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Sample records for aeromonas spp como

  1. Emerging pathogens: Aeromonas spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, S; Rubires, X; Knochel, S; Tomas, J M

    1995-12-01

    Aeromonas spp. are Gram-negative rods of the family Vibrionaceae. They are normal water inhabitants and are part of the regular flora of poiquilotherm and homeotherm animals. They can be isolated from many foodstuffs (green vegetables, raw milk, ice cream, meat and seafood). Mesophilic Aeromonas spp. have been classified following the AeroKey II system (Altwegg et al., 1990; Carnahan et al., 1991). The major human diseases caused by Aeromonas spp. can be classified in two major groups: septicemia (mainly by strains of A. veronii subsp. sobria and A. hydrophila), and gastroenteritis (any mesophilic Aeromonas spp. but principally A. hydrophila and A. veronii). Most epidemiological studies have shown Aeromonas spp. in stools to be more often associated with diarrhea than with the carrier state; an association with the consumption of untreated water was also conspicuous. Acute self-limited diarrhea is more frequent in young children, in older patients chronic enterocolitis may also be observed. Fever, vomiting, and fecal leukocytes or erythrocytes (colitis) may be present (Janda, 1991). The main putative virulence factors are: exotoxins, endotoxin (LPS), presence of S-layers, fimbriae or adhesins and the capacity to form capsules. PMID:8750664

  2. Aeromonas spp. clinical microbiology and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Jennifer L; Shaw, Jonathan G

    2011-02-01

    Members of the genus Aeromonas inhabit various aquatic environments and are responsible for, and are implicated in, a number of intestinal and extra-intestinal infections in humans as well as other animals. This review focuses on invasive human infection and disease and summarizes available findings regarding the microbiology and detection of Aeromonas spp., with emphasis on successful identification and diagnosis, and the control of disease in the population. Antimicrobial resistance and therapy of Aeromonas spp. is also discussed. PMID:21163298

  3. Aeromonas spp.: An Emerging Nosocomial Pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, Priyam; Mathur, Purva; Misra, Mahesh C

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonads are hallophillic, nonacid fast, nonspore forming, Gram-negative rods which are widely distributed in the soil, foodstuffs, and aquatic environment. Since times immemorial, they are important zoonotic pathogens of poikilotherms but are now emerging as important human pathogens. These emerging enteric pathogens flourish in the water distribution system by forming biofilms. They possess large number of virulence factors including inherent resistance to various antibiotics and ability to form biofilms using quorum sensing. These properties make them easy pathogens for human infections. Aeromonads are important enteric pathogens, but, with the growing level of immunosuppression in the population, they have been associated with various extraintestinal infections, such as skin and soft-tissue infections, traumatic wound infections, and lower respiratory tract/urinary tract infections. The average annual incidence of bacteremia in Southern Taiwan due to Aeromonas spp. was 76 cases/million inhabitants between 2008 and 2010. However, the incidence reported from Western countries is much lower. The case fatality rate among patients with Aeromonas bacteremia ranges from 27.5 to 46%. Aeromonads are universally resistant to the narrow-spectrum penicillin group of antibiotics such as penicillin, ampicillin, carbenicillin, and ticarcillin. They are however susceptible to piperacillin, azlocillin, second and third generation cephalosporins, and carbapenems. Most of the Aeromonas species are susceptible to aminoglycosides, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, quinolones, and monobactams. This manuscript is a comprehensive systematic review of the literature available on Aeromonas spp. PMID:27013806

  4. Aeromonas spp.: An emerging nosocomial pathogen

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    Priyam Batra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonads are hallophillic, nonacid fast, nonspore forming, Gram-negative rods which are widely distributed in the soil, foodstuffs, and aquatic environment. Since times immemorial, they are important zoonotic pathogens of poikilotherms but are now emerging as important human pathogens. These emerging enteric pathogens flourish in the water distribution system by forming biofilms. They possess large number of virulence factors including inherent resistance to various antibiotics and ability to form biofilms using quorum sensing. These properties make them easy pathogens for human infections. Aeromonads are important enteric pathogens, but, with the growing level of immunosuppression in the population, they have been associated with various extraintestinal infections, such as skin and soft-tissue infections, traumatic wound infections, and lower respiratory tract/urinary tract infections. The average annual incidence of bacteremia in Southern Taiwan due to Aeromonas spp. was 76 cases/million inhabitants between 2008 and 2010. However, the incidence reported from Western countries is much lower. The case fatality rate among patients with Aeromonas bacteremia ranges from 27.5 to 46%. Aeromonads are universally resistant to the narrow-spectrum penicillin group of antibiotics such as penicillin, ampicillin, carbenicillin, and ticarcillin. They are however susceptible to piperacillin, azlocillin, second and third generation cephalosporins, and carbapenems. Most of the Aeromonas species are susceptible to aminoglycosides, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, quinolones, and monobactams. This manuscript is a comprehensive systematic review of the literature available on Aeromonas spp.

  5. Medicinal leech therapy and Aeromonas spp. infection.

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    Verriere, B; Sabatier, B; Carbonnelle, E; Mainardi, J L; Prognon, P; Whitaker, I; Lantieri, L; Hivelin, M

    2016-06-01

    While the use of medicinal leech therapy (MLT) in reconstructive and orthopaedic surgery is widely described, post-operative complications related to leeches remain a major concern. Aeromonas spp. strains are involved in the majority of reported cases. As surgical success rate is directly impacted, an adapted antibiotic prophylaxis should be instituted in order to minimize these complications. We assessed pharmaceutical process, microbiological control and related infections in order to provide data and choose the appropriate antibiotherapy for patients requiring MLT. We report a clinical and microbiological study over a 24-month period. Clinical data were collected from patients' database, and microbiological analysis both on leeches' tank water and crushed leeches were performed to characterize isolated strains and their susceptibility to antibiotics. A total of 595 leeches were used to treat 28 patients (12 in plastic surgery and 16 in orthopaedic surgery), and three documented cases of post-operative infections were reported. Aeromonas spp. isolates yielded from 62 % of analyzed batches (75 % of Aeromonas veronii). Eighteen Aeromonas spp. isolates yielded from 23 water samples and three crushed leeches. Isolates were similar in tank and crushed leeches. Strains were susceptible to fluoroquinolones, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, aminosides, and third-generation cephalosporins but resistant to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and second-generation cephalosporins. According to collected data, routine tank water microbiological analyses are mandatory in order to identify leeches' batches containing resistant strains and to discard them. In this context, the surgeon is able to select an appropriated antibiotic prophylaxis in order to avoid MLT associated serious post-operative complications. PMID:27039338

  6. An alternative bacteriological medium for the isolation of Aeromonas spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, J.A.; Taylor, P.W.

    1995-01-01

    Two solid bacteriologic media were compared for cultivating Aeromonas spp. from piscine sources: the Rimler-Shotts (RS) medium and a starch-glutamate-ampicillin-penicillin-based medium (SGAP-10C) used for the recovery of Aeromonas spp. from water samples. The selective and differential capacities of the media were assessed March through October 1992 by recovery rate and phenotype of 99 isolates representing 15 genera of bacteria. Recovery frequency of Aeromonas spp. (n = 62) was similar at 97% on RS and 95% on SGAP-10C. The SGAP-10C medium proved to be more specific than RS toward Aeromonas species (P ≤ 0.005). Use of SGAP-10C at 24 C for 48 hr offers a better choice for the laboratory recovery of Aeromonas spp. from clinical fish specimens.

  7. MONITORING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF UV DISINFECTION OF AEROMONAS SPP. USING SELECTIVE AND NON-SELECTIVE MEDIA

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    This research was initiated to determine the sensitivity of Aeromonas spp. to ultraviolet (UV) disinfection. Aeromonas hydrophila is a contaminant listed on the USEPA's 1998 CCL. Three different Aeromonas spp. (A. hydrophila, A. sobria and A. caviae) were tested using membrane fi...

  8. [Prevalence of Aeromonas spp. in surface water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, P; Rodríguez de García, R

    1997-03-01

    Some Aeromonas strains are well recognized enteropathogens according to microbiological, clinical, immunological and epidemiological evidence. The main source of infection seems to be untreated water, these microorganisms can be found in virtually all aquatic environments. Additionally, some Aeromonas, which include enterotoxigenic strains, are capable of rapid growth at 5 degrees C and even of producing toxins. Vegetable products irrigated with contaminated water may reach critical Aeromonas levels after being kept under refrigeration, this could represent a public health risk when they are consumed as uncooked salads. This study was pursued to evaluate such risk. Surface water samples were streaked on starch ampicillin and inositol-brilliant green-bile salts agar dishes. In addition, 100 ml of each sample were filtered through a 0.45 micron Millipore membrane filter. The filters were incubated on alkaline peptone water as enrichment media during 24 h at 35 degrees C. Enrichment broth was then streaked on the selective agars above mentioned. Isolates from both tests were identified using the API 20 E System. The prevalence of Aeromonas strains in the analyzed samples was 17.8%. A higher isolation rate was observed after the enrichment technique. Starch ampicillin agar showed a higher recuperation rate. A Veronii biotype sobria (formerly A. sobria) was isolated with higher frequency. Since this species has been associated with the greatest virulence, the use of contaminated water to irrigate vegetable products that are to be kept under refrigeration and consumed without ulterior cooking may represent a risk to the public health. PMID:9429640

  9. AEROMONAS SPP. ASSOCIATED WITH COMMERCIAL POULTRY PROCESSING

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    Trials were conducted to examine the effect of commercial processing and refrigerated storage on Aeromonas bacteria in the native bacterial flora of broilers. The whole carcass rinse procedure was used to recover bacteria from prescalded, picked, prechilled, chilled, and refrigerated carcasses. Bact...

  10. Isolation of motile Aeromonas spp. from fish and their cytotoxic effect on Vero cell cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Karabasil Neđeljko; Ašanin Ružica; Baltić Milan Ž.; Teodorović V.; Dimitrijević Mirjana

    2002-01-01

    The presence of motile Aeromonas spp. in fish and other sea food on the Belgrade retail market was investigated with the aim of determining the ability of these bacteria to produce and secrete toxins. Nine strains of motile Aeromonas spp. were isolated from seventy-eight food samples. Aer. sobria was identified in three cases, while six of the obtained strains were identified as Aer. hydrophila. Strains of motile Aeromonas spp. from different sources were analyzed for cytotoxicity on Vero cel...

  11. Bactérias do gênero Aeromonas em abatedouro de frangos Contamination by Aeromonas spp. in poultry slaughterhouse

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, F.N.; O.D. Rossi Júnior

    2002-01-01

    Analisaram-se 200 amostras de diferentes produtos e locais do fluxograma de abate de frangos com o objetivo de identificar os pontos de contaminação da carne de frango por Aeromonas. Das 25 amostras analisadas para cada um dos oito pontos estudados foram isoladas Aeromonas spp. em nove (36%) amostras de penas, em 14 (56%) de fezes, em 18 (72%) de carcaças não evisceradas, evisceradas e resfriadas e em 20 (80%) de água do pré-resfriamento. Não foram isoladas Aeromonas spp. da água de abastecim...

  12. Characterisation of Aeromonas spp. isolated from frozen fish intended for human consumption in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Escarpulli, G; Figueras, M J; Aguilera-Arreola, G; Soler, L; Fernández-Rendón, E; Aparicio, G O; Guarro, J; Chacón, M R

    2003-07-15

    A total of 82 strains of presumptive Aeromonas spp. were identified biochemically and genetically (16S rDNA-RFLP). The strains were isolated from 250 samples of frozen fish (Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus niloticus) purchased in local markets in Mexico City. In the present study, we detected the presence of several genes encoding for putative virulence factors and phenotypic activities that may play an important role in bacterial infection. In addition, we studied the antimicrobial patterns of those strains. Molecular identification demonstrated that the prevalent species in frozen fish were Aeromonas salmonicida (67.5%) and Aeromonas bestiarum (20.9%), accounting for 88.3% of the isolates, while the other strains belonged to the species Aeromonas veronii (5.2%), Aeromonas encheleia (3.9%) and Aeromonas hydrophila (2.6%). Detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of genes encoding putative virulence factors common in Aeromonas, such as aerolysin/hemolysin, lipases including the glycerophospholipid-cholesterol acyltransferase (GCAT), serine protease and DNases, revealed that they were all common in these strains. Our results showed that first generation quinolones and second and third generation cephalosporins were the drugs with the best antimicrobial effect against Aeromonas spp. In Mexico, there have been few studies on Aeromonas and its putative virulence factors. The present work therefore highlights an important incidence of Aeromonas spp., with virulence potential and antimicrobial resistance, isolated from frozen fish intended for human consumption in Mexico City. PMID:12781953

  13. Prevalence and diversity of Aeromonas and Vibrio spp. in coastal waters of Southern Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dumontet, S.; Krovacek, K.; Svenson, S.B.;

    2000-01-01

    A survey was undertaken to examine sea water and sediment for the presence of Vibrio and Aeromonas spp. along approximately 900 km of coast in Southern Italy during early and late summer. A quantitative analysis was also done to evaluate the water fecal contamination at the stations examined. The...... results indicate that all the investigated areas were submitted to a wide spatial fluctuation of fecal contamination and that Vibrio and Aeromonas spp. were present in both high and low fecal-contaminated stations. Sixty two percent of the investigated samples were positive for Aeromonas spp., while 42......% of samples were positive for Vibrio spp. It was interesting to note that 38% of the positive stations for both Aeromonas and Vibrio spp. showed a fecal coliform contamination of water at <10(2) cells 100 ml(-1). Thus, these findings support the hypothesis that the bacterial indicators (such as fecal...

  14. Isolation of motile Aeromonas spp. from fish and their cytotoxic effect on Vero cell cultures

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    Karabasil Neđeljko

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of motile Aeromonas spp. in fish and other sea food on the Belgrade retail market was investigated with the aim of determining the ability of these bacteria to produce and secrete toxins. Nine strains of motile Aeromonas spp. were isolated from seventy-eight food samples. Aer. sobria was identified in three cases, while six of the obtained strains were identified as Aer. hydrophila. Strains of motile Aeromonas spp. from different sources were analyzed for cytotoxicity on Vero cell cultures. A cytotoxic effect was detected for all tested strains, but of different intensity.

  15. Caracterização de Aeromonas Spp. Isoladas de Águas Não Tratadas para Consumo Humano

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Maria Ermelinda de Aguiar

    2008-01-01

    O género Aeromonas forma uma unidade monofilética dentro do sub-grupo gama -3 das Proteobactérias. Bactérias do grupo das Aeromonas surgem em diversos ambientes aquáticos. Está também comprovada a presença de Aeromonas spp. em águas para consumo humano, tratadas e não tratadas. Os organismos deste grupo são frequentemente referidos como “patogénicos emergentes” sendo pesquisados obrigatóriamente no Canadá, Itália e Holanda. Assim, pretende-se com este estudo, fazer uma avaliação da presença d...

  16. ISOLATION AND GENOTYPING OF AEROMONAS SPP. IN READY-TO-EAT FOODS. PRELIMINARY RESULTS

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    F. Montemurro

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The taxonomy of the genus Aeromonas is constantly changing and it is important that strains are identified and carefully differentiate. The aim of this preliminary investigation was to assess the presence of Aeromonas spp. in RTE foods from supermarkets and sushi Take Away and stored at refrigeration temperature. Particular attention was given to the choice of culture media in order to assess their ability to differentiate Aeromonas spp. and to perform subsequent phylogenetic analysis and the characterization of the species isolated.

  17. AEROMONAS SPP BACTEREMIA OF RAINBOW TROUT FRY (ONCORHYNCHUS MYKISS): BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF THE CAUSATIVE ORGANISM AND ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY

    OpenAIRE

    Damir Kapetanović; Emin Teskeredžić

    2004-01-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila and other members of Aeromonas genus are ubiquitus in aquatic environment and make part of normal bacterial flora of rainbow trout. Aeromonas spp. infections are worldwide registered. Here we present our experience and knowledge on Aeromonas bacteremia, which causes mortality of rainbow trout fry. Rainbow trout fry, 7 month old, started to die in November 2003. Fish samples (17 samples) of dead and moribund fish were delivered to the Laboratory for aquaculture. With Api 2...

  18. Detection of hemolytic strains of Aeromonas hydrophila and A . sobria along with other Aeromonas spp. from fish and fishery products by multiplex PCR.

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    Hussain, I A; Jeyasekaran, G; Shakila, R Jeya; Raj, K T; Jeevithan, E

    2014-02-01

    Hemolytic strains of Aeromonas spp. from fish and fishery products were detected by multiplex PCR. The selected primers for the amplification of segments of ahh1, asa1 and 16S rRNA gene yielded products with the size of 130 bp, 249 bp and 356 bp, respectively. This assay was found to be highly sensitive, as it could detect 7 and 9 cells of Aeromonas hydrophila and A. sobria with a detection limit of 1 pg of pure genomic DNA. The assay, when screened for 73 commercial fish and fishery product samples consisting of freshwater, marine fish and shellfish, showed 56 % positive for Aeromonas spp., 16 % for Aeromonas hydrophila and 13 % for A. sobria. This assay provides specific and reliable results and can be a powerful tool for the simultaneous detection of hemolytic strains of A. hydrophila A. sobria and other Aeromonas spp. from fish and fishery products. PMID:24493904

  19. Prevalence and molecular characterization of Aeromonas spp. in ready-to-eat foods in Italy.

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    Villari, P; Crispino, M; Montuori, P; Stanzione, S

    2000-12-01

    A survey was carried out in Italy to ascertain the prevalence of Aeromonas spp. in ready-to-eat foods (vegetables, cheeses, meat products, and ice creams) and the level of molecular heterogeneity of the isolates found by macrorestriction analysis of genomic DNA with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). In total, 46 (14.4%) of the 320 food samples examined were found positive for Aeromonas spp. The highest percentages of isolation were discovered in vegetables, particularly lettuce (45.0%), endive (40.0%), and rucola (20.0%). Ricotta was the only cheese type analyzed that showed a high frequency of isolation (45.0%). Among meat products, salami and raw ham (25.0% of samples positive) and, to a lesser extent, baloney (5.0%) were found positive for Aeromonas spp. Aeromonas hydrophila was the most common isolate from foods of animal origin, whereas Aeromonas caviae was the dominant species in vegetables. No motile aeromonads were found in ice cream samples. Aeromonas isolates showed a high level of genetic heterogeneity, because 24 PFGE patterns were identified among 27 A. hydrophila strains and 20 PFGE patterns were found in 23 A. caviae isolates. In conclusion, consumers of ready-to-eat foods in Italy are regularly exposed to many genetically distinct strains of A. hydrophila and A. caviae without evident signs of malaise, and therefore, few of these strains, if any, are likely to be pathogenic. PMID:11131903

  20. Prevalence and diversity of Aeromonas and Vibrio spp. in coastal waters of Southern Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dumontet, S.; Krovacek, K.; Svenson, S.B.; Pasquale, V.; Baloda, Suraj B.; Figliuolo, G.

    2000-01-01

    coliforms) do not always satisfactorily reflect the hygienic quality of water. The presence of Vibrionaceae on copepods was also investigated. Copepods were sampled at a station located inside the harbour of the city of Naples and were found contaminated by V. cholerae non-Ol, V. alginolyticus, V. fluvialis......A survey was undertaken to examine sea water and sediment for the presence of Vibrio and Aeromonas spp. along approximately 900 km of coast in Southern Italy during early and late summer. A quantitative analysis was also done to evaluate the water fecal contamination at the stations examined. The...... results indicate that all the investigated areas were submitted to a wide spatial fluctuation of fecal contamination and that Vibrio and Aeromonas spp. were present in both high and low fecal-contaminated stations. Sixty two percent of the investigated samples were positive for Aeromonas spp., while 42...

  1. Hydrocarbon utilization by Brevibacterium, Azotomonas, Protaminobacterium, Mycococcus and Aeromonas spp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lonsane, B.K.; Vadalkar, K.; Singh, H.D.; Baruah, J.N.

    1976-11-01

    Morphological, cultural and biochemical characteristics of 7 bacterial isolates, capable of utilizing hydrocarbons as sole source of carbon, reveal that 3 isolates belong to genus Aeromonas and one each to genera Brevibacterium, Protaminobacter, Mycococcus and Azotomonas. The isolates are studied for biomass formation on gas oil, substrate specificities for petroleum hydrocarbons and fermentation of gas oil by Brevibacterium sp. The hydrocarbon utilizing abilities of the strains of Protaminobacter, Azotomonas and Aeromonas are not known previously.

  2. Incidence and identification of mesophilic Aeromonas spp. from retail foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyts, K; Huys, G; Uyttendaele, M; Swings, J; Debevere, J

    2000-11-01

    Sixty-eight food samples were examined for the presence of mesophilic Aeromonas species both qualitatively and quantitatively. Aeromonads were isolated from 26% of the vegetable samples, 70% of the meat and poultry samples and 72% of the fish and shrimps. Numbers of motile aeromonads present in the food samples varied from 10(5) cfu g(-1). GLC analysis of FAMEs was used to identify a selection of presumptive Aeromonas colonies to fenospecies or genomic species level. Aeromonas strains belonging to the Aer. caviae complex, which also includes the potentially pathogenic genospecies HG4, were mostly isolated from vegetables but were also found in meat, poultry and fish. In addition, three strains of the virulent taxon Aer. veronii biovar sobria HG8 were isolated from poultry and minced meat. All members of the Aer. hydrophila complex, predominant in the fish, meat and poultry samples, were classified in the non-virulent taxon HG3. Although the significance of Aeromonas in foods remains undefined, the isolation of Aeromonas HG4 and HG8 strains from a variety of retail foods may indicate that these products can act as possible vehicles for the dissemination of food-borne Aeromonas gastroenteritis. PMID:11069637

  3. Aeromonas spp. and microbial indicators in raw drinking water source Aeromonas sp. e indicadores microbiológicos em fontes de água não tratada

    OpenAIRE

    Marisa Di Bari; Hachich, Elayse M.; Adalgisa M.J. Melo; Sato, Maria I. Z.

    2007-01-01

    Aeromonas species are autochtonous in the aquatic environment and some of them have been associated with health effects like wound infections, septicemia and diarrhoeal illness. In this study, the occurrence of Aeromonas spp. and microbial indicators in raw drinking water from wells, springs, fountains and mineral waters was evaluated. A total of 126 water samples was analyzed for Aeromonas spp. by the membrane filtration technique using ADA media and by P/A test. Typical colonies of Aeromona...

  4. Multiplex PCR detection of enterotoxin genes in Aeromonas spp. from suspect food samples in northern Taiwan.

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    Chang, Yu-Chang; Wang, Jan-Yi; Selvam, Ammaiyappan; Kao, Shu-Chen; Yang, Shang-Shyng; Shih, Daniel Yang-Chih

    2008-10-01

    Aeromonads possess an array of virulence factors and are causative agents of a number of human infections. Among them, genes of one cytotoxic (Act) and two cytotonic (Alt, Ast) enterotoxins are implicated in a human diarrheal disease. A rapid, specific, simultaneous detection of these enterotoxin genes in suspected food poisoning samples is not yet reported. Hence, a multiplex PCR assay was designed to amplify the cytotoxic (act), heat-labile cytotonic (alt), and heat-stable cytotonic (ast) enterotoxin genes of aeromonads. The PCR assay was tested with 133 Aeromonas spp. isolated from suspect food poisoning samples and retail samples of poultry and fish from wet markets in and around Taipei, Northern Taiwan. The Aeromonas spp. isolates were divided into six genotypes based on absence or presence of one or more enterotoxin genes. Of these 133 isolates, Aeromonas caviae (52.5%) and Aeromonas hydrophila (43.4%) were the most frequently isolated species from food poisoning samples and retail samples, respectively. Among the species, A. hydrophila had a significantly higher proportion for harboring three enterotoxin genes than had the others, whereas Aeromonas encheleia, considered a nonpathogen, was found harboring three enterotoxin genes. The multiplex PCR assays are rapid and specific, and provide a useful tool for the detection and genotyping of enterotoxin genes of aeromonads. PMID:18939759

  5. The occurrence of Aeromonas spp. in the bottled mineral water, well water and tap water from the municipal supplies

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    Denise de Oliveira Scoaris

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the occurrence of Aeromonas sp in the bottled mineral water, well water and tap water from the municipal supplies. Positive samples were found for Aeromonas spp. 12.7% from the mineral water, 8.3% from the artesian water and 6.5% from the tap water. The recovery of Aeromonas spp. was significantly higher in the bottled mineral and artesian water than in the tap water from municipal supplies. The occurrence of the Aeromonas spp. did not correlate significantly with the contamination indicator bacteria (i.e. total coliforms in the artesian water samples. However, a significant correlation was found between Aeromonas spp. and total coliforms in the both mineral water and tap water samples. The presence or absence of a correlation between the indicator bacteria and Aeromonas could reflect the occasional appearance of the pathogen in the drinking water and the different rates of survival and recovery of these agents compared with those fecal indicators. The finding that 41.6, 14.8 and 9.0 % of the artesian water, bottled mineral water and tap water, respectively, sampled in the current study failed to meet the Brazilian standard for total coliforms in the drinking water should therefore be of concern.A porcentagem de amostras positivas para Aeromonas foi de 12.7% para água mineral, 8.3% para água de poço artesiano e 6.5% para água do sistema público de abastecimento. O isolamento de Aeromonas spp. foi significativamente maior em água mineral e água de poço artesiano do que em água do sistema público. A ocorrência de Aeromonas spp. não teve correlação significativa com os indicadores de contaminação tradicionalmente utilizados (coliformes totais em amostras de água de poço artesiano. No entanto, esta correlação foi positiva e significativa em água mineral e água do sistema público. A presença ou ausência de correlação entre bactérias indicadoras e a presença de Aeromonas pode refletir o

  6. Molecular Detection, Quantification, and Toxigenicity Profiling of Aeromonas spp. in Source- and Drinking-Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Boakai K; Harden, Carol; Selvaraju, Suresh B; Pradhan, Suman; Yadav, Jagjit S

    2014-01-01

    Aeromonas is ubiquitous in aquatic environments and has been associated with a number of extra-gastrointestinal and gastrointestinal illnesses. This warrants monitoring of raw and processed water sources for pathogenic and toxigenic species of this human pathogen. In this study, a total of 17 different water samples [9 raw and 8 treated samples including 4 basin water (partial sand filtration) and 4 finished water samples] were screened for Aeromonas using selective culturing and a genus-specific real-time quantitative PCR assay. The selective culturing yielded Aeromonas counts ranging 0 - 2 x 10(3)CFU/ml and 15 Aeromonas isolates from both raw and treated water samples. The qPCR analysis indicated presence of a considerable nonculturable population (3.4 x 10(1) - 2.4 x 10(4) cells/ml) of Aeromonas in drinking water samples. Virulence potential of the Aeromonas isolates was assessed by multiplex/singleplex PCR-based profiling of the hemolysin and enterotoxin genes viz cytotoxic heat-labile enterotoxin (act), heat-labile cytotonic enterotoxin (alt), heat-stable cytotonic enterotoxin (ast), and aerolysin (aerA) genes. The water isolates yielded five distinct toxigenicity profiles, viz. act, alt, act+alt, aerA+alt, and aerA+alt+act. The alt gene showed the highest frequency of occurrence (40%), followed by the aerA (20%), act (13%), and ast (0%) genes. Taken together, the study demonstrated the occurrence of a considerable population of nonculturable Aeromonads in water and prevalence of toxigenic Aeromonas spp. potentially pathogenic to humans. This emphasizes the importance of routine monitoring of both source and drinking water for this human pathogen and role of the developed molecular approaches in improving the Aeromonas monitoring scheme for water. PMID:24949108

  7. Aeromonas spp. IN PRODUCTS OF ANIMAL ORIGIN AND DRINKING WATER OF GOIÂNIA-GO Aeromonas spp. EM PRODUTOS DE ORIGEM ANIMAL E EM ÁGUA DE CONSUMO DE GOIÂNIA - GO

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    Albenones José de Mesquita

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    A total of 53 samples of products from animal origin and drinking water was examined for the presence of Aeromonas spp. Aeromonas occurred in 26.41% (14/53 of the samples. The raw products showed high frequency of contamination and relatively high count Aeromonas hydrophila was the dominating species, 57.5%, being followed of A. veroni (22.5%, A. sobria (17.5% and A. media (2.5%. None of the Aeromonas spp. was isolated from chlorinated or unchlorinated drinking water.

    KEY-WORDS: Aeromonas; animal origin products; drinking water.

    Um total de 53 amostras de produtos de origem animal e água de consumo foi examinado para se verificar a presença de Aeromonas spp. Desse total, 14/53 (26,41% amostras foram positivas para Aeromonas. Os produtos crus apresentaram maior freqüência de contaminação e contagem relativamente elevadas. A espécie Aeromonas hydrophila foi a mais freqüente (57,5%, seguida pelas espécies A. veroni (22,5%, A. sobria (17,5% e A. media (2,5%. Nenhuma amostra de água de consumo, clorada ou não clorada, mostrou-se positiva para Aeromonas ssp.

    PALAVRA-CHAVE: Aeromonas; produtos de origem animal; água de consumo.

  8. An investigation of the bactericidal activity of selected essential oils to Aeromonas spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clifford E. Starliper

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diseases of fishes caused by Aeromonas spp. are common, have broad host ranges and may cause high mortality. Treatments of captive-reared populations using antimicrobials are limited with concerns for bacterial resistance development and environmental dissemination. This study was done to determine whether selected plant-derived essential oils were bactericidal to Aeromonas spp. Initially, twelve essential oils were evaluated using a disk diffusion assay to an isolate of A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, cause of fish furunculosis. The greatest zones of inhibition were obtained with oils of cinnamon Cinnamomum cassia, oregano Origanum vulgare, lemongrass Cymbopogon citratus and thyme Thymus vulgaris. Minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC’s were determined for these four oils, Allimed® (garlic extract, Allium sativum and colloidal silver to sixty-nine isolates representing nine Aeromonas spp. The lowest mean MBCs (0.02–0.04% were obtained with three different sources of cinnamon oil. MBCs for three sources of oregano and lemongrass oils ranged from 0.14% to 0.30% and 0.10% to 0.65%, respectively, and for two thyme oils were 2.11% and 2.22%. The highest concentration (5% of Allimed® tested resulted in MBCs to twelve isolates. A concentration of silver greater than 15 mg/L would be required to determine MBCs for all but one isolate.

  9. An investigation of the bactericidal activity of selected essential oils to Aeromonas spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starliper, Clifford E; Ketola, Henry G; Noyes, Andrew D; Schill, William B; Henson, Fred G; Chalupnicki, Marc A; Dittman, Dawn E

    2015-01-01

    Diseases of fishes caused by Aeromonas spp. are common, have broad host ranges and may cause high mortality. Treatments of captive-reared populations using antimicrobials are limited with concerns for bacterial resistance development and environmental dissemination. This study was done to determine whether selected plant-derived essential oils were bactericidal to Aeromonas spp. Initially, twelve essential oils were evaluated using a disk diffusion assay to an isolate of A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, cause of fish furunculosis. The greatest zones of inhibition were obtained with oils of cinnamon Cinnamomum cassia, oregano Origanum vulgare, lemongrass Cymbopogon citratus and thyme Thymus vulgaris. Minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC's) were determined for these four oils, Allimed® (garlic extract, Allium sativum) and colloidal silver to sixty-nine isolates representing nine Aeromonas spp. The lowest mean MBCs (0.02-0.04%) were obtained with three different sources of cinnamon oil. MBCs for three sources of oregano and lemongrass oils ranged from 0.14% to 0.30% and 0.10% to 0.65%, respectively, and for two thyme oils were 2.11% and 2.22%. The highest concentration (5%) of Allimed® tested resulted in MBCs to twelve isolates. A concentration of silver greater than 15 mg/L would be required to determine MBCs for all but one isolate. PMID:25685547

  10. An investigation of the bactericidal activity of selected essential oils to Aeromonas spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starliper, Clifford E.; Ketolab, Henry G.; Noyes, Andrew D.; Schill, William B.; Henson, Fred G.; Chalupnicki, Marc A.; Dittman, Dawn E.

    2015-01-01

    Diseases of fishes caused by Aeromonas spp. are common, have broad host ranges and may cause high mortality. Treatments for captive-reared populations using antimicrobials are limited with concerns for bacterial resistance development and environmental dissemination. This study was done to determine if selected plant-derived essential oils were bactericidal to Aeromonas spp. Initially, twelve essential oils were evaluated using a disk diffusion assay to an isolate of A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, cause of fish furunculosis. The greatest zones of inhibition were obtained with oils of cinnamon Cinnamomum cassia, oregano Origanum vulgare, lemongrass Cymbopogon citratus and thyme Thymus vulgaris. Minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC’s) were determined for these four oils, Allimed® (garlic extract, Allium sativum) and colloidal silver to sixty-nine isolates representing nine Aeromonas spp. The lowest mean MBC’s (0.02 to 0.04%) were obtained with three different sources of cinnamon oil. MBC’s for three sources of oregano and lemongrass oils ranged from 0.14 to 0.30% and 0.10 to 0.65%, respectively, and for two thyme oils were 2.11 and 2.22%. The highest concentration (5%) of Allimed® tested resulted in MBC’s to twelve isolates. A concentration of silver greater than 15 mg/L would be required to determine MBC’s for all but one isolate

  11. [Detection of the first QnrS gene positivity in aquatic Aeromonas spp. isolates in Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onuk, Ertan Emek; Tanrıverdi Çaycı, Yeliz; Çoban, Ahmet Yılmaz; Çiftci, Alper; Balta, Fikri; Didinen, Behire Işıl; Pekmezci, Gökmen Zafer; Altun, Soner; Söğüt Ünlü, Mehtap; Deveci, Aydın

    2015-01-01

    Aeromonas spp. are oxidase positive, gram-negative, facultative anaerobic bacilli that are widely distributed in aquatic environments. A.hydrophila, A.sobria and A.bestiarum may cause severe infections in both human and cold-blooded animals. Environmental persistance of quinolones that are widely used in both human and veterinary medicine plays an important role in the selection of resistant mutants. Plasmid-mediated resistance is one of the main mechanisms involved in quinolone resistance, and qnr, qepA, aac(6')-Ib-cr, oqxAB genes are identified as resistance determinants. Determination of various types of qnr gene in different bacteria mainly in Enterobacteriaceae, suggests that they are widely distributed in nature. Recently, plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance was defined among Aeromonas species isolated from water. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of qnr genes among aquatic Aeromonas spp. in Turkey. A total of 45 Aeromonas strains isolated from water and fishes collected from three different geographical regions (Aegean, Mediterranean and Blacksea) in Turkey, were included in the study. The isolates were identified at species level by the use of 16S rDNA-RFLP (Restriction fragment length polymorphism) analysis and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (M-PCR). Among the isolates, 20 were identified as A.sobria, 10 as A.hydrophila, nine as A.salmonicida, four as A.bestiarum and two as A.veronii. The plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinants, qnrA, qnrB, qnrC and qnrS genes, were investigated by M-PCR, and sequence analysis was performed for nine qnr-positive isolates. According to the sequence analysis of the genes, qnr genes were characterized in six A.sobria, in two A.bestiarum and in one A.hydrophila isolate (9/45; 20%). When the sequence was compared with GenBank database, this gene was found as qnrS2. All qnrS-positive Aeromonas spp. isolates were ciprofloxacin-susceptible, while five of them were resistant to nalidixic acid

  12. CONTAMINATION RISK ASSESSMENT OF SOURCES OF WATER INTENDED FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION WITH AEROMONAS SPP.

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    Luminita Minea

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available mportance of Aeromonas spp as emerging pathogens in recent years has been a considerable increase, beingincluded by the World Health Organization (WHO and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA in the etiology ofwaterborne epidemics. We aimed to investigate the distribution of Aeromonas spp. in various aquatic ecosystems whichcan become potential sources of gastrointestinal infections. Simultaneously, the presence of this pathogen was evaluatedin relation to microbiological indicators set out in EU Directive 98/83/EC. Between March 2009 and May 2011 wereanalyzed by membrane filter technique untreated water samples, collected from surface sources (lakes, ponds andgroundwater (wells drilled, captured springs, wells and chlorinated water that coming from local distribution network,located in rural areas of Moldova (North-East Romania. The information was processed and interpreted statisticallyusing EpiInfo 3.5.1 software. The presence of Aeromonas spp. was detected in half of the 220 samples tested, especially,in surface waters (84% and captured springs (80.8% (χ 2=51.39; GL=4; p<0.001, with concentrations that ranged from1 to 3.8 x104CFU/100ml (median=4.9x103CFU/100ml, respectively, from 1 to 6.9x102CFU/100 ml (median =58CFU/100 ml . The main species identified were A. hydrophila (22%, A. caviae (10.2%, A. veronii (6% and A. sobria(6% (using API 20NE galeries. Although the etiology was reported in 15.9%, chlorinated water quality was much betterthan that of untreated sources (χ 2=26.56; GL=1; p<0.001, with Odd.Ratio =0.12 (0.04 to 0.31; CI=95%. Comparativeevaluation of contamination of studied ecosystems showed a higher presence of these organisms in surface water than ingroundwater (χ 2=8.71; GL=1; p<0.003, Odd.Ratio=37 (1.4 to 8.9; CI=95%, with an increased risk of infectiontransmission through ingestion or contact. Pearson coefficient for the presence in groundwater of fecal pollutionindicators (coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli, enterococci

  13. The usefulness of molecular techniques to assess the presence of Aeromonas spp. harboring virulence markers in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin Kingombe, César I; Huys, Geert; Howald, Denise; Luthi, Elisabeth; Swings, Jean; Jemmi, Thomas

    2004-07-15

    A total of 78 raw and 123 processed and ready-to-eat retail food samples were used to assess the presence of motile Aeromonas spp. harboring virulence genes (cytotoxic enterotoxin and hemolysin genes) using a recently described PCR method in comparison with the conventional cultivation method based on the use of Ampicillin-Dextrin Agar (ADA) medium. With the ADA-based method, 65/201 (32.3%) samples showed presumptive Aeromonas spp. colonies whereas the PCR method revealed the presence of Aeromonas spp. harboring the targeted virulence genes in 51/201 (25.4%) of the tested samples. The rate of contaminated samples and the presence of pathogenic Aeromonas were significantly lower with both methods for processed than in case of raw samples. A polyphasic identification approach including biochemical and molecular techniques was applied to a selection of 34 PCR-positive presumptive Aeromonas isolates. Following fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprinting, a total of 33 isolates (97%) could be identified to the DNA hybridization group (HG) level. The majority of these isolates belonged to the species Aeromonas hydrophila HG3 (50%) and Aeromonas veronii biovar sobria (HG8/10) (38%). Molecular characterization of PCR amplicons obtained from these strains by PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) fingerprinting and PCR-Amplicon Sequence Analysis (PCR-ASA) allowed classification of all strains in a known PCR-RFLP and PCR-ASA type. In conclusion, the current findings demonstrate that the combined use of PCR-based virulence marker detection, PCR-RFLP and PCR-ASA offers a rapid, sensitive, and specific system to assess the presence and prevalence of Aeromonas spp. harboring virulence markers in food samples. PMID:15193799

  14. Quinolone resistant Aeromonas spp. as carriers and potential tracers of acquired antibiotic resistance in hospital and municipal wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Varela, Ana Rita; Nunes, Olga C.; Manaia, Célia

    2016-01-01

    Members of the genus Aeromonas are recognized carriers of antibiotic resistance in aquatic environments. However, their importance on the spread of resistance from hospital effluents to the environment is poorly understood. Quinolone resistant Aeromonas spp. (n = 112) isolated from hospital effluent (HE) and from raw (RWW) and treated wastewater (TWW) of the receiving urban wastewater treatment plant (UWTP) were characterized. Species identification and genetic intraspecies divers...

  15. Antibiotic susceptibility profile of Aeromonas spp. isolates from food in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awan, Mohammad Bashir; Maqbool, Ahmed; Bari, Abdul; Krovacek, Karel

    2009-01-01

    A total of 57 Aeromonas isolates from food samples such as fresh and frozen chicken, game birds, pasteurized milk, baby food, bakery products, fruit and vegetables, fish, and water from Abu Dahbi, UAE were investigated for antibiotic susceptibility profile. Most strains were resistant to penicillins (ticarcillin, mezlocillin, oxacillin, piperacillin), sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim and macrolides (erythromycin, vancomycin, clindamycin) but sensitive to tetracycline, chloramphenicol, nitrofurantoin, aminoglycosides (amikacin, gentamicin, tobramycin), cephalosporins (cefuroxime, ceftrioxone, cefazolin, cephalexin, cephalothin, cefoxitin, cefotaxime), quinolone (ciprofloxacin), colistin sulphate and SXT (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole). On the other hand, many antibiotics showed excellent inhibitory activity (>75% strains were sensitive to them) against all the strains tested. These include cefuroxime, ceftrioxone, ciprofloxacin, colistin, amikacin, gentamicin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, nitrofurantoin, cefotaxime and tobramycin. In conclusion, the results show a detailed pattern of sensitivity of the various Aeromonas spp. isolates to a variety of antibiotics and provide useful information in the context of selective isolation and phenotypic identification of the aeromonads from food. PMID:19382665

  16. Characterization of integrons and tetracycline resistance determinants in Aeromonas spp. isolated from South African aquaculture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Liezl; Chenia, Hafizah Y

    2007-03-20

    An increasing incidence of multidrug resistance amongst Aeromonas spp. isolates, which are both fish pathogens and emerging opportunistic human pathogens, has been observed worldwide. This can be attributed to the horizontal transfer of mobile genetic elements, viz.: plasmids and class 1 integrons. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of 37 Aeromonas spp. isolates, from tilapia, trout and koi aquaculture systems, were determined by disc-diffusion testing. The plasmid content of each isolate was examined using the alkaline lysis protocol. Tet determinant type was determined by amplification using two degenerate primer sets and subsequent HaeIII restriction. The presence of integrons was determined by PCR amplification of three integrase genes, as well as gene cassettes, and the qacEDelta1-sulI region. Thirty-seven Aeromonas spp. isolates were differentiated into six species by aroA PCR-RFLP, i.e., A. veronii biovar sobria, A. hydrophila, A. encheleia, A. ichtiosoma, A. salmonicida, and A. media. High levels of resistance to tetracycline (78.3%), amoxicillin (89.2%), and augmentin (86.5%) were observed. Decreased susceptibility to erythromycin was observed for 67.6% of isolates. Although 45.9% of isolates displayed nalidixic acid resistance, majority of isolates were susceptible to the fluoroquinolones. The MAR index ranged from 0.12 to 0.59, with majority of isolates indicating high-risk contamination originating from humans or animals where antibiotics are often used. Plasmids were detected in 21 isolates, with 14 of the isolates displaying multiple plasmid profiles. Single and multiple class A family Tet determinants were observed in 27% and 48.7% of isolates, respectively, with Tet A being the most prevalent Tet determinant type. Class 1 integron and related structures were amplified and carried different combinations of the antibiotic resistance gene cassettes ant(3'')Ia, aac(6')Ia, dhfr1, oxa2a and/or pse1. Class 2 integrons were also amplified, but the

  17. Prevalence and characterization of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes in Aeromonas spp. isolated from South African freshwater fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenia, Hafizah Yousuf

    2016-08-16

    An increasing incidence of multidrug-resistant Aeromonas spp., which are both fish and emerging opportunistic human pathogens, has been observed worldwide. Quinolone-resistant Aeromonas spp. isolates are increasingly being observed in clinical and environmental settings, and this has been attributed primarily to target gene alterations, efflux, and transferable quinolone resistance. Thirty-four Aeromonas spp., obtained from freshwater aquaculture systems, were screened for the presence of GyrA and ParC substitutions, efflux activity and the prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes, qnr and aac-6'-Ib-cr. Although 44% of isolates were resistant to nalidixic acid, the majority were susceptible to ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin. The predominant GyrA substitution was Ser-83→Val among Aeromonas veronii isolates whilst Aeromonas hydrophila isolates displayed a Ser-83→Ile substitution, and Ser-80→Ile substitutions were observed in ParC. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of fluoro(quinolones) were determined in the presence and absence of the efflux pump inhibitor, phenylalanine-arginine β-naphthylamide (PAβN). Addition of PAβN had no effect on the levels of fluoro(quinolone) resistance observed for these isolates. Although no aac-6'-Ib-cr variant genes were identified, qnrB and qnrS were detected for 41% and 24% of isolates, respectively, by Southern hybridization and confirmed by PCR and sequencing. Quinolone resistance in these fish-associated Aeromonas isolates was related to mutations in the quinolone resistance determining regions of GyrA and ParC and presence of qnrB and qnrS. The presence of qnr alleles in Aeromonas spp. isolates may facilitate high-level fluoroquinolone resistance and potentially serve as reservoirs for the dissemination of qnr genes to other aquatic microbes. PMID:27180024

  18. Influence of food system conditions on N-acyl-L-homoserine lactones production by Aeromonas spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Martínez, M S; Uyttendaele, M; Demolder, V; Debevere, J

    2006-12-01

    Eleven of 13 Aeromonas strains were shown to produce AHLs. Results of TLC showed that N-butanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (C4-HSL) was the main AHL produced in LB medium at 30 degrees C. The influence of different carbon sources, temperature, pH values and salt concentrations on AHL production was determined in eight A. hydrophila and one A. caviae strain. Additionally a quantitative study of C4-HSL production by A. hydrophila strain 519 under different conditions was performed. Positive results were found in the AHL induction assay for some Aeromonas strains in cultures in LB agar incubated at 12 degrees C after 72-96 h. The induction of the sensor strains by Aeromonas spp. occurred in LB medium supplemented with all carbon sources in a concentration of 0.5%. The production of C4-HSL by A. hydrophila 519 was found until 3.5% (w/v) of NaCl. For pHs close to the neutrality the C4-HSL production by A. hydrophila was evident after 24-48 h of incubation. A. hydrophila 519 produced C4-HSL under anaerobic conditions. Also, the AHL production by Aeromonas strains was studied in simulate agar of shrimp, fish and some vegetables. The production of AHLs was evident by almost all the test strains in shrimp simulated agar. In fish agar only for one of three fish species tested, positive results were found. Induction assay in vegetables simulated agar showed principally negative results, probably because of the presence of inhibitory compounds in these vegetables. PMID:16797762

  19. AEROMONAS SPP BACTEREMIA OF RAINBOW TROUT FRY (ONCORHYNCHUS MYKISS: BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF THE CAUSATIVE ORGANISM AND ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY

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    Damir Kapetanović

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas hydrophila and other members of Aeromonas genus are ubiquitus in aquatic environment and make part of normal bacterial flora of rainbow trout. Aeromonas spp. infections are worldwide registered. Here we present our experience and knowledge on Aeromonas bacteremia, which causes mortality of rainbow trout fry. Rainbow trout fry, 7 month old, started to die in November 2003. Fish samples (17 samples of dead and moribund fish were delivered to the Laboratory for aquaculture. With Api 20 NE tests Aeromonas hydrophila / caviae type I was identified with an average probability of 99.9 % (one test against, as well as Aeromonas hydrophila / caviae type II with an average probability of 99.5 % (one test against from liver, spleen, kidney, intestines and damaged eye. All of isolated and identified samples were tested for antibiotic susceptibility by disc diffusion method. The test showed that specimens were most sensitive on flumequin, and relatively less sensitive on chloramphenicol and enrofloxacin. Therapy was successfully applied with Flubactin®.

  20. Aeromonas spp. isolated from oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorea from a natural oyster bed, Ceará, Brazil Aeromonas spp. isoladas de ostras (Crassostrea rhizophorea coletadas em um criadouro natural, Ceará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma S. Evangelista-Barreto

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Between April and October 2002, thirty fortnightly collections of oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorea from a natural oyster bed at the Cocó River estuary in the Sabiaguaba region (Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil were carried out, aiming to isolate Aeromonas spp. strains. Oyster samples were submitted to the direct plating (DP and the presence/absence (P/A methods. Aeromonas were identified in 15 (50% samples analyzed by the DP method and in 13 (43% analyzed by the P/A method. A. caviae, A. eucrenophila, A. media, A. sobria, A. trota, A. veronii bv. sobria, A. veronii bv. veronii and Aeromonas sp. were isolated. The predominant species was A. veronii (both biovars, which was identified in 13 (43% samples, followed by A. media in 11 (37% and A. caviae in seven (23%. From the 59 strains identified, 28 (48% presented resistance to at least one of the eight antibiotics tested.Foram realizadas 30 coletas quinzenais, entre abril e outubro de 2002, de ostras (Crassostrea rhizophorea de um criadouro natural, no estuário do rio Cocó (Fortaleza/Ceará/Brasil, objetivando-se isolar cepas de Aeromonas spp. As amostras de ostras foram submetidas aos métodos de plaqueamento direto (PD e presença/ausência (P/A. Foram identificadas Aeromonas em 15 (50% amostras analisadas pelo método PD e em 13 (43% pelo método P/A. Foram isoladas: A. caviae, A. eucrenophila, A. media, A. sobria, A. trota, A. veronii bv. sobria, A. veronii bv. veronii e Aeromonas sp. A espécie predominate foi A. veronii (ambos biovars, identificada em 13 (43% amostras, seguida de A. media em 11 (37% e A. caviae em 7 (23%. Das 59 cepas identificadas, 28 (48% apresentaram resistência a pelo menos um, dos oitos antibióticos testados.

  1. Quinolone resistant Aeromonas spp. as carriers and potential tracers of acquired antibiotic resistance in hospital and municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Ana Rita; Nunes, Olga C; Manaia, Célia M

    2016-01-15

    Members of the genus Aeromonas are recognized carriers of antibiotic resistance in aquatic environments. However, their importance on the spread of resistance from hospital effluents to the environment is poorly understood. Quinolone resistant Aeromonas spp. (n = 112) isolated from hospital effluent (HE) and from raw (RWW) and treated wastewater (TWW) of the receiving urban wastewater treatment plant (UWTP) were characterized. Species identification and genetic intraspecies diversity were assessed based on the 16S rRNA, cpn60 and gyrB genes sequence analysis. The antibiotic resistance phenotypes and genotypes (qnrA, qnrB, qnrC, qnrD, qnrS, qnrVC; qepA; oqxAB; aac(6′)-Ib-cr; blaOXA; incU) were analyzed in function of the origin and taxonomic group. Most isolates belonged to the species Aeromonas caviae and Aeromonas hydrophila (50% and 41%, respectively). The quinolone and the beta-lactamase resistance genes aac(6′)-Ib-cr and blaOXA, including gene blaOXA-101, identified for the first time in Aeromonas spp., were detected in 58% and 56% of the isolates, respectively, with identical prevalence in HE and UWTP wastewater. In contrast, the gene qnrS2 was observed mainly in isolates from the UWTP (51%) and rarely in HE isolates (3%), suggesting that its origin is not the clinical setting. Bacterial groups and genes that allow the identification of major routes of antibiotic resistance dissemination are valuable tools to control this problem. In this study, it was concluded that members of the genus Aeromonas harboring the genes aac(6′)-Ib-cr and blaOXA are relevant tracers of antibiotic resistance dissemination in wastewater habitats, while those yielding the gene qnrS2 allow the traceability from non-clinical sources. PMID:26546762

  2. Aeromonas spp. and microbial indicators in raw drinking water source Aeromonas sp. e indicadores microbiológicos em fontes de água não tratada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Di Bari

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas species are autochtonous in the aquatic environment and some of them have been associated with health effects like wound infections, septicemia and diarrhoeal illness. In this study, the occurrence of Aeromonas spp. and microbial indicators in raw drinking water from wells, springs, fountains and mineral waters was evaluated. A total of 126 water samples was analyzed for Aeromonas spp. by the membrane filtration technique using ADA media and by P/A test. Typical colonies of Aeromonas spp. were submitted to biochemical tests for species differentiation. Toxin production was tested using Y-1 mouse adrenal cells. Coliforms and heterotrophic bacteria were enumerated by membrane filtration and pour plate techniques, respectively. P. aeruginosa, C. perfringens and fecal streptococci were determined by P/A method. Aeromonas spp. were isolated in 36.5% of the samples, whereas total and thermotolerant coliforms were detected in 51.2% and in 23.8% of the samples, respectively. C. perfringens, fecal streptococci and P. aeruginosa were present in 16.5%, 20.4% and 3.8% of the samples, respectively. The concentrations of heterotrophic bacteria were higher than 1,0x10³ CFU/mL in 52.5% of the samples. A. hydrophila was the most frequent species, followed by A. allosaccharophila,A. jandaei,A.sobria and HG2. A heat label toxin was detected in 13 from the 58 strains tested. These data show that the drinking water sources analyzed can represent a risk for human health. It is important to consider that wells and springs are used as drinking water supply in poor areas and rural regions, where undernourished people more susceptible to infections by these microorganisms predominate.Bactérias do gênero Aeromonas são naturais no ambiente aquático e algumas espécies podem causar infecções em humanos como feridas, septicemia e diarréia. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a ocorrência de Aeromonas sp. em 126 amostras de água de poços, nascentes, fontes e

  3. Use of Aeromonas spp. as General Indicators of Antimicrobial Susceptibility among Bacteria in Aquatic Environments in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usui, Masaru; Tagaki, Chie; Fukuda, Akira; Okubo, Torahiko; Boonla, Chanchai; Suzuki, Satoru; Seki, Kanako; Takada, Hideshige; Tamura, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobials are widely used, not only for treating human infections, but also for treatment of livestock and in fish farms. Human habitats in Southeastern Asian countries are located in close proximity to aquatic environments. As such, the human populations within these regions are at risk of exposure to antimicrobial resistant bacteria, and thereby disseminating antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs). In this study, we collected water samples from 15 sites (5 sites in Chao Phraya River, 2 sites at the mouth of Chao Phraya River, 3 sites in Ta Chin River, and 5 sites at city canals) and 12 sites (6 sites at city canals; 2 sites at chicken farms; 2 sites at pig farms; and 2 samples from sites at pig farms, which were subsequently treated at a biogas plant) in Thailand in 2013 and 2014, respectively. In total, 117 Aeromonas spp. were isolated from the water samples, and these organisms exhibited various antimicrobial susceptibility profiles. Notably, there was a significant correlation between the environmental concentration of tetracyclines and the rates of tetracycline resistance in the isolated Aeromonas spp.; however, both the concentration and rates of tetracycline resistance in samples derived from pig farms were higher than those of samples harvested from other aquatic environments. These findings suggest that the high concentrations of antimicrobials observed in these aquatic environments likely select for ARGs. Furthermore, they indicate that Aeromonas spp. comprise an effective marker for monitoring antimicrobial resistance in aquatic environments. PMID:27433156

  4. Use of Aeromonas spp. as General Indicators of Antimicrobial Susceptibility among Bacteria in Aquatic Environments in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usui, Masaru; Tagaki, Chie; Fukuda, Akira; Okubo, Torahiko; Boonla, Chanchai; Suzuki, Satoru; Seki, Kanako; Takada, Hideshige; Tamura, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobials are widely used, not only for treating human infections, but also for treatment of livestock and in fish farms. Human habitats in Southeastern Asian countries are located in close proximity to aquatic environments. As such, the human populations within these regions are at risk of exposure to antimicrobial resistant bacteria, and thereby disseminating antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs). In this study, we collected water samples from 15 sites (5 sites in Chao Phraya River, 2 sites at the mouth of Chao Phraya River, 3 sites in Ta Chin River, and 5 sites at city canals) and 12 sites (6 sites at city canals; 2 sites at chicken farms; 2 sites at pig farms; and 2 samples from sites at pig farms, which were subsequently treated at a biogas plant) in Thailand in 2013 and 2014, respectively. In total, 117 Aeromonas spp. were isolated from the water samples, and these organisms exhibited various antimicrobial susceptibility profiles. Notably, there was a significant correlation between the environmental concentration of tetracyclines and the rates of tetracycline resistance in the isolated Aeromonas spp.; however, both the concentration and rates of tetracycline resistance in samples derived from pig farms were higher than those of samples harvested from other aquatic environments. These findings suggest that the high concentrations of antimicrobials observed in these aquatic environments likely select for ARGs. Furthermore, they indicate that Aeromonas spp. comprise an effective marker for monitoring antimicrobial resistance in aquatic environments. PMID:27433156

  5. Identification of antibiotic resistance cassettes in class 1 integrons in Aeromonas spp. strains isolated from fresh fish (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarria-Guzmán, Yohanna; López-Ramírez, María Patricia; Chávez-Romero, Yosef; Ruiz-Romero, Erick; Dendooven, Luc; Bello-López, Juan Manuel

    2014-05-01

    Forty-six Aeromonas spp. strains were isolated from fresh fish and investigated for their antimicrobial susceptibility, detection of Class 1 integrons by PCR, and arrangement of gene cassettes. Selected isolates were further characterized by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-PCR. Twenty isolates were found to carry Class 1 integrons. Amplification of the variable regions of the integrons revealed diverse bands ranging in size from 150 to 1,958 pb. Sequence analysis of the variable regions revealed the presence of several gene cassettes, such as adenylyl transferases (aadA2 and aadA5), dihydrofolate reductases (dfrA17 and dfrA1), chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (catB3), β-lactamase (oxa2), lincosamide nucleotidil transferase (linF), aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme (apha15), and oxacillinase (bla OXA-10). Two open reading frames with an unknown function were identified as orfC and orfD. The aadA2 cassette was the most common integron found in this study. Interestingly, five integrons were detected in the plasmids that might be involved in the transfer of resistance genes to other bacteria. This is a first report of cassette encoding for lincosamides (linF) resistance in Aeromonas spp. Implications on the incidence of integrons in isolates of Aeromonas spp. from fresh fish for human consumption, and its possible consequences to human health are discussed. PMID:24370627

  6. Comparison of ELISA and PCR vis-à-vis cultural methods for detecting Aeromonas spp. in foods of animal origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, S; Agarwal, R K; Bist, B

    2006-02-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the best method of the most commonly used methods for detection of aeromonads in foods of animal origin. With this objective an OMP based indirect plate ELISA and a duplex-PCR using primers targeting aerolysin gene and 16S rRNA gene and yielding amplicons of 252 bp and 599 bp, respectively, were standardized. The standardized protocols and the conventional cultural method were then compared for their respective sensitivities and specificities for detecting aeromonads from chicken and milk samples. Both the standardized assays were found to be highly specific for Aeromonas. The efficiency of the standardized indirect-ELISA and duplex-PCR protocols was assessed by artificial inoculation studies with varying concentrations of Aeromonas cells inoculated in chicken and milk samples followed by enrichment in Alkaline Peptone Water supplemented with 10 mg/ml cephalothin (APW-C) for 12 h. The results revealed that indirect-ELISA was able to detect a minimum of 10(3) cells/ml or g of Aeromonas cells in spiked milk and chicken samples, respectively. Whereas, duplex-PCR and cultural method were able to detect as low as 1 cell/ml or g of Aeromonas cells in spiked milk and chicken samples. The developed assays were also tested for their efficiency to detect Aeromonas spp. in naturally contaminated milk and chicken samples. Out of a total 50 milk samples screened for presence of Aeromonas by the three methods viz., indirect-ELISA, duplex-PCR and cultural method only 1 (2%) turned out to be positive showing positive results by all three methods. Similarly, 50 samples of chicken were tested by all three methods. Three samples (6%) turned out to be positive and here again by all the three methods. PMID:16216375

  7. IN-VITRO ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF AEROMONAS SPP ISOLATED FROM ESTUARY USING DIFFERENT SCREENING PROTOCOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Odeyemi et al.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Screening is important in investigating antimicrobial activities of bacteria in a quest to discover new antimicrobials. Various protocols are readily available and employed by researchers worldwide studying microbiostatic and microbicidal activities of bacterial. This research therefore aims at evaluating available protocols and suggesting a standardized model. For the purpose of these research, antimicrobial ability of Aeromonas spp isolated from estuary was investigated using agar well diffusion method, deferred method and agar disc diffusion method respectively. Result obtained reveals that five isolates were positive to antimicrobial production among fifteen bacteria screened. Result was depended on the protocol utilized. Agar well diffusion produced a visible result when compared to others. Next to this was agar disc method. Deferred method involving both cross streaking and spot on lawn could not produce result as of swarming nature of the positive isolates tested. Based on our results, protocols utilized were grouped into preliminary screening test (PST and confirmatory tests (CT respectively. Preliminary screening protocol (PST consists of deferred method – perpendicular cross streaking and spot-on-lawn while confirmatory protocols (CT are agar well diffusion and agar disc diffusion methods. Preliminary protocols are not enough to conclude existence or non-existence of antimicrobial activity in bacteria. Conclusively, both preliminary and confirmatory protocols should be employed while screening bacteria for antimicrobials as suggested in our model.

  8. Antimicrobial susceptibility, hemolysis, and hemagglutination among Aeromonas spp. isolated from water of a bovine abattoir Perfil de resistência/sensibilidade e virulência de espécies de Aeromonas isoladas de amostras de água obtidas em abatedouro bovino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delmar Bizani

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Aeromonas spp. in food has been demonstrated. They are often introduced from water, which is the natural habitat of many species and is thought to be the main source of contamination. The occurrence of Aeromonas spp. was investigated in 70 water samples of a bovine abattoir. Aeromonas spp. were present in 21.4% of water samples. A. hydrophila was isolated from 11.4% of supplying water samples and from 25.7% of the water drained from carcasses, whereas A. sobria was sole isolated from 5.7% of supplying water samples. Although greater number of positive samples were from water drained from carcasses, only A. hydrophila isolates were present. This suggests that the supplying water is the source of contamination. The antibiotic susceptibility testing revealed all strains were resistant to b-lactam antibiotics. However, the susceptibility to other antimicrobials was variable, being A. hydrophila more resistant than A. sobria strains. The investigation for virulence factors revealed positive reactions of hemolysis and hemagglutination. The results indicate that Aeromonas spp. are present in the supplying water system. These microorganisms may be a potential contaminant of carcasses and widespread in derived food.A presença de bactérias do gênero Aeromonas nos alimentos tem sido demonstrada. Normalmente destacam-se os alimentos que durante sua industrialização entraram em contato com a água, a qual é tida como habitat natural das diversas espécies e principal fonte de contaminação. Objetivando determinar a ocorrência de espécies de Aeromonas, bem como aspectos relacionados a sua virulência como capacidade de hemólise e hemoaglutinação, foram analisadas 70 amostras de água divididas entre água de abastecimento e de escoamento de lavagem das carcaças. De acordo com os resultados obtidos verificou-se a ocorrência de Aeromonas spp. em 21,4% das amostras. A. hydrophila obteve o maior índice de isolamento, 11,4% em

  9. Detection and characterization of class 1 integrons in Aeromonas spp. isolated from human diarrheic stool in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Valdespino, Abigail; Fernández-Rendón, Elizabeth; Curiel-Quesada, Everardo

    2009-12-01

    We determined the presence of class 1 integrons related to the acquisition of resistance to antimicrobials in Aeromonas spp. isolated from individuals with diarrhea. Species were identified as A. caviae, A. hydrophila, A. veronii and A. media using PCR-RFLP of the 16S rDNA. Selected isolates were further characterized by ERIC-PCR. Resistance to chloramphenicol, aztreonam, tetracycline, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, nalidixic acid and streptomycin, among others, was determined using the Kirby-Bauer method. Integrons were detected by PCR amplification of the 5' conserved, variable, and 3' conserved regions. Sequencing of the variable regions revealed class 1 integrons with cassettes encoding resistance to trimethoprim (dfrA12, dfrA15, dfrB4), streptomycin/spectinomycin (aadA2, aadA1), oxacillin (oxa2) and chloramphenicol (catB3, cmlA4). Others had an open reading frame (orfD) or no insert at all. To our knowledge, this is the first description of the occurrence of genes cmlA4 and dfrA15 in Aeromonas class 1 integrons. Not all the integron-linked cassettes conferred their associated resistances, which suggests the inactivity of some cassettes. Most integrons were chromosomally located. The presence of class 1 integrons similar to those found in a wide variety of bacterial genera from different origins, including environmental and fish-borne Aeromonas, confirms the stability and horizontal transfer of these genetic elements. PMID:19810047

  10. HOST GENE CELL RESEARCH FOR DETERMINING VIRULENCE OF AEROMONAS SPP. COLLECTED FROM ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) is interested in assessing health risks associated with emerging or potential waterborne pathogens. To this end, the Agency has established a Candidate Contaminant List (CCL) that includes Aeromonas hydrophila an...

  11. Impact of an Urban Effluent on Antibiotic Resistance of Riverine Enterobacteriaceae and Aeromonas spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Goñi-Urriza, Marisol; Capdepuy, Michèle; Arpin, Corinne; Raymond, Nathalie; Caumette, Pierre; Quentin, Claudine

    2000-01-01

    In order to evaluate the impact of an urban effluent on antibiotic resistance of freshwater bacterial populations, water samples were collected from the Arga river (Spain), upstream and downstream from the wastewater discharge of the city of Pamplona. Strains of Enterobacteriaceae (representative of the human and animal commensal flora) (110 isolates) and Aeromonas (typically waterborne bacteria) (118 isolates) were selected for antibiotic susceptibility testing. Most of the Aeromonas strains...

  12. Impact of an Urban Effluent on Antibiotic Resistance of Riverine Enterobacteriaceae and Aeromonas spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goñi-Urriza, Marisol; Capdepuy, Michèle; Arpin, Corinne; Raymond, Nathalie; Caumette, Pierre; Quentin, Claudine

    2000-01-01

    In order to evaluate the impact of an urban effluent on antibiotic resistance of freshwater bacterial populations, water samples were collected from the Arga river (Spain), upstream and downstream from the wastewater discharge of the city of Pamplona. Strains of Enterobacteriaceae (representative of the human and animal commensal flora) (110 isolates) and Aeromonas (typically waterborne bacteria) (118 isolates) were selected for antibiotic susceptibility testing. Most of the Aeromonas strains (72%) and many of the Enterobacteriaceae (20%) were resistant to nalidixic acid. Singly nalidixic acid-resistant strains were frequent regardless of the sampling site for Aeromonas, whereas they were more common upstream from the discharge for enterobacteria. The most common resistances to antibiotics other than quinolones were to tetracycline (24.3%) and beta-lactams (20.5%) for Enterobacteriaceae and to tetracycline (27.5%) and co-trimoxazole (26.6%) for Aeromonas. The rates of these antibiotic resistances increased downstream from the discharge at similar degrees for the two bacterial groups; it remained at high levels for enterobacteria but decreased along the 30-km study zone for Aeromonas. Genetic analysis of representative strains demonstrated that these resistances were mostly (enterobacteria) or exclusively (Aeromonas) chromosomally mediated. Moreover, a reference strain of Aeromonas caviae (CIP 7616) could not be transformed with conjugative R plasmids of enterobacteria. Thus, the urban effluent resulted in an increase of the rates of resistance to antibiotics other than quinolones in the riverine bacterial populations, despite limited genetic exchanges between enterobacteria and Aeromonas. Quinolone resistance probably was selected by heavy antibiotic discharges of unknown origin upstream from the urban effluent. PMID:10618213

  13. Lateral flagella are required for increased cell adherence, invasion and biofilm formation by Aeromonas spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavín, Rosalina; Merino, Susana; Altarriba, Maria; Canals, Rocío; Shaw, Jonathan G; Tomás, Juan M

    2003-07-15

    Two types of flagella are responsible for motility in mesophilic Aeromonas strains. A polar unsheathed flagellum is expressed constitutively that allows the bacterium to swim in liquid environments and, in media where the polar flagellum is unable to propel the cell, Aeromonas express peritrichous lateral flagella. Recently, Southern blot analysis using a DNA probe based on the Aeromonas caviae Sch3N lateral flagellin gene sequence showed a good correlation between strains positive for the DNA probe, swarming motility and the presence of lateral flagella by microscopy. Here, we conclude that the easiest method for the detection of the lateral flagellin gene(s) is by PCR (polymerase chain reaction); this showed good correlation with swarming motility and the presence of lateral flagella. This was despite the high degree of DNA heterogeneity found in Aeromonas gene sequences. Furthermore, by reintroducing the laf (lateral flagella) genes into several mesophilic lateral-flagella-negative Aeromonas wild-type strains, we demonstrate that this surface structure enhances the adhesion to and invasion of HEp-2 cells and the capacity for biofilm formation in vitro. These results, together with previous data obtained using Laf- mutants, demonstrate that lateral flagella production is a pathogenic feature due to its enhancement of the interaction with eukaryotic cell surfaces. PMID:12855171

  14. Sensitivity of planktonic and biofilm-associated Aeromonas spp. to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genus Aeromonas has emerged as an important human pathogen because it causes a variety of diseases including gastroenteritis and extra-intestinal infections. Aeromonas have the ability to adhere and form biofilms on food surfaces and food contact surfaces. Biofilm formation on foods and food contact surfaces is the major reason for contamination, cross contamination and post-processing contamination of the final food product leading to food spoilage, product rejection, economic losses and food-borne diseases. Biofilms have shown high resistance to heat, desiccation, acidic condition, high salt concentration, antibiotics and other food preservatives. Earlier studies in our laboratory have shown that ionizing radiation effectively inactivates Aeromonas in different food products. However, the relative efficacy of this process against biofilm associated cells versus free-living planktonic cells of Aeromonas is not well documented. Therefore, the dose of gamma radiation required to reduce the population by 90% (D10) was calculated for planktonic and biofilm-associated A. salmonicida Y567 and A. hydrophila A331 cells. Both A. hydrophila A331 and A. salmonicida Y567 expressed significant ability to attach and grow on glass surface following incubation at 30℃ in TSB. Ionizing radiation effectively reduced the populations of both planktonic and biofilm-associated cells for both the strains. Mean cell counts of survivors and surviving fraction of planktonic and biofilm-associated cells decreased with increased irradiation doses. The D10 values of planktonic cells and biofilm cells for A. salmonicida (Y567) were 232.65 Gy and 248.41 Gy, respectively; whereas, the D10 values of planktonic cells and biofilm cells for A. hydrophila (A331) were 249.2 Gy and 240.2 Gy respectively. No significant difference in the D10 values of planktonic and biofilm associated Aeromonas was observed. The influence of the cultured state of the organism, i.e., planktonic versus biofilm associated

  15. Behavior of Listeria monocytogenes and Aeromonas spp. on fresh-cut produce packaged under equilibrium-modified atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacxsens, L; Devlieghere, F; Falcato, P; Debevere, J

    1999-10-01

    Storage experiments were conducted to follow the behavior of pathogens on fresh-cut vegetables (trimmed brussels sprouts, grated carrots, shredded iceberg lettuce, and shredded chicory endives) packaged under an equilibrium-modified atmosphere (EMA) (2 to 3% O2, 2 to 3% CO2, and 94 to 96% N2) and stored at 7 degrees C. As a comparison, fresh-cut vegetables were also packaged in a perforated high-barrier film (air conditions) and stored at 7 degrees C. In a first step, the shelf life of the vegetables in the two kinds of packages was determined by evaluating the microbiological quality as well as the sensorial quality (appearance, taste, and odor). In general, sensorial properties were faster in limiting the shelf life than microbiological criteria. The shelf life of the vegetables stored under an EMA was extended by 50% or more, compared with the air-stored vegetables. In a second storage experiment, the four fresh-cut vegetables were inoculated with a cocktail of psychrotrophic pathogens (Listeria monocytogenes, Aeromonas caviae [HG4]) and A. bestiarum (HG2) before packaging under an EMA and air at 7 degrees C. The inoculated pathogens were more influenced by the type of vegetable than by the type of atmosphere. No growth was detected on the brussels sprouts or on carrots (L. monocytogenes). Aeromonas spp. had a higher growth rate than L. monocytogenes on the shredded chicory endives and shredded iceberg lettuce at 7 degrees C. PMID:10528715

  16. Diversity and antibiotic resistance of aeromonas spp. in drinking and waste water treatment plants

    OpenAIRE

    Figueira, Vânia; Vaz-Moreira, Ivone; Silva, Márcia; Manaia, Célia M

    2011-01-01

    The taxonomic diversity and antibiotic resistance phenotypes of aeromonads were examined in samples from drinking and waste water treatment plants (surface, ground and disinfected water in a drinking water treatment plant, and raw and treated waste water) and tap water. Bacteria identification and intra-species variation were determined based on the analysis of the 16S rRNA, gyrB and cpn60 gene sequences. Resistance phenotypes were determined using the disc diffusion method. Aeromonas ver...

  17. MONITORING FOR AEROMONAS SPECIES AFTER TREATMENT WITH COMMON DRINKING WATER DISINFECTANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sensitivity of Aeromonas spp. To free chlorine, chloramine and ultraviolet (UV) disinfection was determined. Aeromonas hydrophila is a contaminant listed on the USEPA's 1998 Contaminant Candidate List (CCL). Experiments using free chlorine indicated that the Aeromonas spp. ...

  18. Incidence of Aeromonas spp. infection in fish and chicken meat and its related public health hazards: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Praveen Kumar Praveen; Chanchal Debnath; Shashank Shekhar; Nirupama Dalai; Subha Ganguly

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas is recognized to cause a variety of diseases in man. In humans, they are associated with intestinal and extraintestinal infections. With the growing importance of Aeromonas as an emerging pathogen, it is important to combat this organism. It is indisputable that Aeromonas strains may produce many different putative virulence factors such as enterotoxins, hemolysins or cytotoxins, and antibiotic resistance against different antibiotics. The ability of these bacteria to grow competiti...

  19. The route of antimicrobial resistance from the hospital effluent to the environment: focus on the occurrence of KPC-producing Aeromonas spp. and Enterobacteriaceae in sewage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picão, Renata C; Cardoso, Juliana P; Campana, Eloiza H; Nicoletti, Adriana G; Petrolini, Fernanda V B; Assis, Diego M; Juliano, Luiz; Gales, Ana C

    2013-05-01

    We investigated the antimicrobial resistance profile and the occurrence of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing Gram-negative rods in sewage samples obtained from a Brazilian teaching hospital and from the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) that receives it for treatment. We identified multidrug-resistant bacteria as well as KPC-2-producing Aeromonas spp. and several Enterobacteriaceae species, including Kluyvera spp., in the hospital effluent and in different sites of the WWTP. Most isolates showed the blaKPC-2 gene harbored on a transposon that was carried by conjugative plasmids. The presence of KPC production among Aeromonas spp., Kluyvera spp., and other Enterobacteriaceae indicates the adaptability of such isolates to aquatic environments, not only in the hospital effluent but also throughout the WWTP. Although secondary treatment seems to decrease the amount of KPC producers in sewage, multidrug-resistant isolates are continually disposed in the urban river. Thus, sewage treatment regulations are urgently needed to decelerate the evolution of antimicrobial resistance beyond hospitals. PMID:23478032

  20. A molecular study on the prevalence and virulence potential of Aeromonas spp. recovered from patients suffering from diarrhea in Israel.

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    Yigal Senderovich

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Species of the genus Aeromonas are native inhabitants of aquatic environments and have recently been considered emerging human pathogens. Although the gastrointestinal tract is by far the most common anatomic site from which aeromonads are recovered, their role as etiologic agents of bacterial diarrhea is still disputed. Aeromonas-associated diarrhea is a phenomenon occurring worldwide; however, the exact prevalence of Aeromonas infections on a global scale is unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The prevalence and virulence potential of Aeromonas in patients suffering from diarrhea in Israel was studied using molecular methods. 1,033 diarrheal stools were sampled between April and September 2010 and Aeromonas species were identified in 17 (∼2% patients by sequencing the rpoD gene. Aeromonas species identity and abundance was: A. caviae (65%, A. veronii (29% and Aeromonas taiwanensis (6%. This is the first clinical record of A. taiwanensis as a diarrheal causative since its recent discovery from a wound infection in a patient in Taiwan. Most of the patients (77% from which Aeromonas species were isolated were negative for any other pathogens. The patients ranged from 1 to 92 years in age. Aeromonas isolates were found to possess different virulence-associated genes: ahpB (88%, pla/lip/lipH3/apl-1 (71%, act/hlyA/aerA (35%, alt (18%, ast (6%, fla (65%, lafA (41%, TTSS ascV (12%, TTSS ascF-ascG (12%, TTSS-dependent ADP-ribosylating toxins aexU (41% and aexT (6% in various combinations. Most of the identified strains were resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics but susceptible to third-generation cephalosporin antibiotics. CONCLUSIONS: Aeromonas may be a causative agent of diarrhea in patients in Israel and therefore should be included in routine bacteriological screenings.

  1. Complete Sequences of IncU Plasmids Harboring Quinolone Resistance Genes qnrS2 and aac(6')-Ib-cr in Aeromonas spp. from Ornamental Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobiasova, Hana; Videnska, Petra; Dolejska, Monika

    2016-01-01

    The nucleotide sequences of three IncU plasmids from Aeromonas spp. isolated from ornamental fish are described. They had a typical IncU backbone for plasmid replication and maintenance functions, but conjugative transfer modules were disrupted. The gene qnrS2 was inserted into mpR as a mobile insertion cassette. Novel Tn3 family transposons carrying putative toxin-antitoxin and plasmid stability genes were identified. The study demonstrates high plasticity of IncU plasmids from aquatic environments. PMID:26525788

  2. Incidence of Aeromonas spp. infection in fish and chicken meat and its related public health hazards: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveen, Praveen Kumar; Debnath, Chanchal; Shekhar, Shashank; Dalai, Nirupama; Ganguly, Subha

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas is recognized to cause a variety of diseases in man. In humans, they are associated with intestinal and extra-intestinal infections. With the growing importance of Aeromonas as an emerging pathogen, it is important to combat this organism. It is indisputable that Aeromonas strains may produce many different putative virulence factors such as enterotoxins, hemolysins or cytotoxins, and antibiotic resistance against different antibiotics. The ability of these bacteria to grow competitively at 5°C may be indicative of their potential as a public health hazard. Comprehensive enteric disease surveillance strategies, prevention and education are essential for meeting the challenges in the years ahead. It is important for us to promote the value of enteric cultures when patients have a gastrointestinal illness or bloody diarrhea or when multiple cases of enteric disease occur after a common exposure. With the growing importance of Aeromonas as an emerging pathogen, it is important to combat this organism. It is indisputable that Aeromonas strains may produce many different putative virulence factors, such as enterotoxins, hemolysins or cytotoxins. It has been established that aerolysin is a virulence factor contributing to the pathogenesis of Aeromonas hydrophila infection. Fish and chicken play an important role in the transmission of this pathogen to humans. In the present study, the high prevalence of toxin-producing strains was found among the Aeromonas isolates. The ability of these bacteria to grow competitively at 5°C may be indicative of their potential as a public health hazard. The present review was constructed with a view to highlight the zoonotic importance of Aeromonas pathogen in fish and chicken meat. PMID:27051177

  3. Incidence of Aeromonas spp. infection in fish and chicken meat and its related public health hazards: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Kumar Praveen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas is recognized to cause a variety of diseases in man. In humans, they are associated with intestinal and extraintestinal infections. With the growing importance of Aeromonas as an emerging pathogen, it is important to combat this organism. It is indisputable that Aeromonas strains may produce many different putative virulence factors such as enterotoxins, hemolysins or cytotoxins, and antibiotic resistance against different antibiotics. The ability of these bacteria to grow competitively at 5°C may be indicative of their potential as a public health hazard. Comprehensive enteric disease surveillance strategies, prevention and education are essential for meeting the challenges in the years ahead. It is important for us to promote the value of enteric cultures when patients have a gastrointestinal illness or bloody diarrhea or when multiple cases of enteric disease occur after a common exposure. With the growing importance of Aeromonas as an emerging pathogen, it is important to combat this organism. It is indisputable that Aeromonas strains may produce many different putative virulence factors, such as enterotoxins, hemolysins or cytotoxins. It has been established that aerolysin is a virulence factor contributing to the pathogenesis of Aeromonas hydrophila infection. Fish and chicken play an important role in the transmission of this pathogen to humans. In the present study, the high prevalence of toxin-producing strains was found among the Aeromonas isolates. The ability of these bacteria to grow competitively at 5°C may be indicative of their potential as a public health hazard. The present review was constructed with a view to highlight the zoonotic importance of Aeromonas pathogen in fish and chicken meat.

  4. Aeromonas spp. e Plesiomonas shigelloides isoladas a partir de mexilhões (Perna perna in natura e pré-cozidos no Rio de Janeiro, RJ Aeromonas spp. and Plesiomonas shigelloides isolated from in natura and precooked mussels (Perna perna in Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Soares Pereira

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O ecossistema aquático é o habitat de mexilhões (Perna perna, animais filtradores que refletem a qualidade ambiental através de análise microbiológica de sua carne. No presente trabalho avaliou-se a presença de patógenos emergentes (Aeromonas hydrophila e Plesiomonas shigelloides, em mexilhões in natura e pré-cozidos coletados por pescadores da Estação Experimental de Cultivo de Mexilhões situada em Jurujuba, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro. Foram analisadas 86 amostras de mexilhões (43 in natura e 43 pré-cozidos as quais foram submetidas a enriquecimento em Água Peptonada Alcalina (APA acrescida de 1 e 3% de Cloreto de Sódio (NaCl e em solução Salina de Butterfield, incubadas a 37ºC por 24 horas. Em seguida, foram semeadas em Ágar Seletivo para Pseudomonas-Aeromonas (GSP, Ágar Tiossulfato Citrato Bile Sacarose (TCBS e Ágar Inositol Bile Verde Brilhante (IBB. A análise geral dos resultados permitiu a identificação de Areomonas spp e Plesiomonas shigelloides em 86% das amostras de mexilhões in natura e pré-cozidas avaliadas. A posterior caracterização bioquímica permitiu a identificação das espécies Aeromonas media (37,10%, A. hydrophila (15,50%, A. caviae (14,80%, A. veronii biogrupo veronii (11,60%, Aeromonas sp. (7,36%, A. sobria (4,20%, A. trota (4,20%, A. schubertii (1,31%, A. jandaei (1,31%, A. veronii biogrupo sobria (0,52% e Plesiomonas shigelloides (2,10%. A relevância epidemiológica desses microrganismos em casos de gastrenterite humana, após consumo de mexilhões crus ou parcialmente cozidos, revela a importância de alertar as autoridades de Saúde Pública no Brasil, sobre a presença desses patógenos na cadeia alimentar e seus riscos para a saúde humana.The aquatic ecosystem is the habitat of mussels, filtrating animals that reflect the ambient quality through microbiological analysis. In the present investigation, we evaluated the presence of emergent pathogens (Aeromonas hydrophila and Plesiomonas

  5. Comparison of chromogenic Biolog Rainbow agar Shigella/Aeromonas with xylose lysine desoxycholate agar for isolation and detection of Shigella spp. from foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guodong; Lampel, Keith A

    2010-08-01

    Shigella outbreaks are widely reported throughout the world. However, it remains a challenge to isolate Shigella spp. from foods by using conventional microbiological media. The main objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a novel chromogenic medium, Rainbow agar Shigella/Aeromonas (Rainbow agar), for the isolation and detection of Shigella spp. in foods. All four Shigella species, S. sonnei, S. flexneri, S. dysenteriae, and S. boydii, were studied. Rainbow agar was compared with tryptic soy agar, xylose lysine desoxycholate agar (XLD), and Salmonella Shigella agar (SSA) for enumeration of Shigella spp. in pure culture. This chromogenic agar and XLD were also used to isolate Shigella spp. in artificially contaminated foods (4.8 log CFU/g of food), including lettuce, parsley, cilantro, spinach, potato salad, and shrimp. The inhibitory effect on Shigella growth by Rainbow agar was between that of XLD and SSA. All vegetables studied showed a moderately high background microflora on XLD and Rainbow agar. With artificially inoculated produce, Rainbow agar recovered about 1 to 2 log CFU more S. sonnei, S. dysenteriae, and S. boydii per g of food than did XLD. For potato salad and shrimp, which had low background microflora on Rainbow agar, Rainbow agar was slightly better in recovering Shigella spp. than XLD was in most cases. However, we found that the addition of streptomycin (6.25 mg/liter) to Rainbow agar could facilitate the isolation of Shigella in vegetables tested. In conclusion, Rainbow agar was a much more effective medium than was XLD for the isolation of Shigella spp. from foods. PMID:20819355

  6. Novo meio seletivo-indicador para detecção de Aeromonas e Plesiomonas: ágar UNISC New selective indicator medium for detection of Aeromonas and Plesiomonas: UNISC agar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Pereira da Rocha

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se um novo meio seletivo-indicador (ágar UNISC para o isolamento de enteropatógenos clássicos e Aeromonas e Plesiomonas shigelloides. A capacidade de fermentação da xilose é indicada pela coloração amarela (fermentadores ou azul (não fermentadores que, aliada à prova da oxidase, constitui-se em indicador para a detecção de Aeromonas spp e Plesiomonas shigelloides. A produtividade e seletividade, avaliadas pelos índice de contagem absoluta e índice de contagem relativa indicam-no como uma alternativa aos coprocultivos clássicos porque permite, num só meio, o isolamento de Escherichia coli, Shigella spp, Salmonella spp, bem como, Aeromonas spp e Plesiomonas shigelloides, favorecendo o diagnóstico laboratorial das gastroenterites.We evaluated a new selective indicator medium (UNISC Agar for isolation of classical enteropathogens, Aeromonas spp and Plesiomonas shigelloides. The xylose fermentation capacity is indicated by a yellow color (fermenting agents or blue (no fermenting agent. This, together with the oxidase test, establishes it as an indicator for detecting Aeromonas and Plesiomonas shigelloides. Its productivity and selectivity, as assessed using the absolute count index and relative count index, indicate it as an alternative to the classical feces culturing media. This is because, in a single medium, it enables isolation of Escherichia coli, Shigella spp and Salmonella spp, in addition to Aeromonas and Plesiomonas shigelloides, thereby favoring the laboratory diagnosis of gastroenteritis.

  7. Isolation of Aeromonas hydrophila from a metropolitan water supply: seasonal correlation with clinical isolates.

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, V.; J. Robinson; Gracey, M; Peterson, D.; Partridge, K

    1984-01-01

    The occurrence of Aeromonas spp. in the metropolitan water supply of Perth, Western Australia, Australia, was monitored at several sampling points during a period of 1 year. Water within the distribution system conformed to international standards for drinking water but contained Aeromonas spp. in numbers comparable to those in raw surface water, although this water was free of Escherichia coli. Coliforms and E. coli were found in raw surface waters, and Aeromonas spp. were found in raw water...

  8. Study on Outer Membrane Protein (OMP) Profile of Aeromonas Strains using SDS- PAGE

    OpenAIRE

    N Sachan; Agarwal, R.K.; Singh, V. P.

    2012-01-01

    Mesophilic aeromonads are being increasingly reported pathogen of humans and lower vertebrates. Water and foods are considered to be the chief source of Aeromonas spp. At present there are several techniques available for the detection of Aeromonas spp. from water and foods. However, there is still need to develop immunodiagnostics for rapid detection of Aeromonas spp. irrespective of their species or serotype. To meet out this requirement present study was undertaken to identify the common p...

  9. Study on Outer Membrane Protein (OMP Profile of Aeromonas Strains using SDS- PAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Sachan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Mesophilic aeromonads are being increasingly reported pathogen of humans and lower vertebrates. Water and foods are considered to be the chief source of Aeromonas spp. At present there are several techniques available for the detection of Aeromonas spp. from water and foods. However, there is still need to develop immunodiagnostics for rapid detection of Aeromonas spp. irrespective of their species or serotype. To meet out this requirement present study was undertaken to identify the common protein moiety in their OMPs by SDS-PAGE so, that immunoassays can be developed for efficient and rapid detection of Aeromonas spp. from foods. [Vet. World 2012; 5(3.000: 173-177

  10. EVALUATING VIRULENCE OF WATERBORNE AND CLINCIAL AEROMONAS ISOLATES USING GENE EXPRESSION AND MORTALITY IN NEONATAL MICE FOLLOWED BY ASSESSING CELL CULTURE'S ABILITY TO PREDICT VIRULENCE BASED ON TRANSCRIPTIONAL RESPONSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The virulence of multiple Aeromonas spp. were assessed using two models, a neonatal mouse assay and a mouse intestinal cell culture. Transcriptional responses to both infection models were assessed using microarrays. After artificial infection with a variety of Aeromonas spp., ...

  11. OVERVIEW: DISINFECTION OF HELICOBACTER PYLORI AND AEROMONAS SPECIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helicobacter pylori and Aeromonas hydrophila are contaminants listed on the USEPA's 1998 Contaminant Candidate List (CCL).The sensitivity of H. pylori to chlorine and of Aeromonas spp. to inactivation by free chlorine, chloramine and ultraviolet (UV) was examined. Selective and...

  12. Aeromonas distribution and survival in a thermally altered lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Par Pond is a thermally enriched monomictic southeastern lake which receives heated effluent from a production nuclear reactor. Fish populations in the lake have lesions of epizooty from which Aeromonas spp. are readily isolated. Distribution and population densities of Aeromonas in the water column were measured along an oxygen and temperature gradient as well as seasonally. Greater population densities of Aeromonas occurred below the oxygen chemocline when the lake was stratified. Survival of Aeromonas hydrophila under in situ conditions in both epilimnetic and hypolimnetic waters was determined through the use of polycarbonate membrane diffusion chambers during two separate reactor operating conditions. Survival levels of pure cultures of A. hydrophila corresponded to the distribution patterns of the naturally occurring Aeromonas-like populations. The greater survival of A. hydrophila during full reactor operation suggests that the fish populations may be exposed to Aeromonas for a longer period of time than when the reactor is not operating

  13. A prospective study on Aeromonas in outpatients with diarrhea in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karoline de Campos Prediger

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas spp. were identified in five (2,7% of 182 diarrheal stool cultures, A. caviae was predominant, resistant mainly to ampicillin and cephalotin. This is the first study showing the presence of Aeromonas spp. in diarrheal stools of outpatients in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil.

  14. Effectiveness of radiation processing in elimination of Aeromonas from food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagar, Vandan; Bandekar, Jayant R.

    2011-08-01

    Genus Aeromonas has emerged as an important human pathogen because it causes a variety of diseases including gastroenteritis and extra-intestinal infections. Contaminated water, sprouts, vegetables, seafood and food of animal origin have been considered to be the important sources of Aeromonas infection. In the present study, radiation sensitivity of indigenous strains of Aeromonas spp. from different food samples was evaluated. The decimal reduction dose (D10) values of different Aeromonas isolates in saline at 0-4 °C were in the range of 0.031-0.046 kGy. The mixed sprouts, chicken and fish samples were inoculated with a cocktail of five most resistant isolates (A. salmonicida Y567, A. caviae A85, A. jandaei A514A, A. hydrophila CECT 839T and A. veronii Y47) and exposed to γ radiation to study the effectiveness of radiation treatment in elimination of Aeromonas. D10 values of Aeromonas cocktail in mixed sprouts, chicken and fish samples were found to be 0.081±0.001, 0.089±0.003 and 0.091±0.003 kGy, respectively. Radiation treatment with a 1.5 kGy dose resulted in complete elimination of 105 CFU/g of Aeromonas spp. from mixed sprouts, chicken and fish samples. No recovery of Aeromonas was observed in the 1.5 kGy treated samples stored at 4 °C up to 12 (mixed sprouts) and 7 days (chicken and fish samples), even after enrichment and selective plating. This study demonstrates that a 1.5 kGy dose of irradiation treatment could result in complete elimination of 105 CFU/g of Aeromonas spp. from mixed sprouts, chicken and fish samples.

  15. Effectiveness of radiation processing in elimination of Aeromonas from food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genus Aeromonas has emerged as an important human pathogen because it causes a variety of diseases including gastroenteritis and extra-intestinal infections. Contaminated water, sprouts, vegetables, seafood and food of animal origin have been considered to be the important sources of Aeromonas infection. In the present study, radiation sensitivity of indigenous strains of Aeromonas spp. from different food samples was evaluated. The decimal reduction dose (D10) values of different Aeromonas isolates in saline at 0-4 oC were in the range of 0.031-0.046 kGy. The mixed sprouts, chicken and fish samples were inoculated with a cocktail of five most resistant isolates (A. salmonicida Y567, A. caviae A85, A. jandaei A514A, A. hydrophila CECT 839T and A. veronii Y47) and exposed to γ radiation to study the effectiveness of radiation treatment in elimination of Aeromonas. D10 values of Aeromonas cocktail in mixed sprouts, chicken and fish samples were found to be 0.081±0.001, 0.089±0.003 and 0.091±0.003 kGy, respectively. Radiation treatment with a 1.5 kGy dose resulted in complete elimination of 105 CFU/g of Aeromonas spp. from mixed sprouts, chicken and fish samples. No recovery of Aeromonas was observed in the 1.5 kGy treated samples stored at 4 oC up to 12 (mixed sprouts) and 7 days (chicken and fish samples), even after enrichment and selective plating. This study demonstrates that a 1.5 kGy dose of irradiation treatment could result in complete elimination of 105 CFU/g of Aeromonas spp. from mixed sprouts, chicken and fish samples.

  16. Effectiveness of radiation processing in elimination of Aeromonas from food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagar, Vandan [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Bandekar, Jayant R., E-mail: jrb@barc.gov.i [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2011-08-15

    Genus Aeromonas has emerged as an important human pathogen because it causes a variety of diseases including gastroenteritis and extra-intestinal infections. Contaminated water, sprouts, vegetables, seafood and food of animal origin have been considered to be the important sources of Aeromonas infection. In the present study, radiation sensitivity of indigenous strains of Aeromonas spp. from different food samples was evaluated. The decimal reduction dose (D{sub 10}) values of different Aeromonas isolates in saline at 0-4 {sup o}C were in the range of 0.031-0.046 kGy. The mixed sprouts, chicken and fish samples were inoculated with a cocktail of five most resistant isolates (A. salmonicida Y567, A. caviae A85, A. jandaei A514A, A. hydrophila CECT 839{sup T} and A. veronii Y47) and exposed to {gamma} radiation to study the effectiveness of radiation treatment in elimination of Aeromonas. D{sub 10} values of Aeromonas cocktail in mixed sprouts, chicken and fish samples were found to be 0.081{+-}0.001, 0.089{+-}0.003 and 0.091{+-}0.003 kGy, respectively. Radiation treatment with a 1.5 kGy dose resulted in complete elimination of 10{sup 5} CFU/g of Aeromonas spp. from mixed sprouts, chicken and fish samples. No recovery of Aeromonas was observed in the 1.5 kGy treated samples stored at 4 {sup o}C up to 12 (mixed sprouts) and 7 days (chicken and fish samples), even after enrichment and selective plating. This study demonstrates that a 1.5 kGy dose of irradiation treatment could result in complete elimination of 10{sup 5} CFU/g of Aeromonas spp. from mixed sprouts, chicken and fish samples.

  17. El alga Sargassum spp. como alternativa para reducir el contenido de colesterol en el huevo

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Carrillo; Bahena, A.; M. Casas; Carranco, M.E.; C.C. Calvo; E. Ávila; F. Pérez-Gil

    2012-01-01

    Para determinar el efecto que tiene en el contenido de colesterol del huevo la adición del alga marina (AM) Sargassum spp. en la dieta de gallinas ponedoras, se utilizaron 225 gallinas Leghorn, de 19 semanas de edad, distribuidas al azar en cinco tratamientos (0, 2, 4, 6 y 8 % del alga marina). El experimento tuvo una duración de cinco semanas, durante las que se registraron las variables productivas. La calidad física se evaluó en 75 huevos por tratamiento. Se tomaron 35 piezas de cada trata...

  18. Use of Aeromonas as a process indicator during swine carcass dressing and cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Samuel A.; Yu, Linda S. L.

    1999-01-01

    Using starch ampicillin agar, qualitative and quantitative determinations of Aeromonas spp. were made at several sites during swine carcass dressing and cutting. Aeromonas spp. were observed at all sites surveyed. Levels increased during shackling and passage through the first and middle polisher/washers, and significantly decreased during the singeing steps. Passage through the final polisher/washer caused a small increase in levels in Aeromonas spp. and these levels then remained constant during the rest of the carcass dressing operation. Aeromonas spp. were also isolated from the room where the carcasses were cut into wholesale cuts and cuts for further processing. Presumptive Aeromonas spp. cultures isolated from the different sites were confirmed as belonging to the genus Aeromonas and then speciated using the biochemical scheme of Joseph and Carnahan; 81% of the cultures were identified at A. hydrophila. Since most isolates were A. hydrophila, determination of the origin of isolates from different sites in the processing plant must await utilizing molecular biotyping techniques on the cultures. These results indicate the Aeromonas spp. occurs extensively in the swine dressing environment and thus represents a possible public health hazard and potential spoilage concern. Changes in cleaning and sanitizing of equipment may be necessary during swine carcass dressing and cutting to guard against this pathogen.

  19. Aeromonas hydrophila urinary tract infection in pregnancy- Case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latha Ragunathan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A case of a pregnant woman without previous or concomitant disease, who developed an Aeromonas hydrophila urinarytract infection (UTI at 12 weeks gestation, is reported. A brief review of the literature on the association and incidenceof Aeromonas spp in urinary infections and also in association with pregnancy is presented. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2012;2(1: 26-28

  20. Effect of copper sulfate on Aeromonas hydrophila infection in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fingerlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motile Aeromonad Septicemia (MAS) results from primary or secondary infection with bacteria from Gram(-) Aeromonas spp., including Aeromonas hydrophila. Since 2009, an emerging strain of A. hydrophila has been associated, as a primary pathogen, with significant morbidity and mortality in the U.S. c...

  1. Peperomia pellucida leaf extract as immunostimulator in controlling motile aeromonad septicemia due to Aeromonas hydrophila in red hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis spp. farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. W.; Sim, K. Y.; Wendy, W.; Zulhisyam, A. K.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study was revealed the potential of Peperomia pellucida leaf extract as an immunostimulator agent in controlling motile aeromonad septicemia due to Aeromonas hydrophila in red hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis sp. Materials and Methods: In the present study, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of P. pellucida leaf extract against A. hydrophila was determined through two-fold microbroth dilution method. The plant extract was screening for its active compound using a gas chromatograph mass spectrometer, and the effectiveness of P. pellucida leaf extract as an immunostimulator agent was evaluated. The experimental fish were fed with medicated feed at three different concentrations (25 mg/kg, PP-25; 50 mg/kg, PP-50; and 100 mg/kg, PP-100) of P. pellucida leaf extract for 1 week before they were intraperitoneally exposed to A. hydrophila. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was carried out to determine the value of antibody response to A. hydrophila in fish from a group of fish that received medicated feed, and the percentage of total cumulative mortality of the experimental fish were observed at the end of the experiment. Results: The results showed that the major bioactive compound is phytol (40%), and the MIC value was 31.5 mg/L. The value of antibody response to A. hydrophila in fish from a group of fish which received medicated feed (PP-25, 0.128±0.014 optical density [OD]; PP-50, 0.132±0.003 OD; and PP-100, 0.171±0.02 OD) was found significantly higher (p<0.05) compared to fish did not receive medicated feed (0.00 OD). Whereas, percentage cumulative mortality of fish from all groups of fish received medicated feed (PP-25, 18.0±3.2%; PP-50, 18.2±2.8%; and PP-100, 17.7±1.8%) were found significantly lower (p<0.05) compared to a group of fish did not receive medicated feed (83.2±1.4%). Conclusion: The findings of the present study indicated the huge potential of P. pellucida leaf extract as natural immunostimulator agent for aquaculture uses. PMID

  2. Peperomia pellucida leaf extract as immunostimulator in controlling motile aeromonad septicemia due to Aeromonas hydrophila in red hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis spp. farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. W. Lee

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was revealed the potential of Peperomia pellucida leaf extract as an immunostimulator agent in controlling motile aeromonad septicemia due to Aeromonas hydrophila in red hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis sp. Materials and Methods: In the present study, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of P. pellucida leaf extract against A. hydrophila was determined through two-fold microbroth dilution method. The plant extract was screening for its active compound using a gas chromatograph mass spectrometer, and the effectiveness of P. pellucida leaf extract as an immunostimulator agent was evaluated. The experimental fish were fed with medicated feed at three different concentrations (25 mg/kg, PP-25; 50 mg/kg, PP-50; and 100 mg/kg, PP-100 of P. pellucida leaf extract for 1 week before they were intraperitoneally exposed to A. hydrophila. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was carried out to determine the value of antibody response to A. hydrophila in fish from a group of fish that received medicated feed, and the percentage of total cumulative mortality of the experimental fish were observed at the end of the experiment. Results: The results showed that the major bioactive compound is phytol (40%, and the MIC value was 31.5 mg/L. The value of antibody response to A. hydrophila in fish from a group of fish which received medicated feed (PP-25, 0.128±0.014 optical density [OD]; PP-50, 0.132±0.003 OD; and PP-100, 0.171±0.02 OD was found significantly higher (p<0.05 compared to fish did not receive medicated feed (0.00 OD. Whereas, percentage cumulative mortality of fish from all groups of fish received medicated feed (PP-25, 18.0±3.2%; PP-50, 18.2±2.8%; and PP-100, 17.7±1.8% were found significantly lower (p<0.05 compared to a group of fish did not receive medicated feed (83.2±1.4%. Conclusion: The findings of the present study indicated the huge potential of P. pellucida leaf extract as natural immunostimulator agent for aquaculture uses.

  3. The Occurrence of Aeromonas in Drinking Water, Tap Water and the Porsuk River

    OpenAIRE

    Merih Kivanc; Meral Yilmaz; Filiz Demir

    2011-01-01

    The occurrence of Aeromonas spp. in the Porsuk River, public drinking water and tap water in the City of Eskisehir (Turkey) was monitored. Fresh water samples were collected from several sampling sites during a period of one year. Total 102 typical colonies of Aeromonas spp. were submitted to biochemical tests for species differentiation and of 60 isolates were confirmed by biochemical tests. Further identifications of isolates were carried out first with the VITEK system (BioMe˜rieux) and th...

  4. The occurrence of enteric pathogens and Aeromonas species in organic vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, M A; Wilson, I G

    2001-10-22

    A range of commercially available organic vegetables (n = 86) was examined for the presence of Salmonella, Campylobacter, Escherichia coli, E. coli O 157. Listeria and Aeromonas spp., to provide information on the occurrence of such organisms in organic vegetables in Northern Ireland. The study was not designed to quantify such organisms or to compare occurrence with conventionally farmed vegetables. Standard enrichment techniques were used to isolate and identify enteric pathogens and Aeromonas species. No Salmonella, Campylobacter, E. coli. E. coli O 157, Listeria were found in any of the samples examined. Aeromonas species were isolated from 34% of the total number of organic vegetables examined. Many (64%) of the organic vegetables examined were "ready-to-eat" after minimal processing, i.e., washing. Aeromonas spp. was isolated from 41% of these vegetables. Aeromonas spp. was not recovered from certain vegetable types. The most commonly isolated species of Aeromonas was Aeromonas schubertii with 21.0% of all samples contaminated with this species; 5.8% of samples contained A. hydrophila, 5.8% A. trota, 3.5% A. caviae and 2.3% contained A. veronii biovar veronii. Although Aeromonas species are frequently detected in organic vegetables, the absence of accepted enteric pathogens was encouraging, and does not support the allegation of organic foods being of high risk due to the farming methods used. PMID:11759753

  5. Bactérias do gênero Aeromonas em abatedouro de frangos

    OpenAIRE

    Costa F.N.; Rossi Júnior O.D.

    2002-01-01

    Analisaram-se 200 amostras de diferentes produtos e locais do fluxograma de abate de frangos com o objetivo de identificar os pontos de contaminação da carne de frango por Aeromonas. Das 25 amostras analisadas para cada um dos oito pontos estudados foram isoladas Aeromonas spp. em nove (36%) amostras de penas, em 14 (56%) de fezes, em 18 (72%) de carcaças não evisceradas, evisceradas e resfriadas e em 20 (80%) de água do pré-resfriamento. Não foram isoladas Aeromonas spp. da água de abastecim...

  6. Estudio anatomopatológico de aislados de Leptospira spp., provenientes de Nicaragua en Mesocricetus auratus como biomodelo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willian Jirón T.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. El objetivo de este trabajo fue caracterizar en el biomodelo Mesocricetus auratus la sintomatología y lesiones anatomopatológicas que provocan 5 aislados clínicos de Leptospira spp., provenientes de Nicaragua. Materiales y métodos. Con este fin se inocularon 50 hámster por vía i.p con 1mL del cultivo de cada una de las cepas en fase exponencial teniendo una concentración celular de 7.5 x 106 leptospira/mL (10 animales por cepa, evaluándose signos de la enfermedad, mortalidad durante 14 días, lesiones anatomopatológicas macroscópicas y microscópicas mediante tinción con hematoxilina-eosina y tinción de Warthyn Starryn. Resultados. Todas las cepas presentaron alta mortalidad, mostrando un cuadro tanto clínico, como lesional característico de la infección experimental. Además, causaron la muerte al 100% de los animales entre el tercer y décimo día postinfección. En el estudio anatomopatológico la cepa del serogrupo Ballum y la del serogrupo Pomona produjeron focos de hemorragias específicamente en el riñón y pulmones. De forma similar ocurrió una congestión hepática y renal, mientras que la hemorragia renal fue observada con mayor frecuencia en la cepa del serogrupo Pomona, diferenciándose del resto de las cepas que mostraron esta lesión con menos frecuencia. Conclusiones. Este trabajo permitió una mayor caracterización de estas cepas siendo utilizadas como futuras candidatas vacunales frente a una nueva epidemia de Leptospirosis en Nicaragua.

  7. Pan-genome analysis of Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas veronii and Aeromonas caviae indicates phylogenomic diversity and greater pathogenic potential for Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghatak, Sandeep; Blom, Jochen; Das, Samir; Sanjukta, Rajkumari; Puro, Kekungu; Mawlong, Michael; Shakuntala, Ingudam; Sen, Arnab; Goesmann, Alexander; Kumar, Ashok; Ngachan, S V

    2016-07-01

    Aeromonas species are important pathogens of fishes and aquatic animals capable of infecting humans and other animals via food. Due to the paucity of pan-genomic studies on aeromonads, the present study was undertaken to analyse the pan-genome of three clinically important Aeromonas species (A. hydrophila, A. veronii, A. caviae). Results of pan-genome analysis revealed an open pan-genome for all three species with pan-genome sizes of 9181, 7214 and 6884 genes for A. hydrophila, A. veronii and A. caviae, respectively. Core-genome: pan-genome ratio (RCP) indicated greater genomic diversity for A. hydrophila and interestingly RCP emerged as an effective indicator to gauge genomic diversity which could possibly be extended to other organisms too. Phylogenomic network analysis highlighted the influence of homologous recombination and lateral gene transfer in the evolution of Aeromonas spp. Prediction of virulence factors indicated no significant difference among the three species though analysis of pathogenic potential and acquired antimicrobial resistance genes revealed greater hazards from A. hydrophila. In conclusion, the present study highlighted the usefulness of whole genome analyses to infer evolutionary cues for Aeromonas species which indicated considerable phylogenomic diversity for A. hydrophila and hitherto unknown genomic evidence for pathogenic potential of A. hydrophila compared to A. veronii and A. caviae. PMID:27075453

  8. Genotypic and phenotypic identification of Aeromonas species and CphA-mediated carbapenem resistance in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Holly A; Heney, Claire; Sidjabat, Hanna E; George, Narelle M; Bergh, Haakon; Anuj, Snehal N; Nimmo, Graeme R; Paterson, David L

    2016-05-01

    Infection caused by Aeromonas spp. ranges from superficial wound infection to life-threatening septicemia. Carbapenem resistance due to metallo-beta-lactamase, CphA encoded by the cphA gene, is a significant problem. This study defines Aeromonas spp. causing clinical disease in Queensland, Australia. Phenotypic tests for carbapenemase detection were assessed. One hundred Aeromonas isolates from blood (22), wound (46), sterile sites (11), stool (18), eye (2), and sputum (1) were characterized by rpoB and gyrB sequencing. Meropenem susceptibility by VITEK2, disk diffusion, and E-test MIC were determined. Carbapenemase production was assessed by Carba NP test and cphA by PCR. Gene sequencing identified isolates as Aeromonas dhakensis (39), Aeromonas veronii (21), Aeromonas hydrophila (20), Aeromonas caviae (14), Aeromonas jandaei (4), Aeromonas bestiarum (1), and Aeromonas sanarellii (1). Disk diffusion and E-test failed to detect resistance in isolates with presence of cphA. Carba NP was performed with 97.4% sensitivity and 95.7% specificity. Carbapenem resistance gene cphA was detected in A. veronii (21; 100%), A. hydrophila (18; 90%), A. dhakensis (34; 87.2%), A. jandaei (3; 75%), and A. bestiarum (1; 100%) but not A. caviae. We found that A. dhakensis was the predominant species, a previously unrecognized pathogen in this region. PMID:26971634

  9. Caracterización toxicológica de las macroalgas marinas Hypnea spp y Sargasun spp para la futura utilización en la alimentación y la salud animal como humana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Barrios González

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available El estudio y la investigación creciente en la industria alimenticia, farmacológica así como en la cosmeticología ha provocado que se analicen variantes novedosas como las macroalgas marinas. La moderna agricultura como ciencia, además del cultivo y explotación racional de los peces, crustáceos y moluscos, contempla una importante área de investigación y desarrollo como lo son las macroalgas marinas. Las algas constituyen el primer eslabón de la cadena trófica que más eficientemente aprovecha la energía radiante, la transforma y almacena en forma de energía molecular y la pone a disposición de los otros niveles tróficos de los ecosistemas marinos. En países desarrollados se han efectuado intentos de la utilización de macroalgas marinas para la alimentación suplementaria animal aunque en la actualidad no existen investigaciones publicadas sobre dicha práctica en países subtropicales y tropicales como Cuba, país de grandes extensiones costeras, con una flora rica, variada, exuberante y típicamente caribeña, no se ha explotado suficientemente este importante recurso natural, Barrios (2002. Los estudios Toxicológico realizados por el Centro Nacional de Sanidad Agropecuaria de Cuba CENSA y el Grupo de Investigaciones Novedosas y de Impacto (GINI de la Universidad de Matanzas Camilo Cienfuegos realizados a las macroalgas marinas dargassum spp e Hypnea Spp, demostraron la inocuidad de las mismas por lo que se considera desde el punto de vista toxicológico un candidato seguro y fiable para la Industria alimenticia, la cosmeticología y la farmacología ya sea animal como humana.

  10. Chironomids' Relationship with Aeromonas Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laviad, Sivan; Halpern, Malka

    2016-01-01

    Chironomids (Diptera: Chironomidae), also known as non-biting midges, are one of the most abundant groups of insects in aquatic habitats. They undergo a complete metamorphosis of four life stages of which three are aquatic (egg, larva, and pupa), and the adult emerges into the air. Chironomids serve as a natural reservoir of Aeromonas and Vibrio cholerae species. Here, we review existing knowledge about the mutual relations between Aeromonas species and chironomids. Using 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, we found that the prevalence of Aeromonas species in the insects' egg masses and larvae was 1.6 and 3.3% of the insects' endogenous microbiota, respectively. Aeromonas abundance per egg mass remained stable during a 6-month period of bacterial monitoring. Different Aeromonas species were isolated and some demonstrated the ability to degrade the insect's egg masses and to prevent eggs hatching. Chitinase was identified as the enzyme responsible for the egg mass degradation. Different Aeromonas species isolated from chironomids demonstrated the potential to protect their host from toxic metals. Aeromonas is a causative agent of fish infections. Fish are frequently recorded as feeding on chironomids. Thus, fish might be infected with Aeromonas species via chironomid consumption. Aeromonas strains are also responsible for causing gastroenteritis and wound infections in humans. Different virulence genes were identified in Aeromonas species isolated from chironomids. Chironomids may infest drinking water reservoirs, hence be the source of pathogenic Aeromonas strains in drinking water. Chironomids and Aeromonas species have a complicated mutual relationship. PMID:27242751

  11. Aeromonas spp.: An Emerging Nosocomial Pathogen

    OpenAIRE

    Priyam Batra; Purva Mathur; Misra, Mahesh C

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonads are hallophillic, nonacid fast, nonspore forming, Gram-negative rods which are widely distributed in the soil, foodstuffs, and aquatic environment. Since times immemorial, they are important zoonotic pathogens of poikilotherms but are now emerging as important human pathogens. These emerging enteric pathogens flourish in the water distribution system by forming biofilms. They possess large number of virulence factors including inherent resistance to various antibiotics and ability ...

  12. Bioprospecção de isolados de Bacillus spp. como potenciais promotores de crescimento de Eucalyptus urograndis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ligia de Lima Moreira

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar características bioquímicas de interesse agronômico e correlação com a promoção de crescimento de plantas em isolados de Bacillus sp. originários da rizosfera de eucalipto. O trabalho foi conduzido em laboratório e casa de vegetação. A partir do isolamento de bactérias da rizosfera de plantas, oriundas de diferentes municípios da região oeste paulista, conseguiu-se 127 isolados de Bacillus spp. Foram realizados testes bioquímicos para caracterização dos isolados bacterianos quanto ao antagonismo a fungos fitopatogênicos, produção de auxinas, produção de amônia e atividade enzimática. Na etapa final foi avaliado o potencial dos isolados, caracterizados previamente em condições de laboratório, para promoção de crescimento de plantas, utilizando-se a inoculação das bactérias em mudas de eucalipto e cultivo das plantas em casa de vegetação durante 90 dias. Avaliou-se variáveis de crescimento do eucalipto objetivando-se selecionar os melhores isolados e também correlacionar as diferentes variáveis analisadas no trabalho. O protocolo de bioprospecção de Bacillus sp. na rizosfera foi válido para se encontrar rizobactérias promissoras no aumento do crescimento do eucalipto. Foram selecionados cinco isolados como promissores para ação no crescimento de eucalipto. O potencial antagônico a fungos fitopatogênicos e produção de amônia apresentados pelos isolados de rizobactérias foi útil na fase inicial de seleção de rizobactérias promotoras do crescimento de eucalipto, pois apresentou correlação significativa com o crescimento das plantas.

  13. Alphitobius diaperinus spp como veiculador de Clostridium perfringens em granjas avícolas do interior paulista - Brasil Alphitobius diaperinus spp as a vector of Clostridium perfringens in broiler houses in the state of São Paulo - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Vittori

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O besouro Alphitobius diaperinus spp (cascudinho é visto como uma importante praga da avicultura mundial. Por suas características comportamentais e hábitos biológicos que dificultam seu controle, é considerado um vetor de agentes patogênicos. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi investigar o cascudinho como possível vetor de Clostridium perfringens em granjas avícolas industriais, localizadas em diferentes regiões do interior Paulista. Através de métodos bacteriológicos convencionais, em 40 amostras analisadas, foram encontradas contagens significativas de Clostridium perfringens em todas elas. A partir dos resultados obtidos, pôde-se demonstrar o potencial deste inseto como vetor do agente responsável pela enterite necrótica.The Alphitobius diaperinus spp (lesser mealworm is considered an important world poultry plague. Due to its behavior characteristics and biological habits that make its control difficult it is considered a vector of pathogenic agents. The objective of this research was to investigate the little mealworm as possible vector of Clostridium perfringens in broiler houses, located in different parts of the state of São Paulo. Through conventional bacteriological methods, 40 samples of little mealworm collected were analyzed. Clostridium perfringens was found in all of the samples and the potential of this insect as vector of the necrotic enteritis was demonstrated.

  14. Determination of Microbial Diversity of Aeromonas Strains on the Basis of Multilocus Sequence Typing, Phenotype, and Presence of Putative Virulence Genes ▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Martino, Maria Elena; Fasolato, Luca; Montemurro, Filomena; Rosteghin, Marina; Manfrin, Amedeo; Patarnello, Tomaso; Novelli, Enrico; Cardazzo, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    The genus Aeromonas has been described as comprising several species associated with the aquatic environment, which represents their principal reservoir. Aeromonas spp. are commonly isolated from diseased and healthy fish, but the involvement of such bacteria in human infection and gastroenteritis has frequently been reported. The primary challenge in establishing an unequivocal link between the Aeromonas genus and pathogenesis in humans is the extremely complicated taxonomy. With the aim of ...

  15. CHLORINE DISINFECTION OF AEROMONAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The bacterial genus Aeromonas is currently listed on the USEPA's Candidate Contaminant List (CCL). Resistance to chemical disinfection is an essential aspect regarding all microbial groups listed on the CCL. This study was designed to determine the inactivation kinetics of Aeromo...

  16. Aeromonas hydrophila surveillance 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2009, a virulent strain of Aeromonas hydrophila was associated with severly acute to chronic mortality in catfish ponds in Alabama. This strain of A. hydrophila had not been previously identified in AL catfish. The objectives of this presentation are to 1) present a summary of the biology of Aero...

  17. Chironomids’ Relationship with Aeromonas Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laviad, Sivan; Halpern, Malka

    2016-01-01

    Chironomids (Diptera: Chironomidae), also known as non-biting midges, are one of the most abundant groups of insects in aquatic habitats. They undergo a complete metamorphosis of four life stages of which three are aquatic (egg, larva, and pupa), and the adult emerges into the air. Chironomids serve as a natural reservoir of Aeromonas and Vibrio cholerae species. Here, we review existing knowledge about the mutual relations between Aeromonas species and chironomids. Using 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, we found that the prevalence of Aeromonas species in the insects’ egg masses and larvae was 1.6 and 3.3% of the insects’ endogenous microbiota, respectively. Aeromonas abundance per egg mass remained stable during a 6-month period of bacterial monitoring. Different Aeromonas species were isolated and some demonstrated the ability to degrade the insect’s egg masses and to prevent eggs hatching. Chitinase was identified as the enzyme responsible for the egg mass degradation. Different Aeromonas species isolated from chironomids demonstrated the potential to protect their host from toxic metals. Aeromonas is a causative agent of fish infections. Fish are frequently recorded as feeding on chironomids. Thus, fish might be infected with Aeromonas species via chironomid consumption. Aeromonas strains are also responsible for causing gastroenteritis and wound infections in humans. Different virulence genes were identified in Aeromonas species isolated from chironomids. Chironomids may infest drinking water reservoirs, hence be the source of pathogenic Aeromonas strains in drinking water. Chironomids and Aeromonas species have a complicated mutual relationship. PMID:27242751

  18. Estudio anatomopatológico de aislados de Leptospira spp., provenientes de Nicaragua en Mesocricetus auratus como biomodelo

    OpenAIRE

    Willian Jirón T.; Niurka Batista S.; Daniel Arencibia A.; Luis Rosario F.; Juan Infante B.

    2015-01-01

    RESUMENObjetivo. El objetivo de este trabajo fue caracterizar en el biomodelo Mesocricetus auratus la sintomatología y lesiones anatomopatológicas que provocan 5 aislados clínicos de Leptospira spp., provenientes de Nicaragua. Materiales y métodos. Con este fin se inocularon 50 hámster por vía i.p con 1mL del cultivo de cada una de las cepas en fase exponencial teniendo una concentración celular de 7.5 x 106 leptospira/mL (10 animales por cepa), evaluándose signos de la enfermedad, mortalidad...

  19. Desarrollo de una PCR múltiple para la identificación de Staphylococcus spp. como causa de mastitis caprina

    OpenAIRE

    RA Ruiz-Romero; RA Cervantes-Olivares; D. Martínez-Gómez; AE Ducoing-Watty; L Hernández-Andrade

    2013-01-01

    La mastitis se refiere a la inflamación de la glándula mamaria, a pesar de las pérdidas económicas que produce en cabras lecheras, existe poca información acerca de la situación epidemiológica de la enfermedad en México. El objetivo de este estudio fue desarrollar una reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR) múltiple para el diagnóstico de Staphylococcus spp como agente involucrado en mastitis caprina. Se colectaron muestras de leche de cabras clínicamente sanas en sistemas de producción int...

  20. The main Aeromonas pathogenic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomás, J M

    2012-01-01

    The members of the Aeromonas genus are ubiquitous, water-borne bacteria. They have been isolated from marine waters, rivers, lakes, swamps, sediments, chlorine water, water distribution systems, drinking water and residual waters; different types of food, such as meat, fish, seafood, vegetables, and processed foods. Aeromonas strains are predominantly pathogenic to poikilothermic animals, and the mesophilic strains are emerging as important pathogens in humans, causing a variety of extraintestinal and systemic infections as well as gastrointestinal infections. The most commonly described disease caused by Aeromonas is the gastroenteritis; however, no adequate animal model is available to reproduce this illness caused by Aeromonas. The main pathogenic factors associated with Aeromonas are: surface polysaccharides (capsule, lipopolysaccharide, and glucan), S-layers, iron-binding systems, exotoxins and extracellular enzymes, secretion systems, fimbriae and other nonfilamentous adhesins, motility and flagella. PMID:23724321

  1. Bioprospecção de isolados de Bacillus spp. como potenciais promotores de crescimento de Eucalyptus urograndis

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Ligia de Lima Moreira; Fabio Fernando de Araújo

    2013-01-01

    Objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar características bioquímicas de interesse agronômico e correlação com a promoção de crescimento de plantas em isolados de Bacillus sp. originários da rizosfera de eucalipto. O trabalho foi conduzido em laboratório e casa de vegetação. A partir do isolamento de bactérias da rizosfera de plantas, oriundas de diferentes municípios da região oeste paulista, conseguiu-se 127 isolados de Bacillus spp. Foram realizados testes bioquímicos para caracterização dos iso...

  2. Aeromonas in Arab countries: 1995-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghenghesh, Khalifa Sifaw; Rahouma, Amal; Zorgani, Abdulaziz; Tawil, Khaled; Al Tomi, Abdurazzaq; Franka, Ezzadin

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this review is to provide information on the prevalence, clinical syndromes, and antimicrobial resistance and therapy of Aeromonas spp. infections in Arab countries. The data were obtained by an English language literature search from 1995 to 2014 of Medline and PubMed for papers using the search terms "Aeromonas+name of Arab country (i.e. Algeria, Egypt, etc.)". Additional data were obtained from a Google search using the aforementioned terms. The organisms have been reported from diarrheal children, patients with cholera-like diarrhea, an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis and from different types of animals, foods and water source in several Arab countries in the Middle East and North Africa with predominance of A. hydrophila, A. caviae and A. sobria. Using molecular techniques few studies reported genes encoding several toxins from aeromonads isolated from different sources. Among the antimicrobials examined in the present review third generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides showed excellent activity and can be employed in the treatment of Aeromonas-associated human infections in Arabic countries. Whenever possible, treatment should be guided by the susceptibility testing results of the isolated organism. In the future, studies employing molecular testing methods are required to provide data on circulating genospecies and their modes of transmission in the community, and on their mechanisms of resistance to antimicrobials. Microbiology laboratories and research centers are encouraged to look for these organisms in clinical, food and water sources to attain a better understanding of the public health risks from these organisms in Arab countries. PMID:26577192

  3. Envolvimento de Aeromonas em surto de doença diarréica aguda em São Bento do Una, Pernambuco Aeromonas associated with an acute diarrhea outbreak in São Bento do Una, Pernambuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Hofer

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available No primeiro semestre de 2004, ocorreu um surto de diarréia em São Bento do Una, Pernambuco, registrando-se 2.170 casos. Nas 582 coproculturas realizadas, 145 (25% revelaram um enteropatógeno bacteriano, destacando 114 casos (19,5% com a participação de Aeromonas, representadas por Aeromonas caviae (57/9,8%, Aeromonas veronii biovar sobria (23/3,9%, Aeromonas veronii biovar veronii (15/2,6% e outras espécies (19/3,2%. Nos 31 episódios restantes (5,3%, foram detectados: V. cholerae O1 Ogawa toxigênico (18/3,1%, Salmonella spp (8/1,4%, Shigella spp (3/0,5% e Vibrio cholerae não O1/não O139 (2/0,3%.An acute diarrhea outbreak, with 2170 cases, was described during January to July, 2004, in São Bento do Una, Pernambuco. 582 stools were examined and an enteric pathogen was recovered in 25% (145 patients. Aeromonas species were the most frequent (114-19.5% and the main isolates were Aeromonas caviae (57-9.8%, Aeromonas veronii biovar sobria (23-3.9%, Aeromonas veronii biovar veronii (15-2.6% and other species (19-3.2%. The other isolated enteropathogens were Vibrio cholerae O1-Ogawa toxigenic (18-3.1%, Salmonella spp (8-1.4%, Shigella spp (3-0.5% and Vibrio cholerae non-O1/non-O139 (2-0.3%.

  4. Aeromonas species in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isonhood, Jamie H; Drake, Maryanne

    2002-03-01

    Aeromonas species have been recognized as potential or emerging foodborne pathogens for more than 20 years. Aeromonads are estuarine bacteria and are ubiquitous in fresh water, fish and shellfish, meats, and fresh vegetables. Actual sourced foodborne outbreaks are few, but epidemiological evidence suggests that the bacterium can cause self-limiting diarrhea, with children being the most susceptible population. Most aeromonads are psychrotrophic and can grow in foods during cold storage. Aeromonads are not resistant to food processing regimes and are readily killed by heat treatment. A host of virulence factors are present, but the exact role of each in human disease has not been fully elucidated. PMID:11899061

  5. Desarrollo de una PCR múltiple para la identificación de Staphylococcus spp. como causa de mastitis caprina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RA Ruiz-Romero

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La mastitis se refiere a la inflamación de la glándula mamaria, a pesar de las pérdidas económicas que produce en cabras lecheras, existe poca información acerca de la situación epidemiológica de la enfermedad en México. El objetivo de este estudio fue desarrollar una reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR múltiple para el diagnóstico de Staphylococcus spp como agente involucrado en mastitis caprina. Se colectaron muestras de leche de cabras clínicamente sanas en sistemas de producción intensivo y semi-intensivo de dos granjas ubicadas en Tequisquiapan, Querétaro, México. La PCR múltiple se desarrolló para identificar a los Staphylococcus coagulasa-negativos (SCN y a Staphylococcus aureus. Para lograr la identificación del género Staphylococcus spp se utilizó el par de iniciadores correspondientes a la región 16s RNAr, para el caso de S. aureus se utilizaron 2 pares de iniciadores, el primer par de iniciadores corresponden al gen clfA y el segundo par corresponden al gen coa de S. aureus. Se realizó la PCR múltiple a 30 muestras de leche de cabra en donde se pudo detectar a S. aureus y a SCN, sin embargo, estos estudios son preliminares por lo que se requiere de estudios posteriores para evaluar la sensibilidad y especificidad de esta técnica.

  6. The disulfide bond in the Aeromonas hydrophila lipase/acyltransferase stabilizes the structure but is not required for secretion or activity.

    OpenAIRE

    Brumlik, M J; van der Goot, F. G.; Wong, K R; Buckley, J T

    1997-01-01

    Vibrio and Aeromonas spp. secrete an unusual 35-kDa lipase that shares several properties with mammalian lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase. The Aeromonas hydrophila lipase contains two cysteine residues that form an intramolecular disulfide bridge. Here we show that changing either of the cysteines to serine does not reduce enzymatic activity, indicating that the disulfide bond is not required for correct folding. However, when either of the cysteines is replaced, the enzyme is more readil...

  7. Multiplex PCR method for detection of three Aeromonas enterotoxin genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingombe, Cesar I Bin; D'Aoust, Jean-Yves; Huys, Geert; Hofmann, Lisa; Rao, Mary; Kwan, Judy

    2010-01-01

    A novel multiplex PCR method using three sets of specific primers was developed for the detection of the cytotoxic (act), heat-labile (alt), and heat-stable (ast) enterotoxin genes in Aeromonas spp. This assay was used to characterize 35 reference strains as well as 537 food-borne isolates. A total of seven gene pattern combinations were encountered, including act, alt, act/alt, act/alt/ast, act/alt/148-bp amplicon, alt/ast, and alt/148-bp amplicon. The alt gene was detected with 34 reference strains (97%) and occurred singly in 14% of these strains. The frequency of occurrence of the act/alt, act/alt/ast, and alt/ast gene patterns in reference strains was 14 (40%), 2 (6%), and 2 (6%), respectively. An unpredicted amplicon was detected in 11 reference strains (31%). Characterization of this amplicon showed that its size was 148 bp, as generated by the AHLF and AHLR primers, and that it uniquely aligned with the Aeromonas salmonicida A449 genome sequence (GenBank accession number CP000644). This amplicon was named Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida hypothetical protein amplicon (AssHPA). In the 537 food-borne isolates, the act and alt genes were most dominant and were detected in 349 (65%) and 452 (84%) isolates, respectively, either alone or in combinations. The act and alt genes occurred singly in 30 (6%) and 128 (24%) of these strains, respectively. The act/alt gene pattern occurred in 315 isolates (59%), whereas the ast gene was always linked to strains exhibiting the act/alt/ast and alt/ast gene combinations in 4 (0.7%) and 5 (0.9%) isolates, respectively. The uniplex amplification of three enterotoxin genes separately confirms the specificity of the unique selected primers. This multiplex PCR is rapid and simple and can detect the presence of three Aeromonas enterotoxin genes in a single assay. PMID:19933350

  8. Comparação da sensibilidade de Danio rerio, Poecilia reticulata e Xiphophorus helleri a Aeromonas hydrophila e Aeromonas aquariorum

    OpenAIRE

    Chambel Martins, João

    2011-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado em Aquacultura apresentada à ESTM - Escola Superior de Turismo e Tecnologia do Mar do Instituto Politécnico de Leiria Este trabalho teve como objectivo comparar a sensibilidade de três das principais espécies de peixes ornamentais de água doce, Danio rerio, Poecilia reticulata e Xiphophorus helleri, a duas bactérias potencialmente zoonóticas para o Homem, Aeromonas hydprophila (SM 30016) e Aeromonas aquariorum (DSM 18362). De forma a efectuar a injecção intraperi...

  9. Molecular detection and antimicrobial resistance of Aeromonas from houseflies (Musca domestica in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Ommi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study aimed to report the molecular detection and antimicrobial resistance of Aeromonas among houseflies (Musca domestica in Shahrekord and Isfahan provinces of Iran. Materials and methods. Flies were caught from household kitchens, cattle farms, animal hospitals, human hospitals, slaughter house and poultry farms and put in collection separate sterile tubes. Isolation was accomplished by culture of flies in alkaline peptone water followed by identification with Aeromonas-specific Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR. Results. Out of 600 houseflies 73 (12.2% were infected with Aeromonas spp. Significantly higher frequencies of Aeromonas were isolated in Shahrekord province (13.0%; 39/300 than in Isfahan province (11.3%; 34/300. The recovery frequencies of the organisms were significantly lower in kitchens as compared to those in cattle farms and hospital wards which were similar. Higher proportions of infected flies were obtained during summer whereas low proportions were obtained during winter. Conclusions. It is concluded that houseflies do harbor diarrheagenic pathogens, including Aeromonas especially during summer. The carried organisms are resistant to a number of antimicrobials at different levels. Thus, future plans aimed at stemming infections caused by these organisms should take flies into account. Control efforts of infections caused by this particular bacterium should therefore take into account Musca domestica.

  10. Cystitis Caused by Aeromonas caviae▿

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Benwan, Khalifa; Abbott, Sharon; Janda, J. Michael; Huys, Geert; Albert, M. John

    2007-01-01

    Aeromonas sp. organisms rarely cause urinary tract infection. We report for the first time a case of urinary tract infection caused by A. caviae in an adult patient with a history of increased frequency of urination, dysuria, hematuria, and weight loss.

  11. Diagnosis of Aeromonas hydrophila, Mycobacterium species, and Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in an African Clawed Frog (Xenopus laevis)

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, William A; Newman, Shelley J; Craig, Linden; Carter, Christopher; Czarra, Jane; Brown, J Paige

    2010-01-01

    Here we describe diagnosis of concurrent infection with Aeromonas hydrophila, Mycobacterium spp., and Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in a wild female Xenopus laevis captured in Chile and transported to the United States. After approximately 130 d in the laboratory, the frog was presented for dysecdysis and obtundation. After euthanasia, tissues were submitted for histopathologic evaluation and PCR analysis for B. dendrobatidis and Ranavirus. Clinically significant gross lesions included cutan...

  12. Multi-Drug Resistance Mediated by Class 1 Integrons in Aeromonas Isolated from Farmed Freshwater Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yuting; Wu, Yali; Jiang, Lan; Tan, Aiping; Zhang, Ruiquan; Luo, Li

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas is regarded as an important pathogen of freshwater animals but little is known about the genetics of its antimicrobial resistance in Chinese aquaculture. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of integrons and characterize multidrug resistant Aeromonas spp. isolated from diseased farmed freshwater animals. These animal samples included fish, ornamental fish, shrimp, turtles, and amphibians which were collected from 64 farms in Guangdong province of South China. One hundred and twelve Aeromonas spp. isolates were examined for antimicrobial resistance phenotypes and the presence of class 1 integron sequences. Twenty-two (19.6%) of these isolates carried a class 1 integron comprising six different gene insertion cassettes including drfA12-orfF-aadA2, drfA12-orfF, aac(6')-II-bla OXA-21 -cat3, catB3, arr-3, and dfrA17. Among these, drfA12-orfF-aadA2 was the dominant gene cassette array (63.6%, 14/22) and this is the first report of aac(6')-II-bla OXA-21 -cat3 in an Aeromonas hydrophila isolate from a Chinese giant salamander (Andrias davidianus). All the integron-positive strains were resistant to more than five agents and 22 contained other resistance genes including bla CTX-M-3, bla TEM-1, aac(6')-Ib-cr, and tetA. All integron-positive isolates also contained mutations in the quinolone resistance determining regions (QRDR). Our investigation demonstrates that freshwater animals can serve as a reservoir for pathogenic Aeromonas strains containing multiple drug-resistance integrons. This data suggests that surveillance for antimicrobial resistance of animal origin and a prudent and responsible use of antimicrobials in aquaculture is necessary in these farms. PMID:27379065

  13. Phenotypic and Genetic Diversity of Aeromonas Species Isolated from Fresh Water Lakes in Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Ching Khor

    Full Text Available Gram-negative bacilli of the genus Aeromonas are primarily inhabitants of the aquatic environment. Humans acquire this organism from a wide range of food and water sources as well as during aquatic recreational activities. In the present study, the diversity and distribution of Aeromonas species from freshwater lakes in Malaysia was investigated using glycerophospholipid-cholesterol acyltransferase (GCAT and RNA polymerase sigma-factor (rpoD genes for speciation. A total of 122 possible Aeromonas strains were isolated and confirmed to genus level using the API20E system. The clonality of the isolates was investigated using ERIC-PCR and 20 duplicate isolates were excluded from the study. The specific GCAT-PCR identified all isolates as belonging to the genus Aeromonas, in agreement with the biochemical identification. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using the rpoD gene sequence and all 102 isolates were identified as: A. veronii 43%, A. jandaei 37%, A. hydrophila 6%, A. caviae 4%, A. salmonicida 2%, A. media 2%, A. allosaccharophila 1%, A. dhakensis 1% and Aeromonas spp. 4%. Twelve virulence genes were present in the following proportions--exu 96%, ser 93%, aer 87%, fla 83%, enolase 70%, ela 62%, act 54%, aexT 33%, lip 16%, dam 16%, alt 8% and ast 4%, and at least 2 of these genes were present in all 102 strains. The ascV, aexU and hlyA genes were not detected among the isolates. A. hydrophila was the main species containing virulence genes alt and ast either present alone or in combination. It is possible that different mechanisms may be used by each genospecies to demonstrate virulence. In summary, with the use of GCAT and rpoD genes, unambiguous identification of Aeromonas species is possible and provides valuable data on the phylogenetic diversity of the organism.

  14. Phenotypic and Genetic Diversity of Aeromonas Species Isolated from Fresh Water Lakes in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khor, Wei Ching; Puah, Suat Moi; Tan, Jin Ai Mary Anne; Puthucheary, S D; Chua, Kek Heng

    2015-01-01

    Gram-negative bacilli of the genus Aeromonas are primarily inhabitants of the aquatic environment. Humans acquire this organism from a wide range of food and water sources as well as during aquatic recreational activities. In the present study, the diversity and distribution of Aeromonas species from freshwater lakes in Malaysia was investigated using glycerophospholipid-cholesterol acyltransferase (GCAT) and RNA polymerase sigma-factor (rpoD) genes for speciation. A total of 122 possible Aeromonas strains were isolated and confirmed to genus level using the API20E system. The clonality of the isolates was investigated using ERIC-PCR and 20 duplicate isolates were excluded from the study. The specific GCAT-PCR identified all isolates as belonging to the genus Aeromonas, in agreement with the biochemical identification. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using the rpoD gene sequence and all 102 isolates were identified as: A. veronii 43%, A. jandaei 37%, A. hydrophila 6%, A. caviae 4%, A. salmonicida 2%, A. media 2%, A. allosaccharophila 1%, A. dhakensis 1% and Aeromonas spp. 4%. Twelve virulence genes were present in the following proportions--exu 96%, ser 93%, aer 87%, fla 83%, enolase 70%, ela 62%, act 54%, aexT 33%, lip 16%, dam 16%, alt 8% and ast 4%, and at least 2 of these genes were present in all 102 strains. The ascV, aexU and hlyA genes were not detected among the isolates. A. hydrophila was the main species containing virulence genes alt and ast either present alone or in combination. It is possible that different mechanisms may be used by each genospecies to demonstrate virulence. In summary, with the use of GCAT and rpoD genes, unambiguous identification of Aeromonas species is possible and provides valuable data on the phylogenetic diversity of the organism. PMID:26710336

  15. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis for nonlethal detection of Aeromonas salmonicida in salmonid mucus and its potential for other bacterial fish pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Robert A; Stevenson, Roselynn M W

    2012-05-01

    Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 16S rDNA was used to nonlethally detect Aeromonas salmonicida and other bacteria in salmonid skin mucus. Mucus samples from wild spawning coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) with endemic A. salmonicida and from cultured lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) were tested by PCR-DGGE and were compared with mucus culture on Coomassie brilliant blue agar and internal organ culture. PCR-DGGE gave a highly reproducible 4-band pattern for 9 strains of typical A. salmonicida, which was different from other Aeromonas spp. Aeromonas salmonicida presence in mucus was evident as a band that comigrated with the bottom band of the A. salmonicida 4-band pattern and was verified by sequencing. PCR-DGGE found 36 of 52 coho salmon positive for A. salmonicida, compared with 31 positive by mucus culture and 16 by organ culture. Numerous other bacteria were detected in salmonid mucus, including Pseudomonas spp., Shewanella putrefaciens, Aeromonas hydrophila and other aeromonads. However, Yersinia ruckeri was not detected in mucus from 27 lake trout, but 1 fish had a sorbitol-positive Y. ruckeri isolated from organ culture. Yersinia ruckeri seeded into a mucus sample suggested that PCR-DGGE detection of this bacterium from mucus was possible. PCR-DGGE allows nonlethal detection of A. salmonicida in mucus and differentiation of some Aeromonas spp. and has the potential to allow simultaneous detection of other pathogens present in fish mucus. PMID:22506865

  16. Antimicrobial resistance in food and clinical Aeromonas isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palú, Angela Peres; Gomes, Luciana Martins; Miguel, Marco Antônio Lemos; Balassiano, Ilana Teruzkin; Queiroz, Mara Lucia Penna; Freitas-Almeida, Angela Corrêa; de Oliveira, Selma Soares

    2006-08-01

    This study highlights the incidence of resistance and the presence of plasmids in human and food isolates of Aeromonas in Brazil. A total of 83 Aeromonas spp. strains (28 isolated from human and 55 from fresh lettuce) were studied. Thirty-five were identified as A. hydrophila complex and 48 as A. caviae complex. All strains were shown to be susceptible to imipenem, amikacin, gentamicin, tobramycin and ciprofloxacin by the disk diffusion method. Resistance to antimicrobial agents was observed in strains of both food and clinical origin. The food strains were resistant to ampicillin/sulbactam, cefoxitin and tetracycline, while the clinical strains presented resistance to ampicillin/sulbactam, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, cefoxitin, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, chloramphenicol and tetracycline. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of chloramphenicol, tetracycline and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim were tested by agar dilution. Thirteen strains isolated from vegetables were resistant to tetracycline (MIC 16 microg ml-1). Two A. hydrophila strains and one A. caviae strain presented extracromosomal DNA (3 and 15 kb plasmids, respectively). The tetracycline resistance phenotype determinant was related to the 15 kb plasmid according to cure and transformation experiments. PMID:16943044

  17. Presumptive and Definitive Identification of Aeromonas from infected Ornamental Gold fish (Carassius auratus auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Phani Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the presumptive identification of Aeromonas, definitive identification of two species of Aeromonas i.e. Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas salmonicida in various organs of Gold fish infected with red disease.

  18. Evaluación de Ulmus pumila L. y Populus spp. como cultivos energéticos en corta rotación

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez García, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    El presente trabajo estudia el empleo del olmo de Siberia (Ulmus Pumila L.) y el chopo (Populus spp.) en corta rotación y alta densidad para la producción de biomasa con fines energéticos. En el área mediterránea las disponibilidades hídricas son limitadas, por lo que la mayoría de los cultivos energéticos utilizados hasta el momento requieren el aporte de agua de riego; por ello resulta fundamental encontrar especies con bajos requerimientos hídricos, analizar la eficiencia en el uso del agu...

  19. Isolation of a lytic bacteriophage against virulent Aeromonas hydrophila from an organized equine farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Taruna; Vaid, Rajesh Kumar; Bera, Bidhan Ch; Singh, Jitender; Barua, Sanjay; Virmani, Nitin; K, Rajukumar; Yadav, Neeraj Kumar; Nagar, Dinesh; Singh, Raj K; Tripathi, B N

    2016-04-01

    A bacteriophage (VTCCBPA6) against a pathogenic strain of Aeromonas hydrophila was isolated from the sewage of an organized equine breeding farm. On the basis of TEM analysis, phage belonged to family Myoviridae. PCR amplification and sequence analysis of gp23 gene (encoding for major capsid protein) revealed phylogenetic resemblance to T4 like virus genus. Protein profiling by SDS-PAGE also indicated its resemblance to T4 like phage group. However, the comparison of its gp23 gene sequence with previously reported phages showed similarity with T4-like phages infecting Enterobacteriaceae instead of Aeromonas spp. Thus, to our knowledge, this report points toward the fact that a novel/evolved phage might exist in equine environment against A. hydrophila, which can be potentially used as a biocontrol agent. PMID:26748732

  20. Detection of toxigenic strains of Aeromonas species in foods by a multiplex PCR assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishna, K; Murali, H S; Batra, H V

    2010-06-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila and other aeromonads are ubiquitous organisms found in meat, vegetables, drinking water and various other food items. They cause diarrhea and extra-intestinal infections in normal and immunocompromised patients. The aim of the study was to develop a multiplex PCR assay for the detection of virulence-associated genes of Aeromonas including hemolysin (hlyA), aerolysin (aerA), glycerophospholipid-cholesterol acyl transferase (GCAT) alongwith a 16S rRNA gene. Internal amplification control (IAC), which was coamplified with aerA primers, was also included in this study. The results showed that all cultures of Aeromonas were accurately identified by the assay without showing non-specificity. A. hydrophila could be detected at a range of 10-50 CFU ml(-1) from experimentally spiked fish, chicken and milk samples following overnight enrichment in alkaline peptone water supplemented with 10 μg/ml ampicillin (APW-A) by this multiplex PCR (mPCR). When evaluated on a total of 74 naturally occurring food samples, four samples were identified to contain Aeromonas by mPCR. All these results were compared to the conventional culture, isolation and biochemical identification procedures. The high throughput and cost-effective mPCR method developed in this study could provide a powerful tool for detection of pathogenic Aeromonas spp. from food and environmental samples and in addition, the method has advantages in terms of specificity, sensitivity and ease of use compared to other reported PCR methods and DNA hybridization assays. PMID:23100820

  1. Isolamento de Pasteurella spp. e Vibrio spp. em robalos (Dicentrarchus labrax: susceptibilidade a diferentes grupos de antibióticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saavedra M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The most frequent infectious diseases that affect fish are those of bacterial origin. In European sea bass fish farms (Dicentrarchus labrax are included Vibrio spp., Pasteurella piscicida and Myxobacter spp. In addition to these, it is also possible to find, although lesser frequently, other pathogenic agents such as Pseudomonas spp., Aeromonas spp., Staphylococcus epidermis, Streptococcus spp. and Enterobacter spp. The presence of these micro-organisms in fish farms contributes for a significant decrease in fish production and subsequent loss of profitability in these aquaculture units. The use of antibiotics may therefore be necessary as a prophylactic measure although their systematic utilization leads to the development of strains of antibiotic resistant bacteria. Bearing that in mind, a survey was conducted on the susceptibility of isolated strains of bacteria found in juvenile European sea bass. It was concluded that chloranphenicol and tetracycline are two important antibiotic alternatives for therapy against isolated bacterial agents.

  2. Resistensi Bakteri Aeromonas sp. Isolat Ikan Piranha (Pygosentrus nattereri Bali Safari And Marine Park terhadap Antibiotik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Made Herawati

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Piranha (Pygosentrus nattereri is a fish that has been conserved at Conservation Center of Bali Safari and Marine Park. In May 2012 there was a case that twelve Piranhas suffered from illness and two of them died without any specific clinical signs. The dead Piranhas were necropsied and the tissues or parts of organs were collected for microbial examination interests. Spesies specific bacterial examination was also included using Microgen GNA TM + B-ID system test The bacterial examination found that the fishes were infected by Aeromonas hydropila and Aeromonas veronii. Further examination about antibiotic resistance tests showed that those Aeromonas spp were resistant to chloramphenicol and a combination of trimethoprim and sulphamethoxazole. It can be suggested that, next, the usage of other antibiotics is strongly recommended for the case of Piranha infected by Aeromonas spp at Bali Safari and Marine Park. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; text-align:justify; line-height:150%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;}

  3. Effect of Diuron on aquatic bacteria in laboratory-scale wastewater treatment ponds with special reference to Aeromonas species studied by colony hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumpono; Perotti, P; Belan, A; Forestier, C; Lavedrine, B; Bohatier, J

    2003-01-01

    Six laboratory-scale wastewater treatment ponds were filled with sediment and water obtained from a reference pond (a wastewater treatment plant located in a rural environment at Montel-de-Gelat, Puy-de-Dôme, France). They were kept at 20 degrees C, with alternative light and dark periods (12 h-12 h), and fed with raw effluent supplied weekly. Three of them were treated with Diuron (dissolved in DMSO) at a final concentration 10 mg/l, while the other three received only DMSO. Physico-chemical parameters, total bacteria, cultivable bacteria, and Aeromonas spp. were measured periodically until 41 days after the Diuron contamination. Total bacteria were treated with 4,6-diamidino 2-phenylindole (DAPI) and counted by epifluoroscence microscopy. The cultivable bacteria were quantified on plate count agar medium and Aeromonas spp. using colony hybridization. In the contaminated pilots, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), suspended solids (SS), volatile suspended solids (VSS), ammonium, phosphorus, and bacteria increased, but dissolved oxygen decreased. The abundance of total bacteria, cultivable bacteria (multiplied by 30), and Aeromonas spp. increased for two weeks after Diuron introduction, reverting to initial values three weeks later. The percentage of cultivable bacteria relative to total bacteria was 0.2% in controls and 1.2% in treated pilots, while the percentage of Aeromonas spp. relative to cultivable bacteria decreased from 6-10% to 2%. Our results suggest that Diuron, which acts on the photosystem II of phototrophs, supports the development of cultivable bacteria through new carbon sources derived from the decomposition of photosynthetic micro-organisms, but does not specifically support Aeromonas spp. PMID:12656266

  4. Infection and disease progress of motile Aeromonas septicemia caused by virulent Aeromonas hydrophila in channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motile Aeromonas septicemia (MAS), caused by virulent clonal isolates of Aeromonas hydrophila (vAh), is emerging as a major disease in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) aquaculture in the Southeastern United States. Predisposing conditions leading to vAh infection in catfish were however largely...

  5. Experimental induction of motile Aeromonas septicemia in channel catfish by waterborne challenge with virulent Aeromonas hydrophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motile Aeromonas septicemia (MAS), caused by virulent clonal isolates of Aeromonas hydrophila (vAh), is emerging as a major disease in catfish aquaculture in the Southeastern United States. Predisposing conditions leading to vAh infection in catfish were however largely unknown. The objective of thi...

  6. Determination of microbial diversity of Aeromonas strains on the basis of multilocus sequence typing, phenotype, and presence of putative virulence genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Maria Elena; Fasolato, Luca; Montemurro, Filomena; Rosteghin, Marina; Manfrin, Amedeo; Patarnello, Tomaso; Novelli, Enrico; Cardazzo, Barbara

    2011-07-01

    The genus Aeromonas has been described as comprising several species associated with the aquatic environment, which represents their principal reservoir. Aeromonas spp. are commonly isolated from diseased and healthy fish, but the involvement of such bacteria in human infection and gastroenteritis has frequently been reported. The primary challenge in establishing an unequivocal link between the Aeromonas genus and pathogenesis in humans is the extremely complicated taxonomy. With the aim of clarifying taxonomic relationships among the strains and phenotypes, a multilocus sequencing approach was developed and applied to characterize 23 type and reference strains of Aeromonas spp. and a collection of 77 field strains isolated from fish, crustaceans, and mollusks. All strains were also screened for putative determinants of virulence by PCR (ast, ahh1, act, asa1, eno, ascV, and aexT) and the production of acylated homoserine lactones (AHLs). In addition, the phenotypic fingerprinting obtained from 29 biochemical tests was submitted to the nonparametric combination (NPC) test methodology to define the statistical differences among the identified genetic clusters. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) achieved precise strain genotyping, and the phylogenetic analysis of concatenated sequences delineated the relationship among the taxa belonging to the genus Aeromonas, providing a powerful tool for outbreak traceability, host range diffusion, and ecological studies. The NPC test showed the feasibility of phenotypic differentiation among the majority of the MLST clusters by using a selection of tests or the entire biochemical fingerprinting. A Web-based MLST sequence database (http://pubmlst.org/aeromonas) specific for the Aeromonas genus was developed and implemented with all the results. PMID:21642403

  7. Characterization of mercury-resistant clinical Aeromonas species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail Pérez-Valdespino

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Mercury-resistant Aeromonas strains isolated from diarrhea were studied. Resistance occurs via mercuric ion reduction but merA and merR genes were only detected in some strains using PCR and dot hybridization. Results indicate a high variability in mer operons in Aeromonas. To our knowledge, this is the first report of mercury-resistant clinical Aeromonas strains.

  8. Modification of the bile salts-Irgasan-brilliant green agar for enumeration of Aeromonas species from food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyts, K; Notebaert, E; Uyttendaele, M; Debevere, J

    2000-06-15

    The present study evaluated the productivity of BIBG medium for the isolation of Aeromonas spp. from food and describes a modification of the BIBG medium (mBIBG) (increased pH (8.7), replacement of xylose by soluble starch as a carbon source, decreased concentration of bile salts) to increase its selectivity and electivity. Using the mBIBG medium, growth of the majority of the Enterobacteriaceae (9/10) was suppressed except for Citrobacter freundii. The mBIBG medium supported growth of Pseudomonas species but a clear distinction between Aeromonas and Pseudomonas colonies could be made. Interpretation of the mBIBG medium should be performed after 24 h of incubation. It was noted that three of the 27 Aeromonas strains tested did not develop on the mBIBG medium. The ability or inability to grow on a selective medium is strain-dependent. Enumeration of Aeromonas species (A. hydrophila LMG 3771, A. caviae LMG 3775, A. veronii biovar veronii LMG 9075, A. veronii biovar sobria LMG 13071) from artificially contaminated foods (shrimp, minced meat (beef/pork), precut leek, and shredded carrots) confirmed that the mBIBG medium is suitable for quantitative recovery of aeromonads (ca. 10(2)-10(7) cfu/g) in the presence of a high background flora (10(5)-10(6) cfu/g). Screening of naturally contaminated foods (vegetables, seafood, meat) for the presence of Aeromonas resulted in three out of 14 food samples showing presumptive Aeromonas colonies on mBIBG. PMID:10868682

  9. Aeromonas and Plesiomonas as food- and waterborne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadström, T; Ljungh, A

    1991-04-01

    Aeromonas and Plesiomonas have become increasingly recognized as human enteropathogens. Plesiomonas shigelloides has mainly been recovered from various sea foods, whereas Aeromonas sp. have also been cultured from pigs, broilers, eggs, milk and vegetables. Aeromonas sp. also multiply rapidly at +4 degrees C which is a significant risk in food storage. Aeromonas sp. have furthermore been recovered from fresh water sources, and some isolates are resistant to chlorination which makes it a further risk factor. No large food- or waterborne outbreaks have been reported so far with Aeromonas sp. Various virulence factors involved in intestinal infections are described such as enterotoxins, cytotoxins, and adhesins. PMID:1854599

  10. Análise fenotípica e genotípica da virulência de Staphylococcus spp. e de sua dispersão clonal como contribuição ao estudo da mastite bovina Phenotypic and genotypic analysis of virulence in Staphylococcus spp. and its clonal dispersion as a contribution to the study of bovine mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane F. Marques

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A mastite é uma inflamação da glândula mamária causada principalmente por bactérias, dentre as quais o gênero Staphylococcus ocupa um papel importante. Bactérias pertencentes a este gênero são caracterizadas por expressar fatores de virulência que permitem sua persistência e disseminação no hospedeiro. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar fenogenotipicamente os fatores de virulência de isolados de Staphylococcus spp. a partir de casos de mastite bovina. Foram analisadas 272 amostras de leite provenientes de oito propriedades da região Sul-Fluminense do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Após identificação, obteve-se um total de 250 isolados de Staphylococcus spp. Estes foram submetidos às provas fenotípicas de detecção da produção de "slime" em microplaca e em ágar vermelho congo; produção de hemolisinas e sinergismo hemolítico; produção de caseinase e DNase. Posteriormente foram submetidos à técnica de PCR para detecção dos genes de produção de cápsula (cap5 e cap8, fibronectina (fnbA,e fnbB, "slime" (icaA e icaD e hemolisinas (hla e hlb. Do total avaliado, 58% (145/250 foi identificado como Staphylococcus spp. coagulase-negativos e 42% (105/250 como Staphylococcus spp. coagulase-positivos, destes 36,2% (38/105 foram identificados como S. aureus, 11,4% (12/105 como S. intermedius e 3,8% (4/105 como pertencentes ao grupo SIG. Apenas 6,4% (16/250 dos isolados foram produtores de α-hemólise, 4,8% (12/250 de β-hemólise e, 1,6% (4/250 de α e β-hemólise. A produção de caseinase foi observada em 66,4% (166/250, e a produção de "slime" avaliada pela técnica da microplaca em 76,8% (192/250 dos isolados, respectivamente. A DNase foi detectada em ECNs (38/145 e S. aureus (14/38. Os marcadores genéticos avaliados para a produção de slime, icaA e icaD apresentaram nenhuma ou leve concordância com a produção fenotípica, respectivamente, utilizando o coeficiente Kappa. Tal dado parece indicar que outros

  11. Influence of Limonia acidissima L. against the biofilm forming Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from fresh water fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasan Ponnuraj

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Limonia acidissima is a medicinal plant commonly used for multitude of ailments. In this context, the validation of traditionally used medicinal plant that the fruit extracts of L. acidissima exhibit antibiofilm activity against the predominant fish pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila was assessed. Among ten isolates of Aeromonas spp, KUAH1 showed strong biofilm formation and was studied further. The methanol (LA-M and ethyl acetate (LA-EA fraction of Limonia fruit extract clearly demonstrated significant (p ≤ 0.005 antibiofilm activity of 58 to 94% and 54 to 77% respectively. Furthermore, the potential of Limonia fruit extracts against some of the biofilm associated factors were tested by swimming and swarming motility assay, XTT and anti-haemolytic activity assay. Extracellular protein analysis revealed differential protein expression at molecular weight corresponding to 30-60 kDa. This is the first report on antibiofilm activity of L. acidissima fruit extracts, signifying the scope for development of complementary medicine to treat Aeromonas biofilm-associated infections.

  12. Aeromonas caviae septicemia in immunocompetent gastrointestinal carriers

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    M. Dwivedi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas caviae strains have been isolated from blood and stool cultures of three immunocompetent patients, residents of Northern India, who presented with community acquired septicemia without any recent history of diarrhea. Cell culture infectivity test performed on Hep-2 cells have shown substantial degree of invasiveness in the isolated strains. This case unleashes a possibility of asymptomatic gastrointestinal carriage of such strains of A. caviae in a very large population of India, as several areas of India have very high rates of Aeromonas induced acute diarrhea/gastroenteritis (up to 13%. It needs to be appraised further in India as well as other countries having high rates of Aeromonas induced acute diarrhea/gastroenteritis.

  13. Análise fenotípica e genotípica da virulência de Staphylococcus spp. e de sua dispersão clonal como contribuição ao estudo da mastite bovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane F. Marques

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A mastite é uma inflamação da glândula mamária causada principalmente por bactérias, dentre as quais o gênero Staphylococcus ocupa um papel importante. Bactérias pertencentes a este gênero são caracterizadas por expressar fatores de virulência que permitem sua persistência e disseminação no hospedeiro. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar fenogenotipicamente os fatores de virulência de isolados de Staphylococcus spp. a partir de casos de mastite bovina. Foram analisadas 272 amostras de leite provenientes de oito propriedades da região Sul-Fluminense do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Após identificação, obteve-se um total de 250 isolados de Staphylococcus spp. Estes foram submetidos às provas fenotípicas de detecção da produção de "slime" em microplaca e em ágar vermelho congo; produção de hemolisinas e sinergismo hemolítico; produção de caseinase e DNase. Posteriormente foram submetidos à técnica de PCR para detecção dos genes de produção de cápsula (cap5 e cap8, fibronectina (fnbA,e fnbB, "slime" (icaA e icaD e hemolisinas (hla e hlb. Do total avaliado, 58% (145/250 foi identificado como Staphylococcus spp. coagulase-negativos e 42% (105/250 como Staphylococcus spp. coagulase-positivos, destes 36,2% (38/105 foram identificados como S. aureus, 11,4% (12/105 como S. intermedius e 3,8% (4/105 como pertencentes ao grupo SIG. Apenas 6,4% (16/250 dos isolados foram produtores de α-hemólise, 4,8% (12/250 de β-hemólise e, 1,6% (4/250 de α e β-hemólise. A produção de caseinase foi observada em 66,4% (166/250, e a produção de "slime" avaliada pela técnica da microplaca em 76,8% (192/250 dos isolados, respectivamente. A DNase foi detectada em ECNs (38/145 e S. aureus (14/38. Os marcadores genéticos avaliados para a produção de slime, icaA e icaD apresentaram nenhuma ou leve concordância com a produção fenotípica, respectivamente, utilizando o coeficiente Kappa. Tal dado parece indicar que outros

  14. Aislamiento y caracterización de cepas nativas de Lactobacillus spp. para su uso como probióticos en la industria láctea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Vázquez

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available La utilización de fermentos en la elaboración de productos lácteos es una práctica diaria a nivel industrial. En nuestro país los mismos son comprados a multinacionales extranjeras que se dedican a producir y comercializar fermentos; muchos de los cuales incorporan bacterias probióticas. Los probióticos pueden definirse como microorganismos que luego de ser consumidos en cantidades adecuadas, confieren algún efecto benéfico en el huésped. En el presente trabajo se realizó el aislamiento de una cepa de Lactobacillus de origen humano. Se identificó por tinción gram, prueba catalasa, crecimiento en anaerobiosis y aerobiosis y un test API 50 CH. Con el objetivo de probar propiedades probióticas de la cepa se llevaron a cabo estudios de resistencia al pH, tolerancia a sales biliares y se realizó un Modelo Gástrico in vitro. Los resultados permiten afirmar que estamos en presencia de una cepa nativa de Lactobacillus acidophilus caracterizada fenotípicamente con un 97% de confianza. Presentaría la habilidad de sobrevivir al pasaje a través del tubo digestivo ya que resistió la exposición a un pH similar al estomacal, pudo crecer en un medio con sales biliares y sobrevivió a la acción conjunta de la pepsina y una simulación de jugo gástrico; características que permiten clasificarla como posible cepa probiótica.Abstract  The use of starters to elaborate dairy products is a current practice in the industry. In our Country we import these starters from foreign companies dedicated to make and sale it, and most of them include probiotic bacterias. Probiotics can be defined as microorganisms that after be consumed in adequate amount, can give some advantageous effect to the host. In this study a strain of Lactobacillus was isolated from a human. The identification was done through gram stain, catalase test, aerobic and anaerobic growth, and an API 50 CH test. In order to prove the probiotic properties of the strain, studies of p

  15. Quorum Sensing Regulation in Aeromonas hydrophila

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, Christian; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Givskov, Michael; Jakobsen, Tim Holm; Hentzer, Morten; Claussen, Anetta; Sneppen, Kim; Ferkinghoff-Borg, Jesper; Sams, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    We present detailed results on the C4-HSL-mediated quorum sensing (QS) regulatory system of the opportunistic Gram-negative bacterium Aeromonas hydrophila. This bacterium contains a particularly simple QS system that allows for a detailed modeling of kinetics. In a model system (i.e., the...

  16. Aeromonas aquariorum sp. nov., isolated from aquaria of ornamental fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Murcia, A J; Saavedra, M J; Mota, V R; Maier, T; Stackebrandt, E; Cousin, S

    2008-05-01

    During a survey to determine the prevalence of Aeromonas strains in water and skin of imported ornamental fish, 48 strains presumptively identified as Aeromonas were isolated but they could not be identified as members of any previously described Aeromonas species. These strains were subjected to a polyphasic approach including phylogenetic analysis derived from gyrB, rpoD and 16S rRNA gene sequencing, DNA-DNA hybridization, MALDI-TOF MS analysis, genotyping by RAPD and extensive biochemical and antibiotic susceptibility tests in order to determine their taxonomic position. Based on the results of the phylogenetic analyses and DNA-DNA hybridization data, we describe a novel species of the genus Aeromonas, for which the name Aeromonas aquariorum sp. nov. is proposed, with strain MDC47T (=DSM 18362T =CECT 7289T) as the type strain. This is the first Aeromonas species description based on isolations from ornamental fish. PMID:18450708

  17. Determinación de Especies de Erwinia (grupo carotovora como Agentes Causales de “Pudrición Blanda” en Cala (Zantedeschia spp. Determination of Erwinia Species (carotovora group as Causal Agents of “Soft Rot” in Calla (Zantedeschia spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Kunstmann

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Durante la temporada 2002 se realizó una investigación para establecer los agentes causantes de pudriciones húmedas en tallos y túberos de cala (Zantedeschia spp. provenientes de producciones bajo invernadero en el Sur de Chile. Para comparar con cepas locales se realizaron aislamientos a partir de tubérculos de papa (Solanum tuberosum L. obtenidas de una producción comercial cerca de la ciudad de Valdivia. Para analizar las diferencias en virulencia, las cepas de papa fueron inoculadas sobre cala y vice versa. De los aislamientos bacterianos obtenidos se determinaron 33 pertenecientes al género Erwinia (grupo carotovora(E.c. de acuerdo a las siguientes características: Gram (-, oxidasa (- y pudrición de rodajas de papa (+. Pruebas complementarias y más especificas incluyeron sensibilidad a la eritromicina, utilización de la palatinosa, sustancias reductoras a partir de sacarosa, producción de ácido a partir de a-metil glucósido y crecimiento a 37ºC. Finalmente, fue posible identificar dos cepas de E.c. subsp. atroseptica y 21 E.c. subsp. carotovora de túberos y plantas de cala. No hubo evidencia de la presencia de la especie fitopatógena E. chrysanthemi entre los aislamientos estudiados, una indicación que esta especie está ausente en Chile. Este es el primer informe sobre la presencia de aislamientos de la subespecie atroseptica afectando un nuevo cultivo como la cala en Chile. Las inoculaciones cruzadas demostraron que la virulencia es mayor con las cepas obtenidas de tejidos de cala. Las posibilidades que estas cepas sean foráneas son bastante altas, y pueden interferir con producciones de cultivos locales como la papa.

  18. Aeromonas dhakensis, an Increasingly Recognized Human Pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Po-Lin; Lamy, Brigitte; Ko, Wen-Chien

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas dhakensis was first isolated from children with diarrhea in Dhaka, Bangladesh and described in 2002. In the past decade, increasing evidence indicate this species is widely distributed in the environment and can cause a variety of infections both in human and animals, especially in coastal areas. A. dhakensis is often misidentified as A. hydrophila, A. veronii, or A. caviae by commercial phenotypic tests in the clinical laboratory. Correct identification relies on molecular methods. Increasingly used matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) may be able to identify Aeromonas specie rapidly and accurately. A. dhakensis has shown its potent virulence in different animal models and clinical infections. Although several virulence factors had been reported, no single mechanism is conclusive. Characteristically A. dhakensis is the principal species causing soft tissue infection and bacteremia, especially among patients with liver cirrhosis or malignancy. Of note, A. dhakensis bacteremia is more lethal than bacteremia due to other Aeromonas species. The role of this species in gastroenteritis remains controversial. Third generation cephalosporins and carbapenems should be used cautiously in the treatment of severe A. dhakensis infection due to the presence of AmpC ββ-lactamase and metallo-β-lactamase genes, and optimal regimens may be cefepime or fluoroquinolones. Studies of bacterial virulence factors and associated host responses may provide the chance to understand the heterogeneous virulence between species. The hypothesis A. dhakensis with varied geographic prevalence and enhanced virulence that compared to other Aeromonas species warrants more investigations. PMID:27303382

  19. Aeromonas dhakensis, an increasingly recognized human pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po Lin eChen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas dhakensis was first isolated from children with diarrhea in Dhaka, Bangladesh and described in 2002. In the past decade, increasing evidence indicate this species is widely distributed in the environment and can cause a variety of infections both in human and animals, especially in coastal areas. A. dhakensis is often misidentified as A. hydrophila, A. veronii or A. caviae by commercial phenotypic tests in the clinical laboratory. Correct identification relies on molecular methods. Increasingly used matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS may be able to identify Aeromonas specie rapidly and accurately. A. dhakensis has shown its potent virulence in different animal models and clinical infections. Although several virulence factors had been reported, no single mechanism is conclusive. Characteristically A. dhakensis is the principal species causing soft tissue infection and bacteremia, especially among patients with liver cirrhosis or malignancy. Of note, A. dhakensis bacteremia is more lethal than bacteremia due to other Aeromonas species. The role of this species in gastroenteritis remains controversial. Third generation cephalosporins and carbapenems should be used cautiously in the treatment of severe A. dhakensis infection due to the presence of AmpC β-lactamase and metallo-β-lactamase genes, and optimal regimens may be cefepime or fluoroquinolones. Studies of bacterial virulence factors and associated host responses may provide the chance to understand the heterogeneous virulence between species. The hypothesis A. dhakensis with varied geographic prevalence and enhanced virulence that compared to other Aeromonas species warrants more investigations.

  20. Evaluating virulence of waterborne and clinical Aeromonas isolates using gene expression and mortality in neonatal mice followed by assessing cell culture’s ability to predict virulence based on transcriptional response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, S L; Rodgers, M R; Lye, D J; Stelma, G N; McKinstry, Craig A.; Malard, Joel M.; Vesper, Sephen J.

    2007-10-01

    Aims: To assess the virulence of Aeromonas spp. using two models, a neonatal mouse assay and a mouse intestinal cell culture. Methods and Results: After artificial infection with a variety of Aeromonas spp., mRNA extracts from the two models were processed and hydridized to murine microarrays to determine host gene response. Definition of virulence was determined based on host mRNA production in murine neonatal intestinal tissue and mortality of infected animals. Infections of mouse intestinal cell cultures were then performed to determine whether this simpler model system’s mRNA responses correlated to neonatal results and therefore be predictive of virulence of Aeromonas spp. Virulent aeromonads up-regulated transcripts in both models including multiple host defense gene products (chemokines, regulation of transcription and apoptosis and cell signalling). Avirulent species exhibited little or no host response in neonates. Mortality results correlated well with both bacterial dose and average fold change of up-regulated transcripts in the neonatal mice. Conclusions: Cell culture results were less discriminating but showed promise as potentially being able to be predictive of virulence. Jun oncogene up-regulation in murine cell culture is potentially predictive of Aeromonas virulence. Significance and Impact of the Study: Having the ability to determine virulence of waterborne pathogens quickly would potentially assist public health officials to rapidly assess exposure risks.

  1. CHARACTERIZATION OF AEROMONAS VIRULENCE USING AN IMMUNOCOMPROMISED MOUSE MODEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    An immunocompromised mouse model was used to characterize Aeromonas strains for their ability to cause opportunistic, extraintestinal infections. A total of 34 isolates of Aeromonas (A. hydrophila [n = 12]), A. veronii biotype sobria [n = 7], A. caviae [n = 4], A. enchelia [n = 4...

  2. Draft genome sequence of Aeromonas hydrophila TN97-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeromonas hydrophila is an opportunistic Gram-negative species causing disease in fish and mammals. The genus Aeromonas affects a variety of aquatic organisms and lives in diverse aquatic ecosystems (1). There are 39 A. hydrophila genomes currently available in GenBank. In the current study, we repo...

  3. Complete genome sequence of Aeromonas hydrophila AL06-06

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeromonas hydrophila occurs in freshwater environments and infects fish and mammals. In this work, we report the complete genome sequence of Aeromonas hydrophila AL06-06, which was isolated from diseased goldfish and is being used for comparative genomic studies with A. hydrophila strains causing ba...

  4. Recurrent Aeromonas Bacteremia Due to Contaminated Well Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Morgan J.; Parrish, Nicole M.; Belani, Anusha; Shah, Maunank

    2015-01-01

    Although they are ubiquitous to aquatic environments, Aeromonas species have traditionally been considered nonvirulent; however, in the past 30 years, they have emerged as important human pathogens that can cause a wide spectrum of disease. In this study, we describe a case of recurrent Aeromonas bacteremia in an immunocompetent patient, and this exposure was linked to the patient's home well water supply. PMID:26495324

  5. Molecular detection of enterotoxins in environmental strains of Aeromonas hydrophila and Aeromonas jandaei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsalobre, L C; Dropa, M; Matté, G R; Matté, M H

    2009-12-01

    Aeromonas species are widely distributed in aquatic environments and recent studies include the genus in the emergent pathogens group because of its frequent association with local and systemic infections in immunocompetent humans. Aiming to search for virulence genes in environmental strains of Aeromonas hydrophila and Aeromonas jandaei, we designed specific primers to detect act/hlyA/aer complex and alt genes. Primers described elsewhere were used to detect ast. Eighty-seven strains previously identified using phenotypic and genotypic tests as A. hydrophila (41) and A. jandaei (46) were analysed for the presence of the virulence genes using PCR. DNA fragments of expected size were purified and directly sequenced. Among the 41 strains of A. hydrophila 70.7% (29), 97.6% (40) and 26.8% (11) possessed act/hlyA/aer complex, ast and alt genes, respectively. Among the 46 strains of A. jandaei, 4.4% (2), 0% (0) and 32.6% (15) were positive for act/hly A/aer complex, ast and alt genes, respectively. Sequencing allowed for the confirmation of amplified products using BLAST. The present work proposes a specific and rapid diagnostic method to detect the main virulence determinants of Aeromonas, a genus potentially pathogenic to humans. PMID:19590136

  6. Characterization of Virulence Properties of Aeromonas veronii Isolated from Diseased Gibel Carp (Carassius gibelio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jingjing; Zhang, Xiaojun; Gao, Xiaojian; Jiang, Qun; Wen, Yi; Lin, Li

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas veronii is a kind of opportunistic pathogen to fish and humans, significantly impending aquaculture production. Recently, we isolated two A. veronii strains, named GYC1 and GYC2, from diseased Gibel carp (Carassius gibelio) in China. Based on gyrB (DNA gyrase B subunit) genes of GYC1 and GYC2, the constructed phylogenetic tree showed that the two strains were clustered with A. veronii. Sixteen virulence genes related to the pathogenicity of Aeromonas spp. were subjected to PCR assay. The genes of ompAI, ompAII, lafA, act, aer, fla, gcaT and acg were detected in the two strains, while genes of hly, ahp, lip, ast and alt were not detected. Additionally, genes eprCAI, ela and exu were only detected in the strain GYC1. Furthermore, the results of extracellular enzyme analysis revealed that the two isolates can produce hemolysin, caseinase, esterase, amylase and lecithinase, which were closely related to the pathogenicity of the two strains. However, the results showed that there was no gelatinase activity in either strain. According to the antibiotic resistant assay, the two strains were sensitive to cephalosporins and aminoglycosides, while they were resistant to penicillins and quinolones. Through this study, the virulence characteristics, including virulence genes and extracellular enzymes, the pathogenicity of A. veronii was clarified, enhancing the understanding about this pathogenic bacterium and providing the theoretical basis in disease control. PMID:27043558

  7. Characterization of Virulence Properties of Aeromonas veronii Isolated from Diseased Gibel Carp (Carassius gibelio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Sun

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas veronii is a kind of opportunistic pathogen to fish and humans, significantly impending aquaculture production. Recently, we isolated two A. veronii strains, named GYC1 and GYC2, from diseased Gibel carp (Carassius gibelio in China. Based on gyrB (DNA gyrase B subunit genes of GYC1 and GYC2, the constructed phylogenetic tree showed that the two strains were clustered with A. veronii. Sixteen virulence genes related to the pathogenicity of Aeromonas spp. were subjected to PCR assay. The genes of ompAI, ompAII, lafA, act, aer, fla, gcaT and acg were detected in the two strains, while genes of hly, ahp, lip, ast and alt were not detected. Additionally, genes eprCAI, ela and exu were only detected in the strain GYC1. Furthermore, the results of extracellular enzyme analysis revealed that the two isolates can produce hemolysin, caseinase, esterase, amylase and lecithinase, which were closely related to the pathogenicity of the two strains. However, the results showed that there was no gelatinase activity in either strain. According to the antibiotic resistant assay, the two strains were sensitive to cephalosporins and aminoglycosides, while they were resistant to penicillins and quinolones. Through this study, the virulence characteristics, including virulence genes and extracellular enzymes, the pathogenicity of A. veronii was clarified, enhancing the understanding about this pathogenic bacterium and providing the theoretical basis in disease control.

  8. Characterization of Virulence Properties of Aeromonas veronii Isolated from Diseased Gibel Carp (Carassius gibelio)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jingjing; Zhang, Xiaojun; Gao, Xiaojian; Jiang, Qun; Wen, Yi; Lin, Li

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas veronii is a kind of opportunistic pathogen to fish and humans, significantly impending aquaculture production. Recently, we isolated two A. veronii strains, named GYC1 and GYC2, from diseased Gibel carp (Carassius gibelio) in China. Based on gyrB (DNA gyrase B subunit) genes of GYC1 and GYC2, the constructed phylogenetic tree showed that the two strains were clustered with A. veronii. Sixteen virulence genes related to the pathogenicity of Aeromonas spp. were subjected to PCR assay. The genes of ompAI, ompAII, lafA, act, aer, fla, gcaT and acg were detected in the two strains, while genes of hly, ahp, lip, ast and alt were not detected. Additionally, genes eprCAI, ela and exu were only detected in the strain GYC1. Furthermore, the results of extracellular enzyme analysis revealed that the two isolates can produce hemolysin, caseinase, esterase, amylase and lecithinase, which were closely related to the pathogenicity of the two strains. However, the results showed that there was no gelatinase activity in either strain. According to the antibiotic resistant assay, the two strains were sensitive to cephalosporins and aminoglycosides, while they were resistant to penicillins and quinolones. Through this study, the virulence characteristics, including virulence genes and extracellular enzymes, the pathogenicity of A. veronii was clarified, enhancing the understanding about this pathogenic bacterium and providing the theoretical basis in disease control. PMID:27043558

  9. Resistencia a antibioticos y presencia de plasmidos en: Aeromonas hydrophila, Vibrio fluvialis y Vibrio furnissii, aislados de Carassius auratus auratus

    OpenAIRE

    Pilar Negrete Redondo; Jorge Romero Jarero; José Luis Arredondo Figueroa

    2004-01-01

    Se aislaron e identificaron 70 cepas bacterianas del riñón de peces de ornato Carassius auratus con signos y lesiones de infección. Las especies bacterianas aisladas e identificadas, Aeromonas hydrophila, Vibrio fluvialis y Vibrio furnissii, han sido descritas como causantes de diarrea en humano y como patógeno muy agresivo en cultivos de Ciprinus carpio. Por esta razón se ha hecho mal uso y abuso de antibióticos para evitar y controlar la presencia de esta bacteria en los cultivos. El uso fu...

  10. Resistance of Salmonds Against Aeromonas Salmonicida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holten-Andersen, Lars; Dalsgaard, Inger; Buchmann, Kurt

    2011-01-01

    Furunculosis, caused by Aeromonas salmonicida, continues to be a health problem for the growing salmonid aquaculture. Despite effective vaccination programs regular outbreaks occur at Danish trout farms calling for repeated antibiotic treatment. We hypothesized that a difference in natural...... over a 30-day period post challenge and the results were summarized in mortality curves. A. salmonicida was recovered from mortalities during the entire test period. At day 30 the survival was 6.2 % and 34.0 % for rainbow trout and Baltic salmon, respectively. Significant differences in susceptibility...... new possibilities for salmonid aquaculture in terms of minimizing disease outbreaks and the use of antibiotics....

  11. Caracterização físico-morfológica de frutos de microtangerinas (Citrus spp. de potencial utilização como porta-enxertos Physical and morphological characterization of fruits of small-fruited mandarins (Citrus spp. of potential use as rootstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ribamar Gusmão Araujo

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou caracterizar espécies e variedades de Citrus do grupo das microtangerinas de valor potencial como porta-enxertos, de modo a propiciar maior conhecimento desse grupo de plantas e oferecer subsídios para futuras pesquisas. Um total de 14 variedades/clones foram descritas, incluindo as seguintes espécies: C. reshni Hort. ex Tan., C. sunki Hort. ex Tan, C. pectinifera Tan., C. crenatifolia Lush., C. amblycarpa Och., C. tachibana Tan., C. lycopersicaeformis Hort. ex Tan., C. keraji Hort. ex Tan. e C. reticulata Blanco. A pesquisa foi conduzida no Departamento de Horticultura da FCA-Unesp, Botucatu-SP e os frutos foram obtidos dos BAGs de Citros da FCA-Unesp-SP, e do CCSM-IAC, Cordeirópolis-SP. Descritores físicos e morfológicos de frutos indicaram diferenças entre espécies/variedades. As microtangerinas apresentaram características semelhantes quanto ao pequeno tamanho dos frutos, forma oblata e coloração laranja dos frutos. C. amblycarpa, C. sunki e C. tachibana produziram os frutos de menor tamanho e espessura de casca. Elevado número de sementes por fruto foi encontado nas tangerinas 'Cleópatra', 'Sun Chu Sha Kat', 'Suen Kat' e 'Heennaran', enquanto 'Sunki' apresentou elevado número de sementes abortadas. Parece discutível a posição botânica de 'Suen Kat', ao que se propõe considerar a mesma como uma variedade de C. sunki.The present research aimed to characterize physical and morphological features of fourteen species/varieties of small-fruited mandarins of Tanaka´s groups (Citrus spp., and hence select the most promising types. It was described the followings species: C. reshni Hort. ex Tan., C. sunki Hort. ex Tan, C. pectinifera Tan., C. crenatifolia Lush., C. amblycarpa Och., C. tachibana Tan., C. lycopersicaeformis Hort. ex Tan., C. keraji Hort. ex Tan. and C. reticulata Blanco. The work was carried out at the Department of Horticulture/FCA-Unesp, Botucatu, SP, Brazil. Centers of Citrus

  12. Dynamics of Aeromonas species isolated from wastewater treatment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martone-Rocha, S; Piveli, R P; Matté, G R; Dória, M C; Dropa, M; Morita, M; Peternella, F A; Matté, M H

    2010-12-01

    Aeromonas are widely distributed in the aquatic environment, and are considered to be emerging organisms that can produce a series of virulence factors. The present study was carried out in a sanitary sewage stabilization pond treatment system, located in Lins, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Most probable number was applied for estimation of the genus Aeromonas. Colony isolation was carried out on blood agar ampicillin and confirmed by biochemical characterization. Aeromonas species were isolated in 72.4% of influent samples, and in 55.2 and 48.3% of effluent from anaerobic and facultative lagoons, respectively. Thirteen Aeromonas species were isolated, representing most of the recognized species of these organisms. Even though it was possible to observe a tendency of decrease, total elimination of these organisms from the studied system was not achieved. Understanding of the pathogenic organism's dynamics in wastewater treatment systems with a reuse potential is especially important because of the risk it represents. PMID:20705981

  13. Aeromonas caviae strain induces Th1 cytokine response in mouse intestinal tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeromonas caviae has been associated with human gastrointestinal disease. Strains of this species typically lack virulence factors (VFs) such as enterotoxins and hemolysins that are produced by other human pathogens of the Aeromonas genus,. Microarray profiling of...

  14. Biochemical characteristics, serogroups, and virulence factors of aeromonas species isolated from cases of diarrhoea and domestic water samples in Chennai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alavandi S

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The objective of the present study was to delineate the differences between the clinical and environmental Aeromonas species with respect to their biochemical characteristics, serogrouping and virulence factors, in order to find a phenotypic marker of enteropathogenicity. METHODS: A total of 55 Aeromonas spp. inclusive of 19 isolates from cases of diarrhoea, and 36 from water samples comprising, 10 isolates of A. hydrophila, 21 isolates each of A. sobria, and A. caviae, two isolates of A. jandaei and one isolate of A. veronii were subjected to analysis of their biochemical characteristics, serogrouping, and virulence factors. RESULTS: Among the differences recorded in the biochemical characteristics in the three major species, the most striking characteristic was fermentation of lactose, which was observed in all the 11 A. caviae isolates recovered from water samples. None of the 10 clinical isolates of A. caviae tested fermented lactose. The clinical Aeromonas isolates belonged to seven typable serogroups, O:13, O:14, O:16, O:21, O:27, O:32 and O:35. The environmental isolates belonged to eight different serogroups, such as, O:3, O:11, O:14, O:16, O:18, O:28, O:64 and O:78 and were predominated by serotypes O:18 and O:64. Among the virulence factors tested, 89% of the environmental isolates produced b haemolysin, while only 62.3% of clinical isolates were able to do so. There was no significant difference between the clinical and environmental aeromonads with respect to their enterotoxigenicity in suckling mice in vivo, cytotoxicity in vitro in Vero cell monolayers, and ability to produce siderophores. CONCLUSION: Efforts to delineate the differences between the clinical and environmental Aeromonas spp. did not reveal significant difference between them. However, difference was observed with respect to their ability to produce b haemolysin, wherein, higher percentage of environmental isolates was haemolytic. The results also suggest

  15. Enterotoxigenicidade de cepas de Aeromonas sp. isoladas em diferentes pontos do fluxograma de abate bovino

    OpenAIRE

    Rossi Júnior O.D.; Amaral L.A.; Nader Filho A; Schocken-Iturrino R.P.

    2001-01-01

    Com o objetivo de verificar a capacidade enterotoxigênica de cepas de Aeromonas sp. isoladas em diferentes produtos e locais no fluxograma de abate bovino, foram testadas 102 cepas (18 da espécie A. hydrophila, 65 da espécie A. caviae e 19 atípicas) ante os testes de inoculação intragástrica em camundongo lactente e em alça intestinal ligada de coelho. Revelaram-se como produtoras de enterotoxinas três (16,7%) cepas da espécie A. hydrophila, originárias das mãos do manipulador antes que ele i...

  16. Culture-independent methodologies to assess diversity and dynamics of Aeromonas communities

    OpenAIRE

    Calhau, Vera Mónica Tavares Vinhas

    2008-01-01

    As Aeromonas são bactérias autóctones em ambientes aquáticos e constituem um grave problema em sistemas de aquacultura devido à sua capacidade de provocar doença em peixes. Estas bactérias são actualmente consideradas patogéneos emergentes em humanos. Os surtos de doença podem estar associados à introdução de estirpes virulentas que evoluíram a partir de outros nichos ou da aquisição de determinantes de virulência do mesmo nicho, ou ainda como resultado de um desequilíbrio n...

  17. Quorum sensing regulation in Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garde, Christian; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Givskov, Michael; Jakobsen, Tim Holm; Hentzer, Morten; Claussen, Anetta; Sneppen, Kim; Ferkinghoff-Borg, Jesper; Sams, Thomas

    2010-03-01

    We present detailed results on the C4-HSL-mediated quorum sensing (QS) regulatory system of the opportunistic Gram-negative bacterium Aeromonas hydrophila. This bacterium contains a particularly simple QS system that allows for a detailed modeling of kinetics. In a model system (i.e., the Escherichia coli monitor strain MH205), the C4-HSL production of A. hydrophila is interrupted by fusion of gfp(ASV). In the present in vitro study, we measure the response of the QS regulatory ahyRI locus in the monitor strain to predetermined concentrations of C4-HSL signal molecules. A minimal kinetic model describes the data well. It can be solved analytically, providing substantial insight into the QS mechanism: at high concentrations of signal molecules, a slow decay of the activated regulator sets the timescale for the QS regulation loop. Slow saturation ensures that, in an A. hydrophila cell, the QS system is activated only by signal molecules produced by other A. hydrophila cells. Separate information on the ahyR and ahyI loci can be extracted, thus allowing the probe to be used in identifying the target when testing QS inhibitors. PMID:20064524

  18. Aeromonas lusitana sp. nov., Isolated from Untreated Water and Vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Murcia, Antonio; Beaz-Hidalgo, Roxana; Navarro, Aaron; Carvalho, M João; Aravena-Román, Max; Correia, Antonio; Figueras, M José; Saavedra, M José

    2016-06-01

    During previous studies to evaluate the phylogenetic diversity of Aeromonas from untreated waters and vegetables intended for human consumption, a group of isolates formed a unique gyrB phylogenetic cluster, separated from those of all other species described so far. A subsequent extensive phenotypic characterization, DNA-DNA hybridization, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, multi-locus phylogenetic analysis of the concatenated sequence of seven housekeeping genes (gyrB, rpoD, recA, dnaJ, gyrA, dnaX, and atpD; 4705 bp), and ERIC-PCR, were performed in an attempt to ascertain the taxonomy position of these isolates. This polyphasic approach confirmed that they belonged to a novel species of the genus Aeromonas, for which the name Aeromonas lusitana sp. nov. is proposed, with strain A.11/6(T) (=DSMZ 24095(T), =CECT 7828(T)) as the type strain. PMID:26868258

  19. Susceptibility of Aeromonas Hydophila Isolates to Antimicrobial Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Stojanov

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas hydrophila is a microorganism widely distributed in nature: in water, soil, food. It is also part of the normal bacterial flora of many animals. As an opportune microorganism it is a secondary biological agent that contributes to the occurrence of a fish disease and its deterioration. Frequently, its presence is an indication of bad zoohygiene and zootechnical conditions in fish ponds. Reduced quality and quantity of feed, mechanical injuries, parasitosis, seasonal oscillation in temperature present some of the factors that produce favorable conditions for bacterial proliferation of aeromonas in fish ponds, so clinical symptoms of the disease occur. Aeromonas is almost always present in clinical isolates and may be unjustly accused for bad health of fish. Antibiotic therapy is applied even when the clinical findings are clear, what certainly effects the susceptibility to chemotherapeutics. The subject of our work was bacteriological examination of the material obtained from the carps with the observed skin changes and the carps without these changes. Also, antimicrobial susceptibility of Aeromonas hydrophila was tested. The aim of this research was to determined the presence of Aeromonas hydrophilia in the carp ponds and to test antibiotic susceptibility. The material consisted of the samples from the fish ponds where the carps were with and without changed skin. The method the isolation of Aeromonas hydrophila was used. The diffusion disk technique was used for testing antibiotic susceptibility. The isolates were tested for their susceptibility to Florephenikol, Flumequine, Olaqindox and Oxitetracycline. The obtained results point that antimicrobial susceptibility was the same regardless of the origin of the samples, i.e. the resistance was the same for both groups of samples (the strains isolated from the fish with skin changes and the strains from fish without changes on skin. The strains were highly resistant: 35% were resistant to

  20. [Bacteria of the genus Aeromonas and their role in aquaculture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kompanets, E V; Isaeva, N M; Balakhnin, I A

    1992-01-01

    Bacteria of genus Aeromonas are constant components of microbiota of fresh reservoirs where they, together with other microorganisms, play the part of natural biofilter and promote water self-purification. They are necessarily present in normal microflora of hydrobionts inhabiting fresh reservoirs. The greatest attention is paid by the researchers to Aeromonas and biotrophs in connection with epizootics in aquaculture which have become more frequent, in particular, under fish breeding. That is why the review is, to more extent, concerned in the works of this trend made by the foreign and home researchers for the last decade. PMID:1406386

  1. Aeromonas hydrophila as a causative organism in peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liakopoulos, V; Arampatzis, S; Kourti, P; Tsolkas, T; Zarogiannis, S; Eleftheriadis, T; Giannopoulou, M; Stefanidis, I

    2011-02-01

    Most episodes of peritoneal dialysis (PD)-related peritonitis could be attributed to a single organism, but in almost 10% of peritonitis episodes multiple organisms are identified. Polymicrobial peritonitis is often related to intra-abdominal pathology, and the prognosis may be poor. Aeromonas spp. have rarely been identified as the causative pathogen in PD-related peritonitis, and a very small number of cases has been reported in the literature. These rod-shaped, gram-negative microorganisms have been isolated from wastewater drainage systems, food, vegetables, and soil. Herein we report a case of polymicrobial peritonitis in a continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patient with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), due to a combination of Streptococcus viridans and Aeromonas hydrophila infection. The patient was involved in gardening and was not compliant with her technique protocol. She did not wear a mask and omitted thorough hand washing. The patient was treated with i.p. vancomycin and ceftazidime and peritonitis was resolved. The patient's technique was reassessed, and she was retrained by our PD nurses. PMID:21269597

  2. Detection of the frequency, antimicrobial susceptibility, and genotypic discrimination of Aeromonas strains isolated from municipally treated tap water samples by cultivation and AP-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emekdas, Gurol; Aslan, Gonul; Tezcan, Seda; Serin, Mehmet Sami; Yildiz, Cilem; Ozturhan, Hakan; Durmaz, Riza

    2006-04-01

    The frequency, antibiotic susceptibility, and genotypic discrimination of Aeromonas strains isolated from municipally treated drinking tap water distribution systems were investigated in this study. We have analyzed 148 tap water samples collected from 8 different locations by bacterial cultivation and arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction (AP-PCR). Gram negative, hemolytic, oxidase (+) and catalase (+) bacterial colonies were applied to the study. Identification of bacterial colonies was done by conventional biochemical method and API ID 20E panel (BioMerieux-France). Molecular epidemiological discrimination of the isolates was done by AP-PCR. Aeromonas spp. was detected in 6 of 148 (4%) tap water samples from 8 different locations. Five isolates were identified as Aeromonas hydrophila and one isolate was identified as Vibrio fluvialis by conventional biochemical method. These data were also confirmed by API 20E panel. One of 6 isolates was resistant to gentamicin, 2 of 6 isolates were resistant to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, 4 of 6 isolates were resistant to ampicillin and ampicillin-sulbactam and all of 6 isolates were resistant to cephalothin. All isolates were found to be susceptible to amikacin, aztreonam, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin. All 6 strains of Aeromonas were discriminated by AP-PCR and were determined that all isolates were from different genotypic sources. Although the frequency of the isolates was under the standard limits, the results indicate that hemolytic A. hydrophila are present in municipally treated tap water samples in Mersin City. While all strains were genotypically distinct, all of them were resistant to first generation beta lactam antibiotics tested in this study. PMID:16427154

  3. Aeromonas hydrophila septicaemia and muscle abscesses associated with immunosuppression.

    OpenAIRE

    Slevin, N J; Oppenheim, B A; Deakin, D. P.

    1988-01-01

    We report a case of septicaemia and muscle abscesses due to Aeromonas hydrophila. The patient was immunosuppressed due to Hodgkin's disease and treatment with cytotoxic chemotherapy. The abscesses resolved after prolonged antibiotic therapy. Organisms that were once considered rarely pathogenic are emerging as increasingly important in causing potentially lethal infections in immunosuppressed patients.

  4. Aeromonas hydrophila in 2010: Characteristics of Alabama outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    For a second year, epidemics associated with a virulent strain of Aeromonas hydrophila resulted in losses of hundreds of thousands of pounds of market size Alabama (AL) catfish. During this period, the Alabama Fish Farming Center diagnosed outbreaks of this strain of A. hydrophila on 25% (28/113) o...

  5. SENSITIVITY OF DIFFERENT AEROMONAS SPECIES TO COPPER AND SILVER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeromonas bacteria are common flora in surface and ground waters and are considered to be human pathogens. They can also be found in municipally treated drinking water, likely as a component of biofilms, as found in distribution system pipes and point of use water filters. It ...

  6. Aeromonas hydrophila: Observations of the Alabama industry in 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2009, the Alabama catfish industry experienced widespread mortality from infection by the bacterium Aeromonas hydrophila. As soon as pond water temperatures warmed above 26 degrees centigrade (80 degrees fahrenheit) in 2010, epidemics have again occurred across the industry. This talk, which is a...

  7. Characterization of atypical Aeromonas salmonicida by different methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Austin, B.; Austin, D.A.; Dalsgaard, Inger; Gudmundsdottir, B.K.; Høie, S.; Thornton, J.M.; Larsen, J.L.; O'Hici, B.; Powell, R.

    1998-01-01

    Fifty two isolates of atypical Aeromonas salmonicida, recovered from a wide range of hosts and geographical locations, were heterogeneous in terms of molecular and phenotypic characteristics, and represented taxa which could not be accommodated by the current classification of four subspecies. Ge...

  8. Characterization of atypical Aeromonas salmonicida by different methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Austin, B.; Austin, D.A.; Dalsgaard, Inger; Gudmundsdottir, B.K.; Høie, S.; Thornton, J.M.; Larsen, J.L.; O'Hici, B.; Powell, R.

    1998-01-01

    Fifty two isolates of atypical Aeromonas salmonicida, recovered from a wide range of hosts and geographical locations, were heterogeneous in terms of molecular and phenotypic characteristics, and represented taxa which could not be accommodated by the current classification of four subspecies...

  9. Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Aeromonas hydrophila Cellulitis following Leech Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Giltner, Carmen L.; Bobenchik, April M; Uslan, Daniel Z.; Deville, Jaime G.; Humphries, Romney M.

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of surgical site infection with ciprofloxacin-resistant Aeromonas hydrophila following leech therapy. Antimicrobial and genetic analyses of leech and patient isolates demonstrated that the resistant isolates originated from the leech gut microbiota. These data suggest that ciprofloxacin monotherapy as a prophylaxis regimen prior to leech therapy may not be effective in preventing infection.

  10. Production and properties of lipase of Aeromonas sobria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Eizo; Ito, Hidenobu; Kobayashi, Hidetomo; Yamanaka, Hiroyasu; Takeda, Yoshifumi; Balakrish Nair, Gopinath; Arimoto, Sakae; Negishi, Tomoe; Okamoto, Keinosuke

    2012-05-01

    Aeromonas have been isolated from a wide variety of aquatic environments. However the number of Aeromonas in sea water is extremely small compared to that in fresh water. In in vitro culture, Aeromonas can grow in mediums containing NaCl at a concentration of 3.0%, this concentration corresponding to that of sea water. It is unclear why the number of Aeromonas is low in sea water. Exoproteins of bacteria are thought to be important for bacterial growth and survival in the environment. Previously, the present authors have shown that mediums containing 3.0% NaCl suppress production of two proteases, serine protease and metalloprotease. In this experiment, other exoproteins whose production is influenced by the amount of NaCl in the medium were analyzed. A protein whose production is repressed in medium containing 3.0% NaCl was found and purified. Biological assay of the purified protein showed that it degrades tributyrin and hydrolyzes para-nitrophenyl-fatty acylesters. These results show that the protein is a lipase. Subsequently, the nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding the lipase was determined and the amount of mRNA of the lipase gene in the cells measured. It was found that transcription of the gene is not inhibited by NaCl in the medium. This result indicates that the lipase might be synthesized, but the folding process to become an active structure does not progress smoothly in a medium containing 3.0% NaCl. PMID:22376235

  11. Clinical implications of species identification in monomicrobial Aeromonas bacteremia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Jung Wu

    Full Text Available Advances in Aeromonas taxonomy have led to the reclassification of aeromonads. Hereon, we aimed to re-evaluate the characteristics of Aeromonas bacteremia, including those of a novel species, Aeromonas dhakensis.A retrospective study of monomicrobial Aeromonas bacteremia at a medical center in southern Taiwan from 2004-2011 was conducted. Species identification was based on rpoB sequencing. Of bacteremia of 153 eligible patients, A. veronii (50 isolates, 32.7%, A. dhakensis (48, 31.4%, A. caviae (43, 28.1%, and A. hydrophila (10, 6.5% were the principal causative species. A. dhakensis and A. veronii bacteremia were mainly community-acquired and presented as primary bacteremia, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, or skin and soft-tissue infection, whereas A. caviae was associated with hospital-onset bacteremia. The distribution of the AmpC β-lactamase and metallo-β-lactamase genes was species-specific: bla(AQU-1, bla(MOX, or bla(CepH was present in A. dhakensis, A. caviae, or A. hydrophila, respectively, and bla(CphA was present in A. veronii, A. dhakensis, and A. hydrophila. The cefotaxime resistance rates of the A. caviae, A. dhakensis, and A. hydrophila isolates were higher than that of A. veronii (39.5%%, 25.0%, and 30% vs. 2%, respectively. A. dhakensis bacteremia was linked to the highest 14-day sepsis-related mortality rate, followed by A. hydrophila, A. veronii, and A. caviae bacteremia (25.5%, 22.2%, 14.0%, and 4.7%, respectively; P = 0.048. Multivariate analysis revealed that A. dhakensis bacteremia, active malignancies, and a Pitt bacteremia score ≥ 4 was an independent mortality risk factor.Characteristics of Aeromonas bacteremia vary between species. A. dhakensis prevalence and its associated poor outcomes suggest it an important human pathogen.

  12. The improved PCR of the fstA (ferric siderophore receptor) gene differentiates the fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida from other Aeromonas species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaz-Hidalgo, Roxana; Latif-Eugenín, Fadua; Figueras, María José

    2013-10-25

    The members of the genus Aeromonas are autochthonous of aquatic ecosystems and several species have been associated to septicaemia, ulcerative and haemorrhagic diseases in fish, causing significant mortality in both wild and farmed, freshwater and marine fish species. The species Aeromonas salmonicida is generally recognized as the most important fish pathogen responsible for epidemic outbreaks of furunculosis in salmonids, also being able to produce infections in other cultured fish such as turbot, halibut, sea bream or goldfish. New species, i.e. Aeromonas aquariorum, Aeromonas tecta and Aeromonas piscicola, have recently been discovered and isolated from diseased fish. The species A. piscicola and Aeromonas bestiarum are practically impossible to differentiate phenotypically and genetically (when using the 16S rRNA gene) from each other and from A. salmonicida. In the present study, two previously described PCR protocols, based on the fstA and gyrB genes, for the specific detection of A. salmonicida were re-evaluated with the type strains of all Aeromonas species and with a set of A. piscicola and A. bestiarum strains. Contrary to what had been published previously it was demonstrated that the gyrB-PCR is not specific for A. salmonicida because of cross-reactions with other Aeromonas species. However, in agreement with previous results, A. salmonicida was detected on the basis of the fstA-PCR, for which an improved protocol was proposed. PMID:23890674

  13. In vitro comparisons of the inhibitory activity of florfenicol copper sulfate and potassium permanganate towards Aeromonas hydrophila and Flavobacterium columnare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeromonas hydrophila and Flavobacterium columnare, the etiological agents of motile aeromonas septicemia (MAS) and columnaris disease, respectively, have been recently causing crippling moralities to the sunshine bass, Morone chrysops female X Morone saxatilis male (Percichthyidae), industry in the ...

  14. Multifocal Aeromonas Osteomyelitis in a Child with Leukemia

    OpenAIRE

    Doganis, Dimitrios; Baka, Margarita; Tsolia, Maria; Pourtsidis, Apostolos; Lebessi, Evangelia; Varvoutsi, Maria; Bouhoutsou, Despina; Kosmidis, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is a Gram negative organism causing both intestinal and extraintestinal disease. The case of a 14-year-old girl with underlying immunodeficiency and leukemia who developed systemic A. hydrophila infection is described in this report. While in deep bone marrow aplasia she developed fever, severe pain in the lower extremities, and swelling of the left femur. Blood culture showed Escherichia coli and A. hydrophila whereas pus culture from the soft tissue swelling showed the ...

  15. Endogenous Aeromonas Hydrophila Endophthalmitis in an Immunocompromised Patient

    OpenAIRE

    Sohn, Hee Jin; Nam, Dong Heun; Kim, Yeon Suk; Paik, Hae Jung

    2007-01-01

    Purpose To report a case of endogenous endophthalmitis due to Aeromonas hydrophila in a patient with distal common bile duct carcinoma and biliary sepsis. Methods A 72-year-old woman with distal common bile duct carcinoma, obstructive jaundice, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension had a 1-day history of blurred vision, redness, and eye discharges in the right eye. An ophthalmic examination showed no light perception vision, increased intraocular pressure, severe corneal edema, severe anterior ...

  16. Isolation of drug-resistant Aeromonas hydrophila from aquatic environments.

    OpenAIRE

    McNicol, L A; Aziz, K. M.; Huq, I; Kaper, J B; Lockman, H A; Remmers, E F; Spira, W M; Voll, M. J.; Colwell, R R

    1980-01-01

    Antibiotic-resistant strains of Aeromonas hydrophila have been isolated from the natural environment in the Chesapeake Bay and areas surrounding Dacca and the Matlab region of Bangladesh. The Bangladesh strains carried resistance to chloramphenicol, streptomycin, and tetracycline, and 57% of them had a multiple streptomycin-tetracycline resistance phenotype correlated with the presence of a large plasmid. The Chesapeake Bay strains were resistant to polymyxin B ane tetracycline, but showed ne...

  17. Hematologia e sinais clínicos de Piaractus mesopotamicus infectados experimentalmente com Aeromonas hydrophila = Hematology and clinical signs of Piaractus mesopotamicus experimentally infected with Aeromonas hydrophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Ruas Moraes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este ensaio teve como objetivo avaliar as respostas hematológicas e a ocorrência de sinais clínico-patológicos de Piaractus mesopotamicus infectados experimentalmente por Aeromonas hydrophila. Foram utilizados 324 pacus, P. mesopotamicus, com peso de 102,84 ±27,1 g, distribuídos em 27 caixas de 300 L de capacidade, sendo 14 peixes por caixa. Os peixes foram mantidos nas caixas durante um mês, recebendo dieta balanceada, período em que se evitou qualquer tipo de manejo estressante. Passado esse período, foram infectadoscom 6 x 106 UFC de A. hydrophila, injetada via intraperitoneal. As coletas e análises de sangue foram realizadas 24h antes da infecção experimental e 24h após a infecção. Os resultados permitem concluir que a infecção por A. hydrophila em P. mesopotamicus écaracterizada por escurecimento da derme e sinais clínicos-patológicos relacionados à hemorragia, anemia normocítica-hipocrômica, redução nos níveis de proteínas, globulinasplasmáticas e eosinófilos, leucopenia, linfopenia, trombocitopenia, neutrofilia e monocitose. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hematological response and clinical sign of Piaractus mesopotamicus infected byAeromonas hydrophila. Were used 324 pacus, P. mesopotamicus weighing 102.84 ± 27.1 g distributed in 27 water tanks with 300 L of capacity, 14 fish per tank. The fish were kept in the water tanks during one month, receiving appropriate diet. In this period was avoidedstressing management. After this period, the fish were infected with 6 × 108 cfu of A. hydrophila fish-1, injected intraperitoneally. The blood collection was carried 24h before experimental infection and 24h after its. The A. hydrophila infection in P. mesopotamicus ischaracterized by dark skin and clinical signs related to hemorrhage, hypochromic normocytic anemia, decrease on plasmatic proteins and globulins levels, leucopenia, lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia, eosinophilia, neutrophilia and monocytosis.

  18. Complete genome sequence of channel catfish epidemic isolate Aeromonas hydrophila ML09-119

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeromonas hydrophila is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped, mesophilic bacteria that infects both aquatic poikilothermic animals and mammals, including humans. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of Aeromonas hydrophila ML-09-119, which represents a clonal group of A. hydrophila isolates causing ...

  19. Comparative genomics of Aeromonas hydrophila isolates from an epidemic in channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background Aeromonas hydrophila was identified as the etiologic agent infecting farmed channel catfish in 2009/2010, resulting in higher mortality rates than typical for motile Aeromonas septicemia with over 5 million pounds of catfish lost to this outbreak. The biochemistry, molecular phylogeny, an...

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of High-Melanin-Yielding Aeromonas media Strain WS

    OpenAIRE

    Chai, Baozhong; Wang, He; Chen, Xiangdong

    2012-01-01

    We sequenced the genome of the high-melanin-yielding Aeromonas media strain WS and then analyzed genes potentially involved in melanin formation. The 4.2-Mb draft genome carries multiple genes responsible for pyomelanin synthesis and other candidate genes identified in our separate study, which have no homolog in other strains of Aeromonas species.

  1. Whole-Genome Sequence of Aeromonas hydrophila Strain AH-1 (Serotype O11).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forn-Cuní, Gabriel; Tomás, Juan M; Merino, Susana

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is an emerging pathogen of aquatic and terrestrial animals, including humans. Here, we report the whole-genome sequence of the septicemic A. hydrophila AH-1 strain, belonging to the serotype O11, and the first mesophilic Aeromonas with surface layer (S-layer) to be sequenced. PMID:27587829

  2. Diarrea del viajero asociada a Aeromonas hydrophila Traveller's diarrohea caused by Aeromonas hydrophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Pita Toledo

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas hydrophila es una bacteria que se encuentra frecuentemente en aguas dulces y salobres. Desde hace varios años se conoce que determinadas cepas de la especie pueden causar enfermedad en pescados y en anfibios, existiendo cierta controversia sobre su patogeneicidad en humanos. No obstante, puede dar lugar a infección en personas, que la adquieren bien a través de heridas abiertas o bien por ingestión de alimentos o agua contaminados. Sin embargo, en prácticamente la totalidad de las publicaciones se hace referencia a casos aislados más que a brotes producidos por esta bacteria. Generalmente la infección por A. hydrophila da lugar a gastroenteritis en personas sanas, pudiendo generar una septicemia en individuos inmunodeprimidos.En 1998 se produjo una alarma en el sector hotelero por un incremento considerable de los casos de gastroenteritis entre los turistas que acudían durante sus vacaciones a determinadas zonas costeras de la isla de Tenerife.Tras tener conocimiento de la situación, la Dirección General de Salud Pública inició una investigación epidemiológica con el objetivo de conocer la magnitud real del problema detectado e identificar los factores asociados a la misma, para poner en marcha las medidas correctoras y de control necesarias. El análisis inicial permitió determinar que se trataba de un proceso de gran magnitud en su extensión aunque de carácter leve, que afectaba únicamente a los turistas en una zona costera en concreto, compatible por lo tanto con la diarrea del viajero, planteándose un origen probablemente hídrico.Aeromonas hydrophila is a bacteria frequently found in fresh water and saline water. Certain strains of the species have been known to cause disease in fish and amphibians for several years, although some controversy exists about its ability to cause illness in humans. Nevertheless, either through open wounds or contaminated food or water, it can give rise to infection. However, almost

  3. Rapid detection of virulence factors of Aeromonas isolated from a trout farm by hexaplex-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, In-Young; Joh, Kiseong

    2007-08-01

    The detection of virulence factors of Aeromonas is a key component in determining potential pathogenicity because these factors act multifunctionally and multifactorially. In this study water samples were collected from a trout farm on a seasonal basis, and diseased fish and Aeromonas species were isolated and identified. For rapid detection of six virulence factors of isolated Aeromonas, a hexaplex-polymerase chain reaction (hexaplex-PCR) assay was used. The detected virulence factors include aerolysin (aer), GCAT (gcat), serine protease (ser), nuclease (nuc) lipase (lip) and lateral flagella (laf). The dominant strain found in our isolates was Aeromonas sobria, and the dominant virulence factors were aer and nuc for all seasons. We confirmed that A. sobria and two of the virulence genes (aer and nuc) are related. We proposed a method by which one can identify the major strains of Aeromonas: A. hydrophila, A. sobria, A. caviae, and A. veronii, using hexaplex-PCR. PMID:17846582

  4. Aeromonas detection and characterization using genus-specific PCR and single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delamare, Ana Paula Longaray; Lucena, Roberto Francisco; Thomazi, Guilherme; Ferrarini, Shana; Zacaria, Jucimar; Echeverrigaray, Sergio

    2012-10-01

    Based on sequence alignment, oligonucleotide primers targeting the Aeromonas extracellular lipase gene were developed for PCR detection of member of the genus. A pair of primers designed for conserved regions of the gene amplified a 276 bp sequence in all Aeromonas species and tested strains, but did not have a positive result with other Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, showing high specificity and sensitivity. Selective enrichment in alkaline peptone water, followed by centrifugation, and direct usage of cells suspension as template, detected initial populations of 10 c.f.u. ml⁻¹. Single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis of the PCR products allowed the characterization of Aeromonas strains with a high discriminatory power (Simpson's index = 0.988). The method presented here provides a useful tool for the rapid detection of Aeromonas and the characterization of Aeromonas isolates. PMID:22806741

  5. Enterotoxigenicidade de cepas de Aeromonas sp. isoladas em diferentes pontos do fluxograma de abate bovino Enterotoxigenicity of Aeromonas sp. strains isolated from differents points in the cattle slaughtering processing line

    OpenAIRE

    O.D. Rossi Júnior; L.A. Amaral; A. Nader Filho; R.P. Schocken-Iturrino

    2001-01-01

    Com o objetivo de verificar a capacidade enterotoxigênica de cepas de Aeromonas sp. isoladas em diferentes produtos e locais no fluxograma de abate bovino, foram testadas 102 cepas (18 da espécie A. hydrophila, 65 da espécie A. caviae e 19 atípicas) ante os testes de inoculação intragástrica em camundongo lactente e em alça intestinal ligada de coelho. Revelaram-se como produtoras de enterotoxinas três (16,7%) cepas da espécie A. hydrophila, originárias das mãos do manipulador antes que ele i...

  6. Total protein electrophoresis and RAPD fingerprinting analysis for the identification of Aeromonas at the species level Análise eletroforética de proteínas totais e marcadores de RAPD na identificação de Aeromonas ao nível de espécie

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    Ana Paula Longaray Delamare

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Fifteen well-defined strains of Aeromonas of thirteen species were analyzed by SDS protein electrophoretic analysis (SDS-PAGE and random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis (RAPD. The comparison between the patterns obtained by both methods allowed differentiating all the strains. Clusters formed by the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic averages applied to protein data correlates with the genetic and biochemical information about the species. The results show that protein fingerprinting has the potential to differentiate Aeromonas species, but the low qualitative variation indicates that this technique is not efficient for the characterization of strains within a species. Conversely, RAPD fingerprinting allows the identification of strains but the high variability limits its potential as an aiding method for species identification.Quinze linhagens de Aeromonas pertencentes a treze espécies foram avaliadas através de eletroforese de proteínas totais (SDS-PAGE e segmentos de DNA amplificados ao acaso (RAPD. A comparação entre os padrões obtidos por ambos métodos permitiu diferenciar todas as linhagens. Agrupamentos formados com base nos dados protéicos mostraram relação com informações bioquímicas e genéticas a respeito das espécies. Os resultados mostraram que análises protéicas têm potencial para diferenciar espécies de Aeromonas, mas a baixa variação qualitativa indica que esta técnica não é eficiente para a caracterização entre linhagens dentro de espécies. Ao contrário, marcadores de RAPD permitem identificar linhagens, mas a alta variabilidade limita seu potencial como método auxiliar na identificação de espécies.

  7. Vibrio spp. and Salmonella spp., presence and susceptibility in crabs Ucides cordatus Vibrio spp. e Salmonella spp. em caranguejos, Ucides cordatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regine H.S.F. Vieira

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Vibrio spp. and Salmonella spp. in crabs marketed at the Bezerra de Menezes Ave., Fortaleza, State of Ceará, Brazil, was assessed between February and May, 2003. The number of individuals sampled in each one of the fifteen weekly samplings ranged between four and eight. Seven strains of Salmonella, from four different samplings, were identified, being five of them identified as serotype S. Senftenberg and two as S. Poona. All strains of Salmonella were sensitive to the tested anti-microbial drugs, with the exception of tetracycline and nalidixic acid, for which an intermediary sensibility was found. The MPN's for Vibrio ranged between 110/g and 110,000/g. Of the forty five Vibrio strains isolated from the crab samples, only 10 were identified up to the species level: two V. alginolyticus and eight V. parahaemolyticus. Bacteria belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonaceae families were also identified, namely Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Pantoea agglomerans and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The proper cooking of the animals is recommended in order to avoid problems for the consumers of this crustacean.Foram pesquisadas a presença de Vibrio spp. e de Salmonella spp. em caranguejos comercializados na Av. Bezerra de Menezes, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brasil, no período entre fevereiro e maio de 2003. O número de indivíduos em cada, das quinze coletas realizadas, semanalmente, variava entre quatro e oito dependendo do tamanho dos animais, totalizando um número de 90 (noventa animais examinados. Foram identificadas sete cepas de Salmonella spp. provenientes de quatro coletas: cinco foram identificadas como sorovar S. Senftenberg e duas como S. Poona. Todas as cepas de Salmonella, isoladas das amostras de caranguejos, apresentaram sensibilidade aos antimicrobianos testados, com exceção de tetraciclina e ácido nalidíxico para os quais elas apresentaram uma sensibilidade intermediária. Os NMPs

  8. Identification of Aeromonas hydrophila infection with specific monoclonal antibodies

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    Paisarn Sithigorngul

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Whole cell of Aeromonas hydrophila 1234 was used for immunization to produce monoclonal antibodies (MAbs. Three different groups of MAbs specific to Aeromonas were obtained. The first group of MAbs demonstrated high specificity and bound to the A. hydrophila 1234 only but did not bind to the other two A. hydrophila isolates. This group of MAbs bound to a series of lipo-polysaccharides (LPS with molecular masses range from 10 to190 kDa. The second group of antibodies recognized A. hydrophila 1234 and 2798 isolates, and bound to a series of LPS with molecular masses range from 5-200 kDa. The third group of MAbs recognized all three isolates of A. hydrophila and two isolates of A. sobria, and lightly bound to A. caviae. This group of MAbs also bound to an unknown protein with molecular mass of 20 kDa. The MAbs in group 1 and group 2 can be used to detect the bacteria in tissues by immunohistochemistry. Both groups of MAbs bound to LPS at different sites in which the MAbs in group 2 bound to the side chain of O antigen while the MAbs in group 1 bound to the polymerization site at the core of oligosaccharide. All of the MAbs can be used to identify Aeromonas by dot blotting with the sensitivity range from 103-104 CFU/l. This study demonstrated a convenient immunological tool that can be used for simple and accurate identification of A. hydrophila, as well as for diagnosis of the A. hydrophila infection in animals. This immunological tool can replace costly and laborious biochemical tests.

  9. Multifocal Aeromonas Osteomyelitis in a Child with Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doganis, Dimitrios; Baka, Margarita; Tsolia, Maria; Pourtsidis, Apostolos; Lebessi, Evangelia; Varvoutsi, Maria; Bouhoutsou, Despina; Kosmidis, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is a Gram negative organism causing both intestinal and extraintestinal disease. The case of a 14-year-old girl with underlying immunodeficiency and leukemia who developed systemic A. hydrophila infection is described in this report. While in deep bone marrow aplasia she developed fever, severe pain in the lower extremities, and swelling of the left femur. Blood culture showed Escherichia coli and A. hydrophila whereas pus culture from the soft tissue swelling showed the presence of A. hydrophila. Imaging studies showed diffuse osteolytic lesions. Patient received 5 months of intravenous and oral antibiotics and she improved clinically whereas the radiology findings persisted. PMID:27200197

  10. Effect of solar irradiation on extracellular enzymes of Aeromonas proteolytica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, B. G.

    1973-01-01

    The bacterium Aeromonas proteolytica was selected for studying the effects of solar irradiation on extracellular enzymes because it produces an endopeptidase that is capable of degrading proteins and a hemolysin that is active in lysing human erythrocytes. Possible alterations in the rate of enzyme production in response to the test conditions are currently underway and are not available for this preliminary report. Completed viability studies are indicative that little difference exists among the survival curves derived for cells exposed to various components of ultraviolet irradiation in space.

  11. Multifocal Aeromonas Osteomyelitis in a Child with Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Doganis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas hydrophila is a Gram negative organism causing both intestinal and extraintestinal disease. The case of a 14-year-old girl with underlying immunodeficiency and leukemia who developed systemic A. hydrophila infection is described in this report. While in deep bone marrow aplasia she developed fever, severe pain in the lower extremities, and swelling of the left femur. Blood culture showed Escherichia coli and A. hydrophila whereas pus culture from the soft tissue swelling showed the presence of A. hydrophila. Imaging studies showed diffuse osteolytic lesions. Patient received 5 months of intravenous and oral antibiotics and she improved clinically whereas the radiology findings persisted.

  12. Giardia spp. e Cryptosporidium spp. em água de manancial superficial de abastecimento contaminada por dejetos humano e animal Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. in a fresh water supply source contaminated with human and animal excreta and waste water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M.F. Dias

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se ocorrência de cistos de Giardia spp. e oocistos de Cryptosporidium spp. - (oocistos - na bacia hidrográfica do Ribeirão São Bartolomeu, localizada no município de Viçosa, MG. O estudo incluiu as populações humana e animal existentes na área da bacia, bem como no efluente de uma estação de tratamento de esgoto (ETE e de duas instalações para suínos. Os resultados indicam presença de (oocistos no manancial (médias geométricas: 3,92 e 3,62 (oocistos/l para Giardia spp. e Cryptosporidium spp., respectivamente. Propriedades com exploração bovina foram positivas ao longo de todo período (prevalência média de propriedades positivas 36,4% para Giardia spp. e 18,0% para Cryptosporidium spp.. O efluente da ETE apresentou elevada concentração de cistos de Giardia spp. (média geométrica na ordem de 10(4/l, mas não foram encontrados oocistos de Cryptosporidium spp. A ocorrência de (oocistos apresentou comportamento sazonal, sendo que os valores médios de (oocistos e de pluviosidade do trimestre de coleta revelaram bom ajuste de correlação (R²=98,3%; P=0,0087 para Giardia spp. e R²=91,8%; P=0,0421 para Cryptosporidium spp.. A significativa ocorrência de (oocistos no manancial sugere que a forma de ocupação do solo interfere na qualidade parasitológica da água bruta. Os resultados apontam para a importância de adoção de medidas preventivas, como proteção de áreas de mananciais, objetivando reduzir riscos de transmissão de protozoários via água de consumo humano.The occurrence of Giardia spp. cysts and Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts - (oocysts - was studied in a watershed (São Bartolomeu Stream-SB, at Viçosa city, MG. In the studied area, characterization of animal farms and identification of sewage and animal wastes discharges were undertaken. In addition, a sewage treatment plant (STP and effluents of two swine farms were sampled. The results presented protozoan contamination (geometric averages: 3

  13. IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF AEROMONAS ISOLATES FROM DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Members of the bacterial genus Aeromonas are commonly isolated from both fresh and salt waters worldwide and some are believed to cause infections in humans, including gastroenteritis and wound infections. Currently, aeromonads are on the United States Environmental Protection A...

  14. Fatal Aeromonas hydrophila Infection of Soft Tissue after Endoscopic Injection Sclerotherapy for Gastric Variceal Bleeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ber-Ming Liu

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas hydrophila, an anaerobic gram-negative bacillus, can cause severe infectionsin immune-compromised patients. We present a 45-year-old cirrhotic man who sufferedfrom hematemesis and received emergency endoscopic injection sclerotherapy (EISfor gastric variceal bleeding. Twenty-one hours after EIS, painful swelling of the bilaterallower extremities and fever occurred. Severe soft-tissue infections with emergence of hemorrhagicbullae over the bilateral lower extremities followed. Even under aggressive treatment,the patient died of overwhelming sepsis 42 hours after EIS. Cultures of the blood andserosanguineous fluid from the hemorrhagic bullae revealed Aeromonas hydrophila. To thebest of our knowledge, this is the first case of fatal Aeromonas hydrophila infection afteremergancy EIS for gastric variceal bleeding reported in the English literature. It is worthemphasizing that physicians should consider Aeromonas hydrophila infection in cirrhoticpatients who develop soft-tissue infections after variceal bleeding whether emergency EIShas been performed or not.

  15. Genospecies and virulence factors of Aeromonas species in different sources in a North African country

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Salwa F.; Cappuccinelli, Piero; Klena, John D.; Ghenghesh, Khalifa Sifaw

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Aeromonads of medical importance have been reported from numerous clinical, food, and water sources, but identification of genospecies and virulence factors of Aeromonas species from countries in North Africa and the Middle East are few.Methods: In total 99 Aeromonas species isolates from different sources (diarrheal children [n=23], non-diarrheal children [n=16], untreated drinking water from wells [n=32], and chicken carcasses [n=28]) in Tripoli, Libya, were included in the pr...

  16. Extended-spectrum -lactamase and carbapenemase-producing Aeromonas species in wild animals from Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, C; Serra, C. R.; Simões, Lúcia C.; Simões, M.; Martinez-Murcia, A.; Saavedra, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Aeromonas are Gram-negative, facultative-anaerobic, non-spore-forming, glucose-fermenting, oxidase- and catalase-positive rods (Martin-Carnahan and Joseph 2005). Apart from fish, which are widely reported hosts for Aeromonads, insects, crustaceans, reptiles, birds and mammals were also found to harbour Aeromonas species, both in healthy and disease state (Pearson and others 2000, Turutoglu and others 2005, Evangelista-Barreto and others 2006, Ceylan and others 2009). An increase in resistance...

  17. Adhesion of Aeromonas sp. to cell lines used as models for intestinal adhesion.

    OpenAIRE

    Kirov, S M; Hayward, L. J.; Nerrie, M. A.

    1995-01-01

    Adhesion to HEp-2 cells has been shown to correlate with enteropathogenicity for Aeromonas species. Such adhesion is thought to reflect the ability of strains to adhere to human intestinal enterocytes, although HEp-2 cells are not of intestinal origin. In this study strains of Aeromonas veronii biotype sobria isolated from various sources were investigated in parallel assays for their ability to adhere to HEp-2 cells and to an intestinal cell line (Caco-2). Quantitative assays showed identica...

  18. Clonagem e expressão de uma potencial colagenase de Aeromonas hydrophila

    OpenAIRE

    Cavaleiro, Eliana Marisa dos Santos

    2008-01-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila é uma bactéria Gram-negativa que causa septicemia quer em peixes quer em humanos. Os principais patologias associados a infecções por Aeromonas são gastroenterites, infecção de feridas e doença sistémica. A patogenecidade deste organismo é multifactorial, possuindo factores na camada superficial proteica (camada S), diversos produtos extracelulares incluindo proteases, hemolisinas e enterotoxinas incluindo a acetilcolinesterase que contribui, significati...

  19. Phenotypic and Genetic Diversity of Aeromonas Species Isolated from Fresh Water Lakes in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Khor, Wei Ching; Puah, Suat Moi; Tan, Jin Ai Mary Anne; Puthucheary, SD; Chua, Kek Heng

    2015-01-01

    Gram-negative bacilli of the genus Aeromonas are primarily inhabitants of the aquatic environment. Humans acquire this organism from a wide range of food and water sources as well as during aquatic recreational activities. In the present study, the diversity and distribution of Aeromonas species from freshwater lakes in Malaysia was investigated using glycerophospholipid-cholesterol acyltransferase (GCAT) and RNA polymerase sigma-factor (rpoD) genes for speciation. A total of 122 possible Aer...

  20. Decolorisation of Congo Red by Aeromonas hydrophila Under Microaerophilic Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among 22 local bacterial isolates, Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from Bolti fish showed a remarkable ability to decolorize congo red under microaerophilic conditions (98.8% in 48 hrs) without prior adaptation. The bacterium had the ability to grow and decolorized high concentrations of congo red which varied from 50 to 1000 mg/l , the decolorisation was irrelevant to bacterial growth. The strain was capable of decolorizing congo red under a wide range of temperatures (20-40 degree C), ph (3-8), NaCl (0-200 mg/l) and also had the ability to decolorized mono, di and poly azo dyes. This bacterium is notable in its ability to decolorized the diazo congo red under extreme conditions of temperature, ph, salinity and high dye concentrations which makes it suitable for decolorisation under extreme industrial conditions

  1. Bacteremia due to Aeromonas hydrophila in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aeromonas hydrophila (A. hydrophila) is a low virulent organism but may cause devastating fatal infections in immunocompromised host especially in liver cirrhosis. It is rarely reported to cause septicemia in a patient with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL). The mortality rate of septicemia due to A. hydrophila is 29% to 73%. We report a case of 59-year-old female patient who was a known case of ALL, presented with the complaints of fever, lethargy and generalized weakness for one month. After taking blood samples for investigations, empirical antimicrobial therapy was started. She did not improve after 48 hours of therapy. Meanwhile blood culture revealed pure growth of A. hydrophila. After sensitivity report was available, ciprofloxacin was started. Patient became afebrile after 48 hours of treatment with ciprofloxacin. It is very vital to correctly identified and treat bacteremia due to A. hydrophila especially in the underlying leukemic patient. (author)

  2. Mortality of therapeutic fish Garra rufa caused by Aeromonas sobria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juraj Majtn; Jaroslaverny; Alena Ofkan; Peter Tak; Milan Koznek

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate a case of mass mortality of Garra rufa (G. rufa) from a fish hatchery farm in Slovakia. Methods: Causative bacterial agent was swabbing out of affected fish skin area and subsequently identified using commercial test system. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined by the disk diffusion method. Results: Infected G. rufa was characterized by abnormal swimming behaviour, bleeding of skin lesions and local haemorrhages. Despite of using recommended aquatic antibiotic treatment no improvement was achieved and Aeromonas sobria (A. sobria) was identified as a causative agent of fish mortality. Due to massive fish mortality, antibiotic susceptibility of pure isolated culture of A. sobria was evaluated employing eight antibiotics against human infections. A. sobria was resistant only against one antibiotic, namely ampicilin. Conclusions: These results indicate that A. sobria can act as a primary pathogen of G. rufa and may be a potential risk factor for immunodeficient or immunoincompetent patients during the ichthyotherapy.

  3. BEHAVIOUR OF Aeromonas hydrophila IN SALTED SWORDFISH SAMPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ziino

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A challenge test for Aeromonas hydrophila in salted swordfish samples was carried out. Particularly, 24 samples (250g were experimentally contaminated, salted and stored at two different temperature regimes (fluctuating – F group - and non fluctuating – NF group – regime. The count of A. hydrophila, Enterobacteria and Lactic acid bacteria (LAB as well as the determination of pH and aw were performed at 0, 19 43, 163, 187, 230, 320 and 368 hours whereas the temperature was monitored continuously by using 6 data-loggers. In both group, the mean concentrations of A. hydrophila did not exceed Log 3 cfu/g and decreased below the mean value of Log 1 cfu/g after 368 hours. However in the F group the A. hydrophila growth was slower and the decrease appeared slightly higher than NF group and this suggests the temperature fluctuations induces a more pronounced behaviour variability of A. hydrophila under stressing conditions.

  4. Evaluation of an in vitro cell assay to select attenuated bacterial mutants of Aeromonas hydrophila and Edwardsiella tarda to channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both Aeromonas hydrophila (causative agent of motile aeromonas septicemia) and Edwardsiella tarda (causative agent of enteric septicemia) are Gram-negative bacteria widely distributed in aquatic environments, affecting many fish species worldwide, including channel catfish and tilapia. To control ba...

  5. Adhesins of Bartonella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, Fiona; Schmidgen, Thomas; Kaiser, Patrick O; Linke, Dirk; Kempf, Volkhard A J

    2011-01-01

    Adhesion to host cells represents the first step in the infection process and one of the decisive features in the pathogenicity of Bartonella spp. B. henselae and B. quintana are considered to be the most important human pathogenic species, responsible for cat scratch disease, bacillary angiomatosis, trench fever and other diseases. The ability to cause vasculoproliferative disorders and intraerythrocytic bacteraemia are unique features of the genus Bartonella. Consequently, the interaction with endothelial cells and erythrocytes is a focus in Bartonella research. The genus harbours a variety of trimeric autotransporter adhesins (TAAs) such as the Bartonella adhesin A (BadA) of B. henselae and the variably expressed outer-membrane proteins (Vomps) of B. quintana, which display remarkable variations in length and modular construction. These adhesins mediate many of the biologically-important properties of Bartonella spp. such as adherence to endothelial cells and extracellular matrix proteins and induction of angiogenic gene programming. There is also significant evidence that the laterally acquired Trw-conjugation systems of Bartonella spp. mediate host-specific adherence to erythrocytes. Other potential adhesins are the filamentous haemagglutinins and several outer membrane proteins. The exact molecular functions of these adhesins and their interplay with other pathogenicity factors (e.g., the VirB/D4 type 4 secretion system) need to be analysed in detail to understand how these pathogens adapt to their mammalian hosts. PMID:21557057

  6. Giardia spp. e Cryptosporidium spp. em água de manancial superficial de abastecimento contaminada por dejetos humano e animal Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. in a fresh water supply source contaminated with human and animal excreta and waste water

    OpenAIRE

    G.M.F. Dias; P.D. Bevilacqua; R.K.X. Bastos; A.A. Oliveira; G.M.M. Campos

    2008-01-01

    Estudou-se ocorrência de cistos de Giardia spp. e oocistos de Cryptosporidium spp. - (oo)cistos - na bacia hidrográfica do Ribeirão São Bartolomeu, localizada no município de Viçosa, MG. O estudo incluiu as populações humana e animal existentes na área da bacia, bem como no efluente de uma estação de tratamento de esgoto (ETE) e de duas instalações para suínos. Os resultados indicam presença de (oo)cistos no manancial (médias geométricas: 3,92 e 3,62 (oo)cistos/l para Giardia spp. e Cryptospo...

  7. Implication of lateral genetic transfer in the emergence of Aeromonas hydrophila isolates of epidemic outbreaks in channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: A recent epidemic outbreak of motile Aeromonas septicemia of catfish caused by highly virulent Aeromonas hydrophila is a major threat to the catfish industry in the southeastern United States. The lack of a complete genome sequence for this newly emerged A. hydrophila genotype hampers ef...

  8. Identification and molecular characterization of the homogentisate pathway responsible for pyomelanin production, the major melanin constituents in Aeromonas media WS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Wang

    Full Text Available The pigmentation of many Aeromonas species has been thought to be due to the production of a L-DOPA (L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine based melanin. However, in this study we found that although L-DOPA synthesis occurs in the high-melanin-yielding Aeromonas media strain WS, it plays a minor, if any, role in pigmentation. Instead, the pigmentation of A. media strain WS is due to the production of pyomelanin through HGA (homogentisate. Gene products of phhA (encodes phenylalanine hydroxylase, tyrB and aspC (both encode aromatic amino acid aminotransferase, and hppD (encodes 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase constitute a linear pathway of converting phenylalanine to HGA and disruption of any one of these genes impairs or blocks pigmentation of A. media strain WS. This HGA biosynthesis pathway is widely distributed in Aeromonas, but HGA is only detectable in the cultures of pigmented Aeromonas species. Heterologous expression of HppD from both pigmented and non-pigmented Aeromonas species in E. coli leads to the production of pyomelanin and thus pigmentation, suggesting that most Aeromonas species have the critical enzymes to produce pyomelanin through HGA. Taken together, we have identified a widely conserved biosynthesis pathway of HGA based pyomelanin in Aeromonas that may be responsible for pigmentation of many Aeromonas species.

  9. Virulence Factors of Aeromonas hydrophila: In the Wake of Reclassification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen-Ivey, Cody R; Figueras, Maria J; McGarey, Donald; Liles, Mark R

    2016-01-01

    The ubiquitous "jack-of-all-trades," Aeromonas hydrophila, is a freshwater, Gram-negative bacterial pathogen under revision in regard to its phylogenetic and functional affiliation with other aeromonads. While virulence factors are expectedly diverse across A. hydrophila strains and closely related species, our mechanistic knowledge of the vast majority of these factors is based on the molecular characterization of the strains A. hydrophila AH-3 and SSU, which were reclassified as A. piscicola AH-3 in 2009 and A. dhakensis SSU in 2013. Individually, these reclassifications raise important questions involving the applicability of previous research on A. hydrophila virulence mechanisms; however, this issue is exacerbated by a lack of genomic data on other research strains. Collectively, these changes represent a fundamental gap in the literature on A. hydrophila and confirm the necessity of biochemical, molecular, and morphological techniques in the classification of research strains that are used as a foundation for future research. This review revisits what is known about virulence in A. hydrophila and the feasibility of using comparative genomics in light of this phylogenetic revision. Conflicting data between virulence factors, secretion systems, quorum sensing, and their effect on A. hydrophila pathogenicity appears to be an artifact of inappropriate taxonomic comparisons and/or be due to the fact that these properties are strain-specific. This review audits emerging data on dominant virulence factors that are present in both A. dhakensis and A. hydrophila in order to synthesize existing data with the aim of locating where future research is needed. PMID:27610107

  10. Development of an Aeromonas hydrophila recombinant extracellular protease vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lei; Jiang, Ya-nan; Tang, Qian; Lin, Hui-xing; Lu, Cheng-ping; Yao, Huo-chun

    2012-01-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila (Ah) exists widely in the aquatic environment and infects a variety of animals. Extracellular protease (EPR) is an important protective antigen that induces a specific antibody response to resist Ah infection. In this study, two genes encoding extracellular protease epr2 and epr3 were linked within the expression vector pET32a to construct a recombinant pET-epr2-3 plasmid. The immunogenicity of the fusion protein epr2-3 was investigated as a subunit vaccine in ICR mice. The recombinant epr2-3 protein induced the production of high antibody titers. The survival rate against homogenous Ah J-1 challenge was significantly higher in the epr2-3 vaccinated group (≥80%) compared with the inactivated Ah vaccinated group and the challenge control group (P < 0.01), thus indicating that the recombinant epr2-3 protein provided significant protection against Ah infection. Therefore, the recombinant epr2-3 is a promising candidate for development as a vaccine against Ah infections. PMID:22874879

  11. Isolation and characterization of motile Aeromonas from human, food and environmental specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Y; Kishi, T

    1988-10-01

    From July 1985 to March 1987, the occurrence of motile Aeromonas sp. in stool, food and environmental specimens was investigated to assess their pathogenic significance and to determine sources and routes of infection. A total of 9366 stool specimens were examined; Aeromonas was isolated from 11.1% of diarrhoeal stools and 2.2% of normal stools (P less than 0.001). Aeromonas counts in food specimens, which included minced beef, pork and chicken, seafood and various vegetables and their products, were unexpectedly high suggesting that infection might be food-borne rather than water-borne. About 70% of the isolates from meat products were A. hydrophila and A. sobria, while A. caviae was the most common in sea-fish, vegetables and their products. Most A. hydrophila and A. sobria strains produced haemolysin, but haemagglutinin was found more frequently in A. sobria. PMID:3181307

  12. SPP1-mediated plasmid transduction.

    OpenAIRE

    Canosi, U; Lüder, G; Trautner, T A

    1982-01-01

    The virulent Bacillus subtilis phage SPP1 transduces plasmid DNA. Plasmid-transducing phages contain only plasmid DNA. Such DNA represents a concatemer of monomeric plasmid molecules with the molecular weight of mature SPP1 DNA. Biological parameters of plasmid transduction are described.

  13. Cloning, mutagenesis, and nucleotide sequence of a siderophore biosynthetic gene (amoA) from Aeromonas hydrophila.

    OpenAIRE

    Barghouthi, S; Payne, S M; Arceneaux, J E; Byers, B R

    1991-01-01

    Many isolates of the Aeromonas species produce amonabactin, a phenolate siderophore containing 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,3-DHB). An amonabactin biosynthetic gene (amoA) was identified (in a Sau3A1 gene library of Aeromonas hydrophila 495A2 chromosomal DNA) by its complementation of the requirement of Escherichia coli SAB11 for exogenous 2,3-DHB to support siderophore (enterobactin) synthesis. The gene amoA was subcloned as a SalI-HindIII 3.4-kb DNA fragment into pSUP202, and the complete n...

  14. Identification of atypical Aeromonas salmonicida : Inter-laboratory evaluation and harmonization of methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Inger; Gudmundsdottir, B.K.; Helgason, S.; Høie, S.; Thoresen, O.F.; Wichardt, U.P.; Wiklund, T.

    1998-01-01

    The atypical isolates of Aeromonas salmonicida are becoming increasingly important as the frequency of isolation of bacteria belonging to this group continues to rise. The primary object of this study was to compare and evaluate the results obtained in various laboratories concerning the biochemi......The atypical isolates of Aeromonas salmonicida are becoming increasingly important as the frequency of isolation of bacteria belonging to this group continues to rise. The primary object of this study was to compare and evaluate the results obtained in various laboratories concerning the...

  15. Use of Aeromonas spp. as general indicators of antimicrobial susceptibility among bacteria in aquatic environments in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Masaru eUsui; Chie eTagaki; Akira eFukuda; Torahiko eOkubo; Chanchai eBoonla; Satoru eSuzuki; Kanako eSeki; Hideshige eTakada; Yutaka eTamura

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobials are widely used, not only for treating human infections, but also for treatment of livestock and in fish farms. Human habitats in Southeastern Asian countries are located in close proximity to aquatic environments. As such, the human populations within these regions are at risk of exposure to antimicrobial resistant bacteria (ARB), and thereby disseminating antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs). In this study, we collected water samples from 15 sites (5 sites in Chao Phraya Riv...

  16. Antibiotic resistence of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887 and Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 Resistência de Aeromonas hydrophila isolada de Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887 e Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 a antibióticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Belém-Costa

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important problems involving treatments with antibiotics against Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from fishes is that antibiotic resistance develops readily. The antimicrobial activity of chemotherapeutants in isolates from pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887 and tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 was tested by the Kirby-Bauer disk method, over Mueller-Hinton surface agar previously inoculated with 100 µL of bacterial suspensions. After regular incubation, isolates from tilapia and pacu were uniformly resistant to amoxicillin, ampicillin, lincomycin, novobiocin, oxacillin, penicillin, and trimetoprim+sulfametoxazole. The A. hydrophila type strain presented resistance to the same antimicrobial substances and also against rifampicin; the bacterial isolate from pacu were the only strain resistant to tetracyclin. Isolates from both pacu and tilapia had intermediate reaction with erytromycin. The use of drugs in commercial fish farms in Brazil can favor the development of resistant bacterial strains in native fish species as already observed for exotic species, commercially produced for longer time.Um dos maiores problemas envolvendo o tratamento com antibióticos contra Aeromonas hydrophila isolada de peixes confinados é a rápida resistência ao antibiótico desenvolvida pela bactéria. A atividade antimicrobiana de quimioterapêuticos em isolados a partir de pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887 e tilápia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 foi verificada pelo método de difusão de antibiótico em discos de Kirby-Bauer, sobre uma superfície de Agar Mueller-Hinton previamente inoculada com 100 µL de suspensão bacteriana. Após o período de incubação, os isolados de tilápia e pacu foram uniformemente resistentes a amoxicilina, ampicilina, lincomicina, novobiocina, oxacilina, penicilina e trimetoprim+sulfametoxazol. A cepa tipo para A. hydrophila apresentou resistência às mesmas subst

  17. Flagellar motility is necessary for Aeromonas hydrophila adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yingxue; Lin, Guifang; Chen, Wenbo; Xu, Xiaojin; Yan, Qingpi

    2016-09-01

    Adhesion to host surface or cells is the initial step in bacterial pathogenesis, and the adhesion mechanisms of the fish pathogenic bacteria Aeromonas hydrophila were investigated in this study. First, a mutagenesis library of A. hydrophila that contained 332 random insertion mutants was constructed via mini-Tn10 Km mutagenesis. Four mutants displayed the most attenuated adhesion. Sequence analysis revealed that the mini-Tn10 insertion sites in the four mutant strains were flgC(GenBank accession numbers KX261880), cytb4(GenBank accession numbers JN133621), rbsR(GenBank accession numbers KX261881) and flgE(GenBank accession numbers JQ974982). To further study the roles of flgC and flgE in the adhesion of A. hydrophila, some biological characteristics of the wild-type strain B11, the mutants M121 and M240, and the complemented strains C121 and C240 were investigated. The results showed that the mutation in flgC or flgE led to the flagellar motility of A. hydrophila significant reduction or abolishment. flgC was not necessary for flagellar biosynthesis but was necessary for the full motility of A. hydrophila, flgE was involved in both flagellar biosynthesis and motility. The flagellar motility is necessary for A. hydrophila to adhere to the host mucus, which suggests flagellar motility plays crucial roles in the early infection process of this bacterium. PMID:27432325

  18. Antimicrobial activity of Leuzea spp. and Nigella spp. extracts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kokoška, L.; Janovská, D.; Havlík, J.; Rada, V.; Vaněk, Tomáš; Nepovím, Aleš

    Kiel, 2003. s. 173. [Annual Congress of the Society for Medicinal Plant Research /51./. 31.08.2003-04.09.2003, Kiel] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA525/02/0257; GA ČR GP525/02/D107 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : antimicrobial activity * Leuzea spp. * Nigella spp. Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  19. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based typing analysis of atypical isolates of the fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høie, S.; Dalsgaard, Inger; Aase, I.L.; Heum, M.; Thornton, J.M.; Powell, R.

    1999-01-01

    Two hundred and five isolates of atypical Aeromonas salmonicida, recovered from a wide range of hosts and countries were characterized by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting four genes. The chosen genes were those encoding the extracellular A-layer protein (AP), the serine protease (Sprot......-sets only. A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida isolates tested, belonged to group 1. The PCR primer-sets separated A. salmonicida from other reference strains of Aeromonas species and related bacteria with the exception of Aeromonas hydrophila. The results indicated that PCR typing is a useful framework for...

  20. Survival of Aeromonas hydrophila and Listeria monocytogenes on fresh vegetables stored under moderate vacuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aytac, S A; Gorris, L G

    1994-11-01

    Storage at 6.5°C under moderate vacuum effectively prevented growth of Aeromonas hydrophila on chicory endive, but had only a limited inhibitory effect on the growth of the organism on mung bean sprouts. Growth of Listeria monocytogenes on chicory endive was strongly stimulated under these conditions, whereas it was decreased on mung-bean sprouts. PMID:24421192

  1. Cold Shock Exoribonuclease R(VacB) is involved in Aeromonas hydrophila Virulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, we cloned and sequenced a virulence-associated gene (vacB) from a clinical isolate SSU of Aeromonas hydrophila. We identified this gene based on our recently annotated genome sequence of the environmental isolate ATCC 7966T of A. hydrophila and the vacB gene of Shi...

  2. Molecular characterization of a functional type VI secretion system from a clinical isolate of Aeromonas hydrophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our laboratory recently molecularly characterized the type II secretion system (T2SS)-associated cytotoxic enterotoxin (Act) and the T3SS-secreted AexU effector from a diarrheal isolate SSU of Aeromonas hydrophila. The role of these toxin proteins in the pathogenesis of A. hydrop...

  3. Parasitism by protozoan Ichthyophthirius multifiliis enhanced invasion of Aeromonas hydrophila in tissues of channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Fouquet (Ich) and Aeromonas hydrophila are two common pathogens of cultured fish. Currently there is no information available for the effect of coinfection by Ich and A. hydrophila on bacterial load and survival in channel catfish. Two trials were conducted in this stud...

  4. Complete Genome Sequence of the Type Strain of Aeromonas schubertii, ATCC 43700

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lihui; Zhang, Defeng; Fu, Xiaozhe; Shi, Cunbin; Lin, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    We sequenced the complete genome of the type strain of Aeromonas schubertii, ATCC 43700. The full genome sequence of A. schubertii ATCC 43700 is 4,356,858 bp, which encodes 3,842 proteins and contains 110 predicted RNA genes. PMID:26893413

  5. Molecular Characterization of a Functional Type VI Secretion System from a Clinical Isolate of Aeromonas hydrophilia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our laboratory recently molecularly characterized the type II secretion system (T2SS)-associated cytotoxic enterotoxin (Act) and the T3SS-secreted AexU effector from a diarrheal isolate SSU of Aeromonas hydrophila. The role of these toxin proteins in the pathogenesis of A. hydrop...

  6. Flagellar apparatus gene sequences of Aeromonas hydrophila AL09-73 isolate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flagellar apparatus genes of recent outbreak Aeromonas hydrophila AL09-73 isolate were sequenced and characterized. Total 28 flagellar genes were identified. The sizes of the genes range from 318 to 2001 nucleotides, which potentially encode different complex flagellar proteins. At nucleotide and...

  7. Cold Shock Exoribonuclease R (VacB) is Involved in Aeromonas hydrophila Pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, we cloned and sequenced a virulence-associated gene (vacB) from a clinical isolate SSU of Aeromonas hydrophila. We identified this gene based on our recently annotated genome sequence of the environmental isolate ATCC 7966T of A. hydrophila and the vacB gene of Shi...

  8. Over-expression, purification and immune responses to Aeromonas hydrophila AL09-73 flagellar proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeromonas hydrophila is ubiquitous in aquatic environments worldwide and causes many diseases in fish as well as human. Recent outbreaks of aeromonad diseases in channel catfish prompted us to investigate catfish immune responses during infection of A. hydrophila. In this communication, we report ...

  9. A Mouse Model for Characterization of Gastrointestinal Colonization Rates Among Environmental Aeromonas Isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    The colonization rates of ten different environmental isolates of Aeromonas were determined using a novel mouse-streptomycin pre-treatment method. A novel streptomycin pre-treatment prepared animals with a transient alteration in colon flora that allowed colonization by Aeromon...

  10. 2010 Surveillance for Aeromonas hydrophila outbreaks in the Alabama catfish industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2009, a virulent strain of Aeromonas hydrophila was associated with severely acute to chronic mortality in catfish ponds in Alabama. This strain of A. hydrophila had not been previously identified in AL catfish. In a joint effort between the USDA ARS and Auburn University, a combination of appr...

  11. Immunization with recombinant aerolysin and hemolysin protected channel catfish against virulent Aeromonas hydrophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeromonas hydrophila is emerging as one of the major concerns in catfish aquaculture in the Southeastern United States due to recent outbreaks of motile aeromonad septicemia (MAS) caused by virulent clonal isolates. There is no effective vaccine currently available for the prevention of MAS. In this...

  12. Antibiotic Susceptibility Profile of Aeromonas Species Isolated from Wastewater Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isoken H. Igbinosa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Aeromonas species isolated from Alice and Fort Beaufort wastewater treatment plant in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined using the disc diffusion method, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay was employed for the detection of antibiotics resistance genes. Variable susceptibilities were observed against ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid, gentamicin, minocycline, among others. Aeromonas isolates from both locations were 100% resistant to penicillin, oxacillin, ampicillin, and vancomycin. Higher phenotypic resistance was observed in isolates from Fort Beaufort compared to isolates from Alice. Class A pse1 β-lactamase was detected in 20.8% of the isolates with a lower detection rate of 8.3% for blaTEM gene. Class 1 integron was present in 20.8% of Aeromonas isolates while class 2 integron and TetC gene were not detected in any isolate. The antibiotic resistance phenotypes observed in the isolates and the presence of β-lactamases genes detected in some isolates are of clinical and public health concern as this has consequences for antimicrobial chemotherapy of infections associated with Aeromonas species. This study further supports wastewater as potential reservoirs of antibiotic resistance determinants in the environment.

  13. EFFECT OF ORAL IMMUNOSTIMULANT ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA AND RESISTANCE TO AEROMONAS HYDROPHILA IN CATLA CATLA

    OpenAIRE

    Innocent Xavier B.; Fathima Syed Ali M.; Sheeba; Sheeba S.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the immunostimulant potential of Andrographis paniculata in fish Catla catla, post challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila. Fishes were divided into 2 groups, one received control diet, and another received Andrographis paniculata incorporated diet for 14 days. The heamatological parameters and serum protein level were analyzed between control and experimental. There is a significant increase in TEC (P

  14. Antibiotic susceptibility profile of Aeromonas species isolated from wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igbinosa, Isoken H; Okoh, Anthony I

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Aeromonas species isolated from Alice and Fort Beaufort wastewater treatment plant in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined using the disc diffusion method, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was employed for the detection of antibiotics resistance genes. Variable susceptibilities were observed against ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid, gentamicin, minocycline, among others. Aeromonas isolates from both locations were 100% resistant to penicillin, oxacillin, ampicillin, and vancomycin. Higher phenotypic resistance was observed in isolates from Fort Beaufort compared to isolates from Alice. Class A pse1 β-lactamase was detected in 20.8% of the isolates with a lower detection rate of 8.3% for bla(TEM) gene. Class 1 integron was present in 20.8% of Aeromonas isolates while class 2 integron and TetC gene were not detected in any isolate. The antibiotic resistance phenotypes observed in the isolates and the presence of β-lactamases genes detected in some isolates are of clinical and public health concern as this has consequences for antimicrobial chemotherapy of infections associated with Aeromonas species. This study further supports wastewater as potential reservoirs of antibiotic resistance determinants in the environment. PMID:22927788

  15. Molecular characterization of Aeromonas species isolated from farmed eels (Anguilla japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Seung-Won; You, Myung-Jo; Cho, Ho-Seong; Lee, Chang-Seop; Kwon, Joong-Ki; Shin, Gee-Wook

    2013-05-31

    Seventy Aeromonas strains were identified by phylogenetic analysis using housekeeping genes (gyrB and rpoD) in order to investigate etiological agents for aeromoniasis in farmed eels (Anguilla japonica). The phylogenetic analysis showed that Aeromonas aquariorum (n=22, 31.4%) was the predominant species among the investigated eel strains, followed by Aeromonas caviae (n=16, 22.9%), A. veronii (n=13, 18.6%), A. hydrophila (n=12, 17.1%), A. jandaei (n=4, 5.7%), A. media (n=2, 2.9%), and A. trota (n=1, 1.4%). The potential virulence of the present strains was estimated by performing PCR assays using the following seven virulence genes: cytotoxic enterotoxin (act), two cytotonic enterotoxins (alt and ast), glycerophospholipid:cholesterol acyltransferase (gcaT), DNase (exu), lipase (lip), and flagellin (fla). The detection rates of act, alt, ast, gcaT, exu, lip, and fla among all 70 strains were 91.4%, 55.7%, 27.1%, 97.1%, 95.7%, 100%, and 98.6%, respectively. In genotyping of enterotoxin genes, act(+)/alt(+)/ast(+), act(+)/alt(+)/ast(-), and act(+)/alt(-)/ast(-) genotypes were prevalent in A. hydrophila (8/12 strains), A. aquariorum (13/22 strains), and A. caviae (14/16 strains), respectively, suggesting a high heterogeneity among Aeromonas species. In this study, A. aquariorum, which has been an unrecorded species in Korea, can be an etiological agent for aeromoniasis of eel. PMID:23499189

  16. Recovery of atypical Aeromonas salmonicida from ulcerated fish from the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiklund, T.; Tabolina, I; Bezgachina, T.V.

    1999-01-01

    Ulcerated fish of six different species were collected during the BMB/ICES Sea-going Workshop "Fish Diseases and Parasites in the Baltic Sea", 25 November to 8 December 1994, and examined for bacteriological infections. Atypical Aeromonas salmonicida strains were isolated from the majority of the...

  17. Characterization of atypical Aeromonas salmonicida isolates by ribotyping and plasmid profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl; Dalsgaard, Inger; Larsen, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    A total of 38 strains of atypical Aeromonas salmonicida, three oxidase-negative but otherwise typical Aer. salmonicida, three typical Aer. salmonicida, and two reference strains, isolated from several countries and fish species were examined with respect to rRNA gene restriction patterns (ribotypes...

  18. Virulence diversity among bacteremic Aeromonas isolates: ex vivo, animal, and clinical evidences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Lin Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to compare virulence among different Aeromonas species causing bloodstream infections. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Nine of four species of Aeromonas blood isolates, including A. dhakensis, A. hydrophila, A. veronii and A. caviae were randomly selected for analysis. The species was identified by the DNA sequence matching of rpoD. Clinically, the patients with A. dhakensis bacteremia had a higher sepsis-related mortality rate than those with other species (37.5% vs. 0%, P = 0.028. Virulence of different Aeromonas species were tested in C. elegans, mouse fibroblast C2C12 cell line and BALB/c mice models. C. elegans fed with A. dhakensis and A. caviae had the lowest and highest survival rates compared with other species, respectively (all P values <0.0001. A. dhakensis isolates also exhibited more cytotoxicity in C2C12 cell line (all P values <0.0001. Fourteen-day survival rate of mice intramuscularly inoculated with A. dhakensis was lower than that of other species (all P values <0.0001. Hemolytic activity and several virulence factor genes were rarely detected in the A. caviae isolates. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Clinical data, ex vivo experiments, and animal studies suggest there is virulence variation among clinically important Aeromonas species.

  19. Growth inhibition of Aeromonas salmonicida and Yersinia ruckeri by disinfectants containing peracetic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meinelt, Thomas; Phan, T.; Behrens, S.; Pedersen, Lars-Flemming; Wienke, A.; Liu, D.; Straus, David L.

    2015-01-01

    contribute to sustainable aquaculture. The aim of our study was to compare the effectiveness of 6 commercial PAA products with different molecular PAA:H2O2 ratios to reduce bacterial growth of Aeromonas salmonicida and Yersinia ruckeri and to determine effective concentrations and exposure times. All...

  20. Genome Sequence of Aeromonas hydrophila Strain AH-3 (Serotype O34).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forn-Cuní, Gabriel; Tomás, Juan M; Merino, Susana

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is an emerging pathogen of poikilothermic animals, from fish to mammals, including humans. Here, we report the whole-genome sequence of the A. hydrophila AH-3 strain, isolated from a fish farm goldfish septicemia outbreak in Spain, with a characterized polar and lateral flagellum glycosylation pattern. PMID:27587828

  1. Rapid quantitative detection of Aeromonas hydrophila strains associated with disease outbreaks in catfish aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the summer of 2009, a new strain of Aeromonas hydrophila was implicated in severe disease outbreaks in farm-raised catfish in Alabama, Arkansas and Mississippi. These outbreaks mostly afflicted large fish and resulted in considerable losses in short periods. Given the rapid onset and biosecurity ...

  2. Draft Genome Sequences of Four Virulent Aeromonas hydrophila Strains from Catfish Aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekedar, Hasan C.; Kumru, Salih; Karsi, Attila; Waldbieser, Geoffrey C.; Sonstegard, Tad; Schroeder, Steven G.; Liles, Mark R.; Griffin, Matt J.

    2016-01-01

    Since 2009, a clonal group of virulent Aeromonas hydrophila strains has been causing severe disease in the catfish aquaculture industry in the southeastern United States. Here, we report draft genomes of four A. hydrophila isolates from catfish aquaculture that represent this clonal group. PMID:27540076

  3. Draft genome sequences of four virulent aeromonas hydrophila strains from catfish aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since 2009, a clonal group of virulent Aeromonas hydrophila (VAh) strains has been causing severe disease in the catfish aquaculture industry in the Southeastern United States. Here, we report draft genomes of four A. hydrophila isolates from catfish aquaculture that represent this clonal group....

  4. TUBERCULOSIS COMO ENFERMEDAD OCUPACIONAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Ticona, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Existe evidencia suficiente para declarar a la tuberculosis como enfermedad ocupacional en diversos profesionales especialmente entre los trabajadores de salud. En el Perú están normados y reglamentados los derechos laborales inherentes a la tuberculosis como enfermedad ocupacional, como la cobertura por discapacidad temporal o permanente. Sin embargo, estos derechos aún no han sido suficientemente socializados. En este trabajo se presenta información sobre el riesgo de adquirir tuberculosis en el lugar de trabajo, se revisan las evidencias para declarar a la tuberculosis como enfermedad ocupacional en trabajadores de salud y se presenta la legislación peruana vigente al respecto. PMID:22858771

  5. Bartonella spp. in Bats, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Kosoy, Michael; Bai, Ying; Lynch, Tarah; Kuzmin, Ivan V.; Niezgoda, Michael; Franka, Richard; Agwanda, Bernard; Breiman, Robert F.; Rupprecht, Charles E.

    2010-01-01

    We report the presence and diversity of Bartonella spp. in bats of 13 insectivorous and frugivorous species collected from various locations across Kenya. Bartonella isolates were obtained from 23 Eidolon helvum, 22 Rousettus aegyptiacus, 4 Coleura afra, 7 Triaenops persicus, 1 Hipposideros commersoni, and 49 Miniopterus spp. bats. Sequence analysis of the citrate synthase gene from the obtained isolates showed a wide assortment of Bartonella strains. Phylogenetically, isolates clustered in s...

  6. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis caused by Aeromonas caviae in a patient with cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Deyu; Zhao, Ying; Jiang, Yueping; Li, Zhongbin; Yang, Wucai; Chen, Guofeng

    2015-03-01

    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is a common complication of cirrhosis. Based on our current understanding of SBP, the most common etiologies for SBP in cirrhosis are Enterobacter and Streptococcal species. Th e Aeromonas species are ubiquitous in fresh or sea water. Aeromonas caviae is never identified as etiology in cases of SBP. A patient, who had a history of liver cirrhosis related to chronic hepatitis B virus infection for 1 year, presented with diarrhea. He had diarrhea 1 week later returned from coastal city. He was hospitalized and treated with norfloxacin after 7 days of severe symptoms, including fever, abdominal distention, and diarrhea. Analysis of the ascitic specimen revealed a white-cell count of 4.42 × 109 cells/L with 88% neutrophils. Analysis of stool specimen showed a white-cell count of 60 cells per high-power field. Th e patient started the injection of cefriaxone at a dose of 4 g/d. However, the situation was not improved. Th ree days later, stool and ascitic fluid culture showed positive for Aeromonas caviae. Antibiotic susceptibility testing revealed that imipenem, meropenem, amikacin, and cefoperazone-sulbactam were highly sensitive to the Aeromonas caviae. However, the bacilli resisted to ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, ampicillin-sulbactam, levofloxacin, and sulfamethoxazole. Ceftriaxone was then switched to imipenem. The patient was fully recovered 14 days later. Aeromonas caviae is a rare pathogen of SBP in cirrhosis. It resists to third-generation of cephalosporin and fluroquinolone, which are of frequently used dependent on clinical experience. It needs a special attention. PMID:25832540

  7. Clinical manifestations of bacteremia caused by Aeromonas species in southern Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Jen Tang

    Full Text Available This study is conducted to investigate the clinical characteristics of patients with bacteremia caused by Aeromonas species.Patients with bacteremia caused by Aeromonas species during the period 2009 to 2013 were identified from a computerized database of a regional hospital in southern Taiwan. The medical records of these patients were retrospectively reviewed.A total of 91 patients with bacteremia due to Aeromonas species were identified. In addition to 16 (17.6% primary bacteremia, the most common source of secondary infection is peritonitis (n = 27, 29.7%, followed by biliary tract infection (n = 18, 19.8%, and SSTI (n = 12, 13.2%, pneumonia (n = 9, 9.9%, catheter-related bloodstream infection (n =  5, 5.5%, and genitourinary tract infection (n = 4, 4.4%. A. hydrophila (n = 35, 38.5% was the most common pathogen, followed by A. veronii biovar sobria (n = 31, 34.1%, A. caviae (n = 14, 15.4%, and A. veronii biovar veronii (n = 9, 9.9%. Forty-three (47.3% patients were classified as healthcare-associated infections (HCAI causes by Aeromonas species, and patients with HCAI were more likely to have cancer, and receive immunosuppressant than patients with community-acquired bacteremia. The overall outcomes, including rate of ICU admission, acute respiratory failure, and mortality were 33.3%, 28.6%, and 23.1%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that the in-hospital day mortality was significantly associated only with underlying cancer (P <.001, and initial shock (P <.001.Aeromonas species should be considered one of the causative pathogens of healthcare-associated bacteremia, especially in immunocompromised patients. In addition, it can be associated with high fatality. Cancer and initial shock were the poor prognostic factors.

  8. Aeromonas hydrophila subsp. ranae subsp. nov., isolated from septicaemic farmed frogs in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huys, Geert; Pearson, Marianne; Kämpfer, Peter; Denys, Rik; Cnockaert, Margo; Inglis, Valerie; Swings, Jean

    2003-05-01

    A group of seven sucrose-negative Aeromonas strains (referred to as group Au) isolated from the internal organs of septicaemic farmed frogs (Rana rugulosa) in Thailand was subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study including fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism (FAFLP) and ERIC-PCR fingerprinting, 16S rDNA sequencing, microplate DNA-DNA hybridizations and extensive phenotypic characterization. Comparison of FAFLP and ERIC-PCR fingerprints indicated that the group Au isolates belonged to the species Aeromonas hydrophila DNA hybridization group (HG) 1 in which they represent a genotypic subgroup closely affiliated to A. hydrophila subsp. hydrophila and subsp. dhakensis. One representative of the Au group exhibited > or = 99.0% 16S rDNA sequence similarity with the type strains of the two A. hydrophila subspecies. DNA-DNA hybridization with type and reference strains of all known Aeromonas taxa revealed that the Au group represented a homogeneous taxon that exhibited the highest relatedness with members of the two A. hydrophila subspecies, ranging from 75 to 93%. Phenotypic characterization on the basis of 152 features further revealed that the Au group isolates differed from A. hydrophila subsp. hydrophila or subsp. dhakensis in a total of 13 biochemical properties. Of these, assimilation of L-glycine and isobutyrate as sole carbon source, acid production from salicin and D-sucrose, and aesculin hydrolysis were of diagnostic value. From the results of this study, it can be concluded that the Aeromonas frog isolates of the Au group represent a new subspecies of A. hydrophila, for which the name Aeromonas hydrophila subsp. ranae subsp. nov. is proposed. Its type strain is Au-1D12(T) (=LMG 19707(T) = CCUG 46211(T)). PMID:12807217

  9. Identification of clinical aeromonas species by rpoB and gyrB sequencing and development of a multiplex PCR method for detection of Aeromonas hydrophila, A. caviae, A. veronii, and A. media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Søren; Al-Shuweli, Suzan; Yapici, Seval; Jensen, Joan N; Olsen, Katharina E P

    2015-02-01

    Conventional identification of Aeromonas species based on biochemical methods is challenged by the heterogeneous nature of the species. Here, we present a new multiplex PCR method directed toward the gyrB and rpoB genes that identifies four Aeromonas species, A. hydrophila, A. media, A. veronii, and A. caviae, and we describe the application of this method on a Danish strain collection. PMID:25411168

  10. Control of Aeromonas on minimally processed vegetables by decontamination with lactic acid, chlorinated water, or thyme essential oil solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyttendaele, M; Neyts, K; Vanderswalmen, H; Notebaert, E; Debevere, J

    2004-02-01

    Aeromonas is an opportunistic pathogen, which, although in low numbers, may be present on minimally processed vegetables. Although the intrinsic and extrinsic factors of minimally processed prepacked vegetable mixes are not inhibitory to the growth of Aeromonas species, multiplication to high numbers during processing and storage of naturally contaminated grated carrots, mixed lettuce, and chopped bell peppers was not observed. Aeromonas was shown to be resistant towards chlorination of water, but was susceptible to 1% and 2% lactic acid and 0.5% and 1.0% thyme essential oil treatment, although the latter provoked adverse sensory properties when applied for decontamination of chopped bell peppers. Integration of a decontamination step with 2% lactic acid in the processing line of grated carrots was shown to have the potential to control the overall microbial quality of the grated carrots and was particularly effective towards Aeromonas. PMID:14751681

  11. Class D tetracycline resistance determinants of R plasmids from the fish pathogens Aeromonas hydrophila, Edwardsiella tarda, and Pasteurella piscicida.

    OpenAIRE

    Aoki, T.; Takahashi, A.

    1987-01-01

    Tetracycline resistance determinants of R plasmids from the fish pathogens Aeromonas hydrophila, Edwardsiella tarda, and Pasteurella piscicida were classified as class D by their expression of resistance to tetracycline and minocycline and through their DNA structure.

  12. Thracides phidon (Cramer) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae: Hesperiinae): Novo registro em plantios comerciais de Heliconia spp. na região Amazônica do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Ribeiro; Isabela Carvalho; Gabriely Souza; Hany Fouad; Walkymário Lemos

    2012-01-01

    Lepidoptera desfolhadores podem danificar cultivos de flores tropicais, mas existem poucos relatos desses insetos em plantas de Heliconia spp. O objetivo dessa pesquisa foi registrar uma nova ocorrência de Thracides phidon (Cramer) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae, Hesperiinae) como desfolhadora de Heliconia spp. em plantios comerciais na região Amazônica do Brasil.

  13. Thracides phidon (Cramer (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae: Hesperiinae: Novo registro em plantios comerciais de Heliconia spp. na região Amazônica do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Ribeiro

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Lepidoptera desfolhadores podem danificar cultivos de flores tropicais, mas existem poucos relatos desses insetos em plantas de Heliconia spp. O objetivo dessa pesquisa foi registrar uma nova ocorrência de Thracides phidon (Cramer (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae, Hesperiinae como desfolhadora de Heliconia spp. em plantios comerciais na região Amazônica do Brasil.

  14. An Asian Origin of Virulent Aeromonas hydrophila Responsible for Disease Epidemics in United States-Farmed Catfish

    OpenAIRE

    Hossain, Mohammad J.; Sun, Dawei; McGarey, Donald J.; Wrenn, Shannon; Alexander, Laura M.; Martino, Maria Elena; Xing, Ye; Terhune, Jeffery S.; Liles, Mark R.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Since 2009, catfish farming in the southeastern United States has been severely impacted by a highly virulent and clonal population of Aeromonas hydrophila causing motile Aeromonas septicemia (MAS) in catfish. The possible origin of this newly emerged highly virulent A. hydrophila strain is unknown. In this study, we show using whole-genome sequencing and comparative genomics that A. hydrophila isolates from diseased grass carp in China and catfish in the United States have highly si...

  15. Identification and Characterization of Pathogenic Aeromonas veronii Biovar Sobria Associated with Epizootic Ulcerative Syndrome in Fish in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Mokhlasur; Colque-Navarro, Patricia; Kühn, Inger; Huys, Geert; Swings, Jean; Möllby, Roland

    2002-01-01

    Sparse information is available on the virulence factors of Aeromonas strains isolated from diseased fish, from the environment, and from humans. In the present study, 52 Aeromonas isolates obtained from epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS) lesions in fish, from the aquatic environment, and from children with diarrhea in Bangladesh were identified by biochemical phenotyping (i.e., PhenePlate [PhP] typing) and DNA fingerprinting and then characterized with respect to certain putative virulence ...

  16. White Mulberry (Morus alba) Foliage Methanolic Extract Can Alleviate Aeromonas hydrophila Infection in African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

    OpenAIRE

    Atefeh Sheikhlar; Abd Razk Alimon; Hassan Daud; Saad, Chee R.; Webster, Carl D.; Goh Yong Meng; Mahdi Ebrahimi

    2014-01-01

    Two experiments were simultaneously conducted with Morus alba (white mulberry) foliage extract (MFE) as a growth promoter and treatment of Aeromonas hydrophila infection in separate 60 and 30 days trail (Experiments 1 and 2, resp.) in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). In Experiment 1, four diets, control and control supplemented with 2, 5, or 7 g MFE/kg dry matter (DM) of diet, were used. In Experiment 2, fish were intraperitoneally infected with Aeromonas hydrophila and fed the same diet...

  17. A rapid MALDI-TOF MS identification database at genospecies level for clinical and environmental Aeromonas strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Benagli

    Full Text Available The genus Aeromonas has undergone a number of taxonomic and nomenclature revisions over the past 20 years, and new (subspecies and biogroups are continuously described. Standard identification methods such as biochemical characterization have deficiencies and do not allow clarification of the taxonomic position. This report describes the development of a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS identification database for a rapid identification of clinical and environmental Aeromonas isolates.

  18. Occurrence of potential pathogenic Aeromonas species in tropical seafood, aquafarms and mangroves off Cochin coast in South India

    OpenAIRE

    Alphonsa Vijaya Joseph; Raghul Subin Sasidharan; Harisree P Nair; Bhat, Sarita G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The genus Aeromonas include gram-negative, motile, facultative anaerobic, rod shaped and oxidase positive bacteria comprising several species, associated with the aquatic environment. Aeromonas species have been implicated in human pathogenesis and are linked with gastroenteritis, muscle infections, septicemia, and skin diseases. In fish they are renowned as enteric pathogens causing haemorrhagic septicemia, fin rot, soft tissue rot and furunculosis resulting in major die-offs and...

  19. Uso da levedura seca por "spray-dry" como fonte de proteína para suínos em crescimento e terminação Use of sugar cane yeast (Saccharomyces spp.) dried by spray-dryer as protein source on growing-finishing pigs feeding

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Moreira; Maurício Marcos Júnior; Antônio Cláudio Furlan; Valquiria M. Ishida Patricio; Gisele Cristina de Oliveira

    2002-01-01

    Foi conduzido um experimento de desempenho para avaliar a levedura (Saccharomyces Spp.) seca por "spray-dry" (LSSD), na alimentação de suínos em crescimento e terminação. Foram utilizados 32 suínos mestiços, metade de cada sexo, com peso inicial médio de 26,1 kg. Os suínos receberam ração à vontade, que continha níveis crescentes (0, 7, 14 e 21%) de inclusão de LSSD. Foi utilizado o delineamento em blocos casualizados, com quatro tratamentos e quatro repetições, com dois animais por unidade e...

  20. Reciprocal immune benefit based on complementary production of antibiotics by the leech Hirudo verbana and its gut symbiont Aeromonas veronii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasiemski, Aurélie; Massol, François; Cuvillier-Hot, Virginie; Boidin-Wichlacz, Céline; Roger, Emmanuel; Rodet, Franck; Fournier, Isabelle; Thomas, Frédéric; Salzet, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The medicinal leech has established a long-term mutualistic association with Aeromonas veronii, a versatile bacterium which can also display free-living waterborne and fish- or human-pathogenic lifestyles. Here, we investigated the role of antibiotics in the dynamics of interaction between the leech and its gut symbiont Aeromonas. By combining biochemical and molecular approaches, we isolated and identified for the first time the antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) produced by the leech digestive tract and by its symbiont Aeromonas. Immunohistochemistry data and PCR analyses evidenced that leech AMP genes are induced in the gut epithelial cells when Aeromonas load is low (starved animals), while repressed when Aeromonas abundance is the highest (post blood feeding). The asynchronous production of AMPs by both partners suggests that these antibiotic substances (i) provide them with reciprocal protection against invasive bacteria and (ii) contribute to the unusual simplicity of the gut microflora of the leech. This immune benefit substantially reinforces the evidence of an evolutionarily stable association between H. verbana and A. veronii. Altogether these data may provide insights into the processes making the association with an Aeromonas species in the digestive tract either deleterious or beneficial. PMID:26635240

  1. PHENOTYPING, VIRULENCE CHARACTERISTICS OF AEROMONAS SPECIES AND THE EFFECTS OF ESSENTIAL PLANT OILS AS ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS AGAINST PATHOGENIC ISOLATES FROM DIFFERENT SOURCES

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed M.A. Mansour; Hoda M. Zaki; Nibal A. Hassan; Nihad A.M. El-Nashar

    2014-01-01

    Aeromonas species are increasingly recognized as enteric pathogens. Faecal samples from 20 cow, 45 sheep; 60 goat and 60 camels were examined for the presence of Aeromonas species, which was also sought in the available drinking water (55 well water and 52 drinking chlorinated tap water were also examined). Aeromonas species was isolated more frequently from goats (21.7%) than from other animal groups sampled and isolated more frequentl...

  2. Identificação e resistência a antimicrobianos de espécies de Aeromonas móveis isoladas de peixes e ambientes aquáticos Identification and antimicrobial resistance of motile Aeromonas isolated from fish and aquatic environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Hirsch

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de se verificar a diversidade de espécies de Aeromonas móveis e seu perfil de susceptibilidade a antimicrobianos em pisciculturas comerciais, foram selecionadas oito tilapiculturas localizadas na região do Alto Rio Grande, Minas Gerais. De cada propriedade foram coletadas três amostras de peixes em estádio de pré-abate (vivos e saudáveis, uma amostra de água do tanque e uma amostra da água de abastecimento do sistema. De cada peixe foram coletadas amostras de lavado superficial e do parênquima renal. Diluições seriadas adequadas de cada amostra foram plaqueadas em TSA-ampicilina (10 mg/l e as amostras de rim em Ágar Sangue de cavalo a 5%. A partir de colônias isoladas positivas para o teste da oxidase foram realizados testes para identificação do gênero (testes presuntivos e das espécies de Aeromonas (testes bioquímicos. O perfil de antibiograma foi obtido pelo teste de difusão de discos de antibióticos em Ágar Mueller Hinton. Foram obtidos 75 isolados diferenciados em nove espécies de Aeromonas: A. jandaei, A. hydrophila, A. trota, A. caviae, A. sobria, A. eucrenophila, A. veronii bt veronii, A. schubertii, A. media, além de amostras classificadas como Aeromonas atípicas. Do total isolado, oito amostras foram provenientes da superfície corpórea de peixes, 14 da água de abastecimento e 53 da água do tanque. Não houve isolamento a partir dos espécimes de parênquima renal. Em relação ao perfil de resistência, 93% dos isolados foram resistentes à eritromicina, 36% à tetraciclina, 13% ao ác. nalidíxico, 9% à gentamicina, 8% à nitrofurantoína, 8% à canamicina, 5% à norfloxacina, 4% ao cloranfenicol e 3% às sulfonamidas. Dentre os isolados analisados, 43% apresentaram índice de múltipla resistência a antimicrobianos (MAR igual ou superior a 22%, ou seja, resistência a dois ou mais drogas das nove testadas. Os dados apontam para um risco iminente, tanto pelo isolamento de amostras

  3. Promoção do crescimento do feijoeiro e controle da antracnose por Trichoderma spp Plant growth promotion of common bean and anthracnose control by Trichoderma spp

    OpenAIRE

    Erica Aparecida de Souza Pedro; Ricardo Harakava; Cleusa Maria Mantovanello Lucon; Sylvia Dias Guzzo

    2012-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a capacidade de Trichoderma spp. em promover o crescimento de plantas de feijão e reduzir a severidade da antracnose do feijoeiro (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum), bem como identificar os isolados mais eficientes. Sessenta isolados de Trichoderma spp. foram avaliados quanto à capacidade de promoção do crescimento nas plantas. Os sete isolados que mais se destacaram foram adicionados ao substrato de cultivo e avaliados quanto à redução na severidade da antr...

  4. EFFECT OF ORAL IMMUNOSTIMULANT ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA AND RESISTANCE TO AEROMONAS HYDROPHILA IN CATLA CATLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Innocent Xavier B.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the immunostimulant potential of Andrographis paniculata in fish Catla catla, post challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila. Fishes were divided into 2 groups, one received control diet, and another received Andrographis paniculata incorporated diet for 14 days. The heamatological parameters and serum protein level were analyzed between control and experimental. There is a significant increase in TEC (P<0.05 and TLC (P<0.01 in immune-stimulant incorporated diet (IS. Remarkable increase in Hb content and serum protein was noticed as 2.42 to 3.2g% and 0.52 to 0.98g% respectively. The immunostimulant administered Cata catla when challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila showed decrease in TEC and drastic increase in TLC (P < 0.01 and lymphocyte as 58% when compared to control.

  5. Aeromonas caviae strain induces Th1 cytokine response in mouse intestinal tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, S L; Lye, D J; McKinstry, Craig A.; Vesper, Sephen J.

    2010-01-01

    Aeromonas caviae has been associated with human gastrointestinal disease. Strains of this species typically lack virulence factors (VFs) such as enterotoxins and hemolysins that are produced by other human pathogens of the Aeromonas genus. Microarray profiling of murine small intestinal extracts, 24 hours after oral infection with an A. caviae strain, provides evidence of a Th1 type immune response. A large number of gamma-interferon (γ-IFN) induced genes are up-regulated as well as several tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) transcripts. A. caviae has always been considered as opportunistic pathogen because it lacks obvious virulence factors. This current effort suggests that an A. caviae strain can colonize the murine intestinal tract and cause what has been described by others as a dysregulatory cytokine response. This response could explain why a number of diarrheal waterborne disease cases have been attributed to A. caviae even though it lacks obvious enteropathogenic properties.

  6. Phytoextracts-Synthesized Silver Nanoparticles Inhibit Bacterial Fish Pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila

    OpenAIRE

    Mahanty, Arabinda; Mishra, Snehasish; Bosu, Ranadhir; Maurya, UK; Netam, Surya Prakash; Sarkar, Biplab

    2013-01-01

    Fish disease is a major stumbling block towards sustainable growth of the fisheries sector. Aeromonas hydrophila, which is a major infectious aquatic pathogen is reportedly the causative agent of ulcers, fin-rot, tail-rot, hemorrhagic septicemia in fish, and has reportedly developed resistance against many of the available antibiotics. In this context, the inhibitory function of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) against A. hydrophila was studied to evaluate its possible application in aquaculture ...

  7. Isolation of enterotoxigenic, hemolytic, and antibiotic-resistant Aeromonas hydrophila strains from infected fish in Bangladesh.

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Rahim; Sanyal, S C; Aziz, K M; Huq, M I; Chowdhury, A A

    1984-01-01

    Strains of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from skin infections of common freshwater fish in Bangladesh were tested for enterotoxin production, hemolysin production, and any correlation between these two activities. We also tested the resistance patterns of A. hydrophila to different drugs, especially in relation to ampicillin. The A. hydrophila strains produced an enterotoxin that was related to their beta-hemolytic activities. Production of beta-hemolysin may thus be an indicator of enterotox...

  8. Chemical modification of polyvinyl chloride and silicone elastomer in inhibiting adhesion of Aeromonas hydrophila

    OpenAIRE

    Kregiel, Dorota; Berlowska, Joanna; Mizerska, Urszula; Fortuniak, Witold; Chojnowski, Julian; Ambroziak, Wojciech

    2013-01-01

    Disease-causing bacteria of the genus Aeromonas are able to adhere to pipe materials, colonizing the surfaces and forming biofilms in water distribution systems. The aim of our research was to study how the modification of materials used commonly in the water industry can reduce bacterial cell attachment. Polyvinyl chloride and silicone elastomer surfaces were activated and modified with reactive organo-silanes by coupling or co-crosslinking silanes with the native material. Both the native a...

  9. Aeromonas hydrophila-associated skin lesions and septicaemia in a Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) : clinical communication

    OpenAIRE

    H. Turutoglu; S. Ercelik; M. Corlu

    2005-01-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is one of the most common bacteria associated with the aquatic environment. There are , however, limited data on A. hydrophila infection in crocodilians. The aim of this report is to describe a case of skin lesions and septicaemia associated with A. hydrophila in a Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus). A captive male crocodile in the Zoological Park of Antalya (Turkey) was found dead without showing signs of any disease. Gross examination showed brown or red-spotted skin...

  10. Bioremediation and Detoxification of Synthetic Wastewater Containing Triarylmethane Dyes by Aeromonas hydrophila Isolated from Industrial Effluent

    OpenAIRE

    Chimezie Jason Ogugbue; Thomas Sawidis

    2011-01-01

    Economical and bio-friendly approaches are needed to remediate dye-contaminated wastewater from various industries. In this study, a novel bacterial strain capable of decolorizing triarylmethane dyes was isolated from a textile wastewater treatment plant in Greece. The bacterial isolate was identified as Aeromonas hydrophila and was shown to decolorize three triarylmethane dyes tested within 24 h with color removal in the range of 72% to 96%. Decolorization efficiency of the bacterium was a f...

  11. Molecular detection and antimicrobial resistance of Aeromonas from houseflies (Musca domestica) in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Davood Ommi; Seyed Mohammadreza Hashemian; Elahe Tajbakhsh; Faham Khamesipour

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective. This study aimed to report the molecular detection and antimicrobial resistance of Aeromonas among houseflies (Musca domestica) in Shahrekord and Isfahan provinces of Iran. Materials and methods. Flies were caught from household kitchens, cattle farms, animal hospitals, human hospitals, slaughter house and poultry farms and put in collection separate sterile tubes. Isolation was accomplished by culture of flies in alkaline peptone water followed by identification with Aer...

  12. Antibacterial activities of bioactive compounds extracted from Marine algae Gracilaria salicornia against Aeromonas hydrophila

    OpenAIRE

    Somayeh Rasooli; Masoud Sattari; Zohreh Ramezanpour; Javid Imanpour Namin

    2015-01-01

    Herbal medicinal products have attracted significant research interest in recent years. Considering the efficiency of algae products in controlling pathogenic bacteria and also easy access to large resources of algae, this study was conducted to evaluate the effects of methanolic, chloroformic and aqueous extracts of Gracilaria salicornia against Aeromonas hydrophila, a heterotrophic, Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium found mainly in warm climate. Algae samples were collected from Qeshm Isl...

  13. Necrotizing Fasciitis Caused by Inconspicuous Infection of Aeromonas hydrophila in an Immunocompromised Host

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Chun Liao

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of serious necrotizing fasciitis due to Aeromonas hydrophila without a suggestive history of routes of pathogen invasion in a 60-year-old male. Despite prompt broad-spectrum antibiotic and extensive surgical therapies, the patient died within 72 hours following initial presentation. Our experience suggests clinicians be highly alert to the disease when an immunocompromised patient featured fulminant soft-tissue infection in the endemic area.

  14. COMBINATION OF CONVENTIONAL AND IN-SILICO APPROACH FOR IDENTIFYING AN INDUSTRIALLY IMPORTANT ISOLATE OF AEROMONAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thungri Ghoshal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ammonia is required for various commercial applications while its production by standard process is immensely energy intense. Dairy industry on the other hand produces huge volume of effluent needing treatment before discharge. This study aims at developing an eco-friendly microbial approach for conversion of dairy industry effluent into ammonia under atmospheric pressure and 37°C temperature at laboratory scale. Thus the need for huge energy for ammonia production would be avoided. Moreover the dairy effluent would generate revenue while getting treated. This study is also an attempt to develop a bioinformatics approach for strain identification. Standard cultivation techniques and in-silico approach of analysis of draft genome was undertaken to decipher the identity of this industrially important strain. Aeromonas sp. MCC 2167 (isolated from active dairy sludge was capable of treating un-amended dairy effluent with 6% inoculum while producing ammonia as by product at a 11 folds higher rate than the modified Habers Process. Though the strain showed maximum identity with Aeromonas hydrophila, there were certain differences in terms of substrate utilization. Majority of the contigs showed identity with Aeromonas hydrophila, however there was significant difference among the two strains in terms of intergenomic distance (genome to genome distance calculator from DSMZ, inversion and frame shift (dot plot analysis as well as genome rearrangement (MAUVE analysis. As per the rapid annotation using subsystem technology analysis 53% of the contigs belong to the subsystem category while the remaining 47% do not match with existing sequences in the database. The above finding proposes bioinformatics validation of the wetlab based data pointing towards this industrially important strain to be a novel isolate of Aeromonas sp. This would lead to an energy efficient economically viable alternative for ammonia production while

  15. Recombinant outer membrane protein C of Aeromonas hydrophila elicits mixed immune response and generates agglutinating antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Sunita Kumari; Meena, Jitendra Kumar; Sharma, Mahima; Dixit, Aparna

    2016-08-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is a gram-negative fish pathogenic bacterium, also responsible for causing opportunistic pathological conditions in humans. It causes a number of diseases in fish due to which the fish industry incurs huge economic losses annually. Due to problems of antibiotic resistance, and the rapidity with which the infection spreads among fishes, vaccination remains the most effective strategy to combat this infection in fish populations. Among various virulence factors associated with bacterial virulence, outer membrane proteins have been widely evaluated for their vaccine potential owing to their surface exposure and related role in pathogenicity. In the present study, we have investigated the immunogenic potential of a non-specific porin, outer membrane protein C (OmpC) whose expression is regulated by the two-component regulatory system and plays a major role in the survival of A. hydrophila under different osmolaric conditions. The full-length gene (~1 kb) encoding OmpC of A. hydrophila was cloned, characterized and expressed in E. coli. High yield (~112 mg/L at shake flask level) of the recombinant OmpC (rOmpC) (~40 kDa) of A. hydrophila was obtained upon purification from inclusion bodies using Ni(2+)-NTA affinity chromatography. Immunization with purified rOmpC in murine model generated high endpoint (>1:40,000) titers. IgG isotyping, ELISA and ELISPOT assay indicated mixed immune response with a TH2 bias. Also, the anti-rOmpC antibodies were able to agglutinate A. hydrophila in vitro and exhibited specific cross-reactivity with different Aeromonas strains, which will facilitate easy detection of different Aeromonas isolates in infected samples. Taken together, these data clearly indicate that rOmpC could serve as an effective vaccine against different strains of Aeromonas, a highly heterogenous group of bacteria. PMID:27328672

  16. Detection of multidrug resistance Aeromonas hydrophila in farm raised fresh water prawns

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Bakhtiar Lijon; Mst. Mousumi Khatun; Ariful Islam; Mst. Minara Khatun; Md. Ariful Islam

    2015-01-01

    This study was undertaken for isolation, identification and determination of antibiogram profile of Aeromonas hydrophila in farm raised fresh water prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) on five commercial ghers. Fresh water prawns (n=25) were collected from five ghers located at Satkhira, Bagerhat and Khulna districts of Bangladesh. Brain (n=25), muscle (n=25) and intestine (n=25) samples were collected aseptically from fresh water prawn and inoculated into alkaline peptone (APW) water for enrich...

  17. Purification and Characterization of Aeromonas caviae ME-1 Xylanase V, Which Produces Exclusively Xylobiose from Xylan

    OpenAIRE

    Kubata, Bruno Kilunga; Suzuki, Tohru; Horitsu, Hiroyuki; Kawai, Keiichi; Takamizawa, Kazuhiro

    1994-01-01

    A xylanase, which produces exclusively xylobiose from oat spelt and birch xylans, was isolated from the culture medium of Aeromonas caviae ME-1. The enzyme (xylanase V) was purified by ammonium sulfate fractionation, hydrophobic interaction, and ion-exchange and gel filtration chromatographies. The homogeneity of the final preparation was demonstrated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and agarose gel electrofocusing. The molecular mass and isoelectric point of the x...

  18. Antibiotic and heavy metal resistance of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from charal (Chirostoma humboldtianum, Valenciannes, 1835)

    OpenAIRE

    Gloria Luz Paniagua; Eric Monroy; Magdalena Perches; Erasmo Negrete; Octavio García; Sergio Vaca

    2006-01-01

    Antibiotic and heavy metal susceptibilities of twenty Aeromonas hydrophila strains, isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of the charal (Chirostoma humboldtianum), an autochthonous Mexican fish, were analyzed. All strains produced #946;-lactamase and were resistant to penicillin and dicloxacillin, showing single peak for minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) distributions at 2000-4000 µg/mL and 500-1000 µg/ml, respectively. Ampicillin MIC distribution was bimodal with 20% resistant strai...

  19. Occurrence of potential pathogenic Aeromonas species in tropical seafood, aquafarms and mangroves off Cochin coast in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alphonsa Vijaya Joseph

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The genus Aeromonas include gram-negative, motile, facultative anaerobic, rod shaped and oxidase positive bacteria comprising several species, associated with the aquatic environment. Aeromonas species have been implicated in human pathogenesis and are linked with gastroenteritis, muscle infections, septicemia, and skin diseases. In fish they are renowned as enteric pathogens causing haemorrhagic septicemia, fin rot, soft tissue rot and furunculosis resulting in major die-offs and fish kills. Aim: This study reports the occurrence of potential pathogenic Aeromonas sp. in tropical seafood (Squids, Prawns and Mussels, aquafarms and mangroves of Cochin, Kerala, South India. Materials and Methods :Tropical seafood (Squid, Prawn and Mussel, sediment and water samples from aquafarms and associated mangroves were screened for Aeromonas contamination. The isolates were identified by 16S rDNA sequence analysis and subjected to morphological and biochemical characterization. Haemolytic assay was used for determining pathogenicity of the organisms. Antibiotic susceptibility against 12 antibiotics were performed and the MAR index was calculated. Results: A total of 134 isolates were recovered from the samples of which 15 were identified as Aeromonas species by 16S rDNA sequence analysis and were assigned to 5 species namely, A. hydrophila, A. enteropelogenes, A. caviae, A. punctataand A. aquarorium. Morphological, biochemical and phylogenetic analyses revealed relatedness and variability among the strains. All the isolates were haemolytic on blood agar indicating their pathogenicity. The isolates exhibited varying degrees of resistance to vancomycin (86.66%, ampicillin (46.66%, nalidixic acid (20%, tetracycline (6.66%, co-trimaxozole (6.66% and rifampicin (6.66% and were susceptible to antibiotics like gentamycin, streptomycin, trimethoprim, azithromycin, cefixime and chloramphenicol. 20% of Aeromonas sp. showed MAR index > 0.2 indicative of the

  20. Effectiveness of ultrasound, UV-C, and photocatalysis on inactivation kinetics of Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Jasjeet; Karthikeyan, Raghupathy; Pillai, Suresh D

    2015-01-01

    In this study, bactericidal effects of 24 kHz ultrasound, ultraviolet (UV-C) irradiation, and titanium dioxide (TiO2) photocatalyst were studied on inactivation of Aeromonas hydrophila, an emerging pathogen listed on the US Environmental Protection Agency's (US EPA) candidate contaminant list. Metabolic activity (using the AlamarBlue dye) assays were performed to assess the residual activity of the microbial cells after the disinfection treatments along with culture-based methods. A faster inactivation rate of 1.52 log min(-1) and inactivation of 7.62 log10 was observed within 5 min of ultrasound exposure. Ultrasound treated cells repaired by 1.4 log10 in contrast to 5.3 log10 repair for UV-C treated cells. Ultrasound treatment significantly lowered the reactivation of Aeromonas hydrophila in comparison to UV-C- and UV-C-induced photocatalysis. Ultrasound appeared to be an effective means of inactivating Aeromonas hydrophila and could be used as a potential disinfection method for water and wastewater reuse. PMID:26301848

  1. A culture independent method for the detection of Aeromonas sp. from water samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadua Latif-Eugenín

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Aeromonas is present in a wide variety of water environments and is recognised as potentially pathogenic to humans and animals. Members of this genus are often confused with Vibrio when using automated, commercial identification systems that are culture-dependent. This study describes a polymerase chain reaction (PCR detection method for Aeromonas that is culture- independent and that targets the glycerophospholopid-cholesterol acyltransferase (gcat gene, which is specific for this genus. The GCAT-PCR was 100% specific in artificially inoculated water samples, with a detection limit that ranged from 2.5 to 25 cfu/mL. The success at detecting this pathogen in 86 water samples using the GCAT-PCR method was identical to the conventional culturing method when a pre-enrichment step was carried out, yielding 83.7% positive samples. On the other hand, without a pre-enrichment step, only 77.9% of the samples were positive by culturing and only 15.1% with the GCATPCR. However, 83.7% positive samples were obtained for the GCAT-PCR when the water volume for the DNA extraction was increased from 400 μL to 4 mL. The proposed molecular method is much faster (5 or 29 h than the culturing method (24 or 48 h whether performed directly or after a pre-enrichment step and it will enable the fast detection of Aeromonas in water samples helping to prevent a possible transmission to humans.

  2. DAYA HAMBAT EKSTRAK METANOL RUMPUT LAUT (Euchema spinosum TERHADAP BAKTERI Aeromonas hydrophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Yunus

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Rumput laut secara tradisional telah lama dimanfaatkan sebagai bahan makanan, kosmetik dan obat-obatan, karena kaya akan mineral, elemen makro dan elemen  mikro lainnya, disamping itu rumput laut juga berfungsi sebagai bahan antimikroba seperti penyakit bakteri Aeromonas hydrophila yang sering menginfeksi ikan pada budidaya air tawar sehingga banyak merugikan petani. Oleh karena itu, maka perlu dilakukan penelitian tentang konsentrasi ekstrak metanol rumput laut yang efektif. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui konsentrasi ekstrak metanol rumput laut Eucheuma spinosum yang tepat untuk menghambat pertumbuhan bakteri Aeromonas hydrophyla. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah metode eksperimen, Pertama menggunakan Uji MIC  konsentrasi sebagai berikut : 25%; 12,5%; 6,25%; 3,125%; 1,56%; 0,78%; 0,39%; 0,195%; 0,098%; 0,049%; 0,025%; dan 0,0125%. Kedua menggunakan Uji Cakram konsentrasi 3%, 6%, 9%, 12%, dan 0%  sebagai kontrol. Hasil uji MIC setelah dibandingkan dengan kontrol positif sangat rendah yaitu sebesar 0,049%, hasil ini menunjukkan bahwa konsentrasi tersebut menghambat pertumbuhan bakteri Aeromnas hydrophila. Pada hasil uji cakram kemampuan ekstrak rumput laut pada konsentrasi 3%, 6% dan 9% dalam menghambat bakteri Aeromons hydrophila bersifat bakteriostatik, sedangkan pada konsentrasi 12% bersifat bakteriosidal.  Kata Kunci : Eucheuma spinosum, Polifenol, Aeromonas hydrophila

  3. Detection of conjugation related type four secretion machinery in Aeromonas culicicola.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Yusuf Rangrez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Aeromonas sp. can now be considered relatively common enteropathogens due to the increase of diseases in humans. Aeromonas culicicola is a gram negative rod-shaped bacterium isolated for the first time from the mosquito mid-gut, but subsequently detected in other insects and waters also. Our previous study discovered that A. culicicola harbors three plasmids, which we designated as pAc3249A, pAc3249B and pAc3249C. We investigated and report here the existence and genetic organization of a Conjugal Type IV Secretion System (TFSS in pAc3249A. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDING: The complete operon is 11,061 bp in length and has G+C content of 47.20% code for 12 ORFs. The gene order and orientation were similar to those found in other bacteria with some differences. We have designated this system as AcTra for Aeromonas culicicola transfer system. BLAST results of ORFs and phylogenetic analysis showed significant similarity towards the respective proteins of the IncI2 plasmid R721 of E. coli. Other bioinformatics studies have been performed to predict conserved motifs/domains, signal peptides, transmembrane helices, etc. of the ORFs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: BLAST results of ORFs and phylogenetic analysis showed significant similarity towards the respective proteins of the IncI2 plasmid R721 of E. coli.

  4. Anti-biogram and resistogram profiling of Aeromonas species isolated from Malaysian aquatic sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olumide Adedokun Odeyemi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate antibiotics and heavy metals resistance profile of Aeromonas species isolated from Kuala Gula and Kuala Sepetang, Perak. Methods: Isolated Aeromonas species were subjected to 12 antibiotics: penicillin G 10 units, tetracycline 30 µg, novobiocin 5 µg, nitrofurantoin 100 µg, ampicillin 10 µg, chloramphenicol 10 µg, fluconazole 25 µg, gentamicin 10 µg, streptomycin 10 µg and 25 µg, kanamycin 30 µg, and vancomycin 30 µg and 5 heavy metals: MnSO4.H2O, Cr(NO3.9H2O, CuSO4, Pb(NO32, HgCl2. Results: Results from this study revealed that isolates from the two sources-displayed varied resistance. Isolates from Kuala Sepetang showed 91%, 66%, 61%, and 52% resistance to vancomycin, Novobiocin, streptomycin and gentamycin while Kuala Gula isolates showed 76%, 93%, 28% and 14% respectively. High rate of resistance was shown to be against lead (Pb, Chromium (Cr, copper (Cu and Manganese (Mn with minimum inhibitory concentration ranging from 2 560 µg/mL to >5 120 µg/mL. Low resistance to mercury was observed among isolates from Kuala Gula. Conclusions: This study showed that there was widespread of both heavy metals and antibiotics resistance among Aeromonas isolates from the two marine sources with isolates from Kuala Sepetang showing more resistance thereby posing danger to both aquatic animals and human health.

  5. Synthesis and evaluation of bactericidal properties of CuO nanoparticles against Aeromonas hydrophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayedeh Fatemeh Shaffiey

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available   Objective(s: CuO is one of the most important transition metal oxides due to its captivating properties. It is used in various technological applications such as high critical temperature superconductors, gas sensors, in photoconductive applications, and so on. Recently, it has been used as an antimicrobial agent against various bacterial species.   Materials and Methods: Here, we synthesized CuO nanoparticles (NPs and explored the antibacterial activity of CuO NPs preparation. Results: Single crystalline nanoparticles of copper oxide having almost uniform particle size of 5-6 nm has been synthesized by a facile and versatile route. XRD spectra confirmed the formation of single phase CuO NPs. Transmission electron microscopy results corroborate well with XRD results. The technique employed is free from toxic solvents, organics and amines, is based on a simple reaction of copper sulfate and de-ionized water (DI, and their bactericidal effects against of Aeromonas hydrophila ATCC 7966T bacteria were investigated. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC with liquid culture for all of the Aeromonas hydrophila culture Medias was done. Conclusion: Present study confirms that Copper oxide nanoparticles have great promise as antimicrobial agent against Aeromonas hydrophila

  6. Rickettsia spp. in Ticks, Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Chmielewski, Tomasz; Podsiadly, Edyta; Karbowiak, Grzegorz; Tylewska-Wierzbanowska, Stanislawa

    2009-01-01

    Ticks are recognized as the main vectors and reservoirs of spotted fever group rickettsiae. We searched for the most prevalent Rickettsia spp. in Poland and found R. slovaca and R. helvetica bacteria in ticks in southern and central Poland; R. raoulti was found in ticks in all parts of Poland.

  7. Sistem Informari Pembayaran Spp Di Sma Lhokseumawe

    OpenAIRE

    Gunwan, M. Arif

    2013-01-01

    Kajian ini bertujuan untuk membangun suatu sistem informasi pembayaran spp. Sistem ini dikembangkan dengan menggunakan perangkat lunak Microsoft Visual Basic 6.0 dan Microsoft Access 2003. Sistem ini bekerja untuk dapat memasukkan data siswa,data kelas, dan transaksi pembayaran biaya pendidikan, seperti spp. Tujuan sistem ini adalah untuk mempermudah bendahara dalam melakukan transaksi pembayaran spp. 092406156

  8. El Blog como consuelo

    OpenAIRE

    Blanco Rodríguez, Fernando del

    2016-01-01

    El Blog Kemixon Reporter 2.0 nació hace ya más de un año como una invitación de la Biblioteca CID a la mezcla y a la curiosidad: la idea era, por una parte, ser útiles para el trabajo de nuestros usuarios, ofreciéndoles instrumentos tanto de investigación como de análisis y, por otra, ser útiles para poner cara, color, discurso, poesía, imagen, desorden… y, en último caso, sentido, a todos los alrededores de las ciencias experimentales que estos usuarios practican.

  9. Internet como herramienta educativa

    OpenAIRE

    Chiarani, Marcela Cristina; Lucero, María Margarita; Pianucci, Irma Guadalupe; Manzur, Lilian

    2001-01-01

    El presente trabajo hace referencia a la formación docente y las posibilidades educativas que ofrece Internet, tales como buscar información, comunicarse con otras instituciones y elaborar su propio material educativo para trabajar con sus alumnos. Pretende a su vez acentuar la vertiente productora en los centros Educativos sin dejar de lado la más difundida, como es la vertiente consumidora en el uso de Internet en la educación. Se trata de una experiencia llevada a cabo por el Centro ...

  10. Uso da levedura seca por "spray-dry" como fonte de proteína para suínos em crescimento e terminação Use of sugar cane yeast (Saccharomyces spp. dried by spray-dryer as protein source on growing-finishing pigs feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Moreira

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi conduzido um experimento de desempenho para avaliar a levedura (Saccharomyces Spp. seca por "spray-dry" (LSSD, na alimentação de suínos em crescimento e terminação. Foram utilizados 32 suínos mestiços, metade de cada sexo, com peso inicial médio de 26,1 kg. Os suínos receberam ração à vontade, que continha níveis crescentes (0, 7, 14 e 21% de inclusão de LSSD. Foi utilizado o delineamento em blocos casualizados, com quatro tratamentos e quatro repetições, com dois animais por unidade experimental. A inclusão de LSSD na fase de crescimento (26,1-59,7 kg prejudicou a conversão alimentar, sem, contudo, influenciar o consumo de ração e o ganho de peso. Entretanto, na fase de terminação (59,7-86,0 kg e no período total do experimento (26,1-86,9 kg, nenhuma das características foi influenciada. O nitrogênio da uréia plasmática (NUP decresceu de forma linear com o aumento da inclusão da LSSD em ambas as fases. Observou-se efeito quadrático dos níveis crescentes de inclusão de LSSD sobre a espessura de toucinho e um aumento linear na relação carne:gordura. Os resultados obtidos sugerem que a LSSD pode ser utilizada até o nível de 21% nas rações de suínos, nas fases de crescimento e terminação, sem prejudicar o ganho de peso.A performance trial was carried out to evaluate sugar cane yeast, (Saccharomyces spp. dried by spray-dryer (SCYSD, on growing-finishing pigs feeding. Thirty-two crossbreed growing pigs, half of each sex, with an average initial live weight of 26.1 kg. The piglets were fed ad libitum, with diets at increasing levels (0, 7, 14 and 21% of SCYSD. A randomized blocks experimental design was used, and four levels of inclusion and four replications, with two-pigs/experimental unit. Inclusion of SCYSD in the growth phase (26.1-59.7 kg decreased the feed:gain ratio, with no effects on feed intake and daily weight gain. In the finishing phase (59.7-86.0 kg and in total trial phase (26.1-86.0 kg, no

  11. Predicting Virulence of Aeromonas Isolates Based-on Changes in Transcription of c-jun and c-fos in Human Tissue Culture Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aims: To assess virulence of Aeromonas isolates based on the change in regulation of c-jun and c-fos in the human intestinal tissue culture cell line Caco-2. Methods and Results: Aeromonas cells were added to Caco-2 cells at approximately a one to one ratio. After 1, 2 and 3 ...

  12. Mutation in the S-ribosylhomocysteinase (luxS) gene involved in quorum sensing affects biofilm formation and virulence in a clinical isolate of Aeromonas hydrophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    A diarrheal isolate SSU of Aeromonas hydrophila produces a cytotoxic enterotoxin (Act) with cytotoxic, enterotoxic, and hemolytic activities. Our laboratory has characterized from the above Aeromonas strain, in addition to Act, the type 3- and T6-secretion systems and their effec...

  13. Complete genome sequence of the highly virulent Aeromonas hydrophila AL09-71 isolated from disease channel catfish from West Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    The highly virulent Aeromonas hydrophila isolate AL09-71 was cultured from infected channel catfish during the 2009 disease outbreak in West Alabama. The complete genome of this highly virulent Aeromonas hydrophila isolate AL09-71 is 5,023,861 bp in size. The genome has 4489 coding sequences, 11 cop...

  14. La imagen como dato

    OpenAIRE

    Rebollo Delgado, Lucrecio

    2009-01-01

    I. INTRODUCCIÓN. II. LA IMAGEN Y EL CONCEPTO DE UNO MISMO. III. EL DERECHO A LA PROPIA IMAGEN EN EL ORDENAMIENTO JURÍDICO ESPAÑOL. IV. LA TEMPORAL EXCLUSIÓN DE LA VIDEOVIGILANCIA. V. LA IMAGEN COMO DATO.

  15. Genetic engineering of Geobacillus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kananavičiūtė, Rūta; Čitavičius, Donaldas

    2015-04-01

    Members of the genus Geobacillus are thermophiles that are of great biotechnological importance, since they are sources of many thermostable enzymes. Because of their metabolic versatility, geobacilli can be used as whole-cell catalysts in processes such as bioconversion and bioremediation. The effective employment of Geobacillus spp. requires the development of reliable methods for genetic engineering of these bacteria. Currently, genetic manipulation tools and protocols are under rapid development. However, there are several convenient cloning vectors, some of which replicate autonomously, while others are suitable for the genetic modification of chromosomal genes. Gene expression systems are also intensively studied. Combining these tools together with proper techniques for DNA transfer, some Geobacillus strains were shown to be valuable producers of recombinant proteins and industrially important biochemicals, such as ethanol or isobutanol. This review encompasses the progress made in the genetic engineering of Geobacillus spp. and surveys the vectors and transformation methods that are available for this genus. PMID:25659824

  16. Temperate bacteriophage ΦO18P from an Aeromonas media isolate: Characterization and complete genome sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A group of 74 Aeromonas isolates from surface water of three ponds in Bielefeld, Germany was screened for prophage induction after UV irradiation. The phage ΦO18P was induced from the Aeromonas media isolate O18. ΦO18P belongs to the Myoviridae phage family. The complete nucleotide sequence of the double stranded DNA genome of bacteriophage ΦO18P consists of 33,985 bp. The genome has 5' protruding cohesive ends of 16 bases. On the ΦO18P genome 46 open reading frames (orfs) were identified which are organized in the modules integration and regulation, replication, head, packaging, tail and lysis. Additionally the phage DNA includes a methylase gene. Comparison of the genome architecture with those of other bacteriophages revealed significant similarities to the P2 phage family and especially to the prophages of Aeromonas salmonicida and the Vibrio cholerae phage K139

  17. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based typing analysis of atypical isolates of the fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høie, S.; Dalsgaard, Inger; Aase, I.L.;

    1999-01-01

    Two hundred and five isolates of atypical Aeromonas salmonicida, recovered from a wide range of hosts and countries were characterized by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting four genes. The chosen genes were those encoding the extracellular A-layer protein (AP), the serine protease (Sprot......), the glycerophospholipid:cholestrol acetyltransferase protein (GCAT), and the 16S rRNA (16S rDNA). All the atypical A. salmonicida isolates could be assigned to 4 PCR groups. Group 1 comprised 45 strains which rested positive for PCR amplification, using the 16S rDNA, GCAT2, Sprot2, and AP primer......-sets only. A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida isolates tested, belonged to group 1. The PCR primer-sets separated A. salmonicida from other reference strains of Aeromonas species and related bacteria with the exception of Aeromonas hydrophila. The results indicated that PCR typing is a useful framework for...

  18. Occurrence and control of Chilodonella spp. in pejerrey Odontesthes bonariensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Morato Fernandes

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo relatar a ocorrência e controle de infecção parasitária por Chilodonella spp. em alevinos de peixe-rei (O. bonariensis. A Chilodonella spp. é um ciliado que parasita tegumento e brânquias de peixes, podendo ocasionar grande mortalidade. A infecção foi identificada a partir da observação comportamental de alevinos criados em caixas de polietileno com capacidade de 1000 litros, mantidas em circuito fechado com um biofiltro e alimentados com ração e zooplancton selvagem. A contaminação foi constatada devido à redução do apetite, perda do equilíbrio e alteração na coloração dos peixes, tendo como causa provável, a elevação dos níveis de amônia não ionizável, levando a uma diminuição da imunidade. Como tratamento foi utilizado uma concentração salina de 10g/L, durante 30 minutos, com êxito para o controle deste parasito.

  19. Identification and Molecular Characterization of the Homogentisate Pathway Responsible for Pyomelanin Production, the Major Melanin Constituents in Aeromonas media WS

    OpenAIRE

    He Wang; Yunqian Qiao; Baozhong Chai; Chenxi Qiu; Xiangdong Chen

    2015-01-01

    The pigmentation of many Aeromonas species has been thought to be due to the production of a L-DOPA (L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine) based melanin. However, in this study we found that although L-DOPA synthesis occurs in the high-melanin-yielding Aeromonas media strain WS, it plays a minor, if any, role in pigmentation. Instead, the pigmentation of A. media strain WS is due to the production of pyomelanin through HGA (homogentisate). Gene products of phhA (encodes phenylalanine hydroxylase), ty...

  20. DETECTED OF AERO GENE IN AEROMONAS HYDROPHILA ISOLATES FROM SHRIMP AND PEELED SHRIMP SAMPLES IN LOCAL MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa Kareem Niamah

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A 62 isolates were isolated from 33 samples of shrimp and peeled shrimp in three local markets in Basrah city. A 36 isolates were identified to be Aeromonas hydrophila bacteria depending on morphological, microscopic examinations and ten biochemical tests. 83.33% (30 isolates from isolates produced ß-haemolysis on tryptone soy agar with 5% sheep blood. Aero gene detection by polymerase chain reaction technique, Theband appearance in the amplified gene of bacteria shows the molecular weight of aerolysin (424 bp. A 100% (36 isolates of Aeromonas hydrophila isolates were contained Aero gene.

  1. A foodborne outbreak of Aeromonas hydrophila in a college, Xingyi City, Guizhou, China, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Zeng

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: On 12 May 2012, over 200 college students with acute diarrhoea were reported to the Guizhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention. We conducted an investigation to identify the agent and mode of transmission and to recommend control measures.Methods: A suspected case was a person at the college with onset of more than two of the following symptoms: diarrhoea (more than three loose stools in 24 hours, abdominal pain, vomiting or fever (> 37.5C between 6 and 15 May 2012. A confirmed case also had a positive Aeromonas hydrophila culture from a stool sample. A retrospective-cohort study of 902 students compared attack rates (AR by dining place, meals and food history. We reviewed the implicated premise, its processes and preparation of implicated food.Results: We identified 349 suspected cases (AR = 14% and isolated Aeromonas hydrophila from three stools of 15 cases. Students who ate in cafeteria A were more likely to be ill compared to those eating in other places (relative risk [RR]: 3.1, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.0–4.8. The cohort study implicated cold cucumber (RR: 2.6, 95% CI: 2.0–3.3 and houttuynia dishes (RR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.4–2.3. Environmental investigation showed that vegetables were washed in polluted water from a tank close to the sewage ditch, then left at 30°C for two hours before serving. The Escherichia coli count of the tank was well above the standard for drinking water.Conclusion: This outbreak of Aeromonas hydrophila was most probably caused by salad ingredients washed in contaminated tank water. We recommended enhancing training of foodhandlers, ensuring tanks and sewerage systems comply with appropriate standards and adequate monitoring of drinking water sources.

  2. Diabetic Foot Due to Aeromonas Hydrophila and Pseudomonas Oryzihabitans: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysel Talan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Foot infections are the most common cause of amputations in diabetic patients. The main predisposing reasons for the development of foot ulcers and subsequent infection in diabetic patients are sensory neuropathy, vascular insufficiency and immune system abnormalities due to hyperglycemia. Limb-threatening infections are often polymicrobial. Staphylococcus aureus, group B streptococci, enterococci and facultative gram-negative bacilli are the most common pathogens. Here, we present two cases of diabetic foot infected by extremely rare microorganisms: Aeromonas hydrophila, and Pseudomonas (Flavimonas oryzihabitans. Turk Jem 2014; 18: 100-102

  3. Effects of temperature on biochemical reactions and drug resistance of virulent and avirulent Aeromonas salmonicida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahnel, G.B.; Gould, R.W.

    1982-01-01

    Incubation temperatures of 11°, 18° and 28° did not substantially affect biochemical reactions of either virulent or avirulent forms of Aeromonas salmonicida subspecies salmonicida. The only change observed, amygdalin fermentation, was positive at 11° and 18° but negative at 28°C. Several isolates utilized sucrose, a characteristic not normally recognized for A. salmonicida subspecies salmonicida.Antimicrobial susceptibility screening indicated resistance to novobiocin increased at the higher incubation temperatures. Standardized drug sensitivity testing procedures and precise zone diameter interpretive standards for bacterial fish pathogens are needed.

  4. Prianjanje bakterije Aeromonas hydrophila na staklene površine modificirane pomoću organosilana

    OpenAIRE

    Kregiel, Dorota

    2013-01-01

    Svrha je ovoga rada bila ispitati svojstvo prianjanja bakterije Aeromonas hydrophila na staklene površine modificirane pomoću silana s četiri vrste reaktivnih skupina, i to: (3-glicidoksipropil) dietoksilana, (3-N,N-dimetil-3-N-n-heksadecilaminopropil) trimetoksisilan klorida, (3-N,N,N-trietanolaminopropil) trimetoksisilan klorida i (3-N-N-dimetil-3-N-n-oktilaminopropil) trimetoksisilan klorida. U radu je korišten soj A. hydrophila LOCK0968, izoliran iz neklorirane vode uzorkovane iz distribu...

  5. Susceptibility to antimicrobial agents and plasmid carrying in Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from two estuarine systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, R; Dominguez, M; Gonzalez, C; Mondaca, M A; Zemelman, R

    1992-01-01

    Susceptibility to various antimicrobial agents and the presence of plasmids was investigated in eleven strains of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from samples of sea water and these strains isolated from Aulacomya ater. Transference of resistance to Escherichia coli was attempted by conjugation and transformation experiments. The strains showed multiple resistance toward beta-lactam antibiotics and susceptibility to other antimicrobial agents. Five strains harboured plasmids with molecular weights below 5.7 MD. It was not possible to relate the resistance of the strains with the presence of their plasmids. PMID:1593967

  6. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of Aeromonas hydrophilia metallo-[beta]-lactamase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, N.; Toney, J.H.; Fitzgerald, P.M.D. (Merck)

    2010-07-20

    The CphA metallo-{beta}-lactamase from Aeromonas hydrophilia has been expressed, purified and crystallized by the hanging-drop vapor-diffusion method using ammonium sulfate as the precipitant. The crystals exhibit orthorhombic symmetry (P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2), with unit-cell parameters a = 40.75, b = 42.05, c = 128.88 {angstrom}. There is one monomer in the asymmetric unit and the solvent content is estimated to be 44% by volume. A data set extending to 1.8 {angstrom} has been measured.

  7. Molecular Cloning of the Tryptophan Operon from an Aeromonas hydrophila Freshwater Isolate

    OpenAIRE

    Anguita, Juan; Rivero, Octavio; Naharro, Germán

    1992-01-01

    A genomic library of Aeromonas hydrophila F9 was constructed by using pBR322 as a vector. From that, two DNA fragments (5.8 and 11.6 kb) were isolated containing genetic information to complement trpA and trpB defects (5.8-kb fragment) and to complement trpA, trpB, trpC, trpD, and trpE defects (11.6-kb fragment) in Escherichia coli mutants. Evidence of the existence of a secondary promoter is given.

  8. Purification and Properties of β-1, 4-Xylanase from Aeromonas caviae W-61

    OpenAIRE

    Viet, Dung Nguyen; Kamio, Yoshiyuki; Abe, Naoki; Kaneko, Jun; Izaki, Kazuo

    1991-01-01

    Aeromonas caviae W-61, which was isolated from water samples at the Faculty of Agriculture, Tohoku University, produced β-1, 4-xylanase (1,4-β-d-xylan xylanohydrolase; EC 3.2.1.8) extracellularly. The xylanase was purified to homogeneity by using DEAE-Sephadex A-50, CM-Sephadex C-50, and Sephadex G-100 column chromatographies. The molecular weight of the purified enzyme was estimated to be 22,000 by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The isoelectric point of the enzyme...

  9. INHIBITION OF Aeromonas hydrophila BY PROBIOTIC STRAINS ISOLATED FROM THE DIGESTIVE TRACT OF Pterophyllum scalare

    OpenAIRE

    M. C. Monroy-Dosta; T. Castro-Barrera; F. J. Fernández-Perrino; L. Mayorga-Reyes

    2010-01-01

    The effect of three dierent probiotic strains of Bacillus (B1, B2 and B3) isolated from the digestive tract of Pterophyllum scalare against Aeromonas hydrophila was evaluated. All the sh that where fed with the dierent probiotic strains obtained higher resistance to the pathogen inoculation since they did not developed any signs of illness nor lesions and they stayed healthy until the end of the experiment, with an observed survival of 100 %. On the other hand, the sh where the probiotic bact...

  10. El mundo como proyecto

    OpenAIRE

    Sbarra, Alberto; Morano, Horacio; Cueto Rúa, Verónica

    2015-01-01

    Un profesor decía a sus alumnos: “…ahora ustedes comenzarán a mirar el mundo con ojos de arquitecto”1, recreando una visión totalizadora e integradora que incluye el pensamiento proyectual. Instalados en un determinado campo disciplinar, se tiene una nueva noción de la realidad, probablemente una nueva manera de mirar el mundo. Imaginar el mundo como proyecto2, lo hemos convertido en un desafío para la asignatura Teoría, en la creencia que el mundo es un proyecto inacabado, en donde la Arq...

  11. El otro como adversario

    OpenAIRE

    Cieza Rodríguez, María Fernanda

    2007-01-01

    Este trabajo implica comenzar a preguntarnos sobre las causas, las características, las motivaciones subjetivas, las categorías que reflejen con mayor objetividad de qué estamos hablando cuando hablamos de violencia, implica mucha complejidad. Es un concepto viciado de connotaciones afectivas, subjetivas e ideológicamente fragmentadas como para que sea fácil de definir. Conocemos lo que han dicho muchos autores desde los antiguos filósofos hasta los contemporáneos que tratan de explicar es...

  12. Parkour como medio mortriz

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez Opazo, Rodolfo; Rosales Calderon, Diego

    2011-01-01

    Desde el inicio de la era del hombre, el Parkour siempre ha existido, simplemente que no había sido considerado con este nombre hasta un par de décadas atrás y de ahí una breve trayectoria desde Francia al resto del mundo por un grupo de personas que llamaron al arte del desplazamiento como "Parkour". Utilizando las herramientas de Internet, el Parkour en Chile ha ido ganando adeptos día a día, y la edad de iniciación a esta disciplina es cada vez menor, otorgando una adaptación motriz mayor ...

  13. New plate medium for facilitated differentiation of Salmonella spp. from Proteus spp. and other enteric bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Rambach, A

    1990-01-01

    A new agar medium for the differentiation of Salmonella spp. from other members of the family Enterobacteriaceae is described. This medium exploits a novel phenotypic characteristic of Salmonella spp.: the formation of acid from propylene glycol. This characteristic may be used in combination with a chromogenic indicator of beta-galactosidase to differentiate Salmonella spp. from Proteus spp. and the other members of the Enterobacteriaceae. Desoxycholate may be included in the plate medium as...

  14. Evaluation of Trichoderma spp. and Clonostachys spp. Strains to Control Fusarium circinatum in Pinus radiata Seedlings Evaluación de Cepas de Trichoderma spp. y Clonostachys spp. para Controlar Fusarium circinatum en Plántulas de Pinus radiata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Moraga-Suazo

    2011-09-01

    os. Debido a la ausencia de métodos eficientes para controlar este patógeno, el propósito de este estudio fue evaluar el potencial uso de cepas de Trichoderma y Clonostachys como control de F. circinatum en plántulas de Pinus radiata D. Don. Ochenta y un cepas de Trichoderma spp. y Clonostachys spp. fueron evaluadas a través de ensayos in vitro para determinar su habilidad para actuar como antagonistas de F. circinatum y 21 cepas fueron probadas por su habilidad para reducir la mortalidad post-emergencia e incrementar la supervivencia de P. radiata bajo condiciones de invernadero. Durante los experimentos in vitro, 15 cepas de Trichoderma inhibieron el crecimiento del patógeno más de un 60% y una cepa de Clonostachys mostró parasitismo de hifas de F. circinatum. En experimentos en invernadero, los antagonistas no controlaron la enfermedad cuando fueron agregados después de la inoculación del patógeno. Sin embargo, cuando los antagonistas fueron sembrados antes del patógeno, cuatro cepas (Clonostachys UDC-32 y UDC-222, Trichoderma UDC-23 y UDC-408 redujeron la mortalidad post-emergencia entre 80 y 100%. Entre estas cepas, sólo Clonostachys UDC-222 incrementó significativamente la supervivencia de plántulas de P. radiata. Estos resultados demuestran que Clonostachys UDC-222 posee gran potencial para ser empleado como agente de biocontrol contra F. circinatum en la producción de plantas de P. radiata.

  15. Promoção de enraizamento de microestacas de um clone de Eucalyptus sp. por Trichoderma spp. Root induction from microcutting of an Eucalyptus sp. clone by Trichoderma spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano de Oliveira Fortes

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo o emprego de isolados antagonistas de fungos visando à promoção do enraizamento de microestacas de um clone de Eucalyptus sp. Utilizaram-se no teste de promoção de enraizamento de microestacas um isolado não-patogênico de Cylindrocladium spp. e mais três isolados antagonistas de Trichoderma spp. (E15, S2 e St, os quais apresentaram as melhores notas de antagonismo em teste in vitro, pelo método de confrontação direta contra isolado patogênico de Cylindrocladium spp., sendo inoculados no substrato de desenvolvimento das microestacas sob condições de estufa. Observou-se aumento de sobrevivência das microestacas na presença dos isolados de Trichoderma spp. e Cylindrocladium spp., em comparação com a testemunha, em ambiente naturalmente infestado por Botrytis cinerea. O tratamento com os isolados ST, E15 e S2 de Trichoderma spp. e Cyl de Cylindrocladium spp. aumentou a sobrevivência de microestacas de Eucalyptus sp. O isolado E15 promoveu o enraizamento de microestacas, apresentando aumento significativo na porcentagem de enraizamento (62,25% em relação ao tratamento-testemunha (28,77%.The purpose of this research was to apply antagonistic isolates of fungi to induce microcutting rooting of an Eucalyptus sp. clone. One non-pathogenic isolate of Cylindrocladium spp. and three antagonistic isolates of Trichoderma spp (E15, S2 and St were used for the microcutting rooting experiment. The latter gave better results in the antagonistic in vitro test using the method of direct confrontation against the pathogenic isolate of Cylindrocladium spp, being inoculated in the microcutting rooting substrate, in greenhouse conditions. Increase of microcutting survival was observed in the presence of isolates of Trichoderma spp. and Cylindrocladium spp. when compared with control in an environment naturally infested with Botrytis cinerea. The treatments with the isolates ST, E15 and S2 of Trichoderma spp. and Cyl

  16. Antimicrobial activity of some of the south-Indian spices against serotypes of Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes and Aeromonas hydrophila Atividade antimicrobiana de condimentos do sul da India sobre Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes e Aeromonas hydrophila

    OpenAIRE

    M.N. Indu; A.A.M. Hatha; C. Abirosh; U. Harsha; G Vivekanandan

    2006-01-01

    Antibacterial activity of extracts of Allium sativum (garlic), Myristica fragrans (nutmeg), Zingiber officinale (ginger), Allium cepa (onion) and Piper nigrum (pepper) has been evaluated against 20 different serogroups of Escherichia coli, 8 serotypes of Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes and Aeromonas hydrophila. Garlic extract showed excellent antibacterial activity against all the test organisms, except L. monocytogenes. Nutmeg showed good anti-listerial activity, although activity against...

  17. Efficacy of lactoferricin B in controlling ready-to-eat vegetable spoilage caused by Pseudomonas spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federico, Baruzzi; Pinto, Loris; Quintieri, Laura; Carito, Antonia; Calabrese, Nicola; Caputo, Leonardo

    2015-12-23

    The microbial content of plant tissues has been reported to cause the spoilage of ca. 30% of chlorine-disinfected fresh vegetables during cold storage. The aim of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of antimicrobial peptides in controlling microbial vegetable spoilage under cold storage conditions. A total of 48 bacterial isolates were collected from ready-to-eat (RTE) vegetables and identified as belonging to Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Aeromonas media, Pseudomonas cichorii, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas jessenii, Pseudomonas koreensis, Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas simiae and Pseudomonas viridiflava species. Reddish or brownish pigmentation was found when Pseudomonas strains were inoculated in wounds on leaves of Iceberg and Trocadero lettuce and escarole chicory throughout cold storage. Bovine lactoferrin (BLF) and its hydrolysates (LFHs) produced by pepsin, papain and rennin, were assayed in vitro against four Pseudomonas spp. strains selected for their heavy spoiling ability. As the pepsin-LFH showed the strongest antimicrobial effect, subsequent experiments were carried out using the peptide lactoferricin B (LfcinB), well known to be responsible for its antimicrobial activity. LfcinB significantly reduced (P ≤ 0.05) spoilage by a mean of 36% caused by three out of four inoculated spoiler pseudomonads on RTE lettuce leaves after six days of cold storage. The reduction in the extent of spoilage was unrelated to viable cell density in the inoculated wounds. This is the first paper providing direct evidence regarding the application of an antimicrobial peptide to control microbial spoilage affecting RTE leafy vegetables during cold storage. PMID:26453993

  18. Development and efficacy of novobiocin and rifampicin-resistant Aeromonas hydrophila as novel vaccines in channel catfish and Nile tilapia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three attenuated Aeromonas hydrophila vaccines were developed from the virulent 2009 West Alabama isolates through selection for resistance to both novobiocin and rifampicin. When channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were IP injected with 4×105 colony-forming units (CFU) of the mutants, no fish die...

  19. Construction, expression and characterization of eleven putative flagellar apparatus genes of Aeromonas hydrophila AL09-73

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeromonas hydrophila is ubiquitous in aquatic environments worldwide and is responsible for many human and fish diseases. The genome sequence of A. hydrophila is available in the GenBank database. Our ultimate goal is to develop the whole genome protein arrays of A. hydrophila. In this study, we ...

  20. DISTRIBUTION OF SIX VIRULENCE FACTORS IN AEROMONAS SPECIES ISOLATED FROM US DRINKING WATER UTILITIES: A PCR IDENTIFICATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surveys of finished drinking water conducted by the U.S. EPA during 2000-2001, revealed 7 out of 16 water utilities encompassing four states, were contaminated with Aeromonas species. A Polymerase Chain reaction (PCR) based genetic characterization determined the presence of six...

  1. Complete Genome Sequence and Methylome Analysis of Aeromonas hydrophila Strain YL17, Isolated from a Compost Pile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Yan-Lue; Roberts, Richard J; Ee, Robson; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2016-01-01

    In this report, we announce the complete genome sequence of Aeromonas hydrophila strain YL17. Single-molecule real-time (SMRT) DNA sequencing was used to generate the complete genome sequence and the genome-wide DNA methylation profile of this environmental isolate. A total of five unique DNA methyltransferase recognition motifs were reported here. PMID:26941143

  2. Simultaneous Detection of Bacterial Fish Pathogens, Edwardsiella ictaluri, Flavobacterium columnnare and Aeromonas Hydrophila by Multiplex-PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwardsiella ictaluri, Flavobacterium columnare and Aeromonas hydrophila are three major bacterial pathogens of fish that cause diseases with significant economic impact on the aquaculture industry world-wide. Rapid detection of multiple infections with these bacteria in the same host is important f...

  3. Chicken-type lysozyme in channel catfish: expression analysis, lysozyme activity, and efficacy as immunostimulant against Aeromonas hydrophila infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    To understand whether chicken-type lysozyme (Lys-c) in channel catfish was induced by infection of Aeromonas hydrophila, the transcriptional levels of Lys-c in skin, gut, liver, spleen, posterior kidney, and blood cells in healthy channel catfish was compared to that in channel catfish infected with...

  4. Virulence of Aeromonas hydrophila to channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus fingerlings in the presence and absence of bacterial extracellular products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virulence of three 2009 West Alabama isolates (AL09-71, AL09-72, and AL09-73) of Aeromonas hydrophila in the presence or absence of extracellular products (ECP) from overnight bacterial culture to channel catfish fingerlings (4.6 +/- 1.3g) was investigated by both bath immersion and intraperitoneal ...

  5. An in vitro screening method to evaluate chemicals as potential chemotherapeutants to control Aeromonas hydrophila infection in channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeromonas hydrophila, a Gram-negative motile bacillus widely distributed in aquatic environments, is a causative agent of motile aeromonad septicaemia (MAS). Although usually considered as a secondary pathogen associated with disease outbreaks, A. hydrophila could also become a primary pathogen, cau...

  6. Vaccination of channel catfish with extracellular products of Aeromonas hydrophila provides protection against infection by the pathogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeromonas hydrophila, a Gram-negative bacterium, is one of the economically-important pathogens in modern aquaculture. Among various traits, extracellular products (ECP) secreted by the bacterium are considered to be essential factors for virulence. Whether vaccination with the ECP could produce imm...

  7. Characterization of class 1 integrons associated with R-plasmids in clinical Aeromonas salmonicida isolates from various geographical areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, A.S.; Bruun, Morten Sichlau; Larsen, J.L.;

    2001-01-01

    Class 1 integrons were found in 26 of 40 antibiotic-resistant isolates of the fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida from Northern Europe and North America. Three different dhfr genes, conferring trimethoprim resistance, and one ant(3 " )1a aminoglycoside resistance gene were identified as gene...

  8. Degradation of chitin and chitosan by a recombinant chitinase derived from a virulent Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from diseased channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    A chitinase was identified in extracellular products of a virulent Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from diseased channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Bioactive recombinant chitinase (rChi-Ah) was produced in Escherichia coli. Purified rChi-Ah had optimal activity at temperature of 42°C and pH 6.5. T...

  9. Antibiogram, Adhesive Characteristics, and Incidence of Class 1 Integron in Aeromonas Species Isolated from Two South African Rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isoken H. Igbinosa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas species are well distributed in freshwater environments, and their natural susceptibility to antimicrobials renders them interesting candidates for the survey of antimicrobial resistance in freshwater milieu. Water samples were collected from Kat and Tyume rivers in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa, and a total of 45 isolates identified as Aeromonas species were recovered from the two rivers. All Aeromonas isolates were resistant to oxacillin, penicillin, clindamycin, cephalothin, vancomycin, and rifamycin, while appreciable susceptibilities (89.3 : 94.1%, 82.1 : 94.1%, 85.7 : 88.2%, and 92.9 : 88.2% were observed against ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, nitrofurantoin, and gentamicin from Kat and Tyume rivers, respectively. Multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR indices ranged from 0.016 to 0.044 for the two rivers. Class 1 integron was detected in about 20% of the isolates, and all the isolates except one showed ability to produce biofilm in vitro as weak producers (53.33%, moderate producers (15.56%, and strong producers (28.9%. This investigation provides a baseline data on antibiotic resistance as well as the adhesive characteristics of Aeromonas isolates from Tyume and Kat rivers in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa.

  10. Potential Role of Specific Antibodies as Important Vaccine Induced Protective Mechanism against Aeromonas salmonicida in Rainbow Trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rømer Villumsen, Kasper; Dalsgaard, Inger; Holten-Andersen, Lars; Raida, Martin Kristian

    2012-01-01

    Furunculosis caused by infection with Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida has been a known threat to aquaculture for more than a century. Efficient prophylactic approaches against this disease are essential for continued growth of salmonid aquaculture. Since the introduction of successful oil...

  11. Potential role of specific antibodies in vaccine-induced protection against Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Kasper Rømer; Dalsgaard, Inger; Raida, Martin Kristian

    2012-01-01

    Furunculosis caused by infection with Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida has now been a known threat to aquaculture for more than a century. Efficient prophylactic precautions against this disease are essential for continued growth of salmonid fish aquaculture. Ever since the introduction of...

  12. Comparative evaluation of infection methods and environmental factors on challenge success: Aeromonas salmonicida infection in vaccinated rainbow trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chettri, Jiwan Kumar; Skov, Jakob; Jaafar, Rzgar M.;

    2015-01-01

    When testing vaccine-induced protection an effective and reliable challenge method is a basic requirement and we here present a comparative study on different challenge methods used for infection of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss with Aeromonas salmonicida, a bacterial pathogen eliciting furun...

  13. Detection and quantification of virulent Aeromonas hydrophila in channel catfish tissues following waterborne challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dunhua; Moreira, Gabriel S A; Shoemaker, Craig; Newton, Joseph C; Xu, De-Hai

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to understand the pathogenesis of motile aeromonas septicemia caused by an emergent, high virulent Aeromonas hydrophila (vAh) in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus Adipose fin clipped catfish were challenged with vAh using a waterborne challenge method, and the distribution of vAh over a time course was detected and quantified using real-time polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that 77.8% of fish died within 48 h post challenge with mean day to death of 1.5 days. At 2 h post challenge, vAh (inferred from genomic DNA copies or genome equivalents) was detected in all external and internal tissues sampled. Gill had the highest vAh cells at 1 h post challenge. Spleen harbored the most vAh cells among internal organs at 4 h post challenge. The tissues/organs with most vAh cells detected at 8 h post challenge were adipose fin, blood, intestine, kidney and skin, while liver showed the highest vAh cells at 24 h post challenge. These results suggest that vAh was able to rapidly proliferate and spread, following wound infection, through the fish blood circulation system and cause mortality within 8-24 h. PMID:27044300

  14. Role of MshQ in MSHA pili biosynthesis and biofilm formation of Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Y X; Yan, Q P; Mao, X X; Chen, Z; Su, Y Q

    2014-01-01

    Biofilm formation of pathogen bacterium is currently one of the most widely studied topics; however, little is known regarding pathogen bacteria biofilms in aquaculture. Aeromonas hydrophila is a representative species of the genus Aeromonas, which has been recognized as a common pathogen, is associated with many diseases in aquatic animals, and causes significant mortality. The objectives of this study are i) to confirm that A. hydrophila can form biofilms on abiotic substrates and construct a biofilm growth curve for this bacterium; ii) to identify the genes that play crucial roles in A. hydrophila biofilm formation. The biofilm growth curve of A. hydrophila was constructed using a crystal violet assay, which showed that biofilm formation for this bacterium is a dynamic process. Next, a mutant library of pathogenic A. hydrophila B11 was constructed using the mini-Tn10 transposon mutagenesis system. A total of 861 mutants were screened, and 5 mutants were stably deficient in biofilm formation. Molecular analysis of the mutant B112 revealed that the open reading frame that encodes the protein MshQ was disrupted. Comparison of biological characteristics including growth, motility, and adhesion between the mutant B112 and the wild-type strain B11 suggested that MshQ is necessary for mannose-sensitive hemagglutinin pilus biosynthesis of A. hydrophila, and that these pili play crucial roles in A.hydrophila adherence to a solid surface during the early stages of biofilm formation. PMID:25366789

  15. Genospecies and virulence factors of Aeromonas species in different sources in a North African country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghenghesh, Khalifa Sifaw; Ahmed, Salwa F.; Cappuccinelli, Piero; Klena, John D.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Aeromonads of medical importance have been reported from numerous clinical, food, and water sources, but identification of genospecies and virulence factors of Aeromonas species from countries in North Africa and the Middle East are few. Methods In total 99 Aeromonas species isolates from different sources (diarrheal children [n=23], non-diarrheal children [n=16], untreated drinking water from wells [n=32], and chicken carcasses [n=28]) in Tripoli, Libya, were included in the present investigation. Genus identification was confirmed by biochemical analysis, and genospecies were determined using a combination of 16S rDNA variable region and gyrB sequence analysis. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect genes encoding toxins from 52 of the isolates. Results We identified 44 isolates (44%) as A. hydrophila (3 [3.0%] subspecies anaerogenes, 23 [23%] subspecies dhakensis, and 18 [18%] subspecies ranae); 27 isolates (27%) as A. veronii; 23 isolates (23%) as A. caviae; and 5 isolates (5.0%) as other genospecies. The genes encoding aerolysin (aer), cytolytic enterotoxin (act), and A. hydrophila isolate SSU enterotoxin (ast) were detected in 45 (87%), 4 (7.7%), and 9 (17%) of the 52 isolates tested, respectively. The gene encoding an extracellular lipase (alt) was not detected. Conclusion The majority of aeromonads from Libya fall within three genospecies (i.e. A. hydrophila, A. veronii, and A. caviae), and genes coding for toxin production are common among them. PMID:25216211

  16. Genospecies and virulence factors of Aeromonas species in different sources in a North African country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalifa Sifaw Ghenghesh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Aeromonads of medical importance have been reported from numerous clinical, food, and water sources, but identification of genospecies and virulence factors of Aeromonas species from countries in North Africa and the Middle East are few. Methods: In total 99 Aeromonas species isolates from different sources (diarrheal children [n=23], non-diarrheal children [n=16], untreated drinking water from wells [n=32], and chicken carcasses [n=28] in Tripoli, Libya, were included in the present investigation. Genus identification was confirmed by biochemical analysis, and genospecies were determined using a combination of 16S rDNA variable region and gyrB sequence analysis. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR was used to detect genes encoding toxins from 52 of the isolates. Results: We identified 44 isolates (44% as A. hydrophila (3 [3.0%] subspecies anaerogenes, 23 [23%] subspecies dhakensis, and 18 [18%] subspecies ranae; 27 isolates (27% as A. veronii; 23 isolates (23% as A. caviae; and 5 isolates (5.0% as other genospecies. The genes encoding aerolysin (aer, cytolytic enterotoxin (act, and A. hydrophila isolate SSU enterotoxin (ast were detected in 45 (87%, 4 (7.7%, and 9 (17% of the 52 isolates tested, respectively. The gene encoding an extracellular lipase (alt was not detected. Conclusion: The majority of aeromonads from Libya fall within three genospecies (i.e. A. hydrophila, A. veronii, and A. caviae, and genes coding for toxin production are common among them.

  17. Potential pathogenicity of Aeromonas hydrophila complex strains isolated from clinical, food, and environmental sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarral, Vicenta; Sanglas, Ariadna; Palau, Montserrat; Miñana-Galbis, David; Fusté, M Carmen

    2016-04-01

    Aeromonas are autochthonous inhabitants of aquatic environments, including chlorinated and polluted waters, although they can also be isolated from a wide variety of environmental and clinical sources. They cause infections in vertebrates and invertebrates and are considered to be an emerging pathogen in humans, producing intestinal and extra-intestinal diseases. Most of the clinical isolates correspond to A. hydrophila, A. caviae, and A. veronii bv. Sobria, which are described as the causative agents of wound infections, septicaemia, and meningitis in immunocompromised people, and diarrhoea and dysenteric infections in the elderly and children. The pathogenic factors associated with Aeromonas are multifactorial and involve structural components, siderophores, quorum-sensing mechanisms, secretion systems, extracellular enzymes, and exotoxins. In this study, we analysed a representative number of clinical and environmental strains belonging to the A. hydrophila species complex to evaluate their potential pathogenicity. We thereby detected their enzymatic activities and antibiotic susceptibility pattern and the presence of virulence genes (aer, alt, ast, and ascV). The notably high prevalence of these virulence factors, even in environmental strains, indicated a potential pathogenic capacity. Additionally, we determined the adhesion capacity and cytopathic effects of this group of strains in Caco-2 cells. Most of the strains exhibited adherence and caused complete lysis. PMID:26889703

  18. Polyphasic characterization of Aeromonas salmonicida isolates recovered from salmonid and non-salmonid fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamanka, A.; Loch, T.P.; Cipriano, R.C.; Faisal, M.

    2013-01-01

    Michigan's fisheries rely primarily upon the hatchery propagation of salmonid fish for release in public waters. One limitation on the success of these efforts is the presence of bacterial pathogens, including Aeromonas salmonicida, the causative agent of furunculosis. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of A. salmonicida in Michigan fish, as well as to determine whether biochemical or gene sequence variability exists among Michigan isolates. A total of 2202 wild, feral and hatchery-propagated fish from Michigan were examined for the presence of A. salmonicida. The examined fish included Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), coho salmon, O. kisutcha (Walbaum), steelhead trout, O. mykiss (Walbaum), Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis (Mitchill), and yellow perch, Perca flavescens (Mitchill). Among these, 234 fish yielded a brown pigment-producing bacterium that was presumptively identified as A. salmonicida. Further phenotypic and phylogenetic analyses identified representative isolates as Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida and revealed some genetic and biochemical variability. Logistic regression analyses showed that infection prevalence varied according to fish species/strain, year and gender, whereby Chinook salmon and females had the highest infection prevalence. Moreover, this pathogen was found in six fish species from eight sites, demonstrating its widespread nature within Michigan.

  19. In Vitro Phytochemical And Antibacterial Activity Test On Temu Putih Extract Curcuma Zedoaria Against Aeromonas Hydrophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimas Galang Prakosa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas hydrophila bacterium is one of the bacteria which frequently attack fresh water aquaculture and cause the farmer experience terrible loss. In order to cope with the diseases caused by A. hydrophila bacteria the usage of natural antibacteria was more recommended as it does not give negative effects to the environment. One natural antibacteria which can be used against A. hydrophila is from the white turmeric extract Curcuma zedoaria. The aim of this study is to know the active compound content in white turmeric Curcuma zedoaria to determine the most effective solvent and the effective maceration duration to extract Curcuma zedoaria as antibacteria against Aeromonas hydrophila using disc diffusion method. The study used descriptive and experimental method with treatments to 3 different solvents ethanol ethyl acetate and chloroform and 3 repetitions. The data acquired from the results of the study were then analyzed descriptively. Results showed that Curcuma zedoaria extract from the phytochemical test contained saponins alkaloid and flavonoid. The best solvent was ethyl acetate with maceration for 2x24 hours and inhibition area width 11.34 mm.

  20. Bioremediation and Detoxification of Synthetic Wastewater Containing Triarylmethane Dyes by Aeromonas hydrophila Isolated from Industrial Effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogugbue, Chimezie Jason; Sawidis, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Economical and bio-friendly approaches are needed to remediate dye-contaminated wastewater from various industries. In this study, a novel bacterial strain capable of decolorizing triarylmethane dyes was isolated from a textile wastewater treatment plant in Greece. The bacterial isolate was identified as Aeromonas hydrophila and was shown to decolorize three triarylmethane dyes tested within 24 h with color removal in the range of 72% to 96%. Decolorization efficiency of the bacterium was a function of operational parameters (aeration, dye concentration, temperature, and pH) and the optimal operational conditions obtained for decolorization of the dyes were: pH 7-8, 35°C and culture agitation. Effective color removal within 24 h was obtained at a maximum dye concentration of 50 mg/L. Dye decolorization was monitored using a scanning UV/visible spectrophotometer which indicated that decolorization was due to the degradation of dyes into non-colored intermediates. Phytotoxicity studies carried out using Triticum aestivum, Hordeum vulgare, and Lens esculenta revealed the triarylmethane dyes exerted toxic effects on plant growth parameters monitored. However, significant reduction in toxicity was obtained with the decolorized dye metabolites thus, indicating the detoxification of the dyes following degradation by Aeromonas hydrophila. PMID:21808740

  1. Bioremediation and Detoxification of Synthetic Wastewater Containing Triarylmethane Dyes by Aeromonas hydrophila Isolated from Industrial Effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chimezie Jason Ogugbue

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Economical and bio-friendly approaches are needed to remediate dye-contaminated wastewater from various industries. In this study, a novel bacterial strain capable of decolorizing triarylmethane dyes was isolated from a textile wastewater treatment plant in Greece. The bacterial isolate was identified as Aeromonas hydrophila and was shown to decolorize three triarylmethane dyes tested within 24 h with color removal in the range of 72% to 96%. Decolorization efficiency of the bacterium was a function of operational parameters (aeration, dye concentration, temperature, and pH and the optimal operational conditions obtained for decolorization of the dyes were: pH 7-8, 35∘C and culture agitation. Effective color removal within 24 h was obtained at a maximum dye concentration of 50 mg/L. Dye decolorization was monitored using a scanning UV/visible spectrophotometer which indicated that decolorization was due to the degradation of dyes into non-colored intermediates. Phytotoxicity studies carried out using Triticum aestivum, Hordeum vulgare, and Lens esculenta revealed the triarylmethane dyes exerted toxic effects on plant growth parameters monitored. However, significant reduction in toxicity was obtained with the decolorized dye metabolites thus, indicating the detoxification of the dyes following degradation by Aeromonas hydrophila.

  2. Nonribosomal peptide synthetase with a unique iterative-alternative-optional mechanism catalyzes amonabactin synthesis in Aeromonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeel, Qassim; Chevalier, Mickael; Chataigné, Gabrielle; Subashkumar, Rathinasamy; Jacques, Philippe; Leclère, Valérie

    2016-10-01

    Based on the exploration of data generated by genome sequencing, a bioinformatics approach has been chosen to identify the biosynthetic pathway of the siderophores produced by Aeromonas species. The amonabactins, considered as a virulence factor, represent a family of four variants of catechol peptidic siderophores containing Dhb, Lys, Gly, and an aromatic residue either Trp or Phe in a D-configuration. The synthesis operon is constituted of seven genes named amoCEBFAGH and is iron-regulated. The cluster includes genes encoding proteins involved in the synthesis and incorporation of the Dhb monomer, and genes encoding specific nonribosomal peptide synthetases, which are responsible for the building of the peptidic moiety. The amonabactin assembly line displays a still so far not described atypical mode of synthesis that is iterative, alternative, and optional. A disruption mutant in the adenylation domain of AmoG was unable to synthesize any amonabactin and to grow in iron stress conditions while a deletion of amoH resulted in the production of only two over the four forms. The amo cluster is widespread among most of the Aeromonas species, only few species produces the enterobactin siderophore. PMID:27531515

  3. Identification of atypical Aeromonas salmonicida : Inter-laboratory evaluation and harmonization of methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Inger; Gudmundsdottir, B.K.; Helgason, S.;

    1998-01-01

    The atypical isolates of Aeromonas salmonicida are becoming increasingly important as the frequency of isolation of bacteria belonging to this group continues to rise. The primary object of this study was to compare and evaluate the results obtained in various laboratories concerning the biochemi......The atypical isolates of Aeromonas salmonicida are becoming increasingly important as the frequency of isolation of bacteria belonging to this group continues to rise. The primary object of this study was to compare and evaluate the results obtained in various laboratories concerning the...... biochemical identification of atypical Aer. salmonicida before and after standardization of media and methods. Five laboratories examined 25 isolates of Aer. salmonicida from diverse fish species and geographical locations including the reference strains of Aer. salmonicida subsp, salmonicida (NCMB 1102) and...... reactions. After standardization, improvement was obtained with the identification; however, disagreement was still observed between the different laboratories. These findings demonstrate the difficulties involved in a proper identification of atypical Aer. salmonicida and also that data presented in the...

  4. Diagnosis of Neglected Tropical Diseases Among Patients With Persistent Digestive Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-19

    Soil-transmitted Helminthiasis; Schistosomiasis; Strongyloidiasis; Shigellosis; Intestinal Salmonellosis; Campylobacteriosis; Aeromonas Spp. Infections; Giardiasis; Amoebiasis; Dientamoebiasis; Cryptosporidium Spp. Infections

  5. El inquisidor como profesor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano PROSPERI

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Giovanni Botero, en una célebre página de su Ragion di stato, se detuvo sobre el tema de la fuerza de la religión en los gobiernos. Esta función de la religión cristiana —para Botero, católica— es garante del orden público y se presenta también como opuesta a la generadora de desorden de Lutero y Calvino, quienes siembran por todo cizañas y revoluciones de estados y ruinas de los reinos. Estamos en los orígenes del esquema historiografía de la periodización de la Edad Moderna que confió precisamente a la Reforma el papel de nodriza de las revoluciones que nacieron en Europa.

  6. O ensaio como narrativa

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    Pedro Duarte

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available O artigo tenta demonstrar que todos os textos, mesmo aqueles cuja natureza é teórica, têm alguma forma de narrativa. Nem sempre são personagens que os ocupam, podem ser ideias, mas mesmo assim há um enredo conceitual que se passa. Modernamente, a forma dessa narrativa foi sobretudo o sistema, com a pretensão totalizadora presente, por exemplo, na filosofia de Hegel. Contemporaneamente, porém, a forma do ensaio – surgida ainda na era moderna – ganha destaque por sua forma descontínua de narrar. O objetivo do artigo é apontar que, se o ensaio é uma forma, como explicitaram Lukács, Benjamin e Adorno, ele é também uma forma de narrar – ainda que de narrar conceitualmente objetos da cultura.

  7. La identidad como performatividad

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    Andrés Felipe Castelar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available La presión social por constituir una forma indentitaria que sea acorde con el referente biológico es de origen histórico y se encuentra al servicio de prácticas de control y dominación social. Este artículo presenta una discusión sobre el lugar actual de la idea de identidad, especialmente en el plano de la sexualidad. Para esto recurre a la tesis de la filósofa Judith Butler, quien propone desde una visión deconstructivista y post-estructuralista una nueva definición de idenridad en términos de la iteración performativa. La identiclad es entendida entonces como una exigencia de inteligibiliclacl ante la sociedad, la cual limita las posibiliclades de expresión sexual.

  8. Tantas caperucitas como lobos

    OpenAIRE

    Guardia Calvo, Isadora

    2007-01-01

    Caperucita Roja es un cuento que se origina como relato oral en Francia mucho antes de que Perrault lo normalizara en su libro Contes de Ma Mere L'Oye publicado en 1697. A través de su evolución en el tiempo Caperucita invade otros géneros además del literario. El cine, la fotografía, la ilustración, reinterpretan la relación entre la joven y el lobo desde el impresionismo al psicoanálisis pasando por las relaciones de estructura social, etc. En ocasiones los textos originales requieren de un...

  9. Distribution and phenotypic and genotypic detection of a metallo-β-lactamase, CphA, among bacteraemic Aeromonas isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chi-Jung; Chen, Po-Lin; Wu, Jiunn-Jong; Yan, Jing-Jou; Lee, Chin-Chi; Lee, Hsin-Chun; Lee, Nan-Yao; Chang, Chia-Ming; Lin, Yu-Tzu; Chiu, Yen-Cheng; Ko, Wen-Chien

    2012-05-01

    The objectives of the study were to investigate the distribution of cphA-related genes (cphA) encoding a CphA metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) among 51 consecutive Aeromonas blood isolates and to compare different phenotypic methods for detecting CphA. The presence of cphA was detected by PCR. Four phenotypic methods, the imipenem-EDTA combined disc test, imipenem-EDTA MBL Etest, agar dilution test and modified Hodge test (MHT), were used to detect imipenem susceptibility and MBL production. The results showed that 35 (69%) blood isolates had cphA. All (100%) of 16 Aeromonas aquariorum isolates and 12 Aeromonas veronii isolates, and 4 (80%) of 5 Aeromonas hydrophila isolates, carried cphA, but none of 15 Aeromonas caviae isolates did. With the standard inocula, irrespective of the presence or absence of cphA, all but one (50, 98%) isolates were susceptible to imipenem tested by disc diffusion, Etest and agar dilution (10(4) c.f.u. spot inocula), and did not exhibit MBL production by the imipenem-EDTA combined disc test and MBL Etest. By the agar dilution test using large inocula (10(7) c.f.u.), 34 (97%) of 35 cphA(+) isolates had imipenem MICs of ≥16 µg ml(-1), higher than the susceptible breakpoint (4 µg ml(-1)), and demonstrated positive results for the MHT, while one cphA(+) and all 17 cphA(-) isolates had imipenem MICs of ≤4 µg ml(-1). In conclusion, the distribution of cphA among aeromonads is species-specific, found in A. aquariorum, A. veronii and A. hydrophila, and the MHT may be a phenotypic screening test for CphA production. PMID:22322339

  10. La persona como creatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Housset

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo de Emmanuel Housset implica un esfuerzo de rehabilitación del concepto «persona» para la filosofía contemporánea y la fenomenología. Para ello el autor busca mostrar cómo poco a poco «persona» tomó otra significación que la de «personaje» o sujeto de derecho. Es en autores como san Agustín y santo Tomás de Aquino que se halla un acceso diferente que pone el énfasis más bien en su carácter relacional y responsivo de la persona, antes que en su dimensión autónoma y autotélica. Tal dimensión aparece, según Housset, junto con la idea de persona como creatura y en oposición a la de individuo racional dueño de sí. La dimensión afectiva, la personalidad despertada por las diversas figuras de la alteridad son algunas de las dimensiones de la persona que examina el autor a partir del examen de la carne, las pasiones, la memoria, la historicidad y el amor alteridad.Emmanuel Housset's paper is an effort to revitalize the concept of 'person' for contemporary philosophy and phenomenology To this end the author looks to show how little by little the understanding of 'person' took on a different meaning to that of 'character' or "right bearing individual". It is in authors such as St. Augustine and St. Thomas Aquinas that a different approach is found, one that puts emphasis on the relational and responsive character of a person, rather than on the autonomous and auto telic dimension. According to Housset, such a dimension appears together with the idea of the person as a creation, and in opposition to the idea of the rational individual, that is his own master. The emotional dimension and the personality that is awoken by the many figures of alterity are some of the dimensions of the person that the author analyzes, based on examining the flesh, passions, memory historicity and love.

  11. Radioresistance studies in Methylobacterium spp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Fatima; Botelho, M. Luisa; Tenreiro, Rogerio

    1998-06-01

    Methylobacterium extorquens was isolated and was found as one of the most resistant microorganisms in the original bioburden of ophthalmic cotton dressings to be submitted to {gamma} radiation sterilization. Radiation survival curves were simultaneously performed in phosphate buffer and in test-pieces on two isolates, one obtained before irradiation (wild strain) and the other after irradiation at 20 kGy (rad strain), as well as on three type strains of Methylobacterium spp. (M. extorquens{sup T}, M. radiotolerans{sup T} and M. fujisawaense{sup T}). The radiation resistance was compared using D{sub values}. To analyze the effect of non linearity on radioresistance other measures were applied, such as intercept point, fraction of surviving cells at a selected dose and area. The ranking of strains with these approaches showed to be different, pointing out the need of an integrated measure of radioresistance. Therefore, an index of relative survival (IRS) is proposed.

  12. Characterization of susceptibility and carrier status of burbot, Lota lota (L.), to IHNV, IPNV, Flavobacterium psychrophilum, Aeromonas salmonicida, and Renibacterium salmoninarum

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, susceptibility and potential carrier status of burbot, Lota lota, were assessed for five important fish pathogens. Burbot demonstrated susceptibility and elevated mortality following challenge with infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) by immersion and to Aeromonas salmonici...

  13. El riesgo como oportunidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Gargantini

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante los últimos años el crecimiento mundial de catástrofes naturales ha ido en franco aumento. Sin embargo, desde un enfoque sistémico puede verificarse que la gran mayoría de los desastres se origina en los países en desarrollo (entre ellos los latinoamericanos, siendo las pérdidas en ellos significativamente más altas que en los países industrializados. Bajo esta postura los desastres no son sólo naturales sino socio- naturales, enfatizando la estrecha relación de causalidad entre modelos de desarrollo y urbanización y procesos de generación de riesgos, al incrementar la vulnerabilidad de los sectores más desprotegidos. El desastre pone en evidencia así una situación (la pobreza y segregación urbana ya existente, pero no considerada hasta el momento de la catástrofe. Frente a este panorama el desastre aparece como oportunidad que precipita tres catalizadores de políticas habitacionales: tierra, asistencia técnica y financiamiento, incrementando la celeridad y la creatividad de las respuestas. El interrogante que surge es por qué esperar el desastre para ponerlos en marcha, cuando ninguno de ellos es estrictamente dependiente de la situación de riesgo, sino sujeto de luchas de poder.

  14. El signo como emblema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sáez, Carlos

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to study the signs and symbols that appear in the hispanic medieval documents and manuscripts. These signs and symbols have usually been considered simply as mere elements to validate the charters. However, these alements were useful as a mean of visual communication between the high classes, able to generate charters, and the rest of medieval society—the majority illiterate— who received those charters. Because of their inability of understand an alphabetical code, they needed the graphic help to comprehend the message. Besides this, the article deals with non diplomatic signs and their function.

    Este artículo se centra en los signos o símbolos presentes en los documentos y manuscritos medievales hispanos, que habitualmente han sido tratados como meros elementos de validación de los diplomas. Pero estos elementos servían también de nexos de comunicación visual entre las clases poderosas, capaces de producir escritos, y los demás miembros de la sociedad medieval, receptores y destinatarios de tales escritos, en su mayoría analfabetos. Precisamente por esta razón, su incapacidad de descifrar un código alfabético, necesitan de auxilio gráfico para acercarse a la comprensión del mensaje. Asimismo, tratamos de los signos no diplomáticos y de su función.

  15. Endomarketing: como diferencial competitivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Birck

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Atualmente, com a profissionalização das empresas e com a grande concorrência no mercado, observa-se uma demanda cada vez maior de gestores comprometidos com o bem-estar pessoal e profissional de seus colaboradores. E, com esse intuito, de apresentar algumas idéias básicas de gestão voltadas à aplicação nas mais diversas técnicas de Endomarketing. Demonstra assim, a importância da utilização de feedback, tanto por parte dos colaboradores quanto dos gestores, destacando a importância de trabalhos de motivação, do clima organizacional favorável e de uma comunicação interna eficaz e a necessidade ímpar de tratar o colaborador como o diferencial dentro de uma empresa. Desta forma, foi realizada uma pesquisa bibliográfica que auxiliará e dará subsídios que lhe permitam retribuir em ações e atitudes de sucesso e, também, fazer um confronto de idéias, onde os autores apresentam suas mais diversas opiniões. Contudo, valendo-se, muitas vezes, de narrativas de experiências de outros gestores e até mesmo de suas próprias, tirando cada um suas próprias conclusões.

  16. Living in an Extremely Polluted Environment: Clues from the Genome of Melanin-Producing Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. pectinolytica 34melT

    OpenAIRE

    Pavan, María Elisa; Pavan, Esteban E.; López, Nancy I.; Levin, Laura; Pettinari, M. Julia

    2015-01-01

    Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. pectinolytica 34melT can be considered an extremophile due to the characteristics of the heavily polluted river from which it was isolated. While four subspecies of A. salmonicida are known fish pathogens, 34melT belongs to the only subspecies isolated solely from the environment. Genome analysis revealed a high metabolic versatility, the capability to cope with diverse stress agents, and the lack of several virulence factors found in pathogenic Aeromonas. The mos...

  17. O direito como imperativo

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    Cloter Miglioriani

    1988-08-01

    Full Text Available We have examined one of the facets which Law presents to society, looking at the theme through a brief history of Law, in which Roman Law stands out, up to modem times, comparing current juridical systems such as the Continental System, Common Law, and Soviet Law. We have looked at Law from the viewpoint of society 's need to have basic mies for living together, with the juridical ruZe being one of the most important. We have highlighted the views of Hart and Kelsen on the foundations of the validity of Law. We have also considered the obligatoriness of Law; giving the point of view of tadbruch who, explaining his ''Theory of the Obligatoriness of Law ", concluded that the obligatoriness of Law can only be withdraw when there is a Clash between morals, law, use and social conventions. We have looked at the notion of the imperativeness of Law the central theme of the work -drawing on the views of Miguel Reale, for whom the juridical nonn cannot be reduced to a "command of a volitional nature", but rather the obligatory character of the juridical nonn arises from the pressure of social values. Del Vecchio, who is also quoted, recognized that imperativeness exists in the juridical norm, whether it is preceptive (a positive command or permissive. Also mentioned is the opinion of Tercio Sampaio Ferraz, for whom the juridical norm has imperativeness to the extent that the imposition of behaviour is unconditionally guaranteed. Foi feita a abordagem de uma das facetas com que o Direito se apresenta à sociedade, enfocando o tema a partir de um brevíssimo histórico do Direito, onde revela a fase romana, até os períodos modernos, com comparações dos sistemas jurídicos hodiernos, como o sistema continental, o da Commum Law e o soviético. Foi enfocado o Direito em face da necessidade sociedade em ter básicas de convivência, despontando a regra jurídica como das mais importantes. Foi dado destaque às posições de Hart e Kelsen, sobre os

  18. Deterioração bacteriológica do jaraqui Semaprochilodus spp. capturado no estado do Amazonas e conservado em gelo Bacteriological deterioration of jaraqui Semaprochilodus spp. Aaptured in the state of Amazon, and conserved in ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elton Nunes Britto

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foram analisados 73 espécimes de jaraqui Semaprochilodus spp. conservados em caixas de poliestireno expandido entre camadas de gelo. Foram realizadas as seguintes análises: avaliação sensorial pela tabela de Torry modificada e pelo índice de qualidade por deméritos; determinação do pH e das bases voláteis totais (N-BVT; contagem total dos microrganismos aeróbios psicrófilos a 20 ºC por 4 dias, psicrotróficos a 7 ºC por 10 dias, dos mesófilos a 37 ºC por 2 dias; contagem, isolamento e identificação das bactérias Aeromonas sp. Bacillus sp. e Pseudomonas sp. a 20 ºC por 24 horas e de Plesiomonas sp. a 37 ºC por 2 dias. O jaraqui se manteve em condições de consumo, pela avaliação sensorial, por 18 e 21 dias. O pH e as bases voláteis totais não foram bons indicadores de qualidade; as contagens totais de psicrófilos, psicrotróficos e mesófilos não apresentaram diferença significativa e as bactérias não apresentaram comportamento deteriorador pela ausência da produção de H2S.In this research 73 specimens of Semaprochilodus spp. (locally called 'jaraqui' were analyzed and conserved in polystyrene boxes among layers of ice. The following measurements and analyses were performed: sensorial evaluation using the modified Torry table and the quality index for demerits; determination of pH and total volatile bases (TVB; count totals of aerobic microorganisms including psychrophilics at 20 ºC for 4 days, psychrotrophilics at 7 ºC for 10 days, and mesophilics at 37 ºC for 2 days; and count totals, isolation and identification of the bacteria genera Aeromonas, Bacillus, and Pseudomonas at 20 ºC for 24 hours and of Plesiomonas at 37 ºC for 2 days. The jaraqui were maintained in fresh condition for the sensorial evaluation of 18 to 21 days. However; pH and total volatile base measurements were not good indicators of quality in relation to the sensorial evaluation in both experiments. As well; count totals of

  19. Draft genome sequences of two Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida isolates harboring plasmids conferring antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Antony T; Tanaka, Katherine H; Trudel, Melanie V; Frenette, Michel; Derome, Nicolas; Charette, Steve J

    2015-02-01

    The bacterium Aeromonas salmonicida is the etiological agent of furunculosis, a widespread fish disease causing important economic losses to the fish farming industry. Antibiotic treatments in fish farms may be challenging given the existence of multidrug-resistant isolates of this bacterium. Here, we report the draft genome sequences of the 2004-05MF26 and 2009-144K3 isolates, which harbor plasmids conferring antibiotic resistance. Both isolates also carry the large plasmid pAsa5, which is known to encode a type three secretion system (TTSS) and the pAsal1 plasmid which has the aopP gene producing a TTSS effector. These two isolates are good representatives of the plasmid diversity in A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida. PMID:25724776

  20. Aeromonas proteolyrica bacteria in aerospace environments. [possible genetic alterations and effects on man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, B. G.

    1974-01-01

    Preflight studies on Aeromonas proteolytica are reported to investigate the possibility of genetic alterations resulting in increased proteolysis in spacecraft environments. This organism may be present on human tissue and could pose medical problems if its endopeptidase and a hemolysin were to be produced in ususually high quantities or altered in such a way as to be more effective in their activities. Considered are: (1) Development of a nutrative holding medium for suspension of organisms; (2) the establishment of baseline information for the standardization of the assay for endopeptidase levels and hemolytic titers; (3) formulation of a method by which intracutaneous hemorrhage could be quantitated in guinea pig tissue; and (4) the responses of these organisms to parameters of spaceflight and experimentation.

  1. Crystallization and initial X-ray analysis of polyhydroxyalkanoate granule-associated protein from Aeromonas hydrophila

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phasin PhaPAh from A. hydrophila strain 4AK4 was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) granule-associated proteins (phasins) were discovered in PHA-accumulating bacteria. They play a crucial role as a structural protein during initial PHA-granule formation and granule growth and also serve as interfaces for granule stabilization in vivo. The phasin PhaPAh from Aeromonas hydrophila strain 4AK4 was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Single crystals were cryocooled for X-ray diffraction analysis. The phasin crystals belonged to space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 80.8, b = 108.9, c = 134.4 Å

  2. Expression of Aeromonas caviae ST pyruvate dehydrogenase complex components mediate tellurite resistance in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potassium tellurite (K2TeO3) is harmful to most organisms and specific mechanisms explaining its toxicity are not well known to date. We previously reported that the lpdA gene product of the tellurite-resistant environmental isolate Aeromonas caviae ST is involved in the reduction of tellurite to elemental tellurium. In this work, we show that expression of A. caviae ST aceE, aceF, and lpdA genes, encoding pyruvate dehydrogenase, dihydrolipoamide transacetylase, and dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase, respectively, results in tellurite resistance and decreased levels of tellurite-induced superoxide in Escherichia coli. In addition to oxidative damage resulting from tellurite exposure, a metabolic disorder would be simultaneously established in which the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex would represent an intracellular tellurite target. These results allow us to widen our vision regarding the molecular mechanisms involved in bacterial tellurite resistance by correlating tellurite toxicity and key enzymes of aerobic metabolism.

  3. Transcriptome profiling of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) infected with Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ying; Yu, Hui; Li, Hua; Wang, Anli

    2016-04-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is the causative pathogen of intestinal hemorrhage which has caused great economic loss in grass carp aquaculture. In order to understand the immunological response of grass carp to infection by A. hydrophila, the transcriptomic profiles of the spleens from infected and non-infected grass carp groups were obtained using HiSeq™ 2500 (Illumina). An average of 63 million clean reads per library was obtained, and approximately 80% of these genes were successfully mapped to the reference genome. A total of 1591 up-regulated and 530 down-regulated genes were identified. Eight immune-related categories involving 105 differently expressed genes were scrutinized. 16 of the differently expressed genes involving immune response were further validated by qRT-PCR. Our results provide valuable information for further analysis of the mechanisms of grass carp defense against A. hydrophila invasion. PMID:26945937

  4. Cylindrospermopsin Biodegradation Abilities of Aeromonas sp. Isolated from Rusałka Lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziga, Dariusz; Kokocinski, Mikolaj; Maksylewicz, Anna; Czaja-Prokop, Urszula; Barylski, Jakub

    2016-03-01

    The occurrence of the cyanobacterial toxin cylindrospermopsin (CYN) in freshwater reservoirs is a common phenomenon. However, the biodegradation of this toxin in environmental samples has been observed only occasionally. In this work the biodegradation ability of cylindrospermopsin was investigated based on isolates from lakes with previous cyanotoxin history. Bacterial strains were identified based on the 16S rDNA and rpoD gene comparison. CYN biodegradation was monitored using the HPLC method. The R6 strain identified as Aeromonas sp. was documented as being capable of CYN removal. This biodegradation was dependent on the pH and temperature. Additionally, the stimulation of the growth of the R6 strain in the presence of CYN was indicated. Our discovery supports the hypothesis that (in analogy to the well-known phenomenon of microcystin biodegradation) in lakes dominated by potential CYN-producing cyanobacteria, the processes of microbial utilization of this toxin may occur. PMID:26927173

  5. Antimicrobial resistance of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from different food sources: A mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratev, Deyan; Odeyemi, Olumide A

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is a Gram-negative, oxidase-positive, facultative, anaerobic, opportunistic aquatic pathogen. A. hydrophila produces virulence factors, such as hemolysins, aerolysins, adhesins, enterotoxins, phospholipase and lipase. In addition to isolation from aquatic sources, A. hydrophila has been isolated from meat and meat products, milk and dairy products, and vegetables. However, various studies showed that this opportunistic pathogen is resistant to commercial antibiotics. This is attributed to factors such as the indiscriminate use of antibiotics in aquaculture, plasmids or horizontal gene transfer. In this report, we highlight the occurrence, prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of A. hydrophila isolated from different food samples. The presence of antimicrobial-resistant A. hydrophila in food poses threats to public and aquatic animal health. PMID:26588876

  6. A novel method for the diagnosis of drowning by detection of Aeromonas sobria with PCR method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyagi, Miwako; Iwadate, Kimiharu; Fukui, Kenji; Abe, Shuntaro; Sakai, Kentaro; Maebashi, Kyoko; Ochiai, Eriko; Nakamura, Mihoko

    2009-11-01

    The acid digestion method has been widely used for the diagnosis of death by drowning, but it is not always sensitive. However, there has been no definitive method to replace acid digestion until now. We speculate that bacteria are more useful markers than plankton for the diagnosis of death by drowning. In this study, from the preserved blood samples of 32 freshwater drowning cases, specific DNA fragments of Aeromonas sobria, one of the most common aquatic bacteria, were examined using PCR. The DNA fragments of the bacterium were detected from 27 of 32 cases with first round PCR or nested-PCR. The remaining 5 cases in which bacterial DNA was not detected had longer storage periods for the blood samples and shorter time intervals from drowning to death. These results indicate that the present method can be applied to the diagnosis of death by drowning. PMID:19766051

  7. Crystallization and initial X-ray analysis of polyhydroxyalkanoate granule-associated protein from Aeromonas hydrophila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Minglian; Li, Zhenguo; Zheng, Wei; Lou, Zhiyong [MOE Key Laboratory of Protein Science, Department of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Chen, Guo-Qiang, E-mail: chengq@stu.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Protein Science, Department of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Multidisciplinary Research Center, Shantou University, Shantou 515063, Guangdong (China)

    2006-08-01

    The phasin PhaP{sub Ah} from A. hydrophila strain 4AK4 was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) granule-associated proteins (phasins) were discovered in PHA-accumulating bacteria. They play a crucial role as a structural protein during initial PHA-granule formation and granule growth and also serve as interfaces for granule stabilization in vivo. The phasin PhaP{sub Ah} from Aeromonas hydrophila strain 4AK4 was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Single crystals were cryocooled for X-ray diffraction analysis. The phasin crystals belonged to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 80.8, b = 108.9, c = 134.4 Å.

  8. Survival of Fish-Pathogenic Strains of Aeromonas hydrophila under Starvation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaojun; Cai, Wenlong; Tao, Zhen; Arias, Cova R

    2014-09-01

    Abstract The survival of Aeromonas hydrophila under low-nutrient conditions was investigated in this study. The behavior of three strains isolated from Common Carp Cyprinus carpio (China) and Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus (USA) was compared when cells were starved at different temperatures (4, 15, 25, and 35°C) over a 4-week period. Temperature played a major role in cell survival, and cell viability decreased rapidly at 4°C. Conversely, cells stored at 15°C did not lose viability over time. Warmer temperatures (25°C and 35°C) decreased cell numbers by approximately one order of magnitude. Ultrastructural changes in cell morphology were observed in starved cells. Our data confirm that A. hydrophila can persist in the aquatic environment for extended periods, but survival is strongly influenced by temperature. Received December 13, 2013; accepted March 22, 2014. PMID:25229491

  9. Effect of starvation on survival and virulence expression of Aeromonas hydrophila from different sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casabianca, Anna; Orlandi, Chiara; Barbieri, Federica; Sabatini, Luigia; Di Cesare, Andrea; Sisti, Davide; Pasquaroli, Sonia; Magnani, Mauro; Citterio, Barbara

    2015-04-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is an aquatic bacterium responsible for several human illnesses. The aim of this work was to investigate the survival ability and virulence expression of two strains from different sources (fish, strain 87 and surface water, strain LS) maintained in a seawater microcosm. The strains were analyzed for the total and viable bacterial counts, adhesion ability to Hep-2 cells and aerA gene expression by qPCR throughout the experiment (35 days). Both strains reached a putative VBNC state and lost adhesive properties but exhibited a different behavior in the expression of aerA. This could be due to the different origin of the two strains; the former adapted to a habitat rich of nutrient and the latter already used to survive in a more hostile environment. Moreover, our results indicate that the quantitative determination of aerA mRNA can be a useful indicator of virulence expression under stress conditions. PMID:25533849

  10. Complexity of β-lactamases among clinical Aeromonas isolates and its clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Po-Lin; Ko, Wen-Chien; Wu, Chi-Jung

    2012-12-01

    Aeromonas species, aquatic Gram-negative bacilli, distributed globally and ubiquitously in the natural environment, may be implicated in a variety of human diseases. They can produce various β-lactamases which confer resistance to a broad spectrum of β-lactams, and therefore in vitro susceptibility testing must be used to guide antimicrobial therapy. However, conventional in vitro susceptibility tests may sometimes fail to detect these β-lactamases, and hence raise a therapeutic challenge. In this review article, two chromosomally mediated β-lactamases (i.e., AmpC β-lactamases and metallo-β-lactamases) and acquired extended-spectrum β-lactamases in aeromonads are reviewed, and the clinical implications of the complexity of β-lactamases are discussed. PMID:23031536

  11. In Vitro Antibacterial Effect of Effective Microorganisms( EM) on Aeromonas hydrophila

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu; Zhixiu; He; Houjun; Zhang; Wenbo; Wu; Xiangdong; Wan; Gen; Deng; Shunzhou; Liu; Songlin

    2014-01-01

    In order to understand in vitro antibacterial effect of antibiotics and EM on Aeromonas hydrophila,14 isolates of A. hydrophila were isolated from diseased fish and aquaculture in the study. PCR amplification results of aerolysin gene( Aero gene) of isolates indicated that 7 out of 14 isolates were pathogenic A.hydrophila. In vitro antibacterial test indicated that 14 isolates were resistance to penicillin G,ampicillin,cephradine,cefazolin,tetracycline,terimethoprim,lincomycin and cephalexin,but showed high sensitivity to cefotaxime and furazolidone. In vitro antibacterial effect of EM on 14 isolates of A. hydrophila was positively correlated with concentration,and EM with the concentration greater than 60% had antibacterial effect on 14 isolates.

  12. Production of Poly(3-Hydroxybutyrate-co-3-Hydroxyhexanoate) by Aeromonas hydrophila and Recombinant Escherichia coli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丘远征; 刘力平; 陈国强

    2003-01-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila (A.hydrophila) 4AK4 produced poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3- hydroxyhexanoate) (PHBHHx) with an almost constant 3-hydroxyhexanoate (3HHx) content of 10%-15% from lauric acid and/or soybean oil.Both A.hydrophila 4AK4 and recombinant Escherichia coli (E.coli) JMU193 (pBH32) produced PHBHHx with controllable 3HHx content when fed lauric acid and another co-substrate.With glucose or gluconate as the co-substrate, the 3HHx content in the copolyester produced by A.hydrophila 4AK4 was reduced slightly from 12% to 9%.However, the 3HHx content in the copolyester produced by E.coli JMU193 (pBH32) was significantly reduced from 9% to 2% with fructose as the co-substrate.These results show that regulation of 3HHx content in PHBHHx can be achieved using genetically engineered E.coli.

  13. Cylindrospermopsin Biodegradation Abilities of Aeromonas sp. Isolated from Rusałka Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziga, Dariusz; Kokocinski, Mikolaj; Maksylewicz, Anna; Czaja-Prokop, Urszula; Barylski, Jakub

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of the cyanobacterial toxin cylindrospermopsin (CYN) in freshwater reservoirs is a common phenomenon. However, the biodegradation of this toxin in environmental samples has been observed only occasionally. In this work the biodegradation ability of cylindrospermopsin was investigated based on isolates from lakes with previous cyanotoxin history. Bacterial strains were identified based on the 16S rDNA and rpoD gene comparison. CYN biodegradation was monitored using the HPLC method. The R6 strain identified as Aeromonas sp. was documented as being capable of CYN removal. This biodegradation was dependent on the pH and temperature. Additionally, the stimulation of the growth of the R6 strain in the presence of CYN was indicated. Our discovery supports the hypothesis that (in analogy to the well-known phenomenon of microcystin biodegradation) in lakes dominated by potential CYN-producing cyanobacteria, the processes of microbial utilization of this toxin may occur. PMID:26927173

  14. Combined effect of gamma-irradiation and conventional cooking on Aeromonas hydrophila in meatball

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation combined with a conventional cooking procedure was applied to meatball and the effects on bacterial load and inoculated Aeromonas hydrophila were determined. Meatball samples were irradiated by using a 60Co source at the dose levels of 0, 0.30, 0.75, 1.50, 2.50 kGy and cold stored at 4 +/- 1 degrees C for 7 days. Bacterial load and the count of A. hydrophila decreased when the irradiation dose level increased. A minimum inhibition effect was found at the dose of 0.30 kGy. Irradiation in combination with a conventional cooking procedure was found to be more effective in reducing A. hydrophila and the bacterial load in meatball. This study indicated that a dose of 0.75 kGy was sufficient to destroy approximately 10(4) cfu/g of A. hydrophila in meatball

  15. Isolation of bacterial fish pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila and therapeutic effects of medicinal plants on its invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Tareq-Uz-Zaman

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas hydrophila, a bacterial pathogen, was isolated form Pangasius hypophthalmus. For pathogenicity test, different doses were injected intramuscularly in Barbonymus gonionotus. Crude extracts were prepared from various parts Azadirachta indica, Curcuma longa, C. zedoaria, and Callotropis gigentia and applied to B. gonionotus for 7 days. Bath treatment was done up to their tolerance level and well ventilation was confirmed for aeration and 50% water was exchanged daily. Minimum inhibitory dose was detected as 7 mg/ml. High inhibitory effect was observed in case of A. indica and mixed extract of A. indica and C. gigentia. Both A. indica and C. gigentia showed the best result with 90-95% recovery of infected fish at a dose of 7 mg/l. C. zedoaria showed moderate to weak effect with 50-60% recovery at the same dose. The present study showed that medicinal plants would be an effective control measure against A. hydrophila.

  16. High genetic diversity among Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. isolated in a public hospital in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lúcia Dias Siqueira

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil and other regions of the world, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. have emerged as important agents of nosocomial infection and are commonly involved in outbreaks. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the genetic relationship among P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. isolated from patients in a public university hospital in northwestern Paraná, Brazil, and report their antimicrobial resistance profile. A total of 75 P. aeruginosa and 94 Acinetobacter spp. isolates were phenotypically identified and tested for antibiotic susceptibility using automated methodology. Polymyxin B was tested by disk diffusion for P. aeruginosa. Metallo-β-lactamase (MBL was detected using a disk approximation test. Genotyping was performed using enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR. Approximately 55% of the P. aeruginosa isolates and 92% of the Acinetobacter spp. isolates were multiresistant, but none were MBL-producers. ERIC-PCR revealed the presence of small clusters of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter spp., most likely OXA-type carbapenemase producers. Furthermore, high genetic diversity in P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. clinical isolates was observed, suggesting that cross-transmission is not very frequent in the studied hospital.No Brasil, bem como em outras regiões do mundo, Pseudomonas aeruginosa e Acinetobacter spp. surgiram como importantes agentes de infecção nosocomial e são comumente envolvidos em surtos. O objetivo principal deste estudo foi descrever a relação genética de P. aeruginosa e Acinetobacter spp. isoladas de pacientes internados em hospital universitário público do noroeste do Paraná - Brasil e reportar o perfil de resistência dessas bactérias. Um total de 75 P. aeruginosa e 94 Acinetobacter spp. isolados foi fenotipicamente identificado e testado para a suscetibilidade aos antibióticos por metodologia automatizada. A polimixina B foi

  17. Biofilm formation by Aeromonas hydrophila on green-leafy vegetables: cabbage and lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhariry, Hesham M

    2011-01-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is the most well known of the six species of Aeromonas, which has been linked to two groups of human diseases: septicemia and gastroenteritis. Reference strain ATCC 7966 and biofilm strains TUB19, TUB20, and TUB21 were investigated for their ability to form biofilm in vitro (after 48 h on polystyrene surface) and on the surface of two green-leafy vegetables, cabbage and lettuce (after 1, 2, 4, and 24 h). Attachment strength (S(R)) of these strains to the vegetable surface was also measured in the same time intervals. The ATCC 7966 and TUB19 had high ability to form biofilm in vitro compared with TUB20 and TUB21 in full strength tryptone soy broth or under starvation conditions in diluted tryptone soy broth (1:20, v/v). Cell surface hydrophobicity of the biofilm strains was lower than that of the reference strain. The biofilm of all tested strains on polystyrene surfaces differed from that on the vegetable surfaces. All strains studied rapidly attached to both green leafy vegetables (after 1 h). S(R) and cell populations (loosely and strongly attached cells) significantly (p 0.05) differences in cell populations were recorded after 4 and 24 h. The highest S(R) and cell population (log CFU cm⁻²) were recorded by TUB19. In conclusion, the use of A. hydrophila strains isolated from environmental biofilm samples may be more useful for understanding biofilm formation on green-leafy vegetables than the reference or laboratory strains. The attachment of A. hydrophila was significantly affected by the surfaces of green-leafy vegetables. Further studies are required to improve our understanding of the interaction between human microbial pathogens and surfaces of raw vegetables. PMID:21034267

  18. Infection of sea lamprey with an unusual strain of Aeromonas salmonicida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamanka, Arfang; Loch, Thomas P.; Cipriano, Rocco C.; Winters, Andrew D.; Faisal, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    The invasion of the Laurentian Great Lakes by the fish-parasitic sea lamprey has led to catastrophic consequences, including the potential introduction of fish pathogens. Aeromonas salmonicida is a bacterial fish pathogen that causes devastating losses worldwide. Currently, there are five accepted subspecies of Aeromonas salmonicida: A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, masoucida, smithia, achromogenes, and pectinolytica. We discuss the discovery of an isolate of A. salmonicida that is pathogenic to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and exhibits unique phenotypic and molecular characteristics. We examined 181 adult sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) from the Humber River (Lake Ontario watershed) and 162 adult sea lamprey from Duffins Creek (Lake Ontario watershed) during the spring seasons of 2005–11. Among those, 4/343 (1.2%) sea lamprey were culture positive for A. salmonicida, whereby biochemical and molecular studies identified three of the isolates as A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida. The remaining isolate (As-SL1) recovered from Humber River sea lamprey was phenotypically more similar to A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida than to the four other A. salmonicida subspecies. However, unlike A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, As-SL1 was sucrose positive, produced an acid-over-acid reaction on triple-sugar iron medium and did not amplify with A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida specific primers. Phylogenetic analysis based on partial stretches of the 16S rRNA and DNA gyrase subunit B genes further confirmed that the As-SL1 isolate was not A. salmonicida subsp. masoucida, smithia, achromogenes, or pectinolytica. Based on our analyses, the As-SL1 isolate is either an unusual strain of A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida or a novel A. salmonicida subspecies. The four A. salmonicida isolates that were recovered from sea lamprey were pathogenic to rainbow trout in experimental challenge studies. Our study also underscores the potential role of sea lamprey in the ecology of

  19. Chemical modification of polyvinyl chloride and silicone elastomer in inhibiting adhesion of Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kregiel, Dorota; Berlowska, Joanna; Mizerska, Urszula; Fortuniak, Witold; Chojnowski, Julian; Ambroziak, Wojciech

    2013-07-01

    Disease-causing bacteria of the genus Aeromonas are able to adhere to pipe materials, colonizing the surfaces and forming biofilms in water distribution systems. The aim of our research was to study how the modification of materials used commonly in the water industry can reduce bacterial cell attachment. Polyvinyl chloride and silicone elastomer surfaces were activated and modified with reactive organo-silanes by coupling or co-crosslinking silanes with the native material. Both the native and modified surfaces were tested using the bacterial strain Aeromonas hydrophila, which was isolated from the Polish water distribution system. The surface tension of both the native and modified surfaces was measured. To determine cell viability and bacterial adhesion two methods were used, namely plate count and luminometry. Results were expressed in colony-forming units (c.f.u.) and in relative light units (RLU) per cm(2). Almost all the chemically modified surfaces exhibited higher anti-adhesive and anti-microbial properties in comparison to the native surfaces. Among the modifying agents examined, poly[dimethylsiloxane-co-(N,N-dimethyl-N-n-octylammoniopropyl chloride) methylsiloxane)] terminated with hydroxydimethylsilyl groups (20 %) in silicone elastomer gave the most desirable results. The surface tension of this modifier, was comparable to the non-polar native surface. However, almost half of this value was due to the result of polar forces. In this case, in an adhesion analysis, only 1 RLU cm(-2) and less than 1 c.f.u. cm(-2) were noted. For the native gumosil, the results were 9,375 RLU cm(-2) and 2.5 × 10(8) c.f.u. cm(-2), respectively. The antibacterial activity of active organo-silanes was associated only with the carrier surface because no antibacterial compounds were detected in liquid culture media, in concentrations that were able to inhibit cell growth. PMID:23397109

  20. Regeneration in selected Cucurbita spp. germplasm

    OpenAIRE

    Gisbert Domenech, Maria Carmen; Nuez Viñals, Fernando; Picó Sirvent, María Belén

    2011-01-01

    Gisbert Domenech, MC.; Nuez Viñals, F.; Picó Sirvent, MB. (2011). Regeneration in selected Cucurbita spp. germplasm. Report- Cucurbit Genetics Cooperative. 33-34:53-54. http://hdl.handle.net/10251/62926.

  1. Vibrio spp. and Salmonella spp., presence and susceptibility in crabs Ucides cordatus Vibrio spp. e Salmonella spp. em caranguejos, Ucides cordatus

    OpenAIRE

    Regine H.S.F. Vieira; Elenice Araújo de Lima; Dannielle Batista Rolim Sousa; Eliane Falavina dos Reis; Renata Garcia Costa; Dália dos Prazeres Rodrigues

    2004-01-01

    The presence of Vibrio spp. and Salmonella spp. in crabs marketed at the Bezerra de Menezes Ave., Fortaleza, State of Ceará, Brazil, was assessed between February and May, 2003. The number of individuals sampled in each one of the fifteen weekly samplings ranged between four and eight. Seven strains of Salmonella, from four different samplings, were identified, being five of them identified as serotype S. Senftenberg and two as S. Poona. All strains of Salmonella were sensitive to the tested ...

  2. Differentiation of Phytopathogenic Agrobacterium spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemanja Kuzmanović

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the difficulties in differentiation of phytopathogenic Agrobacterium spp. and lack of a standardized protocol, we carried out selection and evaluation of suitable methods based on the bacterial physiological, genetic and pathogenic properties. Strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens, A. rhizogenes and A. vitis were differentiated using standard bacteriological and molecular methods. The biochemical and physiological tests confirmed authenticity of the strains. Two duplex PCR methods were conducted with four different primer pairs. In all strains, presence of plasmid virD2 and virC pathogenicity genes was detected. Chromosomal pehA gene was determined in A. vitis strain. Pathogenicity was confirmed on carrot slices and young plants of tomato and sunflower. Strains of A. tumefaciens and A. vitis were pathogenic on all test plants, while strain of A. rhizogenes induced characteristic symptoms only on carrot slices. The tests used in this study provided reliable discrimination between the three species and confirmed their identity as tumorigenic (TiAgrobacterium tumefaciens and A. vitis, and rhizogenic (Ri A. rhizogenes.

  3. Genetic manipulation of Methanosarcina spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PetraRegine AdelheidKohler

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of the third domain of life, the Archaea, is one of the most exciting findings of the last century. These remarkable prokaryotes are well known for their adaptations to extreme environments; however, Archaea have also conquered moderate environments. Many of the archaeal biochemical processes, such as methane production, are unique in nature and therefore of great scientific interest. Although formerly restricted to biochemical and physiological studies, sophisticated systems for genetic manipulation have been developed during the last two decades for methanogenic archaea, halophilic archaea and thermophilic, sulfur-metabolizing archaea. The availability of these tools has allowed for more complete studies of archaeal physiology and metabolism and most importantly provides the basis for the investigation of gene expression, regulation and function. In this review we provide an overview of methods for genetic manipulation of Methanosarcina spp., a group of methanogenic archaea that are key players in the global carbon cycle and which can be found in a variety of anaerobic environments.

  4. Antibiotic resistence of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887) and Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) Resistência de Aeromonas hydrophila isolada de Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887) e Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) a antibióticos

    OpenAIRE

    Andréa Belém-Costa; José Eurico Possebon Cyrino

    2006-01-01

    One of the most important problems involving treatments with antibiotics against Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from fishes is that antibiotic resistance develops readily. The antimicrobial activity of chemotherapeutants in isolates from pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887) and tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) was tested by the Kirby-Bauer disk method, over Mueller-Hinton surface agar previously inoculated with 100 µL of bacterial suspensions. After regular incubation, i...

  5. Promoção do crescimento do feijoeiro e controle da antracnose por Trichoderma spp Plant growth promotion of common bean and anthracnose control by Trichoderma spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Aparecida de Souza Pedro

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a capacidade de Trichoderma spp. em promover o crescimento de plantas de feijão e reduzir a severidade da antracnose do feijoeiro (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, bem como identificar os isolados mais eficientes. Sessenta isolados de Trichoderma spp. foram avaliados quanto à capacidade de promoção do crescimento nas plantas. Os sete isolados que mais se destacaram foram adicionados ao substrato de cultivo e avaliados quanto à redução na severidade da antracnose em plantas de feijão tratadas com conídios de C. lindemuthianum. Os mais eficientes no controle da doença foram identificados por sequenciamento de DNA. O isolado IB 28/07 foi avaliado nas concentrações 0,5, 1, 1,5 e 2% (peso:volume, que reduziram a severidade da doença em 41,51, 55,15, 81,82 e 96,06%, respectivamente. Os isolados mais eficientes de Trichoderma spp. podem proporcionar aumentos superiores a 30% na produção de matéria seca da parte aérea das plantas e reduzir a severidade da doença entre 63 e 98%. Esses isolados foram identificados como pertencentes às espécies Trichoderma harzianum, T. strigosum e T. theobromicola.The objective of this work was to evaluate the ability of Trichoderma spp. to promote growth of common bean plants and to reduce severity of anthracnose (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, as well as to identify the best performing isolates. Sixty Trichoderma spp. isolates were evaluated as to their capacity to promote growth in common bean. The seven isolates that stood out were added to the culture substrate and assessed for reduction in severity of anthracnose in bean plants treated with C. lindemuthianum conidia. The most efficient isolates in controlling the disease were identified by DNA sequencing. The IB 28/07 isolate was evaluated in the concentrations 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2% (weight:volume, which reduced disease severity in 41.51, 55.15, 81.82, and 96.06%, respectively. The most efficient Trichoderma spp

  6. Differential partition of virulent Aeromonas salmonicida and attenuated derivatives possessing specific cell surface alterations in polymer aqueous-phase systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Alstine, J. M.; Trust, T. J.; Brooks, D. E.

    1986-01-01

    Two-polymer aqueous-phase systems in which partitioning of biological matter between the phases occurs according to surface properties such as hydrophobicity, charge, and lipid composition are used to compare the surface properties of strains of the fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida. The differential ability of strains to produce a surface protein array crucial to their virulence, the A layer, and to produce smooth lipopolysaccharide is found to be important in the partitioning behavior of Aeromonas salmonicida. The presence of the A layer is shown to decrease the surface hydrophilicity of the pathogen, and to increase specifically its surface affinity for fatty acid esters of polyethylene glycol. The method has application to the analysis of surface properties crucial to bacterial virulence, and to the selection of strains and mutants with specific surface characteristics.

  7. Retinopatia, a imagem como sintoma, o desenho como cicatriz

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, Paulo Oliveira Freire

    2013-01-01

    Este texto percorre alguma da bibliografia sobre arte, imagem e visão incidindo em curiosidades de relevância variável sob o modo como a representação gráfica revela efeitos sintomáticos, como patologias da retina ou perturbações visuais de origem fisiológica. Essa identidade entre sintoma e imagem, assumida também como metafórica, decorre de um conceito onde a primeira instância do desenho de observação se inscreve na própria superfície da retina como marca de luz no tecido celular. Os exemp...

  8. Molecular phylogenetics and temporal diversification in the genus Aeromonas based on the sequences of five housekeeping genes

    OpenAIRE

    Lorén, J. Gaspar; Farfán, Maribel; Fusté, M Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Several approaches have been developed to estimate both the relative and absolute rates of speciation and extinction within clades based on molecular phylogenetic reconstructions of evolutionary relationships, according to an underlying model of diversification. However, the macroevolutionary models established for eukaryotes have scarcely been used with prokaryotes. We have investigated the rate and pattern of cladogenesis in the genus Aeromonas (γ-Proteobacteria, Proteobacteria, Bacteria) u...

  9. Symbiosis of Aeromonas veronii Biovar sobria and Hirudo medicinalis, the Medicinal Leech: a Novel Model for Digestive Tract Associations

    OpenAIRE

    Graf, Joerg

    1999-01-01

    Hirudo medicinalis, the medicinal leech, is applied postoperatively in modern medicine. Infections by Aeromonas occur in up to 20% of patients unless a preemptive antibiotic treatment is administered. The associated infections demonstrate the need for a better understanding of the digestive tract flora of H. medicinalis. Early studies reported the presence of a single bacterial species in the digestive tract and suggested that these bacteria were endosymbionts contributing to the digestion of...

  10. Ekstrak Daun Sambiloto (Andrographis paniculata) Dalam Mengendalikan Pertumbuhan Bakteri Aeromonas hydrophila, Edwarsiella tarda dan Jamur Saprolegnia sp. Secara In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Sinaga, Lihardo

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed to know antimicrobial potential of extract of sambiloto’s Leaf (Andrographis paniculata) against bacteria Aeromonas hydrophila, Edwardsiella tarda and Saprolegnia sp. and to know the extract toxicity to brine shrimp (Artemia salina). Sambiloto’s leaf was extracted using methanol, ethyl acetate and n-Hexane. Antimicrobial activity test was done using diffusion discs method to know the compunds contained in the extract phytochemical test was conducted. The chemical compound...

  11. Occurrence and significance of atypical Aeromonas salmonicida in non-salmonid and salmonid fish species : A review

    OpenAIRE

    Wiklund, T.; Dalsgaard, Inger

    1998-01-01

    Bacterial strains of Aeromonas salmonicida included in the recognized subsp. achromogenes, subsp, masoucida, and subsp. smithia in addition to the large number of strains not included in any of the described subspecies are referred to as atypical A. salmonicida. The atypical strains form a very heterogeneous group with respect to biochemical characteristics, growth conditions, and production of extracellular proteases. Consequently, the present taxonomy of the species A. salmonicida is rather...

  12. Diagnostic study of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in stray dogs and cats in Mosul city, Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    E.D. Hadi; E. G. Suleiman; Q.T. Al-Obadi; S. H. Arslan

    2014-01-01

    The current study revealed the diagnosis of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in fecal samples which collected from stray dogs and cats in Mosul city. The total percentage of infection with oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. and cysts of Giardia spp. in dogs were 42%, 26%, while the percentages in cats were 52%, 16% respectively and the single infection with oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. in cats and dogs formed highest rate was 75%, 50% respectively. The infection rate with Cryptosporidium...

  13. La indumentaria como lenguaje performativo

    OpenAIRE

    Mizrahi, Alejandra

    2013-01-01

    Todo lo que existe sobre la faz de la tierra es susceptible de ser visto como un lenguaje, con una sintaxis, una semántica, una pragmática y una gramática. La indumentaria, como lenguaje que es, se conforma como un tipo de lengua que al ser enunciada -vestida- no sólo dice cosas sino que las hace. Si pensamos en este modo de hacer con el vestido, nos estamos remitiendo infaliblemente a la filosofía del lenguaje ordinario de John L. Austin y a la teoría del género performativo de Judith Butler...

  14. Detection and distribution of putative virulence associated genes in Aeromonas species from freshwater and wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igbinosa, Isoken H; Okoh, Anthony I

    2013-11-01

    The detection of genes responsible for Aeromonas virulence is a vital tool in establishing the potential pathogenicity of the bacteria, as these virulence genes may act alone or in synergy in the establishment of infections. Freshwater and wastewater mixed liquor samples were collected from Kat river and Fort Beaufort wastewater treatment plant in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Polymerase chain reaction was utilized for the amplification of the different genes coding for virulence. All virulence associated genes screened (alt, lip, fla, aer, ast, hlyA) were detected in at least one Aeromonas isolates. In fresh water sample, virulence genes were distributed as follows: lip (67%), aer (43%), alt (33%), fla (62%), ast (10%), and hlyA (86%), while in wastewater samples the occurrence were as follows: lip (92%), aer (21%), alt (54%), fla (83%), ast (29%), and hlyA (88%). The presence of these virulence genes in environmental Aeromonas isolates is of concern to public health as these organisms are potential pathogens in the environment and the virulence determinants could be transferred to aquatic organisms and humans by one mechanism or the other. PMID:23322604

  15. Presence of Vibrios and Aeromonas strains and total psychrotrophs in hexagonal spotted grouper and Spanish Mackerel Fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work was conducted on different parts of hexagonal-spotted grouper and Spanish mackerel fish from 10 major fishery shops in Riyadh city to assess the presence of vibrios and aeromonas using the API20E and Biolog system. Also, pH and total psychotrophs were assessed as two indexes of quality. Similar data were obtained from both identification systems except for Aeromonas media-like and Vibrio anguillarum which are not included in the API20E database. Aeromonas hydrophila, A. media-like, V. alginolyticus, V.anguillarum, V. damsel and V. fluvialis were recovered from fish samples A. medial-like and V. damsel most predominant. Unexpectedly, V. cholera and V. parahemolyticus were not recovered. The numbers of skin samples of grouper having more than 7 log CFU/gm were much higher than that of mackerel skin samples. Similar psychrotrophic counts were noticed in gut samples of the two fish types, indicating similarly in growth habitat. Most of the grouper fish samples had a pH in the range of >6.40-7.02, whereas 95% of mackerel samples had a pH at 6.40 or below. (author)

  16. Occurrence of Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. in Ixodes ricinus in Bavarian public parks, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahling Monia

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Only limited information is available about the occurrence of ticks and tick-borne pathogens in public parks, which are areas strongly influenced by human beings. For this reason, Ixodes ricinus were collected in public parks of different Bavarian cities in a 2-year survey (2009 and 2010 and screened for DNA of Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. by PCR. Species identification was performed by sequence analysis and alignment with existing sequences in GenBank. Additionally, coinfections with Anaplasma phagocytophilum were investigated. Results The following prevalences were detected: Babesia spp.: 0.4% (n = 17, including one pool of two larvae in 2009 and 0.5 to 0.7% (n = 11, including one pool of five larvae in 2010; Rickettsia spp.: 6.4 to 7.7% (n = 285, including 16 pools of 76 larvae in 2009. DNA of Bartonella spp. in I. ricinus in Bavarian public parks could not be identified. Sequence analysis revealed the following species: Babesia sp. EU1 (n = 25, B. divergens (n = 1, B. divergens/capreoli (n = 1, B. gibsoni-like (n = 1, R. helvetica (n = 272, R. monacensis IrR/Munich (n = 12 and unspecified R. monacensis (n = 1. The majority of coinfections were R. helvetica with A. phagocytophilum (n = 27, but coinfections between Babesia spp. and A. phagocytophilum, or Babesia spp. and R. helvetica were also detected. Conclusions I. ricinus ticks in urban areas of Germany harbor several tick-borne pathogens and coinfections were also observed. Public parks are of particularly great interest regarding the epidemiology of tick-borne pathogens, because of differences in both the prevalence of pathogens in ticks as well as a varying species arrangement when compared to woodland areas. The record of DNA of a Babesia gibsoni-like pathogen detected in I. ricinus suggests that I. ricinus may harbor and transmit more Babesia spp. than previously known. Because of their high recreational value for human beings, urban green

  17. Reação de Brachiaria spp. e Panicum maximum a Pratylenchus brachyurus Host status of Brachiaria spp. and Panicum maximum to Pratylenchus brachyurus

    OpenAIRE

    Mário M Inomoto; Andressa C. Z. Machado; Sonia R. Antedomênico

    2007-01-01

    O sistema plantio direto é utilizado em extensas áreas agrícolas do Brasil, condição que pode propiciar o aumento dos danos causados pelos fitonematóides na cultura principal, na dependência da reação das plantas utilizadas como coberturas vegetais. O capim-colonião (Panicum maximum) e as braquiárias (Brachiaria spp.) podem ser utilizadas em áreas infestadas por Meloidogyne incognita e M. javanica, pois não são hospedeiras dessas espécies, mas sua resposta ao nematóide Pratylenchus brachyurus...

  18. CARACTERIZACIÓN Y EVALUACIÓN in vivo E in vitro DEL LIPOPOLISACÁRIDO DE Aeromonas hydrophila In Vitro/In Vivo Characterization And Evaluation Of Aeromonas hydrophila Lipopolysacharides (LPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AP JIMÉNEZ

    Full Text Available A partir de una cepa de A. hydrophila aislada de un brote de enfermedad septicémica en Tilapia nilótica (Piaractus brachypomusoreochromis niloticus, se obtuvieron extractos de lipopolisacárido (LPS crudo (29,5 mg/ml y semipurificado (106,5 mg/ml mediante la técnica fenol-agua caliente descrita por Westphal, Jann (1965. La presencia de proteína fue del 2,3% para el extracto crudo y de 0,1% para el semipurificado; la concentración de polisacáridos osciló entre el 15 y 26%. En electroforesis (SDS-PAGE se observaron bandas de 14 Kd correspondientes al oligosacárido central y al lípido A del LPS. Tres ratones de 25-35 g fueron inoculados intraperitonealmente con 25 mg/Kg de LPS cru-do, a partir de la primera hora todos los animales mostraron erizamiento, taquipnea e inapetencia; microscópicamente se detectó congestión hepática y pulmonar, hemorragias pulmonares y renales, marginación leucocitaria en hígado y pulmón con predominio de polimorfo-nucleares neutrófilos (PMN en todos los animales, mostrando un mayor efecto que el control inoculado con LPS de E. coli (Sigma® a la misma concentración. In vitro el LPS crudo a concentración de 10, 20 y 30 µg/ml indujo proliferación de células mono-nucleares murinas (2 x 10 5 en 200 µl de medio DMEM por incorporación de timidina tritiada; tanto el LPS control (E. coli, como el LPS crudo de A. hydrophila mostraron cuentas por minuto (CPM ascendentes de manera dosis dependiente, el LPS de A. hydrophila desencadeno una proliferación muy similar a la inducida por el control.Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from a septicemic disease outbreak in tilapia (Piaractus brachypomusoreochromis niloticus was used to prepare crude (29.5 mg/ml and semipurified (106.5 mg/ml lipopolysacharide extracts (LPS based on the phenol-hot water protocol (Westphal and Jann, 1965. Protein contents were 2.3% and 0.1% for the crude and the semipurified extracts, respectively, while the polysacharides ranged from 15 to

  19. Activation of bovine neutrophils by Brucella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keleher, Lauren L; Skyberg, Jerod A

    2016-09-01

    Brucellosis is a globally important zoonotic infectious disease caused by gram negative bacteria of the genus Brucella. While many species of Brucella exist, Brucella melitensis, Brucella abortus, and Brucella suis are the most common pathogens of humans and livestock. The virulence of Brucella is largely influenced by its ability to evade host factors, including phagocytic killing mechanisms, which are critical for the host response to infection. The aim of this study was to characterize the bovine neutrophil response to virulent Brucella spp. Here, we found that virulent strains of smooth B. abortus, B. melitensis, B. suis, and virulent, rough, strains of Brucella canis possess similar abilities to resist killing by resting, or IFN-γ-activated, bovine neutrophils. Bovine neutrophils responded to infection with a time-dependent oxidative burst that varied little between Brucella spp. Inhibition of TAK1, or SYK kinase blunted the oxidative burst of neutrophils in response to Brucella infection. Interestingly, Brucella spp. did not induce robust death of bovine neutrophils. These results indicate that bovine neutrophils respond similarly to virulent Brucella spp. In addition, virulent Brucella spp., including naturally rough strains of B. canis, have a conserved ability to resist killing by bovine neutrophils. PMID:27436438

  20. Shareholders settling the dispute inside SPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legal action against gas distribution company Slovensky plynarensky priemysel (SPP), a.s., Bratislava that was announced by Minister of Economy will not be taken. This suit should have been the climax of a dispute about contracts on consultancy services. According to these contracts the two minority (but managing) shareholders of SPP - Gaz de France and Ruhrgas - would invoice the services of their experts to SPP. These experts advise the SPP in area of restructuring and transformation to a more efficient company. Last week the Minister announced that the ministry reached an agreement with the minority shareholders and that the payments would be suspended with immediate effect. P. Rusko announced that he was expecting to receive a new draft of the contract by February 10. 'The contract will be signed between the shareholders of SPP and it will describe in detail the conditions of services offered,' he said. The new contract will stipulate conditions for any similar contracts to be signed in the future and also the maximum annual value of the contract. Compared to originally agreed amount of 1,2 bn Sk (29,59 mn Eur) payable throughout three years the figures in the new contract will be by several hundreds of thousand crowns lower

  1. Diagnostic study of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in stray dogs and cats in Mosul city, Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.D. Hadi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The current study revealed the diagnosis of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in fecal samples which collected from stray dogs and cats in Mosul city. The total percentage of infection with oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. and cysts of Giardia spp. in dogs were 42%, 26%, while the percentages in cats were 52%, 16% respectively and the single infection with oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. in cats and dogs formed highest rate was 75%, 50% respectively. The infection rate with Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. appeared higher in animals aged less than one year. High percentage of infection with Giardia spp. appeared in the females of cats and dogs were 28.12%, 17.5%, while the high infection rate with oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. appeared in males of dogs and cats were 50%, 60% respectively

  2. First record of the rare species Aeromonas schubertii from mussels: phenotypic and genetic reevaluation of the species and a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif-Eugenín, Fadua; Beaz-Hidalgo, Roxana; Figueras, María José

    2016-05-01

    In a study where the prevalence of Aeromonas in shellfish was analysed, three isolates of Aeromonas schubertii were identified, representing this the first report of this species from mussels. This species was originally described in 1988 from strains isolated from extra-intestinal human infections and since then has been cited in only 18 occasions. For many years, A. schubertii was the only mannitol-negative species of the genus. However, three additional mannitol-negative species (Aeromonas simiae, Aeromonas diversa and Aeromonas australiensis) have been described. This, together with the fact that A. schubertii is a rare human pathogenic species, motivated the present study to characterize its biochemical behaviour and differentiation from the other mannitol-negative species. The molecular similarity (16S rRNA, rpoD and gyrB genes) of the strains, presence of virulence genes and antimicrobial resistance were determined. All A. schubertii strains showed the same phenotypic behaviour, i.e. they use citrate, are positive for lysine decarboxylase and DL-lactate, but negative for production of mannitol, indole and acid from sucrose and could be easily differentiated from other mannitol-negative species. All strains carried the aerA and lafA virulence genes and showed susceptibility to all antibiotics tested. Seafood could be a transmission route of this bacterium to humans. PMID:26825089

  3. State carries takes another billions from SPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Financial aspects of activities of the SPP, a.s. are analysed. Economising of SPP of last year means income of 7.8 billions Slovak crowns for exchequer. Besides 3.9 billion of last year's taxes from income the state benefits will be doubled this year. The reason of increase are the dividends which account for 51% share of profit after distinctive deliveries from record clean profit of 8.7 billions Slovak crowns. Dividing of company profit, which doubled in last year to 12.6 billions Slovak crowns was adopted by shareholders in the last week at general assembly of SPP. Gaz de France and Ruhrgas who really began to manage the company in the second half of 2002 will divide remaining 3.7 billions Slovak crowns. (Author)

  4. Ulje Fusarium spp. iz sirutke kao supstrata

    OpenAIRE

    Akpinar-Bayizit, Arzu; Tulay OZCAN; Lutfiye YILMAZ-ERSAN; Basoglu, Fikri

    2014-01-01

    Cilj ovog rada bio je istražiti mogućnost sineteze ulja Fusarium spp. koristeći deproteiniziranu sirutku kao izvor ugljika. Ukupni lipidi akumulirani u biomasi gljiva utvrđeni su u rasponu od 0,1467-0,8661 mg lipida po mg biomase. Plinskom kromatografijom utvrđeno je da su glavni sastojci sintetiziranih mikrobnih lipida Fusarium spp: palmitinska kiselina (C16:0), palmitoleinska kiselina (C16:1), stearinska kiselina (C18:0), oleinska kiselina (C18:1) i linolna kiselina (C18:2), te se može zakl...

  5. El museo como espacio educativo

    OpenAIRE

    Rey Martín, Marta

    2013-01-01

    El Trabajo Fin de Grado titulado "El museo como espacio educativo" tutelado por D. Jesús Féliz Pascual Molina, trata sobre el estudio acerca de cómo se usan los museos como espacios lúdicos y como mediadores de enseñanza. Para su realización se ha tenido en cuenta la legislación vigente y sobre todo el Decreto 122/2007 de 27 de Diciembre, por el que se establece el currículo de Educación Infantil en Castilla y León. En él se hace mención a la evolución de los museos, los diferentes tipos exis...

  6. The LBP Gene and Its Association with Resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila in Tilapia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui Hong Fu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Resistance to pathogens is important for the sustainability and profitability of food fish production. In immune-related genes, the lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP gene is an important mediator of the inflammatory reaction. We analyzed the cDNA and genomic structure of the LBP gene in tilapia. The full-length cDNA (1901 bp of the gene contained a 1416 bp open reading frame, encoding 471 amino acid residues. Its genomic sequence was 5577 bp, comprising 15 exons and 14 introns. Under normal conditions, the gene was constitutively expressed in all examined tissues. The highest expression was detected in intestine and kidney. We examined the responses of the gene to challenges with two bacterial pathogens Streptcoccus agalactiae and Aeromonas hydrophila. The gene was significantly upregulated in kidney and spleen post-infection with S. agalactiae and A. hydrophila, respectively. However, the expression profiles of the gene after the challenge with the two pathogens were different. Furthermore, we identified three SNPs in the gene. There were significant associations (p < 0.05 of two of the three SNPs with the resistance to A. hydrophila, but not with the resistance to S. agalactiae or growth performance. These results suggest that the LBP gene is involved in the acute-phase immunologic response to the bacterial infections, and the responses to the two bacterial pathogens are different. The two SNPs associated with the resistance to A. hydrophila may be useful in the selection of tilapia resistant to A. hydrophila.

  7. Growth of Aeromonas hydrophila on fresh vegetables stored under a controlled atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrang, M E; Brackett, R E; Beuchat, L R

    1989-09-01

    The effects of controlled-atmosphere storage (CAS) on the survival and growth of Aeromonas hydrophila on fresh asparagus, broccoli, and cauliflower were examined. Two lots of each vegetable were inoculated with A. hydrophila 1653 or K144. A third lot served as an uninoculated control. Following inoculation, vegetables were stored at 4 or 15 degrees C under a CAS system previously shown to extend the shelf life of each commodity or under ambient air. Populations of A. hydrophila were enumerated on the initial day of inoculation and at various intervals for 10 days (15 degrees C) or 21 days (4 degrees C) of storage. Direct plating of samples with selective media was used to enumerate A. hydrophila. The organism was detected on most lots of vegetables as they were received from a commercial produce supplier. Without exception, the CAS system lengthened the time vegetables were subjectively considered acceptable for consumption. However, CAS did not significantly affect populations of A. hydrophila which survived or grew on inoculated vegetables. PMID:2802601

  8. Roles of phagocytosis activating protein (PAP) in Aeromonas hydrophila infected Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonglapsuwan, Monwadee; Kongmee, Pataraporn; Suanyuk, Naraid; Chotigeat, Wilaiwan

    2016-06-01

    Cyprinus carpio (koi) is one of the most popular ornamental fish. A major problem for C. carpio farming is bacterial infections especially by Aeromonas hydrophila. Previously studies had shown that the Phagocytosis Activating Protein (PAP) gene was involved in the innate immune response of animals. Therefore, we attempted to identify a role for the PAP gene in the immunology of C. carpio. The expression of the PAP was found in C. carpio whole blood and increased when the fish were stimulated by inactivated A. hydrophila. In addition, PAP-phMGFP DNA was injected as an immunostimulant. The survival rate and the phagocytic index were significantly increased in the A. hydrophila infected fish that received the PAP-phMGFP DNA immunostimulant. A chitosan-PAP-phMGFP nanoparticle was then developed and feeded into fish which infected with A. hydrophila. These fish had a significantly lower mortality rate than the control. Therefore, this research confirmed a key role for PAP in protection fish from bacterial infection and the chitosan-PAP-phMGFP nanoparticle could be a good prototype for fish immunostimulant in the future. PMID:26748248

  9. Novel application of Mahua (Madhuca sp.) flowers for augmented protease production from Aeromonas sp. S1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Amrik; Saini, Vandana; Gupta, Anshu

    2012-10-01

    The present study explored the utilization of Mahua (Madhuca sp.) flowers, a major non-timber forest product (NTFP) of India, as a low-cost, natural substrate for protease production under submerged fermentation. Bacterial strain Aeromonas sp. Si1, previously reported by us, was used as the protease producer. Using Mahua flower extract (MFE) as the medium additive, the protease production could successfully be enhanced by 5.6-fold (564.5 UmL-1) after 24 h of fermentation under optimized conditions compared with initial production of 99.9 UmL' in the absence of MFE. The cultural parameters for optimum production of protease were determined to be: incubation time-24 h; pH-7.0; MFE concentration-5% (v/v); inoculum size-0.3% (v/v) and agitation rate-200 rpm. The results obtained demonstrate the potential of cheaper and abundantly available Mahua flowers for induction of proteases, and thus offer a new approach for value addition to this biomass through industrial enzyme production. PMID:23157010

  10. Surface protein composition of Aeromonas hydrophila strains virulent for fish: identification of a surface array protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The surface protein composition of members of a serogroup of Aeromonas hydrophila was examined. Immunoblotting with antiserum raised against formalinized whole cells of A. hydrophila TF7 showed a 52K S-layer protein to be the major surface protein antigen, and impermeant Sulfo-NHS-Biotin cell surface labeling showed that the 52K S-layer protein was the only protein accessible to the Sulfo-NHS-Biotin label and effectively masked underlying outer membrane (OM) proteins. In its native surface conformation the 52K S-layer protein was only weakly reactive with a lactoperoxidase 125I surface iodination procedure. A UV-induced rough lipopolysaccharide (LPS) mutant of TF7 was found to produce an intact S layer, but a deep rough LPS mutant was unable to maintain an array on the cell surface and excreted the S-layer protein into the growth medium, indicating that a minimum LPS oligosaccharide size required for A. hydrophila S-layer anchoring. The native S layer was permeable to 125I in the lactoperoxidase radiolabeling procedure, and two major OM proteins of molecular weights 30,000 and 48,000 were iodinated. The 48K species was a peptidoglycan-associated, transmembrane protein which exhibited heat-modifiable SDS solubilization behavior characteristic of a porin protein. A 50K major peptidoglycan-associated OM protein which was not radiolabeled exhibited similar SDS heat modification characteristics and possibly represents a second porin protein

  11. Non-specific immune response of bullfrog Rana catesbeiana to intraperitoneal injection of bacterium Aeromonas hydrophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junjie; Zou, Wenzheng; Yan, Qingpi

    2008-08-01

    Non-specific immune response of bullfrog Rana catesbeiana to pathogenic Aeromonas hydrophila was studied to 60 individuals in two groups. Each bullfrog in bacterium-injected group was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with 0.2 ml bacterial suspension at a density of 5.2 × 106 CFU/ml, while each one in control group injected i.p. with 0.2 ml sterile saline solution (0.85%, w/v). Three bullfrogs in both groups were sampled at 0, 1, 3, 7, 11, 15 and 20 days post-injection (dpi) for the evaluation of non-specific immune parameters. It was observed that intraperitoneal injection of A. hydrophila significantly increased the number of leucocytes and that of NBT-positive cells in peripheral blood. Significant increases in serum bactericidal activity and serum acid phosphatase activity were also observed in the bacterium-injected frogs when compared with those in the control group. However, a significant reduction was detected in vitro in phagocytosis activity of peripheral blood phagocytes. No significant difference in changes in the number of peripheral erythrocytes, serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and lysozyme activity was detected between the two groups. It is suggested that bullfrogs may produce a series of non-specific immune reactions in response to the A. hydrophila infection.

  12. Reduction of Aeromonas hidrophyla biofilm on stainless stell surface by essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millezi, Alessandra Farias; Cardoso, Maria das Graças; Alves, Eduardo; Piccoli, Roberta Hilsdorf

    2013-01-01

    This study demonstrates the possibility of using sanitizing detergents based on natural products for the elimination and/or reduction of Aeromonas hydrophila biofilm formed on stainless steel surfaces. The goal of this work was to determine the reduction effect of sanitizing detergents containing essential oils of Thymus vulgaris (thyme) and Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass) on biofilm formed by A. hydrophila on AISI 304 stainless steel coupons, using UHT skimmed milk as substratum. There was adhesion and biofilm formation by A. hydrophila at 28 °C, presenting 7.60 log cfu.cm(-2) after the fourth day of cultivation. There was no significant difference between the lemongrass treatment and that of the thyme oil (p 0.05). The treatment with lemongrass solution reduced the biofilm by 4.51 log cfu cm(-2) at 25 °C. The thyme detergent also reduced the number of cfu cm(-2) by 3.84 log cycles at 25 °C. The use of the lemongrass and thyme solutions efficiently reduced the A. hydrophila biofilm. PMID:24159286

  13. Effect of plasma processing and organosilane modifications of polyethylene on Aeromonas hydrophila biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kregiel, Dorota; Niedzielska, Kamila

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our research was to study how the modifications of polyethylene--a material commonly used in medicine and water industry--influence bacterial cell attachment and biofilm formation. The native surface was activated and modified using two-step process consisting in the activation of native surface with a H2O vapor plasma followed by its treatment with various organosilanes, namely, [3(tertbutylamine-2hydroxy) propyloxypropyl] diethoxymethylsilane, 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctylmethyldimethoxysilane, dimethoxydimethylsilane, and isobutylmethyldimethoxysilane. The effect of polyethylene modification after chemical treatment was analyzed using surface tension measurement. The adhesive properties of Aeromonas hydrophila LOCK0968 were studied in water with a low concentration of organic compounds, using luminometric and microscopic methods, and the viability of the adhered bacterial cells was evaluated using the colony forming units method. After two-week incubation the chemically modified materials exhibited better antiadhesive and antibacterial characteristics in comparison to the native surface. Among the examined modifying agents, dimethoxydimethylsilane showed the best desired properties. PMID:24605323

  14. Effect of Plasma Processing and Organosilane Modifications of Polyethylene on Aeromonas hydrophila Biofilm Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Kregiel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our research was to study how the modifications of polyethylene—a material commonly used in medicine and water industry—influence bacterial cell attachment and biofilm formation. The native surface was activated and modified using two-step process consisting in the activation of native surface with a H2O vapor plasma followed by its treatment with various organosilanes, namely, [3(tertbutylamine-2hydroxy propyloxypropyl] diethoxymethylsilane, 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctylmethyldimethoxysilane, dimethoxydimethylsilane, and isobutylmethyldimethoxysilane. The effect of polyethylene modification after chemical treatment was analyzed using surface tension measurement. The adhesive properties of Aeromonas hydrophila LOCK0968 were studied in water with a low concentration of organic compounds, using luminometric and microscopic methods, and the viability of the adhered bacterial cells was evaluated using the colony forming units method. After two-week incubation the chemically modified materials exhibited better antiadhesive and antibacterial characteristics in comparison to the native surface. Among the examined modifying agents, dimethoxydimethylsilane showed the best desired properties.

  15. Non-specific immune response of bullfrog Rana catesbeiana to intraperitoneal injection of bacterium Aeromonas hydrophila

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Non-specific immune response of bullfrog Rana catesbeiana to pathogenic Aeromonas hydrophila was studied to 60 individuals in two groups. Each bullfrog in bacterium-injected group was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with 0.2 ml bacterial suspension at a density of 5.2 × 106 CFU/ml, while each one in control group injected i.p. with 0.2 ml sterile saline solution (0.85%, w/v). Three bullfrogs in both groups were sampled at 0, 1, 3, 7, 11, 15 and 20 days post-injection (dpi) for the evaluation of non-specific immune parameters. It was observed that intraperitoneal injection of A. hydrophila significantly increased the number of leucocytes and that of NBT-positive cells in peripheral blood. Significant increases in serum bactericidal activity and serum acid phosphatase activity were also observed in the bacterium-injected frogs when compared with those in the control group. However, a significant reduction was detected in vitro in phagocytosis activity of peripheral blood phagocytes. No significant difference in changes in the number of peripheral erythrocytes, serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and lysozyme activity was detected between the two groups. It is suggested that bullfrogs may produce a series of non-specific immune reactions in response to the A. hydrophila infection.

  16. Aeromonas hydrophila-associated skin lesions and septicaemia in a Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turutoglu, H; Ercelik, S; Corlu, M

    2005-03-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is one of the most common bacteria associated with the aquatic environment. There are, however, limited data on A. hydrophila infection in crocodilians. The aim of this report is to describe a case of skin lesions and septicaemia associated with A. hydrophila in a Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus). A captive male crocodile in the Zoological Park of Antalya (Turkey) was found dead without showing signs of any disease. Gross examination showed brown or red-spotted skin lesions of varying size. These lesions were mostly scattered over the abdomen and occasionally on the tail and feet. At necropsy, numerous white, multifocal and randomly distributed areas were seen on the liver. Gram-stained smears from skin and liver lesions showed Gram-negative bacilli arranged in clusters. Pure cultures of A. hydrophila were recovered from skin, internal organs and blood. Isolates were found to be susceptible to ceftiofur, amoxicillin + clavulanic acid, oxytetracycline, enrofloxacin, danofloxacin, neomycin, gentamicin, and lincomycin + neomycin. A pathogenicity test was performed using this isolate on 4 male 2-year-old New Zealand white rabbits. Local abscesses formed in 2 rabbits injected subcutaneously and the 2 that were injected intraperitoneally died as a result of septicaemia. In conclusion, this report has shown that A. hydrophila may cause skin lesions and even death due to septicaemia in crocodiles. PMID:15900900

  17. Effect of a phytogenic feed additive on the susceptibility of Onchorhynchus mykiss to Aeromonas salmonicida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menanteau-Ledouble, S; Krauss, I; Santos, G; Fibi, S; Weber, B; El-Matbouli, M

    2015-06-29

    In recent years, feed additives have increasingly been adopted by the aquaculture industry. These supplements not only offer an alternative to antibiotics but have also been linked to enhanced growth performance. However, the literature is still limited and provides contradictory information on their effectiveness. This is mainly due to the wide variety of available products and their complex mechanisms of action. Phytogenic feed additives have been shown to have antimicrobial effects and can improve growth performance. In the present study, we investigated the susceptibility of several fish pathogenic bacteria to a phytogenic essential oil product in vitro. In addition, we determined the protective effect of a commercial phytogenic feed additive containing oregano, anis and citrus oils on the resistance of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss to infection by Aeromonas salmonicida. The bacterium was administered through 3 different routes: intra-peritoneal injection, immersion in a bacterial solution and cohabitation with infected fish. Mortality rates were significantly lower in infected rainbow trout that had received the feed additive: the overall mortality rate across all routes of infection was 18% in fish fed a diet containing the additive compared to 37% in fish that received unsupplemented feed. The route of infection also significantly impacted mortality, with average mortality rates of 60, 17.5 and 5% for intra-peritoneal injection, immersion and cohabitation, respectively. In general, fish were better protected against infection by immersion than infection by injection. PMID:26119300

  18. Antibacterial activities of bioactive compounds extracted from Marine algae Gracilaria salicornia against Aeromonas hydrophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Rasooli

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Herbal medicinal products have attracted significant research interest in recent years. Considering the efficiency of algae products in controlling pathogenic bacteria and also easy access to large resources of algae, this study was conducted to evaluate the effects of methanolic, chloroformic and aqueous extracts of Gracilaria salicornia against Aeromonas hydrophila, a heterotrophic, Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium found mainly in warm climate. Algae samples were collected from Qeshm Island coastlines and transferred to the laboratory. Standard methods were used to obtain the algae extract. Antibacterial activities of various extracts were tested against the bacterium using well diffusion assay method. Significant differences were observed in antibacterial activities of different extracts (P<0.05. The diameter of zone of growth inhibition varied in correlation with concentration of the extracts (50, 100, 200 and 300 mg.ml-1. The best inhibition zone was observed at 100, 200 and 300 mg.ml-1 methanolic and 300 mg.ml-1 aqueous extracts.

  19. Detection and genetic analysis of group II capsules in Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y L; Lau, Y L; Arakawa, E; Leung, K Y

    2003-04-01

    The genetic organization and sequences of the group II capsule gene cluster of Aeromonas hydrophila PPD134/91 have been determined previously. The purified capsular polysaccharides can increase the ability of avirulent strain PPD35/85 to survive in naive tilapia serum but have no inhibitory effect on the adhesion of PPD134/91 to carp epithelial cells. In this study, the presence of group II capsules among 33 randomly chosen A. hydrophila strains was examined by electron microscopy and genetic analysis. Ten strains were found to produce group II capsules. A PCR detection system was developed to identify two types of group II capsules (IIA and IIB) based on their genetic organization in the region II gene clusters. Group IIA capsules in the authors' collection of A. hydrophila strains are mainly found in the O : 18 and O : 34 serogroups, while group IIB capsules are found in the O : 21 and O : 27 serogroups. The presence of group II capsules in A. hydrophila strongly correlates with the serum and phagocyte survival abilities (seven out of ten strains). The results indicate that the authors' PCR detection system can constitute a reliable assay for the classification of group II capsules in A. hydrophila. PMID:12686647

  20. Development and validation of a real-time PCR assay for the detection of Aeromonas salmonicida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeling, S E; Brosnahan, C L; Johnston, C; Wallis, R; Gudkovs, N; McDonald, W L

    2013-05-01

    A real-time PCR assay using a molecular beacon was developed and validated to detect the vapA (surface array protein) gene in the fish pathogen, Aeromonas salmonicida. The assay had 100% analytical specificity and analytical sensitivities of 5 ± 0 fg (DNA), 2.2 × 10(4) ± 1 × 10(4) CFU g(-1) (without enrichment) and 40 ± 10 CFU g(-1) (with enrichment) in kidney tissue. The assay was highly repeatable and proved to be robust following equivalency testing using a different real-time PCR platform. Following analytical validation, diagnostic specificity was determined using New Zealand farmed Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), (n = 750) and pink shubunkin, Carassius auratus (L.) (n = 157). The real-time PCR was run in parallel with culture and all fish tested were found to be negative by both methods for A. salmonicida, resulting in 100% diagnostic specificity (95% confidence interval). The molecular beacon real-time PCR system is specific, sensitive and a reproducible method for the detection of A. salmonicida. It can be used for diagnostic testing, health certification and active surveillance programmes. PMID:23121198

  1. Detection of Aeromonas salmonicida by reverse transcription-multiplex polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanachaikunsopon, Pongsak; Phumkhachorn, Parichat

    2012-01-01

    Aeromonas salmonicida is one of the major fish pathogens causing economically devastating losses in aquaculture. A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida is a typical A. salmonicida causing furunculosis, while the other subspecies are atypical strains causing ulcer diseases. PCR-based methods of detecting A. salmonicida suffer from the drawback that they do not distinguish living (pathogenic) from dead cells. In this study, a method of detecting A. salmonicida was developed based on reverse transcription-multiplex PCR (RT-MPCR) using two sets of primers, SV1/SV2 and SF1/SF2, specific to the vapA gene and the fstB gene of A. salmonicida respectively. This method was found to detect A. salmonicida specifically with detection limits of 10 CFU in pure culture and 30 CFU in the presence of tissue debris. It was also found distinguish not only between viable and nonviable cells but also between typical and atypical strains of A. salmonicida. Using RT-MPCR, two DNA fragments, of 542 and 1,258 bp, were amplified from RNA of typical A. salmonicida, whereas only one DNA fragment, of 542 bp, was amplified from the RNA of the atypical ones. The proposed assay was also used successfully to detect A. salmonicida in artificially infected rainbow trout (Oncorhyncus mykiss). PMID:22484927

  2. Reduction of Aeromonas hidrophyla biofilm on stainless stell surface by essential oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Farias Millezi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study demonstrates the possibility of using sanitizing detergents based on natural products for the elimination and/or reduction of Aeromonas hydrophila biofilm formed on stainless steel surfaces. The goal of this work was to determine the reduction effect of sanitizing detergents containing essential oils of Thymus vulgaris (thyme and Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass on biofilm formed by A. hydrophila on AISI 304 stainless steel coupons, using UHT skimmed milk as substratum. There was adhesion and biofilm formation by A. hydrophila at 28 ºC, presenting 7.60 log cfu.cm-2 after the fourth day of cultivation. There was no significant difference between the lemongrass treatment and that of the thyme oil (p 0.05. The treatment with lemongrass solution reduced the biofilm by 4.51 log cfu cm-2 at 25 ºC. The thyme detergent also reduced the number of cfu cm-2 by 3.84 log cycles at 25 ºC. The use of the lemongrass and thyme solutions efficiently reduced the A. hydrophila biofilm.

  3. A Tale of Transmission: Aeromonas veronii Activity within Leech-Exuded Mucus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Brittany M; Dacks, Andrew M; Ryan, Kenneth J; Rio, Rita V M

    2016-05-01

    Transmission, critical to the establishment and persistence of host-associated microbiotas, also exposes symbionts to new environmental conditions. With horizontal transmission, these different conditions represent major lifestyle shifts. Yet genome-wide analyses of how microbes adjust their transcriptomes toward these dramatic shifts remain understudied. Here, we provide a comprehensive and comparative analysis of the global transcriptional profiles of a symbiont as it shifts between lifestyles during transmission. The gammaproteobacteriumAeromonas veroniiis transmitted from the gut of the medicinal leech to other hosts via host mucosal castings, yetA. veroniican also transition from mucosal habitancy to a free-living lifestyle. These three lifestyles are characterized by distinct physiological constraints and consequently lifestyle-specific changes in the expression of stress-response genes. Mucus-boundA. veroniihad the greatest expression in terms of both the number of loci and levels of transcription of stress-response mechanisms. However, these bacteria are still capable of proliferating within the mucus, suggesting the availability of nutrients within this environment. We found thatA. veroniialters transcription of loci in a synthetic pathway that obtains and incorporatesN-acetylglucosamine (NAG; a major component of mucus) into the bacterial cell wall, enabling proliferation. Our results demonstrate that symbionts undergo dramatic local adaptation, demonstrated by widespread transcriptional changes, throughout the process of transmission that allows them to thrive while they encounter new environments which further shape their ecology and evolution. PMID:26896136

  4. Early mucosal responses in blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus) skin to Aeromonas hydrophila infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Beck, Benjamin; Su, Baofeng; Terhune, Jeffery; Peatman, Eric

    2013-03-01

    Bacterial pathogens are well-equipped to detect, adhere to, and initiate infection in their finfish hosts. The mucosal surfaces of fish, such as the skin, function as the front line of defense against such bacterial insults that are routinely encountered in the aquatic environment. While recent progress has been made, and despite the obvious importance of mucosal surfaces, the precise molecular events that occur soon after encountering bacterial pathogens remain unclear. Indeed, these early events are critical in mounting appropriate responses that ultimately determine host survival or death. In the present study, we investigated the transcriptional consequences of a virulent Aeromonas hydrophila challenge in the skin of blue catfish, Ictalurus furcatus. We utilized an 8×60K Agilent microarray to examine gene expression profiles at key early timepoints following challenge (2 h, 12 h, and 24 h). A total of 1155 unique genes were significantly altered during at least one timepoint. We observed dysregulation in a number of genes involved in diverse pathways including those involved in antioxidant responses, apoptosis, cytoskeletal rearrangement, immunity, and extracellular matrix protein diversity and regulation. Taken together, A. hydrophila coordinately modulates mucosal factors across numerous cellular pathways in a manner predicted to enhance its ability to adhere to and infect the blue catfish host. PMID:23337110

  5. Fermentation and growth kinetic study of Aeromonas caviae under anaerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Changsoo; Kim, Jaai; Hwang, Kwanghyun; Hwang, Seokhwan

    2009-06-01

    Although Aeromonas caviae is pathogenic to a broad range of invertebrates including human, frequent in aquatic environments, and potentially vital for acidogenesis in anaerobic digestion, virtually no biokinetic information on its anaerobic growth is at hand. Therefore, this study focused on evaluating its anaerobic growth kinetics on glucose. To provide a set of relevant biokinetic coefficients for modeling, a combination of curve fitting and numerical modeling was used. Microcultivations were performed at eight different initial glucose concentrations of 0.1 to 2.5 g l(-1) to establish a function of specific growth rate versus substrate concentration. A batch anaerobic bioreactor was then operated to collect a data set for the numerical analysis. Kinetic coefficients were estimated from three different biomass growth profiles monitored by optical density, volatile suspended solids (VSS), or DNA measurement, and applied for simulating continuous operations at various hydraulic retention times (HRTs). Assuming the influent glucose concentration is 5,000 mg l(-1), the substrate utilization efficiency predicted to be 77.2% to 92.0% at 17 to 36 h HRTs. For the VSS-model-based simulation, the washout HRT was estimated to be 16.6 h, and similar for the other models. Overall, the anaerobic biokinetic coefficients of A. caviae grown on glucose were successfully estimated and found to follow a substrate inhibition model. PMID:19343339

  6. Evasion of mucosal defenses during Aeromonas hydrophila infection of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Wang, Ruijia; Su, Baofeng; Luo, Yupeng; Terhune, Jeffery; Beck, Benjamin; Peatman, Eric

    2013-04-01

    The mucosal surfaces of fish serve as the first line of defense against the myriad of aquatic pathogens present in the aquatic environment. The immune repertoire functioning at these interfaces is still poorly understood. The skin, in particular, must process signals from several fronts, sensing and integrating environmental, nutritional, social, and health cues. Pathogen invasion can disrupt this delicate homeostasis with profound impacts on signaling throughout the organism. Here, we investigated the transcriptional effects of virulent Aeromonas hydrophila infection in channel catfish skin, Ictalurus punctatus. We utilized a new 8 × 60 K Agilent microarray for catfish to examine gene expression profiles at critical early timepoints following challenge--2 h, 8 h, and 12 h. Expression of a total of 2,168 unique genes was significantly perturbed during at least one timepoint. We observed dysregulation of genes involved in antioxidant, cytoskeletal, immune, junctional, and nervous system pathways. In particular, A. hydrophila infection rapidly altered a number of potentially critical lectins, chemokines, interleukins, and other mucosal factors in a manner predicted to enhance its ability to adhere to and invade the catfish host. PMID:23219904

  7. An experimental vaccine against Aeromonas hydrophila can induce protection in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPatra, S.E.; Plant, K.P.; Alcorn, S.; Ostland, V.; Winton, J.

    2010-01-01

    A candidate vaccine against Aeromonas hydrophila in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, was developed using a bacterial lysate. To test the strength of protection, A. hydrophila challenge models were compared using injection into both the intraperitoneal (IP) cavity and the dorsal sinus (DS) with selected doses of live bacteria washed in saline or left untreated. Unlike the IP route, injection into the DS with either saline washed or unwashed cells resulted in consistent cumulative mortality and a dose response that could be used to establish a standard challenge having an LD50 of approximately 3 × 107 colony forming units per fish. Survivors of the challenge suffered significantly lower mortality upon re-challenge than naïve fish, suggesting a high level of acquired resistance was elicited by infection. Passive immunization using serum from hyper-immunized fish also resulted in significantly reduced mortality indicating protection can be transferred and that some portion of resistance may be antibody mediated. Vaccination of groups of rainbow trout with A. hydrophila lysate resulted in significant protection against a high challenge dose but only when injected along with Freund’s complete adjuvant. At a low challenge dose, mortality in all groups was low, but the bacterial lysate alone appeared to offer some protection.

  8. Detection of multidrug resistance Aeromonas hydrophila in farm raised fresh water prawns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Bakhtiar Lijon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken for isolation, identification and determination of antibiogram profile of Aeromonas hydrophila in farm raised fresh water prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii on five commercial ghers. Fresh water prawns (n=25 were collected from five ghers located at Satkhira, Bagerhat and Khulna districts of Bangladesh. Brain (n=25, muscle (n=25 and intestine (n=25 samples were collected aseptically from fresh water prawn and inoculated into alkaline peptone (APW water for enrichment at 37℃ for 8 h. Enriched cultured was streaked into Thiosulfate Citrate Bile Salt Sucrose (TCBS agar to isolate bacteria. Bacteria were identified by cultural, Gram staining, biochemical properties and polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay. The antibiogram profiles of bacteria were investigated against 5 commonly used antibiotics (Gentamicin, Cefalexin, Ampicillin, Azithromycin and Ciprofloxacin by disc diffusion method. Thirteen A. hydrophila isolates were identified and the prevalence of the A. hydrophila in fresh water prawn was 17.33%. All 13 (100% isolates were sensitive to Ciprofloxacin, Gentamicin, Azithromycin and resistant to Ampicillin and Cefalexin. The results of this study indicate that farm raised fresh water prawn harbor multidrug resistant A. hydrophila which might causes public health problem if enter into human food chain.

  9. Aeromonas hydrophila-associated skin lesions and septicaemia in a Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Turutoglu

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas hydrophila is one of the most common bacteria associated with the aquatic environment. There are , however, limited data on A. hydrophila infection in crocodilians. The aim of this report is to describe a case of skin lesions and septicaemia associated with A. hydrophila in a Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus. A captive male crocodile in the Zoological Park of Antalya (Turkey was found dead without showing signs of any disease. Gross examination showed brown or red-spotted skin lesions of varying size. These lesions were mostly scattered over the abdomen and occasionally on the tail and feet. At necropsy, numerous white, multifocal and randomly distributed areas were seen on the liver. Gram-stained smears from skin and liver lesions showed Gram-negative bacilli arranged in clusters. Pure cultures of A. hydrophila were recovered from skin, internal organs and blood. Isolates were found to be susceptible to ceftiofur, amoxicillin + clavulanic acid, oxytetracycline, enrofloxacin, danofloxacin, neomycin, gentamicin, and lincomycin + neomycin. A pathogenicity test was performed using this isolate on 4 male 2-year-old New Zealand white rabbits. Local abscesses formed in 2 rabbits injected subcutaneously and the 2 that were injected intraperitoneally died as a result of septicaemia. In conclusion, this report has shown that A. hydrophila may cause skin lesions and even death due to septicaemia in crocodiles.

  10. El paisaje como estrategia proyectual

    OpenAIRE

    Mínguez Martínez, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    La presente comunicación tiene por objeto presentar los trabajos realizados por los alumnos de la asignatura de Urbanística III de la titulación Grado en Arquitectura de la Universidad Católica San Antonio de Murcia (UCAM). Mientras que en el Urbanismo funcionalista el objeto del proyecto son los edificios y el paisaje se entiende como un relleno verde, residual, identificado por Colin Rowe en Ciudad Collage (1978) como modelo Acrópolis, en los ejercicios realizados el análisis pormenorizado ...

  11. La Tierra vista como exoplaneta

    OpenAIRE

    Antígona Segura

    2010-01-01

    La Tierra, como único ejemplo de planeta habitable, nos da los primeros elementos para caracterizar el espectro de planetas de tipo terrestre alrededor de otras estrellas que podrían ser detectados en el transcurso de la próxima década gracias a misiones como CoRoT y Kepler y caracterizados por las misiones Terrestrial Planet Finder y Darwin. En este artículo se compendian los estudios que utilizan a la Tierra para determinar las posibles características de mundos habitables alrededor de otra...

  12. El arte como posible conocimiento

    OpenAIRE

    Janitzio Alatriste Tobilla; Eduardo Bernal Gómez; Manuel Encastin Cruz

    2010-01-01

    Este artículo es producto de una investigación que intenta construir un modelo metodológico para concebir la producción artística como una forma de conocimiento e incorporar el quehacer imaginario del artista dentro de los esquemas que regulan la investigación académica tanto en México como en el mundo. La construcción de esta propuesta metodológica ha sido creada desde tres posiciones con respecto al conocimiento: la semiótica de Charles S. Peirce, la teoría psicoanalítica de Jacques Lacan y...

  13. SELECCIÓN DE VARIABLES MORFOLÓGICAS PARA LA CARACTERIZACIÓN DEL TEJOCOTE (Crataegus spp.)

    OpenAIRE

    López-Santiago, J; R. Nieto-Ángel; A. F. Barrientos-Priego; E. Rodríguez-Pérez; M. T. Colinas-Leon; M. W. Borys; F. González-Andrés

    2008-01-01

    Considerando a la caracterización en plantas como el conjunto de características para diferenciarlas taxonómicamente, en el presente estudio se estableció como objetivo la selección de variables morfológicas confiables y discriminantes, mediante el análisis de varianza, coeficiente de variación, correlación lineal, selección por pasos y análisis de componentes principales. Para dicha selección se eligieron caracteres de hoja, flor y amarre de frutos del tejocote (Crataegus spp.), de la colecc...

  14. Antagonismo de Trichoderma SPP. E Bacillus subtilis (UFV3918 a Fusarium sambucinum em Pinus elliottii engelm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caciara Gonzatto Maciel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Pinus elliottii é uma espécie de importância no setor florestal e apresenta vulnerabilidade na qualidade sanitária de suas sementes, especialmente pela associação de Fusarium spp., responsável por perdas de plântulas no viveiro. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a ação antagonista in vitro e in vivo dos agentes Trichoderma spp. e Bacillus subtilis (UFV3918 no controle de Fusarium sambucinum, responsável por danos em plântulas de Pinus elliottii. O controle in vitro foi avaliado através da inibição do crescimento micelial (confronto pareado de culturas, após a incubação a 25±2 ºC e fotoperíodo de 12 h. Para os testes in vivo (desenvolvidos em condições de viveiro, as sementes inicialmente foram inoculadas com o patógeno e, na sequência, microbiolizadas com os agentes antagônicos, para posterior semeadura. Utilizaram-se as técnicas de contato com o biocontrolador em meio BDA por 48 h e peliculização, como formas de microbiolização. Tanto Trichoderma spp. quanto Bacillus subtilis (UFV3918 foram eficientes no controle in vitro de F. sambucinum, e no teste de biocontrole in vivo o produto Bacillus subtilis (UFV3918 destacou-se, reduzindo as perdas de plântulas causadas pelo patógeno, assim como potencializando as variáveis de comprimento de plântula, massa verde e massa seca.

  15. Symbiotic Relationship of Thiothrix spp. with an Echinoderm†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigmon, Robin L.; De Ridder, Chantal

    1998-01-01

    Immunoassay procedures were used to investigate the symbiotic relationship of Thiothrix spp. in the intestinal cecum of the spatangoid species Echinocardium cordatum. Thiothrix spp. were identified in nodule samples from E. cordatum digestive tubes based on microscopic examination, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and indirect immunofluorescence. Thiothrix spp. protein made up as much as 84% of the total protein content of the nodules. This is the first identification of Thiothrix spp. internally symbiotic with marine invertebrates. PMID:9726902

  16. Symbiotic relationship of thiothrix spp. with An echinoderm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigmon; De Ridder C

    1998-09-01

    Immunoassay procedures were used to investigate the symbiotic relationship of Thiothrix spp. in the intestinal cecum of the spatangoid species Echinocardium cordatum. Thiothrix spp. were identified in nodule samples from E. cordatum digestive tubes based on microscopic examination, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and indirect immunofluorescence. Thiothrix spp. protein made up as much as 84% of the total protein content of the nodules. This is the first identification of Thiothrix spp. internally symbiotic with marine invertebrates. PMID:9726902

  17. Symbiotic Relationship of Thiothrix spp. with an Echinoderm†

    OpenAIRE

    Brigmon, Robin L.; De Ridder, Chantal

    1998-01-01

    Immunoassay procedures were used to investigate the symbiotic relationship of Thiothrix spp. in the intestinal cecum of the spatangoid species Echinocardium cordatum. Thiothrix spp. were identified in nodule samples from E. cordatum digestive tubes based on microscopic examination, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and indirect immunofluorescence. Thiothrix spp. protein made up as much as 84% of the total protein content of the nodules. This is the first identification of Thiothrix spp. inte...

  18. Occurrence of Cronobacter spp. in retail foods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hochel, I.; Růžičková, H.; Krásný, Lukáš; Demnerová, K.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 112, č. 6 (2012), s. 1257-1265. ISSN 1364-5072 Grant ostatní: GA ČR(CZ) GAP503/10/0664 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : biotype * antibiotic resistance * Cronobacter spp Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.196, year: 2012

  19. Variability of Colletotrichum spp in common bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, S F; Barcelos, Q L; Dias, M A; Souza, E A

    2016-01-01

    The Colletotrichum genus presents large genetic variability, as demonstrated by the occurrence of several pathogenic races and phenotypic traits. The objective of this study was to characterize 22 strains of C. lindemuthianum and Colletotrichum spp recovered from anthracnose lesions and bean scab, and to verify the relationship between species of the Colletotrichum genus, which inhabit anthracnose and scab lesions. Colony morphology, conidium size, the presence of septa, germination, sporulation, and mycelium growth rates, were analyzed in addition to the presence of mating-type genes, IRAP markers, and pathogenicity. Strains of Colletotrichum spp presented wide variation for all evaluated traits, indicating the presence of different species. Pathogenicity tests verified that the severity of the disease caused by strains of Colletotrichum spp must be evaluated 17 days after inoculation. Molecular analysis showed that only the C. lindemuthianum strains were grouped by the IRAP markers. For the physiological traits, we observed that C. lindemuthianum mycelium growth is slower than that of Colletotrichum spp strains. The information generated in this study confirms variability in the evaluated species of Colletotrichum and may direct future basic and applied studies aiming to control these diseases in common bean. PMID:27173211

  20. UV red fluorescence of Veillonella spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Brazier, J. S.; Riley, T. V.

    1988-01-01

    A total of 34 clinical isolates and 7 type strains of Veillonella spp. were tested for their ability to fluoresce on various culture media. Fluorescence was medium dependent and varied among the species. Scanning absorption spectrophotometry of culture extracts showed that the absorption spectrum of the fluorescent pigment is typical of a metal-free porphyrin.

  1. Biological control of saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) by saltcedar leaf beetles (Diorhabda spp.): effects on small mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    The spread of introduced saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) throughout many riparian systems across the western United States motivated the introduction of biological control agents that are specific to saltcedar, saltcedar leaf beetles (Diorhabda carinulata, D. elongata; Chrysomelidae). I monitored small mam...

  2. 21 CFR 866.3550 - Salmonella spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salmonella spp. serological reagents. 866.3550... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3550 Salmonella spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Salmonella spp. serological reagents are devices...

  3. Detection of Salmonella spp. in oysters by PCR.

    OpenAIRE

    Bej, A K; Mahbubani, M H; Boyce, M. J.; Atlas, R M

    1994-01-01

    PCR DNA amplification of a region of the himA gene of Salmonella typhimurium specifically detected Salmonella spp. In oysters, 1 to 10 cells of Salmonella spp. were rapidly detected by the PCR following a pre-enrichment step to increase sensitivity and to ensure that detection was based on the presence of viable Salmonella spp.

  4. 21 CFR 866.3660 - Shigella spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shigella spp. serological reagents. 866.3660... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3660 Shigella spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Shigella spp. serological reagents are devices that consist...

  5. 21 CFR 866.3040 - Aspergillus spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aspergillus spp. serological reagents. 866.3040... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3040 Aspergillus spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Aspergillus spp. serological reagents are devices...

  6. 21 CFR 866.3350 - Leptospira spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Leptospira spp. serological reagents. 866.3350... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3350 Leptospira spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Leptospira spp. serological reagents are devices...

  7. 21 CFR 866.3340 - Klebsiella spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Klebsiella spp. serological reagents. 866.3340... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3340 Klebsiella spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Klebsiella spp. serological reagents are devices...

  8. 21 CFR 866.3415 - Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents. 866.3415... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3415 Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents are devices...

  9. 21 CFR 866.3375 - Mycoplasma spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mycoplasma spp. serological reagents. 866.3375... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3375 Mycoplasma spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Mycoplasma spp. serological reagents are devices...

  10. 21 CFR 866.3740 - Streptococcus spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Streptococcus spp. serological reagents. 866.3740... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3740 Streptococcus spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Streptococcus spp. serological reagents are...

  11. Challenge of pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus) fed diets supplemented with vitamins C and E by Aeromonas hydrophila under different temperature Desafio de pacus (Piaractus mesopotamicus) alimentados com dietas suplementadas com vitaminas C e E desafiados por Aeromonas hydrophila em diferentes temperaturas

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, F.; F. R. Moraes; Martins, M. de L.

    2009-01-01

    Pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus fed diets supplemented with three vitamins C and E levels (zero, 250, and 500mg vitamin/kg diet) were challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila under different temperatures. Fish were kept in 300L plastic tanks and fed during the first 60 days with diets without vitamins C and E, in an attempt to reduce vitamin sources. After this period, fish were maintained at an initial density of 14 fish/tank and test diets were offered during 60 days. At the end of the experiment,...

  12. RECUPERAÇÃO DE SALMONELLA SPP. EM MANGA (MANGIFERA INDICA) CV. TOMMY ATKINS

    OpenAIRE

    Silvana Belém de Oliveira Vilar; Maria Fernanda Pontes Penteado Moretzhon de Castro; Ana Carolina Rezende; Ana Lúcia Penteado; Flávio Luís Schmidt

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella spp. é um patógeno que se destaca como agente responsável por doenças veiculadas por alimentos. Alguns estudos demonstram que o consumo de manga contaminada foi responsável por alguns destes surtos. Este trabalho objetivou investigar a eficiência de diferentes metodologias para a recuperação de Salmonella em manga (Mangifera indica) cv. Tommy Atkins. Para o estudo, as mangas foram artificialmente contaminadas com um pool de Salmonella contendo culturas de Salmonella Typ...

  13. Ocorrência de Leishmania spp. em felinos do município de Araçatuba, SP Occurrence de Leishmania spp. in domestic cats from Araçatuba, SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Denise Saraiva Bresciani

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo comparar a ocorrência de Leishmania spp. em gatos por dois métodos (citológico e sorológico, bem como associar a ocorrência deste protozoário com as variáveis sexo, idade e raça. Amostras séricas de 283 felinos domésticos foram testadas pela Reação de Imunofluorescência Indireta (RIFI, e o exame parasitológico direto de linfonodos também foi realizado para a verificação da positividade para Leishmania spp. Ocorrência de 0,7% (2/283 foi observada nos felinos examinados, por meio de imprint de linfonodos e nenhum animal apresentou títulos de anticorpos para Leishmania spp. As duas fêmeas positivas eram sem raça definida, sendo uma jovem e outra adulta. Por meio dos resultados obtidos, não foi constatada diferença estatisticamente significante em relação às variáveis sexo, raça e idade nos gatos desta pesquisa (p > 0,05. Ocorrência de Leishmania spp. nos gatos deste estudo foi baixa. Devido a esta baixa incidência sugere-se que estes não assumem importância epidemiológica na área do estudo.This study had the purpose to compare the occurrence of Leishmania spp. in felines through two methods (cytological and serological, as well as to associate the occurrence of this protozoan with the sex, age and breed variables. Serum samples from 283 domestic felines were processed by means of Indirect Immunofluorescence Reaction (IIR, and the direct parasitological test for linfonodes was also carried out in order to verify positivity for Leishmania spp. Occurrence of 0.7% (2/283 was observed in the tested felines by means of linfonode imprinting and no animal showed title of antibodies for Leishmania spp. The two positive females were mongrel, a young female and an adult female feline. From the obtained results, no statistically significant difference was observed as regards the sex, breed and age variables in this research (p > 0.05. Occurrence of Leishmania spp. in the cats of this study was

  14. Contamination of public parks and squares from Guarulhos (São Paulo State, Brazil ) by Toxocara spp. and Ancylostoma spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Jacó Pereira Marques; Catarina de Rezende Guimarães; Ailton Vilas Boas; Paulo Usignolo Carnaúba; Josué de Moraes

    2012-01-01

    The contaminated soil with mammal feces is an important factor of risk to infection with zoonotic diseases. Amongst these zoonoses are visceral larva migrans and cutaneous larva migrans caused by Toxocara spp. and Ancylostoma spp., respectively. The aim of this study was to assess the environmental contamination by Toxocara spp. eggs and hookworms (Ancylostoma spp.) in public parks and squares in the city of Guarulhos, a metropolitan area of São Paulo, São Paulo State, Brazil. Soil samples we...

  15. Presence of Staphylococcus spp. and Candida spp. in the human oral cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martins Clélia Aparecida de Paiva

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of yeasts and staphylococci in the oral cavity is important because they can act as supplementary microbiota and in certain situations can cause oral or systemic diseases. The aim of this work was to study the prevalence of Candida spp. and Staphylococcus spp. in the human oral cavity. Oral rinses were collected from sixty-eight individuals according to the technique described by Samaranayake and MacFarlane and then cultured on Sabouraud medium supplemented with chloramphenicol and Baird-Parker agar. After the incubation period, the microorganisms were isolated and identified through biochemical tests. The data obtained were statistically analysed by ANOVA. Candida spp. were isolated from 61.76% of the examined individuals and C. albicans was the more frequently isolated specie. Staphylococcus spp. were isolated from 95.60% of the individuals and 41 strains were coagulase negative (63%. Among the coagulase positive strains, nine were S. aureus, 11 S. hyicus and 4 S. schleiferi subspecie coagulans. No correlation was observed between the counts (cfu of the isolated Candida spp. and Staphylococcus spp.

  16. Melanization and pathogenicity in the insect, Tenebrio molitor, and the crustacean, Pacifastacus leniusculus, by Aeromonas hydrophila AH-3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chadanat Noonin

    Full Text Available Aeromonas hydrophila is the most common Aeromonas species causing infections in human and other animals such as amphibians, reptiles, fish and crustaceans. Pathogenesis of Aeromonas species have been reported to be associated with virulence factors such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS, bacterial toxins, bacterial secretion systems, flagella, and other surface molecules. Several mutant strains of A. hydrophila AH-3 were initially used to study their virulence in two animal species, Pacifastacus leniusculus (crayfish and Tenebrio molitor larvae (mealworm. The AH-3 strains used in this study have mutations in genes involving the synthesis of flagella, LPS structures, secretion systems, and some other factors, which have been reported to be involved in A. hydrophila pathogenicity. Our study shows that the LPS (O-antigen and external core is the most determinant A. hydrophila AH-3 virulence factor in both animals. Furthermore, we studied the immune responses of these hosts to infection of virulent or non-virulent strains of A. hydrophila AH-3. The AH-3 wild type (WT containing the complete LPS core is highly virulent and this bacterium strongly stimulated the prophenoloxidase activating system resulting in melanization in both crayfish and mealworm. In contrast, the ΔwaaE mutant which has LPS without O-antigen and external core was non-virulent and lost ability to stimulate this system and melanization in these two animals. The high phenoloxidase activity found in WT infected crayfish appears to result from a low expression of pacifastin, a prophenoloxidase activating enzyme inhibitor, and this gene expression was not changed in the ΔwaaE mutant infected animal and consequently phenoloxidase activity was not altered as compared to non-infected animals. Therefore we show that the virulence factors of A. hydrophila are the same regardless whether an insect or a crustacean is infected and the O-antigen and external core is essential for activation of the

  17. The cytotoxic effect of essential oils from Origanum vulgare L. and/or Rosmarinus officinalis L. on Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azerêdo, Geíza Alves de; Stamford, Tânia Lúcia Montenegro; Figueiredo, Regina Celia Bressan Queiroz de; Souza, Evandro Leite de

    2012-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the antibacterial activities of the essential oils from Origanum vulgare L. (OV) and Rosmarinus officinalis L. (RO), both singly and in combination at sub-inhibitory concentrations (¼ MIC + ¼ MIC), against Aeromonas hydrophila and to investigate the possible mechanisms underlying these activities. Used singly (OV: 2.5 μL/mL; RO: 20 μL/mL) or in a mixture (OV: 0.625 μL/mL + RO: 5 μL/L), these essential oils led to a significant decrease (pvegetables. PMID:22300224

  18. Skin and subcutaneous mycoses in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) caused by Fusarium oxysporum in coinfection with Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutuli, M Teresa; Gibello, Alicia; Rodriguez-Bertos, Antonio; Blanco, M Mar; Villarroel, Morris; Giraldo, Alejandra; Guarro, Josep

    2015-09-01

    Subcutaneous mycoses in freshwater fish are rare infections usually caused by oomycetes of the genus Saprolegnia and some filamentous fungi. To date, Fusarium infections in farmed fish have only been described in marine fish. Here, we report the presence of Fusarium oxysporum in subcutaneous lesions of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Histopathologic evaluation revealed granuloma formation with fungal structures, and the identity of the etiological agent was demonstrated by morphological and molecular analyses. Some of the animals died as a result of systemic coinfection with Aeromonas hydrophila. PMID:26155462

  19. Quorum sensing signals are produced by Aeromonas salmonicida and quorum sensing inhibitors can reduce production of a potential virulence factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Maria; Kastbjerg, Vicky Gaedt; Bruhn, Jesper Bartholin;

    2007-01-01

    Many pathogens control production of virulence factors by self-produced signals in a process called quorum sensing (QS). We demonstrate that acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) signals, which enable bacteria to express certain phenotypes in relation to cell density, are produced by a wide spectrum of...... Aeromonas salmonicida strains. All 31 typical strains were AHL producers as were 21 of 26 atypical strains, but on a strain population basis, production of virulence factors such as protease, lipase, A-layer or pigment did not correlate with the production and accumulation of AHLs in the growth medium...

  20. Effect of electron irradiation and packaging atmosphere on the survival of Aeromonas hydrophila in minced poultry meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resistance to electron irradiation of Aeromonas hydrophila inoculated in minced poultry meat packed in presence of air or under vacuum was examined. Surviving bacteria were counted on starch ampicillin agar containing 100 μg/ml of ampicillin. Radiation resistance, expressed as D10 values, was calculated from the survival curves and found to be 0.12 and 0.14 kGy in poultry meat packed in air or under vacuum respectively. Storage at 2oC of meat samples irradiated at 0.5 kGy further reduced the number of A. hydrophila. (Author)

  1. The genome of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida A449: insights into the evolution of a fish pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murphy Colleen

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida is a Gram-negative bacterium that is the causative agent of furunculosis, a bacterial septicaemia of salmonid fish. While other species of Aeromonas are opportunistic pathogens or are found in commensal or symbiotic relationships with animal hosts, A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida causes disease in healthy fish. The genome sequence of A. salmonicida was determined to provide a better understanding of the virulence factors used by this pathogen to infect fish. Results The nucleotide sequences of the A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida A449 chromosome and two large plasmids are characterized. The chromosome is 4,702,402 bp and encodes 4388 genes, while the two large plasmids are 166,749 and 155,098 bp with 178 and 164 genes, respectively. Notable features are a large inversion in the chromosome and, in one of the large plasmids, the presence of a Tn21 composite transposon containing mercury resistance genes and an In2 integron encoding genes for resistance to streptomycin/spectinomycin, quaternary ammonia compounds, sulphonamides and chloramphenicol. A large number of genes encoding potential virulence factors were identified; however, many appear to be pseudogenes since they contain insertion sequences, frameshifts or in-frame stop codons. A total of 170 pseudogenes and 88 insertion sequences (of ten different types are found in the A. salmonicida genome. Comparison with the A. hydrophila ATCC 7966T genome reveals multiple large inversions in the chromosome as well as an approximately 9% difference in gene content indicating instances of single gene or operon loss or gain. A limited number of the pseudogenes found in A. salmonicida A449 were investigated in other Aeromonas strains and species. While nearly all the pseudogenes tested are present in A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida strains, only about 25% were found in other A. salmonicida subspecies and none were detected in other

  2. Phytoextracts-Synthesized Silver Nanoparticles Inhibit Bacterial Fish Pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahanty, Arabinda; Mishra, Snehasish; Bosu, Ranadhir; Maurya, Uk; Netam, Surya Prakash; Sarkar, Biplab

    2013-12-01

    Fish disease is a major stumbling block towards sustainable growth of the fisheries sector. Aeromonas hydrophila, which is a major infectious aquatic pathogen is reportedly the causative agent of ulcers, fin-rot, tail-rot, hemorrhagic septicemia in fish, and has reportedly developed resistance against many of the available antibiotics. In this context, the inhibitory function of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) against A. hydrophila was studied to evaluate its possible application in aquaculture as alternative to antibiotics. AgNPs were synthesized using the leaf extracts of subtropical plants Mangifera indica (Mango), Eucalyptus terticornis (Eucalyptus), Carica papaya (Papaya) and Musa paradisiaca (Banana). The absorbance maxima, size range and shape of the AgNPs as characterized by the UV-Vis spectroscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) were, Mangifera-442, 50-65 nm, ovular; Eucalyptus-465, 60-150 nm, oval; Carica-442, 25-40 nm, round, irregular; and Musa-454, 10-50 nm, round, irregular, respectively. Well-diffusion of these AgNPs for their antimicrobial characteristics exhibited that, the papaya leaf extract synthesized AgNPs had maximum antimicrobial activity at 153.6 μg/ml concentrations, and that from the eucalyptus leaves was least effective. As observed, the potency of the nanoparticles enhanced with the decrease in particle size, from 60-150 nm in eucalyptus to 25-40 nm in papaya. Due to its purely natural sourcing, phytosynthesized AgNPs can be applied as alternative to antibiotics and other biocides as a cost-effective and eco-friendly therapeutic agent against A. hydrophila stimulated diseases in aquatic animals. PMID:24426148

  3. Ecofriendly biosorption of dyes and metals by bacterial biomass of Aeromonas hydrophila RC1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busi, Siddhardha; Chatterjee, Rahul; Rajkumari, Jobina; Hnamte, Sairengpuii

    2016-03-01

    The ability of dried bacterial biomass in azo dye and heavy metal removal from aqueous solution was explored. Biosorption of three textile dyes, Eriochrome black T (EBT), Acid Red 26 (AR) and Trypan blue (TB) and heavy metals (Pb and Cr) by dried biomass of Aeromonas hydrophila RC1, was investigated in a batch system under various parameters such as dye concentration, contact time, concentration of biomass, pH, and temperature. The experimental results showed that the extent of biosorption for dyes increased with increase in initial concentration of dyes, biomass concentration, contact time, temperature and decreased with increase in pH. The experimental isotherms data were analyzed using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm equations. The Langmuir model yielded good fit to the experimental data (R² approximately 0.794, 0.844 and 0.969 for the dyes, EBT, AR and TB, respectively) with maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 58.8 mg g⁻¹ for AR. Similarly results were obtained for heavy metals and the data fit in Langmuir model (R² value of 0.849 and 0.787) with q(m) value of 40 mg g⁻¹ for Pb. The results fit in pseudo first order kinetics with removal upto 96.67 % for Pb. Involvement of the surface characteristics of the biomass in biosorption was studied using scanning electron micrographs, FTIR, EDX and XRD analysis. Thus, use ofA. hydrophila RC1 biomass can be extensively employed in water treatment plants in order to get desired water quality in the most economical way. PMID:27097447

  4. Hemerythrin is required for Aeromonas hydraphlia to survive in the macrophages of Anguilla japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, W B; Chen, W B; Yan, Q P; Lin, G F; Qin, Y X

    2016-01-01

    Survival in host phagocytes is an effective strategy for pathogenic microbes to spread. To understand the mechanisms of Aeromonas hydrophila survival within host macrophages, a library of mini-Tn10 transposon insertion mutants was constructed. The M85 mutant, whose survival in host macrophages was only 23.1% of that of the wild-type (WT) strain, was utilized for further study. Molecular analysis showed that a 756-bp open reading frame (ORF) (GenBank accession No. CP007576) in the M85 mutant was interrupted by mini-Tn10. This ORF encodes for a 183-amino acid protein and displays the highest sequence identity (99%) with the hemerythrin (Hr) protein of A. hydrophila subspecies hydrophila ATCC 7966. The survival of the WT, M85 mutant, and complemented M85 (Hr) strains were compared in host macrophages in vitro, and the results showed that M85 exhibited defective survival, while that of M85 (Hr) was restored. To investigate the possible mechanisms of A. hydrophila survival in host macrophages, the expression of Hr under hyperoxic and hypoxic conditions was evaluated. The results revealed that the expression of this protein was higher under hyperoxic conditions than under hypoxic conditions, which indicates that Hr protein expression is sensitive to O2 concentration. Hydrogen peroxide sensitivity tests further suggested that the M85 mutant was more sensitive to oxidative stress than the WT and M85 (Hr) strains. Taken together, these results suggest that the Hr protein may act as an O2 sensor and as a detoxifier of reactive oxygen species, and is required for A. hydrophila survival within host macrophages. PMID:27173333

  5. Biological approach to synthesize TiO2 nanoparticles using Aeromonas hydrophila and its antibacterial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaseelan, Chidambaram; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana; Kirthi, Arivarasan Vishnu; Venkatesan, Jayachandran; Kim, Se-Kwon; Iyappan, Moorthy; Siva, Chinnadurai

    2013-04-01

    Nanosized materials have been an important subject in basic and applied sciences. A novel, low-cost, green and reproducible bacteria, Aeromonas hydrophila mediated biosynthesis of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) was reported. The resulting nanoparticles were characterized by FTIR, XRD, AFM and FESEM with EDX. FTIR showed characteristic bands (1643 and 3430 cm-1) finds the role of carboxyl group Osbnd H stretching amine Nsbnd H stretch in the formation of TiO2 NPs. The XRD spectrum confirmed that the synthesized TiO2 NPs were in the form of nanocrystals, as evidenced by the peaks at 2θ values of 27.47°, 31.77°, 36.11°, 41.25°, 54.39°, 56.64° and 69.54° were identified as 110, 100, 101, 111, 211, 220 and 301 reflections, respectively. The crystallite sizes were calculated using Scherrer's formula applied to the major intense peaks and found to be the size of 40.50 nm. The morphological characterization was analyzed by FESEM and the analysis showed the NPs smooth shaped, spherical and uneven. GC-MS analysis showed the main compounds found in A. hydrophila were uric acid (2.95%), glycyl-L-glutamic acid (6.90%), glycyl-L-proline (74.41%) and l-Leucyl-d-leucine (15.74%). The potential glycyl-L-proline could have played an important role as a capping agent. A possible mechanism for the biosynthesis of TiO2 NPs has been proposed. The antibacterial activity of the synthesized TiO2 NPs was assessed by well diffusion method toward A. hydrophila, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes and Enterococcus faecalis and showed effective inhibitory activity against S. aureus (33 mm) and S. pyogenes (31 mm).

  6. EVALUATION OF IMMUNOSTIMULATORY POTENTIAL OF PHYLLANTHUS AMARUS IN LABEO ROHITA INFECTED WITH AEROMONAS HYDROPHILA: HAEMATOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.Annalakshmi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Outbreak of disease is an important limiting factor in aquaculture. Incorporation of herbal immunostimulants in diet is one of the widely followed methods to improve the general resistance in fish. The present experiment was carried out to evaluate the Immunostimulatory potential of the medicinal herb Phyllanthus amarus in fish. The experiment was carried out in two sets. In experiment-I, one group of Labeo rohita was fed with control diet (‘C’ diet and the other group was fed with Phyllanthus amarus incorporated diet (‘P’ diet for 14 days and the haematological parameters were analysed on 1st, 3rd, 7th and 14th day of the experiment. Significant increase in Total Erythrocyte Count (TEC, Haemoglobin (Hb g%, Total Leucocyte Count (TLC, lymphocytes, monocytes and neutrophils were observed in ‘P’ diet fed fishes with increase in the duration of the experiment. As there is positive response in the first experiment hence experiment-II was carried out. In experiment-II, One group of Labeo rohita were fed with ‘C’ diet and other group received ‘P’ diet for 14 days, post-infected with Aeromonas hydrophila and haematological parameters were analyzed on 1st, 3rd, 7th & 14th days after infection. Significant increase in TEC, Hb, TLC, lymphocytes and a steady population of monocytes and neutrophils were observed in ‘P’ diet fed fishes. On the other hand basophils and eosinophil count exhibited a fluctuating trend. Thus dietary incorporation of Phyllanthus amarus helps to improve the general health and resistance of the fish.

  7. Biological approach to synthesize TiO2 nanoparticles using Aeromonas hydrophila and its antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaseelan, Chidambaram; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana; Kirthi, Arivarasan Vishnu; Venkatesan, Jayachandran; Kim, Se-Kwon; Iyappan, Moorthy; Siva, Chinnadurai

    2013-04-15

    Nanosized materials have been an important subject in basic and applied sciences. A novel, low-cost, green and reproducible bacteria, Aeromonas hydrophila mediated biosynthesis of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) was reported. The resulting nanoparticles were characterized by FTIR, XRD, AFM and FESEM with EDX. FTIR showed characteristic bands (1643 and 3430 cm(-1)) finds the role of carboxyl group OH stretching amine NH stretch in the formation of TiO2 NPs. The XRD spectrum confirmed that the synthesized TiO2 NPs were in the form of nanocrystals, as evidenced by the peaks at 2θ values of 27.47°, 31.77°, 36.11°, 41.25°, 54.39°, 56.64° and 69.54° were identified as 110, 100, 101, 111, 211, 220 and 301 reflections, respectively. The crystallite sizes were calculated using Scherrer's formula applied to the major intense peaks and found to be the size of 40.50 nm. The morphological characterization was analyzed by FESEM and the analysis showed the NPs smooth shaped, spherical and uneven. GC-MS analysis showed the main compounds found in A. hydrophila were uric acid (2.95%), glycyl-L-glutamic acid (6.90%), glycyl-L-proline (74.41%) and L-Leucyl-D-leucine (15.74%). The potential glycyl-L-proline could have played an important role as a capping agent. A possible mechanism for the biosynthesis of TiO2 NPs has been proposed. The antibacterial activity of the synthesized TiO2 NPs was assessed by well diffusion method toward A. hydrophila, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes and Enterococcus faecalis and showed effective inhibitory activity against S. aureus (33 mm) and S. pyogenes (31 mm). PMID:23416912

  8. Antibacterial Activity of Various Plants Extracts Against Antibiotic-resistant Aeromonas hydrophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Laham, Shaza Anwar; Al Fadel, Frdoos Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Aeromonas hydrophila cause one of the most important diseases in fishes and lead to economic losses, and may be contaminated human beings. Objectives: The current research aimed to investigate the anti-bacterial activity shown by the extracts prepared from different parts of Olea europea, Myrtus communis, Thymus vulgaris, Rosmarinuis officinalis, and Achillea falcata that grow in Syria against A. hydrophila that causes the most dangerous bacterial diseases in fish. Materials and Methods: The study was performed in four stages: First of all, the presence of A. hydrophila was investigated in 450 Samples of Cyprinus Carpio fish using blood agar, Trypticase soya agar, and Analytical Profile Index (API20E). Secondly, the plants extract was obtained using water, absolute alcohol, then ether using Soxhlet extraction apparatus and rotary vacuum evaporator. Thirdly, the antibacterial activity of some antibiotics on these bacteria was evaluated by disk diffusion method. Finally, the antibacterial effect of the extracts was determined by disk diffusion method. Results: The studied antibiotics showed no antibacterial activity against these bacteria, except amikacin which had an acceptable effectiveness. However, the ethanol extracts of the studied plants revealed different antibacterial effects against A. hydrophila which showed antibiotic resistant. T. vulgaris extract had the strongest effect, whereas O. europea extract had the weakest activity. The water and ether petroleum extracts had no antibacterial activities. Conclusions: Ethanol extracts of the studied plants had different antibacterial effects against antibiotic-resistant A. hydrophila. T. vulgaris had the highest activity, R. officinalis had the second, and M. communis and A. falcate were in the third place, while the O. europea had the weakest antibacterial activity. PMID:25368797

  9. Detection and characterization of virulence genes and integrons in Aeromonas veronii isolated from catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Mohamed; Khan, Saeed A; Khan, Ashraf A; Sung, Kidon; Tran, Quynhtien; Kerdahi, Khalil; Steele, Roger

    2010-05-01

    The presence of virulence genes and integrons was determined in 81 strains of Aeromonas veronii isolated from farm-raised catfish. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocols were used to determine the presence of genes for cytotoxic enterotoxin (act), aerolysin (aerA), two cytotonic enterotoxins (ast, alt), lipase (lip), glycerophospholipid:cholesterol acyltransferase (gcaT), serine protease (ser), DNases (exu), elastase (ahyB) and the structural gene flagellin (fla) in the template DNA. Oligonucleotide primers amplified a 231-bp region of the act gene from the template DNA of 97.0% of the isolates. Primers specific for the amplification of the aerA gene amplified a 431-bp region of the aerA gene from the template DNA of 96.0% of the isolates. None of the isolates contained ast or alt genes. Oligonucleotide primers specific for the amplification of lip, gcaT, ser and fla genes, amplified their respective amplicons from 85.0, 78.0, 82.0 and 80.0% of the isolates. None of the isolates contained exu or the elastase genes. Several of the isolates (48.0%) contained class I integrons that confer resistance to multiple antibiotics; various sizes between 0.6 and 3.1 kb were found. None of the isolates contained Class II integrons. Our results indicate that farm-raised catfish may be a source of pathogenic A. veronii and that the potential health risks posed by virulent strains of A. veronii should not be underestimated. PMID:20227596

  10. Simultaneous detection of Aeromonas hydrophila, and Escherichia coli in Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss by Duplex PCR

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    Fatemeh Fattahi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Rapid and accurate identification of microorganisms have a significant impact on strategies and fish health management programs. Hence, in this study a duplex PCR assay based on the 16s rRNA gene for simultaneous detection of Aeromonas hydrophila RTICC 1032 and Escherichia coli RTICC 2325 from pure cultures, and challenged fish tissues was performed and their results were compared with the results of single PCR assays for each bacterium. For this purpose, an experiment with three treatments including artificially infected with A. hydrophila, E. coli and a mixture of them with a control group was designed. Fish were injected intraperitoneally with 1 ml of sterile physiological saline containing 106CFU/ml of the corresponding bacteria. Samples were collected from liver, kidney and spleen 48 hrs post-injection. A duplex PCR based 16S rRNA genes was developed for the simultaneous detection of A. hydrophila and E. coli. The PCR reaction conditions were optimized to permit detection of organisms from agar plates and fish tissues in less than 8 hrs. Each of the two pairs of oligonucleotide primers exclusively targeted 16S rRNA gene of the specific microorganism. When duplex PCR assay was used to simultaneous detection of the pathogens in asymptomatic fish, spleen and liver were negative for A. hydrophila, whereas kidney was positive for two bacteria. Samples that were duplex PCR negative were also negative by the culture method. On the whole, the duplex PCR has advantages in terms of its accuracy, sensitivity, ease of use, time of length analysis and cost-effectiveness compared to the single PCR and traditional method.

  11. Small Protein B upregulates sensor kinase bvgS expression in Aeromonas veronii

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    Zhu eLiu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Earlier studies reveal that Small Protein B (SmpB, a class of well-conserved tmRNA-binding proteins, is essential for the trans-translation process, which functions as a system for translation surveillance and ribosome rescue. Here, we report a previously unrecognized mechanism by which SmpB alone positively regulates the expression of a sensor kinase, BvgS, in Aeromonas veronii. A reporter plasmid was constructed in which the promoter of bvgS was used to control the expression of the enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP gene. When the reporter plasmid was co-transformed with a SmpB expression construct into E. coli, the relative fluorescence intensity increased about 3-fold. Transformation with a truncated form of smpB gene showed that the C-terminus had little effect, while N-terminus unexpectedly increased eGFP production. Next, a series of SmpB mutants were generated by site-directed mutagenesis. When the mutants SmpB (G11S or SmpB (E32AG was used in the experiment, eGFP expression dropped significantly compared with that of wild type SmpB. Further,purified SmpB was shown to bind the promoter regions of bvgS in the agarose gel retardation assay. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that eGFP transcript levels increased approximately 25-fold in the presence of SmpB. Likewise, bvgS transcripts decreased significantly in smpB knockout A. veronii. Similar to BvgS inhibition, smpB knockout in A. veronii displayed a reduced capability in salt tolerance. Collectively, the data presented here will facilitate a deeper understanding of SmpB-mediated regulatory circuits as a transcriptional factor in A. veronii.

  12. ANTIBIOTICS RESISTANCE AND PUTATIVE VIRULENCE FACTORS OF AEROMONAS HYDROPHILA ISOLATED FROM ESTUARY

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    Olumide Adedokun Odeyemi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aim to investigate antibiotics resistance profile and putative virulence factors of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from estuary. Bacteria used for this study were isolated from water and sediment samples obtained from Sungai Melayu, Johor, Malaysia. Serially diluted 100 µL water and 1g sediment were inoculated on modified Rimler - Shott (mRS agar. Colonies with distinct cultural characteristics were picked for further studies. Isolates were tested for biofilm productions, protease enzyme and antibiotics resistance profile using agar well diffusion method against 10 commercial antibiotics. Congo Red Agar (CRA, Microplate and Standard Tube (ST methods were used for assessment of biofilm formation among the isolates while Skim Milk Agar was used for protease production. Sw.KMJ 3 and Sw.KMJ 9 produced black crystalline colonies on CRA. Six of the isolates were biofilm producers in ST method. Result of Microplate method, helped in grouping the isolates into weak (n = 8, moderate (n = 3 and strong producers (n = 4 at 540 nm wavelength. All the isolates were classified as weak ODc  ODi 0.1, moderate ODi = 0.1  0.12 and strong producers ODi  0.12 respectively at 540 nm wavelength. Antibiotics susceptibility test also revealed that all the isolates were resistant to between 6 and 10 antibiotics. Two isolates each were resistant to 6 (60 %, 7 (70 % and 9 (90 % antibiotics respectively. Eight of the isolates showed resistance to 8 (80 % antibiotics while only isolate Sw.KMJ-7 showed resistance to all the tested antibiotics. Sw.KMJ-3, Sw.KMJ-8 and Sw.KMJ-9 produced protease enzyme on SMA. The isolates were also found to be resistant to both antibiotics and heavy metals.

  13. El singular como diferencia divina

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    Maria Jose Binetti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucho se ha hablado sobre la posición de la diferencia como motor dialéctico de la existencia singular kierkegaardiana. El pecado, el otro o el Otro fisuran la subjetividad humana y la obligan a una identidad que guardará siempre la herida. El sujeto de la escisión es, en este sentido, el existente mismo, y tal debe ser el caso si la perspectiva se concentra en la individualidad. No obstante, y desde el punto de vista especulativo, creemos que los mismos principios utilizados por Kierkegaard para explicar el dinamismo de la existencia singular nos llevan más lejos, a saber, nos conducen al absoluto mismo como sujeto último de toda alteridad, respecto del cual el singular hace la diferencia.

  14. Concentração inibitória mínima de oxitetraciclina para isolados de Aeromonas Hydrophila obtidos de diferentes fontes Minimal inhibitory concentration to oxitetracycline in Aeromonas Hydrophila strains isolated from different sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delton José Pereira Júnior

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho determinar a concentração inibitória mínima (MIC de oxitetraciclina para isolados de Aeromonas hydrophila obtidos de pescado, água de cultivo de peixes e casos de septicemia hemorrágica em peixes. Foi determinado MIC de 100 isolados de A. hydrophila, oriundos de 12 pisciculturas localizadas nos Estados de Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro e Rio Grande do Sul, utilizando a técnica de macrodiluição em caldo. Os resultados demonstraram que 14 isolados apresentaram MIC>100 µg/mL (resistentes e 86 apresentaram MICThe aim of this paper was to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC to oxitetracycline in Aeromonas hydrophila strains isolated from marketed fish, pond water of piscicultures and fish suffering hemorrhagic septicemia. These strains were obtained from 12 different piscicultures from Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro e Rio Grande do Sul states. It was determined the MIC to 100 strains, using the broth macrodilution method, and the results showed that 86 strains shown value of MIC100µg/mL (classified as resistant. No differences were observed among strains isolated from marketed fish, pond water and disease outbreaks. I was concluded that the variation detected may represent a risk of selection of resistant bacterial strains in aquatic environments under use of oxitetracycline.

  15. Pelacakan Gen Aerolysin dari Aeromonas hydrophila pada Ikan Mas yang Diberi Pakan Ekstrak Bawang Putih (DETECTION OF AEROLYSIN GEN FROM AEROMONAS HYDROPHILA IN COMMON CARP FED WITH GARLIC EXTRACT

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    Iesje Lukistyowati

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas hydrophila is a gram negative and opportunistic bacteria, which could cause fish mortalityin a short time from 80%-100%. One virulent factor of A. hydrophila on common carp (Cyprinus carpio Lthat could cause fish mortality is aerolysin. This research used a synthetic primers of oligonukleotide todetect aerolysin, a specific genomes of A. hydrophila on common carp (Cyprinus carpio L. The commoncarps have been feed a woof that contain garlic extract during 30 days before they challenged with A.hydrophila. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR was used to detect an aerolysin gen from A. hydrophila. Theelectrophoresis result showed aerolysin gene of Aeromonas hydrophila from Veterinary Faculty of GadjahMada University (FKH-UGM isolate was amplified with 462 bp of molecule weight. While the aerolysingen was detected in the fish kidney with 900 bp of molecule weight. Further, DNA sequence analysis of thePCR product of A. hydrophila from FKH – UGM isolate showed homolog with isolate A. hydrophila subsphydrophila ATCC 7966 complete genome with score 55.4 (71%.

  16. Identidade e propriedades de isolados de potyvírus provenientes de Capsicum spp. Identity and properties of potyvirus isolates obtained from Capsicum spp.

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    Adriana A.C. Truta

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Vinte isolados virais provenientes de Capsicum spp. foram coletados em Minas Gerais, São Paulo, Espírito Santo e Rio de Janeiro visando definir a etiologia dos mosaicos. Para a caracterização biológica realizou-se teste de gama de hospedeiros e inoculação em cultivares diferenciadoras de pimentão (Capsicum annuum. Dois isolados provenientes de batata (Solanum tuberosum (PVY N-BR e PVY O-BR foram utilizados como controles. Os resultados indicaram considerável grau de variabilidade biológica entre os isolados, embora todos tenham sido identificados preliminarmente como Potato virus Y (PVY. A reação das cultivares diferenciadoras classificou os isolados como patótipo 1 ou 1.2 de PVY. Anti-soros foram produzidos a partir de partículas virais purificadas de um isolado fraco e um forte. O uso desses anti-soros em ELISA indireto levou a resultados positivos contra os isolados testados. Os anti-soros reagiram também contra PVY N-BR e PVY O-BR, embora este último tenha apresentado reação mais fraca. Para caracterização molecular, seqüenciaram-se os genes da polimerase (NIb e da proteína capsidial (cp, e da região 3' não-traduzida (3'NTR de isolados biologicamente distintos. A análise filogenética confirmou a identidade de seis isolados como Pepper yellow mosaic virus (PepYMV, um potyvírus descrito recentemente infetando pimentão no Brasil. Esse resultado sugere que o PepYMV pode ser a espécie de potyvírus predominante em Capsicum spp. no Brasil. O fato de isolados de PepYMV apresentarem gama de hospedeiros semelhante à do PVY, e de os dois vírus apresentarem relacionamento sorológico, ressalta a utilidade da análise molecular para a classificação de potyvírus provenientes de Capsicum spp.Twenty isolates were obtained from Capsicum spp. plants in the states of Minas Gerais, São Paulo, Espírito Santo and Rio de Janeiro. The isolates were biologically characterized using a host range assay and inoculation into a series

  17. Detection of Fusarium spp. and Trichoderma spp. and antagonism of Trichoderma sp. in soybean under no-tillage

    OpenAIRE

    Paola Mendes Milanesi; Elena Blume; Marlove Fátima Brião Muniz; Lia Rejane Silveira Reiniger; Zaida Inês Antoniolli; Emanuele Junges; Manoeli Lupatini

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed i) to quantify the occurrence of Fusarium spp. and Trichoderma spp. in rhizospheric soil, with and without symptoms of Sudden Death Syndrome (SDS) in eight soybean genotypes; ii) morphologically identify isolates of Fusarium spp. from roots with SDS; iii) evaluate the antagonism between Trichoderma spp. and Fusarium spp. isolates from rhizospheric soil and roots from with and without SDS, respectively; and iv) characterize through the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of rDNA the isolate...

  18. Brassica carinata for control of Phytophthora spp. in strawberry field crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Barrau

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil biofumigation (SB and soil solarization (SS are nonchemical methods for the control of soilborne pathogens. SS uses solar radiation to heat soil and SB is based on the action of volatile compounds produced by the decomposition of Cruciferae, essentially glucosinolates (Gs and isothiocyanates (ITCs. Brassica spp. are used as biofumigant because of their different concentrations and types of ITCs that are different in their toxicity against pathogenic fungi. Suppressiveness of the Brassica varies between species. Biofumigant effect depends on plant age and environmental growth conditions. Brassica carinata, the most effective species on the in vitro control of Phytophthora spp., was selected as biofumigant to evaluate and compare the ability of SB and SS to control Phytophthora spp. in soil and to enhance field production of strawberry. SB with B. carinata + SS reduce P. cactorum in soil and increases strawberry yield and fruit weigh.A biofumigação do solo (SB e a solarização do solo (SS são métodos não químicos para a luta contra os micróbios patogénicos do solo. A SS usa a radiação solar para aquecer o solo e o SB é baseado na acção dos compostos temporários produzidos pela decomposição das Crucíferas, essencialmente glucosinolatos (Gs e isothiocianatos (ITCs. Brassica spp. é usada como biofumigante por causa da concentração de compostos biofumigantes e tipos diferentes de ITCs que diferem na toxicidade face aos fungos patogénicos. A capacidade supressiva de Brassica varia com a espécie. O efeito de Biofumigação depende da idade de planta e das condições ambientais de crescimento. Brassica carinata é a espécie mais eficaz in vitro, na luta contra Phytophthora spp., foi seleccionada como biofumigante para avaliar e comparar a capacidade de SB e SS na luta contra este fungo no solo, e para avaliar a produção de morango. A SB com B. carinata + SS reduz P. cactorum no solo e aumenta o rendimento da produção de

  19. Detección de Anaplasma spp. en Garrapatas de Myrmecophaga tridactyla de Vida Libre en la Sabana Inundable de Casanare‚ Colombia -resumen-

    OpenAIRE

    César Rojano-Bolaño; V Contreras-Cogollo; L Miranda-Cortés; R Ávila-Avilán; Jorge Miranda-Regino; Laura Hernández-Fernández; Salim Mattar-Velilla; Santiago Monsalve-Buriticá

    2014-01-01

    La anaplasmosis es una enfermedad infecciosa causada por rickettsias del género Anaplasma spp. Su relevancia esta principalmente determinada por el grado de afectación endémica en el ganado doméstico. Una amplia variedad de mamíferos silvestres también son susceptibles a la infección. Las bacterias pueden ser intracitoplasmáticas‚ dañando las estructuras de las células pudiendo causar anemia e ictericia. Algunas especies de Anaplasma spp han sido reportadas como microorganismos potencialmente...

  20. ACTIVIDAD DE ENZIMAS ANTIOXIDANTES Y CONTENIDO DE COMPUESTOS FENÓLICOS Y FLAVONOIDES EN LA INTERACCIÓN CEBOLLA – Trichoderma spp. – Sclerotium rolfsii

    OpenAIRE

    Peñaloza Jimenez, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    La producción de cebolla es afectada por la enfermedad conocida como “tizón sureño" causada por el hongo Sclerotium rolfsii. Una alternativa de control biológico para reducir la severidad de la enfermedad es la aplicación del hongo Trichoderma spp. que es un antagonista de S. rolfsii y que induce la respuesta de defensa de las plantas. Por lo cual, en éste trabajo para comprender los mecanismos de defensa que se inducen en las plantas de cebolla por la aplicación de Trichoderma spp. se evaluó...

  1. Compostos bioativos presentes em amora-preta (Rubus spp. Bioactive compounds of blackberry fruits (Rubus spp. grown in Brazil

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    Daniela Souza Ferreira

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A amora-preta (Rubus spp., pequena fruta de clima temperado, possui coloração atraente, variando do vermelho púrpura ao azul, devido ao elevado teor de antocianinas. As antocianinas, juntamente com os carotenoides, compõem os pigmentos naturais, majoritários encontrados em diversas frutas. Diversos estudos têm relatado a importância destes pigmentos naturais como protetores e/ou inibidores de doenças degenerativas, porém são escassos os estudos sobre compostos bioativos presentes em amora-preta cultivada no Brasil. Os objetivos do presente estudo foram identificar as antocianinas e os carotenoides presentes em amora-preta, determinar os conteúdos totais de compostos fenólicos, carotenoides, flavonoides, antocianinas totais, monoméricas, poliméricas e copigmentadas, e a capacidade antioxidante frente aos radicais livres ABTS e DPPH. O teor total de carotenoides foi baixo (86,5 ± 0,2 µg/100 g, com all-trans-β-caroteno (39,6 % e all-trans-luteína (28,2 % como os majoritários. As amoras-pretas apresentaram elevado potencial antioxidante principalmente pelo teor representativo de antocianinas monoméricas (104,1 ± 1,8 mg/100 g de fruto, presença de antocianinas poliméricas (22,9 ± 0,4 %, baixa porcentagem de antocianinas copigmentadas (1,6 ± 0,1 % e altos teores de compostos fenólicos (241,7 ± 0,8 mg equivalente de ácido gálico/100 g e de flavonoides totais (173,7 ± 0,7 mg equivalente de catequina/100 g. Cianidina 3-glucosídeo foi a antocianina majoritária (92,9 %. Diante destes resultados, a amora-preta pode ser considerada uma fonte natural rica em antioxidantes e pigmentos.The blackberry (Rubus spp., a small fruit grown in temperate climate, shows an attractive color ranging from purple red to blue, due to the high content of anthocyanins. The anthocyanins, along with carotenoids, are the major natural pigments found in several fruits. Many studies have reported the importance of these natural pigments as protectors

  2. Herbicidal Potential of Drechslera spp. Culture Filtrates Against Parthenium hysterophorus L. Potencial Herbicida de Filtrados de Cultivo de Drechslera spp. Contra Parthenium hysterophorus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshad Javaid

    2011-12-01

    de laboratorio se estudió el efecto de filtrado de cultivo original (100% y diluido (50% de Drechslera spp. en la germinación y crecimiento de plántulas de parthenium en placas Petri de 90 mm. El filtrado de cultivo original de las cuatro especies Drechslera redujo significativamente germinación, longitud de brote, biomasa fresca de brote, longitud de raíz, y biomasa fresca de raíz de plántulas de parthenium en 43-77%, 77-82%, 69-82%, 90-92% y 6783%, respectivamente, comparado con control. En ensayos en maceta, la aplicación foliar de filtrados de cultivos fúngicos originales se realizó en plántulas de parthenium de 1 y 2 semanas de edad. Filtrados de cultivo de todas las especies, excepto D. holmii, redujeron marcadamente el peso seco de brote de parthenium. Plantas de 2 semanas de edad fueron más susceptibles a aspersión foliar que aquellas de 1 semana. Hubo reducción de 13-55% y 2865% en peso seco de brote de plantas de 1 y 2 semanas de edad, respectivamente, debido a filtrado de cultivo de diversas Drechslera. El presente estudio concluyó que los filtrados de cultivo de Drechslera spp. pueden usarse como herbicidas alternativos para el manejo de parthenium.

  3. Characterization of Trichodesmium spp. by Genetic Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Orcutt, K.M.; Rasmussen, U.; Webb, E.A.; Waterbury, J B; K. Gundersen; Bergman, B

    2002-01-01

    The genetic diversity of Trichodesmium spp. from natural populations (off Bermuda in the Sargasso Sea and off North Australia in the Arafura and Coral Seas) and of culture isolates from two regions (Sargasso Sea and Indian Ocean) was investigated. Three independent techniques were used, including a DNA fingerprinting method based on a highly iterated palindrome (HIP1), denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of a hetR fragment, and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of the 16...

  4. Trypanosoma spp. in Swedish game animals

    OpenAIRE

    NEUMÜLLER, Magnus; Nilsson, Kenneth; Påhlson, Carl

    2012-01-01

    Serum and blood samples from 36 game animals, shot during the hunting seasons 2007-2009, were collected and analyzed for the presence of Trypanosoma spp. by three methods: isolation, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and serology. Only fissiped animals were included, four different ruminants and wild boar. Trypanosomes could be isolated from two of the animals, and eight had detectable parasite DNA. Seven animals had high titers of anti-trypanosoma IgG antibodies. The two isolated strains, one...

  5. Characterization of Brevibacterium spp. from clinical specimens.

    OpenAIRE

    Gruner, E; Pfyffer, G E; von Graevenitz, A

    1993-01-01

    Nonfermenting coryneform bacteria identified as Brevibacterium spp. were isolated from routine clinical specimens. Four strains were derived from peritoneal fluid and has presumably been involved in the pathogenesis of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis peritonitis. Another five isolates most probably represented skin contaminants. Cell wall and lipid analyses confirmed the genus identification. Strains in this taxon are difficult to distinguish from other biochemically inactive and no...

  6. Aeromonas hydrophila as an agent of infection in alligators. Phase I, final report. Progress report, September 1, 1976--September 30, 1977, Part I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorden, R.W.; Esch, G.W.

    1977-01-01

    Experimental alligators were exposed to various concentrations of young, washed cells of Aeromonas hydrophila under controlled conditions. Responses of all alligators were monitored on the basis of: observations of external lesions; immunoglobulin production; blood chemistry and hematology; bacteriology, parasitology, and pathology of internal organs, skeletal muscle and external lesions at necropsy. The findings are summarized.

  7. Molecular identfication and virulence of three Aeromonas hydrophila isolates cultured from infected channel catfish during a disease outbreak in West Alabama (USA) in 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three isolates (AL09-71, AL09-72, and AL09-73) of Aeromonas hydrophila were cultured from infected channel catfish during a disease outbreak in West Alabama in August 2009. Sequence analysis of 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer region (ISR), cpn60, gyrB, and rpoD genes of the three strains revealed tha...

  8. A study on genetic variability of pathogenic Aeromonas hydrophila strains and the varied responses of the strains towards phyto-extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasundaram, A; Kumari, P Rathna; Kolanchinathan, P; Masilamani, V; John, George

    2013-11-01

    The present study evaluated genetic variation in Aeromonas hydrophila strains using PCR-RAPD and their varied susceptibility to phyto-extract. Four strains of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from skin infections of common freshwater fish, Cyprinus carpio were characterized by various biochemical methods, physiological tests and PCR- RAPD. Antimicrobial activity of the leaf extracts of three medicinal plants, Ocimum sanctum, Adathoda vasica and Calendula officinalis were tested against the four strains of A. hydrophila by disc diffusion (Kirby-Bauer) method. Antagonistic effects of leaf extracts against A. hydrophila strains were assessed by co-culture method. RAPD analysis showed that all the microbes isolated from skin infection belong to the same species but there was no 100% genetic similarity among them Dendrogram constructed by UPGMA clearly supported the PCR pattern of genetic variability among the strains. This study revealed that Aeromonas hydophila exhibits genetic variability and varied susceptibility towards phyto-extracts. Results indicated that phyto-extracts offers a promising alternative to the use of antibiotics in controlling Aeromonas hydrophila. PMID:24511738

  9. THE IDENTIFICATION OF THE WATER-BORNE PATHOGEN AEROMONAS USING WHOLE CELL ANALYSIS BY MATRIX ASSISTED LASER DESORPTION/IONIZATION-MASS

    Science.gov (United States)

    MALDI-MS has long been established as a tool by which microorganisms can be characterized and identified. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is investigating the potential of using this technique as a way to rapidly identify Aeromonas species in drinking water. A nu...

  10. DIFFERENTIATION OF AEROMONAS ISOLATES OBTAINED FROM DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM USING MATRIX-ASSISTED LASER DESCRIPTION/IONIZATION-MASS SPECTROMETRY (MALDI-MS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genus Aeromonas is one of several medically significant genera that have gained prominence due to their evolving taxonomy and controversial role in human diseases. In this study, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) was used to analyze the...

  11. THE USE OF MATRIX-ASSISTED LASER DESORPTION/IONIZATION-MASS SPECTROMETRY FOR THE IDENTIFICATION OF AEROMONAS ISOLATES OBTAINED FROM WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) has long been established as a tool by which microorganisms can be characterized and identified. EPA is investigating the potential of using this technology as a way to rapidly identify Aeromonas species fo...

  12. Molecular identification and virulence of three Aeromonas hydrophila isolates cultured from infected channel catfish during a disease outbreak in West Alabama in 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three isolates (AL09-71, AL09-72, and AL09-73) of Aeromonas hydrophila were cultured from infected channel catfish during a disease outbreak in West Alabama in August 2009. Sequence analysis of 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer region (ISR), cpn60, gyrB, and rpoD genes of the three strains revealed tha...

  13. Further Characterization of a Type III Secretion System (T3SS) and of a New Effector Protein from a Clinical Isolate of Aeromonas Hydrophila - Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    A type III secretion system (T3SS)-associated cytotoxin, AexT, with ADP-ribosyltransferase activity and homology to Pseudomonas aeruginosa bifuncational toxins ExoT/S, was recently identified from a fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida. In this study, we reported the molecular cha...

  14. Comparative transcriptional analysis reveals distinct expression patterns of channel catfish genes after the first infection and re-infection with Aeromonas hydrophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine whether transcriptional levels of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) genes are differentially regulated between a first infection with Aeromonas hydrophila and a re-infection, suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) was performed in this study using anterior kidney cDNA after the...

  15. Identification, virulence, and mass spectrometry of toxic ECP fractions of West Alabama isolates of Aeromonas hydrophila obtained from a 2010 disease outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    In West Alabama, disease outbreaks in 2009 caused by Aeromonas hydrophila have led to an estimated loss of more than $3 million. In 2010, disease outbreak occurred again in West Alabama, causing losses of hundreds of thousands of pounds of market size channel catfish. During the 2010 disease outbrea...

  16. Identification, virulence, and mass spectrometry of toxic ECP fractons of West Alabama isolates of Aeromonas hydrophila obtained from a 2010 disease outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    In West Alabama, disease outbreaks in 2009 caused by Aeromonas hydrophila have led to an estimated loss of more than $3 million. In 2010, disease outbreak occurred again in West Alabama, causing losses of hundreds of thousands of pounds of market size channel catfish. During the 2010 disease outbrea...

  17. Assessment of Aquaflor (c), copper sulfate and potassium permanganate for control of Aeromonas hydrophila and Flavobacterium columnare infection in sunshine bass, Morone chrysops female x Morone saxatilis male

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two experiments were conducted to assess different therapeutants against a mixed infection of Aeromonas hydrophila and Flavobacterium columnare in sunshine bass (SB) (Morone chrysops female x Morone saxatilis male). Experiment 1 assessed the efficacy of copper sulfate (CuSO4), florfenicol-medicated...

  18. Antimicrobial activity of some of the south-Indian spices against serotypes of Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes and Aeromonas hydrophila

    OpenAIRE

    Indu M.N.; Hatha A.A.M.; Abirosh C.; Harsha U.; Vivekanandan G.

    2006-01-01

    Antibacterial activity of extracts of Allium sativum (garlic), Myristica fragrans (nutmeg), Zingiber officinale (ginger), Allium cepa (onion) and Piper nigrum (pepper) has been evaluated against 20 different serogroups of Escherichia coli, 8 serotypes of Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes and Aeromonas hydrophila. Garlic extract showed excellent antibacterial activity against all the test organisms, except L. monocytogenes. Nutmeg showed good anti-listerial activity, although activity against...

  19. Hemolysin, Protease, and EPS Producing Pathogenic Aeromonas hydrophila Strain An4 Shows Antibacterial Activity against Marine Bacterial Fish Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju Pandey

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A pathogenic Aeromonas hydrophila strain An4 was isolated from marine catfish and characterized with reference to its proteolytic and hemolytic activity along with SDS-PAGE profile (sodium dodecyl sulphate-Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of ECPs (extracellular proteins showing hemolysin (approximately 50 kDa. Agar well diffusion assay using crude cell extract of the bacterial isolate clearly demonstrated antibacterial activity against indicator pathogenic bacteria, Staphylococcus arlettae strain An1, Acinetobacter sp. strain An2, Vibrio parahaemolyticus strain An3, and Alteromonas aurentia SE3 showing inhibitory zone >10 mm well comparable to common antibiotics. Further GC-MS analysis of crude cell extract revealed several metabolites, namely, phenolics, pyrrolo-pyrazines, pyrrolo-pyridine, and butylated hydroxytoluene (well-known antimicrobials. Characterization of EPS using FTIR indicated presence of several protein-related amine and amide groups along with peaks corresponding to carboxylic and phenyl rings which may be attributed to its virulent and antibacterial properties, respectively. Besides hemolysin, EPS, and protease, Aeromonas hydrophila strain An4 also produced several antibacterial metabolites.

  20. White Mulberry (Morus alba Foliage Methanolic Extract Can Alleviate Aeromonas hydrophila Infection in African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atefeh Sheikhlar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were simultaneously conducted with Morus alba (white mulberry foliage extract (MFE as a growth promoter and treatment of Aeromonas hydrophila infection in separate 60 and 30 days trail (Experiments 1 and 2, resp. in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus. In Experiment 1, four diets, control and control supplemented with 2, 5, or 7 g MFE/kg dry matter (DM of diet, were used. In Experiment 2, fish were intraperitoneally infected with Aeromonas hydrophila and fed the same diets as experiment 1 plus additional two diets with or without antibiotic. Results of experiment 1 showed that growth was unaffected by dietary levels of MFE. Treatments with the inclusion of MFE at the levels of 5 and 7 g/Kg DM had no mortality. Red blood cells (RBC, albumin, and total protein were all higher for the treatments fed MFE (5 and 7 g/Kg DM. Results of experiment 2 showed RBC, hemoglobin, hematocrit, globulin, albumin, and total protein improved with the increase in MFE in the infected fish. The dietary MFE at the level of 7 g/kg DM reduced mortality rate. In conclusion, MFE at the level of 7 g/kg DM could be a valuable dietary supplement to cure the infected fish.