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Sample records for aerodigestives superieures vads

  1. ETUDE DES ALTERATIONS EPIGENETIQUES DANS LES CANCERS DES VOIES AERO-DIGESTIVES SUPERIEURES (VADS). IMPLICATION DANS LE DISGNOSTIC, LE SUIVI ET LE PRONOSTIC DES PATIENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Righini, Christian Adrien

    2006-01-01

    Studies in UADTs tumors biology have been performed to better understand the carcinogenesis and to find biomarkers that could have a prognostic value or an early detection benefit. In carcinogenesis of tumors of the UADTs, 2 main types of modifications have been identified at the cellular level: genetic and epigenetic alterations. Our work focused on methylation of tumor suppressor genes in tumors and saliva. Sixteen genes have thus been analyzed; we were then able to define a 6-gene methylat...

  2. Late xerostomia after intensity-modulated conformational radiotherapy of upper aero-digestive tract cancers: study 2004-03 by the head and neck oncology and radiotherapy Group (Gortec); Xerostomie tardive apres radiotherapie conformationnelle avec modulation d'intensite des cancers des voies aero-digestives superieures: etude 2004-03 du Groupe oncologie et radiotherapie de la tete et du cou (Gortec)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toledano, I.; Lapeyre, M. [Centre Jean-Perrin, 63 - Clermont-Ferrand (France); Graff, P. [Centre Alexis-Vautrin, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Serre, C. [Centre Val d' Aurelle, 34 - Montpellier (France); Bensadoun, R.J. [CHU La Miletrie, 86 - Poitiers (France); Bensadoun, R.J.; Ortholan, C. [Centre Antoine-Lacassagne, 06 - Nice (France); Calais, G. [CHU Bretonneau, 37 - Tours (France); Alfonsi, M. [Institut Sainte-Catherine, 84 - Avignon (France); Giraud, P. [Institut Curie, 75 - Paris (France); Hopital europeen Georges-Pompidou, 75 - Paris (France); Racadot, S. [Centre Leon-Berrard, 69 - Lyon (France)

    2010-10-15

    The authors report a retrospective assessment of late xerostomia according to the RTOG (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group) classification of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) among patients treated by intensity-modulated conformational radiotherapy (IMRT) and suffering from upper aero-digestive tract carcinomas of different stages. Some of these patients have bee operated, and some have been treated by chemotherapy. It appears that the IMRT results in a reduction of late xerostomia, and even in an absence of salivary toxicity. Short communication

  3. Denutrition et cancers des voies aero-digestives superieures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Head and neck cancer and its treatment are responsible in more than 30% of cases of malnutrition witch can be severe and interfere with the management of these tumors. The aim of this paper is to provide a protocol for nutritional management practices of these cancers. The malnutrition diagnosis requires an examination ...

  4. Convex Combination of Multiple Statistical Models with Application to VAD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petsatodis, Theodoros; Boukis, Christos; Talantzis, Fotios

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a robust Voice Activity Detector (VAD) based on the observation that the distribution of speech captured with far-field microphones is highly varying, depending on the noise and reverberation conditions. The proposed VAD employs a convex combination scheme comprising three...

  5. Treatment modalities of oral mucositis after radiation of head and neck cancers; Prise en charge des mucites apres radiotherapie des cancers des voies aerodigestives superieures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapeyre, M.; Charra-Brunaud, C.; Kaminsky, M.C.; Geoffrois, L.; Dolivet, G.; Pourel, N.; Marchal, C.; Bey, P.; Maire, F.; Simon, M. [Centre Alexis-Vautrin, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Toussaint, B. [Hopital Central, Service de Chirurgie ORL, 54 - Nancy (France)

    2001-11-01

    Acute mucositis is common after radiotherapy for head and neck cancers. During the past 3 decades, there was a gradual evolution in the treatment modalities for locally advanced carcinomas (concomitant radio-chemotherapy, accelerated radiotherapy). These new strategies are accompanied by an increase in early mucosal reactions. At the present time, there is no widely accepted prophylaxis or effective treatment. Many traditional remedies or new agents seem ineffective (Sucralfate, Chlorhexidine, GM-CSF, Silver nitrate, Prostaglandin, anti-oxidants, Benzydamine hydrochloride), while others seem promising (Povidone-iodine, nonabsorbable antibiotic lozenges and anti-fungal, local GM-CSF, Glutamide, Low-energy laser, corticosteroids). Radioprotectors are controversial and should be only used in experimental protocols and not in routine practice. However, some recommendations can be proposed: general prevention and global care before cancer therapy should be systematic (oral hygiene, dental and periodontal treatment, advice to avoid the use of tobacco and alcohol); frequent oral rinsing with a bland mouthwash (Povidone-iodine or others) should be used at the start of treatment because there are significant modifications of the oral microflora increased by a disturbed salivary flow; these mouthwashes could be associated with nonabsorbable antibiotic lozenges or anti-fungal topical (bicarbonates, Amphotericine B); Systematic percutaneous fluoroscopic gastrostomy should be decided before any aggressive treatments (concomitant radio-chemotherapy, accelerated radiotherapy); pain should be controlled; finally, the radiation technique should be optimized (mucosal sparing block, conformal radiotherapy and intensity modulated radiation therapy). (authors)

  6. Petroleum Carcinogenicity and Aerodigestive Tract: In Context of Developing Nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Sunali; Gharpure, Amit S

    2017-04-30

    Head and neck cancers from a diverse group of neoplasms, the occurrence of which can be attributed to habitual tobacco use, race, alcohol consumption, ultraviolet (UV) exposure, occupational exposure, viruses, and diet. The surging incidence rates reflect the prevalence of risk factors such as tobacco use (smoked and smokeless), betel nut chewing, urbanization and issues relating to urban air quality. Urbanization and development have catalyzed a multifold rise in levels of pollution in metropolitan cities. Ever-increasing consumption of fuels to meet demands of the growing population coupled with industrial activity has adversely affected the air quality, especially in developing countries. The cause most neglected in risk assessment of aerodigestive tract cancer research is that from petroleum exposure. The global issue of petroleum carcinogenicity has assumed high proportions. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals are essential constituents of total petroleum hydrocarbons which infiltrate into the environment and are recognized worldwide as priority pollutants because of their toxicity and carcinogenicity. High levels of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, carbon monoxide, ammonia and particulate matter PM 10   has skyrocketed aerodigestive tract diseases especially carcinomas. The identification of specific biomarkers and role of metal ions in aerodigestive tract cancers will indicate the molecular basis of disease to provide quality care for patients confronting new threats from climate-sensitive pathologies. There is an urgent need to evaluate existing public health infrastructure so as to take ameliorative and adaptive measures.

  7. Blood interaction with a Bioline heparin coated HIA-VAD : A study on calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanderKamp, KWHJ; Magielse, CPE; Elstrodt, JM; vanderMeer, J; vanOeveren, W; Rakhorst, G

    The blood compatibility of ventricular assist devices developed by the Helmholtz institute Aachen (HA-VAD's) was tested on calves. Seven calves received a non-coated HIA-VAD (control) and three a Bioline heparin coated device. The circulatory support of these HIA-VAD's lasted one week. Mechanical

  8. Foreign bodies in the upper aerodigestive tract of Nigerian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B S Alabi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim/Background This is an audit of number, nature, sites of impaction and methods of removals and treatment outcome of upper aero-digestive foreign bodies among children in an urban University hospital in Nigeria. Patients and Methods This is an 8year retrospective review of foreign body in upper aero-digestive tract of children (January 2001 to December 2007 was conducted at the ENT department of the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin, Nigeria. Case notes of the patients were retrieved and the following were data extracted: demographic, clinical, operative and outpatient visits outcome. Results 81 children aged 9months to löyears were seen (mean 4.28, SD 2.95 with 49 males and 32 females and a male: female ratio of 1.5: 1.0.The commonest age group was 9months to 4years (76.5%. Most common of impaction sites were nasal cavity in 31 cases (38.3%, oesophagus in 23 cases (28.4%, oropharynx in 16 (19.8% and larynx in 6 (7.4%.The commonest FBs was coins in 33 (40.7% in the oesophagus and 37.5% of pharyngeal FBs. Inanimate FBs in the nose constituted 31(38.3% [Non vegetative 27(87.1%, vegetative 4(12.9 %]. Fish bones were seen in 11 cases (13.6% [6 in the larynx and 5 around the tonsillar fauces] and miscellaneous objects in 6 cases. Conclusion Upper aero-digestive foreign bodies are common especially among the under fours′, commonest sites being the nose and pharyngooesophageal region with coins and inanimate FBs constituting about four-fifth. There is the need for parental health education on object placements, and a high index of suspicion among practitioners to facilitate early referral and avoid preventable complications.

  9. A Computationally Efficient Mel-Filter Bank VAD Algorithm for Distributed Speech Recognition Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlaj Damjan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel computationally efficient voice activity detection (VAD algorithm and emphasizes the importance of such algorithms in distributed speech recognition (DSR systems. When using VAD algorithms in telecommunication systems, the required capacity of the speech transmission channel can be reduced if only the speech parts of the signal are transmitted. A similar objective can be adopted in DSR systems, where the nonspeech parameters are not sent over the transmission channel. A novel approach is proposed for VAD decisions based on mel-filter bank (MFB outputs with the so-called Hangover criterion. Comparative tests are presented between the presented MFB VAD algorithm and three VAD algorithms used in the G.729, G.723.1, and DSR (advanced front-end Standards. These tests were made on the Aurora 2 database, with different signal-to-noise (SNRs ratios. In the speech recognition tests, the proposed MFB VAD outperformed all the three VAD algorithms used in the standards by relative (G.723.1 VAD, by relative (G.729 VAD, and by relative (DSR VAD in all SNRs.

  10. A Computationally Efficient Mel-Filter Bank VAD Algorithm for Distributed Speech Recognition Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlaj, Damjan; Kotnik, Bojan; Horvat, Bogomir; Kačič, Zdravko

    2005-12-01

    This paper presents a novel computationally efficient voice activity detection (VAD) algorithm and emphasizes the importance of such algorithms in distributed speech recognition (DSR) systems. When using VAD algorithms in telecommunication systems, the required capacity of the speech transmission channel can be reduced if only the speech parts of the signal are transmitted. A similar objective can be adopted in DSR systems, where the nonspeech parameters are not sent over the transmission channel. A novel approach is proposed for VAD decisions based on mel-filter bank (MFB) outputs with the so-called Hangover criterion. Comparative tests are presented between the presented MFB VAD algorithm and three VAD algorithms used in the G.729, G.723.1, and DSR (advanced front-end) Standards. These tests were made on the Aurora 2 database, with different signal-to-noise (SNRs) ratios. In the speech recognition tests, the proposed MFB VAD outperformed all the three VAD algorithms used in the standards by [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] relative (G.723.1 VAD), by [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] relative (G.729 VAD), and by [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] relative (DSR VAD) in all SNRs.

  11. A SERIES OF UNCOMMON FOREIGN BODIES PRESENTING IN THE AERO-DIGESTIVE TRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra Singh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Foreign body impacted in the aero-digestive tract is one of the earliest reported problems. Coins, buttons, marbles, crayons, parts of toys etc. are the most commonly ingested foreign bodies in children. Fish, meat and chicken bones, dentures, nails etc.the most common foreign bodies ingested by adultsWe report a series of unusual foreign body ingestion in aero-digestive tract and their management by endoscopic retrieval.

  12. Penetrating aerodigestive injuries in the neck: a proposed CT-aided modified selective management algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodanapally, Uttam K; Shanmuganathan, Kathirkamanathan; Dreizin, David; Stein, Deborah; Reddy, Amit K; Mirvis, Stuart E; Vasquez, Matthew; Cardarelli, Cassandra; Guardiani, Elizabeth

    2016-07-01

    To determine the specific CT findings of penetrating neck wound profile predicting aerodigestive injuries, diagnostic performance of CTA and to propose a modified selective management algorithm to reduce nontherapeutic invasive procedures. We retrospectively evaluated CTAs of 102 patients to determine the presence of various CT signs. "Trajectory"-based signs included trajectory of the wound extending into the aerodigestive tract and trajectory violating the deep neck spaces. "Conventional" signs included transcervical injury; wall defect; air or blood in the deep neck spaces; irregular or thickened aerodigestive tract; and active mucosal bleeding. Trajectory of the wound extending into the aerodigestive tract (sensitivity 76 %, specificity 97 %) and trajectory of the wound violating the suprahyoid deep neck spaces or the infrahyoid visceral space (sensitivity 97 %, specificity 55 %) were the best predictors of injury on regression analysis. The most specific "conventional" CT signs were "wall defect" and "active mucosal bleed", but had very low sensitivity. The sensitivity of CTA for detecting an injury ranged from 89.5 % to 92 %, specificity ranged from 62.5 % to 89 %. CTA can be a useful technique in detecting aerodigestive injury. Our proposed management algorithm can exclude an injury with high degree of confidence (sensitivity 97 %). • Trajectory-based CT signs predict aerodigestive injury after penetrating neck trauma. • Surgery should be considered when trajectory extends into the infra-arytenoid aerodigestive tract. • Endoscopy or exploration should be considered when trajectory violates deep neck spaces. • This modified approach can decrease negative explorations and invasive diagnostic procedures.

  13. Button battery injuries in the pediatric aerodigestive tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettyreddy, Abhinav R; Georg, Matthew W; Chi, David H; Gaines, Barbara A; Simons, Jeffrey P

    2015-12-01

    Children with a button battery impaction present with nonspecific symptoms that may account for a delay in medical care. We conducted a retrospective study of the clinical presentation, management, and complications associated with button battery ingestion in the pediatric aerodigestive tract and to evaluate the associated long-term morbidity. We reviewed the medical records of 23 patients who were treated for button battery impaction at our tertiary care children's hospital from Jan. 1, 2000, through July 31, 2013. This population was made up of 14 boys and 9 girls, aged 7 days to 12 years (mean: 4 yr). Patients were divided into three groups based on the site of impaction; there were 9 impactions in the esophagus and 7 each in the nasal cavity and stomach. We compiled information on the type and size of each battery, the duration of the impaction, presenting symptoms, treatment, and outcomes. The mean duration of battery impaction was 40.6, 30.7, and 21.0 hours in the esophagus, nasal cavity, and stomach, respectively. We were able to identify the specific type of battery in 13 cases; 11 of these cases (85%) involved a 3-V 20-mm lithium ion battery, including all cases of esophageal impaction in which the type of battery was identified. The most common presenting signs and symptoms were vomiting (n = 7 [30%]), difficulty feeding (n = 5 [22%]), cough (n = 5), and bloody nasal discharge (n = 5); none of the presenting signs and symptoms predicted the severity of the injury or the outcome. The median length of hospital stay was far greater in the esophageal group (12 days) than in the nasal and stomach groups (1 day each; p = 0.006). Battery impaction in the esophagus for more than 15 hours was associated with a significantly longer postoperative hospital stay than impaction for less than 15 hours (p = 0.04). Esophageal complications included strictures (n = 5), perforation (n = 3), and tracheoesophageal fistula formation (n = 2). Clinicians should consider battery

  14. Vad kostar det att marknadsföra sig gratis?

    OpenAIRE

    Säl, Tommy; Persson, Kristian

    2012-01-01

    Med vår studie vill vi belysa de potentiella nackdelarna som finns med att marknadsföra sig som företag via Facebook. I och med webb 2.0 och den sociala revolutionen, där alla kan dela med sig av vad de vill när de vill, så ökar mängden data så pass mycket att markandsförare måste lära sig hantera detta. All data, statusuppdateringar, flera typer av media samt länkningar har fått termen “de sociala bruset” tilldelat sig. Detta brus måste företagen lära sig att utnyttja eller bryta igenom. Via...

  15. Photodynamic therapy in the upper aerodigestive tract. Overview and outlook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volgger, Veronika; Betz, Christian Stephan

    2016-12-01

    The gold standard in the treatment of (pre)malignancies of the upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) is either surgery or (chemo)radiotherapy. Nevertheless, there are special indications where an alternative treatment, such as photodynamic therapy (PDT), might be as effective for and better tolerated by the patients concerned. This article aims to present a contemporary and comprehensive review on the role of photodynamic therapy in the treatment of (pre)malignancies of the UADT. PubMed was searched for "photodynamic therapy larynx/oral cavity/oropharynx/head and neck" in 01/2016. PDT can be efficient in the treatment of recurrent, residual or multiple carcinomas of the UADT without other treatment options. It has also been used with success in the treatment of early oral or laryngeal carcinomas, widespread precancerous lesions or "difficult-to-treat" skin cancer, even though these treatments are off-label. For now, unsolved scientific and economical challenges hinder the methods spread. In special cases, PDT is a highly effective method to treat head and neck (pre)malignancies. Nevertheless, further clinical studies are needed to better define its true value in head and neck oncology. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Penetrating aerodigestive injuries in the neck: a proposed CT-aided modified selective management algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodanapally, Uttam K.; Shanmuganathan, Kathirkamanathan; Dreizin, David; Mirvis, Stuart E.; Stein, Deborah; Reddy, Amit K.; Vasquez, Matthew; Cardarelli, Cassandra; Guardiani, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    To determine the specific CT findings of penetrating neck wound profile predicting aerodigestive injuries, diagnostic performance of CTA and to propose a modified selective management algorithm to reduce nontherapeutic invasive procedures. We retrospectively evaluated CTAs of 102 patients to determine the presence of various CT signs. ''Trajectory''-based signs included trajectory of the wound extending into the aerodigestive tract and trajectory violating the deep neck spaces. ''Conventional'' signs included transcervical injury; wall defect; air or blood in the deep neck spaces; irregular or thickened aerodigestive tract; and active mucosal bleeding. Trajectory of the wound extending into the aerodigestive tract (sensitivity 76 %, specificity 97 %) and trajectory of the wound violating the suprahyoid deep neck spaces or the infrahyoid visceral space (sensitivity 97 %, specificity 55 %) were the best predictors of injury on regression analysis. The most specific ''conventional'' CT signs were ''wall defect'' and ''active mucosal bleed'', but had very low sensitivity. The sensitivity of CTA for detecting an injury ranged from 89.5 % to 92 %, specificity ranged from 62.5 % to 89 %. CTA can be a useful technique in detecting aerodigestive injury. Our proposed management algorithm can exclude an injury with high degree of confidence (sensitivity 97 %). (orig.)

  17. [Rehabilitation standards for follow-up treatment and rehabilitation of patients with ventricular assist device (VAD)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemsen, Detlev; Cordes, C; Bjarnason-Wehrens, B; Knoglinger, E; Langheim, E; Marx, R; Reiss, N; Schmidt, T; Workowski, A; Bartsch, P; Baumbach, C; Bongarth, C; Phillips, H; Radke, R; Riedel, M; Schmidt, S; Skobel, E; Toussaint, C; Glatz, J

    2016-03-01

    The increasing use of ventricular assist devices (VADs) in terminal heart failure patients provides new challenges to cardiac rehabilitation physicians. Structured cardiac rehabilitation strategies are still poorly implemented for this special patient group. Clear guidance and more evidence for optimal modalities are needed. Thereby, attention has to be paid to specific aspects, such as psychological and social support and education (e.g., device management, INR self-management, drive-line care, and medication).In Germany, the post-implant treatment and rehabilitation of VAD Patients working group was founded in 2012. This working group has developed clear recommendations for the rehabilitation of VAD patients according to the available literature. All facets of VAD patients' rehabilitation are covered. The present paper is unique in Europe and represents a milestone to overcome the heterogeneity of VAD patient rehabilitation.

  18. Associations between sex hormones and cognitive and neuropsychiatric manifestations in vascular dementia (VaD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yi; Qin, Wei; Li, Fang; Jia, Xiang-Fei; Jia, Jianping

    2013-01-01

    Although numerous studies have been carried out to determine the effects of sex hormones on Alzheimer's disease (AD), little is known about the associations between sex hormones and VaD. The aim of this study was to compare serum sex hormone levels between VaD patients and normal controls, and to further determine the link between sex hormones and cognitive and neuropsychiatric manifestations of VaD. Serum levels of total estradiol (TE2), total testosterone (TT), luteinizing hormone (LH), and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were measured in 87 VaD patients and 110 cognitive normal controls. The levels of bioavailable estradiol (BE2) and bioavailable testosterone (BT) were calculated. The VaD patients underwent the tests of global cognitive function, verbal memory, and visuospatial, and executive ability. The Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) was used to assess neuropsychiatric symptoms. Compared to controls, the testosterone and SHBG levels were lower in male VaD patients, and the estradiol levels were higher in female VaD patients. The hormones levels were not correlated with cognitive functions among either male or female VaD patients. There were no associations between hormone levels and neuropsychiatric symptoms among male patients, while the TE2 and TT levels were positively associated with apathy and anxiety, respectively among female patients. Our findings suggested there were sex hormone level changes in VaD patients in comparison with cognitive normal controls. Sex hormones were associated with neuropsychiatric symptoms among female but not male VaD patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of Forced-Alignment Speech Recognition and Humans for Generating Reference VAD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraljevski, Ivan; Tan, Zheng-Hua; Paola Bissiri, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This present paper aims to answer the question whether forced-alignment speech recognition can be used as an alternative to humans in generating reference Voice Activity Detection (VAD) transcriptions. An investigation of the level of agreement between automatic/manual VAD transcriptions...... and the reference ones produced by a human expert was carried out. Thereafter, statistical analysis was employed on the automatically produced and the collected manual transcriptions. Experimental results confirmed that forced-alignment speech recognition can provide accurate and consistent VAD labels....

  20. Malignant tumors of the upper aerodigestive tract as seen in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract constitute a diverse heterogeneous group of malignant neoplasms with unique epidemiological, pathological, and treatment considerations. Only few studies have been conducted so far on these tumors in Nigeria. This study aims to study in greater detail, the ...

  1. Angioedema of the upper aerodigestive tract: risk factors associated with airway intervention and management algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Christopher D; Devaiah, Anand K; Davis, Elizabeth M

    2014-03-01

    Angioedema of the upper aerodigestive tract can lead to significant airway obstruction. To date no articles have delineated risk factors for progression after initial evaluation. This article presents the results of a retrospective study of patients with angioedema at a single institution. Patients included were consecutive otolaryngology consultations for angioedema in the emergency department (ED) from 1999 to 2003. All patients were evaluated by an otolaryngologist and underwent fiber-optic laryngoscopy, which was repeated serially depending on findings. Data was collected on demographics, comorbidities, intubation, disposition, and progression of angioedema. A total of 177 patients were included in the study: 32 (18%) patients required intubation; 25 (14%) on initial presentation and 7 (4%) who progressed from an initially stable airway to requiring intervention after reevaluation. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) demonstrated a statistically significant variance between location of edema and rate of intubation, with higher rates in the pharynx and larynx vs the lip and face. Patients who required intubation after progression between serial evaluations were statistically more likely to have edema that involved deeper portions of the aerodigestive tract. Patients who required intubation were statistically more likely to be older (average age 61.8 vs 55.1 years, p = 0.03). In this large series of patients managed for aerodigestive angioedema we demonstrate risk factors associated with airway intervention, and risk factors associated with clinical progression on serial examination to airway intervention. In addition, we demonstrate a successful management algorithm for patients with aerodigestive angioedema. © 2014 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  2. A sex-specific association between a 15q25 variant and upper aerodigestive tract cancers.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chen, Dan

    2011-04-01

    Sequence variants located at 15q25 have been associated with lung cancer and propensity to smoke. We recently reported an association between rs16969968 and risk of upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancers (oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx, larynx, and esophagus) in women (OR = 1.24, P = 0.003) with little effect in men (OR = 1.04, P = 0.35).

  3. The aetiology of upper aerodigestive tract cancers among young adults in Europe: the ARCAGE study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Macfarlane, Tatiana V

    2010-12-01

    The incidence of cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) is increasing throughout the world. To date the increases have been proportionally greatest among young people. Several reports have suggested that they often do not have a history of tobacco smoking or heavy alcohol consumption.

  4. Role of medical history and medication use in the aetiology of upper aerodigestive tract cancers in Europe: the ARCAGE study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Macfarlane, T V

    2012-04-01

    The study aimed to investigate the role of medical history (skin warts, Candida albicans, herpetic lesions, heartburn, regurgitation) and medication use (for heartburn; for regurgitation; aspirin) in the aetiology of upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancer.

  5. Socioeconomic factors associated with risk of upper aerodigestive tract cancer in Europe.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Conway, D I

    2010-02-01

    In the European Union, there are 180,000 new cases of upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancer cases per year--more than half of whom will die of the disease. Socioeconomic inequalities in UADT cancer incidence are recognised across Europe. We aimed to assess the components of socioeconomic risk both independently and through their influence on the known behavioural risk factors of smoking, alcohol consumption and diet.

  6. Time-driven activity-based costing to estimate cost of care at multidisciplinary aerodigestive centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Jordan A; Mistry, Bipin; Hardy, Stephen; Fracchia, Mary Shannon; Hersh, Cheryl; Wentland, Carissa; Vadakekalam, Joseph; Kaplan, Robert; Hartnick, Christopher J

    2017-09-01

    Providing high-value healthcare to patients is increasingly becoming an objective for providers including those at multidisciplinary aerodigestive centers. Measuring value has two components: 1) identify relevant health outcomes and 2) determine relevant treatment costs. Via their inherent structure, multidisciplinary care units consolidate care for complex patients. However, their potential impact on decreasing healthcare costs is less clear. The goal of this study was to estimate the potential cost savings of treating patients with laryngeal clefts at multidisciplinary aerodigestive centers. Retrospective chart review. Time-driven activity-based costing was used to estimate the cost of care for patients with laryngeal cleft seen between 2008 and 2013 at the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary Pediatric Aerodigestive Center. Retrospective chart review was performed to identify clinic utilization by patients as well as patient diet outcomes after treatment. Patients were stratified into neurologically complex and neurologically noncomplex groups. The cost of care for patients requiring surgical intervention was five and three times as expensive of the cost of care for patients not requiring surgery for neurologically noncomplex and complex patients, respectively. Following treatment, 50% and 55% of complex and noncomplex patients returned to normal diet, whereas 83% and 87% of patients experienced improved diets, respectively. Additionally, multidisciplinary team-based care for children with laryngeal clefts potentially achieves 20% to 40% cost savings. These findings demonstrate how time-driven activity-based costing can be used to estimate and compare patient costs in multidisciplinary aerodigestive centers. 2c. Laryngoscope, 127:2152-2158, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  7. Target volume delineation for head and neck cancer intensity-modulated radiotherapy; Delineation des volumes cibles des cancers des voies aerodigestives superieures en radiotherapie conformationnelle avec modulation d'intensite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapeyre, M.; Toledano, I.; Bourry, N. [Departement de radiotherapie, centre Jean-Perrin, 58, rue Montalembert, BP 5026, 63011 Clermont-Ferrand cedex 1 (France); Bailly, C. [Unite de radiodiagnostic, centre Jean-Perrin, 58, rue Montalembert, BP 5026, 63011 Clermont-Ferrand cedex 1 (France); Cachin, F. [Unite de medecine nucleaire, centre Jean-Perrin, 58, rue Montalembert, BP 5026, 63011 Clermont-Ferrand cedex 1 (France)

    2011-10-15

    This article describes the determination and the delineation of the target volumes for head-and-neck cancers treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). The delineation of the clinical target volumes (CTV) on the computerized tomography scanner (CT scan) requires a rigorous methodology due to the complexity of head-and-neck anatomy. The clinical examination with a sketch of pretreatment tumour extension, the surgical and pathological reports and the adequate images (CT scan, magnetic resonance imaging and fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography) are necessary for the delineation. The target volumes depend on the overall strategy: sequential IMRT or simultaneous integrated boost-IMRT (SIB-IMRT). The concept of selectivity of the potential subclinical disease near the primary tumor and the selection of neck nodal targets are described according to the recommendations and the literature. The planing target volume (PTV), mainly reflecting setup errors (random and systematic), results from a uniform 4-5 mm expansion around the CTV. We propose the successive delineation of: (1) the gross volume tumour (GTV); (2) the 'high risk' CTV1 around the GTV or including the postoperative tumour bed in case of positive margins or nodal extra-capsular spread (65-70 Gy in 30-35 fractions); (3) the CTV2 'intermediate risk' around the CTV1 for SIB-IMRT (59-63 Gy in 30-35 fractions); (4) the 'low-risk' CTV3 (54-56 Gy in 30-35 fractions); (5) the PTVs. (authors)

  8. The effect of captopril on the performance of the control strategies of BJUT-II VAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Kaiyun; Gao, Bin; Chang, Yu; Zeng, Yi

    2016-12-28

    With the development of left ventricular assist device (LVAD), the long-term support has been paid more attention by various researchers. According to previous researches, the combination of LVAD and pharmacological therapy can significantly improve the heart rate recovery and survival rate of patient. However, the effect of pharmacological therapy on the cardiovascular hemodynamic states with LVAD support is still unclear. In this study, pharmacokinetic model of captopril is established to describe the relationship between plasma-drug concentration and time. Then, combination model, consisting of pharmacokinetic model of captopril and lumped parameter model of cardiovascular system with BJUT-II VAD support, is established to mimic the effect of pharmacological therapy on cardiovascular hemodynamics. BAI control strategy and HR control strategy for BJUT-II VAD are chosen to evaluate their performance by the combination model. The simulation results demonstrate that the concentration of captopril could affect the pressure and heart rate by changing the peripheral resistance, and then affect the performance of BJUT-II VAD in a short duration. Under the regulation of control strategies of BJUT-II VAD, the hemodynamic states of cardiovascular system returned to the standard value in 10 s. This study could provide useful information about how to design coupled strategy of LVAD support and pharmacological therapy.

  9. Assessing Secondary Students with the Bender, VADS, and HFD: Research and Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppitz, Elizabeth M.

    The Koppitz Minibattery, that is, the Bender Gestalt Test, the Visual Aural Digit Span Test (VADS), and the Human Figure Drawing (HFD), was adopted and extended for use with middle school pupils (aged 11 to 14). Similarities and differences for older and younger children are described in behavior observation, objective scores and the qualitative…

  10. In-vivo evaluation of the HIA-VAD: : a new German ventricular assist device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rakhorst, G.; Hensens, A. G.; Verkerke, G. J.; Blanksma, P. K.; Bom, V. J. J.; Elstrodt, J.; Magielse, C. P. E.; van der Meer, J; Ruel, H.

    Helmholtz Ventricular Assist Devices (VAD) are pneumatically driven polyurethane membrane pumps with various volumes. The pumps are placed paracorporeally and connected with commercially available cannulas between the left atrium and aorta (left ventricular assist device) and/or right atrium and

  11. Nonkeratinizing Squamous Cell Carcinoma In Situ of the Upper Aerodigestive Tract: An HPV-Related Entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lingxin; Lewis, James S; El-Mofty, Samir K; Gandhi, Manoj; Chernock, Rebecca D

    2017-06-01

    The clinical and pathologic characteristics of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related premalignant lesions in the upper aerodigestive tract have not been adequately studied. There are a few reports of oral cavity HPV-related severe dysplasia with unique morphology (prominent apoptosis/karyorrhexis imparting a 'bowenoid' appearance) and a single case report of HPV-related squamous cell carcinoma in situ with nonkeratinizing histology distinct from the 'bowenoid' pattern that extensively involved the upper aerodigestive tract. The aim of this study was to characterize the morphologic and clinical features of HPV-related severe dysplasia/carcinoma in situ. All cases of upper aerodigestive tract severe dysplasia/carcinoma in situ (111 cases from 98 patients) at Washington University from July 2012 to March 2015 were categorized into histologic types: keratinizing, nonkeratinizing, mixed or 'bowenoid'. There were 83 (85 %) patients with keratinizing, 3 (3 %) nonkeratinizing and 12 (12 %) mixed patterns. The previously reported 'bowenoid' morphology was not identified. All 3 (100 %) nonkeratinizing and 6 (50 %) mixed cases were p16 and HPV RNA in situ hybridization (RNA ISH) positive (100 % concordance between p16 and RNA ISH). Only 2 of 73 keratinizing cases were p16 positive, 1 of which was also HPV RNA ISH positive (1.4 % of keratinizing cases HPV-related). Thus, nonkeratinizing morphology was a strong predictor of transcriptionally-active HPV in severe dysplasia/carcinoma in situ. HPV-related cases most commonly occurred in the floor of mouth and were frequently extensive (≥4 cm) or unresectable.

  12. Alcohol dehydrogenase 3 genotype as a risk factor for upper aerodigestive tract cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nishimoto, Inês Nobuko; Pinheiro, Nidia A; Rogatto, Silvia R

    2004-01-01

    for ADH3 genotypes using logistic regression models. RESULTS: After adjustment for sex, age, tobacco use, and history of cancer in first-degree family relatives, a significantly higher odds ratio for UADT cancer was observed among individuals with AA genotype and low cumulative alcohol consumption...... (among individuals with AA genotype and low tobacco consumption (adjusted model. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that genotype AA may......OBJECTIVE: To assess alcohol dehydrogenase 3 (ADH3) polymorphism at position Ile349Val as indicator of risk factor for upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancer to verify its association with UADT cancer in nonalcoholic or nonsmoking individuals. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Primary care...

  13. Jaw mobility changes in patients with upper aerodigestive tract cancer undergoing radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragante, Karoline; Wienandts, Patrícia; Mozzini, Carolina; Pinto, Rosélie; da Motta, Neiro; Jotz, Geraldo

    2015-11-01

    Radiation therapy is a therapeutic modality widely used for treatment of upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) neoplasms. However, its action is not restricted to tumor cells, and it may cause a variety of adverse reactions, including reduced jaw mobility. A prospective cohort study was conducted to assess changes in jaw mobility in patients with UADT cancer undergoing radiation therapy. Fifty-six patients completed the study. The results showed a significant reduction in mouth opening (pcancer experience reduced jaw mobility after radiation therapy, which is strongly correlated with mucositis and reduced functional ability.

  14. Complex wound management in ventricular assist device (VAD) patients: the role of aggressive debridement and vascularized soft tissue coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jonas A; Shaked, Oren; Fischer, John P; Mirzabeigi, Michael N; Jandali, Shareef; Kovach, Stephen J; Low, David W; Acker, Michael A; Kanchwala, Suhail K

    2014-12-01

    Infections and complex wounds after ventricular assist device (VAD) placement can result in significant morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to evaluate complex wound management in the VAD patient, and to describe a treatment protocol for these challenging and potentially mortal complications. A retrospective study was performed to examine all patients who underwent continuous flow, second-generation VAD placement at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania between March 2008 and April 2013. Overall, 150 VADs were placed, with 12 (8%) patients requiring 15 operative interventions by the plastic surgery services. The most common indication for operative intervention was a complicated wound with VAD exposure (5/12, 41.7%). All patients underwent aggressive operative debridement, and 11/12 (92%) underwent vascularized soft tissue coverage. Flaps commonly utilized included rectus abdominus myocutaneous (n = 4), rectus abdominus muscle (n = 4), pectoralis major (n = 3), and omentum (n = 3). Three patients experienced complications which required a return to the operating room, including 1 flap loss, 1 hematoma, and 1 wound dehiscence requiring further soft tissue coverage. Salvage was achieved, yet a 50% mortality rate in follow-up was noted. Complex wound management in VAD patients can be achieved with aggressive debridement and vascularized soft tissue coverage, most commonly utilizing well-vascularized rectus abdominus muscle or omental flaps. Plastic surgeons should be familiar with the armamentarium at their disposal when approaching these challenging cases as VAD wound complications stand to become an increasingly prevalent issue.

  15. "Isa kuhu need värvid jäävad ..." : [luuletused] / Jaan Kaplinski

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaplinski, Jaan, 1941-

    2002-01-01

    Sisu: "Isa kuhu need värvid jäävad ..." ; Lume ootamine ; "Oh sina paha peavalu ..." ; "Märg on vihmal märg on kastel ..." ; "Peet kisub peeti ..." ; "Küllap väikestel mustadel ..." ; "Mart haigutab ..." ; Kuu ; Teremees Tõnu ; Jalgrataste talveuni ; Kitsu ja kätsu ; Siret siret siterkuuti ; Suve soe silmadesse ; Iirimaal on ilmalapsed ; Miks ; Sügisel ; Täis ; Mis algab ; Aeg ; "Ma koiduajal ärkasin ..."

  16. Color perception differentiates Alzheimer's Disease (AD) from Vascular Dementia (VaD) patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaoutoglou, N A; Arnaoutoglou, M; Nemtsas, P; Costa, V; Baloyannis, S J; Ebmeier, K P

    2017-08-01

    Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and Vascular Dementia (VaD) are the most common causes of dementia in older people. Both diseases appear to have similar clinical symptoms, such as deficits in attention and executive function, but specific cognitive domains are affected. Current cohort studies have shown a close relationship between αβ deposits and age-related macular degeneration (Johnson et al., 2002; Ratnayaka et al., 2015). Additionally, a close link between the thinning of the retinal nerve fiber (RNFL) and AD patients has been described, while it has been proposed that AD patients suffer from a non-specific type of color blindness (Pache et al., 2003). Our study included 103 individuals divided into three groups: A healthy control group (n = 35), AD (n = 32) according to DSM-IV-TR, NINCDS-ADRDA criteria, and VaD (n = 36) based on ΝΙΝDS-AIREN, as well as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) results. The severity of patient's cognitive impairment, was measured with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and was classified according to the Reisberg global deterioration scale (GDS). Visual perception was examined using the Ishihara plates: "Ishihara Color Vision Test - 38 Plate." The three groups were not statistically different for demographic data (age, gender, and education). The Ishihara color blindness test has a sensitivity of 80.6% and a specificity of 87.5% to discriminate AD and VaD patients when an optimal (32.5) cut-off value of performance is used. Ishihara Color Vision Test - 38 Plate is a promising potential method as an easy and not time-consuming screening test for the differential diagnosis of dementia between AD and VaD.

  17. Nasopharynx- The Secret Vault for Lost Foreign Bodies of the Upper Aerodigestive Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arijit Jotdar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Foreign bodies in the upper aerodigestive tract often get lost following inappropriate attempts at removal. Children may present late with localized infection, posing a challenge to the otolaryngologists in a referral set-up in diagnosing and retrieving such foreign bodies.   Case Report: A two-year-old boy presented with refractory purulent rhinorrhea and intermittent low-grade fever. The symptoms suggested rhinosinusitis; however, following a high index of suspicion, he was referred for further evaluation, with the possibility of any hidden foreign object in the upper aerodigestive tract. His soft palate appeared bulged, and his mother informed that he had ingested the cap of a plastic bottle about a month back which could not be retrieved despite several attempts by her. X-ray of soft tissue nasopharynx revealed a radiolucent shadow of a round object resulting in palatal bulging. It was eventually removed by combined endoscopic/transoral approach.   Conclusion: In a child with a lost foreign body, the nasopharynx should be meticulously explored. This is less common for ingested objects compared to inhaled ones. The diagnosis becomes furthermore challenging when it is not radio-opaque. Naïve manipulations must be avoided and prompt referral should be made to the otolaryngologists for guided removal and minimizing complications.

  18. Aftereffect of radiotherapy of upper aero-digestive tracts in odontological care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiochet, Luc

    2010-01-01

    In its first part, this thesis proposes a detailed presentation of the upper aero-digestive tract cancer. The author defines the cancerous process, describes anatomic aspects, and discusses epidemiological aspects (occurrence, mortality, survival, and epidemiological data in different countries). In the second part, the author discusses the role of radiotherapy and of dental surgery in taking a cancerous patient into care (general principles of radiotherapy, therapeutic options and choices, association of radiotherapy, chemotherapy and surgery). Principles of radiotherapy are then more precisely addressed: physical principles (X rays, gamma rays, electrons, neutrons, and protons), radioactivity doses, radiotherapy effect, main equipment, radiotherapy techniques (conformational or intensity-modulated radiotherapy, computed tomography, Cyberknife, external radiotherapy, brachytherapy). The third part addresses early oral-facial complications induced by radiotherapy: factors favouring these complications, nervous effects, effects on the blood system and on the skin, hyposialia and xerostomia, radio-induced mucositis of upper aero-digestive tracts. The next part addresses late effects: late cutaneous after-effects, late radio-mucositis, limitation of mouth opening, tooth decays, osteoradionecrosis. The last part addresses the role of the dental surgeon in taking into care a patient whose head and neck have been irradiated: role before irradiation, during irradiation, and after irradiation [fr

  19. Procesu vadība uzņēmumā SIA Flora

    OpenAIRE

    Solovjakova, Inese

    2007-01-01

    Maģistra darba tēma: „Procesu vadība SIA Flora”, autore: Inese Solovjakova. Maģistra darba mērķis ir analizēt SIA Flora koka logu ražošanas procesu, atrast neatbilstības un dot priekšlikumus to novēršanai. Maģistra darbu veido ievads, pētījums, kam seko secinājumi un priekšlikumi. Pētījuma izklāsts sastāv no trim nodaļām. Pirmajā nodaļā tiek analizēta kvalitātes vadības teorija un prakse pamatojoties uz kvalitātes vadības pamatlicēju izvirzītajām metodēm. Otrajā nodaļā tiek analizēta...

  20. Alcohol dehydrogenase 3 genotype as a risk factor for upper aerodigestive tract cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nishimoto, Inês Nobuko; Pinheiro, Nidia A; Rogatto, Silvia R

    2004-01-01

    be a risk factor for UADT cancer, especially in individuals with low alcohol or tobacco consumption. However, further epidemiological case-control or cohort studies, preferably prospective, are needed to establish the exact role of ADH3 polymorphism and its association with the development of UADT cancers.......OBJECTIVE: To assess alcohol dehydrogenase 3 (ADH3) polymorphism at position Ile349Val as indicator of risk factor for upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancer to verify its association with UADT cancer in nonalcoholic or nonsmoking individuals. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Primary care...... or referral center. PATIENTS: The study group consisted of 141 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx, or larynx admitted for surgical treatment. The comparison group consisted of 94 inpatients without cancer from the A. C. Camargo...

  1. Determining the Velocity Fine Structure by a Laser Anemometer in VAD operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Leif; Kirkegaard, Peter; Mikkelsen, Torben

    . Then it is necessary to “create” a mean wind by turning the laser beam. Since the instrument is not moved the beam will describe a cone which could be a VAD-scanning. In any case the measured velocity components will not be parallel and this implies that the measured structure function will contain a term which...... is proportional to the total variance. The theoretical expression for the line-filtered structure function is derived in two equivalent ways, one in physical space and one in wave-number space, of which the last can be reliably evaluated by numerical integration. Also a practical approximate equation, derived...

  2. Lokalizace vad svarů jeřábů

    OpenAIRE

    Zíka, Luboš

    2012-01-01

    Diplomová práce řeší problematiku kontroly vad svarů jeřábu. Cílem je rozbor nedestruktivních metod, sledování výskytu vad a jejich charakteru a návrh postupu opravy. Práce je rozdělena na teoretickou a praktickou část. V teoretické části je proveden rozbor jednotlivých metod nedestruktivního zkoušení, které jsou využívány pro kontrolu svarů na konkrétním nosníku. Její částí je i rozbor technologií svařování použitých při výrobě nosníku jeřábu. V praktické části jsou vyhodnoceny vady svarů po...

  3. BakeCMS satura vadības sistēma

    OpenAIRE

    Znotiņš, Artūrs

    2012-01-01

    Kvalifikācijas darbs apraksta izstrādātu BakeCMS satura vadības sistēmu, kas piedāvā ērti pielāgojamu tīmekļa vietņu administrēšanas paneli. Sistēma tīmekļa vietnes administratoram nodrošina ērtu veidu, kā rediģēt vietnes tekstuālo un vizuālo informāciju. BeakeCMS sevī ietver jau gatavus biežāk nepieciešamos lapas satura vadības moduļus un piedāvā programmatūras saskarni (API), kas atvieglo jaunu moduļu izstrādi un esošo pielāgošanu konkrētās vietnes vajadzībām. Izstrāde ir pilnībā dokumentēt...

  4. Valūtas riska vadība banku nozarē

    OpenAIRE

    Suhobokovs, Aleksandrs

    2007-01-01

    Dotais darbs iepazīstina lasītāju ar tradicionālām un mūsdienu pieejām valūtas risku vadības vērtēšanā bankas jomā, kā arī ar bankas kapitāla prasību novērtēšanas metodēm pamatojoties uz valūtas riskiem. Darba saturs ir virzīts tā, lai dotu lasītājam izpratni par Latvijas banku topošām iespējām un priekšrocībām izmantojot sarežģītākas un mūsdienu risku vadības sistēmas, īpaši jaunu kapitāla pietiekamības uzskaites noteikumu stāšanās spējā kontekstā no 2007. gada 1. decembra. Darbā i...

  5. Vad är Anime? : Svensk syn på ett japanskt fenomen

    OpenAIRE

    Hansson, Pelle

    2006-01-01

    Syftet med min uppsats är att försöka förmedla hur man ser på anime, ett så typiskt japanskt fenomen, här i väst? Vidare så har jag genom litteraturstudier försökt presentera för läsaren vad anime är för något. Detta görs genom en kort historisk presentation av anime för att sedan djupare visa strukturen i anime, karaktärer, innehåll och slutligen huruvida anime återspeglar nutida oro i det egna samhället. Även en viss diskussion förs gällande anime och dess legitimitet som japanskt kulturarv...

  6. Inverse association between toothbrushing and upper aerodigestive tract cancer risk in a Japanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Fumihito; Oze, Isao; Kawakita, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Noriyuki; Ito, Hidemi; Hosono, Satoyo; Suzuki, Takeshi; Kawase, Takakazu; Furue, Hiroki; Watanabe, Miki; Hatooka, Shunzo; Yatabe, Yasushi; Hasegawa, Yasuhisa; Shinoda, Masayuki; Ueda, Minoru; Tajima, Kazuo; Tanaka, Hideo; Matsuo, Keitaro

    2011-11-01

    Oral hygiene is attracting increasing attention as a potential risk factor for cancers. To investigate the association between toothbrushing frequency and upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancer, the authors conducted a large-scale case-control study. A total of 856 UADT cancer case participants and 2696 age- and sex-matched control subjects without cancer were included. Edentulous or participants with unknown frequency of toothbrushing or number of remaining teeth were excluded. Associations were assessed by odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals in logistic regression models with adjustment for potential confounders. Compared with toothbrushing once per day, the adjusted odds ratio for brushing twice or more was 0.82 (95% confidence interval: 0.68, 0.99) whereas that for not brushing was 1.79 (0.79, 4.05). This association was observed especially in subjects who had a history of heavy smoking or drinking. The authors suggest that toothbrushing could have a protective effect for UADT cancer. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Site Specific Effect of Tobacco Addiction in Upper Aerodigestive Tract Tumors: A Retrospective Clinicopathological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An institutional study was carried out in 102 patients to investigate the site specific effect of addictions, that is, tobacco smoking and tobacco chewing (smokeless, both independently and synergistically in development of malignancies in upper aerodigestive tract through retrograde questionnaire. The histopathologically proven cases were interviewed regarding different forms of addictions followed by clinical examination and investigations for grading (according to Modified Broadmann’s method and TNM staging (according to UICC according to the tumor site. Statistical analysis was done by Pearson test. Out of all proven cases of cancers, 29.4% were only tobacco chewers (smokeless, 25.5% were only smokers, 42.2% were having both types of tobacco addictions (smoke and smokeless, and only 2.9% were having no addiction. Out of only tobacco chewers (smokeless, 83.3% were of oral cavity cancers, 6.7% were of oro- and hypopharynx and the rest were of others. Among only smokers, 69.2% cases were of laryngeal and oro- and hypopharynx as compared to 11.5% of oral cavity cancers (nearly 6 times. Tobacco (smokeless chewing is associated with oral cancers whereas tobacco smoking is associated with laryngeal and hypopharyngeal carcinoma. Both smoking and smokeless tobacco act in synergy with each other.

  8. Dynasplint for the management of trismus after treatment of upper aerodigestive tract cancer: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barañano, Christopher F; Rosenthal, Eben L; Morgan, Bruce A; McColloch, Nancy L; Magnuson, J Scott

    2011-12-01

    In order to evaluate the Dynasplint Trismus System (DTS) for the relief of trismus secondary to the treatment of head and neck cancer, we conducted a retrospective chart review of patients who had undergone DTS therapy during a 1-year period. Our inclusion criteria were cancer of the upper aerodigestive tract; treatment with radiation, chemotherapy, and/or surgery; and a maximal incisal opening (MIO) of less than 30 mm. MIO and the rate of improvement of trismus ("gain") were measured at selected intervals. Twenty-six patients met our study criteria; their pretherapy mean MIO was 19.3 mm. At the time of their most recent measurement, the mean MIO had increased to 25.5 mm-a measured gain of 32%. Although the initial rate of gain was 0.36 mm/day during the first 6 weeks, improvement leveled off over time, and the overall rate of gain was 0.16 mm/day. We conclude that the DTS is effective in increasing the mandibular range of motion at a rate of change that is maximized during initial treatment.

  9. Population attributable risk of tobacco and alcohol for upper aerodigestive tract cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Anantharaman, Devasena

    2011-08-01

    Tobacco and alcohol are major risk factors for upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancer and significant variation is observed in UADT cancer rates across Europe. We have estimated the proportion of UADT cancer burden explained by tobacco and alcohol and how this varies with the incidence rates across Europe, cancer sub-site, gender and age. This should help estimate the minimum residual burden of other risk factors to UADT cancer, including human papillomavirus. We analysed 1981 UADT cancer cases and 1993 controls from the ARCAGE multicentre study. We estimated the population attributable risk (PAR) of tobacco alone, alcohol alone and their joint effect. Tobacco and alcohol together explained 73% of UADT cancer burden of which nearly 29% was explained by smoking alone, less than 1% due to alcohol on its own and 44% by the joint effect of tobacco and alcohol. Tobacco and alcohol together explained a larger proportion of hypopharyngeal\\/laryngeal cancer (PAR=85%) than oropharyngeal (PAR=74%), esophageal (PAR=67%) and oral cancer (PAR=61%). Tobacco and alcohol together explain only about half of the total UADT cancer burden among women. Geographically, tobacco and alcohol explained a larger proportion of UADT cancer in central (PAR=84%) than southern (PAR=72%) and western Europe (PAR=67%). While the majority of the UADT cancers in Europe are due to tobacco or the joint effect of tobacco and alcohol, our results support a significant role for other risk factors in particular, for oral and oropharyngeal cancers and also for UADT cancers in southern and western Europe.

  10. Life course social mobility and risk of upper aerodigestive tract cancer in men.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Schmeisser, N

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to explore associations between social mobility and tumours of the upper aero-digestive tract (UADT), focussing on life-course transitions in social prestige (SP) based on occupational history. 1,796 cases diagnosed between 1993 and 2005 in ten European countries were compared with 1585 controls. SP was classified by the Standard International Occupational Prestige Scale (SIOPS) based on job histories. SIOPS was categorised in high (H), medium (M) and low (L). Time weighted average achieved and transitions between SP with nine trajectories: H --> H, H --> M, H --> L, M --> H, M --> M, M --> L, L --> H, L --> M and L --> L were analysed. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95%-confidence intervals [95%-CIs] were estimated with logistic regression models including age, consumption of fruits\\/vegetables, study centre, smoking and alcohol consumption. The adjusted OR for the lowest versus the highest of three categories (time weighted average of SP) was 1.28 [1.04-1.56]. The distance of SP widened between cases and controls during working life. The downward trajectory H --> L gave an OR of 1.71 [0.75-3.87] as compared to H --> H. Subjects with M --> M and L --> L trajectories ORs were also elevated relative to subjects with H --> H trajectories. The association between SP and UADT is not fully explained by confounding factors. Downward social trajectory during the life course may be an independent risk factor for UADT cancers.

  11. Allium vegetables and upper aerodigestive tract cancers: a meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guercio, Valentina; Turati, Federica; La Vecchia, Carlo; Galeone, Carlotta; Tavani, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    To provide updated quantitative overall estimations of the relation between total allium, garlic, and onion intake on the risk of cancer of the upper aerodigestive tract (UADT). We combined data of published observational studies (21 case-control and four cohort studies), using a meta-analytic approach and random effects models. The overall relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the squamous cell carcinoma of the UADT were 0.79 (95% CI 0.56-1.11) for total allium, 0.74 (95% CI 0.57-0.95) for garlic, and 0.72 (95% CI 0.57-0.91) for onion for the highest versus the lowest consumption. The inverse relation was apparently stronger in case-control studies (RR 0.56, 95% CI 0.38-0.83 for total allium), in Chinese studies (RR 0.67, 95% CI 0.45-0.98 for garlic intake), and for esophageal than for head and neck cancers. Apparently, there was no relation between allium vegetable intake and adenocarcinoma of the esophagus. We found a moderate inverse association between allium vegetable intake and the risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the UADT in case-control studies. The relation was unclear in cohort studies and for adenocarcinoma of the esophagus. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Personāla vadīšana uzņēmumā SIA „X”

    OpenAIRE

    Kličovs, Andrejs

    2007-01-01

    Dotā bakalaura tēma ir „Personāla vadīšana uzņēmumā SIA „X””. Uzņēmuma darbības veids ir izklaides centrs ar boulingu, bāru un biljardu. Darba mērķis ir izanalizēt uzņēmuma personāla vadību un izpetīt personāla vadības pamatprocesus. Bakalaura darbs sastav no trijām nodaļām Pirmā darba daļa sniedz darba teorētisko pamatojumu, dod skaidrojumu darbā pētītiem faktoriem, kā arī sniedz nelielu ieskatu personāla vadīšanas tendencēs Latvijā, Eiropā un pasaulē. Otrā daļa sastāv no uzņēmuma ...

  13. Ainult võltsid jäävad ellu = Only phonies will survive / Anders Härm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Härm, Anders, 1977-

    2009-01-01

    Punkansamblite tekkest Ameerikas ja Inglismaal, ansamblist "Sex pistols" ning pungi fenomenist, transgressioonist ja selle rituaalidest performance'ikunstis. Ka Von Krahli Teatris lavastatud etendusest "Ainult võltsid jäävad ellu", mis kajastab punkansambli Sex Pistols tekkelugu ja võtmestseene, lavastaja Marko Raat

  14. Norēķinu projektu vadība Tele2 grupas uzņēmumos

    OpenAIRE

    Betlers, Andris

    2007-01-01

    Organizācijām, kas pārmaiņu procesā izmanto projektu vadību kā rīku savu mērķu sasniegšanai, ir būtiski, lai izvēlētā projektu vadības sistēma sekmētu organizācijas mērķu efektīvāku sasniegšanu. Pētījumā tiek analizēta norēķinu projektu vadības sistēma Tele2 grupas uzņēmumos, salīdzinot to ar citām projektu vadības metodēm un nosakot tās atbilstību Tele2 grupas uzņēmumu struktūrai un mērķiem. Pētījuma apjoms ir 72 lpp., tajā ir 13 tabulas un 24 attēli. Pētījuma mērķis ir pamatot konkrētās pro...

  15. Computational Analysis of Intra-Ventricular Flow Pattern Under Partial and Full Support of BJUT-II VAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Gao, Bin; Chang, Yu

    2017-02-27

    BACKGROUND Partial support, as a novel support mode, has been widely applied in clinical practice and widely studied. However, the precise mechanism of partial support of LVAD in the intra-ventricular flow pattern is unclear. MATERIAL AND METHODS In this study, a patient-specific left ventricular geometric model was reconstructed based on CT data. The intra-ventricular flow pattern under 3 simulated conditions - "heart failure", "partial support", and "full support" - were simulated by using fluid-structure interaction (FSI). The blood flow pattern, wall shear stress (WSS), time-average wall shear stress (TAWSS), oscillatory shear index (OSI), and relative residence time (RRT) were calculated to evaluate the hemodynamic effects. RESULTS The results demonstrate that the intra-ventricular flow pattern is significantly changed by the support level of BJUT-II VAD. The intra-ventricular vortex was enhanced under partial support and was eliminated under full support, and the high OSI and RRT regions changed from the septum wall to the cardiac apex. CONCLUSIONS In brief, the support level of the BJUT-II VAD has significant effects on the intra-ventricular flow pattern. The partial support mode of BJUT-II VAD can enhance the intra-ventricular vortex, while the distribution of high OSI and RRT moved from the septum wall to the cardiac apex. Hence, the partial support mode of BJUT-II VAD can provide more benefit for intra-ventricular flow pattern.

  16. An essential role for the VASt domain of the Arabidopsis VAD1 protein in the regulation of defense and cell death in response to pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khafif, Mehdi; Balagué, Claudine; Huard-Chauveau, Carine; Roby, Dominique

    2017-01-01

    Several regulators of programmed cell death (PCD) have been identified in plants which encode proteins with putative lipid-binding domains. Among them, VAD1 (Vascular Associated Death) contains a novel protein domain called VASt (VAD1 analog StAR-related lipid transfer) still uncharacterized. The Arabidopsis mutant vad1-1 has been shown to exhibit a lesion mimic phenotype with light-conditional appearance of propagative hypersensitive response-like lesions along the vascular system, associated with defense gene expression and increased resistance to Pseudomonas strains. To test the potential of ectopic expression of VAD1 to influence HR cell death and to elucidate the role of the VASt domain in this function, we performed a structure-function analysis of VAD1 by transient over-expression in Nicotiana benthamiana and by complementation of the mutant vad1-1. We found that (i) overexpression of VAD1 controls negatively the HR cell death and defense expression either transiently in Nicotiana benthamania or in Arabidopsis plants in response to avirulent strains of Pseudomonas syringae, (ii) VAD1 is expressed in multiple subcellular compartments, including the nucleus, and (iii) while the GRAM domain does not modify neither the subcellular localization of VAD1 nor its immunorepressor activity, the domain VASt plays an essential role in both processes. In conclusion, VAD1 acts as a negative regulator of cell death associated with the plant immune response and the VASt domain of this unknown protein plays an essential role in this function, opening the way for the functional analysis of VASt-containing proteins and the characterization of novel mechanisms regulating PCD.

  17. An essential role for the VASt domain of the Arabidopsis VAD1 protein in the regulation of defense and cell death in response to pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Khafif

    Full Text Available Several regulators of programmed cell death (PCD have been identified in plants which encode proteins with putative lipid-binding domains. Among them, VAD1 (Vascular Associated Death contains a novel protein domain called VASt (VAD1 analog StAR-related lipid transfer still uncharacterized. The Arabidopsis mutant vad1-1 has been shown to exhibit a lesion mimic phenotype with light-conditional appearance of propagative hypersensitive response-like lesions along the vascular system, associated with defense gene expression and increased resistance to Pseudomonas strains. To test the potential of ectopic expression of VAD1 to influence HR cell death and to elucidate the role of the VASt domain in this function, we performed a structure-function analysis of VAD1 by transient over-expression in Nicotiana benthamiana and by complementation of the mutant vad1-1. We found that (i overexpression of VAD1 controls negatively the HR cell death and defense expression either transiently in Nicotiana benthamania or in Arabidopsis plants in response to avirulent strains of Pseudomonas syringae, (ii VAD1 is expressed in multiple subcellular compartments, including the nucleus, and (iii while the GRAM domain does not modify neither the subcellular localization of VAD1 nor its immunorepressor activity, the domain VASt plays an essential role in both processes. In conclusion, VAD1 acts as a negative regulator of cell death associated with the plant immune response and the VASt domain of this unknown protein plays an essential role in this function, opening the way for the functional analysis of VASt-containing proteins and the characterization of novel mechanisms regulating PCD.

  18. Polymorphisms of glutathione-S-transferase genes and the risk of aerodigestive tract cancers in the Northeast Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Dhirendra Singh; Devi, Thoudam Regina; Ihsan, Rakhshan; Mishra, Ashwani Kumar; Kaushal, Mishi; Chauhan, Pradeep Singh; Bagadi, Sarangadhara A R; Sharma, Jagannath; Zamoawia, Eric; Verma, Yogesh; Nandkumar, Ambakumar; Saxena, Sunita; Kapur, Sujala

    2010-10-01

    Widespread use of tobacco and betel quid consumption and a high incidence of tobacco-associated aerodigestive tract cancers have been reported in different ethnic groups from several regions of Northeast (NE) India. This study was done to explore the possibility of phase II metabolic enzymes being responsible for the high prevalence of cancers in this region of India. Samples from 370 cases with oral, gastric, and lung cancers and 270 controls were analyzed for polymorphism of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) genes using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism-based methods. Tobacco smoking and betel quid chewing were found to be high risk factors for oral and lung cancers but not for gastric cancer, whereas tobacco chewing was found to be a risk factor for oral cancer but not for gastric or lung cancer. The variant genotypes of GSTP1 were not associated with any of the aerodigestive tract cancers. GSTT1 and GSTM1 null genotypes appeared to play a protective role for lung cancer (odds ratio [OR] = 0.47, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 0.24-0.93, p = 0.03) and (OR = 0.52, 95% CI: 0.28-0.96, p = 0.04), but they were not associated with oral and gastric cancers. However, when data was analyzed in different geographic regions the GSTT1 null genotype was found to be a significant risk factor for oral (OR = 2.58, 95% CI 1.01-6.61, p = 0.05) as well as gastric cancer (OR = 3.08, 95% CI 1.32-7.19, p = 0.009) in samples obtained from the Assam region of NE India. This is the first study on the association of GST polymorphisms and aerodigestive tract cancers in the high-risk region of NE India.

  19. Socioeconomic factors associated with risk of upper aerodigestive tract cancer in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, D I; McKinney, P A; McMahon, A D; Ahrens, W; Schmeisser, N; Benhamou, S; Bouchardy, C; Macfarlane, G J; Macfarlane, T V; Lagiou, P; Minaki, P; Bencko, V; Holcátová, I; Merletti, F; Richiardi, L; Kjaerheim, K; Agudo, A; Castellsague, X; Talamini, R; Barzan, L; Canova, C; Simonato, L; Lowry, R J; Znaor, A; Healy, C M; McCartan, B E; Marron, M; Hashibe, M; Brennan, P

    2010-02-01

    In the European Union, there are 180,000 new cases of upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancer cases per year--more than half of whom will die of the disease. Socioeconomic inequalities in UADT cancer incidence are recognised across Europe. We aimed to assess the components of socioeconomic risk both independently and through their influence on the known behavioural risk factors of smoking, alcohol consumption and diet. A multicentre case-control study with 2198 cases of UADT cancer and 2141 controls from hospital and population sources was undertaken involving 14 centres from 10 countries. Personal interviews collected information on demographics, lifetime occupation history, smoking, alcohol consumption and diet. Socioeconomic status was measured by education, occupational social class and unemployment. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed using unconditional logistic regression. When controlling for age, sex and centre significantly increased risks for UADT cancer were observed for those with low versus high educational attainment OR=1.98 (95% CI 1.67, 2.36). Similarly, for occupational socioeconomic indicators--comparing the lowest versus highest International Socio-Economic Index (ISEI) quartile for the longest occupation gave OR=1.60 (1.28, 2.00); and for unemployment OR=1.64 (1.24, 2.17). Statistical significance remained for low education when adjusting for smoking, alcohol and diet behaviours OR=1.29 (1.06, 1.57) in the multivariate analysis. Inequalities were observed only among men but not among women and were greater among those in the British Isles and Eastern European countries than in Southern and Central/Northern European countries. Associations were broadly consistent for subsite and source of controls (hospital and community). Socioeconomic inequalities for UADT cancers are only observed among men and are not totally explained by smoking, alcohol drinking and diet. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Occupation and risk of upper aerodigestive tract cancer: the ARCAGE study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Richiardi, Lorenzo

    2012-05-15

    We investigated the association between occupational history and upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancer risk in the ARCAGE European case-control study. The study included 1,851 patients with incident cancer of the oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx, larynx or esophagus and 1,949 controls. We estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for ever employment in 283 occupations and 172 industries, adjusting for smoking and alcohol. Men (1,457 cases) and women (394 cases) were analyzed separately and we incorporated a semi-Bayes adjustment approach for multiple comparisons. Among men, we found increased risks for occupational categories previously reported to be associated with at least one type of UADT cancer, including painters (OR = 1.74, 95% CI: 1.01-3.00), bricklayers (1.58, 1.05-2.37), workers employed in the erection of roofs and frames (2.62, 1.08-6.36), reinforced concreters (3.46, 1.11-10.8), dockers (2.91, 1.05-8.05) and workers employed in the construction of roads (3.03, 1.23-7.46), general construction of buildings (1.44, 1.12-1.85) and cargo handling (2.60, 1.17-5.75). With the exception of the first three categories, risks both increased when restricting to long duration of employment and remained elevated after semi-Bayes adjustment. Increased risks were also found for loggers (3.56, 1.20-10.5) and cattle and dairy farming (3.60, 1.15-11.2). Among women, there was no clear evidence of increased risks of UADT cancer in association with occupations or industrial activities. This study provides evidence of an association between some occupational categories and UADT cancer risk among men. The most consistent findings, also supported by previous studies, were obtained for specific workers employed in the construction industry.

  1. Coffee and green tea consumption is associated with upper aerodigestive tract cancer in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oze, Isao; Matsuo, Keitaro; Kawakita, Daisuke; Hosono, Satoyo; Ito, Hidemi; Watanabe, Miki; Hatooka, Shunzo; Hasegawa, Yasuhisa; Shinoda, Masayuki; Tajima, Kazuo; Tanaka, Hideo

    2014-07-15

    The impact of coffee and green tea consumption on upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancer risk has not been established. Evaluation of the possible anticarcinogenic properties of their ingredients is confounded by the potential increase in risk owing to the high temperatures at which these beverages are generally consumed. We conducted a case-control study to evaluate the association between coffee and tea consumption and the risk of UADT cancer. The study enrolled 961 patients with UADT cancer and 2,883 noncancer outpatients who visited Aichi Cancer Center between 2001 and 2005. Information on coffee and green tea consumption and other lifestyle factors was collected via a self-administered questionnaire. Consumption of three or more cups of coffee per day had a significant inverse association with UADT cancer [odds ratio (OR) 0.73, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.55-0.96]. In contrast, consumption of three or more cups of green tea per day had a significant positive association with UADT cancer (OR 1.39, 95% CI 1.13-1.70). These associations were evident for head and neck cancer but not for esophageal cancer. The association of coffee consumption with head and neck cancer was observed only among never smokers and alcohol drinkers. Similarly, the association of green tea consumption was observed among never smokers and never alcohol drinkers. No change in these associations was seen on stratification by each confounding factors. These findings suggest that consumption of coffee might be associated with a decreased risk of UADT cancer, whereas that of green tea might be associated with an increased risk. © 2013 UICC.

  2. A genome-wide association study of upper aerodigestive tract cancers conducted within the INHANCE consortium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D McKay

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have been successful in identifying common genetic variation involved in susceptibility to etiologically complex disease. We conducted a GWAS to identify common genetic variation involved in susceptibility to upper aero-digestive tract (UADT cancers. Genome-wide genotyping was carried out using the Illumina HumanHap300 beadchips in 2,091 UADT cancer cases and 3,513 controls from two large European multi-centre UADT cancer studies, as well as 4,821 generic controls. The 19 top-ranked variants were investigated further in an additional 6,514 UADT cancer cases and 7,892 controls of European descent from an additional 13 UADT cancer studies participating in the INHANCE consortium. Five common variants presented evidence for significant association in the combined analysis (p ≤ 5 × 10⁻⁷. Two novel variants were identified, a 4q21 variant (rs1494961, p = 1×10⁻⁸ located near DNA repair related genes HEL308 and FAM175A (or Abraxas and a 12q24 variant (rs4767364, p =2 × 10⁻⁸ located in an extended linkage disequilibrium region that contains multiple genes including the aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2 gene. Three remaining variants are located in the ADH gene cluster and were identified previously in a candidate gene study involving some of these samples. The association between these three variants and UADT cancers was independently replicated in 5,092 UADT cancer cases and 6,794 controls non-overlapping samples presented here (rs1573496-ADH7, p = 5 × 10⁻⁸; rs1229984-ADH1B, p = 7 × 10⁻⁹; and rs698-ADH1C, p = 0.02. These results implicate two variants at 4q21 and 12q24 and further highlight three ADH variants in UADT cancer susceptibility.

  3. Diet and upper-aerodigestive tract cancer in Europe: the ARCAGE study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lagiou, Pagona

    2009-06-01

    There is suggestive, but inconclusive, evidence that dietary factors may affect risk of cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract (UADT). In the context of the alcohol-related cancers and genetic susceptibility in Europe study, we have examined the association of dietary factors with UADT cancer risk. We have analyzed data from 2,304 patients with UADT cancer and 2,227 control subjects recruited in 14 centers in 10 European countries. Dietary data were collected through a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire that also assessed preferred temperature of hot beverages. Statistical analyses were conducted through multiple logistic regression controlling for potential confounding variables, including alcohol intake and smoking habits. Consumption of red meat (OR per increasing tertile = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.05-1.25), but not poultry, was significantly associated with increased UADT cancer risk and the association was somewhat stronger for esophageal cancer. Consumption of fruits (OR per increasing tertile = 0.68, 95% CI: 0.62-0.75) and vegetables (OR per increasing tertile = 0.73, 95% CI: 0.66-0.81) as well as of olive oil (OR for above versus below median = 0.78, 95% CI 0.67-0.90) and tea (OR for above versus below median = 0.83, 95% CI 0.69-0.98) were significantly associated with reduced risk of UADT cancer. There was no indication that an increase in tea or coffee temperature was associated with increased risk of UADT overall or cancer of the esophagus; in fact, the association was, if anything, inverse. In conclusion, the results of this large multicentric study indicate that diet plays an important role in the etiology of UADT cancer.

  4. A genome-wide association study of upper aerodigestive tract cancers conducted within the INHANCE consortium.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McKay, James D

    2011-03-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been successful in identifying common genetic variation involved in susceptibility to etiologically complex disease. We conducted a GWAS to identify common genetic variation involved in susceptibility to upper aero-digestive tract (UADT) cancers. Genome-wide genotyping was carried out using the Illumina HumanHap300 beadchips in 2,091 UADT cancer cases and 3,513 controls from two large European multi-centre UADT cancer studies, as well as 4,821 generic controls. The 19 top-ranked variants were investigated further in an additional 6,514 UADT cancer cases and 7,892 controls of European descent from an additional 13 UADT cancer studies participating in the INHANCE consortium. Five common variants presented evidence for significant association in the combined analysis (p ≤ 5 × 10⁻⁷). Two novel variants were identified, a 4q21 variant (rs1494961, p = 1×10⁻⁸) located near DNA repair related genes HEL308 and FAM175A (or Abraxas) and a 12q24 variant (rs4767364, p =2 × 10⁻⁸) located in an extended linkage disequilibrium region that contains multiple genes including the aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) gene. Three remaining variants are located in the ADH gene cluster and were identified previously in a candidate gene study involving some of these samples. The association between these three variants and UADT cancers was independently replicated in 5,092 UADT cancer cases and 6,794 controls non-overlapping samples presented here (rs1573496-ADH7, p = 5 × 10⁻⁸); rs1229984-ADH1B, p = 7 × 10⁻⁹; and rs698-ADH1C, p = 0.02). These results implicate two variants at 4q21 and 12q24 and further highlight three ADH variants in UADT cancer susceptibility.

  5. Association of sugary beverages with survival among patients with cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Fayth L.; Chang, Shen-Chih; Morgenstern, Hal; Tashkin, Donald; Rao, Jian-Yu; Cozen, Wendy; Mack, Thomas; Lu, Qing-Yi

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The role of consumption of added sugars in cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) is unclear. We examined associations between sugary beverages and susceptibility to UADT cancer as well as overall survival among UADT cancer patients. Methods The association between dietary added sugar and susceptibility to UADT cancers or overall survival among 601 UADT cancer cases was evaluated using data from a population-based case–control study conducted in Los Angeles County. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) for cancer susceptibility, and Cox regression was used to estimate hazards ratios (HRs) with 95 % CIs for survival, adjusting for relevant confounders. Results A total of 248 deaths were observed during follow-up (median 12.1 years). A positive association was observed with consumption of grams of sugar from beverages, including soft drinks and fruit juices, and poorer survival among UADT cancer cases (aHR, Q4 vs. Q1:1.88; 95 % CI 1.29, 2.72; p for trend = 0.002), as well as servings of sugary beverages (aHR, Q4 vs. Q1: 95 % CI 1.97, 95 % CI 1.32–2.93). This was due largely to consumption of sugars from soft drinks. Particularly, high consumption of sugary beverages was associated with poorer survival among esophageal cancer cases, driven by squamous cancers. No association was observed between sugary beverages and cancer susceptibility. Conclusion These findings suggest that consumption of sugary beverages may decrease survival associated with UADT cancers. Additional studies should be conducted to examine survival among cancer patients consuming high amounts of added or refined sugars. Such studies may highlight prognostic factors for UADT cancers. PMID:27539643

  6. Axial magnetic bearing development for the BiVACOR rotary BiVAD/TAH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greatrex, Nicholas A; Timms, Daniel L; Kurita, Nobuyuki; Palmer, Edward W; Masuzawa, Toru

    2010-03-01

    A suspension system for the BiVACOR biventricular assist device (BiVAD) has been developed and tested. The device features two semi-open centrifugal impellers mounted on a common rotating hub. Flow balancing is achieved through the movement of the rotor in the axial direction. The rotor is suspended in the pump casings by an active magnetic suspension system in the axial direction and a passive hydrodynamic bearing in the radial direction. This paper investigates the axial movement capacity of the magnetic bearing system and the power consumption at various operating points. The force capacity of the passive hydrodynamic bearing is investigated using a viscous glycerol solution. Axial rotor movement in the range of +/-0.15 mm is confirmed and power consumption is under 15.5 W. The journal bearing is shown to stabilize the rotor in the radial direction at the required operating speed. Magnetic levitation is a viable suspension technique for the impeller of an artificial heart to improve device lifetime and reduce blood damage.

  7. Emerging and established global life-style risk factors for cancer of the upper aero-digestive tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Bhawna; Johnson, Newell W

    2014-01-01

    Upper aero-digestive tract cancer is a multidimensional problem, international trends showing complex rises and falls in incidence and mortality across the globe, with variation across different cultural and socio-economic groups. This paper seeks some explanations and identifies some research and policy needs. The literature illustrates the multifactorial nature of carcinogenesis. At the cellular level, it is viewed as a multistep process involving multiple mutations and selection for cells with progressively increasing capacity for proliferation, survival, invasion, and metastasis. Established and emerging risk factors, in addition to changes in incidence and prevalence of cancers of the upper aero-digestive tract, were identified. Exposure to tobacco and alcohol, as well as diets inadequate in fresh fruits and vegetables, remain the major risk factors, with persistent infection by particular so-called "high risk" genotypes of human papillomavirus increasingly recognised as also playing an important role in a subset of cases, particularly for the oropharynx. Chronic trauma to oral mucosa from poor restorations and prostheses, in addition to poor oral hygiene with a consequent heavy microbial load in the mouth, are also emerging as significant risk factors. Understanding and quantifying the impact of individual risk factors for these cancers is vital for health decision-making, planning and prevention. National policies and programmes should be designed and implemented to control exposure to environmental risks, by legislation if necessary, and to raise awareness so that people are provided with the information and support they need to adopt healthy lifestyles.

  8. Simulation of apical and atrio-aortic VAD in patients with transposition or congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Molfetta, Arianna; Jacobs, Steven; Fresiello, Libera; Verbelen, Tom; Trivella, Maria G; Meyns, Bart; Ferrari, Gianfranco

    2014-01-01

    VADs could be used for transportation of the great arteries (TGA) and for congenitally corrected transposition (ccTGA) treatment. A cardiovascular numerical model (NM) may offer a useful clinical support in these complex physiopathologies. This work aims at developing and preliminarily verifying a NM of ccTGA and TGA interacting with VADs. Hemodynamic data were collected at the baseline (BL) and three months (FUP) after apical (atrio-aortic) VAD implantation in a TGA (ccTGA) patient and used in a lumped parameter NM to simulate the patient's physiopathology. Measured (MS) and simulated (SIM) data were compared. MS and SIM data are in accordance at the BL and at FUP. Cardiac output (l/min): BL_m = 2.9 ± 0.4, BL_s = 3.0 ± 0.3; FUP_m = 4.2 ± 0.2, FUP_s = 4.1 ± 0.1. Right atrial pressure (mmHg): BL_m = 21.4 ± 4.1, BL_s = 18.5 ± 4.5; FUP_m = 13 ± 4, FUP_s = 14.8 ± 3.6. Pulmonary arterial pressure (mmHg): BL_m = 56 ± 6.3,BL_s = 57 ± 2, FUP_m = 37.5 ± 7.5, FUP_s = 35.5 ± 5.9. Systemic arterial pressure (mmHg): BL_m = 71 ± 2, BL_s = 74.6 ± 2.1; FUP_m = 84 ± 9, FUP_s = 81.9 ± 9.8. NM can simulate the effect of a VAD in complex physiopathologies, with the inclusion of changes in circulatory parameters during the acute phase and at FUP. The simulation of differently assisted physiopathologies offers a useful support for clinicians.

  9. Lifetime and baseline alcohol intake and risk of cancer of the upper aero-digestive tract in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC) study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weikert, Cornelia; Dietrich, Thomas; Boeing, Heiner; Bergmann, Manuela M.; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Allen, Naomi; Key, Tim; Lund, Eiliv; Olsen, Anja; Tjonneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Rohrmann, Sabine; Linseisen, Jakob; Pischon, Tobias; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Weinehall, Lars; Johansson, Ingegerd; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Agudo, Antonio; Barricarte, Aurelio; Amiano, Pilar; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Ramon Quiros, J.; Wirfalt, Elisabet; Peeters, Petra H.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Vrieling, Alina; Pala, Valeria; Palli, Domenico; Vineis, Paolo; Tumino, Rosario; Panico, Salvatore; Bingham, Sheila; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Norat, Teresa; Jenab, Mazda; Ferrari, Pietro; Slimani, Nadia; Riboli, Elio

    2009-01-01

    Recent alcohol consumption is all established risk factor for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) or the upper aero-digestive tract. In contrast, the role or lifetime exposure to alcohol with regard to risk of SCC is not well established. Historical data oil alcohol use are available in 271,253

  10. Anti-apoptotic effects of pan-caspase inhibitor (Z-VAD), SOD or catalase on antimycin A-induced HeLa cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yong Hwan; Kim, Suhn Hee; Kim, Sung Zoo; Park, Woo Hyun

    2009-01-01

    Antimycin A (AMA) is an inhibitor of the electron transport chain in mitochondria. In this study, we investigated the anti-apoptotic effects of pan-caspase inhibitor (Z-VAD), superoxide dismutase (SOD) or catalase on AMA-induced HeLa cell death in relation to the cell cycle. Treatment with Z-VAD, SOD or catalase rescued some HeLa cells from AMA-induced apoptosis, but did not prevent the growth inhibition of HeLa cells by AMA. DNA flow cytometric analysis indicated that treatment with AMA significantly induced an S-phase arrest of the cell cycle at 72 h. Interestingly, Z-VAD, SOD and catalase intensified S-phase arrest in AMA-treated cells. In conclusion, treatment with Z-VAD, SOD or catalase decreased apoptotic levels in AMA-treated cells, which was associated with the enhancement of the S-phase arrest of the cell cycle in these cells.

  11. Cetuximab Resistance in Squamous Carcinomas of the Upper Aerodigestive Tract Is Driven by Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Ida; Lindsted, Trine; Fröhlich, Camilla

    2016-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) arising in upper parts of the aero-digestive tract (UAT) are among the leading causes of death worldwide. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been found to play an essential role in driving the malignancy of SCCUAT, but despite this, clinical results using...... responsible for cetuximab resistance is valuable for development of the next generation of antibody therapeutics. In order to better understand the underlying mechanisms of cetuximab resistance in SCCUAT, we established from cetuximab-sensitive models, cell lines with acquired resistance to cetuximab...... by continuous selective pressure in vitro and in vivo. Our results show that resistant clones maintain partial dependency on EGFR and that RTK plasticity mediated by HER3 and IGF1R plays an essential role. A multi-target mAb mixture against EGFR, HER3, and IGF1R was able to overcome cetuximab resistance...

  12. The testis-specific VAD1.3/AEP1 interacts with {beta}-actin and syntaxin 1 and directs peri-nuclear/Golgi expression with bipartite nucleus localization (BNL) sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuo, Yan; Gao, Jing [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam (Hong Kong); Yeung, William S.B. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam (Hong Kong); Centre for Reproduction, Development and Growth, Hong Kong Jockey Club Clinical Research Centre, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam (Hong Kong); Lee, Kai-Fai, E-mail: ckflee@hkucc.hku.hk [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam (Hong Kong); Centre for Reproduction, Development and Growth, Hong Kong Jockey Club Clinical Research Centre, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam (Hong Kong)

    2010-10-15

    Research highlights: {yields} VAD1.3 interacts {beta}-actin and syntaxin 1. {yields} VAD1.3 colocalizes {beta}-actin in spermatids. {yields} The bipartite nucleus localization (BNL) signal is important for peri-nuclear/Golgi expression in transfected cells. {yields} The C-terminal region of VAD1.3 direct nuclei localization. -- Abstract: VAD1.3 (AEP1), a novel testis-specific gene, was first isolated from the testis of a retinol-treated vitamin-A-deficient (VAD) rat model. It is expressed at the acrosomal region of spermatids from postnatal day 25. VAD1.3 immunoreactivity is present in rat, human, monkey and porcine spermatids and spermatozoa, suggesting that VAD1.3 may play a role in acrosome formation. However, direct evidence on the detailed sub-cellular localization of the VAD1.3 protein in the acrosome and how VAD1.3 is involved in acrosome formation remains largely unknown. Here, we isolated and identified VAD1.3 interacting proteins by immunoprecipitation followed by mass spectrometry, and determined the functional motifs of VAD1.3 that were important for its specific sub-cellular location in vitro. We found that VAD1.3 bound to syntaxin 1 and {beta}-actin proteins in vitro. Immunogold electron microscopic study localized VAD1.3 immunoreactivity to the acrosome membranes and matrix, and colocalized it with the {beta}-actin protein. The full-length GFP-VAD (1-3601) and GFP-VAD (1-730) fusion proteins that contain the bipartite nucleus localization (BNL) signal were located in the peri-nucleus/Golgi of the transfected cells. In addition, the GFP signal colocalized with the endoplasmic reticulum marker and the syntaxin 1 protein in the transfected HeLa and GC-2spd cells. The C-terminal GFP-VAD (1770-3601) was expressed in the nucleus. Taken together, VAD1.3 interacts with {beta}-actin and syntaxin 1 in vitro. The BNL signal may mediate the peri-nuclei localization of the protein that may interact with syntaxin 1 and {beta}-actin for acrosome formation in

  13. Atklātā pirmkoda resursu vadības sistēma OpenERP

    OpenAIRE

    Grigore, Madara

    2016-01-01

    Maģistra darbā “Atklātā pirmkoda resursu vadības sistēma OpenERP” tiek pētīts, kas ir resursu vadības sistēma (ERP), tiek aplūkotas, kādas ir atšķirības starp patentēto un atklātā pirmkoda ERP sistēmām un izpētīts, ko uzņēmums iegūst, ieviešot ERP risinājumu, un kādi ir iespējamie riski ar kuriem var saskarties uzņēmums pēc ERP risinājuma implementācijas. Tiek pētīts, kāpēc un kādas nesaderības var rasties starp uzņēmumu un ERP programmu, kā tās var mazināt. Darbā tiek pētīta atklātā pirmkoda...

  14. "Oftast du vet själv vad är det rätta" : Högstadieelevers sociala mediavanor och regelperception i onlinesammanhang

    OpenAIRE

    Bergman, Mikael

    2018-01-01

    Sammanfattning: Sociala medier spelar en allt större roll i hur vi kommunicerar och uttrycker oss. Denna studie är ämnad att utveckla och koppla ihop den redan existerande forskningen om ungdomars sociala mediavanor på Snapchat och Instagram, och forskning om vad sociala mediaanvändare upplever vad man kan och får publicera på dessa sociala medier. Denna studie utforskar detta genom tre fokusgruppsintervjuer med 15 åriga niondeklassare. Resultatet analyseras genom dramaturgi som till stor del...

  15. Induction therapy with vincristine, adriamycin, dexamethasone (VAD) and intermediate-dose melphalan (IDM) followed by autologous or allogeneic stem cell transplantation in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lokhorst, H. M.; Sonneveld, P.; Cornelissen, J. J.; Joosten, P.; van Marwijk Kooy, M.; Meinema, J.; Nieuwenhuis, H. K.; van Oers, M. H.; Richel, D. J.; Segeren, C. N.; Veth, G.; Verdonck, L. F.; Wijermans, P. W.

    1999-01-01

    We performed a phase II study to test the efficacy and feasibility of induction therapy with vincristine, adriamycin and dexamethasone (VAD) and intermediate-dose melphalan, 70 mg/m2 (IDM), to autologous or allogeneic stem cell transplantation in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM). A total of 77

  16. Induction therapy with vincristine, adriamycin, dexamethasone (VAD) and intermediate-dose melphalan (IDM) followed by autologous or allogeneic stem cell transplantation in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokhorst, H M; Sonneveld, P; Cornelissen, J J; Joosten, P; van Marwijk Kooy, M; Meinema, J; Nieuwenhuis, H K; van Oers, M H; Richel, D J; Segeren, C N; Veth, G; Verdonck, L F; Wijermans, P W

    1999-02-01

    We performed a phase II study to test the efficacy and feasibility of induction therapy with vincristine, adriamycin and dexamethasone (VAD) and intermediate-dose melphalan, 70 mg/m2 (IDM), to autologous or allogeneic stem cell transplantation in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM). A total of 77 patients received two cycles of VAD (n = 62) and/or two cycles of i.v. IDM 70 mg/m2 (n = 15) combined with G-CSF. PBSC were harvested after the first IDM, successfully in 87% of patients. Patients with a response to induction received myeloablative therapy with PBSCT (n = 50) followed by IFN maintenance or allo-BMT (n = 11). Seventy-two per cent of patients achieved a response after VAD which increased to 85% after IDM. Of patients who received PBSCT and allo-BMT, 24% and 45% achieved CR, respectively. Toxicity of induction consisted mainly of bone marrow suppression after IDM (median 8 days) with prolonged aplasia in 11% of patients after the second IDM. Only six infections WHO grade 3 occurred during induction. Treatment-related mortality of PBSCT and allo-BMT was 6% and 18%, respectively. Median time of follow-up is 44 months, and 50% of patients after PBSCT and 60% of patients after allo-BMT are still in remission. Survival rates of all patients were 82%, 75% and 63%, and for transplanted patients 86%, 79% and 68% after 12, 24 and 36 months. Well known prognostic factors, including alpha-IFN maintenance after PBSCT, were not significant for response or survival although patients in CR after allo-BMT had a strong tendency for better outcome. VAD/IDM is an effective and safe induction therapy for autologous and allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Based on these observations a phase III trial was started in October 1995 comparing IFN maintenance with PBSCT and allo-BMT after response to induction with VAD and IDM.

  17. Retrospective study of the evolution of nutritional, inflammatory and bacteriological profiles of patients suffering from inoperable aero-digestive duct tumour during sequential or concomitant chemo-radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, L.; Brocard, C.; Coudray, C.; Pavlovitch, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    The authors report a retrospective study which aimed at analysing a cohort of consecutive patients in terms of clinic and biological aspects reflecting their nutritional and inflammatory status as well as the status of their buccal bacterial flora during a sequential or concomitant chemo-radiotherapy. The objective was to detect a possible difference between these both therapeutic modalities, and a possible relationship with toxicity. Several data have been collected for patients suffering from inoperable aero-digestive tract tumour: weight, body mass index, prealbumin, albumin, orosomucoid, C-reactive protein, PINI index, and buccal bacterial flora. The evolution of these nutritional biological criteria appears to depend on the treatment modality. Short communication

  18. Active and involuntary tobacco smoking and upper-aerodigestive-tract cancer risks in a multicenter case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yuan-Chin Amy; Marron, Manuela; Benhamou, Simone; Bouchardy, Christine; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Agudo, Antonio; Castellsague, Xavier; Bencko, Vladimir; Holcatova, Ivana; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Merletti, Franco; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Macfarlane, Gary J.; Macfarlane, Tatiana V.; Talamini, Renato; Barzan, Luigi; Canova, Cristina; Simonato, Lorenzo; Conway, David I.; McKinney, Patricia A.; Lowry, Raymond J.; Sneddon, Linda; Znaor, Ariana; Healy, Claire M.; McCartan, Bernard E.; Brennan, Paul; Hashibe, Mia

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Several important issues for the established association between tobacco smoking and upper-aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancer risks include the associations with smoking by cancer subsite, by type of tobacco, and among never alcohol drinkers, and the associations with involuntary smoking among nonsmokers. Our aim was to examine these specific issues in a large scale case-control study in Europe. Methods Analysis was performed on 2,103 UADT squamous cell carcinoma cases and 2,221 controls in the Alcohol-Related Cancers and Genetic Susceptibility in Europe (ARCAGE) project, a multicenter case-control study in 10 European countries. Unconditional logistic regression was performed to obtain odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results Compared to never tobacco smoking, current smoking was associated with UADT cancer risks (OR=6.72, 95% CI 5.45–8.30 for overall; 5.83, 4.50–7.54 for oral cavity and oropharynx; 12.19, 8.29–17.92 for hypopharynx and larynx; 4.17, 2.45–7.10 for esophagus). Among never drinkers, dose-response relationships with tobacco smoking packyears were observed for hypopharyngeal and laryngeal cancers (ptrend = 0.01), but not for oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers (ptrend = 0.282). Among never smokers, ever exposure to involuntary smoking was associated with an increased risk of UADT cancers (OR=1.60, 95% CI 1.04–2.46). Conclusion Our results corroborate that tobacco smoking may play a stronger role in the development of hypopharyngeal and laryngeal cancers than that of oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers among never drinkers and that involuntary smoking is an important risk factor for UADT cancers. Public health interventions to reduce involuntary smoking exposure could help reduce UADT cancer incidence. PMID:19959682

  19. Immunophenotypic and Clinical Differences Between the Nasal and Extranasal Subtypes of Upper Aerodigestive Tract Natural Killer/T-Cell Lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Qing-Feng; Wang, Wei-Hu; Wang, Shu-Lian; Liu, Yue-Ping [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital and Institute, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Huang, Wen-Ting; Lu, Ning [Department of Pathology, Cancer Hospital and Institute, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Zhou, Li-Qiang [Department of Medical Oncology, Cancer Hospital and Institute, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Ouyang, Han [Department of Radiology, Cancer Hospital and Institute, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Jin, Jing [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital and Institute, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Li, Ye-Xiong, E-mail: yexiong@yahoo.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital and Institute, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China)

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: To investigate, in a large cohort of patients, the immunophenotypic and clinical differences of nasal and extranasal extranodal nasal-type natural killer/T-cell lymphoma of the upper aerodigestive tract (UADT-NKTCL) and examine the relevance of the immunophenotype on the clinical behavior, prognosis, and treatment. Methods and Materials: A total of 231 patients with UADT-NKTCL were recruited. One hundred eighty-one patients had primary location in the nasal cavity (nasal UADT-NKTCL), and 50 patients had primary extranasal UADT-NKTCL. Results: Patients with extranasal UADT-NKTCL had more adverse clinical features, including advanced-stage disease, regional lymph node involvement, B symptoms, and poor performance status, than patients with nasal UADT-NKTCL. In addition, CD56 and granzyme B were less frequently expressed in extranasal UADT-NKTCL. The 5-year overall survival rate was 74.1% for the entire group and 76.0% for early-stage disease. The 5-year overall survival rate for extranasal UADT-NKTCL was similar or superior to that of nasal UADT-NKTCL for all disease stages (76.9% vs 73.4%, P=.465), stage I disease (75.9% vs 79.2%, P=.786), and stage II disease (83.3% vs 50.3%, P=.018). CD56 expression and a Ki-67 proliferation rate ≥50% predicted poorer survival for extranasal UADT-NKTCL but not for nasal UADT-NKTCL. Conclusions: Patients with nasal and extranasal UADT-NKTCL have significantly different clinical features, immunophenotypes, and prognosis. Extranasal UADT-NKTCL should be considered as a distinct subgroup apart from the most commonly diagnosed prototype of nasal UADT-NKTCL.

  20. Genetic associations of 115 polymorphisms with cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract across 10 European countries: the ARCAGE project.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Canova, Cristina

    2009-04-01

    Cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) include malignant tumors of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, and esophagus and account for 6.4% of all new cancers in Europe. In the context of a multicenter case-control study conducted in 14 centers within 10 European countries and comprising 1,511 cases and 1,457 controls (ARCAGE study), 115 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) from 62 a priori-selected genes were studied in relation to UADT cancer. We found 11 SNPs that were statistically associated with UADT cancers overall (5.75 expected). Considering the possibility of false-positive results, we focused on SNPs in CYP2A6, MDM2, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and gene amplified in squamous cell carcinoma 1 (GASC1), for which low P values for trend (P trend<0.01) were observed in the main effects analyses of UADT cancer overall or by subsite. The rare variant of CYP2A6 -47A>C (rs28399433), a phase I metabolism gene, was associated with reduced UADT cancer risk (P trend=0.01). Three SNPs in the MDM2 gene, involved in cell cycle control, were associated with UADT cancer. MDM2 IVS5+1285A>G (rs3730536) showed a strong codominant effect (P trend=0.007). The rare variants of two SNPs in the TNF gene were associated with a decreased risk; for TNF IVS1+123G>A (rs1800610), the P trend was 0.007. Variants in two SNPs of GASC1 were found to be strongly associated with increased UADT cancer risk (for both, P trend=0.008). This study is the largest genetic epidemiologic study on UADT cancers in Europe. Our analysis points to potentially relevant genes in various pathways.

  1. Alpha-Synuclein Pathology in Sensory Nerve Terminals of the Upper Aerodigestive Tract of Parkinson’s Disease Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Liancai; Chen, Jingming; Sobotka, Stanislaw; Nyirenda, Themba; Benson, Brian; Gupta, Fiona; Sanders, Ira; Adler, Charles H.; Caviness, John N.; Shill, Holly A.; Sabbagh, Marwan; Samanta, Johan E.; Sue, Lucia I.; Beach, Thomas G.

    2015-01-01

    Dysphagia is common in Parkinson’s disease (PD) and causes significant morbidity and mortality. PD dysphagia has usually been explained as dysfunction of central motor control, much like other motor symptoms that are characteristic of the disease. However, PD dysphagia does not correlate with severity of motor symptoms nor does it respond to motor therapies. It is known that PD patients have sensory deficits in the pharynx, and that impaired sensation may contribute to dysphagia. However, the underlying cause of the pharyngeal sensory deficits in PD is not known. We hypothesized that PD dysphagia with sensory deficits may be due to degeneration of the sensory nerve terminals in the upper aerodigestive tract (UAT). We have previously shown that Lewy-type synucleinopathy (LTS) is present in the main pharyngeal sensory nerves of PD patients, but not in controls. In this study, the sensory terminals in UAT mucosa were studied to discern the presence and distribution of LTS. Whole-mount specimens (tongue-pharynx-larynx-upper esophagus) were obtained from 10 deceased human subjects with clinically diagnosed and neuropathologically confirmed PD (five with dysphagia and five without) and four age-matched healthy controls. Samples were taken from six sites and immunostained for phosphorylated α-synuclein (PAS). The results showed the presence of PAS-immunoreactive (PAS-ir) axons in all the PD subjects and in none of the controls. Notably, PD patients with dysphagia had more PAS-ir axons in the regions that are critical for initiating the swallowing reflex. These findings suggest that Lewy pathology affects mucosal sensory axons in specific regions of the UAT and may be related to PD dysphagia. PMID:26041249

  2. Alpha-Synuclein Pathology in Sensory Nerve Terminals of the Upper Aerodigestive Tract of Parkinson's Disease Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Liancai; Chen, Jingming; Sobotka, Stanislaw; Nyirenda, Themba; Benson, Brian; Gupta, Fiona; Sanders, Ira; Adler, Charles H; Caviness, John N; Shill, Holly A; Sabbagh, Marwan; Samanta, Johan E; Sue, Lucia I; Beach, Thomas G

    2015-08-01

    Dysphagia is common in Parkinson's disease (PD) and causes significant morbidity and mortality. PD dysphagia has usually been explained as dysfunction of central motor control, much like other motor symptoms that are characteristic of the disease. However, PD dysphagia does not correlate with severity of motor symptoms nor does it respond to motor therapies. It is known that PD patients have sensory deficits in the pharynx, and that impaired sensation may contribute to dysphagia. However, the underlying cause of the pharyngeal sensory deficits in PD is not known. We hypothesized that PD dysphagia with sensory deficits may be due to degeneration of the sensory nerve terminals in the upper aerodigestive tract (UAT). We have previously shown that Lewy-type synucleinopathy (LTS) is present in the main pharyngeal sensory nerves of PD patients, but not in controls. In this study, the sensory terminals in UAT mucosa were studied to discern the presence and distribution of LTS. Whole-mount specimens (tongue-pharynx-larynx-upper esophagus) were obtained from 10 deceased human subjects with clinically diagnosed and neuropathologically confirmed PD (five with dysphagia and five without) and four age-matched healthy controls. Samples were taken from six sites and immunostained for phosphorylated α-synuclein (PAS). The results showed the presence of PAS-immunoreactive (PAS-ir) axons in all the PD subjects and in none of the controls. Notably, PD patients with dysphagia had more PAS-ir axons in the regions that are critical for initiating the swallowing reflex. These findings suggest that Lewy pathology affects mucosal sensory axons in specific regions of the UAT and may be related to PD dysphagia.

  3. Risku vadības principu piemērošana valsts pārvaldē: Latvijas gadījuma izpēte

    OpenAIRE

    Vēvere, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Maģistra darbā „Risku vadības principu piemērošana valsts pārvaldē: Latvijas gadījuma izpēte” tika izvērtēta risku vadības izmantošana politikas plānošanas dokumentos un normatīvajos aktos, veikts riska inteliģences tests valsts pārvaldē strādājošajiem, kā arī notika intervija ar valsts pārvaldes ekspertu. Darbam tika izvirzīti izpētes jautājumi: “Kādos gadījumos risku vadība kā rīcībpolitikas uzlabošanas instruments tiek izmantots Latvijas valsts pārvaldē?” un „Kāds ir valsts pārvaldes iestā...

  4. Vadīšanas funkciju izpildes analīze Viļakas novada pašvaldībā.

    OpenAIRE

    Cibule, Rūta

    2016-01-01

    Bakalaura darba tēma ir “Vadīšanas funkciju izpildes analīze Viļakas novada pašvaldībā”. Darbā ir apskatītas vadīšanas funkcijas – organizēšana, plānošana, motivēšana, koordinēšana un kontrole, fokusējoties uz pirmajām trim minētajām. Bakalaura darba mērķis ir izanalizēt vadīšanas funkciju izpildi Viļakas novada domes administrācijā, pievēršot pastiprinātu uzmanību organizēšanai, motivēšanai un plānošanai. Lai šo mērķi izpildītu, pirmajā daļā autore izpētīja dažādus teorijas avotus, otrajā da...

  5. Risk of upper aerodigestive tract cancer and type of alcoholic beverage: a European multicenter case-control study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Marron, Manuela

    2012-07-01

    The general relationship between cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) and alcohol drinking is established. Nevertheless, it is uncertain whether different types of alcoholic beverages (wine, beer and liquor) carry different UADT cancer risks. Our study included 2,001 UADT cancer cases and 2,125 controls from 14 centres in 10 European countries. All cases were histologically or cytologically confirmed squamous cell carcinomas. Controls were frequency matched by sex, age and centre. Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (95 %CI) adjusted for age, sex, centre, education level, vegetable and fruit intake, tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking, where appropriate. Risk of beverage-specific alcohol consumption were calculated among \\'pure drinker\\' who consumed one beverage type exclusively, among \\'predominant drinkers\\' who consumed one beverage type to more than 66 % and among \\'mixed drinkers\\' who consumed more than one beverage type to similar proportions. Compared to never drinkers and adjusted for cumulative alcohol consumption, the OR and 95 %CI for wine, beer and liquor drinking, respectively, were 1.24 (0.86, 1.78), 1.54 (1.05, 2.27) and 0.94 (0.53, 1.64) among \\'pure drinkers\\' (p value for heterogeneity across beverage types = 0.306), 1.05 (0.76,1.47), 1.25 (0.87,1.79) and 1.43 (0.95, 2.16) among \\'predominant drinkers\\' (p value = 0.456), and 1.09 (0.79, 1.50), 1.20 (0.88, 1.63) and 1.12 (0.82, 1.53) among \\'mixed drinkers\\' (p value = 0.889). Risk of UADT cancer increased with increasing consumption of all three alcohol beverage types. Our findings underscore the strong and comparable carcinogenic effect of ethanol in wine, beer and liquor on organs of the UADT.

  6. Plasmodium falciparum metacaspase PfMCA-1 triggers a z-VAD-fmk inhibitable protease to promote cell death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoît Meslin

    Full Text Available Activation of proteolytic cell death pathways may circumvent drug resistance in deadly protozoan parasites such as Plasmodium falciparum and Leishmania. To this end, it is important to define the cell death pathway(s in parasites and thus characterize proteases such as metacaspases (MCA, which have been reported to induce cell death in plants and Leishmania parasites. We, therefore, investigated whether the cell death function of MCA is conserved in different protozoan parasite species such as Plasmodium falciparum and Leishmania major, focusing on the substrate specificity and functional role in cell survival as compared to Saccharomyces cerevisae. Our results show that, similarly to Leishmania, Plasmodium MCA exhibits a calcium-dependent, arginine-specific protease activity and its expression in yeast induced growth inhibition as well as an 82% increase in cell death under oxidative stress, a situation encountered by parasites during the host or when exposed to drugs such as artemisins. Furthermore, we show that MCA cell death pathways in both Plasmodium and Leishmania, involve a z-VAD-fmk inhibitable protease. Our data provide evidence that MCA from both Leishmania and Plasmodium falciparum is able to induce cell death in stress conditions, where it specifically activates a downstream enzyme as part of a cell death pathway. This enzymatic activity is also induced by the antimalarial drug chloroquine in erythrocytic stages of Plasmodium falciparum. Interestingly, we found that blocking parasite cell death influences their drug sensitivity, a result which could be used to create therapeutic strategies that by-pass drug resistance mechanisms by acting directly on the innate pathways of protozoan cell death.

  7. Quantification of tumor infiltrating Foxp3+ regulatory T cells enables the identification of high-risk patients for developing synchronous cancers over upper aerodigestive tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Lun; Chang, Wei-Lun; Yang, Hsiao-Bai; Chang, I-Wei; Lee, Ching-Tai; Chang, Chi-Yang; Lin, Jaw-Town; Sheu, Bor-Shyang

    2015-07-01

    Patients with squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) of upper aerodigestive tract, either over head and neck (HNSCC) or esophagus (ESCC), frequently developed synchronous multiple cancers, leading to worse prognosis. This study validated whether suppression of host cancer immunosurveillance mediated by regulatory T cells (Treg) may predispose to the development of synchronous cancers. Tumor tissues of 200 patients (100 ESCC only, 50 HNSCC only, and 50 synchronous SCCs) were quantitatively accessed for the tumor infiltrating Treg by immunohistochemistry. The density of Treg was also correlated to the level of Treg-associated inhibitory cytokines (IL-10, IL-35 and TGF-β1), and chemokine (CCL22). The density of tumor infiltrating Treg in the index tumor (i.e. the first malignancy diagnosed) of synchronous SCC group was higher than those of HNSCC or ESCC only (prisk of synchronous cancer development to initiate a proper surveillance program. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Genetic polymorphisms of alcohol dehydrogense-1B and aldehyde dehydrogenase-2, alcohol flushing, mean corpuscular volume, and aerodigestive tract neoplasia in Japanese drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Akira; Mizukami, Takeshi; Yokoyama, Tetsuji

    2015-01-01

    Genetic polymorphisms of alcohol dehydrogenase-1B (ADH1B) and aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) modulate exposure levels to ethanol/acetaldehyde. Endoscopic screening of 6,014 Japanese alcoholics yielded high detection rates of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC; 4.1%) and head and neck SCC (1.0%). The risks of upper aerodigestive tract SCC/dysplasia, especially of multiple SCC/dysplasia, were increased in a multiplicative fashion by the presence of a combination of slow-metabolizing ADH1B*1/*1 and inactive heterozygous ALDH2*1/*2 because of prolonged exposure to higher concentrations of ethanol/acetaldehyde. A questionnaire asking about current and past facial flushing after drinking a glass (≈180 mL) of beer is a reliable tool for detecting the presence of inactive ALDH2. We invented a health-risk appraisal (HRA) model including the flushing questionnaire and drinking, smoking, and dietary habits. Esophageal SCC was detected at a high rate by endoscopic mass-screening in high HRA score persons. A total of 5.0% of 4,879 alcoholics had a history of (4.0%) or newly diagnosed (1.0%) gastric cancer. Their high frequency of a history of gastric cancer is partly explained by gastrectomy being a risk factor for alcoholism because of altered ethanol metabolism, e.g., by blood ethanol level overshooting. The combination of H. pylori-associated atrophic gastritis and ALDH2*1/*2 showed the greatest risk of gastric cancer in alcoholics. High detection rates of advanced colorectal adenoma/carcinoma were found in alcoholics, 15.7% of 744 immunochemical fecal occult blood test (IFOBT)-negative alcoholics and 31.5% of the 393 IFOBT-positive alcoholics. Macrocytosis with an MCV≥106 fl increased the risk of neoplasia in the entire aerodigestive tract of alcoholics, suggesting that poor nutrition as well as ethanol/acetaldehyde exposure plays an important role in neoplasia.

  9. Suppression of human T cell proliferation by the caspase inhibitors, z-VAD-FMK and z-IETD-FMK is independent of their caspase inhibition properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, C.P. [Medical Research Council Toxicology Unit, Hodgkin Building, Lancaster Road, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 9HN (United Kingdom); Chow, S.C., E-mail: chow.sek.chuen@monash.edu [School of Science, Monash University Sunway Campus, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, Bandar Sunway, 46150 Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

    2012-11-15

    The caspase inhibitors, benzyloxycarbony (Cbz)-l-Val-Ala-Asp (OMe)-fluoromethylketone (z-VAD-FMK) and benzyloxycarbonyl (Cbz)-Ile-Glu (OMe)-Thr-Asp (OMe)-FMK (z-IETD-FMK) at non-toxic doses were found to be immunosuppressive and inhibit human T cell proliferation induced by mitogens and IL-2 in vitro. Both caspase inhibitors were shown to block NF-κB in activated primary T cells, but have little inhibitory effect on the secretion of IL-2 and IFN-γ during T cell activation. However, the expression of IL-2 receptor α-chain (CD25) in activated T cells was inhibited by both z-VAD-FMK and z-IETD-FMK, whereas the expression of the early activated T cell marker, CD69 was unaffected. During primary T cell activation via the antigen receptor, both caspase-8 and caspase-3 were activated and processed to their respective subunits, but neither caspase inhibitors had any effect on the processing of these two caspases. In sharp contrast both caspase inhibitors readily blocked apoptosis and the activation of caspases during FasL-induced apoptosis in activated primary T cells and Jurkat T cells. Collectively, the results demonstrate that both z-VAD-FMK and z-IETD-FMK are immunosuppressive in vitro and inhibit T cell proliferation without blocking the processing of caspase-8 and caspase-3. -- Highlights: ► Caspase-8 and caspase-3 were activated during T cell activation and proliferation. ► T cell proliferation was blocked by caspase inhibitors. ► Caspase activation during T cell proliferation was not block by caspase inhibitors.

  10. Vad ledare anser om personligt varumärke : - En kvalitativ studie av det personliga varumärkets betydelse för ledarskap.

    OpenAIRE

    Sepúlveda Moradinassab, Natalie

    2014-01-01

    Sammanfattning: Magisteruppsats i ledarskap och hållbar utveckling, Mälardalens Högskola i Eskilstuna. Datum: 2014-06-11 Författare: Natalie Sepúlveda Moradinassab Handledare: Lennart Bogg Titel: Vad ledare anser om personligt varumärke Problemformulering: Sedan decennier tillbaka har begreppet varumärke varit attraktivt och uppmärksammat. Under den senaste tiden har observationer av det personliga varumärket som individer har blivit mer intressant, eftersom det har visat sig leda till positi...

  11. Cationic liposome co-encapsulation of SMAC mimetic and zVAD using a novel lipid bilayer fusion loaded with MLKL-pDNA for tumour inhibition in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dan; Zhao, Linshu; Lin, Junzhong; Zhao, Yun; Zheng, Yu

    2018-01-01

    The increase in multidrug resistance among colon cancer cells presents a challenge for the development of effective therapies. Small-molecule analogues of second mitochondria-derived activator of caspase (SMAC) mimetic in association with mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL)-pDNA and z-VAD-fmk have shown ideal antitumor effects in colon cancer cells in vitro via induction of RIP3-dependent necroptosis. To achieve synergistic antitumor effects in vivo, liposomes loaded with SMAC mimetic, MLKL-pDNA and z-VAD-fmk have been developed using novel lipid fusion methods to co-localise the molecules of interest within the tumour cells. The co-encapsulation liposome (MLKL-zVAD-BV6-LP) had a high entrapment efficiency of approximately 95% for both zVAD and BV6 and was able to condense MLKL-pDNA very well. The vectors showed good biocompatibility, tumour targeting and small-molecule co-localisation. In a CT26 mouse model, the MLKL-zVAD-BV6-LP exhibited a tumour-suppression rate of over 60% in vivo, which was significantly higher than that of both the null-liposome and coadministration groups. Above all, the co-encapsulation system provided a novel approach to combination tumour therapy.

  12. Vad och hur gör de? − att synliggöra lärande i grundskolans slöjdpraktik via videoetnografi och mikroanalys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marléne Johansson

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Artikeln bygger på resultat och erfarenheter av etnografiskt insamlade videoinspelningar från grundskolans slöjdundervisning utgående från tre studier; dels vid ett projekt med förstudier under slutet av 1990-talet (Johansson, 1996, dels vid avhandlingsprojektet Slöjdpraktik i skolan (Johansson, 2002 och dels inom forskningsprojektet Kommunikation och lärande i slöjdpraktiker, (”Komolär-projektet”, under 2005−2010 (Lindström, Borg, Johansson & Lindberg, 2003.Att insamla empiri i autentiska slöjdmiljöer är av intresse då lärandesituationer kan synliggöras när elever med hjälp av material och redskap arbetar med att tillverka artefakter. Utifrån detaljerade analyser av slöjdaktiviteter går det att upptäcka det som utspelar sig och möjligheter ges att uppfatta något annat jämfört med vad man kan tro känna väl eller ha förenklade och till och med felaktiga uppfattningar om. Videoobservationer möjliggör att antaganden istället görs på empiriskt grundat datamaterial. Med risk att videofilma och analysera det man tror sig veta och söka har forskningsprojektens insamlingar mer förutsättningslöst arbetat efter vad och hur elever och lärare gör i slöjdpraktik och vad man får veta när slöjdaktiviteter analyseras mer ingående. Videomaterialen har analyserats både på en mer övergripande nivå och detaljerat med hjälp av mikroanalyser. Därefter har lärandet synliggjorts och beskrivits bland annat i teman för att visa hur personerna är resurser för varandra och hur lärandet utvecklas genom olika språkanvändning och med slöjdpraktikens fysiska redskap och material.Sökord: metod, slöjd, klassrumsforskning, videoetnografi, mikroanalysURN:NBN:no-29955

  13. How Social Reactions to Alcohol-Related Facial Flushing Are Affected by Gender, Relationship, and Drinking Purposes: Implications for Education to Reduce Aerodigestive Cancer Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Ian M; Ding, Lanyan; Shell, Duane F; Lin, Lida

    2017-06-09

    Alcohol-related facial flushing is a sign of compromised alcohol metabolism and increased risk of certain cancers. This project examined how facial flushing might be used to reduce alcohol use to lower cancer risks. Interviews with Chinese university students identified gender, friendship, and drinking purpose as important variables related to whether someone would encourage a person who flushes when drinking alcohol to stop or reduce their drinking. A questionnaire was developed that incorporated these variables into 24 drinking scenarios in which someone flushed while drinking. Students responded whether they would (a) encourage the flusher to stop or drink less; (b) do nothing while wishing they could; or (c) do nothing because there was no need. Analysis of survey responses from 2912 university students showed a three-way interaction of the variables and implied that the probability students will intervene when a drinker flushes was highest when the flusher was a female, a close friend, and the drinking purpose was for fun and lowest if the flusher was a male, the friendship was general, and the drinking purpose was risky. The results provide important details about the social factors affecting how other people respond to a person who flushes when drinking alcohol. This information is useful for those considering ways to reduce and prevent aerodigestive cancers through education and information programs.

  14. Late xerostomia after intensity-modulated conformational radiotherapy of upper aero-digestive tract cancers: study 2004-03 by the head and neck oncology and radiotherapy Group (Gortec)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toledano, I.; Lapeyre, M.; Graff, P.; Serre, C.; Bensadoun, R.J.; Bensadoun, R.J.; Ortholan, C.; Calais, G.; Alfonsi, M.; Giraud, P.; Racadot, S.

    2010-01-01

    The authors report a retrospective assessment of late xerostomia according to the RTOG (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group) classification of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) among patients treated by intensity-modulated conformational radiotherapy (IMRT) and suffering from upper aero-digestive tract carcinomas of different stages. Some of these patients have bee operated, and some have been treated by chemotherapy. It appears that the IMRT results in a reduction of late xerostomia, and even in an absence of salivary toxicity. Short communication

  15. Is aspiration as detected on pretreatment video fluorography, a harbinger of poor quality of life and early mortality in cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract treated with radiotherapy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Punita Lal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract (head and neck cancer (HNC tend to aspirate, either due to disease or treatment. The association of aspiration (documented on video fluorography (VFG with quality of life (QOL and unexpected mortality was studied prospectively in patients treated with simultaneous integrated boost technique of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (SIB-IMRT. Materials and Methods: Moderately advanced (stage III/IV HNC were treated by SIB-IMRT delivering 66 Gy/30 fr, 60 Gy/30 fr, and 54 Gy/30 fr to high, intermediate, and low risk volumes, respectively. They underwent serial VFG and QOL assessments (Quality of Life Questionnaire-Core 30 ( QLQ-C30 and head and neck-35 (HN35 European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC tools at 0, 3, and 6 months. Pharyngeal musculature (PM was additionally delineated on planning computed tomography (CT scans as potential organs at risk (OARs. Results: Between November 2009 and May 2011, 20 HNC were treated as per protocol. All patients were fit (Karnofsky performance status (KPS ≥ 80. Based on VFG findings, seven patients (4/9 oropharynx and 3/11 laryngopharynx were grouped as aspirators (A and remaining 13 as non-aspirators (NA. The QOL study showed that pretreatment coughing and swallowing difficulties were greater in group A versus NA and remained persistently higher. In group A, deaths attributable to aspiration were seen in 3/7 patients, while none occurred in the NA group (Fisher′s exact P = 0.03. The mean PM dose was 60 Gy in both the groups and mean V60 was similar at 69 and 67% in A and NA groups, respectively. Conclusions: VFG helps identify patients who aspirate and are at risk of premature death due to its complications, alerting caregivers to direct attention appropriately.

  16. The association between change in body mass index and upper aerodigestive tract cancers in the ARCAGE project: multicenter case-control study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Park, Sungshim Lani

    2011-03-15

    Previous studies reported an inverse relationship between body mass index (BMI) and upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancers. Examining change in BMI over time may clarify these previous observations. We used data from 2,048 cases and 2,173 hospital- and population-based controls from ten European countries (alcohol-related cancers and genetic susceptibility in Europe study) to investigate the relationship with BMI and adult change in BMI on UADT cancer risk. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated for associations between BMI at three time intervals and BMI change on UADT cancer development, adjusting for center, age, sex, education, fruit and vegetable intake, smoking and alcohol consumption. We found an inverse relationship between UADT cancers and BMI at time of interview and 2 years before interview. No association was found with BMI at 30 years of age. Regarding BMI change between age 30 and 2 years before interview, BMI decrease (BMI change <-5%) vs. BMI stability (-5% ≤ BMI change <5%) showed no overall association with UADT cancers (OR = 1.15; 95% CI = 0.89, 1.49). An increase in BMI (BMI change ≥+5%) was inversely associated with UADT cancers (OR = 0.74; 95% CI = 0.62, 0.89). BMI gain remained inversely associated across all subsites except for esophageal cancer. When stratified by smoking or by drinking, association with BMI gain was detected only in drinkers and smokers. In conclusion, BMI gain is inversely associated with UADT cancers. These findings may be influenced by smoking and\\/or drinking behaviors and\\/or the development of preclinical UADT cancers and should be corroborated in studies of a prospective nature.

  17. Air pollution and incidence of cancers of the stomach and the upper aerodigestive tract in the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Gabriele; Stafoggia, Massimo; Pedersen, Marie; Andersen, Zorana J; Galassi, Claudia; Munkenast, Jule; Jaensch, Andrea; Sommar, Johan; Forsberg, Bertil; Olsson, David; Oftedal, Bente; Krog, Norun H; Aamodt, Geir; Pyko, Andrei; Pershagen, Göran; Korek, Michal; De Faire, Ulf; Pedersen, Nancy L; Östenson, Claes-Göran; Fratiglioni, Laura; Sørensen, Mette; Tjønneland, Anne; Peeters, Petra H; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Vermeulen, Roel; Eeftens, Marloes; Plusquin, Michelle; Key, Timothy J; Concin, Hans; Lang, Alois; Wang, Meng; Tsai, Ming-Yi; Grioni, Sara; Marcon, Alessandro; Krogh, Vittorio; Ricceri, Fulvio; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Ranzi, Andrea; Cesaroni, Giulia; Forastiere, Francesco; Tamayo-Uria, Ibon; Amiano, Pilar; Dorronsoro, Miren; de Hoogh, Kees; Beelen, Rob; Vineis, Paolo; Brunekreef, Bert; Hoek, Gerard; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Weinmayr, Gudrun

    2018-04-26

    Air pollution has been classified as carcinogenic to humans. However, to date little is known about the relevance for cancers of the stomach and upper aerodigestive tract (UADT). We investigated the association of long-term exposure to ambient air pollution with incidence of gastric and UADT cancer in 11 European cohorts. Air pollution exposure was assigned by land-use regression models for particulate matter (PM) below 10 µm (PM 10 ), below 2.5 µm (PM 2.5 ), between 2.5 and 10 µm (PM coarse ), PM 2.5 absorbance and nitrogen oxides (NO 2 and NO X ) as well as approximated by traffic indicators. Cox regression models with adjustment for potential confounders were used for cohort-specific analyses. Combined estimates were determined with random effects meta-analyses. During average follow-up of 14.1 years of 305 551 individuals, 744 incident cases of gastric cancer and 933 of UADT cancer occurred. The hazard ratio for an increase of 5 µg/m 3 of PM 2.5 was 1.38 (95%-CI 0.99;1.92) for gastric and 1.05 (95%-CI 0.62;1.77) for UADT cancers. No associations were found for any of the other exposures considered. Adjustment for additional confounders and restriction to study participants with stable addresses did not influence markedly the effect estimate for PM 2.5 and gastric cancer. Higher estimated risks of gastric cancer associated with PM 2.5 was found in men (HR 1.98 (1.30;3.01)) as compared to women (HR 0.85 (0.5;1.45)). This large multicentre cohort study shows an association between long-term exposure to PM 2.5 and gastric cancer, but not UADT cancers, suggesting that air pollution may contribute to gastric cancer risk. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 UICC.

  18. Alcohol drinking and second primary cancer risk in patients with upper aerodigestive tract cancers: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druesne-Pecollo, Nathalie; Keita, Youssouf; Touvier, Mathilde; Chan, Doris S M; Norat, Teresa; Hercberg, Serge; Latino-Martel, Paule

    2014-02-01

    We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of existing data from observational studies to assess the strength of the association of alcohol drinking with second primary cancer risk in patients with upper aerodigestive tract (UADT; oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, and esophagus) cancer. PubMed and Embase were searched up to July 2012 and the reference lists of studies included in the analysis were examined. Random-effects models were used to estimate summary relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Nineteen studies, 8 cohort and 11 case-control studies, were included. In highest versus lowest meta-analyses, alcohol drinking was associated with significantly increased risk of UADT second primary cancers (RR, 2.97; 95% CI, 1.96-4.50). Significantly increased risks were also observed for UADT and lung combined (RR, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.16-3.11) and all sites (RR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.22-2.10) second primary cancers. For an increase in the alcohol intake of 10 grams per day, dose-response meta-analysis resulted in a significantly increased RR of 1.09 (95% CI, 1.04-1.14) for UADT second primary cancers. Alcohol drinking in patients with UADT cancer is associated with an increased risk of second primary cancers. Studies conducted in alcohol drinking patients with UADT cancer and evaluating the effect of alcohol cessation on second primary cancer and other outcomes are needed. Our results emphasize the importance of prevention policies aiming to reduce alcohol drinking. Health-care professionals should encourage alcohol drinking patients with UADT cancer to reduce their consumption and reinforce the surveillance of this at-risk subpopulation.

  19. Pretreatment with Pancaspase Inhibitor (Z-VAD-FMK Delays but Does Not Prevent Intraperitoneal Heat-Killed Group B Streptococcus-Induced Preterm Delivery in a Pregnant Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem Equils

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Caspases and apoptosis are thought to play a role in infection-associated preterm-delivery. We have shown that in vitro treatment with pancaspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK protects trophoblasts from microbial antigen-induced apoptosis. Objective. To examine whether in vivo administration of Z-VAD-FMK would prevent infection-induced preterm-delivery. Methods. We injected 14.5 day-pregnant-mice with heat-killed group B streptococcus (HK-GBS. Apoptosis within placentas and membranes was assessed by TUNEL staining. Calpain expression and caspase-3 activation were assessed by immunohistochemistry. Preterm-delivery was defined as expulsion of a fetus within 48 hours after injection. Results. Intrauterine (i.u. or intraperitoneal (i.p. HK-GBS injection led to preterm-delivery and induced apoptosis in placentas and membranes at 14 hours. The expression of calpain, a caspase-independent inducer of apoptosis, was increased in placenta. Treatment with the specific caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK (i.p. prior to HK-GBS (i.p. delayed but did not prevent preterm-delivery. Conclusion. Caspase-dependent apoptosis appears to play a role in the timing but not the occurrence of GBS-induced preterm delivery in the mouse.

  20. Analysis of the role of the gene coding the Amyloid-Precursor Protein Binding Protein 1 (APP-BP1) in the radio-sensitivity of epidermoid carcinomas of the upper aero-digestive tract infected by the human papillomavirus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guihard, S.; Altmeyer, A.; Ramolu, L.; Macabre, C.; Abecassis, J.; Noel, G.; Jung, A.C.

    2010-01-01

    As the human papillomavirus (HPV) is at the origin of 25% of upper aero-digestive tract cancers, and as these tumours present an increased radio-sensitivity compared to other tumours, probably due to a greater transcriptional activity of p53, the authors report the study on the influence of a decrease of the expression of the APP-BP1 in these tumours which could favour a radio-induced apoptosis. By using a reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), they assessed the APP-BP1 expression levels as well as expression levels of transcriptions coding onco-proteins known to be over-expressed in HPV+ tumours. They compared the radio-sensitivities of HPV+ and HPV- cells, the first one appearing to be greater than the second one. Short communication

  1. Reflux and aerodigestive tract diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coca-Pelaz, A.; Rodrigo, J.P.; Paccagnella, D.; Takes, R.P.; Rinaldo, A.; Silver, C.E.; Woolgar, J.A.; Hinni, M.L.; Ferlito, A.

    2013-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease can present with a wide variety of extraesophageal symptoms. In particular, the type of disease characterized predominately by laryngopharyngeal reflux may be difficult to diagnose because of the absence of regurgitation or heartburn. The available battery of

  2. Videomateriāla izmantošana sagatavotas diskusijas vadīšanā krievu valodas kā svešvalodas stundās vidusskolā

    OpenAIRE

    Pučkova, Irina

    2012-01-01

    Irina Pučkova. Tēma – Videomateriāla izmantošana sagatavotas diskusijas vadīšanā krievu valodas kā svešvalodas stundās vidusskolā – Riga 2012. – 80 lpp. Darbs veltīts aktuālai tēmai kā vienai no inovāciju metodēm un mūsdienu metodiskajiem paņēmieniem (krievu valodas apmācībai) vecākajās vidusskolas klasēs. Darba mērķis – izveidot videomateriālus sagatavotas diskusijas vadīšanai, aprobēt tos un veikt pētījumu vecākajās klasēs. Darbā dots stratēģiju apraksts un videomateriāli svešvalodā...

  3. Squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus and multiple primary tumors of the upper aerodigestive tract Carcinoma epidermoide do esôfago e múltiplos tumores primários do trato aerodigestivo alto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulysses RIBEIRO Jr.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus is frequently associated with other, synchronous or metachronous tumors, in the upper aerodigestive tract. All 264 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus, treated in the Gastrointestinal Surgery, Esophagus section, of the "Hospital das Clínicas" (São Paulo University Medical School, Brazil, between 1979 and 1989 were analyzed retrospectively with regards to the occurrence of multiple primary tumors in the upper aerodigestive tract. Multiple primary tumors were encountered in 10 (3.8% patients. All patients were male and the mean age at the time of the first primary was 52.2 years. Tobacco smoke and alcohol were the principal carcinogens in these patients (n = 10. The sites of the tumors were: larynx (n = 4, tongue (n = 4, lung (n = 2, and oral cavity (n = 1. Two simultaneous, three synchronous and five metachronous multiple primary carcinomas were detected. The esophagus was the second primary tumor in nine patients. The mean overall survival after the diagnosis of the second primary was 2.8 months (SD = 0.89. Inquiry regarding other malignancies, associated with panendoscopy should be carry out prior to the treatment of the first primary to diagnose simultaneous or synchronous primary tumors, and careful follow-up should be performed after treatment of the first primary to detect new tumors in these high-risk patients.Carcinoma epidermóide do esôfago está freqüentemente associado a outros, sincrônicos ou metacrônicos tumores do trato aerodigestivo alto. Foram analisados, retrospectivamente, 264 pacientes com carcinoma de esôfago tratados na Disciplina de Cirurgia do Aparelho Digestivo, Divisão de Cirurgia do Esôfago, do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, entre 1979 e 1989, com o intuito de se observar a ocorrência de múltiplos tumores primários do trato aerodigestivo alto. Observaram-se 10 (3.8% pacientes com múltiplos tumores

  4. SFRO booklets - The radiotherapy of cancers: of anal canal (Anus), brain, mediastinum, pancreas, lung, prostate, rectum, breast, upper aero-digestive tract (ENT cancers), cervix, endometrium (cervical cancers), and bladder for a better understanding of radiotherapy, sarcoma radiotherapy - To better understand your treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroy, Thomas; Mornex, Francoise; Peiffert, Didier; Thariat, Juliette; Faivre, Jean-Christophe; Huguet, Florence; Vendrely, Veronique; Barillot, Isabelle; Janoray, Guillaume; Bibault, Jean-Emmanuel; Antoni, Delphine; Crehange, Gilles; Meillan, Nicolas; Pichon, Baptiste; Biau, Julian; Pointreau, Yoann; Mirabel, Xavier; Leysalle, Axel; Claren, Audrey; Cartier, Lysian; Chand, Mari-Eve; Jacob, Julian; Renard-Oldrini, Sophie; Le Pechoux, Cecile; Ducassou, Anne; Moureau-Zabotto, Laurence; Lagrange, Jean Leon; Molina, Sarah

    2016-07-01

    This document gathers several booklets which, for different types of cancers, propose information regarding the anatomy and location of the cancer, its diagnosis, possible treatments, secondary effects during treatment, some practical advices, issues related to the post-treatment period, associations and other resources which can be useful for patient information, and a glossary of the main terms used for this cancer and its treatment. Cancer types are anal canal (Anus), brain, mediastinum, pancreas, lung, prostate, rectum, breast, upper aero-digestive tract (ENT cancers), cervix, endometrium (cervical cancers), and bladder cancers

  5. Vad behöver eleverna undervisning i för att utveckla sitt skrivande? Förväntningsnormer och didaktiska beslut i svensklärares bedömningssamtal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Blomqvist

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available I studien samtalar tre lärargrupper om elevers skrivande och skrivundervisning i ämnet svenska på gymnasiet. Det teoretiska perspektiv som läggs på dessa samtal är didaktiskt och inriktas på hur lärare formulerar och använder bedömningsinformation om elevers skrivande för beslut om skrivundervisningens innehåll. Resultatet visar att lärares bedömningar av elevers skrivande behandlar fler och delvis andra aspekter av skrivförmåga än vad deras didaktiska beslut sedan omfattar. De kvalitetsuppfattningar och förväntningsnormer som lärarna uttrycker i sina bedömningar av elevers skrivande inriktas huvudsakligen på texters kommunikativa kvaliteter, den stilistiska utformningen och textuppbyggnaden, följt av ämnesinnehåll och källanvändning. De didaktiska beslut som fattas utifrån bedömningen av elevers texter inriktas däremot i stort sett enbart på att eleverna behöver skrivundervisning i att disponera text och att använda källor. Detta gör att överensstämmelsen är låg mellan lärarnas beslut om skrivundervisningens inriktning och deras förväntningar på vad eleverna ska kunna. De didaktiska besluten omfattar i begränsad utsträckning den bedömningsinformation som lärarna själva har formulerat.Nyckelord: Skrivbedömning, kvalitetsuppfattningar, förväntningsnormer, didaktiska beslut, formativ bedömning, svenskämnets didaktik, svenska på gymnasietAbstractThis article presents an analysis of teacher group discussions about students’ writing in the subject of Swedish in upper secondary school. The study adopts a pedagogical perspective on these discussions and focuses on examining teachers’ expressed assessment criteria and relating them to their pedagogical decision-making. The results reveal that the teachers’ assessments of students’ writing focus on much more, and partly other, criteria than their pedagogical decisions. The quality standards that teachers express in the discussions about

  6. What is unburned carbon?; Vad aer ofoerbraent?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjurstroem, Henrik [AaF-Process AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Suer, Pascal [Swedish Geotechnical Inst., Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2006-01-15

    Different methods to determine unburned carbon in an ash yield different results, which raises the question of what actually is unburned. Using knowledge on the chemistry of ashes, one can identify which processes that contribute to the results from a method of analysis, but it is not possible to quantify these contributions. The project that is reported here aimed at clarifying what the results from the different methods mean using practical examples. Approximately twenty ash samples have been collected and their content of unburned carbon determined using loss on ignition at different temperatures, instrumental analysis of TOC and wet oxidation (the so-called colorimetric method). In order to identify the processes contributing to the results the samples have been investigated using a thermobalance instrumented with DTA and mass spectrometry for the species released when the samples are heated in air. The results can be grouped according to the type of ash: bottom ash, ESP ashes or baghouse filter ashes. They each have their specific fingerprints. Although the same processes contribute to the LOI, the proportions differ. In the case of bottom ashes, LOI and TOC yield results close to each other. A large part of the LOI is TOC, but not all. TOC is dominated by charred fuel (elementar carbon) and organic is a minor part. In the case of fly ashes, LOI and TOC yield results that differ from each other. As for bottom ashes, a large part of the LOI at 550 deg C is TOC, dominated by char or elemental carbon. The LOI at higher temperatures is often at least double and includes much more. Igniting ESP and baghouse filter ash samples at ca 1000 deg C leads to losses of volatile salts, e g chlorides. The colorimetric method takes some of the TOC, not only organic matter. The TOC methods should be preferred to it. The LOI methods yield values that are generally too high. As they are easy to implement their use will be continued. We recommend that: Ash is not ignited at temperatures higher than necessary; The temperature at which LOI was determined is reported; The result of LOI is reported as LOI and not as organic content in ash.

  7. Human papillomavirus DNA in aerodigestive squamous carcinomas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    imInunocytochemistry and in situ DNA hybridisa- tion to demonstrate human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Changes in the epitheliUIn adjacent to the carcinoma were found in 5 of 10 oesophageal and 7 of 10 laryngeal carcinomas. Viral antigens could not be detected with imInunocytochemistry in any of the specimens.

  8. Human papillomavirus DNA in aerodigestive squamous carcinomas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A series of 10 oesophageal and 10 laryngeal squamous carcinomas was examined by means of immuno cytochemistry and in situ DNA hybridisation to demonstrate human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Changes in the epithelium adjacent to the carcinoma were found in 5 of 10 oesophageal and 7 of 10 laryngeal ...

  9. Ada Compiler Validation Summary Report: Certificate Number: 921004W1.11283, Verdix Corporation, VADS System V/386/486 VAda-110-3232, Version 6.1, NCR Model 3550 under NCR UNIX SVR4 MP-RAS Release 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-11-18

    ho per s moers.. A, Ig V • tine tar ra wK0bM Seig kuise eing] da , estem pilwt• •id mviftrw V.o l neede-, and r•mawft to aoledin of ,oriangiom Sved...written in a self -checking manner and produce a PASSED, FAILED, or NOT APPLICABLE message indicating the result when they are executed. Three Ada...OPTIONS -w (warnings) Suppress warning diagnostics. Diagnostics The diagnostics produced by the VADS compiler are intended to be self -explanatory

  10. Benzene and superior counterpart; Benzene et homologues superieurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    A century ago, the first case of purpura and acute anemia provoked by benzene was described. Afterwards, others important toxic effects in relation with the exposure to this solvent were known: medullar aplasia, acute leukemia,carcinogenesis. The chronic intoxication by benzene is called benzenism, the term of benzolism is devoted to the intoxication provoked by the mixture of benzene and superior counterparts: toluene, xylenes. (N.C.)

  11. Evaluation du niveau de connaissance des Techniciens Superieurs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectif: Evaluer le niveau de connaissance des Techniciens Supérieurs en Santé (TSS) togolais dans le domaine de la néphrologie préventive. Sujets et méthodes: Une étude prospective de type transversal et observationnelle du 15 Septembre 2011 au 15 Mai 2012 dans les différentes structures sanitaires du territoire ...

  12. Problēmas un iespējamie risinājumi kriminālatbildības piemērošanai par bordeļu izveidošanu, uzturēšanu, vadīšanu vai finansēšanu

    OpenAIRE

    Bočs, Lauris

    2012-01-01

    Bakalaura darba mērķis ir noteikt mūsdienu bordeļu kā prostitūcijas sniegšanas un organizēšanas vietu darbības izpratnes nepilnības, normatīvo regulējumu un ar to saistītās problēmas kriminālatbildības piemērošanai par bordeļu izveidošanu, uzturēšanu, vadīšanu vai finansēšanu Latvijas Republikā. Īstenojot mērķi, tiek aprakstīti iespējamie nelegālās prostitūcijas cēloņi, sniegti atbilstoši priekšlikumi cēloņu mazināšanai, un skaidrotas legālās prostitūcijas sniegšanas un organizēšanas īpatn...

  13. Ettevaatust, bussid jäävad seisma! / Peep Peterson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Peterson, Peep, 1975-

    2004-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Severnoje Poberezhje, 23. okt. 2004, lk. 2; Narva Postiljon, 23. okt. 2004, lk. 5; Narvskaja Gazeta, 23. okt. 2004, lk. 4; Sakala, 26. okt. 2004, lk. 2; Võrumaa Teataja, 26. okt. 2004, lk. 2; Vooremaa, 26. okt. 2004, lk. 2; Meie Maa, 26. okt. 2004, lk. 2; Harjumaa, 26. okt. 2004, lk. 2; Järva Teataja, 28. okt. 2004, lk. 2; Hiiu Leht, 29. okt. 2004, lk. 2; Pärnu Postimees, 29. okt. 2004, lk. 15; Linnaleht : Pärnu, 29. okt. 2004, lk. A4; Valgamaalane, 6. nov. 2004, lk. 2. Transpordi ametiühing andis autoettevõtete liidule üle nõudmise, milles taotleb kõigile bussijuhtidele lisatasudeta Eesti keskmist palka. Kokkuleppele tuleb jõuda enne 2005. aasta 1. jaanuari

  14. Generation Y : En studie om vad som motiverar yngre medarbetare

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulreda, Alico; Giba, Gabriela

    2017-01-01

    De senaste 30 åren har tekniken gjort allt större framsteg vilket har lett till att människan idag är mer beroende av den. Människor från de äldre generationerna måste lära sig hur den nya tekniken fungerar medan den yngre generationen inte behöver lika lång lärotid för att förstå den i och med att de är uppväxta med den nya tekniken. På grund av att de olika generationerna har olika uppväxter har det resulterat i att de resonerar olika.  För att en organisation ska ha en god framtid är medar...

  15. Põhimõtted jäävad / Mart Laar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laar, Mart, 1960-

    2008-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Eesti Eest = Za Estoniju : Izdanije objedinenija "Sojuz Otetshestva i Res Publica" 14. aug. 2008, lk. 1. Eesti Rahvusliku Sõltumatuse Partei loomine 1988. aasta 20. augustil Pilistveres on etendanud murdelist rolli taasiseseisvuse saavutamisel ning olnud aluseks IRL-ile, kirjutab IRL-i esimees

  16. vad ärritunud pedagoogilised daamid / Vaapo Vaher

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaher, Vaapo, 1945-

    2003-01-01

    Arvustus: XX sajandi vene kirjandus. I, Luule / [koostanud Katrin Kalamees ja Maritsa Lens. Tallinn] : Avita, 2002; XX sajandi vene kirjandus. II, Proosa / [koostanud Katrin Kalamees ja Maritsa Lens. Tallinn] : Avita, 2002. Vastuseks Vaapo Vaheri arvustusele "Vene kirjanduse õpik lõhestab kirjanikud headeks ja pahadeks", Eesti Päevaleht : Arkaadia, 25. apr. 2003: Kalamees, Katrin; Lens, Maritsa. Vastuseid Vaapo Vaheri küsimistele, Eesti Päevaleht, 2. mai, lk. 17; Vt. ka vastukajad: Tuch, Boris. Dva toma oshibok // Estonija (2002) 28. apr., lk. 9

  17. Aerodigestive tract obstruction as a late complication of radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nageris, B.; Elidan, J.; Sichel, J.-Y. [Massachusetts Univ. Medical Center, Worcester, MA (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Oedema, fibrosis, and stenosis of the hypopharynx and oesophageal inlet are described in a few publications as a complication of post-laryngectomy irradiation treatment. In this paper a case of laryngeal carcinoma, treated exclusively by irradiation, where severe laryngeal and hypopharyngeal stenosis with complete occlusion of the oesophageal inlet were manifested as a late complication is described. We have found no similar case described in the English literature. (author).

  18. Aerodigestive and Ear Foreign Bodies at Lumbini Medical College

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anup Acharya

    2013-06-01

    methods using SPSS version 17.0.   Result: There were total of 74 cases of ENT foreign body. Male predominance was noted (61%. Foreign body of ear was found to be most frequent (43% followed by throat (37% and nose (20%. Foreign body of nose was almost limited in paediatrics population (14 out of 15 whereas in the elderly group foreign body of throat was only found. Seeds, meat bolus or bone or both, insects and cotton bud were the most common foreign bodies. There was significant relation between the type of foreign body and age (p <0.05 and the living foreign body and ear.   Conclusion: Foreign bodies of nose, ear and throat are common in ENT department. They should be timely managed to prevent potential complications.

  19. PEDAGOGIE PAR PROJET: UNE ÉTUDE DE CAS DANS L'ENSEIGNEMENT SUPERIEUR TECHNOLOGIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Buty

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article gives an account of the results of a questionnaire to be filled in by students of electrical engineering and industrial data processing who were in a higher training course in their vocational route. The objective is to evaluate the benefit they got from an instruction in project management techniques, together with the use made of these techniques, both during a series of practical activities based on a projectbased teaching, and during their final placement in companies.

  20. PEDAGOGIE PAR PROJET: UNE ÉTUDE DE CAS DANS L'ENSEIGNEMENT SUPERIEUR TECHNOLOGIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngo van Thien

    Full Text Available Cet article rapporte les résultats d'un questionnaire proposé aux étudiants d'une formation d'enseignement supérieur technologique en génie électrique et informatique industrielle. L'objectif de ce questionnaire est d'évaluer le profit que les étudiants ont retiré d'un enseignement des techniques de gestion de projet, et l'utilisation qu'ils en ont fait, d'une part au cours d'une série de travaux pratiques utilisant la pédagogie par projet, d'autre part au cours de leur stage de fin d'études en entreprise.

  1. Problematique de l'utilisation des tic dans l'enseignement superieur ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Apparaissant comme un moyen de compléter les techniques éducatives traditionnelles elles permettent de rendre les systèmes d'enseignement à même de répondre aux différents besoins d'apprentissage et de formation. Elles ont donc d'énormes avantages mais également des effets pervers. Mais malgré ses effets ...

  2. From "Ecoles Superieures de Commerce" to "Management Schools": Transformations and Continuity in French Business Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    Part of the national system of grandes Ecoles, French Business schools have known radical changes since the 1980s, notably in size, and have become more attractive to students both at a national and an international level. As a consequence, the French elitist system has been questioned by the competition of foreign--especially Anglo-Saxon--models.…

  3. Etude biostratigraphique du cretace inferieur (Barremien Superieur-Albien du haut atlas occidental (Maroc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal, T.

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available The lower Cretaceous (mainly Upper Barremian and Albian of the Westem High Atlas of Morocco displays a diversified fauna constitued by Ammonite, Ostracoda, and foraminifera. The analysis of the microfauna, especially the planctonic foraminifera, allowed the characterization of various lithologic units, and their subdivision and datation. We have identified different biozona with planctonic foraminifera typical of the Tethysian realm characterising the Upper Barremian to the Albian. These biozona are described and their limits are discussed.Les affleurements du Crétacé inférieur, et principalement le Barrémien supérieur- Albien du Haut Atlas occidental marocain, ont fourni une faune diversifiée constituée par des ammonites, des ostracodes et des foraminifkres. L'analyse détaillée de la microfaune et principalement les foraminifkres planctoniques a permis de caractériser diverses unités lithologiques, de les subdiviser et de les dater. Nous avons identifié différentes biozones a foraminifkres planctoniques reconnues a l'échelle de la Téthys et caracténsant le Barrémien supérieur-Albien. Ces différentes biozones ont été décrites et leurs limites ont été discutées.

  4. L'Enseignement Superieur en Union Sovietique. Analyse Structurelle et Statistique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revenko, Tamara

    In order to measure the educational achievements of the Soviet Union, it is essential to analyze the educational system in the light of the original intentions and ambitions. The system has three main features, which are a new conception of the relationship between investment and education, an ideological basis and the fact that it is a planned…

  5. Utilisation of sulfites by animals; Utilisation des sulfites par l'animal superieur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fromageot, P.; Chapeville, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    It studied the uptake of radioactive sulfates and sulfites in sulfinic cysteine acid, taurine and cystine in animal organism. The experiments are conducted on rabbits. The experimental procedures are described: one experiment is to sterilize intestines of the animal before to inject it radioactive sulfites or sulfates, the rabbit is sacrificed 28 hours after and its organs analysed. The other experiment is to inject radioactive sulfites or sulfates in an eviscerated rabbit and sacrificed it 30 minutes after. Sulfinic cysteine acid is mainly found in liver extracts after 30 minutes and only after injection of radioactive sulfites, whereas cystine is found after 28 hours in a majority of organ extracts. It showed that sulfur used for the synthesis of sulfinic cysteine acid comes from sulfites intake and that sulfinic cysteine acid is a precursor of taurine and cystine. (M.P.)

  6. Training in Human Relations for Engineers at the Ecole Superieure D'Informatique-Electronique-Automatique (ESIEA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafargue, M.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Points out the need to provide engineers with training in human relations. Describes the process of developing a document defining the problem and steps to be taken toward solution, submitted to students for their evaluation. (JM)

  7. L'enseignement superieur tunisien: Enjeux et avenir (Higher Education in Tunisia: Challenges and Opportunities).

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Bank, Washington, DC.

    This report presents findings of a study of higher education in Tunisia. It finds that higher education in Tunisia is a largely effective and well-performing system. However, it notes an expected doubling of enrollment over the next 10 years which will create obstacles that prevent it from playing the role expected of it by a society and economy…

  8. Le francais fonde sur la competence, Superieur (Competency Based French, Superior).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimanche, Maurice

    This instructional guide in French is intended for training Peace Corps volunteers serving in the Central African Republic. It includes 35 topical units at the superior level, each consisting of briefly stated competency objectives and a number of brief, related situational texts. Unit topics include: explaining how to do something; explaining…

  9. Moskva ärimehed müüvad Narva ettevõtte / Ilja Smirnov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Smirnov, Ilja

    2006-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Severnoje Poberezhje 18. aug. lk. 4. Moskva omanikele kuuluva ja kangaste viimistlemisega tegeleva Narva ettevõtte, AS-i Polytex.ee.Printing töö on täielikult peatatud ning algab massiline koondamine

  10. Estonian spas trade in good feeling = SPAd müüvad head enesetunnet / Ulli Sats

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sats, Ulli

    2005-01-01

    Vee- ja tervisekeskuste rajamisest Eestis, mis pakuvad klientidele erinevaid lõõgastumise võimalusi. Lisad: Suuremad SPAd Eestis; Levinumate teenuste hinnad. Vt. samas: Eestit külastavate turistide arv suureneb

  11. E-mobbning : En studie om vad det är

    OpenAIRE

    Moberg, Oskar

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to investigate what students in grades 4 to 6 at a school in southern Värmland know about cyber bullying. It also aims to find out whether there is or has been any cyber bullying in grades 4-6 at the school. The issues at work are what do cyber bullying? Is there a difference between cyber bullying in the different grades? (4-6 grades) Are their differences in cyber bullying when it comes to sex? And there is no connection between the mental bullying and cyber bull...

  12. MP3-e leiutajatele jäävad näpud / Patrick Jenkins

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jenkins, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    Tänu MP3-mängija iPod edukale müügile suurenes Apple Computeri I kvartali kasum 368% ning oli 295 miljonit dollarit. MP3 tehnoloogia leiutati Saksamaal peaaegu 20 aastat tagasi, kuid tookord ei saadud tehnoloogia rakendamiseks Euroopas tuge. Lisa: MPEG Layer 3 kodeerimine

  13. Scratch and Dig analýza povrchových vad pro zrcadla Metis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Špína, Michal; Procháska, František; Melich, Radek

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 1 (2017), s. 11-13 ISSN 0447-6441 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1206 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Surface imperfection * Scratch and dig analysis * optical surface evaluation Subject RIV: JS - Reliability ; Quality Management, Testing OBOR OECD: Audio engineering, reliability analysis

  14. Good or bad bioethanol - what decides?; Fin- eller fuletanol - vad avgoer?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerjesson, Paal

    2008-06-15

    The purpose with this study is to describe how the energy efficiency and the greenhouse gas (GHG) benefits of ethanol depend on local conditions and calculation methods. The following four parameters have been identified as crucial to the GHG benefit of ethanol: (i) the energy efficiency and emissions of nitrous oxide during cultivation, (ii) what kind of fuel is used in ethanol plants, (iii) how efficiently by-products are utilised and their benefit credited and (iv) the type of land used for cultivation. To ensure that 'good' ethanol is produced (with reference to GHG benefit), the following demands must be met: - ethanol plants should use biomass and not fossil fuels - cultivation of annual feedstock crops should be avoided on land rich in carbon (above and below ground), such as peat soils used as permanent grass land - by-products should be utilised efficiently in order to maximize their energy and GHG benefits (and these benefits should be credited by system expansion, followed by economic allocation and physical allocation) - nitrous oxide emissions should be kept to a minimum by means of efficient fertilisation strategies, and the commercial nitrogen fertiliser utilised should be produced in plants which have nitrous oxide gas cleaning Current production of Swedish ethanol from wheat can be seen as 'good' ethanol, reducing the GHG emission by some 80% compared to petrol. Ethanol based on sugarcane from Brazil leads to a reduction of, on average, 85 %, while ethanol from maize in the USA leads to a reduction of, on average, 20%. The reason for this is that several ethanol plants in the USA are using coal (fossil fuel). There is potential for improvement of current ethanol production systems worldwide, leading to increased GHG benefits. On the other hand, an increased competition for land in future may increase the risk of cultivation of annual ethanol crops on new farm land rich in carbon. This will reduce the GHG benefits of ethanol from annual crops. When such changes of land use are included in life cycle assessments of biofuels, complementary data should also be presented showing that this is the actual case regarding the specific biofuel production system analysed

  15. Pensionärid jäävad hätta / Jaan Kundla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kundla, Jaan, 1937-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Põhjarannik, 5. okt. 2007, lk. 2; Severnoje Poberezhje, 5. okt. 2007, lk. 2; Koit, 6. okt. 2007, lk. 6; Järva Teataja, 9. okt. 2007, lk. 2; Meie Maa, 8. okt. 2007, lk. 2; Vooremaa, 9. okt. 2007, lk. 2; Vali Uudised, 12. okt. 2007, lk. 2; Kesknädal, 17. okt. 2007, lk. 4; Lõunaleht, 18. okt. 2007, lk. 2. Autori sõnul põhjustavad hinnatõusud hüperinflatsiooni, samas pöörab valitsus lubamatult vähe tähelepanu puuetega inimestele

  16. Nee omingud, päävad ja õhtad / Enda Naaber

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Naaber, Enda, 1938-

    2006-01-01

    Järvesalu, Irma. Nänne kink oo nee õhtad : murdeluulet / toimetaja Kadri Tüür ; illustratsioonid: Viire Jagomägi ; kujundanud Riina Uisk. Tupenurme : I. Järvesalu, 2006. Sisaldab katkendeid luuletustest "Nänne kink", "Me jõudsime mere juure", "Kuoruke" ja "Meri"

  17. USA ja Suurbritannia jäävad liitlasteks / Neeme Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud, Neeme, 1969-

    2007-01-01

    Suurbritannia peaministri Gordon Browni visiidist USA-sse. Briti peaminister nimetas läbirääkimisi USA presidendi George W. Bushiga mitte küll sõbralikeks, kuid ulatuslikeks ja otsekohesteks, püüdes diplomaatiliste märksõnade abil vähendada pingeid ja erimeelsusi kahe riigi suhetes

  18. Linnugripp ja salmonella löövad valusalt Talleggi / Toivo Tänavsuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tänavsuu, Toivo

    2005-01-01

    Talleggi kahjum oli 2004. aastal 10,7 miljonit, võitlus salmonellabakteriga on suurendanud hüppeliselt kulusid ning seetõttu võib selle aasta kahjum olla veelgi suurem. Tallegg on kaotanud turgu Leedu ettevõtte toodangule, mida turustatakse Eestis Rannamõisa kaubamärgi all

  19. Rektorid lähevad, raamatud jäävad / Sirje Pärismaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pärismaa, Sirje, 1958-

    2012-01-01

    Tartu ülikooli eelmise rektori Alar Karise rektoriraamatust „Kiri tulevikku: artiklid, sõnavõtud, intervjuud, arvamused”. Endised rektorid Peeter Tulviste (1993–1998) ja Alar Karis (2007–2012) räägivad kas ja kuivõrd on selle ajaga muutunud probleemid Eesti (haridus)elus

  20. Eesti kukeseeni söövad prantsuse gurmaanid / Signe Kalberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kalberg, Signe, 1959-

    2005-01-01

    Wilberg Food OÜ ostab kokku seeni, 95% värsketest kukeseentest eksporditakse välismaale. Astelpajumarju kokku ostva OÜ Berry Farmingu hinnangul oleks astelpajumarjade välismaale turustamiseks vaja suurendada kokkuostu kaks korda. Vt. samas: Kodumaist köögivilja napib

  1. Vitamin A deficiency (VAD), teratogenic, and surgical models of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kling, David E; Schnitzer, Jay J

    2007-05-15

    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a congenital malformation that occurs with a frequency of 0.08 to 0.45 per 1,000 births. Children with CDH are born with the abdominal contents herniated through the diaphragm and exhibit an associated pulmonary hypoplasia which is frequently accompanied by severe morbidity and mortality. Although the etiology of CDH is largely unknown, considerable progress has been made in understanding its molecular mechanisms through the usage of genetic, teratogenic, and surgical models. The following review focuses on the teratogenic and surgical models of CDH and the possible molecular mechanisms of nitrofen (a diphenyl ether, formerly used as an herbicide) in both induction of CDH and pulmonary hypoplasia. In addition, the mechanisms of other compounds including several anti-inflammatory agents that have been linked to CDH will be discussed. Furthermore, this review will also explore the importance of vitamin A in lung and diaphragm development and the possible mechanisms of teratogen interference in vitamin A homeostasis. Continued exploration of these models will bring forth a clearer understanding of CDH and its molecular underpinnings, which will ultimately facilitate development of therapeutic strategies. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Hodnocení povrchových vad optických ploch

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Procháska, František; Špína, Michal; Matoušek, Ondřej; Melich, Radek

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 2 (2015), s. 73-76 ISSN 0447-6441 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TA03010843; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1206 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : surface imperfection * scratch and dig analysis Subject RIV: JS - Reliability ; Quality Management, Testing http://jmo.fzu.cz/

  3. Tornid, millest pilved jäävad allapoole / Eda Post

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Post, Eda, 1983-

    2008-01-01

    Maailma kõrgeimatest hoonetest alates Frank Lloyd Wrighti kavandatud tornist The Illinois. Burj Dubai ja Al Burj Araabia Ühendemiraatides, Abraj Al Bait Saudi Araabias, Chicago Spire (arhitekt Santiago Calatrava) ja Moskva rahvusvahelise ärikeksuse torn (Briti arhitektuuribüroo Foster and Partners)

  4. Fishbones in the Upper Aerodigestive Tract: A Review of 24 Cases of Adult Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislas Ballivet- de -Regloix

    2017-07-01

    From our experience, we recommend a systematic nasofibroscopy. If it is normal, the patient is assessed at 48h. The complementary investigation by CT scan and/or oesophagoscopy must be reserved in cases of suspicion of oesophageal localization or complication. Otherwise, rigid or flexible endoscopy may be performed when laryngoscopy is unsuccessful or for the treatment of foreign bodies lodged below this area.

  5. Malignant tumors of the upper aerodigestive tract as seen in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-05-28

    May 28, 2014 ... the development of these tumors.[5,10,11] Other risk factors include human papilloma virus (HPV), poor diet, certain occupational exposures, low education and socioeconomic status, immunodeficiency, and poor oral hygiene among others.[7,12,13]. As previously noted, studies of malignant head and neck.

  6. A bone to pick? Fish bones of the upper aerodigestive tract: review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands, Noah B; Richardson, Keith; Mlynarek, Alex

    2012-10-01

    Fish bones are of particular interest to the otolaryngologist as accidental ingestion is one of the most common reasons for otolaryngology-related emergency department referrals. Furthermore, removal of fish bones deeply lodged in the oropharynx or hypopharynx can be both hazardous and technically difficult, and failure to accomplish safe removal could result in considerable morbidity and various critical complications. We present here a literature review on the topic of fish bones in otolaryngology with a focus on selection of patients for intervention and on removal techniques. We emphasize that retained fish bones should be approached with caution as their course can at times be unpredictable, as we describe here.

  7. Tvorba mobilní aplikace pro správu reklamací a závad

    OpenAIRE

    Hanáková, Eliška

    2015-01-01

    Hanáková, E. Creating a mobile application for managing complaints and defects. Bachelor thesis. In Brno: Mendel University, 2015. This thesis deals with the creation of application for operational system Android. Application is created for managing reclamations and faults which can appear in several projects like buildings projects.

  8. Dans i skolan : Vad finns det för dans i Vänersborgs kommuns skolor?

    OpenAIRE

    Danielsson, Kristina

    2009-01-01

    Pupils learn in different ways, varied teaching is needed to encourage all pupils. Aesthetic can be a good tool in this work and dance is one of the aesthetic subjects that can be used in the education. Dance gives the pupils an awareness of their bodies and what they can express through it. The essay discusses diffrent angel of incidence of dance in school and its positive effects and examines what kinds of dance there are in the schools of Vänersborg’s municipal. This essay shows that aesth...

  9. Objektorienterad programmering på teknikprogrammet. : Vad lär sig gymnasieelever av programmering vidC-sharplektioner?

    OpenAIRE

    Barsk, Ulla-Maija

    2013-01-01

    Studien problematiserade gymnasieelevers lärande i perspektivet: Lär sig elever förmågan att programmera eller lär de sig enbart programmeringsspråket? Syftet var att undersöka och analysera hur elever lär sig att programmera och om de lär sig tankesättet för att praktiskt tillämpa sina kunskaper av ett objektorienterat språk. Frågeställningar var: Hur uppfattar elever programmeringen och på vilket sätt lär de sig att programmera,dvs. kan de ta till sig programmeringsspråket för att lösa prob...

  10. Omavalitsused: kärbete tõttu jäävad koolid remontimata / Mirko Ojakivi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ojakivi, Mirko

    2009-01-01

    Eesti maaomavalitsute liit plaanib teha valitsusele ettepaneku, et riik võtaks tulubaasi vähendamise korral omavalitsustele pandud ülesanded endale, sest raha vähendamisel võivad paljud projektid jääda täitmata. Tartu linnapea Urmas Kruuse nõuab regionaalminister Kiisleri tagasiastumist. Vt. samas: Väiksemad on hullemas seisus

  11. Petistest töötajad söövad ettevõtete kasumeid / Rick Helsby ; interv. Margo Kokerov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Helsby, Rick

    2003-01-01

    PricewaterhouseCoopersi ülemaailmse pettuste uurimise teenuste juht Rick Helsby leiab, et olukorras, kus ligi pooled suurtest Euroopa organisatsioonidest tunnistavad, et on eelnenud aastate jooksul pettuste tõttu kahju kandnud, on ainus võimalus end pettuste eest täielikult kaitsta äritegevuse lõpetamine.

  12. Välisfirmade filiaalid jäävad Eestis riigihangete uste taha / Gea Velthut-Sokka

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Velthut-Sokka, Gea, 1977-

    2003-01-01

    Oracle'i Eesti filiaal kaebas riigikohtusse ringkonnakohtu otsuse mitte lubada välisfirma filiaalil Tallinna linna riigihankekonkursil osaleda. Ringkonnakohtu arvates ei tohiks filiaal ka kohtumenetluses osaleda. Diagramm: Pretsedent puudutab 362 filiaali. Oracle Eesti kohtutee.

  13. Arctic Sea jõudis lõpuks Soome tagasi, kuid saladused jäävad / Jaanus Piirsalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Piirsalu, Jaanus, 1973-

    2010-01-01

    Kaubalaeva Arctic Sea kaaperdamises süüdistatavad on endiselt Moskvas eeluurimisvanglas. Kaubalaeva kaaperdajate käest vabastama saadetud Vene sõjalaeva Ladnõi ohvitser esitatas uue versiooni Arctic Sea hõivamise kohta. Kaart

  14. Left ventricular assist for pediatric patients with dilated cardiomyopathy using the Medos VAD cannula and a centrifugal pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shu-Chien; Chi, Nai-Hsin; Chen, Chun-An; Chen, Yih-Sharng; Chou, Nai-Kuan; Ko, Wen-Je; Wang, Shoei-Shen

    2009-11-01

    Ventricular assist devices for small pediatric patients are expensive and commercially unavailable in Taiwan. We used the Medos ventricular assist device cannula (Medos, Aachen, Germany) and a centrifugal pump to support pediatric patients with dilated cardiomyopathy and decompensated heart failure. From January 2007 to December 2008, three pediatric patients with dilated cardiomyopathy were supported using a centrifugal pump as the left ventricular assist device. The Medos arterial cannula was sutured to the ascending aorta, and the Apex cannula was fixed into the left ventricular apex. When the patient was weaned off of cardiopulmonary bypass, the left ventricular assist device pump was started. The pump flow was gradually titrated according to the filling status of the left ventricle. All the left ventricular assist devices were successfully implanted and functioned well. Two patients on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation had severe lung edema before left ventricular assist device implantation. Both patients required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for the postoperative period until the pulmonary edema was resolved. Among the three patients, two successfully bridged to heart transplantation after support for 6 and 11 days, respectively. The first patient (10 kg) expired due to systemic emboli 30 days after left ventricular assist device support. In summary, these results suggest that the Medos ventricular assist device cannula and a centrifugal pump is an option for temporary left ventricular assist device support in patients with intractable heart failure and as a bridge to heart transplantation.

  15. Statistika - noored söövad rahuga liha ja tahavad tasuta kõrgharidust / Helene Loonet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Loonet, Helene

    2011-01-01

    Maailma Noorsoo Uuringust 2011, mis uuris noorte elustiili, arvamusi ja tulevikunägemusi. Uuringuga on võimalik tutvuda: http://www.fondapol.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/2011-WORLD-YOUTHS-ESTONIA.pdf

  16. Higher Education and Social Origin in France: A Statistical Study of Inequalities Since 1965 = Enseignement Superieur Et Origine Sociale En France: Etude Statistique Des Inegalites Depuis 1965

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaoul, Magali

    2004-01-01

    Mass education has the goal of guaranteeing the same education to all in order to moderate differences between individuals and promote a kind of "equality of opportunity." Nonetheless, it seems clear that lower-class youths do not benefit as much from their degree or university experience as do those who come from more privileged…

  17. Mechanisms of DNA repair and radio-induced mutagenesis in higher eukaryotes; Mecanismes de reparation et mutagenese radio-induite chez les eucaryotes superieurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Averbeck, D. [Centre Universitaire d' Orsay, Institut Curie, Section de Recherche, Lab. Raymond-Latarjet, UMR 2027 CNRS, 91 (France)

    2000-10-01

    Cells of higher eukaryotes possess several very efficient systems for the repair of radiation-induced lesions in DNA. Different strategies have been adopted at the cellular level to remove or even tolerate various types of lesions in order to assure survival and limit the mutagenic consequences. In mammalian cells, the main DNA repair systems comprise direct reversion of damage, excision of damage and exchange mechanisms with intact DNA. Among these, the direct ligation of single strand breaks (SSB) by a DNA ligase and the multi-enzymatic repair systems of mismatch repair, base and nucleotide excision repair as well as the repair of double strand breaks (DSB) by homologous recombination or non homologous end-joining are the most important systems. Most of these processes are error-free except the non homologous end-joining pathway used for the repair of DSB. Moreover, certain lesions can be tolerated by more or less accurately acting polymerases capable of performing trans-lesion DNA syntheses. The DNA repair systems are intimately integrated in the network of cellular regulation. Some of their components are DNA damage inducible. Radiation-induced mutagenesis is largely due to unrepaired DNA damage but also involves error-prone repair processes like the repair of DSB by non-homologous end-joining. Generally, mammalian cells are well prepared to repair radiation-induced lesions. However, some questions remain to be asked about mechanistic details and efficiencies of the systems for removing certain types of radiation-damage and about their order and timing of action. The answers to these questions would be important for radioprotection as well as radiotherapy. (author)

  18. Local network interconnection through a satellite point-to-multipoint link. Ph.D. Thesis - Ecole Nationale Superieure des Telecommunications, 6 Jul. 1985

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, O. Muniz Bandeira

    1986-01-01

    Four architectures to implement a point to multipoint satellite link protocol for communication services offered by the Telecom 1 satellite network are presented. A safe communication service with error correction and flow control facilities is described. It is shown that a time transparent communication system combines simplicity and cost advantages.

  19. Incidence vrozených srdečních vad v České republice - aktuální data

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šípek, A.; Gregor, V.; Šípek jr., A.; Hudáková, J.; Horáček, J.; Klaschka, Jan; Skibová, J.; Langhammer, P.; Petržílková, L.; Klímová, B.; Peřinová, B.; Wiesnerová, J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 75, č. 3 (2010), s. 221-242 ISSN 1210-7832 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : congenital heart defect * incidence * prenatal diagnostics * Czech Republic Subject RIV: FK - Gynaecology, Childbirth

  20. Pump Flow Estimation From Pressure Head and Power Uptake for the HeartAssist5, HeartMate II, and HeartWare VADs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennings, Kim A. M. A.; Martina, Jerson R.; Rodermans, Ben F. M.; Lahpor, Jaap R.; van de Vosse, Frans N.; de Mol, Bas A. J. M.; Rutten, Marcel C. M.

    2013-01-01

    The use of long-term mechanical circulatory support (MCS) for heart failure by means of implanted continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices (cf-LVADs) will increase, either to enable recovery or to provide a destination therapy. The effectiveness and user-friendliness of MCS will depend on the

  1. Serial position effect in a free recall task: differences between probable dementia of Alzheimer type (PDAT), vascular (VaD) and mixed etiology dementia (MED).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orru, G; Sampietro, S; Catanzaro, S; Girardi, A; Najjar, M; Giantin, V; Sergi, G; Manzato, E; Enzi, G; Inelmen, E M; Coin, A

    2009-01-01

    Here we report an investigation on the serial position effect (SPE) in elderly patients with early dementia due to different etiologies. The Rey's 15 words test has been used to evaluate whether different types of dementia show different patterns of immediate and delayed recall and of learning process. Ninety-four patients were recruited from the Geriatric Clinic of Padua. We evaluated the primacy effect (PE), the recency effect (RE) and the learning process within the sample. Our results indicate that different etiologies have different patterns of anterograde memory impairment.

  2. "DET ÖMSINTA ANSANDET" SJUKSKÖTERSKORS UPPLEVELSE AV VAD SOM ÄR VÅRDANDE INOM RÄTTSPSYKIATRIN

    OpenAIRE

    Arvidsson, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Forensic psychiatric care is a complex business. Patients who are cared for in forensic psychiatry are usually in need of care for a long time. The forensic care is a major intrusion into a person's life and the nurses and caregivers are the people who spend the most time with patients. They have a difficult mission providing a good and personalized care while patients are deprived of their liberty. Previous research demonstrates that patients experience forensic care as uncertain, insecure a...

  3. Vad var det som hände? Efterbearbetning av en simulering för utvecklande av professionell kunskap hos polisstudenter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Sjöberg

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Att öva för att lära sig att hantera polisiära situationer utgör ett viktigt inslag i polisstudenters utbildning. Lärandet sker genom praktiska övningar t.ex. drillövningar och övningar av specifika moment men även via simuleringar där studenter agerar som polis i mera komplexa situationer. Simuleringar är inte unika för polisutbildning utan utgör ett vanligt inslag i professionsutbildning genom sin koppling till "verkliga" situationer (Peters och Vissers, 2004; Lederman, 1984. Under de senaste årtiondena har simuleringar använts för utbildning inom så skilda professionsfält som medicin och hälsovård, flyg och blåljusverksamhet. Simuleringar kan vara av skiftande karaktär t.ex. fysiska i form av rollspel men även datorbaserade. Simuleringar kan syfta till att utveckla en specifik färdighet (se t.ex. Windsor, 2009; Stefanidis, Acker, och Heniford, 2008; Wallin, Meurling, Hedman, Hedengård, och Felländer-Tsai, 2007, som t ex att lära sig hur man avläser röntgenbilder (se t.ex. Söderström, Häll, Nilsson, och Ahlqvist 2012 eller till att lära hur man ska agera i komplexa situationer (Andersson, Carlström, och Berlin, 2013; Bauman, Gohm och Bonner, 2011, t.ex. vid svåra olyckshändelser med många personer inblandade (se t.ex. McConnell och Drennan, 2006. Simuleringar av komplexa situationer med många inblandade brukar benämnas som fullskaliga (se t.ex. Andersson, Carlström, och Berlin, 2013. Simuleringar antas träna och utveckla professionell kunskap genom att förbereda studenter på att hantera komplexa och ibland farliga situationer som de kan komma att ställas inför i en kommande yrkespraktik. Användningen av simuleringar i utbildningar bygger således på ett antagande om överföring av erfarenheter och kunskaper från ett sammanhang till ett annat (se t.ex. Söderström, Åström, Anderson och Bowles, 2014. I den här artikeln utgår vi från simulering som en utbildningsresurs där deltagarna interagerar med varandra och miljön (situationen på ett målorienterat sätt i syfte att lära sig polisära kunskaper.

  4. Gene-environment interactions associated with CYP1A1 MspI and GST polymorphisms and the risk of upper aerodigestive tract cancers in an Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sam, Soya Sisy; Thomas, Vinod; Reddy, K S; Surianarayanan, Gopalakrishnan; Chandrasekaran, Adithan

    2010-06-01

    Genetic risk to tobacco related cancers are associated with polymorphisms in CYP1A1 and GST, which are involved in the metabolic activation and detoxification of carcinogens. The genetic variations in these drug-metabolizing enzymes may alter the susceptibility to UADT cancers triggered by environmental exposures. The hospital-based case-control study evaluated the impact of combined CYP1A1 MspI and GST (M1 & T1) polymorphisms among the individuals exposed to environmental risk factors as modulators in the risk of UADT cancers in Tamilians, a population of south India. The unrelated histopathologically confirmed 408 cases and 220 population-based controls matched by age and gender were genotyped for CYP1A1 MspI, GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms using PCR based methods. To investigate the potential gene-environment interactions, analyses were carried out stratifying by smoking and tobacco chewing status using SPSS software. The combination of genes and environment interactions by stratified analyses revealed significant interactions among the habitual tobacco smokers (CYP1A1 MspI & GSTM1 null: OR 14.06; 95% CI 3.90-50.68, CYP1A1 MspI & GSTT1 null: OR 33.28; 95% CI 4.24-261.19) and tobacco chewers (CYP1A1 MspI & GSTM1 null: OR 20.51; 95% CI 6.77-62.13, CYP1A1 MspI & GSTT1 null: OR 79.35; 95% CI 10.40-605.55) on the multiplicative scale. Our findings have indicated that the individuals polymorphic for CYP1A1 MspI either with GSTM1 null or with GSTT1 null genotypes revealed an increased risk for UADT cancers than that ascribed to a single susceptible gene among the tobacco users in the population [single gene risk among smokers and chewers, respectively, for CYP1A1 MspI (OR 6.43; 95% CI 3.69-11.21); (OR 10.24; 95% CI 5.95-17.60), GSTM1*0 (OR 3.77; 95% CI 1.94-7.37); (OR 7.97 95% CI 4.10-15.76) and GSTT1*0 (OR 6.95 95% CI 2.88-16.77); (OR 25.83 95% CI 7.78-85.76).

  5. Cyclin D1 gene polymorphism as a risk factor for squamous cell carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive system in non-alcoholics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nishimoto, Ines Nobuko; Pinheiro, Nidia Alice; Rogatto, Silvia Regina

    2004-01-01

    cancer. To investigate the relationship between CCND1 polymorphism on susceptibility for UADT cancers, 147 cancer and 135 non-cancer subjects were included in this study. CCND1 genotype at codon 242(G870A) in exon 4 was undertaken using denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) and DNA...... sequencing. Significant odds ratio (OR) of the AA+GA genotypes [OR=7.5 (95% CI: 1.4-39.7)] was observed in non-drinkers but for non-smokers a non-significant [OR=5.4 (95% CI: 0.9-31.4)] was found in the adjusted model. These results suggest that allele A may be a risk factor for UADT cancer, especially...

  6. Expressão de glicoesfingolipídeos no carcinoma espinocelular do trato aerodigestivo superior Glycosphingolipid expression in squamous cell carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcilio Ferreira Marques Filho

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Os glicoesfingolipídios (GSLs são importantes componentes da membrana celular, organizados em microdomínios, relacionados a receptores de membrana e comportamento anti-social da célula neoplásica como crescimento descontrolado, invasão e ocorrência de metástases. OBJETIVO: Como a expressão de GSLs no carcinoma espinocelular (CEC é tema pouquíssimo estudado decidiu-se realizar estudo prospectivo visando avaliar a expressão de GSLs no CEC do trato aerodigestivo superior. MÉTODO: Coletou-se 33 amostras de CEC e mucosa normal e GSLs extraídos e purificados por cromatografia de fase reversa em coluna de C-18 e hidrólise alcalina em metanol. Os GSLs foram quantificados por densitometria das placas de cromatografia de alta resolução em camada delgada coradas com orcinol. RESULTADOS: Observou-se aumento significativo de GSLs no CEC (3,57µg/mg em comparação à mucosa normal (1,92µg/mg, principalmente do monosialogangliosídeo (GM3, trihexosilceramida (CTH, dihexosilceramida (CDH, globosídeo (Gb4. A expressão de monohexosilceramida (CMH foi semelhante no CEC e na mucosa normal. O aumento do GM3 no CEC foi demonstrado por métodos imunoquímicos empregando-se MAb DH2 (anti-GM3. Analisando-se os carboidratos do CMH por cromatografia gasosa acoplado a espectrômetro de massa constatou-se que a mucosa normal expressa glucosilceramida e o CEC glucosilceramida e galactosilceramida. CONCLUSÃO: O aumento de GSLs no tecido tumoral pode representar alterações dos microdomínios da membrana celular resultantes do processo de transformação maligna, responsáveis por uma maior interação célula-célula e célula-matriz aumentando seu potencial de infiltração e metástase, possibilitando o emprego dos GSLs e de MAbs no diagnóstico e no tratamento do CEC, a exemplo do que ocorre no melanoma.Glycosphingolipids are integral constituents of cellular membrane, arranged in rafts, and with neoplasic cell anti-social behavior, like uncontrolled cell growth, invasiveness, and metastatic potential. AIM: However, there are few studies about glycosphingolipids (GSL expression in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC. Since GSL are known to be tumor-associated markers we decided to perform a prospective study on the GSL profiles of SCC. METHOD: Specimens of 33 SCC and normal mucosa were obtained and GSLs were extracted and purified by reverse-phase chromatography on C18 column and alkaline hydrolysis in methanol. GSLs were quantified using densitometry of orcinol-stained HPTLC plates. RESULT: A significant increase of GSLs in SCC (3.57µg/mg was observed as compared to normal mucosa (1.92µg/mg. In SCC, an increase of 2 to 3 times in the amounts of CDH, CTH, Globoside, and GM3 was observed in comparison to normal mucosa. The identification of GM3 as well as its increased expression in SCC was confirmed unequivocally by HPTLC immunostaining and indirect immunofluorescence using MAb DH2 (anti-GM3. BY analyzing SCC and normal mucosa CMHs by GC/MS, normal mucosa expresses only glucosylceramide whereas SCC cells express both glucosylceramide and galactosylceramide. CONCLUSION: The increase in the amount of GSLs in tumor tissue may represent changes of cell membrane microdomains resulting from the malignant transformation process, which is responsible for greater cell-cell or cell-matrix interaction thereby increasing their potential for infiltration and metastasis.

  7. EDUCAFRICA, December 1986. Special Issue: Case Studies on Higher Education in Africa. Special Volume 1=EDUCAFRICA, Decembre 1986. Etudes de cas sur L'Enseignement Superieur en Afrique, Tome 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    EDUCAFRICA, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Case studies of the development of higher education in 17 African countries are presented. Eleven of the case studies are written in French, and six are in English. The country reports that are in English are as follows: Cameroon, Ethiopia, Lesotho, Malawi, Sierra Leone, and Tanzania. The country reports in French are: Benin, Burkina Faso,…

  8. Higher Education and Economic Development in Europe, 1975-1980: (A Statistical and Economic Study) = L'Enseignement Superieur et le Developpement Economique en Europe, 1975-1980: (Etude Statistique et Economique). Vol. II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burloiu, Petre

    Statistical tables on higher education and economic development in Europe, Israel, Canada, and the United States, for 1975-1980 are presented in the second of a two-volume report. This volume of statistical tables, presented in both English and French, covers the following areas: population estimates for 33 countries for 1960, 1965, 1970, and…

  9. Higher Education and Economic Development in Europe, 1975-1980 (A Statistical and Economic Study) = L'enseignement superieur et le development economique en Europe, 1975-1980 (etude statistique et economique). Volume I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burloiu, Petre

    Information on higher education in 33 European countries, the United States, and Canada is provided in narrative and statistical form, in both English and French. In addition to covering the 1970-1975 period, comparative information for 1960-1980 is presented. For each country, areas of consideration include: population trends; the level of…

  10. L'Evolution des Chances d'Acces a l'Enseignement Superieur en France (1962-1966). (The Development of Career Openings in Higher Education in France (1962-1966))

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdieu, Pierre; And Others

    1973-01-01

    In order to present the problem of the democratisation of higher education by reference to unambiguous data, the authors propose a simple principle for calculating the opportunities for entry to a given level of instruction, or into a given field, as a function of social origin and sex. (Editor)

  11. "I en optimal värld skulle det inte se ut som det gör idag" : En kvalitativ fallstudie om vad som händer när kravdokumentation inte tas på allvar

    OpenAIRE

    Häggkvist, Frida; Lindqvist, Malin

    2015-01-01

    Requirements engineering is a widespread topic in the research field of informatics. However, there is little research regarding lack of requirements documentation and how it is perceived. The same applies for how requirements engineering in retrospect can be implemented. This is a debated issue on blogs and forums but it has not been reflected in the research area. Therefore, this study concerns research questions regarding how the developers, testers and requirements analyst experience the ...

  12. ”Jag skulle vilja se en studie på vad den där valken gör för skillnad egentligen” : En kulturanalytisk studie i kroppsuppfattning och kroppsnormer

    OpenAIRE

    Ölverud, Amanda

    2017-01-01

    This essay researches the impact societys ideal pictures of the female body actually make on individuals. In my studies, five female identified informants were interviewed about how they perceive and feel about their bodies. It also discusses different strategies to control the body in order to acheive the ideal body. Two of the informants that contributed to this essay are selfappointed body positive activists and fight in the anti-movement against the societal preassure and expectations of ...

  13. Muntliga förmågor, vad är det? : En analys av möjligheterna kring bedömning av elevers muntliga förmågor i samhällskunskap

    OpenAIRE

    Skog, Emil

    2014-01-01

      Through teaching, pupils are given the opportunity based on their personal experiences and current events to express and consider their views in relation to others who hold different views. As a result, pupils should be encouraged to get involved and participate in an open exchange of views on societal issues (Skolverket, 2011d, s. 189).   To assess pupils orally in the subject of civics in primary education is an unexplored field, which makes this field relevant to explore. There are numer...

  14. Incidence vrozených vad u dětí z jednočetných a dvojčetných gravidit v České republice - aktuální data

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šípek, A.; Gregor, V.; Štembera, Z.; Horáček, J.; Šípek jr., A.; Klaschka, Jan; Skibová, J.; Langhammer, P.; Petržílková, L.; Wiesnerová, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 74, č. 5 (2009), s. 369-382 ISSN 1210-7832 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : vrozená vada * incidence * četnost těhotenství * jedináčci * dvojčata * Mezinárodní klasifikace nemocí – X. decenální revize * Česká republika Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research

  15. Consolidation therapy with autologous stem cell transplantation in plasma cell leukemia after VAD, high-dose cyclophosphamide and EDAP courses : a report of three cases and a review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovenga, S; deWolf, JTM; Klip, H; Vellenga, E

    1997-01-01

    Plasma cell leukemia (PCL) is a rare lymphoproliferative disorder characterized by a malignant proliferation of plasma cells in blood and bone marrow, Treatment of primary PCL has been mostly disappointing, Three patients with primary PCL are described who received high-dose melphalan with

  16. Hur hotellgäster väljer att ta ton & vad vill de egentligen ha? : En kvantitativ studie om gästers uppfattning av service recovery inom hotellbranschen.

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Caroline; Sundholm, Matilda

    2015-01-01

    Hotellbranschen är en bransch som ständigt expanderar. Även om beläggningsgraden på hotellen inte ökar avsevärt växer antalet övernattningar på hotell vilket tyder på en ökad konkurrensbild på marknaden. Samtidigt fokuserar tjänsteföretagen alltmer på företagets personalresurser och att kunna erbjuda något utöver kärntjänsten för att differentiera företagets position på marknaden. På ett hotell där hotellrummen är den huvudsakliga tjänsten läggs ett allt större f...

  17. Integrated Molecular Profiling in Advanced Cancers Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-26

    Breast Cancer; Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Colorectal Cancer; Genitourinary Cancer; Pancreatobiliary Gastrointestinal Cancer; Upper Aerodigestive Tract Cancer; Gynecological Cancers; Melanoma Cancers; Rare Cancers; Unknown Primary Cancers

  18. Les determinants de l'intention entrepreneuriale feminine en algerie ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les determinants de l'intention entrepreneuriale feminine en algerie, cas des diplomees de l'enseignement superieur. Abderrezak Ben Habib, Amina Merabet, Sidi Mohamed Benachenhou, Yamina Grari, Fouzi Boudia, Hadjira Merabet ...

  19. p-Adic valuation of the Morgan–Voyce sequence and p-regularity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Adic valuation of ... USTHB/Faculty of Mathematics, LATN Laboratory, DG-RSDT, BP 32, El Alia, 16111, Bab Ezzouar, Algiers, Algeria; Ecole nationale Superieure d Informatique (ESI), BP 68M Oued Smar, 16270, El Harrach, Algiers, Algeria ...

  20. Advanced Space Propulsion Study - Antiproton and Beamed Power Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-01

    interest are: Superieure, Paris and W. Phillips, G. Dugan, Fermilab, "Tevatron I National Bureau of Standards, (Energy Saver and 6 Source)", 896...10 Normale Superieure et College de tc 20 year) goals and objectives of France, 24 rue Lhomond, F-75231, the technology will receive Paris CEDEX 06...Trainor, University atoms/cm9 , and temperature ə mK.) of Washington, Seattle, H. S.L. Gilbert, J.J. Bollinger , Kalinowsky, J. Haas, University of and

  1. In vivo measurements of cerebral metabolic abnormalities by proton spectroscopy after a transient ischemic attack revealing an internal carotid stenosis > 70%; Anomalies metaboliques cerebrales mesurees in vivo par la spectroscopie du proton dans les accidents ischemiques transitoires revelant une stenose de la carotide interne superieure a 70%

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giroud, M.; Becker, F.; Lemesle, M.; Walker, P.; Guy, F.; Martin, D.; Baudouin, N.; Brunotte, F.; Dumas, R. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 21 -Dijon (France)

    1996-06-01

    Aims: The aim of this work is to look for cerebral metabolic abnormalities within the first 3 days after a transient ischemic attack revealing an internal carotid stenosis > 70 %. Methods: Five patients with a transient ischemic attack lasting between 30 and 180 minutes, affecting sensory and motor brachio-facial territory, with or without aphasia. Were studied. A CT-scan, an EEG, a cervical Doppler ultrasound, a standard arteriography, a magnetic resonance imaging and a proton spectroscopy were performed within the cerebral area affected by the transient ischemic attack. We measured 2 markers: N-acetyl-aspartate, the marker of the neuronal mass, and lactate, the marker of anaerobe metabolism. In each case, a contralateral internal stenosis was diagnosed by cervical Doppler ultrasound and standard arteriography. No cerebral infarction was observed. Results: With the affected cerebral area defined according to clinical and EEG features, proton spectroscopy showed a significant rise of lactate, without any change in N-acetyl-aspartate levels. Conclusions: Within the first 3 days after a transient ischemic attack, there is a significant risk of lactate inside the affected cerebral area. This change may reflect a localized and transient hypoperfusion, but long enough to induce a rise of lactate but not sufficient to produce a cerebral infarct. This area is probably at risk to induce cerebral infarct. This data lead us to study the metabolic change induced by the asymptomatic internal carotid stenosis. (authors). 18 refs.

  2. Superior council of nuclear safety and information. Meeting on 16. december 1997. Radioactive contamination spots on the French territory; Conseil superieur de la surete et de l'information nucleaire. Reunion du 16 decembre 1997. Les taches de contamination radioactive sur le territoire francais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The principal objective was to produce a document able to gather and construe the whole of available data on the soil and food contamination after the Chernobylsk accident and supplying an evaluation of the sanitary impact, by focusing the study on the most decisive cases. This work has been made by I.P.S.N. and the synthesis of results is presented in this report. (N.C.)

  3. The upper to uppermost Cenomanian oceanic anoxic event: a review and an interpretation involving a seawater stratification by the CO{sub 2} of mantle origin; L`evenement oceanique anoxique du Cenomanien superieur-terminal: une revue et une interpretation mettant en jeu une stratification des eaux marines par le CO{sub 2} mantellique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busson, G.; Cornee, A. [Laboratoire de Geologie du Museum, 75 - Paris (France)

    1996-12-31

    Oil exploration data have revealed the exceptional richness of the middle Cretaceous in source rocks worldwide. Oceanic drillings have shown the existence of oceanic anoxic events (OAE) well defined in time. This study analyzes the OAE 2 event dated from the upper Cenomanian-lower Turonian. This event has been recognized in numerous sites from the northern, central and southern Atlantic and punctually in the Pacific and Indian oceans. It occurs in both numerous deep oceanic sites and orogenic zones, and stable platforms covered by epeiric seas. It coincides with a sea level rise which is one of the most sudden and highest in Phanerozoic times and it stands out as a remarkable episode of massive faunal extinction which led to the deposition of organic matter of marine planktonic dominant nature. The first part of the study recalls the previous interpretations of this event (oceanic stratification, euxinic conditions, spreading of an oxygen minimum zone, greenhouse climate effect, sluggish atmospheric and oceanic circulations, high planktonic production, great oceanic overturns, marginal or general upwellings, marine transgressions on epeiric areas etc..). The second part gives the basis of the new hypothesis: connection between separated seas due to the transgression, retreat of evaporite facies, high sea-floor spreading rates, intense volcanic activity and high mantle outgassing with huge CO{sub 2} influxes. The last part describes the proposed interpretation: CO{sub 2} accumulation in deep and intermediate waters and sea overflows on marginal and continental areas which led to a rise of the CO{sub 2}-rich hypolimnion. (J.S.) 236 refs.

  4. By-law from June 20, 2002 relative to the boilers belonging to a new or modified facilities with a power greater than 20 MWth; Arrete du 20 juin 2002 relatif aux chaudieres presentes dans une installation nouvelle ou modifiee d'une puissance superieure a 20 MWth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-10-01

    This by-law defines the arrangements to be implemented for the operation of boilers with a power greater than 20 MWth. These arrangements concern: the prevention and monitoring of atmospheric and water pollutions (gaseous and liquid effluents, combustion products, by-products), the conditions of rejection in the environment, the prevention of explosion risks, the storage of pulverulent products, and the maintenance of the facility. (J.S.)

  5. Methodological validation of the isotopic analysis of fossil bones and contributions to the paleo-ecological reconstitutions of the Upper Paleolithic of south-west France; Validation methodologique de l'analyse isotopique d'ossements fossiles et apports aux reconstitutions paleoecologiques du paleolithique superieur du sud-ouest de la France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drucker, D

    2001-04-01

    A methodology for investigating fossil bone collagen carbon and nitrogen isotopic signatures has been established in order to obtain palaeo-ecological informations. The archaeological, biochemical and geochemical reliability has been estimated. Almost 500 animal and human specimens from southwestern France upper Palaeolithic sites ranging in age from 36,000 to 9,000 years BP have been treated. It has been demonstrated that different dietary resources were isotopically distinct, with a resolution better than the expectations. Small mammals have been distinguished from ungulates, and Reindeer, Horse and Bovines presented specific isotopic signatures. Moreover, isotopic differences have been evidenced between gregarious and solitary species. Time changes of ecological patterns have been described using the isotopic signatures of some mammal species. Biomass fluctuation and exploitation have been demonstrated during upper Palaeolithic. The methodology allowed to use the isotopic signatures of animal predators as a proxy for meat resources availability in the environment. This approach allows to investigate environmental global factors as well as human behaviour with a common tool. (author)

  6. Using the drinking water of the Municipality of St-Gingolph, Switzerland for power generation - Preliminary study; Turbinage des eaux potables de la commune de St-Gingolph. 1{sup ere} partie: Source de la Tine - Palier superieur. 2{sup e} partie: Sources de la Tine et de Clarive - Palier inferieur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moukhliss, H.

    2008-07-15

    This illustrated report subdivided in two parts presents the preliminary study of a project aiming at installing two small-scale hydroelectric schemes on the drinking water supply network of the Municipality of St-Gingolph, Switzerland. The upper-spring (La Tine) water can be used in a 44 kW hydro power scheme (elevation difference: 121 m; water volume through the turbine: 1,240,000 m{sup 3}/y). This water could be added to the one from the Clarive spring, enabling the installation a second hydro power scheme with a power of 291 kW (elevation difference: 337 m; water volume through the turbine: 2,740'000 m{sup 3}/y). The estimated cost of the produced electricity is attractive: CHF 0.16/kWh for the La Tine scheme; CHF 0.11 for the Clarive scheme. The author recommends the construction of both schemes.

  7. Root uptake of uranium (6) in solution by a higher plant: speciation in hydroponic solution, bioavailability, micro-localisation and biological effects induced; Transfert racinaire de l'uranium (6) en solution chez une plante superieure: speciation en solution hydroponique, prise en charge par la plante, microlocalisation et effets biologiques induits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laroche, L

    2005-01-15

    Uranium exists naturally in the environment, usually present in trace quantities. In soil solution and oxic conditions, uranium is present in the +VI oxidation state and forms a large number of inorganic and organic complexes. The exposure medium, an artificial soil solution, was designed in such a way as to control the uranium species in solution. The geochemical speciation code JCHESS was used to calculate the uranium aqueous species concentration and to define the domains of interest, each of them characterized by a limited number of dominant U species. These domains were defined as follows: pH 4.9 with uranyl ions as dominant species, pH 5.8 with hydroxyl complexes and pH 7 where carbonates play a major role. For each pH, short-duration (5 hours of exposure) well-defined laboratory experiments were carried out with Phaseolus vulgaris as plant model. The effect of competitive ions such as Ca{sup 2+} or the presence of ligands such as phosphate or citrate on root assimilation efficiency was explored. Results have shown that uranium transfer was not affected by the presence of calcium, phosphate or citrate (but was decreased of 60% with citrate (10 {mu}M) at pH 5.8) in our experimental conditions. Moreover, observation in Transmission Electronic Microscopy (TEM), equipped with an EDAX probe, have shown that uranium was associated with granules rich in phosphorus and that there were some chloroplast anomalies. Finally, the presence of uranium affects root CEC by reducing it and stimulates root elongation at low uranium concentrations (100 nM, 400 nM and 2 {mu}M at pHs 4.9, 5.8 and 7 respectively) and inhibits it at high uranium concentrations. (author)

  8. Mental status assessment of disaster relief personnel by vocal affect display based on voice emotion recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsuyoshi, Shunji; Nakamura, Mitsuteru; Omiya, Yasuhiro; Shinohara, Shuji; Hagiwara, Naoki; Tokuno, Shinichi

    2017-01-01

    Disaster relief personnel tend to be exposed to excessive stress, which can be a cause of mental disorders. To prevent from mental disorders, frequent assessment of mental status is important. This pilot study aimed to examine feasibility of stress assessment using vocal affect display (VAD) indices as calculated by our proposed algorithms in a situation of comparison between different durations of stay in stricken area as disaster relief operation, which is an environment highly likely to induce stress. We used Sensibility Technology (ST) software to analyze VAD from voices of participants exposed to extreme stress for either long or short durations, and we proposed algorithms for indices of low VAD (VAD-L), high VAD (VAD-H), and VAD ratio (VAD-R), calculated from the intensity of emotions as measured by voice emotion analysis. As a preliminary validation, 12 members of Japan Self-Defense Forces dispatched overseas for long (3 months or more) or short (about a week) durations were asked to record their voices saying 11 phrases repeatedly across 6 days during their dispatch. In the validation, the two groups showed an inverse relationship in VAD-L and VAD-H, in that long durations in disaster zones resulted in higher values of both VAD-L and VAD-R, and lower values of VAD-H, compared with short durations. Interestingly, phrases produced varied results in terms of group differences and VAD indices, demonstrating the sensitivity of the ST. A comparison of the values obtained for the different groups of subjects clarified that there were tendencies of the VAD-L, VAD-H, and VAD-R indices observed for each group of participants. The results suggest the possibility of using ST software in the measurement of affective aspects related to mental health from vocal behavior.

  9. A Mathematical Model to Evaluate Control Strategies for Mechanical Circulatory Support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cox, Lieke G. E.; Loerakker, Sandra; Rutten, Marcel C. M.; de Mol, Bas A. J. M.; van de Vosse, Frans N.

    2009-01-01

    Continuous flow ventricular assist devices (VADs) for mechanical circulatory support (MCS) are generally smaller and believed to be more reliable than pulsatile VADs. However, regarding continuous flow, there are concerns about the decreased pulsatility and ventricular unloading. Moreover, pulsatile

  10. Expediting Clinician Adoption of Safety Practices: The UCSF Venous Access Patient Safety Interdisciplinary Education Project

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Donaldson, Nancy E; Plank, Rosemary K; Williamson, Ann; Pearl, Jeffrey; Kellogg, Jerry; Ryder, Marcia

    2005-01-01

    ...) Venous Access Device (VAD) Patient Safety Interdisciplinary Education Project was to develop a 30-hour/one clinical academic unit VAD patient safety course with the aim of expediting clinician adoption of critical concepts...

  11. Vehicle Awareness Device Data from Leesburg, Virginia

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The files in this data environment were produced using the Vehicle Awareness Device (VAD) installed on one test vehicle over a two month period. The VAD installed in...

  12. Characteristics of A spermatogonia and preleptotene spermatocytes in the vitamin A-deficient rat testis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Pelt, A. M.; van Dissel-Emiliani, F. M.; Gaemers, I. C.; van der Burg, M. J.; Tanke, H. J.; de rooij, D. G.

    1995-01-01

    The proliferative activity and other characteristics of germ cells in the vitamin A-deficient (VAD) rat testis were investigated. In the VAD testis, A spermatogonia and preleptotene spermatocytes were found. The A spermatogonia in the VAD testis showed a bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling index of

  13. Vasodilatory Shock After Ventricular Assist Device Placement: A Bench to Bedside Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, John; Stoops, Shea; Flynn, Brigid

    2016-01-01

    With more than 2000 ventricular assist devices (VAD) placed annually in the United States, understanding postoperative management is important. One of the most common postoperative morbidities encountered with VAD implantation is vasodilatory shock. The mechanisms for this phenomenon are numerous and include cellular and hormonal aberrancies unique to the VAD recipient. Management of vasodilatory shock in VAD patients needs to be undertaken with an understanding of the side effects associated with each treatment, especially the effects on the right ventricle and pulmonary vasculature. This article focuses on the incidence, the pathogenesis, the consequences, and the management of vasodilatory shock in the postoperative VAD patient. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Voice activity detection algorithm using perceptual wavelet entropy neighbor slope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gihyoun; Na, Sung Dae; Cho, Jin-Ho; Kim, Myoung Nam

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a voice activity detection (VAD) approach using a perceptual wavelet entropy neighbor slope (PWENS) in a low signal-to-noise (SNR) environment and with a variety of noise types. The basis for our study is to use acoustic features that have large entropy variance for each wavelet critical band. The speech signal is decomposed by the proposed perceptual wavelet packet decomposition (PWPD), and the VAD function is extracted by PWENS. Finally, VAD is decided by the proposed VAD decision rule using two memory buffers. In order to evaluate the performance of the VAD decision, many speech samples and a variety of SNR conditions were used in the experiment. The performance of the VAD decision is confirmed using objective indexes such as a graph of the VAD decision and the relative error rate.

  15. Vertebral artery dissection associated with viral meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Xudong

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vertebral artery dissection (VAD is often associated with trauma or occurs spontaneously, inevitably causing some neurological deficits. Even though acute infection can be related to the development of spontaneous VAD (sVAD, VAD associated with viral meningitis has never been reported in the literature. Case presentation A 42-year-old man with fever, sore throat, and runny nose developed sudden onset of occipital headache, vertigo, transient confusion, diplopia, and ataxia. Brain stem encephalitis was diagnosed initially because the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF study showed inflammatory changes. However, subsequent diffusion-weighted (DWI magnetic resonance imaging of his brain demonstrated left lateral medullary infarction, and the digital subtraction angiography (DSA confirmed VAD involving left V4 segment of the artery. Consequently, the patient was diagnosed as VAD accompanied by viral meningitis. Conclusion This case suggests that viral meningitis might lead to inflammatory injury of the vertebral arterial wall, even sVAD with multiple neurological symptoms.

  16. Factors associated with anti-human leukocyte antigen antibodies in patients supported with continuous-flow devices and effect on probability of transplant and post-transplant outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alba, Ana C; Tinckam, Kathryn; Foroutan, Farid

    2015-01-01

    and outcomes. METHODS: We included 143 consecutive heart failure patients who received a CF-VAD as a bridge-to-transplant at 3 institutions. Factors associated with post-VAD peak panel reactive antibodies (PRA) among several measurements were identified using multivariable linear regression. A parametric...... survival model was used to assess transplant waiting time and probability, risk of rejection, and a composite outcome of rejection, graft failure, and death. RESULTS: Thirty-six patients (25%) were female; mean age was 47 ± 13 years. Eighty-one patients (57%) had a pre-VAD PRA of 0%, and 16 were highly...... sensitized (PRA > 80%). Age, female sex, and pre-VAD PRA were independently associated with post-VAD PRA. A 10-year increase in age was associated with a 5% decrease in post-VAD PRA (p = 0.03). Post-VAD PRA was 19% higher in women vs men (p PRA was associated with a 4...

  17. Opinion on the behalf of the Sustainable Development and Land Planning Commission on the Finance bill for 2011 (n. 2824), volume 7: research and university education, research in the fields of sustainable development; Avis presente Au nom de la Commission du Developpement Durable et de L'amenagement du Territoire sur le projet de loi de finances pour 2011 (n. 2824), tome 7 recherche et enseignement superieur recherche dans les domaines du developpement durable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    While presenting two programmes which respectively concern the management of surroundings and resources, and the fields of energy and of sustainable development and land planning, and commenting their financial means, their objectives and performance indicators, this report shows that these programmes are facing insufficient grants. Then, it shows that the different public operators (research laboratories, centres and institutions, public agencies) are weakened by decreasing allocations. Three examples are then studied to show the difficulties of these institutions which have to perform fundamental missions with limited means: IFREMER (in the case of oyster control), INRA (for the development of the biotechnology sector) and IRSN (for the safety of nuclear waste storage)

  18. Teknik i de tidiga skolåren – om vad det innebär att kunna konstruera en länkmekanismTechnical knowing in the early school years – A learning study of the meaning of knowing how to construct a linkage mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Björkholm

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study within primary technology education aims at exploring the capability to construct a specific linkage mechanism. The study reported was integrated in a Learning study, a kind of design experiment inspired by the Japanese Lesson Study, and was carried out in collaboration with two primary school teachers and their two classes, a preschool class and a grade one class. The study reports on the analysis of the video-recorded pre- and post-test. The tests were analysed phenomenographically resulting in four categories describing qualitatively different ways of experiencing the object of learning. The categories were then analysed in terms of critical aspects, describing aspects necessary to discern for this group of students in order to learn how to construct a linkage mechanism. The result indicates the importance of discerning the two joints and their different characteristics in terms of a fixed and a moving joint as well as the placement of the moving joint in relation to the resulting movement.

  19. Prevalence vybraných vrozených vad v České republice – vývojové vady centrálního nervového systému a zažívacího traktu

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šípek, A.; Gregor, V.; Horáček, J.; Šípek jr., A.; Klaschka, Jan; Malý, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 1 (2015), s. 47-53 ISSN 1210-7913 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : defekty neurální trubice * vrozený hydrocefalus * defekty břišní stěny * vrozené vady jícnu * anorektální malformace * kongenitální diafragmatická hernie Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.268, year: 2015

  20. Vad ska elever lära sig angående naturvetenskaplig verksamhet? - En analys av svenska läroplaner för grundskolan under 50 år. "What should students learn about scientific inquiry? A comparative study of 50 years of the Swedish national curricula."

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie-Maj Johansson

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to contribute to an understanding of which changes related to scientific inquiry have been made historically in curriculum documents. A comparative analysis is made of five Swedish national curricula– Lgr 62, Lgr 69, Lgr 80, Lpo 94 and Lgr 11 – during the last 50 years regarding what compulsory school students (school years 1–9 should learn about scientific inquiry. It focuses 1 what students should learn about carrying out scientific inquiries, and 2 what students should learn about the nature of science. All of the curricula examined have aims concerning scientific inquiry. The results show that during the period there have been many shifts in emphasis and changes of aims, for example from learning an inductive method to a more deductive one, and from an emphasis on carrying out investigations to an emphasis on more conceptual understanding of scientific investigations. Because teaching traditions tend to conserve aspects of earlier curricula, it is discussed how the results can help teachers, teacher students and curriculum developers to better see the consequences of the changes for teaching and learning.

  1. Environmental impacts from the EPSPEX-system. Part 2: Conventional Twinpipes or EPSPEX for District Heat Distribution - Which is best from an Environmental Standpoint?; Miljoebelastning fraan EPSPEX-systemet. Del 2: Konventionella Twinroer eller EPSPEX foer Fjaerrvaermedistribution - Vad aer baest ur Miljoesynpunkt?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Kristin; Olsson, A. Maria; Froeling, Morgan [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Environmental Science

    2005-07-15

    In this study the life-cycle environmental impacts from an EPSPEX system for distribution of district heat (a four-pipe system with centrally generated hot tap water) are compared with the environmental impacts of a twin-pipe system with steel media pipes, if installed in the same area. A life cycle assessment of the EPSPEX system constructed in Vraaen, Vaernamo, Sweden, has been reported in FVF-FOU--2005-20. In that study the question was raised of how the EPSPEX system compares with a conventional twin-pipe system with polyurethane-insulated steel media pipes. In the present study the EPSPEX system in Vraaen is compared with a hypothetical construction of a conventional twin pipe system in the same area. Two different fuel mixes for district heat generation have been studied to increase the understanding of the environmental performance of district heat distribution systems; the fuel mix used in Vraaen (heat delivered from Vaernamo Energi) and Swedish average district heat. How media pipes from the two different materials (PEX and steel) compare is discussed in a separate part. There are technical differences that must be kept in mind when the systems are compared in this way. The EPSPEX system is designed for low-pressure district heat systems and could only be used in such context. It is unadvisable to install the EPSPEX system below the ground water table; this is not a restriction for the twin pipe system. Under the conditions of this study the environmental performance of the EPSPEX system is better than the twin pipe system. The heat loss from the EPSPEX system is approximately 60% of the heat loss for a comparable twin pipe system. This is caused by a combination of thick insulation for the EPSPEX system and the possibility to summertime shut down the district heating circuit for this system and only use the hot tap-water circuit. Note, however, that the heat loss from the EPSPEX system is more uncertain compared to the twin-pipe system. From the characterization methods used, the production of the EPSPEX system gives a higher environmental impact compared to the twin pipe system. This heavily depends on the large amount of insulating material used. However, the environmental impacts from production of the insulation are more then outweighed by the emissions avoided from heat generation due to lower heat loss. District heating sub centrals generates a notable part of the total environmental impact when using the weighing method EPS2000. Note that sub centrals are not technically necessary in low-pressure district heat systems, as the EPSPEX system. The comparison between different fuel mixes for heat generation indicates clearly that the heat generation is an important parameter for environmental performance for all district heating. It is further indicated that also biofuels must be used with sensible and environmentally friendly methods. The media pipes of PEX seem to give lower environmental impacts compared with media pipes of steel. However, the results differ between assessment methods used.

  2. The electricity meters came - what happened? Interview study of the expectations on the new meters and their knowledge of electricity and energy; Maetaren kom - vad haende? Intervjustudie om kundernas foervaentan paa de nya elmaetarna och deras kunskaper om el och energi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindstedt, Inger; Maardsjoe Blume, Karin

    2008-11-15

    The Swedish Parliament has announced that from 1 July 2009 all electricity meters will be read at least once a month. This has resulted in the electricity grid companies having to install new electricity meters that can be read by remote control. The long-term objectives of such a change are that bills will be clearer and easier to interpret, customers will be more aware of their energy consumption and that consumption will gradually be reduced. The replacement of electricity meters has been an important issue for the energy industry - particularly network operators. It not only involves investing in new technology and new routines, but also new opportunities for providing customers with more and better information about their electricity and energy consumption. Important customer-related questions need to be addressed in connection with this technological change-over, such as whether people are interested in this new technology, whether they are interested in energy issues, and whether they are willing to take an active interest in their electricity consumption. In an attempt to answer these questions, we conducted interviews with customers in Alvesta and Gothenburg. In both places we interviewed 7 people, all of whom were selected on the basis of criteria relating to low/high consumption, house/flat dweller, man/woman and age. Each interview lasted approximately 45 minutes. Although the replacement of electricity meters has been a big step for the electricity suppliers, as far as their customers are concerned it seems relatively insignificant. While those interviewed had a vague notion that the meters would be changed, very few knew why. The respondents didn't have any particular expectations in terms of results either, and there was no difference in expectations between those respondents with new meters or those without. It is worth pointing out that expectations of and advantages with the new meters all relate to the production of more uniform bills. The respondents said that the new system should help to eliminate peaks at certain times of the year, which is often the case with adjustment invoices. It was clear from the interviews that nobody really understood the concept 1kWh and what this meant in terms of electricity consumption. The respondents also said that as they were unable to calculate how much energy an apparatus used, they had difficulties in determining whether it was worth changing to an energy-saving alternative or not. It was also evident that the respondents both admitted their ignorance and distanced themselves from the matter. No social stigma is attached to a lack of knowledge about electricity, energy and other related issues. The respondents also maintained that everyone knows that electricity bills are incomprehensible and that complaining about them is natural. An important factor for successful communication is whether those you want to communicate with, in this case the customers, are motivated and interested in the issue or not. In communication research we talk about a person's different types of involvement: decision-involvement, for example, is about deciding whether to buy a product or service, while subject-involvement relates to one's interest and involvement in a particular topic, like the environment or energy. The degree of involvement can therefore determine how successful the communication is and whether it is a question of communication at all. The interviews clearly showed that when it comes to energy, all the respondents have a low degree of subject-involvement. They know very little about the physical measure 1kWh, energy consumption, and experience that they 'fall short' when it comes to energy matters. They will also find it difficult to link their total energy consumption with different types of apparatus in the future, because they are unable to apportion their consumption. Even with the new monthly readings, the consumer will still have a lot to work out, interpret and understand. It was also clear from the interviews that the respondents had a relatively low degree of decision-involvement. For example, decisions about the purchase of new household appliances and TV's are often based on parameters other than energy consumption, such as appearance and performance. If consumers have a greater degree of subject-involvement, there is a greater chance that their decision-involvement will also increase. Making up your mind about products and their energy consumption also means understanding the unit of measure and what it is that consumes energy. Failure to understand this also leads to difficulties in changing one's consumption patterns, in that no connection is made between the unit of measurement, behaviour patterns and the apparatus used. This naturally leads to complications in the communication context. In communicating with the consumer, this needs to be both understood and taken account of.

  3. Fem elevers föreställningar om organsystem – vad händer i kroppen när vi dricker vatten? "Five students’ ideas about organ systems – what happens in the body when we drink water?"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pernilla Granklint Enochson

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available It has earlier been shown on a group level that it is difficult for 9th grade students (15-16 years old in a Swedish school to understand how water is transported in the human body. The detailed analysis of five Swedish students in the 9th and final year of compulsory school concerning their ideas about water transportation is presented here. The empirical data consists of drawings, answers to a questionnaire with both open ended and multiple-choice questions, and student interviews. The analysis shows that all the students struggle to produce explanations involving the three organ systems: digestive, blood and excretion systems and they seem to use a variety of explanatory models as basis for their reasoning. Possible ways of understanding this are discussed together with implications for future teaching.

  4. Depression in vascular dementia is quantitatively and qualitatively different from depression in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J H; Lee, S B; Lee, T J; Lee, D Y; Jhoo, J H; Youn, J C; Choo, I H; Choi, E A; Jeong, J W; Choe, J Y; Woo, J I; Kim, K W

    2007-01-01

    To compare the prevalence and characteristics of depression in vascular dementia (VaD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) after adjusting for dementia severity and gender. One hundred and eight pairs of VaD and AD patients matched for dementia severity and gender were assessed. Major depressive disorder (MDD) was more prevalent in the VaD group than in the AD group (20.4% in VaD, 10.2% in AD, p = 0.04, Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel, CMH, test) regardless of the dementia severity and gender. The odds ratio for developing MDD in the VaD group versus the AD group was estimated to be 2.20 (95% confidence interval = 1.02-4.74). Neurovegetative symptoms such as 'felt tired and weak all the time' (30.6% in VaD, 13.9% in AD, p = 0.003, CMH test) and 'changed weight without trying' (16.7% in VaD, 6.5% in AD, p = 0.02, CMH test) were more prevalent in the VaD group than in the AD group. Depression in VaD was quantitatively and qualitatively different from that in AD regardless of the severity of dementia and gender; depression was more prevalent, severer and more retarded and vegetative in VaD than in AD. Copyright (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. How the factoid of wind turbines causing 'vibroacoustic disease' came to be 'irrefutably demonstrated'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Simon; St George, Alexis

    2013-06-01

    In recent years, claims have proliferated in cyberspace that wind turbines cause a large variety of symptoms and diseases. One of these, "vibroacoustic disease" (VAD) is frequently mentioned. The aim of this study is to examine the quality of the evidence on how VAD came to be associated with wind turbine exposure by wind farm opponents. Searches of the web (Google advanced) and major research databases for papers on VAD and wind turbines. Self-citation analysis of research papers on VAD. Google returned 24,700 hits for VAD and wind turbines. Thirty-five research papers on VAD were found, none reporting any association between VAD and wind turbines. Of the 35 papers, 34 had a first author from a single Portuguese research group. Seventy-four per cent of citations to these papers were self-citations by the group. Median self-citation rates in science are around 7%. Two unpublished case reports presented at conferences were found asserting that VAD was "irrefutably demonstrated" to be caused by wind turbines. The quality of these reports was abject. VAD has received virtually no scientific recognition beyond the group who coined and promoted the concept. There is no evidence of even rudimentary quality that vibroacoustic disease is associated with or caused by wind turbines. The claim that wind turbines cause VAD is a factoid that has gone 'viral' in cyberspace and may be contributing to nocebo effects among those living near turbines. © 2013 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2013 Public Health Association of Australia.

  6. Voice Activity Detection for Speech Enhancement Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Verteletskaya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a study of noise-robust voice activity detection (VAD utilizing the periodicity of the signal, full band signal energy and high band to low band signal energy ratio. Conventional VADs are sensitive to a variably noisy environment especially with low SNR, and also result in cutting off unvoiced regions of speech as well as random oscillating of output VAD decisions. To overcome these problems, the proposed algorithm first identifies voiced regions of speech and then differentiates unvoiced regions from silence or background noise using the energy ratio and total signal energy. The performance of the proposed VAD algorithm is tested on real speech signals. Comparisons confirm that the proposed VAD algorithm outperforms the conventional VAD algorithms, especially in the presence of background noise.

  7. Voice Activity Detection. Fundamentals and Speech Recognition System Robustness

    OpenAIRE

    Ramirez, J.; Gorriz, J. M.; Segura, J. C.

    2007-01-01

    This chapter has shown an overview of the main challenges in robust speech detection and a review of the state of the art and applications. VADs are frequently used in a number of applications including speech coding, speech enhancement and speech recognition. A precise VAD extracts a set of discriminative speech features from the noisy speech and formulates the decision in terms of well defined rule. The chapter has summarized three robust VAD methods that yield high speech/non-speech discri...

  8. Bridge to recovery in two cases of dilated cardiomyopathy after long-term mechanical circulatory support

    OpenAIRE

    Pacholewicz, Jerzy; Zakliczy?ski, Micha?; Kowalik, Violetta; Nadziakiewicz, Pawe?; Kowalski, Oskar; Kalarus, Zbigniew; Zembala, Marian

    2014-01-01

    Ventricular assist devices (VADs) have become an established therapeutic option for patients with end-stage heart failure. Achieving the potential for recovery of native heart function using VADs is an established form of treatment in a selected group of patients with HF. We report two cases of VAD patients with different types of pump used for mechanical circulatory support, a continuous flow pump (Heart-Ware?) and a pulsatile pump (POLVAD MEV?), which allow regeneration of the native heart....

  9. The Acquisition of Stereochemical Knowledge by Algerian Students Intending to Teach Physical Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukhechem, Mohamed-Salah; Dumon, Alain; Zouikri, Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    In this work we evaluated the level of difficulty found in learning stereochemistry concepts, by students intending to teach physical sciences at the Ecole Normale Superieure (ENS) Kouba (Algeria). A paper and pencil questionnaire was administered to 170 students to evaluate: their familiarity with Newman representations; their ability of linking…

  10. Conceptual Integration of Hybridization by Algerian Students Intending to Teach Physical Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salah, Hazzi; Dumon, Alain

    2011-01-01

    This work aims to assess the difficulties encountered by students of the Ecole Normale Superieure of Kouba (Algeria) intending to teach physical science in the integration of the hybridization of atomic orbitals. It is a concept that they should use in describing the formation of molecular orbitals ([sigma] and [pi]) in organic chemistry and gaps…

  11. p-Adic valuation of the Morgan–Voyce sequence and p-regularity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. LYES AIT-AMRANE1 2. USTHB/Faculty of Mathematics, LATN Laboratory, DG-RSDT, BP 32, El Alia, 16111, Bab Ezzouar, Algiers, Algeria; Ecole nationale Superieure d Informatique (ESI), BP 68M Oued Smar, 16270, El Harrach, Algiers, Algeria ...

  12. Symposium at CERN in honour of Maurice Jacob on 27th March 1998

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    1998-01-01

    The Jacobfest at CERN was prefaced by a talk by Maurice Jacob's longtime colleague Claude Cohen-Tannoudji of the College de France and Ecole Normale Superieure, who shared the 1997 Nobel Prize with Steven Chu of Stanford and William D. Phillips, of the US National Institute of Standards and Technology, for their development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light.

  13. Teaching with "Voix et Images de France"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrow, G. D.

    1970-01-01

    A report on the classroom use of Voix et Images de France," the French text prepared by the Centre de Recherche et d'Etude pourla Diffusion du Francais (CREDIF) at the Ecole Normale Superieure de Saint-Cloud in France. (FB)

  14. Nonparametric condence intervals for tail dependence based on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ce papier presente des intervalles de conance asymptotiques pour les coe- cients de dependance de queue inferieure et superieure. Ces derniers sont obtenus de facon nonparametrique a partir de bandes de conance presque sures obtenues pour la fonction copule elle meme et basees sur des estimateurs a noyau.

  15. Resonance – Journal of Science Education | Indian Academy of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Alexandru Oancea1 2. Ecole Normale Superieure, 45 Rue d'Ulm, 75 005 Paris, France; Universite Paris Sud, laboratoire de Mathematiques, Bat.425, 91 405 Orsay, France. Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Current Issue : Vol. 23, Issue 3 · Current Issue Volume 23 | Issue 3. March 2018. Home · Volumes & Issues ...

  16. Urmo Raus : "Maalimine on mäluline protsess" / Urmo Raus ; interv. Reet Varblane

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raus, Urmo, 1969-

    2003-01-01

    Tallinna Kunstihoones Urmo Rausi maalinäituse avamise puhul intervjuu kunstnikuga, kes on õppinud Eesti Kunstiakadeemias, Pariisi Ecole Nationale Superieure des Beaux-Arts'is, on teinud näitusi Prantsusmaal, Itaalias, Venemaal, Eestis, elab Haagis. U. Raus kunstiõpetusest Pariisis ja EKA maaliosakonnas, kaasaegsest vitraažikunstist, oma maalikunstist

  17. An Estimate of Attributable Cases of Alzheimer Disease and Vascular Dementia due to Modifiable Risk Factors: The Impact of Primary Prevention in Europe and in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Mayer

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Up to 53.7% of all cases of dementia are assumed to be due to Alzheimer disease (AD, while 15.8% are considered to be due to vascular dementia (VaD. In Europe, about 3 million cases of AD could be due to 7 potentially modifiable risk factors: diabetes, midlife hypertension and/or obesity, physical inactivity, depression, smoking, and low educational level. Aims: To estimate the number of VaD cases in Europe and the number of AD and VaD cases in Italy attributable to these 7 potentially modifiable risk factors. Methods: Assuming the nonindependence of the 7 risk factors, the adjusted combined population attributable risk (PAR was estimated for AD and VaD. Results: In Europe, adjusted combined PAR was 31.4% for AD and 37.8% for VaD. The total number of attributable cases was 3,033,000 for AD and 873,000 for VaD. In Italy, assuming a 20% reduction of the prevalence of each risk factor, adjusted combined PAR decreased from 45.2 to 38.9% for AD and from 53.1 to 46.6% for VaD, implying a 6.4 and 6.5% reduction in the prevalence of AD and VaD, respectively. Conclusion: A relevant reduction of AD and VaD cases in Europe and Italy could be obtained through primary prevention.

  18. An Estimate of Attributable Cases of Alzheimer Disease and Vascular Dementia due to Modifiable Risk Factors: The Impact of Primary Prevention in Europe and in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Flavia; Di Pucchio, Alessandra; Lacorte, Eleonora; Bacigalupo, Ilaria; Marzolini, Fabrizio; Ferrante, Gianluigi; Minardi, Valentina; Masocco, Maria; Canevelli, Marco; Di Fiandra, Teresa; Vanacore, Nicola

    2018-01-01

    Background Up to 53.7% of all cases of dementia are assumed to be due to Alzheimer disease (AD), while 15.8% are considered to be due to vascular dementia (VaD). In Europe, about 3 million cases of AD could be due to 7 potentially modifiable risk factors: diabetes, midlife hypertension and/or obesity, physical inactivity, depression, smoking, and low educational level. Aims To estimate the number of VaD cases in Europe and the number of AD and VaD cases in Italy attributable to these 7 potentially modifiable risk factors. Methods Assuming the nonindependence of the 7 risk factors, the adjusted combined population attributable risk (PAR) was estimated for AD and VaD. Results In Europe, adjusted combined PAR was 31.4% for AD and 37.8% for VaD. The total number of attributable cases was 3,033,000 for AD and 873,000 for VaD. In Italy, assuming a 20% reduction of the prevalence of each risk factor, adjusted combined PAR decreased from 45.2 to 38.9% for AD and from 53.1 to 46.6% for VaD, implying a 6.4 and 6.5% reduction in the prevalence of AD and VaD, respectively. Conclusion A relevant reduction of AD and VaD cases in Europe and Italy could be obtained through primary prevention. PMID:29606955

  19. The profile of behavioral and psychological symptoms in vascular cognitive impairment with and without dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Meena; Dasgupta, Abhijit; Khwaja, Geeta Anjum; Chowdhury, Debashish; Patidar, Yogesh; Batra, Amit

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the occurrence and severity of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) between vascular dementia (VaD) and vascular cognitive impairment-no dementia (VCI-ND). Consecutive patients presenting with cognitive impairment at least 3 months after an ischemic stroke and with a Hachinski Ischemic Score ≥4 were included. VaD was diagnosed as per National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke - Association Internationale pour la Recherche et l'Enseignement en Neurosciences criteria for probable VaD and VCI-ND on the lines of the Canadian study of health and aging. The severity of cognitive impairment and the behavioral/psychological symptoms were studied by means of the clinical dementia rating scale and the neuropsychiatric inventory (NPI) respectively. All patients with VaD and 89% of those with VCI-ND had at least one BPSD. The mean no. of symptoms per patient and the total NPI scores were higher in VaD than in VCI-ND. Apathy and night-time behavior disturbances were significantly more common and severe in VaD. BPSD are very common both in VCI-ND and in VaD. The profile of BPSD is similar in both groups, albeit more severe in VaD. The net burden of BPSD is higher in VaD as compared to VCI-ND.

  20. Vitamin a deficiency in pregnancy: perspectives after bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas, Cristiane Barbosa; Saunders, Cláudia; Pereira, Silvia; Silva, Jacqueline; Saboya, Carlos; Ramalho, Andréa

    2013-02-01

    This study aims to describe the clinical consequences of vitamin A deficiency (VAD) in pregnant women after bariatric surgery. Included are studies on VAD during pregnancy and after bariatric surgery conducted in humans from 1993 to 2011. There are few investigations on the relationship between pregnancy and bariatric surgery and on the damage to the binomial mother-child resulting from VAD in this relationship. The high percentage of VAD in the postoperative period is a cause for concern, especially considering the function of this vitamin in certain biological moments and in moments of intense nutritional demand. This vitamin serum evaluation is recommended during the prenatal period.

  1. A Semi-Continuous State-Transition Probability HMM-Based Voice Activity Detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Othman

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available We introduce an efficient hidden Markov model-based voice activity detection (VAD algorithm with time-variant state-transition probabilities in the underlying Markov chain. The transition probabilities vary in an exponential charge/discharge scheme and are softly merged with state conditional likelihood into a final VAD decision. Working in the domain of ITU-T G.729 parameters, with no additional cost for feature extraction, the proposed algorithm significantly outperforms G.729 Annex B VAD while providing a balanced tradeoff between clipping and false detection errors. The performance compares very favorably with the adaptive multirate VAD, option 2 (AMR2.

  2. Power Spectral Deviation-Based Voice Activity Detection Incorporating Teager Energy for Speech Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Kyun Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a robust voice activity detection (VAD algorithm to effectively distinguish speech from non-speech in various noisy environments. The proposed VAD utilizes power spectral deviation (PSD, using Teager energy (TE to provide a better representation of the PSD, resulting in improved decision performance for speech segments. In addition, the TE-based likelihood ratio and speech absence probability are derived in each frame to modify the PSD for further VAD. We evaluate the performance of the proposed VAD algorithm by objective testing in various environments and obtain better results that those attained by of the conventional methods.

  3. How self-care education in ventricular assist device programs is organized and provided: a national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmar, S Brian; Dietrich, Mary S; Minnick, Ann F

    2014-01-01

    To describe the care delivery structure and elements used for patient self-care education in ventricular assist device (VAD) programs. Use of VADs as destination therapy and to sustain organ function until cardiac transplantation has increased 517% since 2007. Elements of VAD-specific self-care education have not been described. A 26-item survey measuring VAD self-care education resource use, organizational, employment, behavioral and labor variables was sent to VAD coordinators at all US VAD centers (N = 111) in 2011. Two subsequent mailings yielded a 63% (n = 71) return rate. Analysis included descriptive statistics and cluster analysis. Element use varied across programs. Reliance on single educational and evaluation methods, and lack of return demonstration were noted. VAD coordinators reported extensive caregiver, hospital provider, and community educational responsibilities in addition to patient self-care education. VAD self-care education programs varied by hospital. Future research is needed to determine if specific care delivery structures or elements used in self-care education improve VAD patient outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The Effect of a Voice Activity Detector on the Speech Enhancement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Torsten; Catic, Jasmina; Buchholz, Jörg

    2010-01-01

    of a VAD on the speech enhancement of this algorithm was evaluated using an envelopebased VAD, and the performance was compared to that achieved using an ideal error-free VAD. The performance was considered for stationary directional noise and nonstationary diffuse noise interferers at input SNRs from −10......A multimicrophone speech enhancement algorithm for binaural hearing aids that preserves interaural time delays was proposed recently. The algorithm is based on multichannel Wiener filtering and relies on a voice activity detector (VAD) for estimation of second-order statistics. Here, the effect...

  5. Altered directed connectivity in patients with early vascular dementia during a visual oddball task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jin; Lou, Wutao; Zhao, Songzhen; Wang, Chao

    2015-03-01

    The altered functional connectivity in the brain of patients with early vascular dementia (VaD) is poorly understood. Here we investigated the directed connectivity differences between VaD and normal elderly while performing a visual oddball task. Multichannel EEG data during a visual oddball task were recorded for 12 patients with early VaD and 12 age, gender and education matched healthy elderly. Directed transfer function was used to investigate the directed connectivity of brain during pre-stimulus and post-stimulus periods in delta, theta, alpha and beta frequency bands. Significantly reduced inter-hemispheric connectivity was found in patients with early VaD compared to normal elderly in the delta and theta frequency bands during the pre-stimulus period. During the post-stimulus period, besides the decreased inter-hemispheric connectivity, significantly decreased parietal-to-frontal/central connectivity was also found in VaD compared to normal elderly in the delta frequency band. In addition to the decreased connectivity in VaD, significantly increased connectivity was also found both in the pre-stimulus and post-stimulus periods. These results suggest that pathophysiology changes in early VaD may cause the altered directed connectivity of the brain network. Our observations demonstrate the altered brain connectivity of early VaD and reveal impairment and compensation co-exist in patients with early VaD.

  6. A Semi-Continuous State-Transition Probability HMM-Based Voice Activity Detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othman H

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce an efficient hidden Markov model-based voice activity detection (VAD algorithm with time-variant state-transition probabilities in the underlying Markov chain. The transition probabilities vary in an exponential charge/discharge scheme and are softly merged with state conditional likelihood into a final VAD decision. Working in the domain of ITU-T G.729 parameters, with no additional cost for feature extraction, the proposed algorithm significantly outperforms G.729 Annex B VAD while providing a balanced tradeoff between clipping and false detection errors. The performance compares very favorably with the adaptive multirate VAD, option 2 (AMR2.

  7. Impact of ventricular assist device placement on longitudinal renal function in children with end-stage heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Lindsay J; Montez-Rath, Maria E; Yeh, Justin; Axelrod, David M; Chen, Sharon; Maeda, Katsuhide; Almond, Christopher S D; Rosenthal, David N; Hollander, Seth A; Sutherland, Scott M

    2016-04-01

    Although ventricular assist devices (VADs) restore hemodynamics in those with heart failure, reversibility of end-organ dysfunction with VAD support is not well characterized. Renal function often improves in adults after VAD placement, but this has not been comprehensively explored in children. Sixty-three children on VAD support were studied. Acute kidney injury (AKI) was defined by Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes criteria. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was determined by the Schwartz method. Generalized linear mixed-effects models compared the pre-VAD and post-VAD eGFR for the cohort and sub-groups with and without pre-VAD renal dysfunction (pre-VAD eGFR renal dysfunction. AKI affected 60.3% (38 of 63), with similar rates in those with and without pre-existing renal dysfunction. Within the cohort, the nadir eGFR occurred 1 day post-operatively (62.9 ml/min/1.73 m(2); IQR, 51.2-88.9 ml/min/1.73 m(2); p renal dysfunction experienced the greatest improvement in the eGFR (β = 0.0051 vs β = 0.0013, p Renal dysfunction is prevalent in children with heart failure undergoing VAD placement. Although peri-operative AKI is common, renal function improves substantially in the first post-operative week and for months thereafter. This is particularly pronounced in those with pre-VAD renal impairment, suggesting that VADs may facilitate recovery and maintenance of kidney function in children with advanced heart failure. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Post-transplant outcomes in pediatric ventricular assist device patients: A PediMACS-Pediatric Heart Transplant Study linkage analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutcliffe, David L; Pruitt, Elizabeth; Cantor, Ryan S; Godown, Justin; Lane, John; Turrentine, Mark W; Law, Sabrina P; Lantz, Jodie L; Kirklin, James K; Bernstein, Daniel; Blume, Elizabeth D

    2017-12-13

    Pediatric ventricular assist device (VAD) support as bridge to transplant has improved waitlist survival, but the effects of pre-implant status and VAD-related events on post-transplant outcomes have not been assessed. This study is a linkage analysis between the PediMACS and Pediatric Heart Transplant Study databases to determine the effects of VAD course on post-transplant outcomes. Database linkage between October 1, 2012 and December 31, 2015 identified 147 transplanted VAD patients, the primary study group. The comparison cohort was composed of 630 PHTS patients without pre-transplant VAD support. The primary outcome was post-transplant survival, with secondary outcomes of post-transplant length of stay, freedom from infection and freedom from rejection. At implant, the VAD cohort was INTERMACS Profile 1 in 33 (23%), Profile 2 in 89 (63%) and Profile 3 in 14 (10%) patients. The VAD cohort was older, larger, and less likely to have congenital heart disease (p < 0.0001). However, they had greater requirements for inotrope and ventilator support and increased liver and renal dysfunction (p < 0.0001), both of which normalized at transplant after device support. Importantly, there were no differences in 1-year post-transplant survival (96% vs 93%, p = 0.3), freedom from infection (81% vs 79%, p = 0.9) or freedom from rejection (71% vs 74%, p = 0.87) between cohorts. Pediatric VAD patients have post-transplant outcomes equal to that of medically supported patients, despite greater pre-implant illness severity. Post-transplant survival, hospital length of stay, infection and rejection were not affected by patient acuity at VAD implantation or VAD-related complications. Therefore, VAD as bridge to transplant mitigates severity of illness in children. Copyright © 2017 International Society for the Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Vitamin A deficiency impairs adaptive B and T cell responses to a prototype monovalent attenuated human rotavirus vaccine and virulent human rotavirus challenge in a gnotobiotic piglet model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuldeep S Chattha

    Full Text Available Rotaviruses (RV are a major cause of gastroenteritis in children. Widespread vitamin A deficiency is associated with reduced efficacy of vaccines and higher incidence of diarrheal infections in children in developing countries. We established a vitamin A deficient (VAD gnotobiotic piglet model that mimics subclinical vitamin A deficiency in children to study its effects on an oral human rotavirus (HRV vaccine and virulent HRV challenge. Piglets derived from VAD and vitamin A sufficient (VAS sows were orally vaccinated with attenuated HRV or mock, with/without supplemental vitamin A and challenged with virulent HRV. Unvaccinated VAD control piglets had significantly lower hepatic vitamin A, higher severity and duration of diarrhea and HRV fecal shedding post-challenge as compared to VAS control pigs. Reduced protection coincided with significantly higher innate (IFNα cytokine and CD8 T cell frequencies in the blood and intestinal tissues, higher pro-inflammatory (IL12 and 2-3 fold lower anti-inflammatory (IL10 cytokines, in VAD compared to VAS control pigs. Vaccinated VAD pigs had higher diarrhea severity scores compared to vaccinated VAS pigs, which coincided with lower serum IgA HRV antibody titers and significantly lower intestinal IgA antibody secreting cells post-challenge in the former groups suggesting lower anamnestic responses. A trend for higher serum HRV IgG antibodies was observed in VAD vs VAS vaccinated groups post-challenge. The vaccinated VAD (non-vitamin A supplemented pigs had significantly higher serum IL12 (PID2 and IFNγ (PID6 compared to vaccinated VAS groups suggesting higher Th1 responses in VAD conditions. Furthermore, regulatory T-cell responses were compromised in VAD pigs. Supplemental vitamin A in VAD pigs did not fully restore the dysregulated immune responses to AttHRV vaccine or moderate virulent HRV diarrhea. Our findings suggest that that VAD in children in developing countries may partially contribute to more

  10. Determinants of vitamin a deficiency in children between 6 months and 2 years of age in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danneskiold-Samsøe, Niels; Fisker, Ane Bærent; Jørgensen, Mathias Jul

    2013-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) classifies Guinea-Bissau as having severe vitamin A deficiency (VAD). To date, no national survey has been conducted. We assessed vitamin A status among children in rural Guinea-Bissau to assess status and identify risk factors for VAD....

  11. Prevalence and factors associated with vitamin A deficiency in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Ribeiro-Silva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the prevalence and factors associated with vitamin A deficiency (VAD in children and adolescents. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving 546 schoolchildren, aged between 7 and 14 years, of both genders, enrolled in public elementary schools. Blood was collected for measurement of serum retinol. The retinol concentration in the samples was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Data were collected on anthropometrics, dietary, demographic, and socioeconomic factors. Polytomous logistic regression was used to evaluate the associations of interest. Results: Approximately 27.5% of the students had retinol values < 30 μg/dL. The multivariate analysis showed, after the appropriate adjustments, a positive and statistically significant association of moderate/severe VAD (OR = 2.19; 95% CI 1.17 to 4.10 and marginal VAD (OR = 2.34; 95% CI 1.47 to 3.73 with age < 10 years. There was also association of VAD moderate/severe (OR = 2.01; 95% CI 1.01 to 5.05 and borderline VAD (OR = 2.14; 95% CI: 1.08 to 4.21 with the anthropometric status of underweight. Lower intake of retinol was detected among those with severe VAD. Conclusion: VAD is a health concern among children and adolescents. Lower weight and younger schoolchildren had greater vulnerability to VAD.

  12. Vitamin A content of traditional leafy vegetables consumed by the Luo people of western Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orech, Francis O.; Jensen, Søren Krogh; Friis, H.

    2011-01-01

    Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) causes numerous health problems in developing countries, including the sub-Saharan Africa. VAD is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in children, and also affects lactating mothers and the elderly. The main objectives of the study were to identify, colle...

  13. Serum Vitamin A and Zinc Levels of Some Preschool Children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. J. T. Ekanem

    information system indicated that more than 90 countries of the world have VA deficiency. (VAD) as a public health problem(2) including. Nigeria (3). Worldwide, an estimated 3.1 million children have clinical VAD (2). About a million other children develop xerophthalmia annually, with 10% becoming permanently blind (4).

  14. Discovery of Acupoints and Combinations with Potential to Treat Vascular Dementia: A Data Mining Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuwei Feng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of vascular dementia (VaD is high among the elderly. Acupuncture, a popular therapeutic method in China, can improve memory, orientation, calculation, and self-managing ability in VaD patients. However, in clinical acupuncture and acupuncture research, the selection of acupoints to treat VaD remains challenging. This study aimed to discover acupoints and acupoint combinations with potential for VaD based on data mining. After database searching and screening for articles on clinical trials evaluating the effects of acupuncture on VaD, 238 acupuncture prescriptions were included for further analysis. Baihui (GV 20, Sishencong (EX-HN 1, Fengchi (GB 20, Shuigou (GV 26, and Shenting (GV 24 appeared most frequently in the modern literature and are potential acupoints for VaD. Combinations between Baihui (GV 20, Sishencong (EX-HN 1, Fengchi (GB 20, Shenting (GV 24, Shuigou (GV 26, and Zusanli (ST 36 were most frequent and represent potential combinations for VaD treatment. These results provide a reference for the selection and combination of acupoints to treat VaD in clinical acupuncture and acupuncture research.

  15. Beta-carotene in Golden Rice is as good as beta-carotene in oil at providing vitamin A to children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamin A deficiency (VAD), which can lead to blindness and increased morbidity and mortality, affects 190 million preschool children in developing countries. To combat VAD, Golden Rice (GR) was developed to provide dietary beta-carotene, a pro-vitamin A carotenoid. Understanding the conversion ef...

  16. vitamin a deficiency among kenyan children as detected by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2003-09-09

    Sep 9, 2003 ... at sub-clinical levels has led to increased awareness of sub-clinical disease. The fight against VAD is dependent on availability of data on geographical distribution, magnitude and severity of the problem. In the last two decades most research on VAD has shifted to assessment of sub-clinical disease due to ...

  17. Vascular dementia | Connor | African Journal of Psychiatry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vascular dementia (VaD) is a common but heterogeneous condition in which there is a clear temporal relationship between the dementia and vascular disease. It may result from multiple large or small vessel strokes or a single strategic stroke. Subcortical ischaemic VaD includes multiple lacunes and subcortical ...

  18. Statistical Model-Based Voice Activity Detection Using Spatial Cues and Log Energy for Dual-Channel Noisy Speech Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji Hun; Shin, Min Hwa; Kim, Hong Kook

    In this paper, a voice activity detection (VAD) method for dual-channel noisy speech recognition is proposed on the basis of statistical models constructed by spatial cues and log energy. In particular, spatial cues are composed of the interaural time differences and interaural level differences of dual-channel speech signals, and the statistical models for speech presence and absence are based on a Gaussian kernel density. In order to evaluate the performance of the proposed VAD method, speech recognition is performed using only speech signals segmented by the proposed VAD method. The performance of the proposed VAD method is then compared with those of conventional methods such as a signal-to-noise ratio variance based method and a phase vector based method. It is shown from the experiments that the proposed VAD method outperforms conventional methods, providing the relative word error rate reductions of 19.5% and 12.2%, respectively.

  19. Voice activity detection based on deep neural networks and Viterbi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Liang; Zhang, Zhen; Hu, Jun

    2017-09-01

    Voice Activity Detection (VAD) is important in speech processing. In the applications, the systems usually need to separate speech/non-speech parts, so that only the speech part can be dealt with. How to improve the performances of VAD in different noisy environments is an important issue in speech processing. Deep Neural network, which proves its efficiency in speech recognition, has been widely used in recent years. This paper studies the present typical VAD algorithms, and presents a new VAD algorithm based on deep neural networks and Viterbi algorithm. The result demonstrates the effectiveness of the deep neural network with Viterbi used in VAD. In addition, it shows the flexibility and the real-time performance of the algorithms.

  20. Z historie speleologie: k prvnímu použití termínů hydrotermální kras, gejzírový krápník, vadózní zóna a stropní koryto v pracích Josefa Chromého, Emanuela Michala, Františka Pošepného a Zdeňka Rotha

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bosák, Pavel; Bella, P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 1 (2016), s. 115-121 ISSN 1211-8397. [Setkání speleologů v Moravském krasu. Moravský kras, 22.04.2016-24.04.2016] Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : hydrothermal/thermomineral karst * geysermite * vadose zone * ceiling channel * paragenesis * Josef Chromý * Zdeněk Roth * history of speleology * karst terminology Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  1. Exogén SA kezelések fényben és sötétben történő hatásának összehasonlító elemzése vad típusú és etilén receptor mutáns, Never-ripe paradicsom növények leveleiben

    OpenAIRE

    Takács Zoltán

    2018-01-01

    Biotic stresses is caused in plants due to damage instigated by other organisms, like insects, disease (fungal, bacterial, and viral), which are major limitations to crop yield. The cellular response to biotic stress is an oxidative and nitrosative burst involving production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO). Salicylic acid (SA) is a natural phenolic compound, which accumulates under biotic stress and controls physiological and biochemical functions in plants. SA plays an...

  2. The effect of extremity vascular complications on the outcomes of cardiac support device recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohman, J Westley; Vemuri, Chandu; Prasad, Sunil; Silvestry, Scott C; Jim, Jeffrey; Geraghty, Patrick J

    2014-06-01

    To assess the effect of extremity vascular complications (EVCs, including ischemia or vessel trauma) on the outcomes of patients receiving cardiac support devices (CSDs, including ventricular assist device [VAD] and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation [ECMO]). Institutional Review Board-approved, retrospective review of a prospectively maintained database of all temporary and permanent CSD recipients from 7/1/10 to 6/30/12. Patient demographics, procedural data, and outcomes were analyzed. The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality at 30-days post-CSD initiation. Of 208 patients who received CSDs, 31 (14.9%) experienced EVC: 13 (8.9%) of the 146 permanent VADs, 10 (26.3%) of the 38 temporary VADs, and 8 (33.3%) of the 24 ECMO patients. The 30-day mortality for CSD-EVC patients was not significantly higher than that of the CSD patients who did not experience EVC for permanent VAD (15.4% vs 4.5%; P = .15) and ECMO patients (50.0% vs 68.75%; P = 1.00), but was significantly higher for temporary VAD patients (80.0% vs 35.7%; P = .03). Within the CSD-EVC cohort, patients who received a temporary VAD had a significantly higher 30-day mortality and decision to withdraw care after EVC compared with those who received a permanent VAD (P = .01 and P EVC was associated with higher mortality rates in the permanent VAD population (53.8% vs 25.6%; P = .025) but not the temporary VAD or ECMO groups. In temporary VAD recipients, EVCs result in higher 30-day mortality, more frequent withdrawal of care, and shortened survival time relative to the global temporary VAD group. EVC in permanent VAD recipients did not affect early (30-day) mortality rates, but strongly predicted a higher cumulative mortality risk for the 2-year study period. Overall ECMO mortality rates were high, and not significantly impacted by the occurrence of EVC. The nature of the EVC (cannulation site complication vs embolic injury) did not impact mortality. This data provides quality improvement targets for

  3. Systemic and Disease-Specific Risk Factors in Vascular Dementia: Diagnosis and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efraim Jaul

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to prevent the onset of vascular dementia (VaD in aging individuals, it is critical to detect clinically relevant vascular and systemic pathophysiological changes to signal the onset of its preceding prodromal stages. Identifying behavioral and neurobiological markers that are highly sensitive to VaD classification vs. other dementias is likely to assist in developing novel preventive treatment strategies that could delay the onset of disruptive psychomotor symptoms, decrease hospitalizations, and increase the quality of life in clinically-high-risk aging individuals. In light of empirical diagnostic and clinical findings associated with VaD pathophysiology, the current investigation will suggest a few clinically-validated biomarker measures of prodromal VaD cognitive impairments that are correlated with vascular symptomology, and VaD endophenotypes in non-demented aging people. In prodromal VaD individuals, distinguishing VaD from other dementias (e.g., Alzheimer's disease could facilitate specific early preventive interventions that significantly delay more severe cognitive deterioration or indirectly suppress the onset of dementia with vascular etiology. Importantly, the authors conclude that primary prevention strategies should examine aging individuals by employing comprehensive geriatric assessment approach, taking into account their medical history, and longitudinally noting their vascular, systemic, cognitive, behavioral, and clinical functional status. Secondary prevention strategies may include monitoring chronic medication as well as promoting programs that facilitate social interaction and every-day activities.

  4. High pulmonary vascular resistance in addition to low right ventricular stroke work index effectively predicts biventricular assist device requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Teruhiko; Kinugawa, Koichiro; Kinoshita, Osamu; Nawata, Kan; Ono, Minoru

    2016-03-01

    Although the right ventricular stroke work index (RVSWI) is a good index for RV function, a low RVSWI is not necessarily an indicator for the need for a right ventricular assist device at the time of left VAD implantation. We here aimed to determine a more precise indicator for the need for a biventricular assist device (BiVAD). In total, 116 patients (mean age, 38 ± 14 years), who underwent hemodynamic assessments preoperatively including 12 BiVAD patients, and had been followed at our institute from 2003 to 2015, were included. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that RVSWI and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) were independent predictors of BiVAD requirement (P 5 g/m, PVR 5, PVR > 3.7), (3) RV failure (RVSWI 3.7), and examined. Most of the patients in Group 4 (75 %), with acutely depressed hemodynamics and inflammatory responses in the myocardium, required BiVAD. Overall, patients with BiVAD had a worse survival rate as compared with those with LVAD alone. In conclusion, high PVR in addition to low RVSWI effectively predicts BiVAD requirement.

  5. Health-related quality of life and self-efficacy of managing behavior problems for family caregivers of vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Li-Min; Huang, Huei-Ling; Hsu, Wen-Chuin; Shyu, Yea-Ing L

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the differences in patients' behavioral problems and health outcomes of family caregivers of patients with vascular dementia (VaD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). A secondary analysis of baseline data on a subsample of caregiver-dementia patient dyads in a randomized clinical trial. Family caregivers of VaD patients reported higher self-efficacy than caregivers of AD patients in handling verbally nonaggressive and verbally aggressive behaviors. Caregivers of VaD patients had poorer health-related quality of life (HRQoL) than caregivers of AD patients considering role disability due to physical health problems, bodily pain, social function, and physical component summary. Greater self-efficacy was associated with better mental health-related outcomes for family caregivers of VaD patients, and better self-care ability of VaD patients was associated with better caregiver mental health-related outcomes. Caring for a patient with more severe dementia predicted poor physical health-related outcomes in role disability due to physical health problems, but better overall mental health (mental component summary) for caregivers. This study is the first to examine and compare the behavioral problems of AD and VaD patients in a Chinese population, along with their family caregivers' self-efficacy and health outcomes. Family caregivers of patients with VaD might warrant specific attention to their HRQoL, with interventions developed to enhance their self-efficacy.

  6. [Vitamin A deficiency causes asymmetric somitogenesis and abnormal hindbrain patterning in zebrafish embryos].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Sha-Sha; Jia, Wen-Shuang; Zhao, Qing-Shun

    2012-09-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) plays essential roles in vertebrate embryogenesis. However, vertebrates cannot synthesize RA de novo. They synthesize it by two oxidative steps, first converting the precursor vitamin A into retinal by retinol dehydrogenase, and then oxidizing retinal into RA irreversibly by retinal dehydrogenase. It is known that vitamin A deficiency (VAD) causes Vitamin A Deficiency Syndrome in animals including quail, mouse, rat, and human. However, little is known about the effects of VAD on zebrafish embryogenesis. In this study, we obtained zebrafish VAD embryos from the zebrafish fed a retinoids-free diet. By analyzing the VAD embryos, we found that VAD caused asymmetric somitogenesis and abnormal hindbrain patterning in zebrafish embryos. However, the phenotype of defected hindbrain in VAD embryos was not as severe as that in the embryos in which aldh1a2, the major gene that is responsible for RA synthesis in zebrafish early development, was knocked down, or the embryos treated with 10 mmol/L DEAB (diethylaminobenzaldehyde, inhibitor of retinal dehydrogenases). Our results indicated that the VAD embryos were short of but not free of vitamin A, and they might also have a RA generation pathway independent of retinal dehydrogenase.

  7. Cognitive profiles in degenerative dementia without evidence of small vessel pathology and small vessel vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Carolis, Antonella; Cipollini, Virginia; Donato, Nicole; Sepe-Monti, Micaela; Orzi, Francesco; Giubilei, Franco

    2017-01-01

    Although a large number of studies have examined possible differences in cognitive performance between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD), the data in the literature are conflicting. The aims of this study were to analyze the neuropsychological pattern of subjects affected by degenerative dementia without evidence of small vessel pathology (DD) and small vessel VaD subjects in the early stages and to investigate differences in the progression of cognitive impairment. Seventy-five patients with probable VaD and 75 patients with probable DD were included. All the subjects underwent a standard neuropsychological evaluation, including the following test: Visual Search, Attentional matrices, Story Recall, Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices, Phonological and Semantic Verbal Fluency, Token, and Copying Drawings. The severity of cognitive impairment was stratified according to the MMSE score. Fifteen subjects with probable DD and 10 subjects with probable VaD underwent a 12-month cognitive re-evaluation. No significant difference was found between DD and VaD subjects in any of the neuropsychological tests except Story Recall in the mild cognitive impairment (P Visual Search test (P = 0.036) in VaD subjects. These results suggest that a neuropsychological evaluation might help to differentiate degenerative dementia without evidence of small vessel pathology from small vessel VaD in the early stages of these diseases.

  8. Herbal Medicine for the Treatment of Vascular Dementia: An Overview of Scientific Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Chang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dementia is a leading cause of mental and physical disability. Vascular dementia (VaD is the second most common cause of dementia after Alzheimer’s disease (AD constituting 10–15% of the dementia population. Currently there are no approved pharmaceutical options for VaD and the conventional anti-AD therapies provide only modest, short-term relief of symptoms associated with VaD. Herbal medicines have been used for the management of dementia-like symptoms for centuries and may provide viable therapies for VaD due to their multicomponent and multitarget approach. This review is designed to provide an updated overview on the current status of herbal medicine research, with an emphasis on Chinese herbal medicine, for the treatment of VaD or dementia. A case study is also provided to demonstrate the development process of a novel standardized complex herbal formulation for VaD. The article reveals some preliminary evidence to support the use of single and complex herbal preparations for VaD and dementia. Multiple issues in relation to clinical and preclinical research have been identified and future research directions are discussed.

  9. The Western European Military Establishment: A Re-Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-01

    called Conseil superieur de la fonction militaire (CSFM), set up some twenty years ago, does not seem to be regarded by most as good enough. Great care... de Saint-Cyr Comparative Research on Military Institutions Workshop, Beverley, UK, 17-20 November 1995, With the assistance of the U.S. Army... Cabinet guidelines, the DWP tried to size up a situation that has been radically transformed : not only in the sense that the Cold War and its

  10. Factors Required for Successful Future Research in Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-06-01

    De Klerk. The Cabinet , leaders of the ANC and other associations watched the video. A road show was undertaken in and outside of South Africa to...then President of South Africa, Mr. De Klerk. The Cabinet , leaders of the ANC and other associations watched the video. In fact, a road show was...CSIRO Division of Alan Rodney UNIC Atmospheric Research Conseil Superieur de Ia Washington, DC USA Ekaterina Nepomnjachaja Aspendale. Australia R

  11. Why the risks of nuclear are 'greatly exaggerated'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitev, Lubomir

    2015-01-01

    Environmentalist Bruno Comby, founder of the lobby group Environmentalists For Nuclear, says the anti-nuclear lobby has transformed a very safe energy source into a huge problem by distorting reality. He spoke to NucNet's Lubomir Mitev about risk, radiation and the 'problem' of nuclear waste. Bruno Comby trained as a nuclear engineer at the Ecole Polytechnique and Ecole Nationale Superieure de Techniques Avancees de Paris. He established Environmentalists For Nuclear in 1996.

  12. Materials and Manufacturing Processes. Volume 9. Number 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    University of Technology, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-21, Japan M. JEANDIN, Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Paris, B.P. 87, 91003, Evry, Cedex, France...eventual successful use of surfaces and ( 111) twin planes. diamond film grown on any substrate is Cubo -octahedral exhibiting both (100) largely dependent...rectangular pan would have led to failure before completion; plateau is determined by trial and error to avoid failure. versus days on IBM RS 6000/320 work are

  13. Contribution a l'etude de la flore lichenique dans la zeenaie de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    situe dans l'etage bioclimatique subhumide caracterise par un hiver doux et humide et un ete chaud et sec. ... que si le subsfrat est humide OU meme impregnes d'eau). La plupart des lichens foliaces et presque tous ..... soufre S02 superieure a 30 µI m3 d'air [18]. Le lichen pulmonaire est un excellent indicateur d'une forte ...

  14. Une Exception Francaise: Les Grandes Ecoles (A French Exception: The Great Schools).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmel, Alain

    1996-01-01

    Examines the role of exceptional schools in France that have produced famous personages such as Charles de Gaulle and Jean-Paul Sartre. The schools reviewed include L'Ecole Nationale d'Administration, L'Ecole Polytechnique, L'Ecole Normale Superieure, L'Ecole des Hautes Etudes Commerciales, Saint-Cyr, and L'Institut d'Etudes Politiques de Paris.…

  15. AGARD/SMP Review Damage Tolerance for Engine Structures. 2. Defects and Quantitative Materials Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-01

    ROUES DE TURBINE COULEES MONOBLOC par D. FOURNIER TURBOMECA BORDES 64320 BIZANOS FRANCE 1. INTRODUCTION La conception d’une piece aeronautique...Lycoming LTS 101 - Turbomeca ARRIEL 1A. Les avantages et les inconvenients de cette technologie sont resumes dans le tableau ci-dessous : AVANTAGES... tableau de la figure 6. 5. DEFAUTS Aucun defaut superieur a 0,2 nun n’a ete detecte sur I’une des 250 coupes diame- trales de roues examinees

  16. JPRS Report Science & Technology Europe Twenty-Fourth Isata International Symposium on Automotive Technology and Automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-05

    Lavelle, Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie *7i de Toulouse and B Criqui, Direction de la Recherche-Renault, France 910918 "ORMOCERS - New...initially in the 5.8 GHz band will facilitate coordinated future development. The pre-standard for traffic messages (Protocol ALERT C) developed in...integrated systems to gain the utility of using the same data sources efficiently and providing coordinated and not conflicting advice, guidance and

  17. Blinde alfabet: ʼn Moedswillige Willem Boshoff reken af met meerderwaardigheid – ʼn neo-Marxistiese interpretasie

    OpenAIRE

    Swanepoel, Rita

    2013-01-01

    In heelwat van sy taalgebaseerde konseptuele installasies moedig die kunstenaar Willem Boshoff aanskouers van sy werke tot gesprekvoering aan. Die doel van die gesprekke is hoofsaaklik om die dominasie van sogenaamde meerderwaardiges as "superieur" en die "norm" te ondermyn. Hy doen dit deur die bemagtiging van die "afwykendes" of "abnormales" om die betekenis van die kunswerk aan die "meerderwaardiges" te verduidelik. Hierdie aanslag van Boshoff ondersoek en illustreer ek in hierdie artikel ...

  18. Dynamics of amino acids in the conditioning film developed on glass panels immersed in the surface seawaters of Dona Paula Bay

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Garg, A.; Fernandes, L.; Citon, P.

    adsorption of dissolved organic and/or inorganic matter, is defined as the conditioning film or the molecular film (Baier, 1972; Loeb & Neihof, 1975; Taylor et al. 1997). The adsorbed organic matter forms a discontinuous film of variable thickness (Compere et..., Goa, India, and 2 Ecole Nationale Superieure d’Ingenieures, De Limoges, Limoges, France (Received 13 October 2004; accepted 17 February 2005) Abstract The conditioning film developed on glass panels immersed in surface seawater over a period of 24 h...

  19. Cathepsin B-like and cell death in the unicellular human pathogen Leishmania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Fadili, A K; Zangger, H; Desponds, C; Gonzalez, I J; Zalila, H; Schaff, C; Ives, A; Masina, S; Mottram, J C; Fasel, N

    2010-09-02

    In several studies reporting cell death (CD) in lower eukaryotes and in the human protozoan parasite Leishmania, proteolytic activity was revealed using pan-caspase substrates or inhibitors such as carbobenzoxy-valyl-alanyl-aspartyl-[O-methyl]-fluoromethylketone (Z-VAD-FMK). However, most of the lower eukaryotes do not encode caspase(s) but MCA, which differs from caspase(s) in its substrate specificity and cannot be accountable for the recognition of Z-VAD-FMK. In the present study, we were interested in identifying which enzyme was capturing the Z-VAD substrate. We show that heat shock (HS) induces Leishmania CD and leads to the intracellular binding of Z-VAD-FMK. We excluded binding and inhibition of Z-VAD-FMK to Leishmania major metacaspase (LmjMCA), and identified cysteine proteinase C (LmjCPC), a cathepsin B-like (CPC) enzyme, as the Z-VAD-FMK binding enzyme. We confirmed the specific interaction of Z-VAD-FMK with CPC by showing that Z-VAD binding is absent in a Leishmania mexicana strain in which the cpc gene was deleted. We also show that parasites exposed to various stress conditions release CPC into a soluble fraction. Finally, we confirmed the role of CPC in Leishmania CD by showing that, when exposed to the oxidizing agent hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), cpc knockout parasites survived better than wild-type parasites (WT). In conclusion, this study identified CPC as the substrate of Z-VAD-FMK in Leishmania and as a potential additional executioner protease in the CD cascade of Leishmania and possibly in other lower eukaryotes.

  20. Vitamin A deficiency alters the pulmonary parenchymal elastic modulus and elastic fiber concentration in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holmes Amey J

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bronchial hyperreactivity is influenced by properties of the conducting airways and the surrounding pulmonary parenchyma, which is tethered to the conducting airways. Vitamin A deficiency (VAD is associated with an increase in airway hyperreactivity in rats and a decrease in the volume density of alveoli and alveolar ducts. To better define the effects of VAD on the mechanical properties of the pulmonary parenchyma, we have studied the elastic modulus, elastic fibers and elastin gene-expression in rats with VAD, which were supplemented with retinoic acid (RA or remained unsupplemented. Methods Parenchymal mechanics were assessed before and after the administration of carbamylcholine (CCh by determining the bulk and shear moduli of lungs that that had been removed from rats which were vitamin A deficient or received a control diet. Elastin mRNA and insoluble elastin were quantified and elastic fibers were enumerated using morphometric methods. Additional morphometric studies were performed to assess airway contraction and alveolar distortion. Results VAD produced an approximately 2-fold augmentation in the CCh-mediated increase of the bulk modulus and a significant dampening of the increase in shear modulus after CCh, compared to vitamin A sufficient (VAS rats. RA-supplementation for up to 21 days did not reverse the effects of VAD on the elastic modulus. VAD was also associated with a decrease in the concentration of parenchymal elastic fibers, which was restored and was accompanied by an increase in tropoelastin mRNA after 12 days of RA-treatment. Lung elastin, which was resistant to 0.1 N NaOH at 98°, decreased in VAD and was not restored after 21 days of RA-treatment. Conclusion Alterations in parenchymal mechanics and structure contribute to bronchial hyperreactivity in VAD but they are not reversed by RA-treatment, in contrast to the VAD-related alterations in the airways.

  1. Graph theoretical analysis of EEG effective connectivity in vascular dementia patients during a visual oddball task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Xu, Jin; Zhao, Songzhen; Lou, Wutao

    2016-01-01

    The study was dedicated to investigating the change in information processing in brain networks of vascular dementia (VaD) patients during the process of decision making. EEG was recorded from 18 VaD patients and 19 healthy controls when subjects were performing a visual oddball task. The whole task was divided into several stages by using global field power analysis. In the stage related to the decision-making process, graph theoretical analysis was applied to the binary directed network derived from EEG signals at nine electrodes in the frontal, central, and parietal regions in δ (0.5-3.5Hz), θ (4-7Hz), α1 (8-10Hz), α2 (11-13Hz), and β (14-30Hz) frequency bands based on directed transfer function. A weakened outgoing information flow, a decrease in out-degree, and an increase in in-degree were found in the parietal region in VaD patients, compared to healthy controls. In VaD patients, the parietal region may also lose its hub status in brain networks. In addition, the clustering coefficient was significantly lower in VaD patients. Impairment might be present in the parietal region or its connections with other regions, and it may serve as one of the causes for cognitive decline in VaD patients. The brain networks of VaD patients were significantly altered toward random networks. The present study extended our understanding of VaD from the perspective of brain functional networks, and it provided possible interpretations for cognitive deficits in VaD patients. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Ventricular assist device implantation in the pediatric population: does pump size selection and associated hemodynamics impact outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, S Adil; Wallis, Gonzolo; Fricker, Fredrick J; Bleiweis, Mark S; Staples, Edward D; Klodell, Charles T; Brown, John W; Turrentine, Mark W

    2008-01-01

    The use of pediatric ventricular assist devices (VADs) continues to evolve with the availability of smaller blood pumps. We examine the correlation of implanting appropriate sized blood pumps with a lower incidence of VAD related complications (VADRC). A 7-year retrospective review was undertaken for all pediatric VAD patients. Optimal VAD hemodynamics were defined as cardiac index of 2.7 L/m2 and rate of 80 beats per minute (bpm) with complete fill/empty of the blood pump. Patient/blood pump size match, VAD rate and fill/empty ratios were calculated (optimum = 1.0) and then correlated with incidence of VADRC. The study included 22 patients, mean age 9.77 years (6 mo-18 yrs) and mean body surface area (BSA) of 1.14 m2 (0.14 m2-2.32 m2), who underwent VAD implantation. VADRC included death while on support (n = 5), bleeding requiring reoperation (n = 8), hemolysis (n = 2), neurologic events (n = 2), thrombus formation (n = 3), and infection (n = 3). Six patients were bridged to transplant without any VADRC. This subset of patients had a mean blood pump size match ratio of 0.98, VAD rate ratio of 0.92 and fill/empty ratio of 1.00. Patients with VADRC (n = 16) were found to have a mean blood pump size match ratio of 0.72, VAD rate ratio of 0.72 and fill/empty ratio of 0.78. We report a series of pediatric patients with wide ranging BSA receiving VAD implantation. Selection of appropriate sized blood pumps can be correlated with decreased VADRC.

  3. Robot-assisted repair of diaphragmatic hernias following ventricular assist device implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongele, M O; Benrashid, E; Gilmore, B F; Schroder, J; Hartwig, M; Zani, S

    2018-02-01

    Use of ventricular assist devices (VADs) is increasingly common, as is the need for surgeons to be familiar with the management of common complications in this population. Nonetheless, repair of diaphragmatic hernias which commonly develop following VAD implantation remains technically challenging due to intra-abdominal adhesions and the proximity of vital structures. Despite the potential benefits of improved dexterity and visualization, robotic approaches have thus far not been used to address this. We present the first two described cases of robot-assisted repair of diaphragmatic hernias in the setting of prior or current VAD placement.

  4. Turbulence measurements using six lidar beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sathe, Ameya; Mann, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    components of the Reynolds stress tensor, which arises because, in a VAD scan the lidar beams are combined to obtain different components of the wind field. In this work we demonstrate theoretically, how the contamination by the cross components can be avoided by using the measured variances of the line......The use of wind lidars for measuring wind has increased significantly for wind energy purposes. The mean wind speed measurement using the velocity azimuth display (VAD) technique can now be carried out as reliably as the traditional instruments like the cup and sonic anemometers. Using the VAD...

  5. Carotenoid-enriched Transgenid Corn in Poultry Nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz Gómez, Joana; Moreno Martínez, José Antonio; Angulo Asensio, Eduardo; Sandmann, Gerhard; Portero Otín, Manuel; Capell Capell, Teresa; Zhu, Changfu; Christou, Paul; Nogareda, Carmina

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is one of the most important micronutrient deficiencies globally. It is prevalent throughout the world, but it is particularly severe in Africa and South-East Asia. The main underlying cause of VAD is a chronic insufficient vitamin A intake in the diet, which can lead to disorders such as xerophthalmia, anaemia and weakened resistance to infection. It has been estimated that VAD affects up to one third of the world’s pre-school-age children and up to 15% of pregn...

  6. Automatic switching between noise classification and speech enhancement for hearing aid devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saki, Fatemeh; Kehtarnavaz, Nasser

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a voice activity detector (VAD) for automatic switching between a noise classifier and a speech enhancer as part of the signal processing pipeline of hearing aid devices. The developed VAD consists of a computationally efficient feature extractor and a random forest classifier. Previously used signal features as well as two newly introduced signal features are extracted and fed into the classifier to perform automatic switching. This switching approach is compared to two popular VADs. The results obtained indicate the introduced approach outperforms these existing approaches in terms of both detection rate and processing time.

  7. A hierarchical framework approach for voice activity detection and speech enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Tang, Zhen-min; Li, Yan-ping; Luo, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Accurate and effective voice activity detection (VAD) is a fundamental step for robust speech or speaker recognition. In this study, we proposed a hierarchical framework approach for VAD and speech enhancement. The modified Wiener filter (MWF) approach is utilized for noise reduction in the speech enhancement block. For the feature selection and voting block, several discriminating features were employed in a voting paradigm for the consideration of reliability and discriminative power. Effectiveness of the proposed approach is compared and evaluated to other VAD techniques by using two well-known databases, namely, TIMIT database and NOISEX-92 database. Experimental results show that the proposed method performs well under a variety of noisy conditions.

  8. Defense in Clausewitz’s ’On War’ and in FM (Field Manual) 100-5 and HDv 100/100.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-07

    use of the engagement for war as its purpose.- 121bid., p. 158. 13 1bid., p. 159. 14]bid., p. 363. Erich Vad, Carl von Clausewitz Seine Bedeutung heute ...Clausewitz, On War, p. 382. 2 2 1bid., p. 498. 2 3Erich Vad. Carl von Clausewitz Seine Bedeutung heute . Verlag E. S. Mittler & Sohn, Herford und Bonn, 1984, p...Auflage 1981, 1976 by Bechtle Verlag, Esslingen am Neckar, p. 333. Erich Vad, Carl von Clausewitz Seine Bedeutuno heute , Jan 23, p. 67. Edward Mead

  9. Berlin heart ventricular assist device as a long-term bridge to transplantation in a Fontan patient with failing single ventricle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halaweish, I; Ohye, R G; Si, M S

    2015-12-01

    The use of VADs as a BTT in children with heart failure has increased due to enhanced device design and reliability, leading to improved survival, functional capacity, and quality of life. However, the use of VADs in patients with Fontan physiology as a BTT is rare with few case reports. Here, we describe a case of implantation of the Berlin VAD as a BTT for 179 days, one of the longest reported periods of mechanical support, in a child with failing single ventricle. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Facts, myths, and controversies in vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román, Gustavo C

    2004-11-15

    Significant progress in the field of VaD resulted from publication of the NINIDS-AIREN Diagnostic Criteria for VaD (G.C. Roman, T.K. Tatemichi, T. Erkinjuntti, et al., Vascular dementia (VaD): diagnostic criteria for research studies. Report of the NINDS-AIREN International Workshop. Neurology 43 (1993) 250-260). Epidemiological studies confirmed the importance of VaD as the second most common cause of dementia in the elderly, representing 15-20% of all cases of dementia. In Europe and North America, Alzheimer's disease (AD) predominates over VaD in a 2:1 ratio; in contrast, in Japan and China VaD accounts for almost 50% of all dementias. Case-control studies have identified risk factors for VaD including ageing, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, recurrent stroke, cardiac disease, smoking, sleep apnea, and more recently, hyperhomocysteinemia, among others. Hypertension treatment may prevent VaD and AD. This finding has enormous importance from the Public Health viewpoint to decrease the future number of patients with dementia in the elderly. Along with advances in the field of VaD came a number of controversies and damaging misconceptions and myths. Myth no. 1--Vascular dementia is a non-entity: The false idea that VaD does not exist is particularly destructive because it creates the perspective that VaD is unworthy of study or research. A condition that either does not exist or represents only a minute proportion of all cases of dementia in the elderly, lacks public health relevance and becomes a low priority for research by funding agencies and industry. In fact, vascular brain lesions are the commonest and most important component of dementia in the elderly. Myth no. 2--Vascular dementia is so difficult to diagnose that only experts can recognize and identify it accurately: VaD does exist and the diagnosis of post-stroke VaD, in particular is straightforward. Most cases fulfill NINDS-AIREN criteria for probable VaD; i.e., (1) there is acute onset

  11. Surgical debulking combined with photodynamic therapy to manage residual extramedullary plasmacytoma of the nasopharynx

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karakullukcu, Baris; de Boer, Jan Paul; van Veen, Robert; Wegman, Jurgen; Tan, Bing

    2011-01-01

    Extramedullary plasmacytomas (EMP) are rare plasma cell neoplasms that are mostly located in the mucosal surfaces of the upper aerodigestive tract. The standard treatment is radiotherapy (RT), with surgical resection reserved as salvage procedure. In this report a patient with a EMP, located in the

  12. HLA and MICA associations with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders, J.; Rozemuller, E.H.; Otten, H.G.; Veken, L.T. van der; Slootweg, P.J.; Tilanus, M.G.J.

    2007-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a very aggressive tumour arising from the epithelial lining of the upper aerodigestive tract. The precise mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of HNSCC have not been elucidated. Previous studies observed aberrant HLA expression patterns on HNSCC

  13. [Nursing care in reconstructive surgery in cases of head and neck cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Saad, Majda; Spindler, Charlotte; Tidière, Mélanie; Wagner, Valérie; Wintz, Lydie

    2015-09-01

    The treatment of cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract favours an organ- and function- preserving surgical approach. The nursing care draws on multiple skills, on both a technical and educational level, in order to assure global patient management. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    warts, oral or vulvar papilloma, keratoacanthoma, epidermoplasia verruciformis etc. In the head and neck region, the commonly affected sites are the skin, oral mucosa and upper aerodigestive tract. (Wang et al., 2009). Ear canal papillomas are relatively rare and are gen- erally associated with low-risk HPV types 6 and 11.

  15. Case series

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-08-11

    Aug 11, 2015 ... pharynx and the hypopharynx after extensive caustic pharyngoesophageal structure in selected cases. Pan African Medical ... aerodigestive tract creates several structural defects (Figure 1) scarred destroyed epiglottis ... Renal and liver function tests were normal in all three cases.Bowel preparation before ...

  16. Nigerian Journal of Surgery - Vol 17, No 2 (2011)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Foreign Bodies in the Upper Aerodigestive Tract of Nigerian Children · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. BS Alabi, OI Oyinloye, HK Omokanye, SK Aremu, OA Afolabi, AD Dunmade, HJ Akande, 78-81 ...

  17. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Omokanye, HK. Vol 17, No 2 (2011) - Articles Foreign Bodies in the Upper Aerodigestive Tract of Nigerian Children Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1117-6806. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use ...

  18. Does sentinel lymph node biopsy have a role in node- positive head ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cervical adenopathy in patients with squamous cell carcinoma. (SCC) of the upper aerodigestive tract is assumed to represent nodal metastasis and is treated with therapeutic neck dissection. [1]. Overstaging of the neck leads to overtreatment by modified neck dissection. In southern Africa and the developing world,.

  19. Incidence and prevalence of multiple endocrine neoplasia 2B in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Jes Sloth; Kroustrup, Jens Peter; Vestergaard, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Extract: Multiple endocrine neoplasia 2B (MEN2B) is an autosomal dominant inherited cancer syndrome associating medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), pheochromocytoma (PHEO), ganglioneuromatosis of the aerodigestive tract and facial, ophthalmologic and skeletal abnormalities. MEN2B is caused by the M...

  20. [Epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of head and neck cancers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubray-Vautrin, Antoine; Ballivet de Régloix, Stanislas; Girod, Angélique; Jouffroy, Thomas; Rodriguez, Joseph

    2015-09-01

    Cancers of the upper aerodigestive tracts are the fourth most common cancer in France. The main risk factors are smoking and alcohol. They do not necessarily present specific signs, making their early diagnosis difficult. A change in the patient's general condition is a late sign leading to a poor prognosis of the disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. an unusual foreign body in human oesophagus – case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drclement

    1: X-ray showing the fish hook. Fig. 2:The extracted fish hook. DISCUSSION. Foreign bodies in the aero-digestive constitute a common otorhinolaryngological problem especially in the extremes of life. It presents commonly with chest pain, drooling, dysphagia, odynophagia and vomiting depending on its location. Angulated ...

  2. Pattern of Cardiothoracic Surgical Diseases in a New Cardiothoracic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cardiovascular diseases occurred in 22.30%, with 6% of children suffering from congenital heart defect and 6% of men suffering from acquired vascular disease. Surgical complications of pleuropulmonary tuberculosis occurred in 21.4% while thoracic trauma occurred in upto 21% of the patients. Aerodigestive tract foreign ...

  3. Minor Trauma Causing Stroke in a Young Athlete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineet Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 17-year-old Caucasian male presented with sudden dizziness, ataxia, vertigo, and clumsiness lasting for a couple of hours. He had a subtle trauma during a wrestling match 2 days prior to the presentation. A CT Angiogram (CTA and MRI showed left vertebral artery dissection (VAD. The patient was treated with anticoagulation with heparin drip in the ICU. The patient was discharged home on the third day on Lovenox-warfarin bridging. This case underscores the importance of considering VAD as a differential diagnosis in patients with sports-related symptoms especially in activities entailing hyperextension or hyperrotation of neck. Due to a varied latent period, often minor underlying trauma, and subtle presentation, a low index of suspicion is warranted in timely diagnosis and treatment of VAD. Considering recent evidence in treatment modality, either antiplatelet therapy or anticoagulation may be used for treatment of VAD.

  4. Ilse Leetaru graafika Kadriorus / Anne Lõugas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lõugas, Anne, 1951-

    1999-01-01

    Kastellaanimajas 1. juulist avatud New Yorgis elava kunstniku Ilse Leetaru graafika näitusel eksponeeritakse töid Eesti Kunstimuuseumi kogust ja uusi teoseid, mis jäävad kingituseks Tallinna ja Tartu kunstimuuseumile

  5. THE INTERPLAY BETWEEN NATIONAL INTEREST AND IDEALISM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Raymond

    “Gripen first for SA woman fighter pilot”. South Africa Info. 2010. Accessed on 17 September 2012. 51 RRV. Vad Kostar JAS 39 Gripen? Rapport om Gripenprojektets ekonomi. Stockholm: Government of Sweden, 1996. 52 A Moravcsik.

  6. Organisatsiooniliste muutuste võimalikud probleemid ja ohud avalikus sektoris : Ettevõtluse Arendamise Sihtasutuse näitel / Tõnu Roolaht

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Roolaht, Tõnu, 1972-

    2005-01-01

    Kuigi avalike organisatsioonide muutused jäävad ka edaspidi seotuks poliitiliste arengutega, leiab autor, et selles protsessis on siiski vajalik otsida teid ka organisatsiooni sisemiste arenguseaduspärasustega arvestamiseks. Skeem

  7. Et saada riigireformi 1. juuliks / Mart Raudsaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raudsaar, Mart, 1973-

    2016-01-01

    Võro Seltsi ettepanekust, et üheks võiks liituda kõik Vana Võromaa territooriumile jäävad 25 omavalitsust ning Vana Võromaa kunagised kaheksa kihelkonda moodustaksid uue omavalitsuse osavallad

  8. Noise Robust Voice Activity Detection Based on Switching Kalman Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Masakiyo; Ishizuka, Kentaro

    This paper addresses the problem of voice activity detection (VAD) in noisy environments. The VAD method proposed in this paper is based on a statistical model approach, and estimates statistical models sequentially without a priori knowledge of noise. Namely, the proposed method constructs a clean speech/silence state transition model beforehand, and sequentially adapts the model to the noisy environment by using a switching Kalman filter when a signal is observed. In this paper, we carried out two evaluations. In the first, we observed that the proposed method significantly outperforms conventional methods as regards voice activity detection accuracy in simulated noise environments. Second, we evaluated the proposed method on a VAD evaluation framework, CENSREC-1-C. The evaluation results revealed that the proposed method significantly outperforms the baseline results of CENSREC-1-C as regards VAD accuracy in real environments. In addition, we confirmed that the proposed method helps to improve the accuracy of concatenated speech recognition in real environments.

  9. An efficient voice activity detection algorithm by combining statistical model and energy detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ji; Zhang, Xiao-Lei

    2011-12-01

    In this article, we present a new voice activity detection (VAD) algorithm that is based on statistical models and empirical rule-based energy detection algorithm. Specifically, it needs two steps to separate speech segments from background noise. For the first step, the VAD detects possible speech endpoints efficiently using the empirical rule-based energy detection algorithm. However, the possible endpoints are not accurate enough when the signal-to-noise ratio is low. Therefore, for the second step, we propose a new gaussian mixture model-based multiple-observation log likelihood ratio algorithm to align the endpoints to their optimal positions. Several experiments are conducted to evaluate the proposed VAD on both accuracy and efficiency. The results show that it could achieve better performance than the six referenced VADs in various noise scenarios.

  10. An efficient voice activity detection algorithm by combining statistical model and energy detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Ji

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this article, we present a new voice activity detection (VAD algorithm that is based on statistical models and empirical rule-based energy detection algorithm. Specifically, it needs two steps to separate speech segments from background noise. For the first step, the VAD detects possible speech endpoints efficiently using the empirical rule-based energy detection algorithm. However, the possible endpoints are not accurate enough when the signal-to-noise ratio is low. Therefore, for the second step, we propose a new gaussian mixture model-based multiple-observation log likelihood ratio algorithm to align the endpoints to their optimal positions. Several experiments are conducted to evaluate the proposed VAD on both accuracy and efficiency. The results show that it could achieve better performance than the six referenced VADs in various noise scenarios.

  11. Vascular dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the home Support family members and other caregivers Medicines may be needed to control aggressive, agitated, or dangerous behaviors. Medicines used to treat Alzheimer disease have not been shown to work for VaD.

  12. An enigma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Christine S; Aaby, Peter; Arts, Rob J W

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is associated with increased mortality. To prevent VAD, WHO recommends high-dose vitamin A supplementation (VAS) every 4-6 months for children aged between 6 months and 5 years of age in countries at risk of VAD. The policy is based on randomized clinical...... status and previous supplementation with vitamin A. Vitamin A is known to affect the Th1/Th2 balance and, in addition, recent evidence suggests that vitamin A may also induce epigenetic changes leading to down-regulation of the innate immune response. Thus VAS protects against VAD but has also important...... and long-lasting immunological effects, and the effect of providing VAS may vary depending on the state of the immune system. CONCLUSIONS: To design optimal VAS programmes which target those who benefit and avoid those harmed, more studies are needed. Work is ongoing to define whether neonatal VAS should...

  13. Frequently Asked Questions: Hemophilia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... four years). What is a venous access device (port-a-cath)? A port-a-cath, or implantable venous access device (VAD), ... Grant Program World Bleeding Disorders Registry Treatment Safety Data Collection Ways to Give Ways to Give Give ...

  14. Investor interest returning as economies start to stabilize

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Praegu on õige aeg Baltimaadesse investeerimiseks, kuna ka sealne majandus on stabiliseerumas. Võimalik, et Baltimaade valitsused müüvad veel riigivara. East Capital Groupi osalused Baltimaade ettevõtetes

  15. Getting a New Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a procedure that opens clogged arteries. Repair the heart valve . This procedure can often make your heart function ... heart muscle. Ventricular assist devices (VAD) . These are mechanical pumps that surgeons insert to help the heart ...

  16. Using medical imaging for the detection of adverse events ("incidents") during the utilization of left ventricular assist devices in adult patients with advanced heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Friedrich; Krabatsch, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Ventricular assist devices (VAD) are used for mechanical support of the terminally failing heart. Failure of these life supporting systems can be fatal. Early and reliable detection of any upcoming problems is mandatory and is crucial for the outcome. Medical imaging methods are described within this review, which are not only essential for diagnosis of typically VAD-related complications but also for the detection or verification of technical issues. Within this review the utilization of medical imaging equipment for the diagnosis of technical malfunctions or damages of implanted system components is discussed. A newly developed specialized acoustic imaging method for pump thrombosis detection will also be described along with the most common VAD-related medical complications and their respective imaging methods and the limitations induced by the use of the VAD-system.

  17. Central venous access related adverse events after trabectedin infusions in soft tissue sarcoma patients; experience and management in a nationwide multi-center study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verboom, M.C.; Ouwerkerk, J.; Steeghs, N.; Lutjeboer, J.; Kerst, J.M.; Graaf, W.T.A. van der; Reyners, A.K.; Sleijfer, S.; Gelderblom, H.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Trabectedin has shown efficacy against soft tissue sarcomas (STS) and has manageable toxicity. Trabectedin is administered through central venous access devices (VAD), such as subcutaneous ports with tunneled catheters, Hickman catheters and PICC lines. Venous access related adverse

  18. Piimandus: laenukarid, ikaldused ja hinnaralli tõid kriisi / Ain Alvela ; kommenteerinud Tiit Tuuleveski, Urmas Põlluaas ja Tõnu Post

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alvela, Ain, 1967-

    2009-01-01

    Kuigi piimatootmisega tegelevad ettevõtted vajaksid tegevuse arendamiseks hädasti investeeringuid, jäävad enamiku rahastamisplaanid paremaid aegu ootama. Diagramm. Kommenteerivad Tiit Tuuleveski, Urmas Põlluaas ja Tõnu Post

  19. Florida DOT Orlando ITS World Congress Vehicle Awareness Device

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Florida DOT (FDOT) installed Vehicle Awareness Devices (VADs) on a set of Lynx transit buses as part of a demonstration for the ITS World Congress held in Orlando in...

  20. Improvement and Aggravation of Spontaneous Unruptured Vertebral Artery Dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoya Shibahara

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intracranial vertebral artery dissection (VAD is a well-recognized cause of stroke in young and middle-aged individuals, especially in Asian populations. However, a long-term natural course remains unclear. We investigated the long-term time course of VAD using imaging findings to examine the rate and predisposing factors for improvement. Methods: We registered 56 consecutive patients (40 males; mean age, 51.8 ± 10.7 years with acute spontaneous VAD and retrospectively investigated neuroimaging and clinical course within 1 month and at 3 months ± 2 weeks, 6 months ± 2 weeks, and 12 months ± 2 weeks after onset to ascertain predisposing factors and time course for improvement. Results: The most common presenting symptoms were headache and/or posterior neck pain, seen in 41 patients (73%. Magnetic resonance imaging showed brainstem and/or cerebellum infarction in only 32 patients (57%. Of the 56 VADs, 16 (28% presented with pearl and string sign, 5 (9% with pearl sign, 15 (27% with string sign, and 20 (36% with occlusion sign. VAD occurred on the dominant side in 20 patients and on the nondominant side in the other 36 patients. The pearl and string sign was more frequently noted on the dominant side than on the nondominant side (50 vs. 17%, p = 0.008. On the other hand, occlusion occurred more often on the nondominant side than on the dominant side (47 vs. 15%, p = 0.016. Furthermore, the pearl and string sign was more frequently seen in the improvement group (41 vs. 15%, p = 0.028, whereas the occlusion sign was evident more frequently in the nonimprovement group (21 vs. 52%, p = 0.015. Follow-up neuroimaging evaluation was performed at 1 and 3 months in 91% each, and at 6 and 12 months in 82% each. VAD aggravation was identified within 1 month after onset in 14%, while VAD improvement was seen in 14, 38, 50, and 52% at each period, mainly within 6 months after onset. Older patients and current smoking were negatively associated

  1. Mental health status of patients with mechanical aortic valves, with ventricular assist devices and after heart transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilmann, Claudia; Kaps, Josefine; Hartmann, Armin; Zeh, Wolfgang; Anjarwalla, Anna Lena; Beyersdorf, Friedhelm; Siepe, Matthias; Joos, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    Mental health is a complex construct, in which emotional aspects and quality of life are central. It has been assessed in patients after heart transplantation (HTX) and occasionally in those with ventricular assist devices (VADs). However, there are no studies that compare patients with primary HTX with those with HTX ending VAD support. Evidence for patients with mechanical aortic valve replacement is also limited. We compared mental outcome for these four groups for the first time. We also focused on the question of an artificial device, i.e. VAD or mechanical aortic valve, as distinct from a biological graft, i.e. HTX. Two questionnaires were applied: The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the German version consists of two subscales for anxiety and for depression, and the 12-item Short Form Health Survey, the German version contains two subscales for physical and for mental performance measuring quality of life. We included 46 patients with mechanical aortic valve replacement, 55 after HTX and 22 on support by a long-term VAD. The HTX group consisted of 38 patients with primary HTX and 17 recipients who were on VAD support before transplantation. The index operation was at least 6 months ago. HTX patients suffered less from anxiety and depression than patients with mechanical aortic valve replacement or those on VAD. HTX patients had higher scores on the physical scale but not on the mental component scale of the 12-item Short Form Health Survey compared with VAD patients. Conversely, patients with mechanical aortic valve replacement did worse with regard to mental but not physical performance compared with HTX patients. VAD and mechanical aortic valve replacement patients differed only with regard to physical condition, but not with regard to anxiety, depression and mental status. HTX patients with and without VAD support before transplantation achieved similar values on all scales. Mental scales did not correlate with age or time after surgery. HTX

  2. Characteristics and diagnostic pitfalls of spontaneous visceral artery dissection in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonami, Suguru; Nakanishi, Taizo; Tanizaki, Shinsuke; Matsumoto, Takashi; Sera, Makoto; Maeda, Shigenobu; Ishida, Hiroshi

    2016-06-01

    Spontaneous visceral artery dissection (VAD) is a rare disease that mainly occurs in the superior mesenteric artery and celiac artery. However, VAD has been detected more frequently in the past several years because of the increasing use of computed tomography (CT) for the evaluation of abdominal symptoms. A prompt diagnosis and referral to a specialist should be made, because VAD occasionally causes critical bowel ischemia. However, there is no well-established management approach. We performed a retrospective analysis to evaluate the characteristics and prognoses of patients diagnosed with VAD. We retrospectively examined data on patients who visited the Emergency Department (ED) at Fukui Prefectural Hospital, and were diagnosed with VAD using enhanced CT scanning from April 2004 to March 2015. All data were collected from the hospital's electronic medical records. We analyzed the clinical characteristics, comorbidity, risk factors, imaging findings, and treatment of patients. Fifty-six patients were identified (superior mesenteric artery: 40 patients, celiac artery: 16 patients). The median age of the patients was 54 years (range, 32-86 years) and 89.3% were men. The majority of the patients complained of abdominal pain (37 patients, 66%). Thirty-nine of the patients (69.6%) were hospitalized. All hospitalized patients received conservative treatment initially. Three patients received endovascular therapy, and 2 patients received surgery. No fatal cases were observed. Twenty-eight patients presented with ED at their initial visit, and 8 cases (29%) were undiagnosed on their initial visit by emergency physicians, though enhanced CT scans were obtained. Patients with VAD often present with sudden onset abdominal pain. Most patients were managed successfully with conservative treatment. No fatal cases were observed; however, some cases were missed, even with an enhanced CT scan. It is necessary to include VAD among the differential diagnoses of acute abdominal pain

  3. Evaluation of the need for chest X-rays in the management of asymptomatic, intraluminal vascular access device occlusion in childhood cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stammers, David; Connolly, Bairbre; Brandão, Leonardo R; Zupanec, Sue; Gupta, Sumit

    2017-07-01

    Venous access device (VAD) occlusion from intraluminal thrombus is a common complication during childhood cancer treatment. Current practice at many institutions is to assess VAD position with a chest X-ray (CXR) prior to intraluminal administration of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). We aimed to determine the utility of this practice. A retrospective chart review of children with newly diagnosed cancer with a VAD, treated at The Hospital for Sick Children between 2010 and 2011, was performed. Episodes of line occlusion were identified both by reviewing patient CXRs for indication and identifying tPA doses dispensed. These episodes were reviewed to determine whether CXR findings resulted in management other than tPA. Cases in which the X-ray resulted in a change in management were further reviewed to determine whether administration of tPA could have resulted in potential patient harm. A total of 330 patients with newly diagnosed cancer with VADs were identified. Eighty-five (25.8%) patients experienced 123 episodes of VAD occlusion. VAD occlusions occurred more frequently in patients with tunneled external central venous lines (16/39, 41.5%) and peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC) (27/73, 37.0%) versus PORT (42/216, 19.4%; P = 0.001). There were nine (8.1%) episodes of VAD occlusion evaluated with a CXR in which the findings led to a change in management other than administering tPA. In each case, multiple specialists independently concluded that administration of tPA would have been unlikely to cause patient harm. Routine CXRs prior to the administration of tPA for asymptomatic VAD occlusion can safely be omitted. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Neuropsychiatric profiles in patients with Alzheimer′s disease and vascular dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushar Kanti Bandyopadhyay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The aim of the following study is to compare the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD in patients of Alzheimer disease (AD and vascular dementia (VaD. Materials and Methods: We used National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke-Alzheimer′s Disease and Related Disorders Association criteria for diagnosing AD and National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke-Association International pour la Recherche et l′Enseignement en Neurosciences Criteria for diagnosing VaD. VaD cohort was further subcategorized into small vessel and large vessel disease. The severity of cognitive impairment and the BPSD were studied by means of the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale (CDR and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory respectively. Results: We studied 50 AD and 50 VaD patients of whom 38 were small vessels and 12 were large vessels VaD. The severity of dementia was comparable in both groups. The agitation/aggression, depression/dysphoria, anxiety, apathy/indifference, irritability, aberrant motor behavior, appetite and eating behavior and night-time behaviors occurred significantly more frequently in patients with VaD than AD. We found a weak positive correlation between the CDR score and the number of neuropsychiatric symptoms per patient in both cohorts. Elation/euphoria, agitation/aggression was significantly more frequent in patients with large vessel in comparison to small vessel VaD. Conclusions: BPSD are common in both types of dementia and they are more severe in VaD than AD when the groups have similar levels of cognitive impairment.

  5. A Support Vector Machine-Based Voice Activity Detection Employing Effective Feature Vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Q.-Haing; Park, Yun-Sik; Lee, Kye-Hwan; Chang, Joon-Hyuk

    In this letter, we propose effective feature vectors to improve the performance of voice activity detection (VAD) employing a support vector machine (SVM), which is known to incorporate an optimized nonlinear decision over two different classes. To extract the effective feature vectors, we present a novel scheme that combines the a posteriori SNR, a priori SNR, and predicted SNR, widely adopted in conventional statistical model-based VAD.

  6. Enhanced Voice Activity Detection Using Modified Wiener Filtering and Harmonic Structure Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan ZHANG

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Accurate and effective Voice Activity Detection (VAD is a fundamental step for robust speech and speaker recognition. In this study, we propose a robust VAD algorithm based on Modified Wiener Filtering and Harmonic Structure Information. Effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is evaluated by using some well-known databases. Experimental results show that the proposed method performs well under a variety of noisy conditions.

  7. Organ Allocation In Adults With Congenital Heart Disease Listed For Heart Transplant: The Impact Of Ventricular Assist Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelow, Jill M.; Song, Howard K.; Weiss, Joseph B.; Mudd, James O.; Broberg, Craig S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Adults with congenital heart disease (CHD) listed for heart transplantation infrequently are supported with ventricular assist devices (VADs). This may disadvantage their priority for organ allocation. We sought to determine the relationship between VAD implantation and successful transplantation among patients listed for heart transplant. Methods Adults with CHD patients (N=1,250) were identified in the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) database from 1985 – 2010 and compared to patients without congenital etiology for heart failure (N=59,606). VAD use at listing, listing status, status upgrades, and reasons for upgrade prior to transplant were trended at 5 year intervals and appropriate statistical comparisons were made between groups. Results Since 1985, VAD use prior to transplant has increased significantly in patients without CHD but not in CHD patients (17% vs. 3% in 2006–2010, p<0.0001). CHD patients were more likely to be listed as status 2, compared to those without (66% vs. 40%, p<0.001 for 2006–2010), and less likely to be upgraded to status 1 after listing (43% vs. 55%, p=0.03). Among those upgraded to status 1, CHD patients were less likely to have a VAD at transplant than those without (3% vs. 18%, p=0.005). VAD use was more likely to result in death in CHD patients. Conclusions VAD use is less common in CHD patients than patients without CHD, both at the time of listing and transplantation. Reduced VAD use appears to contribute to lower listing status and organ allocation. These differences have grown more disparate over time. Separate criteria for organ allocation for CHD patients may be justified. PMID:23921356

  8. Efficacy Of Rivastigmine And Donepezil On Cognitive Impairment Of Vascular Dementia - Some Preliminary Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jha S

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vascular Dementia (VaD is common, global, disabling and a rather neglected, age related dementia. It is important to identify and treat it since cognitive impairment produces dysfunction in occupational and social life. Moreso, due to increase in geriatric population, incidence and prevalence of VaD is also increasing. Aim: We share our observations on efficacy of Rivastigmine and Donepezil (drugs advocated for improving cognition in dementia in patients of VaD. Material and Method: This was a non-randomized study based on clinical evaluation. We selected 53 patients suffering from VaD (as per clinical and radiological criteria. Their age range was 55-78 years (mean 65.3 + 6.2 yrs. Clinical, biochemical and radiological (Cranial CT and MRI evaluation was done to establish etiology. Cognition was measured using modified Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE which was repeated 2 times, at interval of 3 months. We observed the role of Rivastigmine in 14 and Donepezil in 19 patients of VaD. The change in MMSE score was compared with 20 control patients of VaD. The associated risk factors like hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia etc. were managed. Acetyl Salicylic Acid (ASA in dose of 150mg/day was given as an antiplatelet agent to all 53 patients in this study. Results: At end of study, no statistically significant improvement was observed in MMSE score in any of the 53 patients. Improvement in MMSE score (though statistically insignificant was observed with Rivastigmine in 11 and with Donepezil in 14 patients. Progressive decline in MMSE score was observed in 14 (70% control patients of VaD who did not receive rivastigmine or donepezil. Conclusion - Rivastigmine and Donepezil are beneficial in halting deterioration of dementia in patients suffering from VaD.

  9. Determinants of Subclinical Vitamin A Deficiency among children 1-5 years in a rural community of Jammu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivali Suri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The burden of sub-clinical vitamin A deficiency (VAD, as evident by serum retinol levels, is huge (62% among preschool children in India. Sub-clinical VAD increases children’s' susceptibility to infections, reduces physical growth and decreases the ability to survive from serious illnesses. Aims & Objectives: To assess the burden of subclinical VAD and study the various risk factors associated with it among children 1-5 years of age. Material Methods: A cross sectional community based study was conducted among 750 children selected from 15 villages adopting multistage random sampling from January to December 2011. Heller Keller International Food Frequency Questionnaire (HKI- FFQ was used to assess intakes of 28 food-items including vitamin A rich foods for the past 7 days. Various risk factors like socio-demographic profile, dietary pattern, vitamin A supplementation and breast feeding patterns were also studied. Results: Twelve of the fifteen cluster villages studied were found to be at risk of subclinical VAD. 30.6 % of study subjects had not received even a single dose of Vitamin A. Almost one-third of the subjects had not been breast-fed for the recommended 6 months. Age and socio-economic status were significantly associated with the risk of sub-clinical VAD. Among the dietary factors, consumption of purely vegetarian foods and intake of green leafy vegetables less than thrice a week were significantly associated with enhanced risk of sub-clinical VAD. Conclusion: Sub Clinical VAD is a public health problem of wide-spread importance.   Dietary diversification along with enhanced coverage of Vitamin A supplementation can tackle the problem of subclinical VAD

  10. Retinoic acid restores adult hippocampal neurogenesis and reverses spatial memory deficit in vitamin a deprived rats

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnet, Emilie; Touyarot, katia; Alfos, Serge; Pallet, Véronique; Higueret, Paul; Abrous, Djoher Nora

    2008-01-01

    A dysfunction of retinoid hippocampal signaling pathway has been involved in the appearance of affective and cognitive disorders. However, the underlying neurobiological mechanisms remain unknown. Hippocampal granule neurons are generated throughout life and are involved in emotion and memory. Here, we investigated the effects of vitamin A deficiency (VAD) on neurogenesis and memory and the ability of retinoic acid (RA) treatment to prevent VAD-induced impairments. Adult retinoid-deficient ra...

  11. Magkänslans anatomi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlström, Kristoffer

    Varför dog 1500 personer i onödan i biltrafiken efter den 11 september 2001? Vad har FBI-agenter gemensamt med barn till alkoholister? Och vad fick författaren George Orwell att börja utöva svart magi? Magkänslans anatomi är en fascinerande kartläggning av de psykologiska mekanismer som ligger ba...

  12. Implantierbares elektromechanisches Blutpumpensystem zur langfristigen partiellen Herzentlastung

    OpenAIRE

    Förster, Frank

    2003-01-01

    Nowadays, Ventricular Assist Devices (VADs) have mostly been employed as bridge to transplantation. A new field of application for VADs represents the support of the failing heart function with the aim of heart recovery, "bridge to recovery". This dissertation describes the development of a long-term implantable therapeutic heart support system for the recovery of heart muscle by partial unloading of the left ventricle. The development of the pump unit is the main target of this work. Due to ...

  13. Use of Ventricular Assist Device in Univentricular Physiology: The Role of Lumped Parameter Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Molfetta, Arianna; Ferrari, Gianfranco; Filippelli, Sergio; Fresiello, Libera; Iacobelli, Roberta; Gagliardi, Maria G; Amodeo, Antonio

    2016-05-01

    Failing single-ventricle (SV) patients might benefit from ventricular assist devices (VADs) as a bridge to heart transplantation. Considering the complex physiopathology of SV patients and the lack of established experience, the aim of this work was to realize and test a lumped parameter model of the cardiovascular system, able to simulate SV hemodynamics and VAD implantation effects. Data of 30 SV patients (10 Norwood, 10 Glenn, and 10 Fontan) were retrospectively collected and used to simulate patients' baseline. Then, the effects of VAD implantation were simulated. Additionally, both the effects of ventricular assistance and cavopulmonary assistance were simulated in different pathologic conditions on Fontan patients, including systolic dysfunction, diastolic dysfunction, and pulmonary vascular resistance increment. The model can reproduce patients' baseline well. Simulation results suggest that the implantation of VAD: (i) increases the cardiac output (CO) in all the three palliation conditions (Norwood 77.2%, Glenn 38.6%, and Fontan 17.2%); (ii) decreases the SV external work (SVEW) (Norwood 55%, Glenn 35.6%, and Fontan 41%); (iii) increases the mean pulmonary arterial pressure (Pap) (Norwood 39.7%, Glenn 12.1%, and Fontan 3%). In Fontan circulation, with systolic dysfunction, the left VAD (LVAD) increases CO (35%), while the right VAD (RVAD) determines a decrement of inferior vena cava pressure (Pvci) (39%) with 34% increment of CO. With diastolic dysfunction, the LVAD increases CO (42%) and the RVAD decreases the Pvci. With pulmonary vascular resistance increment, the RVAD allows the highest CO (50%) increment with the highest decrement of Pvci (53%). The single ventricular external work (SVEW) increases (decreases) increasing the VAD speed in cavopulmonary (ventricular) assistance. Numeric models could be helpful in this challenging and innovative field to support patients and VAD selection to optimize the clinical outcome and personalize the therapy

  14. [Serum values of interleukin-10, gamma-interferon and vitamin A in female adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Jorymar Y; Romero, Tania; Ortega, Pablo; Amaya, Daisy

    2007-09-01

    Many studies have demonstrated that vitamin A deficiency (VAD) affects the immunomodulated response mediated by cytokines. However, these studies are controversial. The purpose of the present study was to analyze Interleukin-10, gamma-Interferon and vitamin A serum concentrations in adolescents. Seventy three female, not pregnant adolescents (15.95 +/- 1.10 years old), of a low socioeconomic condition were studied. Serum retinol was determined by HPLC using the Bieri method. International reference standards were considered to define VAD (serum retinol 30 microg/dL). Serum concentrations of Interleukine-10 (IL-10) and gamma-Interferon (gamma-IFN) were detected by an ELISA method (pg/mL). The data were analyzed using the SAS/STAT statistical program; the results were presented as mean +/- Standard deviation and the differences between mean values were analyzed by the ANOVA test. The prevalence of VAD in adolescents was 6.85% (serum retinol <20 microg/dL) and 41.10% adolescents had VAD risk (20-30 microg/dL). Adolescents with VAD showed a significant increase of gamma-IFN serum concentration (p = 0.01). Correlation between serum retinol and gamma-IFN was r = -0.29 (p = 0.01). Adolescents represent a VAD risk group. Low serum levels of retinol were correlated with high levels of gamma-IFN, this cytokine has been associated with chronics inflammatory processes and it can contribute to increase the morbidity and mortality in this population.

  15. Relationship between the Nutritional Status of Vitamin A per Trimester of Pregnancy with Maternal Anthropometry and Anemia after Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Sabrina; Matos, Andréa; da Cruz, Suelem Pereira; Pereira, Silvia; Saboya, Carlos; Ramalho, Andréa

    2017-09-08

    The aim of this study was to compare the nutritional status of vitamin A per trimester of pregnancy, as well as to assess its influence on pre-pregnancy BMI, total gestational weight gain (TGWG) and presence of anemia in women who had previously undergone Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). An analytical, longitudinal and retrospective study comprising 30 pregnant women who had previously undergone RYGB was undertaken. In all trimesters of pregnancy, the serum concentrations of retinol, β-carotene, stages of vitamin A deficiency (VAD), night blindness (NB), anemia and anthropometric variables were assessed. VAD in pregnancy affected 90% of women, 86.7% developed NB and 82.8% had mild VAD. TGWG above/below the recommended range was related to the low serum concentrations of β-carotene ( p = 0.045) in the second trimester and women with TGWG above the recommended range showed 100% of inadequacy of this nutrient in the third trimester. Among the pregnant women with anemia, 90.9% had VAD and 86.4% had NB. This study highlights the importance of monitoring the nutritional status of vitamin A in prenatal care, due to its relationship with TGWG and the high percentage of VAD and NB found since the beginning of pregnancy. It also reaffirms the use of the cut-off <1.05 μmol/L for determining VAD.

  16. Protective Effects of p38 MAPK Inhibitor SB202190 against Hippocampal Apoptosis and Spatial Learning and Memory Deficits in a Rat Model of Vascular Dementia

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    Shen Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular dementia (VaD is a common age-related neurodegenerative disease resulting from chronic hypoxia. In the present study, we examined the protective effects of p38 MAPK inhibitor SB202190 against hippocampal apoptosis and spatial learning and memory deficits in a chronic hypoperfusion rat model of VaD established by permanent bilateral carotid occlusion (2-VO. Sixty rats were randomly divided into sham-operated, VaD model, and VaD plus SB202190 groups (n=20/group. After sham/2-VO surgery, rats were administered 0.1% DMSO (sham-operated and VaD groups or SB202190 by intracerebroventricular injection. One week after inhibitor/vehicle treatment, hippocampal p38 MAPK phosphorylation was higher in the model group than in the SB202190 group (P<0.01. Compared to the model group, the SB202190 group exhibited significantly shorter escape latencies in the Morris water maze hidden platform trials (P<0.01 and longer times in the original platform quadrant during probe trials (P<0.01. The SB202190 group also showed significantly reduced neuronal apoptosis in the hippocampus compared to VaD model rats (P<0.01 as well as higher (antiapoptotic Bcl-2 expression and lower (proapoptotic caspase-3 expression (P<0.01 for both. In conclusion, blockade of the p38 MAPK signaling pathway by SB202190 following permanent 2-OV reduced apoptosis of hippocampal neurons and rescued spatial learning and memory deficits.

  17. Lack of association between PRNP 1368 polymorphism and Alzheimer's disease or vascular dementia

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    Jeong Byung-Hoon

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polymorphisms of the prion protein gene (PRNP at codons 129 and 219 play an important role in the susceptibility to Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD, and might be associated with other neurodegenerative disorders. Several recent reports indicate that polymorphisms outside the coding region of PRNP modulate the expression of prion protein and are associated with sporadic CJD, although other studies failed to show an association. These reports involved the polymorphism PRNP 1368 which is located upstream from PRNP exon 1. In a case-controlled protocol, we assessed the possible association between the PRNP 1368 polymorphism and either Alzheimer's disease (AD or vascular dementia (VaD. Methods To investigate whether the PRNP 1368 polymorphism is associated with the occurrence of AD or VaD in the Korean population, we compared the genotype, allele, and haplotype frequencies of the PRNP 1368 polymorphism in 152 AD patients and 192 VaD patients with frequencies in 268 healthy Koreans. Results and conclusion Significant differences in genotype, allele and haplotype frequencies of PRNP 1368 polymorphism were not observed between AD and normal controls. There were no significant differences in the genotype and allele frequencies of the PRNP 1368 polymorphism between Korean VaD patients and normal controls. However, in the haplotype analysis, haplotype Ht5 was significantly over-represented in Korean VaD patients. This was the first genetic association study of a polymorphism outside the coding region of PRNP in relation to AD and VaD.

  18. Chronic ventricular assist device support: surgical innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Sebastian V; Hanke, Jasmin S; Haverich, Axel; Schmitto, Jan D

    2016-05-01

    Ventricular assist device (VAD) therapy is currently one of the fastest-developing fields in cardiac surgery. Consistently improved technology, research, and gain of clinical experience have established VADs as an important option for the treatment of congestive heart failure. During the past year, novel devices and less invasive surgical procedures have been revolutionizing this field. The purpose of this manuscript is to review these innovations with special emphasis on device-related surgery. Device miniaturization has enabled less invasive VAD surgery, excluding the need for full sternotomy. Recent data show that intrahospital survival rates following less invasive VAD implantation are surpassing 90%. Secondly, two new devices, Heartmate 3 and MVAD, are being applied and tested for clinical application. In this context, the Heartmate 3 CE mark study recently concluded with excellent outcomes and without any pump thrombosis or device malfunctions. The first clinical results of the newest generation of VADs are very promising compared with old-generation devices. Furthermore, less invasive surgery is becoming a standard for the implantation, exchange, or explantation of left VADs. The joint venture of improved technology and innovative surgical techniques will push this field forward to even better outcomes and reduced complication rates.

  19. Speech Waveform Compression Using Robust Adaptive Voice Activity Detection for Nonstationary Noise

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    Hsiao-Chun Wu

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The voice activity detection (VAD is crucial in all kinds of speech applications. However, almost all existing VAD algorithms suffer from the nonstationarity of both speech and noise. To combat this difficulty, we propose a new voice activity detector, which is based on the Mel-energy features and an adaptive threshold related to the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR estimates. In this paper, we first justify the robustness of the Bayes classifier using the Mel-energy features over that using the Fourier spectral features in various noise environments. Then, we design an algorithm using the dynamic Mel-energy estimator and the adaptive threshold, which depends on the SNR estimates. In addition, a realignment scheme is incorporated to correct the sparse-and-spurious noise estimates. Numerous simulations are carried out to evaluate the performance of our proposed VAD method and the comparisons are made with a couple of existing representative schemes, namely, the VAD using the likelihood ratio test with Fourier spectral energy features and that based on the enhanced time-frequency parameters. Three types of noises, namely, white noise (stationary, babble noise (nonstationary, and vehicular noise (nonstationary were artificially added by the computer for our experiments. As a result, our proposed VAD algorithm significantly outperforms other existing methods as illustrated by the corresponding receiver operating characteristics (ROC curves. Finally, we demonstrate one of the major applications, namely, speech waveform compression associated with our new robust VAD scheme and quantify the effectiveness in terms of compression efficiency.

  20. Speech Waveform Compression Using Robust Adaptive Voice Activity Detection for Nonstationary Noise

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    Syed WaheeduddinQ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The voice activity detection (VAD is crucial in all kinds of speech applications. However, almost all existing VAD algorithms suffer from the nonstationarity of both speech and noise. To combat this difficulty, we propose a new voice activity detector, which is based on the Mel-energy features and an adaptive threshold related to the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR estimates. In this paper, we first justify the robustness of the Bayes classifier using the Mel-energy features over that using the Fourier spectral features in various noise environments. Then, we design an algorithm using the dynamic Mel-energy estimator and the adaptive threshold, which depends on the SNR estimates. In addition, a realignment scheme is incorporated to correct the sparse-and-spurious noise estimates. Numerous simulations are carried out to evaluate the performance of our proposed VAD method and the comparisons are made with a couple of existing representative schemes, namely, the VAD using the likelihood ratio test with Fourier spectral energy features and that based on the enhanced time-frequency parameters. Three types of noises, namely, white noise (stationary, babble noise (nonstationary, and vehicular noise (nonstationary were artificially added by the computer for our experiments. As a result, our proposed VAD algorithm significantly outperforms other existing methods as illustrated by the corresponding receiver operating characteristics (ROC curves. Finally, we demonstrate one of the major applications, namely, speech waveform compression associated with our new robust VAD scheme and quantify the effectiveness in terms of compression efficiency.

  1. Lack of retinoic acid leads to increased langerin-expressing dendritic cells in gut-associated lymphoid tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Sun-Young; Cha, Hye-Ran; Chang, Jae-Hoon; Ko, Hyun-Jeong; Yang, Hyungjun; Malissen, Bernard; Iwata, Makoto; Kweon, Mi-Na

    2010-04-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) is a crucial factor for maintaining homeostasis in the gut, including lymphocyte homing, immunoglobulin (Ig) A production, and T regulatory cells (Treg) and T helper cell 17 (T(H)17) generation. Until now, most attention has focused on the function of dendritic cells (DCs) to initiate adaptive immunity including T and B lymphocytes through RA. To investigate the effects of RA on DCs of gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), we analyzed the phenotype and function of DC subsets from GALT of vitamin A-deficient (VAD) mice. VAD mice were prepared by feeding them a VAD diet over 12 weeks from gestational days 10-14. Here, we report that tremendous increase of langerin(+) DCs occurred in the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) and gut lamina propria of VAD mice dependent on CCR7 signaling. Langerin(+) DCs have phenotypes more similar to those of bone marrow-derived dermal langerin(+) DCs than epidermal Langerhans cells. Moreover, RA receptor antagonists enhance the differentiation of langerin(+) DCs from mouse and human precursors of bone marrow and peripheral blood. Langerin(+) DCs were highly differentiated but less inflammatory than langerin(-) DCs of MLNs of VAD mice. Moreover, tolerance to orally delivered antigen was completely abrogated by depletion of langerin(+) DCs in the VAD mice. These results suggest that generation of langerin(+) DCs in the GALT is tightly regulated by RA and that the microenvironment of tissues determines the phenotype of DCs. 2010 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Impact of new technologies on metabolic care in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scurlock, Corey; Raikhelkar, Jayashree; Mechanick, Jeffrey I

    2009-03-01

    Technological innovations in the ICU have lead to extraordinary advances in modern critical care. Renal replacement therapy (RRT) innovations and ventricular assist devices (VAD) are now becoming common interventions in the ICU environment. The purpose of this article is to describe the impact of RRT and VAD on critical care medicine with particular reference to metabolic care. Continuous venovenous hemofiltration and slow low efficient daily dialysis are effective modalities of RRT in hemodynamically unstable patients. These continuous forms of RRT can result in accentuated protein and nutrient losses but also provide an opportunity for intradialytic parenteral nutrition support. VAD patients typically have cardiac cachexia and develop chronic critical illness syndrome. Intensive metabolic support, incorporating trophic, concentrated, semielemental enteral nutrition, supplemental parenteral nutrition, and intensive insulin therapy is a rational strategy to implement in VAD patients. Unfortunately, there is insufficient evidence at this time to support the routine use of these nutritional interventions with RRT and VAD. Patients requiring RRT or VAD are at high nutritional risk, which negatively affects ICU outcome. Prompt nutritional risk assessment and early optimization of metabolic care is crucial in this patient population.

  3. Neuroradiological findings in vascular dementia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guermazi, Ali; Miaux, Yves; Suhy, Joyce; Pauls, Jon; Lopez, Ria [Synarc, Inc., Department of Radiology Services, San Francisco, CA (United States); Rovira-Canellas, Alex [Hospital General Universitari Vall d' Hebron, Unita de Resonancia Magnetica, Barcelona (Spain); Posner, Holly [Eisai, Inc., Teaneck, NJ (United States)

    2007-01-15

    There are multiple diagnostic criteria for vascular dementia (VaD) that may define different populations. Utilizing the criteria of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke and Association Internationale pour la Recherche et l'Enseignement en Neurosciences (NINDS-AIREN) has provided improved consistency in the diagnosis of VaD. The criteria include a table listing brain imaging lesions associated with VaD. The different neuroradiological aspects of the criteria are reviewed based on the imaging data from an ongoing large-scale clinical trial testing a new treatment for VaD. The NINDS-AIREN criteria were applied by a centralized imaging rater to determine eligibility for enrollment in 1,202 patients using brain CT or MRI. Based on the above data set, the neuroradiological features that are associated with VaD and that can result from cerebral small-vessel disease with extensive leukoencephalopathy or lacunae (basal ganglia or frontal white matter), or may be the consequence of single strategically located infarcts or multiple infarcts in large-vessel territories, are illustrated. These features may also be the consequence of global cerebral hypoperfusion, intracerebral hemorrhage, or other mechanisms such as genetically determined arteriopathies. Neuroimaging confirmation of cerebrovascular disease in VaD provides information about the topography and severity of vascular lesions. Neuroimaging may also assist with the differential diagnosis of dementia associated with normal pressure hydrocephalus, chronic subdural hematoma, arteriovenous malformation or tumoral diseases. (orig.)

  4. Risk and Determinants of Dementia in Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment and Brain Subcortical Vascular Changes: A Study of Clinical, Neuroimaging, and Biological Markers—The VMCI-Tuscany Study: Rationale, Design, and Methodology

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    Anna Poggesi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dementia is one of the most disabling conditions. Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia (VaD are the most frequent causes. Subcortical VaD is consequent to deep-brain small vessel disease (SVD and is the most frequent form of VaD. Its pathological hallmarks are ischemic white matter changes and lacunar infarcts. Degenerative and vascular changes often coexist, but mechanisms of interaction are incompletely understood. The term mild cognitive impairment defines a transitional state between normal ageing and dementia. Pre-dementia stages of VaD are also acknowledged (vascular mild cognitive impairment, VMCI. Progression relates mostly to the subcortical VaD type, but determinants of such transition are unknown. Variability of phenotypic expression is not fully explained by severity grade of lesions, as depicted by conventional MRI that is not sensitive to microstructural and metabolic alterations. Advanced neuroimaging techniques seem able to achieve this. Beside hypoperfusion, blood-brain-barrier dysfunction has been also demonstrated in subcortical VaD. The aim of the Vascular Mild Cognitive Impairment Tuscany Study is to expand knowledge about determinants of transition from mild cognitive impairment to dementia in patients with cerebral SVD. This paper summarizes the main aims and methodological aspects of this multicenter, ongoing, observational study enrolling patients affected by VMCI with SVD.

  5. [Temporary use of centrifugal pump for pump thrombosis in patients with paracorporeal ventricular assist device].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Mitsutoshi; Kinoshita, Osamu; Nawata, Kan; Yamauchi, Haruo; Itoda, Yoshifumi; Hoshino, Yasuhiro; Kashiwa, Koichi; Kubo, Hitoshi; Kurosawa, Hideo; Takahashi, Mai; Koga, Sayaka; Ono, Minoru

    2015-05-01

    Nipro paracorporeal ventricular assist device( VAD) is often associated with pump thrombosis which causes severe complications such as brain infarction, often requiring pump change. However, Nipro VAD pump is an expensive device and it is difficult to change pumps frequently at a short interval. We have temporarily used Rotaflow centrifugal pump for recurrent pump thrombosis in patients with Nipro VADs. From January 2012 through December 2013, 19 patients underwent Nipro VADs implantation at our institution, and 9 of them underwent pump change from Nipro pumps to Rotaflow centrifugal pumps. A total of 25 Rotaflow centrifugal pumps were used in these 9 patients, with the total circulatory support duration of 526 days. The median support period was 15 days (range;2-128 days). There were 2 cerebrovascular accidents and 1 Rotaflow pump circuit thrombosis during this period. Change from Rotaflow to Nipro VAD pump resulted in decrease in hematocrit by about 3 point. There was no difference in liver or renal function between before and after the pump change. Our results suggest that temporary use of Rotaflow centrifugal pump for recurrent pump thrombosis in patients with Nipro VADs may be a promising alternative.

  6. Monitoring of Diaphragm Position in Pulsatile Pnumatic Ventricular Assisted Device by Ultrasound Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, Tadayuki; Homma, Akihiko; Tsukiya, Tomonori; Kakuta, Yukihide; Lee, Hwansung; Tatsumi, Eisuke; Taenaka, Yoshiyuki; Kitamura, Soichiro

    A new method using ultrasound sensors to detect the diaphragm position of a ventricular assist device (VAD) was proposed. Two small ultrasound sensors of 2.4mm diameter were attached to the outside surface of blood chamber of a pneumatic VAD. The receiving crystal received the ultrasound from the transmitting crystal reflected by the diaphragm. The diaphragm position was calculated by using geometric relation among two sensors and ultrasound propagation time. Validity of this method was evaluated in a mock circulation test under various driving conditions of VAD by comparing the ultrasound signals with driving pressure waveforms. The ultrasound signals could detect full-fill (FF) and full-eject (FE) status shortly before the spikes appeared on pressure waves, which are currently available to detect FE and FF but accompanies excessive extension of the diaphragm. This method would be helpful to avoid overloading of diaphragm. Linear correlation was observed between the output from VAD and blood volume calculated from the change of diaphragm position multiplied by the heart rate. This monitoring method of diaphragm of a VAD was proven to have advantages over the current method toward better control of a pneumatic VAD.

  7. A középkori magyar városfejlődés migráció- és ipartörténeti vonatkozásai a történeti személynévtan tükrében I. Személynévadás és migráció [Relations of migration and industrial history and medieval urban development in Hungary in the light of historical anthroponymy I. Giving personal names and migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulyás, László Szabolcs

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to explore for what purposes and by what means medieval personal names can be used in social historical research. Bynames derived from place names are examined in the present paper, as they prove to be essential sources in research into medieval migration history. From registers and to a lesser extent from charters of other types (sales contracts, civil procedural documents, the author has collected approximately 12,000 personal names of serfs and burghers. Information on migration history deduced from the names (e.g. distance, legal status of the previous place of residence is compared with the characteristics of medieval urban development. In doing so, the author relies on the so-called centrality score system, elaborated by András Kubinyi, which at present is the most accepted and effective method in research into urban, and more broadly, settlement history. With respect to the seven categories of settlements defined by Kubinyi, one can observe substantial and logical differences concerning the proportion of the incomers, the distance of migration and the legal status of the emissive settlements. These facts also suggest that Kubinyi’s categories (in fact, hierarchical levels demonstrating prosperity do identify settlements at different levels of their development.

  8. Scenario Development Approach to Management Simulation Games/ Vadību imitējošo spēļu scenāriju veidošanas pieeja/ Подход для разработки сценариев в деловых имитационых играх

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bikovska Jana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available В статье рассмотрен подход для разработки сценариев в деловых имитационных играх. Использование деловых имитационных игр становится все более популярным, так как обеспечивает альтернативный подход к обучению, предоставляя виртуальную бизнес-среду для освоения навыков принятия управленческих решений. Благодаря современному уровню развития информационных и коммуникационных технологий, расширяются и функциональные возможности деловых имитационных игр, что значительно повышает их эффективность и максимально приближает к ситуациям реальной жизни. В этой связи появляется необходимость в разработке таких методов, подходов и средств, которые обеспечивают управление комплексной бизнес-средой этих игр. Для этого вводится концепция сценария имитационной игры, которая служит основой для предлагаемой в статье процедуры разработки сценариев деловых имитационных игр. Эта процедура предполагает выполнение нескольких этапов с целью разработки такого сценария деловой имитационной игры, который соответствует конкретной цели обучения. Некоторые этапы этой процедуры исполняет инструктор, другие - автоматизированы. Например, значения параметров сценария генерируются автоматически, а также моделирование сценария происходит автоматически, например, с использованием агентов, которые замещают реальных участников игры. Для демонстрации практической реализации разработанного подхода используются две игры: ILMG и ECLIPS. ILMG представляет собой универсальную онлайн деловую имитационную игру, которая обеспечивает виртуальную бизнес-среду для освоения навыков принятия решений в таких сферах, как международная логистика, управление производством, маркетинг и финансы. Количество различных параметров сценария в ILMG игре достаточно большое, следовательно, разработка и моделирование сценария в ручном режиме занимает много времени. Применив разработанную процедуру разработки сценария, удалось значительно сократить объем работы и потраченное время. В свою очередь, игра ECLIPS представляет собой функциональную настольную деловую мимтационную игру, цель кторой дать представление об основных принципах работы цепи поставок, а также об основных преимуществах и недостатках различных стратегий управления запасами. Для ECLIPS игры бал разработан электронный аналог, который позволяет генерировать, моделировать и оценивать различные сценарии игры, что значительно облегчает работу инструктора

  9. Intramural hematoma detection by susceptibility-weighted imaging in intracranial vertebral artery dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Won; Choi, Hyun Seok; Koo, Jaseong; Jung, So Lyung; Ahn, Kook-Jin; Kim, Bum-Soo; Shin, Yong Sam; Lee, Kwang Soo

    2013-01-01

    The radiologic diagnosis of vertebral artery dissection (VAD) depends on characteristic intraluminal findings on angiography and intramural hematoma or a double-lumen sign on high-resolution vessel wall imaging. We aimed to evaluate the accuracy of intramural hematoma sign on susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) in VAD. We retrospectively analyzed SWI, phase map images and brain computed tomography (CT) of the consecutive patients who suffered an ischemic stroke in the vertebral artery territory from August 2010 to July 2012. We divided the patients into 2 groups: the VAD group and the nondissection group. VAD was diagnosed by conventional catheter angiographic findings (aneurysmal dilatation, pearl-and-string or tapered steno-occlusion) and pathognomonic findings such as intramural hematoma or a double-lumen sign on the source images of TOF-MRA, high-resolution T1-weighted MRI or high-resolution T2-weighted MRI. Intramural hematoma sign was considered positive if the patient had an eccentric or concentric hypointense signal lesion in the vertebral artery on SWI, a corresponding hyperintense signal on phase map and no evidence of calcification on the brain CT, suggesting blood products other than calcification. Two experienced neuroradiologists blinded to clinical information and angiographic findings were asked to judge for the presence of intramural hematoma sign on SWI. The accuracy of intramural hematoma sign on SWI was evaluated. Phase value, demographic and clinical data were compared between the VAD and the nondissection groups. Thirty-nine patients were included: 10 in the VAD group and 29 in the non-dissection group. Among the VAD group cases, intramural hematoma sign on SWI was positive in 9 of the 10 VAD cases and in 1 out of the 29 cases in the nondissection group. The intramural hematoma sign on SWI was significantly associated with VAD (p hematomas (n = 9) were all positive and those of calcified lesions (n = 13) were all negative (0.45 radian vs. -0

  10. The Ventricular Assist Device in the Life of the Child: A Phenomenological Pediatric Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Manen, Michael A

    2017-05-01

    What is it like for a child to live with an artificial heart? The use of some medical therapies in children requires developmental considerations, is associated with psychosocial consequences, and calls for ethical sensitivities. A critical case is the ventricular assist device (VAD), a mechanical pump used to support the functioning of a failing heart. As a pediatric therapy, the device can be used as a temporary solution for poor heart function, a bridge to transplantation or recovery, or as a destination therapy. While the mechanical-technical operation of the VAD is well understood, the clinical-technical aspects of young people living with this device are largely unexplored. Drawing on interviews of school-aged children, the aim of this phenomenological study is to explore how a VAD may structure or condition a child's meaningful experience of their world outside the hospital. The driveline of an implanted VAD is the peripheral attachment, extruding through the skin to connect the controller-power supply. The materiality of the device may be interruptive, restrictive, and disturbing to the psycho-physical being and sense of self-identity of the child as a child. And while a child equipped with a VAD is not necessarily conspicuous among other children, the child may experience the device as an exposing presence, while living with the worry of a caregiver who takes on the role not simply of parent but of watchful health professional. A phenomenological understanding of the VAD should assist parents and caregiving health professionals knowing how to deal with specific issues arising in the life of the VAD child.

  11. Therapeutic Mechanisms of Vernonia amygdalina Delile in the Treatment of Prostate Cancer

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    William Johnson

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer patients have been suffering from limited treatment options due to late diagnosis, poor drug tolerance, and multi-drug resistance to almost all the current drug treatments. Therefore, it is important to seek a new alternative therapeutic medicine that can effectively prevent the disease and even eradicate the progression and metastasis of prostate cancer. Vernonia amygdalina Delile (VAD is a common edible vegetable in Cameroon that has been used as a traditional medicine for some human diseases. However, to the best of our knowledge, no previous reports have explored its therapeutic efficacy against human prostate cancer. The objective of the present study was to assess the anticancer activities of VAD methanolic extracts in the prevention and treatment of prostate cancer using human androgen-independent prostate cancer (PC-3 cells as a test model. To achieve our objective, PC-3 cells were treated with various doses of VAD for 48 h. Data generated from the trypan blue test and MTT assay demonstrated that VAD extracts exhibited significant growth-inhibitory effects on PC-3 cells. Collectively, we established for the first time the antiproliferative effects of VAD on PC-3 cells, with an IC50 value of about 196.6 µg/mL. Further experiments, including cell morphology, lipid peroxidation and comet assays, and apoptosis analysis showed that VAD caused growth-inhibitory effects on PC-3 cells through the induction of cell growth arrest, DNA damage, apoptosis, and necrosis in vitro and may provide protection from oxidative stress diseases as a result of its high antioxidant content. These results provide useful data on the anticancer activities of VAD for prostate cancer and demonstrate the novel possibilities of this medicinal plant for developing prostate cancer therapies.

  12. Shift of graft-versus-host-disease target organ tropism by dietary vitamin A.

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    Christian Koenecke

    Full Text Available Gut-homing of donor T cells is causative for the development of intestinal GvHD in recipients of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT. Expression of the gut-specific homing receptors integrin-α4β7 and chemokine receptor CCR9 on T cells is imprinted in gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT under the influence of the vitamin A metabolite retinoic acid. Here we addressed the role of vitamin A deficiency in HSCT-recipients for donor T cell migration in the course of experimental GvHD. Vitamin A-deficient (VAD mice were prepared by feeding them a vitamin A-depleted diet. Experiments were performed in a C57BL/6 into BALB/c model of acute GvHD. We found that expression of integrin-α4β7 and CCR9 in GALT was reduced in VAD recipients after HSCT. Competitive in vivo homing assays showed that allogeneic T cells primed in VAD mice did not home as efficiently to the intestine as T cells primed in mice fed with standard diet (STD. The course of GvHD was ameliorated in VAD HSCT-recipients and, consequently, their survival was prolonged compared to recipients receiving STD. However, VAD-recipients were not protected and died of clinical GvHD. We found reduced numbers of donor T cells in the intestine but increased cell counts and tissue damage in other organs of VAD-recipients. Furthermore, we observed high IFN-γ(+CD4(+ and low FoxP3(+CD4(+ frequencies of total donor CD4(+ T cells in VAD as compared to STD recipients. Taken together, these results indicate that dietary vitamin A deficiency in HSCT-recipients changed target organ tropism in GvHD but also resulted in fatal inflammation after HSCT.

  13. Quantification of myelin loss in frontal lobe white matter in vascular dementia, Alzheimer's disease, and dementia with Lewy bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihara, Masafumi; Polvikoski, Tuomo M; Hall, Ros; Slade, Janet Y; Perry, Robert H; Oakley, Arthur E; Englund, Elisabet; O'Brien, John T; Ince, Paul G; Kalaria, Raj N

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize myelin loss as one of the features of white matter abnormalities across three common dementing disorders. We evaluated post-mortem brain tissue from frontal and temporal lobes from 20 vascular dementia (VaD), 19 Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 31 dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) cases and 12 comparable age controls. Images of sections stained with conventional luxol fast blue were analysed to estimate myelin attenuation by optical density. Serial adjacent sections were then immunostained for degraded myelin basic protein (dMBP) and the mean percentage area containing dMBP (%dMBP) was determined as an indicator of myelin degeneration. We further assessed the relationship between dMBP and glutathione S-transferase (a marker of mature oligodendrocytes) immunoreactivities. Pathological diagnosis significantly affected the frontal but not temporal lobe myelin attenuation: myelin density was most reduced in VaD compared to AD and DLB, which still significantly exhibited lower myelin density compared to ageing controls. Consistent with this, the degree of myelin loss was correlated with greater %dMBP, with the highest %dMBP in VaD compared to the other groups. The %dMBP was inversely correlated with the mean size of oligodendrocytes in VaD, whereas it was positively correlated with their density in AD. A two-tier regression model analysis confirmed that the type of disorder (VaD or AD) determines the relationship between %dMBP and the size or density of oligodendrocytes across the cases. Our findings, attested by the use of three markers, suggest that myelin loss may evolve in parallel with shrunken oligodendrocytes in VaD but their increased density in AD, highlighting partially different mechanisms are associated with myelin degeneration, which could originate from hypoxic-ischaemic damage to oligodendrocytes in VaD whereas secondary to axonal degeneration in AD.

  14. Vascular dementia: Facts and controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Aleksandra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular dementia (VaD is the second most frequent dementia after Alzheimer’s disease, and is diagnosed during lifetime in 20% of demented patients. Five­year survival rate in VaD is 39%, while it is estimated to be 75% in healthy persons of the same age. It is therefore important to make correct diagnosis of VaD early in the course of the disease. Risk factors for VaD are identical to stroke risk factors, and there are significant possibilities for the prevention of vascular cognitive decline. Cognitive decline develops acutely or step­by­step within three months after stroke, but more gradual progression of intellectual decline is also possible. Neurological examination can reveal pyramidal and extrapyramidal signs, pseudobulbar palsy, gait disturbance and urinary incontinence. Neuropsychological profile comprises the loss of cognitive set shifting, decline in word fluency, verbal learning difficulties, perseverations, difficulties in complex figure copying, and in patients with cortically located lesions also problems with speech and praxia. The basis of the diagnosis is, besides history, neurological examination and neuropsychological assessment, computed tomography and/ or magnetic resonance brain imaging. Vascular risk factors control is the most important measure in VaD prevention. Modern guidelines for the treatment of cognitive decline in VaD emphasize that donepezil can be useful in the improvement of cognitive status at the level of Class IIa recommendation at the level of evidence A, while memantine may be useful in patients with mixed VaD and Alzheimer’s disease dementia. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175022 i br. 175033

  15. Cognitive outcomes in pediatric heart transplant recipients bridged to transplantation with ventricular assist devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Mary Lynette; Bruno, Jennifer L; Konopacki, Kelly L; Kesler, Shelli; Reinhartz, Olaf; Rosenthal, David

    2013-02-01

    Ventricular assist devices (VADs) have been associated with high rates of neurologic injury in pediatric patients during the period of support, but the delayed consequences of this type of injury have not been described in the literature. In this study we assess cognitive outcomes with indices of general intellectual functioning, including working memory, processing speed, perceptual reasoning and verbal comprehension, for pediatric heart transplant recipients who required VAD support as a bridge to transplant (n = 9). We present an aggregate of these VAD patients combined with heart transplant recipients who did not require mechanical circulatory support (n = 11), and compare the performance of all transplant patients (n = 20) to typically developing, healthy comparators (n = 12). We also present a post hoc analysis of those transplant recipients with significant medical morbidity in the first year of life, referred to as the "high-risk" transplant group (n = 5), and compare them with the "low-risk" transplant group (n = 15) and the typically developing comparators (n = 12). The mean performance of the VAD patients was in the average range for each of the examined indices of cognitive functioning. A total of 11% of the VAD patients performed in the impaired range and 78% performed in the average range, with 11% in the superior range on measures of general intellectual functioning. The typically developing participants performed significantly better than the aggregated transplant recipients on all indices except verbal comprehension. Lower cognitive performance in the combined transplant group appears to be associated with medical morbidity in the first year of life. Despite significant neurologic risk factors, this cohort of pediatric patients who were bridged to transplant with VAD demonstrated resiliency in terms of cognitive outcomes. In this heterogeneous population, it is likely that multiple factors contributed to the cognitive outcomes. As VAD use becomes

  16. Emergent mechanical support in the community: improvement with early transplant center referral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Rohinton J; Pochettino, Alberto; O'Hara, Marylou; Gardner, Timothy J; Acker, Michael A

    2005-06-01

    Emergent mechanical support for the failing ventricle, with eventual transfer for definitive care, is often required at non-transplant centers. Transfer for definitive care, in terms of bridge to transplant, may require ventricular assist device (VAD) placement at the primary institution or at the transplant center. Review of consecutive single transplant center referrals was conducted to decipher optimal management. From January 1997 to December 2000, 104 patients were transferred to the University of Pennsylvania Heart Failure/Transplant Service. Most were transferred from active cardiac surgical programs, with 56 patients having post-cardiotomy failure at the primary site. A VAD was placed in procedures done at the outside hospital (OSH) in 28 patients, most commonly (60%) an Abiomed device. Of the 76 patients that received a VAD at the transplant center (TxpC), 86% received a TCI or Thoratec device. Biventricular support was required in 34 patients. Overall survival was 57%, with 54 patients bridged to transplantation and 5 patients undergoing recovery. Patients having a VAD placed at the OSH had a 32% (9 of 28) survival, whereas at the TxpC survival was 65% (45 of 76) (p 1-year post-transplant. The most common cause of death was multi-system organ failure (19 of 45), followed by major neurologic event (15 of 45). Infection was the cause of death in only 6 patients. Left ventricular failure can be treated by emergent VAD placement. Overall survival is substantial if these patients are referred to a transplant center with multiple options. In contrast to previous reports, survival rates may be improved by earlier referral, before VAD placement at non-transplant centers and use of a VAD with longer-term capability.

  17. Experience With a Long-term Pulsatile Ventricular Assist Device as a Bridge to Heart Transplant in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Bueno, Manuel; Segovia Cubero, Javier; Serrano Fiz, Santiago; Ugarte Basterrechea, Juan; Hernández Pérez, Francisco José; Goirigolzarri Artaza, Josebe; Castedo Mejuto, Evaristo; Burgos Lázaro, Raúl; García Montero, Carlos; Moñivas Palomero, Vanessa; Mingo Santos, Susana; González Román, Ana Isabel; Álvarez Avelló, José Manuel; Vidal Fernández, Mercedes; Forteza Gil, Alberto; Alonso-Pulpón, Luis

    2017-09-01

    Most long-term ventricular assist devices (VADs) that are currently implanted are intracorporeal continuous-flow devices. Their main limitations include their high cost and inability to provide biventricular support. The aim of this study was to describe the results of using paracorporeal pulsatile-flow VADs as a bridge to transplant (BTT) in adult patients. Retrospective analysis of the characteristics, complications, and outcomes of a single-center case series of consecutive patients treated with the EXCOR VAD as BTT between 2009 and 2015. During the study period, 25 VADs were implanted, 6 of them biventricular. Ventricular assist devices were indicated directly as a BTT in 12 patients and as a bridge to decision in 13 due to the presence of potentially reversible contraindications or chance of heart function recovery. Twenty patients (80%) were successfully bridged to heart transplant after a median of 112 days (range, 8-239). The main complications included infectious (52% of patients), neurological events (32%, half of them fatal), bleeding (28%), and VAD malfunction requiring component replacement (28%). Eighty percent of patients with the EXCOR VAD as BTT achieved the goal after an average of almost 4 months of support. The most frequent complications were infectious, and the most severe were neurological. In our enivonment, the use of these pulsatile-flow VAD as BTT is a feasible strategy that obtains similar outcomes to those of intracorporeal continuous-flow devices. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of vascular burden as measured by vascular indexes upon vascular dementia: a matched case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahashi PY

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Paul Y Takahashi, Casey R Caldwell, Paul V TargonskiPrimary Care Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester MN, USABackground: Vascular dementia (VaD is a challenging illness that affects the lives of older adults and caregivers. It is unclear how multiple vascular risk factor exposures (polyvascular disease affect VaD.Purpose: To determine the relationship between multiple vascular risk exposures, as counted on an index in cases with VaD, compared with healthy age-/gender-matched controls.Methods: This was a matched case-control study of subjects living in Olmsted County, MN with documented VaD. Controls were selected by gender and age within 3 years from those who did not have dementia. The exposures included a total index (eleven exposure factors added together, along with indexes for cerebrovascular disease (two exposures, cardiovascular disease (four exposures, vascular disease (three exposures, and lifestyle (two exposures. Analysis used matched conditional univariable logistic regression for each index.Results: A total of 1736 potential subjects were identified, and 205 subjects were diagnosed with VaD. There was a significant association of the total score index with an odds ratio of 1.45 (95% confidence interval 1.21–1.74. The cerebrovascular index was also associated with VaD with an odds ratio of 12.18 (95% confidence interval 6.29–23.61. The cardiovascular and vascular indexes were also associated with VaD status. The lifestyle index was not associated with VaD.Conclusion: The cumulative role of multiple vascular risk factors or diseases increased the risk of VaD, as noted by the total vascular index. The lifestyle index did not reveal any significant differences. Further work is required for evaluation of these indexes.Keywords: polyvascular disease, elderly, vascular dementia

  19. Maintenance therapy with alternate-day prednisone improves survival in multiple myeloma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenson, James R; Crowley, John J; Grogan, Thomas M; Zangmeister, Jeffrey; Briggs, Adrienne D; Mills, Glenn M; Barlogie, Bart; Salmon, Sydney E

    2002-05-01

    The role of maintenance therapy in multiple myeloma is controversial. Recent studies have shown an improvement in both progression-free and overall survival for patients receiving maintenance treatment with a combination of interferon and glucocorticoids, compared with interferon alone. The role of glucocorticoids alone as maintenance therapy has not been previously addressed. We compared alternate-day, oral prednisone at 2 different dose levels (10 mg versus 50 mg) for remission maintenance among previously untreated myeloma patients following a response to induction with standard-dose vincristine, doxorubicin, and dexamethasone with prednisone (VAD-P) or VAD-P plus quinine (VAD-P/Q). There were 250 eligible patients registered on Southwest Oncology Group study 9210 and randomized to receive VAD-P or VAD-P/Q. There were 125 patients achieving at least a 25% tumor reduction following induction therapy who were randomized to either physiologic (10 mg) or pharmacologic (50 mg) doses of alternate-day, oral prednisone until disease progression. At the time of study entry, patient characteristics were similar in VAD-P and VAD-P/Q patients and in the 2 arms randomized to maintenance therapy. After a median follow-up of 53 months, there was no difference in either progression-free or overall survival between the 2 induction regimens. However, from the time of maintenance randomization, both progression-free (14 versus 5 months; P =.003) and overall survival (37 versus 26 months; P =.05) were significantly improved in patients receiving 50 mg as compared with 10 mg alternate-day prednisone. There was no difference in treatment-related adverse events between the groups. Thus, 50 mg, oral, alternate-day prednisone is effective maintenance treatment for multiple myeloma patients who achieve a response to induction chemotherapy. (Blood. 2002;99:3163-3168)

  20. Expression and localisation of caveolins during postnatal development in rat heart: implication of thyroid hormone

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ratajczak, P.; Oliviéro, P.; Marotte, F.; Kolář, František; Ošťádal, Bohuslav; Samuel, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 99, č. 1 (2005), s. 244-251 ISSN 8750-7587 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0510 Grant - others:Fondation de France(FR) Institut National de la Sante et de la Reserche Medicale; GA-(FR) Ministere de la Recherche et de l’Enseignement Superieur and Association Francoise contre les Myopathies Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : caveolin * cardiomyocyte * coronary vessels Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 3.037, year: 2005

  1. Applying the International Nuclear Event Scale to radioactive materials transport events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krembel, D.

    2002-01-01

    Expanding the scope of its activities to include controlling the safe transport of radioactive materials, the French Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN) has decided to apply the INES scale to transport events, following a wide-ranging debate bringing together experts, industry and the Conseil Superieur de la Surete et de l'Information Nucleaire (Higher Council for Nuclear Safety and Information). International interest in French experience has gradually raised the question of harmonised application of the INES scale to transport events by the competent international authorities. (author)

  2. Exercise physiology with a left ventricular assist device: Analysis of heart-pump interaction with a computational simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresiello, Libera; Rademakers, Frank; Claus, Piet; Ferrari, Gianfranco; Di Molfetta, Arianna; Meyns, Bart

    2017-01-01

    Patients with a Ventricular Assist Device (VAD) are hemodynamically stable but show an impaired exercise capacity. Aim of this work is to identify and to describe the limiting factors of exercise physiology with a VAD. We searched for data concerning exercise in heart failure condition and after VAD implantation from the literature. Data were analyzed by using a cardiorespiratory simulator that worked as a collector of inputs coming from different papers. As a preliminary step the simulator was used to reproduce the evolution of hemodynamics from rest to peak exercise (ergometer cycling) in heart failure condition. Results evidence an increase of cardiac output of +2.8 l/min and a heart rate increase to 67% of the expected value. Then, we simulated the effect of a continuous-flow VAD at both rest and exercise. Total cardiac output increases of +3.0 l/min (+0.9 l/min due to the VAD and +2.1 l/min to the native ventricle). Since the left ventricle works in a non-linear portion of the diastolic stiffness line, we observed a consistent increase of pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (from 14 to 20 mmHg) for a relatively small increase of end-diastolic volume (from 182 to 189 cm3). We finally increased VAD speed during exercise to the maximum possible value and we observed a reduction of wedge pressure (-4.5 mmHg), a slight improvement of cardiac output (8.0 l/min) and a complete unloading of the native ventricle. The VAD can assure a proper hemodynamics at rest, but provides an insufficient unloading of the left ventricle and does not prevent wedge pressure from rising during exercise. Neither the VAD provides major benefits during exercise in terms of total cardiac output, which increases to a similar extend to an unassisted heart failure condition. VAD speed modulation can contribute to better unload the ventricle but the maximal flow reachable with the current devices is below the cardiac output observed in a healthy heart.

  3. Ventricular assist device support in patients with single ventricles: the Melbourne experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poh, Chin L; Chiletti, Roberto; Zannino, Diana; Brizard, Christian; Konstantinov, Igor E; Horton, Stephen; Millar, Johnny; d'Udekem, Yves

    2017-08-01

    The capacity and limitations of ventricular assist device (VAD) support in single-ventricle physiology remains poorly understood. We aimed to review our experience in the use of VAD support in the single-ventricle circulation to determine its feasibility in this population. We reviewed our experience with VAD support in patients with single ventricles over the past 25 years. Fifty-seven patients received 64 runs of VAD support between 1990 and 2015 at a median age of 13 days [interquartile range (IQR) 4.1-99.4 days], of which 55 were supported for post-cardiotomy failure. The majority of patients received short-term VAD support, while 4 patients were either directly supported (1) or transitioned onto the Berlin Heart EXCOR (3). The median duration of support was 3.5 days (IQR 2.8-5.2 days). Twelve patients suffered significant neurological complications, and thromboembolic events occurred in 8 patients. Twenty-nine of the 55 patients were successfully weaned off support (53%). There were 37 inpatient deaths, with a survival-to-hospital discharge rate of 33% (18 of 55). Of the 4 patients supported after early Fontan failure, 3 died. Having a higher mean arterial blood pressure on initiation of VAD support was the only significant predictor of death (hazards ratio 1.08; 95% confidence interval 1.03-1.14; P = 0.002). Patients who required a second run of support had higher hospital mortality (83% vs 63%; P = 0.84). Of the hospital survivors, 12 patients (63%) remain alive without heart transplantation at median 7.2 years (IQR 3.5-14.0) post VAD support. VAD support in patients with a single ventricle has a high hospital mortality, with 1 of 3 patients surviving to discharge. Systemic VAD support is likely futile in the setting of early Fontan failure or when re-initiation of support is required. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  4. Influence of education on subcortical hyperintensities and global cognitive status in vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Elizabeth M; Paul, Robert H; Moser, David J; Fletcher, Thomas D; Cohen, Ronald A

    2011-05-01

    Subcortical hyperintensities (SH) on neuroimaging are a prominent feature of vascular dementia (VaD) and SH severity correlates with cognitive impairment in this population. Previous studies demonstrated that SH burden accounts for a degree of the cognitive burden among VaD patients, although it remains unclear if individual factors such as cognitive reserve influence cognitive status in VaD. To address this issue, we examined 36 individuals diagnosed with probable VaD (age = 77.56; education = 12). All individuals underwent MMSE evaluations and MRI brain scans. We predicted that individuals with higher educational attainment would exhibit less cognitive difficulty despite similar levels of SH volume, compared to individuals with less educational attainment. A regression analysis revealed that greater SH volume was associated with lower scores on the MMSE. Additionally, education moderated the relationship between SH volume and MMSE score, demonstrating that individuals with higher education had higher scores on the MMSE despite similar degrees of SH burden. These results suggest that educational attainment buffers the deleterious effects of SH burden on cognitive status among VaD patients.

  5. Neuroprotective Effects of Clostridium butyricum against Vascular Dementia in Mice via Metabolic Butyrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaming Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics actively participate in neuropsychiatric disorders. However, the role of gut microbiota in brain disorders and vascular dementia (VaD remains unclear. We used a mouse model of VaD induced by a permanent right unilateral common carotid arteries occlusion (rUCCAO to investigate the neuroprotective effects and possible underlying mechanisms of Clostridium butyricum. Following rUCCAO, C. butyricum was intragastrically administered for 6 successive weeks. Cognitive function was estimated. Morphological examination was performed by electron microscopy and hematoxylin-eosin (H&E staining. The BDNF-PI3K/Akt pathway-related proteins were assessed by western blot and immunohistochemistry. The diversity of gut microbiota and the levels of butyrate in the feces and the brains were determined. The results showed that C. butyricum significantly attenuated the cognitive dysfunction and histopathological changes in VaD mice. C. butyricum not only increased the levels of BDNF and Bcl-2 and decreased level of Bax but also induced Akt phosphorylation (p-Akt and ultimately reduced neuronal apoptosis. Moreover, C. butyricum could regulate the gut microbiota and restore the butyrate content in the feces and the brains. These results suggest that C. butyricum might be effective in the treatment of VaD by regulating the gut-brain axis and that it can be considered a new therapeutic strategy against VaD.

  6. Serum paraoxonase and arylesterase activities of paraoxonase-1 (PON-1), mild cognitive impairment, and 2-year conversion to dementia: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervellati, Carlo; Trentini, Alessandro; Romani, Arianna; Bellini, Tiziana; Bosi, Cristina; Ortolani, Beatrice; Zurlo, Amedeo; Passaro, Angelina; Seripa, Davide; Zuliani, Giovanni

    2015-10-01

    Converging lines of evidence suggest that paraoxonase-1 (PON-1) may confer protection against inflammatory and oxidative challenge which, in turn, plays a key-role in the onset and progression of dementia. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether serum PON-1 paraoxonase/arylesterase activities might predict the clinical conversion of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) or vascular dementia (VAD). Serum paraoxonase and arylesterase activities were measured by spectrophotometric assays at baseline in 141 MCI patients (median age: 77 years; interquartile range 71-81) and in 78 healthy controls (median age: 76 years; interquartile range 73-79). After 2 years of follow-up, 86 MCI remained stable (MCI/MCI), 34 converted to LOAD (MCI/LOAD), whereas 21 converted to VAD (MCI/VAD). Baseline arylesterase activity was lower in all MCI groups compared with controls (all p paraoxonase activity was lower in MCI/VAD group compared to controls (p paraoxonase and arylesterase activities (I quartile) were associated to higher risk of conversion to VAD (OR: 3.74, 95% CI: 1.37-10.25 and OR: 3.16, 95% CI: 1.17-8.56, respectively). Our results suggest that in MCI patients low PON-1 activity might contribute to identify individuals susceptible to develop vascular dementia. © 2015 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  7. Effects of Lactobacillus plantarum TWK10-Fermented Soymilk on Deoxycorticosterone Acetate-Salt-Induced Hypertension and Associated Dementia in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Te-Hua Liu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress resulting from excessive production of reactive oxygen species is the major mediator of neuronal cell degeneration observed in neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD and vascular dementia (VaD. Additionally, hypertension has been shown to be a positive risk factor for VaD. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the effects of Lactobacillus plantarum strain TWK10 (TWK10-fermented soymilk on the protection of PC-12 cells in H2O2-, oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD- and deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA-salt-induced rat models of VaD. Notably, the viabilities of H2O2-treated PC-12 cells and OGD model were significantly increased by treatment with TWK10-fermented soymilk ethanol extract (p < 0.05. In addition, oral administration of TWK10-fermented soymilk extract in DOCA-salt hypertension-induced VaD rats resulted in a significant decrease in blood pressure (p < 0.05, which was regulated by inhibiting ACE activity and promoting NO production, in addition to decreased escape latency and increased target crossing (p < 0.05. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that TWK10-fermented soymilk extract could improve learning and memory in DOCA-salt hypertension-induced VaD rats by acting as a blood pressure-lowering and neuroprotective agent.

  8. A Physiological Controller for Turbodynamic Ventricular Assist Devices Based on Left Ventricular Systolic Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrou, Anastasios; Ochsner, Gregor; Amacher, Raffael; Pergantis, Panagiotis; Rebholz, Mathias; Meboldt, Mirko; Schmid Daners, Marianne

    2016-09-01

    The current article presents a novel physiological feedback controller for turbodynamic ventricular assist devices (tVADs). This controller is based on the recording of the left ventricular (LV) pressure measured at the inlet cannula of a tVAD thus requiring only one pressure sensor. The LV systolic pressure (SP) is proposed as an indicator to determine the varying perfusion requirements. The algorithm to extract the SP from the pump inlet pressure signal used for the controller to adjust the speed of the tVAD shows robust behavior. Its performance was evaluated on a hybrid mock circulation. The experiments with changing perfusion requirements were compared with a physiological circulation and a pathological one assisted with a tVAD operated at constant speed. A sensitivity analysis of the controller parameters was conducted to identify their limits and their influence on a circulation. The performance of the proposed SP controller was evaluated for various values of LV contractility, as well as for a simulated pressure sensor drift. The response of a pathological circulation assisted by a tVAD controlled by the introduced SP controller matched the physiological circulation well, while over- and underpumping events were eliminated. The controller presented a robust performance during experiments with simulated pressure sensor drift. © 2016 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Multi-Infarct Dementia: A Historical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin McKay

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multi-infarct dementia (MID, a prominent subtype of vascular dementia (VaD, has only achieved recognition in the last 4 decades. Since its original description, the characterization, etiological understanding, and therapeutic direction of MID and other VaD subtypes has progressed at an astounding rate. Summary: This paper divides the landmark discoveries and emergence of new research strategies for MID into decade-defining patterns so that a condensed picture of the total history of MID and its eventual inclusion as a VaD subtype emerges. This paper follows the first descriptive decade, a shift to a preventative focus, a renewed interest coinciding with timely advances in research technology, and a hopeful return to treatment possibilities for VaD. Key Message: Concisely tracing the historical lineage of the modern understanding of MID, both as a singular entity and as part of the VaD con­stellation of disorders, provides a novel perspective on the foundation upon which future advances in combating vascular contributions to dementia will be based.

  10. Effects of Thoratec pulsatile ventricular assist device timing on the abdominal aortic wave intensity pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahren, Silje Ekroll; Amacher, Raffael; Weber, Alberto; Most, Henriette; Flammer, Shannon Axiak; Traupe, Tobias; Stoller, Michael; de Marchi, Stefano; Vandenberghe, Stijn

    2014-10-15

    Arterial waves are seen as possible independent mediators of cardiovascular risks, and the wave intensity analysis (WIA) has therefore been proposed as a method for patient selection for ventricular assist device (VAD) implantation. Interpreting measured wave intensity (WI) is challenging, and complexity is increased by the implantation of a VAD. The waves generated by the VAD interact with the waves generated by the native heart, and this interaction varies with changing VAD settings. Eight sheep were implanted with a pulsatile VAD (PVAD) through ventriculoaortic cannulation. The start of PVAD ejection was synchronized to the native R wave and delayed between 0 and 90% of the cardiac cycle in 10% steps or phase shifts (PS). Pressure and velocity signals were registered, with the use of a combined Doppler and pressure wire positioned in the abdominal aorta, and used to calculate the WI. Depending on the PS, different wave interference phenomena occurred. Maximum unloading of the left ventricle (LV) coincided with constructive interference and maximum blood flow pulsatility, and maximum loading of the LV coincided with destructive interference and minimum blood flow pulsatility. We believe that noninvasive WIA could potentially be used clinically to assess the mechanical load of the LV and to monitor the peripheral hemodynamics such as blood flow pulsatility and risk of intestinal bleeding. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Mechanical circulatory support challenges in pediatric and (adult) congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweiger, Martin; Lorts, Angela; Conway, Jennifer

    2018-03-20

    Increased miniaturization of ventricular assist devices (VADs) and new mechanical support strategies (MCS) has increased the use of MCS in the pediatric and congenital heart disease (CHD) population. This comes with the need for care providers specialized in this field to determine optimal patient and device selection, and to improve outcomes and decrease complication rates for new innovative strategies. A review of the published literature in this field is timely and relevant. There has been a rapid evolution of using adult designed continuous flow VADS to support children and adults with CHD (ACHD). Patient selection for patients with CHD is complex because of patient size and anatomical diversity and, therefore, makes decision-making complex and unique when compared to general adult practice. Outcomes for children depend on size and diagnosis with neonates with single ventricle physiology being the highest risk candidates. This also holds true for ACHD, in which VAD outcomes in patients with two ventricle physiology are comparable to non-ACHD patients. In children, there is an increased use of continuous flow devices and a growing experience with outpatient management. Patients with CHD especially when associated with single ventricle physiologies, remain a challenge when it comes to MCS/VAD placement but successful durable VAD implantation with discharge home has been reported.

  12. Bazex Syndrome with Hypoalbuminemia and Severe Ascites

    OpenAIRE

    Matsui, Hidetoshi; Iwae, Shigemichi; Hirayama, Yuji; Yonezawa, Koichiro; Shigeji, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Bazex syndrome is a rare paraneoplastic dermatosis. The underlying malignancy frequently is squamous cell carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract or cervical lymph nodes from an unknown primary site. We report a 63-year-old man with squamous cell carcinoma of cervical lymph nodes from an unknown primary site. He developed a mass on the right side of his neck, cutaneous lesions diagnosed as Bazex syndrome, hypoalbuminemia, and severe ascites. Right neck dissection was performed. After neck ...

  13. CCR 20th anniversary commentary: Preclinical study of proteasome inhibitor bortezomib in head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Clint T; Conley, Barbara; Sunwoo, John B; Van Waes, Carter

    2015-03-01

    In a study published in the May 1, 2001, issue of Clinical Cancer Research, Sunwoo and colleagues provided evidence for proteasome inhibition of NF-κB and tumorigenesis, supporting early-phase clinical trials in solid malignancies of the upper aerodigestive tract. Subsequent clinical studies uncovered a dichotomy of responses in patients with hematopoietic and solid malignancies, and the mechanisms of resistance. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  14. Primary retroperitoneal melanoma presented in a rare extracutaneous site for malignant melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Alsharedi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Malignant melanoma, as the name implies, is a malignant tumor of melanocytes, found in the skin, eyes, meningeal lining and the mucosal epithelium of the aero-digestive and genitourinary tracts. Malignant melanoma is typically skin malignancy, which rarely presents at extracutaneous site. Here we present a rare case of primary retroperitoneal melanoma and review the findings in comparison with other cases described in literature.

  15. The mucosal immune system: From dentistry to vaccine development

    OpenAIRE

    KIYONO, Hiroshi; AZEGAMI, Tatsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    The oral cavity is the beginning of the aero-digestive tract, which is covered by mucosal epithelium continuously under the threat of invasion of pathogens, it is thus protected by the mucosal immune system. In the early phase of our scientific efforts for the demonstration of mucosal immune system, dental science was one of major driving forces due to their foreseeability to use oral immunity for the control of oral diseases. The mucosal immune system is divided functionally into, but interc...

  16. Statistic analysis of the delineation of organs at risk for the treatment on the ENT area in conformational radiotherapy; Analyse statistique de la delineation des organes a risque pour les traitements de la sphere ORL en radiotherapie conformationnelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majdoub, M.; Diaz, J.C.; Kafrouni, H. [Societe DOSIsoft, Cachan (France); Graff, P.; Herlevin, K.; Peiffert, D. [Service de radiophysique medicale, centre Alexis-Vautrin, Vandceuvre-les-Nancy (France); Noel, A. [UMR 7039, centre de recherche en automatique de Nancy (Cran), universite CNRS, Vandceuvre-les-Nancy (France); Wolf, D. [Departement de radiotherapie, centre Alexis-Vautrin, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    2011-10-15

    The authors report the definition of relevant quantitative indicators for the characterization of the delineation of organs at risk in the ENT area. Based on the analysis of more than hundred medical files of patients treated by conformational irradiation for an upper aero-digestive tract cancer, the authors aim at developing a delineation standard by descriptive analysis of these indicators, and then at developing of automatic delineation error detection tool. Short communication

  17. Late swallowing dysfunction and dysphagia after radiotherapy for pharynx cancer: Frequency, intensity and correlation with dose and volume parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, Kenneth; Lambertsen, Karin; Grau, Cai

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: Dysphagia and swallowing problems are common in pharynx cancer patients treated with radiotherapy. Dysfunction of the upper aerodigestive tract may lead to reduced quality of life, malnutrition and aspiration pneumonia. The aim of the current study was to describe swallowing function after radiotherapy and examine its correlation with irradiated volume and dose. Patients and methods: All recurrence free patients treated for pharynx cancer with radical radiotherapy at our institution, between 1998 and 2002, were invited to participate, 35 (55% of eligible) agreed. Patients were examined with EORTC quality of life questionnaires and functional endoscopic evaluation of swallowing. Organs at risk were delineated on planning CT scans, available for 25 patients. Results: Eighty-three percent of patients had some degree of dysphagia. Reduced sensitivity was observed in 94%, residues in 88%, penetration in 59% and aspiration in 18% of patients. Several significant correlations were found between both subjective and objective swallowing problems and DVH parameters of the upper aerodigestive tract. Doses less than 60 Gy to the supraglottic region, the larynx and upper esophageal sphincter resulted in a low risk of aspiration. Discussion: Both subjective and objective swallowing problems were frequent and severe after radiotherapy for pharynx cancer. Swallowing dysfunction was correlated with dose and volume parameters of the upper aerodigestive tract

  18. The clinicopathologic significance of small areas unstained by Lugol's iodine in the mucosa surrounding resected esophageal carcinoma: an analysis of 147 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Y; Ochiai, A; Yoshimura, K; Kato, H; Shimoda, T; Yamaguchi, H; Tachimori, Y; Watanabe, H; Hirohashi, S

    1998-04-15

    Small areas unstained with Lugol's iodine are often observed in the mucosa surrounding esophageal carcinomas. For light microscopic evaluation, the histologic features of 131 small areas unstained by Lugol's iodine in 12 selected cases were investigated. For clinicopathologic evaluation, the numbers of small areas unstained by Lugol's iodine in the mucosa surrounding 147 consecutively resected esophageal carcinomas, including these 12 cases, were counted. The relation between the incidence of such areas and the development of multiple primary cancers in the upper aerodigestive tract was examined together with data on the patients' tobacco and alcohol consumption. Ninety-two percent (131) of the small areas unstained by Lugol's iodine contained dysplastic lesions. Seventeen (12%) of the 147 resected specimens contained fewer than 5 small unstained areas, whereas 52 (35%) had 6-10 and 78 (53%) had more than 11 such areas. The incidence of multicentric cancer in the upper aerodigestive tract and the average alcohol index scores were significantly higher for patients who had more than 11 unstained areas than for patients who had fewer than 5 such areas (P Lugol's iodine staining method is useful for detecting groups at high risk of multicentric cancer in the upper aerodigestive tract.

  19. Development of ventricular assist devices in China: present status, opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Kaiyun; Chang, Yu; Gao, Bin; Wan, Feng; Loisance, Daniel; Zeng, Yi

    2014-08-01

    The growing number of heart failure patients and the scarcity of organ donors account for the huge need for the development of mechanical circulatory systems, including ventricular assist devices (VADs) and artificial hearts, in China. Several research programmes on blood pumps have been under way for the last three decades. However, unlike in other countries, the development of VADs has been extremely slow, and no system is currently approved and available for clinical application. There are many reasons for this situation. This article provides an overview of the present development of experimental and clinical research on VADs in China. In addition, the challenges for the clinical development of mechanical circulatory support in China are discussed. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  20. The Role of Oxidative Damage in the Pathogenesis and Progression of Alzheimer’s Disease and Vascular Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luca

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress (OS has been demonstrated to be involved in the pathogenesis of the two major types of dementia: Alzheimer’s disease (AD and vascular dementia (VaD. Evidence of OS and OS-related damage in AD is largely reported in the literature. Moreover, OS is not only linked to VaD, but also to all its risk factors. Several researches have been conducted in order to investigate whether antioxidant therapy exerts a role in the prevention and treatment of AD and VaD. Another research field is that pertaining to the heat shock proteins (Hsps, that has provided promising findings. However, the role of OS antioxidant defence system and more generally stress responses is very complex. Hence, research on this topic should be improved in order to reach further knowledge and discover new therapeutic strategies to face a disorder with such a high burden which is dementia.

  1. Vascular dementia Cognitive, functional and behavioral assessment Recommendations of the Scientific Department of Cognitive Neurology and Aging of the Brazilian Academy of Neurology. Part II.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliasz Engelhardt

    Full Text Available Abstract Vascular dementia (VaD is the most prevalent form of secondary dementia and the second most common of all dementias. The present paper aims to define guidelines on the basic principles for treating patients with suspected VaD (and vascular cognitive impairment - no dementia using an evidence-based approach. The material was retrieved and selected from searches of databases (Medline, Scielo, Lilacs, preferentially from the last 15 years, to propose a systematic way to assess cognition, function and behavior, and disease severity staging, with instruments adapted for our milieu, and diagnosis disclosure. The present proposal contributes to the definition of standard diagnostic criteria for VaD based on various levels of evidence. It is noteworthy that only around half of the population of patients with vascular cognitive impairment present with dementia, which calls for future proposals defining diagnostic criteria and procedures for this condition.

  2. Lokomat training in vascular dementia: motor improvement and beyond!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrò, Rocco Salvatore; De Luca, Rosaria; Leo, Antonino; Balletta, Tina; Marra, Angela; Bramanti, Placido

    2015-12-01

    Vascular dementia (VaD) is a general term describing problems with reasoning, planning, judgment, memory, and other thought processes caused by brain damage from impaired blood flow to the brain. Cognitive rehabilitation and physical therapy are the mainstays of dementia treatment, although often ineffective because of the scarce collaboration of the patients. However, emerging data suggest that physical activity may reduce the risk of cognitive impairment, mainly VaD, in older people living independently. Herein, we describe a 72-year-old male affected by VaD, in which traditional cognitive training in addition to intensive gait robotic rehabilitation (by using Lokomat device) led to a significant improvement in the motor and cognitive function. This promising finding may be related either to the intensive and repetitive aerobic exercises or to the task-oriented training with computerized visual feedback, which can be considered as a relevant tool to increase patients' motor output, involvement, and motivation during robotic training.

  3. A Hierarchical Framework Approach for Voice Activity Detection and Speech Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate and effective voice activity detection (VAD is a fundamental step for robust speech or speaker recognition. In this study, we proposed a hierarchical framework approach for VAD and speech enhancement. The modified Wiener filter (MWF approach is utilized for noise reduction in the speech enhancement block. For the feature selection and voting block, several discriminating features were employed in a voting paradigm for the consideration of reliability and discriminative power. Effectiveness of the proposed approach is compared and evaluated to other VAD techniques by using two well-known databases, namely, TIMIT database and NOISEX-92 database. Experimental results show that the proposed method performs well under a variety of noisy conditions.

  4. Features for voice activity detection: a comparative analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Simon; Herbig, Tobias; Buck, Markus; Schmidt, Gerhard

    2015-12-01

    In many speech signal processing applications, voice activity detection (VAD) plays an essential role for separating an audio stream into time intervals that contain speech activity and time intervals where speech is absent. Many features that reflect the presence of speech were introduced in literature. However, to our knowledge, no extensive comparison has been provided yet. In this article, we therefore present a structured overview of several established VAD features that target at different properties of speech. We categorize the features with respect to properties that are exploited, such as power, harmonicity, or modulation, and evaluate the performance of some dedicated features. The importance of temporal context is discussed in relation to latency restrictions imposed by different applications. Our analyses allow for selecting promising VAD features and finding a reasonable trade-off between performance and complexity.

  5. The serial position effect in mild and moderately severe vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Robert H; Cohen, Ronald A; Moser, David J; Zawacki, Tricia M; Gordon, Norman

    2002-05-01

    The present study examined the serial position effect in 2 subgroups of individuals with vascular dementia (VaD). Nineteen individuals with mild VaD and 17 individuals with moderate VaD were administered the California Verbal Learning Test. Both groups were impaired on a general memory measure, and the moderately impaired group demonstrated significantly poorer recall than the mildly impaired group on the first learning trial and on total learning across trials. In addition, individuals with mild dementia demonstrated an intact primacy and recency effect, whereas individuals with moderate dementia demonstrated neither primacy nor recency effects. The latter findings are consistent with studies examining the serial position effect in other dementia populations, and suggests that the absence of primacy and recency effects in more advanced dementia may occur regardless of dementia type.

  6. The diabetic brain and cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riederer, Peter; Korczyn, Amos D; Ali, Sameh S

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of both Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD) is increasing with the aging of the population. Studies from the last several years have shown that people with diabetes have an increased risk for dementia and cognitive impairment. Therefore, the authors of this consensus...... that T2DM is a risk factor for both, AD and VaD, based on a pathology of glucose utilization. This pathology is the consequence of a disturbance of insulin-related mechanisms leading to brain insulin resistance. Although the underlying pathological mechanisms for AD and VaD are different in many aspects......, the contribution of T2DM and insulin resistant brain state (IRBS) to cerebrovascular disturbances in both disorders cannot be neglected. Therefore, early diagnosis of metabolic parameters including those relevant for T2DM is required. Moreover, it is possible that therapeutic options utilized today for diabetes...

  7. Vertebral Artery Dissection Complicated by Basilar Artery Occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Yin Kuan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Acute basilar artery occlusion (ABAO is an infrequent but potentially fatal complication that can cause strokes in both adults and children. Traumatic vertebral artery dissection (VAD is one of the most common causes of ABAO in young patients. We present a case of an 11-year-old boy with VAD complicated by basilar artery occlusion 2 days after a fight with classmates that caused severe neurological deficits. He did not have any direct head trauma or concomitant risk factors. Clinical symptoms included nausea, vomiting, and rapid alteration of consciousness. Magnetic resonance imaging showed total occlusion of the basilar artery, and angiography confirmed VAD from the third to the fourth segments. A history of such subtle precipitating events should be noted when diagnosing young patients with brainstem strokes. A delay in the diagnosis of ABAO is frequently due to misleading symptoms and signs and the lack of awareness of this rare condition.

  8. 'A very valuable fusion of classes': British professional and volunteer nurses of the First World War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallett, Christine E

    2014-06-01

    Public perceptions of the work of nurses and VAD-volunteers in the First World War have been heavily influenced by a small number of VAD-writings. The work of trained, professional nurses in supporting and supervised the work of VADs has been largely overlooked. This paper examines several of the writings of both volunteers and professionals, and emphasises the overlooked supervisory, managerial and clinical work of trained nurses. In this centenary year of the First World War's opening months, the paper also explores the ways in which the British mass-media--notably the BBC--have chosen to cling to a romantic image of the untrained nurse, whilst at the same time acknowledging the significance of trained, professional nursing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Therapeutic effects of scalp-acupuncture in patients with vascular dementia induced by cerebral infarction: a randomized controlled trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi-cheng; Zhang, Hong-xing; Chen, Guo-hua; Wu, Wen-li; Hu, Jing-jing; Wan, Wen-jun; Ma, Chao-yang

    2008-08-01

    To investigate the effects of scalp-acupuncture on intelligence in patients with vascular dementia (VaD). A total of 108 VaD patients were randomly divided into two groups: scalp-acupuncture group and Western medicine group. The scores of Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Blesse Dementia Scale (BDS), Hasegawa Dementia Scale (HDS), Abilities of Daily Life (ADL) before and after treatment in the two groups were detected. A total of 92 patients completed the treatment. The scores of MMSE, BDS and HDS in the two groups were significantly increased, and the ADL scores significantly declined (P0.05). Scalp-acupuncture therapy could improve the clinical intelligence level of VaD patients.

  10. A new approach to heart valve tissue engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaasi, Andreas; Cestari, Idágene A.; Stolf, Noedir A G.

    2011-01-01

    the cell-scaffold constructs to a wider array of mechanical forces. The pump of the VAD has two chambers: a blood and a pneumatic chamber, separated by an elastic membrane. Pulsatile air-pressure is generated by a piston-type actuator and delivered to the pneumatic chamber, ejecting the fluid in the blood...... chamber. Subsequently, applied vacuum to the pneumatic chamber causes the blood chamber to fill. A mechanical heart valve was placed in the VAD's inflow position. The tissue engineered (TE) valve was placed in the outflow position. The VAD was coupled in series with a Windkessel compliance chamber......, variable throttle and reservoir, connected by silicone tubings. The reservoir sat on an elevated platform, allowing adjustment of ventricular preload between 0 and 11 mmHg. To allow for sterile gaseous exchange between the circuit interior and exterior, a 0.2 µm filter was placed at the reservoir. Pressure...

  11. Development of a Voice Activity Controlled Noise Canceller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aini Hussain

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a variable threshold voice activity detector (VAD is developed to control the operation of a two-sensor adaptive noise canceller (ANC. The VAD prohibits the reference input of the ANC from containing some strength of actual speech signal during adaptation periods. The novelty of this approach resides in using the residual output from the noise canceller to control the decisions made by the VAD. Thresholds of full-band energy and zero-crossing features are adjusted according to the residual output of the adaptive filter. Performance evaluation of the proposed approach is quoted in terms of signal to noise ratio improvements as well mean square error (MSE convergence of the ANC. The new approach showed an improved noise cancellation performance when tested under several types of environmental noise. Furthermore, the computational power of the adaptive process is reduced since the output of the adaptive filter is efficiently calculated only during non-speech periods.

  12. Fluid-structure interaction simulation of pulsatile ventricular assist devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, C. C.; Marsden, A. L.; Bazilevs, Y.

    2013-11-01

    In this paper we present a collection of fluid-structure interaction (FSI) computational techniques that enable realistic simulation of pulsatile Ventricular Assist Devices (VADs). The simulations involve dynamic interaction of air, blood, and a thin membrane separating the two fluids. The computational challenges addressed in this work include large, buckling motions of the membrane, the need for periodic remeshing of the fluid mechanics domain, and the necessity to employ tightly coupled FSI solution strategies due to the very strong added mass effect present in the problem. FSI simulation of a pulsatile VAD at realistic operating conditions is presented for the first time. The FSI methods prove to be robust, and may be employed in the assessment of current, and the development of future, pulsatile VAD designs.

  13. Adjusting retinol-binding protein concentrations for inflammation: Biomarkers Reflecting Inflammation and Nutritional Determinants of Anemia (BRINDA) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Leila M; Namaste, Sorrel Ml; Williams, Anne M; Engle-Stone, Reina; Addo, O Yaw; Suchdev, Parminder S; Wirth, James P; Temple, Victor; Serdula, Mary; Northrop-Clewes, Christine A

    2017-07-01

    Background: The accurate estimation of the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is important in planning and implementing interventions. Retinol-binding protein (RBP) is often used in population surveys to measure vitamin A status, but its interpretation is challenging in settings where inflammation is common because RBP concentrations decrease during the acute-phase response. Objectives: We aimed to assess the relation between RBP concentrations and inflammation and malaria in preschool children (PSC) (age range: 6-59 mo) and women of reproductive age (WRA) (age range: 15-49 y) and to investigate adjustment algorithms to account for these effects. Design: Cross-sectional data from 8 surveys for PSC ( n = 8803) and 4 surveys for WRA ( n = 4191) from the Biomarkers Reflecting Inflammation and Nutritional Determinants of Anemia (BRINDA) project were analyzed individually and combined with the use of a meta-analysis. Several approaches were explored to adjust RBP concentrations in PSC in inflammation and malaria settings as follows: 1 ) the exclusion of subjects with C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations >5 mg/L or α-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) concentrations >1 g/L, 2 ) the application of arithmetic correction factors, and 3 ) the use of a regression correction approach. The impact of adjustment on the estimated prevalence of VAD (defined as inflammation. Depending on the approach used to adjust for inflammation (CRP+AGP), the estimated prevalence of VAD decreased by a median of 11-18 percentage points in PSC compared with unadjusted values. There was no added effect of adjusting for malaria on the estimated VAD after adjusting for CRP and AGP. Conclusions: The use of regression correction (derived from internal data), which accounts for the severity of inflammation, to estimate the prevalence of VAD in PSC in regions with inflammation and malaria is supported by the analysis of the BRINDA data. These findings contribute to the evidence on adjusting for

  14. Adjusting retinol-binding protein concentrations for inflammation: Biomarkers Reflecting Inflammation and Nutritional Determinants of Anemia (BRINDA) project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Victor; Serdula, Mary; Northrop-Clewes, Christine A

    2017-01-01

    Background: The accurate estimation of the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is important in planning and implementing interventions. Retinol-binding protein (RBP) is often used in population surveys to measure vitamin A status, but its interpretation is challenging in settings where inflammation is common because RBP concentrations decrease during the acute-phase response. Objectives: We aimed to assess the relation between RBP concentrations and inflammation and malaria in preschool children (PSC) (age range: 6–59 mo) and women of reproductive age (WRA) (age range: 15–49 y) and to investigate adjustment algorithms to account for these effects. Design: Cross-sectional data from 8 surveys for PSC (n = 8803) and 4 surveys for WRA (n = 4191) from the Biomarkers Reflecting Inflammation and Nutritional Determinants of Anemia (BRINDA) project were analyzed individually and combined with the use of a meta-analysis. Several approaches were explored to adjust RBP concentrations in PSC in inflammation and malaria settings as follows: 1) the exclusion of subjects with C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations >5 mg/L or α-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) concentrations >1 g/L, 2) the application of arithmetic correction factors, and 3) the use of a regression correction approach. The impact of adjustment on the estimated prevalence of VAD (defined as inflammation. Depending on the approach used to adjust for inflammation (CRP+AGP), the estimated prevalence of VAD decreased by a median of 11–18 percentage points in PSC compared with unadjusted values. There was no added effect of adjusting for malaria on the estimated VAD after adjusting for CRP and AGP. Conclusions: The use of regression correction (derived from internal data), which accounts for the severity of inflammation, to estimate the prevalence of VAD in PSC in regions with inflammation and malaria is supported by the analysis of the BRINDA data. These findings contribute to the evidence on adjusting for

  15. Effects of donepezil, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, on neurogenesis in a rat model of vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Kyoung Ja; Kim, Min Kyeong; Lee, Eun Joo; Kim, Jung Nam; Choi, Bo-Ryoung; Kim, Soo Young; Cho, Kyu Suk; Han, Jung-Soo; Kim, Hahn Young; Shin, Chan Young; Han, Seol-Heui

    2014-12-15

    Vascular dementia (VaD) is the second most common form of dementia caused by cerebrovascular disease. Several recent reports demonstrated that cholinergic deficits are implicated in the pathogenesis of VaD and that cholinergic therapies have shown improvement of cognitive function in patients with VaD. However, the precise mechanisms by which donepezil achieves its effects on VaD are not fully understood. Donepezil hydrochloride is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (AChEI) currently used for the symptomatic treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Several lines of evidence have demonstrated that AChEIs such as donepezil promote neurogenesis in the central nervous system. We investigated whether donepezil regulated hippocampal neurogenesis after bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) in rats, a commonly used animal model of VaD. To evaluate the effect of donepezil on neurogenesis, we orally treated rats with donepezil (10mg/kg) once a day for 3weeks, and injected BrdU over the same 3-week period to label newborn cells. The doses of donepezil that we used have been reported to activate cholinergic activity in rats. After 3weeks, a water maze task was performed on these rats to test spatial learning, and a subsequent histopathological evaluation was conducted. Donepezil improved memory impairment and increased the number of BrdU-positive cells in the dentate gyrus (DG) of BCCAO animals. These results indicated that donepezil improves cognitive function and enhances the survival of newborn neurons in the DG in our animal model of VaD, possibly by enhancing the expression of choline acetyltransferase and brain-derived neurotropic factor. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Big data and data repurposing - using existing data to answer new questions in vascular dementia research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doubal, Fergus N; Ali, Myzoon; Batty, G David; Charidimou, Andreas; Eriksdotter, Maria; Hofmann-Apitius, Martin; Kim, Yun-Hee; Levine, Deborah A; Mead, Gillian; Mucke, Hermann A M; Ritchie, Craig W; Roberts, Charlotte J; Russ, Tom C; Stewart, Robert; Whiteley, William; Quinn, Terence J

    2017-04-17

    Traditional approaches to clinical research have, as yet, failed to provide effective treatments for vascular dementia (VaD). Novel approaches to collation and synthesis of data may allow for time and cost efficient hypothesis generating and testing. These approaches may have particular utility in helping us understand and treat a complex condition such as VaD. We present an overview of new uses for existing data to progress VaD research. The overview is the result of consultation with various stakeholders, focused literature review and learning from the group's experience of successful approaches to data repurposing. In particular, we benefitted from the expert discussion and input of delegates at the 9 th International Congress on Vascular Dementia (Ljubljana, 16-18 th October 2015). We agreed on key areas that could be of relevance to VaD research: systematic review of existing studies; individual patient level analyses of existing trials and cohorts and linking electronic health record data to other datasets. We illustrated each theme with a case-study of an existing project that has utilised this approach. There are many opportunities for the VaD research community to make better use of existing data. The volume of potentially available data is increasing and the opportunities for using these resources to progress the VaD research agenda are exciting. Of course, these approaches come with inherent limitations and biases, as bigger datasets are not necessarily better datasets and maintaining rigour and critical analysis will be key to optimising data use.

  17. Functional Performance of Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia in Southern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Yuh Shiau

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the functional performance of two major subtypes of dementia, Alzheimer's disease (AD and vascular dementia (VaD, by the Functional Independence Measure (FIM, and to understand the need for assistance in performing activities of daily living. The subjects comprised 64AD and 21VaD patients who were recruited from two epidemiologic studies of dementia with a total of 3,931 community residents aged 65 years and above in southern Taiwan. The results showed that the severity of dementia was similar between the two groups. The mean score for AD was 82.7 and for VaD was 56.5 for total FIM (p < 0.05, 61.6 and 41.7 for the motor dimension (p < 0.05, and 21.1 and 15.7 for the cognitive dimension (p < 0.05. There were significant differences (p < 0.01 between AD and VaD in six FIM items and borderline or marginal significance (p < 0.05 in most of the FIM items. For AD patients, stairs, lower dressing, bathing, and tub/shower transfer were the most difficult items in the motor dimension, and it was memory in the cognitive dimension. For VaD patients, bathing, upper and lower dressing, and grooming were the most difficult items in the motor dimension, and it was problem solving in the cognitive dimension. VaD patients were more dependent on all FIM items and required more assistance than AD patients. The functional performances of dementia patients were significantly associated with dementia severity and subtypes, together accounting for 40% of the variability in total FIM. In conclusion, most dementia patients are dependent in daily activities and different types and severity of dementia lead to different disability profiles; individualized care is, therefore, most appropriate.

  18. The survey of serum retinol of the children aged 0~4 years in Zhejiang Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Lingling

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin A can have a positive impact on growth and development of children, but vitamin A deficiency (VAD was found to be a public health problem in Zhejiang Province, China in 1998. There have been no studies on this topic in Zhejiang Province recently. This study was designed to evaluate the serum retinol levels of children aged 0~4 years in Zhejiang Province, southeast China. This epidemiological data will help design supplementation strategies for vitamin A in high-risk groups and improve their vitamin A status. Methods Children were randomly recruited for this study using a stratified sampling method. A blood sample was collected from each child. Assessment included C-reactive protein (CRP, serum retinol measured with HPLC and a questionnaire completed providing for family information and nutritional status. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the risk factors for VAD in children. Results A group of 357 subjects aged 1 day to 4 years were recruited. The mean plasma retinol concentration was 1.653 (sd 0.47 μmol/L. There were 3.08% (11/357 of children affected with VAD, and 7.28% (26/357 of children had low vitamin A status, but none of the children showed any clinical symptoms of VAD. There was no significant difference in the levels of plasma retinol and the incidence rate of VAD between male and female children. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that living in urban region, having parents with good education and taking vitamin A capsule regularly prevented children from VAD, whereas being young (less than 2 years old was a risk factor. Conclusion Low vitamin A status remains a nutritional problem in Zhejiang Province. The high-risk group in this study were young, dwelled in rural regions, had parents with poor education and did not take a regular vitamin A containing supplement.

  19. Developing a Speaker Identification System for the DARPA RATS Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plchot, O; Matsoukas, S; Matejka, P

    2013-01-01

    present results using multiple SID systems differing mainly in the algorithm used for voice activity detection (VAD) and feature extraction. We show that (a) unsupervised VAD performs as well supervised methods in terms of downstream SID performance, (b) noise-robust feature extraction methods......This paper describes the speaker identification (SID) system developed by the Patrol team for the first phase of the DARPA RATS (Robust Automatic Transcription of Speech) program, which seeks to advance state of the art detection capabilities on audio from highly degraded communication channels. We...

  20. Color vision test to differentiate Alzheimer's disease from vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada, Tomoyuki

    2017-10-01

    Arnaoutoglou et al. (2017) reported that "Ishihara Color Vision Test - 38 Plate" was useful for the differential diagnosis of dementia between Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and Vascular Dementia (VaD). The authors used sensitivity/specificity analysis, presenting 80.6% and 87.5% to discriminate AD and VaD patients when an optimal (32.5) cut-off value of performance was used. The authors cited a reference of the fact that AD patients suffered from a non-specific type of color blindness (Pache et al., 2003), and I have a query on their study with special reference to statistical method.

  1. [Prevalence of vitamin a deficiency and anemia in children under five years of age in Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajuelo, Jaime; Miranda, Marianella; Zamora, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency (VAD) and nutritional anemia (NA) in children under five in Peru. Cross-sectional study with a stratified and multi-staged probabilistic sample conducted between November 2007 and April 2010.2,736 children were included for NA and 1,465 children for VAD. NA was defined as Hbjungle. The prevalence of NA shows a slight improvement. It is necessary to improve the efficiency and impact of programs that include supplementation of vitamin A and iron.

  2. Vascular dementia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    2003-12-10

    Dec 10, 2003 ... ischaemic VaD includes multiple lacunes and subcortical arteriosclerotic encephalopathy (Binswanger's disease) and imaging shows multiple deep ... culitis, multiple sclerosis, acute demyelinating encephalomy- ... Table I. The NINDS-AIREN criteria for the diagnosis of Vascular Dementia. 12. Require both ...

  3. Volume 10 No. 6 June 2010 2629 ß-CAROTENE, IRON AND ZINC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2010-06-06

    Jun 6, 2010 ... Nutritional disorders due to inadequate intake of vitamin A, iron and zinc in the East. African region are unusually ... vitamin A deficiency (VAD) and iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) are documented in the east and central African ..... 29. FAO/WHO. Requirements of vitamin A, iron, folate and vitamin B12. Report.

  4. Comprehensive geriatric assessment in elderly patients with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namioka, Nayuta; Hanyu, Haruo; Hatanaka, Hirokuni; Fukasawa, Raita; Sakurai, Hirofumi; Iwamoto, Toshihiko

    2015-01-01

    We have recently developed and validated a screening test for comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) named "Dr. SUPERMAN". We compared the results obtained by the CGA of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), vascular dementia (VaD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and determined the relationship between functional deficits and clinical characteristics in each type of dementia. We used Dr. SUPERMAN to examine patients with AD (24 men and 53 women, mean age 83.0 ± 5.1 years), VaD (10 men and 12 women, mean age 80.4 ± 5.0 years) and DLB (28 men and 20 women, mean age 81.2 ± 5.5 years). Patients with DLB or VaD had functional deficits more frequently than those with AD in many fields. Significant correlations between functional impairments and clinical characteristics, such as age, sex and Mini-Mental State Examination scores, in the non-AD group (including DLB and VaD) were found in more extensive fields than those in the AD group. Patients with dementia, particularly DLB, have several geriatric problems. Correlations between functional deficits and clinical characteristics differ between the AD group and the non-AD group. Non-AD patients of older age who are male and have advanced dementia are more likely have several functional deficits. In addition to age and severity of dementia, the type of dementia should be considered in the treatments and interventions of elderly patients with dementia. © 2014 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  5. Combination chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, thalidomide and dexamethasone for patients with refractory, newly diagnosed or relapsed myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidra, Gamal; Williams, Cathy D; Russell, Nigel H; Zaman, Sonya; Myers, Bethan; Byrne, Jennifer L

    2006-06-01

    We evaluated the combination of thalidomide, pulsed dexamethasone and weekly cyclophosphamide (CTD) for the treatment of patients with newly diagnosed, relapsed or VAD-refractory multiple myeloma. We found that this combination was highly effective in inducing responses in all treatment groups with an overall response rate of 83.8%. CTD was well tolerated and did not impair stem cell mobilization.

  6. [Serum levels of interferon-gamma and interleukine-10 in anemic children with vitamin A deficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Jorymar Y; Castejón, Haydée V; Romero, Tania; Ortega, Pablo; Gómez, Gisela; Amaya, Daysi; Estévez, Jesús

    2006-12-01

    Studies done with human and animals have shown that the diminished vitamin A intake can produce anemia, but the ethiopathogenic mechanism hasn't been known due to the few studies about the complex interactions between micronutrients deficiencies, immune system and cytokine productions. The objective of the present study was to analyze the serum concentration of IFN-gamma and IL-10 in anemic and non anemic children according to vitamin A nutritional status. A descriptive study of 53 euthrophic children, without infectious diseases (45-77 month old; 29 girls, 24 boys), living in a slum in Maracaibo-Venezuela. Anemia was evaluated by means of blood hemoglobin concentration analysis, standard WHO criteria for anemia were Hb 60 month old children. Vitamin A status was assessed by Conjunctival Impression Cytology (CIC) technique, which determines Normal CIC=Control or Abnormal CIC=VAD. The serum concentration of IFN-gamma and IL-10 (pg/mL; X +/- DE), was determined by the ELISA method. Statistical significance of differences was tested by ANOVA (p < 0.05). Prevalence of anemia was 75.50%; VAD 50.94% and anemia+VAD 35.86%. The anemic children with VAD showed significant serum values of IFN-gamma e IL-10 lower than in other groups. This alteration of the complex immunoregulatory mechanism could be responsible for dysfunction eritrhoid cell formation.

  7. Olemise ja unustamise vahel : World Press Photo '98 / Ants Juske

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juske, Ants, 1956-2016

    1998-01-01

    Parimate pressifotode rändnäitusest. Konkursil osales 3627 fotograafi, Eestist Tiit Räis ja Viktor Vesterinen. Aasta parimaks tunnistati alžeeria fotograafi Hocine pilt naisest massimõrva ohvrite haigla juures. Paremini müüvad fotod katastroofidest

  8. Ühepäevaliblika lend üle valgete laikude / Sven Karja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karja, Sven, 1968-

    2000-01-01

    Teatrikriitika olukorrast - kiirtempo, esietenduse põhjal arvustamine, väikelinnateatrite keskmised lavastused jäävad kajastuseta. Vaadeldakse hooaja kolme "mahavaikitud " lavastust - Akos Kertészi "Lesed" Eili Neuhausi lavastuses Rakvere Teatris, Mario Fratti "Ohver" Madis Kalmeti lavastuses Pärnu Endlas ja David Williamsoni "Sõbrad ja raha" Viljandi Ugalas.

  9. Anemia and micronutrient deficiencies in infants attending at Primary Health Care in Rio Branco, Acre, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Cristieli Sérgio de Menezes; Augusto, Rosângela Aparecida; Muniz, Pascoal Torres; da Silva, Sara Araújo; Cardoso, Marly Augusto

    2016-02-01

    The present study investigated the factors associated with anemia and micronutrient deficiencies in a cross-sectional analysis conducted with 150 children aged 11 to 14 months attending at basic health centers in Rio Branco, Acre. Venous blood samples were obtained to assess the occurrence of anemia and deficiencies of iron (ID), vitamin A (VAD), and B12 (VB12D). Multiple Poisson regression models were used to identify factors associated with anemia. Anemia, ID, VAD and B12D were observed in 23%, 76%, 18% and 20% of children, respectively. The factors associated with anemia were: do not be only child, living in households without access to cable TV or internet, stunting, late introduction of the complementary feeding (more than 240 days), VAD, VB12D, and current evidence of infection (plasma CRP > 5 mg/L). There was a lower prevalence of anemia among children with birth weight > 3,500 g. Overall, 82% of the study children had at least one of the micronutrient deficiencies (ID, VAD and VB12D). Actions with emphasis on timely and healthy feeding practices, better management of morbidities and supplementation with other micronutrients should be focused on the improvement of child care services at primary health care in this county.

  10. Volk i Zajats otpravlenõ na zasluzhennõi otdõh

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Populaarsele vene animafilmile, mis sai alguse 1968.a. "Oota sa!" ("Nu, pogodi!") valmis stuudios Christmas Films kaks uut osa, 19. ja 20., mis esilinastusid Minskis rahvusvahelisel festivalil "Listopadik". Filmi režissööri Aleksei Kotjonotshkini sõnul jäävad need osad sellisel kujul viimasteks

  11. Feasibility Demonstration of A Low Cost Modification to the M505A3 20 MM Fuze to Achieve A 10 Meter Non-Arm Distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-09-01

    ical computer model of the ball rotor " system " which is more thorough and complete than any, to date. Their Analysis indicates that the non- arming...5 APPENDIX A ........................................................ PDISTRIBUTION ...40 mm) fuzes. The M505A3 fuze, when fired in the 20 mm Vulcan Air Defense System (VADS) weapon, demonstrates a non- arm distance of 3 to 4 meters. The

  12. Vertebral artery dissection associated with generalized convulsive seizures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amin, Faisal Mohammad; Larsen, Vibeke Andrée; Tfelt-Hansen, Peer

    2013-01-01

    showed a left-sided pontine infarction, an infarct in the left cerebellar hemisphere and a right vertebral artery dissection (VAD). The patient was treated with heparin and an oral anticoagulant for 6 months. Recovery of neurologic function was excellent. In patients with symptoms of disturbances...

  13. German troops to stay in Lithuania until security situation changes

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2017-01-01

    NATO pataljoni kuuluvad Saksa sõdurid jäävad Leetu kuni julgeolekuolukorra paranemiseni. Saksamaa ja Leedu sõjaline koostöö on viimastel aastatel kasvanud: Leedu on Saksamaalt ostnud märkimisväärsel hulgal relvastust ja sõjatehnikat

  14. Red palm oil as an intervention food to prevent vitamin A deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is an important cause of blindness. Red palm oil (RPO) is the richest food source of VA-forming carotenoids. We evaluated RPO carotenoid concentration and bioavailability, and used this data to estimate the amount of RPO needed to meet VA requirements. Amounts ranged fr...

  15. Väätsa Agro kasvatab väärtust / Tiit Reinberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Reinberg, Tiit, 1975-

    2005-01-01

    Põllumajandusettevõtte Väätsa Agro väikeaktsionärid müüvad oma osakuid, kuna ettevõtte osaku hind on tõusnud poole aasta jooksul paarikümnest sendist kolme kroonini. Endine väikeaktsionär Kalev Lillepea on kolme krooniseid osakuid ostes saavutanud ettevõttes 15-protsendilise osaluse

  16. Kunstnik kavatseb maalidest jaanitule teha / Erika Prave

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Prave, Erika, 1970-

    2005-01-01

    Andrus Older teeb jaanitule oma piltidest, mis jäävad ostmata oksjonil, mille ta korraldab päev enne Sillamäe lähedal Orava talus. Harrastuskunstnik paneb müüki umbes 50 maali. Kunstniku kommentaarid

  17. Vitamin A deficiency during pregnancy of HIV infected and non-infected women in tropical settings of Northwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekele Assegedech

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin A deficiency (VAD is known to be a major public health problem among women of reproductive age in South East Asia and Africa. In Ethiopia, there are no studies conducted on serum vitamin A status of HIV-infected pregnant women. Therefore, the present study was aimed at determining the level of serum vitamin A and VAD among pregnant women with and without HIV infection in tropical settings of Northwest Ethiopia. Methods In this cross-sectional study, blood samples were collected from 423 pregnant women and from 55 healthy volunteers who visited the University of Gondar Hospital. Serum concentration of vitamin A was measured by high performance liquid chromatography. Results After controlling for total serum protein, albumin and demographic variables, the mean ± SD serum vitamin A in HIV seropositive pregnant women (0.96 ± 0.42 μmol/L was significantly lower than that in pregnant women without HIV infection (1.10 ± 0.45 μmol/L, P Conclusion The present study shows that VAD is a major public health problem among pregnant women in the tropical settings of Northwest Ethiopia. Considering the possible implications of VAD during pregnancy, we recommend multivitamin (which has a lower level of vitamin A supplementation in the care and management of pregnant women with or without HIV infection.

  18. CORRELATION ANATOMO-SCANNOGRAPHIQUE DANS LE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ensemble des cancers des vAdS (1). L'imagerie est devenue indispensable au diagnostic de ces cancers et à la décision thérapeutique. Elle permet une définition parfaite des extensions et des volumes tumoraux. La. TdM est à ...

  19. Metsas mekib söök hoopis teistmoodi / Ada Maltseva

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Maltseva, Ada, 1970-

    2007-01-01

    Vt. ka Linnaleht : Pärnu, Linnaleht : Tartu 8. juuni, lk. B4-B5. Looduses matkajaid abistavad mitmesugused nutikad köögiriistad ja kuivtoidud, mis teevad vabas looduses söögitegemise ja söömise lihtsaks ning nauditavaks. Vt. samas: Mida sõjaväelased väliõppustel söövad?

  20. Hääleta oma ostukorviga

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Kakaouba kasvatav Kavokiva kooperatiiv Elevandiluurannikul on Fairtrade'i lisatasu eest saanud maksta oma liikmetele aastapreemiaid ning investeerida hariduse ja meditsiini kättesaadavuse parandamisse. Põhja-Vietnami Nam Lanh'i küla elanikud, kes müüvad õiglase kaubanduse tingimustel teed, on saadud lisatasude eest ehitanud kooli

  1. Kui parteid oleksid inimesed / Rain Pikand

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pikand, Rain

    2003-01-01

    Turu-uuringute firma Ariko Marketing küsitles valijatelt, kuidas iseloomustada parteisid, kui nad oleksid inimesed. Uuring erakondade imidžist valijate silmis. Vt. samas Anu Toots "Noore pere toetused ja pension jäävad valijale arusaamatuks". Enn Soosaar "Üllatavad tulemused välispoliitikas ja hariduses". Henrik Roonemaa "Rahvas usub Keskerakonna edu valimistel". Diagrammid

  2. Oma brändi kaubad muudavad tootjate ja jaemüüjate jõuvahekordi / Erik Aru, Aavo Kokk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aru, Erik

    2006-01-01

    Poeketid müüvad oma kaubamärgiga kaupu, mis on märksa odavamad kui analoogtooted. Autorid vaatlevad, mis sunnib tootjaid valmistama kaupa (pealegi odavamalt), mis nende omaga konkureerib. Lisad: Eristumine: Target müüb odavat luksust; Toidupoodides samad hinnad. Tabel: Võrdlusmoment

  3. Juhtimissüsteemide selgroog. Lean ning ISO - terviklahendused tootmise haldamiseks / Anton Ovsjankin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ovsjankin, Anton

    2011-01-01

    Kasvanud on juurutatavate Lean ja ISO süsteemide arv, kuid on kasvanud ka nende juurutamise ja arendamisega seotud ebaõnnestumiste arv. Põhjustest, miks jäävad paljud Leani ja ISO juurutanud ettevõtted ilma lubatud tulemusteta. Leani ja ISO haldamiseks vajalikest teguritest

  4. Infection, Oxidative Stress, and Changes in Circulating Regulatory T Cells of Heart Failure Patients Supported by Continuous-Flow Ventricular Assist Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Nandan K; Sobieski, Michael A; Pham, Si M; Griffith, Bartley P; Koenig, Steven C; Slaughter, Mark S; Wu, Zhongjun J

    The objective of this study was to investigate the changes in oxidative stress (OS) and circulating regulatory T cells (Tregs) of the immune system in patients supported by continuous-flow ventricular assist device (CF-VAD) with or without infection. We recruited 16 CF-VAD patients (5 with infection and 11 without infection) and 7 healthy volunteers. Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) from lymphocytes, superoxide dismutase (SOD) in erythrocyte, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) in plasma were measured. Circulating Tregs were evaluated by flow cytometry. Heart failure (HF) patients had elevated OS than healthy volunteers as evident from higher lymphocyte ROS, elevated oxLDL, as well as depleted SOD and TAC levels. At baseline, HF patients had decreased percentage of Tregs (5.12 ± 1.5% vs. 8.14 ± 3.01%, p infection illustrated 35% and 44% rise in ROS and oxLDL, respectively, 31% decrease in TAC, and marked rise in percentage of Tregs (14.27 ± 3.17% vs. 9.38 ± 3.41%, p infection. Elevated OS and rise in Tregs were more prominent in CF-VAD patients with infection. In conclusion, OS and compromised immune system may be important indicators of systemic response of the body to CF-VAD among HF patients with infection.

  5. Unlocking the box: basic requirements for an ideal ventricular assist device controller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedev, Alexander L; Karimov, Jamshid H; Kuban, Barry D; Horvath, David J; Moazami, Nader; Fukamachi, Kiyotaka

    2017-05-01

    A modern ventricular assist device (VAD) system comprises an implantable rotary blood pump and external components located outside the patient's body: a wearable controller connected to the pump via a percutaneous cable, wearable rechargeable batteries, battery charger, alternating- and direct-current power supplies, and a hospital device to control and monitor the system. If the blood pump is the 'heart' of a VAD system, the controller is its 'brain.' The controller drives the pump's electrical motor; varies the pump speed or flow based on user commands or feedback signals; collects, processes, and stores data; performs self-diagnostics; transmits to and receives data from other system components, i.e., hospital monitor and batteries; and provides various types of user interface - audible, visual, and tactile. Areas covered: Here we describe the essential functions and basic design of the VAD external controller and give our views on the future of this technology. Expert commentary: Controllers for VAD systems are crucial to their successful operation. The current clinically available system comprises an external power supply and patient-friendly controller unit. Future controller solutions may enable remote hospital monitoring, more intuitive system interface, and the potential to use a single controller to automatically control a biventricular assist device configuration.

  6. Teise samba külmutamine närib pensione / Holger Roonemaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Roonemaa, Holger

    2009-01-01

    Pangandusekspertide hinnangul jääb teise pensionisambasse sissemaksete külmutamise korral kasutamata parim võimalus soetada väärtpabereid madala hinnaga. DIagramm: Saamata jäävad kümned tuhanded kroonid

  7. GLEN ehk Eesti noored Aafrikaga tutvust tegemas / Annika Räim

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Räim, Annika

    2008-01-01

    GLEN (Global Education for the Young Europeans) on programm, kus löövad kaasa Euroopa Liidu 12 liikmesmaa mittetulundusühingud ning mis lähetab noori eurooplasi projektide raames kolmeks kuuks arengumaadesse. Artiklis jagavad oma muljeid GLEN-projektis osalenud Kadri Runnel Gruusiast, Kadri Aavik Lõuna-Aafrika Vabariigist, Birgit Rosenberg Sambiast ja Mari Nuga Kamerunist

  8. Serum vitamin A levels among malnourished children aged 6 - 59 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) affects an estimated 6 million pre-school children in Nigeria and 20 million in Africa. When associated with severe malnutrition, it significantly increases morbidity and mortality. Objectives: To determine serum vitamin A levels in children with Protein Energy Malnutrition and age and ...

  9. Vitamin A deficiency among Moroccan women and children | Nasri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Vitamin A deficiency (VAD), attributable to an inadequate food intake, constitutes a problem in developing countries. The determination of plasma vitamin A (VA) is a reliable method for assessing VA status of the population. In this context, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has become the ...

  10. Factors Influencing Vitamin A Status of Lactating Mothers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vitamin A Deficiency (VAD) is a major public health problem that the world is facing today. It is more prevalent in low income countries including Tanzania. This study was conducted to determine factors influencing Vitamin A status of lactating mothers in selected regions of Manyara and Shinyanga, Tanzania. Purposive and ...

  11. Retinoic Acid Restores Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Reverses Spatial Memory Deficit in Vitamin A Deprived Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfos, Serge; Pallet, Véronique; Higueret, Paul; Abrous, Djoher Nora

    2008-01-01

    A dysfunction of retinoid hippocampal signaling pathway has been involved in the appearance of affective and cognitive disorders. However, the underlying neurobiological mechanisms remain unknown. Hippocampal granule neurons are generated throughout life and are involved in emotion and memory. Here, we investigated the effects of vitamin A deficiency (VAD) on neurogenesis and memory and the ability of retinoic acid (RA) treatment to prevent VAD-induced impairments. Adult retinoid-deficient rats were generated by a vitamin A-free diet from weaning in order to allow a normal development. The effects of VAD and/or RA administration were examined on hippocampal neurogenesis, retinoid target genes such as neurotrophin receptors and spatial reference memory measured in the water maze. Long-term VAD decreased neurogenesis and led to memory deficits. More importantly, these effects were reversed by 4 weeks of RA treatment. These beneficial effects may be in part related to an up-regulation of retinoid-mediated molecular events, such as the expression of the neurotrophin receptor TrkA. We have demonstrated for the first time that the effect of vitamin A deficient diet on the level of hippoccampal neurogenesis is reversible and that RA treatment is important for the maintenance of the hippocampal plasticity and function. PMID:18941534

  12. Suurlinnad 21. sajandi kooli rahast ilma / Mirko Ojakivi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ojakivi, Mirko

    2003-01-01

    21. sajandi kooli projekti esialgse rahajaotuse järgi jäävad suurlinnad Tallinn ja Tartu 2003. a. täiendavatest haridusinvesteeringutest ilma, sest ministeerium soovib alustada raskemas olukorras väikekoolide remondiga. Õppevahendite ostuks saavad 2003. a. enim raha Ida-Virumaa, Harjumaa ja Pärnumaa

  13. ASA klientide vara sulas peenrahaks / Anne Oja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oja, Anne, 1970-

    2007-01-01

    Sajad ASA Kindlustuse kliendid saavad pankrotist vähem raha kui kulub pangaülekandeks, summad jäävad 2 ja 30 krooni vahele. Vt. samas: Klientide saadav raha ASA Kindlustuse pankrotipesast; Apananski süüst priiks

  14. Detection of vitamin A deficiency in Brazilian preschool children using the serum 30-day dose-response test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, I S; Daneluzzi, J C; Vannucchi, H; Jordão, A A; Ricco, R G; Del Ciampo, L A; Martinelli, C E; Engelberg, A A D; Bonilha, L R C M; Flores, H

    2004-10-01

    Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is endemic in Brazil and health professionals have difficulty in recognizing its subclinical form. In addition, serum retinol concentrations do not always represent vitamin A status in the organism. To identify VAD in preschool children by the serum 30-day dose-response test (+S30DR) and to examine its potential as a tool for the assessment of vitamin A status in the community. A prospective transverse study in which blood samples were obtained from 188 preschool children for the determination of serum retinol concentrations and the children were submitted to ocular inspection and anthropometric measurements. Information about the presence of diarrhea and/or fever during the 15 days preceding the study was also obtained. The children received an oral dose of 200,000 IU vitamin A immediately after the first blood collection. A second blood sample was obtained 30-45 days after supplementation in order to determine the +S30DR. In all, 74.5% (140/188; 95% confidence interval: 68.3-80.7%) of the children presented +S30DR values indicative of low hepatic reserves. The mean serum retinol concentration was significantly lower before supplementation (0.92 and 1.65 micromol/l, respectively; P affect the +S30DR value. The prevalence of VAD in the study group was elevated. +S30DR proved to be a good indicator of subclinical VAD in children from an underdeveloped country.

  15. Comparison of a fluorometric assay kit with high-performance liquid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    significant time delay. Keywords: HPLC, ICHECK Fluoro, serum retinol, test kit, vitamin A status. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ahs.v15i2.43. Introduction. Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is a major health issue worldwide with significant ... study on vitamins A and D, iron and iodine deficiencies amongst school-age children (7 to 9 ...

  16. SAFETY OF MICRONUTRIENTS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Micronutrients and their role in the prevention and treatment of disease are ... These levels are by definition safe, but are designed to ... VITAMIN A. Clinical vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is one of the leading causes of childhood blindness.) It is, however, not only clinical vitamin. A deficiency that is considerd of importance.

  17. Vitamin A deficiency Ann Burgess MPH

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Angel_D

    lactating women 5 b). Hence VAD is seen most often among young children, pregnant and lactating women, those with HIV, and, sometimes, people in emergency situations. bFootnote. The units of retinol activity equivalents/day needed by: men are ...

  18. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    vitamin A (serum retinol level< 20 11g/ dl), making VAD a ... High-dose vitamin. A supplementation in postpartum women and preschool children is a quick-acting solution that can prove effective in the short term while planning and implementing more ... populations whose needs are not adequately addressed when a.

  19. Kodumaine mood kolib kaubanduskeskustesse / Karilin Engelbrecht

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Engelbrecht, Karilin

    2010-01-01

    Tallinnas Stockmanni kaubamajas müüakse kuu aja jooksul eesti moekunstnike rõivakollektsioone. Projekti juhib Oksana Tandit. Kristiine keskuse Moetäikal müüvad eesti disainerid taaskasutatud riideid ning ReUse Republicu disainilaadal vanadest laoülejääkidest õmmeldud rõivaid

  20. Первый сорт со второй попытки

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    ReUse Republic disainilaadast Kristiine Keskuses Tallinnas 3.-7. veebruaril 2010. Ürituse raames loovad noored disainerid tuntud moebrändide laojääkidest originaalesemeid ning müüvad neid. Taaskasutust propageeriva konkursi Uus-ReUse parimate tööde tutvustus. Võidutööks osutus Laura Toomsalu kilekottidest valmistatud valgusti

  1. Eesti kõrgmood uues võtmes / Anne Vetik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vetik, Anne

    2010-01-01

    ReUse Republic disainilaat Kristiine Keskuses (Tallinn) 3.-7. veebruarini 2010. Ürituse raames loovad noored disainerid tuntud moebrändide laojääkidest originaalesemeid ning müüvad neid. Disainilaada patrooniks ja modelliks on laulja Marten Kuningas

  2. VITAMIN A DEFICIENCY IN NIGERIAN CHILDREN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is a global problem of public health significance in many under-privileged communities of the world. No national data is available on the vitamin A status in Nigeria. A population-based, cross-sectional study, using a two-staged stratified cluster sampling method was conducted. The national ...

  3. Prevalence and predictors of vitamin a deficiency among infants in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vitamin A (VA) deficiency (VAD) is a major nutritional public health problem among children under-5-years-old in the developing world including Kenya. A community-based cross-sectional survey among 1,630 children (aged 6-23 mos) was undertaken in Western Kenya. A questionnaire was administered to collect ...

  4. Prevalence of dementia and major subtypes in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lobo, A; Launer, L J; Fratiglioni, L

    2000-01-01

    The last comparison of prevalence figures of dementia across European studies was 10 years ago. Using studies conducted in the 1990s, the authors compare the age- and sex-specific prevalence of dementia, AD, and vascular dementia (VaD) across European population-based studies of persons 65 years ...

  5. Gaz - almaz / Jekaterina Rodina

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rodina, Jekaterina

    2008-01-01

    Venemaa Energiapoliitika Instituudi arvutuste kohaselt võib maagaasi tootmise ja nõudluse vahe ulatuda 2010. aastaks 100 miljardi kuupmeetrini, Kui maagaasi tarned Eestisse ära jäävad, saab meie riik omal jõul hakkama kõige rohkem kuu aega. Vt. samas: Gaas arvudes

  6. Prevalence of vitamin A deficiency among pre-school and school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of vitamin A deficiency among pre-school and school aged children in Arssi zone, Ethiopia. ... Based on the WHO recommended cut-off level, serum retinol levels were in the “low” range (<20µ1/d1) in 51% of the children. Conclusion: The results indicate that vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is a public health problem ...

  7. Vabadussamba autorid võitlevad Tšehhi klaasivabriku kehva töö vastu / Tarmo Vahter

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vahter, Tarmo, 1970-

    2008-01-01

    Tallinnasse Vabadussõja võidusamba püstitamisest. Tšehhi klaasitehases Sans Souci valmistatud monumendi klaaspaneelid kinnitatakse poltidega, mille otsad jäävad nähtavale. Monumendi püstitamise ajagraafikust, maksumusest. Kommenteerivad Rainer Sternfeld, Martin Chab, Veiko Pärlin. Artiklile lisatud samba joonis

  8. Täienes Kunstimuuseumi graafikakogu / Anne Lõugas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lõugas, Anne, 1951-

    1998-01-01

    Tallinna XI graafikatriennaali premeeritud tööd jäävad enamikus Eesti Kunstimuuseumi. Omandatud töödest, pikemalt muuseumi ostupreemia pälvinud inglise kunstniku Wendy Swallowi (s. 1974) kolmest tööst.

  9. Darba organizācijas pilnveidošana nelielā IT uzņēmumā

    OpenAIRE

    Kočetkovs, Valērijs

    2010-01-01

    Darbs veltīts neliela IT uzņēmuma vadības un, detalizētāk, vienas no vadības funkciju – darba organizācijas pilnveidošanas – izpētei. Darba organizācijas pilnveidošanas process tiek apskatīts, par piemēru ņemot vienu konkrētu uzņēmumu. Lai to panāktu, tiek izpētīts vispārīgais neliela IT uzņēmuma konteksts un izceltas konteksta īpašības, kuras vadībai jāņem vērā, kā arī tiek apskatītas vadības metodoloģijas, tehnikas un rīki. Darba ietvaros tiek apskatītas divas atšķirīgas pieejas: tradici...

  10. Kus on meie "uue laine" manifest? / Tõnu Karro

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karro, Tõnu

    2000-01-01

    Jätkuv poleemika Jaan Ruusiga filmide finantseerimisest ja auhindamisest Eestis. Vt. Jaan Ruus "Tõepoolest, kuhu jäävad filmid?" : Sirp, 10. märts ja Tõnu Karro "Tulijad on uued, kombed vanad" : Sirp, 3. märts

  11. Island otsib sõjalisi kaitseingleid / Allan Espenberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Espenberg, Allan

    2007-01-01

    Islandil toimuvatel parlamendivalimistel peaks arvamusküsitluste kohaselt enam kui 40% valijatest toetama Iseseisvusparteid, teisele kohale jäävad sotsiaaldemokraadid 23,5% ning neile järgnevad rohelised 17,6 ja Progressiivne Partei 10%-ga. Ka Islandi-Norra kahepoolsest lepingust, mis tihendab kaitse- ja julgeolekualast koostööd

  12. Automüüjatel suve ei olnud / Tõnu Ojala

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ojala, Tõnu, 1969-

    2006-01-01

    2006. aasta esimese poolaasta automüügi tulemused. Tabelid: ARKis esmakordselt registreeritud sõiduautode TOP 12; Sõiduautode müük; Populaarseimad mudelid; Tarbesõidukite müük. Lisad: Tööautod müüvad hästi; Sakslased valitsevad second-hand-turgu

  13. Turumajandus on käkitegu, aga püüdke demokraatiat ehitada! / Lauri Linnamäe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Linnamäe, Lauri

    2008-01-01

    Postkommunistlike riikide vastu huvi tundva majandusteadlase Anders Aslundi raamatust "How capitalism was built", mis annab põhjaliku ja süstemaatilise ülevaate ajast ja protsessidest, mis jäävad Nõukogude Liidu lagunemise ja tänapäeva vahele

  14. Interhospital air transport of a blind patient on extracorporeal life support with consecutive and successful left ventricular assist device implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Adrian; Schaarschmidt, Jan; Grosse, F Oliver; Al Alam, Nidal; Hausmann, Harald; Krämer, Klaus; Strüber, Martin; Mohr, Friedrich W

    2014-06-01

    The use of extracorporeal life support systems (ECLS) in patients with postcardiotomy low cardiac output syndrome (LCO) as a bridge to recovery and bridge to implantation of ventricular assist device (VAD) is common nowadays. A 59-year-old patient with acute myocardial infarction received a percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stenting of the circumflex artery. During catheterization of the left coronary artery (LAD), the patient showed ventricular fibrillation and required defibrillation and cardiopulmonary resuscitation. After implantation of an intra-aortic balloon pump, the patient immediately was transmitted to the operating room. He received emergency coronary artery bypass grafting in a beating heart technique using pump-assisted minimal extracorporeal circulation circuit (MECC). Two bypass grafts were performed to the LAD and the right posterior descending artery. Despite initial successful weaning off cardiopulmonary bypass with high-dose inotropic support, the patient presented postcardiotomy LCO and an ECLS was implanted. The primary setup of the heparin-coated MECC system was modified and used postoperatively. As a result of the absence of an in-house VAD program, the patient was switched to a transportable ECLS the next day and was transferred by helicopter to the nearest VAD center where the patient received a successful insertion of a left VAD 3 days later.

  15. Moldova väitel valmistub Transnistria sõjaks / Marje Aksli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aksli, Marje

    2005-01-01

    Moldovast eraldunud Transnistrias käib ettevalmistus mobilisatsiooniks ja relvastatud jõudude koondamine julgeolekutsooni. Moldova valitsus usub, et Transnistria võimud tahavad sekkuda valimistesse ja soovivad rahvusvahelise tähelepanu suunamist regioonile. Kaart: Transnistria. Lisa: Valimiskastid jäävad suletuks

  16. Eurovolinikud GMO pärast vastamisi / Nastja Pertsjonok

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pertsjonok, Nastja

    2006-01-01

    ELi keskkonnavolinik Stavros Dimas väitis 6. aprillil Viinis peetud üleeuroopalisel konverentsil "Vaba valik", et Euroopa põllumehed ei hakka GMOsid kasvatama. Põllumajandusvolinik Mariann Fischer Boeli hinnangul GMOd on ja jäävad ning eurooplastel oleks parem nendega harjuda

  17. Adamson-Ericu muuseum tegutseb juba 20 aastat / Ülle Kruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kruus, Ülle

    2003-01-01

    Kunstniku personaalmuuseumi tähendus ja roll tänapäeval ning pärast kunstimuuseumi uue hoone valmimist. Eesti professionaalset kunsti säilitava ja tutvustava hoone Circulos kõrval jäävad tegutsema Kristjan Raua majamuuseum Nõmmel ja Adamson-Ericu muuseum vanalinnas

  18. Kolmas vaatus Euroopa võlakriisis - Portugal. Oht Portugali mainel / Sirje Rank

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rank, Sirje, 1966-

    2011-01-01

    Portugal kavatseb läbi viia riigivõlakirjade emissiooni, samas müüvad teisedki riigid lähiajal võlakirju, mille riskiaste on väiksem. Portugal eitab väidet, nagu oleks Saksamaa ja Prantsusmaa survestanud teda Euroopa kriisifondist abi küsima

  19. Retinoic acid restores adult hippocampal neurogenesis and reverses spatial memory deficit in vitamin A deprived rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Bonnet

    Full Text Available A dysfunction of retinoid hippocampal signaling pathway has been involved in the appearance of affective and cognitive disorders. However, the underlying neurobiological mechanisms remain unknown. Hippocampal granule neurons are generated throughout life and are involved in emotion and memory. Here, we investigated the effects of vitamin A deficiency (VAD on neurogenesis and memory and the ability of retinoic acid (RA treatment to prevent VAD-induced impairments. Adult retinoid-deficient rats were generated by a vitamin A-free diet from weaning in order to allow a normal development. The effects of VAD and/or RA administration were examined on hippocampal neurogenesis, retinoid target genes such as neurotrophin receptors and spatial reference memory measured in the water maze. Long-term VAD decreased neurogenesis and led to memory deficits. More importantly, these effects were reversed by 4 weeks of RA treatment. These beneficial effects may be in part related to an up-regulation of retinoid-mediated molecular events, such as the expression of the neurotrophin receptor TrkA. We have demonstrated for the first time that the effect of vitamin A deficient diet on the level of hippoccampal neurogenesis is reversible and that RA treatment is important for the maintenance of the hippocampal plasticity and function.

  20. Review of the safety and efficacy of vitamin A supplementation in the treatment of children with severe acute malnutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines recommend for children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM), high-dose vitamin A (VA) supplements be given on day 1 of admission, and on days 2 and 14 in the case of clinical signs of vitamin A deficiency (VAD). Daily low-dose VA follows, delivered in a pre...

  1. Mägiaed ehk alpi aed / Svetlana Polonskaja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Polonskaja, Svetlana

    2014-01-01

    Autor tutvustab nn Tšehhi mägiaeda. Tšehhi alpinaariumid on tehtud täiesti "uut moodi" - kivid on asetatud vertikaalselt üksteise kõrvale, nii et nende vahele jäävad kitsad praod taimede istutamiseks

  2. Kuulsused võitlevad õiglase kaubanduse eest / Tiiu Laks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laks, Tiiu, 1984-

    2006-01-01

    Arenenud riigid ekspordivad oma põllumajandusülejääke arengumaadesse, müües neid seal odavama hinnaga kui kohalikud põllumehed oma toodangut, nii jäävad kohalikud farmerid rahata. Mitmed maailmakuulsad näitlejad ja lauljad osalevad õiglase kaubanduse liikumises. Lisa: Make Trade Fair üritab ohjeldada heaoluriike

  3. Impact of fixed pulmonary hypertension on post-heart transplant outcomes in bridge-to-transplant patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alba, Ana Carolina; Rao, Vivek; Ross, Heather J

    2010-01-01

    Fixed pulmonary hypertension (FPH) is considered a contraindication to cardiac transplantation. Ventricular assist device (VAD) therapy through prolonged left ventricular unloading may reverse FPH. Our aim was to assess post-transplant outcomes and survival in patients with and without FPH...

  4. Isolation and characterization of all-trans-retinoic acid-responsive genes in the rat testis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaemers, I. C.; van Pelt, A. M.; Themmen, A. P.; de rooij, D. G.

    1998-01-01

    By way of differential screening of testis cDNA libraries from vitamin A-deficient (VAD) rats before and after administration of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), genes, the transcription of which was influenced by ATRA, were isolated. Most clones with an increased transcription encoded different

  5. Skulptorid raiusid suve kivisse Kesklinna silla juures / Katrin Nielsen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nielsen, Katrin

    2001-01-01

    Rait Pärgi korraldatud Pärnu skulptuuripäevadel osalesid lätlane Karlis Alainis, laplane Teuvo Tuomivaara, Leena Kuutma, Ekke Väli, Vergo Vernik, Margus Tiitsma (Sorge), Marianne Männi. Valminud dolomiitkujud jäävad kaunistama Rannaparki rajatavat skulptuuride alleed

  6. Roppus ja raev murdsid saali, kuid pungi sisu jäi kaugeks / Margit Tõnson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tõnson, Margit, 1978-

    2004-01-01

    7. okt. Von Krahli Teatris esietendunud punkansambli Sex Pistolsi tekkelugu ja võtmestseene kujutavast etendusest "Ainult võltsid jäävad ellu", lavastaja M. Raat. Lisatud ka punkari V. Tamme ja psühhoterrori laulja Freddy kommentaar

  7. Clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of second- and third-generation left ventricular assist devices as either bridge to transplant or alternative to transplant for adults eligible for heart transplantation: systematic review and cost-effectiveness model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutcliffe, P; Connock, M; Pulikottil-Jacob, R; Kandala, N-B; Suri, G; Gurung, T; Grove, A; Shyangdan, D; Briscoe, S; Maheswaran, H; Clarke, A

    2013-11-01

    Advanced heart failure (HF) is a debilitating condition for which heart transplant (HT) offers the best treatment option. However, the supply of donor hearts is diminishing and demand greatly exceeds supply. Ventricular assist devices (VADs) are surgically implanted pumps used as an alternative to transplant (ATT) or as a bridge to transplant (BTT) while a patient awaits a donor heart. Surgery and VADs are costly. For the NHS to allocate and deliver such services in a cost-effective way the relative costs and benefits of these alternative treatments need to be estimated. To investigate for patients aged ≥ 16 years with advanced HF eligible for HT: (1) the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of second- and third-generation VADs used as BTT compared with medical management (MM); and (2) the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of second- and third-generation VADs used as an ATT in comparison with their use as BTT therapy. Searches for clinical effectiveness studies covered years from 2003 to March 2012 and included the following data bases: MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR), Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE), NHS Economic Evaluation Database (NHS EED), HTA databases [NHS Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (CRD)], Science Citation Index and Conference Proceedings (Web of Science), UK Clinical Research Network (UKCRN) Portfolio Database, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PsycINFO and National Library of Medicine (NLM) Gateway, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Current Controlled Trials and ClinicalTrials.gov. Reference lists of relevant articles were checked, and VAD manufacturers' websites interrogated. For economic analyses we made use of individual patient data (IPD) held in the UK Blood and Transplant Database (BTDB). Systematic reviews of evidence on clinical effectiveness and cost

  8. Pain assessment in patients with possible vascular dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherder, EJA; Slaets, J; Deijen, JB; Gorter, Y; Ooms, ME; Ribbe, M; Vuijk, PJ; Feldt, K; van de Valk, M; Bouma, A; Sergeant, JA

    2003-01-01

    PREVIOUS studies comparing Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients with the normal elderly suggest that AD patients experience less pain. In the present study, pain reporting in 20 patients with possible vascular dementia (VaD) was compared to 20 nondemented elderly who had comparable pain conditions. It

  9. Far-Field Voice Activity Detection and Its Applications in Adverse Acoustic Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petsatodis, Theodoros

    2012-01-01

    phones, VOIP terminals) and research environments (smart rooms), a multiple microphone VAD is also considered. The system processes signals captured by far-field sensors in order to integrate spatial information in addition to the frequency content available at a single sensor. The core of the system...

  10. Lars von Trier ja kombekuse riismed / Kadri Kõusaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kõusaar, Kadri, 1980-

    2011-01-01

    Taani filmilavastaja Lars von Trieri Cannes'is persona non grata'ks kuulutamisest tema filmi "Melanhoolia" esilinastusele järgnenud pressikonverentsil öeldu pärast. Autor ja tema teos tuleb hoida lahus. Trieri filmid jäävad sama raputavateks meistriteosteks, kui nad olid enne

  11. Kõrgtehnoloogia paine / Jeremy Rifkin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rifkin, Jeremy

    2006-01-01

    Ameerikas välja antud uuringust selgub, et inimestevaheline lähisuhtlus on kahekümne aastaga vähenenud kolmandiku. Lapsed upuvad virtuaalmaailma ja jäävad seetõttu ilma emotsionaalsest sidemest, mis lähisuhtluses tekib. Tundmusliku arvutitehnoloogiaga tegelevad infotehnoloogid murravad pead, et luua arvuti, mis oleks võimeline tundeid avaldama

  12. Improving Robustness against Environmental Sounds for Directing Attention of Social Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Nicolai Bæk; Tan, Zheng-Hua; Lindberg, Børge

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a multi-modal system for finding out where to direct the attention of a social robot in a dialog scenario, which is robust against environmental sounds (door slamming, phone ringing etc.) and short speech segments. The method is based on combining voice activity detection (VAD...

  13. Evaluation of three lidar scanning strategies for turbulence measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newman, Jennifer F.; Klein, Petra M.; Wharton, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Several errors occur when a traditional Doppler beam swinging (DBS) or velocity-azimuth display (VAD) strategy is used to measure turbulence with a lidar. To mitigate some of these errors, a scanning strategy was recently developed which employs six beam positions to independently estimate the u,...

  14. Üks lahe festival / Mart Koldits

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koldits, Mart

    2007-01-01

    Teisest NU performance'i-festivalist, mille raames taaslavastatakse 13. ja 14. XI Von Krahli teatris 1980. a. Leonhard Lapini Noorsooteatris lavastatud multimeedium "Multiplitseeritud inimene", mis põhineb Johannes Vares-Barbaruse luulel. Lavastab Leonhard Lapin, kaasa löövad Kristel Leesmend, Uku Uusberg ja Indrek Ojari

  15. Serum folic acid and RFC A80G polymorphism in Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansoori, Nasim; Tripathi, Manjari; Alam, Rizwan; Luthra, Kalpana; Sharma, Sumit; Lakshmy, Ramakrishnan; Kalaivani, Mani; Mukhopadhyay, Asok K

    2014-02-01

    Low level of vitamin B12 and folic acid has been reported to play an important role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD). Serum folic acid and vitamin B12 were assayed in 80 AD and 50 VaD cases and in 120 healthy controls. The reduced folate carrier (RFC1) gene, rs1051266, which encodes the RFC 1, protein was analyzed for polymorphism by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. It was observed that the patients having folic acid <8.45 ng/mL had 2.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.4-4.5) times higher odds of having AD and 2.1 (95% CI: 1.1-4.2) times higher odds of having VaD than patients having folic acid ≥8.45 ng/mL. Serum vitamin B12 level did not show any such statistically significant effect in altering the odds. No direct association was found between variant (G) allele or genotype of rs1051266 with AD and VaD cases. On serum folate level no association was observed with gene polymorphism.

  16. Exploiting Novel Calcium-Mediated Apoptotic Processes for the Treatment of Human Breast Cancers with Elevated Nqo1 Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    obtained from Calbiochem (La Jolla, CA). Z-VAD-fmkwas obtained fromEnzyme Systems Products ( Dublin , CA), diluted in Me2SO and used at 50 M. DCFwas...exposure. NAD and ATP losses were, in part, PARP-1-mediated since PARP inhibitors (e.g. 3-AB and DPQ) partially abrogated nucleo- tide loss (Fig. 3

  17. Lähikauplus toob täissortimendi kodu ligidale / Reimo Sildvee

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sildvee, Reimo

    2004-01-01

    AS OG Elektra nõukogu esimees Oleg Gross arvab, et hoolimata supermarketite juurdetulekust jäävad alles ka väikesed poed. OG Elektra laienemisplaanid, käive, kasum. Comarketi laienemine. Säästumarketite kaupluste arv, käive. Leedu ja Läti ühe juhtiva jaekaubandusketi VP Market investeering Eestis, avatavate kaupluste arv

  18. Seadusemuudatus võib jätta head algatused rahata / Ishtvan Ban

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ban, Ishtvan

    2003-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Severnoje Poberezhje 17. juuli lk. 5. Ida-Virumaal jäävad rajamata mitmed laste mänguväljakud või toetuseta andekad noored, kui rahandusminister Tõnis Paltsi kavandatud riigiettevõtete sponsorabi keelustatakse

  19. Adaptive cognitive testing in cerebrovascular disease and vascular dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, Hans; de Koning, Inge; Zwinderman, Aeilko H; van Gool, Willem A; Schmand, Ben; Buiter, Maarten; Lindeboom, Robert

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: To examine whether brevity can be combined with precision in measuring global cognitive ability in patients with cerebrovascular disease (CVD) or vascular dementia (VaD). Longer tests (e.g. the CAMCOG) are precise but inefficient, whereas brief tests (e.g. the MMSE) are efficient

  20. Att tänka socialpsykologiskt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bo, Inger Glavind

    Att tänka socialpsykoloskt är en introduktion till socialpsykologi. Syftet är att ge en introduktion till vad det innebär att tänka sociologisk om olika problemställningar. Boken tar upp olika tanketraditioner som vardagslivsteori, fenomenologi och symbolsk interaktionism, men hämtar också inspir...

  1. Profile of clinically-diagnosed dementias in a neuropsychiatric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Vascular dementia (VaD) were the predominant phenotypes seen in 62 (57.4%) and 18 (16.7%) subjects respectively. Others include mixed dementia (4 cases), frontotemporal dementia (4 cases), Lewy body dementia (3 cases), alcohol-related dementia (3 cases), PD dementia (1 case) and ...

  2. The Effect of Sugar Fortification with Vitamin A on Serum Retinol and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is a public health problem in. Sudan Objectives: The aim of this study is to test the effect of sugar fortified with vitamin A on VA status of Khalwa students (informal education). Methods:Sixty Khalwa students age 6-11 years were included in the study. Each student consumed about ...

  3. Left ventricular assist device (lvad design features: literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Bogdanova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available More than 8 million people in our country suffer from heart failure. About one million of these people die each year [1]. The problem of ventricular assist device creating - a mechanical device used for partial or complete replacement of heart function - is investigated for a long time (according to [2] just in our country since the 1970s. Today plenty of encouraging results are received. There is a number of VAD models which are successfully applied to patients with heart failure. After implantation, patients conduct a way of life that is normal in many respects: they are in the family, often they have an opportunity to work in their former specialty. Some of them live with the device about 8 years [3].According to [4] for 2010 the estimated total number of long-term devices implanted in the United States per year is over 1,700 (the population of the U.S. is 305 million, compared with over 430 per year in Europe (the population of Europe is 731 million. Unfortunately, people who need a heart transplant are much more.The principle of VAD is that being connected to the left ventricle with one cannula and to the ascending aorta with the other cannula the pump fully or partially replaces the function of the natural heart. This scheme allows the use of VAD in two ways: as a "bridge to transplantation" when the device is used temporarily until the donor heart is found, and a "bridge to recovery", when through the use of VAD the function of the heart muscle is recovered.VAD system can be divided into three subsystems: blood pump, power supply system and control system (Fig. 1.Each subsystem can be the subject of separate study. Special role in the development of VAD plays medical side of the issue. Successful research and development require interaction with qualified professionals in this field. The development of VAD is a multidisciplinary problem which demands fulfilment of a number of requirements.One of the most active programs in implantation of

  4. Evaluation of Underlying Causes of Death in Patients with Dementia to Support Targeted Advance Care Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van De Vorst, Irene E.; Koek, Huiberdina L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/257372962; Bots, Michiel L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/110610032; Vaartjes, Ilonca|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304812102

    2016-01-01

    Background: Insight in causes of death in demented patients may help physicians in end-of-life care. Objectives: To investigate underlying causes of death (UCD) in demented patients stratified by age, sex, dementia subtype [Alzheimer's disease (AD), vascular dementia (VaD)] and to compare them with

  5. Distribution of corded ware in the areas north of the Gulf of Finland - an update/ Kerkko Nordqvist, Piritta Häkälä

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nordqvist, Kerkko

    2014-01-01

    Artiklis käsitletakse nöörkeraamika leiukohti Soomes ja Loode-Venemaal. Leiukohad jagatakse kolme peamisse rühma: matuse- ja asulakohad ning venekirveste juhuleiukohad. Soome lahest põhja poole jäävad alad paistavad silma rohkete asulakohtade ja väheste kalmistutega

  6. Nõrkushoogudes vaevelnud dollar hakkab kosuma / Lauri Matsulevitsh, Liis Kängsepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Matsulevitsh, Lauri

    2005-01-01

    Viimastel aastatel langustrendis püsinud USA dollar on näitamas tugevnemise märke. Vt. samas: Euroopas jäävad intressid stabiilseks; Bensiin võib kallineda järgmise nädala alguses; Tekstiilitöösturid soovivad nõrka dollarit; Kalatööstused rõõmustavad

  7. Use of bitot's spot in screening for Vitamin A deficiency in Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    3 children with VAD (serum retinol < 10 ìg/dl) presented with Bitot's spot, corneal xerosis and corneal scar respectively. All of these 3 children were severely malnourished and sick while one of them was moribund. No cases of conjunctival xerosis (X1A), corneal ulcer (X3A) or keratomalacia (X3B) were encountered in the ...

  8. Biznesa efektivitātes uzlabošanas iespējas uzņēmumā SIA "3K MANAGEMENT"

    OpenAIRE

    Penēze, Aija

    2015-01-01

    Aizvien lielāka nozīmē mūsdienās tiek pievērsta atšķirībai starp uzņēmumu vadīšanu un efektīvu uzņēmumu vadīšanu. Uzņēmēji organizācijas vadīšanā savu uzmanību koncentrē uz to, kā uzņēmums preces un pakalpojumus piedāvā, kāds ir tā tēls, kā tiek organizēta uzņēmuma darbība un kultūra. Uzņēmumi arvien vairāk vērš uzmanību uz uzņēmumu vadīšanu ar pievienoto vērtību, tas ir, efektivitātes uzlabošanu. Aijas Penēzes maģistra darba tēma ir „Biznesa efektivitātes uzlabošanas iespējas uzņēmumā SI...

  9. Neurological signs in relation to type of cerebrovascular disease in vascular dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staekenborg, S.S.; van der Flier, W.M.; van Straaten, E.C.W.; Lane, R.; Barkhof, F.; Scheltens, P.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE - The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of a number of neurological signs in a large population of patients with vascular dementia (VaD) and to compare the relative frequency of specific neurological signs dependent on type of cerebrovascular disease. METHODS -

  10. Ühe minuti loengute abil jõuavad väärt teadmised kiiresti ja mugavalt huvilisteni / Airi Ilisson-Cruz ; intervjueerinud Ada Maltseva

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ilisson-Cruz, Airi, 1980-

    2014-01-01

    Tallinna Ülikooli loengute sarjast, mille idee autor ja konsultant on Balti Filmi- ja Meediakooli õppejõud Indrek Treufeldt, kaasa löövad Tallinna Ülikooli turundus- ja kommunikatsiooniosakond, produtsent Airi Ilisson-Cruz ja e-õppekeskus, operaatorid-monteerijad Kristjan Madalvee ja Tarmo Lehari. Intervjuu loengusarja produtsendi Airi Ilisson-Cruziga

  11. Kas loto on vähkkasvaja? / Aivar Lepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lepp, Aivar

    2005-01-01

    Autori arvates ei ole loto hasartmäng vaid harrastus, kuid peab siiski õigeks korraldada uuring, mis selgitaks välja, millest konkreetselt inimesed sõltuvusse jäävad. Diagramm: Loto müük ja võidusummad

  12. Depletion of the AP-1 repressor JDP2 induces cell death similar to apoptosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerdrup, Mads; Holmberg, Christian Henrik; Dietrich, Nikolaj

    2005-01-01

    depletion of JDP2 resulted in p53-independent cell death that resembles apoptosis and was evident at 72 h. The death mechanism was caspase dependent as the cells could be rescued by treatment with caspase inhibitor zVAD. Our studies suggest that JDP2 functions as a general survival protein, not only...

  13. Is Alzheimer's disease a homogeneous disease entity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korczyn, Amos D

    2013-10-01

    The epidemic proportions of dementia in old age are a cause of great concern for the medical profession and the society at large. It is customary to consider Alzheimer's disease (AD) as the most common cause of dementia, and vascular dementia (VaD) as being the second. This dichotomous view of a primary neurodegenerative disease as opposed to a disorder where extrinsic factors cause brain damage led to separate lines of research in these two entities. New biomarkers, particularly the introduction of modern neuroimaging and cerebrospinal fluid changes, have, in recent years, helped to identify anatomical and chemical changes of VaD and of AD. Nevertheless, there is a substantial difference between the two entities. While it is clear that VaD is a heterogeneous entity, AD is supposed to be a single disorder. Nobody attempts to use CADASIL as a template to develops treatment for sporadic VaD. On the other hand, early-onset AD is used to develop therapy for sporadic AD. This paper will discuss the problems relating to this false concept and its consequences.

  14. Liimpuidu konkurentsitihedal turul jääb ellu vaid tugevaim / Annely Allik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Allik, Annely

    2005-01-01

    Võrumaa ettevõtete TOP 50 3. koht. Liimpuitu tootva ettevõtte GM Panels OÜ juhataja Urmas Lillepalu sõnul jäävad tiheda konkurentsi tingimustes ellu vaid need, kes suudavad efektiivselt toota. Diagramm: GM Panelsi kasum suurenes üheksa korda. Vt. samas: Roland Luks. Edu aluseks õiged otsused

  15. Extracorporeal Life Support Bridge to Ventricular Assist Device: The Double Bridge Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marasco, Silvana F; Lo, Casey; Murphy, Deirdre; Summerhayes, Robyn; Quayle, Margaret; Zimmet, Adam; Bailey, Michael

    2016-01-01

    In patients requiring left ventricular assist device (LVAD) support, it can be difficult to ascertain suitability for long-term mechanical support with LVAD and eventual transplantation. LVAD implantation in a shocked patient is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Interest is growing in the utilization of extracorporeal life support (ECLS) as a bridge-to-bridge support for these critically unwell patients. Here, we reviewed our experience with ECLS double bridging. We hypothesized that ECLS double bridging would stabilize end-organ dysfunction and reduce ventricular assist device (VAD) implant perioperative mortality. We conducted a retrospective review of prospectively collected data for 58 consecutive patients implanted with a continuous-flow LVAD between January 2010 and December 2013 at The Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. Twenty-three patients required ECLS support pre-LVAD while 35 patients underwent LVAD implantation without an ECLS bridge. Preoperative morbidity in the ECLS bridge group was reflected by increased postoperative intensive care duration, blood loss, blood product use, and postoperative renal failure, but without negative impact upon survival when compared with the no ECLS group. ECLS stabilization improved end-organ function pre-VAD implant with significant improvements in hepatic and renal dysfunction. This series demonstrates that the use of ECLS bridge to VAD stabilizes end-organ dysfunction and reduces VAD implant perioperative mortality from that traditionally reported in these "crash and burn" patients. Copyright © 2015 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Just nagu mustkunst: võlgades firmad haihtusid politseinike ja maksuametnike silme all / Marta Jaakson ; kommenteerinud Marie Rosin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jaakson, Marta

    2017-01-01

    Maksuvõlgadega firmad Lõuna Ehitus OÜ, EBG OÜ, Lõuna Ehitus Grupp OÜ, Joy Grupp OÜ, Caramira Pet Trade OÜ, Väike-Ameerika 2 OÜ, Legal & Business Solutions OÜ ühinesid Verones OÜ-ga ning kustutati äriregistrist ja võlad jäävad likvideerijate mureks

  17. Ionizing radiation induces apoptosis in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, A.; Zhou, D.; Geiger, H.; Zant, G.V.

    2003-01-01

    The aims of this study was to determine if ionizing radiation (IR) induces apoptosis in hematopoietic stem (HSC) and progenitor cells. Lin-cells were isolated from mouse bone marrow (BM) and pretreated with vehicle or 100 μM z-VAD 1 h prior to exposure to 4 Gy IR. The apoptotic and/or necrotic responses of these cells to IR were analyzed by measuring the annexin V and/or 7-AAD staining in HSC and progenitor populations using flow cytometry, and hematopoietic function of these cells was determined by CAFC assay. Exposure of Lin-cells to IR selectively decreased the numbers of HSC and progenitors in association with an increase in apoptosis in a time-dependent manner. Pretreatment of Lin- cells with z-VAD significantly inhibited IR-induced apoptosis and the decrease in the numbers of HSC and progenitors. However, IR alone or in combination with z-VAD did not lead to a significant increase in necrotic cell death in either HSC or progenitors. In addition, pretreatment of BM cells with z-VAD significantly attenuated IR-induced reduction in the frequencies of day-7, -28 and -35 CAFC. Exposure of HSC and progenitors to IR induces apoptosis. The induction of HSC and progenitor apoptosis contributes to IR-induced suppression of their hematopoietic function

  18. Vaesed kambodzhalased riisuvad muistiseid / Mai Loog

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Loog, Mai, 1960-

    2004-01-01

    Siem Riepis asuvast UNESCO maailmapärandina registreeritud Angkor Vati templikompleksist. Ülemaailmse antiigikaubanduse mustal turul ringleb üha enam dzhunglitemplitest pärit iidse khmeeride tsivilisatsiooni muistiseid, mida kambodzhalased müüvad ebaseaduslikele ülesostjaile. Viimasel ajal on eriti hinnas Kambodzha Angkori-eelsest ajastust pärinevad muistised

  19. Behavioral and Psychologic Symptoms in Different Types of Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Jang Chiu

    2006-01-01

    Conclusion: A strategy of targeting type-specific BPSD may be beneficial, such as environmental stimulus control for DLB patients who are prone to have hallucinations, design of a pacing path for patients with FTD who need support for symptoms of wandering and emotional support for patients with VaD who are susceptible to depression.

  20. Ventricular assist device support as a bridge to heart transplantation in patients with giant cell myocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Lindsay K; González-Costello, Jose; Jonas, Samual N; Sims, Daniel B; Morrison, Kerry A; Colombo, Paolo C; Mancini, Donna M; Restaino, Susan W; Joye, Evan; Horn, Evelyn; Takayama, Hiroo; Marboe, Charles C; Naka, Yoshifumi; Jorde, Ulrich P; Uriel, Nir

    2012-03-01

    Giant cell myocarditis (GCM) carries a poor prognosis and many patients require end-stage therapies. This study sought to determine the outcome of patients bridged with ventricular assist devices (VAD) to orthotopic heart transplantation (OHT). A retrospective data collection of all patients with GCM was performed. Diagnosis was determined by endomyocardial or explanted heart biopsy. Eight patients were found, but two of those patients went directly to OHT and were excluded. The remaining six patients received VADs, and these patients, aged 44 ± 18 years, were included. Five of the six patients were bridged with biventricular support and one patient was supported by left ventricular assist device (LVAD) alone. Two patients died on device support. Four patients were bridged to OHT 77 ± 42 days after device implantation. All four patients bridged with a VAD are alive, with a mean follow-up of 5.7 ± 4.1 years. Two patients were found to have recurrent GCM in the transplanted heart and were treated successfully with immunosuppression. Three patients had high grade (2R) rejection at 66 ± 52 days post-OHT. Cardiac function was preserved in all patients, and only one patient had cardiac allograft vasculopathy. Patients with end-stage GCM can be successfully bridged with VADs to OHT with very good post-OHT survival. The proper immunosuppressive regimen for this group needs further investigation given the frequency of rejection and GCM recurrence.

  1. Emergency ventricular assist device: better survival rates in non-post cardiotomy-related cardiogenic shock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigus, I. E.; Amsel, B. J.; Conraads, V.; de Hert, S.; Moulijn, A. C.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The Abiomed BVS 5000 ventricular assist device (VAD) has been approved in Belgium for emergency cardiac support in patients with postcardiotomy failure with the aim of native heart function recovery. Other indications have emerged from world wide experience, but the indication and

  2. Results of the first bortezomib-based induction therapy in the treatment of multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortüm, Martin; Einsele, Hermann

    2011-07-01

    This is a comment on the IFM 2005-01 Phase III trial that compared, for the first time, the efficacy and the safety of a bortezomib-containing induction regimen with conventional chemotherapy before autologous stem-cell transplantation in multiple myeloma (MM) patients. Between 2005 and 2008, 482 patients were randomized to vincristin/doxorubicin/dexamethasone (VAD), VAD + dexamethasone, cyclophosphamide, etoposide and cisplatin (DCEP) consolidation, bortezomib + dexamethasone and bortezomib + dexamethasone + DCEP consolidation followed by autologous stem-cell transplantation. The trial was conducted in 89 sites in France, Belgium and Switzerland. The novel agent-based induction therapy (bortezomib/dexamethasone) achieved higher complete remission (CR)/nearCR rates, as well as less treatment-related mortality, but higher rates of polyneuropathy than the conventional chemotherapy-based induction therapy (VAD/VAD + DCEP). The difference in progression-free survival (PFS) difference was not statistically significant but a trend to longer PFS was seen to favor to the bortezomib-containing regimen; bortezomib and dexamethason (BD) was, therefore, proposed to be a standard of care by the authors of the study. © 2011 Informa UK, Ltd.

  3. The use of the Berlin Heart EXCOR in patients with functional single ventricle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Samuel; Bello, Ricardo; Pizarro, Christian; Fynn-Thompson, Francis; Kirklin, James; Guleserian, Kristine; Woods, Ronald; Tjossem, Christine; Kroslowitz, Robert; Friedmann, Patricia; Jaquiss, Robert

    2014-02-01

    The frequency and successful use of pediatric ventricular assist devices (VADs) as a bridge to cardiac transplantation have been steadily increasing since 2003, but the experience in patients with complex congenital heart disease has not been well described. Using a large prospectively collected dataset of children supported with the Berlin Heart EXCOR VAD, we have reviewed the experience in children with single ventricular anatomy or physiology (SV), and compared the results with those supported with biventricular circulation (BV) over the same time period. The EXCOR Investigational Device Exemption study database was retrospectively reviewed. VAD implants under the primary cohort and compassionate use cohort between May 2007 and December 2011 were included in this review. Twenty-six of 281 patients supported with a VAD were SV. The most common diagnosis was hypoplastic left heart syndrome (15 of 26). Nine patients were supported after neonatal palliative surgery (Blalock-Taussig shunt or Sano), 12 after a superior cavopulmonary connection (SCPC), and 5 after total cavopulmonary connection (TCPC). Two patients received biventricular assist devices, 1 after stage I surgery and 1 after stage II. SV patients were supported for a median time of 10.5 days (range, 1-363 days) versus 39 days (range, 0-435 days) for BV (P = .01). The ability to be bridged to transplant or recovery in SV patients is lower than for BV patients (11 of 26 [42.3%] vs 185 of 255 [72.5%]; P = .001). Three of 5 patients with TCPC were successfully bridged to transplant and were supported with 1 VAD. Seven of 12 patients with SCPC were bridged to transplant, and only 1 of 9 patients supported after a stage I procedure survived. The EXCOR Pediatric VAD can provide a bridge to transplant for children with SV anatomy or physiology, albeit less successfully than in children with BV. In this small series, results are better in patients with SCPC and TCPC. VAD support for patients with shunted sources

  4. Vitamin A deficiency and anemia among children 12-71 months old in Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penelope Nestel

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin A deficiency (VAD and iron deficiency anemia (IDA have been recognized as public health problems in Honduras for over 30 years. This paper, based on the 1996 National Micro nutrient Survey on 1 678 children 12–71 months of age, presents the results for vitamin A status and anemia prevalence, as well as the level of vitamin A in sugar at the household level. The results showed that 14% of the children were subclinically vitamin A deficient (plasma retinol < 20 µg/dL and 32% were at risk of VAD (plasma retinol 20–30 µg/dL. These data indicate that VAD is a moderate public health problem in Honduras. Logistic regression analysis showed that children 12–23 months old living in areas other than the rural south of the country were at greatest risk of subclinical VAD. Infection, indicated by an elevated alpha-1-acid-glycoprotein level, increased the risk of subclinical VAD more than three-fold. Children from households that obtained water from a river, stream, or lake were at twice the risk of subclinical VAD compared with other children. That same doubled risk was found for children from a household with an outside toilet. VAD can be controlled by fortifying sugar. Retinol levels in sugar at the household level were about 50% of those mandated by Honduran law. There appears to be significant leakage of unfortified sugar into the market. This is particularly true in the rural north, where 33% of samples contained no retinol. Overall, 30% of children were anemic (Hb < 11 g/dL. Logistic regression analysis showed that children whose fathers lived with them but who had not attended at least grade 4 of primary school were at 33% greater risk of being anemic. Infection and being underweight increased the risk of being anemic by 51% and 21%, respectively. Many of the anemic children had not been given iron supplements, suggesting health care providers may not be aware that anemia is widespread among young children and/or know how to diagnose it.

  5. Leisure activities, apolipoprotein E e4 status, and the risk of dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sheng-Ying; Weng, Pei-Hsuan; Chen, Jen-Hau; Chiou, Jeng-Min; Lew-Ting, Chih-Yin; Chen, Ta-Fu; Sun, Yu; Wen, Li-Li; Yip, Ping-Keung; Chu, Yi-Min; Chen, Yen-Ching

    2015-12-01

    Leisure activities have been associated with a decreased risk of dementia. However, to date, no study has explored how apolipoprotein E (ApoE) e4 status or vascular risk factors modified the association between leisure activities and dementia risks. This case-control study recruited patients (age ≥ 60 years) with Alzheimer's disease (AD; n = 292) and vascular dementia (VaD; n = 144) and healthy controls (n = 506) from three teaching hospitals in Taiwan between 2007 and 2010. Information on patient's leisure activities were obtained through a questionnaire. Conditional logistic regression models were used to assess the association of leisure activities and ApoE e4 status with the risk of dementia. High-frequency physical activity was associated with a decreased risk of AD [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.45], and the results become more evident among ApoE e4 carriers with AD (AOR = 0.30) and VaD (AOR = 0.26). Similar findings were observed for cognitive (AOR = 0.42) and social activities (AOR = 0.55) for AD. High-frequency physical, cognitive, and social activities were associated with a decreased risk of VaD (AOR = 0.29-0.60). Physical and social activities significantly interacted with each other on the risk of VaD (pinteraction = 0.04). Physical activity consistently protects against AD and VaD. Significant interactions were identified across different types of leisure activities in lowering dementia risk. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Accounting for the influence of inflammation on retinol-binding protein in a population survey of Liberian preschool-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Leila Margaret; Addo, O Yaw; Sandalinas, Fanny; Faigao, Katherine; Kupka, Roland; Flores-Ayala, Rafael; Suchdev, Parminder S

    2017-04-01

    Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is an important contributor to child morbidity and mortality. The prevalence of VAD, measured by retinol-binding protein (RBP) or retinol, is overestimated in populations with a high prevalence of inflammation. We aimed to quantify and adjust for the effect of inflammation on VAD prevalence in a nationally representative survey of Liberian children 6 to 35 months of age. We compared five approaches to adjust RBP for inflammation and estimate VAD prevalence (defined as RBP 5 mg/L or alpha1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) >1 g/)L; (3) multiplying each individual's RBP by an internal correction factor; (4) by an external correction factor; and (5) using regression (corrected RBP = exp(InRBP - β 1 (lnCRP obs -lnCRP ref ) - β 2 (lnAGP obs -lnAGP ref )). Corrected RBP was based on a regression model where reference lnCRP and lnAGP were set to the maximum of the lowest decile. The unadjusted prevalence of VAD was 24.7%. Children with elevated CRP and/or AGP had significantly lower RBP concentrations than their apparently healthy peers (geometric mean RBP 0.79 µmol/L (95% CI: 0.76, 0.82) vs. 0.95 µmol/L (95% CI: 0.92, 0.97), P account. Further quantification of the influence of inflammation on biomarkers of vitamin A status from other national surveys is needed to compare and recommend the preferred adjustment approach across populations. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Pathology and pathogenesis of vascular cognitive impairment – A critical update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt A. Jellinger

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Vascular cognitive impairment describes a continuum of cognitive diorders ranging from mild cognitive impairment to dementia, in which vascular brain injury involving regions important for memory, cognition and behaviour plays an important role. Classification, prevalence, and pathophysiology are a matter of current research. Clinical diagnostic criteria show moderate sensitivity (ca 50% and variable specificity (range 64-98%. In Western clinical series, VaD is suggested in 8-10% of cognitively impaired elderly subjects. Its prevalence in autopsy series varies from 0.03 to 58%. In contrast to Alzheimer disease (AD and mixed dementia showing significant age-related increase, the prevalence of VaD significantly decreases after age 80 years. Cognitive decline is commonly associated with widespread small ischemic vascular lesions involving subcortical brain areas. The lesions affect neuronal networks involved in cognition, memory, and behavior.Cerebrovascular lesions (CVLs often coexist wth Alzheimer-type lesions and other pathologies. The lesion pattern of "pure" VaD differs from that in mixed dementia (AD + CVLs, which suggests different pathogenesis of both phenotypes. Minor CVLs appear not essential for cognitive impairment in full-blown AD, while both mild AD-type pathology and small vessel disease may interact synergistically in promoting and progressing dementia. However, both AD-related and vascular brain pathologies have been reported.Despite recent suggestions for staging and grading CVLs in specific brain areas, no validated neuropathological criteria are currently available for VaD and mixed dementia. Further clinico-pathological studies and harmonization of neuropathological procedures are needed to validate the diagostic criteria for VaD and mixed dementia in order to clarify the impact of CVLs and other coexistent pathologies on cognitive impairment as a basis for further successful therapeutic options.

  8. An enigma: why vitamin A supplementation does not always reduce mortality even though vitamin A deficiency is associated with increased mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benn, Christine S; Aaby, Peter; Arts, Rob JW; Jensen, Kristoffer J; Netea, Mihai G; Fisker, Ane B

    2015-01-01

    Background: Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is associated with increased mortality. To prevent VAD, WHO recommends high-dose vitamin A supplementation (VAS) every 4–6 months for children aged between 6 months and 5 years of age in countries at risk of VAD. The policy is based on randomized clinical trials (RCTs) conducted in the late 1980s and early 1990s. Recent RCTs indicate that the policy may have ceased to be beneficial. In addition, RCTs attempting to extend the benefits to younger children have yielded conflicting results. Stratified analyses suggest that whereas some subgroups benefit more than expected from VAS, other subgroups may experience negative effects. Methods and Results: We reviewed the potential modifiers of the effect of VAS. The variable effect of VAS was not explained by underlying differences in VAD. Rather, the effect may depend on the sex of the child, the vaccine status and previous supplementation with vitamin A. Vitamin A is known to affect the Th1/Th2 balance and, in addition, recent evidence suggests that vitamin A may also induce epigenetic changes leading to down-regulation of the innate immune response. Thus VAS protects against VAD but has also important and long-lasting immunological effects, and the effect of providing VAS may vary depending on the state of the immune system. Conclusions: To design optimal VAS programmes which target those who benefit and avoid those harmed, more studies are needed. Work is ongoing to define whether neonatal VAS should be considered in subgroups. In the most recent RCT in older children, VAS doubled the mortality for males but halved mortality for females. Hence, we urgently need to re-assess the effect of VAS on older children in large-scale RCTs powered to study effect modification by sex and other potential effect modifiers, and with nested immunological studies. PMID:26142161

  9. Multilocus genotypic association with vascular dementia by multifactor dimensionality reduction and entropy-based estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Younyoung; Park, Jungdae; Lee, Chaeyoung

    2009-10-01

    We conducted a simultaneous analysis of candidate genetic loci for their genotypic association with the susceptibility to vascular dementia (VaD) to put forth the best model for predicting genetic susceptibility to VaD. Individual-locus effects and their epistatic effects on susceptibility to VaD were simultaneously assessed by multifactor dimensionality reduction and entropy-based method. The 23 loci in 12 genes were studied in 207 VaD patients and age-matched and sex-matched 207 controls. The multifactor dimensionality reduction analysis revealed that the best single-locus candidate model included angiotensinogen (AGT) Thr235Met with testing accuracy (TA) of 58.31%, the best two-locus candidate model included AGT Thr235Met and transforming growth factor-beta1 Pro10Leu with TA of 58.06%, the best three-locus candidate model was not significant (P>0.05), and the best four-locus candidate model included transforming growth factor-beta1 Pro10Leu, AGT Thr235Met, sterol regulatory element binding protein 2 G34995T, and leukemia inhibitory factor T4524G with TA of 57.13% (P<0.05). The best four-locus model was, however, still in question because of the inconsistent best model selection by cross-validation. Synergistic epistatic effect of the best two-locus model was proven by entropy-based estimation. The best predictor for genetic susceptibility to VaD was the single-locus model of AGT. The best two-locus model reflecting epistasis would be also employed for predicting its susceptibility. Further studies on the epistasis are to elucidate their underlying mechanisms.

  10. Bee Venom Ameliorates Cognitive Dysfunction Caused by Neuroinflammation in an Animal Model of Vascular Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Mudan; Lee, Jun Hwan; Yang, Eun Jin

    2017-10-01

    Vascular dementia (VaD) is caused by the reduction of blood supply by vessel occlusion and is characterized by progressive cognitive decline. VaD incidence has been growing due to the aging population, placing greater strain on social and economic resources. However, the pathological mechanisms underlying VaD remain unclear. Many studies have used the bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) animal model to investigate potential therapeutics for VaD. In this study, we investigated whether bee venom (BV) improves cognitive function and reduces neuroinflammation in the hippocampus of BCCAO animals. Animals were randomly divided into three groups: a sham group (n = 15), BCCAO control group (n = 15), and BV-treated BCCAO group (n = 15). BCCAO animals were treated with 0.1 μg/g BV at ST36 ("Joksamli" acupoint) four times every other day. In order to investigate the effect of BV treatment on cognitive function, we performed a Y-maze test. In order to uncover any potential relationship between these results and neuroinflammation, we also performed Western blotting in the BCCAO group. Animals that had been treated with BV showed an improved cognitive function and a reduced expression of neuroinflammatory proteins in the hippocampus, including Iba-1, TLR4, CD14, and TNF-α. Furthermore, we demonstrated that BV treatment increased pERK and BDNF in the hippocampus. The present study thus underlines the neuroprotective effect of BV treatment against BCCAO-induced cognitive impairment and neuroinflammation. Our findings suggest that BV may be an effective complementary treatment for VaD, as it may improve cognitive function and attenuate neuroinflammation associated with dementia.

  11. [Treatment of vascular dementia by Chinese herbal medicine: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials of clinical studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Wen-Jia; Shi, Jing; Tian, Jin-Zhou; Ni, Jing-Nian

    2015-01-01

    Chinese herbal medicine has been extensively used in the treatment of vascular dementia (VaD), but lacked systematic review on its efficacy and safety. So we conducted a systematic review to assess the efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal medicine in treating VaD. CNKI, CBM, PubMed, and Wiley Online Library were retrieved for randomized trials (RCTs) on Chinese herbal medicine treating VaD patients. Randomized parallel control trials by taking Chinese herbal medicine as one treatment method and placebos/cholinesterase inhibitors/Memantine hydrochloride as the control were included. Quality rating and data extraction were performed. RevMan5.2.0 Software was used for meta-analysis. Standardized mean difference (SMD) at 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to indicate effect indicators of results. Seven RCTs met the inclusive criteria. Totally 677 VaD patients were randomly assigned to the treatment group and the control group. Descriptive analyses were performed in inclusive trials. The cognitive function was assessed in all trials. Results showed Mini-Mental state examination (MMSE) score was better in the Chinese herbal medicine group than in the placebo group, but with no significant difference when compared with the donepezil group (P > 0.05). Adverse reactions were mainly manifested as gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal pain in the Chinese herbal medicine group. But they occurred more in the donepezil group than in the Chinese herbal medicine group. The methodological quality of included trials was poor with less samples. Results of different trials were lack of consistency. Present evidence is not sufficient to prove or disapprove the role of Chinese herbal medicine in improving clinical symptoms and outcome indicators of VaD patients. Their clinical efficacy and safety need to be supported by more higher quality RCTs.

  12. Ventricular Assist Device implant (AB 5000 prototype cannula: In vitro assessment of MRI issues at 3-Tesla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valencerina Samuel

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To evaluate MRI issues at 3-Tesla for a ventricular assist device (VAD. Methods The AB5000 Ventricle with a prototype Nitinol wire-reinforced In-Flow Cannula and Out-Flow Cannula attached (Abiomed, Inc., Danvers, MA was evaluated for magnetic field interactions, heating, and artifacts at 3-Tesla. MRI-related heating was assessed with the device in a gelled-saline-filled, head/torso phantom using a transmit/received RF body coil while performing MRI at a whole body averaged SAR of 3-W/kg for 15-min. Artifacts were assessed for the main metallic component of this VAD (atrial cannula using T1-weighted, spin echo and gradient echo pulse sequences. Results The AB5000 Ventricle with the prototype In-Flow Cannula and Out-Flow Cannula attached showed relatively minor magnetic field interactions that will not cause movement in situ. Heating was not excessive (highest temperature change, +0.8°C. Artifacts may create issues for diagnostic imaging if the area of interest is in the same area or close to the implanted metallic component of this VAD (i.e., the venous cannula. Conclusion The results of this investigation demonstrated that it would be acceptable for a patient with this VAD (AB5000 Ventricle with a prototype Nitinol wire-reinforced In-Flow Cannula and Out-Flow Cannula attached to undergo MRI at 3-Tesla or less. Notably, it is likely that the operation console for this device requires positioning a suitable distance (beyond the 100 Gauss line or in the MR control room from the 3-Tesla MR system to ensure proper function of the VAD.

  13. Prevalence of vitamin A deficiency in South Asia: causes, outcomes, and possible remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Saeed; Ahmed, Anwaar; Randhawa, Muhammad Atif; Atukorala, Sunethra; Arlappa, Nimmathota; Ismail, Tariq; Ali, Zulfiqar

    2013-12-01

    Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) has been recognized as a public-health issue in developing countries. Economic constraints, sociocultural limitations, insufficient dietary intake, and poor absorption leading to depleted vitamin A stores in the body have been regarded as potential determinants of the prevalence of VAD in South Asian developing countries. VAD is exacerbated by lack of education, poor sanitation, absence of new legislation and enforcement of existing food laws, and week monitoring and surveillance system. Several recent estimates confirmed higher morbidly and mortality rate among children and pregnant and non-pregnant women of childbearing age. Xerophthalmia is the leading cause of preventable childhood blindness with its earliest manifestations as night blindness and Bitot's spots, followed by blinding keratomalacia, all of which are the ocular manifestations of VAD. Children need additional vitamin A because they do not consume enough in their normal diet. There are three general ways for improving vitamin A status: supplementation, fortification, and dietary diversification. These approaches have not solved the problem in South Asian countries to the desired extent because of poor governmental support and supervision of vitamin A supplementation twice a year. An extensive review of the extant literature was carried out, and the data under various sections were identified by using a computerized bibliographic search via PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. All abstracts and full-text articles were examined, and the most relevant articles were selected for screening and inclusion in this review. Conclusively, high prevalence of VAD in South Asian developing countries leads to increased morbidity and mortality among infants, children, and pregnant women. Therefore, stem efforts are needed to address this issue of public-health significance at local and international level in lower- and middle-income countries of South Asia.

  14. Recovery of right heart function with temporary right ventricular assist using a centrifugal pump in patients with severe biventricular failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Shunsuke; Sakaguchi, Taichi; Miyagawa, Shigeru; Nishi, Hiroyuki; Yoshikawa, Yasushi; Fukushima, Satsuki; Daimon, Takashi; Sawa, Yoshiki

    2012-08-01

    Long-term outcomes of a biventricular assist device (BiVAD) support are worse than those of an isolated left ventricular assist device (LVAD) support. This study evaluated our strategy for right heart failure using a temporary right VAD (RVAD) with an extracorporeal centrifugal pump. From January 2001 to December 2010, 108 patients underwent LVAD implantation at our institution and their clinical outcomes were studied. A temporary centrifugal RVAD was implanted in 26 patients. Multivariate logistic regression revealed pre-operative extracorporeal life support (odds ratio [OR], 37.0), central venous pressure (OR, 1.2), mean pulmonary artery pressure (OR, 0.9), and serum total bilirubin (OR, 1.4) were the risk factors for RVAD requirement. RVAD-off test was conducted, and 11 of the 26 patients showed significant recovery of right heart function and were eventually removed from RVAD support. The survival of patients with isolated LVAD was significantly better than those with a paracorporeal pulsatile BiVAD (80% vs 11% at 1 year, p < 0.001). However, there was no significant difference between the survival of patients who underwent isolated LVAD support and those who were initially implanted with temporary BiVAD but underwent the RVAD removal (80% vs 73% at 1 year, p = 0.827). Our strategy with temporary RVAD for severe acute right heart failure was effective in selecting the patients who could be weaned from RVAD support. Patient survival was improved by avoiding the long-term support with a paracorporeal pulsatile BiVAD. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Isolation of Antidiabetic Principle from Fruit Rinds of Punica granatum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Vishal; Viswanatha, G. L.; Manohar, D.; Shivaprasad, H. N.

    2012-01-01

    Present study was aimed to isolate and evaluate the antidiabetic activity of phytoconstituents from fruit rinds of Punica granatum. With the above objectives Valoneic acid dilactone (VAD) was isolated from methanolic fruit rind extracts of Punica granatum (MEPG) and confirmed by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and mass spectral data. Antidiabetic activity was evaluated by Aldose reductase, α-amylase and PTP1B inhibition assays in in vitro and Alloxan-induced diabetes in rats was used as an in vivo model. In bioactivity studies, MEPG and VAD have showed potent antidiabetic activity in α-amylase, aldose reductase, and PTP1B inhibition assays with IC50 values of 1.02, 2.050, 26.25 μg/mL and 0.284, 0.788, 12.41 μg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, in alloxan-induced diabetes model MEPG (200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o.) and VAD (10, 25, and 50 mg/kg, p.o.) have showed significant and dose dependent antidiabetic activity by maintaining the blood glucose levels within the normal limits. Inline with the biochemical findings histopathology of MEPG (200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o.), VAD (10, 25, and 50 mg/kg, p.o.), and glibenclamide (10 mg/kg, p.o.) treated animals showed significant protection against alloxan-induced pancreatic tissue damage. These findings suggest that MEPG and VAD possess significant antidiabetic activity in both in vitro and in vivo models. PMID:22919408

  16. Isolation of Antidiabetic Principle from Fruit Rinds of Punica granatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Jain

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Present study was aimed to isolate and evaluate the antidiabetic activity of phytoconstituents from fruit rinds of Punica granatum. With the above objectives Valoneic acid dilactone (VAD was isolated from methanolic fruit rind extracts of Punica granatum (MEPG and confirmed by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and mass spectral data. Antidiabetic activity was evaluated by Aldose reductase, α-amylase and PTP1B inhibition assays in in vitro and Alloxan-induced diabetes in rats was used as an in vivo model. In bioactivity studies, MEPG and VAD have showed potent antidiabetic activity in α-amylase, aldose reductase, and PTP1B inhibition assays with IC50 values of 1.02, 2.050, 26.25 μg/mL and 0.284, 0.788, 12.41 μg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, in alloxan-induced diabetes model MEPG (200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o. and VAD (10, 25, and 50 mg/kg, p.o. have showed significant and dose dependent antidiabetic activity by maintaining the blood glucose levels within the normal limits. Inline with the biochemical findings histopathology of MEPG (200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o., VAD (10, 25, and 50 mg/kg, p.o., and glibenclamide (10 mg/kg, p.o. treated animals showed significant protection against alloxan-induced pancreatic tissue damage. These findings suggest that MEPG and VAD possess significant antidiabetic activity in both in vitro and in vivo models.

  17. Pediatric ventricular assist devices: current challenges and future prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burki, Sarah; Adachi, Iki

    2017-01-01

    The field of mechanical circulatory support has made great strides in the preceding 2 decades. Although pediatric mechanical circulatory support has lagged behind that of adults, the gap between them is expected to close soon. The only device currently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for use in children is the Berlin Heart EXCOR ventricular assist device (VAD). The prospective Berlin Heart Investigational Device Exemption Trial demonstrated good outcomes, such as bridge to transplantation or recovery, in ~90% of children supported with this device. However, a high incidence of hemorrhagic and thrombotic complications was also noted. As a result, pediatric centers have just started implanting adult intracorporeal continuous-flow devices in children. This paradigm shift has opened a new era in pediatric mechanical circulatory support. Whereas children on VAD were previously managed exclusively in hospital, therapeutic options such as outpatient management and even destination therapy have been becoming a reality. With continued miniaturization and technological refinements, devices currently in development will broaden the range of options available to children. The HeartMate 3 and HeartWare MVAD are two such compact VADs, which are anticipated to have great potential for pediatric use. Additionally, a pediatric-specific continuous-flow VAD, the newly redesigned Jarvik Infant 2015, is currently undergoing preclinical testing and is expected to undergo a randomized clinical trial in the near future. This review aims to discuss the challenges posed by the use of intracorporeal adult continuous-flow devices in children, as well as to provide our perspective on the future prospects of the field of pediatric VADs. PMID:28546755

  18. Electrophysiologic characteristics and catheter ablation of ventricular tachyarrhythmias among patients with heart failure on ventricular assist device support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantillon, Daniel J; Bianco, Christopher; Wazni, Oussama M; Kanj, Mohamed; Smedira, Nicholas G; Wilkoff, Bruce L; Starling, Randall C; Saliba, Walid I

    2012-06-01

    Ventricular tachyarrhythmias (VT) are common among ventricular assist device (VAD) recipients, yet electrophysiologic (EP) characteristics and catheter ablation outcomes remain uncharacterized. To evaluate the EP characteristics and catheter ablation outcomes for VTs among heart failure patients on VAD support. The Cleveland Clinic registry of consecutive patients undergoing VAD placement in 1991-2010 with medically refractory, symptomatic VT referred for EP study and catheter ablation. Among 611 recipients of VAD (mean age 53.3 ± 12.4 years, 80% men), 21 patients (3.4%) were referred for 32 EP procedures, including 11 patients (52%) presenting with implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy (13 shocks, 26 antitachycardia pacing). Data from 44 inducible tachycardias (mean cycle length 339 ± 59 ms) demonstrated monomorphic VT (n = 40, 91%; superior axis 52%, right bundle branch block morphology 41%) and polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (PMVT)/ventricular fibrillation (n = 4, 8%). Electroanatomic mapping of 28 tachycardias in 20 patients demonstrated reentrant VT related to intrinsic scar (n = 21 of 28, 75%) more commonly than the apical inflow cannulation site (n = 4 of 28, 14%), focal/microreentry VT (n = 2 of 28, 7%), or bundle branch reentry (n = 1 of 28, 3.5%). Catheter ablation succeeded in 18 of 21 patients (86%). VT recurred in 7 of 21 patients (33%) at a mean of 133 ± 98 days, and 6 patients (29%) required repeat procedures, with subsequent recurrence in 4 of 21 patients (19%). Catheter ablation of VT is effective among recipients of VAD. Intrinsic myocardial scar, rather than the apical device cannulation site, appears to be the dominant substrate. Copyright © 2012 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Pediatric Acquired von Willebrand Disease With Berlin Heart Excor Ventricular Assist Device Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossai, Nathan; Brown, Nicholas M; Ameduri, Rebecca; Zantek, Nicole D; Louis, James St; Steiner, Marie E

    2016-09-01

    The balance of hemostasis and anticoagulation is a concern for patients dependent upon ventricular assist devices (VADs). Bleeding is a common complication with both short- and long-term use of these devices. A better understanding of the risk factors and etiologies of bleeding associated with these devices is needed and could improve the overall results. We sought to determine the relationship of mechanical circulatory assist device use with acquired von Willebrand disease (avWD) in children. Data were analyzed retrospectively via review of the medical record of 19 consecutive patients who were supported with the Berlin EXCOR VAD for greater than 24 hours. Laboratory testing for avWD was performed at the discretion of the clinical team, often in association with clinical bleeding. Of 19 pediatric patients, 10 (52.6%) had laboratory testing consistent with avWD. Median time to detection of avWD was 35 days postimplantation of device (range 0-310 days). Both minor mucosal bleeding and bleeding requiring intervention were highly prevalent in patients in whom avWD was identified (10/10 [100%] and 7/10 [70%]). The mean age of all patients was 3.3 years, but patients found to have avWD tended to be older (mean 5.3 years) and supported with larger volume VADs. This experience demonstrates a high prevalence of avWD following EXCOR implantation. Bleeding, older age, and larger VAD size may be associated with avWD. These results should stimulate critical evaluation of individualized anticoagulation regimens in pediatric VAD patients. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Household air pollution and cancers other than lung: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josyula, Sowmya; Lin, Juan; Xue, Xiaonan; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing; Rohan, Thomas E; Hosgood, H Dean

    2015-03-15

    Household air pollution (HAP) from solid fuel combustion contributes to 2.6% of the global burden of disease. HAP emissions are an established lung carcinogen; however, associations with other cancer sites have not been fully explored. We conducted a meta-analysis of 18 case-control studies. Using fixed-effects models, utilizing the adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) from each study, we evaluated the association between HAP and cervical neoplasia (663 cases and 1747 controls) and upper aero-digestive tract cancers (6022 cases and 15 325 controls). We found that HAP was associated with cervical neoplasia (OR = 6.46; 95% CI = 3.12-13.36; 4 studies); oral (OR = 2.44; 95% CI = 1.87-3.19; 4 studies; 1000 cases/3450 controls); nasopharyngeal (OR = 1.80; 95% CI = 1.42-2.29; 6 studies; 2231 cases/2160 controls); pharyngeal (OR = 3.56; 95% CI = 2.22-5.70; 4 studies; 1036 cases/3746 controls); and laryngeal (OR = 2.35; 95% CI = 1.72- 3.21; 5 studies; 1416 cases/4514 controls) cancers. The elevated risk for esophageal cancer (OR = 1.92; 95% CI = 0.82-4.49; 2 studies; 339 cases/1455 controls) was non-significant. HAP was associated with cervical neoplasia among studies that accounted for HPV infection (OR = 9.60; 95% CI = 3.79-24.32) and smoking (OR = 4.72; 95% CI = 1.84-12.07). Similarly, our observed associations between HAP and upper aero-digestive tract cancers remained significantly elevated when analyses were restricted to studies that controlled for smoking. No significant publication bias was detected. Our results suggest that the carcinogenic effect of HAP observed for lung cancer may extend to other cancers, including those of the cervix and the upper aero-digestive tract. Further research is needed to confirm these associations in prospective studies.