WorldWideScience

Sample records for aerogel keystones extraction

  1. Aerogel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    dried in an autoclave at supercritical conditions of the respective alcohol. As a result, a highly porous, low density, large surface area silica aerogel is produced. What is so special about the aerogel? The microstructure of the aerogel resembles a bunch of pearl necklaces heaped on a table. --------~~------. 66. RESONANCE I ...

  2. Aerogel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It certainly looks like a whiff of smoke frozen into immobility. If you happen to hold a tile of silica aerogel, commonly called silica air-glass, you would feel practically no weight in your hands. But your mind may well be loaded with a number of questions about its origin, its structure and its properties. Aerogel is a highly porous ...

  3. FTIR Analysis of Aerogel Keystones from the Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector: Assessment of Terrestrial Organic Contamination and X-Ray Microprobe Beam Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolensky, M. E.; Bechtel, H. A.; Allen, C.; Bajt, S.; Borg, J.; Brenker, F.; Bridges, J.; Brownlee, D. E.; Burchell, M.; Burghammer, M.; hide

    2011-01-01

    The Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector (SIDC) was intended to capture and return contemporary interstellar dust. The approx.0.1 sq m collector was composed of aerogel tiles (85% of the collecting area) and aluminum foils and was exposed to the interstellar dust stream for a total exposure factor of 20 sq m day. The Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination (ISPE) is a consortium-based project to characterize the collection using nondestructive techniques. Sandford et al. recently assessed numerous potential sources of organic contaminants in the Stardust cometary collector. These contaminants could greatly complicate the analysis and interperetation of any organics associated with interstellar dust, particularly because signals from these particles are expected to be exceedingly small. Here, we present a summary of FTIR analyses of over 20 aerogel keystones, many of which contained candidates for interstellar dust.

  4. PREPARATION OF MESOPOROUS TITANIA-SILICA AEROGELS BY CO2 SUPERCRITICAL EXTRACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvester Tursiloadi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Stable anatase is attractive because of its notable functions for photocatalysis and photon-electron transfer.  TiO2-nanoparticles dispersed SiO2 wet gels were prepared by hydrolysis of Ti(OC4H9n4 and Si(OC2H54 in a 2-propanol solution with acid catalyst.  The solvent in the wet gels was supercritically extracted using CO2 at 60 oC and 22 Mpa in one-step.  Thermal evolution of the microstructure of the extracted gels (aerogels was evaluated by XRD measurements, TEM and N2 adsorption measurements. The as-extracted aerogel with a large specific surface area, more than 365 m2g-1, contained anatase nanoparticles, about 5 nm in diameter.  The anatase phase was stable after calcinations at temperatures up to 1000 oC, and BET specific surface area, total pore volume and average pore diameter did not change significantly after calcinations at temperature up to 800 oC.   Keywords: Stable anatase, sol-gel, CO2 supercritical extraction.

  5. Environmentally Friendly Method: Development and Application to Carbon Aerogel as Sorbent for Solid-Phase Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Sheying; Huang, Guiqi; Su, Meiling; Huang, Tinglin

    2015-10-14

    We developed two simple, fast, and environmentally friendly methods using carbon aerogel (CA) and magnetic CA (mCA) materials as sorbents for micro-solid-phase extraction (μ-SPE) and magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) techniques. The material performances such as adsorption isotherm, adsorption kinetics, and specific surface area were discussed by N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm measurements, ultraviolet and visible (UV-vis) spectrophotometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). The experimental results proved that the heterogeneities of CA and mCA were well modeled with the Freundlich isotherm model, and the sorption process well followed the pseudo-second-order rate equation. Moreover, plant growth regulators (PGRs) such as kinetin (6-KT), 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA), 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), and uniconazole (UN) in a reservoir raw water sample were selected as the evaluation of applicability for the proposed μ-SPE and MSPE techniques using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The experimental conditions of two methods such as the amount of sorbent, extraction time, pH, salt concentration, and desorption conditions were studied. Under the optimized conditions, two extraction methods provided high recoveries (89-103%), low the limits of detection (LODs) (0.01-0.2 μg L(-1)), and satisfactory analytical features in terms of precision (relative standard deviation, RSD, 1.7-5.1%, n=3). This work demonstrates the feasibility and the potential of CA and mCA materials as sorbents for μ-SPE and MSPE techniques. Besides, it also could serve as a basis for future development of other functional CAs in pretreatment technology and make them valuable for analysis of pollutants in environmental applications.

  6. Extraction of amino acids from aerogel for analysis by capillary electrophoresis. Implications for a mission concept to Enceladus' Plume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Maria F; Jones, Steve M; Creamer, Jessica; Willis, Peter A

    2018-02-01

    Ocean worlds like Europa and Enceladus in the outer solar system are prime targets in the search for life beyond Earth. Enceladus is particularly interesting due to the presence of a water plume ejecting from the south polar region. The recent discovery of H 2 in the plume, in addition to the presence of previously observed organic compounds, highlights the possibility of life in this moon. The plume provides materials from the underlying ocean that could be collected simply by flying through it. The presence of the plume means that material from the ocean is available for collection during a flyby, without the need for landing or complex sample handling operations such as scooping or drilling. An attractive approach to preserve the organics in particles collected during flyby encounters would be to utilize silica aerogel, the material used to collect particles at hypervelocity during the Stardust mission. Here we demonstrate amino acids can be extracted from aerogel simply by adding water. This simple liquid extraction method could be implemented during a mission prior to analysis with a liquid-based technique like capillary electrophoresis. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Carbon aerogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthon-Fabry, S.; Achard, P.

    2003-06-01

    The carbon aerogel is a nano-porous material at open porosity, electrical conductor. The aerogels morphology is variable in function of the different synthesis parameters. This characteristic offers to the aerogels a better adaptability to many applications: electrodes (super condensers, fuel cells). The author presents the materials elaboration and their applications. It provides also the research programs: fundamental research, realization of super-condenser electrodes, fuel cells electrodes, gas storage materials and opaque materials for thermal insulation. (A.L.B.)

  8. Graphene aerogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauzauskie, Peter J; Worsley, Marcus A; Baumann, Theodore F; Satcher, Jr., Joe H; Biener, Juergen

    2015-03-31

    Graphene aerogels with high conductivity and surface areas including a method for making a graphene aerogel, including the following steps: (1) preparing a reaction mixture comprising a graphene oxide suspension and at least one catalyst; (2) curing the reaction mixture to produce a wet gel; (3) drying the wet gel to produce a dry gel; and (4) pyrolyzing the dry gel to produce a graphene aerogel. Applications include electrical energy storage including batteries and supercapacitors.

  9. Elastic properties of silica aerogels from a new rapid supercritical extraction process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, J.; Coronado, P.R.; Hair, L.M.; Hrubesh, L.W.

    1997-08-11

    Silica aerogels were produced by a new process from Tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) with ammonia as base catalyst. the process involves pouring the liquid sol in a stainless steel mold and immediately heating it to supercritical conditions. Gelation and aging occurs during heating and reaction rates are high die to high average temperatures. the gel fills the container completely, which enables relatively fast venting of the supercritical fluid by providing a constraint for swelling and failure of the gel monolith. The whole process can be completed in 6 h or less. Longitudinal and shear moduli were measured in the dried aerogels by ultrasonic velocity measurements both as a function of chemical composition of the original sol and of position in the aerogel. It was found that the sound velocity exhibits marked maxima on the surface of the cylindrical specimens and specifically close to the ends, where the fluid left during venting. Specimens with high catalyst concentration and high water:TMOS ratio exhibited higher average moduli.

  10. Aerogels Handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Aegerter, Michel A; Koebel, Matthias M

    2011-01-01

    Aerogels are the lightest solids known. Up to 1000 times lighter than glass and with a density as low as only four times that of air, they show very high thermal, electrical and acoustic insulation values and hold many entries in Guinness World Records. Originally based on silica, R&D efforts have extended this class of materials to non-silicate inorganic oxides, natural and synthetic organic polymers, carbon, metal and ceramic materials, etc. Composite systems involving polymer-crosslinked aerogels and interpenetrating hybrid networks have been developed and exhibit remarkable mechanical strength and flexibility. Even more exotic aerogels based on clays, chalcogenides, phosphides, quantum dots, and biopolymers such as chitosan are opening new applications for the construction, transportation, energy, defense and healthcare industries. Applications in electronics, chemistry, mechanics, engineering, energy production and storage, sensors, medicine, nanotechnology, military and aerospace, oil and gas recove...

  11. Aerogel sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begag, Redouane; Rhine, Wendell E.; Dong, Wenting

    2018-04-03

    The current invention describes methods and compositions of various sorbents based on aerogels of various silanes and their use as sorbent for carbon dioxide. Methods further provide for optimizing the compositions to increase the stability of the sorbents for prolonged use as carbon dioxide capture matrices.

  12. Polyimide Cellulose Nanocrystal Composite Aerogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Baochau N.; Meador, Mary Ann; Rowan, Stuart; Cudjoe, Elvis; Sandberg, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Polyimide (PI) aerogels are highly porous solids having low density, high porosity and low thermal conductivity with good mechanical properties. They are ideal for various applications including use in antenna and insulation such as inflatable decelerators used in entry, decent and landing operations. Recently, attention has been focused on stimuli responsive materials such as cellulose nano crystals (CNCs). CNCs are environmentally friendly, bio-renewable, commonly found in plants and the dermis of sea tunicates, and potentially low cost. This study is to examine the effects of CNC on the polyimide aerogels. The CNC used in this project are extracted from mantle of a sea creature called tunicates. A series of polyimide cellulose nanocrystal composite aerogels has been fabricated having 0-13 wt of CNC. Results will be discussed.

  13. Evacuated aerogel glazings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the main characteristics of monolithic silica aerogel and its application in evacuated superinsulating aerogel glazing including the evacuation and assembling process. Furthermore, the energetic benefit of aerogel glazing is quantified. In evacuated aerogel glazing the space...... between the glass panes is filled with monolithic silica aerogel evacuated to a rough vacuum of approximately 1-10 hPa. The aerogel glazing does not depend on use of low emissive coatings that have the drawback of absorbing a relatively large part of the solar radiation that otherwise could reduce...

  14. Keystone predation and molecules of keystone significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Richard K; Ferrier, Graham A; Kim, Steven J; Ogorzalek Loo, Rachel R; Zimmer, Cheryl Ann; Loo, Joseph A

    2017-06-01

    Keystone species structure ecological communities and are major determinants of biodiversity. A synthesis of research on keystone species is nonetheless missing a critical component - the sensory mechanisms for behavioral interactions that determine population- and community-wide attributes. Here, we establish the chemosensory basis for keystone predation by sea stars (Pisaster ochraceus) on mussels. This consumer-resource interaction is prototypic of top-down driven trophic cascades. Each mussel species (Mytilus californianus and M. galloprovincialis) secretes a glycoprotein orthologue (29.6 and 28.1 kDa, respectively) that acts, singularly, to evoke the sea star predatory response. The orthologues (named "KEYSTONEin") are localized in the epidermis, extrapallial fluid, and organic shell coating (periostracum) of live, intact mussels. Thus, KEYSTONEin contacts chemosensory receptors on tube feet as sea stars crawl over rocky surfaces in search of prey. The complete nucleotide sequences reveal that KEYSTONEin shares 87% (M. californianus) or 98% (M. galloprovincialis) homology with a calcium-binding protein in the shell matrix of a closely related congener, M. edulis. All three molecules cluster tightly within the Complement Component 1 Domain Containing (C1qDC) protein family; each exhibits a large globular domain, low complexity region(s), coiled coil, and at least four of five histidine-aspartic acid tandem motifs. Collective results support the hypothesis that KEYSTONEin evolved ancestrally in immunological, and later, in biomineralization roles. More recently, the substance has become exploited by sea stars as a contact cue for prey recognition. As the first identified compound to evoke keystone predation, KEYSTONEin provides valuable sensory information, promotes biodiversity, and shapes community structure and function. Without this molecule, there would be no predation by sea stars on mussels. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  15. Crystalline boron nitride aerogels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zettl, Alexander K.; Rousseas, Michael; Goldstein, Anna P.; Mickelson, William; Worsley, Marcus A.; Woo, Leta

    2017-12-12

    This disclosure provides methods and materials related to boron nitride aerogels. For example, one aspect relates to a method for making an aerogel comprising boron nitride, comprising: (a) providing boron oxide and an aerogel comprising carbon; (b) heating the boron oxide to melt the boron oxide and heating the aerogel; (c) mixing a nitrogen-containing gas with boron oxide vapor from molten boron oxide; and (d) converting at least a portion of the carbon to boron nitride to obtain the aerogel comprising boron nitride. Another aspect relates to a method for making an aerogel comprising boron nitride, comprising heating boron oxide and an aerogel comprising carbon under flow of a nitrogen-containing gas, wherein boron oxide vapor and the nitrogen-containing gas convert at least a portion of the carbon to boron nitride to obtain the aerogel comprising boron nitride.

  16. Cellulose-silica aerogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demilecamps, Arnaud; Beauger, Christian; Hildenbrand, Claudia; Rigacci, Arnaud; Budtova, Tatiana

    2015-05-20

    Aerogels based on interpenetrated cellulose-silica networks were prepared and characterised. Wet coagulated cellulose was impregnated with silica phase, polyethoxydisiloxane, using two methods: (i) molecular diffusion and (ii) forced flow induced by pressure difference. The latter allowed an enormous decrease in the impregnation times, by almost three orders of magnitude, for a sample with the same geometry. In both cases, nanostructured silica gel was in situ formed inside cellulose matrix. Nitrogen adsorption analysis revealed an almost threefold increase in pores specific surface area, from cellulose aerogel alone to organic-inorganic composite. Morphology, thermal conductivity and mechanical properties under uniaxial compression were investigated. Thermal conductivity of composite aerogels was lower than that of cellulose aerogel due to the formation of superinsulating mesoporous silica inside cellulose pores. Furthermore, composite aerogels were stiffer than each of reference aerogels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Technical applications of aerogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrubesh, L.W.

    1997-01-01

    Aerogel materials posses such a wide variety of exceptional properties that a striking number of applications have developed for them. Many of the commercial applications of aerogels such as catalysts, thermal insulation, windows, and particle detectors are still under development and new application as have been publicized since the ISA4 Conference in 1994: e.g.; supercapacitors, insulation for heat storage in automobiles, electrodes for capacitive deionization, etc. More applications are evolving as the scientific and engineering community becomes familiar with the unusual and exceptional physical properties of aerogels, there are also scientific and technical application, as well. This paper discusses a variety of applications under development at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for which several types of aerogels are formed in custom sizes and shapes. Particular discussions will focus on the uses of aerogels for physics experiments which rely on the exceptional, sometimes unique, properties of aerogels

  18. Flexible Carbon Aerogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Schwan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbon aerogels are highly porous materials with a large inner surface area. Due to their high electrical conductivity they are excellent electrode materials in supercapacitors. Their brittleness, however, imposes certain limitations in terms of applicability. In that context, novel carbon aerogels with varying degree of flexibility have been developed. These highly porous, light aerogels are characterized by a high surface area and possess pore structures in the micrometer range, allowing for a reversible deformation of the aerogel network. A high ratio of pore size to particle size was found to be crucial for high flexibility. For dynamic microstructural analysis, compression tests were performed in-situ within a scanning electron microscope allowing us to directly visualize the microstructural flexibility of an aerogel. The flexible carbon aerogels were found to withstand between 15% and 30% of uniaxial compression in a reversible fashion. These findings might stimulate further research and new application fields directed towards flexible supercapacitors and batteries.

  19. Technical applications of aerogels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrubesh, L.W.

    1997-08-18

    Aerogel materials posses such a wide variety of exceptional properties that a striking number of applications have developed for them. Many of the commercial applications of aerogels such as catalysts, thermal insulation, windows, and particle detectors are still under development and new application as have been publicized since the ISA4 Conference in 1994: e.g.; supercapacitors, insulation for heat storage in automobiles, electrodes for capacitive deionization, etc. More applications are evolving as the scientific and engineering community becomes familiar with the unusual and exceptional physical properties of aerogels, there are also scientific and technical application, as well. This paper discusses a variety of applications under development at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for which several types of aerogels are formed in custom sizes and shapes. Particular discussions will focus on the uses of aerogels for physics experiments which rely on the exceptional, sometimes unique, properties of aerogels.

  20. Aerogel-clad optical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprehn, Gregory A.; Hrubesh, Lawrence W.; Poco, John F.; Sandler, Pamela H.

    1997-01-01

    An optical fiber is surrounded by an aerogel cladding. For a low density aerogel, the index of refraction of the aerogel is close to that of air, which provides a high numerical aperture to the optical fiber. Due to the high numerical aperture, the aerogel clad optical fiber has improved light collection efficiency.

  1. Evaluation of carbon aerogel-based solid-phase extraction sorbent for the analysis of sulfur mustard degradation products in environmental water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jõul, Piia; Vaher, Merike; Kuhtinskaja, Maria

    2018-05-01

    In this study, SPE method using a carbon aerogel(CA)-based sorbent was developed and evaluated for the simultaneous extraction of sulfur mustard (HD) degradation products from environmental water samples. Applied CAs proved to be very promising materials for use as SPE sorbents, due to their high porosity, very low density and a large specific surface area. 10 degradation products of HD, both aliphatic and cyclic (thiodiglycol (TDG), TDG sulfoxide, TDG sulfone, 3,5-dithia-1,7-heptanediol, 3,6-dithia-1,8-octanediol, 1,4-thioxane, 1,3-dithiolane, 1,4-dithiane, 1,2,5-trithiepane, and 1,4,5-oxadithiepane) were extracted on a CA-based SPE cartridge. The concentrations of target analytes in the eluate were determined by HPLC-DAD and CE-DAD. Several parameters affecting the extraction efficiency, including the kind and volume of the eluting solvent, sample loading flow rate, volume and ionic strength as well as the reusability of the cartridge, were investigated and optimized to achieve the best performance for the analytes. A series of quantitative parameters such as linear range, coefficient of determination, LOD, LOQ and precision were examined under the optimized conditions. High sensitivity (LODs 0.17-0.50 μM) and high precision (intraday RSD = 2.0-7.7% and interday RSD = 2.7-9.9%) for all the analytes were achieved. The performance of the CA-based sorbent was compared with that of commonly used SPE sorbents. Applied for the analysis of spiked pore water samples collected from the Bornholm Basin, one of the largest chemical warfare dumping sites in the Baltic Sea, the proposed method allowed high SPE recoveries of all the analytes ranging from 83.5 to 99.7% to be obtained. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. B1 Aerogels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duer, Karsten; Svendsen, Sv Aa Højgaard

    1996-01-01

    The report summarizes the work which has been carried out since the 7th Expert's Meeting in Toronto, June 1995 in the aerogel project of IEA SHCP Task 18......The report summarizes the work which has been carried out since the 7th Expert's Meeting in Toronto, June 1995 in the aerogel project of IEA SHCP Task 18...

  3. Super insulating aerogel glazing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Kristiansen, Finn Harken

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the application results of a previous and current EU-project on super insulating glazing based on monolithic silica aerogel. Prototypes measuring approx. 55´55 cm2 have been made with 15 mm evacuated aerogel between two layers of low-iron glass. Anti-reflective treatment...

  4. Silica aerogel Cerenkov counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasumi, S.; Masaike, A.; Yamamoto, A.; Yoshimura, Y.; Kawai, H.

    1984-03-01

    In order to obtain silica aerogel radiators of good quality, the prescription used by Saclay group has been developed. We have done several experiments using beams from KEK.PS to test the performance of a Cerenkov counter with aerogel modules produced in KEK. It turned out that these modules had excellent quality. The production rate of silica aerogel in KEK is 15 -- 20 litres a week. Silica aerogel modules of 20 x 10 x 3 cm 3 having the refractive index of 1.058 are successfully being used by Kyoto University group in the KEK experiment E92 (Σ). Methodes to produce silica aerogel with higher refractive index than 1.06 has been investigated both by heating an module with the refractive index of 1.06 and by hydrolyzing tetraethyl silicate. (author)

  5. Epoxy Crosslinked Silica Aerogels (X-Aerogels)

    Science.gov (United States)

    fabrizio, Eve; Ilhan, Faysal; Meador, Mary Ann; Johnston, Chris; Leventis, Nicholas

    2004-01-01

    NASA is interested in the development of strong lightweight materials for the dual role of thermal insulator and structural component for space vehicles; freeing more weight for useful payloads. Aerogels are very-low density materials (0.010 to 0.5 g/cc) that, due to high porosity (meso- and microporosity), can be, depending on the chemical nature of the network, ideal thermal insulators (thermal conductivity approx. 15 mW/mK). However, aerogels are extremely fragile. For practical application of aerogels, one must increase strength without compromising the physical properties attributed to low density. This has been achieved by templated growth of an epoxy polymer layer that crosslinks the "pearl necklace" network of nanoparticles: the framework of a typical silica aerogel. The requirement for conformal accumulation of the epoxy crosslinker is reaction both with the surface of silica and with itself. After cross-linking, the strength of a typical aerogel monolith increases by a factor of 200, in the expense of only a 2-fold increase in density. Strength is increased further by coupling residual unreacted epoxides with diamine.

  6. Transparent aerogel Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    In a recent EU FP5 project, monolithic silica aerogel was further developed with respect to the production process at pilot-scale, its properties and the application as transparent insulation material in highly insulating and transparent windows. The aerogel production process has been optimised......-value of 0.7 W/m²K for about 14 mm aerogel thickness, which for a 20 mm thickness corresponds to a U-value of approximately 0.5 W/m²K. No other known glazing exhibits such an excellent combination of solar transmittance and heat loss coefficient. At a Danish location and North facing, the energy balance...

  7. Double keystone bird in a keystone species complex.

    OpenAIRE

    Daily, G C; Ehrlich, P R; Haddad, N M

    1993-01-01

    Species in a Colorado subalpine ecosystem show subtle interdependences. Red-naped sapsuckers play two distinct keystone roles. They excavate nest cavities in fungus-infected aspens that are required as nest sites by two species of swallows, and they drill sap wells into willows that provide abundant nourishment for themselves, hummingbirds, orange-crowned warblers, chipmunks, and an array of other sap robbers. The swallows thus depend on, and the sap robbers benefit from, a keystone species c...

  8. B1 Aerogels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duer, Karsten; Svendsen, Sv Aa Højgaard

    1996-01-01

    , engineering and architectural basis which will support the appropriate use of aerogels in windows, solar collectors and passive solar applications, with the aim of saving or producing thermal energy for use in buildings".This objective is in very good agreement with the general scope of task 18 but where Task...... of aerogel as a material for window applications3. Construction of an aerogel DGU and measurement of key performance parameters. The goal for the aerogel DGU was to reach a Total Solar Energy Transmittance above 0.75 and a U-value below 0.5 W/m²K. These are values that can not be simultaneously reached......The report summarizes the work that has been carried out within the project "B1 AEROGELS" as a part of the IEA SH&CP Task 18 "Advanced Glazing and Associated Materials For Solar And Building Applications".By providing at the same time thermal insulation and transparency the silica aerogel is a very...

  9. Aerogels Insulate Against Extreme Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    In 1992, NASA started to pursue the development of aerogel for cryogenic insulation. Kennedy Space Center awarded Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts to Aspen Systems Inc., of Marlborough, Massachusetts, that resulted in a new manufacturing process and a new flexible, durable, easy-to-use form of aerogel. Aspen Systems formed Aspen Aerogels Inc., in Northborough, Massachusetts, to market the product, and by 2009, the company had become the leading provider of aerogel in the United States, producing nearly 20 million square feet per year. With an array of commercial applications, the NASA-derived aerogel has most recently been applied to protect and insulate people s hands and feet.

  10. Super insulating aerogel glazing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Kristiansen, Finn Harken

    2004-01-01

    form the weakest part of the thermal envelope with respect to heat loss coefficient, but on the other hand also play an important role for passive solar energy utilisation. For window orientations other than south, the net energy balance will be close to or below zero. However, the properties......Monolithic silica aerogel offers the possibility of combining super insulation and high solar energy transmittance, which has been the background for a previous and a current EU project on research and development of monolithic silica aerogel as transparent insulation in windows. Generally, windows...... of aerogel glazing will allow for a positive net energy gain even for north facing vertical windows in a Danish climate during the heating season. This means that high quality daylight can be obtained even with additional energy gain. On behalf of the partners of the two EU projects, results related...

  11. Mechanically Strong, Polymer Cross-linked Aerogels (X-Aerogels)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventis, Nicholas

    2006-01-01

    Aerogels comprise a class of low-density, high porous solid objects consisting of dimensionally quasi-stable self-supported three-dimensional assemblies of nanoparticles. Aerogels are pursued because of properties above and beyond those of the individual nanoparticles, including low thermal conductivity, low dielectric constant and high acoustic impedance. Possible applications include thermal and vibration insulation, dielectrics for fast electronics, and hosting of functional guests for a wide variety of optical, chemical and electronic applications. Aerogels, however, are extremely fragile materials, hence they have found only limited application in some very specialized environments, for example as Cerenkov radiation detectors in certain types of nuclear reactors, aboard spacecraft as collectors of hypervelocity particles (refer to NASA's Stardust program) and as thermal insulators on planetary vehicles on Mars (refer to Sojourner Rover in 1997 and Spirit and Opportunity in 2004). Along these lines, the X-Aerogel is a new NASA-developed strong lightweight material that has resolved the fragility problem of traditional (native) aerogels. X-Aerogels are made by applying a conformal polymer coating on the surfaces of the skeletal nanoparticles of native aerogels (see Scanning Electron Micrographs). Since the relative amounts of the polymeric crosslinker and the backbone are comparable, X-Aerogels can be viewed either as aerogels modified by the templated accumulation of polymer on the skeletal nanoparticles, or as nanoporous polymers made by remplated casting of polymer on a nanostructured framework. The most striking feature of X-Aerogels is that for a nominal 3-fold increase in density (still a ultralighweight material), the mechanical strength can be up to 300 times higher than the strength of the underlying native aerogel. Thus, X-Aerogels combine a multiple of the specific compressive strength of steel, with the the thermal conductivity of styrofoam. X-Aerogels

  12. Aerogels in Aerospace: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadiir Bheekhun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerogels are highly porous structures prepared via a sol-gel process and supercritical drying technology. Among the classes of aerogels, silica aerogel exhibits the most remarkable physical properties, possessing lower density, thermal conductivity, refractive index, and dielectric constant than any solids. Its acoustical property is such that it can absorb the sound waves reducing speed to 100 m/s compared to 332 m/s for air. However, when it comes to commercialization, the result is not as expected. It seems that mass production, particularly in the aerospace industry, has dawdled behind. This paper highlights the evolution of aerogels in general and discusses the functions and significances of silica aerogel in previous astronautical applications. Future outer-space applications have been proposed as per the current research trend. Finally, the implementation of conventional silica aerogel in aeronautics is argued with an alternative known as Maerogel.

  13. Effects of Microgravity on the Formation of Aerogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, A. J.; Ayers, M. R.; Sibille, L.; Cronise, R. J.; Noever, D. A.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes research to investigate fundamental aspects of the effects of microgravity on the formation of the microstructure of metal oxide alcogels and aerogels. We are studying the role of gravity on pore structure and gel uniformity in collaboration with Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) on gelling systems under microgravity conditions. While this project was just initiated in May 1998, related research performed earlier is described along with the plans and rationale for the current microgravity investigation to provide background and describe newly developing techniques that should be useful for the current gellation studies. The role of gravity in materials processing must be investigated through the study of well-mastered systems. Sol-gel processed materials are near-perfect candidates to determine the effect of gravity on the formation and growth of random clusters from hierarchies of aggregated units. The processes of hydrolysis, condensation, aggregation and gellation in the formation of alcogels are affected by gravity and therefore provide a rich system to study under microgravity conditions. Supercritical drying of the otherwise unstable wet alcogel preserves the alcogel structure produced during sol-gel processing as aerogel. Supercritically dried aerogel provides for the study of material microstructures without interference from the effects of surface tension, evaporation, and solvent flow. Aerogels are microstructured, low density open-pore solids. They have many unusual properties including: transparency, excellent thermal resistance, high surface area, very low refractive index, a dielectric constant approaching that of air, and extremely low sound velocity. Aerogels are synthesized using sol-gel processing followed by supercritical solvent extraction that leaves the original gel structure virtually intact. These studies will elucidate the effects of microgravity on the homogeneity of the microstructure and porosity of aerogel. The

  14. Keystone Functions of Hydrilla verticillata

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/018/02/0156-0162. Keywords. Hydrilla verticillata; keystone species; invasive weeds; carbon sequestration; bioremediation; AVM disease. Author Affiliations. Stephen Sumithran1 P J Sanjeeva Raj. Department of Biological Sciences, Eastern Kentucky University Richmond, KY. 40475 ...

  15. Transparent monolithic metal ion containing nanophase aerogels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Risen, W. M., Jr.; Hu, X.; Ji, S.; Littrell, K.

    1999-12-01

    The formation of monolithic and transparent transition metal containing aerogels has been achieved through cooperative interactions of high molecular weight functionalized carbohydrates and silica precursors, which strongly influence the kinetics of gelation. After initial gelation, subsequent modification of the ligating character of the system, coordination of the group VIII metal ions, and supercritical extraction afford the aerogels. The structures at the nanophase level have been probed by photon and electron transmission and neutron scattering techniques to help elucidate the basis for structural integrity together with the small entity sizes that permit transparency in the visible range. They also help with understanding the chemical reactivities of the metal-containing sites in these very high surface area materials. These results are discussed in connection with new reaction studies.

  16. Aerogels: II. Applications in catalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlović Aleksandar M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Sol-gel synthesis, and the resulting materials (xerogels and aerogels are finding increasing application in the synthesis of catalysts, due to their unique characteristics. The most important features of the sol-gel process are: the ability to achieve homogeneity at the molecular level, the introduction of several species in only one step and the ability to stabilize metastable phases. The supercritical drying process produces aerogels with structural features quite different to conventional materials. Some of these characteristics of aerogels can make them very effective catalysts.

  17. Keystone Symposia on Epigenomics and Chromatin Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnskjær, Kim

    2012-01-01

    Keystone Symposia kicked off the start of 2012 with two joint meetings on Epigenomics and Chromatin Dynamics and a star-studded list of speakers. Held in Keystone, CO, January 17-22, and organized by Steven Jacobsen and Steven Henikoff and by Bradley Cairns and Geneviève Almouzni, respectively...

  18. Super-hydrophobic fluorine containing aerogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronado, Paul R [Livermore, CA; Poco, John F [Livermore, CA; Hrubesh, Lawrence W [Pleasanton, CA

    2007-05-01

    An aerogel material with surfaces containing fluorine atoms which exhibits exceptional hydrophobicity, or the ability to repel liquid water. Hydrophobic aerogels are efficient absorbers of solvents from water. Solvents miscible with water are separated from it because the solvents are more volatile than water and they enter the porous aerogel as a vapor across the liquid water/solid interface. Solvents that are immisicble with water are separated from it by selectively wetting the aerogel. The hydrophobic property is achieved by formulating the aerogel using fluorine containing molecules either directly by addition in the sol-gel process, or by treating a standard dried aerogel using the vapor of fluorine containing molecules.

  19. Silica Aerogel: Synthesis and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti L. Gurav

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Silica aerogels have drawn a lot of interest both in science and technology because of their low bulk density (up to 95% of their volume is air, hydrophobicity, low thermal conductivity, high surface area, and optical transparency. Aerogels are synthesized from molecular precursors by sol-gel processing. Special drying techniques must be applied to replace the pore liquid with air while maintaining the solid network. Supercritical drying is most common; however, recently developed methods allow removal of the liquid at atmospheric pressure after chemical modification of the inner surface of the gels, leaving only a porous silica network filled with air. Therefore, by considering the surprising properties of aerogels, the present review addresses synthesis of silica aerogels by the sol-gel method, as well as drying techniques and applications in current industrial development and scientific research.

  20. Keystone species and food webs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordán, Ferenc

    2009-06-27

    Different species are of different importance in maintaining ecosystem functions in natural communities. Quantitative approaches are needed to identify unusually important or influential, 'keystone' species particularly for conservation purposes. Since the importance of some species may largely be the consequence of their rich interaction structure, one possible quantitative approach to identify the most influential species is to study their position in the network of interspecific interactions. In this paper, I discuss the role of network analysis (and centrality indices in particular) in this process and present a new and simple approach to characterizing the interaction structures of each species in a complex network. Understanding the linkage between structure and dynamics is a condition to test the results of topological studies, I briefly overview our current knowledge on this issue. The study of key nodes in networks has become an increasingly general interest in several disciplines: I will discuss some parallels. Finally, I will argue that conservation biology needs to devote more attention to identify and conserve keystone species and relatively less attention to rarity.

  1. Method for producing metal oxide aerogels having densities less than 0. 02 g/cc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillotson, T.M.; Poco, J.F.; Hrubesh, L.W.; Thomas, I.M.

    1994-01-04

    A two-step method is described for making transparent aerogels which have a density of less than 0.003 g/cm[sup 3] to those with a density of more than 0.8 g/cm[sup 3], by a sol/gel process and supercritical extraction. Condensed metal oxide intermediate made with purified reagents can be diluted to produce stable aerogels with a density of less than 0.02 g/cm[sup 3]. High temperature, direct supercritical extraction of the liquid phase of the gel produces hydrophobic aerogels which are stable at atmospheric moisture conditions. Monolithic, homogeneous silica aerogels with a density of less than 0.02 to higher than 0.8 g/cm[sup 3], with high thermal insulation capacity, improved mechanical strength and good optical transparency, are described. 7 figures.

  2. Keystone species: toward an operational concept for marine biodiversity conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Valls, Audrey; Coll, Marta; Christensen, Villy

    2015-01-01

    Various definitions and indices have been proposed in the literature to identify keystone species. In this study, we intended to make the concept of keystone species operational for marine biodiversity conservation. We used an exclusive definition of keystone species, based on the original concept of keystone predator, and derived a new functional index of keystoneness (KS) from an ecosystem-modeling approach. First, several KS indices were formulated, by combining measures of the mixed-troph...

  3. Linking Keystone Species and Functional Groups: A New Operational Definition of the Keystone Species Concept

    OpenAIRE

    Robert D. Davic

    2003-01-01

    The concept of the "keystone species" is redefined to allow for the a priori prediction of these species within ecosystems. A keystone species is held to be a strongly interacting species whose top-down effect on species diversity and competition is large relative to its biomass dominance within a functional group. This operational definition links the community importance of keystone species to a specific ecosystem process, e.g., the regulation of species diversity, within functional groups ...

  4. Evacuation and assembly of aerogel glazings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev

    1999-01-01

    The application of monolithic silica aerogel as transparent insulation material for windows has been investigated for some years. It has been realised that a major problem of an industrial production of aerogel glazings will be the time for evacuation of the aerogel material. However, in a previous...

  5. Linking Keystone Species and Functional Groups: A New Operational Definition of the Keystone Species Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D. Davic

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The concept of the "keystone species" is redefined to allow for the a priori prediction of these species within ecosystems. A keystone species is held to be a strongly interacting species whose top-down effect on species diversity and competition is large relative to its biomass dominance within a functional group. This operational definition links the community importance of keystone species to a specific ecosystem process, e.g., the regulation of species diversity, within functional groups at lower trophic levels that are structured by competition for a limited resource. The a priori prediction of keystone species has applied value for the conservation of natural areas.

  6. The keystone species concept: a critical appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Whittaker

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The keystone concept has been widely applied in the ecological literature since the idea was introduced in 1969. While it has been useful in framing biodiversity research and garnering support in conservation policy circles, the terminology surrounding the concept has been expanded to the extent that there is considerable confusion over what exactly a keystone species is. Several authors have argued that the term is too broadly applied, while others have pointed out the technical and theoretical limitations of the concept. Here, we chart the history of the keystone concept’s evolution and summarise the plethora of different terms and definitions currently in use. In reviewing these terms, we also analyse the value of the keystone concept and highlight some promising areas of recent work.

  7. The prairie dog as a keystone species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotliar, Natasha B.; Miller, Brian J.; Reading, Richard P.; Clark, Timothy W.; Hoogland, John L.

    2006-01-01

    The prairie dog has a pronounced impact on its grassland ecosystem (King 1955; Uresk and Bjugstad 1983; Miller et al. 1994; Society for Conservation Biology 1994; Wuerthner 1997; Johnsgard 2005). They maintain short vegetation by their grazing and by selective removal of tall plants and shrubs; provide shelter, foraging grounds, and nesting habitat for a diverse array of animals; serve as prey for many predators; and alter soil chemistry.Do these impacts mean that the prairie dog is a keystone species? To investigate, we first scrutinize the definition for a keystone species. We then document both vertebrates and invertebrates that associate with prairie dogs and their colony-sites. We examine ecosystem processes at colony-sites, and then assess whether the prairie dog is a legitimate keystone species. Finally, we explore the implications of keystone status for the conservation of prairie dogs.

  8. Keystone feasibility study. Final report. Vol. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-12-01

    Volume four of the Keystone coal-to-methanol project includes the following: (1) project management; (2) economic and financial analyses; (3) market analysis; (4) process licensing and agreements; and (5) appendices. 24 figures, 27 tables.

  9. Monolithic Silica aerogel in superinsulating glazings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duer, Karsten; Svendsen, Sv Aa Højgaard

    1988-01-01

    technique were manufactured and characterized for their optical and thermal properties. As expected the same scattering of light was found in the aerogel glazings as in the aerogel samples, but excellent thermal performance was found, indicating a glazing type that from a thermal point of view is without......Silica aerogel is an open-pored porous transparent material with optical and thermal properties that makes the material very interesting as an insulation material in windows. A number of different aerogels have been investigated for their optical and thermal performance. High thermal resistance...... of aerogel was found for all the investigated samples and the samples showed very high solar as well as light transmittance. However all the investigated aerogel samples showed a tendency to scatter the transmitted light resulting in a reduced optical quality when the aerogels are integrated in glazings...

  10. Desalination with Carbon Aerogel Electrodes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Farmer, Joseph

    1996-01-01

    ... of 1.3x10 to the 7th power ft2 per lb have been achieved with thermal activation. After polarization, anions and cations are removed from the electrolyte by the imposed electric field and electrosorbed onto the carbon aerogel...

  11. Energy and Obesity--The 2008 Keystone Youth Policy Summits

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCSSSMST Journal, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Keystone Science School and Keystone Center for Science and Public Policy programs blend learning in the natural world with developing mediation and conflict resolution skills. Since 2004, these two divisions of The Keystone Center in Colorado have partnered with the National Consortium for Specialized Secondary Schools of Mathematics, Science and…

  12. SINTESIS SILIKA AEROGEL DENGAN BAHAN DASAR ABU BAGASSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazriati Nazriati

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available SYNTHESIS OF SILICA AEROGEL FROM BAGASSE ASH. Synthesis of silica aerogel from bagasse ash was done by alkaline extraction followed by sol-gel. Bagasse ash was extracted with NaOH at its boiling temperature for one hour with continue stirring, to produce sodium silicate. Subsequently, sodium silicate was pass through ionic exchanger resin, to produces silicic acid (SA. Silicic acid solution was then added with TMCS and HMDS as surface modifier agent. In order to form gel pH must be adjusted to final pH of 8-9 by addition of NH4OH solution. The resulting gel then was aged and dried at ambient pressure and at a certain time and temperature. Characterization of products was done by measuring its pore volume, surface area, and hydrophobisity (contact angle. TMCS serves as water expeller from the pores and subsequently surface was modified by HMDS and TMCS. HMDS content will linearly increase surface area, pore volume, and the contact angle of the resulting silica aerogel. Characteristics of silica aerogel was generated by varying the composition of the SA:TMCS:HMDS resulting has a surface area of 50-488 m2/g, pore volume from 0.2 to 0.9 m3 /g, the contact angle of 48-119 and pore diameter ranging from 5.7-22.56 nm. Based on the resulting pore diameter, the synthesized of silica aerogel categorized as mesoporous.      Abstrak   Sintesis silika aerogel dari bahan dasar abu bagasse dilakukan dengan ekstraksi basa dan diikuti dengan sol-gel. Abu bagasse diekstrak dengan NaOH pada suhu didihnya sambil diaduk selama satu jam, menghasilkan sodium silikat. Selanjutnya, sodium silikat dilewatkan resin penukar ion, menghasilkan asam silicic (SA. Larutan asam silicic kemudian ditambahkan trimethy­l­chlorosilane (TMCS dan hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS sebagai agen pemodifikasi permukaan. Untuk terjadinya gel pH diatur hingga mencapai 8-9 dengan penambahan larutan NH4OH. Gel yang dihasilkan kemudian di-aging dan dikeringkan pada tekanan ambien pada suhu dan

  13. Basic science of new aerogels. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    Feasibility of making monolithic composite aerogels containing silica and natural clay minerals, synthetic clay minerals or zeolites has been demonstrated, using two different processes; up to 30 wt% of the mineral phase has been successfully added. Addition of natural and synthetic clay minerals or zeolites to silica aerosols was shown to retard densification. Composite silica aerogels showed significant surface area still present after sintering at 800 or 1000 C. For most samples, 1 wt% of the second phase is equally effective in retarding densification as 10 wt%. Composite aerogels, in general, had lower hardness values than pure silica. Hardness values were inversely proportional to aerogel pore radius.

  14. The monolithic carbon aerogels and aerogel composites for electronics and thermal protection applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Sheng; Guo, Hui; Zhou, Yugui; Liu, Yuanyuan; Jin, Zhaoguo; Liu, Bin; Zhao, Yingmin

    2017-09-01

    Monolithic carbon aerogels have been prepared by condensation polymerization and high temperature pyrolysis. The morphology of carbon aerogels are characterized by SEM. The pore structure is characterized by N2 adsorption-desorption technique. Monolithic carbon aerogels are mesoporous nanomaterials. Carbon fiber reinforced carbon aerogel composites are prepared by in-situ sol-gel process. Fiber reinforced carbon aerogel composites are of high mechanical strength. The thermal response of the fiber reinforced aerogel composite samples are tested in an arc plasma wind tunnel. Carbon aerogel composites show good thermal insulation capability and high temperature resistance in inert atmosphere even at ultrahigh temperature up to 1800 °C. The results show that they are suitable for applications in electrodes for supercapacitors/ Lithium-ion batteries and aerospace thermal protection area.

  15. Chemical Analyses of Silicon Aerogel Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van der Werf, I.; Palmisano, F.; De Leo, Raffaele; Marrone, Stefano

    2008-04-01

    After five years of operating, two Aerogel counters: A1 and A2, taking data in Hall A at Jefferson Lab, suffered a loss of performance. In this note possible causes of degradation have been studied. In particular, various chemical and physical analyses have been carried out on several Aerogel tiles and on adhesive tape in order to reveal the presence of contaminants.

  16. Electrospinning of polymer-aerogel composite fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lasse; Fojan, Peter

    En poster om produktion af polymer-aerogel kompositfibre ved hjælp af elektrospinning. Fiberne er produceret fra en opløsning af aerogel og polyethylene oxide i vand, som er elektrospundet gennem en enkeltnålsprocess....

  17. Thermal properties of methyltrimethoxysilane aerogel thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro N. Acquaroli

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Aerogels are light and porous solids whose properties, largely determined by their nanostructure, are useful in a wide range of applications, e.g., thermal insulation. In this work, as-deposited and thermally treated air-filled silica aerogel thin films synthesized using the sol-gel method were studied for their thermal properties using the 3-omega technique, at ambient conditions. The thermal conductivity and diffusivity were found to increase as the porosity of the aerogel decreased. Thermally treated films show a clear reduction in thermal conductivity compared with that of as-deposited films, likely due to an increase of porosity. The smallest thermal conductivity and diffusivity found for our aerogels were 0.019 W m−1 K−1 and 9.8 × 10-9 m2 s−1. A model was used to identify the components (solid, gaseous and radiative of the total thermal conductivity of the aerogel.

  18. About aerogels based on carbon nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fail Sultanov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this review a current trends in development and application of carbon nanomaterials and derivatives based on them are presented. Aerogels based on graphene and other carbon nanomaterials present a class of novel ultralight materials in which a liquid phase is completely substituted by gaseous. In its turn graphene based aerogel was named as the lightest material, thus the record of aerographite, which has retained for a long time was beaten. Aerogels are characterized by low density, high surface area and high index of hydrophobicity. In addition, depending on its application, aerogels based on carbon nanomaterials can be electrically conductive and magnetic, while retaining the flexibility of its 3D structure. Impressive properties of novel material – aerogels causes a huge interest of scientists in order to find their application in various fields, ranging from environment problems to medicine and electronics.

  19. Aerogel Projects Ongoing in MSFC's Engineering Directorate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shular, David A.; Smithers, Gweneth A.; Plawsky, Joel L.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    When we speak of an aerogel material, we are referring more to process and structure am to a specific substance. Aerogel, considered the lightest solid material, has been made from silica for seventy years. Resorcinol-formaldehyde, organic aerogels have been developed more recently. However, aerogel can be made from almost any type of substance, even lead. Because an aerogel is mostly air (about 99 %), the solid substance used will affect the weight very little. The term "aerogel" connotes the sol-gel process used to manufacture the material. The aerogel begins as a liquid "sol," becomes a solid "alcogel," and is then dried to become an "aerogel." The final product has a unique structure, useful for exploitation. It is an "open pore" system with nano-sized particles and pores, has very high surface area, and is highly interconnected. Besides low weight, aerogels have ultimate (lowest) values in other properties: thermal conductivity, refractive index, sound speed, and dielectric constant. Aerogels were first prepared in 1931 by Steven Kistler, who used a supercritical drying step to replace the liquid in a gel with air, preserving the structure (1). Kistler's procedure involved a water-to-alcohol exchange step; in the 1970's, this step was eliminated when a French investigator introduced the use of tetramethylorthosilicate. Still, alcohol drying involved dangerously high temperatures and pressures. In the 1980's, the Microstructured Materials Group at Berkeley Laboratory found that the alcohol in the gel could be replaced with liquid carbon dioxide before supercritical drying, which greatly improved safety (2). 'Me most recent major contribution has been that of Deshpande, Smith and Brinker in New Mexico, who are working to eliminate the supercritical drying step (3). When aerogels were first being developed, they were evaporatively dried. However, the wet gel, when dried, underwent severe shrinkage and cracking; this product was termed "xerogel." When the

  20. The Keystone Center final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The Keystone Center began its work with the Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) in May, 1996, when The Center agreed to design, organize, and facilitate stakeholder meetings at two DOE sites: Savannah River and Hanford. These meetings were held June 24--25, 1996 for the purpose of discussing the role of EMSP in constructing a site-specific basic research agenda that maps site cleanup needs to basic science areas. Summaries of the discussions from these meetings as well as lists of the stakeholders who were invited are included as Attachment 1. In August/September 1996, the Keystone Center was asked to convene two additional site meetings using funds that remained in their contract. These meetings were held in October 1996 at Oak Ridge and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Summaries from these meetings and participant lists are included as Attachment 2

  1. The Keystone Center final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1998-01-22

    The Keystone Center began its work with the Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) in May, 1996, when The Center agreed to design, organize, and facilitate stakeholder meetings at two DOE sites: Savannah River and Hanford. These meetings were held June 24--25, 1996 for the purpose of discussing the role of EMSP in constructing a site-specific basic research agenda that maps site cleanup needs to basic science areas. Summaries of the discussions from these meetings as well as lists of the stakeholders who were invited are included as Attachment 1. In August/September 1996, the Keystone Center was asked to convene two additional site meetings using funds that remained in their contract. These meetings were held in October 1996 at Oak Ridge and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Summaries from these meetings and participant lists are included as Attachment 2.

  2. Extending the concept of keystone species to communities and ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouquet, Nicolas; Gravel, Dominique; Massol, François; Calcagno, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Keystone species are defined as having disproportionate importance in their community. This concept has proved useful and is now often used in conservation ecology. Here, we introduce the concept of keystone communities (and ecosystems) within metacommunities (and metaecosystems). We define keystone and burden communities as communities with impacts disproportionately large (positive or negative respectively) relative to their weight in the metacommunity. We show how a simple metric, based on the effects of single-community removals, can characterise communities along a 'keystoneness' axis. We illustrate the usefulness of this approach with examples from two different theoretical models. We further distinguish environmental heterogeneity from species trait heterogeneity as determinants of keystoneness. We suggest that the concept of keystone communities/ecosystems will be highly beneficial, not only as a fundamental step towards understanding species interactions in a spatial context, but also as a tool for the management of disturbed landscapes. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  3. Aerogels from Chitosan Solutions in Ionic Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Santos-López

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan aerogels conjugates the characteristics of nanostructured porous materials, i.e., extended specific surface area and nano scale porosity, with the remarkable functional properties of chitosan. Aerogels were obtained from solutions of chitosan in ionic liquids (ILs, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (BMIMAc, and 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium acetate (EMIMAc, in order to observe the effect of the solvent in the structural characteristics of this type of materials. The process of elaboration of aerogels comprised the formation of physical gels through anti-solvent vapor diffusion, liquid phase exchange, and supercritical CO2 drying. The aerogels maintained the chemical identity of chitosan according to Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer (FT-IR spectroscopy, indicating the presence of their characteristic functional groups. The internal structure of the obtained aerogels appears as porous aggregated networks in microscopy images. The obtained materials have specific surface areas over 350 m2/g and can be considered mesoporous. According to swelling experiments, the chitosan aerogels could absorb between three and six times their weight of water. However, the swelling and diffusion coefficient decreased at higher temperatures. The structural characteristics of chitosan aerogels that are obtained from ionic liquids are distinctive and could be related to solvation dynamic at the initial state.

  4. Aerogel Blanket Insulation Materials for Cryogenic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffman, B. E.; Fesmire, J. E.; White, S.; Gould, G.; Augustynowicz, S.

    2009-01-01

    Aerogel blanket materials for use in thermal insulation systems are now commercially available and implemented by industry. Prototype aerogel blanket materials were presented at the Cryogenic Engineering Conference in 1997 and by 2004 had progressed to full commercial production by Aspen Aerogels. Today, this new technology material is providing superior energy efficiencies and enabling new design approaches for more cost effective cryogenic systems. Aerogel processing technology and methods are continuing to improve, offering a tailor-able array of product formulations for many different thermal and environmental requirements. Many different varieties and combinations of aerogel blankets have been characterized using insulation test cryostats at the Cryogenics Test Laboratory of NASA Kennedy Space Center. Detailed thermal conductivity data for a select group of materials are presented for engineering use. Heat transfer evaluations for the entire vacuum pressure range, including ambient conditions, are given. Examples of current cryogenic applications of aerogel blanket insulation are also given. KEYWORDS: Cryogenic tanks, thermal insulation, composite materials, aerogel, thermal conductivity, liquid nitrogen boil-off

  5. Low density, resorcinol-formaldehyde aerogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekala, R.W.

    1988-05-26

    The polycondensation of resorcinol with formaldehyde under alkaline conditions results in the formation of surface functionalized polymer ''clusters''. The covalent crosslinking of these ''clusters'' produces gels which when processed under supercritical conditions, produce low density, organic aerogels (density less than or equal to100 mg/cc; cell size less than or equal to0.1 microns). The aerogels are transparent,dark red in color and consist of interconnected colloidal-like particles with diameters of about 100 A/degree/. These aerogels may be further carbonized to form low density carbon foams with cell size of about 0.1 micron. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  6. Carbon aerogel electrodes for direct energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Steven T.; Kaschmitter, James L.; Pekala, Richard W.

    1997-01-01

    A direct energy conversion device, such as a fuel cell, using carbon aerogel electrodes, wherein the carbon aerogel is loaded with a noble catalyst, such as platinum or rhodium and soaked with phosphoric acid, for example. A separator is located between the electrodes, which are placed in a cylinder having plate current collectors positioned adjacent the electrodes and connected to a power supply, and a pair of gas manifolds, containing hydrogen and oxygen positioned adjacent the current collectors. Due to the high surface area and excellent electrical conductivity of carbon aerogels, the problems relative to high polarization resistance of carbon composite electrodes conventionally used in fuel cells are overcome.

  7. Study of ageing effects in aerogel

    CERN Document Server

    Bellunato, T F; Coluzza, C; Longo, G; Matteuzzi, C; Musy, M; Negri, P; Perego, D L

    2004-01-01

    Ageing effects on aerogel due to irradiation and absorption of humidity have been investigated. Aerogel tiles have been exposed to gamma radiation from a 60-Co source and to proton and neutron high intensity beams. The transmittance has been monitored in the wavelength range between 200 nm and 800 nm, determining the clarity factor C as a function of the increasing dose of irradiation. The index of refraction n was also measured.

  8. Fibrous-Ceramic/Aerogel Composite Insulating Tiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Susan M.; Rasky, Daniel J.

    2004-01-01

    Fibrous-ceramic/aerogel composite tiles have been invented to afford combinations of thermal-insulation and mechanical properties superior to those attainable by making tiles of fibrous ceramics alone or aerogels alone. These lightweight tiles can be tailored to a variety of applications that range from insulating cryogenic tanks to protecting spacecraft against re-entry heating. The advantages and disadvantages of fibrous ceramics and aerogels can be summarized as follows: Tiles made of ceramic fibers are known for mechanical strength, toughness, and machinability. Fibrous ceramic tiles are highly effective as thermal insulators in a vacuum. However, undesirably, the porosity of these materials makes them permeable by gases, so that in the presence of air or other gases, convection and gas-phase conduction contribute to the effective thermal conductivity of the tiles. Other disadvantages of the porosity and permeability of fibrous ceramic tiles arise because gases (e.g., water vapor or cryogenic gases) can condense in pores. This condensation contributes to weight, and in the case of cryogenic systems, the heat of condensation undesirably adds to the heat flowing to the objects that one seeks to keep cold. Moreover, there is a risk of explosion associated with vaporization of previously condensed gas upon reheating. Aerogels offer low permeability, low density, and low thermal conductivity, but are mechanically fragile. The basic idea of the present invention is to exploit the best features of fibrous ceramic tiles and aerogels. In a composite tile according to the invention, the fibrous ceramic serves as a matrix that mechanically supports the aerogel, while the aerogel serves as a low-conductivity, low-permeability filling that closes what would otherwise be the open pores of the fibrous ceramic. Because the aerogel eliminates or at least suppresses permeation by gas, gas-phase conduction, and convection, the thermal conductivity of such a composite even at

  9. Influence of Aerogel Morphology and Reinforcement Architecture on Gas Convection in Aerogel Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, Frances I.; Meyer, Matthew; Guo, Haiquan; Rogers, Richard B.; DeMange, Jeffrey J.; Richardson, Hayley

    2016-01-01

    A variety of thermal protection applications require lightweight insulation capable of withstanding temperatures well above 900 C. Aerogels offer extremely low-density thermal insulation due to their mesoporous structure, which inhibits both gas convection and solid conduction. Silica aerogel systems are limited to use temperatures of 600-700 C, above which they sinter. Alumina aerogels maintain a porous structure to higher temperatures than silica, before transforming to -alumina and densifying. We have synthesized aluminosilicate aerogels capable of maintaining higher surface areas at temperatures above 1100 C than an all-alumina aerogel using -Boehmite as the aluminum source and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) as the silicon source. The pore structure of these aerogels varies with thermal exposure temperature and time, as the aluminosilicate undergoes a variety of phase changes to form transition aluminas. Transformation to -alumina is inhibited by incorporation of silica into the alumina lattice. The aerogels are fragile, but can be reinforced using a large variety of ceramic papers, felts or fabrics. The objective of the current study is to characterize the influence of choice of reinforcement and architecture on gas permeability of the aerogel composites in both the as fabricated condition and following thermal exposure, as well as understand the effects of incorporating hydrophobic treatments in the composites.

  10. Aerogels: transparent and super-insulating materials; Les aerogels: isolants transparent-super isolants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melka, S.; Rigacci, A.; Achard, P.; Bezian, J.J. [Ecole des Mines de Paris, 06 - Sophia-Antipolis (France); Sallee, H.; Chevalier, B. [Centre des Sciences et Techniques du Batiment, 38 - Saint-Martin-d`Heres (France)

    1996-12-31

    Recent studies have demonstrated the super-insulating properties of silica aerogel in its monolithic or finely divided state. In its monolithic state, this material conciliates excellent thermal insulation performances, a good transmission of visible light and interesting acoustic properties. Also its amazing structural characteristics (lightness, high global porosity, small diameter of pores) are particularly interesting for its use in double glazing windows as transparent insulating spacer. The aim of the work carried out by the Energetic Centre of the Ecole des Mines of Paris is to understand the thermal transfer phenomena in all forms of silica aerogel. In this paper, the main steps of the synthesis process of monolithic silica aerogel is presented with the thermal conductivities obtained. Then, a model is built to describe the thermal transfer mechanisms in finely divided aerogel beds. Finally, the hot wire thermal characterization method is presented and the results obtained on silica aerogels are discussed. (J.S.) 16 refs.

  11. Durable polymer-aerogel based superhydrophobic coatings, a composite material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissel, David J; Brinker, Charles Jeffrey

    2014-03-04

    Provided are polymer-aerogel composite coatings, devices and articles including polymer-aerogel composite coatings, and methods for preparing the polymer-aerogel composite. The exemplary article can include a surface, wherein the surface includes at least one region and a polymer-aerogel composite coating disposed over the at least one region, wherein the polymer-aerogel composite coating has a water contact angle of at least about 140.degree. and a contact angle hysteresis of less than about 1.degree.. The polymer-aerogel composite coating can include a polymer and an ultra high water content catalyzed polysilicate aerogel, the polysilicate aerogel including a three dimensional network of silica particles having surface functional groups derivatized with a silylating agent and a plurality of pores.

  12. Durable polymer-aerogel based superhydrophobic coatings: a composite material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissel, David J.; Brinker, Charles Jeffrey

    2016-02-02

    Provided are polymer-aerogel composite coatings, devices and articles including polymer-aerogel composite coatings, and methods for preparing the polymer-aerogel composite. The exemplary article can include a surface, wherein the surface includes at least one region and a polymer-aerogel composite coating disposed over the at least one region, wherein the polymer-aerogel composite coating has a water contact angle of at least about 140.degree. and a contact angle hysteresis of less than about 1.degree.. The polymer-aerogel composite coating can include a polymer and an ultra high water content catalyzed polysilicate aerogel, the polysilicate aerogel including a three dimensional network of silica particles having surface functional groups derivatized with a silylating agent and a plurality of pores.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of a nanocrystalline diamond aerogel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pauzauskie, Peter J.; Crowhurst, Jonathan C.; Worsley, Marcus A.; Laurence, Ted A.; Kilcoyne, A. L. David; Wang, Yinmin; Willey, Trevor M.; Visbeck, Kenneth S.; Fakra, Sirine C.; Evans, William J.; Zaug, Joseph M.; Satcher, Jr., Joe H.

    2011-07-06

    Aerogel materials have myriad scientific and technological applications due to their large intrinsic surface areas and ultralow densities. However, creating a nanodiamond aerogel matrix has remained an outstanding and intriguing challenge. Here we report the high-pressure, high-temperature synthesis of a diamond aerogel from an amorphous carbon aerogel precursor using a laser-heated diamond anvil cell. Neon is used as a chemically inert, near-hydrostatic pressure medium that prevents collapse of the aerogel under pressure by conformally filling the aerogel's void volume. Electron and X-ray spectromicroscopy confirm the aerogel morphology and composition of the nanodiamond matrix. Time-resolved photoluminescence measurements of recovered material reveal the formation of both nitrogen- and silicon- vacancy point-defects, suggesting a broad range of applications for this nanocrystalline diamond aerogel.

  14. Prospect of Thermal Insulation by Silica Aerogel: A Brief Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Mohammed Adnan; Sangashetty, Rashmi; Esther, A. Carmel Mary; Patil, Sharanabasappa B.; Sherikar, Baburao N.; Dey, Arjun

    2017-10-01

    Silica aerogel is a unique ultra light weight nano porous material which offers superior thermal insulation property as compared to the conventional thermal insulating materials. It can be applied not only for ground and aerospace applications but also in low and high temperatures and pressure regimes. Aerogel granules and monolith are synthesized by the sol-gel route while aerogel based composites are fabricated by the reinforcement of fibers, particle and opacifiers. Due to the characteristic brittleness (i.e., poor mechanical properties) of monolith or bulk aerogel, it is restricted in several applications. To improve the mechanical integrity and flexibility, usually different fibers are reinforced with aerogel and hence it can be used as flexible thermal insulation blankets. Further, to achieve effective thermal insulation behaviour particularly at high temperature, often opacifiers are doped with silica aerogel. In the present brief review, the prospects of bulk aerogel and aerogel based composites are discussed for the application of thermal insulation and thermal stability.

  15. Transnational corporations as 'keystone actors' in marine ecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Österblom

    Full Text Available Keystone species have a disproportionate influence on the structure and function of ecosystems. Here we analyze whether a keystone-like pattern can be observed in the relationship between transnational corporations and marine ecosystems globally. We show how thirteen corporations control 11-16% of the global marine catch (9-13 million tons and 19-40% of the largest and most valuable stocks, including species that play important roles in their respective ecosystem. They dominate all segments of seafood production, operate through an extensive global network of subsidiaries and are profoundly involved in fisheries and aquaculture decision-making. Based on our findings, we define these companies as keystone actors of the Anthropocene. The phenomenon of keystone actors represents an increasingly important feature of the human-dominated world. Sustainable leadership by keystone actors could result in cascading effects throughout the entire seafood industry and enable a critical transition towards improved management of marine living resources and ecosystems.

  16. Transnational corporations as 'keystone actors' in marine ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Österblom, Henrik; Jouffray, Jean-Baptiste; Folke, Carl; Crona, Beatrice; Troell, Max; Merrie, Andrew; Rockström, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Keystone species have a disproportionate influence on the structure and function of ecosystems. Here we analyze whether a keystone-like pattern can be observed in the relationship between transnational corporations and marine ecosystems globally. We show how thirteen corporations control 11-16% of the global marine catch (9-13 million tons) and 19-40% of the largest and most valuable stocks, including species that play important roles in their respective ecosystem. They dominate all segments of seafood production, operate through an extensive global network of subsidiaries and are profoundly involved in fisheries and aquaculture decision-making. Based on our findings, we define these companies as keystone actors of the Anthropocene. The phenomenon of keystone actors represents an increasingly important feature of the human-dominated world. Sustainable leadership by keystone actors could result in cascading effects throughout the entire seafood industry and enable a critical transition towards improved management of marine living resources and ecosystems.

  17. Properties of aerogels in glazings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    1998-01-01

    This report describes the final tests carried out on an advanced apparatus for measurement of thermal conductivity of materials at atmospheric pressure and different levels of evacuation. The apparatus was designed and constructed in the phase 1 of the project. Difficulties with the control system...... have been solved and measurements have been carried out on common polystyrene foam insulation at atmospheric pressure. The measurements have been compared with results from reference measurements and a difference of only 0.3% was found in measured thermal conductivity. Measurements on monolithic silica...... aerogel were performed at 5 different pressure levels in the range 0.2 - 1000 hPa. The measured equivalent thermal conductivity is in the range 8.9 - 16.4 mW/(m K) which corresponds very well with results obtained by institutes in Germany and France....

  18. Bluedec in product design : Isolatiemateriaal op basis van aerogel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beurden, van K.M.M. (Karin); Goselink, E.A. (Erik)

    2014-01-01

    Aerogel is een zeer kostbaar voor de ruimtevaart ontwikkeld basismateriaal. Bluedec is een isolatiemateriaal bestaande uit een non woven kunststof dat met deze aerogel geïmpregneerd is. Hierdoor ontstaat een zeer goed isolerend materiaal dat goedkoper is dan aerogel. De

  19. Aerogel Beads as Cryogenic Thermal Insulation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesmire, J. E.; Augustynowicz, S. D.; Rouanet, S.; Thompson, Karen (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    An investigation of the use of aerogel beads as thermal insulation for cryogenic applications was conducted at the Cryogenics Test Laboratory of NASA Kennedy Space Center. Steady-state liquid nitrogen boiloff methods were used to characterize the thermal performance of aerogel beads in comparison with conventional insulation products such as perlite powder and multilayer insulation (MLI). Aerogel beads produced by Cabot Corporation have a bulk density below 100 kilograms per cubic meter (kg/cubic m) and a mean particle diameter of 1 millimeter (mm). The apparent thermal conductivity values of the bulk material have been determined under steady-state conditions at boundary temperatures of approximately 293 and 77 kelvin (K) and at various cold vacuum pressures (CVP). Vacuum levels ranged from 10(exp -5) torr to 760 torr. All test articles were made in a cylindrical configuration with a typical insulation thickness of 25 mm. Temperature profiles through the thickness of the test specimens were also measured. The results showed the performance of the aerogel beads was significantly better than the conventional materials in both soft-vacuum (1 to 10 torr) and no-vacuum (760 torr) ranges. Opacified aerogel beads performed better than perlite powder under high-vacuum conditions. Further studies for material optimization and system application are in progress.

  20. Preparation and characterization of phloroglucinol-formaldehyde aerogel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Changgang; China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang; Tang Yongjian; Wang Chaoyang; Yan Hongmei

    2006-01-01

    Phloroglucinol-formaldehyde (PF) aerogels and carbonized PF (CPF) aerogels were prepared from Phloroglucinol (P) and Formaldehyde (F) by sol-gel, solvent exchanging, supercritical drying and carbonization processes. The aerogel has a large specific surface area, continuous nano-network and porous structure. The density and mean porosity radius will enlarge after being carbonized, while the specific surface area will be influenced little. The micro-structure and density of aerogel are controlled by concentration of total reactants and catalyzer, respectively. Aerogels with different micro-structure and different density fit for ICF targets can be prepared by optimizing synthesis conditions. (authors)

  1. Saxitoxin and the Ochre Sea Star: Molecule of Keystone Significance and a Classic Keystone Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Ryan P; Lunsford, Elias T; Candido, Camillo M; Strawn, Madison L; Pierce, Karisa M

    2015-09-01

    Saxitoxins (STXs) are paralytic alkaloids produced by marine dinoflagellates in response to biotic and abiotic stressors yielding harmful algal blooms. Because STX impacts coastal, near-shore communities to a greater extent than would be predicted by its relative abundance, it has been referred to as a "molecule of keystone significance" in reference to Robert Paine's Keystone Species Concept. Pisaster ochraceus, the predator upon which Paine's concept was founded, inhabits waters regularly plagued by harmful algal blooms, but the effects of STX on Pisaster have not yet been investigated. Here, we used laboratory and field experiments to examine the potential consequences of exposure to STX on sea stars' feeding, attachment to the substrate, and success in fertilization. Pisaster exhibited similar feeding behaviors when offered non-toxic prey, STX-containing prey, or a combination of the two. Although feeding behavior is unaffected, consumption of STX poses a physiological tradeoff. Sea stars in the laboratory and field had significantly lower thresholds of the force needed to detach them from their substrates after either being exposed to, or consuming, STX. High pressure (or high performance) liquid chromatography analysis indicated an accumulation of STX (and structural analogues) in sea stars' viscera, likely due to trophic transfer from toxic prey. Incidence of fertilization tended to decrease when gametes were exposed to high, yet ecologically relevant, STX concentrations of STX. These findings suggest that the molecule of keystone significance, STX, produced during harmful algal blooms extends its impacts to rocky intertidal communities by way of the keystone predator P. ochraceus. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. A Novel Environmental Route to Ambient Pressure Dried Thermal Insulating Silica Aerogel via Recycled Coal Gangue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinghua Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Coal gangue, one of the main hazardous emissions of purifying coal from coalmine industry, is rich in silica and alumina. However, the recycling of the waste is normally restricted by less efficient techniques and low attractive output; the utilization of such waste is still staying lower than 15%. In this work, the silica aerogel materials were synthesized by using a precursor extracted from recycled silicon-rich coal gangue, followed by a single-step surface silylation and ambient pressure drying. A low density (~0.19 g/cm3 nanostructured aerogel with a 3D open porous microstructure and high surface area (~690 m2/g was synthesized, which presents a superior thermal insulation performance (~26.5 mW·m−1·K−1 of a plane packed of 4-5 mm granules which was confirmed by transient hot-wire method. This study offers a new facile route to the synthesis of insulating aerogel material by recycling solid waste coal gangue and presents a potential cost reduction of industrial production of silica aerogels.

  3. Lightweight, Mesoporous, and Highly Absorptive All-Nanofiber Aerogel for Efficient Solar Steam Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Feng; Liu, He; Li, Yiju; Kuang, Yudi; Xu, Xu; Chen, Chaoji; Huang, Hao; Jia, Chao; Zhao, Xinpeng; Hitz, Emily; Zhou, Yubing; Yang, Ronggui; Cui, Lifeng; Hu, Liangbing

    2018-01-10

    The global fresh water shortage has driven enormous endeavors in seawater desalination and wastewater purification; among these, solar steam generation is effective in extracting fresh water by efficient utilization of naturally abundant solar energy. For solar steam generation, the primary focus is to design new materials that are biodegradable, sustainable, of low cost, and have high solar steam generation efficiency. Here, we designed a bilayer aerogel structure employing naturally abundant cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) as basic building blocks to achieve sustainability and biodegradability as well as employing a carbon nanotube (CNT) layer for efficient solar utilization with over 97.5% of light absorbance from 300 to 1200 nm wavelength. The ultralow density (0.0096 g/cm 3 ) of the aerogel ensures that minimal material is required, reducing the production cost while at the same time satisfying the water transport and thermal-insulation requirements due to its highly porous structure (99.4% porosity). Owing to its rationally designed structure and thermal-regulation performance, the bilayer CNF-CNT aerogel exhibits a high solar-energy conversion efficiency of 76.3% and 1.11 kg m -2 h -1 at 1 kW m -2 (1 Sun) solar irradiation, comparable or even higher than most of the reported solar steam generation devices. Therefore, the all-nanofiber aerogel presents a new route for designing biodegradable, sustainable, and scalable solar steam generation devices with superb performance.

  4. Fluorine-Free Oil Absorbents Made from Cellulose Nanofibril Aerogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulyadi, Arie; Zhang, Zhe; Deng, Yulin

    2016-02-03

    Aerogels based on cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) have been of great interest as absorbents due to their high absorption capacity, low density, biodegradability, and large surface area. Hydrophobic aerogels have been designed to give excellent oil absorption tendency from water. Herein, we present an in situ method for CNF surface modification and hydrophobic aerogel preparation. Neither solvent exchange nor fluorine chemical is used in aerogel preparations. The as-prepared hydrophobic aerogels exhibit low density (23.2 mg/cm(-3)), high porosity (98.5%), good flexibility, and solvent-induced shape recovery property. Successful surface modification was confirmed through field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and water contact angle measurements. The hydrophobic aerogels show high absorption capacities for various oils, depending on liquid density, up to 47× their original weight but with low water uptake (<0.5 g/g aerogel).

  5. Test of aerogel as Cherenkov radiator

    CERN Document Server

    Alemi, M; Calvi, M; Matteuzzi, C; Negri, P; Paganoni, M; Liko, D; Neufeld, N; Chesi, Enrico Guido; Joram, C; Séguinot, Jacques; Ypsilantis, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    Two different stacks of aerogel were tested in a pion/proton beam of momentum between 3 and 10 GeV/c. The optical characteristics of the aerogel samples were different: one sample was hygroscopic while the other was hydrophobic. Two HPD tubes were used as photodetectors, and different thicknesses of the stacks were used, in order to determine the photoelectron yield, the Cherenkov angle and its precision. Pion/proton separation has been demonstrated at momenta up to 10 GeV/c.

  6. Tailoring aerogel electrodes for electrochemical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Jeffrey Steven

    2001-07-01

    The principal theme of the dissertation research was determining the relation between aerogel electrode morphology and electrochemical performance. Issues such as electrical wiring and mass transport in transition metal oxide, aerogel electrodes were addressed and designs were tailored for electrochemical applications. Single-wall carbon nanotubes were used to form the electronically conducting network in lithium intercalation electrodes that incorporated vanadium oxide aerogel as the active material. The similarities in morphology and dimensional scale for the nanotubes and V2O5 ribbons enabled excellent electrical contact to be made between the two phases without seriously affecting the aerogel nanostructure. The electrodes exhibited specific capacities in excess of 400 mAh/g at high discharge rates and retained this level of capacity on cycling. A second research goal was to improve mass transport within the aerogel electrode by minimizing tortuosity. In this research, hierarchically ordered vanadium oxide aerogel electrodes were designed and fabricated. The electrodes have two discrete and independent levels or porosity. At one level, ordered, interconnected macropores were fabricated using the templating process. At another level, interconnected mesopores were created using sol-gel synthesis and ambient drying. Electrochemical activity towards lithium was demonstrated using cyclic voltammetry and chronopotentiometry. These data are believed to be the first to demonstrate electrochemical activity for the class of materials based on the inverse opal structure. Several Group I cations and multivalent cations were reversibly, and electrochemically reacted with vanadium oxide aerogel. The molar capacities of the Group I elements (Na+ = 3.0 moles and K+ = 2.0) were high and comparable to Li+ (3.6 moles). Interestingly, the electron equivalent capacity for Mg2+ (4.0) was higher than Li+ and agrees well with the chemical titration capacity. Galvanostatic rate

  7. A fundamental investigation of the microarchitecture and mechanical properties of tempo-oxidized nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC)-based aerogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teresa Cristina Fonseca Silva; Youssef Habibi; Jorge Luiz Colodette; Thomas Elder; Lucian A. Lucia

    2012-01-01

    Freeze-dried nanofibrillated cellulose based-aerogels were produced from cellulosic pulps extracted from Eucalyptus urograndis. Nanofibers were isolated under high pressure and modified with TEMPO-mediated oxidation and/or hydroxyapatite (HAp) to observe potential changes in mechanical properties. Two degrees of oxidation (DO), 0.1 and 0.2, were achieved as measured by...

  8. Keystone Life Orientation (LO) teachers: implications for educational ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oxford South .... Research design. A qualitative research design was used, since it was expected to provide a holistic and deeper understanding of keystone LO teachers (Merriam, .... teenage pregnancy, substance abuse, divorce, and bullying.

  9. Cultural Keystone Species: Implications for Ecological Conservation and Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Garibaldi

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Ecologists have long recognized that some species, by virtue of the key roles they play in the overall structure and functioning of an ecosystem, are essential to its integrity; these are known as keystone species. Similarly, in human cultures everywhere, there are plants and animals that form the contextual underpinnings of a culture, as reflected in their fundamental roles in diet, as materials, or in medicine. In addition, these species often feature prominently in the language, ceremonies, and narratives of native peoples and can be considered cultural icons. Without these "cultural keystone species," the societies they support would be completely different. An obvious example is western red-cedar (Thuja plicata for Northwest Coast cultures of North America. Often prominent elements of local ecosystems, cultural keystone species may be used and harvested in large quantities and intensively managed for quality and productivity. Given that biological conservation and ecological restoration embody human cultures as crucial components, one approach that may improve success in overall conservation or restoration efforts is to recognize and focus on cultural keystone species. In this paper, we explore the concept of cultural keystone species, describe similarities to and differences from ecological keystone species, present examples from First Nations cultures of British Columbia, and discuss the application of this concept in ecological restoration and conservation initiatives.

  10. Mechanically Robust Polymer-Graphene Aerogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Heonjoo; Shanmuganathan, Kadhiravan; Ellison, Christopher

    2015-03-01

    Graphene has been intensely studied for the past several years due to its many attractive properties. Graphene oxide (GO) aerogels are particularly interesting due to their light weight and excellent performance in various applications, such as environmental remediation, super-hydrophobic and super-oleophilic materials, energy storage, etc. However, GO aerogels are generally weak and delicate which complicates their handling and potentially limits their application outside the research lab. The focus of this work is to synthesize mechanically stable aerogels that are robust and easy to handle without substantially sacrificing their low density. To overcome this challenge, we found that by intermixing a small amount of readily available and thermally crosslinkable polymer can enhance the mechanical properties without disrupting other characteristic intrinsic properties of the aerogel itself. This method is a simple straight-forward procedure that does not include any tedious chemical reactions or harsh chemicals. Furthermore, we will demonstrate the performance of these materials as a super-absorbent and pressure sensor.

  11. Vanadium oxide/polypyrrole aerogel nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dave, B.C.; Dunn, B.S.; Wong, H.P. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Leroux, F.; Nazar, L.F. [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry

    1996-12-31

    Vanadium pentoxide/polypyrrole aerogel (ARG) nanocomposites were prepared by hydrolysis of VO(OC{sub 3}H{sub 7}){sub 3} using pyrrole/water/acetone mixtures. Monolithic green-black gels with polypyrrole/V ratios ranging from 0.15 to 1.0 resulted from simultaneously polymerization of the pyrrole and vanadium alkoxide precursors. Supercritical drying yielded high surface (150--200 m{sup 2}/g) aerogels, of sufficient mechanical integrity to allow them to be cut without fracturing. TEM studies of the aerogels show that they are comprised of fibers similar to that of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} ARG`s, but with a much shorter chain length. Evidence from IR that the inorganic and organic components strongly interact leads them to propose that this impedes the vanadium condensation process. The result is ARG`s that exhibit decreased electronic conductivity with increasing polymer content. Despite the unexpected deleterious effect of the conductive polymer on the bulk conductivity, at low polymer content, the nanocomposite materials show enhanced electrochemical properties for Li insertion compared to the pristine aerogel.

  12. Confinement of helium tides by aerogel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolesi, R.; Bonaldi, M.; Vitale, S.

    1999-12-01

    In the context of scientific space missions that use liquid helium as a coolant, many methods have been proposed to solve the problem of helium confinement. This problem is particularly relevant for those missions which carry on board sensitive accelerometers, because the sub-millimetre motion of the liquid-vapour interface due to the varying gravitational field amplifies the gravitational disturbances beyond the affordable level. Within this framework it has been proposed to use the strong Van der Waals and capillary forces that rise in nanometer sized pores of aerogel to confine helium. Aerogel is a space qualified material and many of its properties have been already studied to a large extent. Its pores occupy a volume always larger than at least 90% of the total volume, with an overall density comparable to the density of the helium liquid itself. We report here on a preliminary experiment that has investigated, by means of the torsion pendulum method, the He II behaviour when only partially filling an aerogel sample. For pressure values below saturation, we observed in particular a high "tortuosity" of the liquid-vapour interface. This supports the idea that even a gravitational field of 1 g does not overcome capillary forces in shaping the superfluid configuration in aerogel.

  13. Organic Aerogels with Improved Resilience and Flexibility for Multifunctional Protection in Spacesuits, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aspen Aerogels Inc proposes to develop high resilience polymeric aerogel for use as a multifunctional spacesuit material which will significantly improve human...

  14. Novel bioactive materials: silica aerogel and hybrid silica aerogel/pseudowollastonite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reséndiz-Hernández, P. J.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Silica aerogel and hybrid silica aerogel/pseudowollastonite materials were synthesized by controlled hydrolysis of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS using also methanol (MeOH and pseudowollastonite particles. The gels obtained were dried using a novel process based on an ambient pressure drying. Hexane and hexamethyl-disilazane (HMDZ were the solvents used to chemically modify the surface. In order to assess bioactivity, aerogels, without and with pseudowollastonite particles, were immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF for 7 and 14 days. The hybrid silica aerogel/pseudowollastonite showed a higher bioactivity than that observed for the single silica aerogel. However, as in both cases a lower bioactivity was observed, a biomimetic method was also used to improve it. In this particular method, samples of both materials were immersed in SBF for 7 days followed by their immersion in a more concentrated solution (1.5 SBF for 14 days. A thick and homogeneous bonelike apatite layer was formed on the biomimetically treated materials. Thus, bioactivity was successfully improved even on the aerogel with no pseudowollastonite particles. As expected, the hybrid silica aerogel/pseudowollastonite particles showed a higher bioactivity.Se sintetizaron aerogel de sílice y aerogel híbrido de sílice/partículas de pseudowollastonita por hidrólisis controlada de tetraetoxisilano (TEOS usando metanol (MeOH y partículas de pseudowollastonita. Los geles obtenidos se secaron utilizando un novedoso proceso basado en una presión de secado ambiental. Hexano y hexametil-disilazano fueron los solventes usados para modificar químicamente la superficie. Para evaluar la bioactividad, los aerogeles con y sin partículas de pseudowollastonita se sumergieron en un fluido fisiológico simulado (SBF por 7 y 14 días. El aerogel híbrido de sílice/partículas de pseudowollastonita mostró más alta bioactividad que la observada por el aerogel solo. Sin embargo, en ambos casos, se

  15. Metal cycling within mountain pine beetle impacted watersheds of Keystone Gulch, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heil, E. M.; Navarre-Sitchler, A.; Wanty, R. B.

    2016-12-01

    Metal cycling in mountain watersheds may be altered due to rapid landscape changes. Previous studies have examined the impact of deforestation and wildfires, on the fate and transport of metals in watersheds. However, we have only begun to understand changes in metal cycling in watersheds impacted by the mountain pine beetle. Warming climates and extended droughts have enabled pine beetles to impact larger areas. In these areas tree death occurs an average of three years after the initial infestation. In this short period of time the trees stop transpiring, defoliate, and die. The rapid deposition of pine needles to the forest floor, and subsequent decomposition of the needles, increases organic carbon (OC) availability and release metals that are stored in the impacted watersheds. Consequently, both OC and metal fluxes into and through the beetle-infested watersheds may be larger than those in non-infested watersheds. Four watersheds along Keystone Gulch Rd., located in Keystone, CO, were chosen for soil, water, and needle sampling because of their similar bedrock, drainage area, tree density and type, aspect, and their varying degree of pine beetle infestation. Sequential extractions using simulated rainwater, MgCl2, and pyrophosphate (representing soil pore water, exchangeable fraction, and organically bound metals) were performed on the Keystone Gulch soil samples to develop a better understanding of the distribution of metals in soils. Samples were classified by degree of beetle impact within and between the watersheds. The most obvious differences in the soil extractions between the four watersheds were observed for aluminum and iron and to a slightly lesser extent copper and zinc. In general, aluminum, iron, and zinc concentrations were higher while copper concentrations were lower in soils from less beetle-impacted watersheds. Metal concentrations in stream waters will be evaluated in the context of metal mobility through and out of the watershed.

  16. Synthesis of aerogel tiles with high light scattering length

    CERN Document Server

    Danilyuk, A F; Okunev, A G; Onuchin, A P; Shaurman, S A

    1999-01-01

    The possibility of aerogel tiles production for RICH detectors is described. Monolithic blocks of silica aerogel were synthesized by two-step sol-gel processing of tetraethoxysilane Si(OEt) sub 4 followed by high temperature supercritical drying with organic solvent. The important characteristic of aerogel is the light scattering length. In the wide range of refraction indexes the light scattering length exceeds 4 cm at 400 nm.

  17. Nitrogen-doped carbon aerogels for electrical energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Patrick; Montalvo, Elizabeth; Baumann, Theodore F.; Biener, Juergen; Merrill, Matthew; Reed, Eric W.; Worsley, Marcus A.

    2017-10-03

    Disclosed here is a method for making a nitrogen-doped carbon aerogel, comprising: preparing a reaction mixture comprising formaldehyde, at least one nitrogen-containing resorcinol analog, at least one catalyst, and at least one solvent; curing the reaction mixture to produce a wet gel; drying the wet gel to produce a dry gel; and thermally annealing the dry gel to produce the nitrogen-doped carbon aerogel. Also disclosed is a nitrogen-doped carbon aerogel obtained according to the method and a supercapacitor comprising the nitrogen-doped carbon aerogel.

  18. Lightweight Rubbery Aerogel Composites for High Performance Protection, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aspen Aerogels Inc. (AAI) and the Man Vehicle Laboratory (MVL) at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology propose to develop nanostructured, lightweight, rubbery...

  19. Mechanically Strong Lightweight Materials for Aerospace Applications (x-aerogels)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventis, Nicholas

    2005-01-01

    The X-Aerogel is a new NASA-developed strong lightweight material made by reacting the mesoporous surfaces of 3-D networks of inorganic nanoparticles with polymeric crosslinkers. Since the relative amount of the crosslinker and the backbone are comparable, X-Aerogels can be viewed either as aerogels modified by templated accumulation of polymer on the skeletal nanoparticles, or as nanoporous polymers made by templated casting of polymeric precursors on a nanostructured framework. The most striking feature of X-Aerogels is that for a nominal 3-fold increase in density (still a ultralightweight material), the mechanical strength can be up to 300 times higher than the strength of the underlying native aerogel. Thus, X-Aerogels combine a multiple of the specific compressive strength of steel, with the thermal conductivity of styrofoam. XAerogels have been demonstrated with several polymers such as polyurethanes/polyureas, epoxies and polyolefins, while crosslinking of approximately 35 different oxide aerogels yields a wide variety of dimensionally stable, porous lightweight materials with interesting structural, magnetic and optical properties. X-Aerogels are evaluated for cryogenic rocket fuel storage tanks and for Advanced EVA suits, where they will play the dual role of the thermal insulator/structural material. Along the same lines, major impact is also expected by the use of X-Aerogels in structural components/thermal protection for small satellites, spacecrafts, planetary vehicles and habitats.

  20. Keystone Individuals Alter Ecological and Evolutionary Consumer-Resource Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Start, Denon

    2018-02-01

    Intraspecific variation is central to our understanding of evolution and ecology, but these fields generally consider either the mean trait value or its variance. Alternatively, the keystone individual concept from behavioral ecology posits that a single individual with an extreme phenotype can have disproportionate and irreplaceable effects on group dynamics. Here, I generalize this concept to include nonbehavioral traits and broader ecological and evolutionary dynamics. I test for the effects of individuals with extreme phenotypes on the ecology and evolution of a gall-forming fly and its natural enemies that select for opposite gall sizes. Specifically, I introduce a putatively keystone predator-attracting individual gall-maker, hypothesizing that the presence of such an individual should (1) increase gall maker population-level mortality, (2) cause consumer communities to be dominated by species that are most attracted to the keystone individual, (3) increase selection for traits conferring defense against the most common consumer, and (4) weaken patterns of stabilizing selection. I find support for both the ecological and evolutionary consequences of single individuals with extreme phenotypes, suggesting that they can be considered keystone individuals. I discuss the generality of the keystone individual concept, suggesting likely consequences for ecology and evolution.

  1. Metal-organic aerogel as a coating for solid-phase microextraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saraji, Mohammad, E-mail: saraji@cc.iut.ac.ir; Shahvar, Ali

    2017-06-22

    An iron-based metal-organic aerogel was synthesized using metal-organic framework nanoparticles and applied as a fiber coating for solid-phase microextraction (SPME). Chemical, thermal and morphological characteristics of the material were investigated. Headspace SPME followed by gas chromatography-electron capture detection was used for the determination of chlorobenzenes in the environmental samples. The key experimental factors affecting the extraction efficiency of the analytes, such as ionic strength, extraction and desorption temperature, and extraction time were investigated and optimized. The applicability of the coating for the extraction of chlorobenzenes from the environmental samples including river and tap water, sludge, and coastal soil was evaluated. The detection limits were in the range of 0.1–60 ng L{sup −1}. The relative standard deviations were between 2.0 and 5.0%. The extraction recovery of the analytes was in the range of 88–100%. Compared to the commercial PDMS fiber, the present fiber showed better extraction efficiency. - Highlights: • Metal-organic aerogel was synthesized and used as a novel fiber coating for SPME. • The new coating material showed high surface area and good thermal stability. • GC-ECD was used for determination of chlorobenzenes in environmental samples. • The method showed fast extraction and better efficiency than PDMS commercial fiber.

  2. Preparation of silica aerogel for Cerenkov counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poelz, G.; Riethmueller, R.

    1981-09-01

    Aerogel of silica was produced with an index of refraction of n = 1.024 to equip the TASSO Cerenkov detector with 1700 litres of this radiator medium. In the production process, which is described in detail, different parameters were varied to determine their influence on the shape and the optical quality of the aerogel samples. With the present equipment samples with a size of 17 x 17 x 2.3 cm 3 were manufactured at a rate of 144 pieces per week. A production efficiency of about 90% was obtained. The index of refraction for all samples around n = 1.024 is distributed with sigmasub(n) = 1.3 x 10 -3 . They have an optical transmission length of Λ = 2.64 cm at a wavelength lambda = 438 nm with sigmasub(Λ) = 0.22 cm. For samples with n = 1.017, Λ is found to be about 30% higher. (orig.) [de

  3. 77 FR 49824 - Draft Environmental Assessment and Draft Habitat Conservation Plan for TransCanada Keystone...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-17

    .... Keystone has applied for an incidental take permit under the Endangered Species Act, that would authorize...-FF02ENEH00] Draft Environmental Assessment and Draft Habitat Conservation Plan for TransCanada Keystone... of the draft Environmental Assessment and draft Habitat Conservation Plan for TransCanada Keystone...

  4. Particle identification system based on dense aerogel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnyakov, A.Yu. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 11, akademika Lavrentieva prospect, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Barnyakov, M.Yu. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 11, akademika Lavrentieva prospect, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State Technical University, 20, Karl Marx prospect, Novosibirsk, 630092 (Russian Federation); Beloborodov, K.I., E-mail: K.I.Beloborodov@inp.nsk.su [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 11, akademika Lavrentieva prospect, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, 2, Pirogova Street, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Bobrovnikov, V.S.; Buzykaev, A.R. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 11, akademika Lavrentieva prospect, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Danilyuk, A.F. [Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, 5, akademika Lavrentieva prospect, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Golubev, V.B. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 11, akademika Lavrentieva prospect, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, 2, Pirogova Street, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Gulevich, V.V. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 11, akademika Lavrentieva prospect, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Kononov, S.A.; Kravchenko, E.A. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 11, akademika Lavrentieva prospect, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, 2, Pirogova Street, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Onuchin, A.P.; Martin, K.A. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 11, akademika Lavrentieva prospect, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State Technical University, 20, Karl Marx prospect, Novosibirsk, 630092 (Russian Federation); Serednyakov, S.I. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 11, akademika Lavrentieva prospect, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, 2, Pirogova Street, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); and others

    2013-12-21

    A threshold Cherenkov counter based on dense aerogel with refraction index n=1.13 is described. This counter is used for kaon identification at momenta below 1 GeV/c in the SND detector, which takes data at the VEPP-2000 e{sup +}e{sup −} collider. The results of measurements of the counter efficiency using electrons, muons, pions, and kaons produced in e{sup +}e{sup −} annihilation are presented.

  5. Keystone flaps in coloured skin: Flap technology for the masses?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish P Bhat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Viscoelastic properties of skin in coloured ethnic groups are less favourable compared to Caucasians for executing Keystone flaps. Keystone flaps have so far been evaluated and reported only in Caucasians. The potential of Keystone flaps in a coloured ethnic group is yet unknown. Aim: This article reviews the experience to reconstruct skin defects presenting in a coloured ethnic group, by using Keystone flaps, with a review of existing literature. Design: Uncontrolled case series. Materials and Methods: This retrospective review involves 55 consecutive Keystone flaps used from 2009 to 2012, for skin defects in various locations. Patient demographic data, medical history, co-morbidity, surgical indication, defect features, complications, and clinical outcomes are evaluated and presented. Results: In this population group with Fitzpatrick type 4 and 5 skin, the average patient age was 35.73. Though 60% of flaps (33/55 in the series involved specific risk factors, only two flaps failed. Though seven flaps had complications, sound healing was achieved by suitable intervention giving a success rate of 96.36%. Skin grafts were needed in only four cases. Conclusions: Keystone flaps achieve primary wound healing for a wide spectrum of defects with an acceptable success rate in a coloured skin population with unfavorable biophysical properties. By avoiding conventional local flaps and at times even microsurgical flaps, good aesthetic outcome is achieved without additional skin grafts or extensive operative time. All advantages seen in previous studies were verified. These benefits can be most appreciated in coloured populations, with limited resources and higher proportion of younger patients and unfavorable defects.

  6. Highly Insulating and Light Transmitting Aerogel glazing for Window (HILIT Aerogel Window)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The HILIT AEROGEL WINDOW project with participants from Denmark (coordinator), France, Germany, Norway and Sweden, was formulated in order to develop a safe and clean production of monolithic silica aerogel based on supercritical CO2 drying of the gels, to study the process parameters and to tran...... the thermal bridge effect of the rim seal solution is measured to 0.74 W/m2K. The solar energy transmittance is measured to 76% thanks to the use of low-iron glass with an anti reflective coating....

  7. Keystone ø-lap til rekonstruktion af huddefekter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breiting, Line Bro; Venzo, Alessandro; Dahlstrøm, Karin

    2009-01-01

    are of the lower limbs, but it has been used successfully almost all over the body. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We report our experience in 21 patients, who underwent excision of skin malignancies and reconstruction of the defect with a keystone flap (24 flaps in total). RESULTS: Only few complications were seen. Two...... patients had signs of infection at the border of the flap and were treated with local and/or oral antibiotics. In two cases a small necrosis developed at the border of the flap. In both cases, it healed conservatively. CONCLUSION: The keystone flap has proven to be very reliable with only few reported flap...

  8. Keystone Herbivores and the Evolution of Plant Defenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poelman, Erik H; Kessler, André

    2016-06-01

    Plants need to defend themselves against a diverse and dynamic herbivore community. Such communities may be shaped by keystone herbivores that through their feeding alter the plant phenotype as well as the likelihood of attack by other herbivores. Here, we discuss such herbivores that have a large effect on the interaction network structure with associated fitness consequences for the plant, as dominant agents of selection on plant defense traits. Merging the keystone herbivore concept with plant fitness and trait selection frameworks will provide an approach to identify which herbivores drive selection in complex multispecies interactions in natural and agricultural systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Chemical modification of graphene aerogels for electrochemical capacitor applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jin-Yong; Wie, Jeong Jae; Xu, Yu; Park, Ho Seok

    2015-12-14

    Graphene aerogel is a relatively new type of aerogel that is ideal for energy storage applications because of its large surface area, high electrical conductivity and good chemical stability. Also, three dimensional interconnected macropores offer many advantages such as low density, fast ion and mass transfer, and easy access to storage sites. Such features allow graphene aerogels to be intensively applied for electrochemical capacitor applications. Despite the growing interest in graphene aerogel-based electrochemical capacitors, however, the graphene aerogels still suffer from their low capacitive performances and high fragility. Both relatively low capacitance and brittleness of physically crosslinked graphene aerogels remain a critical challenge. Until now, a number of alternative attempts have been devoted to overcome these shortcomings. In this perspective, we summarize the recent research progress towards the development of advanced graphene aerogel-based electrochemical capacitors according to the different approaches (e.g. porosity, composition and structure controls). Then, the recently proposed chemical strategies to improve the capacitive performances and mechanical durability of graphene aerogels for practical applications are highlighted. Finally, the current challenges and perspectives in this emerging material are also discussed.

  10. Tailoring of morphology and surface properties of syndiotactic polystyrene aerogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao; Jana, Sadhan C

    2013-05-07

    This study evaluates a method for rendering syndiotactic polystyrene (sPS) aerogels hydrophilic using polyethylene oxide (PEO) of different molecular weights. The highly porous sPS aerogels are inherently hydrophobic although applications involving absorption of moisture and removal of particulate solids may benefit from the high surface area of sPS aerogels provided some degree of hydrophilicity is induced in these materials. In this work, sPS gels are prepared by thermo-reversible gelation in tetrahydrofuran in the presence of PEO. The gels are dried under supercritical conditions to obtain aerogels. The aerogels are characterized by scanning electron microscopy, nitrogen-adsorption porosimetry, helium pycnometry, and contact angle measurements. The data reveal that the pore structures and surface energy can be controlled by varying the concentration and molecular weight of PEO and using different cooling rates during thermo-reversible gelation. In the first case, sPS aerogels, aerogels containing PEO of a low molecular weight or low concentration show superhydrophobic surface presenting the "lotus effect". In the second case, PEO at a higher concentration or with higher molecular weight forms phase-separated domains yielding new hydrophilic macropores (>10 μm) in the aerogel structures. These macropores contribute to the superhydrophobic surface with the "petal effect". The cooling rate during gelation shows a strong influence on these two cases.

  11. Carbon aerogels by pyrolysis of TEMPO-oxidized cellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sizhao; Feng, Jian; Feng, Junzong; Jiang, Yonggang; Ding, Feng

    2018-05-01

    Although carbon aerogels derived from naturally occurring materials have been developed extensively, a reasonable synthetic approach using cellulose-resource remains unclear. Here, we report a strategy to prepare carbon aerogels originated from cellulose position-selectively oxidized by TEMPO-oxidized process. Contrary to non-TEMPO-oxidized cellulose-derived carbon aerogels (NCCA) with relative loose structure, TEMPO-oxidized cellulose-derived carbon aerogels (TCCA) with tight fibrillar-continuous network are monitored, suggesting the importance of TEMPO-oxidized modification towards creating the architecture of subsequently produced carbon aerogels. TCCA endows a higher BET area despite owning slightly dense bulk density comparing with that of NCCA. The structural texture of TCCA could be maintained in a way in comparison to TEMPO-oxidized cellulose-derived aerogel, due to the integration and aggregation effect by losing the electric double layer repulsion via ionization of the surface carboxyl groups. FTIR and XPS analyses signify the evidence of non-functionalized carbon-skeleton network formation in terms of TCCA. Further, the mechanism concerning the creation of carbon aerogels is also established. These findings not only provide new insights into the production of carbon aerogels but also open up a new opportunity in the field of functional carbon materials.

  12. Quantitative analysis of silica aerogel-based thermal insulation coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiil, Søren

    2015-01-01

    A mathematical heat transfer model for a silica aerogel-based thermal insulation coating was developed. The model can estimate the thermal conductivity of a two-component (binder-aerogel) coating with potential binder intrusion into the nano-porous aerogel structure. The latter is modelled using...... a so-called core–shell structure representation. Data from several previous experimental investigations with silica aerogels in various binder matrices were used for model validation. For some relevant cases with binder intrusion, it was possible to obtain a very good agreement between simulations...... containing intact hollow glass or polymer spheres showed that silica aerogel particles are more efficient in an insulation coating than hollow spheres. In a practical (non-ideal) comparison, the ranking most likely cannot be generalized. A parameter study demonstrates how the model can be used, qualitatively...

  13. Investigation of polyurea-crosslinked silica aerogels as a neuronal scaffold: a pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firouzeh Sabri

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Polymer crosslinked aerogels are an attractive class of materials for future implant applications particularly as a biomaterial for the support of nerve growth. The low density and nano-porous structure of this material combined with large surface area, high mechanical strength, and tunable surface properties, make aerogels materials with a high potential in aiding repair of injuries of the peripheral nervous system. however, the interaction of neurons with aerogels remains to be investigated. METHODOLOGY: In this work the attachment and growth of neurons on clear polyurea crosslinked silica aerogels (PCSA coated with: poly-L-lysine, basement membrane extract (BME, and laminin1 was investigated by means of optical and scanning electron microscopy. After comparing the attachment and growth capability of neurons on these different coatings, laminin1 and BME were chosen for nerve cell attachment and growth on PCSA surfaces. The behavior of neurons on treated petri dish surfaces was used as the control and behavior of neurons on treated PCSA discs was compared against it. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study demonstrates that: 1 untreated PCSA surfaces do not support attachment and growth of nerve cells, 2 a thin application of laminin1 layer onto the PCSA discs adhered well to the PCSA surface while also supporting growth and differentiation of neurons as evidenced by the number of processes extended and b3-tubulin expression, 3 three dimensional porous structure of PCSA remains intact after fixing protocols necessary for preservation of biological samples and 4 laminin1 coating proved to be the most effective method for attaching neurons to the desired regions on PCSA discs. This work provides the basis for potential use of PCSA as a biomaterial scaffold for neural regeneration.

  14. Silver-Loaded Aluminosilicate Aerogels As Iodine Sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Brian J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Kroll, Jared O. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Peterson, Jacob A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Matyáš, Josef [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Olszta, Matthew J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Li, Xiaohong [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Vienna, John D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, United States

    2017-09-14

    This paper discusses the development of aluminosilicates aerogels as scaffolds for Ag0 nanoparticles used for chemisorption of I2(g). The starting materials for these scaffolds included both Na-Al-Si-O and Al-Si-O aerogels, both synthesized from metal alkoxides. The Ag0 particles are added by soaking the aerogels in AgNO3 followed by drying and flowing under H2/Ar to reduce Ag+ → Ag0. In some cases, samples were soaked in 3-(mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane under supercritical CO2 to add –SH tethers to the aerogel surfaces for more effective binding of Ag+. During the Ag+-impregnation steps, for the Na-Al-Si-O aerogels, Na was replaced with Ag, and for the Al-Si-O aerogel, Si was replaced with Ag. The Ag-loading of thiolated versus non-thiolated Na-Al-Si-O aerogels was comparable at ~35 at% whereas the Ag-loading in unthiolated Al-Si-O aerogels was significantly lower at ~ 7 at% after identical treatment. Iodine loadings in both thiolated and unthiolated Ag0-functionalized Na-Al-Si-O aerogels were > 0.5 g g-1 showing almost complete utilization of the Ag through chemisorption to form AgI. Iodine loading in the thiolated Al-Si-O aerogel was 0.31 g g-1. The control of Ag uptake over solution residence time and [AgNO3] demonstrates the ability to customize the Ag-loading in the base sorbent to regulate the capacity of iodine chemisorption. Consolidation experimental results are also presented.

  15. In vivo ultrasonic detection of polyurea crosslinked silica aerogel implants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firouzeh Sabri

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Polyurea crosslinked silica aerogels are highly porous, lightweight, and mechanically strong materials with great potential for in vivo applications. Recent in vivo and in vitro studies have demonstrated the biocompatibility of this type of aerogel. The highly porous nature of aerogels allows for exceptional thermal, electric, and acoustic insulating capabilities that can be taken advantage of for non-invasive external imaging techniques. Sound-based detection of implants is a low cost, non-invasive, portable, and rapid technique that is routinely used and readily available in major clinics and hospitals. METHODOLOGY: In this study the first in vivo ultrasound response of polyurea crosslinked silica aerogel implants was investigated by means of a GE Medical Systems LogiQe diagnostic ultrasound machine with a linear array probe. Aerogel samples were inserted subcutaneously and sub-muscularly in a fresh animal model and b cadaveric human model for analysis. For comparison, samples of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS were also imaged under similar conditions as the aerogel samples. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Polyurea crosslinked silica aerogel (X-Si aerogel implants were easily identified when inserted in either of the regions in both fresh animal model and cadaveric model. The implant dimensions inferred from the images matched the actual size of the implants and no apparent damage was sustained by the X-Si aerogel implants as a result of the ultrasonic imaging process. The aerogel implants demonstrated hyperechoic behavior and significant posterior shadowing. Results obtained were compared with images acquired from the PDMS implants inserted at the same location.

  16. Highly Insulating and Light Transmitting Aerogel glazing for Window (HILIT Aerogel Window)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    and to transfer the results from lab- to mid- and finally to large-scale making of 60 by 60 cm2 in a pre-industrial plant. The large samples forms the basis for assembly of evacuated aerogel glazings optimised with respect to thermal and optical properties. The production process development and transfer to pre...... invention of several technical solutions related to moulding and handling of the large gels. Despite the efforts only aerogels with a thickness up to 15 mm have been produced with a good reproducibility. The thermal conductivity is approximately 0.015 W/mK at atmospheric pressure and 0.010 W/mK at 10 h......Pa. The optical properties have been improved compared to previous aerogels thanks to the process and the smooth surfaces obtained and a heat treatment of the dried aerogel. A rim seal solution that offers the required air and moisture tightness without leading to severe thermal bridge effects has been developed...

  17. Behaviour - The keystone in optimizing free-ranging ungulate production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Free-ranging animal behaviour is a keystone to optimizing free-ranging domestic animal production. This chapter focuses on several aspects that emanate from foraging including defining terms, concepts and the complexity that underlie managing animals and landscapes. Behaviour is investigated in li...

  18. Keystone Herbivores and the Evolution of Plant Defenses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelman, Erik H.; Kessler, André

    2016-01-01

    Plants need to defend themselves against a diverse and dynamic herbivore community. Such communities may be shaped by keystone herbivores that through their feeding alter the plant phenotype as well as the likelihood of attack by other herbivores. Here, we discuss such herbivores that have a

  19. Mistletoe as a keystone resource: an experimental test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, David M; Herring, Matthew

    2012-09-22

    Various entities have been designated keystone resources, but few tests have been attempted and we are unaware of any experimental manipulations of purported keystone resources. Mistletoes (Loranthaceae) provide structural and nutritional resources within canopies, and their pervasive influence on diversity led to their designation as keystone resources. We quantified the effect of mistletoe on diversity with a woodland-scale experiment, comparing bird diversities before and after all mistletoe plants were removed from 17 treatment sites, with those of 11 control sites and 12 sites in which mistletoe was naturally absent. Three years after mistletoe removal, treatment woodlands lost, on average, 20.9 per cent of their total species richness, 26.5 per cent of woodland-dependent bird species and 34.8 per cent of their woodland-dependent residents, compared with moderate increases in control sites and no significant changes in mistletoe-free sites. Treatment sites lost greater proportions of birds recorded nesting in mistletoe, but changes in species recorded feeding on mistletoe did not differ from control sites. Having confirmed the status of mistletoe as a keystone resource, we suggest that nutrient enrichment via litter-fall is the main mechanism promoting species richness, driving small-scale heterogeneity in productivity and food availability for woodland animals. This explanation applies to other parasitic plants with high turnover of enriched leaves, and the community-scale influence of these plants is most apparent in low productivity systems.

  20. The Keystone Approach: Integration of Methodology and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siadat, M. Vali; Peterson, Euguenia; Oseledets, Cyrill; Wang, Ming-Jer; Zhang, Guo Quan

    2012-01-01

    This article is the result of a comprehensive research study investigating the impact of computer-learning technology as well as the impact of a synergistic teaching approach (Keystone Method) on developmental mathematics classes at the college level. The study focused on mathematics skills of elementary and intermediate algebra students and…

  1. Decreasing ALT donor site morbidity with the keystone flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turin, Sergey Y; Spitz, Jamie A; Alexander, Karina; Ellis, Marco F

    2018-03-09

    The anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap is a workhorse flap for a variety of wounds. The primary disadvantage of ALT flaps is donor site morbidity associated with large skin paddle defects. We present a strategy of managing the donor site with the Keystone flap to avoid skin grafts in cases where primary closure is not possible. A retrospective, multi-institutional review from December 2015 to March 2017 based on a single surgeon's experience was performed. Inclusion criteria were harvest of an ALT flap and closure of the thigh donor site with a keystone flap. Six patients underwent reconstruction of the ALT donor site with a keystone flap. The average width of the ALT skin paddle was 7.8 cm (range 7-8 cm) and the defects could not be closed primarily or with wide undermining. Surface area of the ALT flaps averaged 96.8 cm 2 (range 64-152 cm 2 ). Mean patient BMI was 24.6 (range 16-37). Keystone flap dimensions averaged 9.5 × 17.8 cm. There were no major donor or recipient site complications, and one ×minor complication of delayed wound healing. No patients exhibited decreased range of motion at the hip or knee. Primary closure of the ALT donor site is preferred, but becomes difficult as skin paddle width approaches 8 cm. Managing the ALT flap donor site with a keystone flap is safe, does not appear to have significant morbidity, and can allow the surgeon to avoid the morbidity and secondary donor site associated with skin grafting. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Flame Retardant Effect of Aerogel and Nanosilica on Engineered Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Martha K.; Smith, Trent M.; Roberson, Luke B.; Yang, Feng; Nelson, Gordon L.

    2010-01-01

    Aerogels are typically manufactured vIa high temperature and pressure-critical-point drying of a colloidal metal oxide gel filled with solvents. Aerogel materials derived from silica materials represent a structural morphology (amorphous, open-celled nanofoams) rather than a particular chemical constituency. Aerogel is not like conventional foams in that it is a porous material with extreme microporosity and composed of individual features only a few nanometers in length with a highly porous dendriticlike structure. This unique substance has unusual properties such as low thermal conductivity, refractive index and sound suppression; in addition to its exceptional ability to capture fast moving dust. The highly porous nature of the aerogel's structure provides large amounts of surface area per unit weight. For instance, a silica aerogel material with a density of 100 kilograms per cubic meters can have surface areas of around 800 to 1500 square meters per gram depending on the precursors and process utilized to produce it. To take advantage of the unique properties of silica aerogels, especially the ultra light weight and low thermal conductivity, their composites with various engineering polymers were prepared and their flammability was investigated by Cone Calorimetry. The flammability of various polystyrene/silica aerogel nanocomposites were measured. The combination of these nanocomposites with a NASA patented flame retardant SINK were also studied. The results were compared with the base polymer to show the differences between composites with different forms of silica.

  3. Aerogel Insulation Applications for Liquid Hydrogen Launch Vehicle Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesmire, J. E.; Sass, J.

    2007-01-01

    Aerogel based insulation systems for ambient pressure environments were developed for liquid hydrogen (LH2) tank applications. Solutions to thermal insulation problems were demonstrated for the Space Shuttle External Tank (ET) through extensive testing at the Cryogenics Test Laboratory. Demonstration testing was performed using a 1/10th scale ET LH2 intertank unit and liquid helium as the coolant to provide the 20 K cold boundary temperature. Cryopumping tests in the range of 20K were performed using both constant mass and constant pressure methods. Long-duration tests (up to 10 hours) showed that the nitrogen mass taken up inside the intertank is reduced by a factor of nearly three for the aerogel insulated case as compared to the un-insulated (bare metal flight configuration) case. Test results including thermal stabilization, heat transfer effectiveness, and cryopumping confirm that the aerogel system eliminates free liquid nitrogen within the intertank. Physisorption (or adsorption) of liquid nitrogen within the fine pore structure of aerogel materials was also investigated. Results of a mass uptake method show that the sorption ratio (liquid nitrogen to aerogel beads) is about 62 percent by volume. A novel liquid nitrogen production method of testing the liquid nitrogen physical adsorption capacity of aerogel beads was also performed to more closely approximate the actual launch vehicle cooldown and thermal stabilization effects within the aerogel material. The extraordinary insulating effectiveness of the aerogel material shows that cryopumping is not an open-cell mass transport issue but is strictly driven by thermal communication between warm and cold surfaces. The new aerogel insulation technology is useful to solve heat transfer problem areas and to augment existing thermal protection systems on launch vehicles. Examples are given and potential benefits for producing launch systems that are more reliable, robust, reusable, and efficient are outlined.

  4. Organic acid catalyzed carbon aerogels with freeze-drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuelong; Yan, Meifang; Liu, Zhenfa

    2017-09-01

    Carbon aerogels (CAs) were synthesized via a sol-gel process by condensation-polymerization of phloroglucinol, resorcinol and formaldehyde using 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid as catalyst with freeze-drying. The effects of the freeze-drying method on the texture and pore structure were studied. Meanwhile the structure of carbon aerogels was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and a surface-area analyzer. The results show that the freeze-drying method and acid catalyst were good for the specific surface area of carbon aerogel, up to 765m2 g-1, and pore size distribution.

  5. Synthesis and Characterization Carbon Nanotubes Doped Carbon Aerogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuelong; Yan, Meifang; Liu, Zhenfa

    2017-12-01

    Polycondensation of phloroglucinol, resorcinol and formaldehyde with carbon nanotube (CNT) as the additives, using sodium carbonate as the catalyst, leads to the formation of CNT - doped carbon aerogels. The structure of carbon aerogels (CAs) with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The specific surface area, pore size distribution and pore volume were measured by surface area analyzer. The results show that when the optimum doping dosage is 5%, the specific surface area of CNT - doped carbon aerogel is up to 665 m2 g-1 and exhibit plentiful mesoporous.

  6. Multifunctional Aerogel Thermal Protection Systems for Hypersonic Vehicles, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall objective of the Phase II project is to develop lightweight reinforced aerogel materials for use as the core structural insulation material in...

  7. Monolithic silica aerogel - material design on the nano-scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Kristiansen, Finn Harken

    of piezoelectric transducers. - Other applications could be; waste encapsulation, spacers for vacuum insulation panels, membranes, etc. Department of Civil Engineering is co-ordinator of a current EU FP5 research project1, which deals with the application of aerogel as transparent insulation materials in windows......By means of a production process in two major steps - a sol/gel process and a supercritical drying – open-cell, monolithic silica aerogel can be made. This material can have a density in the range of 30- to 300 kg/m3, corresponding to porosities between 86 and 98 %. The solid structure has...... characteristic dimensions of 2 – 5 nm and the typical pore diameter is about 20 nm. A number of different applications of aerogel have been proposed: - Because of the large internal surface of aerogel (up to 1000 m²/g), the material is proposed to serve as substrate for catalytic materials. - The special pore...

  8. Aerogel Antennas Communications Study Using Error Vector Magnitude Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Felix A.; Mueller, Carl H.; Meador, Mary Ann B.

    2014-01-01

    This presentation discusses an aerogel antennas communication study using error vector magnitude (EVM) measurements. The study was performed using 2x4 element polyimide (PI) aerogel-based phased arrays designed for operation at 5 GHz as transmit (Tx) and receive (Rx) antennas separated by a line of sight (LOS) distance of 8.5 meters. The results of the EVM measurements demonstrate that polyimide aerogel antennas work appropriately to support digital communication links with typically used modulation schemes such as QPSK and 4 DQPSK. As such, PI aerogel antennas with higher gain, larger bandwidth and lower mass than typically used microwave laminates could be suitable to enable aerospace-to- ground communication links with enough channel capacity to support voice, data and video links from CubeSats, unmanned air vehicles (UAV), and commercial aircraft.

  9. Acoustic properties of 97% porous aerogel at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putselyk, S.; Eska, G.; Abe, S.; Matsumoto, K.

    2003-01-01

    Sound transmission techniques were used to investigate sound velocities and attenuation in an aerogel sample of 3 mm length and 3 mm diameter. This sample was squeezed between a 10 MHz transmitter and receiver quartz. Pulsed measurements were performed during several cool down cycles (300-0.7 K) in vacuum as well as while filling the aerogel with gaseous and liquid 3 He up to 29 bar. The striking features of all experiments were that a profound change of the sound mode in the 3 He-filled aerogel occurs around 5, 8 and 12 bar, and that neither sound velocity nor absorption in the aerogel has been found very reproducible from cool-down to cool-down

  10. Aerogel Scattering Filters for Millimeter and Sub-mm Astrophysics

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We are developing infrared-blocking filters for millimeter and sub-millimeter astronomy composed of small scattering particles embedded in an aerogel substrate. The...

  11. The robustness of keystone indices in food webs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedor, Anna; Vasas, Vera

    2009-10-07

    Species that have outstanding importance in the functioning of a community are called keystone species. Network indices are increasingly used to identify them, e.g. for conservation biological purposes. The problem is that the calculation of these indices is based on the particular network model of the studied food web, which can include network construction errors. For example, additional, unnecessary trophic links can be built in, or, to the contrary, functional links can be left out. What is the effect of such errors on the result of network analysis, e.g. the centrality values of species? Can you rely on the importance rank of species that you calculated? We developed a robustness measure (R) for network indices to answer these questions. R is proportional to the likeliness that the importance rank of nodes in the given network according to a given index would not change due to possible errors in network construction. For calculating R, first the maximum expected error (P) has to be computed which represents the potential range of error in estimating the keystone index in question. Basically, R is calculated by comparing P to the keystone indices of species to assess the reliability of the importance rank of species based on the network model. We calculated the robustness of 13 different structural indices in 26 food webs of different size to test the P and R values. We found that fragmentation indices and the number of dominated nodes can be characterized by quite low R values, while betweenness, topological importance, keystoneness and mixed trophic impact have high R values, which means that they are relatively more reliable for assessing the importance rank of species in an uncertain network model. However, as R was found to be very variable, depending on the topology of a given network, a detailed description is provided for performing the actual calculations case-by-case.

  12. Synthesis of Silica Aerogel from Bagasse Ash by Ambient Pressure Drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyawan, Nazriati Heru; Winardi, Sugeng

    2011-12-01

    Silica aerogels having very high surface area and pore volume have been succesfully synthesized from bagasse ash by ambient pressure drying (APD) method. Silica in bagasse ash was extracted by alkali extraction to produce sodium silicate solution. This is done by boiling bagasse ash in 2 N NaOH solution under continuous stirring for 1 h. To avoid the collapse of gel structure during drying at ambient pressure condition, the silica surface was modified with alkyl functional groups by a single step sol-gel process. Silicic acid produced by exchanging Na+ ions in dilute sodium silicate solution with H+ ions from cation resin was added with trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS) and let the reaction of TMCS with water pore proceeds for several minutes to produce hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) and HCl. Then, HMDS was added to allow the modification of silica surface in which the silanol groups were exchanged with alkyl groups originating from HMDS. The solution pH was then adjusted to 8-9 by adding NH4OH solution to induce gel formation. The hydrogel was aged at 40 °C for 18 h and at 60 °C for 1 h. Then, it was dried at 80 °C at ambient pressure condition. The silica aerogels obtained have specific surface, as measured by BET method, ranging from 450.2 to 1360.4 m2/g depending on the synthesis condition. The pore volume was ranging from 0.7 to 1.9 cm3/g. It seems that silica aerogels with very high surface area and pore volume can be obtained if the silanols group in the silica surface was exchanged succesfully with alkyl groups from HMDS.

  13. Polyimide-Foam/Aerogel Composites for Thermal Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Martha; Fesmire, James; Sass, Jared; Smith, Trent; Weoser. Erol

    2009-01-01

    Composites of specific types of polymer foams and aerogel particles or blankets have been proposed to obtain thermal insulation performance superior to those of the neat polyimide foams. These composites have potential to also provide enhanced properties for vibration dampening or acoustic attenuation. The specific type of polymer foam is denoted "TEEK-H", signifying a series, denoted H, within a family of polyimide foams that were developed at NASA s Langley Research Center and are collectively denoted TEEK (an acronym of the inventors names). The specific types of aerogels include Nanogel aerogel particles from Cabot Corporation in Billerica, MA. and of Spaceloft aerogel blanket from Aspen Aerogels in Northborough, MA. The composites are inherently flame-retardant and exceptionally thermally stable. There are numerous potential uses for these composites, at temperatures from cryogenic to high temperatures, in diverse applications that include aerospace vehicles, aircraft, ocean vessels, buildings, and industrial process equipment. Some low-temperature applications, for example, include cryogenic storage and transfer or the transport of foods, medicines, and chemicals. Because of thermal cycling, aging, and weathering most polymer foams do not perform well at cryogenic temperatures and will undergo further cracking over time. The TEEK polyimides are among the few exceptions to this pattern, and the proposed composites are intended to have all the desirable properties of TEEK-H foams, plus improved thermal performance along with enhanced vibration or acoustic-attenuation performance. A composite panel as proposed would be fabricated by adding an appropriate amount of TEEK friable balloons into a mold to form a bottom layer. A piece of flexible aerogel blanket material, cut to the desired size and shape, would then be placed on the bottom TEEK layer and sandwiched between another top layer of polyimide friable balloons so that the aerogel blanket would become

  14. Neuroecology, chemical defense, and the keystone species concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Richard K; Ferrer, Ryan P

    2007-12-01

    Neuroecology unifies principles from diverse disciplines, scaling from biophysical properties of nerve and muscle cells to community-wide impacts of trophic interactions. Here, these principles are used as a common fabric, woven from threads of chemosensory physiology, behavior, and population and community ecology. The "keystone species" concept, for example, is seminal in ecological theory. It defines a species whose impacts on communities are far greater than would be predicted from its relative abundance and biomass. Similarly, neurotoxins could function in keystone roles. They are rare within natural habitats but exert strong effects on species interactions at multiple trophic levels. Effects of two guanidine alkaloids, tetrodotoxin (TTX) and saxitoxin (STX), coalesce neurobiological and ecological perspectives. These molecules compose some of the most potent natural poisons ever described, and they are introduced into communities by one, or only a few, host species. Functioning as voltage-gated sodium channel blockers for nerve and muscle cells, TTX and STX serve in chemical defense. When borrowed by resistant consumer species, however, they are used either in chemical defense against higher order predators or for chemical communication as chemosensory excitants. Cascading effects of the compounds profoundly impact community-wide attributes, including species compositions and rates of material exchange. Thus, a diverse array of physiological traits, expressed differentially across many species, renders TTX and STX fully functional as keystone molecules, with vast ecological consequences at multiple trophic levels.

  15. Modeling silica aerogel optical performance by determining its radiative properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lin; Yang, Sungwoo; Bhatia, Bikram; Strobach, Elise; Wang, Evelyn N.

    2016-02-01

    Silica aerogel has been known as a promising candidate for high performance transparent insulation material (TIM). Optical transparency is a crucial metric for silica aerogels in many solar related applications. Both scattering and absorption can reduce the amount of light transmitted through an aerogel slab. Due to multiple scattering, the transmittance deviates from the Beer-Lambert law (exponential attenuation). To better understand its optical performance, we decoupled and quantified the extinction contributions of absorption and scattering separately by identifying two sets of radiative properties. The radiative properties are deduced from the measured total transmittance and reflectance spectra (from 250 nm to 2500 nm) of synthesized aerogel samples by solving the inverse problem of the 1-D Radiative Transfer Equation (RTE). The obtained radiative properties are found to be independent of the sample geometry and can be considered intrinsic material properties, which originate from the aerogel's microstructure. This finding allows for these properties to be directly compared between different samples. We also demonstrate that by using the obtained radiative properties, we can model the photon transport in aerogels of arbitrary shapes, where an analytical solution is difficult to obtain.

  16. Hybrid aerogels and bioactive aerogels under uniaxial compression: an in situ SAXS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esquivias, L.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The complex structure of hybrid organic/inorganic aerogels is composed by an inorganic phase covalently bonded to an organic chain forming a copolymer. Conventional hybrid aerogels were studied as well as bioactive hybrid aerogels, that is, aerogels with a calcium active phase added. In this work, the relationship between mechanical response and nanostructure was studied, using a specifically designed sample-holder for in situ uniaxial compression obtaining at the same time the small-angle X-ray pattern from synchrotron radiation (SAXS. Structural elements can be described as a particulated silica core surrounded by the organic chains. These chains are compressed on the direction parallel to the load, and a relationship between macroscopic uniaxial compression and particle and pore deformations can be established.

    La compleja estructura de los aerogeles híbridos orgánico/inorgánicos está compuesta por una fase inorgánica de sílice, unida mediante enlaces covalentes a una red de cadenas orgánicas. Se han estudiado composites híbridos convencionales y bioactivos, esto es, con una fase activa de calcio añadida. En este trabajo se ha investigado la relación entre la respuesta mecánica y la nanoestructura, con ayuda de un portamuestras específicamente diseñado para el estudio in situ de muestras bajo compresión uniaxial, a la vez que se obtiene el espectro de rayos-X a bajo-ángulo de radiación sincrotrón (SAXS. Los elementos estructurales se pueden describir como núcleos particulados de sílice rodeados de las cadenas orgánicas. Estas, se comprimen en la dirección paralela a la carga pudiéndose establecer una relación entre la compresión uniaxial macroscópica y la deformación de las partículas y poros que forman la estructura.

  17. Evaluation of supercritical CO2 dried cellulose aerogels as nano-biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sinah; Kang, Kyu-Young; Jeong, Myung-Joon; Potthast, Antje; Liebner, Falk

    2017-10-01

    Cellulose is the renewable, biodegradable and abundant resource and is suggested as an alternative material to silica due to the high price and environmental load of silica. The first step for cellulose aerogel production is to dissolve cellulose, and hydrated calcium thiocyanate molten salt is one of the most effective solvents for preparing porous material. Cellulose aerogels were prepared from dissolved cellulose samples of different degree of polymerization (DP) and drying methods, and tested with shrinkage, density and mechanical strength. Supercritical CO2 dried cellulose aerogels shrank less compared to freeze-dried cellulose aerogels, whereas the densities were increased according to the DP increases in both cellulose aerogels. Furthermore, scanning electron microscope (SEM) images showed that the higher DP cellulose aerogels were more uniform with micro-porous structure. Regarding the mechanical strength of cellulose aerogels, supercritical CO2 dried cellulose aerogels with higher molecular weight were much more solid.

  18. Full scale investigation on aerogel windows exposed to real climatic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Nielsen, Lars Thomsen

    The aim of the project “Full scale experiments with aerogel windows exposed to natural conditions” is to test the durability of aerogel windows exposed to real climatic conditions and to investigate the influence of aerogel windows compared to common low-energy windows with respect to heat balance...... and indoor thermal comfort.The influence of temperature and wind load on the durability of sealed glazing units including aerogel windows has been investigated theoretically. The analyses show that evacuated aerogel glazings are significantly more robust to temperature changes and wind load than common...... sealed glazing units, due to the rough vacuum. A non-evacuated aerogel glazing has been mounted in a experimental house for 3 years without any sign of degeneration of the aerogel material.An energy saving of 30% has been found if aerogel windows are used instead of low-energy windows with argon...

  19. Monolithic three-dimensional electrochemical energy storage system on aerogel or nanotube scaffold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Joseph C; Stadermann, Michael

    2013-11-12

    A monolithic three-dimensional electrochemical energy storage system is provided on an aerogel or nanotube scaffold. An anode, separator, cathode, and cathodic current collector are deposited on the aerogel or nanotube scaffold.

  20. Reinforced plastics and aerogels by nanocrystalline cellulose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, Alfred C. W.; Lam, Edmond; Chong, Jonathan; Hrapovic, Sabahudin; Luong, John H. T., E-mail: john.luong@cnrc-nrc.gc.ca [National Research Council Canada (Canada)

    2013-05-15

    Nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC), a rigid rod-like nanoscale material, can be produced from cellulosic biomass in powder, liquid, or gel forms by acid and chemical hydrolysis. Owing to its unique and exceptional physicochemical properties, the incorporation of a small amount of NCC into plastic enhances the mechanical strength of the latter by several orders of magnitudes. Carbohydrate-based NCC poses no serious environmental concerns, providing further impetus for the development and applications of this green and renewable biomaterial to fabricate lightweight and biodegradable composites and aerogels. Surface functionalization of NCC remains the main focus of NCC research to tailor its properties for dispersion in hydrophilic or hydrophobic media. It is of uttermost importance to develop tools and protocols for imaging of NCC in a complex matrix and quantify its reinforcement effect.

  1. Aerogel Cherenkov Counters of the KEDR Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Ovtin, I V; Barnyakov, M Y; Bobrovnikov, V S; Buzykaev, A R; Danilyuk, A F; Katcin, A A; Kononov, S A; Kravchenko, E A; Kuyanov, I A; Onuchin, A P; Rodiakin, V A

    2017-01-01

    The particle identification system of the KEDR detector is based on aerogel threshold Cherenkov counters called ASHIPH counters. The system consists of 160 counters arranged in two layers. An event reconstruction program for the ASHIPH system was developed. The position of each counter relative to the tracking system was determined using cosmic muons and Bhabha events. The geometric efficiency of the ASHIPH system was verified with Bhabha events. The efficiency of relativistic particle detection was measured with cosmic muons. A π/K separation of 4δ in the momentum range 0.95 −1.45 GeV/c was confirmed. A simulation program for the ASHIPH counters has been developed.

  2. Vanadia-silica aerogels from vanadylacetylacetonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klett, U.; Fricke, J. [Bavarian Center for Applied Energy Research (ZAE)/Physikalisches Institut der Universitaet Wuerzburg, Am Hubland, D-97074 Wuerzburg (Germany)

    1998-04-15

    For the preparation of vanadium pentoxide doped silica gels, vanadium(V) oxide trialkoxides are the precursors of choice as they possess already the desired oxidation number. In vanadylacetylacetonate, the oxidation number of vanadium is only +4 instead of +5. However, vanadylacetylacetonate is less reactive with water and thus easier to handle, less toxic and cheaper than vanadium(V) oxide triisopropoxide. Gels were prepared using vanadylacetylacetonate, tetramethoxysilane, methanol and water containing HCl or NH{sub 3} as catalyst. After supercritical drying with respect to CO{sub 2} and heat treatment in air, vanadia doped silica aerogels show the same colour change upon adsorption of water molecules as vanadium(V) oxide triisopropoxide doped silica xerogels. Structural properties were investigated by N{sub 2}-absorption and SAXS measurements

  3. Magnetic and Mössbauer spectroscopy studies of nanocrystalline iron oxide aerogels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpenter, E.E.; Long, J.W.; Rolison, D.R.

    2006-01-01

    A sol-gel synthesis was used to produce iron oxide aerogels. These nanocrystalline aerogels have a pore-solid structure similar to silica aerogels but are composed entirely of iron oxides. Mössbauer experiments and x-ray diffraction showed that the as-prepared aerogel is an amorphous or poorly...... by magnetic interactions between the particles at lower temperatures. ©2006 American Institute of Physics...

  4. Direct Ink Write (DIW) 3D Printed Cellulose Nanocrystal Aerogel Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Vincent Chi-Fung; Dunn, Conner K.; Zhang, Zhe; Deng, Yulin; Qi, H. Jerry

    2017-01-01

    Pure cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) aerogels with controlled 3D structures and inner pore architecture are printed using the direct ink write (DIW) technique. While traditional cellulosic aerogel processing approaches lack the ability to easily fabricate complete aerogel structures, DIW 3D printing followed by freeze drying can overcome this shortcoming and can produce CNC aerogels with minimal structural shrinkage or damage. The resultant products have great potential in applications such as ti...

  5. From Green Aerogels to Porous Graphite by Emulsion Gelation of Acrylonitrile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    resorcinol with formaldehyde (RF) still remains the prevalent route to C-aerogels,11 despite the long (up to a week) process.12 The resulting C-aerogels... carbonyl carbon at 176.03 ppm). The structure of emulsions as well as of the fundamental building blocks of the resulting aerogel microstructures were...spectra of both E- and H-aerogels show not only resonances assigned (by simulation) to fused pyridines but also to additional carbonyls (Figure 7).52

  6. Optically Transparent Thermally Insulating Silica Aerogels for Solar Thermal Insulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günay, A Alperen; Kim, Hannah; Nagarajan, Naveen; Lopez, Mateusz; Kantharaj, Rajath; Alsaati, Albraa; Marconnet, Amy; Lenert, Andrej; Miljkovic, Nenad

    2018-04-18

    Rooftop solar thermal collectors have the potential to meet residential heating demands if deployed efficiently at low solar irradiance (i.e., 1 sun). The efficiency of solar thermal collectors depends on their ability to absorb incoming solar energy and minimize thermal losses. Most techniques utilize a vacuum gap between the solar absorber and the surroundings to eliminate conduction and convection losses, in combination with surface coatings to minimize reradiation losses. Here, we present an alternative approach that operates at atmospheric pressure with simple, black, absorbing surfaces. Silica based aerogels coated on black surfaces have the potential to act as simple and inexpensive solar thermal collectors because of their high transmission to solar radiation and low transmission to thermal radiation. To demonstrate their heat-trapping properties, we fabricated tetramethyl orthosilicate-based silica aerogels. A hydrophilic aerogel with a thickness of 1 cm exhibited a solar-averaged transmission of 76% and thermally averaged transmission of ≈1% (at 100 °C). To minimize unwanted solar absorption by O-H groups, we functionalized the aerogel to be hydrophobic, resulting in a solar-averaged transmission of 88%. To provide a deeper understanding of the link between aerogel properties and overall efficiency, we developed a coupled radiative-conductive heat transfer model and used it to predict solar thermal performance. Instantaneous solar thermal efficiencies approaching 55% at 1 sun and 80 °C were predicted. This study sheds light on the applicability of silica aerogels on black coatings for solar thermal collectors and offers design priorities for next-generation solar thermal aerogels.

  7. Usability of large carnivore as a keystone species in Eastern Black ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to investigate the keystone species property of Brown bear (Ursus arctos), Wolf (Canis lupus) and Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx). The main selecting criteria for keystone species can be summarized as top predator or large carnivore important prey species or provide key resources and species having ...

  8. The Achilles' heel hypothesis: misinformed keystone individuals impair collective learning and reduce group success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruitt, Jonathan N; Wright, Colin M; Keiser, Carl N; DeMarco, Alex E; Grobis, Matthew M; Pinter-Wollman, Noa

    2016-01-27

    Many animal societies rely on highly influential keystone individuals for proper functioning. When information quality is important for group success, such keystone individuals have the potential to diminish group performance if they possess inaccurate information. Here, we test whether information quality (accurate or inaccurate) influences collective outcomes when keystone individuals are the first to acquire it. We trained keystone or generic individuals to attack or avoid novel stimuli and implanted these trained individuals within groups of naive colony-mates. We subsequently tracked how quickly groups learned about their environment in situations that matched (accurate information) or mismatched (inaccurate information) the training of the trained individual. We found that colonies with just one accurately informed individual were quicker to learn to attack a novel prey stimulus than colonies with no informed individuals. However, this effect was no more pronounced when the informed individual was a keystone individual. In contrast, keystones with inaccurate information had larger effects than generic individuals with identical information: groups containing keystones with inaccurate information took longer to learn to attack/avoid prey/predator stimuli and gained less weight than groups harbouring generic individuals with identical information. Our results convey that misinformed keystone individuals can become points of vulnerability for their societies. © 2016 The Author(s).

  9. The role of prairie dogs as a keystone species: response to Stapp

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. Miller; R. Reading; J. Hoogland; T. Clark; G. Ceballos; R. List; S. Forrest; L. Hanebury; P. Manzano; J. Pacheco; D. Uresk

    2000-01-01

    Stapp (1998) recently argued that it was premature to characterize prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) as keystone species. In particular, Stapp directed much of his criticism at a paper some of us wrote (Miller et al. 1994). He mistakenly interprets the main objective of our paper as providing evidence that prairie dogs are keystone species. Rather, the...

  10. EUCOM Keystone: Connecting Across Services Enabling Timely Horizontal & Vertical Integration, Product Reference Guide, Revision 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Keystone is not one size fits all; one application cannot meet all needs. Keystone builds many-to-many relationships among applications to meet the unique...the Site Survey: o USAG Stuttgart EM o MWR (facilities include hotel, gym , bowling center, outdoor recreation, auto crafts, CDC, sports office) o

  11. X-Aerogels for Structural Components and High Temperature Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Future NASA missions and space explorations rely on the use of materials that are strong ultra lightweight and able to withstand extreme temperatures. Aerogels are low density (0.01-0.5 g/cu cm) high porosity materials that contain a glass like structure formed through standard sol-gel chemistry. As a result of these structural properties, aerogels are excellent thermal insulators and are able to withstand temperatures in excess of l,000 C. The open structure of aerogels, however, renders these materials extremely fragile (fracturing at stress forces less than 0.5 N/sq cm). The goal of NASA Glenn Research Center is to increase the strength of these materials by templating polymers and metals onto the surface of an aerogel network facilitating the use of this material for practical applications such as structural components of space vehicles used in exploration. The work this past year focused on two areas; (1) the research and development of new templated aerogels materials and (2) process development for future manufacturing of structural components. Research and development occurred on the production and characterization of new templating materials onto the standard silica aerogel. Materials examined included polymers such as polyimides, fluorinated isocyanates and epoxies, and, metals such as silver, gold and platinum. The final properties indicated that the density of the material formed using an isocyanate is around 0.50 g/cc with a strength greater than that of steel and has low thermal conductivity. The process used to construct these materials is extremely time consuming and labor intensive. One aspect of the project involved investigating the feasibility of shortening the process time by preparing the aerogels in the templating solvent. Traditionally the polymerization used THF as the solvent and after several washes to remove any residual monomers and water, the solvent around the aerogels was changed to acetonitrile for the templating step. This process

  12. Fabrication of Graphene Aerogels with Heavily Loaded Metallic Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Shen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Natural biomaterials with hierarchical structures that enable extraordinary capability of detecting chemicals have inspired the interest in producing materials that can mimic these natural structures. This study reports the fabrication of hierarchically-structured, reduced graphene oxide (rGO aerogels with heavily loaded palladium (Pd, platinum (Pt, nickel (Ni, and tin (Sn metallic nanoparticles. Metal salts chelated with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA were mixed with graphene oxide (GO and then freeze-dried. The subsequent reduction produces rGO/metal nanoparticle aerogels. SEM and EDS results indicated that a loading of 59, 67, 39, and 46 wt % of Pd, Pt, Ni, and Sn nanoparticles was achieved. Pd/rGO aerogels of different Pd nanoparticle concentrations were exposed to H2 gas to monitor the resistance change of the composites. The results suggest that rGO aerogels can achieve a higher nanoparticle loading by using chelation to minimize electrostatic interactions between metal ions and GO. Higher loading of Pd nanoparticles in graphene aerogels lead to improved hydrogen gas sensing performance.

  13. Low-Density, Aerogel-Filled Thermal-Insulation Tiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Maryann; Heng, Vann; Barney, Andrea; Oka, Kris; Droege, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Aerogel fillings have been investigated in a continuing effort to develop low-density thermal-insulation tiles that, relative to prior such tiles, have greater dimensional stability (especially less shrinkage), equal or lower thermal conductivity, and greater strength and durability. In preparation for laboratory tests of dimensional and thermal stability, prototypes of aerogel-filled versions of recently developed low-density tiles have been fabricated by impregnating such tiles to various depths with aerogel formations ranging in density from 1.5 to 5.6 lb/ft3 (about 53 to 200 kg/cu m). Results available at the time of reporting the information for this article showed that the thermal-insulation properties of the partially or fully aerogel- impregnated tiles were equivalent or superior to those of the corresponding non-impregnated tiles and that the partially impregnated tiles exhibited minimal (tiles containing aerogels at the higher end of the density range are stable after multiple exposures at the said temperature.

  14. Van der Waal Interactions in Ultrafine Nanocellulose Aerogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritch, Byron; Bradley, Derek; Kidd, Tim

    Nanocellulose aerogels have shown an ability to be used in many different applications ranging from oil sponges to conductive materials to possibly a low calorie food substitute. Not much is known about the structural and physical property changes that occur when the composition of the aerogel changes. We studied what properties change when the aerogel amounts change, as well as how sticky the aerogels are and how strong they are. The higher concentrations appeared to have more plate-like structures while the lower concentrations had a more fibrous material. These fibers in the low concentrations had a smaller diameter than a human hair. Only the low concentration aerogels were able to stick to a glass surface in the adhesion test, but were able to support a mass much larger than their own. These low concentrations also would stick to your finger when lightly touched. Preliminary tests show that a concentration that is not too low, but not too high, is best for tensile strength. All concentrations were able to hold many times their own mass. Cellulose should be studied more because it is a renewable material and is easily accessed. Nanocellulose is also not environmentally dangerous allowing it to be used in applications involving humans and the environment like noted above. National Science Foundation Grant DMR-1410496.

  15. Determination of keystone species in CSM food web: A topological analysis of network structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LiQin Jiang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The importance of a species is correlated with its topological properties in a food web. Studies of keystone species provide the valuable theory and evidence for conservation ecology, biodiversity, habitat management, as well as the dynamics and stability of the ecosystem. Comparing with biological experiments, network methods based on topological structure possess particular advantage in the identification of keystone species. In present study, we quantified the relative importance of species in Carpinteria Salt Marsh food web by analyzing five centrality indices. The results showed that there were large differences in rankings species in terms of different centrality indices. Moreover, the correlation analysis of those centralities was studied in order to enhance the identifying ability of keystone species. The results showed that the combination of degree centrality and closeness centrality could better identify keystone species, and the keystone species in the CSM food web were identified as, Stictodora hancocki, small cyathocotylid, Pygidiopsoides spindalis, Phocitremoides ovale and Parorchis acanthus.

  16. Sol–gel synthesis of highly TiO2 aerogel photocatalyst via high temperature supercritical drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebah Moussaoui

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nanocrystalline powders of TiO2 xerogel and aerogel were prepared by using acid-modified sol–gel approach. For TiO2 aerogel material (TA, the solvent was high temperature supercritically extracted at 300 °C and 100 bars. However, the TiO2 xerogel material (TX was dried at 200 °C and ambient pressure. The effects of the drying processes on the crystalline structure, phase transformation and grain growth were determined by Raman spectroscopy, SAED and X-ray diffraction (XRD analyses using Rietveld refinement method. The TiO2 aerogel was composed of anatase crystalline structure. The TiO2 xerogel material was composed of anatase, brookite and small amount of amorphous phase with anatase as dominant phase. The TX sample still contains a relatively high concentration of carbon than that of TA, indicating the amorphous character of TiO2 xerogel. These materials were applied as catalyst for the degradation of indigo carmine in aqueous medium. Photo-degradation ability of TA and TX was compared to the TiO2 commercial Degussa P25. The photo-catalytic results showed that the degradation efficiency was in the order TA > P25 > TX. The photo-degradation of indigo carmine followed pseudo first order reaction kinetics.

  17. Measurements of scattering, transmittance/reflectance, IR-transmittance and thermal conductivity of small aerogel samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duer, Karsten; Svendsen, Sv Aa Højgaard

    1997-01-01

    By providing at the same time thermal insulation and transparency the silica aerogel is a very attractive material for the purpose of improving the thermal performance of windows. Nevertheless a lot of problems have to be solved on the way from concept to the developed product. The B1 Aerogels...... project deals with some of these problems.This report summarizes the work that has been carried out on the subject of characterizing the optical and thermal performance of different types of aerogels and aerogel-like materials for the purpose of using aerogel in clear glazings.All measurements presented...

  18. Application of the new keystone-species concept to prairie dogs: How well does it work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotliar, N.B.

    2000-01-01

    It has been suggested that the keystone-species concept should be dropped from ecology and conservation, primarily because the concept is poorly defined. This prompted Power et al. (1996) to refine the definition: keystone species have large effects on community structure or ecosystem function (i.e., high overall importance), and this effect should be large relative to abundance (i.e., high community importance). Using prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) as an example, I review operational and conceptual difficulties encountered in applying this definition. As applied to prairie dogs, the implicit assumption that overall importance is a linear function of abundance is invalid. In addition, community importance is sensitive to abundance levels, the definition of community, and sampling scale. These problems arise largely from the equation for community importance, as used in conjunction with removal experiments at single abundance levels. I suggest that we shift from the current emphasis on the dualism between keystone and nonkeystone species and instead examine how overall and community importance vary (1) with abundance, (2) across spatial and temporal scales, and (3) under diverse ecological conditions. In addition, I propose that a third criterion be incorporated into the definition: keystone species perform roles not performed by other species or processes. Examination of how these factors vary among populations of keystone species should help identify the factors contributing to, or limiting, keystone-level functions, thereby increasing the usefulness of the keystone-species concept in ecology and conservation. Although the quantitative framework of Power et al. falls short of being fully operational, my conceptual guidelines may improve the usefulness of the keystone-species concept. Careful attention to the factors that limit keystone function will help avoid misplaced emphasis on keystone species at the expense of other species.

  19. Aerogel Hybrid Composite Materials: Designs and Testing for Multifunctional Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Martha K.; Fesmire, James E.

    2016-01-01

    This webinar will introduce the broad spectrum of aerogel composites and their diverse performance properties such as reduced heat transfer to energy storage, and expands specifically on the aerogel/fiber laminate systems and testing methodologies. The multi-functional laminate composite system, AeroFiber, and its construction is designed by varying the type of fiber (e.g. polyester, carbon, Kevlar®, Spectra® or Innegral(TradeMark) and combinations thereof), the aerogel panel type and thickness, and overall layup configuration. The combination and design of materials may be customized and tailored to achieve a range of desired properties in the resulting laminate system. Multi-functional properties include structural strength, impact resistance, reduction in heat transfer, increased fire resistance, mechanical energy absorption, and acoustic energy dampening. Applications include aerospace, aircraft, automotive, boating, building and construction, lightweight portable structures, liquefied natural gas, cryogenics, transportation and energy, sporting equipment, and military protective gear industries.

  20. Pore Structure and Mechanical Properties of Poly(methylsilsesquioxane) Aerogels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanamori, K; Hayase, G; Nakanishi, K; Hanada, T, E-mail: kanamori@kuchem.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2011-10-29

    Organic-inorganic hybrid aerogels have been prepared by an acid/base two-step sol-gel reaction utilizing urea and surfactant. Polycondensation of methyltrimethoxysilane (MTMS) is promoted by the hydrolysis of urea, and the hydrophobicity of condensates is weakened by adequate cationic or nonionic surfactant. Aerogels with low bulk density ({approx} 0.13 g cm{sup -3}) and high visible light transmittance ({approx} 89 % at 550 nm through 10 mm-thick sample) are obtained. The resultant hybrid aerogels show high deformability and subsequent spring-back upon uniaxial compression owing to the lower cross-linking density and residual silanol density compared to silica, and to the presence of hydrophobic methyl groups in the network. Additional aging of as-prepared wet gels in water improved mechanical properties in the case of cationic surfactant system.

  1. Aerogel-Based Insulation for Industrial Steam Distribution Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Williams

    2011-03-30

    Thermal losses in industrial steam distribution systems account for 977 trillion Btu/year in the US, more than 1% of total domestic energy consumption. Aspen Aerogels worked with Department of Energy’s Industrial Technologies Program to specify, develop, scale-up, demonstrate, and deliver Pyrogel XT®, an aerogel-based pipe insulation, to market to reduce energy losses in industrial steam systems. The product developed has become Aspen’s best selling flexible aerogel blanket insulation and has led to over 60 new jobs. Additionally, this product has delivered more than ~0.7 TBTU of domestic energy savings to date, and could produce annual energy savings of 149 TBTU by 2030. Pyrogel XT’s commercial success has been driven by it’s 2-4X better thermal performance, improved durability, greater resistance to corrosion under insulation (CUI), and faster installation times than incumbent insulation materials.

  2. Ultrasound propagation in dense aerogels filled with liquid 4He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, K; Ohmori, K; Abe, S; Kanamori, K; Nakanishi, K

    2012-01-01

    Longitudinal ultrasound propagation was studied in dense aerogels filled with liquid 4 He. Sound velocity and attenuation were measured at the frequency of 6 MHz in both normal and superfluid phases. Pressure dependence of velocity and attenuation were also studied. Studied aerogels had porosities about 85%. They had two different types of structure, tangled strand structure and aggregated particles structure. The pore size distributions were narrow. Reduction of superfluid transition temperature mainly depended on not porosity but mean pore size. The structure of gel played an important role in sound velocity and attenuation.

  3. System and method for 3D printing of aerogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsley, Marcus A.; Duoss, Eric; Kuntz, Joshua; Spadaccini, Christopher; Zhu, Cheng

    2016-03-08

    A method of forming an aerogel. The method may involve providing a graphene oxide powder and mixing the graphene oxide powder with a solution to form an ink. A 3D printing technique may be used to write the ink into a catalytic solution that is contained in a fluid containment member to form a wet part. The wet part may then be cured in a sealed container for a predetermined period of time at a predetermined temperature. The cured wet part may then be dried to form a finished aerogel part.

  4. Formation and pore structure of boron nitride aerogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindquist, D.H.; Borek, T.T.; Kramer, S.J.; Kramer, S.J.; Naruta, C.K.; Johnson, G.; Schaeffer, R.; Smith, D.M.; Paine, R.T.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports gels containing a poly(borazinyl amine) and tetrahydrofuran processed by CO 2 supercritical drying techniques followed by pyrolysis. The resulting BN ceramic aerogels are highly porous, and the microstructure, porosity, and surface area characteristics have been examined. The aerogels show excellent thermal stability exhibiting surface areas in excess of 350 m 2 /g and porosities greater than 0.8 even when heated in argon at 1500 degrees C for 8 h. By removing solvent via evaporation before supercritical drying, the mean pore radius can be varied between 3.6 and 10 nm

  5. The Use of Keystone Flaps in Periarticular Wound Closure: A Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas H. Jovic

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Keystone perforator island flap (Keystone flap, is a Type A fasciocutaneous advancement flap, consisting of two V to Y advancement flaps. Skin cancer excision around joints presents a number of reconstructive challenges. Owing to the mobile nature of joints, the optimal periarticular reconstructive option should possess the ability to provide adequate tissue coverage and withstand regional changes in tensile pressures. We report a single-surgeon series of five cases of periarticular keystone flap between 2014 and 2017. Data were collected from operation notes, clinical photography, histopathology, and outpatient clinic records. The indication for keystone flap was skin cancer in all cases (n = 5. The largest defect size post-excision in was 75 mm × 40 mm × 15 mm. All keystone flaps demonstrate a color and cosmetic appearance comparable to adjacent tissue. There were no major postoperative complications including flap failure or impaired range of joint movement in the follow up period. Superficial wound infection occurred postoperatively in one case. This is the first case series to discuss the use of keystone flaps in periarticular wound closure. Locoregional fasciocutaneous wound coverage offered by keystone flaps may alleviate the risks of graft failure, contour defects, and donor site morbidity associated with alternative reconstructive options, with good functional and cosmetic outcomes. We advocate their use as a robust reconstructive option in periarticular areas.

  6. Green synthesis of hybrid graphene oxide/microcrystalline cellulose aerogels and their use as superabsorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Xiao; Huang, Ting; Yang, Jing-hui; Zhang, Nan; Wang, Yong; Zhou, Zuo-wan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Hybrid GO/MCC aerogels were prepared using LiBr aqueous solution as the solvent. • GO was exfoliated by MCC through the strong interaction between them. • The adsorption ability of GO per unit mass in the hybrid aerogels was greatly enhanced. - Abstract: In this work, we developed a green synthesis method to prepare the hybrid aerogels containing graphene oxide (GO) and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) using lithium bromide (LiBr) aqueous solution as the solvent, which insured the complete dissolution of MCC. The interaction between GO and MCC was investigated through different methods The results demonstrate that there is a strong interaction between GO and MCC molecules, which promotes the exfoliation of GO in the hybrid aerogels. The hybrid GO/MCC aerogels exhibit typical three dimensional porous structure and the pore morphology can be well adjusted by changing the content of GO. The adsorption ability of the hybrid aerogels was measured using methylene blue (MB) as an adsorbate. The results show that the adsorption ability of GO per unit mass is greatly enhanced compared with the pure GO aerogel, especially at relatively low GO content the adsorption amount of GO per unit mass is enhanced up to 2630 mg/g. Further results demonstrate that the hybrid GO/MCC aerogels still obey the pseudo-second-order adsorption model, which is similar to that of the pure GO aerogel. The mechanism for the amplified adsorption ability of GO in the hybrid GO/MCC aerogels is then analyzed.

  7. Synthesis of ZnO-CuO Nanocomposite Aerogels by the Sol-Gel Route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rula M. Allaf

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The epoxide addition sol-gel method has been utilized to synthesize porous zinc-copper composite aerogels in the zinc-to-copper molar ratios of 50 : 50 to 90 : 10. A two-step mixing approach has been employed to produce aerogels composed of nano- to micrometer sized particles. The aerogels were characterized by ultrahigh resolution scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and powder X-ray diffraction. The as-synthesized aerogels had a thin flake- or petal-like microstructure comprised of clustered flakes on two size scales; they were identified as being crystalline with the crystalline species identified as copper nitrate hydroxide, zinc hydroxide chloride hydrate, and zinc hydroxide nitrate hydrate. Annealing of the aerogel materials at a relatively low temperature (400°C resulted in a complete phase transition of the material to give highly crystalline ZnO-CuO aerogels; the aerogels consisted of networked nanoparticles in the ~25–550 nm size range with an average crystallite size of ~3 nm and average crystallinity of 98%. ZnO-CuO aerogels are of particular interest due to their particular catalytic and sensing properties. This work emphasizes the versatility of this sol-gel route in synthesizing aerogels; this method offers a possible route for the fabrication of aerogels of different metal oxides and their composites.

  8. Green synthesis of hybrid graphene oxide/microcrystalline cellulose aerogels and their use as superabsorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Xiao; Huang, Ting; Yang, Jing-hui; Zhang, Nan; Wang, Yong, E-mail: yongwang1976@163.com; Zhou, Zuo-wan

    2017-08-05

    Highlights: • Hybrid GO/MCC aerogels were prepared using LiBr aqueous solution as the solvent. • GO was exfoliated by MCC through the strong interaction between them. • The adsorption ability of GO per unit mass in the hybrid aerogels was greatly enhanced. - Abstract: In this work, we developed a green synthesis method to prepare the hybrid aerogels containing graphene oxide (GO) and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) using lithium bromide (LiBr) aqueous solution as the solvent, which insured the complete dissolution of MCC. The interaction between GO and MCC was investigated through different methods The results demonstrate that there is a strong interaction between GO and MCC molecules, which promotes the exfoliation of GO in the hybrid aerogels. The hybrid GO/MCC aerogels exhibit typical three dimensional porous structure and the pore morphology can be well adjusted by changing the content of GO. The adsorption ability of the hybrid aerogels was measured using methylene blue (MB) as an adsorbate. The results show that the adsorption ability of GO per unit mass is greatly enhanced compared with the pure GO aerogel, especially at relatively low GO content the adsorption amount of GO per unit mass is enhanced up to 2630 mg/g. Further results demonstrate that the hybrid GO/MCC aerogels still obey the pseudo-second-order adsorption model, which is similar to that of the pure GO aerogel. The mechanism for the amplified adsorption ability of GO in the hybrid GO/MCC aerogels is then analyzed.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of hybrid composite aerogels from alginic acid and graphene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Co, C. J. U.; Quitain, A. T.; Borja, J. Q.; Dugos, N. P.; Takafuji, M.; Kida, T.

    2017-06-01

    Aerogels are one class of solid adsorbents that are gaining considerable attention because of their very high porosity, high specific surface area, and extremely low density. However, most aerogels being studied and used recently are synthetic in nature, which are usually mesoporous silica and metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). As research focus is geared towards sustainable engineering, it is desired to utilize biomass to synthesize aerogels. This study thus aims to produce alginic acid-graphene oxide hybrid composite aerogels and compare them with its existing synthetic counterparts. Alginic acid (AA) is an abundant marine biopolymer that easily forms gels, while graphene oxide (GO) is a nanomaterial consisting of many functional groups. Aerogels made up of AA and GO were successfully synthesized using a sol-gel method. The hydrogel was converted into an aerogel by drying with supercritical carbon dioxide. The percentage of graphene oxide was varied from 0 to 20%. The aerogels were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurements. The addition of GO increased the specific surface area of the aerogel up to a certain point, after which it decreased. The 10% GO-AA aerogel showed the most favourable porosity characteristics with a specific surface area of 177.26 m2/g and average pore diameter of 53.2 nm. There had been no observable difference in the thermal behaviour of the aerogels with a change in the concentration of graphene oxide.

  10. Fabrication and characterization of Aerogel-Polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS) Insulation Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Yeoung ah; Song, Sinae; Taik Kim, Hee

    2018-03-01

    The building has a large impact on the space heating demand and the indoor environment is affected by climate or daylight. Hence, silica aerogel has generally used as a film to reduce the coefficient of the window in the building. Silica aerogel is a suitable material to apply for insulation material with lower thermal conductivity than that of air to save interior energy. However expensive precursor and drying process were the main issue of the silica aerogel synthesis and practical usage. We attempt to fabricate aerogel insulation film for energy saving through the economic process under ambient pressure. Silica aerogel was synthesized from rice husk ash, which was an agricultural waste to be able to recycle. Taguchi design was used to optimize the parameters (amount of rice husk ash, pH, aging time) controlling the surface area of silica aerogel. The silica aerogel is prepared by sol-gel processing through acidic treatment and aging. The silica aerogel was obtained by modification of silica hydrogel surface and dry at ambient pressure. Finally, aerogel film was respectively fabricated by the different content of aerogel in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Silica aerogel obtained 21 – 24nm average particle size was analyzed by SEM and silica aerogel with high surface area (832.26 m2/g), pore size ( 3.30nm ) was characterized by BET. Then silica Aerogel – PDMS insulation film with thermal conductivity (0.002 W/mK) was analyzed by thermal wave system. The study demonstrates an eco-friendly and low-cost route toward silica – PDMS insulation film with low thermal conductivity (0.002 W/mK).

  11. Aerogel-Based Insulation for High-Temperature Industrial Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Owen Evans

    2011-10-13

    Under this program, Aspen Aerogels has developed an industrial insulation called Pyrogel HT, which is 4-5 times more thermally efficient than current non-aerogel technology. Derived from nanoporous silica aerogels, Pyrogel HT was specifically developed to address a high temperature capability gap not currently met with Aspen Aerogels{trademark} flagship product, Pyrogel XT. Pyrogel XT, which was originally developed on a separate DOE contract (DE-FG36-06GO16056), was primarily optimized for use in industrial steam processing systems, where application temperatures typically do not exceed 400 C. At the time, further improvements in thermal performance above 400 C could not be reasonably achieved for Pyrogel XT without significantly affecting other key material properties using the current technology. Cumulative sales of Pyrogel HT into domestic power plants should reach $125MM through 2030, eventually reaching about 10% of the total insulation market share in that space. Global energy savings would be expected to scale similarly. Over the same period, these sales would reduce domestic energy consumption by more than 65 TBtu. Upon branching out into all industrial processes in the 400 C-650 C regime, Pyrogel HT would reach annual sales levels of $150MM, with two-thirds of that being exported.

  12. Development of windows based on highly insulating aerogel glazings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Kristiansen, Finn Harken

    2004-01-01

    Within a finished and a current EU project, research and development of monolithic silica aerogel as transparent insulation in windows are being carried out. On behalf of the partners of the two projects, results related to the window application will be presented here. At the thermal envelope...

  13. Study on Thermal Conductivities of Aromatic Polyimide Aerogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Junzong; Wang, Xin; Jiang, Yonggang; Du, Dongxuan; Feng, Jian

    2016-05-25

    Polyimide aerogels for low density thermal insulation materials were produced by 4,4'-diaminodiphenyl ether and 3,3',4,4'-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride, cross-linked with 1,3,5-triaminophenoxybenzene. The densities of obtained polyimide aerogels are between 0.081 and 0.141 g cm(-3), and the specific surface areas are between 288 and 322 m(2) g(-1). The thermal conductivities were measured by a Hot Disk thermal constant analyzer. The value of the measured thermal conductivity under carbon dioxide atmosphere is lower than that under nitrogen atmosphere. Under pressure of 5 Pa at -130 °C, the thermal conductivity is the lowest, which is 8.42 mW (m K)(-1). The polyimide aerogels have lower conductivity [30.80 mW (m K)(-1)], compared to the value for other organic foams (polyurethane foam, phenolic foam, and polystyrene foam) with similar apparent densities under ambient pressure at 25 °C. The results indicate that polyimide aerogel is an ideal insulation material for aerospace and other applications.

  14. Titania aerogel prepared by low temperature supercritical drying

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štengl, Václav; Bakardjieva, Snejana; Šubrt, Jan; Szatmáry, Lórant

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 91, 1-3 (2006), s. 1-6 ISSN 1387-1811 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0577 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : aerogels * titanium oxide * supercritical drying Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.796, year: 2006

  15. Thin Aerogel as a Spacer in Multilayer Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroz, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Cryogenic fluid management is a critical technical area that is needed for future space exploration. A key challenge is the storability of liquid hydrogen (LH2), liquid methane (LCH4), and liquid oxygen (LOX) propellants for long-duration missions. The storage tanks must be well-insulated to prevent over-pressurization and venting, which can lead to unacceptable propellant losses for long-duration missions to Mars and beyond. Aspen Aerogels had validated the key process step to enable the fabrication of thin, low-density aerogel materials. The multilayer aerogel insulation (MLAI) system prototypes were prepared using sheets of aerogel materials with superior thermal performance exceeding current state-of-the-art insulation for space applications. The exceptional properties of this system include a new breakthrough in high-vacuum cryogenic thermal insulation, providing a durable material with excellent thermal performance at a reduced cost when compared to longstanding state-of-the-art multilayer insulation systems. During the Phase II project, further refinement and qualification/system-level testing of the MLAI system will be performed for use in cryogenic storage applications. Aspen has been in discussions with United Launch Alliance, LLC; NASA's Kennedy Space Center; and Yetispace, Inc., to test the MLAI system on rea-lworld tanks such as Vibro-Acoustic Test Article (VATA) or the Cryogenic Orbital Testbed (CRYOTE).

  16. Aerogel-Based Antennas for Aerospace and Terrestrial Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meador, Mary Ann (Inventor); Miranda, Felix (Inventor); Van Keuls, Frederick (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Systems and methods for lightweight, customizable antenna with improved performance and mechanical properties are disclosed. In some aspects, aerogels can be used, for example, as a substrate for antenna fabrication. The reduced weight and expense, as well as the increased ability to adapt antenna designs, permits a systems to mitigate a variety of burdens associated with antennas while providing added benefits.

  17. Development of aerogel Cherenkov counters for KEDR detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onuchin, A.P.; Shamov, A.G.; Vorobiov, A.I.; Danilyuk, A.F.; Gorodetskaya, T.A.; Kunznetsov, V.L.

    1990-01-01

    A threshold Cherenkov counters were proposed for particle identification in KEDR detector for B-mesons study. The counters are based on silica aerogel and phototubes, which can work in high magnetic field. Counters have a compact design and nearly 4π acceptance. In this paper design of counters is described. Tests of phototubes and Cherenkov counter prototype are presented

  18. The Ins and Outs of Viral Infection: Keystone Meeting Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara W. Bird

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Newly observed mechanisms for viral entry, assembly, and exit are challenging our current understanding of the replication cycle of different viruses. To address and better understand these mechanisms, a Keystone Symposium was organized in the snowy mountains of Colorado (“The Ins and Outs of Viral Infection: Entry, Assembly, Exit, and Spread”; 30 March–4 April 2014, Beaver Run Resort, Breckenridge, Colorado, organized by Karla Kirkegaard, Mavis Agbandje-McKenna, and Eric O. Freed. The meeting served to bring together cell biologists, structural biologists, geneticists, and scientists expert in viral pathogenesis to discuss emerging mechanisms of viral ins and outs. The conference was organized around different phases of the viral replication cycle, including cell entry, viral assembly and post-assembly maturation, virus structure, cell exit, and virus spread. This review aims to highlight important topics and themes that emerged during the conference.

  19. Beech cupules as keystone structures for soil fauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melguizo-Ruiz, Nereida; Jiménez-Navarro, Gerardo; Moya-Laraño, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Facilitative or positive interactions are ubiquitous in nature and play a fundamental role in the configuration of ecological communities. In particular, habitat modification and niche construction, in which one organism locally modifies abiotic conditions and favours other organisms by buffering the effects of adverse environmental factors, are among the most relevant facilitative interactions. In line with this, 'keystone structures', which provide resources, refuge, or advantageous services decisive for other species, may allow the coexistence of various species and thus considerably contribute to diversity maintenance. Beech cupules are woody husks harbouring beech fruits that remain in the forest soil for relatively long periods of time. In this study, we explored the potential role of these cupules in the distribution and maintenance of the soil fauna inhabiting the leaf litter layer. We experimentally manipulated cupule availability and soil moisture in the field to determine if such structures are limiting and can provide moist shelter to soil animals during drought periods, contributing to minimize desiccation risks. We measured invertebrate abundances inside relative to outside the cupules, total abundances in the leaf litter and animal body sizes, in both dry and wet experimental plots. We found that these structures are preferentially used by the most abundant groups of smaller soil animals-springtails, mites and enchytraeids-during droughts. Moreover, beech cupules can be limiting, as an increase in use was found with higher cupule densities, and are important resources for many small soil invertebrates, driving the spatial structure of the soil community and promoting higher densities in the leaf litter, probably through an increase in habitat heterogeneity. We propose that fruit woody structures should be considered 'keystone structures' that contribute to soil community maintenance. Therefore, beech trees may indirectly facilitate soil fauna

  20. Beech cupules as keystone structures for soil fauna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nereida Melguizo-Ruiz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Facilitative or positive interactions are ubiquitous in nature and play a fundamental role in the configuration of ecological communities. In particular, habitat modification and niche construction, in which one organism locally modifies abiotic conditions and favours other organisms by buffering the effects of adverse environmental factors, are among the most relevant facilitative interactions. In line with this, ‘keystone structures’, which provide resources, refuge, or advantageous services decisive for other species, may allow the coexistence of various species and thus considerably contribute to diversity maintenance. Beech cupules are woody husks harbouring beech fruits that remain in the forest soil for relatively long periods of time. In this study, we explored the potential role of these cupules in the distribution and maintenance of the soil fauna inhabiting the leaf litter layer. We experimentally manipulated cupule availability and soil moisture in the field to determine if such structures are limiting and can provide moist shelter to soil animals during drought periods, contributing to minimize desiccation risks. We measured invertebrate abundances inside relative to outside the cupules, total abundances in the leaf litter and animal body sizes, in both dry and wet experimental plots. We found that these structures are preferentially used by the most abundant groups of smaller soil animals—springtails, mites and enchytraeids—during droughts. Moreover, beech cupules can be limiting, as an increase in use was found with higher cupule densities, and are important resources for many small soil invertebrates, driving the spatial structure of the soil community and promoting higher densities in the leaf litter, probably through an increase in habitat heterogeneity. We propose that fruit woody structures should be considered ‘keystone structures’ that contribute to soil community maintenance. Therefore, beech trees may

  1. On the improvement of mechanical properties of monolithic silica aerogels (for transparent insulating material); Silica aerogel (tomei dannetsu zairyo) kyodo no kaizen ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tajiri, K.; Igarashi, K.; Tanemura, S. [National Industrial Research Institute of Nagoya, Nagoya (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Study was made on improvement of the strength of silica aerogel as transparent insulating material. Silica aerogel is a low-density porous material with high heat insulation and transparency. To develop a insulating material with high transparency, monolithic silica aerogel was studied. For direct use of it for windows, its strength improvement was attempted. The aerogel was prepared by supercritical drying (alcohol or CO2) of silica wet gel obtained by hydrolysis and condensation of silicon alkoxide solution. To prepare the aerogel bonded on plate glass for strength improvement, the aerogel was bonded to alkoxide by exposing active silanol radical through F-etching of plate glass surface. However, to obtain the practical large-area bonded aerogel, shrinkage control of the aerogel in supercritical drying was necessary. Addition of Laponite into a silica network for strength improvement by polymer increased the bending strength by 50%. Although some reduction of its transparency was observed because of clouding, its heat insulation was stable. Further strength improvement is necessary for its practical use. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Recent Advances in Research on the Synthetic Fiber Based Silica Aerogel Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Ślosarczyk

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The presented paper contains a brief review on the synthesis and characterization of silica aerogels and its nanocomposites with nanofibers and fibers based on a literature study over the past twenty years and my own research. Particular attention is focused on carbon fiber-based silica aerogel nanocomposites. Silica aerogel is brittle in nature, therefore, it is necessary to improve this drawback, e.g., by polymer modification or fiber additives. Nevertheless, there are very few articles in the literature devoted to the synthesis of silica aerogel/fiber nanocomposites, especially those focusing on carbon fibers and nanofibers. Carbon fibers are very interesting materials, namely due to their special properties: high conductivity, high mechanical properties in relation to very low bulk densities, high thermal stability, and chemical resistance in the silica aerogel matrix, which can help enhance silica aerogel applications in the future.

  3. Methods for controlling pore morphology in aerogels using electric fields and products thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worsley, Marcus A.; Baumann, Theodore F.; Satcher, Jr., Joe H.; Olson, Tammy Y.; Kuntz, Joshua D.; Rose, Klint A.

    2017-12-16

    In one embodiment, an aerogel or xerogel includes column structures of a material having minor pores therein and major pores devoid of the material positioned between the column structures, where longitudinal axes of the major pores are substantially parallel to one another. In another embodiment, a method includes heating a sol including aerogel or xerogel precursor materials to cause gelation thereof to form an aerogel or xerogel and exposing the heated sol to an electric field, wherein the electric field causes orientation of a microstructure of the sol during gelation, which is retained by the aerogel or xerogel. In one approach, an aerogel has elongated pores extending between a material arranged in column structures having structural characteristics of being formed from a sol exposed to an electric field that causes orientation of a microstructure of the sol during gelation which is retained by the elongated pores of the aerogel.

  4. Characterization of pure and composite resorcinol formaldehyde aerogels doped with silver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, S. M.; Abdelfatah, M. S.; Mossad, M. M.

    2017-07-01

    A series of Resorcinol Formaldehyde (RF) aerogels composites with nanoparticles of sliver were prepared by the sol-gel method at different concentrations doped silver. FTIR spectra of pure and composite RF aerogels show six absorption bands attributed to -OH groups bonded to the benzene ring, stretching of -CH2- bonds and aromatic ring stretching. FTIR results ensured that sliver particles do not interact with aerogel network. UV-visible spectrum of pure silver show an absorbance peak at 420 nm attributed to the surface plasmon excitation of sliver Nano spheres. UV-visible spectral of pure and composite RF aerogels shows a steep decrease of absorption with wavelength after 500 nm, making sample’s color reddish brown. TEM and SEM images of pure and composite RF aerogels revealed that the textural arrangement of RF aerogels can be described as densely packed small nodules.

  5. Spray freeze-dried nanofibrillated cellulose aerogels with thermal superinsulating properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Saelices, Clara; Seantier, Bastien; Cathala, Bernard; Grohens, Yves

    2017-02-10

    Nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) aerogels were prepared by spray freeze-drying (SFD). Their structural, mechanical and thermal insulation properties were compared to those of NFC aerogels prepared by conventional freeze-drying (CFD). The purpose of this investigation is to develop superinsulating bioaerogels by reducing their pore size. Severe reduction of the aerogel pore size and skeleton architecture were observed by SEM, aerogels prepared by SFD method show a fibril skeleton morphology, which defines a mesoporous structure. BET analyses confirm the appearance of a new organization structure with pores of nanometric sizes. As a consequence, the thermal insulation properties were significantly improved for SFD materials compared to CFD aerogel, reaching values of thermal conductivity as low as 0.018W/(mK). Moreover, NFC aerogels have a thermal conductivity below that of air in ambient conditions, making them one of the best cellulose based thermal superinsulating material. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Generation in Between: A Perspective from the Keystone IV Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Frederick M; Bliss, Erika; Dunn, Aaron; Edgoose, Jennifer; Elliott, Tricia C; Maxwell, Lisa C; Morris, Carl G; Phillips, Robert L

    2016-01-01

    Keystone IV affirmed the value of relationships in family medicine, but each generation of family physicians took away different impressions and lessons. "Generation III," between the Baby Boomers and Millennials, reported conflict between their professional ideal of family medicine and the realities of current practice. But the Keystone conference also helped them appreciate core values of family medicine, their shared experience, and new opportunities for leadership. © Copyright 2016 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  7. Determination of keystone species in CSM food web: A topological analysis of network structure

    OpenAIRE

    LiQin Jiang; WenJun Zhang

    2015-01-01

    The importance of a species is correlated with its topological properties in a food web. Studies of keystone species provide the valuable theory and evidence for conservation ecology, biodiversity, habitat management, as well as the dynamics and stability of the ecosystem. Comparing with biological experiments, network methods based on topological structure possess particular advantage in the identification of keystone species. In present study, we quantified the relative importance of specie...

  8. Polysaccharide-based aerogels as water absorbent and oxygen scavenger in meat packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Gracanac, Bojana

    2015-01-01

    Polysaccharide-based aerogels are a novel concept with potential application in the food sector due to their material properties, renewability and sustainability. High absorption capacity of polysaccharide aerogels makes them a potential moisture absorbent material in meat packaging. The aim of this work was to study the tamarind seed galactoxyloglucan (XG) aerogels as potential meat packaging material by testing their absorption capacity and mechanical properties. Another objective of th...

  9. Optical and ageing studies of aerogel samples for RICH applications in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Dávalos, A.; Belmont-Moreno, E.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.

    2005-11-01

    Optical and ageing properties of hydrophobic silica aerogel have been measured. The optical observations include the determination of the index of refraction of individual aerogel samples, and transmittance measurements. Concerning ageing, we investigate possible explanations for an appreciable decrease on the light yield observed in the aerogel tiles used in the AMS-01 Cherenkov detector, flown on board of the NASA Discovery Shuttle. Measurements were carried out simulating the vacuum and thermal cycle to which the aerogel was subject. These tests indicate that this material is very sensitive to residual contaminants that might be present during the vacuum pumping and/or gas admission process.

  10. Slow dynamics of nanocomposite polymer aerogels as revealed by X-ray photocorrelation spectroscopy (XPCS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernández, Rebeca, E-mail: rhernandez@ictp.csic.es, E-mail: aurora.nogales@csic.es; Mijangos, Carmen [Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnología de Polímeros, ICTP-CSIC, Juan de la Cierva, 3, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Nogales, Aurora, E-mail: rhernandez@ictp.csic.es, E-mail: aurora.nogales@csic.es; Ezquerra, Tiberio A. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, IEM-CSIC, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Sprung, Michael [Petra III at DESY, Notkestr. 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany)

    2014-01-14

    We report on a novel slow dynamics of polymer xerogels, aerogels, and nanocomposite aerogels with iron oxide nanoparticles, as revealed by X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy. The polymer aerogel and its nanocomposite aerogels, which are porous in nature, exhibit hyper-diffusive dynamics at room temperature. In contrast, non-porous polymer xerogels exhibit an absence of this peculiar dynamics. This slow dynamical process has been assigned to a relaxation of the characteristic porous structure of these materials and not to the presence of nanoparticles.

  11. Structural properties and adsorption capacity of holocellulose aerogels synthesized from an alkali hydroxide-urea solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Gu-Joong; Kim, Dae-Young; Hwang, Jae-Hyun; Kang, Joo-Hyon [Dongguk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    A tulip tree was used to synthesize a holocellulose aerogel from an aqueous alkali hydroxide-urea solution with the substitution of an organic solvent followed by freeze-drying. For comparison, the synthesized holocellulose aerogels were divided into two groups according to the source of the hydrogel, an upper suspended layer and a bottom concentrated layer of the centrifuged solution of cellulose and NaOH/urea solvents. We investigated the effects of the temperature of the pre-cooled NaOH/urea solution (i.e., dissolution temperature) on the pore structure and the adsorption capacity of the holocellulose aerogel. A nano-fibrillar network structure of the holocellulose aerogel was observed, with little morphological difference in pore structure for different dissolution temperatures. Both micropores and mesopores were observed in the holocellulose aerogel. The specific surface area of the holocellulose aerogel was generally greater at lower dissolution temperatures. In a series of adsorption tests using methylene blue, the holocellulose aerogel showed the greatest adsorption capacity at the lowest dissolution temperature tested ( -2 .deg. C). However, the dissolution temperature generally had little effect on the adsorption capacity. The holocellulose aerogel produced from the upper suspended layer of the centrifuged hydrogel solution showed a greater porosity and adsorption capacity than the one produced from the bottom concentrated layer. Overall, the aerogel made by utilizing a delignified tulip tree display a high surface area and a high adsorption property, indicating its possible application in eco-friendly adsorption materials.

  12. Structural properties and adsorption capacity of holocellulose aerogels synthesized from an alkali hydroxide-urea solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Gu-Joong; Kim, Dae-Young; Hwang, Jae-Hyun; Kang, Joo-Hyon

    2014-01-01

    A tulip tree was used to synthesize a holocellulose aerogel from an aqueous alkali hydroxide-urea solution with the substitution of an organic solvent followed by freeze-drying. For comparison, the synthesized holocellulose aerogels were divided into two groups according to the source of the hydrogel, an upper suspended layer and a bottom concentrated layer of the centrifuged solution of cellulose and NaOH/urea solvents. We investigated the effects of the temperature of the pre-cooled NaOH/urea solution (i.e., dissolution temperature) on the pore structure and the adsorption capacity of the holocellulose aerogel. A nano-fibrillar network structure of the holocellulose aerogel was observed, with little morphological difference in pore structure for different dissolution temperatures. Both micropores and mesopores were observed in the holocellulose aerogel. The specific surface area of the holocellulose aerogel was generally greater at lower dissolution temperatures. In a series of adsorption tests using methylene blue, the holocellulose aerogel showed the greatest adsorption capacity at the lowest dissolution temperature tested ( -2 .deg. C). However, the dissolution temperature generally had little effect on the adsorption capacity. The holocellulose aerogel produced from the upper suspended layer of the centrifuged hydrogel solution showed a greater porosity and adsorption capacity than the one produced from the bottom concentrated layer. Overall, the aerogel made by utilizing a delignified tulip tree display a high surface area and a high adsorption property, indicating its possible application in eco-friendly adsorption materials.

  13. A little cloud of smoke full of night-rate electricity. Aerogel as electricity storage. The end of batteries?; Een wolkje rook vol nachtstroom. Aerogel als elektriciteitsopslag. Het einde van de accu?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dijkgraaf, A. [ed.

    2000-06-22

    PowerStor in Dublin, California, USA, patented aerogel capacitors in which energy is stored in the form of electrostatic energy in between an electrolyte and the pores of a carbon-aerogel. A brief overview is given of the principle and the prospects of aerogel as a medium to store energy. 3 refs.

  14. Deterrent activities in the crude lipophilic fractions of Antarctic benthic organisms: chemical defences against keystone predators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Núñez-Pons

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Generalist predation constitutes a driving force for the evolution of chemical defences. In the Antarctic benthos, asteroids and omnivore amphipods are keystone opportunistic predators. Sessile organisms are therefore expected to develop defensive mechanisms mainly against such consumers. However, the different habits characterizing each predator may promote variable responses in prey. Feeding-deterrence experiments were performed with the circumpolar asteroid macropredator Odontaster validus to evaluate the presence of defences within the apolar lipophilic fraction of Antarctic invertebrates and macroalgae. A total of 51% of the extracts were repellent, yielding a proportion of 17 defended species out of the 31 assessed. These results are compared with a previous study in which the same fractions were offered to the abundant circum-Antarctic amphipod Cheirimedon femoratus. Overall, less deterrence was reported towards asteroids (51% than against amphipods (80.8%, principally in sponge and algal extracts. Generalist amphipods, which establish casual host–prey sedentary associations with biosubstrata (preferentially sponges and macroalgae, may exert more localized predation pressure than sea stars on certain sessile prey, which would partly explain these results. The nutritional quality of prey may interact with feeding deterrents, whose production is presumed to be metabolically expensive. Although optimal defence theory posits that chemical defences are managed and distributed as to guarantee protection at the lowest cost, we found that only a few organisms localized feeding deterrents towards most exposed and/or valuable body regions. Lipophilic defensive metabolites are broadly produced in Antarctic communities to deter opportunistic predators, although several species combine different defensive traits.

  15. Low dielectric constant and moisture-resistant polyimide aerogels containing trifluoromethyl pendent groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tingting; Dong, Jie; Gan, Feng; Fang, Yuting; Zhao, Xin; Zhang, Qinghua

    2018-05-01

    Conventional polyimide aerogels made from biphenyl-3,3‧,4,4‧-tetracarboxylic dianydride (BPDA) and 4,4‧-oxidianiline (ODA) exhibit poor resistance to moisture and mechanical properties. In this work, a versatile diamine, 2,2‧-bis-(trifluoromethyl)-4,4‧-diaminobiphenyl (TFMB), is introduced to BPDA/ODA backbone to modify the comprehensive performance of this aerogel. Among all formulations, the resulted polyimide aerogels exhibit the lowest shrinkage and density as well as highest porosity, at the ODA/TFMB molar ratio of 5/5. Dielectric constants and loss tangents of the aerogels fall in the range of 1.29-1.33 and 0.001-0.004, respectively, and more TFMB fractions results in a slightly decrease of dielectric constant and loss tangent. In addition, moisture-resistance of the aerogels are dramatically enhanced as the water absorption decreasing from 415% for BPDA/ODA to 13% for the polyimide aerogel at the ODA/TFMB molar ratio of 7/3, and even to 4% for the homo-BPDA/TFMB polyimide aerogel, showing a superhydrophobic characteristic, which is a great advantage for polyimide aerogels used as low dielectric materials. Meanwhile, all of formulations of aerogels exhibit high absorption capacities for oils and common organic solvents, indicating that these fluorinated polyimide aerogels are good candidates for the separation of oils/organic solvents and water. Mechanical properties and thermal stability of the polyimide aerogels are also raised to varying degrees due to the rigid-rod biphenyl structure introduced by TFMB.

  16. Investigation into Cherenkov light scattering and refraction on aerogel surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnyakov, A. Yu.; Barnyakov, M. Yu.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Danilyuk, A. F.; Katcin, A. A.; Kirilenko, P. S.; Kononov, S. A.; Korda, D. V.; Kravchenko, E. A.; Kudryavtsev, V. N.; Kuyanov, I. A.; Onuchin, A. P.; Ovtin, I. V.; Podgornov, N. A.; Predein, A. Yu.; Prisekin, V. G.; Protsenko, R. S.; Shekhtman, L. I.

    2017-12-01

    The work concerns the development of aerogel radiators for RICH detectors. Aerogel tiles with a refractive index of 1.05 were tested with a RICH prototype on the electron beam on the VEPP-4M collider. It has been shown that polishing with silk tissue yields good surface quality, the amount of light loss at this surface being about 5-7%. The Cherenkov angle resolution was measured for a tile in two conditions: with a clean exit face and with a polished exit face. The number of photons detected was 13.3 and 12.7 for the clean and polished surfaces, respectively. The Cherenkov angle resolution for the polished surface is 55% worse, which can be explained with the forward scattering on the polished surface. A tile with a crack inside was also tested. The experimental data show that the Cherenkov angle resolution is the same for tracks crossing the crack area and in a crack-free area.

  17. From 1D to 3D - macroscopic nanowire aerogel monoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wei; Rechberger, Felix; Niederberger, Markus

    2016-07-01

    Here we present a strategy to assemble one-dimensional nanostructures into a three-dimensional architecture with macroscopic size. With the assistance of centrifugation, we successfully gel ultrathin W18O49 nanowires with diameters of 1 to 2 nm and aspect ratios larger than 100 into 3D networks, which are transformed into monolithic aerogels by supercritical drying.Here we present a strategy to assemble one-dimensional nanostructures into a three-dimensional architecture with macroscopic size. With the assistance of centrifugation, we successfully gel ultrathin W18O49 nanowires with diameters of 1 to 2 nm and aspect ratios larger than 100 into 3D networks, which are transformed into monolithic aerogels by supercritical drying. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details, SEM and TEM images, and digital photographs. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr04429h

  18. Development of windows based on highly insulating aerogel glazings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Kristiansen, Finn Harken

    2004-01-01

    Within a finished and a current EU project, research and development of monolithic silica aerogel as transparent insulation in windows are being carried out. On behalf of the partners of the two projects, results related to the window application will be presented here. At the thermal envelope...... of buildings, the window area is the weakest part with respect to the heat loss, but at the same time, it also provides e.g. solar energy gain. Glazing prototypes have been made of aerogel tiles of about 55 cm sq. (elaborated within the projects). Those tiles are quickly evacuated and easily sealed between two...... of approx. 15 mm, a centre heat loss coefficient of below 0.7 W/m² K and a solar transmittance of 76% have been obtained. The research is funded in part by the European Commission within the frameworks of the Non-Nuclear Energy Programme – JOULE III and the Energy, Environment and Sustainable Development...

  19. People Are Primary: A Perspective from the Keystone IV Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etz, Rebecca S

    2016-01-01

    As a person invested in personal doctoring, what promises are you willing to make about when and where you will "be there" for others? Attendees of the G. Gayle Stephens Keystone IV Conference answered that question on submitted index cards and through ongoing conference discussions. Those data were analyzed using grounded theory and combined to develop the following answer in aggregate: We will be held accountable to those who need us. We understand the need for expertise and compassion as we help others to navigate the intersection of science and humanism. We will serve as leaders in personal, public, and political conversations. We will mark a path for the profession ensuring alignment of personal practices with professional principles. We will not allow the needed conversations of processes, data points, and determinations of value to undermine our relationships with our patients. We will be there for you. Attentive and fully present. We will care for you when you have no need and you do not ask. We will center that care in your lived experience of health and illness, knowing you over time. We will be here for you now, over time and across distance, in ways that foster the feeling of wholeness and belonging. We will use the best knowledge, best tailored to meet our shared understanding of your goals and aspirations. © Copyright 2016 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  20. U. S. aerospace: the keystone to fusion development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbertson, J.

    1977-03-01

    From 1968 to 1974 employment in the aerospace industry dropped by 35 percent, with even greater reductions since. Aerospace and related sectors are now estimated to be operating at 60 percent of total capacity or less. What is being destroyed is an industry whose R and D budget still makes up a whopping 50 percent of all U.S. industrial R and D. The author feels this R and D capability, and the quality of technology and manpower that accompany the industry, pinpoint aerospace as the keystone of the development effort necessary to bring a fusion economy into being, solving the scientific problems that still stand in the way of constructing working fusion reactors and providing the level of productive capacity necessary to produce such reactors to power the world. He suggests that a program for fusion development would catapult aerospace out of its present collapse into growth. Employment in aerospace and the related electronics industry would increase by at least a half million workers, scientists, engineers, and technicians. During the same time other parts of the industry will be deployed to vital projects in transportation development, space exploration, communications, and certain consumer goods, creating additional hundreds of thousands of jobs. The step from experimental reactors to full fusion power plants generating electricity and, further down the line, providing energy for techniques such as the fusion torch, is a giant one, involving the solution of both the most fundamental problems of physics theory and many formidable engineering problems.

  1. Weighting and indirect effects identify keystone species in food webs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Zhang, Huayong; O'Gorman, Eoin J; Tian, Wang; Ma, Athen; Moore, John C; Borrett, Stuart R; Woodward, Guy

    2016-09-01

    Species extinctions are accelerating globally, yet the mechanisms that maintain local biodiversity remain poorly understood. The extinction of species that feed on or are fed on by many others (i.e. 'hubs') has traditionally been thought to cause the greatest threat of further biodiversity loss. Very little attention has been paid to the strength of those feeding links (i.e. link weight) and the prevalence of indirect interactions. Here, we used a dynamical model based on empirical energy budget data to assess changes in ecosystem stability after simulating the loss of species according to various extinction scenarios. Link weight and/or indirect effects had stronger effects on food-web stability than the simple removal of 'hubs', demonstrating that both quantitative fluxes and species dissipating their effects across many links should be of great concern in biodiversity conservation, and the potential for 'hubs' to act as keystone species may have been exaggerated to date. © 2016 The Authors Ecology Letters published by CNRS and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Are there keystone mycorrhizal fungi associated to tropical epiphytic orchids?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevallos, Stefania; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Aminael; Decock, Cony; Declerck, Stéphane; Suárez, Juan Pablo

    2017-04-01

    In epiphytic orchids, distinctive groups of fungi are involved in the symbiotic association. However, little is known about the factors that determine the mycorrhizal community structure. Here, we analyzed the orchid mycorrhizal fungi communities associated with three sympatric Cymbidieae epiphytic tropical orchids (Cyrtochilum flexuosum, Cyrtochilum myanthum, and Maxillaria calantha) at two sites located within the mountain rainforest of southern Ecuador. To characterize these communities at each orchid population, the ITS2 region was analyzed by Illumina MiSeq technology. Fifty-five mycorrhizal fungi operational taxonomic units (OTUs) putatively attributed to members of Serendipitaceae, Ceratobasidiaceae and Tulasnellaceae were identified. Significant differences in mycorrhizal communities were detected between the three sympatric orchid species as well as among sites/populations. Interestingly, some mycorrhizal OTUs overlapped among orchid populations. Our results suggested that populations of studied epiphytic orchids have site-adjusted mycorrhizal communities structured around keystone fungal species. Interaction with multiple mycorrhizal fungi could favor orchid site occurrence and co-existence among several orchid species.

  3. Aerogels and opened-cell structures: two examples of carbon foams; Les aerogels et les structures alveolaires. Deux exemples de mousses de carbone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocon, L.; Piquero, Th. [CEA Centre d' Etudes du Ripault, Dept. des Materiaux, Service Recherche Ceramiques et Composites, 37 - Tours (France)

    2006-03-15

    Two examples of carbon foams are exposed herein. They are very lightweight materials with an exceptionally open porosity high volume. Cells size varies from nanometer to micrometer for aerogels, and from micrometer to millimeter for opened cell carbon foams. Elaboration process conditions allow to adjust pore sizes as well as micro-textural characteristics and macroscopical mechanical properties. Carbon aerogels are synthesized by organic aerogels pyrolysis leading to a large variety of micro-textures. Opened cell carbon foams present an original mechanical behavior, brittle type, which can be enhanced by CVD or calefaction pyrocarbon reinforcement. (authors)

  4. Optimization of an aerogel cerenkov detector having a mirror light collection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, K.E.; Aakesson, T.; Norrby, J.

    1979-01-01

    Cerenkov detectors with silica aerogel of refractive indec 1.03 as the radiator have been tested in a particle beam at the CERN Proton Synchrotron. With a detector surface of 22 x 50 cm 2 and 9 cm thickness of aerogel, the number of photoelectrons was found to be 6.5 for β = 1 particles. (author)

  5. Starch-based aerogels: airy materials from amylose-sodium palmitate inclusion complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerogels are a class of interesting low density porous materials prepared by replacing the water phase contained within a hydrogel with a gas phase while maintaining the three dimensional network structure of the gel. The investigation of starch and hydrocolloid-based aerogels has received attentio...

  6. Alumina/silica aerogel with zinc chloride as an alkylation catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEJAN U. SKALA

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available The alumina/silica with zinc chloride aerogel alkylation catalyst was obtained using a one step sol-gel synthesis, and subsequent drying with supercritical carbon dioxide. The aerogel catalyst activity was found to be higher compared to the corresponding xerogel catalyst, as a result of the higher aerogel surface area, total pore volume and favourable pore size distribution. Mixed Al–O–Si bonds were present in both gel catalyst types. Activation by thermal treatment in air was needed prior to catalytic alkylation, due to the presence of residual organic groups on the aerogel surface. The optimal activation temperature was found to be in the range 185–225°C, while higher temperatures resulted in the removal of zinc chloride from the surface of the aerogel catalyst with a consequential decrease in the catalytic activity. On varying the zinc chloride content, the catalytic activity of the aerogel catalyst exhibited a maximum. High zinc chloride contents decreased the catalytic activity of the aerogel catalyst as the result of the pores of the catalyst being plugged with this compound, and the separation of the alumina/silica support into Al-rich and Si-rich phases. The surface area, total pore volume, pore size distribution and zinc chloride content had a similar influence on the activity of the aerogel catalyst as was the case of xerogel catalyst and supported zinc chloride catalysts.

  7. Dynamic properties of silica aerogels as deduced from specific-heat and thermal-conductivity measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernasconi, A.; Sleator, T.; Posselt, D.

    1992-01-01

    The specific heat C(p) and the thermal conductivity lambda of a series of base-catalyzed silica aerogels have been measured at temperatures between 0.05 and 20 K. The results confirm that the different length-scale regions observed in the aerogel structure are reflected in the dynamic behavior...

  8. Simulation and Analysis of Mechanical Properties of Silica Aerogels: From Rationalization to Prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hao; Zheng, Xiaoyang; Luo, Xuan; Yi, Yong; Yang, Fan

    2018-01-30

    Silica aerogels are highly porous 3D nanostructures and have exhibited excellent physio-chemical properties. Although silica aerogels have broad potential in many fields, the poor mechanical properties greatly limit further applications. In this study, we have applied the finite volume method (FVM) method to calculate the mechanical properties of silica aerogels with different geometric properties such as particle size, pore size, ligament diameter, etc. The FVM simulation results show that a power law correlation existing between relative density and mechanical properties (elastic modulus and yield stress) of silica aerogels, which are consistent with experimental and literature studies. In addition, depending on the relative densities, different strategies are proposed in order to synthesize silica aerogels with better mechanical performance by adjusting the distribution of pore size and ligament diameter of aerogels. Finally, the results suggest that it is possible to synthesize silica aerogels with ultra-low density as well as high strength and stiffness as long as the textural features are well controlled. It is believed that the FVM simulation methodology could be a valuable tool to study mechanical performance of silica aerogel based materials in the future.

  9. Low-temperature specific-heat and thermal-conductivity of silica aerogels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernasconi, A.; Sleator, T.; Posselt, D.

    1992-01-01

    Specific heat, C(p), and thermal conductivity, lambda, have been measured on a series of base-catalyzed silica aerogels at temperatures between 0.05 and 20 K. Results for both C(p)(T) and lambda(T) confirm that the different length-scale regions observed in the aerogel structure are reflected...

  10. Functionalized silica aerogels for gas-phase purification, sensing, and catalysis: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amonette, James E.; Matyáš, Josef

    2017-09-01

    Silica aerogels have a rich history and a unique, fascinating gas-phase chemistry that has lent them to many diverse applications. This review starts with a brief discussion of the fundamental issues driving the movement of gases in silica aerogels and then proceeds to provide an overview of the work that has been done with respect to the purification of gases, sensing of individual gases, and uses of silica aerogels as catalysts for gas-phase reactions. Salient features of the research behind these different applications are presented, and, where appropriate, critical aspects that affect the practical use of the aerogels are noted. Specific sections under the gas-purification category focus on the removal of airborne nanoparticles, carbon dioxide, volatile organic compounds, sulfur gases and radioactive iodine from gas streams. The use of silica aerogels as sensors for humidity, oxygen, hydrocarbons, volatile acids and bases, various non-ammoniacal nitrogen gases, and viral particles is discussed. With respect to catalysis, the demonstrated use of silica aerogels as supports for oxidation, Fischer-Tropsch, alkane isomerization, and hydrogenation reactions is reviewed, along with a section on untested catalytic formulations involving silica aerogels. A short section focuses on recent developments in thermomolecular Knudsen compressor pumps using silica aerogel membranes. The review continues with an overview of the production methods, locations of manufacturing facilities globally, and a brief discussion of the economics before concluding with a few remarks about the present and future trends revealed by the work presented.

  11. Politics, proximity and the pipeline: Mapping public attitudes toward Keystone XL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gravelle, Timothy B.; Lachapelle, Erick

    2015-01-01

    The politics of oil pipelines have become increasingly salient in American politics in recent years. In particular, debates about economic benefits, energy security and environmental impact have been provoked by the proposed Keystone XL pipeline expansion intended to take bitumen from northern Alberta in Canada to refineries on the Gulf Coast in Texas. Drawing on data from recent surveys conducted by the Pew Research Center, this article asks a series of questions. What levels of support for (and opposition to) the pipeline exist among the American public? What are the roles of political factors (such as party identification and ideology), economic attitudes, environmental attitudes and proximity to the proposed pipeline route in shaping attitudes toward the pipeline? And how do political factors and proximity to the pipeline interact? We find that partisanship and ideology drive attitudes toward the Keystone XL pipeline, and that the effect of ideology is attenuated by proximity to the proposed route. The policy implications of these findings for energy infrastructure siting controversies are discussed. -- Highlights: •Americans are divided on the Keystone XL energy pipeline. •Attitudes toward Keystone XL are driven by political party identification and ideology. •Attitudes toward the pipeline are also shaped by attitudes toward the economy and global warming. •The effect of proximity on attitudes toward Keystone XL is non-linear. •Spatial proximity to the pipeline attenuates the effect of ideology

  12. Preprocessing of hyperspectral imagery with consideration of smile and keystone properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoya, Naoto; Miyamura, Norihide; Iwasaki, Akira

    2010-11-01

    Satellite hyperspectral imaging sensors suffer from ''smile'' and ''keystone'' properties, which appear as distortions of spectrum images. The smile property is a center wavelength shift and the keystone property is a band-to-band misregistration. These distortions degrade the spectrum information and reduce classification accuracies. Furthermore, these properties may change after the launch. Therefore, in the preprocessing of satellite hyperspectral images, the onboard correction of the smile and keystone properties is an important issue as well as the radiometric and geometric correction. The main objective of this work is to propose the prototype of the preprocessing of hyperspectral image with consideration of smile and keystone properties. Image registration based on phase correlation is used for detecting the optical properties. Cubic spline interpolation is adopted to modify the spectrum because of its good trade-off between the smoothness and shape preservation. Smile and keystone detection simulation using the EO-1 Hyperion imagery taken at various times in the past nine years proved that the optical properties have been changing due to the onboard secular distortion. Therefore, onboard optical properties should be updated periodically and built into the radiometric and geometric corrections for future satellite hyperspectral sensors. The proposed method may be the prototype of the preprocessing of future satellite hyperspectral sensors.

  13. Improvements of reinforced silica aerogel nanocomposites thermal properties for architecture applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saboktakin, Amin; Saboktakin, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    An 1,4-cis polybutadiene rubber/carboxymethyl starch (CMS)-based silica aerogel nanocomposites as a insulation material was developed that will provide superior thermal insulation properties, flexibility, toughness, durability of the parent polymer, yet with the low density and superior insulation properties associated with the aerogels. In this study, reinforced 1,4-cis polybutadiene-CMS-silica aerogel nanocomposites were prepared from a silica aerogel with a surface area 710 m(2) g(-1), a pore size of 25.3 nm and a pore volume of 4.7 cm(3) g(-1). The tensile properties and dynamic mechanical properties of 1,4-cis polybutadiene/CMS nanocomposites were systematically enhanced at low silica loading. Similar improvements in tensile modulus and strength have been observed for 1,4-cis polybutadiene/CMS mesoporous silica aerogel nanocomposites. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Carbon aerogel composites prepared by ambient drying and using oxidized polyacrylonitrile fibers as reinforcements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Junzong; Zhang, Changrui; Feng, Jian; Jiang, Yonggang; Zhao, Nan

    2011-12-01

    Carbon fiber-reinforced carbon aerogel composites (C/CAs) for thermal insulators were prepared by copyrolysis of resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) aerogels reinforced by oxidized polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fiber felts. The RF aerogel composites were obtained by impregnating PAN fiber felts with RF sols, then aging, ethanol exchanging, and drying at ambient pressure. Upon carbonization, the PAN fibers shrink with the RF aerogels, thus reducing the difference of shrinkage rates between the fiber reinforcements and the aerogel matrices, and resulting in C/CAs without any obvious cracks. The three point bend strength of the C/CAs is 7.1 ± 1.7 MPa, and the thermal conductivity is 0.328 W m(-1) K(-1) at 300 °C in air. These composites can be used as high-temperature thermal insulators (in inert atmospheres or vacuum) or supports for phase change materials in thermal protection system. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  15. Direct Ink Write (DIW) 3D Printed Cellulose Nanocrystal Aerogel Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Vincent Chi-Fung; Dunn, Conner K; Zhang, Zhe; Deng, Yulin; Qi, H Jerry

    2017-08-14

    Pure cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) aerogels with controlled 3D structures and inner pore architecture are printed using the direct ink write (DIW) technique. While traditional cellulosic aerogel processing approaches lack the ability to easily fabricate complete aerogel structures, DIW 3D printing followed by freeze drying can overcome this shortcoming and can produce CNC aerogels with minimal structural shrinkage or damage. The resultant products have great potential in applications such as tissue scaffold templates, drug delivery, packaging, etc., due to their inherent sustainability, biocompatibility, and biodegradability. Various 3D structures are successfully printed without support material, and the print quality can be improved with increasing CNC concentration and printing resolution. Dual pore CNC aerogel scaffolds are also successfully printed, where the customizable 3D structure and inner pore architecture can potentially enable advance CNC scaffold designs suited for specific cell integration requirements.

  16. X-ray radiographic technique for measuring density uniformity of silica aerogel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabata, Makoto; Hatakeyama, Yoshikiyo; Adachi, Ichiro; Morita, Takeshi; Nishikawa, Keiko

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a new X-ray radiographic technique for measuring density uniformity of silica aerogels used as radiator in proximity-focusing ring-imaging Cherenkov detectors. To obtain high performance in a large-area detector, a key characteristic of radiator is the density (i.e. refractive index) uniformity of an individual aerogel monolith. At a refractive index of n=1.05, our requirement for the refractive index uniformity in the transverse plane direction of an aerogel tile is |δ(n−1)/(n−1)|<4% in a focusing dual layer radiator (with different refractive indices) scheme. We applied the radiographic technique to evaluate the density uniformity of our original aerogels from a trial production and that of Panasonic products (SP-50) as a reference, and to confirm they have sufficient density uniformity within ±1% along the transverse plane direction. The measurement results show that the proposed technique can quantitatively estimate the density uniformity of aerogels.

  17. Multifunctional Carbon Aerogels Derived by Sol–Gel Process of Natural Polysaccharides of Different Botanical Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Bakierska

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this manuscript, we describe the results of our recent studies on carbon aerogels derived from natural starches. A facile method for the fabrication of carbon aerogels is presented. Moreover, the complete analysis of the carbonization process of different starch aerogels (potato, maize, and rice was performed using thermogravimetric studies combined with a detailed analysis of evolved decomposition products. The prepared carbon aerogels were studied in terms of their morphology and electrical properties to relate the origin of starch precursor with final properties of carbon materials. The obtained results confirmed the differences in carbon aerogels’ morphology, especially in materials’ specific surface areas, depending on the botanical origin of precursors. The electrical conductivity measurements suggest that carbon aerogels with the best electrical properties can be obtained from potato starch.

  18. Silica aerogel Cherenkov counter for the KEK B-factory experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Sumiyoshi, T; Enomoto, R; Iijima, T; Suda, R; Leonidopoulos, C; Marlow, D R; Prebys, E; Kawabata, R; Kawai, H; Ooba, T; Nanao, M; Suzuki, K; Ogawa, S; Murakami, A; Khan, M H R

    1999-01-01

    Low-refractive-index silica aerogel is a convenient radiator for threshold-type Cherenkov counters, which are used for particle identification in high-energy physics experiments. For the BELLE detector at the KEK B-Factory we have produced about 2 m sup 3 of hydrophobic silica aerogels of n=1.01-1.03 using a new production method. The particle identification capability of the aerogel Cherenkov counters was tested and 3 sigma pion/proton separation has been achieved at 3.5 GeV/c. Radiation hardness of the aerogels was confirmed up to 9.8 Mrad. The Aerogel Cherenkov counter system (ACC) was successfully installed in the BELLE just before this conference.

  19. Invasive Asian Earthworms Negatively Impact Keystone Terrestrial Salamanders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie L Ziemba

    Full Text Available Asian pheretimoid earthworms (e.g. Amynthas and Metaphire spp. are invading North American forests and consuming the vital detrital layer that forest floor biota [including the keystone species Plethodon cinereus (Eastern Red-backed Salamander], rely on for protection, food, and habitat. Plethodon cinereus population declines have been associated with leaf litter loss following the invasion of several exotic earthworm species, but there have been few studies on the specific interactions between pheretimoid earthworms and P. cinereus. Since some species of large and active pheretimoids spatially overlap with salamanders beneath natural cover objects and in detritus, they may distinctively compound the negative consequences of earthworm-mediated resource degradation by physically disturbing important salamander activities (foraging, mating, and egg brooding. We predicted that earthworms would exclude salamanders from high quality microhabitat, reduce foraging efficiency, and negatively affect salamander fitness. In laboratory trials, salamanders used lower quality microhabitat and consumed fewer flies in the presence of earthworms. In a natural field experiment, conducted on salamander populations from "non-invaded" and "pheretimoid invaded" sites in Ohio, salamanders and earthworms shared cover objects ~60% less than expected. Earthworm abundance was negatively associated with juvenile and male salamander abundance, but had no relationship with female salamander abundance. There was no effect of pheretimoid invasion on salamander body condition. Juvenile and non-resident male salamanders do not hold stable territories centered beneath cover objects such as rocks or logs, which results in reduced access to prey, greater risk of desiccation, and dispersal pressure. Habitat degradation and physical exclusion of salamanders from cover objects may hinder juvenile and male salamander performance, ultimately reducing recruitment and salamander abundance

  20. Keystone characteristics that support cultural resilience in Karen refugee parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Susan G.

    2016-12-01

    This participatory action research study used the conceptual framework of social-ecological resilience to explore how Karen (pronounced Ka·rén) refugee parents re-construct cultural resilience in resettlement. The funds of knowledge approach helped to define essential knowledge used by Karen parents within their own community. Framing this study around the concept of resilience situated it within an emancipatory paradigm: refugee parents were actors choosing their own cultural identity and making decisions about what cultural knowledge was important for the science education of their children. Sustainability science with its capacity to absorb indigenous knowledge as legitimate scientific knowledge offered a critical platform for reconciling Karen knowledge with scientific knowledge for science education. Photovoice, participant observation, and semi-structured interviews were used to create visual and written narrative portraits of Karen parents. Narrative analysis revealed that Karen parents had constructed a counter-narrative in Burma and Thailand that enabled them to resist assimilation into the dominant ethnic culture; by contrast, their narrative of life in resettlement in the U.S. focused on the potential for self-determination. Keystone characteristics that contributed to cultural resilience were identified to be the community garden and education as a gateway to a transformed future. Anchored in a cultural tradition of farming, these Karen parents gained perspective and comfort in continuity and the potential of self-determination rooted in the land. Therefore, a cross-cultural learning community for Karen elementary school students that incorporates the Karen language and Karen self-sustaining knowledge of horticulture would be an appropriate venue for building a climate of reciprocity for science learning.

  1. Invasive Asian Earthworms Negatively Impact Keystone Terrestrial Salamanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemba, Julie L; Hickerson, Cari-Ann M; Anthony, Carl D

    2016-01-01

    Asian pheretimoid earthworms (e.g. Amynthas and Metaphire spp.) are invading North American forests and consuming the vital detrital layer that forest floor biota [including the keystone species Plethodon cinereus (Eastern Red-backed Salamander)], rely on for protection, food, and habitat. Plethodon cinereus population declines have been associated with leaf litter loss following the invasion of several exotic earthworm species, but there have been few studies on the specific interactions between pheretimoid earthworms and P. cinereus. Since some species of large and active pheretimoids spatially overlap with salamanders beneath natural cover objects and in detritus, they may distinctively compound the negative consequences of earthworm-mediated resource degradation by physically disturbing important salamander activities (foraging, mating, and egg brooding). We predicted that earthworms would exclude salamanders from high quality microhabitat, reduce foraging efficiency, and negatively affect salamander fitness. In laboratory trials, salamanders used lower quality microhabitat and consumed fewer flies in the presence of earthworms. In a natural field experiment, conducted on salamander populations from "non-invaded" and "pheretimoid invaded" sites in Ohio, salamanders and earthworms shared cover objects ~60% less than expected. Earthworm abundance was negatively associated with juvenile and male salamander abundance, but had no relationship with female salamander abundance. There was no effect of pheretimoid invasion on salamander body condition. Juvenile and non-resident male salamanders do not hold stable territories centered beneath cover objects such as rocks or logs, which results in reduced access to prey, greater risk of desiccation, and dispersal pressure. Habitat degradation and physical exclusion of salamanders from cover objects may hinder juvenile and male salamander performance, ultimately reducing recruitment and salamander abundance following Asian

  2. Aerogels with 3D ordered nanofiber skeletons of liquid-crystalline nanocellulose derivatives as tough and transparent insulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yuri; Saito, Tsuguyuki; Isogai, Akira

    2014-09-22

    Aerogels of high porosity and with a large internal surface area exhibit outstanding performances as thermal, acoustic, or electrical insulators. However, most aerogels are mechanically brittle and optically opaque, and the structural and physical properties of aerogels strongly depend on their densities. The unfavorable characteristics of aerogels are intrinsic to their skeletal structures consisting of randomly interconnected spherical nanoparticles. A structurally new type of aerogel with a three-dimensionally ordered nanofiber skeleton of liquid-crystalline nanocellulose (LC-NCell) is now reported. This LC-NCell material is composed of mechanically strong, surface-carboxylated cellulose nanofibers dispersed in a nematic LC order. The LC-NCell aerogels are transparent and combine mechanical toughness and good insulation properties. These properties of the LC-NCell aerogels could also be readily controlled. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Synthesis, Processing, and Characterization of Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Cross-Linked Silica, Organic Polyimide, and Inorganic Aluminosilicate Aerogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Baochau N.; Guo, Haiquan N.; McCorkle, Linda S.

    2014-01-01

    As aerospace applications become ever more demanding, novel insulation materials with lower thermal conductivity, lighter weight and higher use temperature are required to fit the aerospace application needs. Having nanopores and high porosity, aerogels are superior thermal insulators, among other things. The use of silica aerogels in general is quite restricted due to their inherent fragility, hygroscopic nature, and poor mechanical properties, especially in extereme aerospace environments. Our research goal is to develop aerogels with better mechanical and environmental stability for a variety of aeronautic and space applications including space suit insulation for planetary surface missions, insulation for inflatable structures for habitats, inflatable aerodynamic decelerators for entry, descent and landing (EDL) operations, and cryotank insulation for advance space propulsion systems. Different type of aerogels including organic-inorganic polymer reinforced (hybrid) silica-based aerogels, polyimide aerogels and inorganic aluminosilicate aerogels have been developed and examined.

  4. Synthesis of silica aerogel monoliths with controlled specific surface areas and pore sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Bingying; Lu, Shaoxiang; Kalulu, Mulenga; Oderinde, Olayinka; Ren, Lili

    2017-07-01

    To replace traditional preparation methods of silica aerogels, a small-molecule 1,2-epoxypropane (PO) has been introduced into the preparation process instead of using ammonia as the cross-linking agent, thus generating a lightweight, high porosity, and large surface area silica aerogel monolithic. We put forward a simple solution route for the chemical synthesis of silica aerogels, which was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), TEM, XRD, FTIR, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method In this paper, the effect of the amount of PO on the microstructure of silica aerogels is discussed. The BET surface areas and pore sizes of the resulting silica aerogels can be freely adjusted by changing the amount of PO, which will be helpful in promoting the development of silica aerogels to fabricate other porous materials with similar requirements. We also adopted a new organic solvent sublimation drying (OSSD) method to replace traditional expensive and dangerous drying methods such as critical point drying and freeze drying. This simple approach is easy to operate and has good repeatability, which will further facilitate actual applications of silica aerogels.

  5. Inorganic hollow nanotube aerogels by atomic layer deposition onto native nanocellulose templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, Juuso T; Hiekkataipale, Panu; Malm, Jari; Karppinen, Maarit; Ikkala, Olli; Ras, Robin H A

    2011-03-22

    Hollow nano-objects have raised interest in applications such as sensing, encapsulation, and drug-release. Here we report on a new class of porous materials, namely inorganic nanotube aerogels that, unlike other aerogels, have a framework consisting of inorganic hollow nanotubes. First we show a preparation method for titanium dioxide, zinc oxide, and aluminum oxide nanotube aerogels based on atomic layer deposition (ALD) on biological nanofibrillar aerogel templates, that is, nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC), also called microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) or nanocellulose. The aerogel templates are prepared from nanocellulose hydrogels either by freeze-drying in liquid nitrogen or liquid propane or by supercritical drying, and they consist of a highly porous percolating network of cellulose nanofibrils. They can be prepared as films on substrates or as freestanding objects. We show that, in contrast to freeze-drying, supercritical drying produces nanocellulose aerogels without major interfibrillar aggregation even in thick films. Uniform oxide layers are readily deposited by ALD onto the fibrils leading to organic-inorganic core-shell nanofibers. We further demonstrate that calcination at 450 °C removes the organic core leading to purely inorganic self-supporting aerogels consisting of hollow nanotubular networks. They can also be dispersed by grinding, for example, in ethanol to create a slurry of inorganic hollow nanotubes, which in turn can be deposited to form a porous film. Finally we demonstrate the use of a titanium dioxide nanotube network as a resistive humidity sensor with a fast response.

  6. Preparation of hydrophobic polyvinyl alcohol aerogel via the surface modification of boron nitride for environmental remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruiyang; Wan, Wenchao; Qiu, Lijuan; Wang, Yonghua; Zhou, Ying

    2017-10-01

    Macroscopic polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) aerogel is of great interest in environmental remediation due to its low cost and easy fabrication. However, the hydrophily of PVA aerogel limited its application in oil-water separation. In this work, boron nitride (BN)-modified PVA aerogel has been successfully prepared by a cost-effective frozen-drying method. PVA plays a role as a scaffold of aerogel to support BN nanosheets which can modify the surface properties of PVA aerogel, resulting in a dramatic change of wettability from hydrophily (0°) to hydrophobicity (94.9°-100.8°). Moreover, the obtained BN-modified PVA aerogel possesses a favorable porous structure, low density (41.8-60.0 mg/cm3) and good adsorption capacity (12-38 g/g), which make it a promising wastewater treatment material. Importantly, PVA aerogel with other functions can be easily fabricated through coupling with other inorganic materials by this strategy, which can provide various promising applications for environmental remediation.

  7. Copper Nanowire-Based Aerogel with Tunable Pore Structure and Its Application as Flexible Pressure Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaojuan; Wang, Ranran; Nie, Pu; Cheng, Yin; Lu, Xiaoyu; Shi, Liangjing; Sun, Jing

    2017-04-26

    Aerogel is a kind of material with high porosity and low density. However, the research on metal-based aerogel with good conductivity is quite limited, which hinders its usage in electronic devices, such as flexible pressure sensors. In this work, we successfully fabricate copper nanowire (CuNW) based aerogel through a one-pot method, and the dynamics for the assembly of CuNWs into hydrogel is intensively investigated. The "bubble controlled assembly" mechanism is put forward for the first time, according to which tunable pore structures and densities (4.3-7.5 mg cm -3 ) of the nanowire aerogel is achieved. Subsequently, ultralight flexible pressure sensors with tunable sensitivities (0.02 kPa -1 to 0.7 kPa -1 ) are fabricated from the Cu NWs aerogels, and the negative correlation behavior of the sensitivity to the density of the aerogel sensors is disclosed systematically. This work provides a versatile strategy for the fabrication of nanowire-based aerogels, which greatly broadens their application potential.

  8. Properties of Silica-Based Aerogel Substrates and Application to C-Band Circular Patch Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed; Haraz, Osama M.; Ashraf, Nadeem; Zia, Muhammad Fakhar; Khaled, Usama; Elsahfiey, Ibrahim; Alshebeili, Saleh; Sebak, Abdel Razik

    2018-03-01

    Silica aerogel is a lightweight and low-permittivity dielectric material that possesses attractive features for use as an antenna substrate. In this paper, we characterize the radio frequency and microwave dielectric permittivity properties of substrates composed of silica aerogel encapsulated in polymer aerogel in the frequency range from 10 MHz to 8.5 GHz. Characterized silica-based aerogel substrates show relative permittivity values varying between 1.055 and 1.25 and loss tangent values ranging from 5.08 × 10-4 to 0.0206. Silica-based aerogel substrates thus have the potential of use in designing antennas with high gain and large bandwidth. Validation is presented by characterizing the performance of a manufactured C-band circular patch antenna on silica-based aerogel substrate. The performance is also compared to a design that uses Rogers Duroid RT5880 substrate. The results reveal that the silica aerogel substrate antenna at 7.2 GHz provides 1.5 dB increase in gain, 88% enhancement in bandwidth and 68.5% reduction in mass, in comparison with the antenna on RT5880 substrate.

  9. Ambient pressure dried tetrapropoxysilane-based silica aerogels with high specific surface area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parale, Vinayak G.; Han, Wooje; Jung, Hae-Noo-Ree; Lee, Kyu-Yeon; Park, Hyung-Ho

    2018-01-01

    In the present paper, we report the synthesis of tetrapropoxysilane (TPOS)-based silica aerogels with high surface area and large pore volume. The silica aerogels were prepared by a two-step sol-gel process followed by surface modification via a simple ambient pressure drying approach. In order to minimize drying shrinkage and obtain hydrophobic aerogels, the surface of the alcogels was modified using trichloromethylsilane as a silylating agent. The effect of the sol-gel compositional parameters on the polymerization of aerogels prepared by TPOS, one of the precursors belonging to the Si(OR)4 family, was reported for the first time. The oxalic acid and NH4OH concentrations were adjusted to achieve good-quality aerogels with high surface area, low density, and high transparency. Controlling the hydrolysis and condensation reactions of the TPOS precursor turned out to be the most important factor to determine the pore characteristics of the aerogel. Highly transparent aerogels with high specific surface area (938 m2/g) and low density (0.047 g/cm3) could be obtained using an optimized TPOS/MeOH molar ratio with appropriate concentrations of oxalic acid and NH4OH.

  10. Tert-butyl alcohol used to fabricate nano-cellulose aerogels via freeze-drying technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Yang; Jiang, Hua; Song, Yuxuan; Zhou, Zhaobing; Zhao, Hua

    2017-06-01

    Aerogel, a highly porous material, is attracting increasing attention owing to low thermal conductivity and high specific surface area. Freeze-drying technology has been employed to produce nano-cellulose aerogels; however, the resultant product has low specific surface areas. Here, a modified approach to prepare nano-cellulose aerogels was reported, which involves tert-butyl alcohol as a solvent. Nano-cellulose aerogels were prepared via a spontaneous gelation fashion using calcium chloride solution, followed by tert-butyl alcohol solvent displacement and freeze drying. Addition of calcium chloride (0.25%) accelerated the physical gelation process. The application of tert-butyl alcohol as a solvent contributed to preservation of gel network. The obtained spherical nano-cellulose aerogels had a shrinkage rate of 5.89%. The specific surface area and average pore size was 164. 9666 m2 g-1 and 10.01 nm, respectively. Additionally, nano-cellulose aerogels had a comparable thermal degradation property when compared to microcrystalline cellulose. These biophysical properties make nano-cellulose aerogels as a promising absorption material.

  11. Synthesis of Flexible Aerogel Composites Reinforced with Electrospun Nanofibers and Microparticles for Thermal Insulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijun Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Flexible silica aerogel composites in intact monolith of 12 cm were successfully fabricated by reinforcing SiO2 aerogel with electrospun polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF webs via electrospinning and sol-gel processing. Three electrospun PVDF webs with different microstructures (e.g., nanofibers, microparticles, and combined nanofibers and microparticles were fabricated by regulating electrospinning parameters. The as-electrospun PVDF webs with various microstructures were impregnated into the silica sol to synthesize the PVDF/SiO2 composites followed by solvent exchange, surface modification, and drying at ambient atmosphere. The morphologies of the PVDF/SiO2 aerogel composites were characterized and the thermal and mechanical properties were measured. The effects of electrospun PVDF on the thermal and mechanical properties of the aerogel composites were evaluated. The aerogel composites reinforced with electrospun PVDF nanofibers showed intact monolith, improved strength, and perfect flexibility and hydrophobicity. Moreover, the aerogel composites reinforced with the electrospun PVDF nanofibers had the lowest thermal conductivity (0.028 W·m−1·K−1. It indicates that the electrospun PVDF nanofibers could greatly improve the mechanical strength and flexibility of the SiO2 aerogels while maintaining a lower thermal conductivity, which provides increasing potential for thermal insulation applications.

  12. Preparation and Characterization of a Calcium Carbonate Aerogel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann Plank

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on a facile method for the preparation of a calcium carbonate aerogel consisting of aggregated secondary vaterite particles with an approximate average diameter of 50 nm. It was synthesized via a sol-gel process by reacting calcium oxide with carbon dioxide in methanol and subsequent supercritical drying of the alcogel with carbon dioxide. The resulting monolith was opaque, brittle and had overall dimensions of 6×2×1 cm. It was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, nitrogen adsorption method (BET, and scanning electron microscopy.

  13. Impact Verification of Aerogel Insulation Paint on Historic Brick Facades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganobjak, Michal; Kralova, Eva

    2017-10-01

    Increasing the sustainability of existing buildings is being motivated by reduction of their energy demands. It is the above all the building envelope and its refurbishment by substitution or addition of new materials that makes the opportunity for reduction of energy consumption. A special type of refurbishment is conservation of historical buildings. Preservation of historic buildings permits also application of innovative methods and materials in addition to the original materials if their effects are known and the gained experience ensures their beneficial effect. On the market, there are new materials with addition of silica aerogel in various forms of products. They are also potentially useful in conservation of monuments. However, the effects of aerogel application in these cases are not known. For refurbishment is commercially available additional transparent insulation paint - Nansulate Clear Coat which is containing aerogel and can be used for structured surfaces such as bricks. A series of experiments examined the thermo-physical manifestation of an ultra-thin insulation coating of Nansulate Clear Coat containing silica aerogel on a brick facade. The experiments of active and passive thermography have observed effects of application on the small-scale samples of the brick façade of a protected historical building. Through a series of experiments were measured thermal insulation effect and influence on the aesthetic characteristics such as change in colour and gloss. The treated samples were compared to a reference. Results have shown no thermal-insulating manifestation of the recommended three layers of insulation paint. The three layers recommended by the manufacturer did not significantly affect the appearance of the brick facade. Color and gloss were not significantly changed. Experiments showed the absence of thermal insulation effect of Nansulate transparent triple coating. The thermal insulation effect could likely be reached by more layers of

  14. Critical behavior of superfluid {sup 4}He in aerogel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, K. [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Girvin, S.M. [Department of Physics, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405 (United States)

    1995-08-14

    We report Monte Carlo studies of the critical behavior of superfluid {sup 4}He in the presence of quenched disorder with long-range fractal correlations. Modeling aerogel as an incipient percolating cluster in 3D and weakening the bonds at the fractal sites, {ital XY}-model simulations demonstrate an increase in the superfluid density exponent {zeta} from 0.67{plus_minus}0.005 for the pure case to an apparent value of 0.722{plus_minus}0.005 in the presence of the fractal disorder, provided that the helium correlation length does not exceed the fractal correlation length.

  15. Electrochemical properties of carbon aerogels with freeze - drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuelong; Yan, Meifang; Liua, Zhenfa

    2017-09-01

    Carbon aerogels (CAs) were prepared via a sol-gel process by polymerization of phloroglucinol, resorcinol and formaldehyde using 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid as catalyst with freeze-drying. The electrochemical properties were characterized using cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge measurements and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The specific capacitance of corresponding CAs was up to 131 F g-1 and 105 F g-1 at the density of 0.5 A g-1 and 1.0 A g-1, respectively.

  16. Production of aerogel double glazed units and measurement of key performance parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duer, Karsten; Svendsen, Sv Aa Højgaard

    1997-01-01

    By providing at the same time thermal insulation and transparency the silica aerogel is a very attractive material for the purpose of improving the thermal performance of windows. Nevertheless a lot of problems have to be solved on the way from concept to the developed product. The B1 Aerogels...... project in IEA SHCP Task 18 deals with some of these problems.This report summarizes the work that has been carried out on the subject of characterizing the optical and thermal performance of prototypical evacuated aerogel glazings produced in Denmark by means of a new edge seal technique with very small...

  17. Top-down control of soil fungal community composition by a globally distributed keystone consumer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Crowther, T. W.; Stanton, D.G.W.; Thomas, S.M.; A'Bear, A.D.; Hiscox, J.; Jones, T.H.; Voříšková, Jana; Baldrian, Petr; Boddy, L.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 94, č. 11 (2013), s. 2518-2528 ISSN 0012-9658 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP504/12/0709 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : decomposition * fungal energy channel * keystone species Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 5.000, year: 2013

  18. Life cycle and masting of a recovering keystone indicator species under climate fluctuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qinfeng Guo; Stanley J. Zarnoch; Xiongwen Chen; Dale G. Brockway

    2016-01-01

    Ecosystem health and sustainability, to a large degree, depend on the performance of keystone or dominant species. The role of climate on population dynamics of such species has been extensively examined, especially for health indicator species. Yet the life-cycle processes and response lags for many species could complicate efforts to detect clear climate signals....

  19. Keystone Species, Forest and Landscape: A Model to Select Protected Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins, Daniela Barbosa da Silva; Gardon, Fernando Ravanini; Meyer, João Frederico da Costa Azevedo; Santos, Rozely Ferreira dos

    2017-06-01

    The selection of forest fragments for conservation is usually based on spatial parameters as forest size and canopy integrity. This strategy assumes that chosen fragments present high conservation status, ensuring biodiversity and ecological functions. We argue that a well-preserved forest fragment that remains connected by the landscape structure, does not necessarily hold attributes that ensure the presence of keystone species. We also discuss that the presence of keystone species does not always mean that it has the best conditions for its occurrence and maintenance. We developed a model to select areas in forest landscapes to be prioritized for protection based on suitability curves that unify and compare spatial indicators of three categories: forest fragment quality, landscape quality, and environmental conditions for the occurrence of a keystone species. We use a case study to compare different suitability degrees for Euterpe edulis presence, considered an important functional element in Atlantic Forest (São Paulo, Brazil) landscapes and a forest resource for local people. The results show that the identification of medium or advanced stage fragments as singular indicator of forest quality does not guarantee the existence or maintenance of this keystone species. Even in some well-preserved forest fragments, connected to others and with palm presence, the reverse J-shaped distribution of the population size structure is not sustained and these forests continue to be threatened due to human disturbances.

  20. Keystone Species, Forest and Landscape: A Model to Select Protected Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins, Daniela Barbosa da Silva; Gardon, Fernando Ravanini; Meyer, João Frederico da Costa Azevedo; Santos, Rozely Ferreira Dos

    2017-06-01

    The selection of forest fragments for conservation is usually based on spatial parameters as forest size and canopy integrity. This strategy assumes that chosen fragments present high conservation status, ensuring biodiversity and ecological functions. We argue that a well-preserved forest fragment that remains connected by the landscape structure, does not necessarily hold attributes that ensure the presence of keystone species. We also discuss that the presence of keystone species does not always mean that it has the best conditions for its occurrence and maintenance. We developed a model to select areas in forest landscapes to be prioritized for protection based on suitability curves that unify and compare spatial indicators of three categories: forest fragment quality, landscape quality, and environmental conditions for the occurrence of a keystone species. We use a case study to compare different suitability degrees for Euterpe edulis presence, considered an important functional element in Atlantic Forest (São Paulo, Brazil) landscapes and a forest resource for local people. The results show that the identification of medium or advanced stage fragments as singular indicator of forest quality does not guarantee the existence or maintenance of this keystone species. Even in some well-preserved forest fragments, connected to others and with palm presence, the reverse J-shaped distribution of the population size structure is not sustained and these forests continue to be threatened due to human disturbances.

  1. Keystone species in seed dispersal networks are mainly determined by dietary specialization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribeiro Mello, M.A.; Rodrigues, F.A.; da Fontoura Costa, L.; Kissling, W.D.; Şekercioğlu, Ç.H.; Darcie Marquitti, F.M.; Kalko, E.K.V.

    2015-01-01

    A central issue in ecology is the definition and identification of keystone species, i.e. species that are relatively more important than others for maintaining community structure and ecosystem functioning. Network theory has been pointed out as a robust theoretical framework to enhance the

  2. 78 FR 18665 - Proposed Keystone XL Project; Public Meeting Following Release of the Draft Supplemental Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    ... Presidential Permit application for the proposed Keystone XL pipeline. The document is a draft technical review... turn is called or they will forfeit their time. Comments: Remarks made at the meeting will be recorded... to make remarks, to allow the maximum number of people who sign up to speak. Speakers will be asked...

  3. 76 FR 55157 - Final Public Meeting in Washington, DC for the Proposed Keystone XL Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ... Presidential Permit to the applicant would serve the national interest. This decision on the application will... name or number is called or they will forfeit their time. Comments: Remarks made at the meetings will... consideration of the proposed Keystone XL pipeline. Each speaker will be allowed 3-5 minutes to make remarks...

  4. The Effect of Radiation on Phaseolus vulgaris growth and Aerogel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boylan, Derek; Durham, Stephanie

    2013-10-01

    Radiation affects human life in disparately subtle and dramatic ways. For instance, nuclear reactions in the Sun produce light and heat that are essential for human existence, while recent research implies that the flux of cosmic ray particles may also have an impact on humans' daily lives. According to the EPA the average American receives 310 mrems of radiation per year, well under a total dose of 50,000 mrems and higher doses that cause symptoms ranging from nausea to death. However, scientists hypothesize that exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation (Phaseolus vulgaris was tested. The same radiation was also tested on the performance of aerogel, a material used in particle detectors. Aerogel will be used in experiments at the 12 GeV Jefferson Laboratory and has been previously observed to change its optical characteristics after being used in experiments. To determine the level of cosmic ray flux and possible contribution to our experiments a detector was created using scintillator material and 2-inch phototubes. Results from our experiments will be presented. Supported in part by NSF grant 1019521 and 1039446.

  5. The Effect of Radiation on Phaseolus vulgaris and Aerogel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Stephanie; Boylan, Derek

    2013-10-01

    Radiation affects human life in disparately subtle and dramatic ways. For instance, nuclear reactions in the Sun produce light and heat that are essential for human existence, while recent research implies that the flux of cosmic ray particles may also have an impact on humans' daily lives. According to the EPA the average American receives 310 mrems of radiation per year, well under a total dose of 50,000 mrems and higher doses that cause symptoms ranging from nausea to death. However, scientists hypothesize that exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation (Phaseolus vulgaris was tested. The same radiation was also tested on the performance of aerogel, a material used in particle detectors. Aerogel will be used in experiments at the 12 GeV Jefferson Laboratory and has been previously observed to change its optical characteristics after being used in experiments. To determine the level of cosmic ray flux and possible contribution to our experiments a detector was created using scintillator material and 2-inch phototubes. Results from our experiments will be presented. Supported in part by NSF grant 1019521 and 1039446.

  6. Scintillator based on SiO2-aerogel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyko, I.R.; Ignatenko, M.A.; Esenak, K.; Kuhta, L.; Ruzicka, J.; Fainor, V.

    1995-01-01

    For increasing the light output of SiO 2 -aerogel two aerogel samples were doped with the wavelength shifter POPOP. As a result a scintillator with intermediate density between the gas and the solid state has been produced. The light pulse shapes of the both samples are well approximated by a sum of two exponents with the decay times 1.4±0.1 ns (58% of total light output) and 5.2±0.4 ns (42%). Under irradiation of 5.5 MeV α-particles the light output of the sample with smaller wavelength shifter concentration was 30% and that of the sample with larger concentration was 8% of the light output of a plastic scintillator (polysterene, 2% paraterphenil, 0.2% POPOP). The obtained data indicate that the α/β ratio for both samples is close to 1. This material can be used in experiments where the amount of substance in the way of particles to be detected is a critical factor. (orig.)

  7. Hierarchical Nafion enhanced carbon aerogels for sensing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Bo; Ding, Ailing; Liu, Yuqing; Diao, Jianglin; Razal, Joselito; Lau, King Tong; Shepherd, Roderick; Li, Changming; Chen, Jun

    2016-02-14

    This work describes the fabrication of hierarchical 3D Nafion enhanced carbon aerogels (NECAGs) for sensing applications via a fast freeze drying method. Graphene oxide, multiwalled carbon nanotubes and Nafion were mixed and extruded into liquid nitrogen followed by the removal of ice crystals by freeze drying. The addition of Nafion enhanced the mechanical strength of NECAGs and effective control of the cellular morphology and pore size was achieved. The resultant NECAGs demonstrated high strength, low density, and high specific surface area and can achieve a modulus of 20 kPa, an electrical conductivity of 140 S m(-1), and a specific capacity of 136.8 F g(-1) after reduction. Therefore, NECAG monoliths performed well as a gas sensor and as a biosensor with high sensitivity and selectivity. The remarkable sensitivity of 8.52 × 10(3)μA mM(-1) cm(-2) was obtained in dopamine (DA) detection, which is two orders of magnitude better than the literature reported values using graphene aerogel electrodes made from a porous Ni template. These outstanding properties make the NECAG a promising electrode candidate for a wide range of applications. Further in-depth investigations are being undertaken to probe the structure-property relationship of NECAG monoliths prepared under various conditions.

  8. Impact Features and Projectile Residues in Aerogel Exposed on Mir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hörz, F.; Zolensky, M. E.; Bernhard, R. P.; See, T. H.; Warren, J. L.

    2000-10-01

    Approximately 0.63 m 2 of SiO 2-based aerogel (0.02 g cm -3) was exposed for 18 months on the Mir Station to capture hypervelocity particles from both man-made and natural sources. Optical inspection revealed two major classes of hypervelocity impact features in the aerogel: (1) long, carrot-shaped tracks, well known from laboratory impact experiments, that exhibit a depth- ( t) to-diameter ( D) relationship of t/ D>10, typically 20-30, and (2) shallow pits ( t/ DCompositional analyses by SEM-EDS identified a variety of man-made and natural particles. A few natural particles were embedded in epoxy, microtomed, and analyzed by TEM. All were polymineralic aggregates that contained olivine exhibiting sharp electron-diffraction spots, and suggesting that the materials had experienced only minimal shock-deformation, if any. One natural particle contained olivine, augite, diopside, troilite, chromite/magnetite, and hercynite, the latter existing as pristine, undeformed octahedral crystals. The olivine in two of the particles were Fo 60-70 and Fo 39-53, and thus, more equilibrated than olivines in most stratospheric particles (Fo 80-100). These results illustrate that particle collections in Earth orbit are highly complementary to ground-based collections of cosmic dust.

  9. Mechanical Properties and Brittle Behavior of Silica Aerogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Woignier

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sets of silica gels: aerogels, xerogels and sintered aerogels, have been studied in the objective to understand the mechanical behavior of these highly porous solids. The mechanical behaviour of gels is described in terms of elastic and brittle materials, like glasses or ceramics. The magnitude of the elastic and rupture modulus is several orders of magnitude lower compared to dense glass. The mechanical behaviours (elastic and brittle are related to the same kinds of gel characteristics: pore volume, silanol content and pore size. Elastic modulus depends strongly on the volume fraction of pores and on the condensation reaction between silanols. Concerning the brittleness features: rupture modulus and toughness, it is shown that pores size plays an important role. Pores can be considered as flaws in the terms of fracture mechanics and the flaw size is related to the pore size. Weibull’s theory is used to show the statistical nature of flaw. Moreover, stress corrosion behaviour is studied as a function of environmental conditions (water and alcoholic atmosphere and temperature.

  10. The LHCb RICH silica aerogel performance with LHC data

    CERN Multimedia

    Perego, D L

    2010-01-01

    In the LHCb detector at the Large Hadron Collider, powerful charged particle identification is performed by Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) technology. In order to cover the full geometric acceptance and the wide momentum range (1-100 GeV/c), two detectors with three Cherenkov radiators have been designed and installed. In the medium (10-40 GeV/c) and high (30-100 GeV/c) momentum range, gas radiators are used (C4F10 and CF4 respectively). In the low momentum range (1 to a few GeV/c) pion/kaon/proton separation will be done with photons produced in solid silica aerogel. A set of 16 tiles, with the large transverse dimensions ever (20x20 cm$^2$) and nominal refractive index 1.03 have been produced. The tiles have excellent optical properties and homogeneity of refractive index within the tile of ~1%. The first data collected at LHC are used to understand the behaviour of the RICH: preliminary results will be presented and discussed on the performance of silica aerogel and of the gas radiators C4F10 and CF4.

  11. Systematic studies of tannin–formaldehyde aerogels: preparation and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaral-Labat, Gisele; Szczurek, Andrzej; Fierro, Vanessa; Pizzi, Antonio; Celzard, Alain

    2013-01-01

    Gelation of tannin–formaldehyde (TF) solutions was systematically investigated by changing pH and concentration of TF resin in water. In this way we constructed the TF phase diagram, from which chemical hydrogels could be described, and also synthesized thermoreversible tannin-based hydrogels. Conditions of non-gelation were also determined. Hydrogels were dried in supercritical CO 2 , leading to a broad range of TF aerogels. The latter were investigated for volume shrinkage, total porosity, micro-, meso- and macropore volumes, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area, microscopic texture, mechanical and thermal properties. All these properties are discussed in relation to each other, leading to an accurate and self-consistent description of these bioresource-based highly porous materials. The conditions for obtaining the highest BET surface area or mesopore volume were determined and explained in relation to the preparation conditions. The highest BET surface area, 880 m 2 g −1 , is remarkably high for organic aerogels derived from a natural resource. (paper)

  12. Systematic studies of tannin-formaldehyde aerogels: preparation and properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral-Labat, Gisele; Szczurek, Andrzej; Fierro, Vanessa; Pizzi, Antonio; Celzard, Alain

    2013-02-01

    Gelation of tannin-formaldehyde (TF) solutions was systematically investigated by changing pH and concentration of TF resin in water. In this way we constructed the TF phase diagram, from which chemical hydrogels could be described, and also synthesized thermoreversible tannin-based hydrogels. Conditions of non-gelation were also determined. Hydrogels were dried in supercritical CO2, leading to a broad range of TF aerogels. The latter were investigated for volume shrinkage, total porosity, micro-, meso- and macropore volumes, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, microscopic texture, mechanical and thermal properties. All these properties are discussed in relation to each other, leading to an accurate and self-consistent description of these bioresource-based highly porous materials. The conditions for obtaining the highest BET surface area or mesopore volume were determined and explained in relation to the preparation conditions. The highest BET surface area, 880 m2 g-1, is remarkably high for organic aerogels derived from a natural resource.

  13. Kinetically controlled synthesis of AuPt bi-metallic aerogels and their enhanced electrocatalytic performances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Qiurong [School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering; Washington State University; Pullman; USA; Zhu, Chengzhou [School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering; Washington State University; Pullman; USA; Du, Dan [School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering; Washington State University; Pullman; USA; Key Laboratory of Pesticides and Chemical Biology; Bi, Cuixia [Institute of Crystal Materials; Shandong University; Jinan 250100; P. R. China; Xia, Haibing [Institute of Crystal Materials; Shandong University; Jinan 250100; P. R. China; Feng, Shuo [School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering; Washington State University; Pullman; USA; Engelhard, Mark H. [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory; Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Richland; USA; Lin, Yuehe [School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering; Washington State University; Pullman; USA

    2017-01-01

    Kinetically controlled synthesis of AuPtxbi-metallic hydrogels/aerogels was efficiently achieved for the first timeviatuning the reaction temperature or adding a surfactant.

  14. Structural Modifications of Continuous Aerogel Films for Low-power, High Performance Sensing Capabilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Recent work has found that TiO2 nanorods and nanowires can be grown from a high-surface area, highly porous TiO2 ambiently-dried aerogel structure through varying...

  15. Preparation and Characterization of Highly Spherical Silica-titania Aerogel Beads with High Surface Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YU Yu-xi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The silica-titania aerogel beads were synthesized through sol-gel reaction followed by supercritical drying, in which TEOS and TBT as co-precursors, EtOH as solvents, HAC and NH3·H2O as catalysts. The as-prepared aerogel beads were characterized by SEM,TEM,XRD,FT-IR,TG-DTA and nitrogen adsorption-desorption. The results indicate that the diameter distribution of beads are between 1-8mm, the average diameter of beads is 3.5mm. The aerogel beads have nanoporous network structure with high specific surface area of 914.5m2/g, and the TiO2 particles are distributed in the aerogel uniformly, which keep the anatase crystal under high temperature.

  16. Ignition capsules with aerogel-supported liquid DT fuel for the National Ignition Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho D.D.-M.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available For high repetition-rate fusion power plant applications, capsules with aerogel-supported liquid DT fuel can have much reduced fill time compared to β-layering a solid DT fuel layer. The melting point of liquid DT can be lowered once liquid DT is embedded in an aerogel matrix, and the DT vapor density is consequently closer to the desired density for optimal capsule design requirement. We present design for NIF-scale aerogel-filled capsules based on 1-D and 2-D simulations. An optimal configuration is obtained when the outer radius is increased until the clean fuel fraction is within 65 – 75% at peak velocity. A scan (in ablator and fuel thickness parameter space is used to optimize the capsule configurations. The optimized aerogel-filled capsule has good low-mode robustness and acceptable high-mode mix.

  17. Cobalt sulfide aerogel prepared by anion exchange method with enhanced pseudocapacitive and water oxidation performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qiuyue; Shi, Zhenyu; Xue, Kaiming; Ye, Ziran; Hong, Zhanglian; Yu, Xinyao; Zhi, Mingjia

    2018-05-01

    This work introduces the anion exchange method into the sol-gel process for the first time to prepare a metal sulfide aerogel. A porous Co9S8 aerogel with a high surface area (274.2 m2 g‑1) and large pore volume (0.87 cm3 g‑1) has been successfully prepared by exchanging cobalt citrate wet gel in thioacetamide and subsequently drying in supercritical ethanol. Such a Co9S8 aerogel shows enhanced supercapacitive performance and catalytic activity toward oxygen evolution reaction (OER) compared to its oxide aerogel counterpart. High specific capacitance (950 F g‑1 at 1 A g‑1), good rate capability (74.3% capacitance retention from 1 to 20 A g‑1) and low onset overpotential for OER (220 mV) were observed. The results demonstrated here have implications in preparing various sulfide chalcogels.

  18. Flexible transparent aerogels as window retrofitting films and optical elements with tunable birefringence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Qingkun; Frazier, Allister W.; Zhao, Xinpeng; De La Cruz, Joshua A.; Hess, Andrew J.; Yang, Ronggui; Smalyukh, Ivan I.

    2018-06-01

    Experimental realization of optically transparent, mechanically robust and flexible aerogels has been a longstanding challenge, which limits their practical applications in energy-saving devices, such as thermally insulating films for enhancing energy efficiency of windows. The poor transparency precluded even hypothetical consideration of the possibility of birefringent aerogels. We develop birefringent and optically isotropic aerogels that combine properties of thermal super-insulation, mechanical robustness and flexibility, and transparency to visible-spectrum light. This unusual combination of physical properties is achieved by combining liquid crystalline self-organization of cellulose nanofibers with polysiloxane cross-linking and control of the nanoscale porosity to form hybrid organic-inorganic mesostructured aerogels. Potential applications of these inexpensive materials range from single pane window retrofitting to smart fabrics.

  19. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF CELLULOSE BASED BIO-POLYMER AEROGEL ISOLATED FROM WASTE OF BLUEBERRY TREE (VACCINIUM MYRTILLUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet KAYA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose aerogel (CA has highly porous structure, environmentally friendly, thermally stable and flame retardant properties. These properties in material worlds have attracted large interest as a potentially industrial material. In this paper, cellulose aerogel with flame retardant was produced from pruned branches and bushes of blueberries wastes (PBBW. Firstly, cellulose raw material these wastes was obtained and then, cellulose aerogel via freeze-drying, followed by cellulose hydrogel production. Our reports showed that three dimensionally network aerogel structure prepared from NaOH/Urea as scaffold solution. The present cellulose aerogel has excellent flame retardancy, which can extinguish within 140 s. By the way, it was inferred thermal stability performance of cellulose aerogel could be efficient potential thermal insulating material. Besides, this process are sustainable, easily available at low cost and suitable for industrial applications.

  20. Preliminary study of silica aerogel as a gas-equivalent material in ionization chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caresana, M.; Zorloni, G.

    2017-12-01

    Since about two decades, a renewed interest on aerogels has risen. These peculiar materials show fairly unique properties. Thus, they are under investigation for both scientific and commercial purposes and new optimized production processes are studied. In this work, the possibility of using aerogel in the field of radiation detection is explored. The idea is to substitute the gas filling in a ionization chamber with the aerogel. The material possesses a density about 100 times greater than ambient pressure air. Where as the open-pore structure should allow the charge carriers to move freely. Small hydrophobic silica aerogel samples were studied. A custom ionization chamber, capable of working both with aerogel or in the classic gas set up, was built. The response of the chamber in current mode was investigated using an X-ray tube. The results obtained showed, under proper conditions, an enhancement of about 60 times of the current signal in the aerogel configuration with respect to the classic gas one. Moreover, some unusual behaviours were observed, i.e. time inertia of the signal and super-/sub-linear current response with respect to the dose rate. While testing high electric fields, aerogel configuration seemed to enhance the Townsend's effects. In order to represent the observed trends, a trapping-detrapping model is proposed, which is capable to predict semi-empirically the steady state currents measured. The time evolution of the signal is semi-quantitatively represented by the same model. The coefficients estimated by the fits are in agreement with similar trapping problems in the literature. In particular, a direct comparison between the benchmark of the FET silica gates and aerogel case endorses the idea that the same type of phenomenon occurs in the studied case.

  1. Development of Innovative Aerogel Based Plasters: Preliminary Thermal and Acoustic Performance Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Buratti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The thermal and acoustic properties of innovative insulating systems used as building coatings were investigated: Granular silica aerogel was mixed with natural plaster in different percentages. This coating solution is transpiring and insulating, thanks to the use of a natural lime coat and aerogel, a highly porous light material with very low thermal conductivity. The thermal conductivity of the proposed solution was evaluated by means of a Heat Flow meter apparatus (EN ISO 12667, considering different percentages of aerogel. The natural plaster without aerogel has a thermal conductivity of about 0.50 W/m K; considering a percentage of granular aerogel of about 90% in volume, the thermal conductivity of the insulating natural coating falls to 0.050 W/m K. Increasing the percentage of granular aerogel, a value of about 0.018–0.020 W/m K can be reached. The acoustic properties were also evaluated in terms of the acoustic absorption coefficient, measured by means of a Kundt’s Tube (ISO 10534-2. Two samples composed by a plasterboard support, an insulation plaster with aerogel (thicknesses 10 mm and 30 mm respectively and a final coat were assembled. The results showed that the absorption coefficient strongly depends on the final coat, so the aerogel-based plaster layer moderately influences the final value. The application of this innovative solution can be a useful tool for new buildings, but also for the refurbishment of existing ones. This material is in development: until now, the best value of the thermal conductivity obtained from manufacturers is about 0.015 W/m K.

  2. Development and evaluation of aerogel-filled BMI sandwich panels for thermal barrier applications

    OpenAIRE

    A. Dineshkumar; Abdullah A. Sheikh; Zhao Yong; Sunil C. Joshi

    2016-01-01

    This study details a fabrication methodology envisaged to manufacture Glass/BMI honeycomb core aerogel-filled sandwich panels. Silica aerogel granules are used as core fillers to provide thermal insulation properties with little weight increase. Experimental heat transfer studies are conducted on these panels to study the temperature distribution between their two surfaces. Numerical studies are also carried out to validate the results. Despite exhibiting good thermal shielding capabilities, ...

  3. Aerogel Poly(butylene succinate) Biomaterial Substrate for RF and Microwave Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib Ullah, M; Mahadi, W N L; Latef, T A

    2015-08-04

    Polybutylene succinate (PBS) has become a potential candidate, similar to polypropylene (PP) and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), for use as an organic plastic material due to its outstanding mechanical properties as well as high thermal deformation characteristics. A new composition of silica aerogel nanoparticles extracted from rice waste with PBS is proposed for use as a dielectric (εr = 4.5) substrate for microwave applications. A microstrip patch antenna was fabricated on the proposed dielectric substrate for multi-resonant ultra-wideband (UWB) applications. The performance characteristics of the proposed biomaterial-based antenna were investigated in a far-field measurement environment. The results indicate that the proposed biocompatible material-based antenna covered a bandwidth of 9.4 (2.3-11.7) GHz with stop bands from 5.5 GHz to 5.8 GHz and 7.0 GHz to 8.3 GHz. Peak gains of 9.82 dBi, 7.59 dBi, 8.0 dBi and 7.68 dBi were measured at resonant frequencies of 2.7 GHz, 4.6 GHz, 6.3 GHz and 9.5 GHz, respectively.

  4. Aerogel Poly(butylene succinate) Biomaterial Substrate for RF and Microwave Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib Ullah, M.; Mahadi, W. N. L.; Latef, T. A.

    2015-08-01

    Polybutylene succinate (PBS) has become a potential candidate, similar to polypropylene (PP) and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), for use as an organic plastic material due to its outstanding mechanical properties as well as high thermal deformation characteristics. A new composition of silica aerogel nanoparticles extracted from rice waste with PBS is proposed for use as a dielectric (ɛr = 4.5) substrate for microwave applications. A microstrip patch antenna was fabricated on the proposed dielectric substrate for multi-resonant ultra-wideband (UWB) applications. The performance characteristics of the proposed biomaterial-based antenna were investigated in a far-field measurement environment. The results indicate that the proposed biocompatible material-based antenna covered a bandwidth of 9.4 (2.3-11.7) GHz with stop bands from 5.5 GHz to 5.8 GHz and 7.0 GHz to 8.3 GHz. Peak gains of 9.82 dBi, 7.59 dBi, 8.0 dBi and 7.68 dBi were measured at resonant frequencies of 2.7 GHz, 4.6 GHz, 6.3 GHz and 9.5 GHz, respectively.

  5. Progress in development of silica aerogel for particle- and nuclear-physics experiments at J-PARC

    OpenAIRE

    Tabata, Makoto; Kawai, Hideyuki

    2014-01-01

    This study presents the advancement in hydrophobic silica aerogel development for use as Cherenkov radiators and muonium production targets. These devices are scheduled for use in several particle- and nuclear-physics experiments that are planned in the near future at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex. Our conventional method to produce aerogel tiles with an intermediate index of refraction of approximately 1.05 is extended so that we can now produce aerogel tiles with lower indic...

  6. Oxidation-mediated chitosan as additives for creation of chitosan aerogels with diverse three-dimensional interconnected skeletons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Sizhao, E-mail: bule-soul@hotmail.com; Feng, Jian, E-mail: fengj@nudt.edu.cn; Feng, Junzong; Jiang, Yonggang

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • A new synthetic method for controlling morphology of chitosan aerogels is proposed. • Chitosan aerogels with nanoflake-like and nanofiber-like were prepared. • Textures of chitosan aerogels are strongly dependent upon the oxidation pattern. - Abstract: Naturally occurring polymer-based aerogels have myriad practical utilizations due to environmentally benign and fruitful resources. However, engineering morphology-controllable biomass aerogels still represents a great challenge. Here we present a facile solution to synthesize chitosan aerogels having distinguished textures by reacting oxidized chitosan with formaldehyde and chitosan sol. In more detail, chitosan was chemically oxidized using two types of oxidation agents such as ammonium persulphate (SPD) and sodium periodate (APS) to obtain corresponding oxidized chitosan, subsequently cross-linked with chitosan solution containing formaldehyde to harvest SPD-oxidized chitosan aerogels (SCAs) and APS-SPD-oxidized ones (ASCAs) after aging, solvent exchange and supercritical drying processes. We found that the morphologies of as-prepared chitosan aerogels are strongly dependent upon the oxidation pattern towards chitosan. The structural textures of SCAs and ASCAs appear nanoflake-like and nanofiber-like structures, which may be related to spatial freedom of active groups located in chitosan. Selected area electron diffraction analysis reveals that the crystalline properties of chitosan aerogels generally appear the serious deterioration comparing to raw chitosan owing to their interconnected skeletal structure formation. The occurrence of characteristic groups displays cross-linked chain construction by using chemical state measurements such as FT-IR and XPS. Further, a plausible mechanism for controlling morphology of chitosan aerogels is also established. This new family of method for creation of chitosan aerogels may open up a perspective for biomass aerogels with controllable textures.

  7. Oxidation-mediated chitosan as additives for creation of chitosan aerogels with diverse three-dimensional interconnected skeletons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Sizhao; Feng, Jian; Feng, Junzong; Jiang, Yonggang

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A new synthetic method for controlling morphology of chitosan aerogels is proposed. • Chitosan aerogels with nanoflake-like and nanofiber-like were prepared. • Textures of chitosan aerogels are strongly dependent upon the oxidation pattern. - Abstract: Naturally occurring polymer-based aerogels have myriad practical utilizations due to environmentally benign and fruitful resources. However, engineering morphology-controllable biomass aerogels still represents a great challenge. Here we present a facile solution to synthesize chitosan aerogels having distinguished textures by reacting oxidized chitosan with formaldehyde and chitosan sol. In more detail, chitosan was chemically oxidized using two types of oxidation agents such as ammonium persulphate (SPD) and sodium periodate (APS) to obtain corresponding oxidized chitosan, subsequently cross-linked with chitosan solution containing formaldehyde to harvest SPD-oxidized chitosan aerogels (SCAs) and APS-SPD-oxidized ones (ASCAs) after aging, solvent exchange and supercritical drying processes. We found that the morphologies of as-prepared chitosan aerogels are strongly dependent upon the oxidation pattern towards chitosan. The structural textures of SCAs and ASCAs appear nanoflake-like and nanofiber-like structures, which may be related to spatial freedom of active groups located in chitosan. Selected area electron diffraction analysis reveals that the crystalline properties of chitosan aerogels generally appear the serious deterioration comparing to raw chitosan owing to their interconnected skeletal structure formation. The occurrence of characteristic groups displays cross-linked chain construction by using chemical state measurements such as FT-IR and XPS. Further, a plausible mechanism for controlling morphology of chitosan aerogels is also established. This new family of method for creation of chitosan aerogels may open up a perspective for biomass aerogels with controllable textures.

  8. Synthesis and Characterization of Fibre Reinforced Silica Aerogel Blankets for Thermal Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Chakraborty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Using tetraethoxysilane (TEOS as the source of silica, fibre reinforced silica aerogels were synthesized via fast ambient pressure drying using methanol (MeOH, trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS, ammonium fluoride (NH4F, and hexane. The molar ratio of TEOS/MeOH/(COOH2/NH4F was kept constant at 1 : 38 : 3.73 × 10−5 : 0.023 and the gel was allowed to form inside the highly porous meta-aramid fibrous batting. The wet gel surface was chemically modified (silylation process using various concentrations of TMCS in hexane in the range of 1 to 20% by volume. The fibre reinforced silica aerogel blanket was obtained subsequently through atmospheric pressure drying. The aerogel blanket samples were characterized by density, thermal conductivity, hydrophobicity (contact angle, and Scanning Electron Microscopy. The radiant heat resistance of the aerogel blankets was examined and compared with nonaerogel blankets. It has been observed that, compared to the ordinary nonaerogel blankets, the aerogel blankets showed a 58% increase in the estimated burn injury time and thus ensure a much better protection from heat and fire hazards. The effect of varying the concentration of TMCS on the estimated protection time has been examined. The improved thermal stability and the superior thermal insulation of the flexible aerogel blankets lead to applications being used for occupations that involve exposure to hazards of thermal radiation.

  9. Enhancement Studies on Manufacturing and Properties of Novel Silica Aerogel Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Chandrakant Joshi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Silica Aerogel composites are ultra-low density, highly porous foam-like materials that exhibit excellent thermal insulation and high strain recovery characteristics. In the present work, environment-friendly silica aerogel composites are fabricated using silica aerogel granules with bio based porcine-gelatin as the binding agent dissolved in water and by further drying the mix at sub-zero condition. This article focuses on improvement studies carried on the mold design and the manufacturing process to achieve better geometric compliance for the silica aerogel composites. It also presents contact angle measurements, compressive behavior under different cycles of loading, time dependent behavior and flexural response of the composites. The influence of additives, such as fumed silica and carbon nanotubes on mechanical properties of the composites is also deliberated. Water droplet contact angle experiments confirmed the ultra-hydrophobic nature of the composites. The mechanical properties were characterized under cyclic loading-unloading compression and three-point flexure tests. On successive compression in three consecutive load cycles, the strain and thickness recovery were found to decrease by around 30%. The flexural properties of the aerogel composites were investigated using it as the core covered by thin carbon composite face sheets. It was found that the flexural strength and the failure strain of this aerogel sandwich composites is approximately half of the conventional nomex honeycomb sandwich equivalent.

  10. Transparent, Superflexible Doubly Cross-Linked Polyvinylpolymethylsiloxane Aerogel Superinsulators via Ambient Pressure Drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zu, Guoqing; Shimizu, Taiyo; Kanamori, Kazuyoshi; Zhu, Yang; Maeno, Ayaka; Kaji, Hironori; Shen, Jun; Nakanishi, Kazuki

    2018-01-23

    Aerogels have many attractive properties but are usually costly and mechanically brittle, which always limit their practical applications. While many efforts have been made to reinforce the aerogels, most of the reinforcement efforts sacrifice the transparency or superinsulating properties. Here we report superflexible polyvinylpolymethylsiloxane, (CH 2 CH(Si(CH 3 )O 2/2 )) n , aerogels that are facilely prepared from a single precursor vinylmethyldimethoxysilane or vinylmethyldiethoxysilane without organic cross-linkers. The method is based on consecutive processes involving radical polymerization and hydrolytic polycondensation, followed by ultralow-cost, highly scalable, ambient-pressure drying directly from alcohol as a drying medium without any modification or additional solvent exchange. The resulting aerogels and xerogels show a homogeneous, tunable, highly porous, doubly cross-linked nanostructure with the elastic polymethylsiloxane network cross-linked with flexible hydrocarbon chains. An outstanding combination of ultralow cost, high scalability, uniform pore size, high surface area, high transparency, high hydrophobicity, excellent machinability, superflexibility in compression, superflexibility in bending, and superinsulating properties has been achieved in a single aerogel or xerogel. This study represents a significant progress of porous materials and makes the practical applications of transparent flexible aerogel-based superinsulators realistic.

  11. Flexible Polyimide Aerogel Cross-linked by Poly(maleic Anhydride-alt-alkylene)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Haiquan; Meador, Mary Ann B.; Wilkewitz, Brittany Marie

    2014-01-01

    Aerogels are potential materials for aerospace applications due to their lower thermal conductivity, lighter weight, and low dielectric constant. However, silica aerogels are restricted due to their inherent fragility, hygroscopic nature, and poor mechanical properties, especially in extreme aerospace environments. In order to fit the needs of aerospace applications, developing new thermal insulation materials that are flexible, and moisture resistant is needed. To this end, we fabricated a series of polyimide aerogels crosslinked with different poly(maleic anhydride-alt-alkylene)s as seen in Scheme 1. The polyimide oligomers were made with 3,3,4,4-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride (BPDA), and different diamines or diamine combinations. The resulting aerogels have low density (0.06 gcm3 to 0.16 gcm3) and high surface area (240-440 m2g). The effect of the different backbone structures on density, shrinkage, porosity, surface area, mechanical properties, moisture resistance and thermal properties will be discussed. These novel polyalkylene-imide aerogels may be potential candidates for applications such as space suit insulation for planetary surface missions, insulation for inflatable structures for habitats, inflatable aerodynamic decelerators for entry, descent and landing (EDL) operations, and cryotank insulation for advance space propulsion systems. Scheme 1. Network of polyimide aerogels crosslinked with deifferent poly(maleic anhydride).

  12. Room-temperature embedment of anatase titania nanoparticles into porous cellulose aerogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Yue; Wan, Caichao; Li, Jian

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, a facile easy method for room-temperature embedment of anatase titania (TiO2) nanoparticles into porous cellulose aerogels was reported. The obtained anatase TiO2/cellulose (ATC) aerogels were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption measurements, and thermogravimetric analysis. The results showed that high-purity anatase TiO2 nanoparticles with sizes of 3.69 ± 0.77 nm were evenly dispersed in the cellulose aerogels, which leaded to the significant improvement in specific surface area and pore volume of ATC aerogels. Meanwhile, the hybrid ATC aerogels also had a high loading content of TiO2 (ca. 17.7 %). Furthermore, through a simple photocatalytic degradation test of indigo carmine dye under UV light, ATC aerogels exhibited superior photocatalytic activity and shape stability, which might be useful in some fields like governance of water pollution, and chemical leaks.

  13. Highly Insulating and Light Transmitting Aerogel Glazing for Super Insulating Windows (HILIT+)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Kristiansen, Finn Harken; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    2005-01-01

    -free nano-structured aerogel materials through a reasonably fast and reproducible process. The applicative part of this project aimed at elaborating, studying and optimising “state-of-the-art” (0.5 W/m2 K) aerogel glazings for windows. An important issue was the risk of outside condensation and rime and its...... avoidance. The final aerogel window is optimised with regard to its production and performance in view of the technical, economical and life cycle aspects. The aerogel production process has been optimised and tuned so monolithic silica aerogel sheets are produced with more than 85% crack free sheets per...... insulation purposes. The edge seal solution shows only a very limited thermal bridge effect. The final glazing has a total solar energy transmittance above 85% and a U-value of 0.7 W/m2 K for about 14 mm aerogel thickness, which for a 20 mm thickness corresponds to a U-value of approximately 0.5 W/m2K...

  14. Preparation of lignin-based carbon aerogels as biomaterials for nano-supercapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bong Suk; Kang, Kyu-Young; Jeong, Myung-Joon

    2017-10-01

    Kraft and organosolv lignins, generally produced in chemical pulping and bio-refinery processes of lignocellulosic biomass, were used to prepare lignin-based carbon aerogels for supercapacitors as raw materials. The difference between lignins and lignin-based aerogels were compared by analyzing physical and chemical properties, including molecular weight, polydispersity, and reactivity with formaldehyde. Also, density, shrinkage, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of the lignin-based aerogel were investigated. Kraft lignin consisting of coniferyl alcohol (G) and p-coumaryl alcohol (H) increased the reactivity of formaldehyde, formed a hydrogel well (porosity > 0.45), and specific surface area higher than organosolv lignin. In the case of kraft lignin, there were irregular changes such as oxidation and condensation in the pulping process. However, reaction sites with aromatic rings in lignin impacted the production of aerogel and required a long gelation period. The molecular weight of lignin influences the gelation time in producing lignin-based aerogel, and lignin composition affects the BET surface area and pore structures of the lignin-based carbon aerogels.

  15. Thermal conductivity of aerogel blanket insulation under cryogenic-vacuum conditions in different gas environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    E Fesmire, J.; Ancipink, J. B.; Swanger, A. M.; White, S.; Yarbrough, D.

    2017-12-01

    Thermal conductivity of low-density materials in thermal insulation systems varies dramatically with the environment: cold vacuum pressure, residual gas composition, and boundary temperatures. Using a reference material of aerogel composite blanket (reinforcement fibers surrounded by silica aerogel), an experimental basis for the physical heat transmission model of aerogel composites and other low-density, porous materials is suggested. Cryogenic-vacuum testing between the boundary temperatures of 78 K and 293 K is performed using a one meter cylindrical, absolute heat flow calorimeter with an aerogel blanket specimen exposed to different gas environments of nitrogen, helium, argon, or CO2. Cold vacuum pressures include the full range from 1×10-5 torr to 760 torr. The soft vacuum region, from about 0.1 torr to 10 torr, is complex and difficult to model because all modes of heat transfer - solid conduction, radiation, gas conduction, and convection - are significant contributors to the total heat flow. Therefore, the soft vacuum tests are emphasized for both heat transfer analysis and practical thermal data. Results for the aerogel composite blanket are analyzed and compared to data for its component materials. With the new thermal conductivity data, future applications of aerogel-based insulation systems are also surveyed. These include Mars exploration and surface systems in the 5 torr CO2 environment, field joints for vacuum-jacketed cryogenic piping systems, common bulkhead panels for cryogenic tanks on space launch vehicles, and liquid hydrogen cryofuel systems with helium purged conduits or enclosures.

  16. The removal of uranium(VI) from aqueous solution by graphene oxide-carbon nanotubes hybrid aerogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zexing Gu; Jun Tang; Jijun Yang; Jiali Liao; Yuanyou Yang; Ning Liu; Yun Wang; East China Institute of Technology, Nanchang, Jiangxi

    2015-01-01

    Novel graphene oxide-carbon nanotubes (GO-CNTs) hybrid aerogels were fabricated via a freeze-drying method using aqueous solutions of GO and CNTs. The resulting aerogels were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy and thermal gravity analysis. The three-dimensional GO-CNTs aerogels were used to remove uranium(VI) from aqueous solutions. The results showed that GO-CNTs aerogels had high removal ability to uranium(VI) and could be a promising sorbent for many environment applications. (author)

  17. Super high-rate fabrication of high-purity carbon nanotube aerogels from floating catalyst method for oil spill cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshnevis, Hamed; Mint, Sandar Myo; Yedinak, Emily; Tran, Thang Q.; Zadhoush, Ali; Youssefi, Mostafa; Pasquali, Matteo; Duong, Hai M.

    2018-02-01

    In this study, we apply an advanced floating catalyst method to fabricate carbon nanotube (CNT) aerogels at super high deposition rate for oil spill cleaning. The aerogels consist of 3D porous network of stacking double-walled CNT bundles with low catalyst impurity (9%) and high thermal stability (650 °C). With high porosity, surface areas, and water contact angles, the CNT aerogels exhibit a high oil adsorption of up to 107 g/g and good reusability of up to four adsorption-burning cycles. This work suggests that the lightweight, porous, and super hydrophobic CNT aerogels can be promising sorbent materials for environmental applications.

  18. Transcriptome profiling of developmental and xenobiotic responses in a keystone soil animal, the oligochaete annelid Lumbricus rubellus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Owen, J.; Hedley, B.A.; Svendsen, C.; Wren, J.; Jonker, M.J.; Hankard, P.K.; Lister, L.J.; Stürzenbaum, S.R.; Morgan, A.J.; Spurgeon, D.J.; Blaxter, M.L.; Kille, P.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Natural contamination and anthropogenic pollution of soils are likely to be major determinants of functioning and survival of keystone invertebrate taxa. Soil animals will have both evolutionary adaptation and genetically programmed responses to these toxic chemicals, but mechanistic

  19. Faraday rotation measurements in maghemite-silica aerogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taboada, E.; Real, R.P. del; Gich, M.; Roig, A.; Molins, E.

    2006-01-01

    Faraday rotation measurements have been performed on γ-Fe 2 O 3 /SiO 2 nanocomposite aerogels which are light, porous and transparent magnetic materials. The materials have been prepared by sol-gel polymerization of a silicon alkoxide, impregnation of the intermediate silica gel with a ferrous salt and supercritical drying of the gels. During supercritical evacuation of the solvent, spherical nanoparticles of iron oxide, with a mean particle diameter of 8.1±2.0 nm, are formed and are found to be homogenously distributed within the silica matrix. The specific Faraday rotation of the composite was measured at 0.6 T using polarized light of 810 nm, being 29.6 deg./cm. The changes in the plane of polarization of the transmitted light and the magnetization of the material present similar magnetic field dependencies and are characteristic of a superparamagnetic system

  20. Noble Metal Immersion Spectroscopy of Silica Alcogels and Aerogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David D.; Sibille, Laurent; Cronise, Raymond J.; Noever, David A.

    1998-01-01

    We have fabricated aerogels containing gold and silver nanoparticles for gas catalysis applications. By applying the concept of an average or effective dielectric constant to the heterogeneous interlayer surrounding each particle, we extend the technique of immersion spectroscopy to porous or heterogeneous media. Specifically, we apply the predominant effective medium theories for the determination of the average fractional composition of each component in this inhomogeneous layer. Hence, the surface area of metal available for catalytic gas reaction is determined. The technique is satisfactory for statistically random metal particle distributions but needs further modification for aggregated or surfactant modified systems. Additionally, the kinetics suggest that collective particle interactions in coagulated clusters are perturbed during silica gelation resulting in a change in the aggregate geometry.

  1. Surface Plasmon Resonance Evaluation of Colloidal Metal Aerogel Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David D.; Sibille, Laurent; Cronise, Raymond J.; Noever, David A.

    1997-01-01

    We have fabricated aerogels containing gold, silver, and platinum nanoparticles for gas catalysis applications. By applying the concept of an average or effective dielectric constant to the heterogeneous interlayer surrounding each particle, we extend the technique of immersion spectroscopy to porous or heterogeneous media. Specifically, we apply the predominant effective medium theories for the determination of the average fractional composition of each component in this inhomogeneous layer. Hence, the surface area of metal available for catalytic gas reaction is determined. The technique is satisfactory for statistically random metal particle distributions but needs further modification for aggregated or surfactant modified systems. Additionally, the kinetics suggest that collective particle interactions in coagulated clusters are perturbed during silica gelation resulting in a change in the aggregate geometry.

  2. Thermoresponsive Polyrotaxane Aerogels: Converting Molecular Necklaces into Tough Porous Monoliths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Du, Ran; Zhang, Xuetong

    2018-01-17

    Polyrotaxanes (PRs) are supramolecular systems that combine with several cyclic molecules threaded on a linear molecule, and have been widely applied in molecular abacus, stimuli-responsive systems, self-healing materials, etc. The fabrication of macroscopic porous PR monoliths, which is expected to impart more functions, has not been realized yet. PR aerogels featuring with high specific surface area (232 m 2 /g), high strength (74.7 MPa), and temperature-responsiveness have been synthesized in this work by introducing poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) to the molecular necklaces followed by chemical cross-linking with a rigid cross-linker and supercritical fluid drying in sequence, which might open a new door toward smart macroscopic porous materials.

  3. Manufacture of keystoned flat superconducting cables for use in SSC [Superconducting Super Collider] dipoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royet, J.; Scanlan, R.M.

    1986-09-01

    The superconducting magnets used in the construction of particle accelerators are mostly built from flat, multistrand cables with rectangular or keystoned cross sections. In this paper we will emphasize the differences between the techniques for cabling conventional wires for cabling superconducting wires. Concepts for the tooling will be introduced. The effects of cabling parameters on critical current degradation are being evaluated in collaboration with NBS-Boulder

  4. Spatial variation in keystone effects: Small mammal diversity associated with black-tailed prairie dog colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cully, J.F.; Collinge, S.K.; Van Nimwegen, R. E.; Ray, C.; Johnson, W.C.; Thiagarajan, Bala; Conlin, D.B.; Holmes, B.E.

    2010-01-01

    Species with extensive geographic ranges may interact with different species assemblages at distant locations, with the result that the nature of the interactions may vary spatially. Black-tailed prairie dogs Cynomys ludovicianus occur from Canada to Mexico in grasslands of the western Great Plains of North America. Black-tailed prairie dogs alter vegetation and dig extensive burrow systems that alter grassland habitats for plants and other animal species. These alterations of habitat justify the descriptor " ecological engineer," and the resulting changes in species composition have earned them status as a keystone species. We examined the impact of black-tailed prairie dogs on small mammal assemblages by trapping at on- and off-colony locations at eight study areas across the species' geographic range. We posed 2 nested hypotheses: 1) prairie dogs function as a keystone species for other rodent species; and 2) the keystone role varies spatially. Assuming that it does, we asked what are the sources of the variation? Black-tailed prairie dogs consistently functioned as a keystone species in that there were strong statistically significant differences in community composition on versus off prairie dog colonies across the species range in prairie grassland. Small mammal species composition varied along both latitudinal and longitudinal gradients, and species richness varied from 4 to 11. Assemblages closer together were more similar; such correlations approximately doubled when including only on- or off-colony grids. Black-tailed prairie dogs had a significant effect on associated rodent assemblages that varied regionally, dependent upon the composition of the local rodent species pool. Over the range of the black-tailed prairie dog, on-colony rodent richness and evenness were less variable, and species composition was more consistent than off-colony assemblages. ?? 2010 The Authors.

  5. KeystoneML: Optimizing Pipelines for Large-Scale Advanced Analytics

    OpenAIRE

    Sparks, Evan R.; Venkataraman, Shivaram; Kaftan, Tomer; Franklin, Michael J.; Recht, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Modern advanced analytics applications make use of machine learning techniques and contain multiple steps of domain-specific and general-purpose processing with high resource requirements. We present KeystoneML, a system that captures and optimizes the end-to-end large-scale machine learning applications for high-throughput training in a distributed environment with a high-level API. This approach offers increased ease of use and higher performance over existing systems for large scale learni...

  6. Preserving Ecosystem Services on Indigenous Territory through Restoration and Management of a Cultural Keystone Species

    OpenAIRE

    Yadav Uprety; Hugo Asselin; Yves Bergeron

    2017-01-01

    Eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.) is a cultural keystone tree species in the forests of eastern North America, providing numerous ecosystem services to Indigenous people. White pine abundance in the landscape has considerably decreased over the last few centuries due to overharvesting, suppression of surface fires, extensive management, and plantation failure. The Kitcisakik Algonquin community of western Quebec is calling for restoration and sustainable management of white pine on its an...

  7. Multi-scale cellulose based new bio-aerogel composites with thermal super-insulating and tunable mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seantier, Bastien; Bendahou, Dounia; Bendahou, Abdelkader; Grohens, Yves; Kaddami, Hamid

    2016-03-15

    Bio-composite aerogels based on bleached cellulose fibers (BCF) and cellulose nanoparticles having various morphological and physico-chemical characteristics are prepared by a freeze-drying technique and characterized. The various composite aerogels obtained were compared to a BCF aerogel used as the reference. Severe changes in the material morphology were observed by SEM and AFM due to a variation of the cellulose nanoparticle properties such as the aspect ratio, the crystalline index and the surface charge density. BCF fibers form a 3D network and they are surrounded by the cellulose nanoparticle thin films inducing a significant reduction of the size of the pores in comparison with a neat BCF based aerogel. BET analyses confirm the appearance of a new organization structure with pores of nanometric sizes. As a consequence, a decrease of the thermal conductivities is observed from 28mWm(-1)K(-1) (BCF aerogel) to 23mWm(-1)K(-1) (bio-composite aerogel), which is below the air conductivity (25mWm(-1)K(-1)). This improvement of the insulation properties for composite materials is more pronounced for aerogels based on cellulose nanoparticles having a low crystalline index and high surface charge (NFC-2h). The significant improvement of their insulation properties allows the bio-composite aerogels to enter the super-insulating materials family. The characteristics of cellulose nanoparticles also influence the mechanical properties of the bio-composite aerogels. A significant improvement of the mechanical properties under compression is obtained by self-organization, yielding a multi-scale architecture of the cellulose nanoparticles in the bio-composite aerogels. In this case, the mechanical property is more dependent on the morphology of the composite aerogel rather than the intrinsic characteristics of the cellulose nanoparticles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Keystones affecting sub-Saharan Africa's prospects for achieving food security through balanced diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Julian

    2018-02-01

    Socio-economic dynamics determine the transition from diets characterized by the risk of famine, to those characterized by the risk of diet-related non-communicable disease (DR-NCD). This transition is of particular concern in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) in which key socio-economic interactions that influence diet include economic growth and rapid urbanization; inequality and a growing middle class; and obesogenic food environments and an increasing prevalence of DR-NCD. In each case, countries in SSA are among those experiencing the most rapid change in the world. These interactions, styled as 'keystones', affect the functioning of other components of the food system and the diets that result. Data from the wealthiest quartile of countries in SSA suggest that these keystones may be increasing the risk of DR-NCD, widening inequalities in health outcomes due to unbalanced diets. To address this, new consumer and government capabilities that address these keystones are required. Food sensitive urban planning, supporting food literacy and fiscal management of consumption are examples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Cultural keystone species in oil sands reclamation, Fort McKay, Alberta, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garibaldi, A.; Straker, J. [Stantec Consulting Ltd., Surrey, BC (Canada)

    2009-12-15

    This presentation discussed a reclamation project conducted in Fort McKay, Alberta that was designed to address some of the social and cultural concerns related to oil sands mining in the region. Conventional reclamation practices in the region have demonstrated a lack of communication and participation from surrounding communities. The project was designed to address future land use plans and to include cultural values in the reclamation process. An integrative approach was used to address community landscapes issues and to explore methods of reclaiming the social and ecological components impacted by oil sands development. Traditional environmental knowledge was also incorporated into the program's design. Cultural keystone species (CKS) were used to provide a culturally relevant compass to guide people engaging in long-term reclamation and land use planning. Cultural keystone species were defined as salient species that significantly shape the cultural identity of a people. Keystone species in the region include the beaver; the moose; the ratroot; and cranberries and blueberries. Challenges to the program included the fact that the scale of oil sands disturbances are so immense that some community recommendations for reclaiming CKS may be impractical. tabs., figs.

  10. Identifying keystone habitats with a mosaic approach can improve biodiversity conservation in disturbed ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchman, Sean M; Mather, Martha E; Smith, Joseph M; Fencl, Jane S

    2018-01-01

    Conserving native biodiversity in the face of human- and climate-related impacts is a challenging and globally important ecological problem that requires an understanding of spatially connected, organismal-habitat relationships. Globally, a suite of disturbances (e.g., agriculture, urbanization, climate change) degrades habitats and threatens biodiversity. A mosaic approach (in which connected, interacting collections of juxtaposed habitat patches are examined) provides a scientific foundation for addressing many disturbance-related, ecologically based conservation problems. For example, if specific habitat types disproportionately increase biodiversity, these keystones should be incorporated into research and management plans. Our sampling of fish biodiversity and aquatic habitat along ten 3-km sites within the Upper Neosho River subdrainage, KS, from June-August 2013 yielded three generalizable ecological insights. First, specific types of mesohabitat patches (i.e., pool, riffle, run, and glide) were physically distinct and created unique mosaics of mesohabitats that varied across sites. Second, species richness was higher in riffle mesohabitats when mesohabitat size reflected field availability. Furthermore, habitat mosaics that included more riffles had greater habitat diversity and more fish species. Thus, riffles (keystone habitats. Third, additional conceptual development, which we initiate here, can broaden the identification of keystone habitats across ecosystems and further operationalize this concept for research and conservation. Thus, adopting a mosaic approach can increase scientific understanding of organismal-habitat relationships, maintain natural biodiversity, advance spatial ecology, and facilitate effective conservation of native biodiversity in human-altered ecosystems. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. High-magnitude innovators as keystone individuals in the evolution of culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbilly, Michal

    2018-04-05

    Borrowing from the concept of keystone species in ecological food webs, a recent focus in the field of animal behaviour has been keystone individuals: individuals whose impact on population dynamics is disproportionally larger than their frequency in the population. In populations evolving culture, such may be the role of high-magnitude innovators: individuals whose innovations are a major departure from the population's existing behavioural repertoire. Their effect on cultural evolution is twofold: they produce innovations that constitute a 'cultural leap' and, once copied, their innovations may induce further innovations by conspecifics (socially induced innovations) as they explore the new behaviour themselves. I use computer simulations to study the coevolution of independent innovations, socially induced innovations and innovation magnitude, and show that while socially induced innovation is assumed here to be less costly than independent innovation, it does not readily evolve. When it evolves, it may in some conditions select against independent innovation and lower its frequency, despite it requiring independent innovation in order to operate; at the same time, however, it leads to much faster cultural evolution. These results confirm the role of high-magnitude innovators as keystones, and suggest a novel explanation for the low frequency of independent innovation.This article is part of the theme issue 'Bridging cultural gaps: interdisciplinary studies in human cultural evolution'. © 2018 The Author(s).

  12. Assessment of Methods to Consolidate Iodine-Loaded Silver-Functionalized Silica Aerogel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matyas, Josef; Engler, Robert K.

    2013-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is currently investigating alternative sorbents for the removal and immobilization of radioiodine from the gas streams in a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. One of these new sorbents, Ag0-functionalized silica aerogels, shows great promise as a potential replacement for Ag-bearing mordenites because of its high selectivity and sorption capacity for iodine. Moreover, a feasible consolidation of iodine-loaded Ag0-functionalized silica aerogels to a durable SiO2-based waste form makes this aerogel an attractive choice for sequestering radioiodine. This report provides a preliminary assessment of the methods that can be used to consolidate iodine-loaded Ag0-functionalized silica aerogels into a final waste form. In particular, it focuses on experimental investigation of densification of as prepared Ag0-functionalized silica aerogels powders, with or without organic moiety and with or without sintering additive (colloidal silica), with three commercially available techniques: 1) hot uniaxial pressing (HUP), 2) hot isostatic pressing (HIP), and 3) spark plasma sintering (SPS). The densified products were evaluated with helium gas pycnometer for apparent density, with the Archimedes method for apparent density and open porosity, and with high-resolution scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) for the extent of densification and distribution of individual elements. The preliminary investigation of HUP, HIP, and SPS showed that these sintering methods can effectively consolidate powders of Ag0-functionalized silica aerogel into products of near-theoretical density. Also, removal of organic moiety and adding 5.6 mass% of colloidal silica to Ag0-functionalized silica aerogel powders before processing provided denser products. Furthermore, the ram travel data for SPS indicated that rapid consolidation of powders can be performed at temperatures below 950°C.

  13. Mechanism of drug release from silica-gelatin aerogel-Relationship between matrix structure and release kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veres, Péter; Kéri, Mónika; Bányai, István; Lázár, István; Fábián, István; Domingo, Concepción; Kalmár, József

    2017-04-01

    Specific features of a silica-gelatin aerogel (3 wt.% gelatin content) in relation to drug delivery has been studied. It was confirmed that the release of both ibuprofen (IBU) and ketoprofen (KET) is about tenfold faster from loaded silica-gelatin aerogel than from pure silica aerogel, although the two matrices are structurally very similar. The main goal of the study was to understand the mechanistic background of the striking difference between the delivery properties of these closely related porous materials. Hydrated and dispersed silica-gelatin aerogel has been characterized by NMR cryoporometry, diffusiometry and relaxometry. The pore structure of the silica aerogel remains intact when it disintegrates in water. In contrast, dispersed silica-gelatin aerogel develops a strong hydration sphere, which reshapes the pore walls and deforms the pore structure. The drug release kinetics was studied on a few minutes time scale with 1s time resolution. Simultaneous evaluation of all relevant kinetic and structural information confirmed that strong hydration of the silica-gelatin skeleton facilitates the rapid desorption and dissolution of the drugs from the loaded aerogel. Such a driving force is not operative in pure silica aerogels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Poly(vinyl alcohol)/cellulose nanofibril hybrid aerogels with an aligned microtubular porous structure and their composites with polydimethylsiloxane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tianliang Zhai; Qifeng Zheng; Zhiyong Cai; Lih-Sheng Turng; Hesheng Xia; Shaoqin Gong

    2015-01-01

    Superhydrophobic poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/ cellulose nanofibril (CNF) aerogels with a unidirectionally aligned microtubular porous structure were prepared using a unidirectional freeze-drying process, followed by the thermal chemical vapor deposition of methyltrichlorosilane. The silanized aerogels were characterized using various techniques including scanning...

  15. Green Synthesis of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-cellulose nanofibril (CNF) hybrid aerogels and their use as superabsorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qifeng Zheng; Zhiyong Cai; Shaoqin Gong

    2014-01-01

    Cross-linked polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)–cellulose nanofibril (CNF) hybrid organic aerogels were prepared using an environmentally friendly freeze-drying process. The resulting PVA/CNF aerogel was rendered both superhydrophobic and superoleophilic after being treated with methyltrichlorosilane via a simple thermal chemical vapor deposition process. Successful silanization...

  16. NIR-responsive upconversion nanoparticles/anatase TiO2 composite aerogel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fu-Chih; Wada, Hiroyuki; Kitamoto, Yoshitaka

    2018-02-01

    NIR-responsive upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs)/TiO2 composite aerogel is successfully fabricated by a sol–gel process and a supercritical drying process. The UCNPs of the cubic and hexagonal phases of NaYF4:Yb,Ho are synthesized by a solvothermal process, and the UCNPs are doped into the anatase phase of the TiO2 aerogel via a sol–gel process. To find the optimum parameters for the synthesis of this new type of photocatalytic composite, the synthesis conditions of NaYF4:Yb,Ho/TiO2 aerogel are investigated, such as the optimum amount of doped UCNPs and the temperature of the sol–gel process. The photoluminescences of NaYF4:Yb,Ho/TiO2 composite aerogels are investigated under 980 nm excitation. The NaYF4:Yb,Ho nanoparticles (NPs), which exist in the TiO2 matrix, absorbed the NIR light and transferred it to the visible region. The realization of an NIR-responsive mechanism in the UCNPs/TiO2 composite aerogel helps improve the synthesis process and in the design of the structure of this new type of photocatalytic material.

  17. Highly Insulating and Light Transmitting Aerogel Glazing for Super Insulating Windows (HILIT+)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev

    2005-01-01

    The first main objective deals with “aerogel process optimisation”. The general goal was to demonstrate that the elaboration process, developed during the recent HILIT project, permitted to obtain a significant amount of light transmitting, insulating and transparent 15-20 mm monolithic and crack...... material. Due to the low density, the acoustic impedance of aerogel could help boost the efficiency of piezoelectric transducers. • Waste encapsulation, spacers for vacuum insulation panels, membranes, etc.......-free nano-structured aerogel materials through a reasonably fast and reproducible process. The applicative part of this project aimed at elaborating, studying and optimising “state-of-the-art” (0.5 W/m2 K) aerogel glazings for windows. An important issue was the risk of outside condensation and rime and its....... No other known glazing exhibits such an excellent combination of solar transmittance and heat loss coefficient. The annual energy savings compared to triple low energy glazing is in the range of 10 – 20% depending on type of building. Beside the application in glazing production the HILIT+ aerogel material...

  18. A facile route for 3D aerogels from nanostructured 1D and 2D materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sung Mi; Jung, Hyun Young; Dresselhaus, Mildred S.; Jung, Yung Joon; Kong, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Aerogels have numerous applications due to their high surface area and low densities. However, creating aerogels from a large variety of materials has remained an outstanding challenge. Here, we report a new methodology to enable aerogel production with a wide range of materials. The method is based on the assembly of anisotropic nano-objects (one-dimensional (1D) nanotubes, nanowires, or two-dimensional (2D) nanosheets) into a cross-linking network from their colloidal suspensions at the transition from the semi-dilute to the isotropic concentrated regime. The resultant aerogels have highly porous and ultrafine three-dimensional (3D) networks consisting of 1D (Ag, Si, MnO2, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs)) and 2D materials (MoS2, graphene, h-BN) with high surface areas, low densities, and high electrical conductivities. This method opens up a facile route for aerogel production with a wide variety of materials and tremendous opportunities for bio-scaffold, energy storage, thermoelectric, catalysis, and hydrogen storage applications. PMID:23152940

  19. Sol-gel derived flexible silica aerogel as selective adsorbent for water decontamination from crude oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolghasemi Mahani, A; Motahari, S; Mohebbi, A

    2017-10-11

    Oil spills are the most important threat to the sea ecosystem. The present study is an attempt to investigate the effects of sol-gel parameters on seawater decontamination from crude oil by use of flexible silica aerogel. To this goal, methyltrimethoxysilane (MTMS) based silica aerogels were prepared by two-step acid-base catalyzed sol-gel process, involving ambient pressure drying (APD) method. To investigate the effects of sol-gel parameters, the aerogels were prepared under two different acidic and basic pH values (i.e. 4 and 8) and varied ethanol/MTMS molar ratios from 5 to 15. The adsorption capacity of the prepared aerogels was evaluated for two heavy and light commercial crude oils under multiple adsorption-desorption cycles. To reduce process time, desorption cycles were carried out by using roll milling for the first time. At optimum condition, silica aerogels are able to uptake heavy and light crude oils with the order of 16.7 and 13.7, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The application of carbon aerogel electrodes to desalination {ampersand} waste treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J.C., Tran, T.D., Richardson, J.H., Fix, D.V., May, S.C., Thomson, S.L.

    1997-08-01

    An electrically-regenerated electrosorption process known as carbon aerogel capacitive deionization (CDI) has been developed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for continuously removing ionic impurities from aqueous streams. A salt solution flows through an unobstructed channel formed by numerous pairs of parallel carbon aerogel electrodes. Each electrode has a very high Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET) surface area (2.0-5.4 x 1O{sup 6} ft{sup 2} lb{sup -1} or 400-1100) and very low electrical resistivity (< 40 m{omega} cm). Surface areas of 1.3 x 10{sup 7} ft{sup 2} lb{sup -1} (2600 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}) have been achieved activation. After polarization, anions and cations are removed from the electrolyte by the imposed electric field and electrosorbed onto the carbon aerogel. The solution is thus separated into two streams, concentrate and purified water. Based upon this analysis, it is concluded that carbon aerogel CDI may be an energy-efficient alternative to electrodialysis and reverse osmosis for the desalination of brackish water (< 5000 ppm), provided that cell geometries and aerogel properties are carefully tailored for such applications.

  1. Aerogel to simulate delamination and porosity defects in carbon-fiber reinforced polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarez, Peter; Leckey, Cara A. C.

    2018-04-01

    Representative defect standards are essential for the validation and calibration of new and existing inspection techniques. However, commonly used methods of simulating delaminations in carbon-fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites do not accurately represent the behavior of the real-world defects for several widely-used NDE techniques. For instance, it is common practice to create a delamination standard by inserting Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) in between ply layers. However, PTFE can transmit more ultrasonic energy than actual delaminations, leading to an unrealistic representation of the defect inspection. PTFE can also deform/wrinkle during the curing process and has a thermal effusivity two orders of magnitude higher than air (almost equal to that of a CFRP). It is therefore not effective in simulating a delamination for thermography. Currently there is also no standard practice for producing or representing a known porosity in composites. This paper presents a novel method of creating delamination and porosity standards using aerogel. Insertion of thin sheets of solid aerogel between ply layers during layup is shown to produce air-gap-like delaminations creating realistic ultrasonic and thermographic inspection responses. Furthermore, it is shown that depositing controlled amounts of aerogel powder can represent porosity. Micrograph data verifies the structural integrity of the aerogel through the composite curing process. This paper presents data from multiple NDE methods, including X-ray computed tomography, immersion ultrasound, and flash thermography to the effectiveness of aerogel as a delamination and porosity simulant.

  2. Nanocellulose-assisted low-temperature synthesis and supercapacitor performance of reduced graphene oxide aerogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Ran, Ran; Sunarso, Jaka; Yin, Chao; Zou, Honggang; Feng, Yi; Li, Xiaobao; Zheng, Xu; Yao, Jianfeng

    2017-04-01

    Here, we have synthesized reduced graphene oxide (rGO) aerogels using a nanocellulose-assisted low temperature (less than 500 °C) thermal treatment route where nanocelluloses promote the gelation of graphene oxide (GO) solution that benefits the fabrication of GO aerogels from low concentration dispersion (2.85 mg mL-1), and after their thermal decomposition the residual nanofibers act as spacer both prevent the re-stacking of graphene sheets and integrate with rGO sheets to give a particular kind of carbon-based aerogel along with numerous defects (holes). Thermal decomposition of nanocellulose appears to be complete beyond 350 °C thus its presence in form of amorphous carbon nanofibers in rGO sheets. The rGO aerogels synthesized at 350 °C provide the best balance in terms of wide interlayer spacing, high content of CO-type functional groups, and high defects content. This translates into a high discharge capacitance of 270 F g-1 at a current rate of 1 A g-1 for compressed rGO aerogels without any binder or conductive additive. Detailed electrochemical tests using 6 M KOH electrolyte establish the fact that pseudocapacitance component has substantial contribution towards the overall capacitance; closely approaching the contribution of the double layer capacitance that is the most dominant capacitance component.

  3. Evaluations of Silica Aerogel-Based Flexible Blanket as Passive Thermal Control Element for Spacecraft Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Mohammed Adnan; Rashmi, S.; Esther, A. Carmel Mary; Bhavanisankar, Prudhivi Yashwantkumar; Sherikar, Baburao N.; Sridhara, N.; Dey, Arjun

    2018-03-01

    The feasibility of utilizing commercially available silica aerogel-based flexible composite blankets as passive thermal control element in applications such as extraterrestrial environments is investigated. Differential scanning calorimetry showed that aerogel blanket was thermally stable over - 150 to 126 °C. The outgassing behavior, e.g., total mass loss, collected volatile condensable materials, water vapor regained and recovered mass loss, was within acceptable range recommended for the space applications. ASTM tension and tear tests confirmed the material's mechanical integrity. The thermo-optical properties remained nearly unaltered in simulated space environmental tests such as relative humidity, thermal cycling and thermo-vacuum tests and confirmed the space worthiness of the aerogel. Aluminized Kapton stitched or anchored to the blanket could be used to control the optical transparency of the aerogel. These outcomes highlight the potential of commercial aerogel composite blankets as passive thermal control element in spacecraft. Structural and chemical characterization of the material was also done using scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  4. Enhanced mechanical, thermal, and electric properties of graphene aerogels via supercritical ethanol drying and high-temperature thermal reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yehong; Zhou, Shanbao; Hu, Ping; Zhao, Guangdong; Li, Yongxia; Zhang, Xinghong; Han, Wenbo

    2017-05-03

    Graphene aerogels with high surface areas, ultra-low densities and thermal conductivities have been prepared to exploit their wide applications from pollution adsorption to energy storage, supercapacitor, and thermal insulation. However, the low mechanical properties, poor thermal stability and electric conductivity restrict these aerogels' applications. In this paper, we prepared mechanically strong graphene aerogels with large BET surface areas, low thermal conductivities, high thermal stability and electric conductivities via hydrothermal reduction and supercritical ethanol drying. Annealing at 1500 °C resulted in slightly increased thermal conductivity and further improvement in mechanical properties, oxidation temperature and electric conductivity of the graphene aerogel. The large BET surface areas, together with strong mechanical properties, low thermal conductivities, high thermal stability and electrical conductivities made these graphene aerogels feasible candidates for use in a number of fields covering from batteries to sensors, electrodes, lightweight conductor and insulation materials.

  5. Flexible, highly graphitized carbon aerogels based on bacterial cellulose/lignin: Catalyst-free synthesis and its application in energy storage devices

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Xuezhu

    2015-04-15

    Currently, most carbon aerogels are based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) or graphene, which are produced through a catalyst-assisted chemical vapor deposition method. Biomass based organic aerogels and carbon aerogels, featuring low cost, high scalability, and small environmental footprint, represent an important new research direction in (carbon) aerogel development. Cellulose and lignin are the two most abundant natural polymers in the world, and the aerogels based on them are very promising. Classic silicon aerogels and available organic resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) or lignin-resorcinol-formaldehyde (LRF) aerogels are brittle and fragile; toughening of the aerogels is highly desired to expand their applications. This study reports the first attempt to toughen the intrinsically brittle LRF aerogel and carbon aerogel using bacterial cellulose. The facile process is catalyst-free and cost-effective. The toughened carbon aerogels, consisting of blackberry-like, core-shell structured, and highly graphitized carbon nanofibers, are able to undergo at least 20% reversible compressive deformation. Due to their unique nanostructure and large mesopore population, the carbon materials exhibit an areal capacitance higher than most of the reported values in the literature. This property makes them suitable candidates for flexible solid-state energy storage devices. Besides energy storage, the conductive interconnected nanoporous structure can also find applications in oil/water separation, catalyst supports, sensors, and so forth. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Random textures of the order parameter of superfluid sup 3 He-B in aerogel

    CERN Document Server

    Fomin, Yu A

    2002-01-01

    The scheme for describing the properties of the superfluid sup 3 He in the aerogel is proposed in accordance with the Ginzburg and Landau theory. The aerogel effect on the order parameter is described by the random tensor field. This field exerts desorientation effect on the order parameter in the sup 3 He A-phase, but it does not influence the order parameter orientation in the B-phase, if there is no magnetic field. The change in the order parameter texture, originating in the B-phase in the aerogel in the magnetic field, is considered. Fluctuations of the sup 3 He-B anisotropy axis direction are correlated on the length, inversely proportional to the field intensity and having the macroscopic scale

  7. Aerogel Track Morphology: Measurement, Three Dimensional Reconstruction and Particle Location using Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearsley, A. T.; Ball, A. D.; Wozniakiewicz, P. A.; Graham, G. A.; Burchell, M. J.; Cole, M. J.; Horz, F.; See, T. H.

    2007-01-01

    The Stardust spacecraft returned the first undoubted samples of cometary dust, with many grains embedded in the silica aerogel collector . Although many tracks contain one or more large terminal particles of a wide range of mineral compositions , there is also abundant material along the track walls. To help interpret the full particle size, structure and mass, both experimental simulation of impact by shots and numerical modeling of the impact process have been attempted. However, all approaches require accurate and precise measurement of impact track size parameters such as length, width and volume of specific portions. To make such measurements is not easy, especially if extensive aerogel fracturing and discoloration has occurred. In this paper we describe the application and limitations of laser confocal imagery for determination of aerogel track parameters, and for the location of particle remains.

  8. Hydrophobic nanocellulose aerogels as floating, sustainable, reusable, and recyclable oil absorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, Juuso T; Kettunen, Marjo; Ras, Robin H A; Ikkala, Olli

    2011-06-01

    Highly porous nanocellulose aerogels can be prepared by vacuum freeze-drying from microfibrillated cellulose hydrogels. Here we show that by functionalizing the native cellulose nanofibrils of the aerogel with a hydrophobic but oleophilic coating, such as titanium dioxide, a selectively oil-absorbing material capable of floating on water is achieved. Because of the low density and the ability to absorb nonpolar liquids and oils up to nearly all of its initial volume, the surface modified aerogels allow to collect organic contaminants from the water surface. The materials can be reused after washing, recycled, or incinerated with the absorbed oil. The cellulose is renewable and titanium dioxide is not environmentally hazardous, thus promoting potential in environmental applications. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  9. Desalting in wastewater reclamation using capacitive deionization with carbon aerogel electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, J.H.; Farmer, J.C.; Fix, D.V.; de Pruneda, J.A.H.; Mack, G.V.; Poco, J.F.; Nielsen, J.K.; Pekala, R.W.

    1996-07-01

    Capacitive deionization with carbon aerogel electrodes is an efficient and economical new process for removing salt and impurities from water. Carbon aerogel is a material that enables the successful purification of water because of its high surface area, optimum pore size, and low electrical resistivity. The electrodes are maintained at a potential difference of about one volt; ions are removed from the water by the imposed electrostatic field and retained on the electrode surface until the polarity is reversed. The capacitive deionization of water with a stack of carbon aerogel electrodes has been successfully demonstrated. The overall process offers advantages when compared to conventional water-purification methods, requiring neither pumps, membranes, distillation columns, nor thermal heaters. Consequently, the overall process is both robust and energy efficient. The current state of technology development commercialization, and potential applications of this process are reviewed. Particular attention and comparison with alternate technologies will be done for seawater, brackish water, and desalting in wastewater reclamation.

  10. Diffusion Raman et luminescence dans des aerogels de silice purs ou dopes Dy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerri, F.; Fabre, F.; Zwick, A.; Bournett, D.

    1994-02-01

    Light scattering studies of pure and Dy doped aerogels are presented. Careful examination of Stokes and anti-Stokes spectra allow the discrimination between Raman and luminescence processes. It is shown that in pure aerogels, scattered intensity is due to Raman processes only, and the density of vibrational states does not exhibit any singularity. The fractal properties of the structure imply modifications not only in the spectral distribution of the low frequency modes (usually labelled phonons and fractons) but alsoin the high frequency one, at least up to 600 cm-1. In Dy-doped dense silica, coupling between electronic and vibronic excitations is evidenced by the presence of anti-Stokes luminescence. In Dy-doped aerogels, the enlarged Dy3+ electronic levels, strongly coupled with vibrational states give rise to emission processes traducing the response of the sample as a whole, rather than resonant Raman scattering or luminescence processes.

  11. Synthesis of New Flexible Aerogels from MTMS/DMDMS via Ambient Pressure Drying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayase, G; Kanamori, K; Kazuki, K; Hanada, T, E-mail: kanamori@kuchem.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, 606-8502 (Japan)

    2011-10-29

    Although silica aerogel is expected to be the material for energy savings, the lack of the strength prevents from commercial applications such as to low-density thermal insulators and acoustic absorbents. To improve mechanical properties, methyltrimethoxysilane (MTMS) and dimethyldimethoxysilane (DMDMS) are used as the co-precursor of aerogels in this study because the network becomes flexible due to the relatively low cross-linking density and to the unreacted methyl groups. Because of the strong hydrophobicity of MTMS/DMDMS-derived condensates, phase separation occurs, which must be suppressed in aqueous sol to obtain uniform and monolithic gel networks. We also employed surfactant n-hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC) in starting compositions to control phase separation during a 2-step acid/base sol-gel reaction. By changing the starting composition, various microstructures of pores are obtained. In the uniaxial compression test, the aerogel showed high flexibility and spring-back to the original shape after removing the stress.

  12. Aerogel mass production for the CLAS12 RICH: Novel characterization methods and optical performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contalbrigo, M.; Balossino, I.; Barion, L.; Barnyakov, A. Yu.; Battaglia, G.; Danilyuk, A. F.; Katcin, A. A.; Kravchenko, E. A.; Mirazita, M.; Movsisyan, A.; Orecchini, D.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Squerzanti, S.; Tomassini, S.; Turisini, M.

    2017-12-01

    A large area ring-imaging Cherenkov detector has been designed to provide clean hadron identification capabilities in the momentum range from 3 GeV/c to 8 GeV/c for the CLAS12 experiments at the Jefferson Lab upgraded 12 GeV continuous electron beam accelerator facility. The adopted solution foresees a novel hybrid optics design based on an aerogel radiator, composite mirrors and densely-packed and highly-segmented photon detectors. Cherenkov light will either be imaged directly (forward tracks) or after two mirror reflections (large angle tracks). The status of the aerogel mass-production and the assessment studies of the aerogel optical performance are here reported.

  13. Carbon aerogels as electrode material for electrical double layer supercapacitors-Synthesis and properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halama, Agnieszka [Electrotechnical Institute, Division of Electrotechnology and Materials Science, Wroclaw (Poland); Szubzda, Bronislaw, E-mail: szubzda@iel.wroc.p [Electrotechnical Institute, Division of Electrotechnology and Materials Science, Wroclaw (Poland); Pasciak, Grzegorz [Electrotechnical Institute, Division of Electrotechnology and Materials Science, Wroclaw (Poland)

    2010-10-30

    This paper constitutes a description of technological research the aim of which was to design a symmetric supercapacitor dedicated for the system of quality of electrical energy improvement (supply interruption, voltage dip). The main task was to use the carbon aerogel technology as the efficient method for production of electrode material with desirable properties. Carbon aerogels were prepared by carbonization of resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) polymer gels. RF-gels were synthesized by curing polycondensation and by the inverse emulsion polymerization of resorcinol with formaldehyde, followed by microwave drying. The morphostructural characteristics of the carbon aerogels were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and the N{sub 2} adsorption (BET method). The electrochemical properties were characterized by means of cycle voltammetry, galvanostatic charging/discharging, and self-discharge.

  14. Development of aerogel-lined targets for inertial confinement fusion experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, Tom [Technical Univ. Munchen (Germany)

    2013-03-28

    This thesis explores the formation of ICF compatible foam layers inside of an ablator shell used for inertial confinement fusion experiments at the National Ignition Facility. In particular, the capability of p- DCPD polymer aerogels to serve as a scaffold for the deuterium-tritium mix was analyzed. Four different factors were evaluated: the dependency of different factors such as thickness or composition of a precursor solution on the uniformity of the aerogel layer, how to bring the optimal composition inside of the ablator shell, the mechanical stability of ultra-low density p-DCPD aerogel bulk pieces during wetting and freezing with hydrogen, and the wetting behavior of thin polymer foam layers in HDC carbon ablator shells with liquid deuterium. The research for thesis was done at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in cooperation with the Technical University Munich.

  15. Preparation, Characterization and Activity of a Peptide-Cellulosic Aerogel Protease Sensor from Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, J Vincent; Fontenot, Krystal R; Prevost, Nicolette T; Pircher, Nicole; Liebner, Falk; Condon, Brian D

    2016-10-26

    Nanocellulosic aerogels (NA) provide a lightweight biocompatible material with structural properties, like interconnected high porosity and specific surface area, suitable for biosensor design. We report here the preparation, characterization and activity of peptide-nanocellulose aerogels (PepNA) made from unprocessed cotton and designed with protease detection activity. Low-density cellulosic aerogels were prepared from greige cotton by employing calcium thiocyanate octahydrate/lithium chloride as a direct cellulose dissolving medium. Subsequent casting, coagulation, solvent exchange and supercritical carbon dioxide drying afforded homogeneous cellulose II aerogels of fibrous morphology. The cotton-based aerogel had a porosity of 99% largely dominated by mesopores (2-50 nm) and an internal surface of 163 m²·g -1 . A fluorescent tripeptide-substrate (succinyl-alanine-proline-alanine-4-amino-7-methyl-coumarin) was tethered to NA by (1) esterification of cellulose C6 surface hydroxyl groups with glycidyl-fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl (FMOC), (2) deprotection and (3) coupling of the immobilized glycine with the tripeptide. Characterization of the NA and PepNA included techniques, such as elemental analysis, mass spectral analysis, attenuated total reflectance infrared imaging, nitrogen adsorption, scanning electron microscopy and bioactivity studies. The degree of substitution of the peptide analog attached to the anhydroglucose units of PepNA was 0.015. The findings from mass spectral analysis and attenuated total reflectance infrared imaging indicated that the peptide substrate was immobilized on to the surface of the NA. Nitrogen adsorption revealed a high specific surface area and a highly porous system, which supports the open porous structure observed from scanning electron microscopy images. Bioactivity studies of PepNA revealed a detection sensitivity of 0.13 units/milliliter for human neutrophil elastase, a diagnostic biomarker for inflammatory diseases. The

  16. Thermal Protection Performance of Carbon Aerogels Filled with Magnesium Chloride Hexahydrate as a Phase Change Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Kazemi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Carbon aerogels are comprised of a class of low density open-cell foams with large void space, nanometer pore size and composed of sparsely semi-colloidal nanometer sized particles forming an open porous structure. Phase change materials are those with high heat of fusion that could absorb and release a large amount of energy at the time of phase transition. These materials are mostly used as thermal energy storage materials but in addition they could serve as an obstacle for passage of heat during phase changes and this has led to their use in thermal protection systems. In this study, the effect of magnesium chloride hexahydrate, as a phase change material (melting point 115°C, on thermal properties of carbon aerogels is investigated. Thermal performance tests are designed and used for comparing the temperature-time behavior of the samples. DSC is applied to obtain the latent heat of melting of the phase change materials and the SEM tests are used to analyze the microstructure and morphology of carbon aerogels. The results show that the low percentage of phase change materials in carbon aerogels does not have any significant positive effect on carbon aerogels thermal properties. However, these properties are improved by increasing the percentage of phase change materials. With high percentage of phase change materials, a sample surface at 300°C would display an opposite surface with a significant drop in temperature increases, while at 115-200°C, with carbon aerogels, having no phase change materials, there is a severe reduction in the rate of temperature increase of the sample.

  17. Preparation, Characterization and Activity of a Peptide-Cellulosic Aerogel Protease Sensor from Cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vincent Edwards

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Nanocellulosic aerogels (NA provide a lightweight biocompatible material with structural properties, like interconnected high porosity and specific surface area, suitable for biosensor design. We report here the preparation, characterization and activity of peptide-nanocellulose aerogels (PepNA made from unprocessed cotton and designed with protease detection activity. Low-density cellulosic aerogels were prepared from greige cotton by employing calcium thiocyanate octahydrate/lithium chloride as a direct cellulose dissolving medium. Subsequent casting, coagulation, solvent exchange and supercritical carbon dioxide drying afforded homogeneous cellulose II aerogels of fibrous morphology. The cotton-based aerogel had a porosity of 99% largely dominated by mesopores (2–50 nm and an internal surface of 163 m2·g−1. A fluorescent tripeptide-substrate (succinyl-alanine-proline-alanine-4-amino-7-methyl-coumarin was tethered to NA by (1 esterification of cellulose C6 surface hydroxyl groups with glycidyl-fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl (FMOC, (2 deprotection and (3 coupling of the immobilized glycine with the tripeptide. Characterization of the NA and PepNA included techniques, such as elemental analysis, mass spectral analysis, attenuated total reflectance infrared imaging, nitrogen adsorption, scanning electron microscopy and bioactivity studies. The degree of substitution of the peptide analog attached to the anhydroglucose units of PepNA was 0.015. The findings from mass spectral analysis and attenuated total reflectance infrared imaging indicated that the peptide substrate was immobilized on to the surface of the NA. Nitrogen adsorption revealed a high specific surface area and a highly porous system, which supports the open porous structure observed from scanning electron microscopy images. Bioactivity studies of PepNA revealed a detection sensitivity of 0.13 units/milliliter for human neutrophil elastase, a diagnostic biomarker for inflammatory

  18. Capacitive, deionization with carbon aerogel electrodes: Carbonate, sulfate, and phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farmer, J.C.; Fix, D.V.; Mack, G.V.; Pekala, R.W.; Poco, J.F.

    1995-01-01

    A process for the capacitive deionization (CDI) of water with a stack of carbon aerogel electrodes has been developed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Unlike ion exchange, one of the more conventional deionization processes, no chemicals are required for regeneration of the system. Electricity is used instead. Water with various anions and cations is pumped through the electrochemical cell. After polarization, ions are electrostatically removed from the water and held in the electric double layers formed at the surfaces of electrodes. The water leaving the cell is purified, as desired. The effects of cell voltage on the electrosorption capacities for Na 2 SO 4 , Na 3 PO 4 , and Na 2 CO 3 have been investigated and are reported here. Results for NaCl and NaNO 3 have been reported previously. Possible applications for CDI are as a replacement for ion exchange processes which remove heavy metals and radioisotopes from process and waste water in various industries, as well as to remove inorganic ions from feedwater for fossil and nuclear power plants

  19. Influence of Chemical Conditions on the Nanoporous Structure of Silicate Aerogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin Sinkó

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Silica or various silicate aerogels can be characterized by highly porous, open cell, low density structures. The synthesis parameters influence the three-dimensional porous structures by modifying the kinetics and mechanism of hydrolysis and condensation processes. Numerous investigations have shown that the structure of porous materials can be tailored by variations in synthesis conditions (e.g., the type of precursors, catalyst, and surfactants; the ratio of water/precursor; the concentrations; the medium pH; and the solvent. The objectives of this review are to summarize and elucidate the effects of chemical conditions on the nanoporous structure of sol-gel derived silicate aerogels.

  20. Determination of dynamic mechanical properties of silica aerogel by resonance and non-resonance method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Z. P.; Sheng, M. P.

    2017-03-01

    Silica aerogel has great potential in aeronautics, building construction, and offshore oil transportation. The dynamic mechanical properties of silica aerogel were measured by the resonance and non-resonance method. The results of the two methods were compared. While the Young’s modulus coincided well, the loss factor had big difference. To explain this phenomenon, the sensitivity of the two methods was analyzed. It shows that the loss factor determination of low-loss materials by the non-resonance method is quite sensitive to the experiment uncertainties. This probably results in the loss factor difference between the two methods.

  1. Propiedades mecánicas de aerogeles híbridos de sílice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piñero, M.

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Hybrids silica aerogels have been obtained by means the high power ultrasounds application in the precursor liquid and the drying of the wet gel under the supercritical condition of ethanol. The organic chains don’t degrade thermally and accelerate the network shrinkage process by thermal activation. The ultrasounds induce an organic chain crosslinking bonding to the porous silica clusters and avoid its cyclidation. The failure tests by uniaxial compression show an increase of the rupture modulus, passing from 8 MPa for a pure silica aerogel to 24 MPa for an aerogel with a 50 weight % of polymer content. It is also noted a continuous decrease of the Young’s modulus with the polymer content (from 100 to 56 MPa. These hybrid aerogels behave as elastomers with up to a 50% strain, showing a decrease in the relaxation viscoelastic modulus.

    Se han obtenido aerogeles híbridos de sílice orgánico-inorgánico por aplicación de ultrasonidos de alta potencia en los precursores líquidos y posterior secado del gel húmedo en condiciones supercríticas en etanol. Las cadenas orgánicas no se degradan térmicamente y aceleran el proceso de contracción de la red por activación térmica. Los ultrasonidos inducen un entrecruzamiento de cadenas orgánicas que unen los cúmulos de sílice porosa y evitan su ciclidación. Los ensayos de ruptura en compresión uniaxial indicaron un aumento del módulo de ruptura, pasando de 8 MPa para el aerogel de sílice pura hasta 24 MPa para un aerogel de 50% en peso de contenido de polímero. Se observa asimismo una disminución continua en el módulo de Young con el contenido de polímero (de 100 a 56 MPa. Estos aerogeles híbridos se comportan como elastómeros con deformaciones de hasta el 50%, mostrando una disminución del módulo de relajación viscoelástica.

  2. Densification and Strengthening of Aerogels by Sintering Heat Treatments or Plastic Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Woignier

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to their broad range of porosity, aerogels are suited to various applications. The advantages of a broad range of porosity are used directly, for example, in thermal and acoustic insulation, as materials for space applications or in catalysers. However, an overly high pore volume can also be a drawback, for example, in a glass precursor and host matrix. Fortunately, aerogel porosity can be tailored using sintering or isostatic compression. Sets of silica aerogels—sintered and compressed aerogels—have been studied with the objective of comparing these different densification mechanisms. We focus on the mechanical changes during the two processes of densification.

  3. Plasmonic enhancement of visible-light water splitting with Au-TiO2 composite aerogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSario, Paul A; Pietron, Jeremy J; DeVantier, Devyn E; Brintlinger, Todd H; Stroud, Rhonda M; Rolison, Debra R

    2013-09-07

    We demonstrate plasmonic enhancement of visible-light-driven splitting of water at three-dimensionally (3D) networked gold-titania (Au-TiO2) aerogels. The sol-gel-derived ultraporous composite nanoarchitecture, which contains 1 to 8.5 wt% Au nanoparticles and titania in the anatase form, retains the high surface area and mesoporosity of unmodified TiO2 aerogels and maintains stable dispersion of the ~5 nm Au guests. A broad surface plasmon resonance (SPR) feature centered at ~550 nm is present for the Au-TiO2 aerogels, but not Au-free TiO2 aerogels, and spans a wide range of the visible spectrum. Gold-derived SPR in Au-TiO2 aerogels cast as films on transparent electrodes drives photoelectrochemical oxidation of aqueous hydroxide and extends the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 from the ultraviolet region to visible wavelengths exceeding 700 nm. Films of Au-TiO2 aerogels in which Au nanoparticles are deposited on pre-formed TiO2 aerogels by a deposition-precipitation method (DP Au/TiO2) also photoelectrochemically oxidize aqueous hydroxide, but less efficiently than 3D Au-TiO2, despite having an essentially identical Au nanoparticle weight fraction and size distribution. For example, 3D Au-TiO2 containing 1 wt% Au is as active as DP Au/TiO2 with 4 wt% Au. The higher photocatalytic activity of 3D Au-TiO2 derives only in part from its ability to retain the surface area and porosity of unmodified TiO2 aerogel. The magnitude of improvement indicates that in the 3D arrangement either a more accessible photoelectrochemical reaction interphase (three-phase boundary) exists or more efficient conversion of excited surface plasmons into charge carriers occurs, thereby amplifying reactivity over DP Au/TiO2. The difference in photocatalytic efficiency between the two forms of Au-TiO2 demonstrates the importance of defining the structure of Au[parallel]TiO2 interfaces within catalytic Au-TiO2 nanoarchitectures.

  4. Stardust: An overview of the tracks in the aerogel (calibration, classification and particle size distribution)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchell, M. J.; Fairey, S. J.; Hörz, F.; Wozniakiewicz, P. J.; Kearsley, A. T.; Brownlee, D. E.; See, T. H.; Westphal, A.; Green, S. F.; Trigo-Rodríguez, J. M.

    2007-08-01

    The NASA Stardust mission (1) to comet P/Wild-2 returned to Earth in January 2006 carrying a cargo of dust captured in aerogel and residue rich craters in aluminium foils (2). Aerogel is a low density, highly porous material (3, 4). The aerogel that was carried by Stardust in the cometary dust collector trays was a SiO2 aerogel, arranged in blocks 4 cm x 2 cm (front face) and 3 cm deep, with density which varied smoothly from 5 mg/cc at the front surface to 50 mg/cc at the rear surface (5). A first look at the whole cometary dust tray at NASA showed that there were many impact features in the aerogel. During the Preliminary Examination period about 15% of the aerogel blocks were removed and studied in detail. The tracks observed in these blocks were classified into three groups: Type A were long relatively narrow tracks of "carrot shape", Type B tracks were again fairly long but had a large bulbous region at the top and appear like the bowl and stem of a flute champagne glass, Type C were purely bulbous tracks with no stem emerging beneath them. Data on the sizes and relative populations of these tracks will be given (also see (6)) along with a discussion of their implications for impactor composition. Laboratory calibrations of the impacts in aerogel have been carried out using glass beads and these permit an estimate of the size of the impactor based on the measured track properties (6). When applied to the tracks measured in the Stardust aerogel, a cumulative particle size distribution was obtained (7) which will be discussed. References (1) Brownlee D.E. et al., J. Geophys. Res. 108, E10, 8111, 2003. (2) Brownlee D.E. et al., Science 314, 1711 - 1716. 2006. (3) Kistler S.S., Nature 127, 741, 1931. (4) Burchell M.J. et al., Ann. Rev. Earth. Planet. Sci. 34, 385 - 418, 2006. (5) Tsou P. et al., J. Geophys. Res. 108(E10), 8113, 2003. (6) Burchell et al., submitted to MAPS, 2006. (7) Hörz F. et al., Science 314, 1716 - 1719, 2006.

  5. Testbeam results on particle identification with aerogel used as RICH radiator

    CERN Document Server

    Alemi, M; Braem, André; Calvi, M; Chesi, Enrico Guido; Joram, C; Liko, D; Matteuzzi, C; Negri, P; Neufeld, N; Paganoni, M; Séguinot, Jacques; Voillat, D; Weilhammer, Peter; Ypsilantis, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    We present the results obtained by exposing samples of silica aerogel of different thickness and optical properties to pion and proton beams with momenta between 6 and 10 GeV/c in the PS testbeam facility at CERN. Two large diameter pad-HPDs with 2048 channels, produced at CERN, have been used as photon detectors. Separate Cherenkov rings produced by the different particles were reconstructed obtaining pion /proton separation on the whole considered momentum range. The number of photoelectrons was measured as a function of aerogel thickness and was found in agreement with Monte Carlo expectations. 5 Refs.

  6. Test-beam results on particle identification with aerogel used as RICH radiator

    CERN Document Server

    Alemi, M; Braem, André; Calvi, M; Chesi, Enrico Guido; Joram, C; Liko, D; Matteuzzi, C; Negri, P; Neufeld, N; Paganoni, M; Séguinot, Jacques; Voillat, D; Weilhammer, Peter; Ypsilantis, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    We present the results obtained by exposing samples of silica aerogel of different thickness and optical properties to pion and proton beams with momenta between 6 and 10 GeV/c in the PS testbeam facility at CERN. Two large diameter pad hybrid photodiodes with 2048 channels, produced at CERN, have been used as photon detectors. Separate Cherenkov rings produced by the different particles were reconstructed obtaining pion/proton separation over the whole momentum range. The number of photoelectrons was measured as a function of aerogel thickness and was found to be in agreement with Monte Carlo expectations. (5 refs).

  7. Aerogel Use as a Skin Protective Liner In Space Suits and Prosthetic Limbs Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson, Luke Bennett

    2014-01-01

    Existing materials for prosthetic liners tend to be thick and airtight, causing perspiration to accumulate inside the liner and potentially causing infection and injury. The purpose of this project was to examine the suitability of aerogel for prosthetic liner applications for use in space suits and orthopedics. Three tests were performed on several types of aerogel to assess the properties of each material, and our initial findings demonstrated that these materrials would be excellent candidates for liner applications for prosthetics and space suits. The project is currently on hold until additional funding is obtained for application testing at the VH Hospitals in Tampa

  8. Observation of a second-sound-like mode in superfluid-filled aerogel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenna, M.J.; Slawecki, T.; Maynard, J.D.

    1991-01-01

    Superfluid 4 He is interesting acoustically because it can support more than one mode of sound propagation, and these can be used to study critical properties. Recently, there has been interest in superfluid-filled aerogels, but for such compressible materials one does not observe the ordinary (fourth) sound; instead there is a mode intermediate between first and fourth sound and a second-sound-like mode. We present a theory for the modes and the first observation of the aerogel second-sound-like mode, which is important because it propagates near the critical temperature

  9. IR spectroscopy of the structural states of ethylene in aerogel nanopores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponomarev, Yu.N.; Petrova, T.M.; Solodov, A.M.; Solodov, A.A.

    2010-01-01

    We have investigated for the first time the combination vibrational absorption bands ν5 + ν9 and ν1 + ν11 of ethylene adsorbed by nanopores of a silicon dioxide aerogel in the 5800-6300 cm -1 region. Our measurements show significant differences in the absorption spectra of gas-phase ethylene and ethylene found in the nanoporous structure of the aerogel, including a change in the shape of the absorption band contours, their frequency shift, and an increase in the absorption intensity. (authors)

  10. A Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB model for the keystone predator Pisaster ochraceus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristián J Monaco

    Full Text Available We present a Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB model for the quintessential keystone predator, the rocky-intertidal sea star Pisaster ochraceus. Based on first principles, DEB theory is used to illuminate underlying physiological processes (maintenance, growth, development, and reproduction, thus providing a framework to predict individual-level responses to environmental change. We parameterized the model for P. ochraceus using both data from the literature and experiments conducted specifically for the DEB framework. We devoted special attention to the model's capacity to (1 describe growth trajectories at different life-stages, including pelagic larval and post-metamorphic phases, (2 simulate shrinkage when prey availability is insufficient to meet maintenance requirements, and (3 deal with the combined effects of changing body temperature and food supply. We further validated the model using an independent growth data set. Using standard statistics to compare model outputs with real data (e.g. Mean Absolute Percent Error, MAPE we demonstrated that the model is capable of tracking P. ochraceus' growth in length at different life-stages (larvae: MAPE = 12.27%; post-metamorphic, MAPE = 9.22%, as well as quantifying reproductive output index. However, the model's skill dropped when trying to predict changes in body mass (MAPE = 24.59%, potentially because of the challenge of precisely anticipating spawning events. Interestingly, the model revealed that P. ochraceus reserves contribute little to total biomass, suggesting that animals draw energy from structure when food is limited. The latter appears to drive indeterminate growth dynamics in P. ochraceus. Individual-based mechanistic models, which can illuminate underlying physiological responses, offer a viable framework for forecasting population dynamics in the keystone predator Pisaster ochraceus. The DEB model herein represents a critical step in that direction, especially in a period

  11. Nonconsumptive effects in a multiple predator system reduce the foraging efficiency of a keystone predator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Jon M; Chalcraft, David R

    2013-09-01

    Many studies have demonstrated that the nonconsumptive effect (NCE) of predators on prey traits can alter prey demographics in ways that are just as strong as the consumptive effect (CE) of predators. Less well studied, however, is how the CE and NCE of multiple predator species can interact to influence the combined effect of multiple predators on prey mortality. We examined the extent to which the NCE of one predator altered the CE of another predator on a shared prey and evaluated whether we can better predict the combined impact of multiple predators on prey when accounting for this influence. We conducted a set of experiments with larval dragonflies, adult newts (a known keystone predator), and their tadpole prey. We quantified the CE and NCE of each predator, the extent to which NCEs from one predator alters the CE of the second predator, and the combined effect of both predators on prey mortality. We then compared the combined effect of both predators on prey mortality to four predictive models. Dragonflies caused more tadpoles to hide under leaf litter (a NCE), where newts spend less time foraging, which reduced the foraging success (CE) of newts. Newts altered tadpole behavior but not in a way that altered the foraging success of dragonflies. Our study suggests that we can better predict the combined effect of multiple predators on prey when we incorporate the influence of interactions between the CE and NCE of multiple predators into a predictive model. In our case, the threat of predation to prey by one predator reduced the foraging efficiency of a keystone predator. Consequently, the ability of a predator to fill a keystone role could be compromised by the presence of other predators.

  12. Ontogenetic functional diversity: size structure of a keystone predator drives functioning of a complex ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolf, Volker H W; Rasmussen, Nick L

    2013-05-01

    A central challenge in community ecology is to understand the connection between biodiversity and the functioning of ecosystems. While traditional approaches have largely focused on species-level diversity, increasing evidence indicates that there exists substantial ecological diversity among individuals within species. By far, the largest source of this intraspecific diversity stems from variation among individuals in ontogenetic stage and size. Although such ontogenetic shifts are ubiquitous in natural communities, whether and how they scale up to influence the structure and functioning of complex ecosystems is largely unknown. Here we take an experimental approach to examine the consequences of ontogenetic niche shifts for the structure of communities and ecosystem processes. In particular we experimentally manipulated the stage structure in a keystone predator, larvae of the dragonfly Anax junius, in complex experimental pond communities to test whether changes in the population stage or size structure of a keystone species scale up to alter community structure and ecosystem processes, and how functional differences scale with relative differences in size among stages. We found that the functional role of A. junius was stage-specific. Altering what stages were present in a pond led to concurrent changes in community structure, primary producer biomass (periphyton and phytoplankton), and ultimately altered ecosystem processes (respiration and net primary productivity), indicating a strong, but stage-specific, trophic cascade. Interestingly, the stage-specific effects did not simply scale with size or biomass of the predator, but instead indicated clear ontogenetic niche shifts in ecological interactions. Thus, functional differences among stages within a keystone species scaled up to alter the functioning of entire ecosystems. Therefore, our results indicate that the classical approach of assuming an average functional role of a species can be misleading because

  13. Keystone predators (eastern newts, Notophthalmus viridescens) reduce the impacts of an aquatic invasive species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kimberly G.

    2006-01-01

    Predation, competition, and their interaction are known to be important factors that influence the structure of ecological communities. In particular, in those cases where a competitive hierarchy exists among prey species, the presence of certain keystone predators can result in enhanced diversity in the prey community. However, little is known regarding the influence of keystone predator presence on invaded prey communities. Given the widespread occurrence of invasive species and substantial concern regarding their ecological impacts, studies on this topic are needed. In this study I used naturalistic replications of an experimental tadpole assemblage to assess the influence of predatory eastern newts, Notophthalmus viridescens, on the outcome of interspecific competition among native and nonindigenous tadpoles. When newts were absent, the presence of the tadpoles of one invasive species, the Cuban treefrog, Osteopilus septentrionalis, resulted in decreased survival and growth rate of the dominant native species, Bufo terrestris, and dominance of the tadpole assemblage by O. septentrionalis. However, the presence of one adult newt generally reduced or eliminated the negative impacts of O. septentrionalis tadpoles, resulting in comparable survival and performance of native species in invaded and noninvaded treatments. Differential mortality among the tadpole species suggests that newts preyed selectively on O. septentrionalis tadpoles, supporting the hypothesis that newts acted as keystone predators in the invaded assemblage. The presence of nonindigenous larval cane toads, Bufo marinus, did not significantly affect native species, and this species was not negatively affected by the presence of newts. Collectively, these results suggest that eastern newts significantly modified the competitive hierarchy of the invaded tadpole assemblage and reduced the impacts of a competitively superior invasive species. If general, these results suggest that the presence of

  14. Some are more equal than others: the role of "keystone" species in the degradation of recalcitrant substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ze, Xiaolei; Le Mougen, Fanny; Duncan, Sylvia H; Louis, Petra; Flint, Harry J

    2013-01-01

    The microbial communities found in the mammalian large intestine and rumen efficiently degrade many recalcitrant substrates that are resistant to the host's digestive enzymes. These communities are known from molecular profiling to be highly diverse at the species and strain level, but it may be that only certain specialized organisms ("keystone species") have the ability to initiate degradation of such substrates, thus releasing energy on which the rest of the community depends. We have recently reported that Ruminococcus bromii has a superior ability to degrade certain forms of particulate resistant starch (RS) when compared with other highly abundant species of amylolytic bacteria found in the human colon and have presented evidence that this bacterium provides an example of a keystone species within the microbial community with respect to RS fermentation. The concept of keystone species can be equally relevant to other activities, e.g., those involved in stabilizing the community.

  15. High-density aerogels with ultralow sound velocity: Microstructure is a key parameter determining the sound velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Ai; Zhou, Bin; Shen, Yang; Yu, Qiujie; Shen, Jun

    2014-03-01

    Aerogels are more and more regarded as a new state of matter nowadays because of its diverse chemical compositions and unique properties which could fill the gap between condensed matter and gas-state matter. Among the properties, the ultralow sound velocity in the aerogels (lower than that in the air) is of great interests. J. Fricke's group studied many kinds of aerogels with different compositions and found that the sound velocity was mainly influenced by the density. Thus they obtained the lowest sound velocity result (~ 100 m/s) in a low-density silica aerogel medium (~ 0.05 g.cm-3) . Here we studied the acoustical properties of the aerogels with the similar high density (about 1.3 g.cm-3) but different skeleton structure (nano-, micro- or nano-/micro- structured) by adjusting the phase separation mode. The sound velocities of all the aerogels are below 300 m.s-1, among which micro-/nano- structured aerogel exhibits lowest longitudinal wave velocity (below 80 m.s-1) . Further structural studies indicated that the hierarchical arrangement of microstructure is the key parameter determining the sound velocity besides the density. This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (51102184, 51172163), National High-tech R&D Program of China (863 Program, 2013AA031801) and National Science and Technology Support Program (2013BAJ01B01).

  16. Effect of Aerogel Particle Concentration on Mechanical Behavior of Impregnated RTV 655 Compound Material for Aerospace Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firouzeh Sabri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerogels are a unique class of materials with superior thermal and mechanical properties particularly suitable for insulating and cryogenic storage applications. It is possible to overcome geometrical restrictions imposed by the rigidity of monolithic polyurea cross-linked silica aerogels by encapsulating micrometer-sized particles in a chemically resistant thermally insulating elastomeric “sleeve.” The ultimate limiting factor for the compound material’s performance is the effect of aerogel particles on the mechanical behavior of the compound material which needs to be fully characterized. The effect of size and concentration of aerogel microparticles on the tensile behavior of aerogel impregnated RTV655 samples was explored both at room temperature and at 77 K. Aerogel microparticles were created using a step-pulse pulverizing technique resulting in particle diameters between 425 μm and 90 μm and subsequently embedded in an RTV 655 elastomeric matrix. Aerogel particle concentrations of 25, 50, and 75 wt% were subjected to tensile tests and behavior of the compound material was investigated. Room temperature and cryogenic temperature studies revealed a compound material with rupture load values dependent on (1 microparticle size and (2 microparticle concentration. Results presented show how the stress elongation behavior depends on each parameter.

  17. A Co-Precursor Approach Coupled with a Supercritical Modification Method for Constructing Highly Transparent and Superhydrophobic Polymethylsilsesquioxane Aerogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Chaoshuai; Li, Junning; Sun, Chencheng; Yang, Hailong; Xia, Tao; Hu, Zijun; Zhang, Yue

    2018-03-30

    Polymethylsilsesquioxane (PMSQ) aerogels obtained from methyltrimethoxysilane (MTMS) are well-known high-performance porous materials. Highly transparent and hydrophobic PMSQ aerogel would play an important role in transparent vacuum insulation panels. Herein, the co-precursor approach and supercritical modification method were developed to prepare the PMSQ aerogels with high transparency and superhydrophobicity. Firstly, benefiting from the introduction of tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) in the precursor, the pore structure became more uniform and the particle size was decreased. As the TMOS content increased, the light transmittance increased gradually from 54.0% to 81.2%, whereas the contact angle of water droplet decreased from 141° to 99.9°, ascribed to the increase of hydroxyl groups on the skeleton surface. Hence, the supercritical modification method utilizing hexamethyldisilazane was also introduced to enhance the hydrophobic methyl groups on the aerogel's surface. As a result, the obtained aerogels revealed superhydrophobicity with a contact angle of 155°. Meanwhile, the developed surface modification method did not lead to any significant changes in the pore structure resulting in the superhydrophobic aerogel with a high transparency of 77.2%. The proposed co-precursor approach and supercritical modification method provide a new horizon in the fabrication of highly transparent and superhydrophobic PMSQ aerogels.

  18. Fabrication of NIR-responsive NaYF4:Yb,Tm/anatase TiO2 composite aerogel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fu-Chih; Kitamoto, Yoshitaka

    2018-01-01

    3-dimensional interconnected network structure of TiO2 aerogel has attracted considerable attention to solve environmental issues due to an advanced oxidation process which uses abundant sunlight for the complete minimization of toxic pollutants. The TiO2 aerogel with high specific surface area, large pores, and low density has a potential to be used as photocatalyst for air and water purification. Nonetheless, due to the larger band gap, TiO2 semiconductor photocatalysts possess high oxidizing properties under UV light only which occupies 5% of solar energy. To expand the absorption spectrum of TiO2 aerogel under solar irradiation, the NaYF4:Yb,Tm nanoparticles (NPs) are introduced into the TiO2 aerogel matrix structure. The morphology and crystal structure of the composite aerogel are investigated by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, respectively. The particle size of NaYF4:Yb,Tm NPs is approximately 40 nm and the crystallite size of TiO2 is around 10 nm. In addition, the NaYF4:Yb,Tm NPs are enclosed by anatase phase of TiO2 aerogel. The NaYF4:Yb,Tm NPs which exist in the TiO2 aerogel has a capability of transferring NIR light to UV region.

  19. Design and Development of Aerogel-Based Antennas for Aerospace Applications: A Final Report to the NARI Seedling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meador, Mary Ann B.; Miranda, Felix A.

    2014-01-01

    As highly porous solids possessing low density and low dielectric permittivity combined with good mechanical properties, polyimide (PI) aerogels offer great promise as an enabling technology for lightweight aircraft antenna systems. While they have been aggressively explored for thermal insulation, barely any effort has been made to leverage these materials for antennas or other applications that take advantage of their aforementioned attributes. In Phase I of the NARI Seedling Project, we fabricated PI aerogels with properties tailored to enable new antenna concepts with performance characteristics (wide bandwidth and high gain) and material properties (low density, environmental stability, and robustness) superior to the state of practice (SOP). We characterized electromagnetic properties, including permittivity, reflectivity, and propagation losses for the aerogels. Simple, prototype planar printed circuit patch antennas from down-selected aerogel formulations were fabricated by molding the aerogels to net shapes and by gold-metalizing the pattern onto the templates via electron beam evaporation in a clean room environment. These aerogel based antennas were benchmarked against current antenna SOP, and exhibited both broader bandwidth and comparable or higher gain performance at appreciably lower mass. Phase II focused on the success of the Phase I results pushing the PI aerogel based antenna technology further by exploring alternative antenna design (i.e., slot coupled antennas) and by examining other techniques for fabricating the antennas including ink jet printing with the goal of optimizing antenna performance and simplifying production. We also examined new aerogel formulations with better moisture and solvent resistance to survive processing conditions. In addition, we investigated more complex antenna designs including passive phased arrays such as 2x4 and 4x8 element arrays to assess the scalability of the aerogel antenna concept. Furthermore, we

  20. Histological evaluation of the biocompatibility of polyurea crosslinked silica aerogel implants in a rat model: a pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firouzeh Sabri

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Aerogels are a versatile group of nanostructured/nanoporous materials with physical and chemical properties that can be adjusted to suit the application of interest. In terms of biomedical applications, aerogels are particularly suitable for implants such as membranes, tissue growth scaffolds, and nerve regeneration and guidance inserts. The mesoporous nature of aerogels can also be used for diffusion based release of drugs that are loaded during the drying stage of the material. From the variety of aerogels polyurea crosslinked silica aerogels have the most potential for future biomedical applications and are explored here. METHODOLOGY: This study assessed the short and long term biocompatibility of polyurea crosslinked silica aerogel implants in a Sprague-Dawley rat model. Implants were inserted at two different locations a subcutaneously (SC, at the dorsum and b intramuscularly (IM, between the gluteus maximus and biceps femoris of the left hind extremity. Nearby muscle and other internal organs were evaluated histologically for inflammation, tissue damage, fibrosis and movement (travel of implant. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: In general polyurea crosslinked silica aerogel (PCSA was well tolerated as a subcutaneous and an intramuscular implant in the Sprague-Dawley rat with a maximum incubation time of twenty months. In some cases a thin fibrous capsule surrounded the aerogel implant and was interpreted as a normal response to foreign material. No noticeable toxicity was found in the tissues surrounding the implants nor in distant organs. Comparison was made with control rats without any implants inserted, and animals with suture material present. No obvious or noticeable changes were sustained by the implants at either location. Careful necropsy and tissue histology showed age-related changes only. An effective sterilization technique for PCSA implants as well as staining and sectioning protocol has been established. These studies

  1. Nitrogen and Fluorine-Codoped Carbon Nanowire Aerogels as Metal-Free Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Shaofang [School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 USA; Zhu, Chengzhou [School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 USA; Song, Junhua [School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 USA; Engelhard, Mark H. [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352 USA; Xiao, Biwei [Energy and Environmental Directory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352 USA; Du, Dan [School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 USA; Lin, Yuehe [School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 USA

    2017-07-11

    The development of active, durable, and low-cost catalysts to replace noble metal-based materials is highly desirable to promote the sluggish oxygen reduction reaction in fuel cells. Herein, nitrogen and fluorine-codoped three-dimensional carbon nanowire aerogels, composed of interconnected carbon nanowires, were synthesized for the first time by a hydrothermal carbonization process. Owing to their porous nanostructures and heteroatom-doping, the as-prepared carbon nanowire aerogels, with optimized composition, present excellent electrocatalytic activity that is comparable to commercial Pt/C. Remarkably, the aerogels also exhibit superior stability and methanol tolerance. This synthesis procedure paves a new way to design novel heteroatomdoped catalysts.

  2. Social construction and physical nihilation of the Keystone XL pipeline: Lessons from international relations theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shum, Robert Y.

    2013-01-01

    If a prime goal of energy policy is to achieve energy security, why is there a controversy over the proposed Keystone XL pipeline, designed to deliver new supplies of oil from within North America? This Viewpoint seeks answers in the debate over the underlying purposes of energy policy: how does one answers the question “what do we want from energy policy?” Perceptions of feasible answers and policy options change over time, as witnessed in the 1970s. Analogous shifts in opinion are changing today's policy debates and widening the contradictions in policy purposes. Attention to the existence of these contradictions, without illusions, is necessary to meet the policy challenges of the future effectively. - Highlights: • We apply international relations theory to explain the persistence of the Keystone controversy. • Key question relates to policy purposes: “what do we want from energy policy?” • Alternative purposes: maximizing economic growth or ensuring environmental sustainability. • 1970s US cases show how perceptions of each purpose's relative feasibility shift. • Different purposes generate different attitudes to policies that result in higher oil prices

  3. The Personal Doctoring Manifesto: A Perspective from the Keystone IV Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVoe, Jennifer E; Barnes, Kathleen; Morris, Carl; Campbell, Kendall; Morris-Singer, Andrew; Westfall, John M; Grumbach, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    The Keystone IV Conference was a touchstone moment for multigenerational conversations regarding our health care system and an opportunity to reconnect with the values of personal doctoring as a vocation. It inspired participants to renew commitments to relationships, healthy communities, and social change. Keystone IV was also a stark reminder of the need to rekindle family medicine's counterculture flame in today's tumultuous health care environment and reclaim the role of personal doctors in American society. Reimagining and reigniting the fire of personal relationship is today's counterculture movement for primary care. Personal doctors must heed the call for immediate action, which requires defining when relationships matter most in health care and understanding how to harness paradigm shifts in information technology, team-based care, and population health to strengthen, rather than undermine, personal doctoring. Simultaneously, we must also invent a new notion of personal doctoring that creates partnerships with patients and families to drive forward a social movement demanding health care focused on the whole person in the context of his or her community. Change will occur when patients insist on a personal doctoring approach as an essential priority for what they expect from the health care system-that anything less is unacceptable. © Copyright 2016 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  4. Synthesis and Properties of Phloroglucinol-Phenol-Formaldehyde Carbon Aerogels and Xerogels

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirglová, Hana; Pérez-Cadenas, A. F.; Maldonado-Hódar, F. J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 4 (2009), s. 2461-2466 ISSN 0743-7463 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : organic aerogels * immersion calorimetry * activated carbon Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.898, year: 2009

  5. Cellulose aerogels functionalized with polypyrrole and silver nanoparticles: In-situ synthesis, characterization and antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Caichao; Li, Jian

    2016-08-01

    Green porous and lightweight cellulose aerogels have been considered as promising candidates to substitute some petrochemical host materials to support various nanomaterials. In this work, waste wheat straw was collected as feedstock to fabricate cellulose hydrogels, and a green inexpensive NaOH/polyethylene glycol solution was used as cellulose solvent. Prior to freeze-drying treatment, the cellulose hydrogels were integrated with polypyrrole and silver nanoparticles by easily-operated in-situ oxidative polymerization of pyrrole using silver ions as oxidizing agent. The tri-component hybrid aerogels were characterized by scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, selected area electron diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Moreover, the antibacterial activity of the hybrid aerogels against Escherichia coli (Gram-negative), Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive) and Listeria monocytogenes (intracellular bacteria) was qualitatively and quantitatively investigated by parallel streak method and determination of minimal inhibitory concentration, respectively. This work provides an example of combining cellulose aerogels with nanomaterials, and helps to develop novel forms of cellulose-based functional materials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Low-temperature specific heat and thermal conductivity of silica aerogels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sleator, T.; Bernasconi, A.; Posselt, D.

    1991-01-01

    Specific-heat and thermal-conductivity measurements were made on a series of base-catalyzed silica aerogels at temperatures between 0.05 and 20 K. Evidence for a crossover between regimes of characteristically different excitations was observed. The data analysis indicates a "bump" in the density...

  7. Measurement of aerogel performance for ring image Cherenkov detector of HERMES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanesaka, Jiro; Zhang Linfeng; Sato, Fumiko; Suetsugu, Kentaro; Sakami, Yasuhiro; Shibata, Toshiaki

    1999-01-01

    The first experiment of ring image Cherenkov detector (RICH) used aerogel in the world was reported in this paper. We built RICH using aerogel as illuminant for HERMES. The refractive index and size of all aerogel tiles were measured in order to select them for construction of RICH. The select conditions of tile were 113.1 -4 , the dispersion of refractive index of aerogel tile, which condition was fitted to the accuracy of Cherenkov light emission angle of RICH. The mean thickness, transmission and reflection of tile, the thickness of corner of tile (thickness of surface), the refractive index dependence on position and temperature were measured. The effect of thickness of tile on the shift of Cherenkov emission angle was 6.1% the maximum value per one tile and 0.18% mean value of center. The effect of position dependence of refractive index on the Cherenkov light emission angle was agreed with the effect of dispersion of thickness of tile. The transmission and reflection of tile were almost same as the theoretical value. (S.Y.)

  8. Starch aerogel beads obtained from inclusion complexes prepared from high amylose starch and sodium palmitate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starch aerogels are a class of low density highly porous renewable materials currently prepared from retrograded starch gels and are of interest for their good surface area, porosity, biocompatibility, and biodegradability. Recently, we have reported on starches containing amylose-fatty acid salt h...

  9. Study of silica (Titania) aerogels using MYSANS at MINT 1 MW TRIGA reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Aziz Mohamed; Faridah Mohd Idris; Razali Kassim

    2006-01-01

    Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) technique has been widely employed in probing the microstructure of amorphous materials in the nano structure range; 1-100 nm. In this study, SANS was used to study the structure of the silica aerogels with and without titania nanoparticles. In aerogel system, the size range of 1 to 100 nm is of particular interest since the structural units, such as the pores and particles often fall in this range. Data collected was consistent with present models for the structure of silica aerogels, and an increase in mass fractal dimension from 2.3 to 2.6 for titania containing aerogels was observed. Preliminary SANS data was collected using the MYSANS instrument on the MINT PUSPATI TRIGA reactor. The neutron beam has a wavelength of 0.5 nm. The sample in powder form had dimensions 18x37mm 2 and 2 mm path length. The complete data collection consists of three measurements: sample scattering, empty sample holder scattering, and detector dark current. The scattered neutrons were detected by a 128 x 128 array area sensitive detector, proportional counter (PSD). The resulting 2D patterns were reduced to 1D profiles for further analysis. Plots of intensity, I(Q) versus momentum transfer, Q, were derived. For comparison of this work, the samples had been analysed using BATAN SANS facility. This work has demonstrated that SANS facility at MINT, mySANS, is capable to provide information of fractal dimension. (Author)

  10. "Aerogels of enzymatically oxidized galactomannans from leguminous plants: Versatile delivery systems of antimicrobial peptides and enzymes".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campia, Paola; Ponzini, Erika; Rossi, Bianca; Farris, Stefano; Silvetti, Tiziana; Merlini, Luca; Brasca, Milena; Grandori, Rita; Galante, Yves M

    2017-02-20

    We describe aerogels obtained by laccase/TEMPO-oxidation and lyophilization of galactomannans (GM) from fenugreek, sesbania and guar. Enzymatic oxidation of GM in aqueous solution caused viscosity increase up to fifteen-fold, generating structured, elastic, stable hydrogels, presumably due to establishment of hemiacetalic bonds between newly formed carbonyl groups and free hydroxyl groups. Upon lyophilization, water-insoluble aerogels were obtained, whose mechanical properties and porosity were investigated. Active principles were absorbed into the aerogels from aqueous solutions and, following rinsing, blotting, re-lyophilization, were released in an appropriate medium. The release of the antibiotic polymyxin B was tested against six different Gram-negative bacterial strains, of the antimicrobial peptide nisin against two Gram-positive and of the muraminidase lysozyme against one anaerobic strain. Protease and lipase release in solution from "enzyme loaded" aerogels was monitored by the increase in enzymatic activity. These biomaterials could represent new versatile, biocompatible "delivery systems" of actives for biomedical and industrial applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Electronic structure of titania aerogels: Soft x-ray absorption study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucheyev, S.O.; Van Buuren, T.V.; Baumann, T.F.; Satcher, J.H.; Willey, T.M.; Muelenberg, R.W.; Felter, T.E.; Poco, J.E.; Gammon, S.A.; Terminello, L.J.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Titania aerogels - a somewhat extreme form of nanoporous TiO 2 - are open-cell solid foams derived from highly crosslinked gels by drying them under supercritical conditions. In this presentation, the unoccupied electronic states of TiO 2 aerogels are studied by soft x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. High-resolution O K-edge and Ti L 2,3 -edge XANES spectra of aerogels are compared with those of rutile, anatase, and unrelaxed amorphous phases of full- density TiO 2 . Results show that all the main spectroscopic features of aerogels, reflecting the element-specific partial density of empty electronic states and correlation effects, can be attributed to the absence of long-range order in stoichiometric amorphous TiO 2 . Based on these results, we discuss the effects of short- and long-range order on the electronic structure of TiO 2 . This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. W-7405-Eng-48

  12. Aerogel nanoscale aluminium oxides as a destructive sorbent for mustard gas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štengl, Václav; Bakardjieva, Snejana; Maříková, Monika; Šubrt, Jan; Oplustil, F.; Olšanská, M.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 4 (2003), s. 175-180 ISSN 0862-5468 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A028 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4032918 Keywords : aluminium oxide * aerogels * sonogels Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.449, year: 2003

  13. Vanadium oxide/polypyrrole aerogel nanocomposites. Technical report, 1 June 1995-31 May 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dave, B.C.; Bunn, B.; Leroux, F.; Nazar, L.F.; Wong, H.P.

    1996-06-18

    Vanadium pentoxide/polypyrrole aerogel (ARG) nanocomposites were prepared by hydrolysis of VO(OC3H7)3 using pyrrole/water/acetone mixtures. Monolithic green-black gels with polypyrrole/V ratios ranging from 0.15 to 1.0 resulted from simultaneous polymerization of the pyrrole and vanadium alkoxide precursors. Supercritical drying yielded high surface (150-200 sq meters/g) aerogels, of sufficient mechanical integrity to allow them to be cut without fracturing. TEM studies of the aerogels show that they are comprised of fibers similar to that of V2O5 ARG`s, but with a much shorter chain length. Evidence from IR that the inorganic and organic components strongly interact leads us to propose that this impedes the vanadium condensation process. The result is ARG`s that exhibit decreased electronic conductivity with increasing polymer content. Despite the unexpected deleterious effect of the conductive polymer on the bulk conductivity, at low polymer content, the nanocomposite materials show enhanced electrochemical properties for Li insertion compared to the pristine aerogel.

  14. Graphene/Polyaniline Aerogel with Superelasticity and High Capacitance as Highly Compression-Tolerant Supercapacitor Electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Peng; Tang, Xun; Zheng, Ruilin; Ma, Xiaobo; Yu, Kehan; Wei, Wei

    2017-12-01

    Superelastic graphene aerogel with ultra-high compressibility shows promising potential for compression-tolerant supercapacitor electrode. However, its specific capacitance is too low to meet the practical application. Herein, we deposited polyaniline (PANI) into the superelastic graphene aerogel to improve the capacitance while maintaining the superelasticity. Graphene/PANI aerogel with optimized PANI mass content of 63 wt% shows the improved specific capacitance of 713 F g-1 in the three-electrode system. And the graphene/PANI aerogel presents a high recoverable compressive strain of 90% due to the strong interaction between PANI and graphene. The all-solid-state supercapacitors were assembled to demonstrate the compression-tolerant ability of graphene/PANI electrodes. The gravimetric capacitance of graphene/PANI electrodes reaches 424 F g-1 and retains 96% even at 90% compressive strain. And a volumetric capacitance of 65.5 F cm-3 is achieved, which is much higher than that of other compressible composite electrodes. Furthermore, several compressible supercapacitors can be integrated and connected in series to enhance the overall output voltage, suggesting the potential to meet the practical application.

  15. Effect of mixed Catalysts system on TEOS-based silica aerogels dried at ambient pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurav, Jyoti L.; Nadargi, Digambar Y.; Rao, A. Venkateswara

    2008-12-01

    In the present paper, the experimental results on the effect of mixed Catalysts system on the physical properties of the TEOS-based silica aerogels, are reported and discussed. The aerogels were produced by the single-step as well as two-step sol-gel process followed by atmospheric pressure drying. In the single-step process, only the NH 4F was used as a catalyst, whereas in the two-step process, NH 4F as well as a mixed catalysts, i.e., NH 4F and NH 4OH, were used after 12 h of acid (oxalic acid) addition. Effect of various exchanging solvents, viz., xylene, toluene, heptane or hexane and silylating agents, viz., MTMS, TMES, TMCS, HMDSO or HMDZ on the physical properties of the as prepared aerogels were studied. The volume of the NH 4OH, the molar ratios of MeOH/TEOS and HMDZ/TEOS were varied from 0.2 to 1 ml, and 5.5 to 27.5, 0.34 to 0.9, respectively, by keeping the volume of NH 4F and the concentrations of NH 4F and NH 4OH constant at 0.5 ml, 0.1 and 1 M, respectively. Remarkable results were obtained by using mixed catalyst system, hexane as exchanging solvent and surface chemical modification with 5% HMDZ in hexane. The aerogels were characterized by bulk density, optical transmission, thermal stability and contact angle measurements. The surface chemical modification was confirmed by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The microstructural studies of the aerogels were done by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), which revealed highly ramified self-similar polymeric structure in large length scale. The thermal stability of the aerogels were tested using TG-DT analyses. It was found that low bulk density (0.065 g/cm 3), superhydrophobic (153°), high thermal stability (380 °C) and high optical transmission (95%) of the as produced aerogels obtained at the molar ratio of TEOS:MeOH:oxalic acid:NH 4F:NH 4OH:HMDZ for 1:16.5:0.81:0.62:0.63:0.41, respectively.

  16. Effect of mixed Catalysts system on TEOS-based silica aerogels dried at ambient pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurav, Jyoti L.; Nadargi, Digambar Y. [Air Glass Laboratory, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416004, Maharashtra (India); Rao, A. Venkateswara [Air Glass Laboratory, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416004, Maharashtra (India)], E-mail: raouniv@yahoo.com

    2008-12-30

    In the present paper, the experimental results on the effect of mixed Catalysts system on the physical properties of the TEOS-based silica aerogels, are reported and discussed. The aerogels were produced by the single-step as well as two-step sol-gel process followed by atmospheric pressure drying. In the single-step process, only the NH{sub 4}F was used as a catalyst, whereas in the two-step process, NH{sub 4}F as well as a mixed catalysts, i.e., NH{sub 4}F and NH{sub 4}OH, were used after 12 h of acid (oxalic acid) addition. Effect of various exchanging solvents, viz., xylene, toluene, heptane or hexane and silylating agents, viz., MTMS, TMES, TMCS, HMDSO or HMDZ on the physical properties of the as prepared aerogels were studied. The volume of the NH{sub 4}OH, the molar ratios of MeOH/TEOS and HMDZ/TEOS were varied from 0.2 to 1 ml, and 5.5 to 27.5, 0.34 to 0.9, respectively, by keeping the volume of NH{sub 4}F and the concentrations of NH{sub 4}F and NH{sub 4}OH constant at 0.5 ml, 0.1 and 1 M, respectively. Remarkable results were obtained by using mixed catalyst system, hexane as exchanging solvent and surface chemical modification with 5% HMDZ in hexane. The aerogels were characterized by bulk density, optical transmission, thermal stability and contact angle measurements. The surface chemical modification was confirmed by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The microstructural studies of the aerogels were done by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), which revealed highly ramified self-similar polymeric structure in large length scale. The thermal stability of the aerogels were tested using TG-DT analyses. It was found that low bulk density (0.065 g/cm{sup 3}), superhydrophobic (153 deg.), high thermal stability (380 deg. C) and high optical transmission (95%) of the as produced aerogels obtained at the molar ratio of TEOS:MeOH:oxalic acid:NH{sub 4}F:NH{sub 4}OH:HMDZ for 1:16.5:0.81:0.62:0.63:0.41, respectively.

  17. Non-Parametric Kinetic (NPK Analysis of Thermal Oxidation of Carbon Aerogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Seifi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, much attention has been paid to aerogel materials (especially carbon aerogels due to their potential uses in energy-related applications, such as thermal energy storage and thermal protection systems. These open cell carbon-based porous materials (carbon aerogels can strongly react with oxygen at relatively low temperatures (~ 400°C. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the thermal performance of carbon aerogels in view of their energy-related applications at high temperatures and under thermal oxidation conditions. The objective of this paper is to study theoretically and experimentally the oxidation reaction kinetics of carbon aerogel using the non-parametric kinetic (NPK as a powerful method. For this purpose, a non-isothermal thermogravimetric analysis, at three different heating rates, was performed on three samples each with its specific pore structure, density and specific surface area. The most significant feature of this method, in comparison with the model-free isoconversional methods, is its ability to separate the functionality of the reaction rate with the degree of conversion and temperature by the direct use of thermogravimetric data. Using this method, it was observed that the Nomen-Sempere model could provide the best fit to the data, while the temperature dependence of the rate constant was best explained by a Vogel-Fulcher relationship, where the reference temperature was the onset temperature of oxidation. Moreover, it was found from the results of this work that the assumption of the Arrhenius relation for the temperature dependence of the rate constant led to over-estimation of the apparent activation energy (up to 160 kJ/mol that was considerably different from the values (up to 3.5 kJ/mol predicted by the Vogel-Fulcher relationship in isoconversional methods

  18. 75 FR 22890 - Notice of Extension of Public Comment Period for the Proposed Keystone XL Pipeline Project Draft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    ... notice that listed the public comment meetings and additional information on the DEIS was published in.... By mail addressed to: Elizabeth Orlando, Keystone XL Project Manager, U.S. Department of State, OES... screening. Fax to: (202) 647-1052, attention Elizabeth Orlando. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For...

  19. 75 FR 18497 - Chevron Keystone Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Notification of Change in Market Power Analysis and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-12

    ...] Chevron Keystone Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Notification of Change in Market Power Analysis and Request for Renewed Approval of Market-Based Rates April 5, 2010. Take notice that on March 31, 2010, Chevron... power analysis and request for renewed approval of market-based rates for its storage and hub services...

  20. Serving as the Keystone: Collaborative Reform, Relinquishing Authority, and the Link to Higher Education in the Fort Worth Public Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aley, Shelley; Vandenberg, Peter

    Established in 1984, the twofold purpose of the national award-winning Keystone Writing Project of the Fort Worth Independent School District is to (1) create a staff development program to assist teachers in designing strategies for teaching writing; and (2) to set up a district writing program that meets the needs of all students. During the…

  1. Foraging plasticity by a keystone excavator, the white-headed woodpecker, in managed forests: Are there consequences for productivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teresa J. Lorenz; Kerri T. Vierling; Jeffrey M. Kozma; Janet E. Millard

    2016-01-01

    Information on the foraging ecology of animals is important for conservation and management, particularly for keystone species whose presence affects ecosystem health. We examined foraging by an at-risk cavity excavator, the white-headed woodpecker (Picoides albolarvatus). The foraging needs of this species are used to inform management of...

  2. Structure Manipulation of Carbon Aerogels by Managing Solution Concentration of Precursor and Its Application for CO2 Capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingping He

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A series of carbon aerogels were synthesized by polycondensation of resorcinol and formaldehyde, and their structure was adjusted by managing solution concentration of precursors. Carbon aerogels were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, Raman, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, N2 adsorption/desorption and scanning electron microscope (SEM technologies. It was found that the pore structure and morphology of carbon aerogels can be efficiently manipulated by managing solution concentration. The relative micropore volume of carbon aerogels, defined by Vmicro/Vtol, first increased and then decreased with the increase of solution concentration, leading to the same trend of CO2 adsorption capacity. Specifically, the CA-45 (the solution concentration of precursors is 45 wt% sample had the highest CO2 adsorption capacity (83.71 cm3/g and the highest selectivity of CO2/N2 (53 at 1 bar and 0 °C.

  3. Highly sensitive room temperature organic vapor sensor based on polybenzoxazine-derived carbon aerogel thin film composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thubsuang, Uthen [Materials Science and Engineering, School of Engineering and Resources, Walailak University, Nakhon Si Thammarat 80160 (Thailand); Sukanan, Darunee [The Petroleum and Petrochemical College and the Center of Excellence on Petrochemical and Materials Technology, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Sahasithiwat, Somboon [National Metal and Materials Technology Center, Thailand Science Park (TSP), Khlong Luang, Pathum Thani 12120 (Thailand); Wongkasemjit, Sujitra [The Petroleum and Petrochemical College and the Center of Excellence on Petrochemical and Materials Technology, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Chaisuwan, Thanyalak, E-mail: thanyalak.c@chula.ac.th [The Petroleum and Petrochemical College and the Center of Excellence on Petrochemical and Materials Technology, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)

    2015-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Activated carbon aerogel with high surface area can be prepared from polybenzoxazine. • Activated carbon aerogel enhances the adsorption capacity of gas sensor. • Organic vapors with very low concentration can be detected by the as-prepared sensor. • The as-prepared sensor shows impressive short exposure and recovery time. • The response to different organic vapors can be tailored by changing polymer matrix. - Abstract: Gas sensing composites were fabricated using polybenzoxazine-based activated carbon aerogel as a conductive filler. The activated carbon aerogel is a nano-porous material, which has high pore volume of 0.57 cm{sup 3}/g and surface area of 917 m{sup 2}/g. The activated carbon aerogel/polybutadiene composite displayed good response of 11.2 and 6.7 to toluene and n-hexane, respectively, compared to those of graphite/polybutadiene composite. The activated carbon aerogel/polybutadiene composite also showed high sensitivity of 3.09 × 10{sup 2} ppm{sup −1} to toluene. However, the sensitivity of activated carbon aerogel/polybutadiene composite drastically decreased to 1.99 ppm{sup −1} and zero when exposed to acetone and water, respectively. Contrarily, when polyvinyl alcohol was used as a matrix, the sensitivity was about 4.19 ppm{sup −1} to water. While the composite was found to be not sensitive to toluene. The activated carbon aerogel/polybutadiene composite also showed good recovery as the electrical resistance came back to the original value within minutes when exposed to nitrogen gas.

  4. Highly sensitive room temperature organic vapor sensor based on polybenzoxazine-derived carbon aerogel thin film composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thubsuang, Uthen; Sukanan, Darunee; Sahasithiwat, Somboon; Wongkasemjit, Sujitra; Chaisuwan, Thanyalak

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Activated carbon aerogel with high surface area can be prepared from polybenzoxazine. • Activated carbon aerogel enhances the adsorption capacity of gas sensor. • Organic vapors with very low concentration can be detected by the as-prepared sensor. • The as-prepared sensor shows impressive short exposure and recovery time. • The response to different organic vapors can be tailored by changing polymer matrix. - Abstract: Gas sensing composites were fabricated using polybenzoxazine-based activated carbon aerogel as a conductive filler. The activated carbon aerogel is a nano-porous material, which has high pore volume of 0.57 cm 3 /g and surface area of 917 m 2 /g. The activated carbon aerogel/polybutadiene composite displayed good response of 11.2 and 6.7 to toluene and n-hexane, respectively, compared to those of graphite/polybutadiene composite. The activated carbon aerogel/polybutadiene composite also showed high sensitivity of 3.09 × 10 2 ppm −1 to toluene. However, the sensitivity of activated carbon aerogel/polybutadiene composite drastically decreased to 1.99 ppm −1 and zero when exposed to acetone and water, respectively. Contrarily, when polyvinyl alcohol was used as a matrix, the sensitivity was about 4.19 ppm −1 to water. While the composite was found to be not sensitive to toluene. The activated carbon aerogel/polybutadiene composite also showed good recovery as the electrical resistance came back to the original value within minutes when exposed to nitrogen gas

  5. Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-cellulose nanofibril (CNF)-multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) hybrid organic aerogels with superior mechanical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qifeng Zheng; Alireza Javadi; Ronald Sabo; Zhiyong Cai; Shaoqin Gong

    2013-01-01

    Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)–cellulose nanofibril (CNF)–multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) hybrid organic aerogels were prepared using an environmentally friendly freeze-drying process with renewable materials. The material properties of these “green” hybrid aerogels were characterized extensively using various techniques. It was found that adding a small amount of CNFs...

  6. Fabrication and Atomic Force Microscopy Characterization of Molecular Composites of Fullerenes in Aerogel Matrix for Optical Limiting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, W. J .; Sunkara, H. B.; Shi, D.; Morgan, S. H.; Penn, B.; Frazier, D.; Collins, W. E.

    1998-01-01

    An optical limiter is a device which exhibits a decrease in the transmittance in a material with an increase in intensity of light. Sol-gel techniques offer many advantages in the fabrication of materials. These materials possess many desirable properties for nonlinear optical (NLO) device applications which include transparency, high thermal and chemical stabilities, very low refractive index and dielectric constants. C60 shows a higher excited state absorption cross section than the ground state absorption cross section over the complete visible spectrum, and the spectrum of the excited state absorption of C60 has the same general shape as the ground state absorption. This fact suggests that fullerenes are ideal optical limiting materials. Aerogels are fabricated by sol-gel processing. One of the key issues is the dispersion of fullerenes into small and uniform pores of silica aerogel host matrices. The aerogel network was characterized by Raman spectroscopy. Atomic force microscopy is a technique with many advantages to characterize the aerogel materials. The morphology of the cleaved surface for a C60/aerogel sample shows that there are long paralleled shaped stripes with 20-30 nm in width and about 500 nm in length on the cleaved surface. The cleaved surface also was etched by 5% HF solution for one minutes, and it became smoother after HF etching. The main feature in on the surface is the spherical particles with the size of few nanometers, and no aggregated fullerenes appear. The fullerenes are well dispersed in the aerogel matrices.

  7. Aerogels made of chitosan and chondroitin sulfate at high degree of neutralization: Biological properties toward wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concha, Miguel; Vidal, Alejandra; Giacaman, Annesi; Ojeda, Javier; Pavicic, Francisca; Oyarzun-Ampuero, Felipe A; Torres, César; Cabrera, Marcela; Moreno-Villoslada, Ignacio; Orellana, Sandra L

    2018-02-09

    In this study, highly neutralized, highly porous, and ultralight polymeric aerogels prepared from aqueous colloidal suspensions of chitosan (CS) and chondroitin sulfate (ChS) nanocomplexes, formulated as quasi-equimolar amounts of both, are described. These aerogels were designed as healing agents under the inspiration of minimizing the amount of matter applied to wounds, reducing the electrostatic potential of the material and avoiding covalent cross-linkers in order to decrease metabolic stress over wounds. Aerogels synthesized under these criteria are biocompatible and provide specific properties for the induction of wound healing. They do not affect neither the metabolic activity of cultured 3T3 fibroblasts nor the biochemical parameters of experimental animals, open wounds close significantly faster and, unlike control wounds, complete reepithelialization and scarring can be attained 14 days after surgery. Because of its hydration abilities, rapid adaptation to the wound bed and the early accelerator effect of wound closure, the CS/ChS aerogels appear to be functional inducers of the healing. Previous information show that CS/ChS aerogels improve wound bed quality, increase granulation tissue and have pain suppressive effect. CS/ChS aerogels are useful as safe, inexpensive and easy to handle materials for topical applications, such as skin chronic wounds. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Silica aerogel radiator for use in the A-RICH system utilized in the Belle II experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabata, Makoto; Adachi, Ichiro; Hamada, Nao; Hara, Koji; Iijima, Toru; Iwata, Shuichi; Kakuno, Hidekazu; Kawai, Hideyuki; Korpar, Samo; Križan, Peter; Kumita, Tetsuro; Nishida, Shohei; Ogawa, Satoru; Pestotnik, Rok; Šantelj, Luka; Seljak, Andrej; Sumiyoshi, Takayuki; Tahirović, Elvedin; Yoshida, Keisuke; Yusa, Yosuke

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents recent progress in the development and mass production of large-area hydrophobic silica aerogels for use as radiators in the aerogel-based ring-imaging Cherenkov (A-RICH) counter, which will be installed in the forward end cap of the Belle II detector. The proximity-focusing A-RICH system is especially designed to identify charged kaons and pions. The refractive index of the installed aerogel Cherenkov radiators is approximately 1.05, and we aim for a separation capability exceeding 4σ at momenta up to 4 GeV/c. Large-area aerogel tiles (over 18×18×2 cm3) were first fabricated in test productions by pin drying in addition to conventional methods. We proposed to fill the large end-cap region (area 3.5 m2) with 124 water-jet-trimmed fan-shaped dual-layer-focusing aerogel combinations of different refractive indices (1.045 and 1.055). Guided by the test production results, we decided to manufacture aerogels by the conventional method and are currently proceeding with mass production. In an electron beam test undertaken at the DESY, we confirmed that the K/π separation capability of a prototype A-RICH counter exceeded 4σ at 4 GeV/c.

  9. Versatile fabrication of a superhydrophobic and ultralight cellulose-based aerogel for oil spillage clean-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Li, Yuqi; Xu, Yaoguang; Lu, Zexiang; Chen, Lihui; Huang, Liulian; Fan, Mizi

    2016-10-12

    To deal with marine oil spillage and chemical leakage issues, a highly efficient absorbent (cellulose based aerogel) with a low density (ρ 98.5%) and high mechanical strength was fabricated via a novel physical-chemical foaming method, plasma treatment and subsequent silane modification process. This aerogel has a perfect 3D skeleton and interconnected pores similar to honeycomb, which are favorable to oil adsorption and storage. More importantly, without introducing additional micro/nanoparticles, the rough micro/nano structure of the surface was directly constructed using plasma irradiation in this study. The low surface energy substrate was further introduced using a simple physical-soaking method and the resulting aerogel exhibited excellent superhydrophobicity (WCA > 156°) and superoleophilicity (OCA = 0°), which can selectively and efficiently absorb various oils or organic solvents from polluted water. In addition, this aerogel has a high storage capacity and absorption capacity (up to 4300% and 99% of its weight and volume, respectively). More interestingly, this aerogel exhibits excellent mechanical abrasion resistance and corrosion resistance even in strong acid, alkali solution and salt marine environment. The aerogel could be reused more than 30 times after removal of the absorbed oil by rinsing with ethanol.

  10. Effect of various structure directing agents on the physicochemical properties of the silica aerogels prepared at an ambient pressure

    KAUST Repository

    Sarawade, Pradip

    2013-12-01

    We studied the effects of various surfactants on the textural properties (BET surface area, pore size, and pore volume) of the silica aerogels prepared at an ambient pressure. A simple surface modification of silica gel prepared at an ambient pressure through hydrolysis and polycondensation of TEOS as asilica precursor was conducted using various structure directing agents. The treatment was found to induce a significant difference in the porosity of the silica aerogel. Highly porous silica aerogels with bimodal porous structures were prepared by modifying the surface of the silica wet-gel (alcogel) with trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS) in order to preserve its porosity. The samples were analyzed by small-angle X-ray scattering and nitrogen adsorption. In this work, a possible new type of highly porous hydrophobic silica aerogel with a bimodal porous structure is presented. A hydrophilic extremely porous (high surface area and large pore volume) silica aerogel was obtained by heating the as-synthesized hydrophobic silica aerogel at 400°C for 1 h. There was a significant effect of structure directing agent on the textural properties, such as specific surface area, pore size distribution and cumulative pore volume of the silicaaerogels. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Marine plastic debris emits a keystone infochemical for olfactory foraging seabirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoca, Matthew S; Wohlfeil, Martha E; Ebeler, Susan E; Nevitt, Gabrielle A

    2016-11-01

    Plastic debris is ingested by hundreds of species of organisms, from zooplankton to baleen whales, but how such a diversity of consumers can mistake plastic for their natural prey is largely unknown. The sensory mechanisms underlying plastic detection and consumption have rarely been examined within the context of sensory signals driving marine food web dynamics. We demonstrate experimentally that marine-seasoned microplastics produce a dimethyl sulfide (DMS) signature that is also a keystone odorant for natural trophic interactions. We further demonstrate a positive relationship between DMS responsiveness and plastic ingestion frequency using procellariiform seabirds as a model taxonomic group. Together, these results suggest that plastic debris emits the scent of a marine infochemical, creating an olfactory trap for susceptible marine wildlife.

  12. Redispersal of seeds by a keystone ant augments the spread of common wildflowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canner, Judith E.; Dunn, Robert R.; Giladi, Itamar; Gross, Kevin

    2012-04-01

    Myrmecochory (dispersal of seeds by ants) is an evolutionarily and ecologically common mutualism. Most of the research on the costs and benefits of myrmecochory in North America assumes that ant-dispersed seeds are taken to, and left in, the ant nest. Here, we use a novel seed-tracking technique to quantify secondary dispersal of seeds from the nest into the surrounding leaf litter by the keystone seed-dispersing ant, Aphaenogaster rudis. We found that A. rudis redispersed >90% of the seeds it took into its nest an average distance of 51.5 cm. A mathematical model shows redispersal increases the rate of population spread of the myrmecochores Hexastylis arifolia and Asarum canadense by 22.5%, and increases the expected cumulative dispersal distance away from the parent plant by 24%. Our results suggest myrmecochory benefits plants in eastern North American forests by increasing the distance between the seed and parent plant and reducing competition among siblings.

  13. Frugivory in Canopy Plants in a Western Amazonian Forest: Dispersal Systems, Phylogenetic Ensembles and Keystone Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Pablo R; Link, Andrés; González-Caro, Sebastian; Torres-Jiménez, María Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    Frugivory is a widespread mutualistic interaction in which frugivores obtain nutritional resources while favoring plant recruitment through their seed dispersal services. Nonetheless, how these complex interactions are organized in diverse communities, such as tropical forests, is not fully understood. In this study we evaluated the existence of plant-frugivore sub-assemblages and their phylogenetic organization in an undisturbed western Amazonian forest in Colombia. We also explored for potential keystone plants, based on network analyses and an estimate of the amount of fruit going from plants to frugivores. We carried out diurnal observations on 73 canopy plant species during a period of two years. During focal tree sampling, we recorded frugivore identity, the duration of each individual visit, and feeding rates. We did not find support for the existence of sub assemblages, such as specialized vs. generalized dispersal systems. Visitation rates on the vast majority of canopy species were associated with the relative abundance of frugivores, in which ateline monkeys (i.e. Lagothrix and Ateles) played the most important roles. All fruiting plants were visited by a variety of frugivores and the phylogenetic assemblage was random in more than 67% of the cases. In cases of aggregation, the plant species were consumed by only primates or only birds, and filters were associated with fruit protection and likely chemical content. Plants suggested as keystone species based on the amount of pulp going from plants to frugivores differ from those suggested based on network approaches. Our results suggest that in tropical forests most tree-frugivore interactions are generalized, and abundance should be taken into account when assessing the most important plants for frugivores.

  14. Identifying keystone species in the human gut microbiome from metagenomic timeseries using sparse linear regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Charles K; Mehta, Pankaj

    2014-01-01

    Human associated microbial communities exert tremendous influence over human health and disease. With modern metagenomic sequencing methods it is now possible to follow the relative abundance of microbes in a community over time. These microbial communities exhibit rich ecological dynamics and an important goal of microbial ecology is to infer the ecological interactions between species directly from sequence data. Any algorithm for inferring ecological interactions must overcome three major obstacles: 1) a correlation between the abundances of two species does not imply that those species are interacting, 2) the sum constraint on the relative abundances obtained from metagenomic studies makes it difficult to infer the parameters in timeseries models, and 3) errors due to experimental uncertainty, or mis-assignment of sequencing reads into operational taxonomic units, bias inferences of species interactions due to a statistical problem called "errors-in-variables". Here we introduce an approach, Learning Interactions from MIcrobial Time Series (LIMITS), that overcomes these obstacles. LIMITS uses sparse linear regression with boostrap aggregation to infer a discrete-time Lotka-Volterra model for microbial dynamics. We tested LIMITS on synthetic data and showed that it could reliably infer the topology of the inter-species ecological interactions. We then used LIMITS to characterize the species interactions in the gut microbiomes of two individuals and found that the interaction networks varied significantly between individuals. Furthermore, we found that the interaction networks of the two individuals are dominated by distinct "keystone species", Bacteroides fragilis and Bacteroided stercosis, that have a disproportionate influence on the structure of the gut microbiome even though they are only found in moderate abundance. Based on our results, we hypothesize that the abundances of certain keystone species may be responsible for individuality in the human gut

  15. Keystone mutualism strengthens top-down effects by recruiting large-bodied ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Robert E; Singer, Michael S

    2018-03-01

    Determining the impacts of mutualistic interactions and predator diversity on food webs are two important goals in community ecology. In this study, we examined how predator community variation mediates the strength of top-down effects in the presence and absence of mutualistic interactions. We examined the impacts of predatory ant species that simultaneously prey on leaf-chewing herbivores (Lepidoptera) and engage in food-for-protection mutualisms with sap-feeding herbivores (Hemiptera) in the lower canopy of Connecticut forests. In this 2-year study, we examined three hypothetical mechanisms by which mutualisms can alter the top-down effects of ants: (1) sap feeders increase ant abundance, thus strengthening predatory effects; (2) sap feeders increase the relative abundance of a species that has stronger predatory effects; and (3) changes to predator diversity (species richness) are caused by sap feeders mediating top-down effects of the ant community. Experiments revealed that host plants occupied by sap feeders favored large-bodied ant species in the genus Camponotus, but there were no changes to community-wide ant abundance or ant species richness. Fitting predictions of predation strength based on the functional trait of body size, large-bodied Camponotus suppressed caterpillars and reduced leaf herbivory. This work shows that the ant-hemipteran mutualism, which has been characterized as a keystone interaction, can generate strong top-down effects on leaf-chewing herbivores and herbivory via increasing the relative abundance of species with functional traits relevant to predation, such as body size. Therefore, the emergence of specific ants as keystone predators in a community can be contingent upon their mutualism with sap-feeding Hemiptera.

  16. Extensive Mine-Shrapnel and Gunshot Wound Closure Using Keystone Island Perforator Flaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliesarenko, Sergii V; Badiul, Pavlo O; Sliesarenko, Kirill S

    2016-05-01

    During military operations, one aspect of a plastic surgeon's work is to restore extensive and deep wound defects in a short period of time and provide a high degree of functional recovery to the damaged area. Because many injuries caused by military operations cannot be closed using a primary suture, the specialist has to select another surgical approach to close the wound defect. Surgeons must select methods that not only cover the extensive wound defect in 1 step but also allow skin coverage that is anatomically, functionally, and visually similar to the surrounding tissues to reduce the length of the hospital stay and ensure optimal functional recovery of the damaged organ. From 2014 to 2015, 25 patients underwent 36 reconstructions at our center after receiving mine-shrapnel and gunshot wounds. All reconstructions occurred during the acute period and used keystone island perforator flaps. The authors' wound management technique was characterized by an aggressive surgical and antibiotic therapy protocol. In all cases, after surgical debridement, the mine-shrapnel and gunshot wound defects were completely closed in 1 stage during the acute period. The working time in the operating room to perform the transposition of the flap ranged from 45 to 90 minutes, with an average of 68 minutes. All displaced flaps were similar in structure and color to the surrounding tissues and did not change the contours of the body. The adequate restoration of skin allowed patients to begin early recovery of functional activity. Local keystone island perforator flaps can be considered one of the primary methods of plastic closure of extensive defects caused by mine-shrapnel and gunshot wounds at different anatomical locations, providing that the tissue surrounding the defect is intact and usable as a donor resource.

  17. Identifying keystone species in the human gut microbiome from metagenomic timeseries using sparse linear regression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles K Fisher

    Full Text Available Human associated microbial communities exert tremendous influence over human health and disease. With modern metagenomic sequencing methods it is now possible to follow the relative abundance of microbes in a community over time. These microbial communities exhibit rich ecological dynamics and an important goal of microbial ecology is to infer the ecological interactions between species directly from sequence data. Any algorithm for inferring ecological interactions must overcome three major obstacles: 1 a correlation between the abundances of two species does not imply that those species are interacting, 2 the sum constraint on the relative abundances obtained from metagenomic studies makes it difficult to infer the parameters in timeseries models, and 3 errors due to experimental uncertainty, or mis-assignment of sequencing reads into operational taxonomic units, bias inferences of species interactions due to a statistical problem called "errors-in-variables". Here we introduce an approach, Learning Interactions from MIcrobial Time Series (LIMITS, that overcomes these obstacles. LIMITS uses sparse linear regression with boostrap aggregation to infer a discrete-time Lotka-Volterra model for microbial dynamics. We tested LIMITS on synthetic data and showed that it could reliably infer the topology of the inter-species ecological interactions. We then used LIMITS to characterize the species interactions in the gut microbiomes of two individuals and found that the interaction networks varied significantly between individuals. Furthermore, we found that the interaction networks of the two individuals are dominated by distinct "keystone species", Bacteroides fragilis and Bacteroided stercosis, that have a disproportionate influence on the structure of the gut microbiome even though they are only found in moderate abundance. Based on our results, we hypothesize that the abundances of certain keystone species may be responsible for individuality in

  18. Extremely porous, ultralight, highly heat insulating: Aerogel - light weight aggregate of the future?; Extrem poroes, ultraleicht, hoch waermedaemmend. Aerogel - Leichtzuschlag der Zukunft?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaenssmantel, Juergen [Ingenieurbuero Gaenssmantel, Ingenieurdienstleistung zum Nachhaltigen Bauen, Dormettingen (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    The word element 'gel' in the term 'aerogel' is associated with a sticky paste in which air ('aero') is included. In reality, it is a dry modern 'designer material' with improved properties (thermal insulation, sound insulation, transparency, water-repellent). In the Guinness Book of Records, it is listed as the 'best insulator' and the 'lightest solid'. It is a material of which the dreams of developers of insulating materials are made.

  19. Polyimide Aerogels and Porous Membranes for Ultrasonic Impedance Matching to Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swank, Aaron J.; Sands, Obed S.; Meador, Mary Ann B.

    2014-01-01

    This work investigates acoustic impedance matching materials for coupling 200 kHz ultrasonic signals from air to materials with similar acoustic properties to that of water, flesh, rubber and plastics. Porous filter membranes as well as a new class of cross-linked polyimide aerogels are evaluated. The results indicate that a single impedance matching layer consisting of these new aerogel materials will recover nearly half of the loss in the incident-to-transmitted ultrasound intensity associated with an air/water, air/flesh or air/gelatin boundary. Furthermore, the experimental results are obtained where other uncertainties of the "real world" are present such that the observed impedance matching gains are representative of real-world applications. Performance of the matching layer devices is assessed using the idealized 3-layer model of infinite half spaces, yet the experiments conducted use a finite gelatin block as the destination medium.

  20. Pd nanoparticles supported on three-dimensional graphene aerogels as highly efficient catalysts for methanol electrooxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Mingrui; Peng, Cheng; Yang, Wenke; Guo, Jiaojiao; Zheng, Yixiong; Chen, Peiqin; Huang, Tingting; Xu, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Well-dispersed Pd nanoparticles supported on three-dimensional graphene aerogels (Pd/3DGA) were successfully prepared via a facile and efficient hydrothermal method without surfactant and template. The morphology and structure of the as-prepared Pd/3DGA nanocomposites were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). SEM showed that the Pd nanoparticles with a small average diameter and narrow size distribution were uniformly deposited on the surface of the self-assembled three-dimensional graphene aerogels. Raman spectra revealed the surface properties of 3DGA and its interaction with metallic nanoparticles. Cyclic voltammetric (CV) and chronoamperometric (CA) experiments further exhibited its superior catalytic activity and stability for the electro-oxidation of methanol in alkaline media, making it a promising anodic catalyst for direct alkaline alcohol fuel cells (DAAFCs).

  1. Facile and green fabrication of cellulosed based aerogels for lampblack filtration from waste newspaper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Peidong; Yuan, Yali; Ren, Junkai; Yuan, Bin; He, Qian; Xia, Guangmei; Chen, Fengxia; Song, Rui

    2017-04-15

    In this study, the lightweight, hydrophobic and porous cellulose-based aerogels (CAGs) were synthesized through a freeze-drying process using waste newspaper as the only raw material. After crosslinking with glutaraldehyde and treatment with trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS) using a simple thermal chemical vapor deposition process, the resulting CAGs became hydrophobic and oleophilic. Furthermore, the as-prepared CAGs exhibited a low density (17.4-28.7mgcm -3 ) and mesoporous inner-structure. All these properties attributed the novel aerogel not only with a good adsorption capability of oils and organic solvents, including kerosene, nitrobenzene, and chloroform, but also an excellent filtration capacity of lampblack. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The aerogel threshold Cherenkov detector for the High Momentum Spectrometer in Hall C at Jefferson Lab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe a new aerogel threshold Cherenkov detector installed in the HMS spectrometer in Hall C at Jefferson Lab. The Hall C experimental program in 2003 required an improved particle identification system for better identification of π/K/p, which was achieved by installing an additional threshold Cherenkov counter. Two types of aerogel with n=1.030 and n=1.015 allow one to reach ∼10 -3 proton and 10 -2 kaon rejection in the 1-5GeV/c momentum range with pion detection efficiency better than 99% (97%). The detector response shows no significant position dependence due to a diffuse light collection technique. The diffusion box was equipped with 16 Photonis XP4572 photo multiplier tubes (PMTs). The mean number of photo-electrons in saturation was ∼16 and ∼8, respectively. This allows even for separation of slower particles slightly above threshold

  3. Stress sensitive electricity based on Ag/cellulose nanofiber aerogel for self-reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Qiufang; Fan, Bitao; Xiong, Ye; Wang, Chao; Wang, Hanwei; Jin, Chunde; Sun, Qingfeng

    2017-07-15

    A self-reporting aerogel toward stress sensitive slectricity (SSE) was presented using an interconnected 3D fibrous network of Ag nanoparticles/cellulose nanofiber aerogel (Ag/CNF), which was prepared via combined routes of silver mirror reaction and ultrasonication. Sphere-like Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) with mean diameter of 74nm were tightly anchored in the cellulose nanofiber through by the coherent interfaces as the conductive materials. The as-prepared Ag/CNF as a self-reporting material for SSE not only possessed quick response and sensitivity, but also be easily recovered after 100th compressive cycles without plastic deformation or degradation in compressive strength. Consequently, Ag/CNF could play a viable role in self-reporting materials as a quick electric-stress responsive sensor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Foam/Aerogel Composite Materials for Thermal and Acoustic Insulation and Cryogen Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Martha K. (Inventor); Smith, Trent M. (Inventor); Fesmire, James E. (Inventor); Weiser, Erik S. (Inventor); Sass, Jared P. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    The invention involves composite materials containing a polymer foam and an aerogel. The composite materials have improved thermal insulation ability, good acoustic insulation, and excellent physical mechanical properties. The composite materials can be used, for instance, for heat and acoustic insulation on aircraft, spacecraft, and maritime ships in place of currently used foam panels and other foam products. The materials of the invention can also be used in building construction with their combination of light weight, strength, elasticity, ability to be formed into desired shapes, and superior thermal and acoustic insulation power. The materials have also been found to have utility for storage of cryogens. A cryogenic liquid or gas, such as N.sub.2 or H.sub.2, adsorbs to the surfaces in aerogel particles. Thus, another embodiment of the invention provides a storage vessel for a cryogen.

  5. Flexible pressure sensor based on graphene aerogel microstructures functionalized with CdS nanocrystalline thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesco, Irina; Dragoman, Mircea; Strobel, Julian; Ghimpu, Lidia; Schütt, Fabian; Dinescu, Adrian; Ursaki, Veaceslav; Kienle, Lorenz; Adelung, Rainer; Tiginyanu, Ion

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we report on functionalization of graphene aerogel with a CdS thin film deposited by magnetron sputtering and on the development of flexible pressure sensors based on ultra-lightweight CdS-aerogel nanocomposite. Analysis by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis disclose the uniform deposition of nanocrystalline CdS films with quasi-stoichiometric composition. The piezoresistive response of the aforementioned nanocomposite in the pressure range from 1 to 5 atm is found to be more than one order of magnitude higher than that inherent to suspended graphene membranes, leading to an average sensitivity as high as 3.2 × 10-4 kPa-1.

  6. Nonenzymatic glucose sensing by CuO nanoparticles decorated nitrogen-doped graphene aerogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Tan, Wensheng; Chen, Chuanxiang; Tao, Yongxin; Qin, Yong; Kong, Yong

    2017-09-01

    CuO nanoparticles decorated N-doped graphene aerogel (NGA-CuO) was facilely synthesized via a mild hydrothermal method followed by freeze-drying and calcination, which was characterized by TEM, FT-IR, XPS, XRD and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The obtained NGA-CuO was used for the construction of a nonenzymatic sensing platform for glucose, exhibiting wide linear range, low detection limit, high sensitivity, reproducibility, selectivity and stability. The excellent analytical performances of the NGA-CuO based glucose sensor might be attributed to the synergistic effect of CuO nanoparticles and N-doped graphene aerogel (NGA). The practical applications of the proposed sensor was verified by determining glucose concentrations in five human serum samples, and the obtained results were quite comparable to those measured on the standard clinical instrument. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The aerogel threshold Cherenkov detector for the high momentum spectrometer in Hall C at Jefferson lab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razmik Asaturyan; Rolf Ent; Howard Fenker; David Gaskell; Garth Huber; Mark Jones; David Mack; Hamlet Mkrtchyan; Bert Metzger; Nadia Novikoff; Vardan Tadevosyan; William Vulcan; Stephen Wood

    2004-11-09

    We describe a new aerogel threshold Cherenkov detector installed in the HMS spectrometer in Hall C at Jefferson Lab. The Hall C experimental program in 2003 required an improved particle identification system for better identification of {pi}/K/p, which was achieved by installing an additional threshold Cherenkov counter. Two types of aerogel with n = 1.03 and n = 1.015 allow one to reach {approx}10{sup -3} proton and 10{sup -2} kaon rejection in the 1-5 GeV/c momentum range with pion detection efficiency better than 99% (97%). The detector response shows no significant position dependence due to a diffuse light collection technique. The diffusion box was equipped with 16 Photonis XP4572 PMT's. The mean number of photoelectrons in saturation was {approx}16 and {approx}8, respectively. Moderate particle identification is feasible near threshold.

  8. Super Black Material from Low-Density Carbon Aerogels with Subwavelength Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Du, Ai; Feng, Yu; Shen, Jun; Huang, Shangming; Tang, Jun; Zhou, Bin

    2016-09-06

    Many scientists have devoted themselves to the study of the interaction between subwavelength structures and electromagnetic waves. These structures are commonly composed of regular arrays of subwavelength protuberances, which can be artificially designed. However, extending from 2D periodic patterns to 3D disordered subwavelength structures has not been studied yet. In this study, we studied the total diffuse reflectivity of carbon aerogels with various 3D networks of randomly oriented particle-like nanostructures by using normally incident visible light (430-675 nm). We observed that the different 3D network nanostructures of carbon aerogels, especially for the structures with the minimum size, reduced the reflectivity effectively. It was found that the key mechanism for the subwavelength-structure-induced ultralow reflectivity property is due to the decrease of the amplitude of electron vibration forced by the electromagnetic wave, which provides a simple method for designing perfect black materials.

  9. A dual pore carbon aerogel based air cathode for a highly rechargeable lithium-air battery

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Fang; Xu, Yang-Hai; Luo, Zhong-Kuan; Pang, Yan; Liang, Chun-Sheng; Chen, Jing; Liu, Dong; Zhang, Xianghua

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Cathode structure plays a vital role in lithium-air battery for that it can provide space for discharged products accommodation and free path for oxygen, e− and Li+ transport. However, pore blockage, cathode passivation and degradation all result in low discharge rates and poor cycling capability. To get rid of these predicaments, a novel highly conductive dual pore carbon aerogel based air cathode is fabricated to construct a lithium-air battery, which exhibits 18 to ...

  10. Selective epoxidation of allylic alcohols with a titania-silica aerogel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dusi, M.; Mallat, T.; Baiker, A. [Lab. of Technical Chemistry, Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology, ETH-Zentrum, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    1998-12-31

    An amorphous mesoporous titania-silica aerogel (20 wt%TiO{sub 2} - 80 wt% SiO{sub 2}) and tert.-butylhydroperoxide (TBHP) have been used for the epoxidation of various allylic alcohols. Allylic alcohols possessing an internal double bond were more reactive than those with a terminal C=C bond. Epoxide selectivities could be improved by addition of (basic) zeolite 4 A and NaHCO{sub 3} to the reaction mixture. (orig.)

  11. Dimensional and Structural Control of Silica Aerogel Membranes for Miniaturized Motionless Gas Pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shanyu; Jiang, Bo; Maeder, Thomas; Muralt, Paul; Kim, Nayoung; Matam, Santhosh Kumar; Jeong, Eunho; Han, Yen-Lin; Koebel, Matthias M

    2015-08-26

    With growing public interest in portable electronics such as micro fuel cells, micro gas total analysis systems, and portable medical devices, the need for miniaturized air pumps with minimal electrical power consumption is on the rise. Thus, the development and downsizing of next-generation thermal transpiration gas pumps has been investigated intensively during the last decades. Such a system relies on a mesoporous membrane that generates a thermomolecular pressure gradient under the action of an applied temperature bias. However, the development of highly miniaturized active membrane materials with tailored porosity and optimized pumping performance remains a major challenge. Here we report a systematic study on the manufacturing of aerogel membranes using an optimized, minimal-shrinkage sol-gel process, leading to low thermal conductivity and high air conductance. This combination of properties results in superior performance for miniaturized thermomolecular air pump applications. The engineering of such aerogel membranes, which implies pore structure control and chemical surface modification, requires both chemical processing know-how and a detailed understanding of the influence of the material properties on the spatial flow rate density. Optimal pumping performance was found for devices with integrated membranes with a density of 0.062 g cm(-3) and an average pore size of 142.0 nm. Benchmarking of such low-density hydrophobic active aerogel membranes gave an air flow rate density of 3.85 sccm·cm(-2) at an operating temperature of 400 °C. Such a silica aerogel membrane based system has shown more than 50% higher pumping performance when compared to conventional transpiration pump membrane materials as well as the ability to withstand higher operating temperatures (up to 440 °C). This study highlights new perspectives for the development of miniaturized thermal transpiration air pumps while offering insights into the fundamentals of molecular pumping in

  12. Iron-Doped Carbon Aerogels: Novel Porous Substrates for Direct Growth of Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, S. A.; Baumann, T. F.; Kong, J.; Satcher, J. H.; Dresselhaus, M. S.

    2007-02-20

    We present the synthesis and characterization of Fe-doped carbon aerogels (CAs) and demonstrate the ability to grow carbon nanotubes directly on monoliths of these materials to afford novel carbon aerogel-carbon nanotube composites. Preparation of the Fe-doped CAs begins with the sol-gel polymerization of the potassium salt of 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid with formaldehyde, affording K{sup +}-doped gels that can then be converted to Fe{sup 2+}- or Fe{sup 3+}-doped gels through an ion exchange process, dried with supercritical CO{sub 2} and subsequently carbonized under an inert atmosphere. Analysis of the Fe-doped CAs by TEM, XRD and XPS revealed that the doped iron species are reduced during carbonization to form metallic iron and iron carbide nanoparticles. The sizes and chemical composition of the reduced Fe species were related to pyrolysis temperature as well as the type of iron salt used in the ion exchange process. Raman spectroscopy and XRD analysis further reveal that, despite the presence of the Fe species, the CA framework is not significantly graphitized during pyrolysis. The Fe-doped CAs were subsequently placed in a thermal CVD reactor and exposed to a mixture of CH{sub 4} (1000 sccm), H{sub 2} (500 sccm), and C{sub 2}H{sub 4} (20 sccm) at temperatures ranging from 600 to 800 C for 10 minutes, resulting in direct growth of carbon nanotubes on the aerogel monoliths. Carbon nanotubes grown by this method appear to be multiwalled ({approx}25 nm in diameter and up to 4 mm long) and grow through a tip-growth mechanism that pushes catalytic iron particles out of the aerogel framework. The highest yield of CNTs were grown on Fe-doped CAs pyrolyzed at 800 C treated at CVD temperatures of 700 C.

  13. Iron-Doped Carbon Aerogels: Novel Porous Substrates for Direct Growth of Carbon Nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, S A; Baumann, T F; Kong, J; Satcher, J H; Dresselhaus, M S

    2007-02-15

    We present the synthesis and characterization of Fe-doped carbon aerogels (CAs) and demonstrate the ability to grow carbon nanotubes directly on monoliths of these materials to afford novel carbon aerogel-carbon nanotube composites. Preparation of the Fe-doped CAs begins with the sol-gel polymerization of the potassium salt of 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid with formaldehyde, affording K{sup +}-doped gels that can then be converted to Fe{sup 2+}- or Fe{sup 3+}-doped gels through an ion exchange process, dried with supercritical CO{sub 2} and subsequently carbonized under an inert atmosphere. Analysis of the Fe-doped CAs by TEM, XRD and XPS revealed that the doped iron species are reduced during carbonization to form metallic iron and iron carbide nanoparticles. The sizes and chemical composition of the reduced Fe species were related to pyrolysis temperature as well as the type of iron salt used in the ion exchange process. Raman spectroscopy and XRD analysis further reveal that, despite the presence of the Fe species, the CA framework is not significantly graphitized during pyrolysis. The Fe-doped CAs were subsequently placed in a thermal CVD reactor and exposed to a mixture of CH{sub 4} (1000 sccm), H{sub 2} (500 sccm), and C{sub 2}H{sub 4} (20 sccm) at temperatures ranging from 600 to 800 C for 10 minutes, resulting in direct growth of carbon nanotubes on the aerogel monoliths. Carbon nanotubes grown by this method appear to be multiwalled ({approx}25 nm in diameter and up to 4 mm long) and grow through a tip-growth mechanism that pushes catalytic iron particles out of the aerogel framework. The highest yield of CNTs were grown on Fe-doped CAs pyrolyzed at 800 C treated at CVD temperatures of 700 C.

  14. Novel sound phenomena in superfluid helium in aerogel and other impure superfluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brusov, Peter; Brusov, Paul; Lawes, Gavin; Lee, Chong; Matsubara, Akira; Ishikawa, Osamu; Majumdar, Pinaki

    2003-01-01

    During the last decade new techniques for producing impure superfluids with unique properties have been developed. This new class of systems includes superfluid helium confined to aerogel, HeII with different impurities (D 2 , N 2 , Ne, Kr), superfluids in Vycor glasses, and watergel. These systems exhibit very unusual properties including unexpected acoustic features. We discuss the sound properties of these systems and show that sound phenomena in impure superfluids are modified from those in pure superfluids. We calculate the coupling between temperature and pressure oscillations for impure superfluids and for superfluid He in aerogel. We show that the coupling between these two sound modes is governed either by c∂ρ/∂c or σρ a ρ s (for aerogel) rather than thermal expansion coefficient ∂ρ/∂T, which is enormously small in pure superfluids. This replacement plays a fundamental role in all sound phenomena in impure superfluids. It enhances the coupling between the two sound modes that leads to the existence of such phenomena as the slow mode and heat pulse propagation with the velocity of first sound observed in superfluids in aerogel. This means that it is possible to observe in impure superfluids such unusual sound phenomena as slow pressure (density) waves and fast temperature (entropy) waves. The enhancement of the coupling between the two sound modes decreases the threshold values for nonlinear processes as compared to pure superfluids. Sound conversion, which has been observed in pure superfluids only by shock waves should be observed at moderate sound amplitude in impure superfluids. Cerenkov emission of second sound by first sound (which never been observed in pure superfluids) could be observed in impure superfluids

  15. Insights into the Controllable Chemical Composition of Metal Oxide Nanowires and Graphene Aerogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Anna Patrice

    briefly, then isolated pockets of MTiO3 are formed on the nanowire surface. This structure retains the conductive channel in the center of the nanowire, which can be useful for charge separation. Longer annealing times result in segmented nanowires; the segments formed from a Ni-coated nanowire are bounded by TiO2(01-1) twin planes and NiTiO 3{100}/TiO2{03-1} interfaces. An alternative strategy for storing solar energy takes advantage of the capacitance between a semiconductor surface and adsorbed ions in solution. This type of energy storage device is called an electric double layer capacitor (EDLC). Graphene-based aerogels, which are porous materials composed of few-layer graphitic sheets, have the potential for higher surface area and higher conductivity than standard carbon aerogels. These properties make graphene-based aerogels a good material candidate for EDLC electrodes. Graphene oxide (GO) is the precursor material for the synthesis of a graphene-based aerogel, and it has been widely studied. Yet its hydrothermal gelation is still not fully understood, due to the high pressure reaction conditions and the non-uniform nature of GO. We demonstrate a number of changes that occur to the GO sheets during gelation: wrinkling, formation of a densified monolith, deoxygenation, increasing thermal stability, and color change. Plotting the time evolution of all these properties shows that they are simultaneous and likely of common origin. Possible mechanisms for gelation are explored. Graphene aerogels are synthesized by vapor phase thermal reduction of GO aerogels at temperatures up to 1600 °C. Further deoxygenation is observed in the aerogel during thermal reduction, along with enhanced crystallinity and an associated change in the electronic structure. When graphene aerogels are exposed to high-temperature boron oxide vapor, they are converted to boron nitride (BN) aerogels. The structure of the BN aerogel is investigated and shown to be similar in nanoscale morphology

  16. Boosting Bifunctional Oxygen Electrocatalysis with 3D Graphene Aerogel-Supported Ni/MnO Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Gengtao; Yan, Xiaoxiao; Chen, Yifan; Xu, Lin; Sun, Dongmei; Lee, Jong-Min; Tang, Yawen

    2018-02-01

    Electrocatalysts for oxygen-reduction and oxygen-evolution reactions (ORR and OER) are crucial for metal-air batteries, where more costly Pt- and Ir/Ru-based materials are the benchmark catalysts for ORR and OER, respectively. Herein, for the first time Ni is combined with MnO species, and a 3D porous graphene aerogel-supported Ni/MnO (Ni-MnO/rGO aerogel) bifunctional catalyst is prepared via a facile and scalable hydrogel route. The synthetic strategy depends on the formation of a graphene oxide (GO) crosslinked poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogel that allows for the efficient capture of highly active Ni/MnO particles after pyrolysis. Remarkably, the resulting Ni-MnO/rGO aerogels exhibit superior bifunctional catalytic performance for both ORR and OER in an alkaline electrolyte, which can compete with the previously reported bifunctional electrocatalysts. The MnO mainly contributes to the high activity for the ORR, while metallic Ni is responsible for the excellent OER activity. Moreover, such bifunctional catalyst can endow the homemade Zn-air battery with better power density, specific capacity, and cycling stability than mixed Pt/C + RuO 2 catalysts, demonstrating its potential feasibility in practical application of rechargeable metal-air batteries. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Co-Fe-Si Aerogel Catalytic Honeycombs for Low Temperature Ethanol Steam Reforming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Domínguez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cobalt talc doped with iron (Fe/Co~0.1 and dispersed in SiO2 aerogel was prepared from silica alcogel impregnated with metal nitrates by supercritical drying. Catalytic honeycombs were prepared following the same procedure, with the alcogel synthesized directly over cordierite honeycomb pieces. The composite aerogel catalyst was characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, focus ion beam, specific surface area and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The catalytic layer is about 8 µm thick and adheres well to the cordierite support. It is constituted of talc layers of about 1.5 µm × 300 nm × 50 nm which are well dispersed and anchored in a SiO2 aerogel matrix with excellent mass-transfer properties. The catalyst was tested in the ethanol steam reforming reaction, aimed at producing hydrogen for on-board, on-demand applications at moderate temperature (573–673 K and pressure (1–7 bar. Compared to non-promoted cobalt talc, the catalyst doped with iron produces less methane as byproduct, which can only be reformed at high temperature, thereby resulting in higher hydrogen yields. At 673 K and 2 bar, 1.04 NLH2·mLEtOH(l−1·min−1 are obtained at S/C = 3 and W/F = 390 g·min·molEtOH−1.

  18. Facile fabrication of graphene-based aerogel with rare earth metal oxide for water purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Liupeng; Liu, Shunli; Oderinde, Olayinka; Li, Kewen; Yao, Fang; Fu, Guodong

    2018-01-01

    We report a one-step facile fabrication of macroscopic multifunctional graphene-based aerogel with three-dimensional interconnected networks under the synergistic effects of the reduction of graphene oxide sheets by L-ascorbic acid and in situ simultaneous deposition of nanoparticles on graphene sheets. The functional components, Nd2O3 nanoparticles, can be easily incorporated with graphene sheets to assemble bulk macroscopic graphene materials under mild conditions. The reduced graphene oxide/neodymium oxide (rGO/Nd2O3) aerogel showed remarkable adsorption capacity towards different types of dyes, especially for anionic dyes, with the adsorption capacity for indigo disulphonate (ID) being more than 220 mg g-1 within one hour while the adsorption capacity at equilibrium is as high as 397 mg g-1. The method proposed is proven to be universal to induce macroscopic assembly of reduced graphene sheets with rare earth metal oxides and thus facilitates to accessing various graphene-based multifunctional nanocomposites in the form of macroscopic aerogels.

  19. Hydrothermal self-assembly and supercapacitive behaviors of Co(II) ion-modified graphene aerogels in H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, Qi [Department of Systems Engineering and Engineering Management, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Corrosion and Bio-fouling, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071 (China); Hui, K.N., E-mail: bizhui@pusan.ac.kr [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Pusan National University, San 30 Jangjeon-dong, Geumjeong-gu, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Hui, K.S., E-mail: kshui@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Convergence Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Wang, Yi [Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Corrosion and Bio-fouling, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071 (China); Hong, Xiaoting [Department of Systems Engineering and Engineering Management, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • 3D Co(II) ions modified graphene aerogels were prepared by one-step hydrothermal process. • The aerogel electrodes showed hybrid supercapacitor behaviors. • The aerogel electrodes exhibited high rate capability and long-term cycling stability. - Abstract: Reduced graphene oxide (r-GO) aerogels decorated with divalent cobalt ions were synthesized via a one-pot hydrothermal self-assembly route. The interaction of Co(II) ions with 3D r-GO aerogels was investigated by spectroscopic techniques, including Raman, attenuated total reflectance infrared, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies. The excellent electrochemical properties of the aerogels were confirmed by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge tests, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in an acid electrolyte (1 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}). The Co(II) ion-modified r-GO aerogels can be used as high-performance hybrid supercapacitor materials with a specific capacitance of 387.2 F g{sup –1} at 1 A g{sup –1} current density and a good cycling stability without capacity decay over 1000 cycles. The mechanical integrity enhancement of the hybrid r-GO aerogel framework and the improvement in its unique capacitive performance are attributed to the efficient interconnection produced by electro-active Co(II) ions.

  20. Theorizing a public engagement keystone: Seeing fandom's integral connection to civic engagement through the case of the Harry Potter Alliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Hinck

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Harry Potter Alliance (HPA has invited thousands of Harry Potter fans to view politics and activism through the lens of Harry Potter. HPA members have signed petitions, sent letters, made videos, and raised money in efforts to affect laws and public policies. These activities circulate and operate within the public sphere through an engagement with others. If we are to consider the political actions of fans, we must consider how fans insert arguments into the public sphere, constitute publics, and ultimately assert their own public subjectivities. By drawing on social movement and public sphere theory, I first develop the theoretical concept of the "public engagement keystone." I conceptualize the public engagement keystone as a touch point, worldview, or philosophy that makes other people, actions, and institutions intelligible. Next, I use the case of the HPA to demonstrate how the Harry Potter story operates as a public engagement keystone, opening the door to public subjectivities on par with the healthy public formation of John Dewey, Doug McAdam, or Peter Dahlgren. I offer an interdisciplinary approach to how fandom encourages and invites civic engagement. By doing so, public sphere theory can better account for a wider variety of types of civic engagement, including fandom activism.

  1. Limited effects of a keystone species: Trends of sea otters and kelp forests at the Semichi Islands, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konar, Brenda

    2000-01-01

    Sea otters are well known as a keystone species because of their ability to transform sea urchin-dominated communities into kelp-dominated communities by preying on sea urchins and thus reducing the intensity of herbivory. After being locally extinct for more than a century, sea otters re-colonized the Semichi Islands in the Aleutian Archipelago, Alaska in the early 1990s. Here, otter populations increased to about 400 individuals by 1994, but rapidly declined to about 100 by 1997. Roughly 7 yr after initial otter re-colonization, there were only marginal changes in sea urchin biomass, mean maximum test size, and kelp density. These small changes may be the first steps in the cascading effects on community structure typically found with the invasion of a keystone species. However, no wholesale change in community structure occurred following re-colonization and growth of the sea otter population. Instead, this study describes a transition state and identifies factors such as keystone species density and residence time that can be important in dictating the degree to which otter effects are manifested.

  2. Fabrication of a silica aerogel and examination of its hydrophobic properties via contact angle and 3M water repellency tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazrouei-Sebdani, Z.; Javazmi, L.; Khoddami, A.; Shams-Ghahfarokhi, F.; Low, T.

    2017-05-01

    Aerogels are dry gels with a very high specific pore volume. Aerogels with increased hydrophobicity have significant potential to expand their use as lightweight materials. Considering its special nanostructure and exceptional properties, this paper focuses on the synthesis and hydrophobic evaluation of a silica aerogel. The structural properties were investigated by measuring density, SEM micrographs, and BET analyses. Also, the hydrophobic evaluation was carried out by measuring 3M water repellency and water/alcohol contact angle. The BET analysis showed successful synthesis of the nanoporous silica aerogel with a pore size of 24 nm and porosity of 89%. The synthesized aerogel showed 3M water repellency of 3 and water contact angle of 129.6°. Also, it is worth-mentioning that as the alcohol content of the drops in 3M water repellency test is increased, the drop contact angle is decreased due to its lower surface tension. Thus, the contact angle reaches the zero at 3M water repellency test number of 4 (water/alcohol 60/40).

  3. Crystal spectroscopy of silicon aero-gel end-caps driven by a dynamic hohlraum on Z

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, T.J.; Sanford, T.W.L.; Mock, R.C.; Leeper, R.J.; Chandler, G.A.; Bailey, J.E.; McKenney, J.L.; Mehlhorn, T.A.; Seaman, J.F.; McGurn, J.; Schroen, D.; Russell, C.; Lake, P.E.; Jobe, D.O.; Gilliland, T.; Nielsen, D.S.; Lucas, J.; Moore, T.; Torres, J.A.; MacFarlane, J.J.; Apruzese, J.P.; Chrien, R.; Idzorek, G.; Peterson, D.L.; Watt, R.

    2005-01-01

    We present results from crystal spectroscopic analysis of silicon aero-gel foams heated by dynamic hohlraums on Z. The dynamic hohlraum on Z creates a radiation source with a 230-eV average temperature over a 2.4-mm diameter. In these experiments silicon aero-gel foams with 10-mg/cm3 densities and 1.7-mm lengths were placed on both ends of the dynamic hohlraum. Several crystal spectrometers were placed both above and below the z-pinch to diagnose the temperature of the silicon aero-gel foam using the K-shell lines of silicon. The crystal spectrometers were (1) temporally integrated and spatially resolved, (2) temporally resolved and spatially integrated, and (3) both temporally and spatially resolved. The results indicate that the dynamic hohlraum heats the silicon aero-gel to approximately 150-eV at peak power. As the dynamic hohlraum source cools after peak power the silicon aero-gel continues to heat and jets axially at an average velocity of approximately 50-cm/μs. The spectroscopy has also shown that the reason for the up/down asymmetry in radiated power on Z is that tungsten enters the line-of-sight on the bottom of the machine much more than on the top

  4. The Dependence of CNT Aerogel Synthesis on Sulfur-driven Catalyst Nucleation Processes and a Critical Catalyst Particle Mass Concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoecker, Christian; Smail, Fiona; Pick, Martin; Weller, Lee; Boies, Adam M

    2017-11-06

    The floating catalyst chemical vapor deposition (FC-CVD) process permits macro-scale assembly of nanoscale materials, enabling continuous production of carbon nanotube (CNT) aerogels. Despite the intensive research in the field, fundamental uncertainties remain regarding how catalyst particle dynamics within the system influence the CNT aerogel formation, thus limiting effective scale-up. While aerogel formation in FC-CVD reactors requires a catalyst (typically iron, Fe) and a promotor (typically sulfur, S), their synergistic roles are not fully understood. This paper presents a paradigm shift in the understanding of the role of S in the process with new experimental studies identifying that S lowers the nucleation barrier of the catalyst nanoparticles. Furthermore, CNT aerogel formation requires a critical threshold of Fe x C y  > 160 mg/m 3 , but is surprisingly independent of the initial catalyst diameter or number concentration. The robustness of the critical catalyst mass concentration principle is proved further by producing CNTs using alternative catalyst systems; Fe nanoparticles from a plasma spark generator and cobaltocene and nickelocene precursors. This finding provides evidence that low-cost and high throughput CNT aerogel routes may be achieved by decoupled and enhanced catalyst production and control, opening up new possibilities for large-scale CNT synthesis.

  5. A Facile Low-Temperature Hydrothermal Method to Prepare Anatase Titania/Cellulose Aerogels with Strong Photocatalytic Activities for Rhodamine B and Methyl Orange Degradations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caichao Wan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A facile low-temperature hydrothermal method for in situ preparation of anatase titania (TiO2 homogeneously dispersed in cellulose aerogels substrates was described. The formed anatase TiO2 aggregations composed of a mass of evenly dispersed TiO2 nanoparticles with sizes of 2−5 nm were embedded in the interconnected three-dimensional (3D architecture of the cellulose aerogels matrixes without large-scale reunion phenomenon; meanwhile, the obtained anatase titania/cellulose (ATC aerogels also had a high loading amount of TiO2 (ca. 35.7%. Furthermore, compared with commercially available Degussa P25, ATC aerogels displayed comparable photocatalytic activities for Rhodamine B and methyl orange degradations under UV radiation, which might be useful in the fields of catalysts, wastewater treatment, and organic pollutant degradation. Meanwhile, the photocatalytic reaction behaviors of ATC aerogels under UV irradiation were also illuminated.

  6. Cellulose as an adhesion agent for the synthesis of lignin aerogel with strong mechanical performance, Sound-absorption and thermal Insulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Xiong, Ye; Fan, Bitao; Yao, Qiufang; Wang, Hanwei; Jin, Chunde; Sun, Qingfeng

    2016-08-26

    The lignin aerogels that are both high porosity and compressibility would have promising implications for bioengineering field to sound-adsorption and damping materials; however, creating this aerogel had a challenge to adhesive lignin. Here we reported cellulose as green adhesion agent to synthesize the aerogels with strong mechanical performance. Our approach-straightforwardly dissolved in ionic liquids and simply regenerated in the deionized water-causes assembly of micro-and nanoscale and even molecule level of cellulose and lignin. The resulting lignin aerogels exhibit Young's modulus up to 25.1 MPa, high-efficiency sound-adsorption and excellent thermal insulativity. The successful synthesis of this aerogels developed a path for lignin to an advanced utilization.

  7. Economy of scale: third partner strengthens a keystone ant-plant mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Kirsten M; Palmer, Todd M

    2018-02-01

    While foundation species can stabilize ecosystems at landscape scales, their ability to persist is often underlain by keystone interactions occurring at smaller scales. Acacia drepanolobium is a foundation tree, comprising >95% of woody cover in East African black-cotton savanna ecosystems. Its dominance is underlain by a keystone mutualistic interaction with several symbiotic ant species in which it provides housing (swollen thorns) and carbohydrate-rich nectar from extra-floral nectaries (EFN). In return, it gains protection from catastrophic damage from mega-herbivores. Crematogaster mimosae is the ecologically dominant symbiotic ant in this system, also providing the highest protection services. In addition to tending EFN, C. mimosae tend scale insects for carbohydrate-rich honeydew. We investigated the role of scale insects in this specialized ant-plant interaction. Specifically, does this putatively redundant third partner strengthen the ant-plant mutualism by making the ant a better protector of the tree? Or does it weaken the mutualism by being costly to the tree while providing no additional benefit to the ant-plant mutualism? We coupled observational surveys with two scale-manipulation experiments and found evidence that this third partner strengthens the ant-plant mutualism. Trees with scale insects experimentally removed experienced a 2.5X increase in elephant damage compared to trees with scale insects present over 10 months. Reduced protection was driven by scale removal causing a decrease in ant colony size and per capita baseline activity and defensive behavior. We also found that ants increased scale-tending and the density of scale insects on trees when EFN were experimentally reduced. Thus, in this system, scale insects and EFN are likely complementary, rather than redundant, resources with scale insects benefitting ants when EFN production is low (such as during annual dry periods in this semi-arid ecosystem). This study reveals that a third

  8. Predictions replaced by facts: a keystone species' behavioural responses to declining arctic sea-ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Charmain D; Lydersen, Christian; Ims, Rolf A; Kovacs, Kit M

    2015-11-01

    Since the first documentation of climate-warming induced declines in arctic sea-ice, predictions have been made regarding the expected negative consequences for endemic marine mammals. But, several decades later, little hard evidence exists regarding the responses of these animals to the ongoing environmental changes. Herein, we report the first empirical evidence of a dramatic shift in movement patterns and foraging behaviour of the arctic endemic ringed seal (Pusa hispida), before and after a major collapse in sea-ice in Svalbard, Norway. Among other changes to the ice-regime, this collapse shifted the summer position of the marginal ice zone from over the continental shelf, northward to the deep Arctic Ocean Basin. Following this change, which is thought to be a 'tipping point', subadult ringed seals swam greater distances, showed less area-restricted search behaviour, dived for longer periods, exhibited shorter surface intervals, rested less on sea-ice and did less diving directly beneath the ice during post-moulting foraging excursions. In combination, these behavioural changes suggest increased foraging effort and thus also likely increases in the energetic costs of finding food. Continued declines in sea-ice are likely to result in distributional changes, range reductions and population declines in this keystone arctic species. © 2015 The Author(s).

  9. The keystone species of Precambrian deep bedrock biosphere belong to Burkholderiales and Clostridiales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purkamo, L.; Bomberg, M.; Kietäväinen, R.; Salavirta, H.; Nyyssönen, M.; Nuppunen-Puputti, M.; Ahonen, L.; Kukkonen, I.; Itävaara, M.

    2015-11-01

    The bacterial and archaeal community composition and the possible carbon assimilation processes and energy sources of microbial communities in oligotrophic, deep, crystalline bedrock fractures is yet to be resolved. In this study, intrinsic microbial communities from six fracture zones from 180-2300 m depths in Outokumpu bedrock were characterized using high-throughput amplicon sequencing and metagenomic prediction. Comamonadaceae-, Anaerobrancaceae- and Pseudomonadaceae-related OTUs form the core community in deep crystalline bedrock fractures in Outokumpu. Archaeal communities were mainly composed of Methanobacteraceae-affiliating OTUs. The predicted bacterial metagenomes showed that pathways involved in fatty acid and amino sugar metabolism were common. In addition, relative abundance of genes coding the enzymes of autotrophic carbon fixation pathways in predicted metagenomes was low. This indicates that heterotrophic carbon assimilation is more important for microbial communities of the fracture zones. Network analysis based on co-occurrence of OTUs revealed the keystone genera of the microbial communities belonging to Burkholderiales and Clostridiales. Bacterial communities in fractures resemble those found from oligotrophic, hydrogen-enriched environments. Serpentinization reactions of ophiolitic rocks in Outokumpu assemblage may provide a source of energy and organic carbon compounds for the microbial communities in the fractures. Sulfate reducers and methanogens form a minority of the total microbial communities, but OTUs forming these minor groups are similar to those found from other deep Precambrian terrestrial bedrock environments.

  10. Deciphering microbial interactions and detecting keystone species with co-occurrence networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, David; Widder, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    Co-occurrence networks produced from microbial survey sequencing data are frequently used to identify interactions between community members. While this approach has potential to reveal ecological processes, it has been insufficiently validated due to the technical limitations inherent in studying complex microbial ecosystems. Here, we simulate multi-species microbial communities with known interaction patterns using generalized Lotka-Volterra dynamics. We then construct co-occurrence networks and evaluate how well networks reveal the underlying interactions and how experimental and ecological parameters can affect network inference and interpretation. We find that co-occurrence networks can recapitulate interaction networks under certain conditions, but that they lose interpretability when the effects of habitat filtering become significant. We demonstrate that networks suffer from local hot spots of spurious correlation in the neighborhood of hub species that engage in many interactions. We also identify topological features associated with keystone species in co-occurrence networks. This study provides a substantiated framework to guide environmental microbiologists in the construction and interpretation of co-occurrence networks from microbial survey datasets.

  11. Microsatellite primers in Agave utahensis (Asparagaceae), a keystone species in the Mojave Desert and Colorado Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers, Charlee; Maughan, Peter J; Clouse, Jared; Stewart, J Ryan

    2014-09-01

    Utah agave (Agave utahensis) and its putative subspecies, A. utahensis subsp. kaibabensis and A. utahensis subsp. utahensis, are keystone species of the Mojave Desert and Colorado Plateau in the southwestern United States. Here we developed microsatellite markers to study population structure and genetic diversity of the two subspecies of A. utahensis. • We analyzed 22,386 454-pyrosequencing large contigs (>400 bp), derived from a genome reduction experiment consisting of A. utahensis accessions, for putative microsatellites. The use of unique multiplex barcodes for each of the Agave accessions allowed for the identification of putatively polymorphic microsatellites based solely on sequence alignment analysis. We report the characteristics of 11 polymorphic microsatellite loci based on a panel of 104 individuals from the two subspecies. The number of alleles per locus varied from three to eight, with an average of 5.5 alleles per locus. Observed and expected heterozygosity values ranged from 0.038 to 0.777 and 0.038 to 0.707, respectively. • The microsatellites identified here will be invaluable for future studies of population structure, polyploidy, and genetic diversity across the species.

  12. Drove roads: Keystone structures that promote ant diversity in Mediterranean forest landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azcárate, Francisco M.; Seoane, Javier; Castro, Sara; Peco, Begoña

    2013-05-01

    Drove roads are the traditional corridors used by pastoralists for seasonal movements of livestock (transhumance). They cover a considerable land area in Mediterranean countries and, although they are an obvious source of landscape diversity, their influence on the diversity and composition of animal assemblages has not been documented. Ant communities were studied on four active drove roads, two in forests (submediterranean and conifer) and two in open environments (croplands and rangelands). They were compared with the respective matrix communities and their contribution to local species richness was evaluated. The effects were heavily dependent on the open or closed nature of the matrix. In forest environments, drove roads increased ant species richness at the local scale, acting as clear keystone structures. Their species richness and functional diversity were highest on the fine scale, species composition was different, and a slight edge effect in the matrix was detected. In contrast, drove roads had little or even a negative effect in open environment locations. We conclude that drove roads have a high conservation value for ants in Mediterranean forest environments, in addition to their importance as reservoirs of plant biodiversity and generators of ecological goods and services.

  13. Warming and Acidification Induced Mass Mortality of a Coastal Keystone predator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melzner, F.; Findeisen, U.

    2016-02-01

    The Baltic Sea is characterized by low salinity and pronounced fluctuations in pCO2. On-line monitoring of pCO2 in 2014 in Kiel Fjord demonstrated occurrence of peak values of >2,000 µatm in summer and autumn and average values >750 µatm. We assessed the impacts of elevated temperature (ambient temperature, ambient +3°C) and pCO2 (500, 1,500, 2,400 µatm) on the keystone species Asterias rubens in a fully crossed long - term experiment (N=5 replicate tanks each, 1 year duration). During spring and early summer (February - June), high temperature animals ingested significantly more food and spawned significantly earlier (April 30th) than ambient acclimated animals (May 23rd). Elevated pCO2 led to comparatively minor reductions in food intake and scope for growth during that period. During summer (June - August), elevated temperature >25°C caused negative energy budgets and >95% mortality in the warm acclimated groups, while mortality was low in the ambient temperature groups. Our results indicate that A. rubens may benefit from increased temperature during colder months, yet dramatically suffer during summer heat waves in warm years. Meaningful experimental approaches to assess species vulnerability to climate change need to encompass all seasons and realistic abiotic stressor levels.

  14. Salinity-oriented environmental flows for keystone species in the Modaomen Estuary, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Menglu; Cui, Baoshan; Zhang, Zhiming; Jiang, Xuelian

    2017-12-01

    Rapid development and urbanization in recent years have contributed to a reduction in freshwater discharge and intensified saltwater intrusion in the Pearl River Delta. This comprises a significant threat to potable water supplies and overall estuary ecosystem health. In this study, the environmental flows of the Modaomen Estuary, one of the estuaries of the Pearl River Delta in China, were determined based on the salinity demand of keystone species and the linear relationship between river discharge and estuarine salinity. The estimated minimum and optimal annual environmental flows in the Modaomen Estuary were 116.8 × 109 m3 and 273.8 × 109 m3, respectively, representing 59.3% and 139.0% of the natural runoff. Water quality assessments in recent years indicate that the environmental flows have not been satisfied most of the time, particularly the optimal environmental flow, despite implementation of various water regulations since 2005. Therefore, water regulations and wetland network recoveries based on rational environmental flows should be implemented to alleviate saltwater intrusion and for the creation of an ideal estuarine habitat.

  15. Ruminococcus bromii is a keystone species for the degradation of resistant starch in the human colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ze, Xiaolei; Duncan, Sylvia H; Louis, Petra; Flint, Harry J

    2012-08-01

    The release of energy from particulate substrates such as dietary fiber and resistant starch (RS) in the human colon may depend on the presence of specialist primary degraders (or 'keystone species') within the microbial community. We have explored the roles of four dominant amylolytic bacteria found in the human colon in the degradation and utilization of resistant starches. Eubacterium rectale and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron showed limited ability to utilize RS2- and RS3-resistant starches by comparison with Bifidobacterium adolescentis and Ruminococcus bromii. In co-culture, however, R. bromii proved unique in stimulating RS2 and RS3 utilization by the other three bacterial species, even in a medium that does not permit growth of R. bromii itself. Having previously demonstrated low RS3 fermentation in vivo in two individuals with undetectable populations of R. bromii-related bacteria, we show here that supplementation of mixed fecal bacteria from one of these volunteers with R. bromii, but not with the other three species, greatly enhanced the extent of RS3 fermentation in vitro. This argues strongly that R. bromii has a pivotal role in fermentation of RS3 in the human large intestine, and that variation in the occurrence of this species and its close relatives may be a primary cause of variable energy recovery from this important component of the diet. This work also indicates that R. bromii possesses an exceptional ability to colonize and degrade starch particles when compared with previously studied amylolytic bacteria from the human colon.

  16. Adaptive shell color plasticity during the early ontogeny of an intertidal keystone snail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manríquez, Patricio H; Lagos, Nelson A; Jara, María Elisa; Castilla, Juan Carlos

    2009-09-22

    We report a mechanism of crypsis present during the vulnerable early post-metamorphic ontogeny (Concholepas concholepas, a rocky shore keystone predator characteristic of the southeastern Pacific coast. In the field, we found a significant occurrence (>95%) of specimens bearing patterns of shell coloration (dark or light colored) that matched the background coloration provided by patches of Concholepas' most abundant prey (mussels or barnacles respectively). The variation in shell color was positively associated with the color of the most common prey (r = 0.99). In laboratory experiments, shell coloration of C. concholepas depended on the prey-substrate used to induce metamorphosis and for the post-metamorphic rearing. The snail shell color matched the color of the prey offered during rearing. Laboratory manipulation experiments, switching the prey during rearing, showed a corresponding change in snail shell color along the outermost shell edge. As individuals grew and became increasingly indistinguishable from the surrounding background, cryptic individuals had higher survival (71%) than the non cryptic ones (4%) when they were reared in the presence of the predatory crab Acanthocyclus hassleri. These results suggest that the evolution of shell color plasticity during the early ontogeny of C. concholepas, depends on the color of the more abundant of the consumed prey available in the natural habitat where settlement has taken place; this in turn has important consequences for their fitness and survivorship in the presence of visual predators.

  17. Preserving Ecosystem Services on Indigenous Territory through Restoration and Management of a Cultural Keystone Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadav Uprety

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L. is a cultural keystone tree species in the forests of eastern North America, providing numerous ecosystem services to Indigenous people. White pine abundance in the landscape has considerably decreased over the last few centuries due to overharvesting, suppression of surface fires, extensive management, and plantation failure. The Kitcisakik Algonquin community of western Quebec is calling for restoration and sustainable management of white pine on its ancestral territory, to ensure provision of associated ecosystem services. We present five white pine restoration and management scenarios taking into account community needs and ecological types: (1 natural regeneration of scattered white pines to produce individuals of different sizes and ages used as medicinal plants; (2 protection of supercanopy white pines used as landmarks and for providing habitat for flagship wildlife species, and younger individuals left as regeneration and future canopy trees; (3 the uniform shelterwood system to create white pine-dominated stands that provide habitat for flagship wildlife species and support cultural activities; (4 under-canopy plantations to yield mature white pine stands for timber production; (5 mixed plantations to produce forests with aesthetic qualities that provide wildlife habitat and protect biodiversity.

  18. A multi-wavelength, high-contrast contact radiography system for the study of low-density aerogel foams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Opachich, Y. P., E-mail: opachiyp@nv.doe.gov; Koch, J. A.; Haugh, M. J.; Romano, E.; Lee, J. J.; Huffman, E.; Weber, F. A. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Bowers, J. W. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Benedetti, L. R.; Wilson, M.; Prisbrey, S. T.; Wehrenberg, C. E.; Baumann, T. F.; Lenhardt, J. M.; Cook, A.; Arsenlis, A.; Park, H.-S.; Remington, B. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)

    2016-07-15

    A multi-wavelength, high contrast contact radiography system has been developed to characterize density variations in ultra-low density aerogel foams. These foams are used to generate a ramped pressure drive in materials strength experiments at the National Ignition Facility and require precision characterization in order to reduce errors in measurements. The system was used to characterize density variations in carbon and silicon based aerogels to ∼10.3% accuracy with ∼30 μm spatial resolution. The system description, performance, and measurement results collected using a 17.8 mg/cc carbon based JX–6 (C{sub 20}H{sub 30}) aerogel are discussed in this manuscript.

  19. KFeSbTe3: A quaternary chalcogenide aerogel for preferential adsorption of polarizable hydrocarbons and gases

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Ejaz

    2015-01-01

    The first telluride-based quaternary aerogel KFeSbTe3 is synthesized by a sol-gel metathesis reaction between Fe(OAc)2 and K3SbTe3 in dimethyl formamide. The aerogel has an exceptionally large surface area 652 m2 g-1 which is amongst the highest reported for chalcogenide-based aerogels. This predominantly mesoporous material shows preferential adsorption for toluene vapors over cyclohexane or cyclopentane and CO2 over CH4 or H2. The remarkably high adsorption capacity for toluene (9.31 mmol g-1) and high selectivity for gases (CO2/H2: 121 and CO2/CH4: 75) suggest a potential use of such materials in adsorption-based separation processes for the effective purification of hydrocarbons and gases. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015.

  20. Cellulose aerogels decorated with multi-walled carbon nanotubes: preparation, characterization, and application for electromagnetic interference shielding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian LI,Caichao WAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic wave pollution has attracted extensive attention because of its ability to affect the operation of electronic machinery and endanger human health. In this work, the environmentally-friendly hybrid aerogels consisting of cellulose and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs were fabricated. The aerogels have a low bulk density of 58.17 mg·cm-3. The incorporation of MWCNTs leads to an improvement in the thermal stability. In addition, the aerogels show a high electromagnetic interference (EMI SEtotal value of 19.4 dB. Meanwhile, the absorption-dominant shielding mechanism helps a lot to reduce secondary radiation, which is beneficial to develop novel eco-friendly EMI shielding materials.

  1. Concealing a shiny facial skin appearance by an Aerogel-based formula. In vitro and in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassin, G; Diridollou, S; Flament, F; Adam, A S; Pierre, P; Colomb, L; Morancais, J L; Qiu, H

    2018-02-01

    To explore, in vitro and in vivo, the potential interest of an Aerogel-based formula, in concealing a naturally shiny facial skin. In vitro, various formulae and ingredients were applied as a thin film onto contrast plates and studied through measuring the shine induced following pump spraying of a mixture of oleic acid and mineral water as a sebum/sweat mix model. In such a test, an Aerogel ingredient led to very positive results. In vivo, two different formulae with various concentrations of Aerogel were randomly tested on half side of the face vs. bare side of Chinese women, under some provocative environmental conditions, known to enhance facial shine. These conditions comprised a normal activity under a hot and highly humid summer time followed - or not - by a hamam session. Both studies included comparative evaluations using a half-face procedure (treated/untreated or vehicle). In the first case, evaluations were quantitatively carried out, whereas the second one was based on a quantitative self-evaluations from standardized full-face photographs RESULTS: In vitro, the tested Aerogel, incorporated at 1% or 2% concentration in a common O/W cosmetic emulsion, shows an immediate light scattering effect, thereby masking shine. Such effect appears of much higher amplitude than that of two other tested particulate ingredients (Talc and Perlite). A noticeable remanence of anti-shine effect was confirmed in vivo in extreme conditions. The latter was self-perceived by all participants in the second study. This result is likely related to the super hydrophobic behaviour of the Aerogel. As cosmetic ingredient, this new Aerogel appears as a highly promising ingredient for concealing the facial skin shine, a source of complaint from many consumers living in hot and humid regions. © 2017 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  2. Iodine Adsorption by Ag-Aerogel under Prototypical Vessel Off-Gas Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruffey, Stephanie H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jubin, Robert Thomas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-08-01

    U.S. regulations will require the removal of 129I from the off-gas streams of any used nuclear fuel (UNF) reprocessing plant prior to discharge of the off-gas to the environment. The required plant decontamination factor for iodine will vary based on fuel burnup, cooling time, and other factors but is very likely to be >1000 and could be as high as 8000. Multiple off-gas streams within a UNF reprocessing plant combine prior to environmental release, and each of these streams contains some amount of iodine. To achieve the decontamination factors (DFs) that are likely to be required by regulations, iodine removal from the vessel off-gas will be necessary. The vessel off-gas contains iodine at very dilute concentrations (ppb levels), and will also contain water vapor. Iodine species present are likely to include both elemental and organic iodides. There will also be solvent vapors and volatile radiolysis products. The United States has considered the use of silver-based sorbents for removal of iodine from UNF off-gas streams, but little is known about the behavior of those sorbents at very dilute iodine concentrations. The purpose of this study was to expose silver-functionalized silica aerogel (AgAerogel) to a prototypical vessel off-gas stream containing 40 ppb methyl iodide to obtain information about organic iodine capture by silver-sorbents at very low iodine concentrations. The design of this extended duration testing was such that information about the rate of adsorption, the penetration of the iodine species, and the overall system DF could be obtained. Results show that CH3I penetrates into a AgAerogel sorbent bed to a depth of 3.9 cm under prototypical vessel off-gas conditions. An iodine loading of 22 mg I/g AgAerogel was observed in the first 0.3 cm of the bed. Of the iodine delivered to the system, 48% could not be accounted for, and future efforts will investigate this concern. Direct calculation of the decontamination factor is not

  3. Selective catalytic reduction of nitric oxide by propane over vanadia-titania aerogels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zegaoui, O.; Karroua, M. [Laboratoire de Chimie-Physique: Cinetique et Catalyse, Departement de Chimie, Faculte des Sciences, Universite Mohamed Ier, Oujda (Morocco); Hoang-Van, C. [URA au CNRS Photocatalyse, Catalyse et Environnement, Ecole Centrale de Lyon, Ecully (France)

    1996-09-02

    An investigation has been carried out of the effect of vanadia loading on the activity and selectivity of V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/TiO{sub 2} aerogel catalysts, prepared by a two-step procedure, for the reduction of NO by propane. The structure of catalysts have been characterized by laser Raman spectroscopy and XRD measurements. At vanadia loading levels below circa 4.4 wt%, the vanadia is present in the form of coordinated polymeric species, whereas crystallites of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} are formed at higher vanadia contents. At this critical level of 4.4 wt% V{sub 2}O {sub 5}, the kinetic measurements showed also a maximum in the activity per mass of catalyst which very likely indicated that the coordinated polymeric surface species are more active than crystalline V{sub 2}O {sub 5}. The selectivity towards the formation of dinitrogen decreased as the loading increased, presumably because of the formation of larger polymeric species and V{sub 2}O{sub 5} crystallites, below and above the critical loading level, respectively. For the reduction of NO by propane, titania supported vanadia aerogel catalysts are significantly more active, per mass of catalyst, and more selective towards N{sub 2} formation than conventional V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/TiO{sub 2} and V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} aerogel catalysts, at vanadia loading levels below ca. 11 wt%

  4. Fabrication and characterization of silica aerogel as synthetic tissues for medical imaging phantoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    In, Eunji; Naguib, Hani

    2015-05-01

    Medical imaging plays an important role in the field of healthcare industry both in clinical settings and in research and development. It is used in prevention, early detection of disease, in choosing the optimal treatment, during surgical interventions and monitoring of the treatment effects. Despite much advancement in the last few decades, rapid change on its technology development and variety of imaging parameters that differ with the manufacturer restrict its further development. Imaging phantom is a calibrating medium that is scanned or imaged in the field of medical imaging to evaluate, analyze and tune the performance of various imaging devices. A phantom used to evaluate an imaging device should respond in a similar manner to how human tissue and organs would act in that specific imaging modality. There has been many research on the phantom materials; however, there has been no attempt to study on the material that mimics the structure of lung or fibrous tissue. So with the need for development of gel with such structure, we tried to mimic this structure with aerogel. Silica aerogels have unique properties that include low density (0.003g/cm) and mesoporosity (pore size 2-50nm), with a high thermal insulation value (0.005W/mK) and high surface area (500-1200m-2/g).] In this study, we cross-linked with di-isocyanate, which is a group in polyurethane to covalently bond the polymer to the surface of silica aerogel to enhance the mechanical properties. By formation of covalent bonds, the structure can be reinforced by widening the interparticle necks while minimally reducing porosity.

  5. Electromagnetic interference shielding properties and mechanisms of chemically reduced graphene aerogels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bi, Shuguang [Temasek Laboratories, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Drive, 637553 (Singapore); Zhang, Liying, E-mail: LY.Zhang@ntu.edu.sg [Temasek Laboratories, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Drive, 637553 (Singapore); Mu, Chenzhong [School of Material Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, 639798 (Singapore); Liu, Ming, E-mail: LIUMING@ntu.edu.sg [Temasek Laboratories, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Drive, 637553 (Singapore); Hu, Xiao [Temasek Laboratories, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Drive, 637553 (Singapore); School of Material Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, 639798 (Singapore)

    2017-08-01

    Graphical abstract: The electromagnetic interference shielding behavior and proposed mechanisms of ultralight free-standing 3D graphene aerogels. - Highlights: • The electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding properties and mechanisms of ultralight 3D graphene aerogels (GAs) were systematically studied with respect to both the unique porous network and the intrinsic properties of the graphene sheets. • Thickness of the shielding material played a critical role on EMI SE. • By compressing the porous GAs into compact film didnt increase the EMI SE despite the increased electrical conductivity and connectivity. EMI SE is highly dependent on the effective amounts of the materials response to the EM waves. - Abstract: Graphene was recently demonstrated to exhibit excellent electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding performance. In this work, ultralight (∼5.5 mg/cm{sup 3}) graphene aerogels (GAs) were fabricated through assembling graphene oxide (GO) using freeze-drying followed by a chemical reduction method. The EMI shielding properties and mechanisms of GAs were systematically studied with respect to the intrinsic properties of the reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets and the unique porous network. The EMI shielding effectiveness (SE) of GAs was increased from 20.4 to 27.6 dB when the GO was reduced by high concentration of hydrazine vapor. The presence of more sp{sup 2} graphitic lattice and free electrons from nitrogen atoms resulted in the enhanced EMI SE. Absorption was the dominant shielding mechanism of GAs. Compressing the highly porous GAs into compact thin films did not change the EMI SE, but shifted the dominant shielding mechanism from absorption to reflection.

  6. SAXS and BET studies of aging and densification of silica aerogels

    OpenAIRE

    Lours, Thierry; Zarzycki, Jerzy; Craievich, Aldo F.; Dos Santos, Dayse Iara; Aegerter, Michel A.

    1987-01-01

    Aerogels prepared by hypercritical drying of gels obtained by hydrolysis of TMOS/methanol 50% solution in acid and basic conditions were studied combining SAXS and BET methods. Diffraction results do not seem to reveal a fractal character as the POROD's limit I(q) q4 → Cte was obtained in all cases without well characterised portions in log I(q) vs log q graphs. Aging produces a small increase in the density of the matrix. Densification studies indicate that for moderate temperatures 53...

  7. Titania aerogels with tailored nano and microstructure: Comparison of lyophilization and supercritical drying

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šubrt, Jan; Pližingrová, Eva; Palkovská, Monika; Boháček, Jaroslav; Klementová, Mariana; Kupčík, Jaroslav; Bezdička, Petr; Sovová, Helena

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 4 (2017), s. 501-509 ISSN 0033-4545. [International Conference Solid State Chemistry 2016 /12./. Prague, 18.09.2016-23.09.2016] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015073 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 ; RVO:67985858 Keywords : Aerogels * Critical point drying * Lyophilization * Peroxo-polytitanic acid * Titanium dioxide Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry ; CI - Industrial Chemistry , Chemical Engineering (UCHP-M) OBOR OECD: Inorganic and nuclear chemistry ; Chemical process engineering (UCHP-M) Impact factor: 2.626, year: 2016

  8. Titania aerogels with tailored nano and microstructure: Comparison of lyophilization and supercritical drying

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šubrt, Jan; Pližingrová, Eva; Palkovská, Monika; Boháček, Jaroslav; Klementová, Mariana; Kupčík, Jaroslav; Bezdička, Petr; Sovová, Helena

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 4 (2017), s. 501-509 ISSN 0033-4545. [International Conference Solid State Chemistry 2016 /12./. Prague, 18.09.2016-23.09.2016] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015073 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 ; RVO:67985858 Keywords : Aerogels * Critical point drying * Lyophilization * Peroxo-polytitanic acid * Titanium dioxide Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry; CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering (UCHP-M) OBOR OECD: Inorganic and nuclear chemistry; Chemical process engineering (UCHP-M) Impact factor: 2.626, year: 2016

  9. Interaction and Relationship Between Groundwater and Surface Water at Keystone Heritage Park EL Paso Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, B.

    2012-12-01

    Belinda Gonzalez1, Joshua Villalobos1, Marissa Cameron 2 1Department of Geological Sciences, El Paso Community College, El Paso, TX 79925, USA 2Department of Geological Sciences, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968, USA beli_72764@yahoo.com Historically the floodplain of the Rio Grande River was dotted with shifting wetlands and ponds.The increasing population throughout the United States and Mexico has made it necessary to put the Rio Grande floodplain under till for cultivation. Along with cultivation, the river was channelized and dammed to prevent flooding and to stabilize the Mexico/U.S. border.The loss of wetland ecosystems in the area changed migration patterns of water fowl and destroyed priceless aquatic habitats.The area of our study, Keystone Heritage Park, is the last remaining open wetlands in El Paso County. Before efforts of restoration to reestablish wetlands associated with the Rio Grande can begin, there must be an in-depth, and complete, understanding of the surface and subsurface hydrological system which created and sustains this last remaining wetland. Studies of the wetland's soil properties and their effect on groundwater flow have indicated regions on the periphery of the wetlands where soils are saturated with moisture.These subsurface regions of saturated soils are semi-linear in shape and lead toward the wetland indicating that they are possible loci for groundwater flow for the wetland.These subsurface soil layers are possibly composed of mountain front alluvium that is being feed with meteoric water entering faults that bound the nearby Franklin Mountains.The primary goals of this study are 1) initiate a systematic data acquisition from 9 piezometers and 2 water level loggers of temporal variations in the depth of the groundwater due to regional pumping or rain fall and 2) generate a depth and TDS (Total Dissolved Solids) profile of the wetland pond to locate regions where groundwater maybe entering the lake.

  10. Has frugivory influenced the macroecology and diversification of a tropical keystone plant family?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Daniel Kissling

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Seed dispersal by fruit-eating animals is a pivotal ecosystem function in tropical forests, but the role that frugivores have played in the biogeography and macroevolution of species-rich tropical plant families remains largely unexplored. This project investigates how frugivory-relevant plant traits (e.g. fruit size, fruit color, fruit shape etc. are distributed within the angiosperm family of palms (Arecaceae, how this relates to diversification rates, and whether and how it coincides with the global biogeographic distribution of vertebrate frugivores (birds, bats, primates, other frugivorous mammals and their ecological traits (e.g. diet specialization, body size, flight ability, color vision etc.. Palms are particularly suitable because they are well studied, species-rich, characteristic of tropical rainforests, and dispersed by all groups of vertebrate seed dispersers. Using newly compiled data on species distributions and ecological traits in combination with phylogenies we will test (1 how fruit trait variability relates to palm phylogeny and other aspects of plant morphology (e.g. leaf size, plant height, growth form, (2 whether geographic variability in fruit traits correlates with geographic distributions of animal consumers and their traits, and (3 to what extent interaction-relevant plant traits are related to palm diversification rates. This combined macroecological and macroevolutionary approach allows novel insights into the global ecology and the evolution of a tropical keystone plant family. This is important for the conservation and sustainable management of tropical rainforests because palms are often key components of subsistence economies, ecosystem dynamics and carbon storage and therefore help to enhance nature’s goods, benefits and services to humanity.

  11. Hard-bottom bathyal habitats and keystone epibenthic species on Le Danois Bank (Cantabrian Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, F.; Rodríguez Basalo, A.; García-Alegre, A.; Gómez-Ballesteros, M.

    2017-12-01

    "El Cachucho" Marine Protected Area (MPA), which comprises Le Danois Bank and its intraslope basin, was included during 2008 in the Nature 2000 network mainly because of the presence of the habitat "1170 Reefs" according to the EU Habitat Directive. To review the effectiveness of existing management measures, several activities aimed at characterizing the most structurally complex hard-bottom habitats were planned and carried out during the ESMAREC 0514 survey. For identification of these habitats, several transects using the photogrammetric towed sled Politolana were carried out on Le Danois Bank, in the depth range between 427 and 1379 m, searching for the sea beds with higher values of slope and backscatter. Photogrammetric techniques were used for image scaling, so we could determine the surface areas of different substrata types (facies) and their species densities. A total area of 28,762 m2 was analyzed in the still images of 23 transects, verifying that 85% of the substrata of our study area are occupied by 4 different facies: Bedrock, bedrock with mixed sediments, mixed sediments with pebbles and boulders, and mixed sediments. Acoustic data and ground-truth visual data were combined to evaluate distinctive benthic scenarios. The relative abundances of the 123 epibenthic species identified by image analyses show that the most abundant are sponges (29%), cnidarians (26%), crustaceans (26%) and echinoderms (14%), i.e. mostly sessile species or those with low mobility. The keystone species of the "1170 Reefs" habitat are 3 cnidarians: Callogorgia verticillata, Paramuricea cf. placomus and Dendrophyllia cornigera, and 3 sponges, Asconema setubalense, Geodia msp.1 and Phakellia robusta. Eight new habitats (biotopes) have been identified on Le Danois Bank, six of which occur on the hard bottoms, with depth, substratum, BPI (Bathymetric Position Index) and slope as determining environmental variables that explain their spatial distributions.

  12. Rapid genetic restoration of a keystone species exhibiting delayed demographic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosentino, Bradley J; Schooley, Robert L; Bestelmeyer, Brandon T; McCarthy, Alison J; Sierzega, Kevin

    2015-12-01

    Genetic founder effects are often expected when animals colonize restored habitat in fragmented landscapes, but empirical data on genetic responses to restoration are limited. We examined the genetic response of banner-tailed kangaroo rats (Dipodomys spectabilis) to landscape-scale grassland restoration in the Chihuahuan Desert of New Mexico, USA. Dipodomys spectabilis is a grassland specialist and keystone species. At sites treated with herbicide to remove shrubs, colonization by D. spectabilis is slow and populations persist at low density for ≥10 years (≥6 generations). Persistence at low density and low gene flow may cause strong founder effects. We compared genetic structure of D. spectabilis populations between treated sites and remnant grasslands, and we examined how the genetic response to restoration depended on treatment age, area, and connectivity to source populations. Allelic richness and heterozygosity were similar between treated sites and remnant grasslands. Allelic richness at treated sites was greatest early in the restoration trajectory, and genetic divergence did not differ between recently colonized and established populations. These results indicated that founder effects during colonization of treated sites were weak or absent. Moreover, our results suggested founder effects were not mitigated by treatment area or connectivity. Dispersal is negatively density-dependent in D. spectabilis, and we hypothesize that high gene flow may occur early in the restoration trajectory when density is low. Our study shows genetic diversity can be recovered more rapidly than demographic components of populations after habitat restoration and that founder effects are not inevitable for animals colonizing restored habitat in fragmented landscapes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Life-history trait of the Mediterranean keystone species Patella rustica: growth and microbial bioerosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. PRUSINA

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The age and shell growth patterns in populations of Patella rustica of the Adriatic Sea were determined by analyzing the inner growth lines visible in shell sections. Marginal increment analysis showed annual periodicity with annual growth line being deposited in May. The growth analysis of 120 individual shells showed that 90.8 % of collected individuals were less than 4 years of age and only two individuals (1.6 % were older than 6 years. Population structure was described and the generalized von Bertalanffy growth parameters were calculated: asymptotic length (L∞ was 38.22 mm and the growth constant (K was 0.30 year-1. Growth performance index value of P. rustica (Ø’ was 2.64 and is among the lowest ranges reported for limpet species. Patella rustica shells were degraded to different degrees by microbial bioerosion. Microboring organisms identified were pseudofilamentous and filamentous cyanobacteria Hormathonema paulocellulare, Hyella caespitosa, Mastigocoleus testarum and Leptolyngbya sp. The overall intensity of infestation was relatively low, but increased in severity with shell length. The damage was most often restricted to the oldest parts of the shell, i.e. apex of the shell, posing difficulties in determining the exact position of the first growth line. The present study is first to introduce the use of inner growth lines in Patella rustica shell sections as a reliable method for age determination and it provides the first insight into the growth patterns of this keystone species while taking the interference of microbial shell bioerosion in consideration.

  14. Cultural keystone species in oil sands mine reclamation, Fort McKay, Alberta, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garibaldi, A.; Straker, J. [Stantec Ltd., Sidney, BC (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Cultural keystone species (CKS) shape the cultural identify of people through the roles they have in diet, material and spiritual practices. The use of the CKS concept is regarded as a method of addressing linked social and ecological issues. This paper presented the results of using the CKS model in the indigenous community of Fort McKay, Alberta to address, social, ecological and spiritual values in regional mine-land reclamation. Fort McKay is at the epicenter of the existing mine developments. Its residents regard human and environmental health to be be linked and therefore experience the effects of development and subsequent reclamation on both cultural and ecological levels. The community is actively engaged in working with the local mining companies on issues of mine reclamation design. In order to hold meaning to the local people, oil sand operators used the CKS concept in their reclamation efforts to take into account ecological functionality and also address the linked social factors. Five CKS were identified through a literature review and extensive community interviews. The list includes moose, cranberry, blueberry, ratroot and beaver. These 5 CKS were used to focus discussions and make recommendations for relevant land reclamation within Fort McKay traditional territory. The project has influenced the way both the community and oil sands operators engage with reclamation. Lessons learned from this process will help direct reclamation activities on other portions of traditional territory, while offering guidance to other regional developers for addressing cultural values in reclamation on their leases. 15 refs., 1 fig.

  15. A Switch in Keystone Seed-Dispersing Ant Genera between Two Elevations for a Myrmecochorous Plant, Acacia terminalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Fiona J; Auld, Tony D; Ramp, Daniel; Kingsford, Richard T

    2016-01-01

    The dispersal capacity of plant species that rely on animals to disperse their seeds (biotic dispersal) can alter with changes to the populations of their keystone dispersal vectors. Knowledge on how biotic dispersal systems vary across landscapes allows better understanding of factors driving plant persistence. Myrmecochory, seed dispersal by ants, is a common method of biotic dispersal for many plant species throughout the world. We tested if the seed dispersal system of Acacia terminalis (Fabaceae), a known myrmecochore, differed between two elevations in the Greater Blue Mountains World Heritage Area, in southeastern Australia. We compared ant assemblages, seed removal rates of ants and other vertebrates (bird and mammal) and the dominant seed-dispersing ant genera. At low elevations (c. 200 m a.s.l) seed removal was predominantly by ants, however, at high elevation sites (c. 700 m a.s.l) vertebrate seed dispersers or seed predators were present, removing over 60% of seeds from experimental depots when ants were excluded. We found a switch in the keystone seed-dispersing ant genera from Rhytidoponera at low elevations sites to Aphaenogaster at high elevation sites. This resulted in more seeds being removed faster at low elevation sites compared to high elevation sites, however long-term seed removal rates were equal between elevations. Differences in the keystone seed removalist, and the addition of an alternate dispersal vector or seed predator at high elevations, will result in different dispersal and establishment patterns for A. terminalis at different elevations. These differences in dispersal concur with other global studies that report myrmecochorous dispersal systems alter with elevation.

  16. A Switch in Keystone Seed-Dispersing Ant Genera between Two Elevations for a Myrmecochorous Plant, Acacia terminalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona J Thomson

    Full Text Available The dispersal capacity of plant species that rely on animals to disperse their seeds (biotic dispersal can alter with changes to the populations of their keystone dispersal vectors. Knowledge on how biotic dispersal systems vary across landscapes allows better understanding of factors driving plant persistence. Myrmecochory, seed dispersal by ants, is a common method of biotic dispersal for many plant species throughout the world. We tested if the seed dispersal system of Acacia terminalis (Fabaceae, a known myrmecochore, differed between two elevations in the Greater Blue Mountains World Heritage Area, in southeastern Australia. We compared ant assemblages, seed removal rates of ants and other vertebrates (bird and mammal and the dominant seed-dispersing ant genera. At low elevations (c. 200 m a.s.l seed removal was predominantly by ants, however, at high elevation sites (c. 700 m a.s.l vertebrate seed dispersers or seed predators were present, removing over 60% of seeds from experimental depots when ants were excluded. We found a switch in the keystone seed-dispersing ant genera from Rhytidoponera at low elevations sites to Aphaenogaster at high elevation sites. This resulted in more seeds being removed faster at low elevation sites compared to high elevation sites, however long-term seed removal rates were equal between elevations. Differences in the keystone seed removalist, and the addition of an alternate dispersal vector or seed predator at high elevations, will result in different dispersal and establishment patterns for A. terminalis at different elevations. These differences in dispersal concur with other global studies that report myrmecochorous dispersal systems alter with elevation.

  17. Microsatellite markers for the tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum, Serrasalmidae, Characiformes), an economically important keystone species of the Amazon River floodplain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Maria D Conceição F; Hrbek, Tomas; Farias, Izeni P

    2009-05-01

    Colossoma macropomum is a keystone species of the Amazon floodplain, and is an important but severely overexploited commercial species. To provide tools for addressing ecological and conservation questions, we developed 14 highly polymorphic microsatellite markers that had between four and 21 alleles per locus in the 25 tested individuals. With the exception of comparisons involving the locus Cm1F5 that also showed heterozygosity deficiency, no pairs of loci were at linkage disequilibrium. Many of the microsatellite loci were also variable in three other serrasalmid species which span the phylogenetic depth of the Serrasalmidae. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Three dimensional nitrogen-doped graphene aerogels functionalized with melamine for multifunctional applications in supercapacitors and adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing, Ling-Bao; Hou, Shu-Fen; Zhou, Jin; Zhang, Jing-Li; Si, Weijiang; Dong, Yunhui, E-mail: hgxydyh@sdut.edu.cn; Zhuo, Shuping, E-mail: zhuosp_academic@yahoo.com

    2015-10-15

    In present work, we demonstrate an efficient and facile strategy to fabricate three-dimensional (3D) nitrogen-doped graphene aerogels (NGAs) based on melamine, which serves as reducing and functionalizing agent of graphene oxide (GO) in an aqueous medium with ammonia. Benefiting from well-defined and cross-linked 3D porous network architectures, the supercapacitor based on the NGAs exhibited a high specific capacitance of 170.5 F g{sup −1} at 0.2 A g{sup −1}, and this capacitance also showed good electrochemical stability and a high degree of reversibility in the repetitive charge/discharge cycling test. More interestingly, the prepared NGAs further exhibited high adsorption capacities and high recycling performance toward several metal ions such as Pb{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+}. Moreover, the hydrophobic carbonized nitrogen-doped graphene aerogels (CNGAs) showed outstanding adsorption and recycling performance for the removal of various oils and organic solvents. - Graphical abstract: Three-dimensional nitrogen-doped graphene aerogels were prepared by using melamine as reducing and functionalizing agent in an aqueous medium with ammonia, which showed multifunctional applications in supercapacitors and adsorption. - Highlights: • Three-dimensional nitrogen-doped graphene aerogels (NGAs) were prepared. • Melamine was used as reducing and functionalizing agent. • NGAs exhibited relatively good electrochemical properties in supercapacitor. • NGAs exhibited high adsorption performance toward several metal ions. • CNGAs showed outstanding adsorption capacities for various oils and solvents.

  19. A preliminary study on the etching behavior of SiO sub 2 aerogel film with CHF sub 3 gas

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, S J; Yeom, G Y

    1998-01-01

    Etching behavior of SiO sub 2 aerogel film has been investigated in order to examine the feasibility of its application to an interlevel dielectric material. Low dielectric property of SiO sub 2 aerogel film is simply originated from its highly porous structure, but interconnected particles are covered with surface chemical bondings (-OH, -OC sub 2 H sub 5 , etc). Etching experiments have been performed with high density inductively coupled CHF sub 3 plasma. The effects of porous structure and surface chemical bondings on the etching of SiO sub 2 aerogel film have been analyzed. The changes of surface morphology were observed using scanning electron microscopy. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analyses revealed compositions and chemical bonding states of reaction layer. From the analyses, 3-dimensional etching was not feasible macroscopically in SiO sub 2 aerogel film even with its porous nature because network structure was maintained through the etching process. Internal surface chemicals seemed to act an ...

  20. Parametric Analysis to Study the Influence of Aerogel-Based Renders’ Components on Thermal and Mechanical Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Ximenes

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Statistical models using multiple linear regression are some of the most widely used methods to study the influence of independent variables in a given phenomenon. This study’s objective is to understand the influence of the various components of aerogel-based renders on their thermal and mechanical performance, namely cement (three types, fly ash, aerial lime, silica sand, expanded clay, type of aerogel, expanded cork granules, expanded perlite, air entrainers, resins (two types, and rheological agent. The statistical analysis was performed using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences, based on 85 mortar mixes produced in the laboratory and on their values of thermal conductivity and compressive strength obtained using tests in small-scale samples. The results showed that aerial lime assumes the main role in improving the thermal conductivity of the mortars. Aerogel type, fly ash, expanded perlite and air entrainers are also relevant components for a good thermal conductivity. Expanded clay can improve the mechanical behavior and aerogel has the opposite effect.

  1. Mesoporous fluorocarbon-modified silica aerogel membranes enabling long-term continuous CO2 capture with large absorption flux enhancements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Feng; Chen, Chien-Hua; Tung, Kuo-Lun; Wei, Te-Yu; Lu, Shih-Yuan; Chang, Kai-Shiun

    2013-03-01

    The use of a membrane contactor combined with a hydrophobic porous membrane and an amine absorbent has attracted considerable attention for the capture of CO2 because of its extensive use, low operational costs, and low energy consumption. The hydrophobic porous membrane interface prevents the passage of the amine absorbent but allows the penetration of CO2 molecules that are captured by the amine absorbent. Herein, highly porous SiO2 aerogels modified with hydrophobic fluorocarbon functional groups (CF3 ) were successfully coated onto a macroporous Al2 O3 membrane; their performance in a membrane contactor for CO2 absorption is discussed. The SiO2 aerogel membrane modified with CF3 functional groups exhibits the highest CO2 absorption flux and can be continuously operated for CO2 absorption for extended periods of time. This study suggests that a SiO2 aerogel membrane modified with CF3 functional groups could potentially be used in a membrane contactor for CO2 absorption. Also, the resulting hydrophobic SiO2 aerogel membrane contactor is a promising technology for large-scale CO2 absorption during the post-combustion process in power plants. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Cellulose nanofibril/reduced graphene oxide/carbon nanotube hybrid aerogels for highly flexible and all-solid-state supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qifeng Zheng; Zhiyong Cai; Zhenqiang Ma; Shaoqin Gong

    2015-01-01

    A novel type of highly flexible and all-solid-state supercapacitor that uses cellulose nanofibril (CNF)/reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/carbon nanotube (CNT) hybrid aerogels as electrodes and H2SO4 poly (vinyl alcohol) PVA gel as the electrolyte was developed and is reported here. These flexible solid-state supercapacitors...

  3. Carbon Papers and Aerogels Based on Graphene Layers and Chitosan: Direct Preparation from High Surface Area Graphite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbera, Vincenzina; Guerra, Silvia; Brambilla, Luigi; Maggio, Mario; Serafini, Andrea; Conzatti, Lucia; Vitale, Alessandra; Galimberti, Maurizio

    2017-12-11

    In this work, carbon papers and aerogels based on graphene layers and chitosan were prepared. They were obtained by mixing chitosan (CS) and a high surface area nanosized graphite (HSAG) in water in the presence of acetic acid. HSAG/CS water dispersions were stable for months. High resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of few graphene layers in water suspensions. Casting or lyophilization of such suspensions led to the preparation of carbon paper and aerogel, respectively. In X-ray spectra of both aerogels and carbon paper, peaks due to regular stacks of graphene layers were not detected: graphene with unaltered sp 2 structure was obtained directly from graphite without the use of any chemical reaction. The composites were demonstrated to be electrically conductive thanks to the graphene. Chitosan thus makes it possible to obtain monolithic carbon aerogels and flexible and free-standing graphene papers directly from a nanosized graphite by avoiding oxidation to graphite oxide and successive reduction. Strong interaction between polycationic chitosan and the aromatic substrate appears to be at the origin of the stability of HSAG/CS adducts. Cation-π interaction is hypothesized, also on the basis of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy findings. This work paves the way for the easy large-scale preparation of carbon papers through a method that has a low environmental impact and is based on a biosourced polymer, graphene, and water.

  4. Core-Shell Structuring of Pure Metallic Aerogels towards Highly Efficient Platinum Utilization for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Bin; Hübner, René; Sasaki, Kotaro; Zhang, Yuanzhe; Su, Dong; Ziegler, Christoph; Vukmirovic, Miomir B; Rellinghaus, Bernd; Adzic, Radoslav R; Eychmüller, Alexander

    2018-03-05

    The development of core-shell structures remains a fundamental challenge for pure metallic aerogels. Here we report the synthesis of Pd x Au-Pt core-shell aerogels composed of an ultrathin Pt shell and a composition-tunable Pd x Au alloy core. The universality of this strategy ensures the extension of core compositions to Pd transition-metal alloys. The core-shell aerogels exhibited largely improved Pt utilization efficiencies for the oxygen reduction reaction and their activities show a volcano-type relationship as a function of the lattice parameter of the core substrate. The maximum mass and specific activities are 5.25 A mg Pt -1 and 2.53 mA cm -2 , which are 18.7 and 4.1 times higher than those of Pt/C, respectively, demonstrating the superiority of the core-shell metallic aerogels. The proposed core-based activity descriptor provides a new possible strategy for the design of future core-shell electrocatalysts. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Optical characterization of /n=1.03 silica aerogel used as radiator in the RICH of HERMES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschenauer, E.; Bianchi, N.; Capitani, G. P.; Carter, P.; Casalino, C.; Cisbani, E.; Coluzza, C.; De Leo, R.; De Sanctis, E.; De Schepper, D.; Djordjadze, V.; Filippone, B.; Frullani, S.; Garibaldi, F.; Hansen, J. O.; Hommez, B.; Iodice, M.; Jackson, H. E.; Kaiser, R.; Kanesaka, J.; Lagamba, L.; Muccifora, V.; Nappi, E.; Nowak, W.-D.; O'Neill, T. G.; Potterveld, D.; Ryckbosch, D.; Sakemi, Y.; Sato, F.; Schwind, A.; Suetsugu, K.; Shibata, T.-A.; Thomas, E.; Tytgat, M.; Urciuoli, G. M.; van de Kerckhove, K.; van de Vyver, R.; Yoneyama, S.; Zhang, L. F.

    2000-02-01

    The optical properties of silica aerogel tiles with a refractive index of 1.03 and dimensions 11×11×1 cm3, produced by the Matsushita Electric Works (Japan), have been measured in the wavelength range from 200 to 900 nm. The tiles are used as one of the two radiators of the ring imaging Cherenkov counter of the HERMES experiment at DESY-HERA. The transmittance of light has been measured on 200 tiles by means of a double beam spectrophotometer. The light transflectance and reflectance have been measured on one tile by means of a single-beam spectrophotometer and an integrating reflecting sphere. Typical values of the measured transmittances at a wavelength λ=400 nm are around 0.67. The measured transflectance increases almost linearly from 0.4 to 0.96 in the interval 200-300 nm, and remains nearly constant at the value 0.95 in the complementary λ-range. The measured reflectance, mostly confined below 400 nm, is completely interpretable as backscattering from inside the aerogel, revealing an absence of light reflection at the aerogel surfaces. The transmittance data have been fitted with the Hunt formula, whose parameters have been used to evaluate the number of unscattered and scattered Cherenkov photons produced by aerogel. For stacks of 5 tiles and quantum efficiencies of phototubes with bialkali photocathodes, rings with up to 19 photoelectrons/event can be expected for β=1 particles.

  6. Parametric Analysis to Study the Influence of Aerogel-Based Renders’ Components on Thermal and Mechanical Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ximenes, Sofia; Silva, Ana; Soares, António; Flores-Colen, Inês; de Brito, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Statistical models using multiple linear regression are some of the most widely used methods to study the influence of independent variables in a given phenomenon. This study’s objective is to understand the influence of the various components of aerogel-based renders on their thermal and mechanical performance, namely cement (three types), fly ash, aerial lime, silica sand, expanded clay, type of aerogel, expanded cork granules, expanded perlite, air entrainers, resins (two types), and rheological agent. The statistical analysis was performed using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences), based on 85 mortar mixes produced in the laboratory and on their values of thermal conductivity and compressive strength obtained using tests in small-scale samples. The results showed that aerial lime assumes the main role in improving the thermal conductivity of the mortars. Aerogel type, fly ash, expanded perlite and air entrainers are also relevant components for a good thermal conductivity. Expanded clay can improve the mechanical behavior and aerogel has the opposite effect. PMID:28773460

  7. Parametric Analysis to Study the Influence of Aerogel-Based Renders' Components on Thermal and Mechanical Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ximenes, Sofia; Silva, Ana; Soares, António; Flores-Colen, Inês; de Brito, Jorge

    2016-05-04

    Statistical models using multiple linear regression are some of the most widely used methods to study the influence of independent variables in a given phenomenon. This study's objective is to understand the influence of the various components of aerogel-based renders on their thermal and mechanical performance, namely cement (three types), fly ash, aerial lime, silica sand, expanded clay, type of aerogel, expanded cork granules, expanded perlite, air entrainers, resins (two types), and rheological agent. The statistical analysis was performed using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences), based on 85 mortar mixes produced in the laboratory and on their values of thermal conductivity and compressive strength obtained using tests in small-scale samples. The results showed that aerial lime assumes the main role in improving the thermal conductivity of the mortars. Aerogel type, fly ash, expanded perlite and air entrainers are also relevant components for a good thermal conductivity. Expanded clay can improve the mechanical behavior and aerogel has the opposite effect.

  8. A three-dimensional BiOBr/RGO heterostructural aerogel with enhanced and selective photocatalytic properties under visible light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Xue [Key Laboratory of Marine Chemistry Theory and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qing dao 266100 (China); Shi, Junjie, E-mail: junjieshiding@gmail.com [Institute of Applied and Physical Chemistry and Center for Environmental Research and Sustainable Technology, University Bremen, Leobener Str. UFT, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Feng, Lijuan; Li, Chunhu [Key Laboratory of Marine Chemistry Theory and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qing dao 266100 (China); Wang, Liang, E-mail: wangliangouc@ouc.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Marine Chemistry Theory and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qing dao 266100 (China)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • A BiOBr/RGO aerogel photocatalyst was synthesized using dopamine as reducing agent. • BiOBr/RGO aerogel can be easily controlled morphology by a simple two-step method. • BiOBr/RGO aerogel photocatalyst exhibited superior performance in MO decoloration. - Abstract: A series of BiOBr/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) aerogel was fabricated using a two steps hydrothermal method. Various methods such as SEM, TEM, DRS and Raman spectroscopy were employed to fully characterize the as-obtained BiOBr/RGO. Their photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange (MO) were studied under visible light irradiation. The combination of BiOBr and RGO result in an improved activity. The sample with 10 wt% RGO abbreviated as BiOBr-G10 shows the highest activity. Moreover, this sample exhibits a selective visible-light photocatalytic behavior as the degradation rate over MO (80%) is much higher than that over Rhodamin B (50%) and phenol (35%) in 60 min. The XRD and photoluminescence emission spectroscopy characterization of the BiOBr-G10 samples indicates an increased crystallization of BiOBr and efficient quenching of photo-excited electrons and holes contributes to the improved photocatalytic activities.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of flexible and high-temperature resistant polyimide aerogel with ultra-low dielectric constant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. M. Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A polyimide (PI aerogel with excellent combined thermal and dielectric properties was successfully prepared by the polycondensation of 3,3′,4,4′-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride (BPDA, 5-amino-2-(4-aminophenylbenzoxazole (APBO and octa(amino-phenylsilsesquioxane (OAPS crosslinker, followed by a supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2 drying treatment. The developed PI aerogel exhibited an ultra-low dielectric constant (k of 1.15 at a frequency of 2.75 GHz, a volume resistivity of 5.45·1014 Ω·cm, and a dielectric strength of 132 kV/cm. The flexible PI aerogel exhibited an openpore microstructure consisting of three-dimensional network with tangled nanofibers morphology with a porosity of 85.6% (volume ratio, an average pore diameter of 19.2 nm, and a Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET surface area of 428.6 m2/g. In addition, the PI aerogel showed excellent thermal stability with a glass transition temperature (Tg of 358.3 °C, a 5% weight loss temperature over 500 °C, and a residual weight ratio of 66.7% at 750 °C in nitrogen.

  10. Octahedral Tin Dioxide Nanocrystals Anchored on Vertically Aligned Carbon Aerogels as High Capacity Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingkai; Liu, Yuqing; Zhang, Yuting; Li, Yiliao; Zhang, Peng; Yan, Yan; Liu, Tianxi

    2016-08-01

    A novel binder-free graphene - carbon nanotubes - SnO2 (GCNT-SnO2) aerogel with vertically aligned pores was prepared via a simple and efficient directional freezing method. SnO2 octahedrons exposed of {221} high energy facets were uniformly distributed and tightly anchored on multidimensional graphene/carbon nanotube (GCNT) composites. Vertically aligned pores can effectively prevent the emersion of “closed” pores which cannot load the active SnO2 nanoparticles, further ensure quick immersion of electrolyte throughout the aerogel, and can largely shorten the transport distance between lithium ions and active sites of SnO2. Especially, excellent electrical conductivity of GCNT-SnO2 aerogel was achieved as a result of good interconnected networks of graphene and CNTs. Furthermore, meso- and macroporous structures with large surface area created by the vertically aligned pores can provide great benefit to the favorable transport kinetics for both lithium ion and electrons and afford sufficient space for volume expansion of SnO2. Due to the well-designed architecture of GCNT-SnO2 aerogel, a high specific capacity of 1190 mAh/g with good long-term cycling stability up to 1000 times was achieved. This work provides a promising strategy for preparing free-standing and binder-free active electrode materials with high performance for lithium ion batteries and other energy storage devices.

  11. A dual pore carbon aerogel based air cathode for a highly rechargeable lithium-air battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Xu, Yang-Hai; Luo, Zhong-Kuan; Pang, Yan; Wu, Qi-Xing; Liang, Chun-Sheng; Chen, Jing; Liu, Dong; Zhang, Xiang-hua

    2014-12-01

    Cathode structure plays a vital role in lithium-air battery for that it can provide space for discharged products accommodation and free path for oxygen, e- and Li+ transport. However, pore blockage, cathode passivation and degradation all result in low discharge rates and poor cycling capability. To get rid of these predicaments, a novel highly conductive dual pore carbon aerogel based air cathode is fabricated to construct a lithium-air battery, which exhibits 18 to 525 cycles in the LiTFSI/sulfolane electrolyte at a current density varying from 1.00 mA cm-2 to 0.05 mA cm-2, accompanied by a high energy efficiency of 78.32%. We postulate that the essence lies in that the as-prepared air cathode inventively create a suitable tri-phase boundary reaction zone, facilitating oxygen and Li+ diffusion in two independant pore channels, thus realizing a relative higher discharge rate capability, lower pore blockage and cathode passivation. Further, pore structure, carbon loading, rate capability, discharge depth and the air's effect are exploited and coordinated, targeting for a high power and reversible lithium-air battery. Such nano-porous carbon aerogel air cathode of novel dual pore structure and material design is expected to be an attractive alternative for lithium-air batteries and other lithium based batteries.

  12. The efficiency of night insulation using aerogel-filled polycarbonate panels during the heating season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelsberger, Kathleen

    Energy is the basis for modern life. All modern technology from a simple coffee maker to massive industrial facilities is powered by energy. While the demand for energy is increasing, our planet is suffering from the consequences of using fossil fuels to generate electricity. Therefore, the world is looking at clean energy and solar power to minimize this effect on our environment. However, saving energy is extremely important even for clean energy. The more we save the less we have to generate. Heat retention in buildings is one step towards achieving passive heating. Therefore, efforts are made to prevent heat from escaping buildings through the glass during cold nights. Movable insulation is a way to increase the insulation value of the glass to reduce heat loss towards the outdoor. This thesis examines the performance of the aerogel-filled polycarbonate movable panels in the Ecohawks building, a building located on the west campus of The University of Kansas. Onsite tests were performed using air and surface temperature sensors to determine the effectiveness of the system. Computer simulations were run by Therm 7.2 simulation software to explore alternative design options. A cost analysis was also performed to evaluate the feasibility of utilizing movable insulation to reduce the heating bills during winter. Results showed that sealed movable insulation reduces heat loss through the glazing by 67.5%. Replacing aerogel with XPS panels reduces this percentage to 64.3%. However, it reduces the cost of the insulation material by 98%.

  13. Carbon aerogel with 3-D continuous skeleton and mesopore structure for lithium-ion batteries application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Xiaoqing; Huang, Hong; Zhang, Guoqing; Li, Xinxi; Wu, Dingcai; Fu, Ruowen

    2015-01-01

    Carbon aerogel (CA) with 3-D continuous skeleton and mesopore structure was prepared via a microemulsion-templated sol–gel polymerization method and then used as the anode materials of lithium-ion batteries. It was found that the reversible specific capacity of the as-prepared CAs could stay at about 470 mA h g −1 for 80 cycles, much higher than the theoretical capacity of commercial graphite (372 mAh g −1 ). In addition, CA also showed a better rate capacity compared to commercial graphite. The good electrochemical properties could be ascribed to the following three factors: (1) the large BET surface area of 620 m 2  g −1 , which can provide more lithium ion insertion sites, (2) 3-D continuous skeleton of CAs, which favors the transport of the electrons, (3) 3-D continuous mesopore structure with narrow mesopore size distribution and high mesopore ratio of 87.3%, which facilitates the diffusion and transport of the electrolyte and lithium ions. - Highlights: • Carbon aerogel (CA) was prepared via a microemulsion-templated sol–gel method. • The CA presents high surface area, 3D continuous skeleton and mesopore structure. • The reversible capacity of CA is much higher than that of graphite

  14. Monolithic cobalt-doped carbon aerogel for efficient catalytic activation of peroxymonosulfate in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Peidong; Long, Mingce; Bai, Xue; Wang, Cheng; Cai, Caiyun; Fu, Jiajun; Zhou, Baoxue; Zhou, Yongfeng

    2017-06-15

    As an emerging carbonaceous material, carbon aerogels (CAs) display a great potential in environmental cleanup. In this study, a macroscopic three-dimensional monolithic cobalt-doped carbon aerogel was developed by co-condensation of graphene oxide sheets and resorcinol-formaldehyde resin in the presence of cobalt ions, followed by lyophilization, carbonization and thermal treatment in air. Cobalt ions were introduced as a polymerization catalyst to bridge the organogel framework, and finally cobalt species were retained as both metallic cobalt and Co 3 O 4 , wrapped by graphitized carbon layers. The material obtained after a thermal treatment in air (CoCA-A) possesses larger BET specific surface area and pore volume, better hydrophilicity and lower leaching of cobalt ions than that without the post-treatment (CoCA). Despite of a lower loading of cobalt content and a larger mass transfer resistance than traditional powder catalysts, CoCA-A can efficiently eliminate organic contaminants by activation of peroxymonosulfate with a low activation energy. CoCA-A can float beneath the surface of aqueous solution and can be taken out completely without any changes in morphology. The monolith is promising to be developed into an alternative water purification technology due to the easily separable feature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Biodiesel synthesis using K2CO3/Al–O–Si aerogel catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IVANA LUKIĆ

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, catalysts for fatty acid methyl esters (FAME or bio-diesel synthesis with K2CO3 as the active component on an alumina/silica support were synthesized using the sol–gel method, which was followed by drying the “dense” wet gels with supercritical carbon dioxide to obtain the aerogels. The prepared catalysts were characterized by XRD analysis, FTIR spectroscopy and N2 physisorption at 77 K, and tested in the methanolysis of sunflower oil. The effects of reaction variables, such as reaction time, temperature and methanol to oil molar ratio, on the yield of FAME were investigated. The aerogel catalysts with K2CO3 as the active component on an alumina/silica support exhibited good activity in the methanolysis of sunflower oil. The leaching of potassium when the catalyst was in contact with pure methanol under the working conditions of methanolysis was also tested in this study, indicating that it occurred only at higher temperatures, while at lower ones, it was negligible.

  16. Xenon-131 surface sensitive imaging of aerogels in liquid xenon near the critical point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlovskaya, G; Blue, A K; Gibbs, S J; Haake, M; Cros, F; Malier, L; Meersmann, T

    1999-03-01

    In recent years, optically pumped xenon-129 has received a great deal of attention as a contrast agent in gas-phase imaging. This report is about the other NMR active xenon isotope (i.e., xenon-131, S = 32) which exhibits distinctive features for imaging applications in material sciences that are not obtainable from xenon-129 (S = (1/2)). The spin dynamics of xenon-131 in gas and liquid phases is largely determined by quadrupolar interactions which depend strongly on the surface of the surrounding materials. This leads to a surface dependent dispersion of relaxation rates, which can be substantial for this isotope. The dephasing of the coherence due to quadrupolar interactions may be used to yield surface specific contrast for imaging. Although optical pumping is not practical for this isotope because of its fast quadrupolar relaxation, a high spin density of liquid xenon close to the critical point (289 K) overcomes the sensitivity problems of xenon-131. We report the first xenon-131 magnetic resonance images and have tested this technique on various meso-porous aerogels as host structures. Aerogels of different densities and changing levels of hydration can clearly be distinguished from the images obtained. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  17. Development and evaluation of aerogel-filled BMI sandwich panels for thermal barrier applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dineshkumar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study details a fabrication methodology envisaged to manufacture Glass/BMI honeycomb core aerogel-filled sandwich panels. Silica aerogel granules are used as core fillers to provide thermal insulation properties with little weight increase. Experimental heat transfer studies are conducted on these panels to study the temperature distribution between their two surfaces. Numerical studies are also carried out to validate the results. Despite exhibiting good thermal shielding capabilities, the Glass/BMI sandwich panels are found to oxidise at 180 ºC if exposed directly to heat. In order to increase the temperature bearing capacity and the operating temperature range for these panels, a way of coating them from outside with high temperature spray paint was tried. With a silicone-based coating, the temperature sustainability of these sandwich panels is found to increase to 350 ºC. This proved the effectiveness of the formed manufacturing process, selected high temperature coating, the coating method as well as the envisaged sandwich panel concept.

  18. Synthesis and studies of novel high metal content organic aerogels obtained from a polymerizable titanium complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadra, S.

    2010-01-01

    Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) is a technique widely studied by the French atomic commission (CEA). Experiments will be performed within the Laser Megajoule (LMJ). They require innovative materials like organic aerogels that constitute laser targets. Such polymeric material must provide both a high porosity and a significant titanium percentage (1 atom %). Moreover, the monomers developed must be compatible with the synthesis procedure already in use. According to these specifications, a new polymerizable titanium complex was synthesized and fully characterized. This air and moisture-stable monomer provides a high metal percentage. Its free-radical cross-linked copolymerization affords several titanium-containing polymers. These gels were dried under supercritical conditions and organic aerogels were obtained. The chemical compositions of these materials were investigated by NMR, IR and elemental analysis while their structure was characterized by MEB-EDS, MET, N 2 adsorption/desorption isotherms measurements and SAXS. The data collected fit the specification requirements. Moreover, the mechanisms responsible of the foam nano-structure formation were discussed. (author) [fr

  19. Synthesis and Characterization of Metal Hydride/Carbon Aerogel Composites for Hydrogen Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuen-Song Lin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Two materials currently of interest for onboard lightweight hydrogen storage applications are sodium aluminum hydride (NaAlH4, a complex metal hydride, and carbon aerogels (CAs, a light porous material connected by several spherical nanoparticles. The objectives of the present work have been to investigate the synthesis, characterization, and hydrogenation behavior of Pd-, Ti- or Fe-doped CAs, NaAlH4, and MgH2 nanocomposites. The diameters of Pd nanoparticles onto CA’s surface and BET surface area of CAs were 3–10 nm and 700–900 m2g−1, respectively. The H2 storage capacity of metal hydrides has been studied using high-pressure TGA microbalance and they were 4.0, 2.7, 2.1, and 1.2 wt% for MgH2-FeTi-CAs, MgH2-FeTi, CAs-Pd, and 8 mol% Ti-doped NaAlH4, respectively, at room temperature. Carbon aerogels with higher surface area and mesoporous structures facilitated hydrogen diffusion and adsorption, which accounted for its extraordinary hydrogen storage phenomenon. The hydrogen adsorption abilities of CAs notably increased after inclusion of metal hydrides by the “hydrogen spillover” mechanisms.

  20. Graphene Aerogel Templated Fabrication of Phase Change Microspheres as Thermal Buffers in Microelectronic Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuchun; Li, Guangyong; Hong, Guo; Guo, Qiang; Zhang, Xuetong

    2017-11-29

    Phase change materials, changing from solid to liquid and vice versa, are capable of storing and releasing a large amount of thermal energy during the phase change, and thus hold promise for numerous applications including thermal protection of electronic devices. Shaping these materials into microspheres for additional fascinating properties is efficient but challenging. In this regard, a novel phase change microsphere with the design for electrical-regulation and thermal storage/release properties was fabricated via the combination of monodispersed graphene aerogel microsphere (GAM) and phase change paraffin. A programmable method, i.e., coupling ink jetting-liquid marbling-supercritical drying (ILS) techniques, was demonstrated to produce monodispersed graphene aerogel microspheres (GAMs) with precise size-control. The resulting GAMs showed ultralow density, low electrical resistance, and high specific surface area with only ca. 5% diameter variation coefficient, and exhibited promising performance in smart switches. The phase change microspheres were obtained by capillary filling of phase change paraffin inside the GAMs and exhibited excellent properties, such as low electrical resistance, high latent heat, well sphericity, and thermal buffering. Assembling the phase change microsphere into the microcircuit, we found that this tiny device was quite sensitive and could respond to heat as low as 0.027 J.

  1. Trombe walls with nanoporous aerogel insulation applied to UK housing refurbishments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Dowson

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available There is an opportunity to improve the efficiency of passive Trombe walls and active solar air collectors by replacing their conventional glass covers with lightweight polycarbonate panels filled with nanoporous aerogel insulation. This study investigates the thermal performance, energy savings, and financial payback period of passive Aerogel Trombe walls applied to the existing UK housing stock. Using parametric modeling, a series of design guidance tables have been generated, providing estimates of the energy savings and overheating risk associated with applying areas of Trombe wall to four different house types across the UK built to six notional construction standards. Calculated energy savings range from 183 kWh/m2/year for an 8 m2 system retrofitted to a solid walled detached house to 62 kWh/m2/year for a 32 m2 system retrofitted to a super insulated flat. Predicted energy savings from Trombe walls up to 24 m2 are found to exceed the energy savings from external insulation across all house types and constructions. Small areas of Trombe wall can provide a useful energy contribution without creating a significant overheating risk. If larger areas are to be installed, then detailed calculations would be recommended to assess and mitigate potential overheating issues.

  2. Improving thermal insulation of TC4 using YSZ-based coating and SiO2 aerogel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Jin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, air plasmas spray (APS was used to prepare YSZ and Sc2O3–YSZ (ScYSZ coating in order to improve the thermal insulation ability of TC4 alloy. SiO2 aerogel was also synthesized and affixed on TC4 titanium alloy to inhabit thermal flow. The microstructures, phase compositions and thermal insulation performance of three coatings were analyzed in detail. The results of thermal diffusivity test by a laser flash method showed that the thermal diffusivities of YSZ, Sc2O3–YSZ and SiO2 aerogel are 0.553, 0.539 and 0.2097×10−6 m2/s, respectively. Then, the thermal insulation performances of three kinds of coating were investigated from 20 °C to 400 °C using high infrared radiation heat flux technology. The experimental results indicated that the corresponding temperature difference between the top TC4 alloy (400 °C and the bottom surface of YSZ is 41.5 °C for 0.6 mm thickness coating. For 1 mm thickness coating, the corresponding temperature difference between the top TC4 alloys (400 °C and the bottom surface of YSZ, ScYSZ, SiO2 aerogel three specimens is 54, 54.6 and 208 °C, respectively. The coating thickness and species were found to influence the heat insulation ability. In these materials, YSZ and ScYSZ exhibited a little difference for heat insulation behavior. However, SiO2 aerogel was the best one among them and it can be taken as protection material on TC4 alloys. In outer space, SiO2 aerogel can meet the need of thermal insulation of TC4 of high-speed aircraft.

  3. CoFe2O4/carbon nanotube aerogels as high performance anodes for lithium ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Sun

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available High-performance lithium ion batteries (LIBs require electrode material to have an ideal electrode construction which provides fast ion transport, short solid-state ion diffusion, large surface area, and high electric conductivity. Herein, highly porous three-dimensional (3D aerogels composed of cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4, CFO nanoparticles (NPs and carbon nanotubes (CNTs are prepared using sustainable alginate as the precursor. The key feature of this work is that by using the characteristic egg-box structure of the alginate, metal cations such as Co2+ and Fe3+ can be easily chelated via an ion-exchange process, thus binary CFO are expected to be prepared. In the hybrid aerogels, CFO NPs interconnected by the CNTs are embedded in carbon aerogel matrix, forming the 3D network which can provide high surface area, buffer the volume expansion and offer efficient ion and electron transport pathways for achieving high performance LIBs. The as-prepared hybrid aerogels with the optimum CNT content (20 wt% delivers excellent electrochemical properties, i.e., reversible capacity of 1033 mAh g−1 at 0.1 A g−1 and a high specific capacity of 874 mAh g−1 after 160 cycles at 1 A g−1. This work provides a facile and low cost route to fabricate high performance anodes for LIBs. Keywords: Alginate, Aerogels, Cobalt ferrite, Anode, Lithium-ion battery

  4. A new route for preparation of sodium-silicate-based hydrophobic silica aerogels via ambient-pressure drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzma K H Bangi, A Venkateswara Rao and A Parvathy Rao

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available An in-depth investigation into the synthesis of hydrophobic silica aerogels prepared by the surface derivatization of wet gels followed by subsequent drying at ambient pressure is reported. The following sol–gel parameters were examined for their effect on the physical properties of the derived aerogels: number of gel washings with water, percentage of hexane or methanol in silylating mixture, molar ratio of tartaric acid: Na2SiO3, gel aging period, weight% of silica, trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS percentage, and silylation period. These parameters were varied from 1 to 4, 0 to 100%, 0.27 to 1.2, 0 to 4 h, 1.5 to 8 wt.%, 20 to 40% and 6 to 24 h, respectively. The properties of hydrophobic silica aerogels synthesized by this new route were investigated in terms of bulk density, percentage volume shrinkage, percentage porosity, thermal conductivity and contact angle with water, and by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. The as-prepared hydrophobic silica aerogels exhibited high temperature stability (up to approximately 435 °C as measured by thermogravimetric/differential thermal analysis (TGA-DTA. The optimal sol-gel parameters were found to be a molar ratio of Na2SiO3:H2O : tartaric acid : TMCS of 1 : 146.67 : 0.86 : 9.46, an aging period of 3 h, four washings with water in 24 h and the use of a 50% hexane- or methanol-based silylating mixture. Aerogels prepared with these optimal parameters were found to exhibit 50% optical transparency in the visible range, 84 kg m−3 density, 0.090 W mK−1 thermal conductivity, 95% porosity and a contact angle of 146° with water.

  5. Plant survival and keystone pollinator species in stochastic coextinction models: role of intrinsic dependence on animal-pollination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traveset, Anna; Tur, Cristina; Eguíluz, Víctor M

    2017-07-31

    Coextinction models are useful to understand community robustness to species loss and resilience to disturbances. We simulated pollinator extinctions in pollination networks by using a hybrid model that combined a recently developed stochastic coextinction model (SCM) for plant extinctions and a topological model (TCM) for animal extinctions. Our model accounted for variation in interaction strengths and included empirical estimates of plant dependence on pollinators to set seeds. The stochastic nature of such model allowed us determining plant survival to single (and multiple) extinction events, and identifying which pollinators (keystone species) were more likely to trigger secondary extinctions. Consistently across three different pollinator removal sequences, plant robustness was lower than in a pure TCM, and plant survival was more determined by dependence on the mutualism than by interaction strength. As expected, highly connected and dependent plants were the most sensitive to pollinator loss and collapsed faster in extinction cascades. We predict that the relationship between dependence and plant connectivity is crucial to determine network robustness to interaction loss. Finally, we showed that honeybees and several beetles were keystone species in our communities. This information is of great value to foresee consequences of pollinator losses facing current global change and to identify target species for effective conservation.

  6. On the correlation between the porous structure and the electrochemical response of powdered and monolithic carbon aerogels as electrodes for capacitive deionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macías, C., E-mail: carlosmacias@nanoquimia.com [Nanoquimia S.L., PCT Rabanales 21, Ed. Aldebarán M.4.3., 14014 Córdoba (Spain); Lavela, P. [Laboratorio de Química Inorgánica, Universidad de Córdoba, Marie Curie, Campus de Rabanales, 14071 Córdoba (Spain); Rasines, G. [Nanoquimia S.L., PCT Rabanales 21, Ed. Aldebarán M.4.3., 14014 Córdoba (Spain); Zafra, M.C.; Tirado, J.L. [Laboratorio de Química Inorgánica, Universidad de Córdoba, Marie Curie, Campus de Rabanales, 14071 Córdoba (Spain); Ania, C.O. [ADPOR Group, Instituto Nacional del Carbón (INCAR), CSIC, Apdo. 73, 33080 Oviedo (Spain)

    2016-10-15

    The combined effect of resorcinol/catalyst (100≤R/C≤800) and resorcinol/water (0.04≤R/W≤0.13) molar ratio on the textural and capacitive properties of carbon aerogels with potential application for capacitive deionization has been evaluated. Activated and pyrolyzed aerogels were synthesized by the sol-gel polymerization of resorcinol-formaldehyde mixtures and dried in supercritical conditions. Data show that high R/C and R/W molar ratios lead to materials with large pores in the mesopore range, whereas the surface area and micropore volumes remain somewhat the same. The activation of the aerogels increased the differences in the specific surface and micropore volumes due to the development of microporosity. This effect was more remarkable for the samples with low R/C whatever the R/W ratio, indicating that the carbon aerogel obtained using high amounts of catalyst are more prone to be activated. Regarding the electrochemical features of the aerogels, low capacitance values were measured in aerogels combining low R/W and high R/C and reciprocally low R/C and high R/W molar ratios, due to their higher resistance. Polarization resistances were found to be slightly higher for the pyrolyzed than for activated aerogels, and followed a decreasing trend with the mesoporosity, indicating the outstanding contribution of the mesoporous network to provide a good kinetic response. The desalting capacity of monolithic aerogels showed a simultaneous dependence with the surface area and the resistivity of the electrodes, pointing out the importance of performing electrochemical measurements in adequate cell configurations (i.e., desalting units) upon the intended application. - Graphical abstract: The textural properties of carbon aerogels are strongly influenced by the synthesis parameters precursor to catalyst (R/C) and water (R/C) ratios. The volumetric capacitance measured in a symmetric cell with monolithic electrodes of carbon aerogel strongly correlates with both

  7. Effects of groundwater abstraction on two keystone tree species in an arid savanna national park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor Shadwell

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background In arid systems with no surface water, deep boreholes in ephemeral river beds provide for humans and animals. With continually increasing infrastructure development for tourism in arid wildlife parks such as the Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park in southern Africa, we ask what effects increased abstraction may have on large trees. Large trees in arid savannas perform essential ecosystem services by providing food, shade, nesting sites and increased nutrients for many other plant and animal species and for this are regarded as keystone species. Methods We determine seasonal fluctuations in the water table while also determining the water source for the dominant large tree species in the Auob and Nossob rivers in the Park. We also determine the extent to which these trees are physiologically stressed using leaf δ13C, xylem pressure potentials, specific leaf area and an estimate of canopy death. We do this both upstream and downstream of a low water use borehole in the Auob River and a high water use borehole in the Nossob River. Results Our results show that the trees are indeed using deep groundwater in the wet season and that this is the same water used by people. In the dry season, trees in the Auob downstream of the active borehole become detached from the aquifer and use more isotopically enriched soil water. In the Nossob in the dry season, all trees use isotopically enriched soil water, and downstream of the active borehole use stomatal regulation to maintain leaf water potentials. These results suggest that trees in the more heavily utilised Nossob are under more water stress than those trees in the Auob but that trees in both rivers demonstrate physiological adaptation to the changes in available water with smaller heavier leaves, no significant canopy dieback and in the dry season in the Nossob stomatal regulation of leaf water potentials. Discussion An increase in abstraction of groundwater particularly at the Nossob borehole may

  8. Effects of groundwater abstraction on two keystone tree species in an arid savanna national park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadwell, Eleanor; February, Edmund

    2017-01-01

    In arid systems with no surface water, deep boreholes in ephemeral river beds provide for humans and animals. With continually increasing infrastructure development for tourism in arid wildlife parks such as the Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park in southern Africa, we ask what effects increased abstraction may have on large trees. Large trees in arid savannas perform essential ecosystem services by providing food, shade, nesting sites and increased nutrients for many other plant and animal species and for this are regarded as keystone species. We determine seasonal fluctuations in the water table while also determining the water source for the dominant large tree species in the Auob and Nossob rivers in the Park. We also determine the extent to which these trees are physiologically stressed using leaf δ 13 C, xylem pressure potentials, specific leaf area and an estimate of canopy death. We do this both upstream and downstream of a low water use borehole in the Auob River and a high water use borehole in the Nossob River. Our results show that the trees are indeed using deep groundwater in the wet season and that this is the same water used by people. In the dry season, trees in the Auob downstream of the active borehole become detached from the aquifer and use more isotopically enriched soil water. In the Nossob in the dry season, all trees use isotopically enriched soil water, and downstream of the active borehole use stomatal regulation to maintain leaf water potentials. These results suggest that trees in the more heavily utilised Nossob are under more water stress than those trees in the Auob but that trees in both rivers demonstrate physiological adaptation to the changes in available water with smaller heavier leaves, no significant canopy dieback and in the dry season in the Nossob stomatal regulation of leaf water potentials. An increase in abstraction of groundwater particularly at the Nossob borehole may cause an additional draw down of the water table adding

  9. Recreational trails as a source of negative impacts on the persistence of keystone species and facilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantyne, Mark; Pickering, Catherine Marina

    2015-08-15

    Hiking trails, which are among the most common forms of infrastructure created for nature-based tourism, can alter key ecological processes. Trails can damage plants that facilitate the establishment and growth of other species leading to changes in community and functional composition. This can be a particular concern in harsh alpine ecosystems where plant communities are often dominated by one or two keystone species that provide shelter to a suite of beneficiary species. We analysed how a hiking trail affects interspecific facilitation by a dominant trampling-sensitive nurse shrub in the highest National Park in Australia. First we assessed the effects of the trail on the abundance, size and density of the nurse shrub at different distances from the trail. We then compared species richness and composition between areas in, and out, of the nurse shrub's canopy at different distances from the trail. To better understand why some species may benefit from facilitation and any effects of the trail on the quality of facilitation we compared functional composition between quadrats using community trait weighted means calculated by combining plant composition with species functional traits (canopy height, leaf area, % dry weight of leaves and specific leaf area). The abundance, size and density of nurse shrubs was lower on the trail edges than further away, particularly on the leeward edge, where there was more bare ground and less shrub cover. There were differences in species richness, cover, composition and functional composition in and outside the nurse shrub canopy. The shrubs appeared to facilitate species with more competitive, but less stress tolerant traits (e.g. taller plants with leaves that were larger, had high specific leaf area and low dry matter content). However, despite reductions in nurse shrubs near the trail, where they do exist, they appear to provide the same 'quality' of facilitation as nurse shrubs further away. However, longer-term effects may

  10. The microbe capture experiment in space: Fluorescence microscopic detection of microbes captured by aerogel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugino, Tomohiro; Yokobori, Shin-Ichi; Yang, Yinjie; Kawaguchi, Yuko; Okudaira, Kyoko; Tabata, Makoto; Kawai, Hideyuki; Hasegawa, Sunao; Yamagishi, Akihiko

    Microbes have been collected at the altitude up to about 70 km in the sampling experiment done by several groups[1]. We have also collected high altitude microbes, by using an airplane and balloons[2][3][4][5]. We collected new deinococcal strain (Deinococcus aetherius and Deinococ-cus aerius) and several strains of spore-forming bacilli from stratosphere[2][4][5]. However, microbe sampling in space has never been reported. On the other hand, "Panspermia" hy-pothesis, where terrestrial life is originated from outside of Earth, has been proposed[6][7][8][9]. Recent report suggesting existence of the possible microbe fossils in the meteorite of Mars origin opened the serious debate on the possibility of migration of life embedded in meteorites (and cosmic dusts)[10][11]. If we were able to find terrestrial microbes in space, it would suggest that the terrestrial life can travel between astronomical bodies. We proposed a mission "Tanpopo: Astrobiology Exposure and Micrometeoroid Capture Experiments" to examine possible inter-planetary migration of microbes, organic compounds and meteoroids on Japan Experimental Module of the International Space Station (ISS)[12]. Two of six sub themes in this mission are directly related to interplanetary migration of microbes. One is the direct capturing experi-ment of microbes (probably within the particles such as clay) in space by the exposed ultra-low density aerogel. Another is the exposure experiment to examine survivability of the microbes in harsh space environment. They will tell us the possibility of interplanetary migration of microbes (life) from Earth to outside of Earth (or vise versa). In this report, we will report whether aerogel that have been used for the collection of space debris and cosmic dusts can be used for microbe sampling in space. We will discuss how captured particles by aerogel can be detected with DNA-specific fluorescent dye, and how to distinguish microbes from other mate-rials (i.e. aerogel and

  11. Fabrication of Biomass-Derived Carbon Aerogels with High Adsorption of Oils and Organic Solvents: Effect of Hydrothermal and Post-Pyrolysis Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Aishu; Xu, Feng; Zhang, Xueming

    2016-09-06

    Biomass is the most plentiful and well-utilized renewable carbon resource on the earth. Direct conversion of biomass to carbon aerogel provides a promising approach to develop adsorbent materials. In the present work, the effect of presence of water during hydrothermal treatment and holding temperature during post-pyrolysis process have been investigated for the preparation of carbon aerogels (CAs) using eggplant as raw material. The results showed that the addition of water during hydrothermal treatment was advantageous for the preparation of CA samples with higher surface area and stronger hydrophobicity, resulting in superior adsorption capacities of CAs for both oil and organic solvents compared with that fabricated without the presence of water. The optimized carbon aerogel possessed higher specific surface of 249 m²·g -1 and exhibited excellent hydrophobicity with a water contact angle of 133°. The adsorption capacities of carbon aerogel for oils and organic solvents could reach 35-45 times its own weight. In addition, the adsorbed oil and organic solvents could be recovered by distillation, and the regenerated carbon aerogels samples exhibited the stable performance and outstanding reusability. Therefore, the carbon aerogel has great potential in application of oil recovery and environmental protection.

  12. Fabrication of Biomass-Derived Carbon Aerogels with High Adsorption of Oils and Organic Solvents: Effect of Hydrothermal and Post-Pyrolysis Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aishu Yin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Biomass is the most plentiful and well-utilized renewable carbon resource on the earth. Direct conversion of biomass to carbon aerogel provides a promising approach to develop adsorbent materials. In the present work, the effect of presence of water during hydrothermal treatment and holding temperature during post-pyrolysis process have been investigated for the preparation of carbon aerogels (CAs using eggplant as raw material. The results showed that the addition of water during hydrothermal treatment was advantageous for the preparation of CA samples with higher surface area and stronger hydrophobicity, resulting in superior adsorption capacities of CAs for both oil and organic solvents compared with that fabricated without the presence of water. The optimized carbon aerogel possessed higher specific surface of 249 m2·g−1 and exhibited excellent hydrophobicity with a water contact angle of 133°. The adsorption capacities of carbon aerogel for oils and organic solvents could reach 35–45 times its own weight. In addition, the adsorbed oil and organic solvents could be recovered by distillation, and the regenerated carbon aerogels samples exhibited the stable performance and outstanding reusability. Therefore, the carbon aerogel has great potential in application of oil recovery and environmental protection.

  13. Synthesis of well-dispersed magnetic CoFe2O4 nanoparticles in cellulose aerogels via a facile oxidative co-precipitation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Caichao; Li, Jian

    2015-12-10

    With the increasing emphasis on green chemistry, it is becoming more important to develop environmentally friendly matrix materials for the synthesis of nanocomposites. Cellulose aerogels with hierarchical micro/nano-scale three-dimensional network beneficial to control and guide the growth of nanoparticles, are suitable as a class of ideal green nanoparticles hosts to fabricate multifunctional nanocomposites. Herein, a facile oxidative co-precipitation method was carried out to disperse CoFe2O4 nanoparticles in the cellulose aerogels matrixes, and the cellulose aerogels were prepared from the native wheat straw based on a green NaOH/polyethylene glycol solution. The mean diameter of the well-dispersed CoFe2O4 nanoparticles in the hybrid aerogels is 98.5 nm. Besides, the hybrid aerogels exhibit strong magnetic responsiveness, which could be flexibly actuated by a small magnet. And this feature also makes this class of magnetic aerogels possibly useful as recyclable adsorbents and some magnetic devices. Meanwhile, the mild green preparation method could also be extended to fabricate other miscellaneous cellulose-based nanocomposites. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Enhancement in CO2 Adsorption Capacity and Selectivity in the Chalcogenide Aerogel CuSb2S4 by Post-synthetic Modification with LiCl

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Ejaz

    2015-09-11

    The new chalcogel CuSb2S4 was obtained by reacting Cu(OAc)2·H2O with KSbS2 in a water/formamide mixture at room temperature. In order to modify the gas adsorption capacity the synthesized CuSb2S4 aerogel was loaded with different amounts of LiCl. CO2 adsorption measurements on the CuSb2S4 aerogel before and after treatment with LiCl showed more than three times increased uptake of the LiCl-modified chalcogel. The selectivities of the gas pairs CO2/H2 and CO2/CH4 in the LiCl-treated chalcogel are 235 and 105 respectively and amongst the highest reported for chalcogenide-based aerogels. In comparison with other porous materials like zeolites, activated carbon and most of the Metal Organic Frameworks (MOFs) or Porous Organic Frameworks (POFs), our synthesized aerogels show good air and moisture stability. Although, the CO2 storage capacity of our aerogels is relatively low, however the selectivity of CO2 over H2 or CH4 in LiCl-loaded aerogels are higher than in zeolites, activated carbon as well as some MOFs like Cu-BTC and MOF-5 etc.

  15. Modeling the consequences of the demise and potential recovery of a keystone-species: wild rabbits and avian scavengers in Mediterranean landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Avizanda, Ainara; Colomer, Maria Àngels; Margalida, Antoni; Ceballos, Olga; Donázar, José Antonio

    2015-11-01

    Restoration of demised keystone-species populations is an overriding concern in conservation biology. However, since no population is independent of its environment, progress is needed in predicting the efficacy of restoration in unstable ecological contexts. Here, by means of Population Dynamics P-system Models (PDP), we studied long-term changes in the population size of Egyptian vultures (Neophron percnopterus) inhabiting a Natural Park, northern Spain, to changes in the numbers of wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), a keystone-species of Mediterranean ecosystems that have suffered >90% population decline after a hemorrhagic disease outbreak. Low availability of rabbit carcasses leads Egyptian vultures to extend their foraging activities to unprotected areas with higher non-natural mortality whereas growing numbers of griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus), a dominant competitor, progressively monopolize trophic resources resulting in a focal population decrease. Modeling shows that, even if keystone-species populations recover in core protected areas, the return to the original studied population size may be unfeasible, due to both the high non-natural mortality rates in humanized areas and long-term changes in the scavenger guild structure. Policy decisions aimed to restore keystone-species should rely on holistic approaches integrating the effects of spatial heterogeneity on both producer and consumer populations as well as within-guild processes.

  16. Adsorption Mechanism of Oil by Resilient Graphene Aerogels from Oil-Water Emulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiankun; Yan, Zifeng

    2018-02-06

    A facile synthesis strategy was adopted to prepare resilient graphene aerogel (GA) with properties of high emulsified oil adsorption capacities, excellent rebounding performance, oil-water selectivity, and recycling abilities. The maximum adsorption capacity of GA for emulsified diesel oil was 2.5 × 10 4 mg g -1 . The microscopic kinetic and thermodynamic mutual reaction models of diesel oil emulsion adsorption onto GA were investigated to describe the adsorption mechanism. The emulsified diesel oil was able to be separated efficiently from the oil-water emulsion by GA because of their high oil selectivity. Interestingly, both kinetics and thermodynamic experiments show that emulsified oil adsorption on GA is a physical adsorption and spontaneous process. Besides, GA can be reused with prominent repeatability for at least 10 cycles, demonstrating feasibility in practical applications of GA-based oily water treatment.

  17. Novel antimony doped tin oxide/carbon aerogel as efficient electrocatalytic filtration membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhimeng Liu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A facile method was developed to prepare antimony doped tin oxide (Sb-SnO2/carbon aerogel (CA for use as an electrocatalytic filtration membrane. The preparation process included synthesis of a precursor sol, impregnation, and thermal decomposition. The Sb-SnO2, which was tetragonal in phase with an average crystallite size of 10.8 nm, was uniformly distributed on the CA surface and firmly attached via carbon-oxygen-tin chemical bonds. Preliminary filtration tests indicated that the Sb-SnO2/CA membrane had a high rate of total organic carbon removal for aqueous tetracycline owing to its high current efficiency and electrode stability.

  18. Versatile gas-phase reactions for surface to bulk esterification of cellulose microfibrils aerogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumagalli, Matthieu; Ouhab, Djamila; Boisseau, Sonia Molina; Heux, Laurent

    2013-09-09

    Aqueous suspensions of microfibrillated cellulose obtained by a high pressure homogenization process were freeze-dried after solvent exchange into tert-butanol. The resulting aerogels, which displayed a remarkable open morphology with a surface area reaching 100 m(2)/g, were subjected to a gas-phase esterification with palmitoyl chloride. Under these conditions, variations of the reaction temperature from 100 to 200 °C, of the reaction time from 0.5 to 2 h, and of the initial quantity of reagent, led to the preparation of a library of cellulose palmitates with DS varying from zero to 2.36. These products were characterized by gravimetry, FTIR, and (13)C solid-state NMR spectroscopy. Of special interest were the cellulose palmitate samples of low DS in the range of 0.1-0.4, which corresponded to hydrophobic cellulose microfibrils exclusively esterified at their surface while keeping intact their inner structure.

  19. Compressive properties of silica aerogel at 295, 76, and 20K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvidson, J.M.; Scull, L.L.

    1986-01-01

    Specimens of silica aerogel were tested in compression at 295, 76, and 20 K in a helium gas environment. The properties reported include Young's modulus, the proportional limit, and yield strength. Compressive stress-versus-strain curves at these temperatures are also given. A test apparatus was developed specifically to determine the compressive properties of low strength materials. To measure specimen strain a concentric, overlapping-cylinder, capacitance extensometer was developed. This frictionless device has the capability to conduct variable temperature tests at any temperature from 1.8 to 295 K. Results from the compression tests indicate that at low temperatures the material is not only stronger, but tougher. During 295-K compression tests, the samples fractured and, in some cases, crumbled. After 76- or 20-K compression tests, the specimens remained intact

  20. Use of Pd-Pt loaded graphene aerogel on nickel foam in direct ethanol fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Chi Him A.; Leung, D. Y. C.

    2018-01-01

    A size customized binder-free bimetallic Pd-Pt loaded graphene aerogel deposited on nickel foam plate (Pd-Pt/GA/NFP) was prepared and used as an electrode for an alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC) under room temperature. The effect of fuel concentration and metal composition on the output power density of the DEFC was systematically investigated. Under the optimum fuel concentration, the cell could achieve a value of 3.6 mW cm-2 at room temperature for the graphene electrode with Pd/Pt ratio approaching 1:1. Such results demonstrated the possibility of producing a size customized metal loaded GA/NFP electrode for fuel cell with high performance.

  1. Cryogenic Thermal Performance Testing of Bulk-Fill and Aerogel Insulation Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholtens, B. E.; Fesmire, J. E.; Sass, J. P.; Augustynowicz, S. D.; Heckle, K. W.

    2007-01-01

    The research testing and demonstration of new bulk-fill materials for cryogenic thermal insulation systems was performed by the Cryogenics Test Laboratory at NASA Kennedy Space Center. Thermal conductivity testing under actual-use cryogenic conditions is a key to understanding the total system performance encompassing engineering, economics, and materials factors. A number of bulk fill insulation materials, including aerogel beads, glass bubbles, and perlite powder, were tested using a new cylindrical cryostat. Boundary temperatures for the liquid nitrogen boil-off method were 293 K and 78 K. Tests were performed as a function of cold vacuum pressure from high vacuum to no vacuum conditions. Results are compared with other complementary test methods in the range of 300 K to 20 K. Various testing techniques are shown to be required to obtain a complete understanding of the operating performance of a material and to provide data for answers to design engineering questions.

  2. Catalytic Chemical Vapor Deposition Synthesis of Carbon Aerogels of High-Surface Area and Porosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Peña

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work carbon aerogels were synthesized by catalytic chemical vapor deposition method (CCVD. Ferrocene were employed as a source both of catalytic material (Fe and of carbon. Gaseous hydrogen and argon were used as reductant and carrier gas, respectively. The products of reaction were collected over alumina. The morphology and textural properties of the soot produced in the reaction chamber were investigated using Scanning Electron Microscopy, High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and N2 physisorption (BET and BHJ methods. After the evaluation of the porous structure of the synthesized products, 780 ± 20 m2/g of SBET and 0.55 ± 0.02 cm3/g of VBJH were found. The presence of iron carbide and the partial oxidation of carbon nanostructures were revealed by XPS.

  3. Robust, Flexible and Lightweight Dielectric Barrier Discharge Actuators Using Nanofoams/Aerogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauti, Godfrey (Inventor); Xu, Tian-Bing (Inventor); Siochi, Emilie J. (Inventor); Wilkinson, Stephen P. (Inventor); Meador, Mary Ann B. (Inventor); Guo, Haiquan N. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Robust, flexible, lightweight, low profile enhanced performance dielectric barrier discharge actuators (plasma actuators) based on aerogels/nanofoams with controlled pore size and size distribution as well as pore shape. The plasma actuators offer high body force as well as high force to weight ratios (thrust density). The flexibility and mechanical robustness of the actuators allows them to be shaped to conform to the surface to which they are applied. Carbon nanotube (CNT) based electrodes serve to further decrease the weight and profile of the actuators while maintaining flexibility while insulating nano-inclusions in the matrix enable tailoring of the mechanical properties. Such actuators are required for flow control in aeronautics and moving machinery such as wind turbines, noise abatement in landing gear and rotary wing aircraft and other applications.

  4. Crosslinked Carbon Nanotube Aerogel Films Decorated with Cobalt Oxides for Flexible Rechargeable Zn-Air Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Sha; Chen, Hongyuan; Wang, Han; Tong, Xiao; Chen, Minghai; Di, Jiangtao; Li, Qingwen

    2017-08-01

    Air electrodes with high catalytic activity are of great importance for rechargeable zinc-air batteries. Herein, a flexible, binder-free composite air electrode for zinc-air batteries is reported, which utilizes a lightweight, conductive, and crosslinked aerogel film of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) functioned as a 3D catalyst-supporting scaffold for bifunctional cobalt (II/III) oxides and as a current collector. The composite electrode shows high catalytic activities for both oxygen reduction reaction and oxygen evolution reaction, resulting from the synergistic effect of nitrogen-doped CNTs and spinel Co 3 O 4 nanoparticles. Solid-state Zn-air batteries assembled using such free-standing air electrodes (without the need of additional current collectors) are bendable and show low resistances, low charge/discharge overpotentials, and a high cyclic stability. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Thermal Jacket Design Using Cellulose Aerogels for Heat Insulation Application of Water Bottles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai M. Duong

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Thermal jacket design using eco-friendly cellulose fibers from recycled paper waste is developed in this report. Neoprene as an outmost layer, cellulose aerogels in the middle and Nylon as an innermost layer can form the best sandwiched laminate using the zigzag stitching method for thermal jacket development. The temperature of the ice slurry inside the water bottle covered with the designed thermal jackets remains at 0.1 °C even after 4 h, which is the average duration of an outfield exercise. Interestingly, the insulation performance of the designed thermal jackets is much better than the commercial insulated water bottles like FLOE bottles and is very competition to that of vacuum flasks for a same period of 4 h and ambient conditions.

  6. Atomic physics modeling of transmission spectra of Sc-doped aerogel foams to support OMEGA experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johns, H. M., E-mail: hjohns@lanl.gov; Lanier, N. E.; Kline, J. L.; Fontes, C. J.; Perry, T. S.; Fryer, C. L.; Sherrill, M. E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States); Brown, C. R. D.; Morton, J. W. [AWE Aldermaston, Berkshire, Reading RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); Hager, J. D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States); Lockheed-Martin, 497 Electronics Parkway, Syracuse, New York 13221 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    We present synthetic transmission spectra generated with PrismSPECT utilizing both the ATBASE model and the Los Alamos opacity library (OPLIB) to evaluate whether an alternative choice in atomic data will impact modeling of experimental data from radiation transport experiments using Sc-doped aerogel foams (ScSi{sub 6}O{sub 12} at 75 mg/cm{sup 3} density). We have determined that in the 50-200 eV T{sub e} range there is a significant difference in the 1s-3p spectra, especially below 100 eV, and for T{sub e} = 200 eV above 5000 eV in photon energy. Examining synthetic spectra generated using OPLIB with 300 resolving power reveals spectral sensitivity to T{sub e} changes of ∼3 eV.

  7. Evaluation of Aerogel Clad Optical Fibers Final Report CRADA No. TSB-1448-97

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maitland, Duncan [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Droege, M. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2018-01-22

    Fiber-optic based sensors will be needed for in situ monitoring of degradation products in various components of nuclear weapons. These sensors typically consist of a transducer located at the measurement site whose optical properties are modulated by interaction with the targeted degradation product. The interrogating light source and the detector for determining sensor response are located remotely. These two subsystems are connected by fiber optic cables. LLNL has developed a new technology, aerogel clad optical fibers, that have the advantage of accepting incident rays over a much wider angular range than normal glass clad fibers. These fibers are also capable of transmitting light more efficiently. These advantages can lead to a factor of 2-4 improvement in sensitivity and detection limit.

  8. Test of the HAPD light sensor for the Belle II Aerogel RICH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusa, Y.; Adachi, I.; Dolenec, R.; Hayata, K.; Iori, S.; Iwata, S.; Kakuno, H.; Kataura, R.; Kawai, H.; Kindo, H.; Kobayashi, T.; Korpar, S.; Krizan, P.; Kumita, T.; Mrvar, M.; Nishida, S.; Ogawa, K.; Pestotnik, R.; Santelj, L.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Tabata, M.; Yonenaga, M.

    2017-12-01

    The Aerogel Ring-Imaging Cherenkov detector (ARICH) is being installed in the endcap region of Belle II spectrometer to identify particles from B meson decays by detecting the Cherenkov ring image from aerogel radiators. To detect single photons, high-sensitive photon detector which has wide effective area (∼70 mm × 70 mm), a Hybrid Avalanche Photo Detector (HAPD), has been developed in a collaboration with Hamamatsu K.K. The HAPD consists of hybrid structure of a vacuum tube and an avalanche photodiode (APD). It can be operated in 1.5 T magnetic field of the spectrometer and withstands the radiation levels expected in the Belle II experiment. There are two steps of electric pulse amplification: acceleration of photo-electron in electric field in the vacuum tube part and electron avalanche in the APD part resulting in total gain of order 105. For the ARICH, we use 420 HAPDs in total. Before installing them, we performed quality assessment studies such as measurements of dark current, noise level, signal-to-noise ratio and two-dimensional scan with laser illumination. We also measured quantum efficiency of the photocathode. During the HAPD performance tests in the magnetic field, we observed very large signal pulses which cause long dead time of the readout electronics in some of the HAPDs. We have carried out a number of studies to understand this phenomenon, and have found a way to mitigate it and suppress the degradation of the ARICH performance. In this report, we will show a summary of the HAPD performance and quality assessment measurements including validation in the magnetic field for all of the HAPDs manufactured for the ARICH in the Belle II.

  9. Celebrity Climate Contrarians: Understanding a keystone species in contemporary climate science-policy-public interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boykoff, M. T.

    2012-12-01

    Since the 1980s, a keystone species called 'climate contrarians' has emerged and thrived. Through resistance to dominant interpretations of scientific evidence, and often outlier views on optimal responses to climate threats, contrarians have raised many meta-level questions: for instance, questions involve to what extent have their varied interventions been effective in terms of sparking a new and wise Copernican revolution; or do their amplified voices instead service entrenched carbon-based industry interests while they blend debates over 'climate change' with other culture wars? While the value of their influence has generated numerous debates, there is no doubt that climate contrarians have had significant influence on climate science, policy and public communities in ways that are larger than would be expected from their relative abundance in society. As such, a number of these actors have achieved 'celebrity status' in science-policy circles, and, at times, larger public spaces. This presentation focuses on how - particularly through amplified mass media attention to their movements - various outlier interventions have demonstrated themselves to be (often deliberately) detrimental to efforts that seek to enlarge rather than constrict the spectrum of possibility for mobilizing appropriate responses to ongoing climate challenges. Also, this work analyses the growth pathways of these charismatic megafauna through interview data and participant observations completed by the author at the 2011 Heartland Institute's Sixth International Conference on Climate Change. This provides detail on how outlier perspectives characterized as climate contrarians do work in these spaces under the guise of public intellectualism to achieve intended goals and objectives. The research undertaken and related in the presentation here seeks to better understand motivations that prop up these contrarian stances, such as possible ideological or evidentiary disagreement to the orthodox

  10. Investigation of Pt-Ti doped carbon aerogel as bi-metallic catalyst for H/D exchange process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhartiya, Sushmita; Kohli, D. K.; Singh, Ashish; Singh, Rashmi; Singh, M. K.

    2017-05-01

    Platinum (Pt) carbon based catalyst for hydrogen-deuterium (H/D) exchange between hydrogen and water is one of the benign processes being explored for heavy water production. Platinum being precious, presents a significant contribution on overall cost of catalyst. Titanium (Ti), a potential catalyst was explored for the H/D exchange to reduce the cost of catalyst. Titanium oxide co-doped with platinum in carbon aerogel (CA) was investigated for the exchange process. The present studies involve synthesis and characterization of TiO2 nanoparticles doped in carbon aerogel. Pt and TiO2 doping (5% by weight for both) in CA was used to prepare the bimetallic PtTi-CA catalyst. The H/D exchange efficiency obtained for the PtTi-CA catalyst (with 50% Pt economy) was 57% which compares well with Pt-CA catalyst having exchange efficiency of 67%.

  11. 3D nitrogen-doped graphene aerogel nanomesh: Facile synthesis and electrochemical properties as the electrode materials for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiao-Li; Fu, Lin; Cheng, Ming-Yu; Yang, Jing-He; Guan, Xin-Xin; Zheng, Xiu-Cheng

    2017-12-01

    Nitrogen-doped graphene aerogel nanomesh (N-GANM) has been hydrothermally prepared from graphene oxide and ammonium hydroxide using iron nitrate as the etching agent. The results showed that N-GANM with an interesting nanomesh structure on the graphene sheets maintained the 3D architecture of graphene aerogel (GA). Furthermore, it exhibited excellent electrochemical capacitive behavior and the specific capacitance value (290.0 F g-1 at 1 A g-1) remained approximately 90.3% after 2000 cycles in the three-electrode system. In addition, N-GANM displayed an energy density of 30.9 Wh kg-1 at the power density of 450.3 W kg-1 and excellent cycling stability retention (98%) after 10,000 cycles in the two-electrode symmetric device. The resulting N-GANM was expected to be a much favorable supercapacitor electrode material due to the heteroatom-doping and its unique porous structure.

  12. Prussian Blue-Derived Iron Phosphide Nanoparticles in a Porous Graphene Aerogel as Efficient Electrocatalyst for Hydrogen Evolution Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopal, Narendra Kumar Alam; Yin, Shuli; Li, Yinghao; Xue, Hairong; Xu, You; Li, Xiaonian; Wang, Hongjing; Wang, Liang

    2018-03-16

    Tailoring of new hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) electrocatalyst with earth abundant elements is important for large scale water splitting and hydrogen production. In this work, we present a simple synthetic method for incorporating iron phosphide (FeP) particles into three-dimensional (3D) porous graphene aerogel (GA) structure. The FeP formed in porous 3D GA (FeP/GA) is derived from electroactive Fe hexacyanoferrate (FeHCF). The advantage of incorporating FeP, in the porous 3D graphene network enables high accessibility for HER. As synthesized FeP/GA catalyst shows good electrocatalytic activity for HER in both acidic and alkaline solutions. The developed method can be useful for synthesizing metal hexacyanoferrate derived mono/bimetal phosphide catalyst in porous 3D graphene aerogels. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Scalable template synthesis of resorcinol-formaldehyde/graphene oxide composite aerogels with tunable densities and mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Lu, Lei-Lei; Yu, Zhi-Long; Xu, Xue-Wei; Zheng, Ya-Rong; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2015-02-16

    Resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) and graphene oxide (GO) aerogels have found a variety of applications owing to their excellent properties and remarkable flexibility. However, the macroscopic and controllable synthesis of their composite gels is still a great challenge. By using GO sheets as template skeletons and metal ions (Co(2+), Ni(2+), or Ca(2+)) as catalysts and linkers, the first low-temperature scalable strategy for the synthesis of a new kind of RF-GO composite gel with tunable densities and mechanical properties was developed. The aerogels can tolerate a strain as high as 80% and quickly recover their original morphology after the compression has been released. Owing to their high compressibility, the gels might find applications in various areas, for example, as adsorbents for the removal of dye pollutants and in oil-spill cleanup. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Habitat and scale shape the demographic fate of the keystone sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus in Mediterranean macrophyte communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Prado

    Full Text Available Demographic processes exert different degrees of control as individuals grow, and in species that span several habitats and spatial scales, this can influence our ability to predict their population at a particular life-history stage given the previous life stage. In particular, when keystone species are involved, this relative coupling between demographic stages can have significant implications for the functioning of ecosystems. We examined benthic and pelagic abundances of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus in order to: 1 understand the main life-history bottlenecks by observing the degree of coupling between demographic stages; and 2 explore the processes driving these linkages. P. lividus is the dominant invertebrate herbivore in the Mediterranean Sea, and has been repeatedly observed to overgraze shallow beds of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica and rocky macroalgal communities. We used a hierarchical sampling design at different spatial scales (100 s, 10 s and <1 km and habitats (seagrass and rocky macroalgae to describe the spatial patterns in the abundance of different demographic stages (larvae, settlers, recruits and adults. Our results indicate that large-scale factors (potentially currents, nutrients, temperature, etc. determine larval availability and settlement in the pelagic stages of urchin life history. In rocky macroalgal habitats, benthic processes (like predation acting at large or medium scales drive adult abundances. In contrast, adult numbers in seagrass meadows are most likely influenced by factors like local migration (from adjoining rocky habitats functioning at much smaller scales. The complexity of spatial and habitat-dependent processes shaping urchin populations demands a multiplicity of approaches when addressing habitat conservation actions, yet such actions are currently mostly aimed at managing predation processes and fish numbers. We argue that a more holistic ecosystem management also needs to incorporate the

  15. Social movement heterogeneity in public policy framing: A multi-stakeholder analysis of the Keystone XL pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesley, David T. A.

    In 2011, stakeholders with differing objectives formed an alliance to oppose the Keystone XL heavy oil pipeline. The alliance, which came to be known as "Tar Sands Action," implemented various strategies, some of which were more successful than others. Tar Sands Action was a largely heterogeneous alliance that included indigenous tribes, environmentalists, ranchers, landowners, and trade unions, making it one of the more diverse social movement organizations in history. Each of these stakeholder categories had distinct demographic structures, representing an array of racial, ethnic, educational, occupational, and political backgrounds. Participants also had differing policy objectives that included combating climate change and protecting jobs, agricultural interests, water resources, wildlife, and human health. The current dissertation examines the Tar Sands Action movement to understand how heterogeneous social movement organizations mobilize supporters, maintain alliances, and create effective frames to achieve policy objectives. A multi-stakeholder analysis of the development, evolution and communication of frames concerning the Keystone XL controversy provides insight into the role of alliances, direct action, and the news media in challenging hegemonic frames. Previous research has ignored the potential value that SMO heterogeneity provides by treating social movements as culturally homogenous. However, diversity has been shown to affect performance in business organizations. The current study demonstrates that under some circumstances, diversity can also improve policy outcomes. Moreover, policy frames are shown to be more effective in sustaining news media and public interest through a process the author calls dynamic frame sequencing (DFS). DFS refers to a process implementing different stakeholder frames at strategically opportune moments. Finally, Tar Sands Action was one of the first SMOs to rely heavily on social media to build alliances, disseminate

  16. Polyaniline-Coated Activated Carbon Aerogel/Sulfur Composite for High-performance Lithium-Sulfur Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhiwei; Jiang, Jinglin; Liu, Shaohong; Chen, Luyi; Liu, Ruliang; Zheng, Bingna; Fu, Ruowen; Wu, Dingcai

    2017-12-01

    An activated carbon aerogel (ACA-500) with high surface area (1765 m2 g-1), pore volume (2.04 cm3 g-1), and hierarchical porous nanonetwork structure is prepared through direct activation of organic aerogel (RC-500) with a low potassium hydroxide ratio (1:1). Based on this substrate, a polyaniline (PANi)-coated activated carbon aerogel/sulfur (ACA-500-S@PANi) composite is prepared via a simple two-step procedure, including melt-infiltration of sublimed sulfur into ACA-500, followed by an in situ polymerization of aniline on the surface of ACA-500-S composite. The obtained ACA-500-S@PANi composite delivers a high reversible capacity up to 1208 mAh g-1 at 0.2C and maintains 542 mAh g-1 even at a high rate (3C). Furthermore, this composite exhibits a discharge capacity of 926 mAh g-1 at the initial cycle and 615 mAh g-1 after 700 cycles at 1C rate, revealing an extremely low capacity decay rate (0.48‰ per cycle). The excellent electrochemical performance of ACA-500-S@PANi can be attributed to the synergistic effect of hierarchical porous nanonetwork structure and PANi coating. Activated carbon aerogels with high surface area and unique three-dimensional (3D) interconnected hierarchical porous structure offer an efficient conductive network for sulfur, and a highly conductive PANi-coating layer further enhances conductivity of the electrode and prevents the dissolution of polysulfide species.

  17. Coherent-Interface-Assembled Ag2O-Anchored Nanofibrillated Cellulose Porous Aerogels for Radioactive Iodine Capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yun; Liu, Hongwei; Gao, Runan; Xiao, Shaoliang; Zhang, Ming; Yin, Yafang; Wang, Siqun; Li, Jian; Yang, Dongjiang

    2016-10-26

    Nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) has received increasing attention in science and technology because of not only the availability of large amounts of cellulose in nature but also its unique structural and physical features. These high-aspect-ratio nanofibers have potential applications in water remediation and as a reinforcing scaffold in composites, coatings, and porous materials because of their fascinating properties. In this work, highly porous NFC aerogels were prepared based on tert-butanol freeze-drying of ultrasonically isolated bamboo NFC with 20-80 nm diameters. Then nonagglomerated 2-20-nm-diameter silver oxide (Ag 2 O) nanoparticles (NPs) were grown firmly onto the NFC scaffold with a high loading content of ∼500 wt % to fabricate Ag 2 O@NFC organic-inorganic composite aerogels (Ag 2 O@NFC). For the first time, the coherent interface and interaction mechanism between the cellulose I β nanofiber and Ag 2 O NPs are explored by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and 3D electron tomography. Specifically, a strong hydrogen between Ag 2 O and NFC makes them grow together firmly along a coherent interface, where good lattice matching between specific crystal planes of Ag 2 O and NFC results in very small interfacial straining. The resulting Ag 2 O@NFC aerogels take full advantage of the properties of the 3D organic aerogel framework and inorganic NPs, such as large surface area, interconnected porous structures, and supreme mechanical properties. They open up a wide horizon for functional practical usage, for example, as a flexible superefficient adsorbent to capture I - ions from contaminated water and trap I 2 vapor for safe disposal, as presented in this work. The viable binding mode between many types of inorganic NPs and organic NFC established here highlights new ways to investigate cellulose-based functional nanocomposites.

  18. Polypropylene/hydrophobic-silica-aerogel-composite separator induced enhanced safety and low polarization for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Guanhua; Li, Zihe; Mi, Liwei; Zheng, Jinyun; Feng, Xiangming; Chen, Weihua

    2018-02-01

    Separator as an important part of lithium-ion batteries, allowing the ion to transfer and preventing the direct contact of anode with cathode, determines the safety of the batteries. In this work, a kind of polypropylene/hydrophobic silica-aerogel-composite (SAC) separator is fabricated through combining hydrophobic silica aerogel and polypropylene (PP) separator. The rationally designed SAC effectively increases the thermal stability of the separator with slightly growing weight (the area retention rate is 30% higher than that of the PP separator after being heated for 30 min at 160 °C). In addition, the hydrophobic silica aerogel layer in SAC significantly improves the wettability of PP separator to electrolyte owning to the introduced hydrophobic functional groups of -Si(CH3)3 and porous structure, and the contact angles of SAC separator to several common organic electrolytes (EC/DMC, DMC/DOL, Diglyme) are close to 0°. Electrochemical tests show that the prepared SAC separator can decrease the polarization of Li-ion batteries and leads to improved power performance and cycle stability. And the SAC separator is firm with neglectable abscission after folding 200 times. This work provides a new way to improve the safety and simultaneously reduce the polarization of the batteries, implying promising application potential in power batteries.

  19. In vivo X-Ray excited optical luminescence from phosphor-doped aerogel and Sylgard 184 composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Stephen W.; Baker, Ethan S.; Lynch, Kyle J.; Sabri, Firouzeh

    2017-06-01

    X-Ray excited optical luminescence (XEOL) is a new and noninvasive diagnostic technique suitable for in situ biochemical imaging and disease detection. The X-Ray excited optical luminescence of phosphor doping in crosslinked silica aerogel and Sylgard 184 hosts was investigated in this study. Composite silica aerogels and Sylgard 184 samples of 5%, 15%, and 50% concentrations by weight of La2O2S:Eu phosphor were prepared and inserted subcutaneously in a Sprague-Dawley rat and excited by X-Ray emission at 70 and 100 kV. A fiber optic bundle positioned within 5 mm of the sample collected the luminescence signal and conveyed it to a photomultiplier detector. The signal intensity scaled with dopant concentration. The time dependence of the predominantly red luminescence consisted of 60 cycle bursts of approximately 8 ms duration. The amplitude was modulated at about 10 Hz with a 60% depth. This indicates the time dependence of the X-Ray source. A simulation showed how to observe phosphor decay between individual burst pulses. The emission from the two types of composite samples was easily detected from the outside of the skin layer. Both Sylgard 184 and crosslinked silica aerogels are biocompatible and bio stable materials that could serve a variety of potential XEOL applications. These very strong signals imply potential for creating new In-vivo sensing applications and diagnostic tools.

  20. Optical Analysis of Impact Features in Aerogel From the Orbital Debris Collection Experiment on the MIR Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerz, Friedrich; Cress, Glen; Zolensky, Mike; See, Thomas H.; Bernhard, Ronald P.; Warren, Jack L.

    1999-08-01

    The Mir Environmental Effects Package (MEEP) was deployed on the Mir station and retrieved after 18 months in space. The payload included the orbital debris collector (ODC), designed and built at the Johnson Space Center to capture and return analyzable residues of the man-made and natural particulate environment in low-Earth orbit for a detailed assessment of its compositional makeup and potential origins. The ODC exposed 2 identical trays, with highly porous, low-density SiO2 aerogel as the basic collector medium, pointed in opposite directions. The aerogel was expected to gently decelerate and capture hypervelocity particles, as opposed to other media that resulted in melting or vaporization of many impactors. Even cursory examination of the returned ODC collectors revealed a surprising variety of impact features. The compositional analyses using scanning electron "miccroscope-energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy concentrated on a survey-type inventory of diverse particle types and associated impact features. Detections, in the form of carrot-shaped tracks and shallow pits, included metallic Al, stainless steel, soldering compounds, human waste, and paint flakes. Many pits contained no detectable impactor residue (it was assumed to have vaporized), but most of the tracks contained analyzable residue. The study showed that aerogel would be useful for future low-velocity impact analysis.