Sample records for aerodynamic features vehicle body components

  1. Aerodynamics of Small Vehicles (United States)

    Mueller, Thomas J.

    In this review we describe the aerodynamic problems that must be addressed in order to design a successful small aerial vehicle. The effects of Reynolds number and aspect ratio (AR) on the design and performance of fixed-wing vehicles are described. The boundary-layer behavior on airfoils is especially important in the design of vehicles in this flight regime. The results of a number of experimental boundary-layer studies, including the influence of laminar separation bubbles, are discussed. Several examples of small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in this regime are described. Also, a brief survey of analytical models for oscillating and flapping-wing propulsion is presented. These range from the earliest examples where quasi-steady, attached flow is assumed, to those that account for the unsteady shed vortex wake as well as flow separation and aeroelastic behavior of a flapping wing. Experiments that complemented the analysis and led to the design of a successful ornithopter are also described.

  2. Aerodynamic data of space vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Weiland, Claus


    The capacity and quality of the atmospheric flight performance of space flight vehicles is characterized by their aerodynamic data bases. A complete aerodynamic data base would encompass the coefficients of the static longitudinal and lateral motions and the related dynamic coefficients. In this book the aerodynamics of 27 vehicles are considered. Only a few of them did really fly. Therefore the aerodynamic data bases are often not complete, in particular when the projects or programs were more or less abruptly stopped, often due to political decisions. Configurational design studies or the development of demonstrators usually happen with reduced or incomplete aerodynamic data sets. Therefore some data sets base just on the application of one of the following tools: semi-empirical design methods, wind tunnel tests, numerical simulations. In so far a high percentage of the data presented is incomplete and would have to be verified. Flight mechanics needs the aerodynamic coefficients as function of a lot of var...

  3. Rotor/body aerodynamic interactions (United States)

    Betzina, M. D.; Smith, C. A.; Shinoda, P.


    A wind tunnel investigation was conducted in which independent, steady state aerodynamic forces and moments were measured on a 2.24 m diam. two bladed helicopter rotor and on several different bodies. The mutual interaction effects for variations in velocity, thrust, tip-path-plane angle of attack, body angle of attack, rotor/body position, and body geometry were determined. The results show that the body longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics are significantly affected by the presence of a rotor and hub, and that the hub interference may be a major part of such interaction. The effects of the body on the rotor performance are presented.

  4. Aerodynamic Study about an Automotive Vehicle with Capacity for Only One Occupan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida R.A


    Full Text Available The presented study describes the aerodynamic behavior of a compact, single occupant, automotive vehicle. To optimize the aerodynamic characteristics of this vehicle, a flow dynamics study was conducted using a virtual model. The outer surfaces of the vehicle body were designed using Computer Aided Design (CAD tools and its aerodynamic performance simulated virtually using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD software. Parameters such as pressure coefficient (Cp, coefficient of friction (Cf and graphical analysis of the streamlines were used to understand the flow dynamics and propose recommendations aimed at improving the coefficient of drag (Cd. The identification of interaction points between the fluid and the flow structure was the primary focus of study to develop these propositions. The study of phenomena linked to the characteristics of the model presented here, allowed the identification of design features that should be avoided to generate improved aerodynamic performance

  5. Aerodynamic analysis of an isolated vehicle wheel (United States)

    Leśniewicz, P.; Kulak, M.; Karczewski, M.


    Increasing fuel prices force the manufacturers to look into all aspects of car aerodynamics including wheels, tyres and rims in order to minimize their drag. By diminishing the aerodynamic drag of vehicle the fuel consumption will decrease, while driving safety and comfort will improve. In order to properly illustrate the impact of a rotating wheel aerodynamics on the car body, precise analysis of an isolated wheel should be performed beforehand. In order to represent wheel rotation in contact with the ground, presented CFD simulations included Moving Wall boundary as well as Multiple Reference Frame should be performed. Sliding mesh approach is favoured but too costly at the moment. Global and local flow quantities obtained during simulations were compared to an experiment in order to assess the validity of the numerical model. Results of investigation illustrates dependency between type of simulation and coefficients (drag and lift). MRF approach proved to be a better solution giving result closer to experiment. Investigation of the model with contact area between the wheel and the ground helps to illustrate the impact of rotating wheel aerodynamics on the car body.

  6. Aerodynamic Efficiency Enhancements for Air Vehicles Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The need for aerodynamics-based efficiency enhancements for air vehicles is presented. Concepts are presented for morphing aircraft, to enable the aircraft to...

  7. Aerodynamic Efficiency Enhancements for Air Vehicles Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The need for aerodynamics-based efficiency enhancements for air vehicles is presented. The results of the Phase I investigation of concepts for morphing aircraft are...

  8. Three-dimensional simulation of slip-streaming in vehicle aerodynamics (United States)

    Mitra, Saurav


    Simulation of slip-streaming in vehicle aerodynamics is computationally challenging. To resolve turbulent wakes, and estimate drag between two co-linear vehicles with less number of computational cells requires advanced techniques. In this study, the variation of drag reduction and increase arising due to different inter-spacing between two Ahmed vehicles bodies (canonical vehicle geometry with 30° slant back angle) are presented. The computational fluid dynamics solver CONVERGE was used, for its automatic mesh refinement (AMR) capabilities. AMR is based on the second derivative of shear and normal components of velocity gradients and was used to resolve the flow around geometric features such as the frontal area, the slant back, etc. Steady-state density-based solver is used where each cell has its own pseudo time-step based on the local numerical stability criterion. The RNG k- ɛ turbulence model was used to model turbulence. The non-dimensional inter-spacing based on vehicle length, was varied from 0.1 to 2.0. The largest grid size used here was 0.04 m and the smallest was 0.005 m to resolve the turbulent wake which is characterized by a strong vortex system, longitudinal counter-rotating vortices arising from the slant back.

  9. The Aerodynamics of Heavy Vehicles III : Trucks, Buses and Trains

    CERN Document Server

    Orellano, Alexander


    This volume contains papers presented at the International conference “The Aerodynamics of Heavy Vehicles III: Trucks, Buses and Trains” held in Potsdam, Germany, September 12-17, 2010 by Engineering Conferences International (ECI). Leading scientists and engineers from industry, universities and research laboratories, including truck and high-speed train manufacturers and operators were brought together to discuss computer simulation and experimental techniques to be applied for the design of more efficient trucks, buses and high-speed trains in the future.   This conference was the third in the series after Monterey-Pacific Groove in 2002 and Lake Tahoe in 2007.  The presentations address different aspects of train aerodynamics (cross wind effects, underbody flow, tunnel aerodynamics and aeroacoustics, experimental techniques), truck aerodynamics (drag reduction, flow control, experimental and computational techniques) as well as computational fluid dynamics and bluff body, wake and jet flows.

  10. CFD based aerodynamic modeling to study flight dynamics of a flapping wing micro air vehicle (United States)

    Rege, Alok Ashok

    The demand for small unmanned air vehicles, commonly termed micro air vehicles or MAV's, is rapidly increasing. Driven by applications ranging from civil search-and-rescue missions to military surveillance missions, there is a rising level of interest and investment in better vehicle designs, and miniaturized components are enabling many rapid advances. The need to better understand fundamental aspects of flight for small vehicles has spawned a surge in high quality research in the area of micro air vehicles. These aircraft have a set of constraints which are, in many ways, considerably different from that of traditional aircraft and are often best addressed by a multidisciplinary approach. Fast-response non-linear controls, nano-structures, integrated propulsion and lift mechanisms, highly flexible structures, and low Reynolds aerodynamics are just a few of the important considerations which may be combined in the execution of MAV research. The main objective of this thesis is to derive a consistent nonlinear dynamic model to study the flight dynamics of micro air vehicles with a reasonably accurate representation of aerodynamic forces and moments. The research is divided into two sections. In the first section, derivation of the nonlinear dynamics of flapping wing micro air vehicles is presented. The flapping wing micro air vehicle (MAV) used in this research is modeled as a system of three rigid bodies: a body and two wings. The design is based on an insect called Drosophila Melanogaster, commonly known as fruit-fly. The mass and inertial effects of the wing on the body are neglected for the present work. The nonlinear dynamics is simulated with the aerodynamic data published in the open literature. The flapping frequency is used as the control input. Simulations are run for different cases of wing positions and the chosen parameters are studied for boundedness. Results show a qualitative inconsistency in boundedness for some cases, and demand a better

  11. Improved Aerodynamic Analysis for Hybrid Wing Body Conceptual Design Optimization (United States)

    Gern, Frank H.


    This paper provides an overview of ongoing efforts to develop, evaluate, and validate different tools for improved aerodynamic modeling and systems analysis of Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) aircraft configurations. Results are being presented for the evaluation of different aerodynamic tools including panel methods, enhanced panel methods with viscous drag prediction, and computational fluid dynamics. Emphasis is placed on proper prediction of aerodynamic loads for structural sizing as well as viscous drag prediction to develop drag polars for HWB conceptual design optimization. Data from transonic wind tunnel tests at the Arnold Engineering Development Center s 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel was used as a reference data set in order to evaluate the accuracy of the aerodynamic tools. Triangularized surface data and Vehicle Sketch Pad (VSP) models of an X-48B 2% scale wind tunnel model were used to generate input and model files for the different analysis tools. In support of ongoing HWB scaling studies within the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) program, an improved finite element based structural analysis and weight estimation tool for HWB center bodies is currently under development. Aerodynamic results from these analyses are used to provide additional aerodynamic validation data.

  12. The aerodynamic and structural study of flapping wing vehicles



    This thesis reports on the aerodynamic and structural study carried out on flapping wings and flapping vehicles. Theoretical and experimental investigation of aerodynamic forces acting on flapping wings in simple harmonic oscillations is undertaken in order to help conduct and optimize the aerodynamic and structural design of flapping wing vehicles. The research is focused on the large scale ornithopter design of similar size and configuration to a hang glider. By means of Theodorsen’s th...

  13. Progress in vehicle aerodynamics and thermal management. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiedemann, Jochen (ed.) [Stuttgart Univ. (DE). Inst. fuer Kraftfahrwesen und Verbrennungsmotoren (IVK); Forschungsinstitut fuer Kraftfahrwesen und Fahrzeugmotoren (FKFS), Stuttgart (Germany)


    Vehicle aerodynamics and thermal management are subjects of increasing importance for automotive development especially regarding the necessity to reduce the energy consumption of the vehicle as well as the need to improve ist comfort. This book is intended for engineers, physicists, and mathematicians who work on vehicle aerodynamics. It is also addressed to people in research organizations, at universities and agencies. It may be of interest to technical journalists and to students. (orig.)

  14. DOE Project on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCallen, R; Salari, K; Ortega, J; Castellucci, P; Pointer, D; Browand, F; Ross, J; Storms, B


    Class 8 tractor-trailers consume 11-12% of the total US petroleum use. At highway speeds, 65% of the energy expenditure for a Class 8 truck is in overcoming aerodynamic drag. The project objective is to improve fuel economy of Class 8 tractor-trailers by providing guidance on methods of reducing drag by at least 25%. A 25% reduction in drag would present a 12% improvement in fuel economy at highway speeds, equivalent to about 130 midsize tanker ships per year. Specific goals include: (1) Provide guidance to industry in the reduction of aerodynamic drag of heavy truck vehicles; (2) Develop innovative drag reducing concepts that are operationally and economically sound; and (3) Establish a database of experimental, computational, and conceptual design information, and demonstrate the potential of new drag-reduction devices. The studies described herein provide a demonstration of the applicability of the experience developed in the analysis of the standard configuration of the Generic Conventional Model. The modeling practices and procedures developed in prior efforts have been applied directly to the assessment of new configurations including a variety of geometric modifications and add-on devices. Application to the low-drag 'GTS' configuration of the GCM has confirmed that the error in predicted drag coefficients increases as the relative contribution of the base drag resulting from the vehicle wake to the total drag increases and it is recommended that more advanced turbulence modeling strategies be applied under those circumstances. Application to a commercially-developed boat tail device has confirmed that this restriction does not apply to geometries where the relative contribution of the base drag to the total drag is reduced by modifying the geometry in that region. Application to a modified GCM geometry with an open grille and radiator has confirmed that the underbody flow, while important for underhood cooling, has little impact on the drag

  15. Aerodynamic Optimization of Micro Aerial Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siew Ping Yeong


    Full Text Available Computational fluid dynamics (CFD study was done on the propeller design of a micro aerial vehicle (quadrotor-typed to optimize its aerodynamic performance via Shear Stress Transport K-Omega (SST k-ω turbulence model. The quadrotor model used was WL-V303 Seeker. The design process started with airfoils selection and followed by the evaluation of drone model in hovering and cruising conditions. To sustain a 400g payload, by Momentum Theory an ideal thrust of 5.4 N should be generated by each rotor of the quadrotor and this resulted in an induced velocity of 7.4 m/s on the propeller during hovering phase, equivalent to Reynolds number of 10403 at 75% of the propeller blade radius. There were 6 propellers investigated at this Reynolds number. Sokolov airfoil which produced the largest lift-to-drag ratio was selected for full drone installation to be compared with the original model (benchmark. The CFD results showed that the Sokolov propeller generated 0.76 N of thrust more than the benchmark propeller at 7750 rpm. Despite generating higher thrust, higher drag was also experienced by the drone installed with Sokolov propellers. This resulted in lower lift-to-drag ratio than the benchmark propellers. It was also discovered that the aerodynamic performance of the drone could be further improved by changing the rotating direction of each rotor. Without making changes on the structural design, the drone performance increased by 39.58% in terms of lift-to-drag ratio by using this method.

  16. Modeling Powered Aerodynamics for the Orion Launch Abort Vehicle Aerodynamic Database (United States)

    Chan, David T.; Walker, Eric L.; Robinson, Philip E.; Wilson, Thomas M.


    Modeling the aerodynamics of the Orion Launch Abort Vehicle (LAV) has presented many technical challenges to the developers of the Orion aerodynamic database. During a launch abort event, the aerodynamic environment around the LAV is very complex as multiple solid rocket plumes interact with each other and the vehicle. It is further complicated by vehicle separation events such as between the LAV and the launch vehicle stack or between the launch abort tower and the crew module. The aerodynamic database for the LAV was developed mainly from wind tunnel tests involving powered jet simulations of the rocket exhaust plumes, supported by computational fluid dynamic simulations. However, limitations in both methods have made it difficult to properly capture the aerodynamics of the LAV in experimental and numerical simulations. These limitations have also influenced decisions regarding the modeling and structure of the aerodynamic database for the LAV and led to compromises and creative solutions. Two database modeling approaches are presented in this paper (incremental aerodynamics and total aerodynamics), with examples showing strengths and weaknesses of each approach. In addition, the unique problems presented to the database developers by the large data space required for modeling a launch abort event illustrate the complexities of working with multi-dimensional data.

  17. Aerodynamic and aerothermodynamic analysis of space mission vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Viviani, Antonio


    Presenting an up-to-date view on the most important space vehicle configurations, this book contains detailed analyses for several different type of space mission profiles while considering important factors such as aerodynamic loads, aerodynamic heating, vehicle stability and landing characteristics. With that in mind, the authors provide a detailed overview on different state-of-the-art themes of hypersonic aerodynamics and aerothermodynamics, and consider different space vehicle shapes useful for different space mission objectives. These include: ·        Crew Return Vehicle (CRV) ·        Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) ·        Sample Return Vehicle (SRV) ·        Flying Test Bed (FTB). Throughout Aerodynamic and Aerothermodynamic Analysis of Space Mission Vehicles many examples are given, with detailed computations and results for the aerodynamics and aerothermodynamics of all such configurations. Moreover, a final chapter on future launchers is provided and an Appendix on...

  18. Particle Methods in Bluff Body Aerodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Johannes Tophøj

    Fluid-structure interaction is studied numerically in academics and the industry. Shear computational power alone is insufficient to accurately resolve the complex dynamics of high Reynolds number fluid flow. Therefore the development of more efficient and applicable computational algorithms...... is important. This dissertation focuses on the use of vortex particle methods and computational efficiency. The work is divided into three parts. A novel method for the simulation of the aerodynamic admittance in bluff body aerodynamics is presented. The method involves a model for describing oncoming...... turbulence in two-dimensional discrete vortex method simulations by seeding the upstream flow with vortex particles. The turbulence is generated prior to the simulations and is based on analytic spectral densities of the atmospheric turbulence and a coherence function defining the spatial correlation...

  19. Unsteady Low Reynolds Number Aerodynamics for Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs) (United States)


    horizontal model. The first has advantages of placing t he force balance above the water line and thus solving the balance waterproofing i ssues , an d h...ABSTRACT This work introduces the Micro Air Vehicle (MAV) problem from the viewpoint of aerodynamics. Water tunnels are assessed as tools for MAV...aerodynamics. The design, construction and instrumentation of RB’s “Horizontal Free-surface Water Tunnel” is documented. Experiments in steady

  20. Features of somatotype and body weight component composition in patients with acne: boys and girls of Podillya region of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunas Igor


    Full Text Available The article describes the differences in peculiarities of somatotype and body weight component composition in patients with acne, the study population being boys and girls of the Podillya region of Ukraine. In the study subjects, regardless of sex, body muscle mass, bone mass and the mesomorphic somatotype component of those with acne were significantly greater, while fat body mass indicators and the endomorphic somatotype component was smaller – in comparison to that of non-afflicted subjects of similar gender. Regarding the ectomorphic component of somatotype, between the surveyed groups of those with and without acne, whether male or female, no significant differences were revealed. For all indicators, whether the somatotype components or the component composition of body weight, between groups of boys or girls with different degrees of severity of acne, again no significant differences were established.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The aerodynamic characteristics of the van-body truck were studied by means of theoretical analysis, numerical simulation and wind tunnel experiments. The concept of critical length was presented for the van-body truck in wind tunnel experiments, the proper critical Reynolds number was found and the effects of ground parameters in ground effect simulation on the aerodynamic measurements were examined. It shows that two structure parameters, van height and the gap between the cab and the van, can obviously influence the aerodynamic characteristics, and the additional aerodynamic devices, the wind deflector and the vortex regulator in the rear, can considerably reduce the aerodynamic drag of the van-body truck. Numerical simulations provided rich information of the flow fields around the van-body trucks.

  2. Methods of reducing vehicle aerodynamic drag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirenko V.; Rohatgi U.


    A small scale model (length 1710 mm) of General Motor SUV was built and tested in the wind tunnel for expected wind conditions and road clearance. Two passive devices, rear screen which is plate behind the car and rear fairing where the end of the car is aerodynamically extended, were incorporated in the model and tested in the wind tunnel for different wind conditions. The conclusion is that rear screen could reduce drag up to 6.5% and rear fairing can reduce the drag by 26%. There were additional tests for front edging and rear vortex generators. The results for drag reduction were mixed. It should be noted that there are aesthetic and practical considerations that may allow only partial implementation of these or any drag reduction options.

  3. A New Aerodynamic Data Dispersion Method for Launch Vehicle Design (United States)

    Pinier, Jeremy T.


    A novel method for implementing aerodynamic data dispersion analysis is herein introduced. A general mathematical approach combined with physical modeling tailored to the aerodynamic quantity of interest enables the generation of more realistically relevant dispersed data and, in turn, more reasonable flight simulation results. The method simultaneously allows for the aerodynamic quantities and their derivatives to be dispersed given a set of non-arbitrary constraints, which stresses the controls model in more ways than with the traditional bias up or down of the nominal data within the uncertainty bounds. The adoption and implementation of this new method within the NASA Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle Project has resulted in significant increases in predicted roll control authority, and lowered the induced risks for flight test operations. One direct impact on launch vehicles is a reduced size for auxiliary control systems, and the possibility of an increased payload. This technique has the potential of being applied to problems in multiple areas where nominal data together with uncertainties are used to produce simulations using Monte Carlo type random sampling methods. It is recommended that a tailored physics-based dispersion model be delivered with any aerodynamic product that includes nominal data and uncertainties, in order to make flight simulations more realistic and allow for leaner spacecraft designs.

  4. Research on the Aerodynamic Lift of Vehicle Windshield Wiper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gu Zhengqi


    Full Text Available Currently, research on the aerodynamic lift of vehicle windshield wipers is confined to the steady results, and there are very few test results. In the face of this truth, a wind tunnel test is conducted by using the Multipoint Film Force Test System (MFF. In this test, the aerodynamic lift of four kinds of wiper is measured at different wind speeds and different rotation angles. And then, relevant steady-state numerical simulations are accomplished and the mechanism of the aerodynamic lift is analyzed. Furthermore, combined with dynamic meshing and user-defined functions (UDF, transient aerodynamic characteristics of wipers are obtained through numerical simulations. It is found that the aerodynamic lift takes great effect on the stability of wipers, and there is maximum value of the lift near a certain wind speed and rotation angle. The lift force when wipers are rotating with the free stream is less than steady, and the force when rotating against the free stream is greater than steady.

  5. Reducing Aerodynamic Drag on Empty Open Cargo Vehicles (United States)

    Ross, James C.; Storms, Bruce L.; Dzoan, Dan


    Some simple structural modifications have been demonstrated to be effective in reducing aerodynamic drag on vehicles that have empty open cargo bays. The basic idea is to break up the airflow in a large open cargo bay by inserting panels to divide the bay into a series of smaller bays. In the case of a coal car, this involves inserting a small number (typically between two and four) of vertical full-depth or partial-depth panels.

  6. Mesh Optimization for Ground Vehicle Aerodynamics


    Adrian Gaylard; Essam F Abo-Serie; Nor Elyana Ahmad


    Mesh optimization strategy for estimating accurate drag of a ground vehicle is proposed based on examining the effect of different mesh parameters.  The optimized mesh parameters were selected using design of experiment (DOE) method to be able to work in a...

  7. Experimental Analysis of Aerodynamic Aspects of Sport Utility Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In an era fuel efficiency has become topic of discussion not only among the scholar researchers but also common men. As rapid and continuous increase in prizes of fuels consumers are going for most fuel efficient vehicles. By aerodynamic styling of vehicle one can not only improve the fuel efficiency but also ensure better stability and good handling characteristics of vehicles at higher speed especially on highways. The paper describes assessment of drag force (Fd and drag coefficient (Cd by conventional wind tunnel method. Theexperimental calculations were performed on subsonic wind tunnel having test section of 100cm x 30cm x 30 cm. Exact replica of model of sports utility vehicle (suv on reduced scale 1:32 is used to for experimentation to calculate Fd and Cd.



    Hozumi, Koki; KOMODA, Masaki; Ono, Takatsugu; TSUKANO, Yukichi; 穂積, 弘毅; 古茂田, 真幸; 小野, 孝次; 塚野, 雄吉


    In order to investigate longitudinal force and moment characteristics of a hang-glider-wing, ground run tests were conducted using a test vehicle. A hang-glider-wing was installed on a test vehicle using a six-components-balance for wind tunnel use. Aerodynamic force and moment were measrued during the vehicle run at various constant speeds. Geometrical twist distribution along the wing span was recorded as well. Measured force and moment data were corrected for possible ground effect and upw...

  9. Mesh Optimization for Ground Vehicle Aerodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Gaylard


    Full Text Available

    Mesh optimization strategy for estimating accurate drag of a ground vehicle is proposed based on examining the effect of different mesh parameters.  The optimized mesh parameters were selected using design of experiment (DOE method to be able to work in a limited memory environment and in a reasonable amount of time but without compromising the accuracy of results. The study was further extended to take into account the car model size effect. Three car model sizes have been investigated and compared with MIRA scale wind tunnel results. Parameters that lead to drag value closer to experiment with less memory and computational time have been identified. Scaling the optimized mesh size with the length of car model was successfully used to predict the drag of the other car sizes with reasonable accuracy. This investigation was carried out using STARCCM+ commercial software package, however the findings can be applied to any other CFD package.

  10. Aerodynamic Drag Reduction Technologies Testing of Heavy-Duty Vocational Vehicles and a Dry Van Trailer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragatz, Adam [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Thornton, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    This study focused on two accepted methods for quantifying the benefit of aerodynamic improvement technologies on vocational vehicles: the coastdown technique, and on-road constant speed fuel economy measurements. Both techniques have their advantages. Coastdown tests are conducted over a wide range in speed and allow the rolling resistance and aerodynamic components of road load force to be separated. This in turn allows for the change in road load and fuel economy to be estimated at any speed, as well as over transient cycles. The on-road fuel economy measurements only supply one lumped result, applicable at the specific test speed, but are a direct measurement of fuel usage and are therefore used in this study as a check on the observed coastdown results. Resulting coefficients were then used to populate a vehicle model and simulate expected annual fuel savings over real-world vocational drive cycles.

  11. Innovation in Aerodynamic Design Features of Soviet Missiles (United States)

    Spearman, M. Leroy


    Wind tunnel investigations of some tactical and strategic missile systems developed by the former Soviet Union have been included in the basic missile research programs of the NACA/NASA. Studies of the Soviet missiles sometimes revealed innovative design features that resulted in unusual or unexpected aerodynamic characteristics. In some cases these characteristics have been such that the measured performance of the missile exceeds what might have been predicted. In other cases some unusual design features have been found that would alleviate what might otherwise have been a serious aerodynamic problem. In some designs, what has appeared to be a lack of refinement has proven to be a matter of expediency. It is a purpose of this paper to describe some examples of unusual design features of some Soviet missiles and to illustrate the effectiveness of the design features on the aerodynamic behavior of the missile. The paper draws on the experience of the author who for over 60 years was involved in the aerodynamic wind tunnel testing of aircraft and missiles with the NACA/NASA.

  12. Aerodynamic vibrations of a maglev vehicle running on flexible guideways under oncoming wind actions (United States)

    Yau, J. D.


    This paper intends to present a computational framework of aerodynamic analysis for a maglev (magnetically levitated) vehicle traveling over flexible guideways under oncoming wind loads. The guideway unit is simulated as a series of simple beams with identical span and the maglev vehicle as a rigid car body supported by levitation forces. To carry out the interaction dynamics of maglev vehicle/guideway system, this study adopts an onboard PID (proportional-integral-derivative) controller based on Ziegler-Nicholas (Z-N) method to control the levitation forces. Interaction of wind with high-speed train is a complicated situation arising from unsteady airflow around the train. In this study, the oncoming wind loads acting on the running maglev vehicle are generated in temporal/spatial domain using digital simulation techniques that can account for the moving effect of vehicle's speed and the spatial correlation of stochastic airflow velocity field. Considering the motion-dependent nature of levitation forces and the non-conservative characteristics of turbulent airflows, an iterative approach is used to compute the interaction response of the maglev vehicle/guideway coupling system under wind actions. For the purpose of numerical simulation, this paper employs Galerkin's method to convert the governing equations containing a maglev vehicle into a set of differential equations in generalized systems, and then solve the two sets of differential equations using an iterative approach with the Newmark method. From the present investigation, the aerodynamic forces may result in a significant amplification on acceleration amplitude of the running maglev vehicle at higher speeds. For this problem, a PID+LQR (linear quadratic regulator) controller is proposed to reduce the vehicle's acceleration response for the ride comfort of passengers.

  13. Component Composition Using Feature Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eichberg, Michael; Klose, Karl; Mitschke, Ralf;


    In general, components provide and require services and two components are bound if the first component provides a service required by the second component. However, certain variability in services - w.r.t. how and which functionality is provided or required - cannot be described using standard...... interface description languages. If this variability is relevant when selecting a matching component then human interaction is required to decide which components can be bound. We propose to use feature models for making this variability explicit and (re-)enabling automatic component binding. In our...... approach, feature models are one part of service specifications. This enables to declaratively specify which service variant is provided by a component. By referring to a service's variation points, a component that requires a specific service can list the requirements on the desired variant. Using...

  14. Aerodynamic drag reduction of a simplified squareback vehicle using steady blowing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Littlewood, R.P. [LaVisionUK Ltd, Grove, Oxon (United Kingdom); Passmore, M.A. [Loughborough University, Department of Aeronautical and Automotive Engineering, Loughborough (United Kingdom)


    A large contribution to the aerodynamic drag of a vehicle arises from the failure to fully recover pressure in the wake region, especially on squareback configurations. A degree of base pressure recovery can be achieved through careful shape optimisation, but the freedom of an automotive aerodynamicist to implement significant shape changes is limited by a variety of additional factors such styling, ergonomics and loading capacity. Active flow control technologies present the potential to create flow field modifications without the need for external shape changes and have received much attention in previous years within the aeronautical industry and, more recently, within the automotive industry. In this work the influence of steady blowing applied at a variety of angles on the roof trailing edge of a simplified 1/4 scale squareback style vehicle has been investigated. Hot-wire anemometry, force balance measurements, surface pressure measurements and PIV have been used to investigate the effects of the steady blowing on the vehicle wake structures and the resulting body forces. The energy consumption of the steady jet is calculated and is used to deduce an aerodynamic drag power change. Results show that overall gains can be achieved; however, the large mass flow rate required restricts the applicability of the technique to road vehicles. Means by which the mass flow rate requirements of the jet may be reduced are discussed and suggestions for further work put forward. (orig.)

  15. Aerodynamic drag reduction of a simplified squareback vehicle using steady blowing (United States)

    Littlewood, R. P.; Passmore, M. A.


    A large contribution to the aerodynamic drag of a vehicle arises from the failure to fully recover pressure in the wake region, especially on squareback configurations. A degree of base pressure recovery can be achieved through careful shape optimisation, but the freedom of an automotive aerodynamicist to implement significant shape changes is limited by a variety of additional factors such styling, ergonomics and loading capacity. Active flow control technologies present the potential to create flow field modifications without the need for external shape changes and have received much attention in previous years within the aeronautical industry and, more recently, within the automotive industry. In this work the influence of steady blowing applied at a variety of angles on the roof trailing edge of a simplified ¼ scale squareback style vehicle has been investigated. Hot-wire anemometry, force balance measurements, surface pressure measurements and PIV have been used to investigate the effects of the steady blowing on the vehicle wake structures and the resulting body forces. The energy consumption of the steady jet is calculated and is used to deduce an aerodynamic drag power change. Results show that overall gains can be achieved; however, the large mass flow rate required restricts the applicability of the technique to road vehicles. Means by which the mass flow rate requirements of the jet may be reduced are discussed and suggestions for further work put forward.

  16. Control of maglev vehicles with aerodynamic and guideway disturbances (United States)

    Flueckiger, Karl; Mark, Steve; Caswell, Ruth; McCallum, Duncan


    A modeling, analysis, and control design methodology is presented for maglev vehicle ride quality performance improvement as measured by the Pepler Index. Ride quality enhancement is considered through active control of secondary suspension elements and active aerodynamic surfaces mounted on the train. To analyze and quantify the benefits of active control, the authors have developed a five degree-of-freedom lumped parameter model suitable for describing a large class of maglev vehicles, including both channel and box-beam guideway configurations. Elements of this modeling capability have been recently employed in studies sponsored by the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). A perturbation analysis about an operating point, defined by vehicle and average crosswind velocities, yields a suitable linearized state space model for multivariable control system analysis and synthesis. Neglecting passenger compartment noise, the ride quality as quantified by the Pepler Index is readily computed from the system states. A statistical analysis is performed by modeling the crosswind disturbances and guideway variations as filtered white noise, whereby the Pepler Index is established in closed form through the solution to a matrix Lyapunov equation. Data is presented which indicates the anticipated ride quality achieved through various closed-loop control arrangements.

  17. Acoustic Signal Feature Extraction of Vehicle Targets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蓝金辉; 马宝华; 李科杰


    Acoustic signal feature extraction is an important part of target recognition. The mechanisms for producing acoustic signals and their propagation are analyzed to extract the features of the radiated noise from different targets. Analysis of the acoustic spectra of typical vehicle targets acquired outdoors shows that the vehicles can be classified based on the acoustic spectra and amplitudes.

  18. Hybrid CFD/FEM-BEM simulation of cabin aerodynamic noise for vehicles traveling at high speed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; YiPing; ZHEN; Xin; WU; Jing; GU; ZhengQi; XIAO; ZhenYi; YANG; Xue


    Flow passing a vehicle may lead to the increase of the cabin interior noise level through a variety of mechanisms. These mechanisms include vibrations caused by aerodynamic excitations and reradiation from the glass panels, exterior noise trans-mitted and leaked through door seals including gaps and glass edge, and transmission of airborne noise generated by the interaction of flow with body panels. It is of vital importance to predict both the flow fields and the acoustic sources around the ve-hicle to accurately assess the impact of wind induced noise inside the cabin. In the present study, an unstructured segregated finite volume model was used to calculate the flow fields in which a hexahedron grid is used to simplify the vehicle geometry.A large eddy simulation coupled with a wall function model was applied to predict the exterior transient flow fields. The mean flow quantities were thus calculated along the symmetry plane and the vehicle’s side windows. A coupled FEM/BEM method was used to compute the vehicle’s interior noise level. The total contribution of the interior noise level due to the body panels of the vehicle was subsequently analyzed.

  19. The space shuttle ascent vehicle aerodynamic challenges configuration design and data base development (United States)

    Dill, C. C.; Young, J. C.; Roberts, B. B.; Craig, M. K.; Hamilton, J. T.; Boyle, W. W.


    The phase B Space Shuttle systems definition studies resulted in a generic configuration consisting of a delta wing orbiter, and two solid rocket boosters (SRB) attached to an external fuel tank (ET). The initial challenge facing the aerodynamic community was aerodynamically optimizing, within limits, this configuration. As the Shuttle program developed and the sensitivities of the vehicle to aerodynamics were better understood the requirements of the aerodynamic data base grew. Adequately characterizing the vehicle to support the various design studies exploded the size of the data base to proportions that created a data modeling/management challenge for the aerodynamicist. The ascent aerodynamic data base originated primarily from wind tunnel test results. The complexity of the configuration rendered conventional analytic methods of little use. Initial wind tunnel tests provided results which included undesirable effects from model support tructure, inadequate element proximity, and inadequate plume simulation. The challenge to improve the quality of test results by determining the extent of these undesirable effects and subsequently develop testing techniques to eliminate them was imposed on the aerodynamic community. The challenges to the ascent aerodynamics community documented are unique due to the aerodynamic complexity of the Shuttle launch. Never before was such a complex vehicle aerodynamically characterized. The challenges were met with innovative engineering analyses/methodology development and wind tunnel testing techniques.

  20. FY2003 Annual Report: DOE Project on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCallen, R C; Salari, K; Ortega, J; DeChant, L J; Roy, C J; Payne, J J; Hassan, B; Pointer, W D; Browand, F; Hammache, M; Hsu, T; Ross, J; Satran, D; Heineck, J; Walker, S; Yaste, D; Englar, R; Leonard, A; Rubel, M; Chatelain, P


    Objective: {sm_bullet} Provide guidance to industry in the reduction of aerodynamic drag of heavy truck vehicles. {sm_bullet} Establish a database of experimental, computational, and conceptual design information, and demonstrate potential of new drag-reduction devices.

  1. Aerodynamic Design Methodology for Blended Wing Body Transport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Peifeng; ZHANG Binqian; CHEN Yingchun; YUAN Changsheng; LIN Yu


    This paper puts forward a design idea for blended wing body (BWB).The idea is described as that cruise point,maximum lift to drag point and pitch trim point are in the same flight attitude.According to this design idea,design objectives and constraints are defined.By applying low and high fidelity aerodynamic analysis tools,BWB aerodynamic design methodology is established by the combination of optimization design and inverse design methods.High lift to drag ratio,pitch trim and acceptable buffet margin can be achieved by this design methodology.For 300-passenger BWB configuration based on static stability design,as compared with initial configuration,the maximum lift to drag ratio and pitch trim are achieved at cruise condition,zero lift pitching moment is positive,and buffet characteristics is well.Fuel burn of 300-passenger BWB configuration is also significantly reduced as compared with conventional civil transports.Because aerodynamic design is carried out under the constraints of BWB design requirements,the design configuration fulfills the demands for interior layout and provides a solid foundation for continuous work.

  2. Aerodynamics of Race Cars (United States)

    Katz, Joseph


    Race car performance depends on elements such as the engine, tires, suspension, road, aerodynamics, and of course the driver. In recent years, however, vehicle aerodynamics gained increased attention, mainly due to the utilization of the negative lift (downforce) principle, yielding several important performance improvements. This review briefly explains the significance of the aerodynamic downforce and how it improves race car performance. After this short introduction various methods to generate downforce such as inverted wings, diffusers, and vortex generators are discussed. Due to the complex geometry of these vehicles, the aerodynamic interaction between the various body components is significant, resulting in vortex flows and lifting surface shapes unlike traditional airplane wings. Typical design tools such as wind tunnel testing, computational fluid dynamics, and track testing, and their relevance to race car development, are discussed as well. In spite of the tremendous progress of these design tools (due to better instrumentation, communication, and computational power), the fluid dynamic phenomenon is still highly nonlinear, and predicting the effect of a particular modification is not always trouble free. Several examples covering a wide range of vehicle shapes (e.g., from stock cars to open-wheel race cars) are presented to demonstrate this nonlinear nature of the flow field.

  3. A Collaborative Analysis Tool for Integrated Hypersonic Aerodynamics, Thermal Protection Systems, and RBCC Engine Performance for Single Stage to Orbit Vehicles (United States)

    Stanley, Thomas Troy; Alexander, Reginald; Landrum, Brian


    Presented is a computer-based tool that connects several disciplines that are needed in the complex and integrated design of high performance reusable single stage to orbit (SSTO) vehicles. Every system is linked to every other system, as is the case of SSTO vehicles with air breathing propulsion, which is currently being studied by NASA. An RBCC propulsion system integrates airbreathing and rocket propulsion into a single engine assembly enclosed within a cowl or duct. A typical RBCC propulsion system operates as a ducted rocket up to approximately Mach 3. Then there is a transition to a ramjet mode for supersonic-to-hypersonic acceleration. Around Mach 8 the engine transitions to a scramjet mode. During the ramjet and scramjet modes, the integral rockets operate as fuel injectors. Around Mach 10-12 (the actual value depends on vehicle and mission requirements), the inlet is physically closed and the engine transitions to an integral rocket mode for orbit insertion. A common feature of RBCC propelled vehicles is the high degree of integration between the propulsion system and airframe. At high speeds the vehicle forebody is fundamentally part of the engine inlet, providing a compression surface for air flowing into the engine. The compressed air is mixed with fuel and burned. The combusted mixture must be expanded to an area larger than the incoming stream to provide thrust. Since a conventional nozzle would be too large, the entire lower after body of the vehicle is used as an expansion surface. Because of the high external temperatures seen during atmospheric flight, the design of an airbreathing SSTO vehicle requires delicate tradeoffs between engine design, vehicle shape, and thermal protection system (TPS) sizing in order to produce an optimum system in terms of weight (and cost) and maximum performance. To adequately determine the performance of the engine/vehicle, the Hypersonic Flight Inlet Model (HYFIM) module was designed to interface with the RBCC

  4. Aerodynamic flight control to increase payload capability of future launch vehicles (United States)

    Cochran, John E., Jr.; Cheng, Y.-M.; Leleux, Todd; Bigelow, Scott; Hasbrook, William


    In this report, we provide some examples of French, Russian, Chinese, and Japanese launch vehicles that have utilized fins in their designs. Next, the aerodynamic design of the fins is considered in Section 3. Some comments on basic static stability and control theory are followed by a brief description of an aerodynamic characteristics prediction code that was used to estimate the characteristics of a modified NLS 1.5 Stage vehicle. Alternative fin designs are proposed and some estimated aerodynamic characteristics presented and discussed. Also included in Section 3 is a discussion of possible methods of enhancement of the aerodynamic efficiency of fins, such as vortex generators and jet flaps. We consider the construction of fins for launch vehicles in Section 4 and offer an assessment of the state-of-the-art in the use of composites for aerodynamic control surfaces on high speed vehicles. We also comment on the use of smart materials for launch vehicle fins. The dynamic stability and control of a launch vehicle that utilizes both thrust vector control (engine nozzle gimballing) and movable fins is the subject addressed in Section 5. We give a short derivation of equations of motion for a launch vehicle moving in a vertical plane above a spherical earth, discuss the use of a gravity-turn nominal trajectory, and give the form of the period equations linearized about such a nominal. We then consider feedback control of vehicle attitude using both engine gimballing and fin deflection. Conclusions are stated and recommendations made in Section 6. An appendix contains aerodynamic data in tabular and graphical formats.

  5. Dynamic simulation of vehicles on uneven roads to determine vibrational load on car body-fixed components; Dynamische Simulation von Fahrzeugen auf Schlechtwegstrecken zur Ermittlung der Schwingbelastung an karosseriefesten Komponenten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benz, R.; Schlesak, G.; Walz, P. [Robert Bosch GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany); Preschany, G. [Dr. Ing. h.c. F. Porsche AG, Weissach (Germany); Seemann, W.; Wauer, J. [Inst. fuer Technische Mechanik, Univ. Karlsruhe (Germany)


    Covering the reliability of motor vehicle components of the Robert Bosch GmbH extensive tests are executed before releasing them. The numerical simulation using a full vehicle model offers possibilities to reduce clearly the experimental effort of these tests and therefore reduces the connected costs. Objective of the current research project of the Robert Bosch GmbH in co-operation with the Dr. Ing. h.c. F. Porsche AG and the Institut fuer Technische Mechanik at the Universitaet Karlsruhe is a qualitative and quantitative feasibility study of the numerical simulation for component testing. In this analysis particular attention is given to the possibilities of coupling components with the car body. The use of virtual prototypes shows encouraging possibilities for the system developer implying a close co-operation between system supplier and original equipment manufacturer. (orig.)

  6. Vehicle Tracking Using Kalman Filter and Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Salarpour


    Full Text Available Vehicle tracking has a wide variety of applications. The image resolution of the video available from most traffic camera system is low. In many cases for tracking multi object, distinguishing them from another isn’t easy because of their similarity. In this paper we describe a method, for tracking multiple objects, where the objects are vehicles. The number of vehicles is unknown and varies. We detect all moving objects, and for tracking of vehicle we use the kalman filter and color feature and distance of it from one frame to the next. So the method can distinguish and tracking all vehicles individually. The proposed algorithm can be applied to multiple moving objects.

  7. Lateral dynamic features of a railway vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Xue-jun; True, Hans; Li, Ying-hui


    The lateral dynamic features of a railway vehicle are investigated using two similar wheel/rail contact models: the Vermeulen-Johnson and the Shen-Hedrick-Elkins models. The symmetric/asymmetric bifurcation behaviour and chaotic motions of the railway vehicle are investigated in great detail...... by varying the speed and using the resultant bifurcation diagram' method. It is found that multiple solution branches exist and they can lead to more steady states in the dynamic behaviour of the railway vehicle. The coexistence of multiple steady states can lead to jumps in the amplitude of oscillations...

  8. Electric Vehicle based on standard industrial components


    Fernández Ramos, José; Aghili Kathir, Foroohar


    The aim of this paper is to presents the complete design of an electric vehicle by using standard industrial components as VRLA batteries, AC induction motors and standard frequency converters. In comparison with dedicated components, the use of standard components has the following advantages: higher reliability, low price, broad range of products and suppliers, and high availability and technological independence. Besides this, we show that these components allow to ...

  9. On the Deflexion of Anisotropic Structural Composite Aerodynamic Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Whitty


    Full Text Available This paper presents closed form solutions to the classical beam elasticity differential equation in order to effectively model the displacement of standard aerodynamic geometries used throughout a number of industries. The models assume that the components are constructed from in-plane generally anisotropic (though shown to be quasi-isotropic composite materials. Exact solutions for the displacement and strains for elliptical and FX66-S-196 and NACA 63-621 aerofoil approximations thin wall composite material shell structures, with and without a stiffening rib (shear-web, are presented for the first time. Each of the models developed is rigorously validated via numerical (Runge-Kutta solutions of an identical differential equation used to derive the analytical models presented. The resulting calculated displacement and material strain fields are shown to be in excellent agreement with simulations using the ANSYS and CATIA commercial finite element (FE codes as well as experimental data evident in the literature. One major implication of the theoretical treatment is that these solutions can now be used in design codes to limit the required displacement and strains in similar components used in the aerospace and most notably renewable energy sectors.

  10. Wake analysis of aerodynamic components for the glide envelope of a jackdaw (Corvus monedula). (United States)

    KleinHeerenbrink, Marco; Warfvinge, Kajsa; Hedenström, Anders


    Gliding flight is a relatively inexpensive mode of flight used by many larger bird species, where potential energy is used to cover the cost of aerodynamic drag. Birds have great flexibility in their flight configuration, allowing them to control their flight speed and glide angle. However, relatively little is known about how this flexibility affects aerodynamic drag. We measured the wake of a jackdaw (Corvus monedula) gliding in a wind tunnel, and computed the components of aerodynamic drag from the wake. We found that induced drag was mainly affected by wingspan, but also that the use of the tail has a negative influence on span efficiency. Contrary to previous work, we found no support for the separated primaries being used in controlling the induced drag. Profile drag was of similar magnitude to that reported in other studies, and our results suggest that profile drag is affected by variation in wing shape. For a folded tail, the body drag coefficient had a value of 0.2, rising to above 0.4 with the tail fully spread, which we conclude is due to tail profile drag.

  11. Aerodynamics and flight performance of flapping wing micro air vehicles (United States)

    Silin, Dmytro

    Research efforts in this dissertation address aerodynamics and flight performance of flapping wing aircraft (ornithopters). Flapping wing aerodynamics was studied for various wing sizes, flapping frequencies, airspeeds, and angles of attack. Tested wings possessed both camber and dihedral. Experimental results were analyzed in the framework of momentum theory. Aerodynamic coefficients and Reynolds number are defined using a reference velocity as a vector sum of a freestream velocity and a strokeaveraged wingtip velocity. No abrupt stall was observed in flapping wings for the angle of attack up to vertical. If was found that in the presence of a freestream lift of a flapping wing in vertical position is higher than the propulsive thrust. Camber and dihedral increased both lift and thrust. Lift-curve slope, and maximum lift coefficient increased with Reynolds number. Performance model of an ornithopter was developed. Parametric studies of steady level flight of ornithopters with, and without a tail were performed. A model was proposed to account for wing-sizing effects during hover. Three micro ornithopter designs were presented. Ornithopter flight testing and data-logging was performed using a telemetry acquisition system, as well as motion capture technology. The ability of ornithopter for a sustained flight and a presence of passive aerodynamic stability were shown. Flight data were compared with performance simulations. Close agreement in terms of airspeed and flapping frequency was observed.

  12. Impact of Martian atmosphere parameter uncertainties on entry vehicles aerodynamic for hypersonic rarefied conditions (United States)

    Fei, Huang; Xu-hong, Jin; Jun-ming, Lv; Xiao-li, Cheng


    An attempt has been made to analyze impact of Martian atmosphere parameter uncertainties on entry vehicle aerodynamics for hypersonic rarefied conditions with a DSMC code. The code has been validated by comparing Viking vehicle flight data with present computational results. Then, by simulating flows around the Mars Science Laboratory, the impact of errors of free stream parameter uncertainties on aerodynamics is investigated. The validation results show that the present numerical approach can show good agreement with the Viking flight data. The physical and chemical properties of CO2 has strong impact on aerodynamics of Mars entry vehicles, so it is necessary to make proper corrections to the data obtained with air model in hypersonic rarefied conditions, which is consistent with the conclusions drawn in continuum regime. Uncertainties of free stream density and velocity weakly influence aerodynamics and pitching moment. However, aerodynamics appears to be little influenced by free stream temperature, the maximum error of what is below 0.5%. Center of pressure position is not sensitive to free stream parameters.

  13. Preview control of vehicle suspension system featuring MR shock absorber (United States)

    Seong, M. S.; Choi, S. B.; Cho, M. W.; Lee, H. G.


    This paper presents control performance evaluation of optimal preview control algorithm for vehicle suspension featuring MR shock absorber. The optimal preview control algorithm has several advantages such as high control performance over that which is best for a non-preview system. In order to achieve this goal, a commercial MR shock absorber, Delphi MganerideTM, which is applicable to high class passenger vehicle, is adopted and its field-dependent damping force and dynamic responses are experimentally evaluated. Then the governing equation of motion for the full-vehicle model is established and integrated with the MR shock absorber. Subsequently, optimal controller with preview control algorithm is formulated and implemented for vibration suppression of the car body. Control performance of the preview controller is evaluated for the full-vehicle model under random road condition. In addition, the control performances depending on preview distances are evaluated.

  14. Effects of the Orion Launch Abort Vehicle Plumes on Aerodynamics and Controllability (United States)

    Vicker, Darby; Childs, Robert; Rogers,Stuart E.; McMullen, Matthew; Garcia, Joseph; Greathouse, James


    Characterization of the launch abort system of the Multi-purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) for control design and accurate simulation has provided a significant challenge to aerodynamicists and design engineers. The design space of the launch abort vehicle (LAV) includes operational altitudes from ground level to approximately 300,000 feet, Mach numbers from 0-9, and peak dynamic pressure near 1300psf during transonic flight. Further complicating the characterization of the aerodynamics and the resultant vehicle controllability is the interaction of the vehicle flowfield with the plumes of the two solid propellant motors that provide attitude control and the main propulsive impulse for the LAV. These interactions are a function of flight parameters such as Mach number, altitude, dynamic pressure, vehicle attitude, as well as parameters relating to the operation of the motors themselves - either as a function of time for the AM, or as a result of the flight control system requests for control torque from the ACM. This paper discusses the computational aerodynamic modeling of the aerodynamic interaction caused by main abort motor and the attitude control motor of the MPCV LAV, showing the effects of these interactions on vehicle controllability.

  15. System design of electronic vehicles and components


    Смолій, Вікторія Миколаївна


    The oscillation mechanical and thermal mathematical models of electronic vehicles that allow to take into account properties and cooperation of making model elements of replacement and design oscillation stability of PCBS and components in the conditions of technological process of their production are worked out

  16. Aerodynamic analysis and simulation of a twin-tail tilt-duct unmanned aerial vehicle (United States)

    Abdollahi, Cyrus

    The tilt-duct vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) concept has been around since the early 1960s; however, to date the design has never passed the research phase and development phase. Nearly 50 years later, American Dynamics Flight Systems (ADFS) is developing the AD-150, a 2,250lb weight class unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) configured with rotating ducts on each wingtip. Unlike its predecessor, the Doak VZ-4, the AD-150 features a V tail and wing sweep -- both of which affect the aerodynamic behavior of the aircraft. Because no aircraft of this type has been built and tested, vital aerodynamic research was conducted on the bare airframe behavior (without wingtip ducts). Two weeks of static and dynamic testing were performed on a 3/10th scale model at the University of Maryland's 7' x 10' low speed wind tunnel to facilitate the construction of a nonlinear flight simulator. A total of 70 dynamic tests were performed to obtain damping parameter estimates using the ordinary least squares methodology. Validation, based on agreement between static and dynamic estimates of the pitch and yaw stiffness terms, showed an average percent error of 14.0% and 39.6%, respectively. These inconsistencies were attributed to: large dynamic displacements not encountered during static testing, regressor collinearity, and, while not conclusively proven, differences in static and dynamic boundary layer development. Overall, the damping estimates were consistent and repeatable, with low scatter over a 95% confidence interval. Finally, a basic open loop simulation was executed to demonstrate the instability of the aircraft. As a result, it is recommended that future work be performed to determine trim points and linear models for controls development.

  17. Aerodynamic Models for the Low Density Supersonic Decelerator (LDSD) Test Vehicles (United States)

    Van Norman, John W.; Dyakonov, Artem; Schoenenberger, Mark; Davis, Jody; Muppidi, Suman; Tang, Chun; Bose, Deepak; Mobley, Brandon; Clark, Ian


    An overview of aerodynamic models for the Low Density Supersonic Decelerator (LDSD) Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test (SFDT) campaign test vehicle is presented, with comparisons to reconstructed flight data and discussion of model updates. The SFDT campaign objective is to test Supersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (SIAD) and large supersonic parachute technologies at high altitude Earth conditions relevant to entry, descent, and landing (EDL) at Mars. Nominal SIAD test conditions are attained by lifting a test vehicle (TV) to 36 km altitude with a helium balloon, then accelerating the TV to Mach 4 and 53 km altitude with a solid rocket motor. Test flights conducted in June of 2014 (SFDT-1) and 2015 (SFDT-2) each successfully delivered a 6 meter diameter decelerator (SIAD-R) to test conditions and several seconds of flight, and were successful in demonstrating the SFDT flight system concept and SIAD-R technology. Aerodynamic models and uncertainties developed for the SFDT campaign are presented, including the methods used to generate them and their implementation within an aerodynamic database (ADB) routine for flight simulations. Pre- and post-flight aerodynamic models are compared against reconstructed flight data and model changes based upon knowledge gained from the flights are discussed. The pre-flight powered phase model is shown to have a significant contribution to off-nominal SFDT trajectory lofting, while coast and SIAD phase models behaved much as predicted.

  18. Numerical and Experimental Investigations on the Aerodynamic Characteristic of Three Typical Passenger Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    yiping wang


    Full Text Available The numerical simulation and wind tunnel experiment were employed to investigate the aerodynamic characteristics of three typical rear shapes: fastback, notchback and squareback. The object was to investigate the sensibility of aerodynamic characteristic to the rear shape, and provide more comprehensive experimental data as a reference to validate the numerical simulation. In the wind tunnel experiments, the aerodynamic six components of the three models with the yaw angles range from -15 and 15 were measured. The realizable k-ε model was employed to compute the aerodynamic drag, lift and surface pressure distribution at a zero yaw angle. In order to improve the calculation efficiency and accuracy, a hybrid Tetrahedron-Hexahedron-Pentahedral-Prism mesh strategy was used to discretize the computational domain. The computational results showed a good agreement with the experimental data and the results revealed that different rear shapes would induce very different aerodynamic characteristic, and it was difficult to determine the best shape. For example, the fastback would obtain very low aerodynamic drag, but it would induce positive lift which was not conducive to stability at high speed, and it also would induce bad crosswind stability. In order to reveal the internal connection between the aerodynamic drag and wake vortices, the turbulent kinetic, recirculation length, position of vortex core and velocity profile in the wake were investigated by numerical simulation and PIV experiment.

  19. Coupled Analysis of Unsteady Aerodynamics and Vehicle Motion of a Passenger Car in Crosswind Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Huang


    Full Text Available High-speed passenger car requires a lighter weight for improving power performance and reducing fuel consumption; a car with higher-speed and lighter weight will lead to the passenger car more sensitive to the crosswind, which will affect the stability and drivability of the passenger car. This study employs the fully-coupled method to investigate a passenger car subjected “1-cos” crosswind with consideration of the vehicle motion. Large eddy simulation (LES and dynamic mesh is adopted to investigate the unsteady aerodynamic, and the vehicle is treated as a three-freedom-system and driver’s control is considered to investigate the vehicle dynamic. The one-way simulation and quasi-steady simulation are also conducted to compare with the fully-coupled simulation. The results of the three simulation methods show large difference. The peak value of the lateral displacement in fully-coupled simulation is the smallest between the three simulation approaches. While the change of aerodynamic loads and vehicle motion in fully-coupled simulation is more complicated than in one-way and quasi-steady simulation. These results clearly indicate the significance of including of the unsteady aerodynamic loads in passenger car moving analysis.

  20. Studies on aerodynamic interferences between the components of transport airplane using unstructured Navier-Stokes simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, G.; Ye, Z. [Northwestern Polytechnical Univ., National Key Lab. of Aerodynamic Design and Research, Xi' an (China)]. E-mail:;


    It is well known that the aerodynamic interference flows widely exist between the components of conventional transport airplane, for example, the wing-fuselage juncture flow, wing-pylon-nacelle flow and tail-fuselage juncture flow. The main characteristic of these aerodynamic interferences is flow separation, which will increase the drag, reduce the lift and cause adverse influence on the stability and controllability of the airplane. Therefore, the modern civil transport designers should do their best to eliminate negative effects of aerodynamic interferences, which demands that the aerodynamic interferences between the aircraft components should be predicted and analyzed accurately. Today's CFD techniques provide us powerful and efficient analysis tools to achieve this objective. In this paper, computational investigations of the interferences between transport aircraft components have been carried out by using a viscous flow solver based on mixed element type unstructured meshes. (author)

  1. Aerodynamic Analysis of Flexible Flapping Wing Micro Aerial Vehicle Using Quasi-Steady Approach (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Kolandapaiyan; Chandrasekhar, Uttam; Chandrashekhar, Nagaraj


    In recent times flexible flapping-wing aerodynamics has generated a great deal of interest and is the topic of contemporary research because of its potential application in micro aerial vehicles (MAVs). The prominent features of MAVs include low Reynolds Number, changing the camber of flapping wings, development of related mechanisms, study of the suitability airfoil shape selection and other parameters. Generally, low Reynolds Number is similar to that of an insect or a bird (103-105). The primary goal of this project work is to perform CFD analysis on flexible flapping wing MAVs in order to estimate the lift and drag by using engineering methods such as quasi-steady approach. From the wind tunnel data, 3-D deformation is obtained. For CFD analysis, two types of quasi-steady methods are considered. The first method is to slice the wing section chord-wise and span wise at multiple regions, frame by frame, and obtain the 2-D corrugated camber section for each frame. This 2-D corrugated camber is analysed using CFD techniques and all the individual 2-D corrugated camber results are summed up frame by frame, to obtain the total lift and drag for one wing beat. The second method is to consider the 3D wing in entirety and perform the CFD analysis to obtain the lift and drag for five wing beat.

  2. Aerodynamic Drag Reduction for A Generic Sport Utility Vehicle Using Rear Suction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdellah Ait Moussa


    Full Text Available The high demand for new and improved aerodynamic drag reduction devices has led to the invention of flow control mechanisms and continuous suction is a promising strategy that does not have major impact on vehicle geometry. The implementation of this technique on sport utility vehicles (SUV requires adequate choice of the size and location of the opening as well as the magnitude of the boundary suction velocity. In this paper we introduce a new methodology to identifying these parameters for maximum reduction in aerodynamic drag. The technique combines automatic modeling of the suction slit, computational fluid dynamics (CFD and a global search method using orthogonal arrays. It is shown that a properly designed suction mechanism can reduce drag by up to 9%..

  3. July 2004 Working Group Meeting on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag: Presentation, Summary of Comments, and Conclusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCallen, R; Salari, K; Ortega, J; Castellucci, P; Eastwood, C; DeChant, L; Hassan, B; Browand, F; Arcas, D; Ross, J; Heineck, J; Storms, B; Walker, S; Leonard, A; Roy, C; Whitfield, D; Pointer, D; Sofu, T; Englar, R; Funk, R


    A Working Group Meeting on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag was held in Portland, Oregon on July 1, 2004. The purpose of the meeting was to provide a summary of achievements, discuss pressing issues, present a general overview of future plans, and to provide a forum for dialogue with the Department of Energy (DOE) and industry representatives. The meeting was held in Portland, because the DOE Aero Team participated in an exclusive session on Heavy Truck Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag at the 34th AIAA Fluid Dynamics Conference and Exhibit in Portland on the morning of July 1st, just preceding our Working Group meeting. Even though the paper session was on the last day of the Conference, the Team presented to a full room of interested attendees.

  4. Intermediate experimental vehicle, ESA program aerodynamics-aerothermodynamics key technologies for spacecraft design and successful flight (United States)

    Dutheil, Sylvain; Pibarot, Julien; Tran, Dac; Vallee, Jean-Jacques; Tribot, Jean-Pierre


    With the aim of placing Europe among the world's space players in the strategic area of atmospheric re-entry, several studies on experimental vehicle concepts and improvements of critical re-entry technologies have paved the way for the flight of an experimental space craft. The successful flight of the Intermediate eXperimental Vehicle (IXV), under ESA's Future Launchers Preparatory Programme (FLPP), is definitively a significant step forward from the Atmospheric Reentry Demonstrator flight (1998), establishing Europe as a key player in this field. The IXV project objectives were the design, development, manufacture and ground and flight verification of an autonomous European lifting and aerodynamically controlled reentry system, which is highly flexible and maneuverable. The paper presents, the role of aerodynamics aerothermodynamics as part of the key technologies for designing an atmospheric re-entry spacecraft and securing a successful flight.

  5. FY 2004 Annual Report: DOE Project on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCallen, R C; Salari, K; Ortega, J; Castellucci, P; Eastwood, C; Whittaker, K; DeChant, L J; Roy, C J; Payne, J L; Hassan, B; Pointer, W D; Browand, F; Hammache, M; Hsu, T; Ross, J; Satran, D; Heineck, J T; Walker, S; Yaste, D; Englar, R; Leonard, A; Rubel, M; Chatelain, P


    The objective of this report is: (1) Provide guidance to industry in the reduction of aerodynamic drag of heavy truck vehicles; and (2) Establish a database of experimental, computational, and conceptual design information, and demonstrate potential of new drag-reduction devices. The approaches used were: (1) Develop and demonstrate the ability to simulate and analyze aerodynamic flow around heavy truck vehicles using existing and advanced computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools; (2) Through an extensive experimental effort, generate an experimental data base for code validation; (3) Using experimental data base, validate computations; (4) Provide industry with design guidance and insight into flow phenomena from experiments and computations; and (5) Investigate aero devices (e.g., base flaps, tractor-trailer gap stabilizer, underbody skirts and wedges, blowing and acoustic devices), provide industry with conceptual designs of drag reducing devices, and demonstrate the full-scale fuel economy potential of these devices.

  6. On the aerodynamic redistribution of chondrite components in protoplanetary disks

    CERN Document Server

    Jacquet, Emmanuel; Fromang, Sébastien


    Despite being all roughly of solar composition, primitive meteorites (chondrites) present a diversity in their chemical, isotopic and petrographic properties, and in particular a first-order dichotomy between carbonaceous and non-carbonaceous chondrites. We investigate here analytically the dynamics of their components (chondrules, refractory inclusions, metal/sulfide and matrix grains) in protoplanetary disks prior to their incorporation in chondrite parent bodies. We find the dynamics of the solids, subject to gas drag, to be essentially controlled by the "gas-solid decoupling parameter" $S\\equiv \\textrm{St}/\\alpha$, the ratio of the dimensionless stopping time to the turbulence parameter. The decoupling of the solid particles relative to the gas is significant when $S$ exceeds unity. $S$ is expected to increase with time and heliocentric distance. On the basis of (i) abundance of refractory inclusions (ii) proportion of matrix (iii) lithophile element abundances and (iv) oxygen isotopic composition of chon...

  7. Design of Packaging for Microballoon Actuators and Feasibility of their Integration within Aerodynamic Flight Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Linga Murthy


    Full Text Available The microballoon actuators are used for the active flow control in turbulent boundary layer for aerodynamic control of flight vehicles. The packaging, interfacing, and integration of the microballoon actuators within the flight vehicle play a key role for functioning of the microballoon actuators during the flight conditions. This paper addresses the design and analysis of packaging and integration aspects and associated issues. The use of microballoon actuators on the control surfaces and nose cone of flight vehicles has the positive influence of delaying the flow separation from the aerodynamic surface. This results in enhancing aerodynamic effectiveness and lift as well as reduction of drag. A typical control surface is configured with eight microballoon actuators symmetric wrt the hinge line of the control surface and embedded within the control surface. Provision of the Pneumatic feed line system for inflation and deflation of the microballoons within the control surface has been made. The nose cone has been designed to have 32 such actuators at the circular periphery. The design is found to be completely feasible for the incorporation of microballoon actuators, both in the nose cone and in the control surface.Defence Science Journal, 2009, 59(5, pp.485-493, DOI:

  8. Unsteady Aerodynamic Models for Flight Control of Agile Micro Air Vehicles (United States)


    AUG 2010 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED 01-02-2007 to 30-11-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Unsteady Aerodynamic Models for Flight Control...non-physical. First, it is impossible to command in experiments or simulations, because it would correspond to a body instanta- neously dematerializing

  9. Autonomous vehicle platforms from modular robotic components (United States)

    Schonlau, William J.


    A brief survey of current autonomous vehicle (AV) projects is presented with intent to find common infrastructure or subsystems that can be configured from commercially available modular robotic components, thereby providing developers with greatly reduced timelines and costs and encouraging focus on the selected problem domain. The Modular Manipulator System (MMS) robotic system, based on single degree of freedom rotary and linear modules, is introduced and some approaches to autonomous vehicle configuration and deployment are examined. The modules may be configured to provide articulated suspensions for very rugged terrain and fall recovery, articulated sensors and tooling plus a limited capacity for self repair and self reconfiguration. The MMS on-board visually programmed control software (Model Manager) supports experimentation with novel physical configurations and behavior algorithms via real-time 3D graphics for operations simulation and provides useful subsystems for vision, learning and planning to host intelligent behavior.

  10. Development of Pneumatic Aerodynamic Devices to Improve the Performance, Economics, and Safety of Heavy Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert J. Englar


    Under contract to the DOE Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies, the Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) is developing and evaluating pneumatic (blown) aerodynamic devices to improve the performance, economics, stability and safety of operation of Heavy Vehicles. The objective of this program is to apply the pneumatic aerodynamic aircraft technology previously developed and flight-tested by GTRI personnel to the design of an efficient blown tractor-trailer configuration. Recent experimental results obtained by GTRI using blowing have shown drag reductions of 35% on a streamlined automobile wind-tunnel model. Also measured were lift or down-load increases of 100-150% and the ability to control aerodynamic moments about all 3 axes without any moving control surfaces. Similar drag reductions yielded by blowing on bluff afterbody trailers in current US trucking fleet operations are anticipated to reduce yearly fuel consumption by more than 1.2 billion gallons, while even further reduction is possible using pneumatic lift to reduce tire rolling resistance. Conversely, increased drag and down force generated instantaneously by blowing can greatly increase braking characteristics and control in wet/icy weather due to effective ''weight'' increases on the tires. Safety is also enhanced by controlling side loads and moments caused on these Heavy Vehicles by winds, gusts and other vehicles passing. This may also help to eliminate the jack-knifing problem if caused by extreme wind side loads on the trailer. Lastly, reduction of the turbulent wake behind the trailer can reduce splash and spray patterns and rough air being experienced by following vehicles. To be presented by GTRI in this paper will be results developed during the early portion of this effort, including a preliminary systems study, CFD prediction of the blown flowfields, and design of the baseline conventional tractor-trailer model and the pneumatic wind-tunnel model.

  11. Development of Three-dimensional Grid-free Solver and its Applications to Multi-body Aerospace Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Anandhanarayanan


    Full Text Available Grid-free solver has the ability to solve complex multi-body industrial problems with minimal effort. Grid-free Euler solver has been applied to number of multi-body aerospace vehicles using Chimera clouds of points including flight vehicle with fin deflection, nose fairing separation of hypersonic launch vehicle. A preprocessor has been developed to generate connectivity for multi-bodies using overlapped grids. Surface transpiration boundary condition has been implemented to model aerodynamic damping and to impose the relative velocity of moving components. Dynamic derivatives are estimated with reasonable accuracy and less effort using the grid-free Euler solver with the transpiration boundary condition. Further, the grid-free Euler solver has been integrated with six-degrees of freedom (6-DOF equations of motion to form store separation dynamics suite which has been applied to obtain the trajectory of a rail launch air-to-air-missile from a complex fighter aircraft.Defence Science Journal, 2010, 60(6, pp.653-662, DOI:

  12. Global Design Optimization for Aerodynamics and Rocket Propulsion Components (United States)

    Shyy, Wei; Papila, Nilay; Vaidyanathan, Rajkumar; Tucker, Kevin; Turner, James E. (Technical Monitor)


    Modern computational and experimental tools for aerodynamics and propulsion applications have matured to a stage where they can provide substantial insight into engineering processes involving fluid flows, and can be fruitfully utilized to help improve the design of practical devices. In particular, rapid and continuous development in aerospace engineering demands that new design concepts be regularly proposed to meet goals for increased performance, robustness and safety while concurrently decreasing cost. To date, the majority of the effort in design optimization of fluid dynamics has relied on gradient-based search algorithms. Global optimization methods can utilize the information collected from various sources and by different tools. These methods offer multi-criterion optimization, handle the existence of multiple design points and trade-offs via insight into the entire design space, can easily perform tasks in parallel, and are often effective in filtering the noise intrinsic to numerical and experimental data. However, a successful application of the global optimization method needs to address issues related to data requirements with an increase in the number of design variables, and methods for predicting the model performance. In this article, we review recent progress made in establishing suitable global optimization techniques employing neural network and polynomial-based response surface methodologies. Issues addressed include techniques for construction of the response surface, design of experiment techniques for supplying information in an economical manner, optimization procedures and multi-level techniques, and assessment of relative performance between polynomials and neural networks. Examples drawn from wing aerodynamics, turbulent diffuser flows, gas-gas injectors, and supersonic turbines are employed to help demonstrate the issues involved in an engineering design context. Both the usefulness of the existing knowledge to aid current design

  13. Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Revised Target Drone Vehicle at Mach Numbers from 1.60 to 2.86 (United States)

    Blair, A. B., Jr.; Babb, C. Donald


    An investigation has been conducted in the Langley Unitary Plan wind tunnel to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of a revised target drone vehicle through a Mach number range from 1.60 to 2.86. The vehicle had canard surfaces and a swept clipped-delta wing with twin tip-mounted vertical tails.

  14. DOE Project on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag FY 2005 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCallen, R C; Salari, K; Ortega, J; Castellucci, P; Eastwood, C; Paschkewitz, J; Pointer, W D; DeChant, L J; Hassan, B; Browand, F; Radovich, C; Merzel, T; Plocher, D; Ross, J; Storms, B; Heineck, J T; Walker, S; Roy, C J


    Class 8 tractor-trailers consume 11-12% of the total US petroleum use. At high way speeds, 65% of the energy expenditure for a Class 8 truck is in overcoming aerodynamic drag. The project objective is to improve fuel economy of Class 8 tractor-trailers by providing guidance on methods of reducing drag by at least 25%. A 25% reduction in drag would present a 12% improvement in fuel economy at highway speeds, equivalent to about 130 midsize tanker ships per year. Specific goals include: (1) Provide guidance to industry in the reduction of aerodynamic drag of heavy truck vehicles; and (2) Establish a database of experimental, computational, and conceptual design information, and demonstrate the potential of new drag-reduction devices.

  15. Design Of An Aerodynamic Measurement System For Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Airfoils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Velázquez-Araque


    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and validation of a measurement system for aerodynamic characteristics of unmanned aerial vehicles. An aerodynamic balance was designed in order to measure the lift, drag forces and pitching moment for different airfoils. During the design process, several aspects were analyzed in order to produce an efficient design, for instance the range of changes of the angle of attack with and a small increment and the versatility of being adapted to different type of airfoils, since it is a wire balance it was aligned and calibrated as well. Wind tunnel tests of a two dimensional NACA four digits family airfoil and four different modifications of this airfoil were performed to validate the aerodynamic measurement system. The modification of this airfoil was made in order to create a blowing outlet with the shape of a step on the suction surface. Therefore, four different locations along the cord line for this blowing outlet were analyzed. This analysis involved the aerodynamic performance which meant obtaining lift, drag and pitching moment coefficients curves as a function of the angle of attack experimentally for the situation where the engine of the aerial vehicle is turned off, called the no blowing condition, by means of wind tunnel tests. The experiments were performed in a closed circuit wind tunnel with an open test section. Finally, results of the wind tunnel tests were compared with numerical results obtained by means of computational fluid dynamics as well as with other experimental references and found to be in good agreement.

  16. Environmental Evaluation of New Generation Vehicles and Vehicle Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schexnayder, S.M.


    This report documents assessments that address waste issues and life cycle impacts associated with the vehicle materials and vehicle technologies being developed under the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) program. We refer to these vehicles as 3XVs, referring to the PNGV goal that their fuel mileage be three times better than the baseline vehicle. To meet the program's fuel consumption goals, these vehicles substitute lightweight materials for heavier materials such as steel and iron that currently dominate the composition of vehicles, and use engineering and power system changes. Alternative power systems being developed through the PNGV program include batteries for hybrid electric vehicles and fuel cells. With respect to all these developments, it is imperative to learn what effects they will have on the environment before adopting these designs and technologies on a large-scale basis.

  17. Hypersonic and Supersonic Static Aerodynamics of Mars Science Laboratory Entry Vehicle (United States)

    Dyakonov, Artem A.; Schoenenberger, Mark; Vannorman, John W.


    This paper describes the analysis of continuum static aerodynamics of Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) entry vehicle (EV). The method is derived from earlier work for Mars Exploration Rover (MER) and Mars Path Finder (MPF) and the appropriate additions are made in the areas where physics are different from what the prior entry systems would encounter. These additions include the considerations for the high angle of attack of MSL EV, ablation of the heatshield during entry, turbulent boundary layer, and other aspects relevant to the flight performance of MSL. Details of the work, the supporting data and conclusions of the investigation are presented.

  18. Aerodynamic Interactions Between Wing and Body of a Model Insect in Forward Flight and Maneuvers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin Liang; Mao Sun


    The aerodynamic interactions between the body and the wings of a model insect in forward flight and maneuvers are studied using the method of numerically solving the Navier-Stokes equations over moving overset grids.Three cases are considered,including a complete insect,wing pair only and body only.By comparing the results of these cases,the interaction effect between the body and the wing pair can be identified.The changes in the force and moment coefficients of the wing pair due to the presence of the body are less than 4.5% of the mean vertical force coefficient of the model insect; the changes in the aerodynamic force coefficients of the body due to the presence of the wings are less than 5.0% of the mean vertical force coefficient of the model insect.The results of this paper indicate that in studying the aerodynamics and flight dynamics of a flapping insect in forward flight or maneuver,separately computing (or measuring) the aerodynamic forces and moments on the wing pair and on the body could be a good approximation.

  19. Vibration Damping Via Acoustic Treatment Attached To Vehicle Body Panels (United States)

    Gambino, Carlo

    Currently, in the automotive industry, the control of noise and vibration is the subject of much research, oriented towards the creation of innovative solutions to improve the comfort of the vehicle and to reduce its cost and weight. This thesis fits into this particular framework, as it aims to investigate the possibility of integrating the functions of sound absorptioninsulation and vibration damping in a unique component. At present the bituminous viscoelastic treatments, which are bonded to the car body panels, take charge of the vibration damping, while the sound absorption and insulation is obtained by means of the poroacoustic treatments. The solution proposed here consists of employing porous materials to perform both these functions, thus allowing the partial or complete removal of the viscoelastic damping treatments from the car body. This should decrease the weight of the vehicle, reducing fuel consumption and emissions, and it might also benefit production costs.

  20. Theoretical and Experimental Aerodynamic Analysis for High-Speed Ground Vehicles (United States)

    Farhan, Ismail Haider

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. This thesis investigates the air flow around a proposed geometry for a high-speed electromagnetic suspension (EMS) train. A numerical technique called the panel method has been applied to the representation of the body shape and the prediction of the potential flow and pressure distribution. Two computer programmes have been written, one for a single vehicle in the presence of the ground at different yaw angles, and the second for two-body problems, e.g. a train passing a railway station or a train passing the central part of another train. Two methods based on the momentum integral equations for three-dimensional boundary layer flow have been developed for use with the potential flow analysis; these predict the development of the three-dimensional turbulent boundary layer on the central section (for the analysis of crosswind conditions) and on the nose of the train. Extensive wind tunnel tests were performed on four models of the high-speed train to measure aerodynamic forces, moments and pressures to establish ground effect characteristics. Flow visualisation showed that the wake vortices were stronger and larger in the presence of a ground. At small yaw angles ground clearance had little effect, but as yaw increased, larger ground clearance led to substantial increase in lift and side force coefficients. The tests also identified the differences between a moving and a fixed ground plane. Data showed that the type of ground simulation was significant only in the separated region. A comparison of the results predicted using potential flow theory for an EMS train model and the corresponding results from wind tunnel tests indicated good agreement in regions where the flow is attached. The turbulent boundary layer calculations for the train in a crosswind condition showed that the momentum thickness along the crosswind surface distance co-ordinate increased slowly at the beginning of the development of the

  1. Application of CAD/CAE class systems to aerodynamic analysis of electric race cars (United States)

    Grabowski, L.; Baier, A.; Buchacz, A.; Majzner, M.; Sobek, M.


    Aerodynamics is one of the most important factors which influence on every aspect of a design of a car and car driving parameters. The biggest influence aerodynamics has on design of a shape of a race car body, especially when the main objective of the race is the longest distance driven in period of time, which can not be achieved without low energy consumption and low drag of a car. Designing shape of the vehicle body that must generate the lowest possible drag force, without compromising the other parameters of the drive. In the article entitled „Application of CAD/CAE class systems to aerodynamic analysis of electric race cars” are being presented problems solved by computer analysis of cars aerodynamics and free form modelling. Analysis have been subjected to existing race car of a Silesian Greenpower Race Team. On a basis of results of analysis of existence of Kammback aerodynamic effect innovative car body were modeled. Afterwards aerodynamic analysis were performed to verify existence of aerodynamic effect for innovative shape and to recognize aerodynamics parameters of the shape. Analysis results in the values of coefficients and aerodynamic drag forces. The resulting drag forces Fx, drag coefficients Cx(Cd) and aerodynamic factors Cx*A allowed to compare all of the shapes to each other. Pressure distribution, air velocities and streams courses were useful in determining aerodynamic features of analyzed shape. For aerodynamic tests was used Ansys Fluent CFD software. In a paper the ways of surface modeling with usage of Realize Shape module and classic surface modeling were presented. For shapes modeling Siemens NX 9.0 software was used. Obtained results were used to estimation of existing shapes and to make appropriate conclusions.

  2. A Cost-Effective Tracking Algorithm for Hypersonic Glide Vehicle Maneuver Based on Modified Aerodynamic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Fan


    Full Text Available In order to defend the hypersonic glide vehicle (HGV, a cost-effective single-model tracking algorithm using Cubature Kalman filter (CKF is proposed in this paper based on modified aerodynamic model (MAM as process equation and radar measurement model as measurement equation. In the existing aerodynamic model, the two control variables attack angle and bank angle cannot be measured by the existing radar equipment and their control laws cannot be known by defenders. To establish the process equation, the MAM for HGV tracking is proposed by using additive white noise to model the rates of change of the two control variables. For the ease of comparison several multiple model algorithms based on CKF are presented, including interacting multiple model (IMM algorithm, adaptive grid interacting multiple model (AGIMM algorithm and hybrid grid multiple model (HGMM algorithm. The performances of these algorithms are compared and analyzed according to the simulation results. The simulation results indicate that the proposed tracking algorithm based on modified aerodynamic model has the best tracking performance with the best accuracy and least computational cost among all tracking algorithms in this paper. The proposed algorithm is cost-effective for HGV tracking.

  3. Aerodynamics of a bio-inspired flexible flapping-wing micro air vehicle. (United States)

    Nakata, T; Liu, H; Tanaka, Y; Nishihashi, N; Wang, X; Sato, A


    MAVs (micro air vehicles) with a maximal dimension of 15 cm and nominal flight speeds of around 10 m s⁻¹, operate in a Reynolds number regime of 10⁵ or lower, in which most natural flyers including insects, bats and birds fly. Furthermore, due to their light weight and low flight speed, the MAVs' flight characteristics are substantially affected by environmental factors such as wind gust. Like natural flyers, the wing structures of MAVs are often flexible and tend to deform during flight. Consequently, the aero/fluid and structural dynamics of these flyers are closely linked to each other, making the entire flight vehicle difficult to analyze. We have recently developed a hummingbird-inspired, flapping flexible wing MAV with a weight of 2.4-3.0 g and a wingspan of 10-12 cm. In this study, we carry out an integrated study of the flexible wing aerodynamics of this flapping MAV by combining an in-house computational fluid dynamic (CFD) method and wind tunnel experiments. A CFD model that has a realistic wing planform and can mimic realistic flexible wing kinematics is established, which provides a quantitative prediction of unsteady aerodynamics of the four-winged MAV in terms of vortex and wake structures and their relationship with aerodynamic force generation. Wind tunnel experiments further confirm the effectiveness of the clap and fling mechanism employed in this bio-inspired MAV as well as the importance of the wing flexibility in designing small flapping-wing MAVs.

  4. Wing and body motion and aerodynamic and leg forces during take-off in droneflies


    Chen, Mao Wei; Zhang, Yan Lai; Sun, Mao


    Here, we present a detailed analysis of the take-off mechanics in droneflies performing voluntary take-offs. Wing and body kinematics of the insects during take-off were measured using high-speed video techniques. Based on the measured data, the inertia force acting on the insect was computed and the aerodynamic force of the wings was calculated by the method of computational fluid dynamics. Subtracting the aerodynamic force and the weight from the inertia force gave the leg force. In take-of...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Du Guang-sheng; Lei Li; Zhou Lian-di


    In this paper, the differences in the characteristics of airflow around the van-body truck and of the aerodynamic drag, which were caused by the installation of a wind deflector, were studied by experimentally and numerically. The results show that after the installation of the deflector, the airflow around the top and bottom of the truck becoms smooth, the intensity of tail-vortex is weakened and its contribution area lessened. It also indicates that the aerodynamic characteristics of the airflow are changed distinctly and the aerodynamic drag is reduced considerably. The effect of the thin-wall deflector is better than the solid one in decreasing the drag. It is also concluded that proper design of the gap between the deflector bottom and the top of the driver cab can enhance the effect of the deflector in reducing drag.

  6. Visualization Component of Vehicle Health Decision Support System (United States)

    Jacob, Joseph; Turmon, Michael; Stough, Timothy; Siegel, Herbert; Walter, patrick; Kurt, Cindy


    The visualization front-end of a Decision Support System (DSS) also includes an analysis engine linked to vehicle telemetry, and a database of learned models for known behaviors. Because the display is graphical rather than text-based, the summarization it provides has a greater information density on one screen for evaluation by a flight controller.This tool provides a system-level visualization of the state of a vehicle, and drill-down capability for more details and interfaces to separate analysis algorithms and sensor data streams. The system-level view is a 3D rendering of the vehicle, with sensors represented as icons, tied to appropriate positions within the vehicle body and colored to indicate sensor state (e.g., normal, warning, anomalous state, etc.). The sensor data is received via an Information Sharing Protocol (ISP) client that connects to an external server for real-time telemetry. Users can interactively pan, zoom, and rotate this 3D view, as well as select sensors for a detail plot of the associated time series data. Subsets of the plotted data can be selected and sent to an external analysis engine to either search for a similar time series in an historical database, or to detect anomalous events. The system overview and plotting capabilities are completely general in that they can be applied to any vehicle instrumented with a collection of sensors. This visualization component can interface with the ISP for data streams used by NASA s Mission Control Center at Johnson Space Center. In addition, it can connect to, and display results from, separate analysis engine components that identify anomalies or that search for past instances of similar behavior. This software supports NASA's Software, Intelligent Systems, and Modeling element in the Exploration Systems Research and Technology Program by augmenting the capability of human flight controllers to make correct decisions, thus increasing safety and reliability. It was designed specifically as a

  7. Flow visualization using the laser light sheet method in vehicle aerodynamics and combustion chamber engineering (United States)

    Hentschel, Werner

    Laser light sheet flow visualization is applied in the automobile industry with a view to the reduction of air resistance. Using high power lasers a plane is cut out of the 3-D flow field and the course of flow in the plane is analyzed. In vehicle aerodynamics the flow phenomena are mainly visualized with smoke in the tail region of automobiles and in the wake, in planes parallel as well as perpendicular to the flow direction. For the investigation of flow phenomena in the combustion chamber of Otto and Diesel engines, the laser light sheet method is used on a series motor with optical access, the so-called flow motor. Typical results and requirements for future automated evaluation methods are discussed.

  8. Aerodynamics on a transport aircraft type wing-body model (United States)

    Schmitt, V.


    The DFLR-F4 wing-body combination is studied. The 1/38 model is formed by a 9.5 aspect ratio transonic wing and an Airbus A 310 fuselage. The F4 wing geometrical characteristics are described and the main experimental results obtained in the S2MA wind tunnel are discussed. Both wing-fuselage interferences and viscous effects, which are important on the wing due to a high rear loading, are investigated by performing 3D calculations. An attempt is made to find their limitations.

  9. Wing and body motion and aerodynamic and leg forces during take-off in droneflies. (United States)

    Chen, Mao Wei; Zhang, Yan Lai; Sun, Mao


    Here, we present a detailed analysis of the take-off mechanics in droneflies performing voluntary take-offs. Wing and body kinematics of the insects during take-off were measured using high-speed video techniques. Based on the measured data, the inertia force acting on the insect was computed and the aerodynamic force of the wings was calculated by the method of computational fluid dynamics. Subtracting the aerodynamic force and the weight from the inertia force gave the leg force. In take-off, a dronefly increases its stroke amplitude gradually in the first 10-14 wingbeats and becomes airborne at about the 12th wingbeat. The aerodynamic force increases monotonously from zero to a value a little larger than its weight, and the leg force decreases monotonously from a value equal to its weight to zero, showing that the droneflies do not jump and only use aerodynamic force of flapping wings to lift themselves into the air. Compared with take-offs in insects in previous studies, in which a very large force (5-10 times of the weight) generated either by jumping legs (locusts, milkweed bugs and fruit flies) or by the 'fling' mechanism of the wing pair (butterflies) is used in a short time, the take-off in the droneflies is relatively slow but smoother.

  10. A New Application of Multi- Body System Dynamics in Vehicle- Road Interaction Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren Wei-qun; Zhang Yun-qing; Jin Guo-dong


    In vehicle-road interaction simulation, multi-body system (MBS) dynamics as well as the corresponding software ADAMS has been employed to model the nonlinear vehicle in more detail. The simulation method has been vali-dated by the test data, and been compared to the former sim-ple models. This method can be used for estimating the effects of dynamic tire forces and other vehicle features on road damage so that the "road- friend liness" can be assessed in vehicle design process.

  11. Component-based model to predict aerodynamic noise from high-speed train pantographs (United States)

    Latorre Iglesias, E.; Thompson, D. J.; Smith, M. G.


    At typical speeds of modern high-speed trains the aerodynamic noise produced by the airflow over the pantograph is a significant source of noise. Although numerical models can be used to predict this they are still very computationally intensive. A semi-empirical component-based prediction model is proposed to predict the aerodynamic noise from train pantographs. The pantograph is approximated as an assembly of cylinders and bars with particular cross-sections. An empirical database is used to obtain the coefficients of the model to account for various factors: incident flow speed, diameter, cross-sectional shape, yaw angle, rounded edges, length-to-width ratio, incoming turbulence and directivity. The overall noise from the pantograph is obtained as the incoherent sum of the predicted noise from the different pantograph struts. The model is validated using available wind tunnel noise measurements of two full-size pantographs. The results show the potential of the semi-empirical model to be used as a rapid tool to predict aerodynamic noise from train pantographs.

  12. Low-speed Aerodynamic Investigations of a Hybrid Wing Body Configuration (United States)

    Vicroy, Dan D.; Gatlin, Gregory M.; Jenkins, Luther N.; Murphy, Patrick C.; Carter, Melissa B.


    Two low-speed static wind tunnel tests and a water tunnel static and dynamic forced-motion test have been conducted on a hybrid wing-body (HWB) twinjet configuration. These tests, in addition to computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis, have provided a comprehensive dataset of the low-speed aerodynamic characteristics of this nonproprietary configuration. In addition to force and moment measurements, the tests included surface pressures, flow visualization, and off-body particle image velocimetry measurements. This paper will summarize the results of these tests and highlight the data that is available for code comparison or additional analysis.

  13. Assessment Of The Aerodynamic And Aerothermodynamic Performance Of The USV-3 High-Lift Re-Entry Vehicle (United States)

    Pezzella, Giuseppe; Richiello, Camillo; Russo, Gennaro


    This paper deals with the aerodynamic and aerothermodynamic trade-off analysis carried out with the aim to design a hypersonic flying test bed (FTB), namely USV3. Such vehicle will have to be launched with a small expendable launcher and shall re-enter the Earth atmosphere allowing to perform several experiments on critical re-entry phenomena. The demonstrator under study is a re-entry space glider characterized by a relatively simple vehicle architecture able to validate hypersonic aerothermodynamic design database and passenger experiments, including thermal shield and hot structures. Then, a summary review of the aerodynamic characteristics of two FTB concepts, compliant with a phase-A design level, has been provided hereinafter. Indeed, several design results, based both on engineering approach and computational fluid dynamics, are reported and discussed in the paper.

  14. Fuel-Efficient Road Vehicle Non-Engine Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The need to address global energy issues, i.e. energy security and climate change, is more urgent than ever. Road vehicles dominate global oil consumption and are one of the fastest growing energy end-uses. This paper studies policies and measures to improve on-road fuel efficiency of vehicles by focusing on energy efficiency of automobile components not generally considered in official fuel efficiency test, namely tyres, cooling technologies and lightings. In this paper, current policies and industry activities on these components are reviewed, fuel saving potential by the components analysed and possible policies to realise the potential recommended.

  15. Aerodynamics Research Revolutionizes Truck Design (United States)


    During the 1970s and 1980s, researchers at Dryden Flight Research Center conducted numerous tests to refine the shape of trucks to reduce aerodynamic drag and improved efficiency. During the 1980s and 1990s, a team based at Langley Research Center explored controlling drag and the flow of air around a moving body. Aeroserve Technologies Ltd., of Ottawa, Canada, with its subsidiary, Airtab LLC, in Loveland, Colorado, applied the research from Dryden and Langley to the development of the Airtab vortex generator. Airtabs create two counter-rotating vortices to reduce wind resistance and aerodynamic drag of trucks, trailers, recreational vehicles, and many other vehicles.

  16. Transition aerodynamics for 20-percent-scale VTOL unmanned aerial vehicle (United States)

    Kjerstad, Kevin J.; Paulson, John W., Jr.


    An investigation was conducted in the Langley 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel to establish a transition data base for an unmanned aerial vehicle utilizing a powered-lift ejector system and to evaluate alterations to the ejector system for improved vehicle performance. The model used in this investigation was a 20-percent-scale, blended-body, arrow-wing configuration with integrated twin rectangular ejectors. The test was conducted from hover through transition conditions with variations in angle of attack, angle of sideslip, free-stream dynamic pressure, nozzle pressure ratio, and model ground height. Force and moment data along with extensive surface pressure data were obtained. A laser velocimeter technique for measuring inlet flow velocities was demonstrated at a single flow condition, and also a low order panel method was successfully used to numerically simulate the ejector inlet flow.

  17. Influence of wind on aerodynamic drag for the second case of the arrangement of the equipment on the LE 060EA locomotive bodywork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin ARSENE


    Full Text Available The electric power supply equipment of electric railways vehicles of surface is placed on the their body. The arrangement of the equipment on the vehicle body determines the variation of the aerodynamic drag. The gusts of wind occurring during the vehicle movement result in additional requests. The case of the locomotive of type LE 060 EA 5100kW moving with the second driving position is analyzed in this paper. For this particular case the components ensemble of the power supply system was geometric modelled in 3D format at 1:1 scale. The resulted model was placed in air flow simulation software to determine the aerodynamic resistance. The wind influence is analyzed for five point values of its speed. The wind direction is simulated by eight point values of the angle that it makes to the longitudinal axis of the vehicle.

  18. 40 CFR 610.21 - Device functional category and vehicle system effects. (United States)


    ...) The devices evaluated in this program are organized into categories for purposes of definition and...., engine heaters) 1. Lubrication Oil filters 3. Vehicle Body Aerodynamic drag reduction devices...

  19. Error Estimate of the Ares I Vehicle Longitudinal Aerodynamic Characteristics Based on Turbulent Navier-Stokes Analysis (United States)

    Abdol-Hamid, Khaled S.; Ghaffari, Farhad


    Numerical predictions of the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics for the Ares I class of vehicles, along with the associated error estimate derived from an iterative convergence grid refinement, are presented. Computational results are based on the unstructured grid, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes flow solver USM3D, with an assumption that the flow is fully turbulent over the entire vehicle. This effort was designed to complement the prior computational activities conducted over the past five years in support of the Ares I Project with the emphasis on the vehicle s last design cycle designated as the A106 configuration. Due to a lack of flight data for this particular design s outer mold line, the initial vehicle s aerodynamic predictions and the associated error estimates were first assessed and validated against the available experimental data at representative wind tunnel flow conditions pertinent to the ascent phase of the trajectory without including any propulsion effects. Subsequently, the established procedures were then applied to obtain the longitudinal aerodynamic predictions at the selected flight flow conditions. Sample computed results and the correlations with the experimental measurements are presented. In addition, the present analysis includes the relevant data to highlight the balance between the prediction accuracy against the grid size and, thus, the corresponding computer resource requirements for the computations at both wind tunnel and flight flow conditions. NOTE: Some details have been removed from selected plots and figures in compliance with the sensitive but unclassified (SBU) restrictions. However, the content still conveys the merits of the technical approach and the relevant results.

  20. Numerical Investigation of Bending-Body Projectile Aerodynamics for Maneuver Control (United States)

    Youn, Eric; Silton, Sidra


    Precision munitions are an active area of research for the U.S. Army. Canard-control actuators have historically been the primary mechanism used to maneuver fin-stabilized, gun-launched munitions. Canards are small, fin-like control surfaces mounted at the forward section of the munition to provide the pitching moment necessary to rotate the body in the freestream flow. The additional lift force due to the rotated body and the canards then alters the flight path toward the intended target. As velocity and maneuverability requirements continue to increase, investigation of other maneuver mechanisms becomes necessary. One option for a projectile with a large length-to-diameter ratio (L/D) is a bending-body design, which imparts a curvature to the projectile body along its axis. This investigation uses full Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics simulations to evaluate the effectiveness of an 8-degree bent nose tip on an 8-degree bent forward section of an L/D =10 projectile. The aerodynamic control effectiveness of the bending-body concept is compared to that of a standard L/D =10 straight-body projectile as well as that of the same projectile with traditional canards. All simulations were performed at supersonic velocities between Mach 2-4.

  1. Optimum Vehicle Component Integration with InVeST (Integrated Vehicle Simulation Testbed)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, W; Paddack, E; Aceves, S


    We have developed an Integrated Vehicle Simulation Testbed (InVeST). InVeST is based on the concept of Co-simulation, and it allows the development of virtual vehicles that can be analyzed and optimized as an overall integrated system. The virtual vehicle is defined by selecting different vehicle components from a component library. Vehicle component models can be written in multiple programming languages running on different computer platforms. At the same time, InVeST provides full protection for proprietary models. Co-simulation is a cost-effective alternative to competing methodologies, such as developing a translator or selecting a single programming language for all vehicle components. InVeST has been recently demonstrated using a transmission model and a transmission controller model. The transmission model was written in SABER and ran on a Sun/Solaris workstation, while the transmission controller was written in MATRIXx and ran on a PC running Windows NT. The demonstration was successfully performed. Future plans include the applicability of Co-simulation and InVeST to analysis and optimization of multiple complex systems, including those of Intelligent Transportation Systems.

  2. Aerodynamic force generation, performance and control of body orientation during gliding in sugar gliders (Petaurus breviceps). (United States)

    Bishop, Kristin L


    Gliding has often been discussed in the literature as a possible precursor to powered flight in vertebrates, but few studies exist on the mechanics of gliding in living animals. In this study I analyzed the 3D kinematics of sugar gliders (Petaurus breviceps) during short glides in an enclosed space. Short segments of the glide were captured on video, and the positions of marked anatomical landmarks were used to compute linear distances and angles, as well as whole body velocities and accelerations. From the whole body accelerations I estimated the aerodynamic forces generated by the animals. I computed the correlations between movements of the limbs and body rotations to examine the control of orientation during flight. Finally, I compared these results to those of my earlier study on the similarly sized and distantly related southern flying squirrel (Glaucomys volans). The sugar gliders in this study accelerated downward slightly (1.0+/-0.5 m s(-2)), and also accelerated forward (2.1+/-0.6 m s(-2)) in all but one trial, indicating that the body weight was not fully supported by aerodynamic forces and that some of the lift produced forward acceleration rather than just balancing body weight. The gliders used high angles of attack (44.15+/-3.12 degrees ), far higher than the angles at which airplane wings would stall, yet generated higher lift coefficients (1.48+/-0.18) than would be expected for a stalled wing. Movements of the limbs were strongly correlated with body rotations, suggesting that sugar gliders make extensive use of limb movements to control their orientation during gliding flight. In addition, among individuals, different limb movements were associated with a given body rotation, suggesting that individual variation exists in the control of body rotations. Under similar conditions, flying squirrels generated higher lift coefficients and lower drag coefficients than sugar gliders, yet had only marginally shallower glides. Flying squirrels have a

  3. September 2002 Working Group Meeting on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag: Presentations and Summary of Comments and Conclusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCallen, R


    A Working Group Meeting on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag was held at NASA Ames Research Center on September 23, 2002. The purpose of the meeting was to present and discuss technical details on the experimental and computational work in progress and future project plans. Representatives from the Department of Energy (DOE)/Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy/Office of FreedomCAR & Vehicle Technologies, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), NASA Ames Research Center (NASA), University of Southern California (USC), California Institute of Technology (Caltech), Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Freightliner, and Portland State University participated in the meeting. This report contains the technical presentations (viewgraphs) delivered at the Meeting, briefly summarizes the comments and conclusions, and outlines the future action items. The meeting began with an introduction by the Project Lead Rose McCallen of LLNL, where she emphasized that the world energy consumption is predicted to relatively soon exceed the available resources (i.e., fossil, hydro, non-breeder fission). This short fall is predicted to begin around the year 2050. Minimizing vehicle aerodynamic drag will significantly reduce our Nation's dependence on foreign oil resources and help with our world-wide fuel shortage. Rose also mentioned that educating the populace and researchers as to our world energy issues is important and that our upcoming United Engineering Foundation (UEF) Conference on ''The Aerodynamics of Heavy Vehicles: Trucks, Busses, and Trains'' was one way our DOE Consortium was doing this. Mentioned were the efforts of Fred Browand from USC in organizing and attracting internationally recognized speakers to the Conference. Rose followed with an overview of the DOE project goals, deliverables, and FY03 activities. The viewgraphs are attached at the end of this

  4. Feature Comparison in Structural Health Monitoring of a Vehicle Crane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kullaa


    Full Text Available Vibration-based structural health monitoring of a vehicle crane was studied. The performance of different features to detect damage was investigated after eliminating the normal operational variations using factor analysis. Using eight accelerometers, ten AR parameters from each record were identified for damage detection. Also transmissibilities between sensors were estimated. Damage was introduced with additional masses at different locations of the structure. All damage cases could be detected from either features using control charts, but transmissibilities proved to be more sensitive to damage than the AR coefficients.

  5. Study on Reverse Reconstruction Method of Vehicle Group Situation in Urban Road Network Based on Driver-Vehicle Feature Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyuan Wang


    Full Text Available Vehicle group situation is the status and situation of dynamic permutation which is composed of target vehicle and neighboring traffic entities. It is a concept which is frequently involved in the research of traffic flow theory, especially the active vehicle security. Studying vehicle group situation in depth is of great significance for traffic safety. Three-lane condition was taken as an example; the characteristics of target vehicle and its neighboring vehicles were synthetically considered to restructure the vehicle group situation in this paper. The Gamma distribution theory was used to identify the vehicle group situation when target vehicle arrived at the end of the study area. From the perspective of driver-vehicle feature evolution, the reverse reconstruction method of vehicle group situation in the urban road network was proposed. Results of actual driving, virtual driving, and simulation experiments showed that the model established in this paper was reasonable and feasible.

  6. May 2003 Working Group Meeting on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag: Presentations and Summary of Comments and Conclusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCallen, R; Salari, K; Ortega, J; Browand, F; Hammache, M; Hsu, T Y; Arcas, D; Leoard, A; Chatelain, P; Rubel, M; Roy, C; DeChant, L; Hassan, B; Ross, J; Satran, D; Walker, S; Heineck, J T; Englar, R; Pointer, D; Sofu, T


    A Working Group Meeting on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag was held at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory on May 29-30, 2003. The purpose of the meeting was to present and discuss suggested guidance and direction for the design of drag reduction devices determined from experimental and computational studies. Representatives from the Department of Energy (DOE)/Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy/Office of FreedomCAR & Vehicle Technologies, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), NASA Ames Research Center (NASA), University of Southern California (USC), California Institute of Technology (Caltech), Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Clarkson University, and PACCAR participated in the meeting. This report contains the technical presentations (viewgraphs) delivered at the Meeting, briefly summarizes the comments and conclusions, provides some highlighted items, and outlines the future action items.

  7. April 2002 Working Group Meeting on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag: Presentations and Summary of Comments and Conclusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salari, K; Dunn, T; Ortega, J; Yen-Nakafuji, D; Browand, F; Arcas, D; Jammache, M; Leoard, A; Chatelain, P; Rubel, M; Rutledge, W; McWherter-Payne, M; Roy, Ca; Ross, J; Satran, D; Heineck, J T; Storms, B; Pointer, D; Sofu, T; Weber, D; Chu, E; Hancock, P; Bundy, B; Englar, B


    A Working Group Meeting on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag was held at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory on April 3 and 4, 2002. The purpose of the meeting was to present and discuss technical details on the experimental and computational work in progress and future project plans. Representatives from the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Transportation Technology Office of Heavy Vehicle Technology (OHVT), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), NASA Ames Research Center, University of Southern California (USC), and California Institute of Technology (Caltech), Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI), and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Volvo Trucks, and Freightliner Trucks presented and participated in discussions. This report contains the technical presentations (viewgraphs) delivered at the Meeting, briefly summarizes the comments and conclusions, and outlines the future action items.

  8. Development of commercial hybrid electric vehicle with native key components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Bakhmutov


    Full Text Available The perspectives of development of medium weight cargo vehicles with hybrid powertrain including Russian native key components are considered in this article. Series-parallel scheme of HEV is more relevant owing to limitations of series and parallel schemes. An example of this technology is described. This technical solution has good facilities for variation of HEV and AWD type. The authors have patented it. In addition, another main issue is to choose the types of key components with good correlation for parameters of ICE, electric motors, batteries, and inverter. Using mathematical model of the vehicle a selection and correlation of technical characteristics were carried out to meet ecological and economical requirements. After computing calculation two control strategies were accepted. The first strategy contributes to good fuel consumption, while the other one is aimed at ecology. Researchers use test benches to confirm the results of calculation, and this one was built by the authors applying native components. The result of experiment on the test bench is the growth of fuel consumption of the medium weight cargo vehicle by 25% and compliance with ecological class Euro-4.

  9. Finite-time sliding mode attitude control for a reentry vehicle with blended aerodynamic surfaces and a reaction control system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Geng Jie; Sheng Yongzhi; Liu Xiangdong


    This paper proposes a finite-time robust flight controller, targeting for a reentry vehicle with blended aerodynamic surfaces and a reaction control system (RCS). Firstly, a novel finite-time attitude controller is pointed out with the introduction of a nonsingular finite-time sliding mode manifold. The attitude tracking errors are mathematically proved to converge to zero within finite time which can be estimated. In order to improve the performance, a second-order finite-time slid-ing mode controller is further developed to effectively alleviate chattering without any deterioration of robustness and accuracy. Moreover, an optimization control allocation algorithm, using linear programming and a pulse-width pulse-frequency (PWPF) modulator, is designed to allocate torque commands for all the aerodynamic surface deflections and on-off switching-states of RCS thrusters. Simulations are provided for the reentry vehicle considering uncertain parameters and external disturbances for practical purposes, and the results demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the attitude control system.

  10. Aerodynamic Interactions Between Contralateral Wings and Between Wings and Body of a Model Insect at Hovering and Small Speed Motions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Bin; SUN Mao


    In this paper,we study the aerodynamic interactions between the contralateral wings and between the body and wings of a model insect,when the insect is hovering and has various translational and rotational motions,using the method numerically solving the Navier-Stokes equations over moving overset grids.The aerodynamic interactional effects are identified by comparing the results of a complete model insect,the corresponding wing pair,single wing and body without the wings.Horizontal,vertical and lateral translations and roll,pitch and yaw rotations at small speeds are considered.The results indicate that for the motions considered,both the interaction between the contralateral wings and the interaction between the body and wings are weak.The changes in the forces and moments of a wing due to the contralateral wing interaction,of the wings due to the presence of the body,and of the body due to the presence of the wings are generally less than 4.5%.Results show that aerodynamic forces of wings and body can be measured or computed separately in the analysis of flight stability and control of hovering insects.

  11. Structural design optimization of vehicle components using Cuckoo Search Algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yildiz, Ali Riza [Bursa Technical Univ., Bursa (Turkey). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Durgun, Ismail


    In order to meet today's vehicle design requirements and to improve the cost and fuel efficiency, there is an increasing interest to design light-weight and cost-effective vehicle components. In this research, a new optimization algorithm, called the Cuckoo Search Algorithm (CS) algorithm, is introduced for solving structural design optimization problems. This research is the first application of the CS to the shape design optimization problems in the literature. The CS algorithm is applied to the structural design optimization of a vehicle component to illustrate how the present approach can be applied for solving structural design problems. Results show the ability of the CS to find better optimal structural design. [German] Um heutige Anforderungen an das Fahrzeugdesign zu beruecksichtigen und um die Kosten- und Kraftstoffeffektivitaet zu erhoehen, nimmt das Interesse am Design leichter und kosteneffektiver Fahrzeugkomponenten weiterhin zu. In der diesem Beitrag zugrunde liegenden Studie wurde ein neuer Optimierungsalgorithmus angewendet, der so genannte Cuckoo Suchalgorithmus (CS). Es handelt sich um die erste CS-Applikation fuer das Formdesign in der Literatur. Der CS-Algorithmus wird hierbei zur Strukturdesignoptimierung einer Fahrzeugkomponente angewendet, um zu zeigen, wie er bei der Loesung von Strukturdesignaufgaben angewendet werden kann. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, wie damit ein verbessertes Design erreicht werden kann.

  12. Driving Electric Vehicle by EMG Signal Considering Frequency Components (United States)

    Aso, Shinichi; Sasaki, Akinori; Hashimoto, Hiroshi; Ishii, Chiharu

    This paper proposes a useful method driving the electric vehicle by EMG signals (Electromyographic signals) which are filtered on the basis of frequency components which change with muscle contraction. This method estimates strength of muscular tension by a single EMG signal. By our method, user is able to control speed of the electric vehicle by strength of muscular tension. The method of speed control may give user good or bad operation feeling in the meaning of SD (Semantic Differential) method and factor analysis. The operation feeling is evaluated by experiment on EMG interface in cases of using filters or not. As a result, it is shown that operation feeling is influenced by this method.

  13. The influence of aerodynamic coefficients on the elements of classic projectile paths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir D. Jerković


    Full Text Available The article deals with the results of the research on the influence of aerodynamic coefficient values on the trajectory elements and the stability parameters of classic axisymmetric projectiles. It presents the characteristic functions of aerodynamic coefficients with regard to aerodynamic parameters and the projectile body shape. The trajectory elements of the model of classic axisymmetric projectiles and the analyses of their changes were presented with respect to the aerodynamic coefficient values. Introduction Classic axisymmetric projectiles fly through atmosphere using muzzle velocity as initial energy resource, so the aerodynamic force and moment have the most significant influence on the motion of projectiles. The aerodynamic force and moment components represented as aerodynamic coefficients depend on motion velocity i. e. flow velocity, the flow features produced by projectile shape and position in the flow, and angular velocity (rate of the body. The functional dependence of aerodynamic coefficients on certain influential parameters, such as angle of attack and angular velocity components is expressed by the derivative of aerodynamic coefficients. The determination of aerodynamic coefficients and derivatives enables complete definition of the aerodynamic force and moment acting on the classic projectile. The projectile motion problem is considered in relation to defining the projectile stability parameters and the conditions under which the stability occurs. The comparative analyses of aerodynamic coefficient values obtained by numerical methods, semi empirical calculations and experimental research give preliminary evaluation of the quality of the determined values. The flight simulation of the motion of a classic axisymetric projectile, which has the shape defined by the aerodynamic coefficient values, enables the comparative analyses of the trajectory elements and stability characteristics. The model of the classic projectile

  14. Analysis of modal frequency optimization of railway vehicle car body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjing Sun


    Full Text Available High structural modal frequencies of car body are beneficial as they ensure better vibration control and enhance ride quality of railway vehicles. Modal sensitivity optimization and elastic suspension parameters used in the design of equipment beneath the chassis of the car body are proposed in order to improve the modal frequencies of car bodies under service conditions. Modal sensitivity optimization is based on sensitivity analysis theory which considers the thickness of the body frame at various positions as variables in order to achieve optimization. Equipment suspension design analyzes the influence of suspension parameters on the modal frequencies of the car body through the use of an equipment-car body coupled model. Results indicate that both methods can effectively improve the modal parameters of the car body. Modal sensitivity optimization increases vertical bending frequency from 9.70 to 10.60 Hz, while optimization of elastic suspension parameters increases the vertical bending frequency to 10.51 Hz. The suspension design can be used without alteration to the structure of the car body while ensuring better ride quality.

  15. Numerical simulation of the transient aerodynamic phenomena induced by passing manoeuvres

    CERN Document Server

    Uystepruyst, David


    Several three-dimensional Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) simulations of the passing generic vehicles (Ahmed bodies) are presented. The relative motion of vehicles was obtained using a combination of deforming and sliding computational grids. The vehicle studied is an Ahmed body with an angle of the rear end slanted surface of $30^{\\circ}$. Several different relative velocities and transversal distances between vehicles were studied. The aerodynamic influence of the passage on the overtaken vehicle was studied. The results of the simulations were found to agree well with the existing experimental data. Numerical results were used to explain effects of the overtaking manoeuvre on the main aerodynamic coefficients.

  16. Design of a compact six-component force and moment sensor for aerodynamic testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta IONAŞCU


    Full Text Available The measurement of steady and fluctuating forces acting on a body in a flow is one of themain tasks in wind-tunnel experiments. Usually, a multi-component strain gauge force and momentsensor (also known as balance is used to generate signals which are processed by means of anadequate instrumentation.To design a wind-tunnel balance, the specifications of the load ranges and the available space (for theplacement of the balance inside or outside the model are required. The main challenge is to conceivethe elastic element of the sensor as a monolithic part with a relative simple geometry and to identifythe adequate placement of strain gauges to maximize the measuring sensitivities and to diminish theinter-influence of the components.This paper describes the design of a six-component force/moment sensor which is compact, has highmeasuring sensitivities, and can be used either as internal or as external balance in the aerodynamictesting.

  17. Fluid-thermal analysis of aerodynamic heating over spiked blunt body configurations (United States)

    Qin, Qihao; Xu, Jinglei; Guo, Shuai


    When flying at hypersonic speeds, the spiked blunt body is constantly subjected to severe aerodynamic heating. To illustrate the thermal response of different configurations and the relevant flow field variation, a loosely-coupled fluid-thermal analysis is performed in this paper. The Mesh-based parallel Code Coupling Interface (MpCCI) is adopted to implement the data exchange between the fluid solver and the thermal solver. The results indicate that increases in spike diameter and length will result in a sharp decline of the wall temperature along the spike, and the overall heat flux is remarkably reduced to less than 300 W/cm2 with the aerodome mounted at the spike tip. Moreover, the presence and evolution of small vortices within the recirculation zone are observed and proved to be induced by the stagnation effect of reattachment points on the spike. In addition, the drag coefficient of the configuration with a doubled spike length presents a maximum drop of 4.59% due to the elevated wall temperature. And the growing difference of the drag coefficient is further increased during the accelerating process.

  18. March 2001 Working Group Meeting on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag: Presentations and Summary of Comments and Conclusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenman, R; Dunn, T; Owens, J; Laskowski, G; Flowers, D; Browand, F; Knight, A; Hammache, M; Leoard, A; Rubel, M; Salari, K; Rutledge, W; Ross, J; Satran, D; Heineck, J T; Walker, S; Driver, D; Storms, B


    A Working Group Meeting on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag was held at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory on March 28 and 29, 2001. The purpose of the meeting was to present and discuss technical details on the experimental and computational work in progress and future project plans. Due to the large participation from industry and other research organizations, a large portion of the meeting (all of the first day and part of the second day) was devoted to the presentation and discussion of industry's perspective and work being done by other organizations on the demonstration of commercial software and the demonstration of a drag reduction device. This report contains the technical presentations (viewgraphs) delivered at the Meeting, briefly summarizes the comments and conclusions, and outlines the future action items.

  19. March 2000 Working Group Meeting on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic DragL Presentations and Summary of Comments and Conclusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCallen, R.; Flowers, D.; Dunn, T.; Owens, J.; Browand, F.; Hammache, M.; Loenard, A.; Brady, M.; Salari, K.; Rutledge, W.; Scheckler, R.; Ross, J.; Storms, B.; Heineck, J.T.; Arledge, T


    A Working Group Meeting on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag was held at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory on March 16, 2000. The purpose of the meeting was to present technical details on the experimental and computational plans and approaches and provide an update on progress in the analysis of experimental results, model developments, simulations, and an investigation of an aerodynamic device. The focus of the meeting was a review of University of Southern California's (USC) experimental plans and results, NASA Ames experimental plans, the computational results from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for the integrated tractor-trailer benchmark geometry called the Ground Transportation System (GTS) Model, and turbulence model development and benchmark simulation for a rounded cube from California Institute of Technology (Caltech). Much of the meeting discussion involved deficiencies in commercial software, needed modeling improvements, and the importance of detailed data for code validation. The present and projected budget and funding situation was also discussed. Presentations were given by representatives from the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Transportation Technology Office of Heavy Vehicle Technology (OHVT), LLNL, SNL, NASA Ames, USC, and Caltech. Representatives from Argonne National Laboratory also participated via telephone. This report contains the technical presentations (viewgraphs) delivered at the Meeting, briefly summarizes the comments and conclusions, and outlines the future action items. There were 3 major issues raised at the meeting. (1) Our funding is inadequate to satisfy industries request for high Reynolds number experimentation and computation. Plans are to respond to the DOD and DOE requests for proposals, which require a 50-50 cost share with industry, to acquire funding for high Reynolds number experiments at NASA Ames. (2) The deficiencies in commercial software, the

  20. Effective aerodynamic roughness estimated from airborne laser altimeter measurements of surface features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, AC; Kustas, WP; Ritchie, JC; Klaassen, W; Menenti, M; Rango, A; Prueger, JH


    Aerodynamic roughness length (z(0)) and displacement height (d(0)) are important surface parameters for estimating surface fluxes in numerical models. These parameters are generally determined from wind flow characteristics using logarithmic wind profiles measured at a meteorological tower or by bal

  1. Features of spatiotemporal groundwater head variation using independent component analysis (United States)

    Hsiao, Chin-Tsai; Chang, Liang-Cheng; Tsai, Jui-Pin; Chen, You-Cheng


    The effect of external stimuli on a groundwater system can be understood by examining the features of spatiotemporal head variations. However, the head variations caused by various external stimuli are mixed signals. To identify the stimuli features of head variations, we propose a systematic approach based on independent component analysis (ICA), frequency analysis, cross-correlation analysis, well-selection strategy, and hourly average head analysis. We also removed the head variations caused by regional stimuli (e.g., rainfall and river stage) from the original head variations of all the wells to better characterize the local stimuli features (e.g., pumping and tide). In the synthetic case study, the derived independent component (IC) features are more consistent with the features of the given recharge and pumping than the features derived from principle component analysis. In a real case study, the ICs associated with regional stimuli highly correlated with field observations, and the effect of regional stimuli on the head variation of all the wells was quantified. In addition, the tide, agricultural, industrial, and spring pumping features were characterized. Therefore, the developed method can facilitate understanding of the features of the spatiotemporal head variation and quantification of the effects of external stimuli on a groundwater system.

  2. A Collaborative Analysis Tool for Integrating Hypersonic Aerodynamics, Thermal Protection Systems, and RBCC Engine Performance for Single Stage to Orbit Vehicles (United States)

    Stanley, Thomas Troy; Alexander, Reginald


    Presented is a computer-based tool that connects several disciplines that are needed in the complex and integrated design of high performance reusable single stage to orbit (SSTO) vehicles. Every system is linked to every other system, as is the case of SSTO vehicles with air breathing propulsion, which is currently being studied by NASA. The deficiencies in the scramjet powered concept led to a revival of interest in Rocket-Based Combined-Cycle (RBCC) propulsion systems. An RBCC propulsion system integrates airbreathing and rocket propulsion into a single engine assembly enclosed within a cowl or duct. A typical RBCC propulsion system operates as a ducted rocket up to approximately Mach 3. At this point the transitions to a ramjet mode for supersonic-to-hypersonic acceleration. Around Mach 8 the engine transitions to a scram4jet mode. During the ramjet and scramjet modes, the integral rockets operate as fuel injectors. Around Mach 10-12 (the actual value depends on vehicle and mission requirements), the inlet is physically closed and the engine transitions to an integral rocket mode for orbit insertion. A common feature of RBCC propelled vehicles is the high degree of integration between the propulsion system and airframe. At high speeds the vehicle forebody is fundamentally part of the engine inlet, providing a compression surface for air flowing into the engine. The compressed air is mixed with fuel and burned. The combusted mixture must be expanded to an area larger than the incoming stream to provide thrust. Since a conventional nozzle would be too large, the entire lower after body of the vehicle is used as an expansion surface. Because of the high external temperatures seen during atmospheric flight, the design of an airbreathing SSTO vehicle requires delicate tradeoffs between engine design, vehicle shape, and thermal protection system (TPS) sizing in order to produce an optimum system in terms of weight (and cost) and maximum performance.

  3. September 2002 Working Group Meeting on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag: Presentations and Summary of Comments and Conclusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCallen, R


    A Working Group Meeting on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag was held at NASA Ames Research Center on September 23, 2002. The purpose of the meeting was to present and discuss technical details on the experimental and computational work in progress and future project plans. Representatives from the Department of Energy (DOE)/Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy/Office of FreedomCAR & Vehicle Technologies, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), NASA Ames Research Center (NASA), University of Southern California (USC), California Institute of Technology (Caltech), Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Freightliner, and Portland State University participated in the meeting. This report contains the technical presentations (viewgraphs) delivered at the Meeting, briefly summarizes the comments and conclusions, and outlines the future action items. The meeting began with an introduction by the Project Lead Rose McCallen of LLNL, where she emphasized that the world energy consumption is predicted to relatively soon exceed the available resources (i.e., fossil, hydro, non-breeder fission). This short fall is predicted to begin around the year 2050. Minimizing vehicle aerodynamic drag will significantly reduce our Nation's dependence on foreign oil resources and help with our world-wide fuel shortage. Rose also mentioned that educating the populace and researchers as to our world energy issues is important and that our upcoming United Engineering Foundation (UEF) Conference on ''The Aerodynamics of Heavy Vehicles: Trucks, Busses, and Trains'' was one way our DOE Consortium was doing this. Mentioned were the efforts of Fred Browand from USC in organizing and attracting internationally recognized speakers to the Conference. Rose followed with an overview of the DOE project goals, deliverables, and FY03 activities. The viewgraphs are attached at the end of this

  4. Wind Tunnel Tests on Aerodynamic Characteristics of Advanced Solid Rocket (United States)

    Kitamura, Keiichi; Fujimoto, Keiichiro; Nonaka, Satoshi; Irikado, Tomoko; Fukuzoe, Moriyasu; Shima, Eiji

    The Advanced Solid Rocket is being developed by JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency). Since its configuration has been changed very recently, its aerodynamic characteristics are of great interest of the JAXA Advanced Solid Rocket Team. In this study, we carried out wind tunnel tests on the aerodynamic characteristics of the present configuration for Mach 1.5. Six test cases were conducted with different body configurations, attack angles, and roll angles. A six component balance, oilflow visualization, Schlieren images were used throughout the experiments. It was found that, at zero angle-of-attack, the flow around the body were perturbed and its drag (axial force) characteristics were significantly influenced by protruding body components such as flanges, cable ducts, and attitude control units of SMSJ (Solid Motor Side Jet), while the nozzle had a minor role. With angle-of-attack of five degree, normal force of CNα = 3.50±0.03 was measured along with complex flow features observed in the full-component model; whereas no crossflow separations were induced around the no-protuberance model with CNα = 2.58±0.10. These values were almost constant with respect to the angle-of-attack in both of the cases. Furthermore, presence of roll angle made the flow more complicated, involving interactions of separation vortices. These data provide us with fundamental and important aerodynamic insights of the Advanced Solid Rocket, and they will be utilized as reference data for the corresponding numerical analysis.

  5. Three-Dimensional Investigation of Smart Flap Aerodynamics for a WIG Vehicle (United States)

    Djavareshkian, Mohammad H.; Esmaeli, Ali; Parsania, Ahmad; Ziaforoughi, Amin

    Aerodynamic characteristics of a wing with a smart flap under the ground effect are studied through the integration of computational fluid dynamics. A parametric bending profile of a smart flap is designed considering different types of beams. Here, a cantilever beam with uniformly varying load with roller support at the free end is considered. The shape of the smart flap is fixed and its advantage comes from its smooth connection to the main wing. In this research, a pressure-based implicit procedure is used to solve Navier-Stokes equations. A non-orthogonal mesh with collocated finite volume formulation is utilized to simulate flow around the wing under the ground effect. First, the method is validated against experimental data. Then, the algorithm is applied for turbulent aerodynamic flows around a wing with smart and conventional flaps for different flap angles and ground clearance. The results of the two wings are compared. It is found that the pressure coefficient distribution for a wing with smart flaps is smoother than that of a wing with conventional flaps, and tip vortexes of the flap and wing diminish for low ground clearance. Finally, the maximum lift-to-drag ratio (L/D) is obtained for a smart wing when the angle of flap (AOF)=7.5° and h/c=0.3.

  6. Stop and Restart Effects on Modern Vehicle Starting System Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Windover, Paul R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Owens, Russell J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Levinson, Terry M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Laughlin, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gaines, Linda [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)


    Many drivers of personal and commercial vehicles believe that turning the vehicle off and on frequently instead of idling will cause premature wear of the starter system (starter motor and starter battery). As a result, they are concerned that the replacement cost of the starter motor and/or battery due to increased manual engine cycling would be more than the cumulative cost of the fuel saved by not idling unnecessarily. A number of variables play a role in addressing this complex concern, including the number of starting cycles per day, the time between starting cycles, the intended design life of the starting system, the amount of fuel used to restart an engine, and the cumulative cost of the saved fuel. Qualitative and quantitative information from a variety of sources was used to develop a life-cycle economic model to evaluate the cost and quantify the realistic factors that are related to the permissible frequency of starter motor cycles for the average vehicle to economically minimize engine idle time. Annual cost savings can be calculated depending on shutdown duration and the number of shutdown cycles per day. Analysis shows that cost savings are realized by eliminating idling exceeding one minute by shutting down the engine and restarting it. For a typical motorist, the damage to starting system components resulting from additional daily start cycles will be negligible. Overall, it was found that starter life is mostly dependent on the total number of start cycles, while battery life is more dependent on ensuring a full charge between start events.

  7. March 1999 working group meeting on heavy vehicle aerodynamic drag: presentations and summary of comments and conclusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brady, M; Browand, F; McCallen, R; Ross, J; Salari, K


    A Working Group Meeting on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag was held at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California on March 11, 1999. The purpose of the meeting was to present technical details on the experimental and computational plans and approaches and provide an update on progress in obtaining experimental results, model developments, and simulations. The focus of the meeting was a review of the experimental results for the integrated tractor-trailer benchmark geometry called the Sandia Model in the NASA Ames 7 ft x 10 ft wind tunnel. The present and projected budget and funding situation was also discussed. Presentations were given by representatives from the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Transportation Technology Office of Heavy Vehicle Technology (OHVT), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), University of Southern California (USC), California Institute of Technology (Caltech), and NASA Ames Research Center.This report contains the technical presentations (viewgraphs) delivered at the Meeting, briefly summarizes the comments and conclusions, and outlines the future action items.

  8. Influence of Rigid Body Motions on Rotor Induced Velocities and Aerodynamic Loads of a Floating Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Vaal, Jacobus B.; Hansen, Martin Otto Laver; Moan, Torgeir


    This paper discusses the influence of rigid body motions on rotor induced velocities and aerodynamic loads of a floating horizontal axis wind turbine. Analyses are performed with a simplified free wake vortex model specifically aimed at capturing the unsteady and non-uniform inflow typically...... experienced by a floating wind turbine. After discussing the simplified model in detail, comparisons are made to a state of the art free wake vortex code, using test cases with prescribed platform motion. It is found that the simplified model compares favourably with a more advanced numerical model......, and captures the essential influences of rigid body motions on the rotor loads, induced velocities and wake influence....

  9. Unsteady Aerodynamic Investigation of the Propeller-Wing Interaction for a Rocket Launched Unmanned Air Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Q. Zhang


    Full Text Available The aerodynamic characteristics of propeller-wing interaction for the rocket launched UAV have been investigated numerically by means of sliding mesh technology. The corresponding forces and moments have been collected for axial wing placements ranging from 0.056 to 0.5D and varied rotating speeds. The slipstream generated by the rotating propeller has little effects on the lift characteristics of the whole UAV. The drag can be seen to remain unchanged as the wing's location moves progressively closer to the propeller until 0.056D away from the propeller, where a nearly 20% increase occurred sharply. The propeller position has a negligible effect on the overall thrust and torque of the propeller. The efficiency affected by the installation angle of the propeller blade has also been analyzed. Based on the pressure cloud and streamlines, the vortices generated by propeller, propeller-wing interaction, and wing tip have also been captured and analyzed.

  10. Transonic Semispan Aerodynamic Testing of the Hybrid Wing Body with Over Wing Nacelles in the National Transonic Facility (United States)

    Chan, David T.; Hooker, John R.; Wick, Andrew; Plumley, Ryan W.; Zeune, Cale H.; Ol, Michael V.; DeMoss, Joshua A.


    A wind tunnel investigation of a 0.04-scale model of the Lockheed Martin Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) with Over Wing Nacelles (OWN) air mobility transport configuration was conducted in the National Transonic Facility at the NASA Langley Research Center under a collaborative partnership between NASA, the Air Force Research Laboratory, and Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company. The wind tunnel test sought to validate the transonic aerodynamic performance of the HWB and to validate the efficiency benefits of the OWN installation as compared to the traditional under-wing installation. The semispan HWB model was tested in a clean wing configuration and also tested with two different nacelles representative of a modern turbofan engine and a future advanced high bypass ratio engine. The nacelles were installed in three different locations with two over-wing positions and one under-wing position. Five-component force and moment data, surface static pressure data, and aeroelastic deformation data were acquired. For the cruise configuration, the model was tested in an angle-of-attack range between -2 and 10 degrees at free-stream Mach numbers from 0.3 to 0.9 and at unit Reynolds numbers between 8 and 39 million per foot, achieving a maximum of 80% of flight Reynolds numbers across the Mach number range. The test results validated pretest computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations of the HWB performance including the OWN benefit and the results also exhibited excellent transonic drag data repeatability to within +/-1 drag count. This paper details the experimental setup and model overview, presents some sample data results, and describes the facility improvements that led to the success of the test.

  11. Aerodynamics of flapping-wing Micro-Air-Vehicle: An integrated experimental and numerical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deng, S.


    The interest in Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs) has stimulated continuous research activities, in view of their potential in civilian and military applications. An autonomous MAV with dedicated onboard sensors would be capable of executing mission in closed environments, such as surveillance, in door insp

  12. FLASH is an essential component of Cajal bodies. (United States)

    Barcaroli, D; Dinsdale, D; Neale, M H; Bongiorno-Borbone, L; Ranalli, M; Munarriz, E; Sayan, A E; McWilliam, J M; Smith, T M; Fava, E; Knight, R A; Melino, G; De Laurenzi, V


    Cajal bodies are small nuclear organelles with a number of nuclear functions. Here we show that FLICE-associated huge protein (FLASH), originally described as a component of the apoptosis signaling pathway, is mainly localized in Cajal bodies and is essential for their structure. Reduction in FLASH expression by short hairpin RNA results in disruption of the normal architecture of the Cajal body and relocalization of its components. Because the function of FLASH in the apoptosis receptor signaling pathway has been strongly questioned, we have now identified a clear function for this protein.

  13. One Low-cost Quartz Lamp Radiation Aerodynamic Heating Simulation Experiment System with Control Law Flexible Adjustment Feature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Decheng


    Full Text Available The quartz lamp radiation aerodynamic heating simulation experiment system plays an important role on the structure strength heat experiment. In order to reduce its price and enhance flexibility on control law design of experiment system, a design method for low-cost quartz lamp radiation aerodynamic heating simulation experiment system with control law flexible adjustment feature is proposed. The hardware part is constructed by taking Digital Signal Processor (DSP as an implementing agency controller. The feedback temperature after processed is computed by DSP. But the experiment process control value is computed by computer. The feedback temperature and experiment process control value data are transferred by serial communication model between DSP and computer. The experiment process relation data is saved by computer with EXCEL file, including the given target spectrum, the feedback temperature and the control value. The results of experiments on system identification, PID spectrum tracking, different zone control and the open loop control show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  14. Co-Optimization of Blunt Body Shapes for Moving Vehicles (United States)

    Brown, James L. (Inventor); Garcia, Joseph A (Inventor); Kinney, David J. (Inventor); Bowles, Jeffrey V (Inventor); Mansour, Nagi N (Inventor)


    A method and associated system for multi-disciplinary optimization of various parameters associated with a space vehicle that experiences aerocapture and atmospheric entry in a specified atmosphere. In one embodiment, simultaneous maximization of a ratio of landed payload to vehicle atmospheric entry mass, maximization of fluid flow distance before flow separation from vehicle, and minimization of heat transfer to the vehicle are performed with respect to vehicle surface geometric parameters, and aerostructure and aerothermal vehicle response for the vehicle moving along a specified trajectory. A Pareto Optimal set of superior performance parameters is identified.

  15. Feature and Pose Constrained Visual Aided Inertial Navigation for Computationally Constrained Aerial Vehicles (United States)

    Williams, Brian; Hudson, Nicolas; Tweddle, Brent; Brockers, Roland; Matthies, Larry


    A Feature and Pose Constrained Extended Kalman Filter (FPC-EKF) is developed for highly dynamic computationally constrained micro aerial vehicles. Vehicle localization is achieved using only a low performance inertial measurement unit and a single camera. The FPC-EKF framework augments the vehicle's state with both previous vehicle poses and critical environmental features, including vertical edges. This filter framework efficiently incorporates measurements from hundreds of opportunistic visual features to constrain the motion estimate, while allowing navigating and sustained tracking with respect to a few persistent features. In addition, vertical features in the environment are opportunistically used to provide global attitude references. Accurate pose estimation is demonstrated on a sequence including fast traversing, where visual features enter and exit the field-of-view quickly, as well as hover and ingress maneuvers where drift free navigation is achieved with respect to the environment.

  16. 面向空气动力学优化的电动汽车造型设计研究%Research on Design for the Modeling Design of Electric Vehicles Facing Aerodynamic Optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晨铭; 李彦龙; 王东; 徐飞


    从汽车造型设计的比例、容积、曲面、细节4个层级出发,逐层分析了未来具有优秀空气动力学性能的电动汽车在比例、容积、曲面、细节中应该具有的特点。提出了要设计未来具有优秀空气动力学性能的电动汽车应该打破过去的"汽车式"的比例容积安排,改变过去"大功率高能耗"的曲面语言,转而探索符合电动汽车设计理念的环保、高效、自然的曲面语言,并且在细节上辅以与电动汽车比例、容积和曲面统一的、合理体现电动汽车技术特点的细节。%Through discussion in proportion, volume, surface and details, it analyzed what future electric vehicles with high-level aerodynamic performance would be like in these four stages of automotive design. It is concluded that the design of future electric vehicles with high-level aerodynamic performance would change the so-called "automotive" proportion and volume arrangement of nowadays. It would explore more environmentally-friendly, efficient and natural form languages instead of conventional "high-performance with massive energy consumption" form language. The details of electric vehicles would also show the design intentions of electric vehicles as well as its technical features.

  17. Guidance and control analysis of the entry of a lifting body personnel launch vehicle (United States)

    Powell, Richard W.; Cruz, Christopher I.


    NASA is currently involved in definition studies of a Personnel Launch System (PLS) that could be used to transport people to and from low-earth orbit. This vehicle would serve both to complement the Space Shuttle and to provide alternative access to space in the event the Space Shuttle fleet were unavailable for a prolonged period. The PLS would consist of a manned spacecraft launched by an expendable vehicle, e.g., Titan 4. One promising candidate for the manned component of the PLS is the NASA Langley Research Center HL-20 lifting body. Many studies are currently underway to assess this vehicle, and one of the main areas of study is the development of the capability to successfully enter, glide to the landing site, and land. To provide this capability, guidance and control algorithms have been developed, incorporated into a six-degree-of-freedom simulation, and evaluation in the presence of off-nominal atmospheric conditions, consisting of both density variations and steady-state winds. In addition, the impact of atmospheric turbulence was examined for the portion of flight from Mach 3.5 to touchdown. This analysis showed that the vehicle remained controllable and could successfully land even in the presence of off-nominal atmospheric conditions.

  18. 高超声速巡航飞行器纵向气动特性分析%Longitudinal Aerodynamic Characteristics Analysis of Hypersonic Cruise Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢永刚; 唐硕


    The airframe integrated nature of the scramjet engine with airbreathing hypersonic cruise vehicle (HCV) results in a strong couplings between aerodynamics and propulsive system. The couplings have an effect on vehicle aerodynamic performance, stability and control. Aiming at the effects, the model of airframe integrated scramjet engine has been developed and aero-propulsion interface separated. Based on the forgoing work,longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of HCV inlet open, scramjet engine powered and unpowered have been computed separately. Simulation reveals the couplings between aerodynamics and propulsive system and the effect on vehicle characteristics.%吸气式高超声速巡航飞行器机身/发动机一体化特性使得气动一推进系统之间存在强的耦合作用,这种耦合影响着飞行器气动性能、稳定性和控制.针对耦合对飞行器特性的影响,建立了机身一发动机一体化模型,并进行了气动-推进界面划分.在此基础上,分别计算了高超声速巡航飞行器在进气道打开,发动机不工作以及进气道打开,发动机工作两种状态下的纵向气动特性.仿真结果揭示了高超声速巡航飞行器气动一推进系统之间的耦合以及耦合作用对飞行器气动性能、稳定性的影响.

  19. Numerical Investigation on Aerodynamic Characteristics of Box-wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicle%盒式翼无人机气动特性数值计算分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘毅; 靳宏斌


    传统方法求解盒式翼无人机的气动特性有一定的局限性,某无人机采用负交错的盒式翼布局,翼尖高差约为5%展长,翼面系统各部件之间的干扰影响复杂。为了获得其失速特性、升降舵效率等粘性作用强烈的边界气动特性,通过雷诺平均Navior-Stokes方法分析其极曲线、失速特性和俯仰力矩特性。结果表明:诱导阻力相对同等单翼降低约9%,与理论结果接近;后翼采用-4°的有效负安装角,导致配平后最大升力系数降低较多;大迎角失速时出现抬头力矩,与前翼后掠导致的翼尖失速以及后翼位于前翼尾流中效率降低有关。%Solving aerodynamic characteristics of box-wing unmanned aerial vehicle(UAV)by traditional methods is of certain limitations .For a box-wing UAV using negative stagger and wing tip gap of 5% wing span ,the strong interference exist between components of the wing systems .In order to study boundary aerodynamic characteristics effected strongly by viscous interaction of box-wing UAV ,which concludes stall characteristics and efficiency of elevator etc .,Reynolds Averaged Navior-Stokes scheme is adopted to analyze its drag polar , stall and pitching moment characteristics .The research reveals that the induced drag is reduced by 9% com-pared with equal mono-wing ,which is close to the theoretical result ;The trimmed maximum lift coefficient drops significantly due to the requirements of static stability and trim ,which are realized by -4° negative instal-ling angle of aft wing ;Nose up pitching moment is observed at large angle of attack after stall ,which attributes to the forward wing tip stall due to its sweptback ,as well as the decreased efficiency of the aft wing in the wake of the forward wing .

  20. Overview of Low-Speed Aerodynamic Tests on a 5.75% Scale Blended-Wing-Body Twin Jet Configuration (United States)

    Vicroy, Dan D.; Dickey, Eric; Princen, Norman; Beyar, Michael D.


    The NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Project sponsored a series of computational and experimental investigations of the propulsion and airframe integration issues associated with Hybrid-Wing-Body (HWB) or Blended-Wing-Body (BWB) configurations. NASA collaborated with Boeing Research and Technology (BR&T) to conduct this research on a new twin-engine Boeing BWB transport configuration. The experimental investigations involved a series of wind tunnel tests with a 5.75-percent scale model conducted in two low-speed wind tunnels. This testing focused on the basic aerodynamics of the configuration and selection of the leading edge Krueger slat position for takeoff and landing. This paper reviews the results and analysis of these low-speed wind tunnel tests.

  1. Hybrid Computational Model for High-Altitude Aeroassist Vehicles Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A hybrid continuum/noncontinuum computational model will be developed for analyzing the aerodynamics and heating on aeroassist vehicles. Unique features of this...

  2. Space-time computational analysis of bio-inspired flapping-wing aerodynamics of a micro aerial vehicle (United States)

    Takizawa, Kenji; Kostov, Nikolay; Puntel, Anthony; Henicke, Bradley; Tezduyar, Tayfun E.


    We present a detailed computational analysis of bio-inspired flapping-wing aerodynamics of a micro aerial vehicle (MAV). The computational techniques used include the Deforming-Spatial-Domain/Stabilized Space-Time (DSD/SST) formulation, which serves as the core computational technique. The DSD/SST formulation is a moving-mesh technique, and in the computations reported here we use the space-time version of the residual-based variational multiscale (VMS) method, which is called "DSD/ SST-VMST." The motion and deformation of the wings are based on data extracted from the high-speed, multi-camera video recordings of a locust in a wind tunnel. A set of special space-time techniques are also used in the computations in conjunction with the DSD/SST method. The special techniques are based on using, in the space-time flow computations, NURBS basis functions for the temporal representation of the motion and deformation of the wings and for the mesh moving and remeshing. The computational analysis starts with the computation of the base case, and includes computations with increased temporal and spatial resolutions compared to the base case. In increasing the temporal resolution, we separately test increasing the temporal order, the number of temporal subdivisions, and the frequency of remeshing. In terms of the spatial resolution, we separately test increasing the wing-mesh refinement in the normal and tangential directions and changing the way node connectivities are handled at the wingtips. The computational analysis also includes using different combinations of wing configurations for the MAV and investigating the beneficial and disruptive interactions between the wings and the role of wing camber and twist.

  3. 风区车站停留车辆纵向气动力研究%Longitudinal aerodynamic force of vehicles in wind area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志伟; 刘堂红; 张洁; 任鑫


    为了确定风区站停车辆的手制动车辆数,避免车辆溜逸事故的发生,利用风洞和三维数值计算方法对风速、风向角、防风设施、编组不同的车辆纵向气动力进行分析.研究结果表明:车辆所受纵向气动力与风速的平方成正比;当风向角为30°左右时,车辆所受到的纵向气动力最大;不同车辆编组时,头、中、尾车的纵向气动力均比较接近,最大相对误差为4.7%,可减少中间车编组数,提高计算效率;有挡风墙时车辆所受的纵向气动力小于无挡风墙车辆所受的纵向气动力,砼板式挡风墙的防护效果比土堤式挡风墙的优;风洞试验结果与数值计算结果基本相同;风区车站停留车辆纵向气动力研究为车辆防溜分析、车辆手制动数的确定提供了车辆纵向气动力计算载荷.%In order to determine the number of vehicles using hand brake in the stations of wind area, and to prevent the vehicles runaway, wind tunnel tests and three-dimensional numerical calculation were used to analyze the influence of wind speed, wind direction, wind-break facility and vehicle composition on longitudinal aerodynamic force. The results show that the longitudinal aerodynamic force is proportional to the square of the wind speed, and it is the largest when the wind angle is about 30°. Vehicle composition is different, the longitudinal aerodynamic forces of head car, middle car and end car are approximate, and the maximum relative difference is 4.7%, thus, the number of intermediate cars can be reduced to improve the calculation efficiency. Longitudinal aerodynamic force of vehicle behind wind-break wall is less than that of no wind-break wall, and the protective effect of the concrete wind-break wall is better than the embankment wind-break wall. The results of wind tunnel test and numerical calculation are almost the same. Longitudinal aerodynamic force analysis can provide aerodynamic loads for vehicle anti

  4. A New Application of Multi-Body System Dynamics in Vehicle-Road Interaction Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RenWei-qun; ZhangYun-qing; JinGuo-dong


    In vehicle-road interaction simulation, multibody system (MBS) dynamics as well as the corresponding software ADAMS has been employed to model the nonlinear vehicle in more detail. The simulation method has been validated by the test data, and been compared to the former simple models. This method can be used for estimating the effects of dynamic tire forces and other vehicle features on road damage so that the “road-friendliness” can be assessed in vehicle design process.

  5. Numerical modeling of aerodynamics of airfoils of micro air vehicles in gusty environment (United States)

    Gopalan, Harish

    The superior flight characteristics exhibited by birds and insects can be taken as a prototype of the most perfect form of flying machine ever created. The design of Micro Air Vehicles (MAV) which tries mimic the flight of birds and insects has generated a great deal of interest as the MAVs can be utilized for a number of commercial and military operations which is usually not easily accessible by manned motion. The size and speed of operation of a MAV results in low Reynolds number flight, way below the flying conditions of a conventional aircraft. The insensitivity to wind shear and gust is one of the required factors to be considered in the design of airfoil for MAVs. The stability of flight under wind shear is successfully accomplished in the flight of birds and insects, through the flapping motion of their wings. Numerous studies which attempt to model the flapping motion of the birds and insects have neglected the effect of wind gust on the stability of the motion. Also sudden change in flight conditions makes it important to have the ability to have an instantaneous change of the lift force without disturbing the stability of the MAV. In the current study, two dimensional rigid airfoil, undergoing flapping motion is studied numerically using a compressible Navier-Stokes solver discretized using high-order finite difference schemes. The high-order schemes in space and in time are needed to keep the numerical solution economic in terms of computer resources and to prevent vortices from smearing. The numerical grid required for the computations are generated using an inverse panel method for the streamfunction and potential function. This grid generating algorithm allows the creation of single-block orthogonal H-grids with ease of clustering anywhere in the domain and the easy resolution of boundary layers. The developed numerical algorithm has been validated successfully against benchmark problems in computational aeroacoustics (CAA), and unsteady viscous

  6. Advanced thermoplastic composites: An attractive new material for usage in highly loaded vehicle components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehn, R.; Seidl, F.; Peis, R.; Heinzmann, D.; Frei, P. [BMW AG Muenchen (Germany)


    Beside the lightweight potential and further well known advantages of advanced composite materials, continuous fiber reinforced thermoplastics employed in vehicle structural parts especially offer short manufacturing cycle times and an additional economically viable manufacturing process. Presenting a frame structure concept for two highly loaded vehicle parts, a safety seat and a side door, numerous features concerning the choice of suitable composite materials, design aspects, investigations to develop a thermoforming technique, mature for a series production of vehicle parts, are discussed.

  7. Performance analysis of a semi-active railway vehicle suspension featuring MR dampers (United States)

    Kim, Hwan-Choong; Choi, Seung-Bok; Lee, Gyu-Seop; An, Chae-Hun; You, Won-Hee


    This paper presents performance analysis of semi-active railway vehicle suspension system using MR damper. In order to achieve this goal, a mathematical dynamic model of railway vehicle is derived by integrating car body, bogie frame and wheel-set which can be able to represent lateral, yaw and roll motion. Based on this model, the dynamic range of MR damper at the railway secondary suspension system and design parameters of MR damper are calculated. Subsequently, control performances of railway vehicle including car body lateral motion and acceleration of MR damper are evaluated through computer simulations. Then, the MR damper is manufactured to be retrofitted with the real railway vehicle and its characteristics are experimentally measured. Experimental performance of MR damper is assessed using test rig which is composed of a car body and two bogies.

  8. Soft Sensor of Vehicle State Estimation Based on the Kernel Principal Component and Improved Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haorui Liu


    Full Text Available In the car control systems, it is hard to measure some key vehicle states directly and accurately when running on the road and the cost of the measurement is high as well. To address these problems, a vehicle state estimation method based on the kernel principal component analysis and the improved Elman neural network is proposed. Combining with nonlinear vehicle model of three degrees of freedom (3 DOF, longitudinal, lateral, and yaw motion, this paper applies the method to the soft sensor of the vehicle states. The simulation results of the double lane change tested by Matlab/SIMULINK cosimulation prove the KPCA-IENN algorithm (kernel principal component algorithm and improved Elman neural network to be quick and precise when tracking the vehicle states within the nonlinear area. This algorithm method can meet the software performance requirements of the vehicle states estimation in precision, tracking speed, noise suppression, and other aspects.

  9. Vehicle Detection in Still Images by Using Boosted Local Feature Detector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing LIN; Young-joon HAN; Hern-soo HAHN


    Vehicle detection in still images is a comparatively difficult task.This paper presents a method for this task by using boosted local pattem detector constructed from two local features including Haar-like and oriented gradient features.The whole process is composed of three stages.In the first stage,local appearance features of vehicles and non-vehicle objects are extracted.Haar-like and oriented gradient features arc extracted separately in this stage as local features.In the second stage,Adaboost algorithm is used to select the mast discriminative features as weak detectors from the two local feature sets,and a strong local pattern detector is built by the weighted combination of these selected weak detectors.Finally,vehicle detection can be performed in still images by using the boosted strong local feature detector.Experiment results show that the local pattern detectur constructed in this way combines the advantages of Haar-like and oriented gradient features,and can achieve better detection results than the datector by using single Haar-like features.

  10. ZEUS-DO: A Design Oriented CFD-Based Unsteady Aerodynamic Capability for Flight Vehicle Multidisciplinary Configuration Shape Optimization Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — CFD-based design-oriented (DO) steady/unsteady aerodynamic analysis tools for Aeroelastic / Aeroservoelastic (AE/ASE) evaluation lag significantly behind other...

  11. Development of aerodynamics for solar cars; Solar Car no kuryoku kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishikawa, S.; Ozawa, H.; Higashida, D.; Arai, S.; Ozawa, K.; Aoki, T. [Honda Research and Development Co. Ltd., Saitama (Japan)


    In the worldwide attempts for environmental problem, various researches and developments have also been executed on vehicles used the new energies. Among them solar cars using solar cell activated effectively solar energy thought to be unlimited for their energy source are also given many attentions for one of the future cars. In this paper, transition of aerodynamic development of Honda`s `Dream` joined since 1990 to the World solar challenge held in Australia in each three year, ranged to 3,000 km of running distance and positioned at the biggest race in the world was introduced. The `Dream` of `96 could be won a victory of the 4th solar car race in 1996 with new record of the race as aimed. The last aerodynamic resistance of the `Dream` of `96 was promoted 11% in C{sub D}{times}A value in comparison with that of the `Dream` of `93, which also established its aim of performance. In shape of vehicle at super low air resistance, shape improvement around tires and finish accuracy of the body surface became also an important point for improvement of aerodynamic features. 2 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Multidisciplinary Investigation of Unsteady Aerodynamics and Flight Dynamics in Rapidly Maneuvering Micro Air Vehicles: Theory, Laboratory and Flight Experiments (United States)


    dragonflies were recorded by the projected lines method and utilizing natural landmarks on the insects’ wings. A number of parameters were measured...Wing Kinematics, Flight Trajectory and Body Attitude During Forward Flight and Turning Maneuvers in Dragonflies ,” The Journal of Experimental Biology... world transition. Because subplot (3,2) features both a high throttle-setting and a negative elevator deflection it most accurately describes a real

  13. An experimental and analytical study of the aerodynamic interference effects between two Sears-Haack bodies at Mach 2.7. M.S. Thesis - George Washington Univ. (United States)

    Bantle, J. W.


    Aerodynamic interference effects were studied for two slender, streamlined bodies of revolution at Mach 2.7. A wind tunnel investigation produced force and moment data and measurements of pressure distributions on the bodies. As these bodies remained parallel with each other and with the freestream flow, their relative lateral and longitudinal spacing were varied. Results of theoretical methods were used in the analysis of results. The interference effects between the two bodies yielded less total drag than a single body of equal total volume and the same length.

  14. The Aerodynamic Forces on Slender Plane- and Cruciform-Wing and Body Combinations (United States)

    Spreiter, John R


    The load distribution, forces, and moments are calculated theoretically for inclined slender wing-body combinations consisting of a slender body of revolution and either a plane or cruciform arrangement of low-aspect-ratio pointed wings. The results are applicable at subsonic and transonic speeds, and at supersonic speeds, provided the entire wing-body combination lies near the center of the Mach cone.

  15. 乘波体飞行器气动布局优化设计%Aerodynamic Shape Optimization of a Wave-Rider Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The best aerodynamic shape for hypersonic cruis vehicle is the waverider which has a high lift-to-drag ratio. The accurate solutions of the flow field with conical shock wave were evaluated by Taylor-Maccoll equation, and then the parametric geometry of the wave-rider vehicle was generated with the reverse design method by tracking the streamlines of the flow field. With the flow solutions behind the conical shock wave, the reference temperature method was applied to compute the aerodynamic force coefficients of the wave-rider vehicle. The geometric parameters of the wave-rider vehicle were optimized with respect to the lift-to-drag ra⁃tio. In order to enhance the computation efficiency and the local searching ability of the optimization procedure, the improved Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm was employed to obtain the optimal aerodynamic con⁃figuration of the waverider vehicle with the maximized lift-to-drag ratio.%  由于具有高升阻比,乘波体是高超声速巡航飞行器气动布局的首选方案。文章在求解圆锥激波流场精确解的基础上,应用流线追踪方法,建立了乘波体飞行器气动布局的参数化模型。在此基础上,对飞行器的气动力特性进行了估算。最后,以气动布局参数为设计变量,升阻比最大化为设计目标,对乘波体飞行器进行气动布局优化设计,应用改进的粒子群优化算法(Particle Swarm Optimization,PSO),对优化模型进行求解,得到了优化的气动布局设计方案。

  16. Variance components for body weight in Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RO Resende


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate the variance components for body weight in Japanese quails by Bayesian procedures. The body weight at hatch (BWH and at 7 (BW07, 14 (BW14, 21 (BW21 and 28 days of age (BW28 of 3,520 quails was recorded from August 2001 to June 2002. A multiple-trait animal model with additive genetic, maternal environment and residual effects was implemented by Gibbs sampling methodology. A single Gibbs sampling with 80,000 rounds was generated by the program MTGSAM (Multiple Trait Gibbs Sampling in Animal Model. Normal and inverted Wishart distributions were used as prior distributions for the random effects and the variance components, respectively. Variance components were estimated based on the 500 samples that were left after elimination of 30,000 rounds in the burn-in period and 100 rounds of each thinning interval. The posterior means of additive genetic variance components were 0.15; 4.18; 14.62; 27.18 and 32.68; the posterior means of maternal environment variance components were 0.23; 1.29; 2.76; 4.12 and 5.16; and the posterior means of residual variance components were 0.084; 6.43; 22.66; 31.21 and 30.85, at hatch, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days old, respectively. The posterior means of heritability were 0.33; 0.35; 0.36; 0.43 and 0.47 at hatch, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days old, respectively. These results indicate that heritability increased with age. On the other hand, after hatch there was a marked reduction in the maternal environment variance proportion of the phenotypic variance, whose estimates were 0.50; 0.11; 0.07; 0.07 and 0.08 for BWH, BW07, BW14, BW21 and BW28, respectively. The genetic correlation between weights at different ages was high, except for those estimates between BWH and weight at other ages. Changes in body weight of quails can be efficiently achieved by selection.

  17. Assessment and control of tonal components in electric vehicles


    Lennström, David


    New challenges arise for noise, vibration and harshness (NVH) engineers when electric motors are introduced into cars traditionally powered by internal combustion engines (ICE). The noise signature from an electric traction motor is characterized by speed-dependent high frequency tonal components due to electro-magnetic excitation. Despite the relatively low overall levels, those tonal components can be prominent and contribute to perceived annoyance for the occupants inside the car. With the...

  18. SSUKF-WNN algorithm and its applications in aerodynamic modeling of flight vehicle%SSUKF-WNN算法及其在飞行器气动力建模中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘旭升; 端木京顺; 丛伟


    For the shortcoming of traditional wavelet neural network(WNN), a WNN algorithm based on modified unscented Kalman filter(UKF) is proposed. The algorithm uses an UKF based on Sigma point of simplex spherical distribution(SSUKF) to train the parameters of WNN, which can improve the learning ability and training quality of WNN. The experiment results on aerodynamic modeling of flight vehicle show that, compared with BP and extended Kalman filter(EKF), the WNN trained by SSUKF algorithm has a better ability with features of convergence, precision and calculation, and is also a good method for aerodynamic modeling of flight vehicle.%针对传统小波网络算法的不足,提出一种基于改进无迹Kalman滤波(UKF)的小波嘲络算法.该算法使用一种基于简化球形分布Sigma点的UKF(SSUKF)来训练小波网络的参数,以提高小波网络的学习性能和训练质量.飞行器气动力建模算例表明.相对于BP算法和EKF算法,SSUKF算法训练的小波网络收敛速度更快,估计精度更高,计算量更小.同时也为飞行器的气动力建模提供了一种有效可行的手段.

  19. 某车型A柱风噪优化研究%Study on Aerodynamic Noise Optimization for a Vehicle A-pillar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊; 龚旭; 张涛; 陈如意


    Investigation is made to a Chinese brand vehicle which has awful aerodynamic noise in cross wind environment, it is found that A-pillar design defect makes it a noise source in cross wind. It is identified based on CFD analysis method that airflow separation zone is markedly decreased by installing A-pillar garnish and modifying the A-pillar surface. Then the optimization of adding A-pillar garnish has been tested in wind tunnel, which includes the SPL (sound pressure level) test on the side window surface and in the passenger cabinet, the results show that the average SPL of test point on side window surface and the speech intelligibility index in passenger cabinet have a distinct improvement. Finally the design key points and noise improvement measures for A-pillar is summarized, the crosswind flow field analysis for A-pillar is necessary in car body design process.%针对某自主车型侧风下出现风噪较大的问题,查找原因发现A柱设计缺陷使其在侧风下成为一个显著的噪声源。基于CFD分析方法发现,通过增加A柱装饰件和修改A柱型面,均能明显减小气流分离区。在风洞中对增加A柱装饰件的优化方案进行了由车外至车内的风噪测试,测试结果表明,该方案对侧窗表面声压级和语言清晰度有明显的优化效果。总结出A柱的设计要点及风噪的改善措施,指出在车身开发过程中必须对A柱进行侧风稳态分析。

  20. Aerodynamic Shutoff Valve (United States)

    Horstman, Raymond H.


    Aerodynamic flow achieved by adding fixed fairings to butterfly valve. When valve fully open, fairings align with butterfly and reduce wake. Butterfly free to turn, so valve can be closed, while fairings remain fixed. Design reduces turbulence in flow of air in internal suction system. Valve aids in development of improved porous-surface boundary-layer control system to reduce aerodynamic drag. Applications primarily aerospace. System adapted to boundary-layer control on high-speed land vehicles.

  1. 横风作用下公路车辆与桥梁静气动力的数值模拟研究%Numerical simulation on static aerodynamic forces of vehicles and bridges under cross winds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩艳; 胡揭玄; 蔡春声


    The exact identification of the aerodynamic parameters of vehicles and bridges needed for the coupling vibration analysis of the wind - vehicle - bridge system. The model of bridge and the model of coupled system of bridges and vehicles were built and the static aerodynamic forces of bridges and vehicles at different wind attack angles in high and low turbulence wind fields were calculated by the method of computational fliud dynamics (CFD) in this paper. The influence of vehicles on the static aerodynamic forces of bridge, the influence of wind attack angles on the static aerodynamic forces of vehicle and the influence of turbulent characteristics on the static aerodynamic forces of vehicle and bridge were investigated. The results show that the static aerodynamic forces of bridge at different wind attack angles are larger due to the interference of the vehicle. The wind attack angles have great influence on the static aerodynamic force/moment coefficients of the vehicle. The turbulence has some influence on the force/moment coefficients, but almost has no influence on those of the bridge.%横风作用下的风—车—桥耦合系统的振动分析需要准确识别车辆和桥梁气动参数.基于CFD数值仿真平台分别建立了桥梁单体模型和车桥耦合体系模型,计算分析了高低紊流度风场中不同风攻角下车辆和桥梁的静气动力,分析研究了静止车辆对桥梁静气动力的影响、风攻角对车辆静气动力的影响以及风场的紊流性对车桥静气动力的影响.计算结果表明:由于车辆的干扰,不同风攻角下的桥梁静气动力普遍增大;风攻角对车辆静气动力系数影响比较大;紊流特性对车辆静气动力系数有一定影响,对桥梁静气动力系数影响不大.

  2. Energy-consumption and carbon-emission analysis of vehicle and component manufacturing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, J. L.; Burnham, A.; Wang, M.; Energy Systems


    A model is presented for calculating the environmental burdens of the part manufacturing and vehicle assembly (VMA) stage of the vehicle life cycle. The approach is bottom-up, with a special focus on energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions. The model is applied to both conventional and advanced vehicles, the latter of which include aluminum-intensive, hybrid electric, plug-in hybrid electric and all-electric vehicles. An important component of the model, a weight-based distribution function of materials and associated transformation processes (casting, stamping, etc.), is developed from the United States Council for Automotive Research Generic Vehicle Life Cycle Inventory Study. As the approach is bottom-up, numerous transformation process data and plant operational data were extracted from the literature for use in representing the many operations included in the model. When the model was applied to conventional vehicles, reliable estimates of cumulative energy consumption (34 GJ/vehicle) and CO{sub 2} emission (2 tonnes/vehicle) were computed for the VMA life-cycle stage. The numerous data sets taken from the literature permitted the development of some statistics on model results. Because the model explicitly includes a greater coverage of relevant manufacturing processes than many earlier studies, our energy estimates are on the higher end of previously published values. Limitations of the model are also discussed. Because the material compositions of conventional vehicles within specific classes (cars, light duty trucks, etc.) are sensibly constant on a percent-by-weight basis, the model can be reduced to a simple linear form for each class dependent only on vehicle weight. For advanced vehicles, the material/transformation process distribution developed above needs to be adjusted for different materials and components. This is particularly so for aluminum-intensive and electric-drive vehicles. In fact, because of their comparatively high manufacturing

  3. Closed-Loop Flow Control of the Coupled Wake Dynamics and Aerodynamic Loads of a Freely-Pivoting 3-DOF Bluff Body (United States)

    Lambert, T.; Vukasinovic, B.; Glezer, A.


    The motion of an axisymmetric bluff body model that is free to pivot in pitch, yaw, and roll in a uniform stream in response to flow-induced aerodynamic loads is controlled in wind tunnel experiments using fluidic actuation. The model is attached to an upstream, wire-supported short streamwise sting through a low-friction hinge, and each of the support wires is individually-controlled by a servo actuator through an in-line load cell. The aerodynamic loads on the body, and thereby its motion, are controlled through fluidic modification of its aerodynamic coupling to its near wake using four independent aft mounted synthetic jet actuators that effect azimuthally-segmented flow attachment over the model's tail end. The effects of actuation-induced, transitory changes in the model's aerodynamic loads are measured by its motion response using motion tracking, while the coupled evolution of the near-wake is captured by high-speed stereo PIV. Flow control authority is demonstrated by feedback-controlled manipulation of the model's dynamic response, and dynamic mode decomposition (DMD) of the wake is used to characterize changes in the wake structure and stability. It is shown that this flow control approach can modify the stability and damping of the model's motion (e.g., suppression or amplification of its natural oscillations), and impose desired directional attitude. Supported by the ARO.

  4. Flowfields around supersonic aerodynamic bodies under the action of asymmetric energy release (United States)

    Azarova, O. A.; Knight, D.; Kolesnichenko, Yu. F.


    The interaction of an infinite microwave filament and a shock layer is analyzed numerically on the basis of the Euler system of equations. The filament is regarded as a heated rarefied channel (heat layer). Flow details for asymmetrical filament location are researched including the formation of a new position of the stagnation point and the dependence of the front drag force on the filament characteristics and location. The origin of a lift/pitch force in the case of zero angle of attack is discussed. This force is shown to be a function of the shift value from the symmetry axis of the heat layer and the degree of the gas rarefaction in it. The mechanism of the lift/pitch force origination is revealed. These phenomena are analyzed for blunt and pointed bodies at freestream Mach number 1.89 and a wide class of values of infinite filament characteristics: the rarefaction factor and the disposition relative to the body.

  5. Aerodynamic study, design and construction of a Blended Wing Body (BWB) Unmanned Aircraft (UA)


    De Toro Diaz, Aleix


    During this project a Blended Wing Body (BWB) UA (Unmanned Aircraft) model is built. BWBs are a combination of a common airplane with tail control surfaces and a flying wing. BWBs lack tail control surfaces, which makes its design to be very different and more complex regarding stability. To first start the BWB design, some research has been done about the basic parameters of the BWB designs. Moreover, different airfoils are considered to improve the stability of the UA. Two designs are creat...

  6. Hysteresis zone or locus - Aerodynamic of bulbous based bodies at low speeds (United States)

    Covert, E. E.


    Experimental data are presented which seem to suggest that a well-defined hysteresis locus on bulbous based bodies at low speeds does not exist. Instead, if the experiment is repeated several times, the entire hysteresis region seems to fill with data rather than trace out a specific hysteresis locus. Data obtained on an oscillating model even at low reduced frequencies may be well defined but when applied to arbitrary motion lead to less accurate results than desired.

  7. Thermal management concepts for higher efficiency heavy vehicles.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wambsganss, M. W.


    Thermal management is a cross-cutting technology that directly or indirectly affects engine performance, fuel economy, safety and reliability, aerodynamics, driver/passenger comfort, materials selection, emissions, maintenance, and component life. This review paper provides an assessment of thermal management for large trucks, particularly as it impacts these features. Observations arrived at from a review of the state of the art for thermal management for over-the-road trucks are highlighted and commented on. Trends in the large truck industry, pertinent engine truck design and performance objectives, and the implications of these relative to thermal management, are presented. Finally, new thermal management concepts for high efficiency vehicles are described.

  8. Numerical methods for the simulation of complex multi-body flows with applications for the integrated Space Shuttle vehicle (United States)

    Chan, William M.


    This project forms part of the long term computational effort to simulate the time dependent flow over the integrated Space Shuttle vehicle (orbiter, solid rocket boosters (SRB's), external tank (ET), and attach hardware) during its ascent mode for various nominal and abort flight conditions. Due to the limitations of experimental data such as wind tunnel wall effects and the difficulty of safely obtaining valid flight data, numerical simulations are undertaken to supplement the existing data base. This data can then be used to predict the aerodynamic behavior over a wide range of flight conditions. Existing computational results show relatively good overall comparison with experiments but further refinement is required to reduce numerical errors and to obtain finer agreements over a larger parameter space. One of the important goals of this project is to obtain better comparisons between numerical simulations and experiments. In the simulations performed so far, the geometry has been simplified in various ways to reduce the complexity so that useful results can be obtained in a reasonable time frame due to limitations in computer resources. In this project, the finer details of the major components of the Space Shuttle are modeled better by including more complexity in the geometry definition. Smaller components not included in early Space Shuttle simulations will now be modeled and gridded.

  9. Investigation on aerodynamic characteristics of baseline-II E-2 blended wing-body aircraft with canard via computational simulation (United States)

    Nasir, Rizal E. M.; Ali, Zurriati; Kuntjoro, Wahyu; Wisnoe, Wirachman


    Previous wind tunnel test has proven the improved aerodynamic charasteristics of Baseline-II E-2 Blended Wing-Body (BWB) aircraft studied in Universiti Teknologi Mara. The E-2 is a version of Baseline-II BWB with modified outer wing and larger canard, solely-designed to gain favourable longitudinal static stability during flight. This paper highlights some results from current investigation on the said aircraft via computational fluid dynamics simulation as a mean to validate the wind tunnel test results. The simulation is conducted based on standard one-equation turbulence, Spalart-Allmaras model with polyhedral mesh. The ambience of the flight simulation is made based on similar ambience of wind tunnel test. The simulation shows lift, drag and moment results to be near the values found in wind tunnel test but only within angles of attack where the lift change is linear. Beyond the linear region, clear differences between computational simulation and wind tunnel test results are observed. It is recommended that different type of mathematical model be used to simulate flight conditions beyond linear lift region.

  10. An Advanced Open-Source Aircraft Design Platform for Personal Air Vehicle Geometry, Aerodynamics, and Structures Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Innovators working to revolutionize air travel through personal aviation pioneers need innovative aircraft design tools. Vehicle Sketch Pad (VSP) is an aircraft...

  11. Feature extraction for ultrasonic sensor based defect detection in ceramic components (United States)

    Kesharaju, Manasa; Nagarajah, Romesh


    High density silicon carbide materials are commonly used as the ceramic element of hard armour inserts used in traditional body armour systems to reduce their weight, while providing improved hardness, strength and elastic response to stress. Currently, armour ceramic tiles are inspected visually offline using an X-ray technique that is time consuming and very expensive. In addition, from X-rays multiple defects are also misinterpreted as single defects. Therefore, to address these problems the ultrasonic non-destructive approach is being investigated. Ultrasound based inspection would be far more cost effective and reliable as the methodology is applicable for on-line quality control including implementation of accept/reject criteria. This paper describes a recently developed methodology to detect, locate and classify various manufacturing defects in ceramic tiles using sub band coding of ultrasonic test signals. The wavelet transform is applied to the ultrasonic signal and wavelet coefficients in the different frequency bands are extracted and used as input features to an artificial neural network (ANN) for purposes of signal classification. Two different classifiers, using artificial neural networks (supervised) and clustering (un-supervised) are supplied with features selected using Principal Component Analysis(PCA) and their classification performance compared. This investigation establishes experimentally that Principal Component Analysis(PCA) can be effectively used as a feature selection method that provides superior results for classifying various defects in the context of ultrasonic inspection in comparison with the X-ray technique.

  12. Aerodynamic performance and particle image velocimetery of piezo actuated biomimetic manduca sexta engineered wings towards the design and application of a flapping wing flight vehicle (United States)

    DeLuca, Anthony M.

    Considerable research and investigation has been conducted on the aerodynamic performance, and the predominate flow physics of the Manduca Sexta size of biomimetically designed and fabricated wings as part of the AFIT FWMAV design project. Despite a burgeoning interest and research into the diverse field of flapping wing flight and biomimicry, the aerodynamics of flapping wing flight remains a nebulous field of science with considerable variance into the theoretical abstractions surrounding aerodynamic mechanisms responsible for aerial performance. Traditional FWMAV flight models assume a form of a quasi-steady approximation of wing aerodynamics based on an infinite wing blade element model (BEM). An accurate estimation of the lift, drag, and side force coefficients is a critical component of autonomous stability and control models. This research focused on two separate experimental avenues into the aerodynamics of AFIT's engineered hawkmoth wings|forces and flow visualization. 1. Six degree of freedom force balance testing, and high speed video analysis was conducted on 30°, 45°, and 60° angle stop wings. A novel, non-intrusive optical tracking algorithm was developed utilizing a combination of a Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) and ComputerVision (OpenCV) tools to track the wing in motion from multiple cameras. A complete mapping of the wing's kinematic angles as a function of driving amplitude was performed. The stroke angle, elevation angle, and angle of attack were tabulated for all three wings at driving amplitudes ranging from A=0.3 to A=0.6. The wing kinematics together with the force balance data was used to develop several aerodynamic force coefficient models. A combined translational and rotational aerodynamic model predicted lift forces within 10%, and vertical forces within 6%. The total power consumption was calculated for each of the three wings, and a Figure of Merit was calculated for each wing as a general expression of the overall efficiency of


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Recep KÜRKÇÜ


    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to study to determine and comparison the body composition, body components and somatotype characteristics of young soccer players (Young Soccer Team of Sport Club of Muğla University with other national and international soccer players. Subjects were eighteen pubescent soccer players (age, 13.22y of a team playing in regional soccer league. Skinfolds (biceps, triceps, back, suprailiac, abdominal, leg, thigh, diameters (femur and humerus biconduler, circumferences (biceps, thigh of the body and body fat parameters were measured. Somatotype characteristics were calculated and evaluated by Heat-Carter formula. Subjects’ measurements were as; height 158.44±10.42cm, body weight 47.65±8.38kg, skinfolds; biceps 5.75±1.54mm, triceps 10.61±2.93mm, back 7.30±1.59mm, suprailiac 7.00±2.04mm, abdominal 9.91±3.98mm, leg 13.52±4.76mm; diameters; femur biconduler 11.03±0.74cm; humerus biconduler 7.30±0.59cm; circumferences, biceps 22.76±3.11cm, thigh 32.84±3.33cm and body fat percentage 5.41±1.37 %, somatotype characteristics; Endomorph; 4.59±2.08, Mezomorph; 6.94±3.10, and Ecthomorph; 3.55±1.34. In related sports, physical fitness parameters including physical and anthropometric characteristics of athletes are very important in talent identification. Therefore, results of the present study could provide important data on selection of talented players in soccer and to the other related researches.

  14. Enery Efficient Press and Sinter of Titanium Powder for Low-Cost Components in Vehicle Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Zwitter; Phillip Nash; Xiaoyan Xu; Chadwick Johnson


    This is the final technical report for the Department of Energy NETL project NT01931 Energy Efficient Press and Sinter of Titanium Powder for Low-Cost Components in Vehicle Applications. Titanium has been identified as one of the key materials with the required strength that can reduce the weight of automotive components and thereby reduce fuel consumption. Working with newly developed sources of titanium powder, Webster-Hoff will develop the processing technology to manufacture low cost vehicle components using the single press/single sinter techniques developed for iron based powder metallurgy today. Working with an automotive or truck manufacturer, Webster-Hoff will demonstrate the feasibility of manufacturing a press and sinter titanium component for a vehicle application. The project objective is two-fold, to develop the technology for manufacturing press and sinter titanium components, and to demonstrate the feasibility of producing a titanium component for a vehicle application. The lowest cost method for converting metal powder into a net shape part is the Powder Metallurgy Press and Sinter Process. The method involves compaction of the metal powder in a tool (usually a die and punches, upper and lower) at a high pressure (up to 60 TSI or 827 MPa) to form a green compact with the net shape of the final component. The powder in the green compact is held together by the compression bonds between the powder particles. The sinter process then converts the green compact to a metallurgically bonded net shape part through the process of solid state diffusion. The goal of this project is to expand the understanding and application of press and sinter technology to Titanium Powder applications, developing techniques to manufacture net shape Titanium components via the press and sinter process. In addition, working with a vehicle manufacturer, demonstrate the feasibility of producing a titanium component for a vehicle. This is not a research program, but rather a

  15. Research of the launch vehicle design made of composite materials under the aerodynamic, thermal and acoustic loadings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davydovich Denis


    Full Text Available The experimental research of the carbon composite material sample of payload fairing half structural element was carried out under different types of loading. Mathematical and physical modeling of the sample loading using aerodynamic flow was conducted. Heat loading was researched by the method of a thermal analysis during which typical heat dots corresponding to the changes in the sample structure were determined. Ultrasonic influence on the sample characteristics was considered. As a result, the value of heat leak to the structure surface while moving in the atmospheric phase of the descent was determined.

  16. Application of fleet ballistic missile components/designs for expendable launch vehicles (United States)

    Grizzell, Norman E.

    This paper describes the orbital performance and configuration attributes of an expendable launch vehicle (ELV) derived from flight-qualified components. Representative logistical and programmatic data are also provided. The backbone of the ELV program described is the cost-effective use of proven Fleet Ballistic Missile components/designs coupled with other high confidence 'off-the-shelf' equipment. The ELV defined can place over a thousand pounds (1000 lb) of spacecraft (payload) into Low Earth Orbit.

  17. 40 CFR Appendix Vi to Part 86 - Vehicle and Engine Components (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicle and Engine Components VI Appendix VI to Part 86 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS.... (2) Cooling system. a. Coolant. b. Thermostat. c. Filter. (3) Lubrication. a. Oil filter....

  18. ZEUS-DO: A Design Oriented CFD-Based Unsteady Aerodynamic Capability for Flight Vehicle Multidisciplinary Configuration Shape Optimization Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In practically all air-vehicle MDO studies to date involving configuration shape optimization, dynamic Aeroservoelastic constraints had to be left out. Flutter, gust...

  19. Mood Recognition Based on Upper Body Posture and Movement Features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thrasher, M.L.; Van der Zwaag, M. D.; Bianchi-Berthouze, N.; Westerink, J.H.D.M.


    While studying body postures in relation to mood is not a new concept, the majority of these studies rely on actors interpretations. This project investigated the temporal aspects of naturalistic body postures while users listened to mood inducing music. Video data was collected while participants l

  20. Effects of Gas Turbine Component Performance on Engine and Rotary Wing Vehicle Size and Performance (United States)

    Snyder, Christopher A.; Thurman, Douglas R.


    In support of the Fundamental Aeronautics Program, Subsonic Rotary Wing Project, further gas turbine engine studies have been performed to quantify the effects of advanced gas turbine technologies on engine weight and fuel efficiency and the subsequent effects on a civilian rotary wing vehicle size and mission fuel. The Large Civil Tiltrotor (LCTR) vehicle and mission and a previous gas turbine engine study will be discussed as a starting point for this effort. Methodology used to assess effects of different compressor and turbine component performance on engine size, weight and fuel efficiency will be presented. A process to relate engine performance to overall LCTR vehicle size and fuel use will also be given. Technology assumptions and levels of performance used in this analysis for the compressor and turbine components performances will be discussed. Optimum cycles (in terms of power specific fuel consumption) will be determined with subsequent engine weight analysis. The combination of engine weight and specific fuel consumption will be used to estimate their effect on the overall LCTR vehicle size and mission fuel usage. All results will be summarized to help suggest which component performance areas have the most effect on the overall mission.

  1. Parameter identification of multi-body railway vehicle models - Application of the adjoint state approach (United States)

    Kraft, S.; Puel, G.; Aubry, D.; Funfschilling, C.


    For the calibration of multi-body models of railway vehicles, the identification of the model parameters from on-track measurement is required. This involves the solution of an inverse problem by minimising the misfit function which describes the distance between model and measurement using optimisation methods. The application of gradient-based optimisation methods is advantageous but necessitates an efficient approach for the computation of the gradients considering the large number of model parameters and the costly evaluation of the forward model. This work shows that the application of the adjoint state approach to the nonlinear vehicle-track multi-body system is suitable, reducing on the one hand the computational cost and increasing on the other hand the precision of the gradients. Gradients from the adjoint state method are computed for vehicle models and validated taking into account measurement noise.

  2. Feature-Based TAG in place of multi-component adjunction Computational Implications

    CERN Document Server

    Hockey, B A


    Using feature-based Tree Adjoining Grammar (TAG), this paper presents linguistically motivated analyses of constructions claimed to require multi-component adjunction. These feature-based TAG analyses permit parsing of these constructions using an existing unification-based Earley-style TAG parser, thus obviating the need for a multi-component TAG parser without sacrificing linguistic coverage for English.

  3. The Effect of Different Rail Heights on Aerodynamic Performance of Straddle Type Monorail Vehicles%不同轨面高度对跨坐式单轨车气动性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜子学; 张杰; 赵科


    Based on the head model of Straddle-type Monorail Vehicle,by application of numerical simulation method and by setting different computing domains, the height of straddle type monorail vehicle of the orbital plane and ground is simulated and the impact of different orbital plane height on the aerodynamic performance under the windward condition is analyzed. The results of the analyses show that as the rail surface height increases, the monorail vehicle's aerodynamic performance improves along with it and at the height of 6m above, aerodynamic performance changes of monorail vehicle tend to smooth. But there is a little difference in wind resistance under the different orbital plane height. This indicates that the change in orbital plane height has a little effect on its aerodynamic performance. The orbital plane height setting of Chongqing straddle type monorail vehicle for orbital plane heights of different sections is reasonable.%基于踌坐武单轨车头车模型,运用数值模拟方法,通过设置不同的计算域来模拟跨坐式单轨车轨面与地面的高度,分析在迎风条件下不同轨面高度对其气动性能的影响.分析结果表明:随着轨面高度的增加,单轨车的气动性能随之改善,且在离地高度6m以上单轨车的气动性能变化趋于平缓.但不同轨面高度下的风阻值差异较小,这表明单轨车轨面高度的变化对其气动性能影响较小,重庆跨坐式单轨车不同路段轨面高度的设置是合理的.

  4. Shape Design of Lifting body Based on Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongyuan Li


    Full Text Available This paper briefly introduces the concept and history of lifting body, and puts forward a new method for the optimization of lifting body. This method has drawn lessons from the die line design of airplane is used to parametric numerical modeling for the lifting body, and extract the characterization of shape parameters as design variables, a combination of lifting body reentry vehicle aerodynamic conditions, aerodynamic heating, volumetric Rate and the stability of performance. Multi-objective hybrid genetic algorithm is adopted to complete the aerodynamic shape optimization and design of hypersonic lifting body vehicle when under more variable and constrained condition in order to obtain the Pareto optimal solution of Common Aero Vehicle shape.

  5. Localization of interchromatin granule cluster and Cajal body components in oocyte nuclear bodies of the hemipterans. (United States)

    Bogolyubov, D S; Batalova, F M; Ogorzałek, A


    An oocyte nucleus contains different extrachromosomal nuclear domains collectively called nuclear bodies (NBs). In the present work we revealed, using immunogold labeling electron microscopy, some marker components of interchromatin granule clusters (IGCs) and Cajal bodies (CBs) in morphologically heterogeneous oocyte NBs studied in three hemipteran species: Notostira elongata, Capsodes gothicus (Miridae) and Velia caprai (Veliidae). Both IGC and CB counterparts were revealed in oocyte nuclei of the studied species but morphological and biochemical criteria were found to be not sufficient to determine carefully the define type of oocyte NBs. We found that the molecular markers of the CBs (coilin and non-phosphorylated RNA polymerase II) and IGCs (SC35 protein) may be localized in the same NB. Anti-SC35 antibody may decorate not only a granular material representing "true" interchromatin granules but also masks some fibrillar parts of complex NBs. Our first observations on the hemipteran oocyte NBs confirm the high complexity and heterogeneity of insect oocyte IGCs and CBs in comparison with those in mammalian somatic cells and amphibian oocytes.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩艳; 胡揭玄; 蔡春声; 李仁发


    车辆和桥梁气动力参数的准确识别是风-车-桥系统耦合振动研究的前提,目前大多数研究中通常忽略了车辆和桥梁间的相对运动.由于采用风洞试验测量手段研究此类问题存在一定困难,因此该文基于CFD数值仿真平台采用动网格技术模拟计算了横风作用下考虑车辆运动的车辆和桥梁气动特性,分析研究了风场的紊流特性、车辆的运动速度以及车桥的相互气动干扰对车辆和桥梁气动特性的影响.计算结果表明:车辆和桥梁的气动力特性受车辆的运动速度和车桥间的相互作用影响较大,风场的紊流特性对车辆和桥梁的气动力也有一定影响.最后通过对比分析单车、桥和车-桥耦合的流场压力和速度云图,探讨了车辆和桥梁气动力的相互作用机理.%The exact identification of the aerodynamic characteristics of vehicles and bridges is the premise for the coupling vibration analysis of a wind-vehicle-bridge system. At present, the relative motion between vehicles and bridges was ignored in most researches. It is difficult for wind tunnel tests to simulate the moving of a vehicle and to measure the aerodynamic forces of vehicles and bridges under cross winds respectively. The aerodynamic characteristics of vehicles and bridges under cross winds with the consideration of vehicles moving are investigated by using the dynamic mesh method of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in this paper. The dependence of aerodynamic forces on vehicle speeds was determined and the interaction of aerodynamic forces between vehicles and bridges and the influence of the turbulence were investigated. The results showed that the vehicle speed and the interaction of aerodynamic forces between the vehicle and bridge had great influence on the aerodynamic characteristics of vehicles and bridges. The turbulence also had some influence on the aerodynamic characteristics of vehicles and bridges. In the end, comparing and

  7. Emotion identification using extremely low frequency components of speech feature contours. (United States)

    Lin, Chang-Hong; Liao, Wei-Kai; Hsieh, Wen-Chi; Liao, Wei-Jiun; Wang, Jia-Ching


    The investigations of emotional speech identification can be divided into two main parts, features and classifiers. In this paper, how to extract an effective speech feature set for the emotional speech identification is addressed. In our speech feature set, we use not only statistical analysis of frame-based acoustical features, but also the approximated speech feature contours, which are obtained by extracting extremely low frequency components to speech feature contours. Furthermore, principal component analysis (PCA) is applied to the approximated speech feature contours so that an efficient representation of approximated contours can be derived. The proposed speech feature set is fed into support vector machines (SVMs) to perform multiclass emotion identification. The experimental results demonstrate the performance of the proposed system with 82.26% identification rate.

  8. Thermal Storage System for Electric Vehicle Cabin Heating Component and System Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaClair, Tim J [ORNL; Gao, Zhiming [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Wang, Mingyu [MAHLE Behr Troy Inc.; WolfeIV, Edward [MAHLE Behr Troy Inc.; Craig, Timothy [MAHLE Behr Troy Inc.


    Cabin heating of current electric vehicle (EV) designs is typically provided using electrical energy from the traction battery, since waste heat is not available from an engine as in the case of a conventional automobile. In very cold climatic conditions, the power required for space heating of an EV can be of a similar magnitude to that required for propulsion of the vehicle. As a result, its driving range can be reduced very significantly during the winter season, which limits consumer acceptance of EVs and results in increased battery costs to achieve a minimum range while ensuring comfort to the EV driver. To minimize the range penalty associated with EV cabin heating, a novel climate control system that includes thermal energy storage from an advanced phase change material (PCM) has been designed for use in EVs and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The present paper focuses on the modeling and analysis of this electrical PCM-Assisted Thermal Heating System (ePATHS) and is a companion to the paper Design and Testing of a Thermal Storage System for Electric Vehicle Cabin Heating. A detailed heat transfer model was developed to simulate the PCM heat exchanger that is at the heart of the ePATHS and was subsequently used to analyze and optimize its design. The results from this analysis were integrated into a MATLAB Simulink system model to simulate the fluid flow, pressure drop and heat transfer in all components of the ePATHS. The system model was then used to predict the performance of the climate control system in the vehicle and to evaluate control strategies needed to achieve the desired temperature control in the cabin. The analysis performed to design the ePATHS is described in detail and the system s predicted performance in a vehicle HVAC system is presented.

  9. Poly(A) RNA a new component of Cajal bodies. (United States)

    Kołowerzo, Agnieszka; Smoliński, Dariusz Jan; Bednarska, Elzbieta


    In European larch microsporocytes, spherical structures 0.5 to 6 microm in diameter are present in which poly(A) RNA accumulates. There were one to several bodies per cell and they were often present in the vicinity of the nucleolus. No nascent transcripts were observed within them. Splicing factors of the SR family, including protein SC35, which participates in bringing the 3' and 5' sites closer in the splicing reaction, were also not observed. The absence of the above-mentioned elements within bodies containing poly(A) RNA disqualifies them as sites of synthesis and preliminary stages of primary transcript maturation. However, they contained abundant elements of the splicing machinery commonly occurring in Cajal bodies, i.e., Sm proteins or small nuclear RNA (snRNA). The molecular composition as well as the characteristic ultrastructure of bodies containing poly(A) RNA proves that these were Cajal bodies. This is the first report of such poly(A) RNA localization.

  10. Large eddy simulation of flows around ground vehicles and other bluff bodies. (United States)

    Krajnovic, Sinisa


    A brief review of large eddy simulation (LES) applications for different bluff-body flows performed by the author and his co-workers is presented. Examples of flows range from simple cube flows characterized by sharp edge separation over a three-dimensional hill where LES relies on good near-wall resolution, to complex flows of a tall, finite cylinder that contains several flow regimes that cause different challenges to LES. The second part of the paper is devoted to flows around ground vehicles at moderate Reynolds numbers. Although the present review proves the applicability of LES for various bluff-body flows, an increase of the Reynolds number towards the operational speeds of ground vehicles requires accurate near-wall modelling for a successful LES.

  11. Vertical Corner Feature Based Precise Vehicle Localization Using 3D LIDAR in Urban Area. (United States)

    Im, Jun-Hyuck; Im, Sung-Hyuck; Jee, Gyu-In


    Tall buildings are concentrated in urban areas. The outer walls of buildings are vertically erected to the ground and almost flat. Therefore, the vertical corners that meet the vertical planes are present everywhere in urban areas. These corners act as convenient landmarks, which can be extracted by using the light detection and ranging (LIDAR) sensor. A vertical corner feature based precise vehicle localization method is proposed in this paper and implemented using 3D LIDAR (Velodyne HDL-32E). The vehicle motion is predicted by accumulating the pose increment output from the iterative closest point (ICP) algorithm based on the geometric relations between the scan data of the 3D LIDAR. The vertical corner is extracted using the proposed corner extraction method. The vehicle position is then corrected by matching the prebuilt corner map with the extracted corner. The experiment was carried out in the Gangnam area of Seoul, South Korea. In the experimental results, the maximum horizontal position error is about 0.46 m and the 2D Root Mean Square (RMS) horizontal error is about 0.138 m.

  12. Vertical Corner Feature Based Precise Vehicle Localization Using 3D LIDAR in Urban Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Hyuck Im


    Full Text Available Tall buildings are concentrated in urban areas. The outer walls of buildings are vertically erected to the ground and almost flat. Therefore, the vertical corners that meet the vertical planes are present everywhere in urban areas. These corners act as convenient landmarks, which can be extracted by using the light detection and ranging (LIDAR sensor. A vertical corner feature based precise vehicle localization method is proposed in this paper and implemented using 3D LIDAR (Velodyne HDL-32E. The vehicle motion is predicted by accumulating the pose increment output from the iterative closest point (ICP algorithm based on the geometric relations between the scan data of the 3D LIDAR. The vertical corner is extracted using the proposed corner extraction method. The vehicle position is then corrected by matching the prebuilt corner map with the extracted corner. The experiment was carried out in the Gangnam area of Seoul, South Korea. In the experimental results, the maximum horizontal position error is about 0.46 m and the 2D Root Mean Square (RMS horizontal error is about 0.138 m.

  13. Low back pain and association with whole body vibration among military armoured vehicle drivers in Malaysia. (United States)

    Rozali, A; Rampal, K G; Shamsul Bahri, M T; Sherina, M S; Shamsul Azhar, S; Khairuddin, H; Sulaiman, A


    A cross sectional study was conducted among military armoured vehicle drivers in the two largest mechanized battalions with the objective to determine the prevalence of low back pain (LBP), and its association with whole body vibration (WBV) and other associated factors. A self-administered questionnaire and Human Vibration Meter were used in this study. A total of 159 respondents participated in this study and 102 (64.2%) of them were subjected to WBV measurement. One-hundred-and-seventeen respondents complained of LBP for the past 12 months giving a prevalence of 73.6%. The prevalence of LBP among tracked armoured vehicle drivers was higher (81.7%) as compared to wheeled armoured vehicle drivers (67.0%). The mean acceleration at Z-axis in tracked armoured vehicles (1.09 +/- 0.26 ms(-2)) and wheeled armoured vehicles (0.33 +/- 0.07 ms) were the dominant vibration directions. The mean estimated vibration dose value (eVDV) for eight-hour daily exposure at Z-axis (19.86 +/- 4.72 ms(-1.75)) in tracked armoured vehicles showed the highest estimation. Based on the European Vibration Directive (2002), the mean eVDV at Z-axis in tracked armoured vehicles exceeded exposure action value (EAV) (> 9.1 ms(-1.75), but did not exceed exposure limit value (ELV) (<21.0 ms(-1.75)). Logistic regression analysis revealed that only driving in forward bending sitting posture (OR = 3.63, 95% CI 1.06-12.42) and WBV exposure at X-axis (OR = 1.94, 95% CI 1.02-3.69) were significant risk factors to LBP. Preventive measures should be implemented to minimize risk of WBV and to improve ergonomic postures among drivers.

  14. Human Factors Lessons Learned from Flight Testing Wingless Lifting Body Vehicles (United States)

    Merlin, Peter William


    Since the 1960s, NASA, the Air Force, and now private industry have attempted to develop an operational human crewed reusable spacecraft with a wingless, lifting body configuration. This type of vehicle offers increased mission flexibility and greater reentry cross range than capsule type craft, and is particularly attractive due to the capability to land on a runway. That capability, however, adds complexity to the human factors engineering requirements of developing such aircraft.

  15. Rigid-body kinematics versus flapping kinematics of a flapping wing micro air vehicle


    Caetano, J.V.; Weehuizen, M.B.; De Visser, C.C.; De Croon, G.C.H.E.; de Mulder, M.


    Several formulations have been proposed to model the dynamics of ornithopters, with inconclusive results regarding the need for complex kinematic formulations. Furthermore, the impact of assumptions made in the collected results was never assessed by comparing simulations with real flight data. In this study two dynamic models of a Flapping Wing Micro Aerial Vehicle (FWMAV) were derived and compared: a) single rigid body aircraft equations of motion and b) Virtual Work Principle derivation fo...

  16. Simultaneous measurement of aerodynamic and heat transfer data for large angle blunt cones in hypersonic shock tunnel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Niranjan Sahoo; S Saravanan; G Jagadeesh; K P J Reddy


    Aerodynamic forces and fore-body convective surface heat transfer rates over a 60° apex-angle blunt cone have been simultaneously measured at a nominal Mach number of 5·75 in the hypersonic shock tunnel HST2. An aluminum model incorporating a three-component accelerometer-based balance system for measuring the aerodynamic forces and an array of platinum thin-film gauges deposited on thermally insulating backing material flush mounted on the model surface is used for convective surface heat transfer measurement in the investigations. The measured value of the drag coefficient varies by about $\\pm 6$% from the theoretically estimated value based on the modified Newtonian theory, while the axi-symmetric Navier–Stokes computations overpredict the drag coefficient by about 9%. The normalized values of measured heat transfer rates at 0° angle of attack are about 11% higher than the theoretically estimated values. The aerodynamic and the heat transfer data presented here are very valuable for the validation of CFD codes used for the numerical computation of flow fields around hypersonic vehicles.

  17. Estimation of the Unsteady Aerodynamic Load on Space Shuttle External Tank Protuberances from a Component Wind Tunnel Test (United States)

    Panda, Jayatana; Martin, Fred W.; Sutliff, Daniel L.


    At the wake of the Columbia (STS-107) accident it was decided to remove the Protuberance Aerodynamic Load (PAL) Ramp that was originally intended to protect various protuberances outside of the Space Shuttle External Tank from high buffet load induced by cross-flows at transonic speed. In order to establish the buffet load without the PAL ramp, a wind tunnel test was conducted where segments of the protuberances were instrumented with dynamic pressure transducers; and power-spectra of sectional lift and drag forces at various span-wise locations between two adjacent support brackets were measured under different cross flow angles, Mach number and other conditions. Additionally, frequency-dependent spatial correlations between the sectional forces were also established. The sectional forces were then adjusted by the correlation length to establish span-averaged spectra of normal and lateral forces that can be suitably "added" to various other unsteady forces encountered by the protuberance. This paper describes the methodology used for calculating the correlation-adjusted power spectrum of the buffet load. A second part of the paper describes wind-tunnel results on the difference in the buffet load on the protuberances with and without the PAL ramp. In general when the ramp height is the same as that of the protuberance height, such as that found on the liquid Oxygen part of the tank, the ramp is found to cause significant reduction of the unsteady aerodynamic load. However, on the liquid Hydrogen part of the tank, where the Oxygen feed-line is far larger in diameter than the height of the PAL ramp, little protection is found to be available to all but the Cable Tray.

  18. Numerical Simulation of Integrative Flow Field for Hypersonic Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Yuanyuan; LE Jialing; NI Hongli


    To meet the requirements for the aerodynamic performance and thrust force demanded in hypersonic missions,the integration design of fuselage and engine must be considered for hypersonic vehicle with a scramjet engine.The configuration of wave rider is a typical hypersonic vehicle shape, whose fore-body can compress the flow in advance and provide uniform flow for the air intake, and whose aft-body is used as an expansion surface of nozzle. In the present paper, an engineering method is applied to define total aerodynamic characteristics of an approximate wave rider configuration. A finite volume method based on the center of grid is also employed to numerically investigate the outflow pass the same configuration. The flow field details and the aerodynamic characteristics at given conditions are obtained. The evaluation for this configuration may be used as a guide for the hypersonic vehicle experiment.

  19. Feature selection in pathological voice classification using dinamyc of component analysis



    This paper presents a methodology for the reduction of the training space based on the analysis of the variation of the linear components of the acoustic features. The methodology is applied to the automatic detection of voice disorders by means of stochastic dynamic models. The acoustic features used to model the speech are: MFCC, HNR, GNE, NNE and the energy envelopes. The feature extraction is carried out by means of PCA, and classification is done using discrete and continuous HMMs. The r...

  20. Flexible Launch Vehicle Stability Analysis Using Steady and Unsteady Computational Fluid Dynamics (United States)

    Bartels, Robert E.


    Launch vehicles frequently experience a reduced stability margin through the transonic Mach number range. This reduced stability margin can be caused by the aerodynamic undamping one of the lower-frequency flexible or rigid body modes. Analysis of the behavior of a flexible vehicle is routinely performed with quasi-steady aerodynamic line loads derived from steady rigid aerodynamics. However, a quasi-steady aeroelastic stability analysis can be unconservative at the critical Mach numbers, where experiment or unsteady computational aeroelastic analysis show a reduced or even negative aerodynamic damping.Amethod of enhancing the quasi-steady aeroelastic stability analysis of a launch vehicle with unsteady aerodynamics is developed that uses unsteady computational fluid dynamics to compute the response of selected lower-frequency modes. The response is contained in a time history of the vehicle line loads. A proper orthogonal decomposition of the unsteady aerodynamic line-load response is used to reduce the scale of data volume and system identification is used to derive the aerodynamic stiffness, damping, and mass matrices. The results are compared with the damping and frequency computed from unsteady computational aeroelasticity and from a quasi-steady analysis. The results show that incorporating unsteady aerodynamics in this way brings the enhanced quasi-steady aeroelastic stability analysis into close agreement with the unsteady computational aeroelastic results.

  1. Independent component feature-based human activity recognition via Linear Discriminant Analysis and Hidden Markov Model. (United States)

    Uddin, Md; Lee, J J; Kim, T S


    In proactive computing, human activity recognition from image sequences is an active research area. This paper presents a novel approach of human activity recognition based on Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) of Independent Component (IC) features from shape information. With extracted features, Hidden Markov Model (HMM) is applied for training and recognition. The recognition performance using LDA of IC features has been compared to other approaches including Principle Component Analysis (PCA), LDA of PC, and ICA. The preliminary results show much improved performance in the recognition rate with our proposed method.

  2. Theory and Influence Analysis of the Aerodynamic Effect Produced Passing Vehicles on Footbridge%过往车辆对人行天桥产生的追风效应原理及影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵锐; 张毅刚


    从流体力学的观点出发,建立车、桥及流场的二维网格模型,利用FLUENT软件对人行天桥受到过往车辆产生的气流影响进行受力分析及流场速度矢量分析,得出追风效应的产生原理,并总结了使人行天桥钢箱梁产生振动的直接原因。在此基础上,分析了不同车速、车型产生的追风效应对人行天桥的影响。%From the viewpoint of the fluid mechanics, establishing a two dimensional mesh model of vehicle and footbridge and flow field, air current influence produced by passing vehicles on footbridge has pressure and flow velocity vector analysis with FLUENT software, works out generation principle of aerodynamic effect, and summarizes the direct cause of vibration on the steel box girder of footbridge. On this basis, it analyzes the influences that the speed and the type of vehicles produce the aerodynamic effect on footbridge. It provides reliable basis for the further response analysis that passing vehicles produced vibration on footbridge girder through airflow movement.

  3. Feature Extraction Using Supervised Independent Component Analysis by Maximizing Class Distance (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Yoshinori; Ozawa, Seiichi; Kotani, Manabu

    Recently, Independent Component Analysis (ICA) has been applied to not only problems of blind signal separation, but also feature extraction of patterns. However, the effectiveness of pattern features extracted by conventional ICA algorithms depends on pattern sets; that is, how patterns are distributed in the feature space. As one of the reasons, we have pointed out that ICA features are obtained by increasing only their independence even if the class information is available. In this context, we can expect that more high-performance features can be obtained by introducing the class information into conventional ICA algorithms. In this paper, we propose a supervised ICA (SICA) that maximizes Mahalanobis distance between features of different classes as well as maximize their independence. In the first experiment, two-dimensional artificial data are applied to the proposed SICA algorithm to see how maximizing Mahalanobis distance works well in the feature extraction. As a result, we demonstrate that the proposed SICA algorithm gives good features with high separability as compared with principal component analysis and a conventional ICA. In the second experiment, the recognition performance of features extracted by the proposed SICA is evaluated using the three data sets of UCI Machine Learning Repository. From the results, we show that the better recognition accuracy is obtained using our proposed SICA. Furthermore, we show that pattern features extracted by SICA are better than those extracted by only maximizing the Mahalanobis distance.

  4. Optimized Scheduling of Vehicle Body CAN Based on Data Compression%基于数据压缩的车身CAN网络优化调度设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    针对汽车车身网络节点日渐增多而低速CAN带宽资源有限的问题,引入减少网络传输数据的数据压缩技术,分析了车身网络信息数据变化特点,提出了基于数据压缩的变化优先( CF)的优化调度算法,介绍了CF算法的数据压缩、解压缩和调度原理,将CF算法应用于汽车车身控制系统设计,理论分析和实验验证的结果表明,该算法可显著降低车身CAN总线负载,改善信息的实时性,提高车身CAN总线的扩展灵活性。%In view of the contradiction between the ever increasing network nodes in vehicle body and the limited bandwidth resources of low-speed CAN, a data compression technique is introduced to reduce network trans-mission data. Then based on the analysis on the changing features of vehicle body network data, an optimization scheduling algorithm with "changed first" principle is proposed for data compression and is then applied to the con-trol system design of vehicle body. The results of theoretical analysis and experimental verification indicate that the algorithm proposed can obviously reduce the load of vehicle body CAN bus, improve the real time performance of in-formation and enhance the expansion flexibility of vehicle body CAN bus.

  5. Three-body recombination of two-component cold atomic gases into deep dimers in an optical model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Mathias; Jensen, A. S.; Fedorov, D. V.


    We consider three-body recombination into deep dimers in a mass-imbalanced two-component atomic gas. We use an optical model where a phenomenological imaginary potential is added to the lowest adiabatic hyper-spherical potential. The consequent imaginary part of the energy eigenvalue corresponds...... to the decay rate or recombination probability of the three-body system. The method is formulated in details and the relevant qualitative features are discussed as functions of scattering lengths and masses. We use zero-range model in analyses of recent recombination data. The dominating scattering length...

  6. Use of Flexible Body Coupled Loads in Assessment of Day of Launch Flight Loads (United States)

    Starr, Brett R.; Yunis, Isam; Olds, Aaron D.


    A Day of Launch flight loads assessment technique that determines running loads calculated from flexible body coupled loads was developed for the Ares I-X Flight Test Vehicle. The technique was developed to quantify DOL flight loads in terms of structural load components rather than the typically used q-alpha metric to provide more insight into the DOL loads. In this technique, running loads in the primary structure are determined from the combination of quasi-static aerodynamic loads and dynamic loads. The aerodynamic loads are calculated as a function of time using trajectory parameters passed from the DOL trajectory simulation and are combined with precalculated dynamic loads using a load combination equation. The potential change in aerodynamic load due to wind variability during the countdown is included in the load combination. In the event of a load limit exceedance, the technique allows the identification of what load component is exceeded, a quantification of how much the load limit is exceeded, and where on the vehicle the exceedance occurs. This technique was used to clear the Ares I-X FTV for launch on October 28, 2009. This paper describes the use of coupled loads in the Ares I-X flight loads assessment and summarizes the Ares I-X load assessment results.

  7. Pulsed Joining Of Body-In-White Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnen, John [Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (United States)


    The objective of this project was to develop cost efficient high quality pulsed welding (PW) technology for joining 6xxx Aluminum and High Strength Steel (with tensile strength above 580MPa) components enabling broad usage of hydroformed parts and leading to substantial weight reduction of cars and trucks to reduce US demand on petroleum, lower carbon emissions and energy expenditures. In general, pulsed welding is a form of impact welding where two dissimilar metal pieces are joined by accelerating one to velocities exceeding 300m/s at which point the first piece strikes the second and forms a weld. In this work, two methods were used to accelerate the flyer material: Electro-Magnetic (EM) pulse and Electro-Hydraulic (EH) pulse launching. The advantage of pulsed welding techniques is that welds can be formed between two materials that cannot otherwise be welded: high strength aluminum and high strength steel. The technical objectives of the project included: 1) developing cost affordable production feasible tooling design for PW of 6xxx aluminum to High Strength steel with strengths above 580MPa; 2) demonstrating that fabricated joints can exceed the required service load strength initially at the coupon level and then at the component level; 3) developing fundamental understanding of the mechanisms of joint formation and conditions leading to formation of high quality PW joint; and 4) creating a numerical model predicting the tooling and electric discharge parameters necessary for the joint formation and that satisfy the targeted strength parameters. The project successfully developed: 1) EM and EH pulsed welds between high strength aluminum with tensile strengths exceeding 240MPa and steels exceeding 580MPa; 2) pulsed welds of extrusions with strengths exceeding project requirements; 3) EM and EH flyer launch models and 4) weld interface formation models. However, the grant holder, Ford Motor Company, could see no path to commercialization and the work was

  8. A Pressure-distribution Investigation of the Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Body of Revolution in the Vicinity of a Reflection Plane at Mach Numbers of 1.41 and 2.01 (United States)

    Gapcynski, John P; Carlson, Harry W


    The changes in the aerodynamic characteristics of a body of revolution with a fineness ratio of 8 have been determined at Mach numbers of 1.41 and 2.01, a Reynolds number, based on body length, of 4.54 x 10 to the 6th power, and angles of incidence of 0 degrees and plus or minus 3 degrees as the position of the body is varied with respect to a reflection plane. The data are compared with theoretical results.

  9. 考虑气动加热和变截面惯性矩的高超声速飞行器建模与分析%Modeling and Analysis of Hypersonic Vehicle Considering Variable Cross-Section Moment of Inertia and Aerodynamics Heating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏二龙; 罗建军; 黄兴李; 闫颖鑫; 方群; 姜智超


    由于高超声速飞行器弹性机体/发动机的高度一体化设计,使得此类飞行器的动力学建模与控制较为复杂,而作为控制的基础以及面向控制的总体优化设计都需要建立高精度的动力学模型.首先,建立了考虑气动加热和变截面惯性矩影响的高超声速飞行器自由梁结构弹性模型,分析了气动加热和变截面惯性矩对飞行器振型的影响,得出了气动加热对振型影响非常小且振型引起的攻角变化很小,变截面惯性矩对飞行器的振型影响较大且振型引起的攻角变化较大的结论.然后,建立了考虑气动加热和变截面惯性矩影响的自由梁高超声速飞行器动力学模型,对考虑气动加热和忽略气动加热、恒截面惯性矩和变截面惯性矩对应的动力学模型进行了零极点分布对比分析,得出了气动加热对飞行器的纵向动态特性影响很小,变截面惯性矩自由梁对应的高超声速飞行器在特征点处开环不稳定性更大和非最小相位行为约束变弱的结论.%Hypersonic vehicle dynamics modeling and control are much more complicated due to its highly integrated design of flexible body and engine. A high fidelity dynamic model is required for the control system design as well as the conceptual design. Firstly the free-free beam elastic model considering variable cross-section moment of inertia and aerodynamic heating is set up for hypersonic vehicle. The effects of aerodynamic heating on the vibration mode, as well as the resulting change of attack angle is vevy email, while the variable cross-section moment of inertia has greater impact on vibration mode and the resulting change of attack angle is larger. Then the free-free beam dynamics model for hypersonic vehicle considering variable cross-section moment of inertia and aerodynamic heating is established. The zeros/poles distribution are compared and analyzed between the free-free beam dynamics models with aerodynamic

  10. Radiative Heating on the After-Body of Martian Entry Vehicles (United States)

    Brandis, A. M.; Saunders, D. A.; Johnston, C. O.; Cruden, B. A.; White, T. R.


    This paper presents simulations of the radiative heat flux imparted on the after-body of vehicles entering the Martian atmosphere. The radiation is dominated by CO2 bands emitting in the mid-wave infrared spectral region. This mechanism has traditionally not been considered in the design of past Mars entry vehicles. However, with recent analysis showing that the CO2 radiation can be greater than convective heating in the wake, and with several upcoming and proposed missions to Mars potentially affected, an investigation of the impact of this radiation is warranted. The focus of this paper is to provide a better understanding of the impact to aerothermal heating predictions and to provide comparisons between NASA's two main radiation codes, NEQAIR and HARA. The tangent slab approximation is shown to be overly conservative, by as much as 58 percent, for most back- shell body point locations compared to using a full angular integration method. However, due to the complexity of the wake flow, it is also shown that tangent slab does not always represent an upper limit for radiative heating. Furthermore, analysis in this paper shows that it is not possible to provide a general knock-down factor from the tangent slab results to those obtained using the more rigorous full integration method. When the radiative heating is accounted for on the after-body, the unmargined total heat flux can be as high as 14 watts per square centimeter.

  11. Robust multi-stream speech recognition based on weighting the output probabilities of feature components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jun; WEI Gang; YU Hua; NING Genxin


    In the traditional multi-stream fusion methods of speech recognition, all the feature components in a data stream share the same stream weight, while their distortion levels are usually different when the speech recognizer works in noisy environments. To overcome this limitation of the traditional multi-stream frameworks, the current study proposes a new stream fusion method that weights not only the stream outputs, but also the output probabilities of feature components. How the stream and feature component weights in the new fusion method affect the decision is analyzed and two stream fusion schemes based on the 03iginalisation and soft decision models in the missing data techniques are proposed. Experimental results on the hybrid sub-band multi-stream speech recognizer show that the proposed schemes can adjust the stream influences on the decision adaptively and outperform the traditional multi-stream methods in various noisy environments.

  12. Powertrain Component Inspection from Mid-Level Blends Vehicle Aging Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoffner, Brent [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio; Johnson, Ryan [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio; Heimrich, Martin J. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio; Lochte, Michael [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio


    The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 calls on the nation to significantly increase its use of renewable fuels to meet its transportation energy needs. The law expands the renewable fuel standard to require use of 36 billion gallons of renewable fuel by 2022. Given that ethanol is the most widely used renewable fuel in the U.S. market, ethanol will likely make up a significant portion of the 36-billion-gallon requirement. The vast majority of ethanol used in the United States is blended with gasoline to create E10-gasoline with up to 10% ethanol. The remaining ethanol is sold in the form of E85 - a gasoline blend with as much as 85% ethanol that can only be used in flexible-fuel vehicles (FFVs). Consumption of E85 is at present limited by both the size of the FFV fleet and the number of E85 fueling stations. Gasoline consumption in the United States is currently about 140 billion gallons per year; thus the maximum use of ethanol as E10 is only about 14 billion gallons. While the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) remains committed to expanding the E85 infrastructure, that market represented less than 1% of the ethanol consumed in 2010 and will not be able to absorb projected volumes of ethanol in the near term. Because of these factors, DOE and others have been assessing the viability of using mid-level ethanol blends (E15 or E20) as a way to accommodate growing volumes of ethanol. The DOE Mid-Level Ethanol Blends Test Program has been under way since 2007, supported jointly by the Office of the Biomass Program and the Vehicle Technologies Program. One of the larger projects, the Catalyst Durability Study, or Vehicle Aging Study, will be completed early in calendar year 2011. The following report describes a subproject of the Vehicle Aging Study in which powertrain components from 18 of the vehicles were examined at Southwest Research Institute under contract to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL).

  13. 基于整车虚拟样机的车体结构拓扑优化%Topology optimization for body structure based on vehicle virtual prototype

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华顺刚; 赵海波; 朱志豪; 张丽娜


    Based on geometry models of vehicle components,a rigid-flexible coupling virtual prototype of a certain tracked armored vehicle was constructed by vehicle body finite element model meshing and modal analysis.After the multi-body dynamics simulation of the prototype under several typical driving conditions,the loads acting on the vehicle body at several typical moments were exported and imposed on the body finite element model.The structural mechanics analysis and multi-load steps topology optimization of the body structure were carried out.According to the optimization results,local structure of the body was modified.A new virtual prototype was constructed by the improved body and the simulation was executed again,from which the stress and deformation results of the body were got.Comparison with the original results shows that the structure topology optimization technology which combines dynamics simulation with finite element analysis can improve the mechanical properties of the key components,enhance the stiffness and strength,which provides an effective means to improve the structural performance of armored vehicle.%基于整车零部件几何模型,结合车体的有限元网格划分及模态分析,构建履带装甲车辆刚柔混合虚拟样机,进行典型工况下的多体动力学仿真分析,输出若干关键时间点车体承受的荷载.利用有限元分析技术将荷载加载到车体有限元模型上,对车体进行结构力学分析和多荷载步拓扑优化.根据拓扑优化结果修改车体局部结构,并重新构建虚拟样机模型再次进行仿真分析,将应力和变形分析结果与原仿真结果进行比较.结果表明,结合动力学仿真和有限元分析进行结构拓扑优化,可以改善关键零部件的力学性能,提高刚强度,为改善装甲车辆的结构性能提供了一种有效方法.

  14. Two Independent Mushroom Body Output Circuits Retrieve the Six Discrete Components of Drosophila Aversive Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emna Bouzaiane


    Full Text Available Understanding how the various memory components are encoded and how they interact to guide behavior requires knowledge of the underlying neural circuits. Currently, aversive olfactory memory in Drosophila is behaviorally subdivided into four discrete phases. Among these, short- and long-term memories rely, respectively, on the γ and α/β Kenyon cells (KCs, two distinct subsets of the ∼2,000 neurons in the mushroom body (MB. Whereas V2 efferent neurons retrieve memory from α/β KCs, the neurons that retrieve short-term memory are unknown. We identified a specific pair of MB efferent neurons, named M6, that retrieve memory from γ KCs. Moreover, our network analysis revealed that six discrete memory phases actually exist, three of which have been conflated in the past. At each time point, two distinct memory components separately recruit either V2 or M6 output pathways. Memory retrieval thus features a dramatic convergence from KCs to MB efferent neurons.

  15. CFD Simulations of the Supersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (SIAD) Ballistic Range Tests (United States)

    Brock, Joseph; Stern, Eric; Wilder, Michael


    A series of ballistic range tests were performed on a scaled model of the Supersonic Flight Demonstration Test (SFDT) intended to test the Supersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (SIAD) geometry. The purpose of these experiments were to provide aerodynamic coefficients of the vehicle to aid in mission and vehicle design. The experimental data spans the moderate Mach number range, $3.8-2.0$, with a total angle of attack ($alpha_T$) range, $10o-20o$. These conditions are intended to span the Mach-$alpha$ space for the majority of the SFDT experiment. In an effort to validate the predictive capabilities of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) for free-flight aerodynamic behavior, numerical simulations of the ballistic range experiment are performed using the unstructured finite volume Navier-Stokes solver, US3D. Comparisons to raw vehicle attitude, and post-processed aerodynamic coefficients are made between simulated results and experimental data. The resulting comparisons for both raw model attitude and derived aerodynamic coefficients show good agreement with experimental results. Additionally, near body pressure field values for each trajectory simulated are investigated. Extracted surface and wake pressure data gives further insights into dynamic flow coupling leading to a potential mechanism for dynamic instability.

  16. Unsteady aerodynamics modeling for flight dynamics application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing Wang; Kai-Feng He; Wei-Qi Qian; Tian-Jiao Zhang; Yan-Qing Cheng; Kai-Yuan Wu


    In view of engineering application,it is practicable to decompose the aerodynamics into three components:the static aerodynamics,the aerodynamic increment due to steady rotations,and the aerodynamic increment due to unsteady separated and vortical flow.The first and the second components can be presented in conventional forms,while the third is described using a one-order differential equation and a radial-basis-function (RBF) network. For an aircraft configuration,the mathematical models of 6-component aerodynamic coefficients are set up from the wind tunnel test data of pitch,yaw,roll,and coupled yawroll large-amplitude oscillations.The flight dynamics of an aircraft is studied by the bifurcation analysis technique in the case of quasi-steady aerodynamics and unsteady aerodynamics,respectively.The results show that:(1) unsteady aerodynamics has no effect upon the existence of trim points,but affects their stability; (2) unsteady aerodynamics has great effects upon the existence,stability,and amplitudes of periodic solutions; and (3) unsteady aerodynamics changes the stable regions of trim points obviously.Furthermore,the dynamic responses of the aircraft to elevator deflections are inspected.It is shown that the unsteady aerodynamics is beneficial to dynamic stability for the present aircraft.Finally,the effects of unsteady aerodynamics on the post-stall maneuverability are analyzed by numerical simulation.

  17. Renal cell carcinoma with rhabdoid-like features lack intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies and show aggressive behavior. (United States)

    Sugimoto, Masaaki; Kohashi, Kenichi; Kuroiwa, Kentaro; Abe, Tatsuro; Yamada, Yuichi; Shiota, Masaki; Imada, Kenjiro; Naito, Seiji; Oda, Yoshinao


    In renal cell carcinoma (RCC), tumor cells with rhabdoid features are characterized by eccentric nuclei, prominent nucleoli, and eosinophilic cytoplasm with intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies. In RCC, tumor cells have also been observed resembling rhabdomyoblasts or rhabdoid but without intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies, and here, we defined these rhabdoid-like features of these cells. To this end, we studied a series of clear cell RCC (ccRCC) with rhabdoid features and compared them with a series of ccRCC with rhabdoid-like features to clarify the differences in the immunohistochemical profile and biological behavior. From 695 cases of ccRCC (80.8 % of all RCCs), 18 cases with rhabdoid features (2.1 % of all RCCs) and 25 cases with rhabdoid-like features (2.9 % of all RCCs) were investigated. The 5-year survival rate for ccRCC with rhabdoid features was 44.7 % and for ccRCC with rhabdoid-like features 30.3 %. Although ccRCC with rhabdoid features showed immunohistochemical co-expression of epithelial markers and vimentin as seen in malignant rhabdoid tumors, ccRCC with rhabdoid-like features showed no such co-expression. Multivariate analyses of cancer-specific survival revealed that perinephric tissues invasion was an independent prognostic factor in ccRCC with rhabdoid features (p = 0.0253) but not in ccRCC with rhabdoid-like features. In summary, although their prognosis is similar, the marker profile and pattern of extension of ccRCC with rhabdoid-like is different from that of ccRCC with rhabdoid features. Therefore, ccRCC with rhabdoid-like features should be distinguished from ccRCC with rhabdoid features.

  18. Proposal to use vibration analysis steering components and car body to monitor, for example, the state of unbalance wheel (United States)

    Janczur, R.


    The results of road tests of car VW Passat equipped with tires of size 195/65 R15, on the influence of the unbalancing front wheel on vibration of the parts of steering system, steering wheel and the body of the vehicle have been presented in this paper. Unbalances wheels made using weights of different masses, placed close to the outer edge of the steel rim and checked on the machine Hunter GSP 9700 for balancing wheels. The recorded waveforms vibration steering components and car body, at different constant driving speeds, subjected to spectral analysis to determine the possibility of isolating vibration caused by unbalanced wheel in various states and coming from good quality asphalt road surface. The results were discussed in terms of the possibility of identifying the state of unbalancing wheels and possible changes in radial stiffness of the tire vibration transmitted through the system driving wheel on the steering wheel. Vibration analysis steering components and car body, also in the longitudinal direction, including information from the CAN bus of the state of motion of the car, can be used to monitor the development of the state of unbalance wheel, tire damage or errors shape of brake discs or brake drums, causing pulsations braking forces.

  19. Protein and lipid accretion in body components of growing pigs. Effects of body weight and nutrient intake.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bikker, P.


    In pig production, optimization of the conversion of animal feeding-stuffs into body components, especially lean meat, requires knowledge of the response relationships between nutrient intake and animal performance. In this study, the separate effects of protein and energy intake on rate and composi

  20. 49 CFR 238.419 - Truck-to-car-body and truck component attachment. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Truck-to-car-body and truck component attachment. 238.419 Section 238.419 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... attachment. (a) The ultimate strength of the truck-to-car-body attachment for each unit in a train shall...

  1. Negligible heat strain in armored vehicle officers wearing personal body armor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunt Andrew P


    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives This study evaluated the heat strain experienced by armored vehicle officers (AVOs wearing personal body armor (PBA in a sub-tropical climate. Methods Twelve male AVOs, aged 35-58 years, undertook an eight hour shift while wearing PBA. Heart rate and core temperature were monitored continuously. Urine specific gravity (USG was measured before and after, and with any urination during the shift. Results Heart rate indicated an intermittent and low-intensity nature of the work. USG revealed six AVOs were dehydrated from pre through post shift, and two others became dehydrated. Core temperature averaged 37.4 ± 0.3°C, with maximum's of 37.7 ± 0.2°C. Conclusions Despite increased age, body mass, and poor hydration practices, and Wet-Bulb Globe Temperatures in excess of 30°C; the intermittent nature and low intensity of the work prevented excessive heat strain from developing.

  2. Improvements in aerodynamics for the purpose of either increasing power output or reducing fuel consumption of commercial vehicles. Einsatz des Fahrleistungsgewinnes durch verbesserte Aerodynamik zur Fahrleistungssteigerung oder zur Verbrauchsminimierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porth, D.; Kraemer, W.


    The effects of particularly efficient aerodynamic measures on fuel consumption, power output and economy have been detemined by means of systematic investigations carried out in the wind tunnel with a 1:2,5 model of a heavy-duty tractor/semitrailer combination and an original vehicle, and by means of corresponding comparative measurements in driving operation. The excess output gained from reducing the drag coefficient is another useful potential for improvement, which can be used for either increasing power output or further reducing fuel consumption by adapting the drive line. (orig.)

  3. An Interleaved Reduced-Component-Count Multivoltage Bus DC/DC Converter for Fuel Cell Powered Electric Vehicle Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Lixin [ORNL; Su, Gui-Jia [ORNL


    An interleaved reduced-component-count dc/dc converter is proposed for power management in fuel cell powered vehicles with a multivoltage electric net. The converter is based on a simplified topology and can handle more power with less ripple current, therefore reducing the capacitor requirements, making it more suited for fuel cell powered vehicles in the near future. A prototype rated at 4.3 kW was built and tested to verify the proposed topology.

  4. EEG artifact elimination by extraction of ICA-component features using image processing algorithms. (United States)

    Radüntz, T; Scouten, J; Hochmuth, O; Meffert, B


    Artifact rejection is a central issue when dealing with electroencephalogram recordings. Although independent component analysis (ICA) separates data in linearly independent components (IC), the classification of these components as artifact or EEG signal still requires visual inspection by experts. In this paper, we achieve automated artifact elimination using linear discriminant analysis (LDA) for classification of feature vectors extracted from ICA components via image processing algorithms. We compare the performance of this automated classifier to visual classification by experts and identify range filtering as a feature extraction method with great potential for automated IC artifact recognition (accuracy rate 88%). We obtain almost the same level of recognition performance for geometric features and local binary pattern (LBP) features. Compared to the existing automated solutions the proposed method has two main advantages: First, it does not depend on direct recording of artifact signals, which then, e.g. have to be subtracted from the contaminated EEG. Second, it is not limited to a specific number or type of artifact. In summary, the present method is an automatic, reliable, real-time capable and practical tool that reduces the time intensive manual selection of ICs for artifact removal. The results are very promising despite the relatively small channel resolution of 25 electrodes.

  5. Endogenous and exogenous components in the circadian variation of core body temperature in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiddinga, AE; Beersma, DGM; VandenHoofdakker, RH


    Core body temperature is predominantly modulated by endogenous and exogenous components. In the present study we tested whether these two components can be reliably assessed in a protocol which lasts for only 120 h. In this so-called forced desynchrony protocol, 12 healthy male subjects (age 23.7 +/

  6. Investigation on used oil and engine components of vehicles road test using twenty percent Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (B20

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihwan Haryono, Muhammad Ma’ruf, Hari Setiapraja


    Full Text Available The Indonesian government has mandated to utilize biodiesel at the Indonesian market with blend ratio of 20% biodiesel and 80% diesel fuel (B20. This policy bring car manufacturers concerning in using B20 effect on the engine life time. To evaluate the effect of using B20 on engine components, vehicles road test has been done along 40,000 KM. The test was using three brands of vehicles, in which each brand was composed of two identical vehicles fuelled by B20 FAME fuel and pure diesel fuel (B0 (solar. During the road test at certain intervals in accordance with the manufacturer's maintenance recommendations, the vehicles lubricating oil replacement and other routine maintenance were required. At the completion of the test all test vehicles to be dismantled and the engine components inspected. The test results show that the most parameter of used oil lubricants still in the limits. Likewise, the condition of the vehicles engine components did not show significant difference between using the pure diesel or B20.

  7. AIAA Applied Aerodynamics Conference, 10th, Palo Alto, CA, June 22-24, 1992, Technical Papers. Pts. 1 AND 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Consideration is given to vortex physics and aerodynamics; supersonic/hypersonic aerodynamics; STOL/VSTOL/rotors; missile and reentry vehicle aerodynamics; CFD as applied to aircraft; unsteady aerodynamics; supersonic/hypersonic aerodynamics; low-speed/high-lift aerodynamics; airfoil/wing aerodynamics; measurement techniques; CFD-solvers/unstructured grid; airfoil/drag prediction; high angle-of-attack aerodynamics; and CFD grid methods. Particular attention is given to transonic-numerical investigation into high-angle-of-attack leading-edge vortex flow, prediction of rotor unsteady airloads using vortex filament theory, rapid synthesis for evaluating the missile maneuverability parameters, transonic calculations of wing/bodies with deflected control surfaces; the static and dynamic flow field development about a porous suction surface wing; the aircraft spoiler effects under wind shear; multipoint inverse design of an infinite cascade of airfoils, turbulence modeling for impinging jet flows; numerical investigation of tail buffet on the F-18 aircraft; the surface grid generation in a parameter space; and the flip flop nozzle extended to supersonic flows.

  8. Transonic Aerodynamic Characteristics of a 45 deg Swept Wing Fuselage Model with a Finned and Unfinned Body Pylon Mounted Beneath the Fuselage or Wing, Including Measurements of Body Loads (United States)

    Wornom, Dewey E.


    An investigation of a model of a standard size body in combination with a representative 45 deg swept-wing-fuselage model has been conducted in the Langley 8-foot transonic pressure tunnel over a Mach number range from 0.80 to 1.43. The body, with a fineness ratio of 8.5, was tested with and without fins, and was pylon-mounted beneath the fuselage or wing. Force measurements were obtained on the wing-fuselage model with and without the body, for an angle-of-attack range from -2 deg to approximately 12 deg and an angle-of-sideslip range from -8 deg to 8 deg. In addition, body loads were measured over the same angle-of-attack and angle-of-sideslip range. The Reynolds number for the investigation, based on the wing mean aerodynamic chord, varied from 1.85 x 10(exp 6) to 2.85 x 10(exp 6). The addition of the body beneath the fuselage or the wing increased the drag coefficient of the complete model over the Mach number range tested. On the basis of the drag increase per body, the under-fuselage position was the more favorable. Furthermore, the bodies tended to increase the lateral stability of the complete model. The variation of body loads with angle of attack for the unfinned bodies was generally small and linear over the Mach number range tested with the addition of fins causing large increases in the rates of change of normal-force coefficient and nose-down pitching-moment coefficient. The variation of body side-force coefficient with sideslip for the unfinned body beneath the fuselage was at least twice as large as the variation of this load for the unfinned body beneath the wing. The addition of fins to the body beneath either the fuselage or the wing approximately doubled the rate of change of body side-force coefficient with sideslip. Furthermore, the variation of body side-force coefficient with sideslip for the body beneath the wing was at least twice as large as the variation of this load with angle of attack.

  9. Dynamic Stability Analysis of Blunt Body Entry Vehicles Using Time-Lagged Aftbody Pitching Moments (United States)

    Kazemba, Cole D.; Braun, Robert D.; Schoenenberger, Mark; Clark, Ian G.


    This analysis defines an analytic model for the pitching motion of blunt bodies during atmospheric entry. The proposed model is independent of the pitch damping sum coefficient present in the standard formulation of the equations of motion describing pitch oscillations of a decelerating blunt body, instead using the principle of a time-lagged aftbody moment as the forcing function for oscillation divergence. Four parameters, all with intuitive physical relevance, are introduced to fully define the aftbody moment and the associated time delay. It is shown that the dynamic oscillation responses typical to blunt bodies can be produced using hysteresis of the aftbody moment in place of the pitch damping coefficient. The approach used in this investigation is shown to be useful in understanding the governing physical mechanisms for blunt body dynamic stability and in guiding vehicle and mission design requirements. A validation case study using simulated ballistic range test data is conducted. From this, parameter identification is carried out through the use of a least squares optimizing routine. Results show good agreement with the limited existing literature for the parameters identified, suggesting that the model proposed could be validated by an experimental ballistic range test series. The trajectories produced by the identified parameters were found to match closely those from the MER ballistic range tests for a wide array of initial conditions and can be identified with a reasonable number of ballistic range shots and computational effort.

  10. Performance and Stability of a Winged Vehicle in Ground Effect

    CERN Document Server

    de Divitiis, Nicola


    Present work deals with the dynamics of vehicles which intentionally operate in the ground proximity. The dynamics in ground effect is influenced by the vehicle orientation with respect to the ground, since the aerodynamic force and moment coefficients, which in turn depend on height and angle of attack, also vary with the Euler angles. This feature, usually neglected in the applications, can be responsible for sizable variations of the aircraft performance and stability. A further effect, caused by the sink rate, determines unsteadiness that modifies the aerodynamic coefficients. In this work, an analytical formulation is proposed for the force and moment calculation in the presence of the ground and taking the aircraft attitude and sink rate into account. The aerodynamic coefficients are firstly calculated for a representative vehicle and its characteristics in ground effect are investigated. Performance and stability characteristics are then discussed with reference to significant equilibrium conditions, w...

  11. Accurate measurement of streamwise vortices in low speed aerodynamic flows (United States)

    Waldman, Rye M.; Kudo, Jun; Breuer, Kenneth S.


    Low Reynolds number experiments with flapping animals (such as bats and small birds) are of current interest in understanding biological flight mechanics, and due to their application to Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs) which operate in a similar parameter space. Previous PIV wake measurements have described the structures left by bats and birds, and provided insight to the time history of their aerodynamic force generation; however, these studies have faced difficulty drawing quantitative conclusions due to significant experimental challenges associated with the highly three-dimensional and unsteady nature of the flows, and the low wake velocities associated with lifting bodies that only weigh a few grams. This requires the high-speed resolution of small flow features in a large field of view using limited laser energy and finite camera resolution. Cross-stream measurements are further complicated by the high out-of-plane flow which requires thick laser sheets and short interframe times. To quantify and address these challenges we present data from a model study on the wake behind a fixed wing at conditions comparable to those found in biological flight. We present a detailed analysis of the PIV wake measurements, discuss the criteria necessary for accurate measurements, and present a new dual-plane PIV configuration to resolve these issues.

  12. Intelligent Autonomous Primary 3D Feature Extraction in Vehicle System Dynamics' Analysis: Theory and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamária R. Várkonyi-Kóczy


    Full Text Available 3D model reconstruction plays a very important role in computer vision as wellas in different engineering applications. The determination of the 3D model from multipleimages is of key importance. One of the most important difficulties in autonomous 3Dreconstruction is the (automatic selection of the ‘significant’ points which carryinformation about the shape of the 3D bodies i.e. are characteristic from the model point ofview. Another problem to be solved is the point correspondence matching in differentimages.In this paper a 3D reconstruction technique is introduced, which is capable to determinethe 3D model of a scene without any external (human intervention. The method is based onrecent results of image processing, epipolar geometry, and intelligent and soft techniques.Possible applications of the presented algorithm in vehicle system dynamics are alsopresented. The results can be applied advantageously at other engineering fields, like carcrashanalysis, robot guiding, object recognition, supervision of 3D scenes, etc,. as well.

  13. 汽车气动噪声外辐射声场的数值仿真%Numerical Simulation on the External Radiation Sound Field of Vehicle Aerodynamic Noise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑拯宇; 李人宪


    Based on Lighthill acoustic analogy theory and combining boundary element method ( BEM) with computational fluid dynamics ( CFD) , the pulsating pressure data of flow field boundary are input into the BEM model for a passenger car, and the boundary conditions of aerodynamic dipole sound source near car surface are obtained through conversion and calculation. A numerical simulation on the external radiation sound field of vehicle aerodynamic noise is conducted by using direct BEM. The results show that the intensity of dipole sound source on car surface decreases with the increase of frequency, the sound pressure level of aerodynamic noise near rearview mirrors is up to some 78 dB at 2,000Hz with a vehicle speed of 120km/h, and at the same frequency, the radiation intensity of aerodynamic sound source on the longitudinal symmetric plane of vehicle is larger than that on horizontal plane.%从Lighthill声类比理论出发,将流体动力学技术与边界元法结合起来,在某轿车边界元模型中,导入流场边界脉动压力数据,并经转换和计算获得汽车表面附近的气动偶极子声源边界条件;采用直接边界元算法进行汽车气动噪声外辐射声场的数值仿真.结果表明:轿车表面的偶极子声源强度随频率增大而降低;在120km/h车速和2000Hz频率时后视镜附近声场的气动噪声声压级可达78dB左右;在同一频率下,轿车在纵向对称面上的气动声源辐射强度要大于地平面上的气动声源辐射强度.

  14. High fidelity replication of surface texture and geometric form of a high aspect ratio aerodynamic test component (United States)

    Walton, Karl; Fleming, Leigh; Goodhand, Martin; Racasan, Radu; Zeng, Wenhan


    This paper details, assesses and validates a technique for the replication of a titanium wind tunnel test aerofoil in polyurethane resin. Existing resin replication techniques are adapted to overcome the technical difficulties associated with casting a high aspect ratio component. The technique is shown to have high replication fidelity over all important length-scales. The blade chord was accurate to 0.02%, and the maximum blade thickness was accurate to 2.5%. Important spatial and amplitude areal surface texture parameter were accurate to within 2%. Compared to an existing similar system using correlation areal parameters the current technique is shown to have lower fidelity and this difference is discussed. The current technique was developed for the measurement of boundary layer flow ‘laminar to turbulent’ transition for gas turbine compressor blade profiles and this application is illustrated.

  15. Damage prognosis of adhesively-bonded joints in laminated composite structural components of unmanned aerial vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrar, Charles R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gobbato, Maurizio [UCSD; Conte, Joel [UCSD; Kosmatke, John [UCSD; Oliver, Joseph A [UCSD


    The extensive use of lightweight advanced composite materials in unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) drastically increases the sensitivity to both fatigue- and impact-induced damage of their critical structural components (e.g., wings and tail stabilizers) during service life. The spar-to-skin adhesive joints are considered one of the most fatigue sensitive subcomponents of a lightweight UAV composite wing with damage progressively evolving from the wing root. This paper presents a comprehensive probabilistic methodology for predicting the remaining service life of adhesively-bonded joints in laminated composite structural components of UAVs. Non-destructive evaluation techniques and Bayesian inference are used to (i) assess the current state of damage of the system and, (ii) update the probability distribution of the damage extent at various locations. A probabilistic model for future loads and a mechanics-based damage model are then used to stochastically propagate damage through the joint. Combined local (e.g., exceedance of a critical damage size) and global (e.g.. flutter instability) failure criteria are finally used to compute the probability of component failure at future times. The applicability and the partial validation of the proposed methodology are then briefly discussed by analyzing the debonding propagation, along a pre-defined adhesive interface, in a simply supported laminated composite beam with solid rectangular cross section, subjected to a concentrated load applied at mid-span. A specially developed Eliler-Bernoulli beam finite element with interlaminar slip along the damageable interface is used in combination with a cohesive zone model to study the fatigue-induced degradation in the adhesive material. The preliminary numerical results presented are promising for the future validation of the methodology.

  16. 隧道内超车瞬态气动稳定性影响的数值仿真研究%Numerical simulation of aerodynamic stability influence of overtaking vehicles in tunnel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺桂敏; 谷正气; 杨滨徽; 龚旭; 孙露


    Taking into account the traffic safety, the factors of influencing the straight driving ability and handling stability of the overtaking vehicles in tunnels were considered. From the view of aerodynamic, two real scale vehicle models inside a tunnel were taken as the research object, and with sliding interface and moving mesh technique provided by STAk-CD software, the 3-D transient external flow field around the two vehicles passing each other was simulated. Considering of the influence factors of aerodynamic stability, the following conditions were selected to compare and analyze: two different kinds of lateral distance between overtaking vehicles and the same relative speed, the same lateral distance between overtaking vehicles and three different relative speeds. The aerodynamic changes of the overtaken vehicle are more dramatic, the change trends in the four kinds of conditions all present the sine curve, the change magnitude is particularly evident in Condition I and Condition II, and the straight driving ability and the handling stability are relatively poor. The overtaking process has a relatively small influence on the external flow field of the overtaking vehicle, so the aerodynamic changes are not obvious.%从行车安全方面考虑影响隧道内超车车辆直线行驶性能和操纵稳定性能的因素.从空气动力学角度,以某轿车实车缩比模型为研究对象,采用滑移交界面和动网格技术和STAR-CD软件对隧道内2辆车超车过程的外流场进行瞬态数值模拟.考虑到影响气动力稳定性的因素,选取隧道内2种不同侧向间距(2辆车之间)同种相对车速及同种侧向间距3种不同相对车速4种工况进行对比分析.仿真结果表明:超车过程中被超车的气动力变化更为剧烈,各种工况下的变化趋势都呈类正弦曲线,工况Ⅰ和工况Ⅱ的变化幅度尤为明显,直线行驶性能和操纵稳定性能相对较差;而超车过程对主超车流场影响相对较

  17. Changes in chemical components and cytotoxicity at different maturity stages of Pleurotus eryngii fruiting body. (United States)

    Cui, Fengjie; Li, Yunhong; Yang, Yan; Sun, Wenjing; Wu, Di; Ping, Lifeng


    The present study investigated the changes of the chemical components and cytotoxicity potency at 5 developmental stages of Pleurotus eryngii fruiting body. The carbohydrate and protein contents increased along the maturity of fruiting body while fat content decreased. By comparison, the polysaccharide-protein fractions had the highest antiproliferative effect on SGC-7901 and HepG-2 cells in vitro and increasing activity with growing maturity of P. eryngii fruiting body.The maturation process increased the protein content and acid property through the enhanced relative abundance of Asp, Thr, and Glu in polysaccharide-protein fractions. Further purification and electrophoresis identified that the polysaccharide-protein PEG-1with three subunits possibly was the target cytotoxical component. Our findings proved that mature fruiting body of P. eryngii containing these polysaccharide-proteins possessed highly nutritional values and therapeutical benefits.

  18. Influence of the relative rotational speed on component features in micro rotary swaging


    Ishkina Svetlana; Kuhfuss Bernd; Schenck Christian


    Micro rotary swaging is a cold forming process for production of micro components with determined geometry and surface. It is also possible to change the microstructure of wires and hence the material properties. Swaging dies revolve around the work piece with an overlaid radial oscillation. Newly developed tools (Flat Surface Dies, FSD) feature plain surfaces and do not represent the geometry of the formed part as in conventional swaging. Using these tools allows for producing wires with tri...

  19. Treatment of C2 body fracture with unusual distractive and rotational components resulting in gross instability


    Lau, Darryl; Shin, Samuel S.; Patel, Rakesh; Park, Paul


    Cervical fractures can result in severe neurological compromise and even death. One of the most commonly injured segments is the C2 vertebrae, which most frequently involves the odontoid process. In this report, we present the unusual case of a 28-year-old female who sustained a C2 vertebral body fracture (comminuted transverse fracture through the body and both transverse processes) that had both a significant distractive and rotational component, causing the fracture to be highly unstable. ...

  20. Optimal Feature Extraction Using Greedy Approach for Random Image Components and Subspace Approach in Face Recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mathu Soothana S.Kumar Retna Swami; Muneeswaran Karuppiah


    An innovative and uniform framework based on a combination of Gabor wavelets with principal component analysis (PCA) and multiple discriminant analysis (MDA) is presented in this paper.In this framework,features are extracted from the optimal random image components using greedy approach.These feature vectors are then projected to subspaces for dimensionality reduction which is used for solving linear problems.The design of Gabor filters,PCA and MDA are crucial processes used for facial feature extraction.The FERET,ORL and YALE face databases are used to generate the results.Experiments show that optimal random image component selection (ORICS) plus MDA outperforms ORICS and subspace projection approach such as ORICS plus PCA.Our method achieves 96.25%,99.44% and 100% recognition accuracy on the FERET,ORL and YALE databases for 30% training respectively.This is a considerably improved performance compared with other standard methodologies described in the literature.

  1. ATL_CMP: usSEABED component and features data for the entire U.S. Atlantic Coast (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This component data layer (_CMP.txt) file gives information about selected components (minerals, rock type, microfossils, benthic biota) and seafloor features...

  2. Evaluation of correction in shaping body mass women first adulthood with different personal features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smaylova S.A.


    Full Text Available Assessed the effectiveness of training method of the "Shaping Classic" on the catabolic program correction of body weight the first mature age women with different personality characteristics. The study involved 20 women aged 26 - 30 years with a body mass index above average and high. Conducted anthropometric measurements. Used physiological tests, step test Prohorovtseva, engine test, psychodiagnostic methods. The efficiency of the program in reducing total body weight and body fat. The positive impact of the program on the functional state of the cardiovascular system and the musculoskeletal system is shown. Found that particular dispositions eating and self-esteem of women may reduce the level of impact of training. It is revealed that these features contribute to devaluing recommendations coach and weaken the motivation to train.

  3. Structural components of the nuclear body in nuclei of Allium cepa cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Nuclear bodies have long been noted in interphase nuclei of plant cells,but their structural component,origin and function are still unclear by now.The present work showed in onion cells the nuclear bodies appeared as a spherical structure about 0.3 to 0.8 μm in diameter.They possibly were formed in nucleolus and subsequently released,and entered into nucleoplasm.Observation through cytochemical staining method at the ultrastructural level confirmed that nuclear bodies consisted of ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) and silver-stainable proteins.Immunocytochemical results revealed that nuclear bodies contained no DNA and ribosomal gene transcription factor (UBF).Based on these data,we suggested that nuclear bodies are not related to the ribosome or other gene transcription activities,instead they may act as subnuclear structures for RNPs transport from nucleolus to cytoplasm,and may also be involved in splicing of pre-mRNAs.

  4. Drosophila SMN complex proteins Gemin2, Gemin3, and Gemin5 are components of U bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cauchi, Ruben J.; Sanchez-Pulido, Luis [MRC Functional Genomics Unit, Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3QX (United Kingdom); Liu, Ji-Long, E-mail: [MRC Functional Genomics Unit, Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3QX (United Kingdom)


    Uridine-rich small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (U snRNPs) play key roles in pre-mRNA processing in the nucleus. The assembly of most U snRNPs takes place in the cytoplasm and is facilitated by the survival motor neuron (SMN) complex. Discrete cytoplasmic RNA granules called U bodies have been proposed to be specific sites for snRNP assembly because they contain U snRNPs and SMN. U bodies invariably associate with P bodies, which are involved in mRNA decay and translational control. However, it remains unknown whether other SMN complex proteins also localise to U bodies. In Drosophila there are four SMN complex proteins, namely SMN, Gemin2/CG10419, Gemin3 and Gemin5/Rigor mortis. Drosophila Gemin3 was originally identified as the Drosophila orthologue of human and yeast Dhh1, a component of P bodies. Through an in silico analysis of the DEAD-box RNA helicases we confirmed that Gemin3 is the bona fide Drosophila orthologue of vertebrate Gemin3 whereas the Drosophila orthologue of Dhh1 is Me31B. We then made use of the Drosophila egg chamber as a model system to study the subcellular distribution of the Gemin proteins as well as Me31B. Our cytological investigations show that Gemin2, Gemin3 and Gemin5 colocalise with SMN in U bodies. Although they are excluded from P bodies, as components of U bodies, Gemin2, Gemin3 and Gemin5 are consistently found associated with P bodies, wherein Me31B resides. In addition to a role in snRNP biogenesis, SMN complexes residing in U bodies may also be involved in mRNP assembly and/or transport.

  5. Human body parts tracking and kinematic features assessment based on RSSI and inertial sensor measurements. (United States)

    Blumrosen, Gaddi; Luttwak, Ami


    Acquisition of patient kinematics in different environments plays an important role in the detection of risk situations such as fall detection in elderly patients, in rehabilitation of patients with injuries, and in the design of treatment plans for patients with neurological diseases. Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) measurements in a Body Area Network (BAN), capture the signal power on a radio link. The main aim of this paper is to demonstrate the potential of utilizing RSSI measurements in assessment of human kinematic features, and to give methods to determine these features. RSSI measurements can be used for tracking different body parts' displacements on scales of a few centimeters, for classifying motion and gait patterns instead of inertial sensors, and to serve as an additional reference to other sensors, in particular inertial sensors. Criteria and analytical methods for body part tracking, kinematic motion feature extraction, and a Kalman filter model for aggregation of RSSI and inertial sensor were derived. The methods were verified by a set of experiments performed in an indoor environment. In the future, the use of RSSI measurements can help in continuous assessment of various kinematic features of patients during their daily life activities and enhance medical diagnosis accuracy with lower costs.

  6. Human Body Parts Tracking and Kinematic Features Assessment Based on RSSI and Inertial Sensor Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaddi Blumrosen


    Full Text Available Acquisition of patient kinematics in different environments plays an important role in the detection of risk situations such as fall detection in elderly patients, in rehabilitation of patients with injuries, and in the design of treatment plans for patients with neurological diseases. Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI measurements in a Body Area Network (BAN, capture the signal power on a radio link. The main aim of this paper is to demonstrate the potential of utilizing RSSI measurements in assessment of human kinematic features, and to give methods to determine these features. RSSI measurements can be used for tracking different body parts’ displacements on scales of a few centimeters, for classifying motion and gait patterns instead of inertial sensors, and to serve as an additional reference to other sensors, in particular inertial sensors. Criteria and analytical methods for body part tracking, kinematic motion feature extraction, and a Kalman filter model for aggregation of RSSI and inertial sensor were derived. The methods were verified by a set of experiments performed in an indoor environment. In the future, the use of RSSI measurements can help in continuous assessment of various kinematic features of patients during their daily life activities and enhance medical diagnosis accuracy with lower costs.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasil Stamboliski


    Full Text Available The dynamic rhythm of living in today’s contemporary surroundings can not be considered without the use of personal and commercial vehicles, for transport of passengers and cargo. This means that every manufacturer in this segment, in their departments for development, find a way to increase their participation in the market. Since the race with time, for promoting new models on the market, not always is in positive relation with the profit which the manufacturer plans to achieve, issues the manufacturer’s focus in the after-sale activities. The body shop with its service, as part of the after-sale activities, brings the client satisfaction to a higher level and of course contributes to realization of higher profit of the company. The setting of the equipment and the staff management, the analysis of the number of entries and realized working hours in the body shop of an importer centre are the central topic/main subject for the author in this paper work. Finding the key factors, as well as the possibility for implementation of the key factors, would reflect increased number of entries, increased number of realized working hours and possibility for improving of the existing system of managing.

  8. Internal air flow analysis of a bladeless micro aerial vehicle hemisphere body using computational fluid dynamic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, M. N. K., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:; Zuradzman, M. Razlan, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:; Hazry, D., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:; Khairunizam, Wan, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:; Shahriman, A. B., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:; Yaacob, S., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:; Ahmed, S. Faiz, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Centre of Excellence for Unmanned Aerial Systems, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, 01000 Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); and others


    This paper explain the analysis of internal air flow velocity of a bladeless vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV) hemisphere body. In mechanical design, before produce a prototype model, several analyses should be done to ensure the product's effectiveness and efficiency. There are two types of analysis method can be done in mechanical design; mathematical modeling and computational fluid dynamic. In this analysis, I used computational fluid dynamic (CFD) by using SolidWorks Flow Simulation software. The idea came through to overcome the problem of ordinary quadrotor UAV which has larger size due to using four rotors and the propellers are exposed to environment. The bladeless MAV body is designed to protect all electronic parts, which means it can be used in rainy condition. It also has been made to increase the thrust produced by the ducted propeller compare to exposed propeller. From the analysis result, the air flow velocity at the ducted area increased to twice the inlet air. This means that the duct contribute to the increasing of air velocity.

  9. Internal air flow analysis of a bladeless micro aerial vehicle hemisphere body using computational fluid dynamic (United States)

    Othman, M. N. K.; Zuradzman, M. Razlan; Hazry, D.; Khairunizam, Wan; Shahriman, A. B.; Yaacob, S.; Ahmed, S. Faiz; Hussain, Abadalsalam T.


    This paper explain the analysis of internal air flow velocity of a bladeless vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV) hemisphere body. In mechanical design, before produce a prototype model, several analyses should be done to ensure the product's effectiveness and efficiency. There are two types of analysis method can be done in mechanical design; mathematical modeling and computational fluid dynamic. In this analysis, I used computational fluid dynamic (CFD) by using SolidWorks Flow Simulation software. The idea came through to overcome the problem of ordinary quadrotor UAV which has larger size due to using four rotors and the propellers are exposed to environment. The bladeless MAV body is designed to protect all electronic parts, which means it can be used in rainy condition. It also has been made to increase the thrust produced by the ducted propeller compare to exposed propeller. From the analysis result, the air flow velocity at the ducted area increased to twice the inlet air. This means that the duct contribute to the increasing of air velocity.

  10. Instabilities on crystal surfaces: The two-component body-centered solid-on-solid model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carlon, E.; van Beijeren, H.; Mazzeo, G.


    The free energy of crystal surfaces that can be described by the two-component body-centered solid-on-solid model has been calculated in a mean-field approximation. The system may model ionic crystals with a bcc lattice structure (for instance CsCl). Crossings between steps are energetically favored

  11. Feasibility study for a numerical aerodynamic simulation facility. Volume 2: Hardware specifications/descriptions (United States)

    Green, F. M.; Resnick, D. R.


    An FMP (Flow Model Processor) was designed for use in the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation Facility (NASF). The NASF was developed to simulate fluid flow over three-dimensional bodies in wind tunnel environments and in free space. The facility is applicable to studying aerodynamic and aircraft body designs. The following general topics are discussed in this volume: (1) FMP functional computer specifications; (2) FMP instruction specification; (3) standard product system components; (4) loosely coupled network (LCN) specifications/description; and (5) three appendices: performance of trunk allocation contention elimination (trace) method, LCN channel protocol and proposed LCN unified second level protocol.

  12. NASP aerodynamics (United States)

    Whitehead, Allen H., Jr.


    This paper discusses the critical aerodynamic technologies needed to support the development of a class of aircraft represented by the National Aero-Space Plane (NASP). The air-breathing, single-stage-to-orbit mission presents a severe challenge to all of the aeronautical disciplines and demands an extension of the state-of-the-art in each technology area. While the largest risk areas are probably advanced materials and the development of the scramjet engine, there remains a host of design issues and technology problems in aerodynamics, aerothermodynamics, and propulsion integration. The paper presents an overview of the most significant propulsion integration problems, and defines the most critical fluid flow phenomena that must be evaluated, defined, and predicted for the class of aircraft represented by the Aero-Space Plane.

  13. Growth and deposition of body components of intermediate and high performance broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JD Henn


    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study were to determine the parameters of Gompertz equations and to determine curves and growth rate, feed intake and body component deposition, as well as allometric coefficients of body water, protein, and fat relative to live weight of male and female broilers of intermediate performance (C44 and high performance (Cobb-500 genetic strains. In total, 384 one-d-old chicks were distributed into four treatments: male Cobb 500, male C44, female Cobb 500, and female C44, with six replicates of 16 birds, according to a completely randomized experimental design. Average body weight, weight gain, and feed intake were weekly determined, and six birds, representing the average weight of each treatment, were sacrificed to determine body composition. Growth curves were built applying Gompertz function, with excellent fit, and growth, feed intake, and tissue deposition rates were obtained by its derivatives. Superior growth rate was obtained for Cobb 500 male broilers. This genetic strain has higher feed intake capacity, which is achieved earlier than in the C44 strain. Protein and fat deposition maturity was reached earlier in males than in females in Cobb 500. The allometric coefficients showed earlier maturity for body water in C44 and females. In terms of body protein, male Cobb 500 broilers reached maturity earlier than females and C44. Body fat deposition maturity was reached earlier in Cobb 500 than in C44. The Gompertz equations obtained in the present study efficiently described body growth, feed intake, and deposition of body components, with a coefficient of determination higher than 0.99.

  14. Missile Aerodynamics (United States)


    Me 2 L~e coefficient de frottement CI est gnralement n~glig6. L’approximation est justifige par le fait que, qf , nul au recollement, est costly in terms of time and money. One should aim for a situation where an error of, say, 10% in estimating an aerodynamic coefficient or...constructing tables of forces and moments, or their coefficients , as functions of variables such as inci- dence angle, roll angle, speed and altitude, and

  15. Integrated Entry Guidance for Reusable Launch Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NING Guo-dong; ZHANG Shu-guang; FANG Zhen-ping


    A method for the implementation of integrated three-degree-of-freedom constrained entry guidance for reusable launch vehicle is presented. Given any feasible entry conditions, terminal area energy management interface conditions, and the reference trajectory generated onboard then, the method can generate a longitudinal guidance profile rapidly, featuring linear quadratic regular method and a proportional-integral-derivative tracking law with time-varying gains, which satisfies all the entry corridor constraints and meets the requirements with high precision. Afterwards, by utilizing special features of crossrange parameter, establishing bank-reversal corridor,and determining bank-reversals according to dynamically adjusted method, the algorithm enables the lateral entry guidance system to fly a wide range of missions and provides reliable and good performance in the presence of significant aerodynamic modeling uncertainty.Fast trajectory guidance profiles and simulations with a reusable launch vehicle model for various missions and aerodynamic uncertainties are presented to demonstrate the capacity and reliability of this method.

  16. Prediction of Hyper-X Stage Separation Aerodynamics Using CFD (United States)

    Buning, Pieter G.; Wong, Tin-Chee; Dilley, Arthur D.; Pao, Jenn L.


    The NASA X-43 "Hyper-X" hypersonic research vehicle will be boosted to a Mach 7 flight test condition mounted on the nose of an Orbital Sciences Pegasus launch vehicle. The separation of the research vehicle from the Pegasus presents some unique aerodynamic problems, for which computational fluid dynamics has played a role in the analysis. This paper describes the use of several CFD methods for investigating the aerodynamics of the research and launch vehicles in close proximity. Specifically addressed are unsteady effects, aerodynamic database extrapolation, and differences between wind tunnel and flight environments.

  17. Continuous Aerodynamic Modelling of Entry Shapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirkx, D.; Mooij, E.


    During the conceptual design phase of a re-entry vehicle, the vehicle shape can be varied and its impact on performance evaluated. To this end, the continuous modeling of the aerodynamic characteristics as a function of the shape is useful in exploring the full design space. Local inclination method

  18. Saltation-threshold model can explain aeolian features on low-air-density planetary bodies

    CERN Document Server

    Pähtz, Thomas


    Knowledge of the minimal fluid speeds at which sediment transport can be sustained is crucial for understanding whether underwater landscapes exposed to water streams and wind-blown loose planetary surfaces can be altered. It also tells us whether surface features, such as ripples and dunes, can evolve. Here, guided by state-of-the-art numerical simulations, we propose an analytical model predicting the minimal fluid speeds required to sustain sediment transport in a Newtonian fluid. The model results are consistent with measurements and estimates of the transport threshold in water and Earth's and Mars' atmospheres. Furthermore, it predicts reasonable wind speeds to sustain aeolian sediment transport ("saltation") on the low-air-density planetary bodies Triton, Pluto, and 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (comet). This offers an explanation for possible aeolian surface features photographed on these bodies during space missions.

  19. 类X-37B飞行器气动特性的数值研究%Numerical Study on Aerodynamic Characteristics of an X-37B-like Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋崇文; 杨加寿; 李克难; 高振勋; 李椿萱


    The aerodynamic characteristics of an X-37B-like vehicle in different flight conditions were numerically studied under 50km altitude . The CFD results were analyzed with experimental results of the Space Shuttle and the X-34 vehicle . Numerical simulations indicate that the lift-to-drag ratio of the X-37B-like vehicle is slightly different from that of the Space Shuttle under high Mach number and large angle-of-attack reentry conditions , so the lateral maneuverability of the two vehicles is equivalent . Under subsonic and small angle-of-attack conditions , the lift-to-drag ratio of the X-37B-like vehicle is higher than the Space Shuttle and lower than that of the X-34 vehicle which indicates that the maneuverability at low speed and the fixed point landing ability of the X-37B-like vehicle are better than that of the Space Shutter but weaker than that of the X-34 vehicle . Configuration differences of winged reentry vehicles have little influence on the lift-to-drag radio of high Mach number and large angle-of-attack , and have obvious influence on the lift-to-drag radio of subsonic and small angle-of-attack .%对类X-37B飞行器模型在50 k m高度以下不同飞行状态下的气动特性进行了数值模拟研究,将计算结果与航天飞机和X-34飞行器的试验结果进行了对比分析。结果表明,高马赫数大攻角再入飞行时,类X-37B飞行器和航天飞机的飞行升阻比相差不大,再入飞行横向机动能力相当。亚声速小攻角飞行时,类X-37B飞行器的升阻比大于航天飞机,小于X-34飞行器;说明类X-37B飞行器的低速机动和定点着陆能力强于航天飞机,弱于X-34飞行器。有翼再入飞行器气动布局差异对高超声速大攻角升阻比影响较小,对低速小攻角气动特性影响很大。

  20. The clinical features of foreign body aspiration into the lower airway in geriatric patients



    Lianjun Lin,1 Liping Lv,2,* Yuchuan Wang,1 Xiankui Zha,2 Fei Tang,2 Xinmin Liu1,* 1Geriatric Department, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 2Pulmonary Intervention Department, Anhui Chest Hospital, Hefei, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: To analyze the clinical features of foreign-body aspiration into the lower airway in geriatric patients. Patients and methods: The clinical data of 1...

  1. Learning representative features for facial images based on a modified principal component analysis (United States)

    Averkin, Anton; Potapov, Alexey


    The paper is devoted to facial image analysis and particularly deals with the problem of automatic evaluation of the attractiveness of human faces. We propose a new approach for automatic construction of feature space based on a modified principal component analysis. Input data sets for the algorithm are the learning data sets of facial images, which are rated by one person. The proposed approach allows one to extract features of the individual subjective face beauty perception and to predict attractiveness values for new facial images, which were not included into a learning data set. The Pearson correlation coefficient between values predicted by our method for new facial images and personal attractiveness estimation values equals to 0.89. This means that the new approach proposed is promising and can be used for predicting subjective face attractiveness values in real systems of the facial images analysis.

  2. Performance analysis of morphological component analysis (MCA) method for mammograms using some statistical features (United States)

    Gardezi, Syed Jamal Safdar; Faye, Ibrahima; Kamel, Nidal; Eltoukhy, Mohamed Meselhy; Hussain, Muhammad


    Early detection of breast cancer helps reducing the mortality rates. Mammography is very useful tool in breast cancer detection. But it is very difficult to separate different morphological features in mammographic images. In this study, Morphological Component Analysis (MCA) method is used to extract different morphological aspects of mammographic images by effectively preserving the morphological characteristics of regions. MCA decomposes the mammogram into piecewise smooth part and the texture part using the Local Discrete Cosine Transform (LDCT) and Curvelet Transform via wrapping (CURVwrap). In this study, simple comparison in performance has been done using some statistical features for the original image versus the piecewise smooth part obtained from the MCA decomposition. The results show that MCA suppresses the structural noises and blood vessels from the mammogram and enhances the performance for mass detection.

  3. Lamb wave feature extraction using discrete wavelet transformation and Principal Component Analysis (United States)

    Ghodsi, Mojtaba; Ziaiefar, Hamidreza; Amiryan, Milad; Honarvar, Farhang; Hojjat, Yousef; Mahmoudi, Mehdi; Al-Yahmadi, Amur; Bahadur, Issam


    In this research, a new method is presented for eliciting the proper features for recognizing and classifying the kinds of the defects by guided ultrasonic waves. After applying suitable preprocessing, the suggested method extracts the base frequency band from the received signals by discrete wavelet transform and discrete Fourier transform. This frequency band can be used as a distinctive feature of ultrasonic signals in different defects. Principal Component Analysis with improving this feature and decreasing extra data managed to improve classification. In this study, ultrasonic test with A0 mode lamb wave is used and is appropriated to reduce the difficulties around the problem. The defects under analysis included corrosion, crack and local thickness reduction. The last defect is caused by electro discharge machining (EDM). The results of the classification by optimized Neural Network depicts that the presented method can differentiate different defects with 95% precision and thus, it is a strong and efficient method. Moreover, comparing the elicited features for corrosion and local thickness reduction and also the results of the two's classification clarifies that modeling the corrosion procedure by local thickness reduction which was previously common, is not an appropriate method and the signals received from the two defects are different from each other.

  4. A fuzzy based feature selection from independent component subspace for machine learning classification of microarray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabia Aziz


    Full Text Available Feature (gene selection and classification of microarray data are the two most interesting machine learning challenges. In the present work two existing feature selection/extraction algorithms, namely independent component analysis (ICA and fuzzy backward feature elimination (FBFE are used which is a new combination of selection/extraction. The main objective of this paper is to select the independent components of the DNA microarray data using FBFE to improve the performance of support vector machine (SVM and Naïve Bayes (NB classifier, while making the computational expenses affordable. To show the validity of the proposed method, it is applied to reduce the number of genes for five DNA microarray datasets namely; colon cancer, acute leukemia, prostate cancer, lung cancer II, and high-grade glioma. Now these datasets are then classified using SVM and NB classifiers. Experimental results on these five microarray datasets demonstrate that gene selected by proposed approach, effectively improve the performance of SVM and NB classifiers in terms of classification accuracy. We compare our proposed method with principal component analysis (PCA as a standard extraction algorithm and find that the proposed method can obtain better classification accuracy, using SVM and NB classifiers with a smaller number of selected genes than the PCA. The curve between the average error rate and number of genes with each dataset represents the selection of required number of genes for the highest accuracy with our proposed method for both the classifiers. ROC shows best subset of genes for both the classifier of different datasets with propose method.

  5. Aerodynamics of magnetic levitation (MAGLEV) trains (United States)

    Schetz, Joseph A.; Marchman, James F., III


    High-speed (500 kph) trains using magnetic forces for levitation, propulsion and control offer many advantages for the nation and a good opportunity for the aerospace community to apply 'high tech' methods to the domestic sector. One area of many that will need advanced research is the aerodynamics of such MAGLEV (Magnetic Levitation) vehicles. There are important issues with regard to wind tunnel testing and the application of CFD to these devices. This talk will deal with the aerodynamic design of MAGLEV vehicles with emphasis on wind tunnel testing. The moving track facility designed and constructed in the 6 ft. Stability Wind Tunnel at Virginia Tech will be described. Test results for a variety of MAGLEV vehicle configurations will be presented. The last topic to be discussed is a Multi-disciplinary Design approach that is being applied to MAGLEV vehicle configuration design including aerodynamics, structures, manufacturability and life-cycle cost.

  6. Polarized spectral features of human breast tissues through wavelet transform and principal component analysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anita Gharekhan; Ashok N Oza; M B Sureshkumar; Asima Pradhan; Prasanta K Panigrahi


    Fluorescence characteristics of human breast tissues are investigated through wavelet transform and principal component analysis (PCA). Wavelet transform of polarized fluorescence spectra of human breast tissues is found to localize spectral features that can reliably differentiate different tissue types. The emission range in the visible wavelength regime of 500–700 nm is analysed, with the excitation wavelength at 488 nm using laser as an excitation source, where flavin and porphyrin are some of the active fluorophores. A number of global and local parameters from principal component analysis of both high- and low-pass coefficients extracted in the wavelet domain, capturing spectral variations and subtle changes in the diseased tissues are clearly identifiable.

  7. Spacecraft Re-Entry Impact Point Targeting Using Aerodynamic Drag (United States)

    Omar, Sanny R.; Bevilacqua, Riccardo


    The ability to re-enter the atmosphere at a desired location is important for spacecraft containing components that may survive re-entry. While impact point targeting has traditionally been initiated through impulsive burns with chemical thrusters on large vehicles such as the Space Shuttle, and the Soyuz and Apollo capsules, many small spacecraft do not host thrusters and require an alternative means of impact point targeting to ensure that falling debris do not cause harm to persons or property. This paper discusses the use of solely aerodynamic drag force to perform this targeting. It is shown that by deploying and retracting a drag device to vary the ballistic coefficient of the spacecraft, any desired longitude and latitude on the ground can be targeted provided that the maneuvering begins early enough and the latitude is less than the inclination of the orbit. An analytical solution based on perturbations from a numerically propagated trajectory is developed to map the initial state and ballistic coefficient profile of a spacecraft to its impact point. This allows the ballistic coefficient profile necessary to reach a given target point to be rapidly calculated, making it feasible to generate the guidance for the decay trajectory onboard the spacecraft. The ability to target an impact point using aerodynamic drag will enhance the capabilities of small spacecraft and will enable larger space vehicles containing thrusters to save fuel by more effectively leveraging the available aerodynamic drag.

  8. Combustor and Vane Features and Components Tested in a Gas Turbine Environment (United States)

    Roinson, R. Craig; Verrilli, Michael J.


    The use of ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) as combustor liners and turbine vanes provides the potential of improving next-generation turbine engine performance, through lower emissions and higher cycle efficiency, relative to today s use of superalloy hot-section components. For example, the introduction of film-cooling air in metal combustor liners has led to higher levels of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from the combustion process. An environmental barrier coated (EBC) siliconcarbide- fiber-reinforced silicon carbide matrix (SiC/SiC) composite is a new material system that can operate at higher temperatures, significantly reducing the film-cooling requirements and enabling lower NOx production. Evaluating components and subcomponents fabricated from these advanced CMCs under gas turbine conditions is paramount to demonstrating that the material system can perform as required in the complex thermal stress and environmentally aggressive engine environment. To date, only limited testing has been conducted on CMC combustor and turbine concepts and subelements of this type throughout the industry. As part of the Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) Program, the High Pressure Burner Rig (HPBR) at the NASA Glenn Research Center was selected to demonstrate coupon, subcomponent feature, and component testing because it can economically provide the temperatures, pressures, velocities, and combustion gas compositions that closely simulate the engine environments. The results have proven the HPBR to be a highly versatile test rig amenable to multiple test specimen configurations essential to coupon and component testing.

  9. Attributed Relational Graph Based Feature Extraction of Body Poses In Indian Classical Dance Bharathanatyam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athira. Sugathan


    Full Text Available Articulated body pose estimation in computer vision is an important problem because of convolution of the models. It is useful in real time applications such as surveillance camera, computer games, human computer interaction etc. Feature extraction is the main part in pose estimation which helps for a successful classification. In this paper, we propose a system for extracting the features from the relational graph of articulated upper body poses of basic Bharatanatyam steps, each performed by different persons of different experiences and size. Our method has the ability to extract features from an attributed relational graph from challenging images with background clutters, clothing diversity, illumination etc. The system starts with skeletonization process which determines the human pose and increases the smoothness using B-Spline approach. Attributed relational graph is generated and the geometrical features are extracted for the correct discrimination between shapes that can be useful for classification and annotation of dance poses. We evaluate our approach experimentally on 2D images of basic Bharatanatyam poses.

  10. Attribution of emotions to body postures: an independent component analysis study of functional connectivity in autism. (United States)

    Libero, Lauren E; Stevens, Carl E; Kana, Rajesh K


    The ability to interpret others' body language is a vital skill that helps us infer their thoughts and emotions. However, individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have been found to have difficulty in understanding the meaning of people's body language, perhaps leading to an overarching deficit in processing emotions. The current fMRI study investigates the functional connectivity underlying emotion and action judgment in the context of processing body language in high-functioning adolescents and young adults with autism, using an independent components analysis (ICA) of the fMRI time series. While there were no reliable group differences in brain activity, the ICA revealed significant involvement of occipital and parietal regions in processing body actions; and inferior frontal gyrus, superior medial prefrontal cortex, and occipital cortex in body expressions of emotions. In a between-group analysis, participants with autism, relative to typical controls, demonstrated significantly reduced temporal coherence in left ventral premotor cortex and right superior parietal lobule while processing emotions. Participants with ASD, on the other hand, showed increased temporal coherence in left fusiform gyrus while inferring emotions from body postures. Finally, a positive predictive relationship was found between empathizing ability and the brain areas underlying emotion processing in ASD participants. These results underscore the differential role of frontal and parietal brain regions in processing emotional body language in autism.

  11. 基于自适应遗传算法的飞行器气动参数辨识%Aerodynamic parameter identification of flight vehicles based on adaptive genetic algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    为了克服传统辨识算法的缺点,把自适应遗传算法作为辨识算法,进行飞行器的非线性气动参数的最大似然仿真辨识.在仿真辨识中,加入了零均值高斯分布的随机观测噪声.辨识结果比较满意,表明自适应遗传算法具有良好的优化性能,是进行气动参数辨识的一种实用的辨识算法.%To overcome the disadvantages of conventional identification algorithms,nonlinear aerodynamic parameter identification of flight vehicles using maximum likelihood method,based on simulation data,is carried out,where adaptive genetic algorithm is taken as identification algorithm.During the course of identification,zero-mean-value random measure noises with Guassian distribution are introduced.The results of identification are rather satisfactory,which shows that adaptive genetic algorithm has excellent performance of optimization and may be taken as a practical identification algorithm for aerodynamic parameter identification.

  12. An Matching Method for Vehicle-borne Panoramic Image Sequence Based on Adaptive Structure from Motion Feature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Zhengpeng


    Full Text Available Panoramic image matching method with the constraint condition of local structure from motion similarity feature is an important method, the process requires multivariable kernel density estimations for the structure from motion feature used nonparametric mean shift. Proper selection of the kernel bandwidth is a critical step for convergence speed and accuracy of matching method. Variable bandwidth with adaptive structure from motion feature for panoramic image matching method has been proposed in this work. First the bandwidth matrix is defined using the locally adaptive spatial structure of the sampling point in spatial domain and optical flow domain. The relaxation diffusion process of structure from motion similarity feature is described by distance weighting method of local optical flow feature vector. Then the expression form of adaptive multivariate kernel density function is given out, and discusses the solution of the mean shift vector, termination conditions, and the seed point selection method. The final fusions of multi-scale SIFT the features and structure features to establish a unified panoramic image matching framework. The sphere panoramic images from vehicle-borne mobile measurement system are chosen such that a comparison analysis between fixed bandwidth and adaptive bandwidth is carried out in detail. The results show that adaptive bandwidth is good for case with the inlier ratio changes and the object space scale changes. The proposed method can realize the adaptive similarity measure of structure from motion feature, improves the correct matching points and matching rate, experimental results have shown our method to be robust.

  13. A principal components approach to parent-to-newborn body composition associations in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hill Jacqueline C


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Size at birth is influenced by environmental factors, like maternal nutrition and parity, and by genes. Birth weight is a composite measure, encompassing bone, fat and lean mass. These may have different determinants. The main purpose of this paper was to use anthropometry and principal components analysis (PCA to describe maternal and newborn body composition, and associations between them, in an Indian population. We also compared maternal and paternal measurements (body mass index (BMI and height as predictors of newborn body composition. Methods Weight, height, head and mid-arm circumferences, skinfold thicknesses and external pelvic diameters were measured at 30 ± 2 weeks gestation in 571 pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic of the Holdsworth Memorial Hospital, Mysore, India. Paternal height and weight were also measured. At birth, detailed neonatal anthropometry was performed. Unrotated and varimax rotated PCA was applied to the maternal and neonatal measurements. Results Rotated PCA reduced maternal measurements to 4 independent components (fat, pelvis, height and muscle and neonatal measurements to 3 components (trunk+head, fat, and leg length. An SD increase in maternal fat was associated with a 0.16 SD increase (β in neonatal fat (p Conclusion Principal components analysis is a useful method to describe neonatal body composition and its determinants. Newborn adiposity is related to maternal nutritional status and parity, while newborn length is genetically determined. Further research is needed to understand mechanisms linking maternal pelvic size to fetal growth and the determinants and implications of the components (trunk v leg length of fetal skeletal growth.

  14. Treatment of C2 body fracture with unusual distractive and rotational components resulting in gross instability. (United States)

    Lau, Darryl; Shin, Samuel S; Patel, Rakesh; Park, Paul


    Cervical fractures can result in severe neurological compromise and even death. One of the most commonly injured segments is the C2 vertebrae, which most frequently involves the odontoid process. In this report, we present the unusual case of a 28-year-old female who sustained a C2 vertebral body fracture (comminuted transverse fracture through the body and both transverse processes) that had both a significant distractive and rotational component, causing the fracture to be highly unstable. Application of halo bracing was unsuccessful. The patient subsequently required a C1-C4 posterior spinal fusion. Follow-up computer tomography imaging confirmed fusion and the patient did well clinically thereafter.

  15. Development of Constraint Force Equation Methodology for Application to Multi-Body Dynamics Including Launch Vehicle Stage Seperation (United States)

    Pamadi, Bandu N.; Toniolo, Matthew D.; Tartabini, Paul V.; Roithmayr, Carlos M.; Albertson, Cindy W.; Karlgaard, Christopher D.


    The objective of this report is to develop and implement a physics based method for analysis and simulation of multi-body dynamics including launch vehicle stage separation. The constraint force equation (CFE) methodology discussed in this report provides such a framework for modeling constraint forces and moments acting at joints when the vehicles are still connected. Several stand-alone test cases involving various types of joints were developed to validate the CFE methodology. The results were compared with ADAMS(Registered Trademark) and Autolev, two different industry standard benchmark codes for multi-body dynamic analysis and simulations. However, these two codes are not designed for aerospace flight trajectory simulations. After this validation exercise, the CFE algorithm was implemented in Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II (POST2) to provide a capability to simulate end-to-end trajectories of launch vehicles including stage separation. The POST2/CFE methodology was applied to the STS-1 Space Shuttle solid rocket booster (SRB) separation and Hyper-X Research Vehicle (HXRV) separation from the Pegasus booster as a further test and validation for its application to launch vehicle stage separation problems. Finally, to demonstrate end-to-end simulation capability, POST2/CFE was applied to the ascent, orbit insertion, and booster return of a reusable two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) vehicle concept. With these validation exercises, POST2/CFE software can be used for performing conceptual level end-to-end simulations, including launch vehicle stage separation, for problems similar to those discussed in this report.

  16. Size effects on insect hovering aerodynamics: an integrated computational study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, H [Graduate School of Engineering, Chiba University, Chiba, 263-8522 (Japan); Aono, H [Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI48109 (United States)], E-mail:, E-mail:


    Hovering is a miracle of insects that is observed for all sizes of flying insects. Sizing effect in insect hovering on flapping-wing aerodynamics is of interest to both the micro-air-vehicle (MAV) community and also of importance to comparative morphologists. In this study, we present an integrated computational study of such size effects on insect hovering aerodynamics, which is performed using a biology-inspired dynamic flight simulator that integrates the modelling of realistic wing-body morphology, the modelling of flapping-wing and body kinematics and an in-house Navier-Stokes solver. Results of four typical insect hovering flights including a hawkmoth, a honeybee, a fruit fly and a thrips, over a wide range of Reynolds numbers from O(10{sup 4}) to O(10{sup 1}) are presented, which demonstrate the feasibility of the present integrated computational methods in quantitatively modelling and evaluating the unsteady aerodynamics in insect flapping flight. Our results based on realistically modelling of insect hovering therefore offer an integrated understanding of the near-field vortex dynamics, the far-field wake and downwash structures, and their correlation with the force production in terms of sizing and Reynolds number as well as wing kinematics. Our results not only give an integrated interpretation on the similarity and discrepancy of the near- and far-field vortex structures in insect hovering but also demonstrate that our methods can be an effective tool in the MAVs design.

  17. Experimental Evaluation of the Effect of Angle-of-attack on the External Aerodynamics and Mass Capture of a Symmetric Three-engine Air-breathing Launch Vehicle Configuration at Supersonic Speeds (United States)

    Kim, Hyun D.; Frate, Franco C.


    A subscale aerodynamic model of the GTX air-breathing launch vehicle was tested at NASA Glenn Research Center's 10- by 10-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel from Mach 2.0 to 3.5 at various angles-of-attack. The objective of the test was to investigate the effect of angle-of-attack on inlet mass capture, inlet diverter effectiveness, and the flowfield at the cowl lip plane. The flow-through inlets were tested with and without boundary-layer diverters. Quantitative measurements such as inlet mass flow rates and pitot-pressure distributions in the cowl lip plane are presented. At a 3deg angle-of-attack, the flow rates for the top and side inlets were within 8 percent of the zero angle-of-attack value, and little distortion was evident at the cowl lip plane. Surface oil flow patterns showing the shock/boundary-layer interaction caused by the inlet spikes are shown. In addition to inlet data, vehicle forebody static pressure distributions, boundary-layer profiles, and temperature-sensitive paint images to evaluate the boundary-layer transition are presented. Three-dimensional parabolized Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics calculations of the forebody flowfield are presented and show good agreement with the experimental static pressure distributions and boundary-layer profiles. With the boundary-layer diverters installed, no adverse aerodynamic phenomena were found that would prevent the inlets from operating at the required angles-of-attack. We recommend that phase 2 of the test program be initiated, where inlet contraction ratio and diverter geometry variations will be tested.

  18. The clinical features of foreign body aspiration into the lower airway in geriatric patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin LJ


    Full Text Available Lianjun Lin,1 Liping Lv,2,* Yuchuan Wang,1 Xiankui Zha,2 Fei Tang,2 Xinmin Liu1,* 1Geriatric Department, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 2Pulmonary Intervention Department, Anhui Chest Hospital, Hefei, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: To analyze the clinical features of foreign-body aspiration into the lower airway in geriatric patients. Patients and methods: The clinical data of 17 geriatric patients with foreign-body aspiration were retrospectively analyzed and compared with 26 nongeriatric adult patients. The data were collected from Peking University First Hospital and Anhui Chest Hospital between January 2000 and June 2014.Results: (1 In the geriatric group, the most common symptoms were cough and sputum (15 cases, 88%, dyspnea (six cases, 35%, and hemoptysis (four cases, 24%. Five patients (29% in the geriatric group could supply the history of aspiration on their first visit to doctor, a smaller percentage than in the nongeriatric group (13 cases, 50%. Only three cases in the geriatric group were diagnosed definitely without delay. Another 14 cases were misdiagnosed as pneumonia or lung cancer, and the time of delayed diagnosis ranged from 1 month to 3 years. Complications due to delay in diagnosis included obstructive pneumonitis, atelectasis, lung abscess, and pleural effusion. (2 Chest computed tomography demonstrated the foreign body in three cases (21% in the geriatric group, which was lower than the positive proportion of detection in the nongeriatric group (nine cases, 35%. The most common type of foreign body in the geriatric group was food, such as bone fragments (seven cases, 41% and plants (seven cases, 41%, and the foreign body was most often lodged in the right bronchus tree (eleven cases, 65%, especially the right lower bronchus (seven cases, 41%. Flexible bronchoscopy removed the foreign body successfully in all patients

  19. Body image disturbance in binge eating disorder: a comparison of obese patients with and without binge eating disorder regarding the cognitive, behavioral and perceptual component of body image. (United States)

    Lewer, Merle; Nasrawi, Nadia; Schroeder, Dorothea; Vocks, Silja


    Whereas the manifestation of body image disturbance in binge eating disorder (BED) has been intensively investigated concerning the cognitive-affective component, with regard to the behavioral and the perceptual components of body image disturbance in BED, research is limited and results are inconsistent. Therefore, the present study assessed body image disturbance in BED with respect to the different components of body image in a sample of obese females (n = 31) with BED compared to obese females without an eating disorder (n = 28). The Eating Disorder Inventory-2, the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire, the Body Image Avoidance Questionnaire and the Body Checking Questionnaire as well as a Digital Photo Distortion Technique based on a picture of each participant taken under standardized conditions were employed. Using two-sample t tests, we found that the participants with BED displayed significantly greater impairments concerning the cognitive-affective component of body image than the control group. Concerning the behavioral component, participants with BED reported more body checking and avoidance behavior than the controls, but group differences failed to reach significance after the Bonferroni corrections. Regarding the perceptual component, a significant group difference was found for the perceived "ideal" figure, with the individuals suffering from BED displaying a greater wish for a slimmer ideal figure than the control group. These results support the assumption that body image disturbance is a relevant factor in BED, similar to other eating disorders.

  20. Natural aerodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Scorer, R S


    Natural Aerodynamics focuses on the mathematics of any problem in air motion.This book discusses the general form of the law of fluid motion, relationship between pressure and wind, production of vortex filaments, and conduction of vorticity by viscosity. The flow at moderate Reynolds numbers, turbulence in a stably stratified fluid, natural exploitation of atmospheric thermals, and plumes in turbulent crosswinds are also elaborated. This text likewise considers the waves produced by thermals, transformation of thin layer clouds, method of small perturbations, and dangers of extra-polation.Thi

  1. Ecology and thermal inactivation of microbes in and on interplanetary space vehicle components. [examined with a scanning electron microscope (United States)

    Campbell, J. E.


    The uses of scanning electron microscopy in assessing changes that occur in spores exposed to wet and dry heat cycles at elevated temperatures were examined. Several species of Bacillus and other nonspore-forming species of organisms were used for the experiment. Surface morphology of viable and nonviable organisms was clearly detectable by this method, making it a potentially useful technique for investigating microbial inactivation on space vehicle surfaces and components. Micrographs of the spores and bacterial cells are provided.

  2. Aerodynamic Characteristics Simulation Study of Air-launched Launch Vehicle in the Process of Rocket Separating from Plane%空射火箭箭机分离过程气动特性仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈亮; 张登成; 张艳华; 胡孟权; 李达


    为研究内装式空中发射运载火箭在箭机分离过程中的气动特性尤其是大迎角情况下的气动变化规律,应用计算流体力学(CFD)软件中的k-w模型对火箭气动特性进行了仿真研究,得到火箭气动特性随马赫数和迎角的变化规律,同时对改进后的火箭模型进行气动特性分析.仿真结果表明:发现火箭尾部改进成收敛-扩张型喷管可使火箭下落初期有一个抬头力矩,有利于运载火箭初期快速调整姿态;当快到达预期点火姿态时,由于气动力作用点后移产生的与角速度方向相反的力矩,可迫使运载火箭稳定,从而更容易地捕捉到点火角度,并保证点火时的姿态稳定.%For studying the aerodynamic characteristics of rocket in the process of the rocket separating from the plane internally carried air-launched launch vehicle,especially when the rocket is at high angle of attack,CFD is applied to the simulation of rocket aerodynamic characteristics.Based on the improvement of rocket shape,the rocket aerodynamic characteristics with Mach number and angle of attack can be obtained.The analysis of the aerodynamic characteristics of the improved rocket model shows that the rocket tail improved into a convergent nozzle is of great benefit to the attitude adjustment.These analyses provide a theoretical foundation for the further research on rocket attitude stabilization and track design.

  3. Fam118B, a newly identified component of Cajal bodies, is required for Cajal body formation, snRNP biogenesis and cell viability


    Li, Yujing; Fong, Ka-Wing; Tang, Mengfan; Han, Xin; Gong, Zihua; Ma, Wenbin; Hebert, Michael; Songyang, Zhou; Chen, JunJie


    Cajal bodies are specialized and dynamic compartments in the nucleus that are involved in the biogenesis of small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs). Because of the dynamic and varied roles of Cajal bodies, it is of great interest to identify the components of Cajal bodies to better understand their functions. We performed a genome-wide screen to identify proteins that colocalize with coilin, the marker protein of Cajal bodies. In this study, we identified and characterized Fam118B as a newl...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Senol SENER


    Full Text Available In this study, construction and standardization of a track for performing fatigue and reliability test of light commercial vehicles is described. For the design and process verification of the company’s vehicles one test track is defined. A questionnaire was used to determine the average usage of light commercial vehicles in Turkey. Fatigue characteristics of Turkish roads were determined by analyzing fifty different roads and this article focuses on defining the load spectrum and equivalent fatigue damage of the leaf spring resulting from the accelerated test route. Fatigue analysis and estimated lifespan of the part were calculated using Finite Element Analyses and verified by the Palmgren-Miner rule. When the customer profile is taken into consideration; Turkish customer automotive usage profile, the aim of usage of this kind of vehicle (LCV, fatigue characteristics of Turkish roads for this vehicle were determined and around Bursa one accelerated test tracks were formed for the reliability and fatigue test for the related company, linear analysis executed on the FEA of the spring was more convenient were obtained.

  5. Robust Stability and Control of Multi-Body Ground Vehicles with Uncertain Dynamics and Failures (United States)


    Modeling for Heavy Articulated Tractor Semi- Trailer Vehicle Rollover Index (RI) for A single Unit Vehicle complexity to capture Roll Over phenomenon and Other Performance and Ride Quality requirements. In this connection, first simple ` Bicycle ...methodology to a specific heavy articulated vehicle with tractor semi- trailer shows that a single active anti-roll bar system at the trailer unit gives

  6. A predication model for combustion modes of the scramjet-powered aerospace vehicle based on the nonlinear features of the isolator flow field (United States)

    Yang, Qingchun; Wang, Hongxin; Chetehouna, Khaled; Gascoin, Nicolas


    The supersonic combustion ramjet (scramjet) engine remains the most promising airbreathing engine cycle for hypersonic flight, particularly the high-performance dual-mode scramjet in the range of flight Mach number from 4 to 7, because it can operates under different combustion modes. Isolator is a very key component of the dual-mode scramjet engine. In this paper, nonlinear characteristics of combustion mode transition is theoretically analyzed. The discontinuous sudden changes of static pressure and Mach number are obtained as the mode transition occurs, which emphasizing the importance of predication and control of combustion modes. In this paper, a predication model of different combustion modes is developed based on these these nonlinear features in the isolator flow field. it can provide a valuable reference for control system design of the scramjet-powered aerospace vehicle.

  7. Comparative Study of Feature Extraction Components from Several Wavelet Transformations for Ornamental Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Arai


    Full Text Available Human has a duty to preserve the nature, preserving the plant is one of the examples. This research emphasis on ornamental plant that has functionality not only as ornament plant but also as a medicinal plant. Purpose of this research is to find the best of the particular feature extraction components from several wavelet transformations. It consists of Daubechies, Dyadic, and Dual-tree complex wavelet transformation. Dyadic and Dual-tree complex wavelet transformations have shift invariant property. While Daubechies is a standard wavelet transform that widely used for many applications. This comparison is utilizing leaf image datasets from ornamental plants. From the experiments, obtained that best classification performance attained by Dual-tree complex wavelet transformation with 96.66% of overall performance result.

  8. [Age-related changes of somatotype and body mass components in girls]. (United States)

    Tambovtseva, R V; Zhukova, S G


    The longitudinal and transverse studies of girls aged 7 to 17 years living in Moscow and the town of Yelabuga were performed to monitor the dynamics of their growth processes, parameters of ectomorphism, mesomorphism and endomorphism depending on the type of body build. Anthropometric, anthroposcopic metods and cluster analysis were used to evaluate the type of body build according to V.G. Shtefko and A.G. Ostrovskiy (1928). Quantitative assessment of parameters of endo-, meso- and ectomorphism was performed using Heath-Carter method (1980). It was shown that the age-related variability of the types of body build appeared in association with the developmental heterochronism, which resulted from the uneven growth rate of different body components. The least variable parameters were found in the girls of digestive and asthenoid types of body build, while in girls of muscular and thoracic types these parameters changed more frequently. The critical periods during which the significant changes of somatotype were increased in number, were defined as 9 to 10 years and puberty period--11 to 14 years. Most sensitive time points in the time-course of somatotype establishment in girls are the ages of 12 and 14 years.

  9. Modeling and Analysis of an Air-Breathing Flexible Hypersonic Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi-bin Zhang


    Full Text Available By using light-weighted material in hypersonic vehicle, the vehicle body can be easily deformed. The mutual couplings in aerodynamics, flexible structure, and propulsion system will bring great challenges for vehicle modeling. In this work, engineering estimated method is used to calculate the aerodynamic forces, moments, and flexible modes to get the physics-based model of an air-breathing flexible hypersonic vehicle. The model, which contains flexible effects and viscous effects, can capture the physical characteristics of high-speed flight. To overcome the analytical intractability of the model, a simplified control-oriented model of the hypersonic vehicle is presented with curve fitting approximations. The control-oriented model can not only reduce the complexity of the model, but also retain aero-flexible structure-propulsion interactions of the physics-based model and can be applied for nonlinear control.

  10. The Aerodynamics of High Speed Aerial Weapons


    Prince, Simon A.


    The focus of this work is the investigation of the complex compressible flow phenomena associated with high speed aerial weapons. A three dimen- sional multiblock finite volume flow solver was developed with the aim of studying the aerodynamics of missile configurations and their component structures. The first component of the study involved the aerodynamic investigation of the isolated components used in the design of conventional missile config- urations. The computati...

  11. Detecting Combustion and Flow Features In Situ Using Principal Component Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Grout, Ray W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Fabian, Nathan D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bennett, Janine Camille [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)


    This report presents progress on identifying and classifying features involving combustion in turbulent flow using principal component analysis (PCA) and k-means clustering using an in situ analysis framework. We describe a process for extracting temporally- and spatially-varying information from the simulation, classifying the information, and then applying the classification algorithm to either other portions of the simulation not used for training the classifier or further simulations. Because the regions classified as being of interest take up a small portion of the overall simulation domain, it will consume fewer resources to perform further analysis or save these regions at a higher fidelity than previously possible. The implementation of this process is partially complete and results obtained from PCA of test data is presented that indicates the process may have merit: the basis vectors that PCA provides are significantly different in regions where combustion is occurring and even when all 21 species of a lifted flame simulation are correlated the computational cost of PCA is minimal. What remains to be determined is whether k-means (or other) clustering techniques will be able to identify combined combustion and flow features with an accuracy that makes further characterization of these regions feasible and meaningful.

  12. Influence of the relative rotational speed on component features in micro rotary swaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishkina Svetlana


    Full Text Available Micro rotary swaging is a cold forming process for production of micro components with determined geometry and surface. It is also possible to change the microstructure of wires and hence the material properties. Swaging dies revolve around the work piece with an overlaid radial oscillation. Newly developed tools (Flat Surface Dies, FSD feature plain surfaces and do not represent the geometry of the formed part as in conventional swaging. Using these tools allows for producing wires with triangle geometry (cross section as well as a circular shape. To test the influence of FSD on material properties by micro swaging a new method is investigated: the variation of the relative speed between the specimen and dies in infeed rotary swaging. During this specific process copper (C11000 and steel (304 Alloy wires with diameter d0 = 1 mm are formed. It is noticed that the mechanical characteristics such as ductility and strength differ from the characteristics after conventional swaging. Moreover this approach enables new possibilities to influence the geometry and the surface quality of wires. The impact of the relative speed on the processed wire features is described in this paper.

  13. Vehicle design influences whole body vibration exposures: effect of the location of the front axle relative to the cab. (United States)

    Blood, Ryan P; Rynell, Patrik W; Johnson, Peter W


    Using a repeated measure design, this study compared differences in whole body vibration (WBV) exposures among 13 drivers who drove a truck with the cab over the front axle (cab-over design) and a truck with the cab situated behind the front axle (non-cab-over design). The drivers drove both trucks over a standardized route that comprised three distinct segments: a freeway segment, a city street segment with stop-and-go driving (traffic lights), and a city street segment without traffic lights. A portable WBV data acquisition system collected tri-axial time-weighted and raw WBV data per ISO 2631-1 and 2631-5 standards. Simultaneous global positioning system (GPS) data were also collected to compare vehicle speeds. The GPS data indicated that there were no speed differences between the two vehicles. However, average and impulsive z-axis vibration levels were significantly higher for the cab-over design than for the non-cab-over design. In addition, significant WBV exposure differences between road types were found, with the freeway segments having the lowest exposures and the city street segments without traffic lights having the highest exposures. Vehicle type and the associated WBV exposures should be considered when purchasing vehicles to be used by full-time professional vehicle operators.

  14. Recent Progress on the Key Materials and Components for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells in Vehicle Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Wang


    Full Text Available Fuel cells are the most clean and efficient power source for vehicles. In particular, proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs are the most promising candidate for automobile applications due to their rapid start-up and low-temperature operation. Through extensive global research efforts in the latest decade, the performance of PEMFCs, including energy efficiency, volumetric and mass power density, and low temperature startup ability, have achieved significant breakthroughs. In 2014, fuel cell powered vehicles were introduced into the market by several prominent vehicle companies. However, the low durability and high cost of PEMFC systems are still the main obstacles for large-scale industrialization of this technology. The key materials and components used in PEMFCs greatly affect their durability and cost. In this review, the technical progress of key materials and components for PEMFCs has been summarized and critically discussed, including topics such as the membrane, catalyst layer, gas diffusion layer, and bipolar plate. The development of high-durability processing technologies is also introduced. Finally, this review is concluded with personal perspectives on the future research directions of this area.

  15. Aerodynamic and Electromagnetic Characteristics Research of High-altitude Long-endurance Early Warning Unmanned Aerial Vehicles%高空长航时无人预警机气动及电磁特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任武; 周洲; 王正平


    高空长航时无人预警机具有反应迅速、成本低廉、覆盖范围广等优点,是侦察卫星、高空飞艇等侦察平台的重要补充.基于天线特性,提出两种将柱面天线与高空长航时无人机融合的布局形式,将雷达反射面天线布置于无人机中段,并分析两种布局在气动及电磁特性的差异,为此类特种高空长航时无人预警机的设计提供了一定的理论依据.%The high-altitude long-endurance ( HALE) early warning unmanned aerial vehicles ( UAV) had become an important complementarity of reconnaissance satellite and high-altitude airship as reconnaissance platform, since it was excellence in quick response, low cost, vast coverage area, etc. Based on the character of antenna, two high-altitude long-endurance early warning unmanned aerial vehicles layouts combined with antenna which was set in the middle of the whole plane were put forward. And then analyzed the aerodynamic and electromagnetic character difference between the two layouts. A certain theory evidence is provided for the design of these special high altitude long-endurance early warning aircraft.

  16. Evaluation of relations between body posture parameters with somatic features and motor abilities of boys aged 14 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Lizis


    Full Text Available [b]introduction[/b]. Body posture is an individual characteristic for everyone, it shows great differentiation – especially in people during their progressive development. As a result, the variability of the development and lack of physical activity impose body posture defects in children and youth. In the literature there is a great lack of measureable data on the relations between correct body posture with somatic features, especially motor features in children at the developing age. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relations between correct body posture parameters, measured with the photogrammetric method, with some of the somatic features and motor abilities of boys at the age of 14. [b]material and methods[/b]. The study included 133 boys aged 14 attending junior secondary schools in the Kraków area of Poland. Only boys with the correct body posture were examined. Posture was examined by the Moire method, through which six parameters were obtained in the sagittal plane, seven in the frontal plane, and one in the transverse plane. The somatic measurements included basic parameters, such as body weight and body height. The measurements of motor features included: marching balance test, speed movement test of the arms and their functional strength. To evaluate the relationships between correct body posture with the characteristics of somatic and motor abilities, the Spearman rank correlation was used. The lowest level of statistical significance was accepted at p ≤ 0,05. [b]results[/b]. No correlations were noted between some of the correct body posture features and the somatic features, and some of the motor abilities of the examined boys at the level of p ≤ 0.05 and p ≤ 0.01. [b]conclusions[/b]. The irregular correlation between the correct body posture and somatic and motor features probably results from the rather big development variability of the boys during puberty.

  17. Effect of Dietary Phosphorus on the Growth and Body Components of Juvenile Synechogobius hasta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Zhi; LI Xiaodong; GONG Shiyuan; XI Wenqiu; LI Yali


    The effect of dietary, phosphorus on the growth and body, components of juvenile Synechogobius hasta was determined. Different percentages of dietary phosphorus (0.63, 0.77, 0.93, 1.06, 1.22 and 1.36) were tested by feeding the fish (body weight, 15.81 g±0.32 g、20 individuals each group、3 groups each percentage) at a surplus of 5%-10% above sattation for 35d. Dietary phosphorus did not significantly affect the specific growth rate, feed intake, feed conversion ratio and protein efficiency rate. Nitro-gen retention was found to be the highest in fish ted the diet containing 1.06% of phosphorus; however, this was not significantly different from other diets. Fish fed the diet containing 0.93% of phosphorus showed the highest phosphorus retention; similar phos-phorus retention rates were found in fish fed the diets containing 0.77% and 1.06% of phosphorus. Fish fed the diet containing the highest percentage of dietary, phosphorus were found to contain the least whole body lipid, lower than fish ted other diets (P<0.05). The protein content increased from 18.59% to 19.55% (although not significant) with the decrease of body lipid content (P<0.05). The contents of the whole body ash, whole body phosphorus and vertebrae phosphorus increased with dietary, phosphorus percentage up to 1.06 (P<0.05), reaching a plateau after that. Dietary, phosphorus did not significantly influence the muscle components (protein, lipid and moisture). Condition factor and hepatosomatic index were the highest in fish fed the diet containing 0.63% of dietary phos-phorus; however, this was not significantly different from those of other diets. The second-order polynomial regression of phospho-rus retention against dietary phosphorus identified a breakpoint at 0.88% of dietary phosphorus. However, the dietary requirement of phosphorus for maintaining maximum phosphorus storage determined by broken-line analysis of the contents of whole body phos-phorus, and ash and vertebrae phosphorus was 1

  18. Integration of an Advanced Cryogenic Electric Propulsion System (ACEPS) to Aerodynamically Efficient Subsonic Transport Aircraft Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal defines innovative aerodynamic concepts and technology goals aimed at vehicle efficiency for future subsonic aircraft in the 2020 ? 2030 timeframe....

  19. Combining features from ERP components in single-trial EEG for discriminating four-category visual objects (United States)

    Wang, Changming; Xiong, Shi; Hu, Xiaoping; Yao, Li; Zhang, Jiacai


    Categorization of images containing visual objects can be successfully recognized using single-trial electroencephalograph (EEG) measured when subjects view images. Previous studies have shown that task-related information contained in event-related potential (ERP) components could discriminate two or three categories of object images. In this study, we investigated whether four categories of objects (human faces, buildings, cats and cars) could be mutually discriminated using single-trial EEG data. Here, the EEG waveforms acquired while subjects were viewing four categories of object images were segmented into several ERP components (P1, N1, P2a and P2b), and then Fisher linear discriminant analysis (Fisher-LDA) was used to classify EEG features extracted from ERP components. Firstly, we compared the classification results using features from single ERP components, and identified that the N1 component achieved the highest classification accuracies. Secondly, we discriminated four categories of objects using combining features from multiple ERP components, and showed that combination of ERP components improved four-category classification accuracies by utilizing the complementarity of discriminative information in ERP components. These findings confirmed that four categories of object images could be discriminated with single-trial EEG and could direct us to select effective EEG features for classifying visual objects.

  20. BREN: Body Reflection Essence-Neuter Model for Separation of Reflection Components

    CERN Document Server

    Je, Changsoo


    We propose a novel reflection color model consisting of body essence and (mixed) neuter, and present an effective method for separating dichromatic reflection components using a single image. Body essence is an entity invariant to interface reflection, and has two degrees of freedom unlike hue and maximum chromaticity. As a result, the proposed method is insensitive to noise and proper for colors around CMY (cyan, magenta, and yellow) as well as RGB (red, green, and blue), contrary to the maximum chromaticity-based methods. Interface reflection is separated by using a Gaussian function, which removes a critical thresholding problem. Furthermore, the method does not require any region segmentation. Experimental results show the efficacy of the proposed model and method.

  1. Near term hybrid passenger vehicle development program. Phase I. Appendices C and D. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The derivation of and actual preliminary design of the Near Term Hybrid Vehicle (NTHV) are presented. The NTHV uses a modified GM Citation body, a VW Rabbit turbocharged diesel engine, a 24KW compound dc electric motor, a modified GM automatic transmission, and an on-board computer for transmission control. The following NTHV information is presented: the results of the trade-off studies are summarized; the overall vehicle design; the selection of the design concept and the base vehicle (the Chevrolet Citation), the battery pack configuration, structural modifications, occupant protection, vehicle dynamics, and aerodynamics; the powertrain design, including the transmission, coupling devices, engine, motor, accessory drive, and powertrain integration; the motor controller; the battery type, duty cycle, charger, and thermal requirements; the control system (electronics); the identification of requirements, software algorithm requirements, processor selection and system design, sensor and actuator characteristics, displays, diagnostics, and other topics; environmental system including heating, air conditioning, and compressor drive; the specifications, weight breakdown, and energy consumption measures; advanced technology components, and the data sources and assumptions used. (LCL)

  2. Development of specific materials for the high power electronic components in electric vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaabi Abderrahmen


    Full Text Available The powerchain in electric vehicles sets new demands on semi conductors and their packaging. The latter will be specifically addressed. The power density per cm2 in DC/DC or DC/AC converters requires a mastering of thermomecahnical aspects. The temperature cyling, the environment under the hood of the vehicles and the “hybrid” technology impose severe constraints on the assemblies which may be met by architectured substrates, new options for assemblies and efficient cooling systems. An optimised semi conductor substrate associating copper and invar in a will be developed, relying on roll bonding to produce the 3D architecture. Roll bonding may also be used to associate aluminium and iron to produce light laminates with a CEM performance.

  3. Effect of vehicles on topical application of aloe vera and arnica montana components. (United States)

    Bergamante, Valentina; Ceschel, Gian Carlo; Marazzita, Sergio; Ronchi, Celestino; Fini, Adamo


    In this study two types of gels and microemulsions are investigated for their ability to dissolve, release, and induce the permeation of helenalin, a flavonoid responsible for the anti-inflammatory activity of arnica montana extract, and aloin, an anthrone-C-glucosyls with antibacterial activity present in aloe vera extract. The release of these agents from each vehicle was followed by HPLC, and transcutaneous permeation was examined using a modified Franz cell and a porcine skin membrane. The study showed that a microemulsion can be a good vehicle to increase the permeation of helenalin, while the gel formulation, containing Sepigel 305, proved able to reduce the release and permeation of aloin, with a consequent activity limited to the surface of application, without any permeation. This is in accordance with the necessity to avoid this process, since human skin fibroblasts can metabolize absorbed aloin into a structurally related compound that increases the sensitivity of skin to ultraviolet light.

  4. Vehicle Tracking in UAV-Captured Video Data Incorporating Adaptive Weighting of Features (United States)


    measuring how well the individual features separate the object’s true location from other potential background ‘ distractors ’ - defined as regions of close...feature that offers the greatest separation between the true object appearance and that of the distractor (which closely resembles the object, but...which we want to suppress as a viable match, as it is erroneous). This concludes Section 2.3 describing the solution framework governing the

  5. Impact of Component Sizing in Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles for Energy Resource and Greenhouse Emissions Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malikopoulos, Andreas [ORNL


    Widespread use of alternative hybrid powertrains currently appears inevitable and many opportunities for substantial progress remain. The necessity for environmentally friendly vehicles, in conjunction with increasing concerns regarding U.S. dependency on foreign oil and climate change, has led to significant investment in enhancing the propulsion portfolio with new technologies. Recently, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have attracted considerable attention due to their potential to reduce petroleum consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the transportation sector. PHEVs are especially appealing for short daily commutes with excessive stop-and-go driving. However, the high costs associated with their components, and in particular, with their energy storage systems have been significant barriers to extensive market penetration of PEVs. In the research reported here, we investigated the implications of motor/generator and battery size on fuel economy and GHG emissions in a medium duty PHEV. An optimization framework is proposed and applied to two different parallel powertrain configurations, pre-transmission and post-transmission, to derive the Pareto frontier with respect to motor/generator and battery size. The optimization and modeling approach adopted here facilitates better understanding of the potential benefits from proper selection of motor/generator and battery size on fuel economy and GHG emissions. This understanding can help us identify the appropriate sizing of these components and thus reducing the PHEV cost. Addressing optimal sizing of PHEV components could aim at an extensive market penetration of PHEVs.

  6. Protein bodies of castor bean endosperm: isolation, fractionation, and the characterization of protein components. (United States)

    Tully, R E; Beevers, H


    Protein bodies in the endosperm of castor bean seeds (Ricinus communis L.) contain phytin globoids and protein crystalloids embedded in an amorphous proteinaceous matrix. The protein bodies are apparently surrounded by a single membrane. The protein bodies were isolated by grinding and centrifuging in glycerol. Such isolated protein bodies were almost identical (after cytological fixation) to those observed in situ, except that the globoids were lost. However, membrane-like structures appear to have surrounded the globoids. Histochemical analysis of the isolated protein bodies showed that carbohydrates (glycoproteins) are localized only in the matrix region.Addition of water to protein bodies in glycerol caused dissolution of the matrix, and release of the globoids and crystalloids. When the crystalloids were centrifuged on sucrose density gradients, they were recovered at an equilibrium density of 1.29 to 1.30 g/ml. The crystalloids were only slightly soluble in most aqueous buffers but were very soluble in sodium dodecyl sulfate, urea, or NaOH solutions.Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate and chromatography on ion exchange celluloses show that the protein bodies are composed of one major and several minor anodic proteins. The major protein, along with a few of the minor proteins, is localized in the crystalloids.The major protein (molecular weight 65,000) was converted by mercaptoethanol into subunits with molecular weights of 32,000 and 15,800. It is proposed that the protein is made up of two of the smaller subunits and one of the larger, linked by disulfide bridges. None of the crystalloid proteins appear to be glycosylated.The water-soluble matrix fraction is composed mainly of two proteins, with molecular weights of 12,500 and 10,300 on the gels. Neither is a glycoprotein, and neither can be reduced with mercaptoethanol to give subunits. The soluble fraction also contains other lesser components among which are

  7. [Quantitative models between canopy hyperspectrum and its component features at apple tree prosperous fruit stage]. (United States)

    Wang, Ling; Zhao, Geng-xing; Zhu, Xi-cun; Lei, Tong; Dong, Fang


    Hyperspectral technique has become the basis of quantitative remote sensing. Hyperspectrum of apple tree canopy at prosperous fruit stage consists of the complex information of fruits, leaves, stocks, soil and reflecting films, which was mostly affected by component features of canopy at this stage. First, the hyperspectrum of 18 sample apple trees with reflecting films was compared with that of 44 trees without reflecting films. It could be seen that the impact of reflecting films on reflectance was obvious, so the sample trees with ground reflecting films should be separated to analyze from those without ground films. Secondly, nine indexes of canopy components were built based on classified digital photos of 44 apple trees without ground films. Thirdly, the correlation between the nine indexes and canopy reflectance including some kinds of conversion data was analyzed. The results showed that the correlation between reflectance and the ratio of fruit to leaf was the best, among which the max coefficient reached 0.815, and the correlation between reflectance and the ratio of leaf was a little better than that between reflectance and the density of fruit. Then models of correlation analysis, linear regression, BP neural network and support vector regression were taken to explain the quantitative relationship between the hyperspectral reflectance and the ratio of fruit to leaf with the softwares of DPS and LIBSVM. It was feasible that all of the four models in 611-680 nm characteristic band are feasible to be used to predict, while the model accuracy of BP neural network and support vector regression was better than one-variable linear regression and multi-variable regression, and the accuracy of support vector regression model was the best. This study will be served as a reliable theoretical reference for the yield estimation of apples based on remote sensing data.

  8. Discrete vortex method simulations of the aerodynamic admittance in bridge aerodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Johannes Tophøj; Hejlesen, Mads Mølholm; Larsen, Allan;


    We present a novel method for the simulation of the aerodynamic admittance in bluff body aerodynamics. The method introduces a model for describing oncoming turbulence in two-dimensional discrete vortex method simulations by seeding the upstream flow with vortex particles. The turbulence...

  9. Analysis of the wind influence on the aerodynamic drag in the case of a certain emplacement of the pantograph on the electric rail vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin ARSENE


    Full Text Available The wind gusts with high speed can negative affect the operation of the railway electric vehicles. These vehicles can achieve high performances, as long as the power supply is ensured, without discontinuities or interruptions in the process. This work aims at conducting an analysis regarding the wind influence with regard to the energy collector placed on the vehicle bodywork taking in account a certain positioning of the active pantograph. To this end, in a first step, the EP3 pantograph which was raised to its maximum working height was 3-D modeled. As regards the simulation, we consider the case in which the equipment is placed on the vehicle so that the angle formed by the articulation of the arms is pointing in the direction of the air flow. The simulation is carried out for different points of the angles ranging between [0o, 180o] at the relative velocity of the fluid of 0m / s, 10m / s, 20m / s and 30m / s.

  10. 论身势语的文化特征%The Cultural Features of Body Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Body language belongs to the scope of non-verbal communication,and it plays an important part in complementing,stressing,enhancing,symbolizing and substituting utterance meaning.It argues that body language,which is the carrier of cultures,and different in meanings,behavior,and countries,has its own cultural features that are necessary and important in Cross-cultural communication.%身势语属于非语言交际的范畴,但在语言交际中有着补充说明强调、增加、象征或替代等含义,因此对身势语的作用不可忽视.身势语是文化的载体,不同的国家地区,有不同的行为方式,有着不同的语义.所以,研究身势语的文化特征对外语研究工作和跨文化交流有重要的影响和意义.

  11. Transonic Wind-Tunnel Investigation of the Static Longitudinal Aerodynamic Characteristics of Several Configurations of the Scout Vehicle and of a Number of Related Models (United States)

    Kelly, Thomas C.


    Results have been obtained i n t h e Langley 8-foot transonic pressure tunnel at Mach numbers from 0.40 t o 1.20 for several configurations of the Scout vehicle and f o r a number of related models. Tests extended over an angle-of-attack range from about -10 degrees to 10 degrees at a Reynolds number per foot of about 3.8 x 10 sup 6.

  12. Evaluation of selected drive components for a flywheel powered commuter vehicle. Phase I. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The results of tests performed to evaluate the performance of selected high-speed flywheel bearings and shaft seals are reported, and work performed on the development of a high-speed composite flywheel rotor is described. The overall program objective is to develop a composite flywheel system for primary energy storage in a flywheel powered vehicle. These initial tests were intended to evaluate the performance of full-size composite rotor elements, high-speed bearings and shaft seals for that system under conditions simulating as closely as possible those anticipated in a finished vehicle. Performance of the angular contact ball bearings is reported to be satisfactory at all speeds; a simplified lubrication system is recommended for second generation hardware. Performance of the ferrofluidic shaft seals is reported to be marginal, as they failed to hold a hard vacuum at the maximum design speed. Several concepts for improved seals are offered for second generation hardware. The test objectives for the high-speed composite flywheel rotor were not achieved due to dynamic instability problems with the test hardware. Recommendations are offered for the design of second generation hardware, and a scope of activities is proposed for the second phase of this program.

  13. Fam118B, a newly identified component of Cajal bodies, is required for Cajal body formation, snRNP biogenesis and cell viability. (United States)

    Li, Yujing; Fong, Ka-Wing; Tang, Mengfan; Han, Xin; Gong, Zihua; Ma, Wenbin; Hebert, Michael; Songyang, Zhou; Chen, Junjie


    Cajal bodies are specialized and dynamic compartments in the nucleus that are involved in the biogenesis of small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs). Because of the dynamic and varied roles of Cajal bodies, it is of great interest to identify the components of Cajal bodies to better understand their functions. We performed a genome-wide screen to identify proteins that colocalize with coilin, the marker protein of Cajal bodies. In this study, we identified and characterized Fam118B as a newly discovered component of Cajal bodies. Fam118B is widely expressed in a variety of cell lines derived from various origins. Overexpression of Fam118B changes the canonical morphology of Cajal bodies, whereas depletion of Fam118B disrupts the localization of components of Cajal bodies, including coilin, the survival of motor neuron protein (SMN) and the Sm protein D1 (SmD1, also known as SNRPD1). Moreover, depletion of Fam118B reduces splicing capacity and inhibits cell proliferation. In addition, Fam118B associates with coilin and SMN proteins. Fam118B depletion reduces symmetric dimethylarginine modification of SmD1, which in turn diminishes the binding of SMN to this Sm protein. Taken together, these data indicate that Fam118B, by regulating SmD1 symmetric dimethylarginine modification, plays an important role in Cajal body formation, snRNP biogenesis and cell viability.

  14. Functionality of system components: Conservation of protein function in protein feature space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Juhl; Ussery, David; Brunak, Søren


    Many protein features useful for prediction of protein function can be predicted from sequence, including posttranslational modifications, subcellular localization, and physical/chemical properties. We show here that such protein features are more conserved among orthologs than paralogs, indicati...

  15. Adapting Features from the SIOP Component: Lesson Delivery to English Lessons in a Colombian Public School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rativa Murillo Hollman Alejandro


    Full Text Available Despite some school efforts to offer students the best second language learning, English language lessons are often taught with an overuse of the mother tongue. Hence, an action research project was conducted in order to discover how to adapt some features of the Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP component: Lesson delivery, for the teaching of English in sixth grade at a public school in Bogotá, Colombia. Data collection included observation checklists, field notes, surveys and artifacts. The findings demonstrated that the overuse of Spanish–the students’ mother tongue–was reduced when in addition to implementing the lesson delivery component, the teacher developed vocabulary activities. Finally, it was suggested that teachers have SIOP training for teaching content andto focus more on students needs.A pesar de algunos esfuerzos para ofrecer a los estudiantes un mejor aprendizaje de una segunda lengua, a menudo se recurre al uso excesivo de la lengua materna en las clases de inglés. Con el objetivo de hallar la forma de adaptar algunas características del componente del protocolo deobservación SIOP para la instrucción ‘Sheltered’: Desarrollo de clase, para la enseñanza de inglés en grado séptimo, se realiz�� un proyecto de investigación acción en un colegio público en Bogotá, Colombia. En la recolección de datos se emplearon formatos de observación, notas de campo,cuestionarios y evidencias documentales. Los resultados demostraron que el uso excesivo de español –la lengua materna de los estudiantes– se redujo porque además de la implementación del componente Desarrollo de clase, se llevaron a cabo actividades de vocabulario. Con esta investigación se sugiere que los profesores adquieran conocimientos acerca del citado modelo para la enseñanza de contenidos, y que se enfoquen más en las necesidades de los estudiantes.

  16. Thermal Soak Analysis of Earth Entry Vehicles (United States)

    Agrawal, Parul; Sepka, Steven A.; Aliaga, Jose F.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Samareh, Jamshid A.


    The Multi-Mission Earth Entry Vehicle project is developing an integrated tool called Multi Mission System Analysis for Planetary Entry Descent and Landing that will provide key technology solutions including mass sizing, aerodynamics, aerothermodynamics, and thermal and structural analysis for any given sample return mission. Thermal soak analysis and temperature predictions of various components including the payload container of the entry vehicle are part of the solution that this tool will offer to mission designers. The present paper focuses on the thermal soak analysis of an entry vehicle design based on the Mars Sample Return entry vehicle geometry and discusses a technical approach to develop parametric models for thermal soak analysis that will be integrated into the tool.

  17. Vehicle Concept Model Abstractions For Integrated Geometric, Inertial ,Rigid Body, Powertrain and FE Analysis (United States)


    Analysis and Simulation in Vehicle Engineering, Würzburg, Germany, Sep. 14-15. 11 Copyright © 2011 by ASME [4] Lee, K.W., Chong , T.H. and Park, G.J...Developments in Tire, Wheel, Steering, and Suspension Technology, 1338 (980900), pp. 113-126. [24] Hou , W., Zhang, H., Chi, R., and Hu, P., 2009

  18. Stimulus-Related Independent Component and Voxel-Wise Analysis of Human Brain Activity during Free Viewing of a Feature Film (United States)

    Lahnakoski, Juha M.; Salmi, Juha; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P.; Lampinen, Jouko; Glerean, Enrico; Tikka, Pia; Sams, Mikko


    Understanding how the brain processes stimuli in a rich natural environment is a fundamental goal of neuroscience. Here, we showed a feature film to 10 healthy volunteers during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of hemodynamic brain activity. We then annotated auditory and visual features of the motion picture to inform analysis of the hemodynamic data. The annotations were fitted to both voxel-wise data and brain network time courses extracted by independent component analysis (ICA). Auditory annotations correlated with two independent components (IC) disclosing two functional networks, one responding to variety of auditory stimulation and another responding preferentially to speech but parts of the network also responding to non-verbal communication. Visual feature annotations correlated with four ICs delineating visual areas according to their sensitivity to different visual stimulus features. In comparison, a separate voxel-wise general linear model based analysis disclosed brain areas preferentially responding to sound energy, speech, music, visual contrast edges, body motion and hand motion which largely overlapped the results revealed by ICA. Differences between the results of IC- and voxel-based analyses demonstrate that thorough analysis of voxel time courses is important for understanding the activity of specific sub-areas of the functional networks, while ICA is a valuable tool for revealing novel information about functional connectivity which need not be explained by the predefined model. Our results encourage the use of naturalistic stimuli and tasks in cognitive neuroimaging to study how the brain processes stimuli in rich natural environments. PMID:22496909

  19. Stimulus-related independent component and voxel-wise analysis of human brain activity during free viewing of a feature film.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha M Lahnakoski

    Full Text Available Understanding how the brain processes stimuli in a rich natural environment is a fundamental goal of neuroscience. Here, we showed a feature film to 10 healthy volunteers during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI of hemodynamic brain activity. We then annotated auditory and visual features of the motion picture to inform analysis of the hemodynamic data. The annotations were fitted to both voxel-wise data and brain network time courses extracted by independent component analysis (ICA. Auditory annotations correlated with two independent components (IC disclosing two functional networks, one responding to variety of auditory stimulation and another responding preferentially to speech but parts of the network also responding to non-verbal communication. Visual feature annotations correlated with four ICs delineating visual areas according to their sensitivity to different visual stimulus features. In comparison, a separate voxel-wise general linear model based analysis disclosed brain areas preferentially responding to sound energy, speech, music, visual contrast edges, body motion and hand motion which largely overlapped the results revealed by ICA. Differences between the results of IC- and voxel-based analyses demonstrate that thorough analysis of voxel time courses is important for understanding the activity of specific sub-areas of the functional networks, while ICA is a valuable tool for revealing novel information about functional connectivity which need not be explained by the predefined model. Our results encourage the use of naturalistic stimuli and tasks in cognitive neuroimaging to study how the brain processes stimuli in rich natural environments.

  20. QCD sum rules for quark-gluon three-body components in the B meson

    CERN Document Server

    Nishikawa, Tetsuo


    We discuss the QCD sum rule calculation of the heavy-quark effective theory parameters, $\\lambda_E$ and $\\lambda_H$, which correspond to matrix elements representing quark-gluon three-body components in the $B$-meson wavefunction. We derive the sum rules for $\\lambda_{E,H}$ calculating the new higher-order QCD corrections, i.e., the order $\\alpha_s$ radiative corrections to the Wilson coefficients associated with the dimension-5 quark-gluon mixed condensates, and the power corrections due to the dimension-6 vacuum condensates. We find that the new radiative corrections significantly improve the stability of the corresponding Borel sum rules and lead to the reduction of the values of $\\lambda_{E,H}$. We also discuss the renormalization-group improvement for the sum rules and present update on the values of $\\lambda_{E,H}$.

  1. Numerical code for multi-component galaxies: from N-body to chemistry and magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Khoperskov, S A; Khoperskov, A V; Lubimov, V N


    We present a numerical code for multi-component simulation of the galactic evolution. Our code includes the following parts: $N$-body is used to evolve dark matter, stellar dynamics and dust grains, gas dynamics is based on TVD-MUSCL scheme with the extra modules for thermal processes, star formation, magnetic fields, chemical kinetics and multi-species advection. We describe our code in brief, but we give more details for the magneto-gas dynamics. We present several tests for our code and show that our code have passed the tests with a reasonable accuracy. Our code is parallelized using the MPI library. We apply our code to study the large scale dynamics of galactic discs.

  2. Asymmetric Localization of Components and Regulators of the Mitotic Exit Network at Spindle Pole Bodies. (United States)

    Scarfone, Ilaria; Piatti, Simonetta


    Most proteins of the Mitotic Exit Network (MEN) and their upstream regulators localize at spindle pole bodies (SPBs) at least in some stages of the cell cycle. Studying the SPB localization of MEN factors has been extremely useful to elucidate their biological roles, organize them in a hierarchical pathway, and define their dynamics under different conditions.Recruitment to SPBs of the small GTPase Tem1 and the downstream kinases Cdc15 and Mob1/Dbf2 is thought to be essential for Cdc14 activation and mitotic exit, while that of the upstream Tem1 regulators (the Kin4 kinase and the GTPase activating protein Bub2-Bfa1) is important for MEN inhibition upon spindle mispositioning. Here, we describe the detailed fluorescence microscopy procedures that we use in our lab to analyze the localization at SPBs of Mitotic Exit Network (MEN) components tagged with GFP or HA epitopes.

  3. A connected component-based method for efficiently integrating multiscale $N$-body systems

    CERN Document Server

    Jänes, Jürgen; Zwart, Simon F Portegies


    We present a novel method for efficient direct integration of gravitational N-body systems with a large variation in characteristic time scales. The method is based on a recursive and adaptive partitioning of the system based on the connected components of the graph generated by the particle distribution combined with an interaction-specific time step criterion. It uses an explicit and approximately time-symmetric time step criterion, and conserves linear and angular momentum to machine precision. In numerical tests on astrophysically relevant setups, the method compares favourably to both alternative Hamiltonian-splitting integrators as well as recently developed block time step-based GPU-accelerated Hermite codes. Our reference implementation is incorporated in the HUAYNO code, which is freely available as a part of the AMUSE framework.

  4. Feature selection for wearable smartphone-based human activity recognition with able bodied, elderly, and stroke patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole A Capela

    Full Text Available Human activity recognition (HAR, using wearable sensors, is a growing area with the potential to provide valuable information on patient mobility to rehabilitation specialists. Smartphones with accelerometer and gyroscope sensors are a convenient, minimally invasive, and low cost approach for mobility monitoring. HAR systems typically pre-process raw signals, segment the signals, and then extract features to be used in a classifier. Feature selection is a crucial step in the process to reduce potentially large data dimensionality and provide viable parameters to enable activity classification. Most HAR systems are customized to an individual research group, including a unique data set, classes, algorithms, and signal features. These data sets are obtained predominantly from able-bodied participants. In this paper, smartphone accelerometer and gyroscope sensor data were collected from populations that can benefit from human activity recognition: able-bodied, elderly, and stroke patients. Data from a consecutive sequence of 41 mobility tasks (18 different tasks were collected for a total of 44 participants. Seventy-six signal features were calculated and subsets of these features were selected using three filter-based, classifier-independent, feature selection methods (Relief-F, Correlation-based Feature Selection, Fast Correlation Based Filter. The feature subsets were then evaluated using three generic classifiers (Naïve Bayes, Support Vector Machine, j48 Decision Tree. Common features were identified for all three populations, although the stroke population subset had some differences from both able-bodied and elderly sets. Evaluation with the three classifiers showed that the feature subsets produced similar or better accuracies than classification with the entire feature set. Therefore, since these feature subsets are classifier-independent, they should be useful for developing and improving HAR systems across and within populations.

  5. Feature selection for wearable smartphone-based human activity recognition with able bodied, elderly, and stroke patients. (United States)

    Capela, Nicole A; Lemaire, Edward D; Baddour, Natalie


    Human activity recognition (HAR), using wearable sensors, is a growing area with the potential to provide valuable information on patient mobility to rehabilitation specialists. Smartphones with accelerometer and gyroscope sensors are a convenient, minimally invasive, and low cost approach for mobility monitoring. HAR systems typically pre-process raw signals, segment the signals, and then extract features to be used in a classifier. Feature selection is a crucial step in the process to reduce potentially large data dimensionality and provide viable parameters to enable activity classification. Most HAR systems are customized to an individual research group, including a unique data set, classes, algorithms, and signal features. These data sets are obtained predominantly from able-bodied participants. In this paper, smartphone accelerometer and gyroscope sensor data were collected from populations that can benefit from human activity recognition: able-bodied, elderly, and stroke patients. Data from a consecutive sequence of 41 mobility tasks (18 different tasks) were collected for a total of 44 participants. Seventy-six signal features were calculated and subsets of these features were selected using three filter-based, classifier-independent, feature selection methods (Relief-F, Correlation-based Feature Selection, Fast Correlation Based Filter). The feature subsets were then evaluated using three generic classifiers (Naïve Bayes, Support Vector Machine, j48 Decision Tree). Common features were identified for all three populations, although the stroke population subset had some differences from both able-bodied and elderly sets. Evaluation with the three classifiers showed that the feature subsets produced similar or better accuracies than classification with the entire feature set. Therefore, since these feature subsets are classifier-independent, they should be useful for developing and improving HAR systems across and within populations.

  6. Large Eddy Simulation of the Flow-Field around Road Vehicle Subjected to Pitching Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Q. Gu


    Full Text Available In order to study the aerodynamic responses of a vehicle pitching around its front wheel axle, large eddy simulation (LES is used to investigate the flow-field around road vehicle. The numerical method is validated by 1/3-scale wind tunnel model on steady state. The LES results keep good agreement with the wind tunnel data. Furthermore, LES is applied to simulate the sinusoidal-pitching motion of vehicle body with frequency 10Hz. It can be found that the aerodynamic force coefficient and flow field changed periodically when the vehicle body takes periodically motion, whose results are completely different from the quasi-steady simulation results. When vehicle body suddenly changes direction, the hysteresis effects of the flow is clearly shown through investigating the transient flow field, aerodynamics force coefficient and pressure coefficient. The hysteresis effects of the transient flow field is also studied by vortices visualization technical, and the transient flow field from space and time is further understood.

  7. Advanced Topics in Aerodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filippone, Antonino


    "Advanced Topics in Aerodynamics" is a comprehensive electronic guide to aerodynamics,computational fluid dynamics, aeronautics, aerospace propulsion systems, design and relatedtechnology. We report data, tables, graphics, sketches,examples, results, photos, technical andscientific literature...

  8. Low-Level Color and Texture Feature Extraction of Coral Reef Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. Sheila Angeli Marcos


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to develop a computer-based classifier that automates coral reef assessmentfrom digitized underwater video. We extract low-level color and texture features from coral images toserve as input to a high-level classifier. Low-level features for color were labeled blue, green, yellow/brown/orange, and gray/white, which are described by the normalized chromaticity histograms of thesemajor colors. The color matching capability of these features was determined through a technique called“Histogram Backprojection”. The low-level texture feature marks a region as coarse or fine dependingon the gray-level variance of the region.

  9. Irritable bowel syndrome subtypes: clinical and psychological features, body mass index and comorbidities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Kibune-Nagasako


    Full Text Available Background: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is classified into subtypes according to bowel habit. Objective: To investigate whether there are differences in clinical features, comorbidities, anxiety, depression and body mass index (BMI among IBS subtypes. Methods: The study group included 113 consecutive patients (mean age: 48 ± 11 years; females: 94 with the diagnosis of IBS. All of them answered a structured questionnaire for demographic and clinical data and underwent upper endoscopy. Anxiety and depression were assessed by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HAD. Results: The distribution of subtypes was: IBS-diarrhea (IBS-D, 46%; IBS-constipation (IBS-C, 32%, and mixed IBS (IBS-M, 22%. IBS overlap with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD, functional dyspepsia, chronic headache and fibromyalgia occurred in 65.5%, 48.7%, 40.7% and 22.1% of patients, respectively. Anxiety and/or depression were found in 81.5%. Comparisons among subgroups showed that bloating was significantly associated with IBS-M compared to IBS-D (odds ratio-OR-5.6. Straining was more likely to be reported by IBS-M (OR 15.3 and IBS-C (OR 12.0 compared to IBS-D patients, while urgency was associated with both IBS-M (OR 19.7 and IBS-D (OR 14.2 compared to IBS-C. In addition, IBS-M patients were more likely to present GERD than IBS-D (OR 6.7 and higher scores for anxiety than IBS-C patients (OR 1.2. BMI values did not differ between IBS-D and IBS-C. Conclusion: IBS-M is characterized by symptoms frequently reported by both IBS-C (straining and IBS-D (urgency, higher levels of anxiety, and high prevalence of comorbidities. These features should be considered in the clinical management of this subgroup.

  10. Modeling Energy Efficiency As A Green Logistics Component In Vehicle Assembly Line (United States)

    Oumer, Abduaziz; Mekbib Atnaw, Samson; Kie Cheng, Jack; Singh, Lakveer


    This paper uses System Dynamics (SD) simulation to investigate the concept green logistics in terms of energy efficiency in automotive industry. The car manufacturing industry is considered to be one of the highest energy consuming industries. An efficient decision making model is proposed that capture the impacts of strategic decisions on energy consumption and environmental sustainability. The sources of energy considered in this research are electricity and fuel; which are the two main types of energy sources used in a typical vehicle assembly plant. The model depicts the performance measurement for process- specific energy measures of painting, welding, and assembling processes. SD is the chosen simulation method and the main green logistics issues considered are Carbon Dioxide (CO2) emission and energy utilization. The model will assist decision makers acquire an in-depth understanding of relationship between high level planning and low level operation activities on production, environmental impacts and costs associated. The results of the SD model signify the existence of positive trade-offs between green practices of energy efficiency and the reduction of CO2 emission.

  11. Identification of the RNAs for Transcription Factor Mitf as a Component of the Balbiani Body

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingyou Li; Yongming Yuan; Yunhan Hong


    Balbiani body (BB) is a large distinctive organelle aggregate uniquely present in developing oocytes of diverse animal species.BB is thought as a stage-specific structure that resembles germ plasm,the cytoplasmic organelle of germ cells.The role and function of BB have remained speculative because of a highly dynamic structure and a lack of genetic and molocular data.BB has been found to contain proteins and RNAs,none of them-except the zebrafish foxH1 RNA,is or encodes a transcription factor.Here we report in the fish medaka (Oryzias latipes) that RNAs encoding microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (Mitf) are prominent components of the BB.By fluorescence in siru hybridization on ovarian section,we revealed that the transcripts of both mitfl and mitf2 genes concentrated in the BB,in which they co-localized with the dazl RNA,a definitive BB marker highly conserved in vertebrates.Therefore,the mitfproduct may play dual roles in germ gene transcription and BB formation and/or function in this organism.Our data provide the second evidence that the RNA of a transcription factor can be a prominent component of the BB in a vertebrate.

  12. Adaptive High Order Sliding Mode Controller Design for Hypersonic Vehicle with Flexible Body Dynamics


    Bailing Tian; Wenru Fan; Qun Zong; Jie Wang; Fang Wang


    This paper describes the design of a nonlinear robust adaptive controller for a flexible hypersonic vehicle model which is nonlinear, multivariable, and unstable, and includes uncertain parameters. Firstly, a control-oriented model is derived for controller design. Then, the model analysis is conducted for this model via input-output (I/O) linearized technique. Secondly, the sliding mode manifold is designed based on the homogeneity theory. Then, the adaptive high order sliding mode controlle...

  13. Introduction to transonic aerodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Vos, Roelof


    Written to teach students the nature of transonic flow and its mathematical foundation, this book offers a much-needed introduction to transonic aerodynamics. The authors present a quantitative and qualitative assessment of subsonic, supersonic, and transonic flow around bodies in two and three dimensions. The book reviews the governing equations and explores their applications and limitations as employed in modeling and computational fluid dynamics.  Some concepts, such as shock and expansion theory, are examined from a numerical perspective. Others, including shock-boundary-layer interaction, are discussed from a qualitative point of view. The book includes 60 examples and more than 200 practice problems. The authors also offer analytical methods such as Method of Characteristics (MOC) that allow readers to practice with the subject matter.  The result is a wealth of insight into transonic flow phenomena and their impact on aircraft design, including compressibility effects, shock and expansion waves, sho...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Rajamohan


    Full Text Available With major aerospace companies showing interest in certifying UAV systems for civilian airspace, their use in commercial remote sensing applications like traffic monitoring, map refinement, agricultural data collection, etc., are on the rise. But ambitious requirements like real-time geo-referencing of data, support for multiple sensor angle-of-views, smaller UAV size and cheaper investment cost have lead to challenges in platform stability, sensor noise reduction and increased onboard processing. Especially in small UAVs the geo-referencing of data collected is only as good as the quality of their localization sensors. This drives a need for developing methods that pickup spatial features from the captured video/image and aid in geo-referencing. This paper presents one such method to identify road segments and intersections based on traffic flow and compares well with the accuracy of manual observation. Two test video datasets, one each from moving and stationary platforms were used. The results obtained show a promising average percentage difference of 7.01 % and 2.48 % for the road segment extraction process using moving and stationary platform respectively. For the intersection identification process, the moving platform shows an accuracy of 75 % where as the stationary platform data reaches an accuracy of 100 %.

  15. Efficient integration of spectral features for vehicle tracking utilizing an adaptive sensor (United States)

    Uzkent, Burak; Hoffman, Matthew J.; Vodacek, Anthony


    Object tracking in urban environments is an important and challenging problem that is traditionally tackled using visible and near infrared wavelengths. By inserting extended data such as spectral features of the objects one can improve the reliability of the identification process. However, huge increase in data created by hyperspectral imaging is usually prohibitive. To overcome the complexity problem, we propose a persistent air-to-ground target tracking system inspired by a state-of-the-art, adaptive, multi-modal sensor. The adaptive sensor is capable of providing panchromatic images as well as the spectra of desired pixels. This addresses the data challenge of hyperspectral tracking by only recording spectral data as needed. Spectral likelihoods are integrated into a data association algorithm in a Bayesian fashion to minimize the likelihood of misidentification. A framework for controlling spectral data collection is developed by incorporating motion segmentation information and prior information from a Gaussian Sum filter (GSF) movement predictions from a multi-model forecasting set. An intersection mask of the surveillance area is extracted from OpenStreetMap source and incorporated into the tracking algorithm to perform online refinement of multiple model set. The proposed system is tested using challenging and realistic scenarios generated in an adverse environment.

  16. Peculiar features of composition of carbonyl components of surface lipids in aquatic plants


    І. О. Alexeevs’ka; V. M. Shepelenko; N. I. Shtemenko


    Carbonyl components content of aquatic plants’ surface lipids has been studied. High concentration of oxo-compounds in surface lipids of aquatic plants has been shown. It could reach 60 % of total value. Sufficient heterogeneity of surface lipids has been demonstrated. Unsaturated character of oxo-components in aquatic plants’ surface lipids has been assumed in the present work.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Junyuan; ZHANG Min; DING Rufang; QIU Shaobo; ZHANG Yu; LI Hongjian


    Based on multi-body dynamics, the simulation models of auto-side structures and occupant's dynamic responses are set up, using the occupant injury simulation software MADYMO3D. These models include auto-body structure, impact barrier, seat and dummy. Definitions of multi-body and joints and dynamics properties of joints based on FE combination models, of model setup are introduced. Kelvin element of MADYMO is introduced to show the force action between non-adjoining rigid bodies, too. Then all examples of the methods mentioned are given. By the comparison of simulation and real test, the contract curves between simulation and real test for main structures and biology mechanics properties of dummy are obtained. The result shows the accuracy and validity of the models.

  18. Integrated Active and Passive Polymer Optical Components with nm to mm Features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Schøler, Mikkel; Kristensen, Anders


    We present wafer-scale fabrication of integrated active and passive polymer optics with nm to mm features. First order DFB lasers, defined in dye doped SU-8 resist are integrated with SU-8 waveguides.......We present wafer-scale fabrication of integrated active and passive polymer optics with nm to mm features. First order DFB lasers, defined in dye doped SU-8 resist are integrated with SU-8 waveguides....

  19. Aerodynamic study of sounding rocket flows using Chimera and patched multiblock meshes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Alves de Oliveira Neto


    Full Text Available Aerodynamic flow simulations over a typical sounding rocket are presented in this paper. The work is inserted in the effort of developing computational tools necessary to simulate aerodynamic flows over configurations of interest for Instituto de Aeronáutica e Espaço of Departamento de Ciência e Tecnologia Aeroespacial. Sounding rocket configurations usually require fairly large fins and, quite frequently, have more than one set of fins. In order to be able to handle such configurations, the present paper presents a novel methodology which combines both Chimera and patched multiblock grids in the discretization of the computational domain. The flows of interest are modeled using the 3-D Euler equations and the work describes the details of discretization procedure, which uses a finite difference approach for structure, body-conforming, multiblock grids. The method is used to calculate the aerodynamics of a sounding rocket vehicle. The results indicate that the present approach can be a powerful aerodynamic analysis and design tool.

  20. Measuring cues for stand-off deception detection based on full-body nonverbal features in body-worn cameras (United States)

    Bouma, Henri; Burghouts, Gertjan; den Hollander, Richard; van der Zee, Sophie; Baan, Jan; ten Hove, Johan-Martijn; van Diepen, Sjaak; van den Haak, Paul; van Rest, Jeroen


    Deception detection is valuable in the security domain to distinguish truth from lies. It is desirable in many security applications, such as suspect and witness interviews and airport passenger screening. Interviewers are constantly trying to assess the credibility of a statement, usually based on intuition without objective technical support. However, psychological research has shown that humans can hardly perform better than random guessing. Deception detection is a multi-disciplinary research area with an interest from different fields, such as psychology and computer science. In the last decade, several developments have helped to improve the accuracy of lie detection (e.g., with a concealed information test, increasing the cognitive load, or measurements with motion capture suits) and relevant cues have been discovered (e.g., eye blinking or fiddling with the fingers). With an increasing presence of mobile phones and bodycams in society, a mobile, stand-off, automatic deception detection methodology based on various cues from the whole body would create new application opportunities. In this paper, we study the feasibility of measuring these visual cues automatically on different parts of the body, laying the groundwork for stand-off deception detection in more flexible and mobile deployable sensors, such as body-worn cameras. We give an extensive overview of recent developments in two communities: in the behavioral-science community the developments that improve deception detection with a special attention to the observed relevant non-verbal cues, and in the computer-vision community the recent methods that are able to measure these cues. The cues are extracted from several body parts: the eyes, the mouth, the head and the fullbody pose. We performed an experiment using several state-of-the-art video-content-analysis (VCA) techniques to assess the quality of robustly measuring these visual cues.

  1. CFD research, parallel computation and aerodynamic optimization (United States)

    Ryan, James S.


    Over five years of research in Computational Fluid Dynamics and its applications are covered in this report. Using CFD as an established tool, aerodynamic optimization on parallel architectures is explored. The objective of this work is to provide better tools to vehicle designers. Submarine design requires accurate force and moment calculations in flow with thick boundary layers and large separated vortices. Low noise production is critical, so flow into the propulsor region must be predicted accurately. The High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) has been the subject of recent work. This vehicle is to be a passenger vehicle with the capability of cutting overseas flight times by more than half. A successful design must surpass the performance of comparable planes. Fuel economy, other operational costs, environmental impact, and range must all be improved substantially. For all these reasons, improved design tools are required, and these tools must eventually integrate optimization, external aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, heat transfer and other disciplines.

  2. The dilemma of choosing a reference character for measuring sexual size dimorphism, sexual body component dimorphism, and character scaling: cryptic dimorphism and allometry in the scorpion Hadrurus arizonensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerad A Fox

    Full Text Available Sexual differences in morphology, ranging from subtle to extravagant, occur commonly in many animal species. These differences can encompass overall body size (sexual size dimorphism, SSD or the size and/or shape of specific body parts (sexual body component dimorphism, SBCD. Interacting forces of natural and sexual selection shape much of the expression of dimorphism we see, though non-adaptive processes may be involved. Differential scaling of individual features can result when selection favors either exaggerated (positive allometry or reduced (negative allometry size during growth. Studies of sexual dimorphism and character scaling rely on multivariate models that ideally use an unbiased reference character as an overall measure of body size. We explored several candidate reference characters in a cryptically dimorphic taxon, Hadrurus arizonensis. In this scorpion, essentially every body component among the 16 we examined could be interpreted as dimorphic, but identification of SSD and SBCD depended on which character was used as the reference (prosoma length, prosoma area, total length, principal component 1, or metasoma segment 1 width. Of these characters, discriminant function analysis suggested that metasoma segment 1 width was the most appropriate. The pattern of dimorphism in H. arizonensis mirrored that seen in other more obviously dimorphic scorpions, with static allometry trending towards isometry in most characters. Our findings are consistent with the conclusions of others that fecundity selection likely favors a larger prosoma in female scorpions, whereas sexual selection may favor other body parts being larger in males, especially the metasoma, pectines, and possibly the chela. For this scorpion and probably most other organisms, the choice of reference character profoundly affects interpretations of SSD, SBCD, and allometry. Thus, researchers need to broaden their consideration of an appropriate reference and exercise caution

  3. The dilemma of choosing a reference character for measuring sexual size dimorphism, sexual body component dimorphism, and character scaling: cryptic dimorphism and allometry in the scorpion Hadrurus arizonensis. (United States)

    Fox, Gerad A; Cooper, Allen M; Hayes, William K


    Sexual differences in morphology, ranging from subtle to extravagant, occur commonly in many animal species. These differences can encompass overall body size (sexual size dimorphism, SSD) or the size and/or shape of specific body parts (sexual body component dimorphism, SBCD). Interacting forces of natural and sexual selection shape much of the expression of dimorphism we see, though non-adaptive processes may be involved. Differential scaling of individual features can result when selection favors either exaggerated (positive allometry) or reduced (negative allometry) size during growth. Studies of sexual dimorphism and character scaling rely on multivariate models that ideally use an unbiased reference character as an overall measure of body size. We explored several candidate reference characters in a cryptically dimorphic taxon, Hadrurus arizonensis. In this scorpion, essentially every body component among the 16 we examined could be interpreted as dimorphic, but identification of SSD and SBCD depended on which character was used as the reference (prosoma length, prosoma area, total length, principal component 1, or metasoma segment 1 width). Of these characters, discriminant function analysis suggested that metasoma segment 1 width was the most appropriate. The pattern of dimorphism in H. arizonensis mirrored that seen in other more obviously dimorphic scorpions, with static allometry trending towards isometry in most characters. Our findings are consistent with the conclusions of others that fecundity selection likely favors a larger prosoma in female scorpions, whereas sexual selection may favor other body parts being larger in males, especially the metasoma, pectines, and possibly the chela. For this scorpion and probably most other organisms, the choice of reference character profoundly affects interpretations of SSD, SBCD, and allometry. Thus, researchers need to broaden their consideration of an appropriate reference and exercise caution in interpreting

  4. A Comprehensive Analytical Model of Rotorcraft Aerodynamics and Dynamics. Part 1. Analysis Development (United States)


    The perturbation velozity components are due to the blade degrees of freedom, the shaft motion, and the aerodynamic gust velocity: -tA 4- + V(. o ) -A...gimballed, and teetering rotors with an arbitrary number of blades. The rotor degrees of freedom included are blade flap/lag bending, rigid pitch and elastic...tunnel is also covered. The aircraft degrees of freedom included are the six rigid body motions, elastic airframe motions, and the rotor/engine speed

  5. Aerodynamic Ground Effect in Fruitfly Sized Insect Takeoff.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Kolomenskiy

    Full Text Available Aerodynamic ground effect in flapping-wing insect flight is of importance to comparative morphologies and of interest to the micro-air-vehicle (MAV community. Recent studies, however, show apparently contradictory results of either some significant extra lift or power savings, or zero ground effect. Here we present a numerical study of fruitfly sized insect takeoff with a specific focus on the significance of leg thrust and wing kinematics. Flapping-wing takeoff is studied using numerical modelling and high performance computing. The aerodynamic forces are calculated using a three-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver based on a pseudo-spectral method with volume penalization. It is coupled with a flight dynamics solver that accounts for the body weight, inertia and the leg thrust, while only having two degrees of freedom: the vertical and the longitudinal horizontal displacement. The natural voluntary takeoff of a fruitfly is considered as reference. The parameters of the model are then varied to explore possible effects of interaction between the flapping-wing model and the ground plane. These modified takeoffs include cases with decreased leg thrust parameter, and/or with periodic wing kinematics, constant body pitch angle. The results show that the ground effect during natural voluntary takeoff is negligible. In the modified takeoffs, when the rate of climb is slow, the difference in the aerodynamic forces due to the interaction with the ground is up to 6%. Surprisingly, depending on the kinematics, the difference is either positive or negative, in contrast to the intuition based on the helicopter theory, which suggests positive excess lift. This effect is attributed to unsteady wing-wake interactions. A similar effect is found during hovering.

  6. Thrust Control Features for Aerodynamic Throat for Solid Rocket Motor%固体火箭发动机气动喉部的推力调控特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢侃; 李博; 郭常超; 王宁飞


    为了研究固体火箭发动机气动喉部推力调节的一般规律,利用氮气作为介质对气动喉部喷管进行了冷流实验研究。研究了该种喷管的扼流性能,二次流嘴的面积、个数对其扼流性能的影响以及空腔容积与喷管压强调节时间的关系。掌握了气动喉部喷管的有效喉部面积随流量比变化的一般规律。结果表明,二次流与主流流量比越大,气动喉部面积越小。小的面积比具有更高的扼流性能,而当流量比大于0.4时,面积比对扼流性能无明显影响。空腔体积越小压强调节时间越短。%Adjust:In order to study the general rules of the thrust control features for aerodynamic throat for solid rocket motor, a cold-flow test research was performed on the aerodynamic nozzle throat using the nitrogen as working gas. Firstly, the choke performance of the aerodynamic throat was studied. Then, the performance of throat modification was studied considering the influence of area and number of secondary flow injectors. Final⁃ly,the relation about the volume of cavity with adjustment time of nozzle was also studied. The general law of ef⁃fective throat area along with the flow rate change was obtained through study. The results show that the larger the flow ratio of the secondary flow and main flow is, the smaller the pneumatic throat area is. The smaller area ratio has higher choke performance,and the influence of area is not obvious when the flow rate is greater than 0.4. Be⁃sides,the smaller the cavity volume is,the shorter the accommodation time of pressure is.

  7. Counterregulation of insulin by leptin as key component of autonomic regulation of body weight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Katarina; T; Borer


    A re-examination of the mechanism controlling eating, locomotion, and metabolism prompts formulation of a new explanatory model containing five features: a coordinating joint role of the(1) autonomic nervous system(ANS);(2) the suprachiasmatic(SCN) master clock in counterbalancing parasympathetic digestive and absorptive functions and feeding with sympathetic locomotor and thermogenic energy expenditure within a circadian framework;(3) interaction of the ANS/SCN command with brain substrates of reward encompassing dopaminergic projections to ventral striatum and limbic and cortical forebrain. These drive the nonhomeostatic feeding and locomotor motivated behaviors in interaction with circulating ghrelin and lateral hypothalamic neurons signaling through melanin concentrating hormone and orexin-hypocretin peptides;(4) counterregulation of insulin by leptin of both gastric and adipose tissue origin through: potentiation by leptin of cholecystokinin-mediated satiation, inhibition of insulin secretion, suppression of insulin lipogenesis by leptin lipolysis, and modulation of peripheral tissue and brain sensitivity to insulin action. Thus weight-loss induced hypoleptimia raises insulin sensitivity and promotes its parasympathetic anabolic actions while obesity-induced hyperleptinemia supresses insulin lipogenic action; and(5) inhibition by leptin of bone mineral accrual suggesting that leptin may contribute to the maintenance of stability of skeletal, lean-body, as well as adipose tissue masses.

  8. Multi-center MRI carotid plaque component segmentation using feature normalization and transfer learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Engelen, Arna; van Dijk, Anouk C; Truijman, Martine T.B.


    with two approaches that use little or no annotated same-center data. These approaches additionally use an annotated set of differentcenter data. We evaluate 1) a non-linear feature normalization approach, and 2) two transfer-learning algorithms that use same and different-center data with different...... weights. Results showed that the best results were obtained for a combination of feature normalization and transfer learning. While for the other approaches significant differences in voxelwise or mean volume errors were found compared with the reference samecenter training, the proposed approach did...... not yield significant differences from that reference. We conclude that both extensive feature normalization and transfer learning can be valuable for the development of supervised methods that perform well on different types of datasets....

  9. Minimum-fuel aerodynamic orbital plane change maneuvers. [for Space Shuttle Orbiters (United States)

    Joosten, B. K.; Pierson, B. L.


    Several minimum-fuel, aerodynamically controlled, orbital plane change problems are formulated and solved as optimal control problems. A gradient projection algorithm is used to iteratively modify both the control functions, angle of attack and bank angle, and two control parameters to obtain the optimal trajectory. The atmospheric flight profile is combined with two Keplerian (two-body vacuum flight) arcs so that a complete orbit-to-orbit analysis results. The vehicle used in this investigation is the Space Transportation System Shuttle Orbiter. The effects of heat load constraint level and plane change angle are analysed.

  10. The 6 $\\mu$m Feature as A Tracer of Aliphatic Components of Interstellar Carbonaceous Grains

    CERN Document Server

    Hsia, Chih-Hao; Zhang, Yong; Kwok, Sun


    An unidentified infrared emission (UIE) feature at 6.0 $\\mu$m is detected in a number of astronomical sources showing the UIE bands. In contrast to the previous suggestion that this band is due to C=O vibrational modes, we suggest that the 6.0 $\\mu$m feature arises from olefinic double-bond functional groups. These groups are likely to be attached to aromatic rings which are responsible for the major UIE bands. The possibility that the formation of these functional groups is related to the hydrogenation process is discussed.

  11. Recumbent vs. upright bicycles: 3D trajectory of body centre of mass, limb mechanical work, and operative range of propulsive muscles. (United States)

    Telli, Riccardo; Seminati, Elena; Pavei, Gaspare; Minetti, Alberto Enrico


    Recumbent bicycles (RB) are high performance, human-powered vehicles. In comparison to normal/upright bicycles (NB) the RB may allow individuals to reach higher speeds due to aerodynamic advantages. The purpose of this investigation was to compare the non-aerodynamic factors that may potentially influence the performance of the two bicycles. 3D body centre of mass (BCoM) trajectory, its symmetries, and the components of the total mechanical work necessary to sustain cycling were assessed through 3D kinematics and computer simulations. Data collected at 50, 70, 90 110 rpm during stationary cycling were used to drive musculoskeletal modelling simulation and estimate muscle-tendon length. Results demonstrated that BCoM trajectory, confined in a 15-mm side cube, changed its orientation, maintaining a similar pattern across all cadences in both bicycles. RB displayed a reduced additional mechanical external power (16.1 ± 9.7 W on RB vs. 20.3 ± 8.8 W on NB), a greater symmetry on the progression axis, and no differences in the internal mechanical power compared to NB. Simulated muscle activity revealed small significant differences for only selected muscles. On the RB, quadriceps and gluteus demonstrated greater shortening, while biceps femoris, iliacus, and psoas exhibited greater stretch; however, aerodynamics still remains the principal benefit.

  12. Direct and maternal (co)variance components and heritability estimates for body weights in Chokla sheep. (United States)

    Kushwaha, B P; Mandal, A; Arora, A L; Kumar, R; Kumar, S; Notter, D R


    Estimates of (co)variance components were obtained for weights at birth, weaning and 6, 9 and 12 months of age in Chokla sheep maintained at the Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute, Avikanagar, Rajasthan, India, over a period of 21 years (1980-2000). Records of 2030 lambs descended from 150 rams and 616 ewes were used in the study. Analyses were carried out by restricted maximum likelihood (REML) fitting an animal model and ignoring or including maternal genetic or permanent environmental effects. Six different animal models were fitted for all traits. The best model was chosen after testing the improvement of the log-likelihood values. Direct heritability estimates were inflated substantially for all traits when maternal effects were ignored. Heritability estimates for weight at birth, weaning and 6, 9 and 12 months of age were 0.20, 0.18, 0.16, 0.22 and 0.23, respectively in the best models. Additive maternal and maternal permanent environmental effects were both significant at birth, accounting for 9% and 12% of phenotypic variance, respectively, but the source of maternal effects (additive versus permanent environmental) at later ages could not be clearly identified. The estimated repeatabilities across years of ewe effects on lamb body weights were 0.26, 0.14, 0.12, 0.13, and 0.15 at birth, weaning, 6, 9 and 12 months of age, respectively. These results indicate that modest rates of genetic progress are possible for all weights.

  13. Successful Bullying Prevention Programs: Influence of Research Design, Implementation Features, and Program Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryanna Hahn Fox


    Full Text Available Bullying prevention programs have been shown to be generally effective in reducing bullying and victimization. However, the effects are relatively small in randomized experiments and greater in quasi-experimental and age-cohort designs. Programs that are more intensive and of longer duration (for both children and teachers are more effective, as are programs containing more components. Several program components are associated with large effect sizes, including parent training or meetings and teacher training. These results should inform the design and evaluation of anti-bullying programs in the future, and a system ofaccreditation of effective programs.

  14. Modal identities for elastic bodies, with application to vehicle dynamics and control (United States)

    Hughes, P. C.


    It is a standard procedure to analyze a flexible vehicle in terms of its vibration frequencies and mode shapes. However, the entire mode shape is not needed per se, but two integrals of the mode shape, pi and hi, which correspond to the momentum and angular momentum in Mode i. Together with the natural frequencies omega-i, these modal parameters satisfy several important identities, 25 of which are derived in this paper. Expansions in terms of both constrained and unconstrained modes are considered. A simple illustrative example is included. The paper concludes with some remarks on the theoretical and practical utility of these results, and several potential extensions to the theory are suggested.

  15. Ares I Aerodynamic Testing at the Boeing Polysonic Wind Tunnel (United States)

    Pinier, Jeremy T.; Niskey, Charles J.; Hanke, Jeremy L.; Tomek, William G.


    Throughout three full design analysis cycles, the Ares I project within the Constellation program has consistently relied on the Boeing Polysonic Wind Tunnel (PSWT) for aerodynamic testing of the subsonic, transonic and supersonic portions of the atmospheric flight envelope (Mach=0.5 to 4.5). Each design cycle required the development of aerodynamic databases for the 6 degree-of-freedom (DOF) forces and moments, as well as distributed line-loads databases covering the full range of Mach number, total angle-of-attack, and aerodynamic roll angle. The high fidelity data collected in this facility has been consistent with the data collected in NASA Langley s Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel (UPWT) at the overlapping condition ofMach=1.6. Much insight into the aerodynamic behavior of the launch vehicle during all phases of flight was gained through wind tunnel testing. Important knowledge pertaining to slender launch vehicle aerodynamics in particular was accumulated. In conducting these wind tunnel tests and developing experimental aerodynamic databases, some challenges were encountered and are reported as lessons learned in this paper for the benefit of future crew launch vehicle aerodynamic developments.

  16. Omphalocele, exstrophy of cloaca, imperforate anus and spinal defect (OEIS Complex) with overlapping features of body stalk anomaly (limb body wall complex) (United States)

    Mandrekar, Suresh R. S.; Amoncar, Sangeeta; Banaulikar, Siddhartha; Sawant, Vishal; Pinto, R. G. W.


    OEIS is an extremely rare constellation of malformations, which includes omphalocele, exstrophy of cloaca, imperforate anus, and spinal defect. We report here autopsy findings in a case of OEIS complex, which apart from the major anomalies of the complex had bilateral club foot that is, congenital talipes equinovarus, right hydroureter, and body stalk anomaly. The umbilical cord was absent, and the umbilical vessels were embedded in an amniotic sheet, which connected the skin margin of the anterior body wall defect to the placenta, this feature being the hallmark of limb body wall complex (LBWC). This case further supports the view that OEIS and LBWC represent a continuous spectrum of abnormalities rather than separate conditions and may share a common etiology and pathogenetic mechanism as proposed by some authors. PMID:25400352

  17. Relationship of Heath and Carter's Second Component to Lean Body Mass and Height in College Women (United States)

    Slaughter, M. H.; And Others


    The Heath and Carter approach to determining somatotypes is less accurate than is regression analysis, mainly because of the lack of association between skeletal widths and lean body mass as measured by body density and whole-body fat percentage, holding constant muscle circumference. (Author)

  18. Energy Efficiency Comparison between Hydraulic Hybrid and Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Shiun Chen


    Full Text Available Conventional vehicles tend to consume considerable amounts of fuel, which generates exhaust gases and environmental pollution during intermittent driving cycles. Therefore, prospective vehicle designs favor improved exhaust emissions and energy consumption without compromising vehicle performance. Although pure electric vehicles feature high performance and low pollution characteristics, their limitations are their short driving range and high battery costs. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs are comparatively environmentally friendly and energy efficient, but cost substantially more compared with conventional vehicles. Hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHVs are mainly operated using engines, or using alternate combinations of engine and hydraulic power sources while vehicles accelerate. When the hydraulic system accumulator is depleted, the conventional engine reengages; concurrently, brake-regenerated power is recycled and reused by employing hydraulic motor–pump modules in circulation patterns to conserve fuel and recycle brake energy. This study adopted MATLAB Simulink to construct complete HHV and HEV models for backward simulations. New European Driving Cycles were used to determine the changes in fuel economy. The output of power components and the state-of-charge of energy could be retrieved. Varying power component models, energy storage component models, and series or parallel configurations were combined into seven different vehicle configurations: the conventional manual transmission vehicle, series hybrid electric vehicle, series hydraulic hybrid vehicle, parallel hybrid electric vehicle, parallel hydraulic hybrid vehicle, purely electric vehicle, and hydraulic-electric hybrid vehicle. The simulation results show that fuel consumption was 21.80% lower in the series hydraulic hybrid vehicle compared to the series hybrid electric vehicle; additionally, fuel consumption was 3.80% lower in the parallel hybrid electric vehicle compared to the

  19. Study on aerodynamic performances of a vehicle for the catenary maintenance under crosswinds%强侧风条件下接触网检修作业车气动性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘金明; 刘堂红; 苏新超


    Since the lack of researches on the operation safety for catenary maintenance vehicle under strong cross wind,the aerodynamic performance of catenary maintenance vehicle under different wind -break facilities, different railway conditions,and different cross wind were performed using three dimensional incompressible Navier -Stokes equation and k -εturbulence model.The results show that,with an increase in embankment height in the condition of wind -break wall,the vehicle overturning moment increases when the yaw angle is small,and decreases when the yaw angle is larger.The inflection point variced from 45°to 60°,Where specific numerical value wasrelated to the wind wall type.Where there is none of the wind wall,with an increase in em-bankment height,the vehicle overturning increases when β≤60°and decreases when β>60°.When car work platform rises and rotates from -120°to 120°,the overturning moment would reach its maximum at 30°and minimum at -90°.%针对接触网检修作业车自轮运转特种设备在大风天气下运行及作业安全标准研究的缺乏,采用三维、不可压 N -S方程和 k -ε双方程湍流模型,计算不同防风设施、不同路况和不同环境风风速风向条件对接触网作业车气动性能的影响规律。研究结果表明:有挡风墙下,侧滑角较小时,随着路堤高度的增加,车辆倾覆力矩增大;侧滑角较大时,随着路堤高度的增加,车辆倾覆力矩减小;其拐点在45°~60°左右,具体数值与挡风墙类型有关。无挡风墙下,当侧滑角β≤60°时,车辆气动倾覆力矩随着路堤高度的增高而增大;当侧滑角β>60°时,车辆气动倾覆力矩随路堤高度的增高变化不大。接触网作业车工作平台升起、在-120°~120°转动时,30°左右时整车的倾覆力矩最大,-90°左右时最小。

  20. INTRSECT: single-component targeting of cells using multiple-feature Boolean logic (United States)

    Fenno, Lief E.; Mattis, Joanna; Ramakrishnan, Charu; Hyun, Minsuk; Lee, Soo Yeun; He, Miao; Tucciarone, Jason; Selimbeyoglu, Aslihan; Berndt, Andre; Grosenick, Logan; Zalocusky, Kelly A.; Bernstein, Hannah; Swanson, Haley; Perry, Chelsey; Diester, Ilka; Boyce, Frederick M.; Bass, Caroline E.; Neve, Rachael; Huang, Z. Josh; Deisseroth, Karl


    Precisely defining the roles of specific cell types is an intriguing and challenging frontier in the study of intact biological systems, and has stimulated the rapid development of genetically-encoded observation and control tools. However, targeting these tools with adequate specificity remains challenging: most cell types are best defined by the intersection of two or more features such as active promoter elements, location, and connectivity. Here we have combined recombinase tools with engineered introns to achieve expression of genetically-encoded payloads conditional upon multiple cell-type features, using Boolean logical operations all governed by a single versatile vector. We use this approach to target intersectionally-specified populations of inhibitory interneurons in mammalian hippocampus and neurons of the ventral tegmental area defined by both genetic and wiring properties. This flexible and modular approach may expand the application of genetically-encoded interventional and observational tools for intact-systems biology. PMID:24908100

  1. Component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibor Tot


    Full Text Available A unique case of metaplastic breast carcinoma with an epithelial component showing tumoral necrosis and neuroectodermal stromal component is described. The tumor grew rapidly and measured 9 cm at the time of diagnosis. No lymph node metastases were present. The disease progressed rapidly and the patient died two years after the diagnosis from a hemorrhage caused by brain metastases. The morphology and phenotype of the tumor are described in detail and the differential diagnostic options are discussed.

  2. Comparison of Point and Line Features and Their Combination for Rigid Body Motion Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilz, Florian; Pugeault, Nicolas; Krüger, Norbert


    means of SIFT descriptors). All features are then matched across stereo and time, and we use these correspondences to estimate the RBM by solving the 3D-2D pose estimation problem. We test dierent feature sets on various stereo image sequences, recorded in realistic outdoor and indoor scenes. We...

  3. Conceptual shape optimization of entry vehicles applied to capsules and winged fuselage vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Dirkx, Dominic


    This book covers the parameterization of entry capsules, including Apollo capsules and planetary probes, and winged entry vehicles such as the Space Shuttle and lifting bodies. The aerodynamic modelling is based on a variety of panel methods that take shadowing into account, and it has been validated with flight and wind tunnel data of Apollo and the Space Shuttle. The shape optimization is combined with constrained trajectory analysis, and the multi-objective approach provides the engineer with a Pareto front of optimal shapes. The method detailed in Conceptual Shape Optimization of Entry Vehicles is straightforward, and the output gives the engineer insight in the effect of shape variations on trajectory performance. All applied models and algorithms used are explained in detail, allowing for reconstructing the design tool to the researcher’s requirements. Conceptual Shape Optimization of Entry Vehicles will be of interest to both researchers and graduate students in the field of aerospace engineering, an...

  4. The design features of the body of the portable electrocardiograph «ECG-EXPRESS» (United States)

    Seryakov, V.; Khmelevsky, Yu; Mamontov, G.


    The sequence of the industrial product shaping is specified, the main modeling characteristics of the configuration and some of its parts are designated subject to the electrocardiograph design and the technologies used for the production of its body.

  5. Features of protein-protein interactions in two-component signaling deduced from genomic libraries. (United States)

    White, Robert A; Szurmant, Hendrik; Hoch, James A; Hwa, Terence


    As more and more sequence data become available, new approaches for extracting information from these data become feasible. This chapter reports on one such method that has been applied to elucidate protein-protein interactions in bacterial two-component signaling pathways. The method identifies residues involved in the interaction through an analysis of over 2500 functionally coupled proteins and a precise determination of the substitutional constraints placed on one protein by its signaling mate. Once identified, a simple log-likelihood scoring procedure is applied to these residues to build a predictive tool for assigning signaling mates. The ability to apply this method is based on a proliferation of related domains within multiple organisms. Paralogous evolution through gene duplication and divergence of two-component systems has commonly resulted in tens of closely related interacting pairs within one organism with a roughly one-to-one correspondence between signal and response. This provides us with roughly an order of magnitude more protein pairs than there are unique, fully sequenced bacterial species. Consequently, this chapter serves as both a detailed exposition of the method that has provided more depth to our knowledge of bacterial signaling and a look ahead to what would be possible on a more widespread scale, that is, to protein-protein interactions that have only one example per genome, as the number of genomes increases by a factor of 10.

  6. Investigation on high angle of attack characteristics of hypersonic space vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Wei; LI ShiBin; LIU Jun; WANG ZhenGuo


    The high angle of attack characteristics play an important role in the aerodynamic performances of the hypersonic space vehicle.The three-dimensional Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations and the two-equation RNG k-ε turbulence model have been employed to investigate the influence of the high angle of attack on the lift-to-drag ratio and the flow field characteristics of the hypersonic space vehicle,and the contributions of each component to the aerodynamic forces of the vehicle have been discussed as well.At the same time,in order to validate the numerical method,the predicted results have been compared with the available experimental data of a hypersonic slender vehicle,and the grid independency has been analyzed.The obtained results show that the predicted lift-to-drag ratio and pitching moment coefficient show very good agreement with the experimental data in the open literature,and the grid system makes only a slight difference to the numerical results.There exists an optimal angle of attack for the aerodynamic performance of the hypersonic space vehicle,and its value is 20°.When the angle of attack is 20°,the high pressure does not leak from around the leading edge to the upper surface.With the further increasing of the angle of attack,the high pressure spreads from the wing tips to the central area of the vehicle,and overflows from the leading edge again.Further,the head plays an important role in the drag performance of the vehicle,and the lift percentage of the flaperon is larger than that of the rudderevator.This illustrates that the optimization of the flaperon configuration is a great work for the improvement of the aerodynamic performance of the hypersonic space vehicle,especially for a high lift-to-drag ratio.

  7. Methane emissions measurements of natural gas components using a utility terrain vehicle and portable methane quantification system (United States)

    Johnson, Derek; Heltzel, Robert


    Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions are a growing problem in the United States (US). Methane (CH4) is a potent GHG produced by several stages of the natural gas sector. Current scrutiny focuses on the natural gas boom associated with unconventional shale gas; however, focus should still be given to conventional wells and outdated equipment. In an attempt to quantify these emissions, researchers modified an off-road utility terrain vehicle (UTV) to include a Full Flow Sampling system (FFS) for methane quantification. GHG emissions were measured from non-producing and remote low throughput natural gas components in the Marcellus region. Site audits were conducted at eleven locations and leaks were identified and quantified at seven locations including at a low throughput conventional gas and oil well, two out-of-service gathering compressors, a conventional natural gas well, a coalbed methane well, and two conventional and operating gathering compressors. No leaks were detected at the four remaining sites, all of which were coal bed methane wells. The total methane emissions rate from all sources measured was 5.3 ± 0.23 kg/hr, at a minimum.

  8. Aluminium used as lightweight material for bodies of passenger vehicles; Aluminium als Karosserie-Leichtbauwerkstoff fuer Personenkraftwagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitermann, W. [Audi NSU Auto Union AG, Neckarsulm (Germany)


    The Audi A8 is the first serial vehicle with an overall aluminium car body. The Space Frame construction has led to a weight reduction of 40% compared with steel, while the structural rigidity remains considerably high. The body consists of straight and bent extrusion profiles which are connected by vacuole diecast parts at the gussets. Sheet metals are mainly integrated as supporting parts into the structure. The applied alloys are hardenable AlSi-alloys. MIC arc welding, stamp riveting, clinching and resistance spot welding are applied as joining technologies. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Audi A8 ist das erste Serienfahrzeug mit einer Vollaluminiumkarosserie. Die Space Frame Bauweise fuehrt zu einer Gewichtsreduzierung von 40% gegenueber Stahl, wobei die Struktursteifigkeit auf einem sehr hohen Niveau liegt. Die Struktur besteht aus geraden und gebogenen Strangpressprofilen, die in den Knotenpunkten durch Vacural-Druckgussteile miteinander verbunden sind. Blechteile werden zum Grossteil tragend in diese Struktur integriert. Bei den zum Einsatz kommenden Legierungen handelt es sich um aushaertbare AlSi-Legierungen. Als Verbindungstechnik wird das MIG-Schweissen, Stanznieten, Clinchen und Widerstandspunktschweissen eingesetzt. (orig.)

  9. Localization Features of Loose Bodies in Secondary Synovial Chondromatosis of the Knee Joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çiğdem Özkara Bilgili


    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate the relationship of cartilage loss in tibiofemoral and patellofemoral joints with the number, size and location of loose bodies in secondary synovial chondromatosis (SC. Methods: Eighty-eight patients with secondary SC were evaluated retrospectively. The size and location of loose bodies were evaluated by both X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging. The relationship between cartilage lesions and the number, location and size of loose bodies were assessed by Chi-square test and Fisher’s exact test. Results: When the relationship between the presence of loose body and cartilage damage was evaluated, it was observed that 83% of subjects (n=74 had cartilage loss at the tibiofemoral joint, 75% (n=66 on the medial and 9% (n=8 of patients had on the lateral side. It was determined that when the number of loose bodies was ≤5, the mean diameter was 7.3 mm (2-21 mm. It was 12.7 mm (2-30 mm when the number was >5. The most frequently affected locations were the posterior compartment of the posterior cruciate ligament and the superior compartment of the popliteal fossa, regardless of the degree of cartilage loss. Conclusion: We concluded that the higher the cartilage damage, the higher the number and size of loose bodies. We assume that our study provides insight into further investigations to study new classification system for secondary SC in the knee joint.

  10. Effects of Dietary Male and Female Ferula Eleaochytris Powder on Growth Performance and Body Components of Broiler Chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Duru


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary addition of male and female Ferula eleaochytris powder (FEP on growth performance and body components of broilers (Ross-308. Treatment groups were allocated to 5 dietary in which 0 (control, 5 g and 10 g male FEP, 5 g and 10 g female FEP doses per kg commercial broiler diet. In total, 80 male broiler chicks (1-d old in which 16 animals in each group were used in study. Body weight gain and feed intake were monitored weekly for 6 weeks. Forty two days old broiler chicks were slaughtered to determine the possible changes in body components. The results of the study indicated that FEP had no effect on any parameters. However; the weight of the control group gave higher values than 5 g male Ferula group. In conclusion the measured parameters had no effect between all groups.

  11. Sand transverse dune aerodynamics: 3D Coherent Flow Structures from a computational study

    CERN Document Server

    Bruno, Luca


    The engineering interest about dune fields is dictated by the their interaction with a number of human infrastructures in arid environments. The aerodynamic behaviour of sand dunes in atmospheric boundary layer belongs to the class of bluff bodies. Because of their simple geometry and their frequent occurrence in desert area, transverse sand dunes are usually adopted in literature as a benchmark to investigate dune aerodynamics by means of both computational or experimental approach, usually in nominally 2D setups. The writers suspect the flow in the wake is characterised by 3D features and affected by wind tunnel setup - e.g. blockage effect, duct side wall boundary layer, incoming velocity profile - when experimental studies are carried out. The present study aims at evaluating the 3D flow features of an idealised transverse dune under different setup conditions by means of computational simulations and to compare the obtained results with experimental measurements.

  12. Potential for monitoring soil erosion features and soil erosion modeling components from remotely sensed data (United States)

    Langran, K. J.


    Accurate estimates of soil erosion and its effects on soil productivity are essential in agricultural decision making and planning from the field scale to the national level. Erosion models have been primarily developed for designing erosion control systems, predicting sediment yield for reservoir design, predicting sediment transport, and simulating water quality. New models proposed are more comprehensive in that the necessary components (hydrology, erosion-sedimentation, nutrient cycling, tillage, etc.) are linked in a model appropriate for studying the erosion-productivity problem. Recent developments in remote sensing systems, such as Landsat Thematic Mapper, Shuttle Imaging Radar (SIR-B), etc., can contribute significantly to the future development and operational use of these models.

  13. Multi-objective component sizing of a power-split plug-in hybrid electric vehicle powertrain using Pareto-based natural optimization machines (United States)

    Mozaffari, Ahmad; Vajedi, Mahyar; Chehresaz, Maryyeh; Azad, Nasser L.


    The urgent need to meet increasingly tight environmental regulations and new fuel economy requirements has motivated system science researchers and automotive engineers to take advantage of emerging computational techniques to further advance hybrid electric vehicle and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) designs. In particular, research has focused on vehicle powertrain system design optimization, to reduce the fuel consumption and total energy cost while improving the vehicle's driving performance. In this work, two different natural optimization machines, namely the synchronous self-learning Pareto strategy and the elitism non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm, are implemented for component sizing of a specific power-split PHEV platform with a Toyota plug-in Prius as the baseline vehicle. To do this, a high-fidelity model of the Toyota plug-in Prius is employed for the numerical experiments using the Autonomie simulation software. Based on the simulation results, it is demonstrated that Pareto-based algorithms can successfully optimize the design parameters of the vehicle powertrain.

  14. The effect of swimming training on body composition and motoric features in adult sedentary young men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Aykut Aysan


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate theeffect of 8 week of swimming training program on motoricfeatures, resting heart rate, blood pressure, andbody composition in young sedentary men.Materials and methods: Forty volunteers aged between20 and 29 years participated in the research. The participants’body weight, percentage of body fat, body massindex, flexibility, push-up, shuttle, horizontal-verticaljump and 20-meter sprint were measured and comparedbefore and after the 8 weeks of swimming training program.Results: At the end of the study, study groups’ measurementswere compared. Significant decreases wereobserved on parameters of percentage of body fat and20 m sprint run between pre-post test (p0.05. Significant increaseswere observed on parameters of push-up, verticaljump (p0.05.Conclusion: Eight weeks swimming training seems toreduce percentage of body fat. It has been observed that8 weeks swimming training increased values of push-up,shuttle and vertical jump. On the other hand, no changewas observed in values of flexibility and horizontal jump.J Clin Exp Invest 2010; 2(1: 69-73

  15. Exploring the Aerodynamic Drag of a Moving Cyclist (United States)

    Theilmann, Florian; Reinhard, Christopher


    Although the physics of cycling itself is a complex mixture of aerodynamics, physiology, mechanics, and heuristics, using cycling as a context for teaching physics has a tradition of certainly more than 30 years. Here, a possible feature is the discussion of the noticeable resistant forces such as aerodynamic drag and the associated power…


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    The myoelastic-aerodynamic model of phonation implies that aerodynamic factors are crucial to the evaluation of voice function, Subglottal pressure and mean flow rate represent the vocal power source. If they can be related to the magnitude of the radiated sound power, they may provide an index of v

  17. Reinforced aerodynamic profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention relates to the prevention of deformations in an aerodynamic profile caused by lack of resistance to the bending moment forces that are created when such a profile is loaded in operation. More specifically, the invention relates to a reinforcing element inside an aerodynamic...

  18. Specific Features of Functioning of Exchanges as Components of the Market Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasenetskyi Volodymyr S.


    Full Text Available The goal of the article lies in generalisation of functions of modern exchanges, analysis of specific features of the organisational and legal status of commodity and stock exchanges in Ukraine, detection of problems in exchange trade development and development of a set of measures for their solution. The article considers an exchange as a poly-functional institute that performs specific functions: organisation of regular trade with financial and tangible assets in the prescribed place and in accordance with the established rules; development of rules of exchange trade and their observance by all participants of the trade; guarantee of execution of the concluded transactions; detection, fixation and monitoring of current prices on exchange commodities. Comparison of the organisational and legal statuses of commodity and stock exchanges in Ukraine showed that stock exchanges have higher entrance barriers (organisational and legal form, minimal size of the authorised capital, order of use of profit, specific registration procedures and licensing of activity. It was found in the result of the study that underdevelopment of the exchange segment of trade in Ukraine, on the one hand, is caused by availability of system problems in the national economic system and, on the other hand, is an inhibitory factor of economic development. Measures on improvement of the state regulation of the exchange trade includes putting in order the organisational and legal status of exchanges, overcoming the existing fragmentariness of trade areas, development of mechanisms of guarantee of execution of the concluded exchange transactions and stimulation of exchanges to introduce modern electronic trade systems. The prospect of further studies in this direction is development of approaches to assessment of effectiveness and efficiency of exchange trade in Ukraine.

  19. Hybrid-Wing-Body Vehicle Composite Fuselage Analysis and Case Study (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Vivek


    Recent progress in the structural analysis of a Hybrid Wing-Body (HWB) fuselage concept is presented with the objective of structural weight reduction under a set of critical design loads. This pressurized efficient HWB fuselage design is presently being investigated by the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) project in collaboration with the Boeing Company, Huntington Beach. The Pultruded Rod-Stiffened Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) composite concept, developed at the Boeing Company, is approximately modeled for an analytical study and finite element analysis. Stiffened plate linear theories are employed for a parametric case study. Maximum deflection and stress levels are obtained with appropriate assumptions for a set of feasible stiffened panel configurations. An analytical parametric case study is presented to examine the effects of discrete stiffener spacing and skin thickness on structural weight, deflection and stress. A finite-element model (FEM) of an integrated fuselage section with bulkhead is developed for an independent assessment. Stress analysis and scenario based case studies are conducted for design improvement. The FEM model specific weight of the improved fuselage concept is computed and compared to previous studies, in order to assess the relative weight/strength advantages of this advanced composite airframe technology

  20. Prediction of Aerodynamic Coefficients using Neural Networks for Sparse Data (United States)

    Rajkumar, T.; Bardina, Jorge; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)


    Basic aerodynamic coefficients are modeled as functions of angles of attack and sideslip with vehicle lateral symmetry and compressibility effects. Most of the aerodynamic parameters can be well-fitted using polynomial functions. In this paper a fast, reliable way of predicting aerodynamic coefficients is produced using a neural network. The training data for the neural network is derived from wind tunnel test and numerical simulations. The coefficients of lift, drag, pitching moment are expressed as a function of alpha (angle of attack) and Mach number. The results produced from preliminary neural network analysis are very good.

  1. Feature constrained compressed sensing CT image reconstruction from incomplete data via robust principal component analysis of the database. (United States)

    Wu, Dufan; Li, Liang; Zhang, Li


    In computed tomography (CT), incomplete data problems such as limited angle projections often cause artifacts in the reconstruction results. Additional prior knowledge of the image has shown the potential for better results, such as a prior image constrained compressed sensing algorithm. While a pre-full-scan of the same patient is not always available, massive well-reconstructed images of different patients can be easily obtained from clinical multi-slice helical CTs. In this paper, a feature constrained compressed sensing (FCCS) image reconstruction algorithm was proposed to improve the image quality by using the prior knowledge extracted from the clinical database. The database consists of instances which are similar to the target image but not necessarily the same. Robust principal component analysis is employed to retrieve features of the training images to sparsify the target image. The features form a low-dimensional linear space and a constraint on the distance between the image and the space is used. A bi-criterion convex program which combines the feature constraint and total variation constraint is proposed for the reconstruction procedure and a flexible method is adopted for a good solution. Numerical simulations on both the phantom and real clinical patient images were taken to validate our algorithm. Promising results are shown for limited angle problems.

  2. Distributed Propulsion featuring Boundary Layer Ingestion Engines for the Blended Wing Body Subsonic Transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, H.J.M.; Voskuijl, M.; Van Tooren, M.J.L.


    The blended wing body aircraft is one of the promising contenders for the next generation large transport aircraft. This aircraft is particularly suitable for the use of boundary layer ingestion engines. Results published in literature suggest that it might be beneficial to have a large number of th

  3. Features of trace metal distribution in the components of the ecosystem of the Lost City hydrothermal vent field (North Atlantic) (United States)

    Demina, L. L.; Lein, A. Yu.; Galkin, S. V.; Lisitzin, A. P.


    The biogeochemical features of the microelement distribution in the components of the ecosystem of the Lost City low-temperature field of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge are determined by the processes of serpentinization in ultrabasic rocks. In the Lost City biotope water, the concentration of trace metals (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Cd, Ni, Cr, Pb, and As) is from n × 10 to 104 times higher than in the ocean water. The microelement content demonstrates a similar character of distribution in both types of calcite biominerals forming the carbonate matrix of the bivalve mussels Bathymodiolus and the scleractinian corals Anthozoa.

  4. A review of dynamic characteristics of magnetically levitated vehicle systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Y.; Chen, S.S.


    The dynamic response of magnetically levitated (maglev) ground transportation systems has important consequences for safety and ride quality, guideway design, and system costs. Ride quality is determined by vehicle response and by environmental factors such as humidity and noise. The dynamic response of the vehicles is the key element in determining ride quality, while vehicle stability is an important safety-related element. To design a guideway that provides acceptable ride quality in the stable region, vehicle dynamics must be understood. Furthermore, the trade-off between guideway smoothness and levitation and control systems must be considered if maglev systems are to be economically feasible. The link between the guideway and the other maglev components is vehicle dynamics. For a commercial maglev system, vehicle dynamics must be analyzed and tested in detail. This report, which reviews various aspects of the dynamic characteristics, experiments and analysis, and design guidelines for maglev systems, discusses vehicle stability, motion dependent magnetic force components, guideway characteristics, vehicle/ guideway interaction, ride quality, suspension control laws, aerodynamic loads and other excitations, and research needs.

  5. Emotional responses to food, body dissatisfaction and other eating disorder features in children, adolescents and young adults. (United States)

    McNamara, Caroline; Hay, Phillipa; Katsikitis, Mary; Chur-Hansen, Anna


    We aimed to assess and compare emotional responses to different foods in relationship to eating disorder and associated features, across gender and age groups. We hypothesized that negative emotional responses to images of foods would be higher in (i) those with higher body dissatisfaction and (ii) older females. Five hundred and thirty-six (18% Grade 5, 39% Grade 8 or 9, and 43% Grade 11 or 12) school, and 93 university students participated. Emotive responses to images of foods were assessed with a PowerPoint presentation of 16 differing food and four 'neutral' images shown over 30s intervals. Responses were rated on three 10-cm visual analog scales measuring levels of happiness, fear and disgust. Body image concern was assessed with the nine-item body dissatisfaction subscale of the EDI and eating disorder symptoms with the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire. With increasing age all three emotional responses towards food fell and body dissatisfaction increased. Compared to females, males showed significantly higher levels of a 'happy' response to food, and in adult females a fear emotive response correlated positively with eating concern and body dissatisfaction. In men, positive emotive responses to food may be indicative of broader factors that reduce their vulnerability to eating disorders.

  6. Aerodynamics of High-Speed Trains (United States)

    Schetz, Joseph A.

    This review highlights the differences between the aerodynamics of high-speed trains and other types of transportation vehicles. The emphasis is on modern, high-speed trains, including magnetic levitation (Maglev) trains. Some of the key differences are derived from the fact that trains operate near the ground or a track, have much greater length-to-diameter ratios than other vehicles, pass close to each other and to trackside structures, are more subject to crosswinds, and operate in tunnels with entry and exit events. The coverage includes experimental techniques and results and analytical and numerical methods, concentrating on the most recent information available.

  7. Are Upper-Body Axial Symptoms a Feature of Early Parkinson’s Disease? (United States)

    Moreau, Caroline; Baille, Guillaume; Delval, Arnaud; Tard, Céline; Perez, Thierry; Danel-Buhl, Nicolas; Seguy, David; Labreuche, Julien; Duhamel, Alain; Delliaux, Marie; Dujardin, Kathy; Defebvre, Luc


    Background Axial disorders are considered to appear late in the course of Parkinson’s disease (PD). The associated impact on quality of life (QoL) and survival and the lack of an effective treatment mean that understanding and treating axial disorders is a key challenge. However, upper-body axial disorders (namely dysarthria, swallowing and breathing disorders) have never been prospectively assessed in early-stage PD patients. Objectives To characterize upper-body axial symptoms and QoL in consecutive patients with early-stage PD. Methods We prospectively enrolled 66 consecutive patients with early-stage PD (less than 3 years of disease progression) and assessed dysarthria, dysphagia and respiratory function (relative to 36 controls) using both objective and patient-reported outcomes. Results The mean disease duration was 1.26 years and the mean UPDRS motor score was 19.4 out of 108. 74% of the patients presented slight dysarthria (primarily dysprosodia). Men appeared to be more severely affected (i.e. dysphonia). This dysfunction was strongly correlated with low swallowing speed (despite the absence of complaints about dysphagia), respiratory insufficiency and poor QoL. Videofluorography showed that oral-phase swallowing disorders affected 60% of the 31 tested patients and that pharyngeal-phase disorders affected 21%. 24% of the patients reported occasional dyspnea, which was correlated with anxiety in women but not in men. Marked diaphragmatic dysfunction was suspected in 42% of the patients (predominantly in men). Conclusion Upper body axial symptoms were frequent in men with early-stage PD, whereas women presented worst non-motor impairments. New assessment methods are required because currently available tools do not reliably detect these upper-body axial disorders. PMID:27654040

  8. A Linear Feature-Based Approach for the Registration of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Remotely-Sensed Images and Airborne LiDAR Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shijie Liu


    Full Text Available Compared with traditional manned airborne photogrammetry, unmanned aerial vehicle remote sensing (UAVRS has the advantages of lower cost and higher flexibility in data acquisition. It has, therefore, found various applications in fields such as three-dimensional (3D mapping, emergency management, and so on. However, due to the instability of the UAVRS platforms and the low accuracy of the onboard exterior orientation (EO observations, the use of direct georeferencing image data leads to large location errors. Light detection and ranging (LiDAR data, which is highly accurate 3D information, is treated as a complementary data source to the optical images. This paper presents a semi-automatic approach for the registration of UAVRS images and airborne LiDAR data based on linear control features. The presented approach consists of three main components, as follows. (1 Buildings are first separated from the point cloud by the integrated use of height and size filtering and RANdom SAmple Consensus (RANSAC plane fitting, and the 3D line segments of the building ridges and boundaries are semi-automatically extracted through plane intersection and boundary regularization with manual selections; (2 the 3D line segments are projected to the image space using the initial EO parameters to obtain the approximate locations, and all the corresponding 2D line segments are semi-automatically extracted from the UAVRS images. Meanwhile, the tie points of the UAVRS images are generated using a Förstner operator and least-squares image matching; and (3 by use of the equations derived from the coplanarity constraints of the linear control features and the colinear constraints of the tie points, block bundle adjustment is carried out to update the EO parameters of the UAVRS images in the coordinate framework of the LiDAR data, achieving the co-registration of the two datasets. Experiments were performed to demonstrate the validity and effectiveness of the presented

  9. Perching aerodynamics and trajectory optimization (United States)

    Wickenheiser, Adam; Garcia, Ephrahim


    Advances in smart materials, actuators, and control architecture have enabled new flight capabilities for aircraft. Perching is one such capability, described as a vertical landing maneuver using in-flight shape reconfiguration in lieu of high thrust generation. A morphing, perching aircraft design is presented that is capable of post stall flight and very slow landing on a vertical platform. A comprehensive model of the aircraft's aerodynamics, with special regard to nonlinear affects such as flow separation and dynamic stall, is discussed. Trajectory optimization using nonlinear programming techniques is employed to show the effects that morphing and nonlinear aerodynamics have on the maneuver. These effects are shown to decrease the initial height and distance required to initiate the maneuver, reduce the bounds on the trajectory, and decrease the required thrust for the maneuver. Perching trajectories comparing morphing versus fixed-configuration and stalled versus un-stalled aircraft are presented. It is demonstrated that a vertical landing is possible in the absence of high thrust if post-stall flight capabilities and vehicle reconfiguration are utilized.

  10. Characterization of relative growth of empty body and carcass components for bulls from a five-breed diallel. (United States)

    Baker, J F; Bryson, W L; Sanders, J O; Dahm, P F; Cartwright, T C; Ellis, W C; Long, C R


    Slaughter and carcass data were obtained on 197 bulls produced in a diallel involving Angus, Brahman, Hereford, Holstein and Jersey that were slaughtered at either 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 24, or 30 mo of age. Bulls were given ad libitum access to a 72% TDN diet on an individual basis from 6 mo of age until slaughter. Empty body weight (EBWT) was determined as the sum of the weights of blood, hide, hard drop, soft drop (minus contents of the digestive tract), and carcass weight (CWT), which were recorded at slaughter. Carcass protein (CPROT) and fat (CFAT) were based on weights and chemical analyses of lean and fat tissue and bone of the carcass. Empty body protein (EBPROT) and fat (EBFAT) were based on weights and chemical estimates of the components of the empty body. Growth of EBWT, EBPROT, EBFAT, CWT, CPROT, and CFAT relative to either live weight (LWT), EBWT, or CWT were investigated using the allometric equation. Breed-type differences existed (P less than .01) for the growth of EBWT relative to LWT. Comparisons of general combining abilities revealed that Angus, Hereford, and Jersey generally had lower maturing rates of EBWT relative to LWT and that Brahman and Holstein had higher maturing rates. Across breed-type, relative growth rates indicated that fat and protein were later-maturing components relative to LWT, EBWT, or CWT, which implies that other components mature relatively earlier. Relative maturing rates of components studied were not important in explaining differences in body composition that have been previously reported for these breed-types.

  11. A Comparing of Body Composition Components in Physically Active and Inactive Male Students of Sharoud University of Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Bahrololoum


    Full Text Available Introduction: Obesity is a serious health problem that reduces life expectancy by increasing one's risk of developing coronary artery disease, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, obstructive pulmonary disease, osteoarthritis and certain types of cancer. Moreover, body composition is divided into fat and fat free mass components. Research shows that physical activity is an important factor that affects body composition. This research aimed at estimating and comparing the body composition components of physically active and inactive male student of Shahroud University of technologyMethods: Participants of this study were 70 inactive male students with average age of (20.86±1.72 years and 65 physically active male students with average age of (20.86±1.72 years. The participants were randomly selected through stratified sampling procedure from various faculties and different admission years. Body composition was estimated with Body composition analyzer system that measured body composition components using bioelectrical impedance method.Results: Data analysis with SPSS-15 software revealed that: average of BF% in physically active sample was (13.43±3.15 and average of inactive samples was (16.73±6.16 which statistically showed significant difference (P<0.001 ; the LBM in physically active samples was (60.27±8.05 Kg and average of inactive samples was (56.43±7.6 Kg which statistically showed significant difference (P<0.005; the average of BMI in physically active sample was (22.62±2.8 kgm and average of inactive samples was (22.25±3.84 kgm which statistically did not show significant difference (P=0.519; the WHR average of physically active samples was (0.798±.03m and average of inactive samples was (0.81±.06m and there was not a significant difference between the two groups. Conclusion: These results revealed that body composition of physically active students were better than that of the inactive ones, so it can be concluded that there is a

  12. A principal component meta-analysis on multiple anthropometric traits identifies novel loci for body shape (United States)

    Ried, Janina S.; Jeff M., Janina; Chu, Audrey Y.; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L.; van Dongen, Jenny; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S.; Cadby, Gemma; Eklund, Niina; Eriksson, Joel; Esko, Tõnu; Feitosa, Mary F.; Goel, Anuj; Gorski, Mathias; Hayward, Caroline; Heard-Costa, Nancy L.; Jackson, Anne U.; Jokinen, Eero; Kanoni, Stavroula; Kristiansson, Kati; Kutalik, Zoltán; Lahti, Jari; Luan, Jian'an; Mägi, Reedik; Mahajan, Anubha; Mangino, Massimo; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Monda, Keri L.; Nolte, Ilja M.; Pérusse, Louis; Prokopenko, Inga; Qi, Lu; Rose, Lynda M.; Salvi, Erika; Smith, Megan T.; Snieder, Harold; Stančáková, Alena; Ju Sung, Yun; Tachmazidou, Ioanna; Teumer, Alexander; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; van der Harst, Pim; Walker, Ryan W.; Wang, Sophie R.; Wild, Sarah H.; Willems, Sara M.; Wong, Andrew; Zhang, Weihua; Albrecht, Eva; Couto Alves, Alexessander; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Barlassina, Cristina; Bartz, Traci M.; Beilby, John; Bellis, Claire; Bergman, Richard N.; Bergmann, Sven; Blangero, John; Blüher, Matthias; Boerwinkle, Eric; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Campbell, Harry; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Chiang, Charleston W. K.; Chines, Peter S.; Collins, Francis S; Cucca, Fracensco; Cupples, L Adrienne; D'Avila, Francesca; de Geus, Eco J .C.; Dedoussis, George; Dimitriou, Maria; Döring, Angela; Eriksson, Johan G.; Farmaki, Aliki-Eleni; Farrall, Martin; Ferreira, Teresa; Fischer, Krista; Forouhi, Nita G.; Friedrich, Nele; Gjesing, Anette Prior; Glorioso, Nicola; Graff, Mariaelisa; Grallert, Harald; Grarup, Niels; Gräßler, Jürgen; Grewal, Jagvir; Hamsten, Anders; Harder, Marie Neergaard; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hassinen, Maija; Hastie, Nicholas; Hattersley, Andrew Tym; Havulinna, Aki S.; Heliövaara, Markku; Hillege, Hans; Hofman, Albert; Holmen, Oddgeir; Homuth, Georg; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Hui, Jennie; Husemoen, Lise Lotte; Hysi, Pirro G.; Isaacs, Aaron; Ittermann, Till; Jalilzadeh, Shapour; James, Alan L.; Jørgensen, Torben; Jousilahti, Pekka; Jula, Antti; Marie Justesen, Johanne; Justice, Anne E.; Kähönen, Mika; Karaleftheri, Maria; Tee Khaw, Kay; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M.; Kinnunen, Leena; Knekt, Paul B.; Koistinen, Heikki A.; Kolcic, Ivana; Kooner, Ishminder K.; Koskinen, Seppo; Kovacs, Peter; Kyriakou, Theodosios; Laitinen, Tomi; Langenberg, Claudia; Lewin, Alexandra M.; Lichtner, Peter; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Lindström, Jaana; Linneberg, Allan; Lorbeer, Roberto; Lorentzon, Mattias; Luben, Robert; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Männistö, Satu; Manunta, Paolo; Leach, Irene Mateo; McArdle, Wendy L.; Mcknight, Barbara; Mohlke, Karen L.; Mihailov, Evelin; Milani, Lili; Mills, Rebecca; Montasser, May E.; Morris, Andrew P.; Müller, Gabriele; Musk, Arthur W.; Narisu, Narisu; Ong, Ken K.; Oostra, Ben A.; Osmond, Clive; Palotie, Aarno; Pankow, James S.; Paternoster, Lavinia; Penninx, Brenda W.; Pichler, Irene; Pilia, Maria G.; Polašek, Ozren; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Raitakari, Olli T; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, D. C.; Rayner, Nigel W.; Ribel-Madsen, Rasmus; Rice, Treva K.; Richards, Marcus; Ridker, Paul M.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Ryan, Kathy A.; Sanna, Serena; Sarzynski, Mark A.; Scholtens, Salome; Scott, Robert A.; Sebert, Sylvain; Southam, Lorraine; Sparsø, Thomas Hempel; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Stirrups, Kathleen; Stolk, Ronald P.; Strauch, Konstantin; Stringham, Heather M.; Swertz, Morris A.; Swift, Amy J.; Tönjes, Anke; Tsafantakis, Emmanouil; van der Most, Peter J.; Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V.; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Vartiainen, Erkki; Venturini, Cristina; Verweij, Niek; Viikari, Jorma S.; Vitart, Veronique; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Vonk, Judith M.; Waeber, Gérard; Widén, Elisabeth; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wilsgaard, Tom; Winkler, Thomas W.; Wright, Alan F.; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M.; Hua Zhao, Jing; Carola Zillikens, M.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Bouchard, Claude; Chambers, John C.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Cusi, Daniele; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Gieger, Christian; Hansen, Torben; Hicks, Andrew A.; Hu, Frank; Hveem, Kristian; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kajantie, Eero; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Kuh, Diana; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laakso, Markku; Lakka, Timo A.; Lehtimäki, Terho; Metspalu, Andres; Njølstad, Inger; Ohlsson, Claes; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Palmer, Lyle J.; Pedersen, Oluf; Perola, Markus; Peters, Annette; Psaty, Bruce M.; Puolijoki, Hannu; Rauramaa, Rainer; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Schwarz, Peter E. H.; Shudiner, Alan R.; Smit, Jan H.


    Large consortia have revealed hundreds of genetic loci associated with anthropometric traits, one trait at a time. We examined whether genetic variants affect body shape as a composite phenotype that is represented by a combination of anthropometric traits. We developed an approach that calculates averaged PCs (AvPCs) representing body shape derived from six anthropometric traits (body mass index, height, weight, waist and hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio). The first four AvPCs explain >99% of the variability, are heritable, and associate with cardiometabolic outcomes. We performed genome-wide association analyses for each body shape composite phenotype across 65 studies and meta-analysed summary statistics. We identify six novel loci: LEMD2 and CD47 for AvPC1, RPS6KA5/C14orf159 and GANAB for AvPC3, and ARL15 and ANP32 for AvPC4. Our findings highlight the value of using multiple traits to define complex phenotypes for discovery, which are not captured by single-trait analyses, and may shed light onto new pathways. PMID:27876822

  13. The effect of psoriasis treatment on body composition, components of metabolic syndrome and psoriatic arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda Tamer


    Full Text Available Background and Design: Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory immun mediated skin disorder with unknown etiology. The chronic inflammation in psoriasis have role in the development of metabolic and vascular disorders related with associating comorbidities. Recent studies have suggested a strong association exists between metabolic syndrome, obesity and complexity of the association between psoriasis, body mass index (BMI and psoriasis tratment. In this study, our aim was to investigate the effect of psoriasis treatment with methotrexate, cyclosporine and biological agents on body composition, comorbidities and associated laboratory findings. Materials and Methods: Seventy-nine patients treated with methotrexate, cyclosporin and biological agents were included in our study. Demographic characteristics, body composition analysis, psoriasis related comorbidities and laboratory examinations were evaluated before and after 12 weeks of systemic treatment. Results: Comorbidities and metabolic syndrome tended to be more frequent in the anti tumor necrosis factor alpha (anti-TNF-α treated group. Increase in body fat and weight detected in patiens receiving biologic drug therapy. Conclusion: The results of our study showed that severe psoriasis patients with longer disease duration were more likely to have metabolic syndrome because of severe and long term inflammation in pathogenesis of comorbidities.

  14. Shape distortion and thermo-mechanical properties of SOFC components from green tape to sintering body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teocoli, Francesca; Ni, De Wei; Tadesse Molla, Tesfaye;

    to the strain rate difference between materials, was calculated using Cai’s model. Camber (curvature) development for in situ co-firing of a bi-layer ceramic green tape has been investigated. Analysis of shape evolution from green to sintered body can be carried out by the thermo-mechanical analysis techniques....

  15. A principal component meta-analysis on multiple anthropometric traits identifies novel loci for body shape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ried, Janina S; Jeff M, Janina; Chu, Audrey Y


    Large consortia have revealed hundreds of genetic loci associated with anthropometric traits, one trait at a time. We examined whether genetic variants affect body shape as a composite phenotype that is represented by a combination of anthropometric traits. We developed an approach that calculate...

  16. Winter body mass and over-ocean flocking as components of danger management by Pacific dunlins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogden Lesley


    Full Text Available Abstract Background We compared records of the body mass and roosting behavior of Pacific dunlins (Calidris alpina pacifica wintering on the Fraser River estuary in southwest British Columbia between the 1970s and the 1990s. 'Over-ocean flocking' is a relatively safe but energetically-expensive alternative to roosting during the high tide period. Fat stores offer protection against starvation, but are a liability in escape performance, and increase flight costs. Peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus were scarce on the Fraser River estuary in the 1970s, but their numbers have since recovered, and they prey heavily on dunlins. The increase has altered the balance between predation and starvation risks for dunlins, and thus how dunlins regulate roosting behavior and body mass to manage the danger. We therefore predicted an increase in the frequency of over-ocean flocking as well as a decrease in the amount of fat carried by dunlins over these decades. Results Historical observations indicate that over-ocean flocking of dunlins was rare prior to the mid-1990s and became common thereafter. Residual body masses of dunlins were higher in the 1970s, with the greatest difference between the decades coinciding with peak peregrine abundance in October, and shrinking over the course of winter as falcon seasonal abundance declines. Whole-body fat content of dunlins was lower in the 1990s, and accounted for most of the change in body mass. Conclusions Pacific dunlins appear to manage danger in a complex manner that involves adjustments both in fat reserves and roosting behavior. We discuss reasons why over-ocean flocking has apparently become more common on the Fraser estuary than at other dunlin wintering sites.

  17. Aerodynamics support of research instrument development (United States)

    Miller, L. Scott


    A new velocimetry system is currently being developed at NASA LaRC. The device, known as a Doppler global velocimeter (DGV), can record three velocity components within a plane simultaneously and in near real time. To make measurements the DGV, like many other velocimetry systems, relies on the scattering of light from numerous small particles in a flow field. The particles or seeds are illuminated by a sheet of laser light and viewed by two CCD cameras. The scattered light from the particles will have a frequency which is a function of the source laser light frequency, the viewing angle, and most importantly the seed velocities. By determining the scattered light intensity the velocity can be measured at all points within the light sheet simultaneously. Upon completion of DGV component construction and initial check out a series of tests in the Basic Aerodynamic Research (wind) Tunnel (BART) are scheduled to verify instrument operation and accuracy. If the results are satisfactory, application of the DGV to flight measurements on the F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) are planned. The DGV verification test in the BART facility will utilize a 75 degree swept delta wing model. A major task undertaken this summer included evaluation of previous results for this model. A specific series of tests matching exactly the previous tests and exploring new DGV capabilities were developed and suggested. Another task undertaken was to study DGV system installation possibilities in the F-18 HARV aircraft. In addition, a simple seeding system modification was developed and utilized to make Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) measurements in the BART facility.

  18. Features of objectified body consciousness and sociocultural perspectives as risk factors for disordered eating among late-adolescent women and men. (United States)

    Jackson, Todd; Chen, Hong


    Body surveillance and body shame are features of objectified body consciousness (OBC) that have been linked to disordered eating, yet the evidence base is largely cross-sectional and limited to samples in certain Western countries. Furthermore, it is not clear whether these factors contribute to the prediction of eating disturbances independent of conceptually related risk factors emphasized within other sociocultural accounts. In this prospective study, body surveillance, body shame, and features of complementary sociocultural models (i.e., perceived appearance pressure from mass media and close interpersonal networks, appearance social comparisons, negative affect, body dissatisfaction) were assessed as risk factors for and concomitants of eating disturbances over time. University-age, mainland Chinese women (n = 2144) and men (n = 1017) completed validated measures of eating-disorder pathology and hypothesized risk factors at baseline (T1) and 1-year follow-up (T2). Among women, elevations on T1 measures of sociocultural-model features predicted more T2 eating disturbances, independent of T1 disturbances. After controlling for other T1 predictors, body surveillance and shame made modest unique contributions to the model. Finally, heightened T2 body dissatisfaction, media, and interpersonal appearance pressure, negative affect, and body shame predicted concomitant increases in T2 eating concerns. For men, T1 features of sociocultural accounts (negative affect, body dissatisfaction) but not OBC predicted T2 eating disturbances, along with attendant elevations in T2 negative affect, interpersonal appearance pressure, and body shame. Implications are discussed for theory and intervention that target disordered eating.

  19. Repression of GW/P body components and the RNAi microprocessor impacts primary ciliogenesis in human astrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rattner Jerome B


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In most cells, the centriolar component of the centrosome can function as a basal body supporting the formation of a primary cilium, a non-motile sensory organelle that monitors information from the extracellular matrix and relays stimuli into the cell via associated signaling pathways. Defects in the formation and function of primary cilia underlie multiple human diseases and are hallmarks of malignancy. The RNA silencing pathway is involved in the post-transcriptional silencing of > 50% of mRNA that occurs within GW/P bodies. GW/P bodies are found throughout the cytoplasm and previously published live cell imaging data suggested that in a malignant cell type (U2OS, two GW/P bodies reside at the centrosome during interphase. This led us to investigate if a similar relationship exists in primary cells and if the inhibition of the miRNA pathway impairs primary cilium formation. Results Two GW/P bodies as marked by GW182 and hAgo2 colocalized to the basal body of primary human astrocytes as well as human synoviocytes during interphase and specifically with the distal end of the basal body in the pericentriolar region. Since it is technically challenging to examine the two centrosomal GW/P bodies in isolation, we investigated the potential relationship between the global population of GW/P bodies and primary ciliogenesis. Astrocytes were transfected with siRNA directed to GW182 and hAgo2 and unlike control astrocytes, a primary cilium was no longer associated with the centrosome as detected in indirect immunofluorescence assays. Ultrastructural analysis of siRNA transfected astrocytes revealed that knock down of GW182, hAgo2, Drosha and DGCR8 mRNA did not affect the appearance of the earliest stage of ciliogenesis but did prevent the formation and elongation of the ciliary axoneme. Conclusions This study confirms and extends a previously published report that GW/P bodies reside at the centrosome in U2OS cells and documents that

  20. Moments of Inertia: Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Dryden Remotely Operated Integrated Drone (DROID) (United States)

    Haro, Helida C.


    The objective of this research effort is to determine the most appropriate, cost efficient, and effective method to utilize for finding moments of inertia for the Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Dryden Remotely Operated Integrated Drone (DROID). A moment is a measure of the body's tendency to turn about its center of gravity (CG) and inertia is the resistance of a body to changes in its momentum. Therefore, the moment of inertia (MOI) is a body's resistance to change in rotation about its CG. The inertial characteristics of an UAV have direct consequences on aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, and control. Therefore, it is imperative to determine the precise inertial characteristics of the DROID.

  1. Moments of Inertia - Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Dryden Remotely Operated Integrated Drone (DROID) (United States)

    Haro, Helida C.


    The objective of this research effort is to determine the most appropriate, cost efficient, and effective method to utilize for finding moments of inertia for the Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Dryden Remotely Operated Integrated Drone (DROID). A moment is a measure of the body's tendency to turn about its center of gravity (CG) and inertia is the resistance of a body to changes in its momentum. Therefore, the moment of inertia (MOI) is a body's resistance to change in rotation about its CG. The inertial characteristics of an UAV have direct consequences on aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, and control. Therefore, it is imperative to determine the precise inertial characteristics of the DROID.

  2. Physical Activity Advertisements That Feature Daily Well-Being Improve Autonomy and Body Image in Overweight Women but Not Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle L. Segar


    Full Text Available The reasons for exercising that are featured in health communications brand exercise and socialize individuals about why they should be physically active. Discovering which reasons for exercising are associated with high-quality motivation and behavioral regulation is essential to promoting physical activity and weight control that can be sustained over time. This study investigates whether framing physical activity in advertisements featuring distinct types of goals differentially influences body image and behavioral regulations based on self-determination theory among overweight and obese individuals. Using a three-arm randomized trial, overweight and obese women and men (aged 40–60 yr, n=1690 read one of three ads framing physical activity as a way to achieve (1 better health, (2 weight loss, or (3 daily well-being. Framing effects were estimated in an ANOVA model with pairwise comparisons using the Bonferroni correction. This study showed that there are immediate framing effects on physical activity behavioral regulations and body image from reading a one-page advertisement about physical activity and that gender and BMI moderate these effects. Framing physical activity as a way to enhance daily well-being positively influenced participants’ perceptions about the experience of being physically active and enhanced body image among overweight women, but not men. The experiment had less impact among the obese study participants compared to those who were overweight. These findings support a growing body of research suggesting that, compared to weight loss, framing physical activity for daily well-being is a better gain-frame message for overweight women in midlife.

  3. Physical activity advertisements that feature daily well-being improve autonomy and body image in overweight women but not men. (United States)

    Segar, Michelle L; Updegraff, John A; Zikmund-Fisher, Brian J; Richardson, Caroline R


    The reasons for exercising that are featured in health communications brand exercise and socialize individuals about why they should be physically active. Discovering which reasons for exercising are associated with high-quality motivation and behavioral regulation is essential to promoting physical activity and weight control that can be sustained over time. This study investigates whether framing physical activity in advertisements featuring distinct types of goals differentially influences body image and behavioral regulations based on self-determination theory among overweight and obese individuals. Using a three-arm randomized trial, overweight and obese women and men (aged 40-60 yr, n = 1690) read one of three ads framing physical activity as a way to achieve (1) better health, (2) weight loss, or (3) daily well-being. Framing effects were estimated in an ANOVA model with pairwise comparisons using the Bonferroni correction. This study showed that there are immediate framing effects on physical activity behavioral regulations and body image from reading a one-page advertisement about physical activity and that gender and BMI moderate these effects. Framing physical activity as a way to enhance daily well-being positively influenced participants' perceptions about the experience of being physically active and enhanced body image among overweight women, but not men. The experiment had less impact among the obese study participants compared to those who were overweight. These findings support a growing body of research suggesting that, compared to weight loss, framing physical activity for daily well-being is a better gain-frame message for overweight women in midlife.

  4. Harris Corner and SIFT Feature of Vehicle and Type Recognition%车辆的Harris与SIFT特征及车型识别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康维新; 曹宇亭; 盛卓; 李鹏; 姜澎


    针对现有车型识别的准确性和实时性不能同时满足要求的问题,提出了复合的图像匹配模型与识别方法.先应用Harris角点对车型初分类,再应用SIFT特征进行细分类,该方法与只利用SIFT特征进行识别的方法相比,在保证识别准确性基本不变的情况下,处理时间减少了近2/3,实时性得到较大改善.%Considering to the important factors of accuracy and real-time performance can not meet the requirement simultaneously in current vehicle recognition,a compound image matching model and a recognition method were developed,namely classifying vehicles firstly by utilizing Harris corner,then classifying vehicles detailedly by using SIFT feature.Compared with the one used SIFT feature only,the method shortens the time of disposal by 2/ 3 under guaranteeing the accuracy to be kept essentially constant,real-time performance was improved greatly.

  5. Pneumomediastinum Secondary to Foreign Body Aspiration: Clinical Features and Treatment Explorement in 39 Pediatric Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Jian Yang; Jie Zhang; Ping Chu; Yong-Li Guo; Jun Tai; Ya-Mei Zhang; Li-Xing Tang


    Background:Pneumomediastinum (PM) secondary to foreign body aspiration (FBA) is rare in children.Although it is mainly benign,some cases may be fatal.Due to the rare nature of this clinical entity,proper assessment and management have been poorly studied so far.Here,we characterized the presentation and management of this clinical entity and provided an evaluation system for the management.Methods:We retrospectively reviewed children with PM secondary to FBA,who were treated in Beijing Children's Hospital from January 2010 to December 2015.All patients were stratified according to the degree of dyspnea on admission,and interventions were given accordingly.Bronchoscopic removals of airway foreign bodies (FBs) were performed on all patients.For patients in acute respiratory distress,emergent air evacuation and/or resuscitations were performed first.Admission data,interventions,and clinical outcomes were recorded.Results:A total of 39 patients were included in this study.The clinical severity was divided into three grades (Grades Ⅰ,Ⅱ,and Ⅲ) according to the degree of dyspnea.Thirty-one patients were in Grade Ⅰ dyspnea,and they simply underwent bronchoscopic FBs removals.PM resolved spontaneously and all patients recovered uneventfully.Six patients were in Grade Ⅱ dyspnea,and emergent drainage preceded rigid bronchoscopy.They all recovered uneventfully under close observation.Two exhausted patients were in Grade Ⅲ dyspnea.They died from large PM and bilateral pneumothorax,respectively,despite of aggressive interventions in our hospital.Conclusions:PM secondary to FBA could be life-threatening in some patients.The degree of dyspnea should be evaluated immediately,and patients in different dyspnea should be treated accordingly.For patients in Grade Ⅰ dyspnea,simple bronchoscopic FBs removals could promise a good outcome.For patients in Grade Ⅱ dyspnea,emergent air evacuation and/or resuscitation should precede a bronchoscopy before the children become

  6. The effect of psoriasis treatment on body composition, components of metabolic syndrome and psoriatic arthritis


    Funda Tamer; Mehmet Ali Gürer


    Background and Design: Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory immun mediated skin disorder with unknown etiology. The chronic inflammation in psoriasis have role in the development of metabolic and vascular disorders related with associating comorbidities. Recent studies have suggested a strong association exists between metabolic syndrome, obesity and complexity of the association between psoriasis, body mass index (BMI) and psoriasis tratment. In this study, our aim was to investigate the effe...

  7. Ditching Simulation of Air and Space Vehicles (United States)

    Patel, Mahesh; Mouillet, Jean-Baptiste; Burkhalter, Drew; Robert, Adrien; Schwoertzig, Thierry


    The impact on water of an aircraft or a re-entry space vehicle is a very complex event and considered as an important issue for the air and space industry. To ensure the safety of the crew and to limit the risks of loss of the vehicle, a prediction of its structural behaviour under various ditching configurations must be performed. Structural tests are very costly and must be limited in scale or number, so numerical simulations may be of great help for this purpose.Numerical simulations aim to predict the trajectory of the vehicle under impact, the pressure repartition on the body, structural stress, possible damages to the structure and occupant 'g' levels during impact. Physically, two types of configurations involving different phenomenon can be identified, vertical impacts and impacts with high horizontal components, where air entrapment, ventilation and cavitations can be the dimensioning factors.The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of the features of ALE (Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian) transient dynamic explicit simulation methods to perform such simulations. This paper details analysis of the critical simulation parameters, fluid dynamic calculations, CPU and model size reduction techniques, Fluid-Structure contact modelling, examples of such simulations, correlation to physical tests using Explicit Finite Element based code RADIOSS from Altair Engineering. Two examples of re-entry and ditching numerical simulation are discussed in this paper with comparisons to physical test data.

  8. The vestibular component in out-of-body experiences: a computational approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Schwabe


    Full Text Available Neurological evidence suggests that disturbed vestibular processing may play a key role in triggering out-of-body experiences (OBEs. Little is known about the brain mechanisms during such pathological conditions, despite recent experimental evidence that the scientific study of such experiences may facilitate the development of neurobiological models of a crucial aspect of self-consciousness: embodied self-location. Here we apply Bayesian modeling to vestibular processing and show that OBEs and the reported illusory changes of self-location and translation can be explained as the result of a mislead Bayesian inference, in the sense that ambiguous bottom-up signals from the vestibular otholiths in the supine body position are integrated with a top-down prior for the upright body position, which we measure during natural head movements. Our findings have relevance for self-location and translation under normal conditions and suggest novel ways to induce and study experimentally both aspects of bodily self-consciousness in healthy subjects.

  9. A component modes projection and assembly model reduction methodology for articulated, multi-flexible body structures (United States)

    Lee, Allan Y.; Tsuha, Walter S.


    A two-stage model reduction methodology, combining the classical Component Mode Synthesis (CMS) method and the newly developed Enhanced Projection and Assembly (EP&A) method, is proposed in this research. The first stage of this methodology, called the COmponent Modes Projection and Assembly model REduction (COMPARE) method, involves the generation of CMS mode sets, such as the MacNeal-Rubin mode sets. These mode sets are then used to reduce the order of each component model in the Rayleigh-Ritz sense. The resultant component models are then combined to generate reduced-order system models at various system configurations. A composite mode set which retains important system modes at all system configurations is then selected from these reduced-order system models. In the second stage, the EP&A model reduction method is employed to reduce further the order of the system model generated in the first stage. The effectiveness of the COMPARE methodology has been successfully demonstrated on a high-order, finite-element model of the cruise-configured Galileo spacecraft.

  10. Vibration Isolation for Parallel Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    The M. Nguyen


    Full Text Available In recent decades, several types of hybrid vehicles have been developed in order to improve the fuel economy and to reduce the pollution. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV have shown a significant improvement in fuel efficiency for small and medium-sized passenger vehicles and SUVs. HEV has several limitations when applied to heavy vehicles; one is that larger vehicles demand more power, which requires significantly larger battery capacities. As an alternative solution, hydraulic hybrid technology has been found effective for heavy duty vehicle because of its high power density. The mechanical batteries used in hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHV can be charged and discharged remarkably faster than chemical batteries. This feature is essential for heavy vehicle hybridization. One of the main problems that should be solved for the successful commercialization of HHV is the excessive noise and vibration involving with the hydraulic systems. This study focuses on using magnetorheological (MR technology to reduce the noise and vibration transmissibility from the hydraulic system to the vehicle body. In order to study the noise and vibration of HHV, a hydraulic hybrid subsystem in parallel design is analyzed. This research shows that the MR elements play an important role in reducing the transmitted noise and vibration to the vehicle body. Additionally, locations and orientations of the isolation system also affect the efficiency of the noise and vibration mitigation. In simulations, a skyhook control algorithm is used to achieve the highest possible effectiveness of the MR isolation system.

  11. Video Analytics Algorithm for Automatic Vehicle Classification (Intelligent Transport System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Automated Vehicle detection and classification is an important component of intelligent transport system. Due to significant importance in various fields such as traffic accidents avoidance, toll collection, congestion avoidance, terrorist activities monitoring, security and surveillance systems, intelligent transport system has become important field of study. Various technologies have been used for detecting and classifying vehicles automatically. Automated vehicle detection is broadly divided into two types- Hardware based and software based detection. Various algorithms have been implemented to classify different vehicles from videos. In this paper an efficient and economical solution for automatic vehicle detection and classification is proposed. The proposed system first isolates the object through background subtraction followed by vehicle detection using ontology. Vehicle detection is based on low level features such as shape, size, and spatial location. Finally system classifies vehicles into one of the known classes of vehicle based on size.

  12. Association between components of body composition and scoliosis: a prospective cohort study reporting differences identifiable before the onset of scoliosis. (United States)

    Clark, Emma M; Taylor, Hilary J; Harding, Ian; Hutchinson, John; Nelson, Ian; Deanfield, John E; Ness, Andy R; Tobias, Jon H


    There is an increasing body of research suggesting that low body weight is associated with scoliosis, but this is based on case-control studies, which are prone to bias. No studies have investigated the components of body weight: fat and lean mass. We have therefore carried out the first population-based prospective study of the association between fat and lean mass at age 10 years assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), with presence of scoliosis at age 15 years using the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). All children with scoliosis at age 10 years were excluded. Of 5299 children at age 15 years, 312 (5.9%) had scoliosis. Our results show a negative association between body mass index (BMI)/body weight at age 10 years and scoliosis at age 15 years, with a 20% reduced risk of scoliosis per SD increase in BMI (odds ratio [OR], 0.80; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.70-0.92; p = 0.001). This association with BMI/body weight reflects associations with both fat mass and lean mass. After adjustment for age, gender, leg length, and fat mass per SD increase in lean mass, there was a 20% reduced risk of scoliosis (OR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.65-0.97) and per SD increase in fat mass there was a 13% reduced risk of scoliosis (OR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.74-1.03). In terms of adipocyte function, an inverse association was seen between leptin at age 10 years and scoliosis (OR for scoliosis per SD increase in leptin of 0.78; 95% CI, 0.63-0.99), and a positive association between adiponectin at age 10 years and scoliosis (OR for scoliosis per SD increase in adiponectin of 1.44; 95% CI, 0.99-2.10). This is the first study to address the association between the individual components of body weight and scoliosis in a prospective cohort study, and shows altered body composition that is present before the onset of clinically detected scoliosis.

  13. 面向控制研究的高超声速飞行器气动力与动力一体的建模新方法%The new modeling method of aerodynamic and dynamic integration facing control study for hypersonic vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘燕斌; 陆宇平


    高超声速飞行器采用乘波构形后,将对其模型研究带来新挑战,主要体现在建模过程中应充分考虑气动、推进与控制作用相互耦合,因此为了保证建模的准确性,有必要引入新方法来研究高超声速飞行器的模型.本文基于高超声速空气动力学理论,提出了一种高超声速飞行器纵向模型研究的新方法,该方法采用斜激波理论、普朗特-迈耶关系式及瑞利流原理来估算高超声速飞行器气动力及推力,建立飞行器纵向模态的非线性数学模型,并在不同平衡点分析飞行器纵向运动的气动特性,以掌握高超声速飞行的特点,为控制系统设计提供好的对象.仿真研究表明,应用该方法来研究高超声速飞行器纵向模型是可行的.%Waverider configurations applied to hypersonic vehicle will bring new challenges for its model study, which mainly consider mutual couplings in aerodynamic、propulsion and control effects should be considered enough in the modeling process. Therefore, it is necessary to introduce a new method to study the hypersonic vehicle model in order to ensure the accuracy of the model. Based on the theory of hypersonic aerodynamics, this paper proposes a new method for hypersonic longitudinal model, including using oblique shock wave theory、 Prandtl-Meyer relation and Rayleigh flow principle to estimate aerodynamic force and thrust of hypersonic vehicle, establishing its non-linear mathematical longitudinal model, and analyzing its aerodynamic characteristics of longitudinal motion in different trim points in order to grasp the characteristics of hypersonic flight and provide good object for the design of control system. Simulation studies show this method is feasible to longitudinal model of hypersonic vehicle.

  14. Preliminary aerothermodynamic design method for hypersonic vehicles (United States)

    Harloff, G. J.; Petrie, S. L.


    Preliminary design methods are presented for vehicle aerothermodynamics. Predictions are made for Shuttle orbiter, a Mach 6 transport vehicle and a high-speed missile configuration. Rapid and accurate methods are discussed for obtaining aerodynamic coefficients and heat transfer rates for laminar and turbulent flows for vehicles at high angles of attack and hypersonic Mach numbers.

  15. [Daily calorie and macronutrient consumption in girls of different somatotypes with different shares of body fat, muscle and bone components]. (United States)

    Fefelova, V V; Fefelova, Yu A; Koloskova, T P; Kazakova, T V; Sergeeva, E Yu


    211 practically healthy girls, the students of Krasnoyarsk Medical University in the ages of 16 to 20 years, have been examined. We determined their somatotypes (euriplastic, athletic, subathletic and stenoplastic) and body composition (fat, muscle, bone component). Actual nutrition in these subjects was studied by the method. of 24-hour nutrition recall involving foodstuffs models. Energy consumption in cohorts with different somatotypes did not differ from one another and ranged from 1880 to 2115 kilocalories per day, that corresponded to normal physiological needs in women of this age with the coefficient of physical activity as 1.4 (students). Only the intake of fat (% of calories) exceeded the performance standards. As for macronutrients, the majority of indicators of nutrient intake did not differ significantly among girls with different somatotype, except for fat intake in girls with athletic and stenoplastic somatotypes (psomatotypes (psomatotypes with statistically considerable, differences in both overall dimensions (body mass and length) and the ratios between fat, muscle and bone as somatic components. In general, macronutrient consumption did not show any differences as well. Thus, apart from the energy and macronutrient consumption, definite meaning within the process of the formation of body composition can belong to the characteristics of the changes following nutrition load on lipoid spectrum of blood serum as well 'as the peculiarities of the distribution of substrate flow among cell metabolic paths, appropriate of definite somatotypes.

  16. In vivo recording of aerodynamic force with an aerodynamic force platform: from drones to birds. (United States)

    Lentink, David; Haselsteiner, Andreas F; Ingersoll, Rivers


    Flapping wings enable flying animals and biomimetic robots to generate elevated aerodynamic forces. Measurements that demonstrate this capability are based on experiments with tethered robots and animals, and indirect force calculations based on measured kinematics or airflow during free flight. Remarkably, there exists no method to measure these forces directly during free flight. Such in vivo recordings in freely behaving animals are essential to better understand the precise aerodynamic function of their flapping wings, in particular during the downstroke versus upstroke. Here, we demonstrate a new aerodynamic force platform (AFP) for non-intrusive aerodynamic force measurement in freely flying animals and robots. The platform encloses the animal or object that generates fluid force with a physical control surface, which mechanically integrates the net aerodynamic force that is transferred to the earth. Using a straightforward analytical solution of the Navier-Stokes equation, we verified that the method is accurate. We subsequently validated the method with a quadcopter that is suspended in the AFP and generates unsteady thrust profiles. These independent measurements confirm that the AFP is indeed accurate. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the AFP by studying aerodynamic weight support of a freely flying bird in vivo. These measurements confirm earlier findings based on kinematics and flow measurements, which suggest that the avian downstroke, not the upstroke, is primarily responsible for body weight support during take-off and landing.

  17. Real-Time Modeling of Cross-Body Flow for Torpedo Tube Recovery of the Phoenix Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) (United States)


    Lienard, D., " Multivariable Sliding Mode Control for Autonomous Diving and Steering of Unmanned Underwater Vehicles," IEEE Journal of Oceanic...Lienard, D., " Multivariable Sliding Mode Control for Autonomous Diving and Steering of Unmanned Underwater Vehicles," IEEE Journal of Oceanic

  18. Bat flight: aerodynamics, kinematics and flight morphology. (United States)

    Hedenström, Anders; Johansson, L Christoffer


    Bats evolved the ability of powered flight more than 50 million years ago. The modern bat is an efficient flyer and recent research on bat flight has revealed many intriguing facts. By using particle image velocimetry to visualize wake vortices, both the magnitude and time-history of aerodynamic forces can be estimated. At most speeds the downstroke generates both lift and thrust, whereas the function of the upstroke changes with forward flight speed. At hovering and slow speed bats use a leading edge vortex to enhance the lift beyond that allowed by steady aerodynamics and an inverted wing during the upstroke to further aid weight support. The bat wing and its skeleton exhibit many features and control mechanisms that are presumed to improve flight performance. Whereas bats appear aerodynamically less efficient than birds when it comes to cruising flight, they have the edge over birds when it comes to manoeuvring. There is a direct relationship between kinematics and the aerodynamic performance, but there is still a lack of knowledge about how (and if) the bat controls the movements and shape (planform and camber) of the wing. Considering the relatively few bat species whose aerodynamic tracks have been characterized, there is scope for new discoveries and a need to study species representing more extreme positions in the bat morphospace.

  19. Feature Article: Understanding strongly correlated many-body systems with quantum Monte Carlo simulations (United States)

    Lavalle, Catia; Rigol, Marcos; Muramatsu, Alejandro


    The cover picture of the current issue, taken from the Feature Article [1], depicts the evolution of local density (a) and its quantum fluctuations (b) in trapped fermions on one-dimensional optical lattices. As the number of fermions in the trap is increased, figure (a) shows the formation of a Mott-insulating plateau (local density equal to one) whereas the quantum fluctuations - see figure (b) - are strongly suppressed, but nonzero. For a larger number of fermions new insulating plateaus appear (this time with local density equal to two), but no density fluctuations. Regions with non-constant density are metallic and exhibit large quantum fluctuations of the density.The first author Catia Lavalle is a Postdoc at the University of Stuttgart. She works in the field of strongly correlated quantum systems by means of Quantum Monte Carlo methods (QMC). While working on her PhD thesis at the University of Stuttgart, she developed a new QMC technique that allows to study dynamical properties of the t-J model.

  20. The Novel Application of Optimization and Charge Blended Energy Management Control for Component Downsizing within a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Shankar


    Full Text Available  The adoption of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs is widely seen as an interim solution for the decarbonization of the transport sector. Within a PHEV, determining the required energy storage capacity of the battery remains one of the primary concerns for vehicle manufacturers and system integrators. This fact is particularly pertinent since the battery constitutes the largest contributor to vehicle mass. Furthermore, the financial cost associated with the procurement, design and integration of battery systems is often cited as one of the main barriers to vehicle commercialization. The ability to integrate the optimization of the energy management control system with the sizing of key PHEV powertrain components presents a significant area of research. Contained within this paper is an optimization study in which a charge blended strategy is used to facilitate the downsizing of the electrical machine, the internal combustion engine and the high voltage battery. An improved Equivalent Consumption Method has been used to manage the optimal power split within the powertrain as the PHEV traverses a range of different drivecycles. For a target CO2 value and drivecycle, results show that this approach can yield significant downsizing opportunities, with cost reductions on the order of 2%–9% being realizable.

  1. Metabolic features of Protochlamydia amoebophila elementary bodies--a link between activity and infectivity in Chlamydiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara S Sixt

    Full Text Available The Chlamydiae are a highly successful group of obligate intracellular bacteria, whose members are remarkably diverse, ranging from major pathogens of humans and animals to symbionts of ubiquitous protozoa. While their infective developmental stage, the elementary body (EB, has long been accepted to be completely metabolically inert, it has recently been shown to sustain some activities, including uptake of amino acids and protein biosynthesis. In the current study, we performed an in-depth characterization of the metabolic capabilities of EBs of the amoeba symbiont Protochlamydia amoebophila. A combined metabolomics approach, including fluorescence microscopy-based assays, isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS, ion cyclotron resonance Fourier transform mass spectrometry (ICR/FT-MS, and ultra-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS was conducted, with a particular focus on the central carbon metabolism. In addition, the effect of nutrient deprivation on chlamydial infectivity was analyzed. Our investigations revealed that host-free P. amoebophila EBs maintain respiratory activity and metabolize D-glucose, including substrate uptake as well as host-free synthesis of labeled metabolites and release of labeled CO2 from (13C-labeled D-glucose. The pentose phosphate pathway was identified as major route of D-glucose catabolism and host-independent activity of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle was observed. Our data strongly suggest anabolic reactions in P. amoebophila EBs and demonstrate that under the applied conditions D-glucose availability is essential to sustain metabolic activity. Replacement of this substrate by L-glucose, a non-metabolizable sugar, led to a rapid decline in the number of infectious particles. Likewise, infectivity of Chlamydia trachomatis, a major human pathogen, also declined more rapidly in the absence of nutrients. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that D-glucose is utilized by P. amoebophila

  2. Wavelet Correlation Feature Scale Entropy and Fuzzy Support Vector Machine Approach for Aeroengine Whole-Body Vibration Fault Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Wei Fei


    Full Text Available In order to correctly analyze aeroengine whole-body vibration signals, Wavelet Correlation Feature Scale Entropy (WCFSE and Fuzzy Support Vector Machine (FSVM (WCFSE-FSVM method was proposed by fusing the advantages of the WCFSE method and the FSVM method. The wavelet coefficients were known to be located in high Signal-to-Noise Ratio (S/N or SNR scales and were obtained by the Wavelet Transform Correlation Filter Method (WTCFM. This method was applied to address the whole-body vibration signals. The WCFSE method was derived from the integration of the information entropy theory and WTCFM, and was applied to extract the WCFSE values of the vibration signals. Among the WCFSE values, the WFSE1 and WCFSE2 values on the scale 1 and 2 from the high band of vibration signal were believed to acceptably reflect the vibration feature and were selected to construct the eigenvectors of vibration signals as fault samples to establish the WCFSE-FSVM model. This model was applied to aeroengine whole-body vibration fault diagnosis. Through the diagnoses of four vibration fault modes and the comparison of the analysis results by four methods (SVM, FSVM, WESE-SVM, WCFSE-FSVM, it is shown that the WCFSE-FSVM method is characterized by higher learning ability, higher generalization ability and higher anti-noise ability than other methods in aeroengine whole-vibration fault analysis. Meanwhile, this present study provides a useful insight for the vibration fault diagnosis of complex machinery besides an aeroengine.

  3. In-situ electric field in human body model in different postures for wireless power transfer system in an electrical vehicle. (United States)

    Shimamoto, Takuya; Laakso, Ilkka; Hirata, Akimasa


    The in-situ electric field of an adult male model in different postures is evaluated for exposure to the magnetic field leaked from a wireless power transfer system in an electrical vehicle. The transfer system is located below the centre of the vehicle body and the transferred power and frequency are 7 kW and 85 kHz, respectively. The in-situ electric field is evaluated for a human model (i) crouching near the vehicle, (ii) lying on the ground with or without his arm stretched, (iii) sitting in the driver's seat, and (iv) standing on a transmitting coil without a receiving coil. In each scenario, the maximum in-situ electric fields are lower than the allowable limit prescribed by international guidelines, although the local magnetic field strength in regions of the human body is higher than the allowable external magnetic field strength. The highest in-situ electric field is observed when the human body model is placed on the ground with his arm extended toward the coils, because of a higher magnetic field around the arm.

  4. Multi-Mission Earth Vehicle Subsonic Dynamic Stability Testing and Analyses (United States)

    Glaab, Louis J.; Fremaux, C. Michael


    Multi-Mission Earth Entry Vehicles (MMEEVs) are blunt-body vehicles designed with the purpose of transporting payloads from outer space to the surface of the Earth. To achieve high-reliability and minimum weight, MMEEVs avoid use of limited-reliability systems, such as parachutes, retro-rockets, and reaction control systems and rely on the natural aerodynamic stability of the vehicle throughout the Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) phase of flight. The Multi-Mission Systems Analysis for Planetary Entry (M-SAPE) parametric design tool is used to facilitate the design of MMEEVs for an array of missions and develop and visualize the trade space. Testing in NASA Langley?s Vertical Spin Tunnel (VST) was conducted to significantly improve M-SAPE?s subsonic aerodynamic models. Vehicle size and shape can be driven by entry flight path angle and speed, thermal protection system performance, terminal velocity limitations, payload mass and density, among other design parameters. The objectives of the VST testing were to define usable subsonic center of gravity limits, and aerodynamic parameters for 6-degree-of-freedom (6-DOF) simulations, for a range of MMEEV designs. The range of MMEEVs tested was from 1.8m down to 1.2m diameter. A backshell extender provided the ability to test a design with a much larger payload for the 1.2m MMEEV.

  5. The Tanita SC-240 to Assess Body Composition in Pre-School Children: An Evaluation against the Three Component Model. (United States)

    Delisle Nyström, Christine; Henriksson, Pontus; Alexandrou, Christina; Löf, Marie


    Quick, easy-to-use, and valid body composition measurement options for young children are needed. Therefore, we evaluated the ability of the bioelectrical impedance (BIA) device, Tanita SC-240, to measure fat mass (FM), fat free mass (FFM) and body fatness (BF%) in 40 healthy, Swedish 5.5 years old children against the three component model (3C model). Average BF%, FM, and FFM for BIA were: 19.4% ± 3.9%, 4.1 ± 1.9 kg, and 16.4 ± 2.4 kg and were all significantly different (p model (25.1% ± 5.5%, 5.3 ± 2.5 kg, and 15.2 ± 2.0 kg). Bland and Altman plots had wide limits of agreement for all body composition variables. Significant correlations ranging from 0.81 to 0.96 (p model. When dividing the children into tertiles for BF%, 60% of children were classified correctly by means of BIA. In conclusion, the Tanita SC-240 underestimated BF% in comparison to the 3C model and had wide limits of agreement. Further work is needed in order to find accurate and easy-to-use methods for assessing body composition in pre-school children.

  6. Using probabilistic model as feature descriptor on a smartphone device for autonomous navigation of unmanned ground vehicles (United States)

    Desai, Alok; Lee, Dah-Jye


    There has been significant research on the development of feature descriptors in the past few years. Most of them do not emphasize real-time applications. This paper presents the development of an affine invariant feature descriptor for low resource applications such as UAV and UGV that are equipped with an embedded system with a small microprocessor, a field programmable gate array (FPGA), or a smart phone device. UAV and UGV have proven suitable for many promising applications such as unknown environment exploration, search and rescue operations. These applications required on board image processing for obstacle detection, avoidance and navigation. All these real-time vision applications require a camera to grab images and match features using a feature descriptor. A good feature descriptor will uniquely describe a feature point thus allowing it to be correctly identified and matched with its corresponding feature point in another image. A few feature description algorithms are available for a resource limited system. They either require too much of the device's resource or too much simplification on the algorithm, which results in reduction in performance. This research is aimed at meeting the needs of these systems without sacrificing accuracy. This paper introduces a new feature descriptor called PRObabilistic model (PRO) for UGV navigation applications. It is a compact and efficient binary descriptor that is hardware-friendly and easy for implementation.

  7. Dynamics of the component of body composition in athletes playing sports with damage to the medial meniscus of the knee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh'd Khalil Moh'd Abdel Kader


    Full Text Available The question of the influence of the developed program of physical rehabilitation with the use of modern means and methods of recovery on the performance component of body composition in athletes playing sports after arthroscopic stapling the medial meniscus was considered. The analysis and synthesis of scientific and methodological data on the determination of body composition analysis techniques using bioelectrical resistance was shown. Found that long-term immobilization that accompanies the process of rehabilitation, reduced physical activity, vascular and other changes lead to muscle atrophy, restriction of mobility in the knee joint, trophic changes of the injured limb. The use of the physical rehabilitation programs allowed to state its high efficiency.

  8. 75 FR 49945 - In the Matter of Certain Hybrid Electric Vehicles and Components Thereof; Notice of Commission... (United States)


    ... respondents Toyota Motor Corporation of Japan and two U.S. subsidiaries (collectively ``Toyota''). The complaint alleges infringement by certain Toyota hybrid vehicles of claims of U.S. Patent No. 5,343,970. On July 19, 2010, Paice and Toyota moved to terminate the investigation based upon a settlement...

  9. Management status of end-of-life vehicles and development strategies of used automotive electronic control components recycling industry in China. (United States)

    Wang, Junjun; Chen, Ming


    Recycling companies play a leading role in the system of end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) in China. Automotive manufacturers in China are rarely involved in recycling ELVs, and they seldom provide dismantling information for recycling companies. In addition, no professional shredding plant is available. The used automotive electronic control components recycling industry in China has yet to take shape because of the lack of supporting technology and profitable models. Given the rapid growth of the vehicle population and electronic control units in automotives in China, the used automotive electronic control components recycling industry requires immediate development. This paper analyses the current recycling system of ELVs in China and introduces the automotive product recycling technology roadmap as well as the recycling industry development goals. The strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and challenges of the current used automotive electronic control components recycling industry in China are analysed comprehensively based on the 'strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats' (SWOT) method. The results of the analysis indicate that this recycling industry responds well to all the factors and has good opportunities for development. Based on the analysis, new development strategies for the used automotive electronic control components recycling industry in accordance with the actual conditions of China are presented.

  10. An Elastic Meshes HOG Feature for Sketch Vehicles Recognition%基于弹性网格HOG特征的手绘车符识别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晨晖; 林家琪; 郭丽清; 邝炜祥


    研究了常用的28类机动车和非机动车的车符识别问题.针对手绘车符不规则形变和样本间相似度高的特点,提出一种基于弹性网格方向梯度直方图(histograms of oriented gradients,HOG)特征提取方法,该方法利用了水平与垂直投影直方图较好地表征图符的全局特征、局部特征及HOG特征,结合弹性网格吸收形变的能力,使得在现有的训练样本库中总识别率达94.8%,在手写数字等3个不同领域的手绘图符样本库中,平均识别率达92.5%.实验结果表明,该方法对手绘车符识别具有较高的识别率,对其他手绘图符也有较好的识别效果.%This paper focus on the problem of recognizing 28 kinds of motored and non-motorized hand-drawn vehicle symbols which are commonly used in traffic accident description.To solve the problems of the irregular transformation of sketch vehicles and similarity among different vehicles during recognition,an elastic meshes HOG feature is proposed.In this feature,horizontal and vertical projection histogram which is a good choice for global features is used to calculate the elastic meshes,and then elastic meshes combine with HOG feature instead of HOG's cells for absorbing deformation.The total recognition rate reaches 94.8% in our set of samples,and 92.5 % for different areas of the pen digits,common diagram shapes,and electrical circuit symbols.The experimental results show that:our proposed algorithm has a high recognition rate for the hand-drawn vehicle symbols and it has a good promotion prospects.

  11. Proteomic screen identifies IGFBP7 as a novel component of endothelial cell-specific Weibel-Palade bodies. (United States)

    van Breevoort, Dorothee; van Agtmaal, Ellen L; Dragt, Bieuwke S; Gebbinck, Jacqueline Klein; Dienava-Verdoold, Ilze; Kragt, Astrid; Bierings, Ruben; Horrevoets, Anton J G; Valentijn, Karine M; Eikenboom, Jeroen C; Fernandez-Borja, Mar; Meijer, Alexander B; Voorberg, Jan


    Vascular endothelial cells contain unique storage organelles, designated Weibel-Palade bodies (WPBs), that deliver inflammatory and hemostatic mediators to the vascular lumen in response to agonists like thrombin and vasopressin. The main component of WPBs is von Willebrand factor (VWF), a multimeric glycoprotein crucial for platelet plug formation. In addition to VWF, several other components are known to be stored in WPBs, like osteoprotegerin, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and angiopoetin-2 (Ang-2). Here, we used an unbiased proteomics approach to identify additional residents of WPBs. Mass spectrometry analysis of purified WPBs revealed the presence of several known components such as VWF, Ang-2, and P-selectin. Thirty-five novel candidate WPB residents were identified that included insulin-like growth factor binding protein-7 (IGFBP7), which has been proposed to regulate angiogenesis. Immunocytochemistry revealed that IGFBP7 is a bona fide WPB component. Cotransfection studies showed that IGFBP7 trafficked to pseudo-WPB in HEK293 cells. Using a series of deletion variants of VWF, we showed that targeting of IGFBP7 to pseudo-WPBs was dependent on the carboxy-terminal D4-C1-C2-C3-CK domains of VWF. IGFBP7 remained attached to ultralarge VWF strings released upon exocytosis of WPBs under flow. The presence of IGFBP7 in WPBs highlights the role of this subcellular compartment in regulation of angiogenesis.

  12. Experimental Aerodynamic Facilities of the Aerodynamics Research and Concepts Assistance Section (United States)


    liquid droplets and other aerodynamic bodies which are sensitive to support interference and motion cross coupling effects. Rapid and accurate...AESD Wright-Patterson AFB, OH 45433 HQ AFSC/SDZ ATTN: CPT D. Rledlger Andrews AFB, MD 20334 HQ, AFSC/SDNE Andrews AFB, MD 20334 HQ, AFSC/ SGB

  13. Major Lipid Body Protein: A Conserved Structural Component of Lipid Body Accumulated during Abiotic Stress in S. quadricauda CASA-CC202

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arumugam Muthu


    Full Text Available Abiotic stress in oleaginous microalgae enhances lipid accumulation and is stored in a specialised organelle called lipid droplets (LDs. Both the LDs and body are enriched with major lipid droplet protein (MLDP. It serves as a major structural component and also plays a key role in recruiting other proteins and enzymes involved in lipid body maturation. In the present study, the presence of MLDP was detected in two abiotic stress condition namely nitrogen starvation and salt stress condition. Previous research reveals that nitrogen starvation enhances lipid accumulation. Therefore, the effect of salt on growth, biomass yield, and fatty acid profile is studied in detail. The specific growth rate of S. quadricauda under the salt stress of 10mM concentration is about 0.174μ and in control, the SGR is 0.241μ. An increase in the doubling time of the cells shows that the rate of cell division decreases during salt stress (2.87–5.17. The dry biomass content also decreased drastically at 50mM salt-treated cells (129mg/L compared to control (236mg/L on the day 20. The analysis of fatty acid composition also revealed that there is a 20% decrease in the saturated fatty acid level and 19.9% increment in monounsaturated fatty acid level, which makes salt-mediated lipid accumulation as a suitable biodiesel precursor.

  14. Development of High Fidelity Mobility Simulation of an Autonomous Vehicle in an Off-Road Scenario Using Integrated Sensor, Controller, and Multi-Body Dynamics (United States)


    intervene in the control of the vehicle. The software can be used to develop IV systems based on sensor technologies such as radar, laser, camera, GPS , and...traffic scenarios using a database of road sections, infrastructure components (trees, buildings, traffic signs) and road users (cars, trucks, cyclists ...a GPS navigation device. Weather conditions (rain, snow, fog) and light circumstances can also be specified. Modeling sensors is done by filling

  15. Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) and Hot Structures for Hypersonic Vehicles (United States)

    Glass, David E.


    Thermal protection systems (TPS) and hot structures are required for a range of hypersonic vehicles ranging from ballistic reentry to hypersonic cruise vehicles, both within Earth's atmosphere and non-Earth atmospheres. The focus of this paper is on air breathing hypersonic vehicles in the Earth's atmosphere. This includes single-stage to orbit (SSTO), two-stage to orbit (TSTO) accelerators, access to space vehicles, and hypersonic cruise vehicles. This paper will start out with a brief discussion of aerodynamic heating and thermal management techniques to address the high heating, followed by an overview of TPS for rocket-launched and air-breathing vehicles. The argument is presented that as we move from rocket-based vehicles to air-breathing vehicles, we need to move away from the insulated airplane approach used on the Space Shuttle Orbiter to a wide range of TPS and hot structure approaches. The primary portion of the paper will discuss issues and design options for CMC TPS and hot structure components, including leading edges, acreage TPS, and control surfaces. The current state-of-the-art will be briefly discussed for some of the components. The two primary technical challenges impacting the use of CMC TPS and hot structures for hypersonic vehicles are environmental durability and fabrication, and will be discussed briefly.

  16. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components among Chinese professional athletes of strength sports with different body weight categories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Guo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is an increasing concern on cardiometabolic health in young professional athletes at heavy-weight class. OBJECTIVE: Our cross-sectional survey aimed to evaluate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and clustering of metabolic risk factors in a population of young and active professional athletes of strength sports in China. METHODS: From July 2006 to December 2008, a total of 131 male and 130 female athletes of strength sports were enrolled. We used two criteria provided by the Chinese Diabetes Society (2004 and the National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel III (2002 to define the metabolic syndrome and its individual components, respectively. RESULTS: Regardless of their similar ages (mean: 21 years and exercise levels, athletes in the heaviest-weight-class with unlimited maximum body weight (UBW boundaries (mean weight and BMI: 130 kg and 38 kg/m(2 for men, 110 kg and 37 kg/m(2 for women had significantly higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome than did those in all other body-weight-class with limited body weight (LBW boundaries (mean weight and BMI: 105 kg and 32 kg/m(2 for men, 70 kg and 26 kg/m(2 for women. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome using CDS criteria (UBW vs. LBW: 89% vs. 18% for men, 47% vs. 0% for women and its individual components, including central obesity, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels, and impaired fasting glucose, were all significantly higher in athletes at the heaviest weight group with UBW than all other weight groups with LBW. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that professional athletes of strength sports at the heaviest-weight-class are at a significant increased risk of cardiometabolic disease compared with those at all other weight categories. The findings support the importance of developing and implementing the strategy of early screening, awareness, and interventions for weight-related health among young athletes.

  17. Specific features of modelling rules of monetary policy on the basis of hybrid regression models with a neural component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukianenko Iryna H.


    Full Text Available The article considers possibilities and specific features of modelling economic phenomena with the help of the category of models that unite elements of econometric regressions and artificial neural networks. This category of models contains auto-regression neural networks (AR-NN, regressions of smooth transition (STR/STAR, multi-mode regressions of smooth transition (MRSTR/MRSTAR and smooth transition regressions with neural coefficients (NCSTR/NCSTAR. Availability of the neural network component allows models of this category achievement of a high empirical authenticity, including reproduction of complex non-linear interrelations. On the other hand, the regression mechanism expands possibilities of interpretation of the obtained results. An example of multi-mode monetary rule is used to show one of the cases of specification and interpretation of this model. In particular, the article models and interprets principles of management of the UAH exchange rate that come into force when economy passes from a relatively stable into a crisis state.

  18. Toward an Engineering Model for the Aerodynamic Forces Acting on Wind Turbine Blades in Quasisteady Standstill and Blade Installation Situations (United States)

    Gaunaa, Mac; Heinz, Joachim; Skrzypiński, Witold


    The crossflow principle is one of the key elements used in engineering models for prediction of the aerodynamic loads on wind turbine blades in standstill or blade installation situations, where the flow direction relative to the wind turbine blade has a component in the direction of the blade span direction. In the present work, the performance of the crossflow principle is assessed on the DTU 10MW reference blade using extensive 3D CFD calculations. Analysis of the computational results shows that there is only a relatively narrow region in which the crossflow principle describes the aerodynamic loading well. In some conditions the deviation of the predicted loadings can be quite significant, having a large influence on for instance the integral aerodynamic moments around the blade centre of mass; which is very important for single blade installation applications. The main features of these deviations, however, have a systematic behaviour on all force components, which in this paper is employed to formulate the first version of an engineering correction method to the crossflow principle applicable for wind turbine blades. The new correction model improves the agreement with CFD results for the key aerodynamic loads in crossflow situations. The general validity of this model for other blade shapes should be investigated in subsequent works.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Modiri


    Full Text Available The use of UAV in the application of photogrammetry to obtain cover images and achieve the main objectives of the photogrammetric mapping has been a boom in the region. The images taken from REGGIOLO region in the province of, Italy Reggio -Emilia by UAV with non-metric camera Canon Ixus and with an average height of 139.42 meters were used to classify urban feature. Using the software provided SURE and cover images of the study area, to produce dense point cloud, DSM and Artvqvtv spatial resolution of 10 cm was prepared. DTM area using Adaptive TIN filtering algorithm was developed. NDSM area was prepared with using the difference between DSM and DTM and a separate features in the image stack. In order to extract features, using simultaneous occurrence matrix features mean, variance, homogeneity, contrast, dissimilarity, entropy, second moment, and correlation for each of the RGB band image was used Orthophoto area. Classes used to classify urban problems, including buildings, trees and tall vegetation, grass and vegetation short, paved road and is impervious surfaces. Class consists of impervious surfaces such as pavement conditions, the cement, the car, the roof is stored. In order to pixel-based classification and selection of optimal features of classification was GASVM pixel basis. In order to achieve the classification results with higher accuracy and spectral composition informations, texture, and shape conceptual image featureOrthophoto area was fencing. The segmentation of multi-scale segmentation method was belonged class. Search results using the proposed classification of urban feature, suggests the suitability of this method of classification complications UAV is a city using images. The overall accuracy and kappa coefficient method proposed in this study, respectively, 47/93% and 84/91% was.

  20. Individual features of the physical development and the onset of biological maturity of morphological and functional structures of the body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr Aghyppo


    Full Text Available Purpose: to justify the observed features of physical development of the individual and the nature of the flow pattern of biological maturity of morphological and functional structures of the body other than the population norm of behavior trends of these processes. Materials and Methods: analysis of scientific literature on the research, the use of survey data contingent of children of preschool and primary school age, the use of attributive semantic spaces, method of similarity and dimensions, the method of analogy, the method of slowly varying amplitudes. Results: the nature of occurrence of the individual characteristics of the physical development and the onset of biological maturity of morphological and functional structures of the whole organism. Substantiates the nature of occurrence of the individual variation of these processes. Conclusions: the existing differences in the individual development of physical and somatotype shaping involve a violation of the synchronization of interdependent relations system. This reduces the potential viability and is expressed in the constitution somatotype features that can be used for preclinical diagnosis

  1. Subchronic and mild social defeat stress accelerates food intake and body weight gain with polydipsia-like features in mice. (United States)

    Goto, Tatsuhiko; Kubota, Yoshifumi; Tanaka, Yuki; Iio, Wataru; Moriya, Naoko; Toyoda, Atsushi


    Development and characterization of animal models of depression are essential for fully understanding the pathogenesis of depression in humans. We made and analyzed a mouse model exhibiting social deficit and hyperphagia-like behavior using a subchronic and mild social defeat stress (sCSDS) paradigm. The body weight, food and water intake of mice were monitored during a test period, and their behaviors and serum components were analyzed at two stages: immediately after the sCSDS period and 1 month after the sCSDS. The body weight and food intake of defeated mice were significantly higher than control mice at the sCSDS period, and these differences were sustained until 1 month after the sCSDS, whereas the water intake of defeated mice was significantly higher than control mice for the period of sCSDS only. Behavioral analyses revealed that the defeated mice exhibit significant social aversion to unfamiliar mice in a social interaction test and a trend of anxiety-like behavior in an elevated-plus maze test. Possibly due to polydipsia-like symptoms, defeated mice had significantly lower levels of albumin and blood urea nitrogen than control mice immediately after the sCSDS period but not at 1 month after sCSDS. The present study revealed that our sCSDS mice keep much more water in their body than control mice. This study reports the first step toward an understanding of the mechanisms of stress-induced overhydration, over-eating and resultant weight gain.

  2. Characterization of magnetized ore bodies based on three-component borehole magnetic and directional borehole seismic measurements (United States)

    Virgil, Christopher; Neuhaus, Martin; Hördt, Andreas; Giese, Rüdiger; Krüger, Kay; Jurczyk, Andreas; Juhlin, Christopher; Juhojuntti, Niklas


    In the last decades magnetic prospecting using total field data was used with great success for localization and characterization of ferromagnetic ore bodies. Especially borehole magnetic measurements reveal important constraints on the extent and depth of potential mining targets. However, due to the inherent ambiguity of the interpretation of magnetic data, the resulting models of the distribution of magnetized material, such as iron ore bodies, are not entirely reliable. Variations in derived parameters like volume and estimated ore content of the expected body have significant impact on the economic efficiency of a planned mine. An important improvement is the introduction of three-component borehole magnetic sondes. Modern tools comprise orientation modules which allow the continuous determination of the tool's heading regardless of the well inclination and independent of the magnetic field. Using the heading information the recorded three-component magnetic data can be transferred from the internal tool's frame to the geographic reference frame. The vector information yields a more detailed and reliable description of the ore bodies compared to total field or horizontal and vertical field data. Nevertheless complementary information to constrain the model is still advisable. The most important supplementary information for the interpretation of magnetic data is the knowledge of the structural environment of the target regions. By discriminating dissimilar rock units, a geometrical starting model can be derived, constraining the magnetic interpretation and leading to a more robust estimation of the rock magnetizations distribution. The most common approach to reveal the lithological setting rests upon seismic measurements. However, for deep drilling targets surface seismic and VSP lack the required spatial resolution of 10s of meters. A better resolution is achieved by using directed sources and receivers inside the borehole. Here we present the application of

  3. Cable Aerodynamic Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleissl, Kenneth

    to a categorization of the different control technics together with an identification of two key mechanisms for reduction of the design drag force. During this project extensive experimental work examining the aerodynamics of the currently used cable surface modifications together with new innovative proposals have...

  4. Aerodynamically shaped vortex generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Otto Laver; Velte, Clara Marika; Øye, Stig;


    An aerodynamically shaped vortex generator has been proposed, manufactured and tested in a wind tunnel. The effect on the overall performance when applied on a thick airfoil is an increased lift to drag ratio compared with standard vortex generators. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  5. 发动机激励下客车车身怠速振动仿真研究%Simulation of vehicle body vibration in case of excitation by engine idle speed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁爽; 杨啟梁; 胡溧; 龚海清


    M ulti‐body dynamics and finite element method w ere used to analyze dynamic response of vehicle body under excitation of engine .Dynamic model of the whole vehicle was established by Mo‐tionView ,and finite element model for the bus body was designed by HyperMesh .The dynamic load caused by engine excitation on powertrain mounting system was solved by MotionSolve .By applying three dimensional dynamic load on the mounting system in the finite element model ,dynamic respon‐ses on the feature points of bus body were quantitatively solved by RADIOSS .In case of excitation by engine idle speed ,the simulation and practical testing root‐mean‐square values of the vibration accel‐eration on the specific location of bus body were compared . The results show that the simulation method combining multi‐body dynamics with finite element analysis is feasible .%以某国产客车为研究对象,综合运用多体动力学和有限元分析法来研究发动机激励下车身的动态响应。在多体动力学软件MotionView中建立整车的动力学模型,在有限元软件 HyperMesh中建立车身有限元模型,用MotionSolve求解发动机激励引起的动力总成悬置系统的动载荷,将悬置系统的三向动载荷施加到有限元模型上,用RADIOSS定量求解出车身特征点的动态响应。以发动机怠速工况为例,将车身特征点振动加速度均方根值的仿真计算结果与实车测试结果进行对比分析,验证仿真方法的正确性。结果表明,将多体动力学仿真和有限元仿真有机结合起来研究发动机怠速激励下客车车身的动态响应是行之有效的。

  6. Vehicle detection from very-high-resolution (VHR) aerial imagery using attribute belief propagation (ABP) (United States)

    Wang, Yanli; Li, Ying; Zhang, Li; Huang, Yuchun


    With the popularity of very-high-resolution (VHR) aerial imagery, the shape, color, and context attribute of vehicles are better characterized. Due to the various road surroundings and imaging conditions, vehicle attributes could be adversely affected so that vehicle is mistakenly detected or missed. This paper is motivated to robustly extract the rich attribute feature for detecting the vehicles of VHR imagery under different scenarios. Based on the hierarchical component tree of vehicle context, attribute belief propagation (ABP) is proposed to detect salient vehicles from the statistical perspective. With the Max-tree data structure, the multi-level component tree around the road network is efficiently created. The spatial relationship between vehicle and its belonging context is established with the belief definition of vehicle attribute. To effectively correct single-level belief error, the inter-level belief linkages enforce consistency of belief assignment between corresponding components at different levels. ABP starts from an initial set of vehicle belief calculated by vehicle attribute, and then iterates through each component by applying inter-level belief passing until convergence. The optimal value of vehicle belief of each component is obtained via minimizing its belief function iteratively. The proposed algorithm is tested on a diverse set of VHR imagery acquired in the city and inter-city areas of the West and South China. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can detect vehicle efficiently and suppress the erroneous effectively. The proposed ABP framework is promising to robustly classify the vehicles from VHR Aerial imagery.

  7. QCD sum rule calculation of quark-gluon three-body components in the B-meson wave function (United States)

    Nishikawa, Tetsuo; Tanaka, Kazuhiro


    We discuss the QCD sum rule calculation of the heavy-quark effective theory parameters λE and λH, which represent quark-gluon three-body components in the B-meson wave function. We update the sum rules for λE,H calculating the new higher-order contributions to the operator product expansion for the corresponding correlator, i.e., the order αs radiative corrections to the Wilson coefficients associated with the dimension-5 quark-gluon mixed condensate, and the power corrections due to the dimension-6 vacuum condensates. We find that the new radiative corrections significantly improve stability of the corresponding Borel sum rules, modifying the values of λE,H.

  8. Shape distortion and thermo-mechanical properties of dense SOFC components from green tape to sintered body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teocoli, Francesca; Esposito, Vincenzo; Ni, De Wei;

    . The characterization of thermo-mechanical properties, such as viscoelasticity, enables a prediction of microstructural stability of SOFCs. Tape-cast bi-layer structures for CGO/YSZ and CGO/ScYSZ was studied during the thermal processing. Different sintering kinetics of bi-layer tape give rise to localized tensile...... stresses, which develop a camber in the final sintered body. To analyze the phenomena, shrinkage of SOFC components single layers and camber development of bi-layers were measured in-situ by optical dilatometry. In addition, a thoughtful investigation of the viscoelastic properties of individual layers...... was carried out by thermo-mechanical analysis (TMA). The results from the different techniques were found complementary and viscous behavior of the layered ceramics was verified....

  9. Development of modified vibration test criteria for qualifying space vehicle components. [subjected to broadband random acoustic excitation (United States)

    Chang, K. Y.; Kao, G. C.


    Simplified methods are described to estimate the test criteria of primary structures at component attachment points subjected to broadband random acoustic excitations. The current method utilizes a constant smeared component mass attenuation factor across the frequency range of interest. The developed method indicates that the attenuation factor is based on a frequency dependent ratio of the mechanical impedances of both the component and primary structures. The procedures used to predict the structural responses are considered as the present state-of-the-art and provide satisfactory prediction results. Example problems are used to illustrate the application procedures of the two methods and to compare the significant difference. It was found that the lower test criteria obtained by the impedance ratio method is due to the results of considering the effects of component/primary structure interaction.

  10. Forward Bay Cover Separation Modeling and Testing for the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (United States)

    Ali, Yasmin; Chuhta, Jesse D.; Hughes, Michael P.; Radke, Tara S.


    Spacecraft multi-body separation events during atmospheric descent require complex testing and analysis to validate the flight separation dynamics models used to verify no re-contact. The NASA Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) architecture includes a highly-integrated Forward Bay Cover (FBC) jettison assembly design that combines parachutes and piston thrusters to separate the FBC from the Crew Module (CM) and avoid re-contact. A multi-disciplinary team across numerous organizations examined key model parameters and risk areas to develop a robust but affordable test campaign in order to validate and verify the FBC separation event for Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1). The FBC jettison simulation model is highly complex, consisting of dozens of parameters varied simultaneously, with numerous multi-parameter interactions (coupling and feedback) among the various model elements, and encompassing distinct near-field, mid-field, and far-field regimes. The test campaign was composed of component-level testing (for example gas-piston thrusters and parachute mortars), ground FBC jettison tests, and FBC jettison air-drop tests that were accomplished by a highly multi-disciplinary team. Three ground jettison tests isolated the testing of mechanisms and structures to anchor the simulation models excluding aerodynamic effects. Subsequently, two air-drop tests added aerodynamic and parachute elements, and served as integrated system demonstrations, which had been preliminarily explored during the Orion Pad Abort-1 (PA-1) flight test in May 2010. Both ground and drop tests provided extensive data to validate analytical models and to verify the FBC jettison event for EFT-1. Additional testing will be required to support human certification of this separation event, for which NASA and Lockheed Martin are applying knowledge from Apollo and EFT-1 testing and modeling to develop a robust human-rated FBC separation event.

  11. 陆地车辆GNSS/MEMS惯性组合导航机体系约束算法研究%Body Frame Constraint for a GNSS/MEMS INS Integrated System in Land Vehicle Navigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘华; 刘彤; 张继伟


    For global navigation satellite system(GNSS) and micro-electro mechanical system (MEMS) inertial navigation system (INS) integrated system in land vehicle application,a particular constraint based on features of a vehicle's motion is setup on its body frame to improve the system performance.Body frame constraint limits the velocities along the plane perpendicular to the vehicle's moving direction to approximate zero,which accordingly introduces couple of additionally virtual measurements into the extended Kalman filter (EKF) that is typically applied for two systems fusion.Thanks to those virtual measurements,the EKF is able to keep its measurement updates even over GNSS signal outage period.The filter continuously produces error estimations and feedbacks during the absence of external observables from GNSS,whatever the vehicle's dynamics is.The field test indicates that the system accuracy of positioning can be improved by 75 % over 30 s GNSS outages and the accuracy of attitude and velocity is improved as well.%针对陆地车辆导航应用,基于速度特性建立了机体系约束用以提高卫星导航系统(GNSS)/微硅机械(MEMS)惯性组合导航系统的性能.该约束将与车体运动方向相垂直的平面上的线速度近似为0,从而增加了组合系统的扩展卡尔曼滤波时间上连续的两维虚拟观测量,卫星信号失效时可保持滤波器的量测更新,当无外部观测量且车辆处于动态情况下,滤波可持续估计与反馈.车载实验表明,组合系统在卫星信号失效30 s时,采用该算法可以将系统的定位精度提高约75%,姿态精度及速度精度也有相应的提高.

  12. Realization from Introducing Giant Vehicle Body Die%从引进车身大型模具得到的体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    详细介绍了广州羊城汽车有限公司引进日本汽车车身外覆盖件冲压模具的整个过程,并对引进过程中学到的知识和经验进行总结,便于在以后的工作中借鉴。%This article presents the whole process of introducing the stamping die for Japanese vehicle body outer skin panel in details and summarizes the knowledge and experiences during the introducing process for the reference in future work.

  13. Development of an Aerodynamic Analysis Method and Database for the SLS Service Module Panel Jettison Event Utilizing Inviscid CFD and MATLAB (United States)

    Applebaum, Michael P.; Hall, Leslie, H.; Eppard, William M.; Purinton, David C.; Campbell, John R.; Blevins, John A.


    This paper describes the development, testing, and utilization of an aerodynamic force and moment database for the Space Launch System (SLS) Service Module (SM) panel jettison event. The database is a combination of inviscid Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) data and MATLAB code written to query the data at input values of vehicle/SM panel parameters and return the aerodynamic force and moment coefficients of the panels as they are jettisoned from the vehicle. The database encompasses over 5000 CFD simulations with the panels either in the initial stages of separation where they are hinged to the vehicle, in close proximity to the vehicle, or far enough from the vehicle that body interference effects are neglected. A series of viscous CFD check cases were performed to assess the accuracy of the Euler solutions for this class of problem and good agreement was obtained. The ultimate goal of the panel jettison database was to create a tool that could be coupled with any 6-Degree-Of-Freedom (DOF) dynamics model to rapidly predict SM panel separation from the SLS vehicle in a quasi-unsteady manner. Results are presented for panel jettison simulations that utilize the database at various SLS flight conditions. These results compare favorably to an approach that directly couples a 6-DOF model with the Cart3D Euler flow solver and obtains solutions for the panels at exact locations. This paper demonstrates a method of using inviscid CFD simulations coupled with a 6-DOF model that provides adequate fidelity to capture the physics of this complex multiple moving-body panel separation event.

  14. Application Program Interface for the Orion Aerodynamics Database (United States)

    Robinson, Philip E.; Thompson, James


    The Application Programming Interface (API) for the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) Aerodynamic Database has been developed to provide the developers of software an easily implemented, fully self-contained method of accessing the CEV Aerodynamic Database for use in their analysis and simulation tools. The API is programmed in C and provides a series of functions to interact with the database, such as initialization, selecting various options, and calculating the aerodynamic data. No special functions (file read/write, table lookup) are required on the host system other than those included with a standard ANSI C installation. It reads one or more files of aero data tables. Previous releases of aerodynamic databases for space vehicles have only included data tables and a document of the algorithm and equations to combine them for the total aerodynamic forces and moments. This process required each software tool to have a unique implementation of the database code. Errors or omissions in the documentation, or errors in the implementation, led to a lengthy and burdensome process of having to debug each instance of the code. Additionally, input file formats differ for each space vehicle simulation tool, requiring the aero database tables to be reformatted to meet the tool s input file structure requirements. Finally, the capabilities for built-in table lookup routines vary for each simulation tool. Implementation of a new database may require an update to and verification of the table lookup routines. This may be required if the number of dimensions of a data table exceeds the capability of the simulation tools built-in lookup routines. A single software solution was created to provide an aerodynamics software model that could be integrated into other simulation and analysis tools. The highly complex Orion aerodynamics model can then be quickly included in a wide variety of tools. The API code is written in ANSI C for ease of portability to a wide variety of systems. The

  15. Governing equations of multi-component rigid body-spring discrete element models of reinforced concrete columns (United States)

    Guan, P. B.; Tingatinga, E. A.; Longalong, R. E.; Saguid, J.


    During the past decades, the complexity of conventional methods to perform seismic performance assessment of buildings led to the development of more effective approaches. The rigid body spring-discrete element method (RBS-DEM) is one of these approaches and has recently been applied to the study of the behavior of reinforced concrete (RC) buildings subjected to strong earthquakes. In this paper, the governing equations of RBS-DEM planar elements subjected to lateral loads and horizontal ground motion are presented and used to replicate the hysteretic behavior of experimental RC columns. The RBS-DEM models of columns are made up of rigid components connected by systems of springs that simulate axial, shear, and bending behavior of an RC section. The parameters of springs were obtained using Response-2000 software and the hysteretic response of the models of select columns from the Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research (PEER) Structural Performance Database were computed numerically. Numerical examples show that one-component models were able to simulate the initial stiffness reasonably, while the displacement capacity of actual columns undergoing large displacements were underestimated.

  16. Registration Method for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Images Based on Point Feature and Edge Feature%基于点特征和边缘特征的无人机影像配准方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何敬; 李永树; 李歆; 唐敏


    为解决变形较大的无人机影像配准问题,提出了点特征和边缘特征相结合的配准方法.用尺度不变特征变换(SIFT)算法提取点特征,完成影像的初步配准,并通过多项式函数对影像进行粗校正.在此基础上提取影像的边缘特征信息,根据距离相似性对边缘特征信息进行配准;依据色彩能量差筛选点特征信息配准结果和边缘特征信息配准结果,采用小面元微分校正的方法对变形影像进行校正.实验结果表明:提出的配准方法能够弥补点特征配准方法和边缘特征配准方法的不足,其配准的鲁棒性提高10%左右,可以较好地完成变形较大的无人机影像配准.%To solve the problem of registration of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) images with a large distortion, an improved method based on the combination of point and line features was proposed. With this method, preparatory registration is completed by extracting point features with the scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) algorithm, and a polynomial function is used to correct an image coarsely. On the basis of the above, the edge features of the image are extracted, and the registration of the edge features is carried out based on the distance similarity- The registration results of point and edge features are filtered by utilizing the color energy difference. A small-bin based differential correction method is used for finally accurate correction. The experimental results show that the proposed method can overcome the drawbacks of the point feature registration and the edge feature registration, the registration robustness is improved by 10% , and it can effectively complete the registration of UAV images with a large distortion.

  17. Development history of the Hybrid Test Vehicle (United States)

    Trummel, M. C.; Burke, A. F.


    Phase I of a joint Department of Energy/Jet Propulsion Laboratory Program undertook the development of the Hybrid Test Vehicle (HTV), which has subsequently progressed through design, fabrication, and testing and evaluation phases. Attention is presently given to the design and test experience gained during the HTV development program, and a discussion is presented of the design features and performance capabilities of the various 'mule' vehicles, devoted to the separate development of engine microprocessor control, vehicle structure, and mechanical components, whose elements were incorporated into the final HTV design. Computer projections of the HTV's performance are given.

  18. Aerodynamic Noise An Introduction for Physicists and Engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Bose, Tarit


    Aerodynamic Noise extensively covers the theoretical basis and mathematical modeling of sound, especially the undesirable sounds produced by aircraft. This noise could come from an aircraft’s engine—propellers, fans, combustion chamber, jets—or the vehicle itself—external surfaces—or from sonic booms. The majority of the sound produced is due to the motion of air and its interaction with solid boundaries, and this is the main discussion of the book. With problem sets at the end of each chapter, Aerodynamic Noise is ideal for graduate students of mechanical and aerospace engineering. It may also be useful for designers of cars, trains, and wind turbines.

  19. Aerodynamic shape optimization using control theory (United States)

    Reuther, James


    Aerodynamic shape design has long persisted as a difficult scientific challenge due its highly nonlinear flow physics and daunting geometric complexity. However, with the emergence of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) it has become possible to make accurate predictions of flows which are not dominated by viscous effects. It is thus worthwhile to explore the extension of CFD methods for flow analysis to the treatment of aerodynamic shape design. Two new aerodynamic shape design methods are developed which combine existing CFD technology, optimal control theory, and numerical optimization techniques. Flow analysis methods for the potential flow equation and the Euler equations form the basis of the two respective design methods. In each case, optimal control theory is used to derive the adjoint differential equations, the solution of which provides the necessary gradient information to a numerical optimization method much more efficiently then by conventional finite differencing. Each technique uses a quasi-Newton numerical optimization algorithm to drive an aerodynamic objective function toward a minimum. An analytic grid perturbation method is developed to modify body fitted meshes to accommodate shape changes during the design process. Both Hicks-Henne perturbation functions and B-spline control points are explored as suitable design variables. The new methods prove to be computationally efficient and robust, and can be used for practical airfoil design including geometric and aerodynamic constraints. Objective functions are chosen to allow both inverse design to a target pressure distribution and wave drag minimization. Several design cases are presented for each method illustrating its practicality and efficiency. These include non-lifting and lifting airfoils operating at both subsonic and transonic conditions.

  20. Aerodynamic Leidenfrost effect (United States)

    Gauthier, Anaïs; Bird, James C.; Clanet, Christophe; Quéré, David


    When deposited on a plate moving quickly enough, any liquid can levitate as it does when it is volatile on a very hot solid (Leidenfrost effect). In the aerodynamic Leidenfrost situation, air gets inserted between the liquid and the moving solid, a situation that we analyze. We observe two types of entrainment. (i) The thickness of the air gap is found to increase with the plate speed, which is interpreted in the Landau-Levich-Derjaguin frame: Air is dynamically dragged along the surface and its thickness results from a balance between capillary and viscous effects. (ii) Air set in motion by the plate exerts a force on the levitating liquid. We discuss the magnitude of this aerodynamic force and show that it can be exploited to control the liquid and even to drive it against gravity.

  1. Computational electromagnetic-aerodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Shang, Joseph J S


    Presents numerical algorithms, procedures, and techniques required to solve engineering problems relating to the interactions between electromagnetic fields, fluid flow, and interdisciplinary technology for aerodynamics, electromagnetics, chemical-physics kinetics, and plasmadynamics This book addresses modeling and simulation science and technology for studying ionized gas phenomena in engineering applications. Computational Electromagnetic-Aerodynamics is organized into ten chapters. Chapter one to three introduce the fundamental concepts of plasmadynamics, chemical-physics of ionization, classical magnetohydrodynamics, and their extensions to plasma-based flow control actuators, high-speed flows of interplanetary re-entry, and ion thrusters in space exploration. Chapter four to six explain numerical algorithms and procedures for solving Maxwell’s equation in the time domain for computational electromagnetics, plasma wave propagation, and the time-dependent c mpressible Navier-Stokes equation for aerodyn...

  2. Hypervelocity Aerodynamics and Control (United States)


    Report: Hypervelocity Aerodynamics and Control 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) T. C. Adamson, Jr. and R. IA. Howe 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED 14. DATE...6] pulse applied. If the Mxyz system as shown is Fig. 3 r 3. , is used, then we have R21= k costo -t4 ksin yot 1 6r= ro 1 (4) -- (6k 2 - 5 -30k 2 sin

  3. 高超声速弹性飞行器前体压缩性能分析%Analyzing fore-body compression performance of a flexible hypersonic flight vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝强军; 唐硕; 谭艺明


    针对全尺寸的吸气式高超声速飞行器的低阶弹性弯曲模态极易被控制和扰动输入激发的特点,提出了一种基于准定常激波膨胀波理论进行前体处于振动条件下的气流参数计算方法,然后用该方法分析了一个具有二维可调进气道的全尺寸吸气式高超声速飞行器机体弹性弯曲振动对前体压缩性能的影响.分析表明:对于实际飞行中可能发生的小振幅的低频弯曲振动,其最主要的影响是引起头部激波的改变;机体弯曲振动幅值或频率增大都会对超燃冲压发动机进气道调节范围和前体压缩性能产生不利影响.%The control input and disturbance are prone to excite the lower order bending mode of a full-scale airbreathing hypersonic flight vehicle ( AHFV). A method based on the quasi-steady shock-expansion wave theory for calculating the unsteady aerodynamics of airframe under bending vibration was proposed for a full-scale AHFV. The effect of airframe bending on the fore-body compression performance is analyzed with this method. It shows that for the possible low frequency and small amplitude vibration of airframe bending, the change of nose shock wave is identified as the main effect; and if the vibration amplitude or frequency of airframe bending is increased, the scramjet may encounter difficulties in adjusting cowl position and compression performance.

  4. Gender Recognition from Human-Body Images Using Visible-Light and Thermal Camera Videos Based on a Convolutional Neural Network for Image Feature Extraction (United States)

    Nguyen, Dat Tien; Kim, Ki Wan; Hong, Hyung Gil; Koo, Ja Hyung; Kim, Min Cheol; Park, Kang Ryoung


    Extracting powerful image features plays an important role in computer vision systems. Many methods have previously been proposed to extract image features for various computer vision applications, such as the scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT), speed-up robust feature (SURF), local binary patterns (LBP), histogram of oriented gradients (HOG), and weighted HOG. Recently, the convolutional neural network (CNN) method for image feature extraction and classification in computer vision has been used in various applications. In this research, we propose a new gender recognition method for recognizing males and females in observation scenes of surveillance systems based on feature extraction from visible-light and thermal camera videos through CNN. Experimental results confirm the superiority of our proposed method over state-of-the-art recognition methods for the gender recognition problem using human body images. PMID:28335510

  5. The Aerodynamics of Deforming Wings at Low Reynolds Number (United States)

    Medina, Albert

    Flapping flight has gained much attention in the past decade driven by the desire to understand capabilities observed in nature and the desire to develop agile small-scale aerial vehicles. Advancing our current understanding of unsteady aerodynamics is an essential component in the development of micro-air vehicles (MAV) intended to utilize flight mechanics akin to insect flight. Thus the efforts undertaken that of bio-mimicry. The complexities of insect wing motion are dissected and simplified to more tractable problems to elucidate the fundamentals of unsteady aerodynamics in biologically inspired kinematics. The MAV's fruition would satisfy long established needs in both the military and civilian sectors. Although recent studies have provided great insight into the lift generating mechanisms of flapping wings the deflection response of such wings remains poorly understood. This dissertation numerically and experimentally investigates the aerodynamic performance of passively and actively deflected wings in hover and rotary kinematics. Flexibility is distilled to discrete lines of flexion which acknowledging major flexion lines in insect wings to be the primary avenue for deformation. Of primary concern is the development of the leading-edge vortex (LEV), a high circulation region of low pressure above the wing to which much of the wing's lift generation is attributed. Two-dimensional simulations of wings with chord-wise flexibility in a freestream reveal a lift generating mechanism unavailable to rigid wings with origins in vortical symmetry breaking. The inclusion of flexibility in translating wings accelerated from rest revealed the formation time of the initial LEV was very weakly dependent on the flexible stiffness of the wing, maintaining a universal time scale of four to five chords of travel before shedding. The frequency of oscillatory shedding of the leading and trailing-edge vortices that develops after the initial vortex shedding was shown to be

  6. Molecular sled is an eleven-amino acid vehicle facilitating biochemical interactions via sliding components along DNA. (United States)

    Mangel, Walter F; McGrath, William J; Xiong, Kan; Graziano, Vito; Blainey, Paul C


    Recently, we showed the adenovirus proteinase interacts productively with its protein substrates in vitro and in vivo in nascent virus particles via one-dimensional diffusion along the viral DNA. The mechanism by which this occurs has heretofore been unknown. We show sliding of these proteins along DNA occurs on a new vehicle in molecular biology, a 'molecular sled' named pVIc. This 11-amino acid viral peptide binds to DNA independent of sequence. pVIc slides on DNA, exhibiting the fastest one-dimensional diffusion constant, 26±1.8 × 10(6) (bp)(2) s(-1). pVIc is a 'molecular sled,' because it can slide heterologous cargos along DNA, for example, a streptavidin tetramer. Similar peptides, for example, from the C terminus of β-actin or NLSIII of the p53 protein, slide along DNA. Characteristics of the 'molecular sled' in its milieu (virion, nucleus) have implications for how proteins in the nucleus of cells interact and imply a new form of biochemistry, one-dimensional biochemistry.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nima Khairdoost


    Full Text Available Vehicle detection is an important issue in driver assistance systems and self-guided vehicles that includes two stages of hypothesis generation and verification. In the first stage, potential vehicles are hypothesized and in the second stage, all hypothesis are verified. The focus of this work is on the second stage. We extract Pyramid Histograms of Oriented Gradients (PHOG features from a traffic image as candidates of feature vectors to detect vehicles. Principle Component Analysis (PCA and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA are applied to these PHOG feature vectors as dimension reduction and feature selection tools parallelly. After feature fusion, we use Genetic Algorithm (GA and cosine similarity-based K Nearest Neighbor (KNN classification to improve the performance and generalization of the features. Our tests show good classification accuracy of more than 97% correct classification on realistic on-road vehicle images.

  8. Vehicle Real-time Location Based on Visual Perception Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Vehicle recognition system (VRS) plays a very important role in the field of intelligent transportation systems.A novel and intuitive method is proposed for vehicle location.The method we provide for vehicle location is based on human visual perception model technique. The perception color space HSI in this algorithm is adopted.Three color components of a color image and more potential edge patterns are integrated for solving the feature extraction problem.A fast and automatic threshold technique based on human visual perception model is also developed.The vertical edge projection and horizontal edge projection are adopted for locating left-right boundary of vehicle and top-bottom boundary of vehicle, respectively. Very promising experimental results are obtained using real-time vehicle image sequences, which have confirmed that this proposed location vehicle method is efficient and reliable, and its calculation speed meets the needs of the VRS.

  9. Influence of short rear end tapers on the wake of a simplified square-back vehicle: wake topology and rear drag (United States)

    Perry, Anna-Kristina; Pavia, Giancarlo; Passmore, Martin


    As vehicle manufacturers work to reduce energy consumption of all types of vehicles, external vehicle aerodynamics has become increasingly important. Whilst production vehicle shape optimisation methods are well developed, the need to make further advances requires deeper understanding of the highly three-dimensional flow around bluff bodies. In this paper, the wake flow of a generic bluff body, the Windsor body, based on a square-back car geometry, was investigated by means of balance measurements, surface pressure measurements and 2D particle image velocimetry planes. Changes in the wake topology are triggered by the application of short tapers (4 % of the model length) to the top and bottom edges of the base, representing a shape optimisation that is realistic for many modern production vehicles. The base drag is calculated and correlated with the aerodynamic drag data. The results not only show the effectiveness of such small devices in modifying the time average topology of the wake but also shed some light on the effects produced by different levels of upwash and downwash on the bi-stable nature of the wake itself.

  10. Aerodynamics of Rotor Blades for Quadrotors

    CERN Document Server

    Bangura, Moses; Naldi, Roberto; Mahony, Robert


    In this report, we present the theory on aerodynamics of quadrotors using the well established momentum and blade element theories. From a robotics perspective, the theoretical development of the models for thrust and horizontal forces and torque (therefore power) are carried out in the body fixed frame of the quadrotor. Using momentum theory, we propose and model the existence of a horizontal force along with its associated power. Given the limitations associated with momentum theory and the inadequacy of the theory to account for the different powers represented in a proposed bond graph lead to the use of blade element theory. Using this theory, models are then developed for the different quadrotor rotor geometries and aerodynamic properties including the optimum hovering rotor used on the majority of quadrotors. Though this rotor is proven to be the most optimum rotor, we show that geometric variations are necessary for manufacturing of the blades. The geometric variations are also dictated by a desired th...

  11. Vortical sources of aerodynamic force and moment (United States)

    Wu, J. Z.; Wu, J. M.


    It is shown that the aerodynamic force and moment can be expressed in terms of vorticity distribution (and entropy variation for compressible flow) on near wake plane, or in terms of boundary vorticity flux on the body surface. Thus the vortical sources of lift and drag are clearly identified, which is the real physical basis of optimal aerodynamic design. Moreover, these sources are highly compact, hence allowing one to concentrate on key local regions of the configuration, which have dominating effect to the lift and drag. A detail knowledge of the vortical low requires measuring or calculating the vorticity and dilatation field, which is however still a challenging task. Nevertheless, this type of formulation has some unique advantages; and how to set up a well-posed problem, in particular how to establish vorticity-dilatation boundary conditions, is addressed.

  12. The challenge to the automotive battery industry: the battery has to become an increasingly integrated component within the vehicle electric power system (United States)

    Meissner, Eberhard; Richter, Gerolf

    During the time that the automotive battery was considered to be just a passive component in a vehicle electric power system, the battery industry's answer to all new challenges was constructive improvements. The emerging requirements of even higher function reliability cannot, however be met this way. A battery manufacturer of today has to give recommendations for the appropriate choice of the electrical architecture and has to design batteries that suit best the requirements. In addition, manufactures have to be engaged in the technology of battery management, of battery monitoring and state detection, and performance of prediction under future operation conditions. During service on-board a vehicle, battery performance undergoes significant changes, e.g., loss of storage capability, increase in internal resistance, and changes in voltage characteristics. These ageing processes have to be considered when the electrical architecture is being designed and management strategies are being formulated. Battery monitoring and state detection must be able to identify and quantify battery degradation. Moreover, performance prediction as well as management strategies have to be corrected on account of the changing battery characteristics.

  13. Development of Near Optimal Rule-Based Control for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles Taking into Account Drivetrain Component Losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanho Son


    Full Text Available A near-optimal rule-based mode control (RBC strategy was proposed for a target plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV taking into account the drivetrain losses. Individual loss models were developed for drivetrain components including the gears, planetary gear (PG, bearings, and oil pump, based on experimental data and mathematical governing equations. Also, a loss model for the power electronic system was constructed, including loss from the motor-generator while rotating in the unloaded state. To evaluate the effect of the drivetrain losses on the operating mode control strategy, backward simulations were performed using dynamic programming (DP. DP selects the operating mode, which provides the highest efficiency for given driving conditions. It was found that the operating mode selection changes when drivetrain losses are included, depending on driving conditions. An operating mode schedule was developed with respect to the wheel power and vehicle speed, and based on the operating mode schedule, a RBC was obtained, which can be implemented in an on-line application. To evaluate the performance of the RBC, a forward simulator was constructed for the target PHEV. The simulation results show near-optimal performance of the RBC compared with dynamic-programming-based mode control in terms of the mode operation time and fuel economy. The RBC developed with drivetrain losses taken into account showed a 4%–5% improvement of the fuel economy over a similar RBC, which neglected the drivetrain losses.

  14. Flap effectiveness appraisal for winged re-entry vehicles (United States)

    de Rosa, Donato; Pezzella, Giuseppe; Donelli, Raffaele S.; Viviani, Antonio


    The interactions between shock waves and boundary layer are commonplace in hypersonic aerodynamics. They represent a very challenging design issue for hypersonic vehicle. A typical example of shock wave boundary layer interaction is the flowfield past aerodynamic surfaces during control. As a consequence, such flow interaction phenomena influence both vehicle aerodynamics and aerothermodynamics. In this framework, the present research effort describes the numerical activity performed to simulate the flowfield past a deflected flap in hypersonic flowfield conditions for a winged re-entry vehicle.

  15. Surface effect vehicles and surface effect: General studies. Citations from the NTIS data base (United States)

    Habercom, G. E., Jr.


    The bibliography contains 180 citations in which the design of surface effect vehicles, their utilization, and their aerodynamic characteristics are investigated. Vehicles or ships in marine environments are not included.

  16. Comparative Analysis of Uninhibited and Constrained Avian Wing Aerodynamics (United States)

    Cox, Jordan A.

    The flight of birds has intrigued and motivated man for many years. Bird flight served as the primary inspiration of flying machines developed by Leonardo Da Vinci, Otto Lilienthal, and even the Wright brothers. Avian flight has once again drawn the attention of the scientific community as unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) are not only becoming more popular, but smaller. Birds are once again influencing the designs of aircraft. Small UAVs operating within flight conditions and low Reynolds numbers common to birds are not yet capable of the high levels of control and agility that birds display with ease. Many researchers believe the potential to improve small UAV performance can be obtained by applying features common to birds such as feathers and flapping flight to small UAVs. Although the effects of feathers on a wing have received some attention, the effects of localized transient feather motion and surface geometry on the flight performance of a wing have been largely overlooked. In this research, the effects of freely moving feathers on a preserved red tailed hawk wing were studied. A series of experiments were conducted to measure the aerodynamic forces on a hawk wing with varying levels of feather movement permitted. Angle of attack and air speed were varied within the natural flight envelope of the hawk. Subsequent identical tests were performed with the feather motion constrained through the use of externally-applied surface treatments. Additional tests involved the study of an absolutely fixed geometry mold-and-cast wing model of the original bird wing. Final tests were also performed after applying surface coatings to the cast wing. High speed videos taken during tests revealed the extent of the feather movement between wing models. Images of the microscopic surface structure of each wing model were analyzed to establish variations in surface geometry between models. Recorded aerodynamic forces were then compared to the known feather motion and surface

  17. Does an active adjustment of aerodynamic drag make sense? (United States)

    Maciejewski, Marek


    The article concerns evaluation of the possible impact of the gap between the tractor and semitrailer on the aerodynamic drag coefficient. The aim here is not to adjust this distance depending on the geometrical shape of the tractor and trailer, but depending solely on the speed of articulated vehicle. All the tests have form of numerical simulations. The method of simulation is briefly explained in the article. It considers various issues such as the range and objects of tests as well as the test conditions. The initial (pre-adaptive) and final (after adaptation process) computational meshes have been presented as illustrations. Some of the results have been presented in the form of run chart showing the change of value of aerodynamic drag coefficients in time, for different geometric configurations defined by a clearance gap between the tractor and semitrailer. The basis for a detailed analysis and conclusions were the averaged (in time) aerodynamic drag coefficients as a function of the clearance gap.

  18. Differential Features of Cerebral Perfusion in Dementia with Lewy Bodies Compared to Alzheimer's Dementia using SPM Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Do Young; Park, Kyung Won; Kim, Jae Woo [College of Medicine, Univ. of Donga, Busan (Korea, Republic of)


    Alzheimer's dementia (AD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) are most common cause of dementia in elderly people. Clinical distinction in some cases of DLB from AD may be difficult as symptom profiles overlap. Some neuropathologic overlap is also seen as beta-amyloidosis and senile plaques can be found in both disease. Both disease also share severe acetylcholine depletion. We evaluated the differences of brain perfusion between DLB and AD using statistical parametric mapping analysis. Twelve DLB (mean age ; 68.8{+-}8.3 years, K-MMSE ; 17.3{+-}6.1) and 51 AD patients (mean age ; 71.4{+-}7.2 years, K-MMSE ; 16.7{+-}4.5), which were matched for age and severity of dementia, participated in this study. Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT was performed for measuring regional cerebral blood flow. Statistical parametric mapping (SPM99) software was used for automatic and objective approach to analyze SPECT image data. The SPECT data of the patients with DLB were compared to patients with AD. Comparison of the two dementia groups (uncorrected p<0.01) revealed significant hypoperfusion in both occipital (both middle occipital gyrus, Rt B no. 18 and Lt cuneus), both parietal (Lt parietal precuneus, Lt B no. 39, Lt inferior parietal lobule and Rt supramarginal gyrus) lobes in DLB compared with AD. Significant hyperperfusion was noted in Rt frontal (sup. frontal gyrus, B no.10, middle frontal gyrus, B no. 9, B no. 11, inf. frontal gyrus), Rt putamen, Lt ant. cingulate gyrus (B no. 24), both cerebellar post. lobe (Lt tuber, Lt declive, Lt tonsil, Rt declive) in DLB compared with AD. We found a significant differences in the cerebral perfusion pattern between DLB and AD. Differential feature of cerebral perfusion in DLB was both occipital hypoperfusion and preserved Rt frontal perfusion compared to AD. Therefore in difficult case of clinical an neuro pathologic diagnosis, brain perfusion SPECT with SPM analysis may be helpful to differentiate DLB from AD.

  19. Wavelet low- and high-frequency components as features for predicting stock prices with backpropagation neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim Lahmiri


    Full Text Available This paper presents a forecasting model that integrates the discrete wavelet transform (DWT and backpropagation neural networks (BPNN for predicting financial time series. The presented model first uses the DWT to decompose the financial time series data. Then, the obtained approximation (low-frequency and detail (high-frequency components after decomposition of the original time series are used as input variables to forecast future stock prices. Indeed, while high-frequency components can capture discontinuities, ruptures and singularities in the original data, low-frequency components characterize the coarse structure of the data, to identify the long-term trends in the original data. As a result, high-frequency components act as a complementary part of low-frequency components. The model was applied to seven datasets. For all of the datasets, accuracy measures showed that the presented model outperforms a conventional model that uses only low-frequency components. In addition, the presented model outperforms both the well-known auto-regressive moving-average (ARMA model and the random walk (RW process.

  20. Design, construction and integration of hybrid drive components in commercial vehicles. The MAN hybrid drive truck TGL 12.220; Auslegung, Aufbau und Integration von Hybrid-Antriebskomponenten im Nutzfahrzeug. Der MAN Hybrid-Verteiler-Lkw TGL 12.220

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerschl, Stefan; Hipp, Eberhand; Doebereiner, Rolf [MAN Nutzfahrzeuge AG, Muenchen (Germany)


    In contrast to the passenger car the drive train of commercial vehicles is designed basically in view of a maximum efficiency, because the fuel consumption has a determining portion in the vehicle operating expenses of the operators. The pay load of the vehicle also has a high value, in particular in the small and middle segment from 8 t of total weight. In view of pollutant issues the environmental zones which may be also driven by commercial vehicles only from a certain pollutant class were already furnished by many local authority districts. Additional demands for a purely, emission free electric short distance operation can result from suitable emission editions in bigger towns in future. MAN Nutzfahrzeuge AG meet these topical challenges with the development of a hybriddelivery truck of the 12 t - class. At this the aim is to meet to the demands after low CO{sub 2} issue and purely electric operation by a powerful battery system and the recuperation of brake energy. For the integration of the hybrid components in the vehicle it was respected to preserve the pay load of the vehicle without limiting the functionality. The dimensioning of the hybrid drive train for a delivery truck vehicle, the vehicle integration and the effects on the lifecycle economics are lighted up in the following. (orig.)

  1. Space-Time Fluid-Structure Interaction Computation of Flapping-Wing Aerodynamics (United States)

    Kostov, Nikolay M.

    We present a sequentially-coupled space-time (ST) computational fluid-structure interaction (FSI) analysis of flapping-wing aerodynamics of a micro aerial vehicle (MAV). The wing motion and deformation data, whether prescribed fully or partially, is from an actual locust, extracted from high-speed, multi-camera video recordings of the locust in a wind tunnel. The core computational FSI technology is based on the Deforming-Spatial-Domain/Stabilized ST (DSD/SST) formulation. This is supplemented with using NURBS basis functions in temporal representation of the wing and mesh motion, and in remeshing. Here we use the version of the DSD/SST formulation derived in conjunction with the variational multiscale (VMS) method, and this version is called "DSD/SST-VMST." The structural mechanics computations are based on the Kirchhoff-Love shell model. The sequential-coupling technique is applicable to some classes of FSI problems, especially those with temporally-periodic behavior. We show that it performs well in FSI computations of the flapping-wing aerodynamics we consider here. In addition to the straight-flight case, we analyze cases where the MAV body has rolling, pitching, or rolling and pitching motion. We study how all these influence the lift and thrust.

  2. Aerodynamics of wind turbines

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Martin O L


    Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines is the established essential text for the fundamental solutions to efficient wind turbine design. Now in its third edition, it has been substantially updated with respect to structural dynamics and control. The new control chapter now includes details on how to design a classical pitch and torque regulator to control rotational speed and power, while the section on structural dynamics has been extended with a simplified mechanical system explaining the phenomena of forward and backward whirling modes. Readers will also benefit from a new chapter on Vertical Axis W

  3. Feedback Control of an Ahmed Body Flow Exhibiting Symmetry-Breaking Regimes (United States)

    Evstafyeva, Olga; Morgans, Aimee


    At motorway speeds two-thirds of usable engine energy of square-back vehicles is spent overcoming the aerodynamic drag. The main source of drag is the bi-stable low pressure wake which forms at the back of the body as the boundary layers separate over the rear edges of the vehicle. Identifying large coherent structures and describing the physics of the wake is, therefore, of great practical importance for understanding the sources of drag and informing drag-reduction strategies. Present work investigates numerically the flow past the Ahmed body- a commonly used test-case for a simplified vehicle geometry, at Reynolds numbers 310 3D flow-field, the destabilising dynamics of the wake and vortex systems are investigated further. Dynamic Mode Decomposition is performed to identify the main coherent structures and their frequencies and growth rates. A practical feedback control strategy is then implemented to achieve base pressure recovery yielding a concomitant drag reduction.

  4. Study on Forward Vehicle Detection and Distance Measurement Based on Shadow Features%基于阴影特征的前向车辆检测和测距方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏凯; 盛建平; 熊凯


    车辆检测汽车安全的重要课题之一.提出了一种基于阴影特征的车辆检测和测距方法:首先分析车辆底部阴影的特征,通过基于路面灰度信息的阈值分割方法分离阴影区域,然后检测阴影下边界并构建车辆的感兴趣区域,并利用归一化转动惯量特征实现车辆验证,最后根据摄像机成像模型和几何透视变换原理建立了车距测量模型,测得与前向车辆之间的距离.实验结果表明,该方法可在不同交通环境下对前向车辆实现一定的范围内的有效检测和准确测距.%Vehicles detection is one of the important subjects in auto safety. A method to detect vehicles and measure distance with the vehicle ahead based on shadows is presented. Shadow features of a vehicle at the bottom are firstly analyzed and separated using a threshold segmentation method based on the pavement gray information. The lower boder of the shadow is then detected and vehicle region of interesting is built. NMI feature is also used to validate this algorithm. Lastly, the model is built and the distance with vehicle ahead is obtained using camera projection model and geometric perspective transformation principle. Experiments are performed and the results shows that the method can detect the forward vehicle effectively and obtain the distance accurately with the vehicle ahead in different kinds of traffic situations.

  5. Aerodynamic performances of cruise missile flying above local terrain (United States)

    Ahmad, A.; Saad, M. R.; Che Idris, A.; Rahman, M. R. A.; Sujipto, S.


    Cruise missile can be classified as a smart bomb and also Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) due to its ability to move and manoeuvre by itself without a pilot. Cruise missile flies in constant velocity in cruising stage. Malaysia is one of the consumers of cruise missiles that are imported from other nations, which can have distinct geographic factors including their local terrains compared to Malaysia. Some of the aerodynamic performances of missile such as drag and lift coefficients can be affected by the local geographic conditions in Malaysia, which is different from the origin nation. Therefore, a detailed study must be done to get aerodynamic performance of cruise missiles that operate in Malaysia. The effect of aerodynamic angles such as angle of attack and side slip can be used to investigate the aerodynamic performances of cruise missile. Hence, subsonic wind tunnel testings were conducted to obtain the aerodynamic performances of the missile at various angle of attack and sideslip angles. Smoke visualization was also performed to visualize the behaviour of flow separation. The optimum angle of attack found was at α=21° and side slip, β=10° for optimum pitching and yawing motion of cruise missile.

  6. BMI and risk of serious upper body injury following motor vehicle crashes: concordance of real-world and computer-simulated observations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankuan Zhu


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Men tend to have more upper body mass and fat than women, a physical characteristic that may predispose them to severe motor vehicle crash (MVC injuries, particularly in certain body regions. This study examined MVC-related regional body injury and its association with the presence of driver obesity using both real-world data and computer crash simulation. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Real-world data were from the 2001 to 2005 National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System. A total of 10,941 drivers who were aged 18 years or older involved in frontal collision crashes were eligible for the study. Sex-specific logistic regression models were developed to analyze the associations between MVC injury and the presence of driver obesity. In order to confirm the findings from real-world data, computer models of obese subjects were constructed and crash simulations were performed. According to real-world data, obese men had a substantially higher risk of injury, especially serious injury, to the upper body regions including head, face, thorax, and spine than normal weight men (all p<0.05. A U-shaped relation was found between body mass index (BMI and serious injury in the abdominal region for both men and women (p<0.05 for both BMI and BMI(2. In the high-BMI range, men were more likely to be seriously injured than were women for all body regions except the extremities and abdominal region (all p<0.05 for interaction between BMI and sex. The findings from the computer simulation were generally consistent with the real-world results in the present study. CONCLUSIONS: Obese men endured a much higher risk of injury to upper body regions during MVCs. This higher risk may be attributed to differences in body shape, fat distribution, and center of gravity between obese and normal-weight subjects, and between men and women. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  7. Numerical Investigation of Aerodynamic and Aero-Thermal Effects for Hypersonic Vehicles%典型外形高超声速气动力/气动热数值计算研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘毅; 王刚; 叶正寅


    Hypersonic flow field has been numerically investigated for two different configurations, to study the aer-odynamic / aero-thermal effects. Simulations were performed using an in-house hybrid unstructured Reynolds-aver-aged Navier-Stokes solver ( HUNS3D) . Four different flux differencing schemes ( central scheme and three upwind schemes AUSM+, AUSM+up, Roe) were employed for spatial discretization. The accuracy of all the schemes was compared with each other and with the available experimental data. Different levels of meshes were generated to in-vestigate the effect of grid resolution. The pressure distribution was not much influenced by the mesh resolution;however the predicted heat flux was greatly affected by the change in the mesh resolution. The shock position has been accurately captured by the Central, AUSM+and AUSM+up schemes. The predicted pressure distribution was in good agreement with the experimental data but some difference was observed in the robustness of flux differencing schemes. The increase in the wall temperature gives rise to flow separation which eventually affects the aerodynamic/ aero-thermal heating. After the separation zone the flow reattachment enhances the surface heat transfer dramatic-ally.%通过数值模拟和理论分析的综合研究,比较了网格密度不同对计算的影响,研究了中心格式和3种迎风格式( AUSM+格式、AUSM+up格式、Roe格式)的计算性能,探讨了壁面温度变化对气动力/气动热计算的影响。结果表明:网格密度变化对气动力计算影响不大,但却在很大程度上影响热流的计算及流动分离的模拟;各空间格式都能准确地计算出流场压力分布,有较高的激波分辨率,但鲁棒性有所差异,其中AUSM+up格式在高超声速流场计算中鲁棒性较好;壁面温度升高会导致所得分离区增大,气动力/气动热分布也会相应发生变化;在分离区后的流动再附会很大程度上增大该区域的热流值。

  8. Vehicles Components Cleaning Systemfor Efficient and Environmentally Friendly%高效环保车辆配件清洗系统的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



      概要介绍国内铁路车辆闸瓦间隙自动调节器配件清洗现状,结合现场大修实际情况,从环保、节能、扩能、安全的角度出发,提出用途广泛的配件超声波清洗系统,介绍其技术方案设计、系统结构组成、技术参数以及使用效果。%  The paper briefly overviews the current status of cleaning system for brake shoe gap automatic regulator components on the domestic railway vehicles. Combines with overhaul practice, from the point of views of environmental protection, energy saving, capacity improvement and safety, the paper proposes the uses of ultrasonic cleaning system for a wide range of components, presents its technical proposal solution design and system structure and composition, technical parameters, and the utilization results.

  9. Wing Warping, Roll Control and Aerodynamic Optimization of Inflatable Wings (United States)

    Simpson, Andrew


    The research presents work on aerodynamic control by warping inflatable wings. Inflatable wings are deformable by their nature. Mechanical manipulation of the wing's shape has been demonstrated to alter the performance and control the vehicle in flight by deforming the trailing edge of the wing near the wing tip. Predicting and correlating the forces required in deforming the wings to a particular shape and the deformation generated for a given internal pressure were conducted through the use of photogrammetry. This research focuses on optimizing the roll moments and aerodynamic performance of the vehicle, given the current level of wing warping ability. Predictions from lifting line theory applied to wing shape changes are presented. Comparisons from the experimental results are made with lifting line analysis for wings with arbitrary twist and the solutions are used to determine rolling moment and optimum L/D. Results from flight tests will also be presented.

  10. Aerodynamic characteristics research on wide-speed range waverider configuration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Waverider generated from a given flow field has a high lift-to-drag ratio because of attached bow shock on leading edge. However, leading edge blunt and off-design condition can make bow shock off leading edge and have unfavorable influence on aerodynamic characteristics. So these two problems have always been concerned as important engineering science issues by aeronautical engineering scientists. In this paper, through respectively using low speed and high speed waverider design principles, a wide-speed rang vehicle is designed, which can level takeoff and accelerate to hypersonic speed for cruise. In addition, sharp leading edge is blunted to alleviated aeroheating. Theoretical study and wind tunnel test show that this vehicle has good aerodynamic performance in wide-speed range of subsonic, transonic, supersonic and hypersonic speeds.

  11. Real time on-chip sequential adaptive principal component analysis for data feature extraction and image compression (United States)

    Duong, T. A.


    In this paper, we present a new, simple, and optimized hardware architecture sequential learning technique for adaptive Principle Component Analysis (PCA) which will help optimize the hardware implementation in VLSI and to overcome the difficulties of the traditional gradient descent in learning convergence and hardware implementation.

  12. The Aerodynamic Plane Table (United States)

    Zahm, A F


    This report gives the description and the use of a specially designed aerodynamic plane table. For the accurate and expeditious geometrical measurement of models in an aerodynamic laboratory, and for miscellaneous truing operations, there is frequent need for a specially equipped plan table. For example, one may have to measure truly to 0.001 inch the offsets of an airfoil at many parts of its surface. Or the offsets of a strut, airship hull, or other carefully formed figure may require exact calipering. Again, a complete airplane model may have to be adjusted for correct incidence at all parts of its surfaces or verified in those parts for conformance to specifications. Such work, if but occasional, may be done on a planing or milling machine; but if frequent, justifies the provision of a special table. For this reason it was found desirable in 1918 to make the table described in this report and to equip it with such gauges and measures as the work should require.

  13. Aerodynamics of sports balls (United States)

    Mehta, R. D.


    Research data on the aerodynamic behavior of baseballs and cricket and golf balls are summarized. Cricket balls and baseballs are roughly the same size and mass but have different stitch patterns. Both are thrown to follow paths that avoid a batter's swing, paths that can curve if aerodynamic forces on the balls' surfaces are asymmetric. Smoke tracer wind tunnel tests and pressure taps have revealed that the unbalanced side forces are induced by tripping the boundary layer on the seam side and producing turbulence. More particularly, the greater pressures are perpendicular to the seam plane and only appear when the balls travel at velocities high enough so that the roughness length matches the seam heigh. The side forces, once tripped, will increase with spin velocity up to a cut-off point. The enhanced lift coefficient is produced by the Magnus effect. The more complex stitching on a baseball permits greater variations in the flight path curve and, in the case of a knuckleball, the unsteady flow effects. For golf balls, the dimples trip the boundary layer and the high spin rate produces a lift coefficient maximum of 0.5, compared to a baseball's maximum of 0.3. Thus, a golf ball travels far enough for gravitational forces to become important.

  14. Vehicle Component Benchmarking Using a Chassis Dynamometer: Using a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu and a 2013 Mercedes E350 (SAE Paper 2015-01-0589) (United States)

    Light-duty vehicle greenhouse gas (GHG) and fuel economy (FE) standards for MYs 2012 -2025 are requiring vehicle powertrains to become much more efficient. The EPA is using a full vehicle simulation model, called the Advanced Light-duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis (ALPHA), to ...

  15. Results of investigations with an 0.015-scale model (49-0) of the Rockwell International space shuttle vehicle 140A/B configuration with modified OMS pods and elevons in the AEDC VKF tunnel B (0A79) (United States)

    Esparza, V.; Lindsay, A. I.


    Aerodynamic data obtained from wind tunnel tests of an 0.015-scale space shuttle vehicle Orbiter model of a 140A/B configuration with modified orbital manuevering system pods and elevons are documented. Force data was obtained at various control surface settings and Reynolds numbers in the angle of attack range of 15 deg to 45 deg and at angles of sideslip of -5 deg to +5 deg. Control surface variables included elevon, rudder, speed brake, and body flap configurations.

  16. Aerodynamic map for soft and hard hypersonic level flight in near space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruifeng Hu; Ziniu Wu; Zhe Wu; Xiaoxin Wang; Zhongwei Tian


    In this note, we design a velocity-altitude map for hypersonic level flight in near space of altitude 20-100 km. This map displays aerodynamic-related parameters associated with near space level flight, schematically or quantitatively. Various physical conditions for the near-space level flight are then characterized, including laminar or turbulent flow, rarefaction or continuous flow, aerodynamic heating, as well as conditions for sustaining level flight with and without orbital effect. This map allows one to identify conditions to have soft flight or hard flight, and this identification would be helpful for making correct planning on detailed studies of aerodynamics or making initial design of near space vehicles.

  17. Vehicle Crashworthiness Simulation Based on Virtual Design of Autobody

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓云; 金先龙; 孙奕; 林忠钦; 周长英; 艾维全; 王仕达


    Vehicle crashworthiness simulation is the main component of the virtual auto-body design. One developing commercial vehicle was simulated on crashworthiness by the non-linear finite element method. The bumper crashworthiness at the speed of 8 km/h was analyzed and valuated. On the other hand, the deformation of the auto-body, the movement of the steering wheel and the dynamic responses of the occupant at the initial velocity of 50 km/h were studied. The results appear that the design of the vehicle could be improved on structure and material. Finally, the frontal longitudinal beam, the main energy-absorbing part of the auto-body, was optimized on structure. Simulation results also show that applying new material, such as high strength steel, and new manufacture techniques, such as tailor-welded blanks could improve the crashworthiness of the vehicle greatly.

  18. Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) Technology Development Overview (United States)

    Hughes, Stephen J.; Cheatwood, F. McNeil; Calomino, Anthony M.; Wright, Henry S.; Wusk, Mary E.; Hughes, Monica F.


    The successful flight of the Inflatable Reentry Vehicle Experiment (IRVE)-3 has further demonstrated the potential value of Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) technology. This technology development effort is funded by NASA's Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) Game Changing Development Program (GCDP). This paper provides an overview of a multi-year HIAD technology development effort, detailing the projects completed to date and the additional testing planned for the future.

  19. 3D photo mosaicing of Tagiri shallow vent field by an autonomous underwater vehicle (3rd report) - Mosaicing method based on navigation data and visual features - (United States)

    Maki, Toshihiro; Ura, Tamaki; Singh, Hanumant; Sakamaki, Takashi

    Large-area seafloor imaging will bring significant benefits to various fields such as academics, resource survey, marine development, security, and search-and-rescue. The authors have proposed a navigation method of an autonomous underwater vehicle for seafloor imaging, and verified its performance through mapping tubeworm colonies with the area of 3,000 square meters using the AUV Tri-Dog 1 at Tagiri vent field, Kagoshima bay in Japan (Maki et al., 2008, 2009). This paper proposes a post-processing method to build a natural photo mosaic from a number of pictures taken by an underwater platform. The method firstly removes lens distortion, invariances of color and lighting from each image, and then ortho-rectification is performed based on camera pose and seafloor estimated by navigation data. The image alignment is based on both navigation data and visual characteristics, implemented as an expansion of the image based method (Pizarro et al., 2003). Using the two types of information realizes an image alignment that is consistent both globally and locally, as well as making the method applicable to data sets with little visual keys. The method was evaluated using a data set obtained by the AUV Tri-Dog 1 at the vent field in Sep. 2009. A seamless, uniformly illuminated photo mosaic covering the area of around 500 square meters was created from 391 pictures, which covers unique features of the field such as bacteria mats and tubeworm colonies.

  20. Colorectal adenocarcinoma with mucinous component: relation of MMP-13, EGFR, and E-cadherin expressions to clinicopathological features and prognosis. (United States)

    Foda, Abd Al-Rahman Mohammad; El-Hawary, Amira Kamal; Aziz, Azza Abdel


    The aim of this study was to compare colorectal adenocarcinoma with mucinous component, ordinary adenocarcinoma (OA) and mucinous adenocarcinoma (MA) regarding clinicopathological parameters, survival, EGFR, MMP-13, and E-cadherin. We studied tumor tissue specimens from 28 patients with adenocarcinoma with mucinous component, 47 with OA, and 56 with MA, who underwent radical surgery from January 2007 to January 2012 at the Gastroenterology Centre, Mansoura University, Egypt. High density manual tissue microarrays were constructed and immunohistochemistry for EGFR, MMP-13, and E-cadherin was done. Colorectal adenocarcinoma with mucinous component (AWMC) was significantly associated with more perineural invasion, lower EGFR, and MMP-13 expressions than OA, with no difference in E-cadherin expression. Conversely, only microscopic abscess formation was significantly more with colorectal AWMC than MC with no difference in EGFR, MMP-13 and E-cadherin expression between both groups. Colorectal AWMC showed a better survival than MA with no difference with OA. In a univariate analysis, EGFR, MMP-13, and E-cadherin expressions did not show a significant impact on disease-free or overall survival in patients with colorectal AWMC. Colorectal AWMC remains a vague entity that resembles OA in some clinicopathological and molecular respects as well as MA.