. Fecal coliforms, temperature, and chemical oxygen demand were measured simultaneously withAeromonas species densities. Statistical methods were utilized to analyze the significance of average differences and temporal patterns ofAeromonas species numbers.Removal ofAeromonas in the whole system did not exceed 1.14 log.Aeromonas densities showed significantly higher resistance to the treatment process when compared with fecal coliforms; however, abundance of the two groups presented a similar seasonal change. The highest numbers occurred during the cold months, while the lowest appeared in the warm months. Statistical time-series analyses of the densities data showed the seasonal and cyclic distribution ofAeromonas in this treatment plant.These temporal changes were simultaneously observed in all the stations investigated and were negatively correlated with water temperature values.Aeromonas populations were dominated byA. caviae andA. hydrophila in the inlet samples. These two species were rapidly eliminated in the treatment plant. The temporal distribution ofA. caviae was similar to the change in densities ofAeromonas and fecal coliforms. The seasonal fluctuations of abundance ofAeromonas were probably related to this species, which dominated in the winter samples but dropped during the summer. Meanwhile,A. sobria dominated all the final effluent samples. This greater survival ofA. sobria and its known pathogenicity may limit the re-use of treated water for irrigation of fodder plants.

  12. sugE: A gene involved in tributyltin (TBT) resistance of Aeromonas molluscorum Av27.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Andreia; Micaelo, Nuno; Félix, Vitor; Song, Jun-Young; Kitamura, Shin-Ichi; Suzuki, Satoru; Mendo, Sónia

    2013-01-01

    The mechanism of bacterial resistance to tributyltin (TBT) is still unclear. The results herein presented contribute to clarify that mechanism in the TBT-resistant bacterium Aeromonas molluscorum Av27. We have identified and cloned a new gene that is involved in TBT resistance in this strain. The gene is highly homologous (84%) to the Aeromonas hydrophila-sugE gene belonging to the small multidrug resistance gene family (SMR), which includes genes involved in the transport of lipophilic drugs. In Av27, expression of the Av27-sugE was observed at the early logarithmic growth phase in the presence of a high TBT concentration (500 μM), thus suggesting the contribution of this gene for TBT resistance. E. coli cells transformed with Av27-sugE become resistant to ethidium bromide (EtBr), chloramphenicol (CP) and tetracycline (TE), besides TBT. According to the Moriguchi logP (miLogP) values, EtBr, CP and TE have similar properties and are substrates for the sugE-efflux system. Despite the different miLogP of TBT, E. coli cells transformed with Av27-sugE become resistant to this compound. So it seems that TBT is also a substrate for the SugE protein. The modelling studies performed also support this hypothesis. The data herein presented clearly indicate that sugE is involved in TBT resistance of this bacterium.

  13. In Vitro Phytochemical And Antibacterial Activity Test On Temu Putih Extract Curcuma Zedoaria Against Aeromonas Hydrophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimas Galang Prakosa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas hydrophila bacterium is one of the bacteria which frequently attack fresh water aquaculture and cause the farmer experience terrible loss. In order to cope with the diseases caused by A. hydrophila bacteria the usage of natural antibacteria was more recommended as it does not give negative effects to the environment. One natural antibacteria which can be used against A. hydrophila is from the white turmeric extract Curcuma zedoaria. The aim of this study is to know the active compound content in white turmeric Curcuma zedoaria to determine the most effective solvent and the effective maceration duration to extract Curcuma zedoaria as antibacteria against Aeromonas hydrophila using disc diffusion method. The study used descriptive and experimental method with treatments to 3 different solvents ethanol ethyl acetate and chloroform and 3 repetitions. The data acquired from the results of the study were then analyzed descriptively. Results showed that Curcuma zedoaria extract from the phytochemical test contained saponins alkaloid and flavonoid. The best solvent was ethyl acetate with maceration for 2x24 hours and inhibition area width 11.34 mm.

  14. Polyphasic characterization of Aeromonas salmonicida isolates recovered from salmonid and non-salmonid fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamanka, A.; Loch, T.P.; Cipriano, R.C.; Faisal, M.

    2013-01-01

    Michigan's fisheries rely primarily upon the hatchery propagation of salmonid fish for release in public waters. One limitation on the success of these efforts is the presence of bacterial pathogens, including Aeromonas salmonicida, the causative agent of furunculosis. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of A. salmonicida in Michigan fish, as well as to determine whether biochemical or gene sequence variability exists among Michigan isolates. A total of 2202 wild, feral and hatchery-propagated fish from Michigan were examined for the presence of A. salmonicida. The examined fish included Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), coho salmon, O. kisutcha (Walbaum), steelhead trout, O. mykiss (Walbaum), Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis (Mitchill), and yellow perch, Perca flavescens (Mitchill). Among these, 234 fish yielded a brown pigment-producing bacterium that was presumptively identified as A. salmonicida. Further phenotypic and phylogenetic analyses identified representative isolates as Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida and revealed some genetic and biochemical variability. Logistic regression analyses showed that infection prevalence varied according to fish species/strain, year and gender, whereby Chinook salmon and females had the highest infection prevalence. Moreover, this pathogen was found in six fish species from eight sites, demonstrating its widespread nature within Michigan.

  15. Characterization and Expression of Outer Membrane Protein AI Gene of Aeromonas veronii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Hai-juan; Wang Li

    2015-01-01

    The outer membrane protein, ompA, ofAeromonas veronii has a role in the virulence of the organism and is a potential candidate for vaccine development. In this study, ompAⅠofAeromonas veronii strain WA106 was cloned and sequenced, then, it was expressed inEscherichia coli BL21. The nucleotide sequence of ompAⅠgene was 1 023 base pairs (GenBank Accession NO.KC748024), which showed 100% homology with that ofA. veronii (NO.AB290200.1). This predicted protein was composed of 340 amino acid residues. Its molecular weight was 35.78 ku and isoelectric point was 5.18. The protein was a hydrophilic protein containing alpha helix and random coil with percentage of 35.0% and 49.7%, respectively. The tertiary structure, quaternary structure prediction showed that ompAⅠprotein contained two peptide chains. SDS-PAGE showed that the actual value of the fusion protein was consistent with the expected result. It will facilitate further study of the role of ompAⅠprotein.

  16. Antibiotic resistance profiling and phenotyping of Aeromonas species isolated from aquatic sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olumide A. Odeyemi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate antibiotics resistance pattern and phenotyping of Aeromonas species isolated from different aquatic sources in Melaka, Malaysia. A total of 53 Aeromonas species were isolated from the following sources: sediment (n = 13, bivalve (n = 10, sea cucumber (n = 16 and sea water (n = 14 and resistance to 12 antibiotics – Tetracycline (30 μg, Kanamycin (30 μg, Oxytetracycline (30 μg, Ampicillin (10 μg, Streptomycin (10 μg, Gentamicin (10 μg, Sulphamethoxazole (25 μg, Nalixidic acid (30 μg, Trimethoprim (1.25 μg, Novobiocin (5 μg, Penicilin (10 μg and Chloramphenicol (10 μg was tested. The results obtained from this study reveal multi drug resistance pattern among the isolates. All the isolates were completely resistant to Ampicillin, Novobiocin, Sulphamethoxazole and Trimethoprim, respectively but susceptible to Tetracycline (100%, Kanamycin (5.7%, Gentamicin (5.7% and Oxytetracycline (24.5%. Antibiotics phenotyping of the bacteria revealed 21 different phenotypes among the isolates.

  17. Bioremediation and Detoxification of Synthetic Wastewater Containing Triarylmethane Dyes by Aeromonas hydrophila Isolated from Industrial Effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chimezie Jason Ogugbue

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Economical and bio-friendly approaches are needed to remediate dye-contaminated wastewater from various industries. In this study, a novel bacterial strain capable of decolorizing triarylmethane dyes was isolated from a textile wastewater treatment plant in Greece. The bacterial isolate was identified as Aeromonas hydrophila and was shown to decolorize three triarylmethane dyes tested within 24 h with color removal in the range of 72% to 96%. Decolorization efficiency of the bacterium was a function of operational parameters (aeration, dye concentration, temperature, and pH and the optimal operational conditions obtained for decolorization of the dyes were: pH 7-8, 35∘C and culture agitation. Effective color removal within 24 h was obtained at a maximum dye concentration of 50 mg/L. Dye decolorization was monitored using a scanning UV/visible spectrophotometer which indicated that decolorization was due to the degradation of dyes into non-colored intermediates. Phytotoxicity studies carried out using Triticum aestivum, Hordeum vulgare, and Lens esculenta revealed the triarylmethane dyes exerted toxic effects on plant growth parameters monitored. However, significant reduction in toxicity was obtained with the decolorized dye metabolites thus, indicating the detoxification of the dyes following degradation by Aeromonas hydrophila.

  18. Aeromonas punctata derived depolymerase that disrupts the integrity of Klebsiella pneumoniae capsule: optimization of depolymerase production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Shruti; Soni, Sanjeev Kumar; Harjai, Kusum; Chhibber, Sanjay

    2014-07-01

    Formation of dense, highly hydrated biofilm structures pose a risk for public and environmental health. Extracellular polymeric substances encompassing biofilms offer 1000-fold greater resistance as compared to the planktonic cells. Using enzymes as anti-biofouling agents, will improve penetration of antimicrobials and increase susceptibility of biofilms to components of immune system. The challenge of using enzymes derived from unrelated bacteria for the degradation of capsular matrix of Klebsiella pneumoniae has not been dealt in the past. Thus, statistical optimization was done to enhance depolymerase production by Aeromonas punctata, directed against the exopolysaccharide matrix of Klebsiella pneumoniae B5055, capable of substituting the available phage borne depolymerase enzyme. Optimization via central composite design (CCD) resulted in 16-fold enhancement in depolymerase yield (166.65 µmoles ml(-1)  min(-1) ) over unoptimized medium. Out of the 19 variables, media composition giving maximum expression levels of the enzyme consisted of 1 mg ml(-1) galactose and ammonium chloride, 1.5 mg ml(-1) each of capsular polysaccharide (CPS) and magnesium sulfate. Tryptic peptide analysis of the purified 29 kDa band by Matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) showed a high homology with a protein of unknown function from Aeromonas cavaie Ae398. Further improvements in the enzyme can lead to its successful development as prophylactic and/or a therapeutic agent.

  19. The Aeromonas salmonicida Lipopolysaccharide Core from Different Subspecies: The Unusual subsp. pectinolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, Susana; Tomás, Juan M

    2016-01-01

    Initial hydridization tests using Aeromonas salmonicida typical and atypical strains showed the possibility of different lipopolysaccharide (LPS) outer cores among these strains. By chemical structural analysis, LPS-core SDS-PAGE gel migration, and functional and comparative genomics we demonstrated that typical A. salmonicida (subsp. salmonicida) strains and atypical subsp. masoucida and probably smithia strains showed the same LPS outer core. A. salmonicida subsp. achromogenes strains show a similar LPS outer core but lack one of the most external residues (a galactose linked α1-6 to heptose), not affecting the O-antigen LPS linkage. A. salmonicida subsp. pectinolytica strains show a rather changed LPS outer core, which is identical to the LPS outer core from the majority of the A. hydrophila strains studied by genomic analyses. The LPS inner core in all tested A. salmonicida strains, typical and atypical, is well-conserved. Furthermore, the LPS inner core seems to be conserved in all the Aeromonas (psychrophilic or mesophilic) strains studied by genomic analyses.

  20. Antibiotic resistance profiling and phenotyping of Aeromonas species isolated from aquatic sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odeyemi, Olumide A; Ahmad, Asmat

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate antibiotics resistance pattern and phenotyping of Aeromonas species isolated from different aquatic sources in Melaka, Malaysia. A total of 53 Aeromonas species were isolated from the following sources: sediment (n = 13), bivalve (n = 10), sea cucumber (n = 16) and sea water (n = 14) and resistance to 12 antibiotics - Tetracycline (30 μg), Kanamycin (30 μg), Oxytetracycline (30 μg), Ampicillin (10 μg), Streptomycin (10 μg), Gentamicin (10 μg), Sulphamethoxazole (25 μg), Nalixidic acid (30 μg), Trimethoprim (1.25 μg), Novobiocin (5 μg), Penicilin (10 μg) and Chloramphenicol (10 μg) was tested. The results obtained from this study reveal multi drug resistance pattern among the isolates. All the isolates were completely resistant to Ampicillin, Novobiocin, Sulphamethoxazole and Trimethoprim, respectively but susceptible to Tetracycline (100%), Kanamycin (5.7%), Gentamicin (5.7%) and Oxytetracycline (24.5%). Antibiotics phenotyping of the bacteria revealed 21 different phenotypes among the isolates.

  1. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based typing analysis of atypical isolates of the fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høie, S.; Dalsgaard, Inger; Aase, I.L.;

    1999-01-01

    Two hundred and five isolates of atypical Aeromonas salmonicida, recovered from a wide range of hosts and countries were characterized by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting four genes. The chosen genes were those encoding the extracellular A-layer protein (AP), the serine protease (Sprot...

  2. Potential role of specific antibodies in vaccine-induced protection against Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Kasper Rømer; Dalsgaard, Inger; Raida, Martin Kristian

    2012-01-01

    Furunculosis caused by infection with Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida has now been a known threat to aquaculture for more than a century. Efficient prophylactic precautions against this disease are essential for continued growth of salmonid fish aquaculture. Ever since the introduction...

  3. Chicken-type lysozyme in channel catfish: Expression analysis, lysozyme activity and efficacy as immunostimulant against Aeromonas hydrophila infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    To understand whether chicken-type lysozyme (Lys-c) in channel catfish was induced by infection of Aeromonas hydrophila, the transcriptional levels of Lys-c in skin, gut, liver, spleen, posterior kidney, and blood cells in healthy channel catfish was compared to that in channel catfish infected with...

  4. Vaccination of channel catfish with extracellular products of Aeromonas hydrophila provides protection against infection by the pathogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeromonas hydrophila, a Gram-negative bacterium, is one of the economically-important pathogens in modern aquaculture. Among various traits, extracellular products (ECP) secreted by the bacterium are considered to be essential factors for virulence. Whether vaccination with the ECP could produce imm...

  5. Comparative evaluation of infection methods and environmental factors on challenge success: Aeromonas salmonicida infection in vaccinated rainbow trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chettri, Jiwan Kumar; Skov, Jakob; Jaafar, Rzgar M.;

    2015-01-01

    When testing vaccine-induced protection an effective and reliable challenge method is a basic requirement and we here present a comparative study on different challenge methods used for infection of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss with Aeromonas salmonicida, a bacterial pathogen eliciting...

  6. Degradation of chitin and chitosan by a recombinant chitinase derived from a virulent Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from diseased channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    A chitinase was identified in extracellular products of a virulent Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from diseased channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Bioactive recombinant chitinase (rChi-Ah) was produced in Escherichia coli. Purified rChi-Ah had optimal activity at temperature of 42°C and pH 6.5. T...

  7. Antibiogram, adhesive characteristics, and incidence of class 1 integron in Aeromonas species isolated from two South African rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igbinosa, Isoken H; Chigor, Vincent N; Igbinosa, Etinosa O; Obi, Lawrence C; Okoh, Anthony I

    2013-01-01

    Aeromonas species are well distributed in freshwater environments, and their natural susceptibility to antimicrobials renders them interesting candidates for the survey of antimicrobial resistance in freshwater milieu. Water samples were collected from Kat and Tyume rivers in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa, and a total of 45 isolates identified as Aeromonas species were recovered from the two rivers. All Aeromonas isolates were resistant to oxacillin, penicillin, clindamycin, cephalothin, vancomycin, and rifamycin, while appreciable susceptibilities (89.3 : 94.1%, 82.1 : 94.1%, 85.7 : 88.2%, and 92.9 : 88.2%) were observed against ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, nitrofurantoin, and gentamicin from Kat and Tyume rivers, respectively. Multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) indices ranged from 0.016 to 0.044 for the two rivers. Class 1 integron was detected in about 20% of the isolates, and all the isolates except one showed ability to produce biofilm in vitro as weak producers (53.33%), moderate producers (15.56%), and strong producers (28.9%). This investigation provides a baseline data on antibiotic resistance as well as the adhesive characteristics of Aeromonas isolates from Tyume and Kat rivers in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa.

  8. DISTRIBUTION OF SIX VIRULENCE FACTORS IN AEROMONAS SPECIES ISOLATED FROM US DRINKING WATER UTILITIES: A PCR IDENTIFICATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surveys of finished drinking water conducted by the U.S. EPA during 2000-2001, revealed 7 out of 16 water utilities encompassing four states, were contaminated with Aeromonas species. A Polymerase Chain reaction (PCR) based genetic characterization determined the presence of six...

  9. Antibiogram, Adhesive Characteristics, and Incidence of Class 1 Integron in Aeromonas Species Isolated from Two South African Rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isoken H. Igbinosa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas species are well distributed in freshwater environments, and their natural susceptibility to antimicrobials renders them interesting candidates for the survey of antimicrobial resistance in freshwater milieu. Water samples were collected from Kat and Tyume rivers in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa, and a total of 45 isolates identified as Aeromonas species were recovered from the two rivers. All Aeromonas isolates were resistant to oxacillin, penicillin, clindamycin, cephalothin, vancomycin, and rifamycin, while appreciable susceptibilities (89.3 : 94.1%, 82.1 : 94.1%, 85.7 : 88.2%, and 92.9 : 88.2% were observed against ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, nitrofurantoin, and gentamicin from Kat and Tyume rivers, respectively. Multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR indices ranged from 0.016 to 0.044 for the two rivers. Class 1 integron was detected in about 20% of the isolates, and all the isolates except one showed ability to produce biofilm in vitro as weak producers (53.33%, moderate producers (15.56%, and strong producers (28.9%. This investigation provides a baseline data on antibiotic resistance as well as the adhesive characteristics of Aeromonas isolates from Tyume and Kat rivers in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa.

  10. Draft genome sequence of Pseudomonas mosselii Gil3, isolated from catfish and antagonistic against hypervirulent Aeromonas hydrophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pseudomonas mosselii Gil3 was isolated from a catfish that survived from lethal challenge with hypervirulent Aeromonas hydrophila (vAh). When assayed in vitro, the bacterium showed antagonism against vAh. Sequence analysis revealed that the genome of P. mosselii Gil3 encodes numerous aromatic metabo...

  11. Susceptibilidad de genotipos de Solanum spp. al nematodo causante del nudo radical Meloidogyne spp. (chitwood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelpud Chaves Cristian

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    El cultivo del lulo (Solanum quitoense L. presenta una disminución en su productividad, debido al ataque de patógenos como el nematodo del nudo radical Meloidogyne  spp., en el Departamento  de Nariño (Colombia, se han reportado incidencias cercanas al 79%, y pérdidas del 50%.   En la presente investigación, se colectaron 45 genotipos de (Solanum quitoense  L. en los Departamentos  de Nariño  y Putumayo  y 4 genotipos  silvestres  (S. mammosum, S. hirtum,       S. marginatum  y S. umbellatum buscando fuentes de resistencia al nematodo. Se inocularon 9 plantas de cada genotipo de dos meses de edad con 10000 huevos de Meloidogyne spp., dejando tres testigos por cada material. Las variables evaluadas fueron: altura de planta, severidad, incidencia, peso fresco (tallo y raíz y especies prevalentes de Meloidogyne spp. Se hizo una clasificación de genotipos mediante escala de resistencia y regresión entre la severidad y las demás variables para establecer el efecto de Meloidogyne spp. sobre los genotipos de planta. Los resultados mostraron 100% de incidencia del nematodo en  todos  los  genotipos,  2.04%  genotipos  resistentes,  34.7%  moderadamente  resistentes, 42.8% moderadamente susceptibles, 18.3% susceptibles, y 2.04% altamente susceptibles. El genotipo SQbr05 resistente, no se vio afectado por la severidad, al contrario SQbc04 genotipo susceptible, mostró reducciones significativas en peso fresco de tallo y raIz, (R2 = 0.71 y 0.98,el genotipo silvestre (S. mammosum es altamente susceptible, Meloidogyne incognita presentó 55.31% de presencia. El genotipo SQbr05 es promisorio para ser evaluado en campo.

  12. The immunocross-reaction between pathogenic Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from Siberian sturgeon Acipenser baerii and other three Aeromonas strains%西伯利亚鲟嗜水气单胞菌与其它3株气单胞菌间的免疫交叉反应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜有声; 杨倩; 杨先乐; 吕利群; 邱军强

    2012-01-01

    The immunological characteristics of four Aeromonas strains like pathogenic bacteria strain Xl(Aeromonas hydrophlia) isolated from Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii) suffering with bacterial septicaemia, pathogenic bacteria strain XL2-T strain (Aeromonas caviae ) isolated from the sturgeon septicemia, pathogenic strain Wl (Aeromonas sobria) and non-pathogenic M3 strain (Aeromonas hydrophlia) , were detected through the cross-reactions between four Aeromonas strains and antiserums by indirect immunofluoresence assay. The results showed that the pathogenic XI strain, XL2 -T strain and Wl strain had strong cross reactions, and weak cross reactions were found on non-pathogenic M3 strain with other three pathogenic strains.%采用间接免疫荧光技术分析了西伯利亚鲟细菌性败血症致病菌嗜水气单胞菌(Aeromonas hydrophlia)X1菌株、豚鼠气单胞菌(Aeromonas caviae)XL2-T菌株、致病性温和气单胞菌(Aeromonas sobria)W1菌株与无致病性嗜水气单胞菌(Aeromonas hydrophlia)M3菌株等水产养殖主要病原菌与抗血清之间的免疫交叉反应.结果显示具有致病性的同属菌株X1菌株、XL2-T菌株、W1菌株交叉反应程度较大,说明这3株菌表面存在较多相同抗原决定簇.而无致病性菌株M3与其他3株致病性菌株免疫交叉反应程度较小.

  13. Distribution and phenotypic and genotypic detection of a metallo-β-lactamase, CphA, among bacteraemic Aeromonas isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chi-Jung; Chen, Po-Lin; Wu, Jiunn-Jong; Yan, Jing-Jou; Lee, Chin-Chi; Lee, Hsin-Chun; Lee, Nan-Yao; Chang, Chia-Ming; Lin, Yu-Tzu; Chiu, Yen-Cheng; Ko, Wen-Chien

    2012-05-01

    The objectives of the study were to investigate the distribution of cphA-related genes (cphA) encoding a CphA metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) among 51 consecutive Aeromonas blood isolates and to compare different phenotypic methods for detecting CphA. The presence of cphA was detected by PCR. Four phenotypic methods, the imipenem-EDTA combined disc test, imipenem-EDTA MBL Etest, agar dilution test and modified Hodge test (MHT), were used to detect imipenem susceptibility and MBL production. The results showed that 35 (69%) blood isolates had cphA. All (100%) of 16 Aeromonas aquariorum isolates and 12 Aeromonas veronii isolates, and 4 (80%) of 5 Aeromonas hydrophila isolates, carried cphA, but none of 15 Aeromonas caviae isolates did. With the standard inocula, irrespective of the presence or absence of cphA, all but one (50, 98%) isolates were susceptible to imipenem tested by disc diffusion, Etest and agar dilution (10(4) c.f.u. spot inocula), and did not exhibit MBL production by the imipenem-EDTA combined disc test and MBL Etest. By the agar dilution test using large inocula (10(7) c.f.u.), 34 (97%) of 35 cphA(+) isolates had imipenem MICs of ≥16 µg ml(-1), higher than the susceptible breakpoint (4 µg ml(-1)), and demonstrated positive results for the MHT, while one cphA(+) and all 17 cphA(-) isolates had imipenem MICs of ≤4 µg ml(-1). In conclusion, the distribution of cphA among aeromonads is species-specific, found in A. aquariorum, A. veronii and A. hydrophila, and the MHT may be a phenotypic screening test for CphA production.

  14. [Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp.--environmental studies in Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajer, Anna; Bednarska, Małgorzata; Siński, Edward

    2009-01-01

    Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. are intestinal protozoan parasites of humans and many other species of mammals. The aim of this article was to summarize the last twenty years of research on the environmental distribution of these parasites, with a particular emphasis on the natural reservoir of invasion and human infections in Poland. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia has been studied in different groups of humans, in wildlife, pets and farm animals and in environmental samples. Current knowledge on the distribution of zoonotic and non-zoonotic species/genotypes in reservoir hosts and environmental samples has been summarized. The usefulness of different methods for the detection and identification of the parasites in different types of samples has been presented. Due to the wide distribution and high prevalence of both species in a range of hosts and possible vectors involved in mechanical transmission, the overall risk of outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis and giardiosis in Poland has been assessed as relatively high.

  15. 聚维酮碘对气单胞菌的抑菌杀菌效果研究%Research on Bacteriostatic and Bactericidal Efficacy of Povidone Iodine on Aeromonas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭凤霞

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究聚维酮碘作为一种水产养殖上常用的消毒剂对气单胞菌的抑菌杀菌效果。[方法]以气单胞菌属标准株ATCC7966和分离自患病鱼及养殖环境的气单胞菌为试验菌株,通过肉汤二倍稀释法研究聚维酮碘的抑菌杀菌作用。[结果]聚维酮碘在低浓度时能抑制气单胞菌的生长增殖,高浓度时杀灭细菌,其对Aeromonas sp. T1、Aeromonas sp. T2、Aeromonas sp. T4菌株的最小抑菌浓度为125. 00mg/L,最小杀菌浓度为4.00g/L;其对ATCC7966、Aeromonas sp. T3、Aeromonas sp. T5、Aeromonas sp. T6菌株的最小抑菌浓度为250.00 mg/L,最小杀菌浓度为8.00 g/L。[结论]为聚维酮碘的合理使用提供了一定的依据。%[Objective] The aim of this study is to investigate the bacteriostatic and bactericidal efficacy of povidone iodine as one kind of disinfectants for aquaculture on Aeromonas.[Method] With the standard strain of Aeromonas ATCC7966 and the Aeromonas strains isolated from diseased fish or aquatic environment as the tested strains,the bacteriostatic and bactericidal efficacy of povidone iodine was studied by double broth dilution method.[Result] The povidone iodine could inhibit the growth of Aeromonas strains at lower concentration,and killed Aeromonas strains at higher concentration.The minimum bacteriostatic concentration(MIC) of povidone iodine on Aeromonas sp.T1,Aeromonas sp T2 and Aeromonas sp.T4 was 125.00 mg/L,and the minimum bactericidal concentration(MBC) was 4.00 g/L.Whereas,the minimum bacteriostatic concentration(MIC) of povidone iodine on ATCC7966,Aeromonas sp.T3,Aeromonas sp T5 and Aeromonas sp.T6 was 250.00 mg/L,and the minimum bactericidal concentration(MBC) was 8.00 g/L.[Conclusion] This study provides certain basis for reasonable application of povidone iodine.

  16. 聚维酮碘对气单胞菌的抑菌杀菌效果研究%Research on Bacteriostatic and Bactericidal Efficacy of Povidone Iodine on Aeromonas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭凤霞

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim of this study is to investigate the bacteriostatic and bactericidal efficacy of povidone iodine as one kind of disinfectants for aquaculture on Aeromonas. [ Method] With the standard strain of Aeromonas ATCC7966 and the Aeromonas strains isolated from diseased fish or aquatic environment as the tested strains, the bacteriostatic and bactericidal efficacy of povidone iodine was studied by double broth dilution method. [Result] The povidone iodine could inhibit the growth of Aeromonas strains at lower concentration, and killed Aeromonas strains at higher concentration. The minimum bacteriostatic concentration (MIC) of povidone iodine on Aeromonas sp. T1, Aeromonas sp. T2 and Aeromonas sp. T4 was 125.00 mg/L, and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was4.00 g/L. Whereas, the minimum bacteriostatic concentration (MIC) of povidone iodine on ATCC7966, Aeromonas sp. T3, Aeromonas sp. T5 and Aeromonas sp. T6 was 250.00 mg/L, and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was 8.00 g/L. [ Conclusion] This study provides certain basis for reasonable application of povidone iodine.%[目的]研究聚维酮碘作为一种水产养殖上常用的消毒剂对气单胞菌的抑菌杀菌效果.[方法]以气单胞菌属标准株ATCC7966和分离自患病鱼及养殖环境的气单胞菌为试验菌株,通过肉汤二倍稀释法研究聚维酮碘的抑菌杀菌作用.[结果]聚维酮碘在低浓度时能抑制气单胞菌的生长增殖,高浓度时杀灭细菌,其对Aeromonas sp.T1、Aeromonas sp.T2、Aeromonas sp.T4菌株的最小抑菌浓度为125.00 mg/L,最小杀菌浓度为4.00 g/L;其对ATCC7966、Aeromonas sp.T3、Aeromonas sp.T5、Aeromonas sp.T6菌株的最小抑菌浓度为250.00mg/L,最小杀菌浓度为8.00g/L.[结论]为聚维酮碘的合理使用提供了一定的依据.

  17. Genetic engineering of Geobacillus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kananavičiūtė, Rūta; Čitavičius, Donaldas

    2015-04-01

    Members of the genus Geobacillus are thermophiles that are of great biotechnological importance, since they are sources of many thermostable enzymes. Because of their metabolic versatility, geobacilli can be used as whole-cell catalysts in processes such as bioconversion and bioremediation. The effective employment of Geobacillus spp. requires the development of reliable methods for genetic engineering of these bacteria. Currently, genetic manipulation tools and protocols are under rapid development. However, there are several convenient cloning vectors, some of which replicate autonomously, while others are suitable for the genetic modification of chromosomal genes. Gene expression systems are also intensively studied. Combining these tools together with proper techniques for DNA transfer, some Geobacillus strains were shown to be valuable producers of recombinant proteins and industrially important biochemicals, such as ethanol or isobutanol. This review encompasses the progress made in the genetic engineering of Geobacillus spp. and surveys the vectors and transformation methods that are available for this genus.

  18. Positive correlation between Aeromonas salmonicida vaccine antigen concentration and protection in vaccinated rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss evaluated by a tail fin infection model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marana, M. H.; Skov, J.; Chettri, Jiwan Kumar;

    2016-01-01

    Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), are able to raise a protective immune response against Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida (AS) following injection vaccination with commercial vaccines containing formalin-killed bacteria, but the protection is often suboptimal under Danish...... mariculture conditions. We elucidated whether protection can be improved by increasing the concentration of antigen (formalin-killed bacteria) in the vaccine. Rainbow trout juveniles were vaccinated by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection with a bacterin of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida strain 090710...

  19. El libro como performance

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    La comunidad poética Estación Pringles entabla un diálogo intrigante con el formato libro. Por una parte, su acercamiento teatral a la poesía parecería excluir la posibilidad de ver este medio como un modelo para el proyecto. Sin embargo, en su diálogo con la línea poética iniciada por Stéphane Mallarmé, esta iniciativa artística propone un concepto del libro como performance. Esta orientación es evidente, además, en la producción impresa de Estación Pringles. The poetry community Estación...

  20. O corpo como pulso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Liberman

    Full Text Available O corpo é foco de muitos estudos e intervenções. Alguns paradigmas o concebem apenas em seu aspecto sensório-motor, enquanto outros transitam prioritariamente por uma dimensão psicológica. Procurando contribuir para a formulação de outras perspectivas no campo, apresentam-se aspectos da concepção de corpo de Stanley Keleman em ressonância com os estudos de Regina Favre. A partir de cenas clínicas em grupos de seminários, podemos pensar o corpo como pulso, multimídia, multifacetado, que se (des constrói permanentemente nos encontros. Articulando experiências clínicas da autora como terapeuta ocupacional e docente da graduação e em grupos de estudos, essas concepções servem como guia para uma clínica pensada, construída e balizada pelo corpo mediante utilização de abordagens corporais para a promoção de encontros plasmados por afetos e acontecimentos, na tentativa de criar corpos que possam sustentar as intensidades vividas e permitam a observação de si, a aproximação com o outro e a produção de singularidades.

  1. O corpo como pulso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Liberman

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O corpo é foco de muitos estudos e intervenções. Alguns paradigmas o concebem apenas em seu aspecto sensório-motor, enquanto outros transitam prioritariamente por uma dimensão psicológica. Procurando contribuir para a formulação de outras perspectivas no campo, apresentam-se aspectos da concepção de corpo de Stanley Keleman em ressonância com os estudos de Regina Favre. A partir de cenas clínicas em grupos de seminários, podemos pensar o corpo como pulso, multimídia, multifacetado, que se (des constrói permanentemente nos encontros. Articulando experiências clínicas da autora como terapeuta ocupacional e docente da graduação e em grupos de estudos, essas concepções servem como guia para uma clínica pensada, construída e balizada pelo corpo mediante utilização de abordagens corporais para a promoção de encontros plasmados por afetos e acontecimentos, na tentativa de criar corpos que possam sustentar as intensidades vividas e permitam a observação de si, a aproximação com o outro e a produção de singularidades.

  2. Usefulness of Chromogenic CromoCen® AGN agar medium for the identification of the genus Aeromonas: Assessment of faecal samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera-Arreola, M G; Portillo-Muñoz, M I; Rodríguez-Martínez, C; Castro-Escarpulli, G

    2012-08-01

    Selective screening media for the detection and identification of Aeromonas strains are needed to guide primary isolation procedures in the clinical laboratory. This study compared the selective CromoCen® AGN chromogenic agar medium for the detection and identification of Aeromonas strains that were isolated from various samples against the conventional selective agar media that are commonly used for the isolation of this organism in food, environmental and clinical samples. The Miles and Misra and ecometric methods were used to evaluate the microbiological performance of CromoCen® AGN chromogenic agar medium, which was shown to be satisfactory. A total of 14 reference Aeromonas strains, 44 wild strains and 106 clinical stool specimens were examined using both non-chromogenic selective agars that are commonly used for Aeromonas isolation and CromoCen® AGN agar. The latter exhibited 94.73% sensitivity and 100% specificity for the various samples. On CromoCen® AGN agar medium, Aeromonas formed colonies with light green, greenish and salmon pigments with or without a surrounding wide transparent zone (halo) of 2-3mm in diameter around the entire border. This medium is recommended for the isolation and potential identification of the Aeromonas genus.

  3. Diagnosis of Neglected Tropical Diseases Among Patients With Persistent Digestive Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-24

    Soil-transmitted Helminthiasis; Schistosomiasis; Strongyloidiasis; Shigellosis; Intestinal Salmonellosis; Campylobacteriosis; Aeromonas Spp. Infections; Giardiasis; Amoebiasis; Dientamoebiasis; Cryptosporidium Spp. Infections

  4. 季磷盐碘对气单胞菌的抑菌杀菌效果研究%Research on Bacteriostatic and Bactericidal Efficacy of Quaternary Phosphorus Salt Iodine on Aeromonas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭凤霞; 孟立霞

    2015-01-01

    以气单胞菌属标准株ATCC7966和本实验室分离的气单胞菌为试验菌株,采用营养肉汤二倍稀释法研究季磷盐碘对气单胞菌的抑菌杀菌作用.结果表明,季磷盐碘在低浓度时能抑制气单胞菌的生长增殖,高浓度杀灭细菌,其对7株气单胞菌的最小抑菌浓度(MIC)为0.156 mL/L(Aeromonas sp.T4、Aeromonas sp.T6),0.312 mL/L(ATCC7966、Aeromonas sp.T1、Aeromonas sp.T2、Aeromonas sp.T5)和0.625 mL/L(Aeromonas sp.T3),其最小杀菌浓度(MBC)为1.25 mL/L(Aeromonas sp.T2、Aeromonas sp.T4、Aeromonas sp.T6),2.5 mL/L(Aeromonas sp.T3)和5 mL/L(ATCC7966、Aeromonas sp.T1、Aeromonas sp.T5).本研究结果可为季磷盐碘的合理使用提供参考.

  5. Frequency of Leptospira spp. in sheep from Brazilian slaughterhouses and its association with epidemiological variables

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Costa da Silva; Veruska Maia da Costa; Fabio Hiroto Shimabukuro; Virgínia Bodelão Richini-Pereira; Benedito Donizete Menozzi; Hélio Langoni

    2012-01-01

    A leptospirose é uma antropozoonose mundialmente distribuída que infecta animais de produção, incluindo as ovelhas como carreadores para outros animais e o homem. O presente estudo objetivou determinar a prevalência de Leptospira spp. em ovinos de dois abatedouros do estado de São Paulo e sua associação com algumas variáveis epidemiológicas estudadas. Amostras de soro de 182 ovinos foram pesquisadas para a presença de anticorpos para Leptospira spp. pela soroaglutinação microscópica (SAM). Os...

  6. Production of Poly(3-Hydroxybutyrate-co-3-Hydroxyhexanoate) by Aeromonas hydrophila and Recombinant Escherichia coli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丘远征; 刘力平; 陈国强

    2003-01-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila (A.hydrophila) 4AK4 produced poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3- hydroxyhexanoate) (PHBHHx) with an almost constant 3-hydroxyhexanoate (3HHx) content of 10%-15% from lauric acid and/or soybean oil.Both A.hydrophila 4AK4 and recombinant Escherichia coli (E.coli) JMU193 (pBH32) produced PHBHHx with controllable 3HHx content when fed lauric acid and another co-substrate.With glucose or gluconate as the co-substrate, the 3HHx content in the copolyester produced by A.hydrophila 4AK4 was reduced slightly from 12% to 9%.However, the 3HHx content in the copolyester produced by E.coli JMU193 (pBH32) was significantly reduced from 9% to 2% with fructose as the co-substrate.These results show that regulation of 3HHx content in PHBHHx can be achieved using genetically engineered E.coli.

  7. A novel challenge method with Aeromonas salmonicida in rainbow trout for evaluation of furunculosis vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marana, Moonika Haahr; Skov, Jakob; Chettri, Jiwan Kumar;

    Challenge methods used to induce furunculosis in rainbow trout when testing the potency of vaccines may include exposure to Aeromonas salmonicida by intraperitoneal injection, cohabitation or bath immersion. Intraperitoneal injection is effective but will not reflect systemic immunity because...... inflammatory cells at the vaccine injection site may combat injected bacteria fast. The cohabitation and bath immersion methods both mimic the natural infection route but are less effective in inducing the disease. We have tested a new challenge method mimicking that rainbow trout in fish farms might...... to be efficient in inducing a more natural disease progression in fish and a stable mortality. The method could differentiate efficacies of different vaccines with regard to adjuvant formulations and content of antigen....

  8. A Report of Peritonitis from Aeromonas sobria in a Peritoneal Dialysis (PD) Patient with Necrotizing Fasciitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janma, Jirayut; Linasmita, Patcharasarn; Changsirikulchai, Siribha

    2015-11-01

    A 70-years of age, male patient with underlying type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia and ischemic heart disease had undergone continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD)for 3 years without any episodes of peritonitis. He was diagnosed with necrotizing fasciitis and later developed peritonitis after receiving a laceration from an aquatic injury suffered during the flood disaster of 2011. The blood culture, necrotic tissue and the clear dialysate collected upon admission had shown Aeromonas sobria. The route of peritonitis may be from the hematogenous spread of A. sobria resulting in necrotizing fasciitis. A. sobria should be considered as the pathogen of peritonitis in PD patients who have history of wounds from contaminated water. We suggest that the PD patients who present with septicemia and did not meet the criteria for peritonitis, the initial dialysate effluent should be sent for culture. The benefit of this is to allow early recognition and treatment of peritonitis.

  9. Subunit vaccine candidates against Aeromonas salmonicida in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marana, Moonika Haahr; Jørgensen, Louise von Gersdorff; Skov, Jakob;

    2017-01-01

    Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida is the etiological agent of furunculosis and a major fish health problem in salmonid aquaculture worldwide. Injection vaccination with commercial mineral oil-adjuvanted bacterin vaccines has been partly successful in preventing the disease but in Danish...... rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum) aquaculture furunculosis outbreaks still occur. In this study we tested the efficacy of experimental subunit vaccines against A. salmonicida infection in rainbow trout. We utilized in silico screening of the proteome of A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida strain...... A449 and identified potential protective protein antigens that were tested by in vivo challenge trial. A total of 14 proteins were recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli and prepared in 3 different subunit vaccine combinations to immunize 3 groups of rainbow trout by intraperitoneal (i...

  10. Cylindrospermopsin Biodegradation Abilities of Aeromonas sp. Isolated from Rusałka Lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziga, Dariusz; Kokocinski, Mikolaj; Maksylewicz, Anna; Czaja-Prokop, Urszula; Barylski, Jakub

    2016-02-25

    The occurrence of the cyanobacterial toxin cylindrospermopsin (CYN) in freshwater reservoirs is a common phenomenon. However, the biodegradation of this toxin in environmental samples has been observed only occasionally. In this work the biodegradation ability of cylindrospermopsin was investigated based on isolates from lakes with previous cyanotoxin history. Bacterial strains were identified based on the 16S rDNA and rpoD gene comparison. CYN biodegradation was monitored using the HPLC method. The R6 strain identified as Aeromonas sp. was documented as being capable of CYN removal. This biodegradation was dependent on the pH and temperature. Additionally, the stimulation of the growth of the R6 strain in the presence of CYN was indicated. Our discovery supports the hypothesis that (in analogy to the well-known phenomenon of microcystin biodegradation) in lakes dominated by potential CYN-producing cyanobacteria, the processes of microbial utilization of this toxin may occur.

  11. Aeromonas proteolyrica bacteria in aerospace environments. [possible genetic alterations and effects on man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, B. G.

    1974-01-01

    Preflight studies on Aeromonas proteolytica are reported to investigate the possibility of genetic alterations resulting in increased proteolysis in spacecraft environments. This organism may be present on human tissue and could pose medical problems if its endopeptidase and a hemolysin were to be produced in ususually high quantities or altered in such a way as to be more effective in their activities. Considered are: (1) Development of a nutrative holding medium for suspension of organisms; (2) the establishment of baseline information for the standardization of the assay for endopeptidase levels and hemolytic titers; (3) formulation of a method by which intracutaneous hemorrhage could be quantitated in guinea pig tissue; and (4) the responses of these organisms to parameters of spaceflight and experimentation.

  12. Aeromonas dhakensis pneumonia and sepsis in a neonate Risso's dolphin Grampus griseus from the Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Lola; Abarca, M Lourdes; Latif-Eugenín, Fadua; Beaz-Hidalgo, Roxana; Figueras, M José; Domingo, Mariano

    2015-09-17

    A neonate Risso's dolphin Grampus griseus was found stranded alive on a beach in Catalonia, Spain. Rehabilitation attempts were unsuccessful and it died 2 d later, showing pneumonia and sepsis. A pure bacterial culture was obtained from all tissues and blood and identified as Aeromonas hydrophila using the API 20NE. However, sequencing the rpoD gene showed that the strain in fact belongs to A. dhakensis, making this the first report of fatal haemorrhagic-necrotizing pneumonia and sepsis due to this species in a marine mammal. The A. dhakensis strain GMV-704 produced β-haemolysis, possessed several virulence genes and showed sensitivity to several antimicrobials. This study provides a new potential host for A. dhakensis, and its potential virulence in dolphins and its presence in the marine environment may warrant considering this species a potential threat to marine mammals.

  13. Detection and characterization of potentially pathogenic Aeromonas sobria isolated from fish Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, Gowhar H; Dar, Shoaib A; Kamili, Azra N; Chishti, Mohammad Z; Ahmad, Fayaz

    2016-02-01

    The current study focuses on the detection and characterization of potentially pathogenic Aeromonas sobria from fish silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix). Assessment of clinical, microbiological, pathological and biochemical characteristics of A. sobria were taken into account in order to understand the epidemiology, frequency and occurrence of this infection. Clinically the infected fish (H. molitrix) was observed for various types of symptoms. A total of 33 colonies of A. sobria strain were isolated from 20 cultured H. molitrix, collected from controlled fish pond. Microscopic examination revealed that the strains were rod-shaped, Gram negative bacteria. The revealed percent probability identification of A. sobria from the biochemical characterization in VITEK system was 93% with gram negative (GN) card. The histopathology of Gills caused by this bacterium, A. sobria indicate haemorrhagic gill epithelia and epithelial hyperplasia. Lamelar epithelial hypertrophy and hyperplasia with degenerative changes of the epithelium and hypertrophic epitheliocystis infected cells on gills of H. molitrix were observed during the present study.

  14. In Vitro Antibacterial Effect of Effective Microorganisms( EM) on Aeromonas hydrophila

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu; Zhixiu; He; Houjun; Zhang; Wenbo; Wu; Xiangdong; Wan; Gen; Deng; Shunzhou; Liu; Songlin

    2014-01-01

    In order to understand in vitro antibacterial effect of antibiotics and EM on Aeromonas hydrophila,14 isolates of A. hydrophila were isolated from diseased fish and aquaculture in the study. PCR amplification results of aerolysin gene( Aero gene) of isolates indicated that 7 out of 14 isolates were pathogenic A.hydrophila. In vitro antibacterial test indicated that 14 isolates were resistance to penicillin G,ampicillin,cephradine,cefazolin,tetracycline,terimethoprim,lincomycin and cephalexin,but showed high sensitivity to cefotaxime and furazolidone. In vitro antibacterial effect of EM on 14 isolates of A. hydrophila was positively correlated with concentration,and EM with the concentration greater than 60% had antibacterial effect on 14 isolates.

  15. Pancarditis in a patient with tropical pyomyositis due to Aeromonas infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tropical pyomyositis is a suppurative disease of the skeletal muscles. The most common site of the infection being muscles of the thigh. Staphylococcus aureus is the most common organism isolated. Aeromonas is one of the rarest organisms described as the etiologic agent for this disease. Rarely, cardiac involvement in pyomyositis has been described in the form of myocarditis and pyopericardium. Pancarditis is a very rare event in the natural course of pyomyositis. To the best of our knowledge, there is a single case report in world literature regarding involvement of all the layers of the heart in pyomyositis. We report a case of a 30-year-old immunocompetent male who had pyomyositis and developed pancarditis, which was managed successfully with conservative management.

  16. Occurrence and control of Chilodonella spp. in pejerrey Odontesthes bonariensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Morato Fernandes

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo relatar a ocorrência e controle de infecção parasitária por Chilodonella spp. em alevinos de peixe-rei (O. bonariensis. A Chilodonella spp. é um ciliado que parasita tegumento e brânquias de peixes, podendo ocasionar grande mortalidade. A infecção foi identificada a partir da observação comportamental de alevinos criados em caixas de polietileno com capacidade de 1000 litros, mantidas em circuito fechado com um biofiltro e alimentados com ração e zooplancton selvagem. A contaminação foi constatada devido à redução do apetite, perda do equilíbrio e alteração na coloração dos peixes, tendo como causa provável, a elevação dos níveis de amônia não ionizável, levando a uma diminuição da imunidade. Como tratamento foi utilizado uma concentração salina de 10g/L, durante 30 minutos, com êxito para o controle deste parasito.

  17. Infection of sea lamprey with an unusual strain of Aeromonas salmonicida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamanka, Arfang; Loch, Thomas P.; Cipriano, Rocco C.; Winters, Andrew D.; Faisal, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    The invasion of the Laurentian Great Lakes by the fish-parasitic sea lamprey has led to catastrophic consequences, including the potential introduction of fish pathogens. Aeromonas salmonicida is a bacterial fish pathogen that causes devastating losses worldwide. Currently, there are five accepted subspecies of Aeromonas salmonicida: A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, masoucida, smithia, achromogenes, and pectinolytica. We discuss the discovery of an isolate of A. salmonicida that is pathogenic to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and exhibits unique phenotypic and molecular characteristics. We examined 181 adult sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) from the Humber River (Lake Ontario watershed) and 162 adult sea lamprey from Duffins Creek (Lake Ontario watershed) during the spring seasons of 2005–11. Among those, 4/343 (1.2%) sea lamprey were culture positive for A. salmonicida, whereby biochemical and molecular studies identified three of the isolates as A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida. The remaining isolate (As-SL1) recovered from Humber River sea lamprey was phenotypically more similar to A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida than to the four other A. salmonicida subspecies. However, unlike A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, As-SL1 was sucrose positive, produced an acid-over-acid reaction on triple-sugar iron medium and did not amplify with A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida specific primers. Phylogenetic analysis based on partial stretches of the 16S rRNA and DNA gyrase subunit B genes further confirmed that the As-SL1 isolate was not A. salmonicida subsp. masoucida, smithia, achromogenes, or pectinolytica. Based on our analyses, the As-SL1 isolate is either an unusual strain of A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida or a novel A. salmonicida subspecies. The four A. salmonicida isolates that were recovered from sea lamprey were pathogenic to rainbow trout in experimental challenge studies. Our study also underscores the potential role of sea lamprey in the ecology of

  18. Chemical modification of polyvinyl chloride and silicone elastomer in inhibiting adhesion of Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kregiel, Dorota; Berlowska, Joanna; Mizerska, Urszula; Fortuniak, Witold; Chojnowski, Julian; Ambroziak, Wojciech

    2013-07-01

    Disease-causing bacteria of the genus Aeromonas are able to adhere to pipe materials, colonizing the surfaces and forming biofilms in water distribution systems. The aim of our research was to study how the modification of materials used commonly in the water industry can reduce bacterial cell attachment. Polyvinyl chloride and silicone elastomer surfaces were activated and modified with reactive organo-silanes by coupling or co-crosslinking silanes with the native material. Both the native and modified surfaces were tested using the bacterial strain Aeromonas hydrophila, which was isolated from the Polish water distribution system. The surface tension of both the native and modified surfaces was measured. To determine cell viability and bacterial adhesion two methods were used, namely plate count and luminometry. Results were expressed in colony-forming units (c.f.u.) and in relative light units (RLU) per cm(2). Almost all the chemically modified surfaces exhibited higher anti-adhesive and anti-microbial properties in comparison to the native surfaces. Among the modifying agents examined, poly[dimethylsiloxane-co-(N,N-dimethyl-N-n-octylammoniopropyl chloride) methylsiloxane)] terminated with hydroxydimethylsilyl groups (20 %) in silicone elastomer gave the most desirable results. The surface tension of this modifier, was comparable to the non-polar native surface. However, almost half of this value was due to the result of polar forces. In this case, in an adhesion analysis, only 1 RLU cm(-2) and less than 1 c.f.u. cm(-2) were noted. For the native gumosil, the results were 9,375 RLU cm(-2) and 2.5 × 10(8) c.f.u. cm(-2), respectively. The antibacterial activity of active organo-silanes was associated only with the carrier surface because no antibacterial compounds were detected in liquid culture media, in concentrations that were able to inhibit cell growth.

  19. Protection of ornamental gold fish Carassius auratus against Aeromonas hydrophila by treating Ixora coccinea active principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anusha, Paulraj; Thangaviji, Vijayaragavan; Velmurugan, Subramanian; Michaelbabu, Mariavincent; Citarasu, Thavasimuthu

    2014-02-01

    Herbals such as Ixora coccinea, Daemia extensa and Tridax procumbens were selected to screen in vitro antibacterial and immunostimulant activity against the freshwater fish pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila using different organic polar and non-polar solvents. Initial screening results revealed that, ethyl acetate extracts and its purified fraction of I. coccinea was able to suppress the A. hydrophila strains at more than 15 mm of zone of inhibition and positive immunostimulant activity. The purified active fraction, which eluted from H40: EA60 mobile phase was structurally characterized by GC-MS analysis. Two compounds such as Diethyl Phthalate (1,2-Benzene dicarboxylic acid, monobutyl ester) and Dibutyl Phthalate were characterized using NIST database search. In order to study the in vivo immunostimulant influence of the compounds, the crude extracts (ICE) and purified fractions (ICF) were incorporated to the artificial diets at the concentration of 400 mg kg⁻¹ and fed to the ornamental gold fish Carassius auratus for 30 days. After termination of feeding experiment, they were challenged with highly virulent A. hydrophila AHV-1 which was isolated from infected gold fish and studied the survival, specific bacterial load reduction, serum biochemistry, haematology, immunology and histological parameters. The control diet fed fishes succumbed to death within five days at 100% mortality whereas ICE and ICF fed groups survived 60 and 80% respectively after 10 days. The diets also helped to decrease the Aeromonas load after challenge and significantly (P ≤ 0.01) improved the serum albumin, globulin and protein. The diets also helped to increase the RBC and haemoglobin level significantly (P ≤ 0.05) from the control group. Surprisingly the immunological parameters like phagocytic activity, serum bactericidal activity and lysozyme activity were significantly increased (P ≤ 0.001) in the experimental diets. Macrophages and erythrocytes were abundantly expressed in the

  20. Efficacy of lactoferricin B in controlling ready-to-eat vegetable spoilage caused by Pseudomonas spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federico, Baruzzi; Pinto, Loris; Quintieri, Laura; Carito, Antonia; Calabrese, Nicola; Caputo, Leonardo

    2015-12-23

    The microbial content of plant tissues has been reported to cause the spoilage of ca. 30% of chlorine-disinfected fresh vegetables during cold storage. The aim of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of antimicrobial peptides in controlling microbial vegetable spoilage under cold storage conditions. A total of 48 bacterial isolates were collected from ready-to-eat (RTE) vegetables and identified as belonging to Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Aeromonas media, Pseudomonas cichorii, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas jessenii, Pseudomonas koreensis, Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas simiae and Pseudomonas viridiflava species. Reddish or brownish pigmentation was found when Pseudomonas strains were inoculated in wounds on leaves of Iceberg and Trocadero lettuce and escarole chicory throughout cold storage. Bovine lactoferrin (BLF) and its hydrolysates (LFHs) produced by pepsin, papain and rennin, were assayed in vitro against four Pseudomonas spp. strains selected for their heavy spoiling ability. As the pepsin-LFH showed the strongest antimicrobial effect, subsequent experiments were carried out using the peptide lactoferricin B (LfcinB), well known to be responsible for its antimicrobial activity. LfcinB significantly reduced (P ≤ 0.05) spoilage by a mean of 36% caused by three out of four inoculated spoiler pseudomonads on RTE lettuce leaves after six days of cold storage. The reduction in the extent of spoilage was unrelated to viable cell density in the inoculated wounds. This is the first paper providing direct evidence regarding the application of an antimicrobial peptide to control microbial spoilage affecting RTE leafy vegetables during cold storage.

  1. COMO? PALETAS MEXICANAS BRASILEIRAS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Maria Alves Chaud

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available As informações sobre alimentação estão mais acessíveis e democráticas. As tendências alimentares são inspiradas por diversos fatores, mas sempre estão associados à moda, mídia e como forma de conjectura de um estilo de vida. Há pouco tempo, as grandes cidades brasileiras foram invadidas por uma nova mania: as paletas mexicanas, que, na verdade, não são “tão mexicanas”. Esses sorvetes apresentam qualidades organolépticas marcantes, em virtude, entre outros fatores, ao alto teor de açúcar e, em alguns casos, de gorduras. A concepção gourmetizada e natural dessa iguaria, seu custo e as propriedades nutricionais são peculiares e, aparentemente, um modismo. Esse trabalho teve como objetivo conhecer a composição desses produtos, a partir das informações nutricionais contidas nos sites das empresas produtoras, bem como as suas peculiaridades e concepções. Apesar da conotação natural e gastronômica, alto valor calórico, gorduras (especialmente na versão recheada sabor brigadeiro e elevadas quantidades de açúcares, foram encontrados, em média, por unidade: 207,2 Kcal; 38,4g de carboidratos; 3,9g de proteínas e 5,3g de gorduras. Uma rica ênfase na cultura mexicana, religiosidade e identidade visual marcante foram identificadas nos sites dos produtos pesquisados.

  2. El docente como investigador

    OpenAIRE

    Corrales Sánchez, Olga; Jiménez Carrillo, María de los Ángeles

    2009-01-01

    En el campo de la docencia se presenta a menudo un gran abismo entre teoría y práctica. Los docente en su mayoría consideran que la teoría y la investigación tienen muy poca la relación con su quehacer diario.El propósito de este trabajo es el de presentar algunas ideas acerca del rol del docente como investigador. Es del conocimiento de las autoras el temor y la preocupación que expresan lo maestros y profesores ante al posibilidad de realizar investigaciones sobre su trabajo en el aula.Segú...

  3. Hematologia e sinais clínicos de Piaractus mesopotamicus infectados experimentalmente com Aeromonas hydrophila - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i1.308 Hematology and clinical signs of Piaractus mesopotamicus experimentally infected by Aeromonas hydrophila - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i1.308

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Ruas Moraes

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Este ensaio teve como objetivo avaliar as respostas hematológicas e a ocorrência de sinais clínico-patológicos de Piaractus mesopotamicus infectados experimentalmente por Aeromonas hydrophila. Foram utilizados 324 pacus, P. mesopotamicus, com peso de 102,84 ± 27,1 g, distribuídos em 27 caixas de 300 L de capacidade, sendo 14 peixes caixa-1. Os peixes foram mantidos nas caixas durante um mês, recebendo dieta balanceada, período em que se evitou qualquer tipo de manejo estressante. Passado esse período, foram infectados com 6 x 106 UFC de A. hydrophila, injetada via intraperitoneal. As coletas e análises de sangue foram realizadas 24h antes da infecção experimental e 24h após a infecção. Os resultados permitem concluir que a infecção por A. hydrophila em P. mesopotamicus é caracterizada por escurecimento da derme e sinais clínicos-patológicos relacionados à hemorragia, anemia normocítica-hipocrômica, redução nos níveis de proteínas, globulinas plasmáticas e eosinófilos, leucopenia, linfopenia, trombocitopenia, neutrofilia e monocitose.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hematological response and clinical sign of Piaractus mesopotamicus infected by Aeromonas hydrophila. Were used 324 pacus, Piaractus mesopotamicus weighing 102.84 ± 27.1 g distributed in 27 tanks with 300 L of capacity, 14 fish per tank. The fish were kept in the tanks during one month, receiving appropriate diet. In this period was avoid stressing management. After this period, the fish were infected with 6 × 108 CFU of A. hydrophila/fish, injected intraperitoneally. The blood collection was carried 24 h before experimental infection and 24 hours after its. The A. hydrophila infection in P. mesopotamicus is characterized by dark skin and clinical signs related to hemorrhage, hypochromic normocytic anemia, decrease on plasmatic proteins and globulins levels, leucopenia, lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia, eosinophilia, neutrophilia and

  4. Aeromonas veronii N8活性菌体对Zn2+的吸附特征%Biosorption characteristic of Zn2+ by viable cells of Aeromonas veronii N8

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴德芳; 宋萍; 申露文; 林欣; 封磊

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas veronii N8菌为对象,对菌体的性质及其吸附Zn2+特征进行研究.结果表明,Aeromonas veronii菌的生长周期在66 h左右,并且Zn2+对该菌的最低抑菌质量浓度为150 mg/L;N8菌体对Zn2+的吸附随时间的增加,吸附率逐渐增大,并且在90 min后达到吸附平衡.菌体的吸附率随菌体质量浓度的增加而变大,并随Zn2+质量浓度的增加而变小.吸附前、后扫描电镜及能谱分析(scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive X-ray,SEM-EDX)的表征结果显示,在菌体的细胞壁表面检测到Zn元素,说明Aeromonas veronii N8菌体对Zn2+具有一定的吸附作用.菌体的Zn2+吸附过程可采用Toth模型进行描述.

  5. [Mycoses and zoonoses: Cryptococcus spp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabañes, F Javier

    2008-03-01

    The term "zoonosis" is difficult to delimit because different authors have various definitions for this term. Few mycoses are usually considered zoonoses. However, the role that animals play in the epidemiology of the main human mycoses is still not well known. Moreover, the environmental niches for these fungal agents have not yet been completely determined. This special issue of the "Revista Iberoamericana de Micología" deals with the talks and round table presented at the VIII Spanish Mycological Congress held in October 2006 in Barcelona, Spain on "Cryptococcus spp. and zoonoses".

  6. Protection against atypical Aeromonas salmonicida infection in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) by oral administration of humus extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Hiroshi; Denso; Nakagawa, Tsuyoshi

    2007-04-01

    Humic substances are formed during the decomposition of organic matter in humus, and are found in many natural environments in which organic materials and microorganisms have been present. In the present study, oral administration of humus extract to common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) induced effective protection against experimental atypical Aeromonas salmonicida infection. Mortality of fish and development of skin lesions such as hemorrhages and ulcers were significantly suppressed in carp treated with 10%, 5% or 1% humus extract adsorbed on dry feeding pellets. The median surviving days was also greater in fish treated with 10% or 5% humus extract than in untreated fish. Atypical A. salmonicida was isolated from ulcerative lesions of part of dead fish, but Aeromonas hydrophila and Flavobacterium sp. were also isolated from these fish, verifying bacterial population changes during the progression of skin lesions. These results clearly show that treatment of fish with humus extract is effective in preventing A. salmonicida disease.

  7. Occurrence and significance of atypical Aeromonas salmonicida in non-salmonid and salmonid fish species : A review

    OpenAIRE

    Wiklund, T.; Dalsgaard, Inger

    1998-01-01

    Bacterial strains of Aeromonas salmonicida included in the recognized subsp. achromogenes, subsp, masoucida, and subsp. smithia in addition to the large number of strains not included in any of the described subspecies are referred to as atypical A. salmonicida. The atypical strains form a very heterogeneous group with respect to biochemical characteristics, growth conditions, and production of extracellular proteases. Consequently, the present taxonomy of the species A. salmonicida is rather...

  8. Skrining Fitokimia Metabolit Sekunder Dalam Daun Binahong (Anredera cordifolia (Ten) Steenis) Untuk Uji In Vitro Daya Hambat Pertumbuhan Aeromonas Hydrophila

    OpenAIRE

    Ginting, Prita Yulianti Anasta

    2016-01-01

    Binahong leaves are one of natural product to be used to treat the disease of living organisme due to having secondary metabolite to show antibacterial activity. The purpose of this research was to study secondary metabolite of Binahong leaves of which showing antibacterial, to analysis effectivity of antibacterial Binahong leaves extract to inhibit growth of bacteria Aeromonas hydrophila. An experimental laboratory with six treatments and three replications for in vitro was tested. A pap...

  9. Evaluation of Trichoderma spp. and Clonostachys spp. Strains to Control Fusarium circinatum in Pinus radiata Seedlings Evaluación de Cepas de Trichoderma spp. y Clonostachys spp. para Controlar Fusarium circinatum en Plántulas de Pinus radiata

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    Priscila Moraga-Suazo

    2011-09-01

    os. Debido a la ausencia de métodos eficientes para controlar este patógeno, el propósito de este estudio fue evaluar el potencial uso de cepas de Trichoderma y Clonostachys como control de F. circinatum en plántulas de Pinus radiata D. Don. Ochenta y un cepas de Trichoderma spp. y Clonostachys spp. fueron evaluadas a través de ensayos in vitro para determinar su habilidad para actuar como antagonistas de F. circinatum y 21 cepas fueron probadas por su habilidad para reducir la mortalidad post-emergencia e incrementar la supervivencia de P. radiata bajo condiciones de invernadero. Durante los experimentos in vitro, 15 cepas de Trichoderma inhibieron el crecimiento del patógeno más de un 60% y una cepa de Clonostachys mostró parasitismo de hifas de F. circinatum. En experimentos en invernadero, los antagonistas no controlaron la enfermedad cuando fueron agregados después de la inoculación del patógeno. Sin embargo, cuando los antagonistas fueron sembrados antes del patógeno, cuatro cepas (Clonostachys UDC-32 y UDC-222, Trichoderma UDC-23 y UDC-408 redujeron la mortalidad post-emergencia entre 80 y 100%. Entre estas cepas, sólo Clonostachys UDC-222 incrementó significativamente la supervivencia de plántulas de P. radiata. Estos resultados demuestran que Clonostachys UDC-222 posee gran potencial para ser empleado como agente de biocontrol contra F. circinatum en la producción de plantas de P. radiata.

  10. Detection and distribution of putative virulence associated genes in Aeromonas species from freshwater and wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igbinosa, Isoken H; Okoh, Anthony I

    2013-11-01

    The detection of genes responsible for Aeromonas virulence is a vital tool in establishing the potential pathogenicity of the bacteria, as these virulence genes may act alone or in synergy in the establishment of infections. Freshwater and wastewater mixed liquor samples were collected from Kat river and Fort Beaufort wastewater treatment plant in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Polymerase chain reaction was utilized for the amplification of the different genes coding for virulence. All virulence associated genes screened (alt, lip, fla, aer, ast, hlyA) were detected in at least one Aeromonas isolates. In fresh water sample, virulence genes were distributed as follows: lip (67%), aer (43%), alt (33%), fla (62%), ast (10%), and hlyA (86%), while in wastewater samples the occurrence were as follows: lip (92%), aer (21%), alt (54%), fla (83%), ast (29%), and hlyA (88%). The presence of these virulence genes in environmental Aeromonas isolates is of concern to public health as these organisms are potential pathogens in the environment and the virulence determinants could be transferred to aquatic organisms and humans by one mechanism or the other.

  11. 气单胞菌(Aeromonas sp.D-4)降解LAS的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李峤; 邓家齐; 王德铭

    1988-01-01

    Aeromonas sp.D-4不能以LAS作为唯一碳源,它对LAS的利用是通过共代谢来完成的。LAS对D-4具有毒害作用,而且,起始LAS浓度越高,毒害作用越大。LAS的最大去除串与起始LAS浓度呈负相关。当起始LAS在40-120mg/L之间时,去除串较高;如果起始LAS在40mg/L左右,则去除率可达s096以上。研究还表明,Aeromonas sp.D-4纯培养对LAS的去除率(最大值84.97%)大于混合菌(最大值78.57%)。耗氧呼吸测定证实了Aeromonas sp.D-4对于LAS的共代谢和LAS对细菌的毒性,同时也证实了培养基中LAS的消失是细菌作用的结果。

  12. Research Progress on Aeromonas hydrophila%嗜水气单胞菌的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜艳丽; 李丽丽

    2015-01-01

    为有效预防嗜水气单胞菌引起传染病的发生,以减少对人畜的损害,通过回顾嗜水气单胞菌的分类地位(嗜温性和运动性的气单胞菌属的模式菌)、生物学性质,对其主要毒力因子(外毒素及胞外蛋白酶)和鉴定技术(生化鉴定、免疫血清技术和分子生物学技术)的研究成果进行了综述。%In order to prevent the infectious dieases caused by Aeromonas hydrophila ,and reduce the damage to human and animals ,the taxonomic status and biological character of Aeromonas hydrophila were reviewed ,the research of virulence factor (exotoxin and extracellular protease)and identification of Aeromonas hydrophila were summarized ,in cluding biochenrical identification ,immune serum and molecular biology techniques .

  13. El inquisidor como profesor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano PROSPERI

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Giovanni Botero, en una célebre página de su Ragion di stato, se detuvo sobre el tema de la fuerza de la religión en los gobiernos. Esta función de la religión cristiana —para Botero, católica— es garante del orden público y se presenta también como opuesta a la generadora de desorden de Lutero y Calvino, quienes siembran por todo cizañas y revoluciones de estados y ruinas de los reinos. Estamos en los orígenes del esquema historiografía de la periodización de la Edad Moderna que confió precisamente a la Reforma el papel de nodriza de las revoluciones que nacieron en Europa.

  14. Racismo como metaenquadre

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    RESUMO Este artigo pretende discutir questões relativas ao racismo tendo como lastro principalmente contribuições da psicologia social. Para tanto, faz menção a dois conceitos. São eles: enquadre e metaenquadre. O primeiro foi teorizado pelo psicólogo social José Bleger e o segundo é uma ampliação desse e foi conceituado por René Kaës, teórico da psicanálise dos laços sociais. O artigo finaliza-se com situações que envolvem processos socioculturais, histórico-educacionais que trazem à baila p...

  15. O ensaio como narrativa

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    Pedro Duarte

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available O artigo tenta demonstrar que todos os textos, mesmo aqueles cuja natureza é teórica, têm alguma forma de narrativa. Nem sempre são personagens que os ocupam, podem ser ideias, mas mesmo assim há um enredo conceitual que se passa. Modernamente, a forma dessa narrativa foi sobretudo o sistema, com a pretensão totalizadora presente, por exemplo, na filosofia de Hegel. Contemporaneamente, porém, a forma do ensaio – surgida ainda na era moderna – ganha destaque por sua forma descontínua de narrar. O objetivo do artigo é apontar que, se o ensaio é uma forma, como explicitaram Lukács, Benjamin e Adorno, ele é também uma forma de narrar – ainda que de narrar conceitualmente objetos da cultura.

  16. La persona como creatura

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuel Housset

    2010-01-01

    El artículo de Emmanuel Housset implica un esfuerzo de rehabilitación del concepto «persona» para la filosofía contemporánea y la fenomenología. Para ello el autor busca mostrar cómo poco a poco «persona» tomó otra significación que la de «personaje» o sujeto de derecho. Es en autores como san Agustín y santo Tomás de Aquino que se halla un acceso diferente que pone el énfasis más bien en su carácter relacional y responsivo de la persona, antes que en su dimensión autónoma y autotélica. Tal d...

  17. Susceptibilidad de genotipos de Solanum spp. al nematodo causante del nudo radical Meloidogyne spp. (chitwood) Susceptibility of genotypes of Solanum spp. to the nematode causative of the root knot Meloidogyne spp. (chitwood)

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    Cristian Gelpud Chaves

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El cultivo del lulo (Solanum quitoense L.) presenta una disminución en su productividad, debido al ataque de patógenos como el nematodo del nudo radical Meloidogyne spp., en el Departamento de Nariño (Colombia), se han reportado incidencias cercanas al 79%, y pérdidas del 50%. En la presente investigación, se colectaron 45 genotipos de (Solanum quitoense L.) en los Departamentos de Nariño y Putumayo y 4 genotipos silvestres (S. mammosum, S. hirtum, S. marginatum y S. umbellatum) buscando fuentes de resistencia al nematodo. Se inocularon 9 plantas de cada genotipo de dos meses de edad con 10000 huevos de Meloidogyne spp., dejando tres testigos por cada material. Las variables evaluadas fueron: altura de planta, severidad, incidencia, peso fresco (tallo y raíz) y especies prevalentes de Meloidogyne spp. Se hizo una clasificación de genotipos mediante escala de resistencia y regresión entre la severidad y las demás variables para establecer el efecto de Meloidogyne spp. sobre los genotipos de planta. Los resultados mostraron 100% de incidencia del nematodo en todos los genotipos, 2.04% genotipos resistentes, 34.7% moderadamente resistentes, 42.8% moderadamente susceptibles, 18.3% susceptibles, y 2.04% altamente susceptibles. El genotipo SQbr05 resistente, no se vio afectado por la severidad, al contrario SQbc04 genotipo susceptible, mostró reducciones significativas en peso fresco de tallo y raíz, (R² = 0.71 y 0.98), el genotipo silvestre (S. mammosum) es altamente susceptible, Meloidogyne incognita presentó 55.31% de presencia. El genotipo SQbr05 es promisorio para ser evaluado en campo.The green orange (Solanum quitoense L.) crop has decreased in its productivity due to the pathogens attack such as the root knot nematode Meloidogyne spp. In the Nariño Department of Colombia, pest incidences near to 79% and losses of 50% have been reported. In this study, 45 genotypes of Solanum quitoense were collected in Nariño and Putumayo

  18. Propriedades de saúde de Spirulina spp.

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    M. A. Ambrosi

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Espécies de Spirulina têm sido utilizadas mundialmente na alimentação humana e animal, assim como na obtenção de aditivos utilizados em formas farmacêuticas e alimentos. Esta bactéria é uma fonte rica em proteínas, vitaminas, aminoácidos essenciais, minerais, ácidos graxos poliinsaturados e outros nutrientes, sendo seu principal uso como suplemento alimentar. As propriedades nutricionais de Spirulina spp. têm sido relacionadas com possíveis atividades terapêuticas, caracterizando o microrganismo no âmbito dos alimentos funcionais e nutracêuticos. A ação de Spirulina spp. é comprovada a nível experimental ‘in vivo’ e ‘in vitro’, verificandose sua efetividade na inibição da replicação de alguns vírus, na ação citostática e citotóxica no tratamento de câncer, na diminuição dos lipídios e da glicose no sangue e da pressão sangüínea, na redução de peso em obesos, no aumento da população de microrganismos da flora intestinal, na melhoria da resposta imunológica, na proteção renal contra metais pesados e fármacos, além de apresentar atividade rádio - protetora e de ser eficiente na desnutrição, aumentando a absorção de minerais. Dados da literatura permitem concluir que biomassa de Spirulina spp., além de ser um excelente suplemento alimentar, é uma fonte potencial no tratamento de diversas enfermidades, constituindo uma alternativa eficiente para o desenvolvimento de produtos nutracêuticos. Palavras-chave: Spirulina spp.; nutracêutico; câncer; hiperlipidemia; diabetes; desnutrição.

  19. CARACTERIZACIÓN Y EVALUACIÓN in vivo E in vitro DEL LIPOPOLISACÁRIDO DE Aeromonas hydrophila In Vitro/In Vivo Characterization And Evaluation Of Aeromonas hydrophila Lipopolysacharides (LPS

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    AP JIMÉNEZ

    Full Text Available A partir de una cepa de A. hydrophila aislada de un brote de enfermedad septicémica en Tilapia nilótica (Piaractus brachypomusoreochromis niloticus, se obtuvieron extractos de lipopolisacárido (LPS crudo (29,5 mg/ml y semipurificado (106,5 mg/ml mediante la técnica fenol-agua caliente descrita por Westphal, Jann (1965. La presencia de proteína fue del 2,3% para el extracto crudo y de 0,1% para el semipurificado; la concentración de polisacáridos osciló entre el 15 y 26%. En electroforesis (SDS-PAGE se observaron bandas de 14 Kd correspondientes al oligosacárido central y al lípido A del LPS. Tres ratones de 25-35 g fueron inoculados intraperitonealmente con 25 mg/Kg de LPS cru-do, a partir de la primera hora todos los animales mostraron erizamiento, taquipnea e inapetencia; microscópicamente se detectó congestión hepática y pulmonar, hemorragias pulmonares y renales, marginación leucocitaria en hígado y pulmón con predominio de polimorfo-nucleares neutrófilos (PMN en todos los animales, mostrando un mayor efecto que el control inoculado con LPS de E. coli (Sigma® a la misma concentración. In vitro el LPS crudo a concentración de 10, 20 y 30 µg/ml indujo proliferación de células mono-nucleares murinas (2 x 10 5 en 200 µl de medio DMEM por incorporación de timidina tritiada; tanto el LPS control (E. coli, como el LPS crudo de A. hydrophila mostraron cuentas por minuto (CPM ascendentes de manera dosis dependiente, el LPS de A. hydrophila desencadeno una proliferación muy similar a la inducida por el control.Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from a septicemic disease outbreak in tilapia (Piaractus brachypomusoreochromis niloticus was used to prepare crude (29.5 mg/ml and semipurified (106.5 mg/ml lipopolysacharide extracts (LPS based on the phenol-hot water protocol (Westphal and Jann, 1965. Protein contents were 2.3% and 0.1% for the crude and the semipurified extracts, respectively, while the polysacharides ranged from 15 to

  20. La persona como creatura

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    Emmanuel Housset

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo de Emmanuel Housset implica un esfuerzo de rehabilitación del concepto «persona» para la filosofía contemporánea y la fenomenología. Para ello el autor busca mostrar cómo poco a poco «persona» tomó otra significación que la de «personaje» o sujeto de derecho. Es en autores como san Agustín y santo Tomás de Aquino que se halla un acceso diferente que pone el énfasis más bien en su carácter relacional y responsivo de la persona, antes que en su dimensión autónoma y autotélica. Tal dimensión aparece, según Housset, junto con la idea de persona como creatura y en oposición a la de individuo racional dueño de sí. La dimensión afectiva, la personalidad despertada por las diversas figuras de la alteridad son algunas de las dimensiones de la persona que examina el autor a partir del examen de la carne, las pasiones, la memoria, la historicidad y el amor alteridad.Emmanuel Housset's paper is an effort to revitalize the concept of 'person' for contemporary philosophy and phenomenology To this end the author looks to show how little by little the understanding of 'person' took on a different meaning to that of 'character' or "right bearing individual". It is in authors such as St. Augustine and St. Thomas Aquinas that a different approach is found, one that puts emphasis on the relational and responsive character of a person, rather than on the autonomous and auto telic dimension. According to Housset, such a dimension appears together with the idea of the person as a creation, and in opposition to the idea of the rational individual, that is his own master. The emotional dimension and the personality that is awoken by the many figures of alterity are some of the dimensions of the person that the author analyzes, based on examining the flesh, passions, memory historicity and love.

  1. Salmonella spp., importante agente patogênico veiculado em alimentos Salmonella spp., important pathogenic agent transmitted through foodstuffs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neide Kazue Sakugawa Shinohara

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A ocorrência de doenças transmitidas por alimentos (DTAs tem sido foco de discussões nos últimos anos, devido à preocupação mundial com estratégias que permitam seu controle e, conseqüentemente, garantam a colocação de produtos seguros no mercado consumidor. A Salmonella spp. é um dos microrganismos mais amplamente distribuídos na natureza, sendo o homem e os animais seus principais reservatórios naturais, com ocorrência de sorotipos regionais, reconhecidos como salmoneloses, e considerado como um dos principais agentes envolvidos em surtos de origem alimentar em países desenvolvidos. O aumento da incidência da salmonelose provocada por alimentos contaminados demonstra que, na atualidade, apesar dos avanços tecnológicos alcançados, este problema ainda ocorre mundialmente. As aves e bovinos são responsáveis pela maior disseminação desse agente patogênico. A ampla distribuição da Salmonella spp. entre os animais, a existência de portadores assintomáticos e sua permanência no ambiente e nos alimentos contribuem para que este microrganismo assuma um papel de grande relevância na saúde pública mundial e, portanto, programas permanentes de controle e erradicação devem ser adotados.The occurrence of foodborne diseases has been a matter of discussion over the last years due to the worldwide concern with strategies for their control and for ensuring that safe food products reach the consumer. Salmonella spp. is among the most widespread microorganisms in nature, having man and animals as main natural reservoirs. With occurrence of regional serotypes causing salmonellosis, this pathogen is considered one of the main agents responsible for outbreaks of foodborne disease in the developing countries. The increasing incidence of salmonellosis caused by contaminated food has shown that, despite the recent technological improvements, this problem still occurs in all countries. Cattle and poultry are the main responsible for

  2. Arte como espelho

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    Pedro Süssekind

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como ponto de partida o exemplo da relação espelhada entre um livro e uma pintura de mesmo nome: o retrato que Lucian Freud fez do crítico de arte Martin Gayford e o diário que esse crítico escreveu sobre seu retratista, ambas as obras chamadas Homem com cachecol azul. A partir do exemplo, discuto a metáfora do espelho para caracterizar a arte, recorrendo para isso à teoria da representação artísticas elaborada pelo filósofo norte-americano Arthur Danto no artigo “O mundo da arte”, de 1964, e no primeiro capítulo do livro A transfiguração do lugar-comum, de 1981. Recorro, por fim, a dois exemplos artísticos de espelhamento na representação analisados por Danto em O abuso da beleza, de 2003, um quadro holandês do século dezessete e um poema de Rainer Maria Rilke.

  3. como fuentes mutuas

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    Gabriel Morales Hernández

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo, el autor analiza, a partir de la antropología filosófica de Martín Heidegger y de la filosofía ilustrada de Immanuel Kant, la postura del filósofo francés Étienne Balibar en torno a la categoría de ciudadanía como base para esbozar una antropología filosófica renovada. A partir de la concepción kantiana de ciudadanía, Balibar construye una propuesta de antropología filosófica estructurada alrededor de tres pares de polos: el par hombresujeto, el par subjectus-subjectum y el par cosmos-polis. El autor va mostrando, a lo largo del trabajo, la manera en que la categoría «ciudadanía» articula cada uno de estos pares de términos y concluye con algunas consideraciones sobre las ventajas de la propuesta balibariana.

  4. Endomarketing: como diferencial competitivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Birck

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Atualmente, com a profissionalização das empresas e com a grande concorrência no mercado, observa-se uma demanda cada vez maior de gestores comprometidos com o bem-estar pessoal e profissional de seus colaboradores. E, com esse intuito, de apresentar algumas idéias básicas de gestão voltadas à aplicação nas mais diversas técnicas de Endomarketing. Demonstra assim, a importância da utilização de feedback, tanto por parte dos colaboradores quanto dos gestores, destacando a importância de trabalhos de motivação, do clima organizacional favorável e de uma comunicação interna eficaz e a necessidade ímpar de tratar o colaborador como o diferencial dentro de uma empresa. Desta forma, foi realizada uma pesquisa bibliográfica que auxiliará e dará subsídios que lhe permitam retribuir em ações e atitudes de sucesso e, também, fazer um confronto de idéias, onde os autores apresentam suas mais diversas opiniões. Contudo, valendo-se, muitas vezes, de narrativas de experiências de outros gestores e até mesmo de suas próprias, tirando cada um suas próprias conclusões.

  5. El riesgo como oportunidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Gargantini

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante los últimos años el crecimiento mundial de catástrofes naturales ha ido en franco aumento. Sin embargo, desde un enfoque sistémico puede verificarse que la gran mayoría de los desastres se origina en los países en desarrollo (entre ellos los latinoamericanos, siendo las pérdidas en ellos significativamente más altas que en los países industrializados. Bajo esta postura los desastres no son sólo naturales sino socio- naturales, enfatizando la estrecha relación de causalidad entre modelos de desarrollo y urbanización y procesos de generación de riesgos, al incrementar la vulnerabilidad de los sectores más desprotegidos. El desastre pone en evidencia así una situación (la pobreza y segregación urbana ya existente, pero no considerada hasta el momento de la catástrofe. Frente a este panorama el desastre aparece como oportunidad que precipita tres catalizadores de políticas habitacionales: tierra, asistencia técnica y financiamiento, incrementando la celeridad y la creatividad de las respuestas. El interrogante que surge es por qué esperar el desastre para ponerlos en marcha, cuando ninguno de ellos es estrictamente dependiente de la situación de riesgo, sino sujeto de luchas de poder.

  6. El signo como emblema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sáez, Carlos

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to study the signs and symbols that appear in the hispanic medieval documents and manuscripts. These signs and symbols have usually been considered simply as mere elements to validate the charters. However, these alements were useful as a mean of visual communication between the high classes, able to generate charters, and the rest of medieval society—the majority illiterate— who received those charters. Because of their inability of understand an alphabetical code, they needed the graphic help to comprehend the message. Besides this, the article deals with non diplomatic signs and their function.

    Este artículo se centra en los signos o símbolos presentes en los documentos y manuscritos medievales hispanos, que habitualmente han sido tratados como meros elementos de validación de los diplomas. Pero estos elementos servían también de nexos de comunicación visual entre las clases poderosas, capaces de producir escritos, y los demás miembros de la sociedad medieval, receptores y destinatarios de tales escritos, en su mayoría analfabetos. Precisamente por esta razón, su incapacidad de descifrar un código alfabético, necesitan de auxilio gráfico para acercarse a la comprensión del mensaje. Asimismo, tratamos de los signos no diplomáticos y de su función.

  7. First record of the rare species Aeromonas schubertii from mussels: phenotypic and genetic reevaluation of the species and a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif-Eugenín, Fadua; Beaz-Hidalgo, Roxana; Figueras, María José

    2016-05-01

    In a study where the prevalence of Aeromonas in shellfish was analysed, three isolates of Aeromonas schubertii were identified, representing this the first report of this species from mussels. This species was originally described in 1988 from strains isolated from extra-intestinal human infections and since then has been cited in only 18 occasions. For many years, A. schubertii was the only mannitol-negative species of the genus. However, three additional mannitol-negative species (Aeromonas simiae, Aeromonas diversa and Aeromonas australiensis) have been described. This, together with the fact that A. schubertii is a rare human pathogenic species, motivated the present study to characterize its biochemical behaviour and differentiation from the other mannitol-negative species. The molecular similarity (16S rRNA, rpoD and gyrB genes) of the strains, presence of virulence genes and antimicrobial resistance were determined. All A. schubertii strains showed the same phenotypic behaviour, i.e. they use citrate, are positive for lysine decarboxylase and DL-lactate, but negative for production of mannitol, indole and acid from sucrose and could be easily differentiated from other mannitol-negative species. All strains carried the aerA and lafA virulence genes and showed susceptibility to all antibiotics tested. Seafood could be a transmission route of this bacterium to humans.

  8. O direito como imperativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cloter Miglioriani

    1988-08-01

    Full Text Available We have examined one of the facets which Law presents to society, looking at the theme through a brief history of Law, in which Roman Law stands out, up to modem times, comparing current juridical systems such as the Continental System, Common Law, and Soviet Law. We have looked at Law from the viewpoint of society 's need to have basic mies for living together, with the juridical ruZe being one of the most important. We have highlighted the views of Hart and Kelsen on the foundations of the validity of Law. We have also considered the obligatoriness of Law; giving the point of view of tadbruch who, explaining his ''Theory of the Obligatoriness of Law ", concluded that the obligatoriness of Law can only be withdraw when there is a Clash between morals, law, use and social conventions. We have looked at the notion of the imperativeness of Law the central theme of the work -drawing on the views of Miguel Reale, for whom the juridical nonn cannot be reduced to a "command of a volitional nature", but rather the obligatory character of the juridical nonn arises from the pressure of social values. Del Vecchio, who is also quoted, recognized that imperativeness exists in the juridical norm, whether it is preceptive (a positive command or permissive. Also mentioned is the opinion of Tercio Sampaio Ferraz, for whom the juridical norm has imperativeness to the extent that the imposition of behaviour is unconditionally guaranteed. Foi feita a abordagem de uma das facetas com que o Direito se apresenta à sociedade, enfocando o tema a partir de um brevíssimo histórico do Direito, onde revela a fase romana, até os períodos modernos, com comparações dos sistemas jurídicos hodiernos, como o sistema continental, o da Commum Law e o soviético. Foi enfocado o Direito em face da necessidade sociedade em ter básicas de convivência, despontando a regra jurídica como das mais importantes. Foi dado destaque às posições de Hart e Kelsen, sobre os

  9. Genetic modification of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) aiming the production of conjugated fatty acids

    OpenAIRE

    João Fernando Bortoleto

    2010-01-01

    Plantas transgênicas constituem interessantes alternativas para a produção de compostos com elevado valor agregado como polímeros industriais, proteínas farmacológicas e lipídios nutracêuticos. Como candidata à biofábrica, a cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum spp.) apresenta características agronômicas favoráveis, além de versatilidade de matéria-prima, que é empregada em fins tradicionais, como produção de álcool e açúcar, e até mesmo para geração de energia ou como forragem para alimentação de gado....

  10. Non-specific immune response of bullfrog Rana catesbeiana to intraperitoneal injection of bacterium Aeromonas hydrophila

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Non-specific immune response of bullfrog Rana catesbeiana to pathogenic Aeromonas hydrophila was studied to 60 individuals in two groups. Each bullfrog in bacterium-injected group was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with 0.2 ml bacterial suspension at a density of 5.2 × 106 CFU/ml, while each one in control group injected i.p. with 0.2 ml sterile saline solution (0.85%, w/v). Three bullfrogs in both groups were sampled at 0, 1, 3, 7, 11, 15 and 20 days post-injection (dpi) for the evaluation of non-specific immune parameters. It was observed that intraperitoneal injection of A. hydrophila significantly increased the number of leucocytes and that of NBT-positive cells in peripheral blood. Significant increases in serum bactericidal activity and serum acid phosphatase activity were also observed in the bacterium-injected frogs when compared with those in the control group. However, a significant reduction was detected in vitro in phagocytosis activity of peripheral blood phagocytes. No significant difference in changes in the number of peripheral erythrocytes, serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and lysozyme activity was detected between the two groups. It is suggested that bullfrogs may produce a series of non-specific immune reactions in response to the A. hydrophila infection.

  11. Effect of plasma processing and organosilane modifications of polyethylene on Aeromonas hydrophila biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kregiel, Dorota; Niedzielska, Kamila

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our research was to study how the modifications of polyethylene--a material commonly used in medicine and water industry--influence bacterial cell attachment and biofilm formation. The native surface was activated and modified using two-step process consisting in the activation of native surface with a H2O vapor plasma followed by its treatment with various organosilanes, namely, [3(tertbutylamine-2hydroxy) propyloxypropyl] diethoxymethylsilane, 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctylmethyldimethoxysilane, dimethoxydimethylsilane, and isobutylmethyldimethoxysilane. The effect of polyethylene modification after chemical treatment was analyzed using surface tension measurement. The adhesive properties of Aeromonas hydrophila LOCK0968 were studied in water with a low concentration of organic compounds, using luminometric and microscopic methods, and the viability of the adhered bacterial cells was evaluated using the colony forming units method. After two-week incubation the chemically modified materials exhibited better antiadhesive and antibacterial characteristics in comparison to the native surface. Among the examined modifying agents, dimethoxydimethylsilane showed the best desired properties.

  12. Isolation and characterization of Aeromonas schubertii from diseased snakehead, Channa maculata (Lacepède).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y F; Liang, R S; Zhuo, X L; Wu, X T; Zou, J X

    2012-06-01

    Pure bacterial cultures were isolated from diseased snakeheads, Channa maculata (Lacepède), suffering high mortality in a farm in Zhongshan, southern China. Three isolates, namely ZS20100725, ZS20100725-1 and ZS20100725-2, were identified as Aeromonas schubertii. All the isolates showed high 16S rRNA sequence similarities with A. schubertii. The isolates exhibited strong virulence to snakeheads in experimental challenges with LD(50) ranging between 1.4 × 10(4) and 6.4 × 10(6) CFU g(-1). Two of the isolates were positive for haemolysin, elastase, lipase and lecithinase by phenotypic determination, which was further confirmed by PCR amplification of the haemolysin and elastase genes. In sterile liquid medium, the best growth conditions of strain ZS20100725 were 30 °C, pH 7 and 0.5% salinity (w/v). Antibiotic susceptibility tests showed that strain ZS20100725 was susceptible to cefoxitin, cefoperazone and chloramphenicol. Furthermore, histopathology of diseased snakeheads infected with A. schubertii showed necrosis and congestion in liver, kidney and spleen and also damage to the cardiac muscle, intestine and gills.

  13. Antibacterial activities of bioactive compounds extracted from Marine algae Gracilaria salicornia against Aeromonas hydrophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Rasooli

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Herbal medicinal products have attracted significant research interest in recent years. Considering the efficiency of algae products in controlling pathogenic bacteria and also easy access to large resources of algae, this study was conducted to evaluate the effects of methanolic, chloroformic and aqueous extracts of Gracilaria salicornia against Aeromonas hydrophila, a heterotrophic, Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium found mainly in warm climate. Algae samples were collected from Qeshm Island coastlines and transferred to the laboratory. Standard methods were used to obtain the algae extract. Antibacterial activities of various extracts were tested against the bacterium using well diffusion assay method. Significant differences were observed in antibacterial activities of different extracts (P<0.05. The diameter of zone of growth inhibition varied in correlation with concentration of the extracts (50, 100, 200 and 300 mg.ml-1. The best inhibition zone was observed at 100, 200 and 300 mg.ml-1 methanolic and 300 mg.ml-1 aqueous extracts.

  14. Effect of Plasma Processing and Organosilane Modifications of Polyethylene on Aeromonas hydrophila Biofilm Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Kregiel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our research was to study how the modifications of polyethylene—a material commonly used in medicine and water industry—influence bacterial cell attachment and biofilm formation. The native surface was activated and modified using two-step process consisting in the activation of native surface with a H2O vapor plasma followed by its treatment with various organosilanes, namely, [3(tertbutylamine-2hydroxy propyloxypropyl] diethoxymethylsilane, 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctylmethyldimethoxysilane, dimethoxydimethylsilane, and isobutylmethyldimethoxysilane. The effect of polyethylene modification after chemical treatment was analyzed using surface tension measurement. The adhesive properties of Aeromonas hydrophila LOCK0968 were studied in water with a low concentration of organic compounds, using luminometric and microscopic methods, and the viability of the adhered bacterial cells was evaluated using the colony forming units method. After two-week incubation the chemically modified materials exhibited better antiadhesive and antibacterial characteristics in comparison to the native surface. Among the examined modifying agents, dimethoxydimethylsilane showed the best desired properties.

  15. Detection and quantification of Aeromonas salmonicida in fish tissue by real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartkova, S; Kokotovic, B; Skall, H F; Lorenzen, N; Dalsgaard, I

    2017-02-01

    Furunculosis, a septicaemic infection caused by the bacterium Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, currently causes problems in Danish seawater rainbow trout production. Detection has mainly been achieved by bacterial culture, but more rapid and sensitive methods are needed. A previously developed real-time PCR assay targeting the plasmid encoded aopP gene of A. salmonicida was, in parallel with culturing, used for the examination of five organs of 40 fish from Danish freshwater and seawater farms. Real-time PCR showed overall a higher frequency of positives than culturing (65% of positive fish by real-time PCR compared to 30% by a culture approach). Also, no real-time PCR-negative samples were found positive by culturing. A. salmonicida was detected by real-time PCR, though not by culturing, in freshwater fish showing no signs of furunculosis, indicating possible presence of carrier fish. In seawater fish examined after an outbreak and antibiotics treatment, real-time PCR showed the presence of the bacterium in all examined organs (1-482 genomic units mg(-1) ). With a limit of detection of 40 target copies (1-2 genomic units) per reaction, a high reproducibility and an excellent efficiency, the present real-time PCR assay provides a sensitive tool for the detection of A. salmonicida.

  16. Subunit vaccine candidates against Aeromonas salmonicida in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Louise von Gersdorff; Skov, Jakob; Chettri, Jiwan Kumar; Holm Mattsson, Andreas; Dalsgaard, Inger; Kania, Per Walter; Buchmann, Kurt

    2017-01-01

    Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida is the etiological agent of furunculosis and a major fish health problem in salmonid aquaculture worldwide. Injection vaccination with commercial mineral oil-adjuvanted bacterin vaccines has been partly successful in preventing the disease but in Danish rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum) aquaculture furunculosis outbreaks still occur. In this study we tested the efficacy of experimental subunit vaccines against A. salmonicida infection in rainbow trout. We utilized in silico screening of the proteome of A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida strain A449 and identified potential protective protein antigens that were tested by in vivo challenge trial. A total of 14 proteins were recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli and prepared in 3 different subunit vaccine combinations to immunize 3 groups of rainbow trout by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection. The fish were exposed to virulent A. salmonicida 7 weeks after immunization. To assess the efficacy of the subunit vaccines we evaluated the immune response in fish after immunization and challenge infection by measuring the antibody levels and monitoring the survival of fish in different groups. The survival of fish at 3 weeks after challenge infection showed that all 3 groups of fish immunized with 3 different protein combinations exhibited significantly lower mortalities (17–30%) compared to the control groups (48% and 56%). The ELISA results revealed significantly elevated antibody levels in fish against several protein antigens, which in some cases were positively correlated to the survival. PMID:28182704

  17. Production and efficacy of an Aeromonas hydrophila recombinant S-layer protein vaccine for fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poobalane, Saravanane; Thompson, Kim D; Ardó, László; Verjan, Noel; Han, Hyun-Ja; Jeney, Galina; Hirono, Ikuo; Aoki, Takashi; Adams, Alexandra

    2010-04-30

    A recombinant protein for the S-layer protein of Aeromonas hydrophila was produced and its ability to protect common carp Cyprinus carpio L. against six virulent isolates of A. hydrophila was assessed. A group of 120 carp (30-40 g) were vaccinated intra-peritoneally with 0.1 ml of adjuvanted vaccine (30 microg protein per fish). Another group of 120 carp were injected with 0.1 ml of PBS-adjuvant mixture to serve as controls. Twenty fish from each group were challenged with each one of six virulent isolates of A. hydrophila 35 days post-vaccination. The fish were maintained in 12 separate tanks before terminating the experiment at 16 days post-challenge. The relative percentage survival (RPS) for the six isolates of A. hydrophila ranged from 56 to 87%. The difference in survival rate of fish challenged with four of the isolates was statistically significant in vaccinated fish compared to control fish, when analysed using a Chi-square test. The results of the study suggest that the recombinant S-layer protein of A. hydrophila could be useful as a vaccine antigen to protect fish against different isolates of this pathogenic bacterium.

  18. Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Characterization of Outer Membrane Proteins of Aeromonas hydrophila Isolated in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Peng; WANG Na; LIU Yong-jie; LU Cheng-ping

    2014-01-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila isolates from clinical cases (n=43) were tested against 8 antimicrobial agents and typed by outer membrane protein (OMP) pattern by using sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis. All isolates were resistant to ampicillin (MICs, 16 mg mL-1) and sulfamonomethoxine (MICs, 64 mg mL-1), but susceptible to norlfoxacin (MICs, 0.5 mg mL-1). There was a high incidence of resistance to erythromycin (90.70%) and tylosin (93.02%), while a low incidences of resistance to ciprofloxacin (2.33%), enrofloxacin (2.33%) and florfenicol (4.65%). Six different outer membrane protein patterns were found among 34 isolates by analyzing proteins in the range of 22 to 50 kDa, other than 9 isolates with their respective proifles. The strains with the similar OMP proifles had similar resistances. Compared with the other strains from the same OMP patterns, NB-1, A.Pun and MR-1 had lacked the proteins in the range of 30 to 45 kDa and their resistance to lforfenicol substantially increased. It is speculated that the outer membrane protein changes might correlate with decreased susceptibility to lforfenicol in the three strains. Some strains which showed completely identical OMP types had a little difference in their resistance to lfuoroquinolones, indicating that there might be other factors that were involved in the antimicrobial resistance of A. hydrophila.

  19. Proteomic Analysis Reveals That Metabolic Flows Affect the Susceptibility of Aeromonas hydrophila to Antibiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zujie; Li, Wanxin; Lin, Yi; Wu, Qian; Yu, Feifei; Lin, Wenxiong; Lin, Xiangmin

    2016-01-01

    The overuse of antibiotics results in the development of antibiotic resistance and limits the useful life of these drugs in fighting bacteria, including Aeromonas hydrophila, a well-known opportunistic pathogen that causes serious infections in fish and other animals. In this study, we investigated the adaptive resistance mechanism in A. hydrophila by multiple proteomic methods. Dimethyl labeling and label-free methods were performed to compare the differential expression of proteins in response to various doses of oxytetracycline (OXY). The results point to the conclusions that, in response to OXY stress, translational processes increase the abundance of these proteins whereas largely central metabolic pathways decrease their abundance. To confirm our hypothesis, various exogenous metabolites were compounded with OXY, and the resulting survival capabilities were measured. Results show that 7 metabolites (malic acid, serine, methionine, etc.) significantly decreased the survival capabilities of A. hydrophila in the presence of OXY, whereas 4 metabolites (arginine, lysine, tyrosine, etc.) did the opposite. Further investigation suggests that a compound comprising exogenous metabolites in combination with various antibiotics could have a significant bactericidal effect and might come into widespread use, especially together with tetracycline antibiotics. These findings may provide new clues to the antimicrobial treatment of A. hydrophila infection. PMID:27991550

  20. Structural Insights on PHA Binding Protein PhaP from Aeromonas hydrophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongyu; Wei, Hui; Liu, Xi; Yao, Zhenyu; Xu, Manyu; Wei, Daixu; Wang, Jiawei; Wang, Xinquan; Chen, Guo-Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Phasins or PhaPs are a group of amphiphilic proteins that are found attached to the surface of microbial polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) granules. They have both structural and regulatory functions and can affect intracellular PHA accumulation and mediate protein folding. The molecular basis for the diverse functions of the PhaPs has not been fully understood due to the lack of the structural knowledge. Here we report the structural and biochemical studies of the PhaP cloned from Aeromonas hydrophila (PhaPAh), which is utilized in protein and tissue engineering. The crystal structure of PhaPAh was revealed to be a tetramer with 8 α-helices adopting a coiled-coil structure. Each monomer has a hydrophobic and a hydrophilic surface, rendering the surfactant properties of the PhaPAh monomer. Based on the crystal structure, we predicted three key amino acid residues and obtained mutants with enhanced stability and improved emulsification properties. The first PhaP crystal structure, as reported in this study, is an important step towards a mechanistic understanding of how PHA is formed in vivo and why PhaP has such unique surfactant properties. At the same time, it will facilitate the study of other PhaP members that may have significant biotechnological potential as bio-surfactants and amphipathic coatings. PMID:28009010

  1. An experimental vaccine against Aeromonas hydrophila can induce protection in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPatra, S.E.; Plant, K.P.; Alcorn, S.; Ostland, V.; Winton, J.

    2010-01-01

    A candidate vaccine against Aeromonas hydrophila in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, was developed using a bacterial lysate. To test the strength of protection, A. hydrophila challenge models were compared using injection into both the intraperitoneal (IP) cavity and the dorsal sinus (DS) with selected doses of live bacteria washed in saline or left untreated. Unlike the IP route, injection into the DS with either saline washed or unwashed cells resulted in consistent cumulative mortality and a dose response that could be used to establish a standard challenge having an LD50 of approximately 3 × 107 colony forming units per fish. Survivors of the challenge suffered significantly lower mortality upon re-challenge than naïve fish, suggesting a high level of acquired resistance was elicited by infection. Passive immunization using serum from hyper-immunized fish also resulted in significantly reduced mortality indicating protection can be transferred and that some portion of resistance may be antibody mediated. Vaccination of groups of rainbow trout with A. hydrophila lysate resulted in significant protection against a high challenge dose but only when injected along with Freund’s complete adjuvant. At a low challenge dose, mortality in all groups was low, but the bacterial lysate alone appeared to offer some protection.

  2. Non-specific immune response of bullfrog Rana catesbeiana to intraperitoneal injection of bacterium Aeromonas hydrophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junjie; Zou, Wenzheng; Yan, Qingpi

    2008-08-01

    Non-specific immune response of bullfrog Rana catesbeiana to pathogenic Aeromonas hydrophila was studied to 60 individuals in two groups. Each bullfrog in bacterium-injected group was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with 0.2 ml bacterial suspension at a density of 5.2 × 106 CFU/ml, while each one in control group injected i.p. with 0.2 ml sterile saline solution (0.85%, w/v). Three bullfrogs in both groups were sampled at 0, 1, 3, 7, 11, 15 and 20 days post-injection (dpi) for the evaluation of non-specific immune parameters. It was observed that intraperitoneal injection of A. hydrophila significantly increased the number of leucocytes and that of NBT-positive cells in peripheral blood. Significant increases in serum bactericidal activity and serum acid phosphatase activity were also observed in the bacterium-injected frogs when compared with those in the control group. However, a significant reduction was detected in vitro in phagocytosis activity of peripheral blood phagocytes. No significant difference in changes in the number of peripheral erythrocytes, serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and lysozyme activity was detected between the two groups. It is suggested that bullfrogs may produce a series of non-specific immune reactions in response to the A. hydrophila infection.

  3. The LBP Gene and Its Association with Resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila in Tilapia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui Hong Fu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Resistance to pathogens is important for the sustainability and profitability of food fish production. In immune-related genes, the lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP gene is an important mediator of the inflammatory reaction. We analyzed the cDNA and genomic structure of the LBP gene in tilapia. The full-length cDNA (1901 bp of the gene contained a 1416 bp open reading frame, encoding 471 amino acid residues. Its genomic sequence was 5577 bp, comprising 15 exons and 14 introns. Under normal conditions, the gene was constitutively expressed in all examined tissues. The highest expression was detected in intestine and kidney. We examined the responses of the gene to challenges with two bacterial pathogens Streptcoccus agalactiae and Aeromonas hydrophila. The gene was significantly upregulated in kidney and spleen post-infection with S. agalactiae and A. hydrophila, respectively. However, the expression profiles of the gene after the challenge with the two pathogens were different. Furthermore, we identified three SNPs in the gene. There were significant associations (p < 0.05 of two of the three SNPs with the resistance to A. hydrophila, but not with the resistance to S. agalactiae or growth performance. These results suggest that the LBP gene is involved in the acute-phase immunologic response to the bacterial infections, and the responses to the two bacterial pathogens are different. The two SNPs associated with the resistance to A. hydrophila may be useful in the selection of tilapia resistant to A. hydrophila.

  4. Reduction of Aeromonas hidrophyla biofilm on stainless stell surface by essential oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Farias Millezi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study demonstrates the possibility of using sanitizing detergents based on natural products for the elimination and/or reduction of Aeromonas hydrophila biofilm formed on stainless steel surfaces. The goal of this work was to determine the reduction effect of sanitizing detergents containing essential oils of Thymus vulgaris (thyme and Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass on biofilm formed by A. hydrophila on AISI 304 stainless steel coupons, using UHT skimmed milk as substratum. There was adhesion and biofilm formation by A. hydrophila at 28 ºC, presenting 7.60 log cfu.cm-2 after the fourth day of cultivation. There was no significant difference between the lemongrass treatment and that of the thyme oil (p 0.05. The treatment with lemongrass solution reduced the biofilm by 4.51 log cfu cm-2 at 25 ºC. The thyme detergent also reduced the number of cfu cm-2 by 3.84 log cycles at 25 ºC. The use of the lemongrass and thyme solutions efficiently reduced the A. hydrophila biofilm.

  5. Detection of multidrug resistance Aeromonas hydrophila in farm raised fresh water prawns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Bakhtiar Lijon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken for isolation, identification and determination of antibiogram profile of Aeromonas hydrophila in farm raised fresh water prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii on five commercial ghers. Fresh water prawns (n=25 were collected from five ghers located at Satkhira, Bagerhat and Khulna districts of Bangladesh. Brain (n=25, muscle (n=25 and intestine (n=25 samples were collected aseptically from fresh water prawn and inoculated into alkaline peptone (APW water for enrichment at 37℃ for 8 h. Enriched cultured was streaked into Thiosulfate Citrate Bile Salt Sucrose (TCBS agar to isolate bacteria. Bacteria were identified by cultural, Gram staining, biochemical properties and polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay. The antibiogram profiles of bacteria were investigated against 5 commonly used antibiotics (Gentamicin, Cefalexin, Ampicillin, Azithromycin and Ciprofloxacin by disc diffusion method. Thirteen A. hydrophila isolates were identified and the prevalence of the A. hydrophila in fresh water prawn was 17.33%. All 13 (100% isolates were sensitive to Ciprofloxacin, Gentamicin, Azithromycin and resistant to Ampicillin and Cefalexin. The results of this study indicate that farm raised fresh water prawn harbor multidrug resistant A. hydrophila which might causes public health problem if enter into human food chain.

  6. Anti-biofouling property of vanillin on Aeromonas hydrophila initial biofilm on various membrane surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnusamy, K; Kappachery, S; Thekeettle, M; Song, J H; Kweon, J H

    2013-09-01

    Biofouling is a serious problem on filter membranes of water purification systems due to formation of bacterial biofilms, which can be detrimental to the membrane performance. Biofouling occurs on membrane surface and therefore greatly influences the physical and chemical aspects of the surface. Several membranes including microfiltration, ultrafiltration, and reverse osmosis (RO) membranes were used to learn about the anti-biofouling properties of vanillin affecting the membrane performances. Vanillin has been recognized as a potential quorum quenching compound for Aeromonas hydrophila biofilms. The initial attachment and dynamics of biofilm growth were monitored using scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Biofilm quantities were measured using a plate count method and total protein determinations. Vanillin addition was effective in the prevention of biofilm formation on the tested membrane surfaces. Among the membranes, RO membranes made with cellulose acetate showed the most substantial reduction of biofilm formation by addition of vanillin. The biofilm reduction was confirmed by the results of surface coverage, biomass and protein accumulation. The HPLC spectrum of the spent culture with vanillin addition showed that vanillin may interfere with quorum sensing molecules and thus prevent the formation of the biofilms.

  7. The LBP gene and its association with resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila in tilapia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Gui Hong; Liu, Feng; Xia, Jun Hong; Yue, Gen Hua

    2014-12-01

    Resistance to pathogens is important for the sustainability and profitability of food fish production. In immune-related genes, the lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) gene is an important mediator of the inflammatory reaction. We analyzed the cDNA and genomic structure of the LBP gene in tilapia. The full-length cDNA (1901 bp) of the gene contained a 1416 bp open reading frame, encoding 471 amino acid residues. Its genomic sequence was 5577 bp, comprising 15 exons and 14 introns. Under normal conditions, the gene was constitutively expressed in all examined tissues. The highest expression was detected in intestine and kidney. We examined the responses of the gene to challenges with two bacterial pathogens Streptcoccus agalactiae and Aeromonas hydrophila. The gene was significantly upregulated in kidney and spleen post-infection with S. agalactiae and A. hydrophila, respectively. However, the expression profiles of the gene after the challenge with the two pathogens were different. Furthermore, we identified three SNPs in the gene. There were significant associations (p tilapia resistant to A. hydrophila.

  8. Cloning, sequencing and expression of the gene encoding the extracellular metalloprotease of Aeromonas caviae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, K; Toma, C; Honma, Y

    2000-01-01

    A gene (apk) encoding the extracellular protease of Aeromonas caviae Ae6 has been cloned and sequenced. For cloning the gene, the DNA genomic library was screened using skim milk LB agar. One clone harboring plasmid pKK3 was selected for sequencing. Nucleotide sequencing of the 3.5 kb region of pKK3 revealed a single open reading frame (ORF) of 1,785 bp encoding 595 amino acids. The deduced polypeptide contained a putative 16-amino acid signal peptide followed by a large propeptide. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of purified recombinant protein (APK) was consistent with the DNA sequence. This result suggested a mature protein of 412 amino acids with a molecular mass of 44 kDa. However, the molecular mass of purified recombinant APK revealed 34 kDa by SDS-PAGE, suggesting that further processing at the C-terminal region took place. The 2 motifs of zinc binding sites deduced are highly conserved in the APK as well as in other zinc metalloproteases including Vibrio proteolyticus neutral protease, Emp V from Vibrio vulnificus, HA/P from Vibrio cholerae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase. Proteolytic activity was inhibited by EDTA, Zincov, 1,10-phenanthroline and tetraethylenepentamine while unaffected by the other inhibitors tested. The protease showed maximum activity at pH 7.0 and was inactivated by heating at 80 C for 15 min. These results together suggest that APK belongs to the thermolysin family of metalloendopeptidases.

  9. Optimization of a plasmid electroporation protocol for Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallaire-Dufresne, Stéphanie; Emond-Rheault, Jean-Guillaume; Attéré, Sabrina A; Tanaka, Katherine H; Trudel, Mélanie V; Frenette, Michel; Charette, Steve J

    2014-03-01

    Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida is a major fish pathogen. Molecular tools are required to study the virulence and genomic stability of this bacterium. An efficient electroporation-mediated transformation protocol for A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida would make genetic studies faster and easier. In the present study, we designed the 4.1-kb pSDD1 plasmid as a tool for optimizing an electroporation protocol for A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida. We systematically tested the electroporation conditions to develop a protocol that generates the maximum number of transformants. Under these optimal conditions (25 kV/cm, 200 Ω, 25 μF), we achieved an electroporation efficiency of up to 1×10(5) CFU/μg DNA. The electroporation protocol was also tested using another plasmid of 10.6-kb and three different strains of A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida. The strains displayed significant differences in their electro-transformation competencies. Strain 01-B526 was the easiest to electroporate, especially with the pSDD1 plasmid. This plasmid was stably maintained in the 01-B526 transformants, as were the native plasmids, but could be easily cured by removing the selection conditions. This is the first efficient electroporation protocol reported for A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, and offers new possibilities for studying this bacterium.

  10. Inactivation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aeromonas hydrophila by silver in tap water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestry-Rodriguez, Nadia; Bright, Kelly R; Uhlmann, Donald R; Slack, Donald C; Gerba, Charles P

    2007-09-01

    This study was conducted to assess the efficacy of silver as a secondary disinfectant to replace or reduce the level of chlorine utilized in water distribution systems. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aeromonas hydrophila are opportunistic pathogens present in drinking water and have been associated with waterborne disease. After 8 hours of exposure to 100 microg/L of silver, there was a >6-log10 reduction in P. aeruginosa in tap water at room temperature at pH7 and a 5.55-log10 reduction in the presence of 3 mg/L humic acid. Similar reductions were observed at pH9. At 4 degrees C, reductions greater than 4-log10 were observed after 24 hours. For A. hydrophila, a >6-log10 reduction occurred at both pH7 and pH9 within nine hours. The World Health Organization has determined that this amount of silver could be used for water disinfection without health risks. Furthermore, silver shows promise as a secondary disinfectant, even in the presence of organic matter in concentrations that would reduce the effectiveness of free chlorine.

  11. Growth inhibition of Aeromonas salmonicida and Yersinia ruckeri by disinfectants containing peracetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinelt, Thomas; Phan, Thy-My; Behrens, Sascha; Wienke, Andreas; Pedersen, Lars-Flemming; Liu, Dibo; Straus, David L

    2015-04-08

    Peracetic acid (PAA) is a therapeutic agent used for disinfection in aquaculture, but it must be investigated thoroughly in order to mitigate diseases without harming the fish. Successful disinfectants (like PAA) should not leave dangerous residues in the environment in order to successfully contribute to sustainable aquaculture. The aim of our study was to compare the effectiveness of 6 commercial PAA products with different molecular PAA:H2O2 ratios to reduce bacterial growth of Aeromonas salmonicida and Yersinia ruckeri and to determine effective concentrations and exposure times. All products reduced colony-forming units (CFUs) of A. salmonicida and Y. ruckeri. Products with higher molecular PAA:H2O2 ratios inhibited growth better than products with lower molecular PAA:H2O2 ratios at the same PAA concentration; this indicates that H2O2 is not the driving force in the reduction of A. salmonicida and Y. ruckeri growth by PAA in vitro. The practical application of the products with high molecular PAA:H2O2 ratios should be prioritized if these pathogens are diagnosed.

  12. Surface protein composition of Aeromonas hydrophila strains virulent for fish: identification of a surface array protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooley, J.S.G.; Trust, T.J.

    1988-02-01

    The surface protein composition of members of a serogroup of Aeromonas hydrophila was examined. Immunoblotting with antiserum raised against formalinized whole cells of A. hydrophila TF7 showed a 52K S-layer protein to be the major surface protein antigen, and impermeant Sulfo-NHS-Biotin cell surface labeling showed that the 52K S-layer protein was the only protein accessible to the Sulfo-NHS-Biotin label and effectively masked underlying outer membrane (OM) proteins. In its native surface conformation the 52K S-layer protein was only weakly reactive with a lactoperoxidase /sup 125/I surface iodination procedure. A UV-induced rough lipopolysaccharide (LPS) mutant of TF7 was found to produce an intact S layer, but a deep rough LPS mutant was unable to maintain an array on the cell surface and excreted the S-layer protein into the growth medium, indicating that a minimum LPS oligosaccharide size required for A. hydrophila S-layer anchoring. The native S layer was permeable to /sup 125/I in the lactoperoxidase radiolabeling procedure, and two major OM proteins of molecular weights 30,000 and 48,000 were iodinated. The 48K species was a peptidoglycan-associated, transmembrane protein which exhibited heat-modifiable SDS solubilization behavior characteristic of a porin protein. A 50K major peptidoglycan-associated OM protein which was not radiolabeled exhibited similar SDS heat modification characteristics and possibly represents a second porin protein.

  13. Aeromonas hydrophila-associated skin lesions and septicaemia in a Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Turutoglu

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas hydrophila is one of the most common bacteria associated with the aquatic environment. There are , however, limited data on A. hydrophila infection in crocodilians. The aim of this report is to describe a case of skin lesions and septicaemia associated with A. hydrophila in a Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus. A captive male crocodile in the Zoological Park of Antalya (Turkey was found dead without showing signs of any disease. Gross examination showed brown or red-spotted skin lesions of varying size. These lesions were mostly scattered over the abdomen and occasionally on the tail and feet. At necropsy, numerous white, multifocal and randomly distributed areas were seen on the liver. Gram-stained smears from skin and liver lesions showed Gram-negative bacilli arranged in clusters. Pure cultures of A. hydrophila were recovered from skin, internal organs and blood. Isolates were found to be susceptible to ceftiofur, amoxicillin + clavulanic acid, oxytetracycline, enrofloxacin, danofloxacin, neomycin, gentamicin, and lincomycin + neomycin. A pathogenicity test was performed using this isolate on 4 male 2-year-old New Zealand white rabbits. Local abscesses formed in 2 rabbits injected subcutaneously and the 2 that were injected intraperitoneally died as a result of septicaemia. In conclusion, this report has shown that A. hydrophila may cause skin lesions and even death due to septicaemia in crocodiles.

  14. PROBIOTIK Bacillus firmus UNTUK PENGENDALIAN PENYAKIT Aeromonas hydrophila PADA BUDIDAYA IKAN LELE DUMBO, Clarias gariepinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Mariana Lusiastuti

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui efektivitas pemberian bakteri probiotik Bacillus firmus terhadap ketahanan benih ikan lele dumbo (Clarias gariepinus yang diinfeksi Aeromonas hydrophila. Probiotik diberikan melalui media budidaya dengan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL menggunakan lima perlakuan dan tiga ulangan yang diaplikasikan untuk pengendalian penyakit motile aromonas septicemia (MAS. Perlakuan tersebut adalah A (tanpa penambahan bakteri probiotik B. firmus (sebagai control, B (penambahan bakteri probiotik B. firmus 105 cfu/mL, C (penambahan bakteri probiotik B. firmus 107 cfu/mL, D (penambahan bakteri probiotik B. firmus 109 cfu/mL, dan E (penambahan bakteri probiotik B. firmus 1011 cfu/mL. Pengamatan meliputi tingkat sintasan ikan uji setelah diuji tantang dengan A. hydrophila, indeks fagositik, diferensial leukosit dan kualitas air. Analisis data tingkat sintasan dilakukan dengan menggunakan uji F dengan taraf signifikansi 5%. Indeks fagositik, differensial leukosit dan kualitas air dianalisis secara deskriptif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa sintasan tertinggi setelah diinfeksi A. hydrophila terdapat pada perlakuan D (109 cfu/mL yaitu 53,33% dan adanya peningkatan kadar limfosit sebesar 81% serta aktivitas fagosit sebesar 60% setelah penambahan bakteri probiotik B. firmus. Sementara hasil terendah terdapat pada perlakuan A (kontrol (tanpa penambahan bakteri probiotik sebesar 8,33%, aktivitas fagosit sebesar 60% setelah pemeliharaan ikan uji selama 14 hari.

  15.   The fungus Trichoderma spp. on vegetables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winding, Anne

      The fungus Trichoderma spp. on vegetables   Anne Winding, National Environmental Research Institute, Roskilde, AU   Trichoderma spp. is a naturally occurring fungus in soil and T. harzianum is an active ingredient in microbial pest control agents (MPCA) active against root pathogenic fungi....... The MPCA is administered to the plants by watering. The fungus establishes in the root zone and exerts its beneficial effect by general increase of resistance against pathogenic fungi. The natural occurrence of Trichoderma spp. and the fate and survival of the introduced T. harzianum on vegetables...

  16. Casamento como contrato. Brasil - Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Carla Giselle Neves

    2014-01-01

    O casamento como contrato, trata-se de um dos negócios jurídicos mais celebrados, assim como, também é dos negócios jurídicos mais minuciosos, e que, por algumas vezes, ou mais que isso, é, de certa forma, ignorado os efeitos que advém do mesmo contrato. O casamento como contrato, assim como os demais negócios jurídicos, também domina o princípio da autonomia privada. Contudo, existe uma certa imperatividade na lei, uma vez que, no contrato de casamento pode-se escolher o regim...

  17. Two membrane filter media (mADA/0129 and mSA/0129 agars) for enumeration of motile Aeromonas in seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, J L; Garay, E

    1989-10-01

    Sewage-contaminated natural seawater was analysed for the presence of motile Aeromonas by two membrane filtration procedures. Incubation of membranes on two modified media (mADA (0/129) and mSA (0/129) were compared. The specificity of the two media was high, 95.8% on mADA (0/129) and 94.8% on mSA (0129). The most frequent species identified were A. caviae, followed by A. hydrophila and A. sobria. Motile Aeromonas counts were high in both media (greater than 10(4)/100 ml) and no significant differences were observed between them. The two membrane filtration procedures allowed rapid quantitative recovery of motile Aeromonas from seawater in the presence of very large numbers of competing microflora.

  18. Egg parasitoids of Megamelus spp. (Hemiptera: Delphacidae in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serguei V. TRIAPITSYN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se revisaron los parasitoides oófagos (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae, Mymaridae, y Platygastridae de Megamelus spp. (Hemiptera: Delphacidae de la Argentina, y se presenta una clave para su identificación. Se describen cuatro especies nuevas: Anagrus (Anagrus empanadus Triapitsyn, sp. nov. (Mymaridae, parasitoide de M. scutellaris Berg que se alimenta de camalote, Eichhornia crassipes (Martius Solms-Laubach; Aprostocetus (Ootetrastichus riverplaticus Triapitsyn, sp. nov. (Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae, parasitoide de M. bellicus Marino de Remes Lenicov & Sosa; A. (Ootetrastichus yerbamatei Triapitsyn, sp. nov. (parasitoide de M. bellicus, M. scutellaris y Megamelus sp., todos de la provincia de Buenos Aires (A. (Ootetrastichus yerbamatei también se encuentra en Formosa; y Parascelio sabcli Triapitsyn, sp. nov. (Platygastridae: Scelioninae, parasitoide de M. scutellaris en Formosa, la asociación con el huésped es tentativa. Se incluyen otros parasitoides oófagos conocidos de Megamelus spp. en la Argentina, tales como Kalopolynema (Kalopolynema poema Triapitsyn & Berezovskiy (Mymaridae, parasitoide de M. scutellaris en Buenos Aires y también Cremastobaeus atratus Loiácono & Mulvani (Platygastridae: Scelioninae, parasitoide de M. scutellaris en Formosa, la asociación con el huésped es tentativa.

  19. Diverse Profiles of N-acyl Homoserine L-Lactones, Biofilm, Virulence Genes and Integrons in Food-Borne Aeromonas Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagar, Vandan; Sinha, Vibha; Bandekar, Jayant R

    2015-08-01

    Aeromonas are regarded as opportunistic as well as primary pathogens of humans and fish, and are associated with gastroenteritis and septicemia in humans. Production of N-acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) signal molecules and biofilm was determined in 22 Aeromonas isolates, from different food products in India, using thin-layer chromatography (TLC) analysis and microtiter-plate assay, respectively. Overall, highly heterogeneous patterns of AHL production were observed, with the production of N-butanoyl homoserine lactone (C4-HSL) and N-hexanoyl homoserine lactone (C6-HSL) by the majority (81.8%) of Aeromonas food isolates. Moreover, putative N-pentanoyl homoserine lactone (C5-HSL), N-heptanoyl homoserine lactone (C7-HSL), and N-octanoyl homoserine lactone (C8-HSL) were produced by 72.7%, 27.3%, and 9.1% of isolates, respectively. This is the 1st report of production of C7-HSL by Aeromonas species. Aeromonas food isolates were highly variable in their biofilm forming abilities with majority of them as weak biofilm producers in 2 different media, TSB and M9 minimal medium supplemented with 0.4% glucose. The genes encoding for putative virulence factors, glycerophospholipid cholesterol acyltransferase (gcat), heat-labile cytotonic enterotoxin (alt), heat-stable cytotonic enterotoxin (ast), serine protease (ser), polar flagella (fla), and lateral flagella (lafA) were present in 95.5%, 59.1%, 22.7%, 81.8%, 77.3%, and 22.7% of the strains, respectively. Class 1 integrons (100 to 3000 bp) were found in 68.2% of food isolates; whereas, 50% isolates contained class 2 integrons (150 to 1600 bp). This study provides a baseline data on the diversity of AHLs, biofilm forming ability and presence of virulence genes and integrons in Aeromonas food isolates from India.

  20. Utilización de cepas de bacteroides spp. como probiótico en conejos

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez de Rozas Ruiz de Gauna, Ana Mª; Castellà Gómez, Gemma

    2015-01-01

    La utilización de antimicrobianos, de forma metafiláxica, para mantener la salud de los animales en las granjas de producción, puede ser problemático en un futuro próximo, debido a las altas tasas de resistencias que se están observando. Esta situación obliga a replantearse medidas alternativas, las más habituales basadas en el uso de prebióticos, probióticos o la combinación de ambos (simbióticos). El objetivo principal de este trabajo ha sido el de seleccionar cepas de diferentes especies d...

  1. Utilización de cepas de bacteroides spp. como probiótico en conejos

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez de Rozas Ruiz de Gauna, Ana Mª

    2014-01-01

    La utilización de antimicrobianos, de forma metafiláxica, para mantener la salud de los animales en las granjas de producción, puede ser problemático en un futuro próximo, debido a las altas tasas de resistencias que se están observando. Esta situación obliga a replantearse medidas alternativas, las más habituales basadas en el uso de prebióticos, probióticos o la combinación de ambos (simbióticos). El objetivo principal de este trabajo ha sido el de seleccionar cepas de diferentes especi...

  2. 21 CFR 866.3550 - Salmonella spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salmonella spp. serological reagents. 866.3550... spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Salmonella spp. serological reagents are devices that consist of antigens and antisera used in serological tests to identify Salmonella spp. from...

  3. Aeromonas hydrophila infection in Estuarine crocodile from Thailand%泰国湾鳄嗜水气单胞菌感染

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明杰; 王志国

    2003-01-01

    @@ 气单胞菌属(Aeromonas)中嗜水气单胞菌(Aeromonas hy-drophila)是两栖爬行动物中最常见的机会致病菌.嗜水气单胞菌在水体环境中广泛分布,能使水生动物、水禽发病.现在越来越多的报道表明,嗜水气单胞菌亦能感染东北虎、北极熊、猪、兔等哺乳动物及人类.

  4. Fermentability of an enzymatically modified solubilised potato polysaccharide (SPP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, M.; Gudmand-Høyer, E.; Bergsøe, Merete Norsker;

    1998-01-01

    : Seven healthy volunteers ingested in random order on seven different days: 20 g SPP; bread made of 180 g wheat flour served with 20 g raw SPP; bread baked of 180 g wheat flour and 20 g SPP; bread made from 180 g what flour; 20 g lactulose; 20 g oat bran; and 20 g wheat bran. The hydrogen breath test...... of a meal. CONCLUSIONS: SPP is a fermentable, highly concentrated soluble fibre source. Baking SPP did not interfere with the fermentable properties. Thus, SPP may be interesting as a fibre-supplement in fibre-poor diets. The change in oro-coecal transit time for SPP, depending on the composition...

  5. IMPORTANCE OF ARCOBACTER SPP. IN POULTRY MEAT

    OpenAIRE

    Ertaş, Necla

    2009-01-01

    The genus Arcobacter, previously known as aerotolerant Campylobacters were isolated from aborted bovine and porcine fetuses. Arcobacter spp. differ from Campylobacter spp. by their ability to grow at lower temperatures and in air. The genus Arcobacter comprises six species. Arcobacter nitrofigilis, Arcobacter halophilus and Arcobacter sulfidicus are environmental-related species. No association with human or animal infection has been reported. The other species, Arcobacter butzleri,Arcobacter...

  6. Differentiation of Phytopathogenic Agrobacterium spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemanja Kuzmanović

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the difficulties in differentiation of phytopathogenic Agrobacterium spp. and lack of a standardized protocol, we carried out selection and evaluation of suitable methods based on the bacterial physiological, genetic and pathogenic properties. Strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens, A. rhizogenes and A. vitis were differentiated using standard bacteriological and molecular methods. The biochemical and physiological tests confirmed authenticity of the strains. Two duplex PCR methods were conducted with four different primer pairs. In all strains, presence of plasmid virD2 and virC pathogenicity genes was detected. Chromosomal pehA gene was determined in A. vitis strain. Pathogenicity was confirmed on carrot slices and young plants of tomato and sunflower. Strains of A. tumefaciens and A. vitis were pathogenic on all test plants, while strain of A. rhizogenes induced characteristic symptoms only on carrot slices. The tests used in this study provided reliable discrimination between the three species and confirmed their identity as tumorigenic (TiAgrobacterium tumefaciens and A. vitis, and rhizogenic (Ri A. rhizogenes.

  7. Genetic manipulation of Methanosarcina spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Regine Adelheid Kohler

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of the third domain of life, the Archaea, is one of the most exciting findings of the last century. These remarkable prokaryotes are well known for their adaptations to extreme environments; however, Archaea have also conquered moderate environments. Many of the archaeal biochemical processes, such as methane production, are unique in nature and therefore of great scientific interest. Although formerly restricted to biochemical and physiological studies, sophisticated systems for genetic manipulation have been developed during the last two decades for methanogenic archaea, halophilic archaea and thermophilic, sulfur-metabolizing archaea. The availability of these tools has allowed for more complete studies of archaeal physiology and metabolism and most importantly provides the basis for the investigation of gene expression, regulation and function. In this review we provide an overview of methods for genetic manipulation of Methanosarcina spp., a group of methanogenic archaea that are key players in the global carbon cycle and which can be found in a variety of anaerobic environments.

  8. Melanization and pathogenicity in the insect, Tenebrio molitor, and the crustacean, Pacifastacus leniusculus, by Aeromonas hydrophila AH-3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chadanat Noonin

    Full Text Available Aeromonas hydrophila is the most common Aeromonas species causing infections in human and other animals such as amphibians, reptiles, fish and crustaceans. Pathogenesis of Aeromonas species have been reported to be associated with virulence factors such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS, bacterial toxins, bacterial secretion systems, flagella, and other surface molecules. Several mutant strains of A. hydrophila AH-3 were initially used to study their virulence in two animal species, Pacifastacus leniusculus (crayfish and Tenebrio molitor larvae (mealworm. The AH-3 strains used in this study have mutations in genes involving the synthesis of flagella, LPS structures, secretion systems, and some other factors, which have been reported to be involved in A. hydrophila pathogenicity. Our study shows that the LPS (O-antigen and external core is the most determinant A. hydrophila AH-3 virulence factor in both animals. Furthermore, we studied the immune responses of these hosts to infection of virulent or non-virulent strains of A. hydrophila AH-3. The AH-3 wild type (WT containing the complete LPS core is highly virulent and this bacterium strongly stimulated the prophenoloxidase activating system resulting in melanization in both crayfish and mealworm. In contrast, the ΔwaaE mutant which has LPS without O-antigen and external core was non-virulent and lost ability to stimulate this system and melanization in these two animals. The high phenoloxidase activity found in WT infected crayfish appears to result from a low expression of pacifastin, a prophenoloxidase activating enzyme inhibitor, and this gene expression was not changed in the ΔwaaE mutant infected animal and consequently phenoloxidase activity was not altered as compared to non-infected animals. Therefore we show that the virulence factors of A. hydrophila are the same regardless whether an insect or a crustacean is infected and the O-antigen and external core is essential for activation of the

  9. Melanization and pathogenicity in the insect, Tenebrio molitor, and the crustacean, Pacifastacus leniusculus, by Aeromonas hydrophila AH-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonin, Chadanat; Jiravanichpaisal, Pikul; Söderhäll, Irene; Merino, Susana; Tomás, Juan M; Söderhäll, Kenneth

    2010-12-29

    Aeromonas hydrophila is the most common Aeromonas species causing infections in human and other animals such as amphibians, reptiles, fish and crustaceans. Pathogenesis of Aeromonas species have been reported to be associated with virulence factors such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS), bacterial toxins, bacterial secretion systems, flagella, and other surface molecules. Several mutant strains of A. hydrophila AH-3 were initially used to study their virulence in two animal species, Pacifastacus leniusculus (crayfish) and Tenebrio molitor larvae (mealworm). The AH-3 strains used in this study have mutations in genes involving the synthesis of flagella, LPS structures, secretion systems, and some other factors, which have been reported to be involved in A. hydrophila pathogenicity. Our study shows that the LPS (O-antigen and external core) is the most determinant A. hydrophila AH-3 virulence factor in both animals. Furthermore, we studied the immune responses of these hosts to infection of virulent or non-virulent strains of A. hydrophila AH-3. The AH-3 wild type (WT) containing the complete LPS core is highly virulent and this bacterium strongly stimulated the prophenoloxidase activating system resulting in melanization in both crayfish and mealworm. In contrast, the ΔwaaE mutant which has LPS without O-antigen and external core was non-virulent and lost ability to stimulate this system and melanization in these two animals. The high phenoloxidase activity found in WT infected crayfish appears to result from a low expression of pacifastin, a prophenoloxidase activating enzyme inhibitor, and this gene expression was not changed in the ΔwaaE mutant infected animal and consequently phenoloxidase activity was not altered as compared to non-infected animals. Therefore we show that the virulence factors of A. hydrophila are the same regardless whether an insect or a crustacean is infected and the O-antigen and external core is essential for activation of the proPO system

  10. El CO2 como disolvente y como reactivo

    OpenAIRE

    La Franca Pitarresi, Vincenzo Rosario

    2016-01-01

    Existen numerosas ventajas asociada con el uso de CO2 , tanto como disolvente que como reactivo, y todas se pueden resumir en cuatro categorías generales: beneficios ambiental, beneficios de salud y seguridad, beneficios en el procedimiento y beneficios químicos. Los procesos que implican el CO2 como disolvente no aumentaría las emisiones de CO2, más bien proporcionaría una oportunidad para el reciclaje de CO2 residual. Además, los esfuerzos para secuestrar el CO2 producido de los gases de co...

  11. Characterisation of potential virulence markers in Aeromonas caviae isolated from polluted and unpolluted aquatic environments in Morocco

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Imziln, Boujama; Krovacek, Karel; Baloda, Suraj B.

    1998-01-01

    .406) than those isolated from raw sewage (PVI = 0.175) or those from river waters (PVI = 0.09). These results suggest that stabilisation pond systems used for sewage purification under arid climate conditions in Marrakech, may have selected potentially enteropathogenic A. caviae strains.......A total of 100 Aeromonas caviae strains isolated from river waters (38 isolates), raw sewage (30 isolates) and effluents of stabilisation ponds (i.e. treated sewage; 32 isolates) in Marrakech, Morocco, were tested for the presence of putative virulence factors to delineate differences, if any...

  12. Characterization of class 1 integrons associated with R-plasmids in clinical Aeromonas salmonicida isolates from various geographical areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, A.S.; Bruun, Morten Sichlau; Larsen, J.L.;

    2001-01-01

    Class 1 integrons were found in 26 of 40 antibiotic-resistant isolates of the fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida from Northern Europe and North America. Three different dhfr genes, conferring trimethoprim resistance, and one ant(3 " )1a aminoglycoside resistance gene were identified as gene...... inserts. The gene cassettes tended to be conserved among isolates from a particular geographical area. Nineteen isolates transferred R- plasmids carrying different tet determinants to Escherichia coli in filter mating assays, and in 15 cases, the class 1 integrons were co-transferred. Transferable...

  13. PARTICIPACION DEL COMPLEJO PIRUVATO DESHIDROGENASA DE AEROMONAS CAVIAE ST EN RESISTENCIA TELURITO DE POSTASIO (K2TEO3)

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    El telurito de potasio (K2TeO3) es altamente tóxico para la mayoría de los seres vivos. Aunque se desconoce el mecanismo de toxicidad especifico, recientemente se ha demostrado que estaría dado, al menos en parte, por el establecimiento de un estrés oxidativo. Aeromonas caviae ST, el microorganismo utilizado en este estudio es altamente resistente a K2TeO3 y extractos crudos de esta bacteria catalizan la reducción de K2TeO3 in vitro. Se obtuvo fracciones con actividad telurito reductasa qu...

  14. Effect of electron irradiation and packaging atmosphere on the survival of Aeromonas hydrophila in minced poultry meat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stecchini, M.L.; Sarais, I.; Del Torre, M. [Dipartimento di Scienze degli Alimenti, Udine (Italy); Fuochi, P.G. [Istituto FRAE-CNR, Bologna (Italy)

    1995-10-01

    Resistance to electron irradiation of Aeromonas hydrophila inoculated in minced poultry meat packed in presence of air or under vacuum was examined. Surviving bacteria were counted on starch ampicillin agar containing 100 {mu}g/ml of ampicillin. Radiation resistance, expressed as D{sub 10} values, was calculated from the survival curves and found to be 0.12 and 0.14 kGy in poultry meat packed in air or under vacuum respectively. Storage at 2{sup o}C of meat samples irradiated at 0.5 kGy further reduced the number of A. hydrophila. (Author).

  15. Effect of electron irradiation and packaging atmosphere on the survival of aeromonas hydrophila in minced poultry meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecchini, M. L.; Sarais, I.; Del Torre, M.; Fuochi, P. G.

    1995-02-01

    Resistance to electron irradiation of Aeromonas hydrophila inoculated in minced poultry meat packed in presence of air or under vacuum was examined. Surviving bacteria were counted on starch ampicillin agar containing 100 μg/ml of ampicillin. Radiation resistance, expressed as D 10 values, was calculated from the survival curves and found to be 0.12 and 0.12 kGy in poultry meat packed in air or under vacuum respectively. Storage at 2°C of meat samples irradiated at 0.5 kGy further reduced the number of A. hydrophila.

  16. An Aeromonas caviae Genomic Island Is Required for both O-Antigen Lipopolysaccharide Biosynthesis and Flagellin Glycosylation ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Tabei, S. Mohammed B.; Hitchen, Paul G.; Day-Williams, Michaela J.; Merino, Susana; Vart, Richard; Pang, Poh-Choo; Horsburgh, Gavin J.; Viches, Silvia; Wilhelms, Markus; Tomás, Juan M.; Dell, Anne; Shaw, Jonathan G

    2009-01-01

    Aeromonas caviae Sch3N possesses a small genomic island that is involved in both flagellin glycosylation and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) O-antigen biosynthesis. This island appears to have been laterally acquired as it is flanked by insertion element-like sequences and has a much lower G+C content than the average aeromonad G+C content. Most of the gene products encoded by the island are orthologues of proteins that have been shown to be involved in pseudaminic acid biosynthesis and flagellin gl...

  17. The genome of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida A449: insights into the evolution of a fish pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murphy Colleen

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida is a Gram-negative bacterium that is the causative agent of furunculosis, a bacterial septicaemia of salmonid fish. While other species of Aeromonas are opportunistic pathogens or are found in commensal or symbiotic relationships with animal hosts, A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida causes disease in healthy fish. The genome sequence of A. salmonicida was determined to provide a better understanding of the virulence factors used by this pathogen to infect fish. Results The nucleotide sequences of the A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida A449 chromosome and two large plasmids are characterized. The chromosome is 4,702,402 bp and encodes 4388 genes, while the two large plasmids are 166,749 and 155,098 bp with 178 and 164 genes, respectively. Notable features are a large inversion in the chromosome and, in one of the large plasmids, the presence of a Tn21 composite transposon containing mercury resistance genes and an In2 integron encoding genes for resistance to streptomycin/spectinomycin, quaternary ammonia compounds, sulphonamides and chloramphenicol. A large number of genes encoding potential virulence factors were identified; however, many appear to be pseudogenes since they contain insertion sequences, frameshifts or in-frame stop codons. A total of 170 pseudogenes and 88 insertion sequences (of ten different types are found in the A. salmonicida genome. Comparison with the A. hydrophila ATCC 7966T genome reveals multiple large inversions in the chromosome as well as an approximately 9% difference in gene content indicating instances of single gene or operon loss or gain. A limited number of the pseudogenes found in A. salmonicida A449 were investigated in other Aeromonas strains and species. While nearly all the pseudogenes tested are present in A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida strains, only about 25% were found in other A. salmonicida subspecies and none were detected in other

  18. DIARRHEA OUTBREAK IN PERNAMBUCO, BRAZIL, ASSOCIATED WITH A HEAT-STABLE CYTOTOXIC ENTEROTOXIN PRODUCED BY Aeromonas caviae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Ana Carolina Amaral; Martins, Luciano Moura; Gatti, Maria Silvia Viccari; Falavina Dos Reis, Cristhiane Moura; Hofer, Ernesto; Yano, Tomomasa

    2015-01-01

    In the present study enterotoxic and cytotoxic activities of twenty Aeromonas caviae strains were examined. They originated from fecal specimens of patients with acute diarrhea during an outbreak in Brazil in 2004. Culture supernatants of fourteen strains (70%) caused fluid accumulation in rabbit ileal intestinal loops and in suckling mice assays, and also showed a cytotoxic activity in Vero and Caco-2 cells. The enterotoxic and cytotoxic factors were heat-stable after culture supernatants treatment at 100 ºC. The results revealed that A. caviae strains produce a putative diarrheagenic virulence factor, a heat-stable cytotoxic enterotoxin that could be linked to the diarrhea outbreak that took place in Brazil.

  19. Promoção do crescimento do feijoeiro e controle da antracnose por Trichoderma spp Plant growth promotion of common bean and anthracnose control by Trichoderma spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Aparecida de Souza Pedro

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a capacidade de Trichoderma spp. em promover o crescimento de plantas de feijão e reduzir a severidade da antracnose do feijoeiro (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, bem como identificar os isolados mais eficientes. Sessenta isolados de Trichoderma spp. foram avaliados quanto à capacidade de promoção do crescimento nas plantas. Os sete isolados que mais se destacaram foram adicionados ao substrato de cultivo e avaliados quanto à redução na severidade da antracnose em plantas de feijão tratadas com conídios de C. lindemuthianum. Os mais eficientes no controle da doença foram identificados por sequenciamento de DNA. O isolado IB 28/07 foi avaliado nas concentrações 0,5, 1, 1,5 e 2% (peso:volume, que reduziram a severidade da doença em 41,51, 55,15, 81,82 e 96,06%, respectivamente. Os isolados mais eficientes de Trichoderma spp. podem proporcionar aumentos superiores a 30% na produção de matéria seca da parte aérea das plantas e reduzir a severidade da doença entre 63 e 98%. Esses isolados foram identificados como pertencentes às espécies Trichoderma harzianum, T. strigosum e T. theobromicola.The objective of this work was to evaluate the ability of Trichoderma spp. to promote growth of common bean plants and to reduce severity of anthracnose (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, as well as to identify the best performing isolates. Sixty Trichoderma spp. isolates were evaluated as to their capacity to promote growth in common bean. The seven isolates that stood out were added to the culture substrate and assessed for reduction in severity of anthracnose in bean plants treated with C. lindemuthianum conidia. The most efficient isolates in controlling the disease were identified by DNA sequencing. The IB 28/07 isolate was evaluated in the concentrations 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2% (weight:volume, which reduced disease severity in 41.51, 55.15, 81.82, and 96.06%, respectively. The most efficient Trichoderma spp

  20. ANTIBIOTICS RESISTANCE AND PUTATIVE VIRULENCE FACTORS OF AEROMONAS HYDROPHILA ISOLATED FROM ESTUARY

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    Olumide Adedokun Odeyemi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aim to investigate antibiotics resistance profile and putative virulence factors of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from estuary. Bacteria used for this study were isolated from water and sediment samples obtained from Sungai Melayu, Johor, Malaysia. Serially diluted 100 µL water and 1g sediment were inoculated on modified Rimler - Shott (mRS agar. Colonies with distinct cultural characteristics were picked for further studies. Isolates were tested for biofilm productions, protease enzyme and antibiotics resistance profile using agar well diffusion method against 10 commercial antibiotics. Congo Red Agar (CRA, Microplate and Standard Tube (ST methods were used for assessment of biofilm formation among the isolates while Skim Milk Agar was used for protease production. Sw.KMJ 3 and Sw.KMJ 9 produced black crystalline colonies on CRA. Six of the isolates were biofilm producers in ST method. Result of Microplate method, helped in grouping the isolates into weak (n = 8, moderate (n = 3 and strong producers (n = 4 at 540 nm wavelength. All the isolates were classified as weak ODc  ODi 0.1, moderate ODi = 0.1  0.12 and strong producers ODi  0.12 respectively at 540 nm wavelength. Antibiotics susceptibility test also revealed that all the isolates were resistant to between 6 and 10 antibiotics. Two isolates each were resistant to 6 (60 %, 7 (70 % and 9 (90 % antibiotics respectively. Eight of the isolates showed resistance to 8 (80 % antibiotics while only isolate Sw.KMJ-7 showed resistance to all the tested antibiotics. Sw.KMJ-3, Sw.KMJ-8 and Sw.KMJ-9 produced protease enzyme on SMA. The isolates were also found to be resistant to both antibiotics and heavy metals.

  1. Immunostimulatory effect of artificial feed supplemented with indigenous plants on Clarias gariepinus against Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Vipin Kumar; Rani, Kumari Vandana; Sehgal, Neeta; Prakash, Om

    2013-12-01

    The antibacterial activity of methanol extracts of Ficus benghalensis (prop-root) and Leucaena leucocephala (pod seed) was evaluated by measurement of zone of inhibition against pathogenic bacteria, Escherichia coli and Aeromonas hydrophila. Control artificial feed and artificial feed supplemented with 5% powder of F. benghalensis and L. leucocephala were prepared. Juvenile Clarias gariepinus were divided into four groups, acclimatized to laboratory conditions and fed with respective feeds for 20 days prior to the experiment. Immunomodulatory response of supplementary feed was studied by challenging the fish intraperitoneally at weekly intervals, with A. hydrophila. One set of fish, not challenged with A. hydrophila was used as a negative control, to analyze any detrimental effect of supplementary feed, while positive control, comprised of challenged fish fed with non-supplemented feed. Other two groups of fish were challenged with A. hydrophila and fed with respective supplementary feeds. Blood was collected on weekly intervals for four weeks and serum samples were analyzed to evaluate the damage of fish by A. hydrophila through liver function tests. The increase in the levels of Serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) and Serum Glutamic pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) in positive control group indicated the damage of liver & kidney. However the levels did not change significantly in fish fed with supplementary feeds when compared to negative control group. Nitric oxide, SOD, ALP and lipid peroxidase indicated lower stress levels in these fish compared to positive control. Fish fed with supplementary feed showed increased lysozyme activity and phagocytic index indicating an increase in non-specific immune response. The immunoglobulin levels of in serum were analyzed by homologous sandwich ELISA, which showed higher antibody production in fish fed with supplementary feed. The current study suggests conclusively, immunostimulatory role of F. benghalensis (prop

  2. Type III secretion system of Aeromonas salmonicida undermining the host’s immune response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Frey

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida is an important pathogen in salmonid aquaculture and is responsible for furunculosis, a common infectious disease in salmon, trout and char. The type-three secretion system (T3SS is considered as the major virulence attribute of A. salmonicida. It is used by the bacterium to secrete and translocate a large number of toxins and effector proteins into the host cell. Some of these factors such as the bi-functional ADP ribosylating – GTPase activating protein AexT have been shown to have a detrimental impact on the integrity of the cell cytoskeleton, and hence contribute to impair phagocytosis. Other effector proteins that are injected to the host cell such as AopP act by inhibiting the NF-κB signalling pathway blocking the translocation of NF-κB (p65 into the nucleus, thus influencing the host’s inflammatory response. Several additional effectors that are secreted and translocated via the T3SS including Ati2, AopN and ExsE have been suggested to modulate the host’s immune response in particular by down regulating the inflammatory reaction. The analysis of the immune response in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss infected with virulent, T3SS harbouring A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida revealed that the infection leads to a rapid and strong downregulation of several immune-relevant markers affecting both the innate and the adaptive immune response, leading to mortality of the infected fish. In contrast, infection with a T3SS deficient mutant causes a normal immune reaction and clearing of the pathogen. These findings show that T3SS-delivered effector molecules and toxins of A. salmonicida do not only impair the host’s cytoskeleton thus damaging cell physiology and phagocytosis, but also affect the transcription of critical immune markers including the shut-down of important warning signals to recognize infection and induce immune defense.

  3. EVALUATION OF IMMUNOSTIMULATORY POTENTIAL OF PHYLLANTHUS AMARUS IN LABEO ROHITA INFECTED WITH AEROMONAS HYDROPHILA: HAEMATOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.Annalakshmi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Outbreak of disease is an important limiting factor in aquaculture. Incorporation of herbal immunostimulants in diet is one of the widely followed methods to improve the general resistance in fish. The present experiment was carried out to evaluate the Immunostimulatory potential of the medicinal herb Phyllanthus amarus in fish. The experiment was carried out in two sets. In experiment-I, one group of Labeo rohita was fed with control diet (‘C’ diet and the other group was fed with Phyllanthus amarus incorporated diet (‘P’ diet for 14 days and the haematological parameters were analysed on 1st, 3rd, 7th and 14th day of the experiment. Significant increase in Total Erythrocyte Count (TEC, Haemoglobin (Hb g%, Total Leucocyte Count (TLC, lymphocytes, monocytes and neutrophils were observed in ‘P’ diet fed fishes with increase in the duration of the experiment. As there is positive response in the first experiment hence experiment-II was carried out. In experiment-II, One group of Labeo rohita were fed with ‘C’ diet and other group received ‘P’ diet for 14 days, post-infected with Aeromonas hydrophila and haematological parameters were analyzed on 1st, 3rd, 7th & 14th days after infection. Significant increase in TEC, Hb, TLC, lymphocytes and a steady population of monocytes and neutrophils were observed in ‘P’ diet fed fishes. On the other hand basophils and eosinophil count exhibited a fluctuating trend. Thus dietary incorporation of Phyllanthus amarus helps to improve the general health and resistance of the fish.

  4. Correlation between the distribution pattern of virulence genes and virulence of Aeromonas hydrophila strains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Daling; LI Aihua; WANG Jianguo; LI Ming; CAI Taozhen; HU Jing

    2007-01-01

    Nine strains of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from diseased fish or soft-shelled tortoise were tested for the presence of three virulence genes including the genes encoding aerolysin,hemolysin,and extracellular serine protease (i.e.,aerA,hlyA,and ahpA,respectively).These genes were investigated using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)with specific primers for each gene.And the pathogenicities to Carrassius auratus ibebio of these strains were also assayed.PCR results demonstrated that the distribution patterns of aerA,hlyA,and ahpA were different in these strains.6/9 of A.hydrophila strains were aer A positive,8/9 of strains hly A positive,7/9 of strains ahp A positive,respectively.However,the assay for pathogenesis showed that two strains (A.hydrophila XS91-4-1 and C2)were strong virulent,two strains (A.hydrophila ST78-3-3 and 58-20-9)avirulent and the rest middle virulent was to the fish.In conclusion,there are significant correlation between the distribution pattern of the three virulence genes and the pathogenicity to Carrassius auratus ibebio.All strong virulent A.hydrophila strains were aerA+hlyA+ahpA+genotype,and all aerA+hlyA+ahpA+strains were virulent.Strains with the genotype of aerA-hlyA-ahpA+have middle pathogenicity.In the present study,we found for the first time that all A.hydrophila isolated from the ahpA positive were virulent to Carrassius auratus ibebio.Additionally,there was a positive correlation between the virulence of A.hydrophila and the presence of aerA and ahpA.

  5. Biological approach to synthesize TiO2 nanoparticles using Aeromonas hydrophila and its antibacterial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaseelan, Chidambaram; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana; Kirthi, Arivarasan Vishnu; Venkatesan, Jayachandran; Kim, Se-Kwon; Iyappan, Moorthy; Siva, Chinnadurai

    2013-04-01

    Nanosized materials have been an important subject in basic and applied sciences. A novel, low-cost, green and reproducible bacteria, Aeromonas hydrophila mediated biosynthesis of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) was reported. The resulting nanoparticles were characterized by FTIR, XRD, AFM and FESEM with EDX. FTIR showed characteristic bands (1643 and 3430 cm-1) finds the role of carboxyl group Osbnd H stretching amine Nsbnd H stretch in the formation of TiO2 NPs. The XRD spectrum confirmed that the synthesized TiO2 NPs were in the form of nanocrystals, as evidenced by the peaks at 2θ values of 27.47°, 31.77°, 36.11°, 41.25°, 54.39°, 56.64° and 69.54° were identified as 110, 100, 101, 111, 211, 220 and 301 reflections, respectively. The crystallite sizes were calculated using Scherrer's formula applied to the major intense peaks and found to be the size of 40.50 nm. The morphological characterization was analyzed by FESEM and the analysis showed the NPs smooth shaped, spherical and uneven. GC-MS analysis showed the main compounds found in A. hydrophila were uric acid (2.95%), glycyl-L-glutamic acid (6.90%), glycyl-L-proline (74.41%) and l-Leucyl-d-leucine (15.74%). The potential glycyl-L-proline could have played an important role as a capping agent. A possible mechanism for the biosynthesis of TiO2 NPs has been proposed. The antibacterial activity of the synthesized TiO2 NPs was assessed by well diffusion method toward A. hydrophila, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes and Enterococcus faecalis and showed effective inhibitory activity against S. aureus (33 mm) and S. pyogenes (31 mm).

  6. Occurrence and antibiotic resistance of mesophilic Aeromonas in three riverine freshwaters of Marrakech, Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imziln, B

    2001-12-01

    In order to evaluate the impact of pollution and sewage on the occurrence and antibiotic resistance of mesophilic aeromonads in riverine freshwaters of Marrakech, samples were collected from three rivers (Oukaimeden, Ourika, and Tensift) upstream and downstream from the principal bordering villages. During a 2-year study, indicators of pollution increased dramatically in the downstream waters. Bacterial indicators (faecal coliforms and faecal streptococci) correlated with mesophilic aeromonads only in heavily polluted waters. In low and moderately polluted sources, densities of mesophilic aeromonads were independent of water quality indicators and did not correlate statistically with faecal indicators. Average counts of Aeromonas in low and heavily polluted waters were 2.5 x 10(3) and 2.1 x 10(6) colony forming units per 100 ml, respectively. The biochemical identification of 841 isolates indicated a predominance of A. caviae in heavily and moderately polluted water and sediment. A. hydrophila was dominant only in low polluted waters and when the temperature was below 12 degrees C. High densities of A. sobria were found in low, moderately polluted, or cleaned waters and when the water temperature was above 18 degrees C. All selected isolates (total = 841) were tested for antibiotic susceptibility against 21 antibiotics. Antibiotic resistance frequencies recorded were: ampicillin and amoxicillin, 100%; novobiocin, 96%; cefalotin, 81%; colistin, 72%; sulfamethoxazole, 40%; cefamandole, 37%; polymyxin B, 23%; trimethoprim, 17%; erythromycin, 15%; streptomycin, 8%; amoxicillin-clavulanate, 5%. Resistance to cefotaxime, kanamycin, gentamycin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, oxytetracycline, nalidixic acid, rifampicin, or trimethoprim-sulfameth-oxazole was found to be polluted samples. Since no correlation between mesophilic aeromonads and conventional faecal pollution indicators was observed in low or moderately polluted waters, and since these freshwaters are used for

  7. Occurrence of Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. in Ixodes ricinus in Bavarian public parks, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahling Monia

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Only limited information is available about the occurrence of ticks and tick-borne pathogens in public parks, which are areas strongly influenced by human beings. For this reason, Ixodes ricinus were collected in public parks of different Bavarian cities in a 2-year survey (2009 and 2010 and screened for DNA of Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. by PCR. Species identification was performed by sequence analysis and alignment with existing sequences in GenBank. Additionally, coinfections with Anaplasma phagocytophilum were investigated. Results The following prevalences were detected: Babesia spp.: 0.4% (n = 17, including one pool of two larvae in 2009 and 0.5 to 0.7% (n = 11, including one pool of five larvae in 2010; Rickettsia spp.: 6.4 to 7.7% (n = 285, including 16 pools of 76 larvae in 2009. DNA of Bartonella spp. in I. ricinus in Bavarian public parks could not be identified. Sequence analysis revealed the following species: Babesia sp. EU1 (n = 25, B. divergens (n = 1, B. divergens/capreoli (n = 1, B. gibsoni-like (n = 1, R. helvetica (n = 272, R. monacensis IrR/Munich (n = 12 and unspecified R. monacensis (n = 1. The majority of coinfections were R. helvetica with A. phagocytophilum (n = 27, but coinfections between Babesia spp. and A. phagocytophilum, or Babesia spp. and R. helvetica were also detected. Conclusions I. ricinus ticks in urban areas of Germany harbor several tick-borne pathogens and coinfections were also observed. Public parks are of particularly great interest regarding the epidemiology of tick-borne pathogens, because of differences in both the prevalence of pathogens in ticks as well as a varying species arrangement when compared to woodland areas. The record of DNA of a Babesia gibsoni-like pathogen detected in I. ricinus suggests that I. ricinus may harbor and transmit more Babesia spp. than previously known. Because of their high recreational value for human beings, urban green

  8. Concentração inibitória mínima de oxitetraciclina para isolados de Aeromonas Hydrophila obtidos de diferentes fontes Minimal inhibitory concentration to oxitetracycline in Aeromonas Hydrophila strains isolated from different sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delton José Pereira Júnior

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho determinar a concentração inibitória mínima (MIC de oxitetraciclina para isolados de Aeromonas hydrophila obtidos de pescado, água de cultivo de peixes e casos de septicemia hemorrágica em peixes. Foi determinado MIC de 100 isolados de A. hydrophila, oriundos de 12 pisciculturas localizadas nos Estados de Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro e Rio Grande do Sul, utilizando a técnica de macrodiluição em caldo. Os resultados demonstraram que 14 isolados apresentaram MIC>100 µg/mL (resistentes e 86 apresentaram MICThe aim of this paper was to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC to oxitetracycline in Aeromonas hydrophila strains isolated from marketed fish, pond water of piscicultures and fish suffering hemorrhagic septicemia. These strains were obtained from 12 different piscicultures from Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro e Rio Grande do Sul states. It was determined the MIC to 100 strains, using the broth macrodilution method, and the results showed that 86 strains shown value of MIC100µg/mL (classified as resistant. No differences were observed among strains isolated from marketed fish, pond water and disease outbreaks. I was concluded that the variation detected may represent a risk of selection of resistant bacterial strains in aquatic environments under use of oxitetracycline.

  9. Molecular Detection of Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp. in Ruminants from Twelve Provinces of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Haixiang; Kelly, Patrick John; Zhang, Jilei; Luo, Qinghua; Yang, Yi; Mao, Yongjiang; Yang, Zhangping; Li, Jing; Wu, Hongzhuan

    2016-01-01

    Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp. are tick-transmitted bacteria that are of significant economic importance as they can infect large and small ruminants and also people. There is little information on anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis in ruminants in China. 16S rRNA FRET-qPCRs were used to screen convenience whole blood samples from 2,240 domestic ruminants in 12 provinces of China for Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp. Positive samples were further analyzed with a standard PCR for the gltA. Anaplasma spp. DNA was detected in the sheep (11.7%; 13/111), goats (81.8%; 219/270), cattle (13.2%; 241/1,830), and water buffaloes (6.9%; 2/29). Ehrlichia spp. DNA was detected in sheep (1.8%; 2/111), goats (1.1%; 3/270), and cattle (3.6%; 65/1830) but not in water buffaloes (0/29). Sequencing of gltA PCR products showed that A. marginale, A. ovis, Ehrlichia canis, and Ehrlichia sp. (JX629807) were present in ruminants from China, while the 16S rRNA FRET-qPCR sequence data indicated that there might also be A. platys, A. phagocytophilum, Anaplasma sp. BL126-13 (KJ410243), and Anaplasma sp. JC3-6 (KM227012). Our study shows that domestic ruminants from China are not uncommonly infected with a variety of Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp. PMID:28096822

  10. Las organizaciones educativas como instituciones

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    Caracterizar los centros educativos como instituciones o como organizaciones institucionalizadas tiene connotaciones precisas y de gran relevancia en cuanto a su comprensión, diseño. funcionamiento y cambio. Se abordan los conceptos de cultura, institución y organización institucionalizada, prestando especial atención al papel desempeñado por las estructuras organizativas, en conexión con el ambiente. Abstract: The portrait of schools as institutions and institutionalized organizatio...

  11. Bacillus sp. QSI-1 Modulate Quorum Sensing Signals Reduce Aeromonas hydrophila Level and Alter Gut Microbial Community Structure in Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shuxin; Zhang, An; Yin, Hongping; Chu, Weihua

    2016-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is a cell density dependent process that enables bacteria to communicate with each other based on the production, secretion and sensing of the auto-inducer molecules and then subsequently regulate virulence associated gene expression. Interrupting quorum sensing may represent a novel alternative approach to combat bacterial pathogen. Several bacteria can produce quorum quenching (QQ) enzymes. However, the role of QQ bacteria in shaping the microbiota and the level of N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs, a prevalent type of QS molecules) producing bacteria remains largely unknown. The objective of this study was to examine the presence of AHLs in the fish intestine and investigate the modulation of gut microbiota and its effect on Aeromonas hydrophila level by a QQ enzyme producing probiotic Bacillus sp. QSI-1. AHLs were found in fish gut content and were confirmed in Aeromonas species using Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 and Agrobacterium tumefaciens AT 136 (pZLR4) as reporter strains. We demonstrated that the composition of fish gut microbiota was affected by quenching bacteria QSI-1, and the percentage of A. hydrophila was decreased significantly. Taken together, these results provide valuable insights into QQ enzyme producing probiotics can modulate the microbiota structure and decrease the percentage of AHL-producing pathogenic bacteria in the gut. These data strongly suggest that QQ probiotics may serve as non-antibiotic feed additive in aquaculture to control bacterial diseases. PMID:28018866

  12. Resistance of genetically different common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., families against experimental bacterial challenge with Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeney, G; Ardó, L; Rónyai, A; Bercsényi, M; Jeney, Z

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the differences in disease resistance against artificial infection with Aeromonas hydrophila between genetically different common carp families. Four strains differing in their origin and breeding history were selected from the live gene bank of common carp maintained at the Research Institute for Fisheries, Aquaculture and Irrigation (HAKI, Szarvas, Hungary) to establish families with wide genetic background: Szarvas 15 (15), an inbred mirror line; Tata (T) scaly noble carp; Duna (D), a Hungarian wild carp and Amur (A), an East Asian wild carp. A diallele mating structure was used to allow the assessment of genetic variation within and between the tested 96 families for a variety of traits. The existing technologies of fertilization and incubation of carp eggs, as well as larval and fingerling rearing had been modified because of the large number of baseline populations. Two challenge trials of the 96 families of carp with Aeromonas hydrophila were done. The 10 most resistant and 10 most susceptible families to A. hydrophila were identified from these two challenges. The crosses that produced the most resistant families were mainly those having parents from Tata and Szarvas 15 domesticated strains, while the most susceptible families were from the wild strains Duna and Amur.

  13. First isolation of Aeromonas salmonicida subspecies salmonicida from diseased sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax (L., cultured in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Fernández-Álvarez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This work represents the first description of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida as causative agent of furunculosis in cultured sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax (L.. Cumulative mortality in affected fish from two floating cages in the Mediterranean coast of Spain was 3.8%. Affected sea bass did not show the typical external signs of furunculosis in the first stages of the disease, however, when the disease progressed, open ulcers appeared on the skin and muscle. Internally, splenomegaly was the only pathological sign observed. Samples from diseased fish were subjected to standardized assays for pathogens screening. Negative results were obtained for parasites and fish viruses. A Gram-stain-negative rod-shaped bacterium was observed in smears from liver, kidney and spleen of all analysed fish. Pure bacterial cultures were recovered from liver, kidney and spleen of all diseased fish sampled during the two different outbreaks. Bacteriological, serological, molecular and chemotaxonomic analysis allowed the identification of the causative agent of sea bass mortalities as Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida. The bacterial strains were susceptible to most of antimicrobial agents usually employed in aquaculture except to oxytetracycline. Pathogenicity assays demonstrated that the isolated bacteria were virulent for sea bass, turbot and rainbow trout.

  14. White Mulberry (Morus alba Foliage Methanolic Extract Can Alleviate Aeromonas hydrophila Infection in African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus

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    Atefeh Sheikhlar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were simultaneously conducted with Morus alba (white mulberry foliage extract (MFE as a growth promoter and treatment of Aeromonas hydrophila infection in separate 60 and 30 days trail (Experiments 1 and 2, resp. in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus. In Experiment 1, four diets, control and control supplemented with 2, 5, or 7 g MFE/kg dry matter (DM of diet, were used. In Experiment 2, fish were intraperitoneally infected with Aeromonas hydrophila and fed the same diets as experiment 1 plus additional two diets with or without antibiotic. Results of experiment 1 showed that growth was unaffected by dietary levels of MFE. Treatments with the inclusion of MFE at the levels of 5 and 7 g/Kg DM had no mortality. Red blood cells (RBC, albumin, and total protein were all higher for the treatments fed MFE (5 and 7 g/Kg DM. Results of experiment 2 showed RBC, hemoglobin, hematocrit, globulin, albumin, and total protein improved with the increase in MFE in the infected fish. The dietary MFE at the level of 7 g/kg DM reduced mortality rate. In conclusion, MFE at the level of 7 g/kg DM could be a valuable dietary supplement to cure the infected fish.

  15. White mulberry (Morus alba) foliage methanolic extract can alleviate Aeromonas hydrophila infection in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhlar, Atefeh; Alimon, Abd Razk; Daud, Hassan; Saad, Chee R; Webster, Carl D; Meng, Goh Yong; Ebrahimi, Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    Two experiments were simultaneously conducted with Morus alba (white mulberry) foliage extract (MFE) as a growth promoter and treatment of Aeromonas hydrophila infection in separate 60 and 30 days trail (Experiments 1 and 2, resp.) in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). In Experiment 1, four diets, control and control supplemented with 2, 5, or 7 g MFE/kg dry matter (DM) of diet, were used. In Experiment 2, fish were intraperitoneally infected with Aeromonas hydrophila and fed the same diets as experiment 1 plus additional two diets with or without antibiotic. Results of experiment 1 showed that growth was unaffected by dietary levels of MFE. Treatments with the inclusion of MFE at the levels of 5 and 7 g/Kg DM had no mortality. Red blood cells (RBC), albumin, and total protein were all higher for the treatments fed MFE (5 and 7 g/Kg DM). Results of experiment 2 showed RBC, hemoglobin, hematocrit, globulin, albumin, and total protein improved with the increase in MFE in the infected fish. The dietary MFE at the level of 7 g/kg DM reduced mortality rate. In conclusion, MFE at the level of 7 g/kg DM could be a valuable dietary supplement to cure the infected fish.

  16. PEMBERIAN PROBIOTIK LACTOBACILLUS BREVIS DAN PREBIOTIK OLIGOSAKARIDA PADA BENIH PATIN SIAM (Pangasionodon hypophthalmus YANG DIINFEKSI Aeromonas hydrophila

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    Yuke Eliyani

    2013-08-01

    Lactobacillus brevis, prebiotik oligosakarida dan sinbiotiknya terhadap jumlah bakteri Lactobacillus sp. dan total bakteri dalam usus, total eritrosit, total leukosit, diferensial leukosit, aktivitas fagositik, sintasan, tingkat pertumbuhan, serta FCR benih ikan patin siam yang diinfeksi Aeromonas hydrophila. Hasil uji karakteristik menunjukkan bahwa jenis probiotik dan patogen adalah Lactobacillus sp. dan Aeromonas hydrophila. Pada uji in vivo digunakan lima perlakuan yang terdiri atas K(+, K(-, probiotik (pro, prebiotik (pre serta sinbiotik (sin. Bakteri Lactobacillus sp. ditemukan di usus pada perlakuan probiotik dan sinbiotik dengan kisaran jumlah sekitar 101 sampai 106 (CFU/g. Total eritrosit, total leukosit, aktivitas fagositik berbeda nyata (P<0,05 dengan kontrol pada beberapa waktu pengamatan. Tingkat sintasan terendah diperoleh pada perlakuan K(+ sebesar 43,33±11,55; sedangkan empat perlakuan lainnya memperoleh nilai 100%. Tingkat pertumbuhan harian berbeda nyata antar perlakuan, nilai terbaik dicapai pada perlakuan pemberian sinbiotik sebesar 3,370±0,14. Nilai FCR perlakuan probiotik, prebiotik dan sinbiotik menunjukkan beda nyata dengan kontrol. Perlakuan sin, pre, pro memberikan nilai yang lebih baik pada total eritrosit, total leukosit, aktivitas fagositik, sintasan, pertumbuhan, dan FCR dibandingkan kontrol.

  17. Production of N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine from chitin by Aeromonas sp. GJ-18 crude enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuk, J H; Jung, W J; Jo, G H; Kim, Y C; Kim, K Y; Park, R D

    2005-08-01

    A bacterium, GJ-18, having strong chitinolytic activity was isolated from coastal soil. The isolated strain was identified as Aeromonas sp. by morphological and biochemical properties along with 16S rRNA gene sequence. The crude chitinolytic activity of culture supernatants was maximal on the 5th day of culture. Below 45 degrees C, chitin was effectively hydrolyzed to N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc) by Aeromonas sp. GJ-18 crude enzymes, but hydrolysis decreased markedly above 50 degrees C. The optimum pH for enzyme activity was 5.0. TLC and HPLC analysis revealed that, below 45 degrees C, the major reaction product was GlcNAc with a small amount of (GlcNAc)(2) and (GlcNAc)(3), whereas above 50 degrees C the major product was (GlcNAc)(2). When swollen chitin (100 mg) was incubated with crude enzyme preparations (10 U) at 40 degrees C, chitin was hydrolyzed to 83.0 and 94.9% yield of GlcNAc within 5 and 9 days, respectively.

  18. UJI AKTIVITAS ANTIBAKTERI EKSTRAK RUMPUT LAUT Kappaphycus alvarezii DAN Eucheuma denticullatum TERHADAP BAKTERI Aeromonas hydrophila DAN Vibrio harveyii

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    Dwi Budi Wiyanto

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian tentang Uji Aktivitas Antibakteri Ekstrak Rumput Laut Kappaphycus alvarezii dan Eucheuma denticullatum Terhadap Bakteri Aeromonas hydrophila dan Vibrio harveyii dilakukan, mengingat banyak dijumpai  penyakit pada usaha budidaya ikan dan udang, terutama bakteri Aeromonas hydrophila dan Vibrio harveyii. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui efektifitas senyawa bioaktif rumput laut K. alvarezii dan E. denticullatum yang diekstrak menggunakan pelarut metanol dan etanol sebagai antibakteri terhadap A. hydrophila dan V. harveyii.  Penelitian dilakukan sebanyak dua tahap, yaitu: (1 Uji aktivitas antibakteri ekstrak rumput laut; dan (2 Analisa senyawa bioaktif yang terdapat pada ekstrak rumput laut, dimana masing-masing tahapan dianalisis menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap faktorial. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan, dua jenis ekstrak rumput laut dengan pelarut metanol dan etanol, mempunyai daya antibakteri terhadap A. hydrophila dan V. harveyii. Ekstrak E. denticullatum dengan pelarut metanol memiliki daya hambat lebih luas dibanding ekstrak K. alvarezii dengan pelarut metanol terhadap A. hydrophila (19.43±0,55 mm. Ekstrak E. denticullatum dengan pelarut metanol memiliki daya hambat lebih luas dibanding ekastrak K. alvarezii dengan pelarut metanol terhadap V. harveyii (19.85±0,23 mm. Asam heksadekanoat merupakan senyawa paling dominan dijumpai pada ekstrak rumput laut K. alvarezii, dan E. denticullatum yang diekstrak menggunakan pelarut metanol. Kata Kunci : Aktivitas Antibakteri, Rumput laut K. alvarezii dan E. denticullatum,  Bakteri A.  hydrophila dan V. harveyii. 

  19. VAKSINASI IKAN TILAPIA (Oreochromis niloticus MENGGUNAKAN VAKSIN MONOVALEN DAN BIVALEN UNTUK PENCEGAHAN PENYAKIT MOTILE AEROMONAS SEPTICEMIA DAN STREPTOCOCCOSIS

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    Desy Sugiani

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Peningkatan respon antibodi pascavaksinasi dengan antigen tunggal dan campuran dari bakterin Aeromonas hydrophila and Streptococcus agalactiae diharapkan dapat meningkatkan daya tahan ikan tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus terhadap penyakit Motile Aeromonas Septicemia/MAS dan Streptococcosis. Sediaan vaksin disiapkan dengan metode pembuatan dan formula yang berbeda, proses inaktifasi dilakukan dengan menambahkan 3% Neutral Buffer Formalin (NBF 10% pada biakan bakteri dalam media tumbuh BHI dan TSB. Vaksinasi diberikan melalui injeksi intraperitoneal dengan sediaan vaksin monovalen A. hydrophila, monovalen S. agalactiae, dan bivalen A. hydrophila + S. agalactiae (Sel utuh, produk ektraselular/ECP, crude supernatan, campuran sel utuh + ECP, dan broth. Uji tantang dilakukan menggunakan dosis LD50 infeksi tunggal maupun ko-infeksi dari bakteri A. hydrophila dan S. agalactiae. Efektivitas dan keampuhan vaksin tersebut dihitung berdasarkan nilai RPS (Relative Percent Survival dan hasil respon hematologi. Titer antibodi dapat terdeteksi setelah satu minggu pemeliharaan pasca vaksinasi. Nilai titer antar perlakuan vaksin bivalen berbeda nyata (P<0.05 dengan vaksin monovalen dan kontrol. Nilai RPS vaksin bivalen (campuran sel utuh + ECP mencapai 100 untuk uji tantang dengan A. hydrophila dan 56,7 pada uji tantang ko-infeksi. Vaksin monovalen A. hydrophila maupun S. agalactiae hanya mampu memproteksi terhadap bakteri homolog, tidak terjadi proteksi silang di antara keduanya.

  20. Complete Genome Sequence of the Highly Virulent Aeromonas schubertii Strain WL1483, Isolated from Diseased Snakehead Fish (Channa argus) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lihui; Li, Ningqiu; Zhang, Defeng; Fu, Xiaozhe; Shi, Cunbin; Lin, Qiang; Hao, Guijie

    2016-01-21

    We sequenced the complete genome of the highly virulent Aeromonas schubertii strain WL1483, which was isolated from diseased snakehead fish (Channa argus) in China. The full genome sequence of A. schubertii WL1483 is 4,400,034 bp, which encodes 4,376 proteins and contains 195 predicted RNA genes.

  1. Aeromonas hydrophila as an agent of infection in alligators. Phase I, final report. Progress report, September 1, 1976--September 30, 1977, Part I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorden, R.W.; Esch, G.W.

    1977-01-01

    Experimental alligators were exposed to various concentrations of young, washed cells of Aeromonas hydrophila under controlled conditions. Responses of all alligators were monitored on the basis of: observations of external lesions; immunoglobulin production; blood chemistry and hematology; bacteriology, parasitology, and pathology of internal organs, skeletal muscle and external lesions at necropsy. The findings are summarized.

  2. A Case of Extrusion of a Solid Silicone Tire Migrating through the Superior Rectus Muscle with Aeromonas hydrophila Infection following a Scleral Buckling Procedure

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    Shinji Makino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To our knowledge, there are no reports of Aeromonas hydrophila infection after a scleral buckling procedure. Also, migration of a silicone explant element through the rectus muscles is extremely rare. Herein, we describe a case experiencing extrusion of a solid silicone tire migrating through the superior rectus muscle with Aeromonas hydrophila infection following a scleral buckling procedure. A 42-year-old man was referred to our hospital complaining of ocular pain and purulent discharge in his left eye which has persisted for several months. He had a history of bilateral rhegmatogenous retinal detachment which had been treated with scleral buckling. The left eye showed extrusion of the solid silicone buckle which had migrated through the superior rectus muscle and an infection in the upper quadrant of the sclera. The buckle was removed, and the patient was treated with antibiotics. After the removal of the buckle, the symptoms showed rapid amelioration and there was no recurrence of retinal detachment. Aeromonas hydrophila was isolated from the discharge and the removed explant. He used well water in daily life. In this case, the Aeromonas hydrophila infection of the extruded buckle might have originated from contaminated well water.

  3. Complete genome sequence of the highly virulent Aeromonas hydrophila AL09-71 isolated from diseased channel catfish in West Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeromonas hydrophila AL09-71 was isolated from diseased channel catfish in West Alabama during a 2009 disease outbreak. The full genome of A. hydrophila AL09-71 is 5,023,861 bp. The availability of this genome will allow comparative genomics to identify genes involved in pathogenesis or immunogens f...

  4. Identification, virulence, and mass spectrometry of toxic ECP fractons of West Alabama isolates of Aeromonas hydrophila obtained from a 2010 disease outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    In West Alabama, disease outbreaks in 2009 caused by Aeromonas hydrophila have led to an estimated loss of more than $3 million. In 2010, disease outbreak occurred again in West Alabama, causing losses of hundreds of thousands of pounds of market size channel catfish. During the 2010 disease outbrea...

  5. Identification, virulence, and mass spectrometry of toxic ECP fractions of West Alabama isolates of Aeromonas hydrophila obtained from a 2010 disease outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    In West Alabama, disease outbreaks in 2009 caused by Aeromonas hydrophila have led to an estimated loss of more than $3 million. In 2010, disease outbreak occurred again in West Alabama, causing losses of hundreds of thousands of pounds of market size channel catfish. During the 2010 disease outbrea...

  6. Draft Genome Sequence of Aeromonas caviae CH129, a Marine-Derived Bacterium Isolated from the Coast of São Paulo State, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso Vargas, Nadia Catalina; Zimpel, Cristina Kraemer; Pessoa, Adalberto; Rivera, Irma Nelly Gutierrez

    2016-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequence of Aeromonas caviae CH129, a marine-derived bacterium isolated from the coast of São Paulo state, Brazil. Genomic analysis revealed genes encoding enzymes involved in binding, transport, and chitin metabolism and different virulence-associated factors. PMID:27908996

  7. Comparative transcriptional analysis reveals distinct expression patterns of channel catfish genes after the first infection and re-infection with Aeromonas hydrophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine whether transcriptional levels of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) genes are differentially regulated between a first infection with Aeromonas hydrophila and a re-infection, suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) was performed in this study using anterior kidney cDNA after the...

  8. DIFFERENTIATION OF AEROMONAS ISOLATES OBTAINED FROM DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM USING MATRIX-ASSISTED LASER DESCRIPTION/IONIZATION-MASS SPECTROMETRY (MALDI-MS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genus Aeromonas is one of several medically significant genera that have gained prominence due to their evolving taxonomy and controversial role in human diseases. In this study, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) was used to analyze the...

  9. Further Characterization of a Type III Secretion System (T3SS) and of a New Effector Protein from a Clinical Isolate of Aeromonas Hydrophila - Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    A type III secretion system (T3SS)-associated cytotoxin, AexT, with ADP-ribosyltransferase activity and homology to Pseudomonas aeruginosa bifuncational toxins ExoT/S, was recently identified from a fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida. In this study, we reported the molecular cha...

  10. Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida strains isolated from Chinese freshwater fish contain a novel genomic island and possible regional-specific mobile genetic elements profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Long, Meng; Nielsen, Tue Kjærgaard; Leisner, Jørgen Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Two strains of Aeromonas salmonicida, YK and BG, were isolated from largemouth bronze gudgeon and northern whitefish in China, and identified as A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida based on phylogenetic analysis of vapA and 16S rRNA gene sequences. YK and BG originated from freshwater fish, one of ...

  11. Promoção do crescimento do feijoeiro e controle da antracnose por Trichoderma spp

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    Erica Aparecida de Souza Pedro

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a capacidade de Trichoderma spp. em promover o crescimento de plantas de feijão e reduzir a severidade da antracnose do feijoeiro (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, bem como identificar os isolados mais eficientes. Sessenta isolados de Trichoderma spp. foram avaliados quanto à capacidade de promoção do crescimento nas plantas. Os sete isolados que mais se destacaram foram adicionados ao substrato de cultivo e avaliados quanto à redução na severidade da antracnose em plantas de feijão tratadas com conídios de C. lindemuthianum. Os mais eficientes no controle da doença foram identificados por sequenciamento de DNA. O isolado IB 28/07 foi avaliado nas concentrações 0,5, 1, 1,5 e 2% (peso:volume, que reduziram a severidade da doença em 41,51, 55,15, 81,82 e 96,06%, respectivamente. Os isolados mais eficientes de Trichoderma spp. podem proporcionar aumentos superiores a 30% na produção de matéria seca da parte aérea das plantas e reduzir a severidade da doença entre 63 e 98%. Esses isolados foram identificados como pertencentes às espécies Trichoderma harzianum, T. strigosum e T. theobromicola.

  12. PHENOTYPING, VIRULENCE CHARACTERISTICS OF AEROMONAS SPECIES AND THE EFFECTS OF ESSENTIAL PLANT OILS AS ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS AGAINST PATHOGENIC ISOLATES FROM DIFFERENT SOURCES

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    Ahmed M.A. Mansour

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas species are increasingly recognized as enteric pathogens. Faecal samples from 20 cow, 45 sheep; 60 goat and 60 camels were examined for the presence of Aeromonas species, which was also sought in the available drinking water (55 well water and 52 drinking chlorinated tap water were also examined. Aeromonas species was isolated more frequently from goats (21.7% than from other animal groups sampled and isolated more frequently from well water (38.2% than chlorinated supplies (23.0%. A. hydrophilia was the most dominant species isolated from different kinds of samples (13.4%. Whereas A. sobria and A. caviae were isolated in much lower rates 4.7 and 2.1% respectively. There was significant association between the isolation of Aeromonas species from all animal faeces and its presence in drinking water. All isolated strains were examined for the characteristics that are reputed to have roles in pathogenicity. The data reported in this study indicates that the distributions of virulence factors, that regulate the pathogenicity of Aeromonads, are different in clinical and enviromental samples. Aeromonas isolates exhibited multi-drug resistanc amoxicillin, carbenicillin and ampicillin. The most potent antibiotics against Aeromonas species isolated in this study were ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, cefotaxime, cefepime. Essential oils have been tested for in vitro and in vivo antimicrobial activity. Clove, Olive and Peppermint oil exhibited a wide spectrum of antimicrobial activity against all strains used in this study, showed a zone of inhibition ranging from 10.00±0.8 to 14.82±0.41 mm in diameter. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC for selected oils ranged from 12.8 to 25.6 mg mL-1. Treatment of mice with essential oil for 15 days led to enhance antibody levels in all treated groups and significant clearance of A. hydrophilia from animals. The treated animals had

  13. Selective culturing and genus-specific PCR detection for identification of Aeromonas in tissue samples to assist the medico-legal diagnosis of death by drowning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huys, Geert; Coopman, Vera; Van Varenbergh, Dirk; Cordonnier, Jan

    2012-09-10

    The detection of autochthonous aquatic bacteria in tissue samples from drowning cases is increasingly considered as an alternative approach to assist the medico-legal diagnosis of death by drowning. Bacteria belonging to the genus Aeromonas may be suitable candidates for this application as they are ubiquitous in natural aquatic environments but are generally not part of the human microbiota. The research aims of this study were (i) to develop a sensitive, specific and rapid screening and confirmation method for Aeromonas species in tissue samples and (ii) to evaluate aseptic sternal puncture as a post-mortem sample technique and bone marrow as an alternative matrix to provide evidence of death by drowning. The presence of Aeromonas in tissue samples was verified by cultivation using the selective media Ampicillin Dextrin Agar (ADA) and Ryan's Aeromonas Medium. The use of ADA medium was found most optimal for the sensitive, inexpensive and quick detection of aeromonads in human tissue samples. Positive culture plates were confirmed by harvesting all colonies for DNA extraction and subsequent PCR amplification using Aeromonas genus-specific primers. Aeromonads were detected in lung swab, blood and bone marrow of drowned bodies (n=3), but were negative in these three matrices for all negative controls (n=90) tested. Bone marrow proved to be a suitable alternative matrix and can be sampled post-mortem by an aseptic sternal puncture. In conclusion, this study confirms previous indications that aeromonads in cultures from blood of water bodies can be considered a potential marker for drowning. Given the fact that the number of immersed bodies (drowned and non-drowned) included in this study is statistically not significant, however, more tissue samples need to be investigated to confirm the validity of these methods to aid the diagnosis of death by wet drowning.

  14. Prevalence of Brucella spp in humans

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    Catharina de Paula Oliveira Cavalcanti Soares

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to determine the seroprevalence of Brucella spp in humans.Method: this is an observational study, developed with 455 individuals between 18 and 64 years old, who use the Estratégia de Saúde da Família (Brazil's family health strategy. The serum samples of volunteers underwent buffered acid antigen tests, such as screening, agar gel immunodiffusion and slow seroagglutination test in tubes and 2-Mercaptoethanol.Results: among the samples, 1.98% has responded to buffered-acid antigen, 2.85% to agar gel immunodiffusion test and 1.54% to the slow seroagglutination tests on tubes/2-Mercaptoethanol. The prevalence of Brucella spp was 4.4%, represented by the last two tests.Conclusion: the results of this research suggest that the studied population is exposed to Brucella spp infection.

  15. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp., spatial clustering and patterns of shedding in dairy calves from Córdoba, Argentina Prevalência de Cryptosporidium spp. e Giardia spp., distribuição espacial e padrões de eliminação em bezerros de propriedades leiteiras em Córdoba, Argentina

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    Karina Tiranti

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to estimate calf and herd prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp., the herd prevalence clustering, spatial distribution according to soil type and shedding patterns in dairy calves from Cordoba, Argentina. Six hundred twenty calves younger than 7 weeks of age from 43 dairy herds were sampled. Samples were processed with the formol-ether and modified Ziehl-Neelsen techniques. Univariate analysis and Kruskall-Wallis tests were used. Factors associated were subjected to multivariate analysis with calf shedding intensity as the response variable. Clustering of herd prevalence was assessed by a scan method, and spatial analysis was applied to explore the overlapping of high prevalence herds and soil type. Overall calf prevalence for Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts and Giardia spp. cysts were 19.35% (95% CI: 16.14; 22.54 and 34.50% (95% CI: 30.69; 38.34, respectively. Calves younger than two weeks of age were almost four times more likely to be infected with Cryptosporidium, in comparison to older ones (RR: 3.78, 95% CI: 2.27; 6.26. Giardia spp. shedding showed a similar age pattern (RR: 1.33, 95% CI: 1.02; 1.75. A primary cluster of high Cryptosporidium prevalence was found, and high prevalence herds were located in areas with poor drained soil.Os objetivos deste estudo foram determinar a prevalência de Cryptosporidium spp. e Giardia spp., a presença de aglomerados, a distribuição espacial de acordo com o tipo de solo e padrões de eliminação de cistos e oocistos em bezerros de propriedades leiteiras em Córdoba, Argentina. Amostras fecais foram colhidas de 620 bezerros com menos de sete semanas de idade, provenientes de 43 propriedades leiteiras e examinadas pelas técnicas de formol-éter e Ziehl-Neelsen modificada. Foram realizadas uma análise univariada e o teste de Kruskal-Wallis e, em seguida, uma análise multivariada com a intensidade de eliminação de cistos e oocistos, como um evento. A

  16. Suppression of Pythium spp. by Trichoderma spp. during germination of tomato seeds in soilless growing media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, R; De Schutter, B; Rombouts, L

    2002-01-01

    In the Flemish horticulture Pythium spp. is an important pathogen of tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculenthum) in soilless growing media. Therefore some experiments were conducted to evaluate the possibility of decreasing the damage caused by Pythium spp. by Trichoderma spp. In a tray with several growing media, a suspension of Trichoderma conidia (10(6)/ml growing medium) was applied two weeks before sowing. On some objects, a compost extract (Biostimulus) was added. The growing media used in the experiment were rockwool, recycled rockwool and recycled coconut fibre. After sowing, the trays were covered with perlite. Three isolates of Trichoderma spp.: T. asperellum (Biofungus), T. harzianum (Tri 003) and Trichoderma sp. (KHK) and two isolates of Pythium spp.: P. ultimum (MUCL) en P. aphanidermatum (HRI, UK) were used. Propamocarb was used as a chemical standard. The use of coconut fibre growing medium resulted in a higher percentage (36%) of germination than the rockwool media when only Pythium spp. was used. The presence of the spontaneous developing microflora in the coconut fibre medium gave probably also a suppression of Pythium spp. For that reason the results of the suppression by Trichoderma spp. are not easy to explain and very variable on the different objects. Pythium ultimum was more suppressed than P. aphanidermatum on all the growing media and the application of all the Trichoderma isolates increased the germination percentage of tomato seeds. T. asperellum (Biofungus) gave on rockwool also a good result for the suppression of P. aphanidermatum (increasing of germination with 48%). This effect was comparable with the propamocarb treatment (48%). T. harzianum (Tri 003) gave a small suppression (22%) and Trichoderma sp. (KHK) gave almost no suppression of P. aphanidermatum (7%). When less Trichoderma conidia were applied the germination percentage decreased. The adding of a compost extract (Biostimulus) had no influence on the results. This experiment

  17. DETECCIÓN DE Escherichia coli O157: H7 y Salmonella spp., EN CERDOS DEL DEPARTAMENTO DE CORDOBA

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    Jaime Vargas

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available E. coli O157:H7 y Salmonella spp., son bacterias de distribución mundial causantes de enfermedades intestinales queafectan tanto al hombre como a LOS animales. ESTE estudio tuvo como objetivo determinar la presencia y frecuenciade aparición de E. coli O157:H7 y Salmonella spp., en los diferentes sistemas de producción porcina que se empleanen el departamento de Córdoba. Se realizó un estudio de corte descriptivo prospectivo, con un muestreo al azar enlos sistemas de explotación porcina intensiva y extensiva. Se procesaron 500 muestras de materia fecal de porcinos,250 provenientes del sistema extensivo y 250 del sistema intensivo. Para la detección E. coli y Salmonella spp., sellevaron a cabo procedimientos estándares microbiológicos. Los resultados mostraron una frecuencia de aparición deSalmonella spp., del 1%, el 0.2% en el sistema intensivo y el 0.8% en el sistema extensivo; no se aisló Escherichia coliO157:H7. Los resultados de resistencia y sensibilidad a los antibióticos en las cepas aisladas de Salmonella spp.,mostraron una sensibilidad del 100% al trimetoprim sulfametozasol, a la amikacina, al ceftriaxona, a la ciprofloxacina,a la gentamicina y al aztreonam y un 20% a la ampicilina y al sulbactam. Se concluye que la frecuencia de apariciónde Salmonella spp., en muestras coprológicas porcinas es baja, y nula para E. coli O157:H7, sin embargo, se debemantener la vigilancia sobre estos patógenos, por lo que se recomienda continuar los estudios epidemiológicos.

  18. Diversity and homogeneity among small plasmids of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida linked with geographical origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina A Attéré

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Furunculosis, which is caused by Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, is a major salmonid disease in fish farms worldwide. Several plasmids found in this bacterium confer phenotypes such drug resistance and virulence. Small plasmids (pAsa1, pAsa2, pAsa3, and pAsal1 related to ColE1- and ColE2-type replicons are usually present in its normal plasmidome. In the present study, with the objective to investigate if these plasmids display particularities related to the origin of the isolates bearing them, a total of 153 isolates, including 78 new and 75 previously described, were analyzed for the presence of small plasmids by PCR and DNA restriction fragment profiling. A geographical dichotomy between Canadian and European isolates for their propensity to do not have pAsa3 or pAsal1 was found. In addition, the genotyping analysis led to the identification of two European isolates harboring an unusual pAsal1. An investigation by next-generation sequencing (NGS of these two isolates shed light on two pAsal1 variants (pAsal1C and pAsal1D. As with pAsal1B, another pAsal1 variant previously described, these two new variants bore a second insertion sequence (ISAS5 in addition to the usual ISAS11. The characterization of these variants suggested that they could predominate over the wild-type pAsal1 in stressful conditions such as growth at temperatures of 25°C and above. To obtain a comprehensive portrait of the mutational pressure on small plasmids, 26 isolates whose DNA had been sequenced by NGS were investigated. pAsa3 and pAsal1 were more prone to mutations than pAsa1 and pAsa2, especially in the mobA gene, which encodes a relaxase and a primase. Lastly, the average copy number of each plasmid per cell was assessed using raw sequencing data. A clear trend with respect to the relative proportion per cell of each plasmid was identified. Our large-scale study revealed a geographical dichotomy in small plasmid repertoire in addition to a clear trend

  19. Exposure to pairs of Aeromonas strains enhances virulence in the Caenorhabditis elegans infection model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosser, Thomas; Talagrand-Reboul, Emilie; Colston, Sophie M.; Graf, Joerg; Figueras, Maria J.; Jumas-Bilak, Estelle; Lamy, Brigitte

    2015-01-01

    Aeromonad virulence remains poorly understood, and is difficult to predict from strain characteristics. In addition, infections are often polymicrobial (i.e., are mixed infections), and 5–10% of such infections include two distinct aeromonads, which has an unknown impact on virulence. In this work, we studied the virulence of aeromonads recovered from human mixed infections. We tested them individually and in association with other strains with the aim of improving our understanding of aeromonosis. Twelve strains that were recovered in pairs from six mixed infections were tested in a virulence model of the worm Caenorhabditis elegans. Nine isolates were weak worm killers (median time to death, TD50, ≥7 days) when administered alone. Two pairs showed enhanced virulence, as indicated by a significantly shortened TD50 after co-infection vs. infection with a single strain. Enhanced virulence was also observed for five of the 14 additional experimental pairs, and each of these pairs included one strain from a natural synergistic pair. These experiments indicated that synergistic effects were frequent and were limited to pairs that were composed of strains belonging to different species. The genome content of virulence-associated genes failed to explain virulence synergy, although some virulence-associated genes that were present in some strains were absent from their companion strain (e.g., T3SS). The synergy observed in virulence when two Aeromonas isolates were co-infected stresses the idea that consideration should be given to the fact that infection does not depend only on single strain virulence but is instead the result of a more complex interaction between the microbes involved, the host and the environment. These results are of interest for other diseases in which mixed infections are likely and in particular for water-borne diseases (e.g., legionellosis, vibriosis), in which pathogens may display enhanced virulence in the presence of the right partner. This

  20. DNA microarray-based detection of multiple pathogens: Mycoplasma spp. and Chlamydia spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnee, Christiane; Sachse, Konrad

    2015-01-01

    Rapid detection of slow-growing or non-culturable microorganisms, such as Mycoplasma spp. and Chlamydia spp., is still a challenge to diagnosticians in the veterinary field. In addition, as epidemiological evidence on the frequency of mixed infections involving two and more bacterial species has been emerging, detection methods allowing simultaneous identification of different pathogens are required. In the present chapter, we describe DNA microarray-based procedures for the detection of 83 Mollicutes species (Mycoplasma assay) and 11 Chlamydia spp. (Chlamydia assay). The assays are suitable for use in a routine diagnostic environment, as well as in microbiological research.

  1. Molecular Identification of 4 Strains of Aeromonas Based on 16 S rDNA Sequence%基于16SrDNA序列的4株气单胞菌属细菌的分子鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭凤霞

    2012-01-01

    16SrDNA sequences were amplified and sequenced for four Aeromonas bacteria strains isolated from the aquacul-ture water. The homologous sequences were searched and retrieved using BLAST, then sequences were aligned by MegAlign sofeware using Jotun Hein, ClustalV and ClustalW methods. Phylogenetic trees were constructed by Mega 4.0 software using Neighbor-joining (N-J), minimum evolution (ME), maximum parsimony (MP) and UPGMA methods. Sequences analysis showed that there are 99.2% (Jotun Hein) similarity between Aeromonas sp. T3 16 S rDNA and DQ817542.1, DQ817645.1 and HM127065.1; Aeromonas sp. T4 and DQ816364.1, HM77846.1 and HM778618.1 have 97.9% (Jotun Hein) similarity; Aeromonas sp. T5 and GQ205446.1 have 99.4% (Jotun Hein) similarity; Aeromonas sp. T6 and GQ205446.1 have 99.6% (Jotun Hein) similarity. Similar results were supported by the other two alignment methods. Phylogenetic trees constructed by the four methods showed similar results, and the taxonomic status for the four isolated strains could be investigated. Results showed that Aeromonas sp. T3 and DQ817542.1, Aeromonas sp. T4 and HM778618.1, Aeromonas sp. T5 and CQ232759.1, Aeromonas sp. T6 and GQ205446.1 had the closest relationship, respectively.%对分离自养殖水环境的4株气单胞菌属(A eromonas)细菌的16 S rDNA序列进行PCR扩增并测定其核酸序列,通过BLAST软件在GenBank中查找同源序列,应用MegAlign软件中的Jotun Hein、ClustalV以及ClustalW 3种方法进行序列差异和同源性分析,分别使用Mega 4.0软件中的邻接法(NJ)、最小进化法(ME)、最大简约法(MP)、非加权组平均法(UPGMA)构建系统发育树.由Jotun Hein法可知,Aeromonas sp.T3与序列DQ817542.1、DQ817645.1以及HM127065.1相似度最高,均为99.2%,Aeromonas sp.T4与序列DQ816364.1、HM77846.1以及HM778618.1相似度最高,均为97.9%,A eromonas sp.T5与序列GQ205446.1相似度最高,均为99.4%,Aeromonas sp.T6与序列GQ205446.1相似度最高,为99.6%;其

  2. El museo como espacio educativo

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    El Trabajo Fin de Grado titulado "El museo como espacio educativo" tutelado por D. Jesús Féliz Pascual Molina, trata sobre el estudio acerca de cómo se usan los museos como espacios lúdicos y como mediadores de enseñanza. Para su realización se ha tenido en cuenta la legislación vigente y sobre todo el Decreto 122/2007 de 27 de Diciembre, por el que se establece el currículo de Educación Infantil en Castilla y León. En él se hace mención a la evolución de los museos, los diferentes tipos exis...

  3. Montagem e Imagem como Paradigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Huapaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available O pensar como montagem e imagem tornou-se um método revelador nos processos de estudos práticos e teóricos do artista e dos pesquisadores nos séculos XX e XXI. Este artigo procura articular três formas de pensar por montagem: nas obras de Bertolt Brecht, Sergei Eisenstein e Georges DidiHuberman. O filósofo e historiador da arte Georges Didi-Huberman reinaugura o debate e o exercício de pensar a antropologia da imagem e a montagem como metalinguagem e forma de conhecimento.

  4. Resistencia antimicrobiana de Salmonella spp aislada de alimentos de origen animal para consumo humano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Quesada

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Analizar la información disponible sobre la resistencia antimicrobiana de aislamientos de Salmonella spp de alimentos de origen animal para consumo humano en América Latina. Materiales y métodos. Se realizó una revisión sistemática de estudios epidemiológicos observacionales realizados en América Latina entre los años 2003 y 2014 en las bases de datos PubMed y LILACS. Se excluyeron estudios realizados como parte de estudio de brotes o casos de infecciones en humanos. Tres revisores de forma independiente participaron en la selección de estudios. Además, se realizó la evaluación de calidad a los estudios incluidos. Resultados. Un total de 25 estudios cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión. Los estudios incluidos fueron realizados en Brasil, México, Colombia, Argentina y Venezuela. Los aislamientos de Salmonella spp se obtuvieron principalmente de alimentos de origen avícola, porcino y vacuno, siendo Salmonella typhimurium y Salmonella enteritidis los serotipos que se aislaron con mayor frecuencia (17 y 11 estudios, respectivamente. En 23 de los estudios, Salmonella spp fue resistente a más de un antibiótico, incluyendo ácido nalidíxico, estreptomicina, tetraciclina, cloranfenicol, ampicilina, trimetoprim/sulfametoxazol, gentamicina, ciprofloxacina y cefalosporinas. Conclusiones. Los aislamientos de Salmonella spp obtenidos de alimentos de origen animal para consumo humano en los países analizados presentan con frecuencia resistencia a múltiples antibióticos. Es importante que más países en América Latina realicen y publiquen estudios sobre la resistencia de Salmonella spp para establecer y monitorear estrategias de control adecuadas.

  5. Detecção de genes toxigênicos, susceptibilidade antimicrobiana e antagonismo in vitro de Staphylococcus spp. isolados de queijos artesanais | Evaluation of toxicity genes, antimicrobial susceptibility, and in vitro antagonism of Staphylococcus spp. isolated from artisanal cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalila Lapinha Silva Oliveira Rosa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Cepas de Staphylococcus spp. molecularmente identificadas foram submetidas à Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase (PCR, utilizando-se iniciadores específicos para a detecção de genes codificadores de enterotoxinas clássicas (SEA, SEB, SEC, SED, SEE e da Toxina-1 da Síndrome do Choque Tóxico (TSST-1. Foi realizada PCR-Multiplex para detecção dos genes sea, sec, sed e see. Para seb e tst, foram realizadas PCR-Uniplex. Além disso, foi analisado o perfil de susceptibilidade das cepas a antimicrobianos de diferentes classes e foi verificado antagonismo in vitro entre Lactobacillus spp. e as cepas estudadas. Genes codificadores de enteroxinas clássicas, assim como de TSST-1, não foram encontrados. Em relação ao antibiograma, Sulfonamida, Penicilina, Ceftazidima e Oxacilina apresentaram os maiores percentuais de resistência (100, 80, 60 e 40%, respectivamente. Os demais antimicrobianos foram eficientes em percentuais acima de 70%. Lactobacillus spp. foram capazes de inibir o desenvolvimento in vitro de Staphylococcus spp. Conclui-se que as cepas estudadas não possuem genes codificadores da produção de enterotoxinas clássicas e TSST-1, são sensíveis à maioria dos antimicrobianos e são inibidos por bactérias do gênero Lactobacillus. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Staphylococcus spp. isolated from samples of Minas cheese traditionally manufactured following artisan procedures were identified using molecular techniques and further analyzed using PCR and specific primers for the detection of classic enterotoxins (SEA, SEB, SEC, SED, and SEE and toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1. Specific sea, sec, sed, and see genes were identified using multiplex PCR, whereas seb and tst genes were detected by uniplex PCR. In vitro antagonism with Lactobacillus spp. was evaluated to assess antimicrobial susceptibility. Classic enterotoxins and TSST-1 genes were not detected. The

  6. Pemanfaatan ekstrak daun inai (Lawsonia inermis l. sebagai bakterisida terhadap Aeromonas hydrophila yang menginfeksi ikan lele sangkuriang (Clarias gariepinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofyatuddin Karina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The objective of this research was to find out the effectiveness of henna leaf extract (Lawsonia inermis L. on A. hydrophila in vitro and its effect on the survival rate of Clarias gariepinus that infected by those bacterias in vivo. The research was conducted at chemistry laboratory of Teacher Training and Education Faculty, Syiah Kuala University and at Microbiology laboratory, Brackishwater aquaculture Department Center, Ujong Batee on Avril to September, 2015. The research involved in vitro test with the inhibition zone as measured parameter and in vivo test with the survival rate value as measured parameter. The treated concentrations were 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5% of extract. The result of in vitro test showed that henna leaf extract was effective against A. hydrophila with the inhibition zone for 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5% extract were 5.45; 5.7; 6.5; 7.5; and 9.6 mm, respectively. The result of ANOVA test showed that henna leaf extract has a significant effect on the survival rate of catfish (P<0.05. The best survival rate was obtained at 4% of extract  concentration.   Keywords: Aeromonas hydrophila; henna leaf extract; catfish Abstrak. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui efektivitas ekstrak daun inai (Lawsonia inermis L. terhadap A. hydrophila secara in vitro dan pengaruhnya secara in vivo terhadap kelangsungan hidup ikan lele sangkuriang (Clarias gariepinus yang terinfeksi bakteri ini dengan cara perendaman. Penelitian ini dilakukan di Laboratorium kimia, FKIP Unsyiah dan Laboratorium Mikrobiologi Balai Budidaya Perikanan Air Payau (BBAP Ujong Batee pada dari bulan April hingga bulan September 2015. Penelitian ini meliputi uji in vitro dengan parameter uji berupa zona hambat ekstrak terhadap bakteri dan uji in vivo dengan parameter uji berupa nilai kelangsungan hidup ikan lele sangkuriang pasca perlakuan dengan ekstrak. Konsentrasi perlakuan yang dilakukan adalah 1, 2, 3, 4, dan 5%. Hasil uji in vitro menunjukkan bahwa ekstrak daun

  7. Detection of pathogenic Aeromonas hydrophila by quadruple PCR%四重PCR检测致病性嗜水气单胞菌

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦信贤; 杨先乐; 童桂香; 吴祥庆; 谢宗升; 黄国秋; 廖永志; 叶欣宇; 黎小正

    2013-01-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila can infect an array of animals , including fish , amphibians , reptiles , birds and mammals , and lead to hemorrhagic septicaemia . To develop a rapid and specific quadruple PCR method for the detection of pathogenic Aeromonas hydrophila, four pairs of primers were designed based on the conservative sequences of 16S rRNA gene, ser-ine-protease (ahpA ) gene, aerolysin(aerA ) gene and hemolysin(hlyA ) gene of Aeromonas hydrophila. After optimalizing the reaction conditions , specificity , sensitivity and detection rate of the quadruple PCR method were studied . Results indicated that this method has a high specificity in detecting pathogenic strains of Aeromonas hydrophila but not other irrelative bacteria , and can detect as less as 100 fg DNA of Aeromonas hydrophila. Nine Aeromonas hydrophila strains and fifty-six clinical samples were tested by this quadruple PCR and conventional microbiology methods , and both of the methods could identify these nine Aeromonas hydrophila strains ; the detection rate of the fifty-six clinical samples by quadruple PCR was 21 .4% , which was higher than that by conventional microbiology methods (16 .1% ), and their coherence was 94 .6% . It could be concluded that the quadruple PCR method which can simultaneously detect 16S rRNA gene and three virulent genes of pathogenic Aeromonas hydrophila was well established , and this method is a reliable and convenient method to detect Aeromonas hydrophila and i-dentify specific type of pathogenic or nonpathogenic strains .%目的 建立一种能够快速准确地检测致病性嗜水气单胞菌的四重PCR方法.方法 根据致病性嗜水气单胞菌的丝氨酸蛋白酶(ahpA)基因、气溶素(aerA)基因和溶血素(hlyA)基因的保守序列以及嗜水气单胞菌的16S rRNA基因种属特异性序列分别设计4对特异性引物,通过优化各引物浓度、退火温度和Mg2+浓度,确定了四重PCR的最佳反应条件;然后进行特异性和敏感性试

  8. Banco de recursos genéticos de Auricularia spp. con fines industriales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Ortiz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available La Auricularia spp. presenta amplio potencial industrial debido a sus propiedades nutricionales y medicinales. La obtención de cepas viables y puras de este género se ha visto limitada por una identificación de especies meramente macroscópica y la utilización tanto de medios como técnicas de conservación inadecuados. El objetivo de esta revisión fue describir el proceso de obtención de cepas puras y viables del género Auricularia spp. a partir del medio natural, para resaltar datos técnicos, que faciliten la conformación de bancos de recursos genéticos fúngicos. Estos fungarios constituyen una alternativa para la preservación la biodiversidad fúngica del Ecuador y la obtención de cepas puras y viables. Lo anterior se logra con buenas prácticas de identificación tanto fenotípica como genotípica, de aislamiento en medio selectivos para evitar la inhibición competitiva por otros microorganismos, de conservación y de almacenamiento de especies por congelación, liofilización, repique o inmersión en líquidos inertes como agua o aceite mineral.

  9. Malassezia spp. overgrowth in allergic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordeix, Laura; Galeotti, Franca; Scarampella, Fabia; Dedola, Carla; Bardagí, Mar; Romano, Erica; Fondati, Alessandra

    2007-10-01

    A series of 18 allergic cats with multifocal Malassezia spp. overgrowth is reported: atopic dermatitis was diagnosed in 16, an adverse food reaction in another and one was euthanized 2 months after diagnosis of Malassezia overgrowth. All the cats were otherwise healthy and those tested (16 out of 18) for feline leukaemia or feline immunodeficiency virus infections were all negative. At dermatological examination, multifocal alopecia, erythema, crusting and greasy adherent brownish scales were variably distributed on all cats. Cytological examination revealed Malassezia spp. overgrowth with/without bacterial infection in facial skin (n = 11), ventral neck (n = 6), abdomen (n = 6), ear canal (n = 4), chin (n = 2), ear pinnae (n = 2), interdigital (n = 1) and claw folds skin (n = 1). Moreover, in two cats Malassezia pachydermatis was isolated in fungal cultures from lesional skin. Azoles therapy alone was prescribed in seven, azoles and antibacterial therapy in eight and azoles with both antibacterial and anti-inflammatory therapy in three of the cats. After 3-4 weeks of treatment, substantial reduction of pruritus and skin lesions was observed in all 11 cats treated with a combined therapy and in five of seven treated solely with azoles. Malassezia spp. overgrowth may represent a secondary cutaneous problem in allergic cats particularly in those presented for dermatological examination displaying greasy adherent brownish scales. The favourable response to treatment with antifungal treatments alone suggests that, as in dogs, Malassezia spp. may be partly responsible for both pruritus and cutaneous lesions in allergic cats.

  10. Genomics of Secondary Metabolism in Pseudomonas spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pseudomonas is a heterogeneous genus of bacteria known for its ubiquity in natural habitats and its prolific production of secondary metabolites. The structurally diverse chemical structures produced by Pseudomonas spp. result from biosynthetic processes with unusual features that have revealed no...

  11. The case of Artemia spp. in nanoecotoxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libralato, Giovanni

    2014-10-01

    Artemia spp. is one of the most widespread saltwater organism suitable for ecotoxicity testing, but no internationally standardised methods exist. Several endpoints can be considered with Artemia spp. including short-term (24-48 h) and long-term (14 days) mortality, cysts and nauplii hatchability, biomass productivity, biomarkers' expression/inhibition and bioaccumulation on larvae as well as organisms' reproductive ability. Recently, Artemia spp. started to be used as a reference biological model in nanoecotoxicology with both inorganic and organic engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) also in combination with traditional environmental stressors looking for potential interactive effects. Criticisms were detected about the use of Artemia spp. in relation to the hatching phase, the toxicity test design, the occasional use only of reference toxicants and the way testing solution/suspensions were prepared thus potentially compromising the reliability of nanoecotoxicological results. A full list of compulsory information that must accompany Artemia nanoecotoxicity data is provided with positive feedbacks also for other toxicity bioassays.

  12. Characterization of Milkweed (Asclepias spp.) Seed Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milkweed (Asclepias spp.) is a crop grown mainly for the production of floss used as hypoallergenic fillers in comforters and pillows. The seeds end up as by-products. Milkweed seed contains 21% oil and 30% crude protein (dry basis). The oil is similar in quality to soybean oil, but there is no i...

  13. Induced systemic resistance by fluorescent Pseudomonas spp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, P.A.H.M.; Pieterse, C.M.J.; Loon, L.C. van

    2007-01-01

    Fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. have been studied for decades for their plant growth-promoting effects through effective suppression of soilborne plant diseases. The modes of action that play a role in disease suppression by these bacteria include siderophore-mediated competition for iron, antibiosis,

  14. Toward in vitro fertilization in Brachiaria spp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dusi, D.; Alves, E.R.; Willemse, M.T.M.; Falcao, R.; Valle, do C.B.; Carneiro, V.T.C.

    2010-01-01

    Brachiaria are forage grasses widely cultivated in tropical areas. In vitro pollination was applied to accessions of Brachiaria spp. by placing pollen of non-dehiscent anthers on a solid medium near isolated ovaries. Viability and in vitro germination were tested in order to establish good condition

  15. Quantitative isolation of biocontrol agents Trichoderma spp., Gliocladium spp. and actinomycetes from soil with culture media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas Gil, S; Pastor, S; March, G J

    2009-01-01

    Soil biodiversity plays a key role in the sustainability of agriculture systems and indicates the level of health of soil, especially when considering the richness of microorganisms that are involved in biological control of soilborne diseases. Cultural practices may produce changes in soil microflora, which can be quantified through the isolation of target microorganisms. Rhizosphere soil samples were taken from an assay with different crop rotations and tillage systems, and populations of Trichoderma spp., Gliocladium spp. and actinomycetes were quantified in order to select the general and selective culture media that better reflect the changes of these microbial populations in soil. The most efficient medium for the isolation of Trichoderma spp. and Gliocladium spp. was potato dextrose agar modified by the addition of chloramphenicol, streptomycin and rose bengal, and for actinomycetes was Küster medium, with cycloheximide and sodium propionate.

  16. 21 CFR 866.3040 - Aspergillus spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aspergillus spp. serological reagents. 866.3040... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3040 Aspergillus spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Aspergillus spp. serological reagents are devices...

  17. 21 CFR 866.3660 - Shigella spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shigella spp. serological reagents. 866.3660... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3660 Shigella spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Shigella spp. serological reagents are devices that consist...

  18. 21 CFR 866.3870 - Trypanosoma spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trypanosoma spp. serological reagents. 866.3870... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3870 Trypanosoma spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Trypanosoma spp. serological reagents are devices...

  19. 21 CFR 866.3415 - Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents. 866.3415... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3415 Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents are devices...

  20. Occurrence of Pasteuria spp. in the northeastern Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Verdejo Lucas, Soledad; Español Pons, Montserrat; Ornat Longarón, Cèsar; Sorribas Royo, Francisco Javier

    1997-01-01

    The occurrence of Pasteuria spp. In Spanish oils is reported. A total of 160 soil samples were collected from vegetable crops, kiwi and citrus orchards, and deciduous fruit trees. Bacteria were found associated with six nematode genera but they were only observed within females of Meloidogyne spp., second-stage juveniles and males of Tylenchulus semipenetrans, and juveniles of Pratylenchus spp.

  1. La ciudad como ecosistema urbano

    OpenAIRE

    Higueras García, Esther

    2013-01-01

    LA CIUDAD COMO ECOSISTEMA URBANO .- La ecología y los ecosistemas .- El ecosistema urbano, definición, alcance y oportunidad .- El metabolismo urbano .- Los síntomas de la patología urbana .- Los objetivos del nuevo ecosistema urbano .- Las aportaciones de los ecobarrios

  2. Small rodents as reservoirs of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in south-western Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perec-Matysiak, Agnieszka; Buńkowska-Gawlik, Katarzyna; Zaleśny, Grzegorz; Hildebrand, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. have been detected in a range of host species, including rodents. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of these pathogens and recognition of the reservoir role of rodents in the maintenance of these pathogens in south-western Poland. Additionally, preliminary molecular studies were conducted to elucidate the species and genotypes of Cryptosporidium and Giardia identified in this study. Stool samples (n=266) from A. agrarius, A. flavicollis and M. glareolus, were subjected for analyses. Values of prevalence were 61.7, 68.3 and 68.1%, respectively, for Cryptosporidium spp. and 41.7, 24.4 and 38.4%, respectively, for Giardia spp. There was a statistically significant correlation between host species and Giardia infection where A. agrarius was the species of the highest prevalence. Statistically significant differences were not found for comparisons made for study sites and occurrence of Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. Due to preliminary nested PCR results, specific amplifications of Cryptosporidium COWP and SSU rRNA genes were obtained for several isolates taken from rodent host species. One isolate recovered from A. agrarius (from a semi-aquatic, urban area) was identified as C. parvum and revealed 100% similarity with sequences obtained from humans. To the best of the knowledge of the authors, this is the first record of the C. parvum zoonotic species from the striped field mouse. Also recorded were the first findings of C. ubiquitum from three small rodent species.

  3. Presence of Staphylococcus spp. and Candida spp. in the human oral cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martins Clélia Aparecida de Paiva

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of yeasts and staphylococci in the oral cavity is important because they can act as supplementary microbiota and in certain situations can cause oral or systemic diseases. The aim of this work was to study the prevalence of Candida spp. and Staphylococcus spp. in the human oral cavity. Oral rinses were collected from sixty-eight individuals according to the technique described by Samaranayake and MacFarlane and then cultured on Sabouraud medium supplemented with chloramphenicol and Baird-Parker agar. After the incubation period, the microorganisms were isolated and identified through biochemical tests. The data obtained were statistically analysed by ANOVA. Candida spp. were isolated from 61.76% of the examined individuals and C. albicans was the more frequently isolated specie. Staphylococcus spp. were isolated from 95.60% of the individuals and 41 strains were coagulase negative (63%. Among the coagulase positive strains, nine were S. aureus, 11 S. hyicus and 4 S. schleiferi subspecie coagulans. No correlation was observed between the counts (cfu of the isolated Candida spp. and Staphylococcus spp.

  4. Antagonismo de Trichoderma SPP. E Bacillus subtilis (UFV3918 a Fusarium sambucinum em Pinus elliottii engelm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caciara Gonzatto Maciel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Pinus elliottii é uma espécie de importância no setor florestal e apresenta vulnerabilidade na qualidade sanitária de suas sementes, especialmente pela associação de Fusarium spp., responsável por perdas de plântulas no viveiro. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a ação antagonista in vitro e in vivo dos agentes Trichoderma spp. e Bacillus subtilis (UFV3918 no controle de Fusarium sambucinum, responsável por danos em plântulas de Pinus elliottii. O controle in vitro foi avaliado através da inibição do crescimento micelial (confronto pareado de culturas, após a incubação a 25±2 ºC e fotoperíodo de 12 h. Para os testes in vivo (desenvolvidos em condições de viveiro, as sementes inicialmente foram inoculadas com o patógeno e, na sequência, microbiolizadas com os agentes antagônicos, para posterior semeadura. Utilizaram-se as técnicas de contato com o biocontrolador em meio BDA por 48 h e peliculização, como formas de microbiolização. Tanto Trichoderma spp. quanto Bacillus subtilis (UFV3918 foram eficientes no controle in vitro de F. sambucinum, e no teste de biocontrole in vivo o produto Bacillus subtilis (UFV3918 destacou-se, reduzindo as perdas de plântulas causadas pelo patógeno, assim como potencializando as variáveis de comprimento de plântula, massa verde e massa seca.

  5. Aeromonas veronii, a tributyltin (TBT)-degrading bacterium isolated from an estuarine environment, Ria de Aveiro in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Andreia; Caetano, Tânia; Suzuki, Satoru; Mendo, Sónia

    2007-12-01

    Organotin compounds are used in a variety of industrial processes therefore their subsequent discharge into the environment is widespread. Bacteria play an important role in biogeochemical transformations acting as natural decontamination agents. Therefore, screening for tributyltin (TBT)-resistant and -degrading bacteria is relevant for the selection of isolates with decontamination ability of these polluted areas. With this purpose, 50 strains were isolated from sediment and water from Ria de Aveiro and their tolerance to TBT, up to 3mM, was evaluated. Generally, occurrence of highly TBT-resistant bacteria was observed, and Gram negative bacteria exhibited more tolerance to TBT than Gram positive bacteria. A memory response was observed when bacteria were progressively exposed to increasingly higher TBT concentrations. One isolate, Aeromonas veronii Av27, highly resistant to TBT (3mM) uses this compound as carbon source and degrades it to less toxic compounds.

  6. Screening of Antergic Germ against Aeromonas hydrophila%嗜水气单胞菌拮抗菌的筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单晓枫; 张洪波; 郭伟生; 钱爱东

    2007-01-01

    用平板划线法或点种法对212株分离自养殖水体和水产动物胃肠道的细菌进行筛选,得到1株对嗜水气单胞菌(Aeromonas hydrophila)有拮抗作用的细菌MLS-7.经过生理生化的初步鉴定,该菌为粪肠球菌(Enterococcus faecalis).MLS-7上清液抑菌试验和共培养试验表明其对嗜水气单胞菌有较强的抑菌作用.进一步对MLS-7抑菌谱进行测定,确认其对鱼源的病原菌有一定的抑菌作用.

  7. Quorum sensing in Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. achromogenes and the effect of the autoinducer synthase AsaI on bacterial virulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwenteit, Johanna; Gram, Lone; Nielsen, Kristian Fog;

    2011-01-01

    The Gram-negative fish pathogenic bacterium Aeromonas salmonicida possesses the LuxIRtype quorum sensing (QS) system, termed AsaIR. In this study the role of QS in A. salmonicida subsp. achromogenes virulence and pigment production was investigated. Five wild-type Asa strains induced the N......-acyl-homoserinelactone (AHL) monitor bacteria. HPLC–HR-MS analysis identified only one type of AHL, N-butanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (C4-HSL). A knock out mutant of AsaI, constructed by allelic exchange, did not produce a detectable QS signal and its virulence in fish was significantly impaired, as LD50 of the Asa...... an important virulence factor, AsaP1, without affecting bacterial growth, makes A. salmonicida subsp. achromogenes an interesting target organism to study the effects of QS in disease development and QSI in disease control....

  8. Multiple drug resistance of Aeromonas hydrophila isolates from Chicken samples collected from Mhow and Indore city of Madhyapradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaskhedikar

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Fourteen antibacterial agents belonging to 9 different groups of antibiotics viz. aminoglycosides, cephalosporins, nitrofurantoin, fluroquinolones, chloramphenicol, sulphonamides, tetracyclines, penicillin and polymixin were used for in vitro sensitivity testing of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from fifteen samples of chicken collected from retail shops in Mhow city. The sensitivity (100% was attributed to ciprofloxacin, cefuroxime, ceftriaxone, cephotaxime, chloramphenicol, gentamycin, kanamycin, nitrofurantoin, nalidixic acid and ofloxacin followed by oxytetracycline (50%. All the isolates were resistant to ampicillin and colistin antibiotics. That means, none of the isolates were found to be sensitive for penicillin and polymixin group of antibiotics. Multiple drug resistance was also observed in all A. hydrophila isolates. Out of total isolates, 100% were resistant to two antimicrobial drugs and 50% to three drugs. [Vet. World 2009; 2(1.000: 31-32

  9. PENGEMBANGAN METODE ELISA DAN TEKNIK DETEKSI CEPAT DENGAN IMUNOSTIK TERHADAP ANTIBODI ANTI Aeromonas hydrophila PADA IKAN MAS (Cyprinid carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatik Mufidah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengembangkan metode ELISA untuk deteksi antibodi anti Aeromonas hydrophila dan membuat alat deteksi cepat terhadap antibodi anti A. hydrophila dengan menggunakan imunostik. Sebanyak enam ekor ikan mas digunakan sebagai hewan uji untuk memproduksi serum seronegatif (baseline dan seropositif. Hewan uji tersebut divaksinasi dengan antigen A. hydrophila dan dikoleksi serumnya tiap minggu. Optimasi metode ELISA dilakukan hingga mendapatkan rasio serum seronegatif dan seropositif yang terbaik. Hasil optimasi metode ELISA kemudian digunakan untuk merakit imunostik dan kemudian mengaplikasikannya pada serum ikan mas. Hasil uji optimasi metode ELISA didapatkan hasil bahwa metode ELISA yang dikembangkan dapat mendeteksi antibodi anti A. hydrophila pada semua serum positif dan menyatakan negatif pada serum seronegatif. Hasil yang sama juga ditunjukkan oleh uji imunostik yang telah dirakit.

  10. The use of eugenol against Aeromonas hydrophila and its effect on hematological and immunological parameters in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutili, Fernando Jonas; Kreutz, Luiz Carlos; Noro, Mirela; Gressler, Leticia Trevisan; Heinzmann, Berta Maria; de Vargas, Agueda Castagna; Baldisserotto, Bernardo

    2014-02-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of eugenol against the fish pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila and eugenol's effect on hematological and natural immune parameters in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen). In vitro, eugenol showed weak activity against A. hydrophila, but in vivo, at a subinhibitory concentration (10 mg L(-1)), it promoted survival in infected silver catfish. Eugenol (50 μg mL(-1)) reduced the hemolytic activity of A. hydrophila supernatant in vitro in fish erythrocytes. Subjecting catfish to eugenol baths (5 and 10 mg L(-1)) for five days did not alter the hematological and immunological parameters studied in this work. Based on these results, eugenol can be used to treat or prevent bacterial diseases in fish.

  11. Recombinant goose-type lysozyme in channel catfish: lysozyme activity and efficacy as plasmid DNA immunostimulant against Aeromonas hydrophila infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pridgeon, Julia W; Klesius, Phillip H; Dominowski, Paul J; Yancey, Robert J; Kievit, Michele S

    2013-10-01

    The objectives of this study were: 1) to investigate whether recombinant channel catfish lysozyme-g (CC-Lys-g) produced in Escherichia coli expression system possesses any lysozyme activity; and 2) to evaluate whether channel catfish lysozyme-g plasmid DNA could be used as an immunostimulant to protect channel catfish against Aeromonas hydrophila infection. Recombinant CC-Lys-g produced in E. coli expression system exhibited significant (P recombinant channel catfish lysozyme-g (pcDNA-Lys-g) was transfected in channel catfish gill cells G1B, the over-expression of pcDNA-Lys-g offered significant (P DNA injection. Macrophages of fish injected with pcDNA-Lys-g produced significantly (P DNA injection. Taken together, our results suggest that pcDNA-Lys-g could be used as a novel immunostimulant to offer immediate protection to channel catfish against A. hydrophila infection.

  12. Role of Aeromonas hydrophila Flagella Glycosylation in Adhesion to Hep-2 Cells, Biofilm Formation and Immune Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Merino

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Polar flagellin proteins from Aeromonas hydrophila strain AH-3 (serotype O34 were found to be O-glycosylated with a heterogeneous heptasaccharide glycan. Two mutants with altered (light and strong polar flagella glycosylation still able to produce flagella were previously obtained, as well as mutants lacking the O34-antigen lipopolysaccharide (LPS but with unaltered polar flagella glycosylation. We compared these mutants, altogether with the wild type strain, in different studies to conclude that polar flagella glycosylation is extremely important for A. hydrophila adhesion to Hep-2 cells and biofilm formation. Furthermore, the polar flagella glycosylation is an important factor for the immune stimulation of IL-8 production via toll receptor 5 (TLR5.

  13. Aloysia triphylla essential oil as additive in silver catfish diet: Blood response and resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Alessandro C; Sutili, Fernando J; Heinzmann, Berta M; Cunha, Mauro A; Brusque, Isabel C M; Baldisserotto, Bernardo; Zeppenfeld, Carla C

    2017-03-01

    The essential oil of Aloysia triphylla (EOAT) is a promising product with potential use in aquaculture systems. This study evaluated hematological/biochemical responses and survival of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) fed a diet containing EOAT and infected by Aeromonas hydrophila. After 21 days of feeding trial, fish were infected with A. hydrophila following a 10-day period of observation. Blood collection was performed before and after the bacterial challenge. Dietary EOAT by itself seems to affect some blood parameters, decreasing total leukocyte, lymphocyte, and neutrophil counts and increasing total protein values. However, 2.0 mL EOAT/kg diet showed a possible potential protective effect after A. hydrophila infection, maintaining the evaluated parameters similar to basal values (from healthy fish before the feeding trial) and promoting survival of silver catfish.

  14. Ocorrência de Leishmania spp. em felinos do município de Araçatuba, SP Occurrence de Leishmania spp. in domestic cats from Araçatuba, SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Denise Saraiva Bresciani

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo comparar a ocorrência de Leishmania spp. em gatos por dois métodos (citológico e sorológico, bem como associar a ocorrência deste protozoário com as variáveis sexo, idade e raça. Amostras séricas de 283 felinos domésticos foram testadas pela Reação de Imunofluorescência Indireta (RIFI, e o exame parasitológico direto de linfonodos também foi realizado para a verificação da positividade para Leishmania spp. Ocorrência de 0,7% (2/283 foi observada nos felinos examinados, por meio de imprint de linfonodos e nenhum animal apresentou títulos de anticorpos para Leishmania spp. As duas fêmeas positivas eram sem raça definida, sendo uma jovem e outra adulta. Por meio dos resultados obtidos, não foi constatada diferença estatisticamente significante em relação às variáveis sexo, raça e idade nos gatos desta pesquisa (p > 0,05. Ocorrência de Leishmania spp. nos gatos deste estudo foi baixa. Devido a esta baixa incidência sugere-se que estes não assumem importância epidemiológica na área do estudo.This study had the purpose to compare the occurrence of Leishmania spp. in felines through two methods (cytological and serological, as well as to associate the occurrence of this protozoan with the sex, age and breed variables. Serum samples from 283 domestic felines were processed by means of Indirect Immunofluorescence Reaction (IIR, and the direct parasitological test for linfonodes was also carried out in order to verify positivity for Leishmania spp. Occurrence of 0.7% (2/283 was observed in the tested felines by means of linfonode imprinting and no animal showed title of antibodies for Leishmania spp. The two positive females were mongrel, a young female and an adult female feline. From the obtained results, no statistically significant difference was observed as regards the sex, breed and age variables in this research (p > 0.05. Occurrence of Leishmania spp. in the cats of this study was

  15. Identification of Iron and Heme Utilization Genes in Aeromonas and their Role in the Colonization of the Leech Digestive Tract

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    Michele eMaltz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available It is known that many pathogens produce high-affinity iron uptake systems like siderophores and/or genes for utilizing iron bound to heme-containing molecules, which facilitate iron-acquisition inside a host. In mutualistic digestive-tract associations, iron uptake systems have not been as well studied. We investigated the importance of two iron utilization systems within the beneficial digestive-tract association Aeromonas veronii and the medicinal leech, Hirudo verbana. Siderophores were detected in A. veronii using chrome azurol S. Using a mTn5, a transposon insertion in viuB generated a mutant unable to acquire iron using siderophores. The A. veronii genome was then searched for genes potentially involved in iron utilization bound to heme-containing molecules. A putative outer membrane heme receptor (hgpB was identified with a transcriptional activator, termed hgpR, downstream. The hgpB gene was interrupted in both the parent strain and the viuB mutant with an antibiotic resistance cassette, yielding a hgpB mutant and a mutant with both iron uptake systems inactivated. In vitro assays indicated that hgpB is involved in utilizing iron bound to heme and that both iron utilization systems are important for A. veronii to grow in blood. In vivo colonization assays revealed that the ability to acquire iron from heme-containing molecules is critical for A.veronii to colonize the leech gut. Since iron and specifically heme utilization is important in this mutualistic relationship and has a role as a possible virulence factor in other organisms, genomes from different Aeromonas strains (both clinical and environmental were queried with iron utilization genes of A. veronii. This analysis revealed the heme utilization genes are widely distributed among aeromonads. In addition, aeromonads posses a suite of genes involved in iron acquisition. These data further confirm symbiotic and pathogenic relationships possess similar mechanisms for interacting with

  16. Identification of iron and heme utilization genes in Aeromonas and their role in the colonization of the leech digestive tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltz, Michele; LeVarge, Barbara L; Graf, Joerg

    2015-01-01

    It is known that many pathogens produce high-affinity iron uptake systems like siderophores and/or proteins for utilizing iron bound to heme-containing molecules, which facilitate iron-acquisition inside a host. In mutualistic digestive-tract associations, iron uptake systems have not been as well studied. We investigated the importance of two iron utilization systems within the beneficial digestive-tract association Aeromonas veronii and the medicinal leech, Hirudo verbana. Siderophores were detected in A. veronii using chrome azurol S. Using a mini Tn5, a transposon insertion in viuB generated a mutant unable to utilize iron using siderophores. The A. veronii genome was then searched for genes potentially involved in iron utilization bound to heme-containing molecules. A putative outer membrane heme receptor (hgpB) was identified with a transcriptional activator, termed hgpR, downstream. The hgpB gene was interrupted with an antibiotic resistance cassette in both the parent strain and the viuB mutant, yielding an hgpB mutant and a mutant with both iron uptake systems inactivated. In vitro assays indicated that hgpB is involved in utilizing iron bound to heme and that both iron utilization systems are important for A. veronii to grow in blood. In vivo colonization assays revealed that the ability to acquire iron from heme-containing molecules is critical for A. veronii to colonize the leech gut. Since iron and specifically heme utilization is important in this mutualistic relationship and has a potential role in virulence factor of other organisms, genomes from different Aeromonas strains (both clinical and environmental) were queried with iron utilization genes of A. veronii. This analysis revealed that in contrast to the siderophore utilization genes heme utilization genes are widely distributed among aeromonads. The importance of heme utilization in the colonization of the leech further confirms that symbiotic and pathogenic relationships possess similar

  17. Re-identification of Aeromonas isolates from rainbow trout and incidence of class 1 integron and β-lactamase genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Sánchez, Vicente; Latif-Eugenín, Fadua; Soriano-Vargas, Edgardo; Beaz-Hidalgo, Roxana; Figueras, María José; Aguilera-Arreola, Ma Guadalupe; Castro-Escarpulli, Graciela

    2014-08-27

    Forty-eight Aeromonas isolates from rainbow trout previously identified by the 16S rDNA-RFLP technique were re-identified using 2 housekeeping genes (gyrB and rpoD). After sequencing the prevalences of the species were A. veronii (29.2%), A. bestiarum (20.8%), A. hydrophila (16.7%), A. sobria (10.4%), A. media (8.3%), A. popoffii (6.2%), A. allosaccharophila (2.1%), A. caviae (2.1%), A. salmonicida (2.1%) and one isolate (2.1%) belongs to a candidate new species "Aeromonas lusitana". Coincident identification results to the 16S rDNA-RFLP technique were only obtained for 68.8% of the isolates. PCR amplification of the enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC-PCR) indicated that the 48 isolates belonged to 33 different ERIC genotypes. Several genotypes were isolated from different farms and organs in the same fish, indicating a systemic dissemination of the bacteria. The presence of genes (blaIMP, blaCphA/IMIS, blaTEM, blaSHV and intI1) that encode extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs), metallo-beta-lactamases (MBLs) and class 1 integrons were studied by PCR. Only 39.6% (19/48) of the strains showed the presence of one or more resistance genes. The gene blaCphA/IMIS was detected in 29.2% of the isolates, followed by the intI1 (6.2%) and blaSHV (4.2%) genes. The variable region of class 1 integrons of the 3 positive isolates was sequenced revealing the presence of the gene cassette aadA1 (aminoglycoside transferase) that plays a role in streptomycin/spectinomycin resistance.

  18. Estrategias para disminuir la presencia de Campylobacter spp. en el pollo

    OpenAIRE

    Mónica Gañán

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter spp. es considerado como el principal causante de enfermedades diarreicas bacterianas asociadas a alimentos en humanos. El consumo de pollo contaminado es la principal fuente de infección con esta bacteria. Debido a los altos niveles de contaminación del pollo con este patógeno, la erradicación de Campylobacter en la granja constituye una estrategia importante para la reducción de las infecciones en humanos. La inclusión en la dieta del pollo de microorganismos antagónicos, comp...

  19. BIOLOGIA REPRODUTIVA E DIVERSIDADE GENÉTICA EM JABUTICABEIRAS (Myrciaria spp., Myrtaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Vilela, Regina Célia Freitas

    2013-01-01

    Este trabalho teve como objetivos principais investigar os fatores ecológicos envolvidos no sistema de reprodução de espécies em simpatria de jabuticabeiras (Myrciaria spp.). Para isso, foram realizados estudos quanto ao comportamento da floração, biologia floral e sistema reprodutivo, aliando estes dados aos dados genéticos obtidos através de marcadores moleculares tipo RAPD. Foram realizados cruzamentos interespecíficos para avaliar a capacidade de formação de híbridos e investigar a presen...

  20. Detección de Staphylococcus spp en leche entera empleando el Sistema Diramic

    OpenAIRE

    Dra. Dayorka Herrera Suárez. Msc, DraC. Mabelin Armenteros Anaya, Dr. José Álvarez Lamazares.

    2005-01-01

    Enfrentar un desafío tecnológico es el mayor problema que tiene actualmente el desarrollo de los Laboratorios de Control Lácteo en América Latina y el Caribe. La detección de microorganismos patógenos en la leche y/o sus derivados se hace cada vez más importante, debido a la influencia que tienen en la presentación de las enfermedades transmitidas por los alimentos. Staphylococcus spp ha sido considerado como el germen más frecuentemente asociado con este tipo de brotes. En este estudio se ap...