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Sample records for aerodigestive primary tumors

  1. Squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus and multiple primary tumors of the upper aerodigestive tract Carcinoma epidermoide do esôfago e múltiplos tumores primários do trato aerodigestivo alto

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    Ulysses RIBEIRO Jr.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus is frequently associated with other, synchronous or metachronous tumors, in the upper aerodigestive tract. All 264 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus, treated in the Gastrointestinal Surgery, Esophagus section, of the "Hospital das Clínicas" (São Paulo University Medical School, Brazil, between 1979 and 1989 were analyzed retrospectively with regards to the occurrence of multiple primary tumors in the upper aerodigestive tract. Multiple primary tumors were encountered in 10 (3.8% patients. All patients were male and the mean age at the time of the first primary was 52.2 years. Tobacco smoke and alcohol were the principal carcinogens in these patients (n = 10. The sites of the tumors were: larynx (n = 4, tongue (n = 4, lung (n = 2, and oral cavity (n = 1. Two simultaneous, three synchronous and five metachronous multiple primary carcinomas were detected. The esophagus was the second primary tumor in nine patients. The mean overall survival after the diagnosis of the second primary was 2.8 months (SD = 0.89. Inquiry regarding other malignancies, associated with panendoscopy should be carry out prior to the treatment of the first primary to diagnose simultaneous or synchronous primary tumors, and careful follow-up should be performed after treatment of the first primary to detect new tumors in these high-risk patients.Carcinoma epidermóide do esôfago está freqüentemente associado a outros, sincrônicos ou metacrônicos tumores do trato aerodigestivo alto. Foram analisados, retrospectivamente, 264 pacientes com carcinoma de esôfago tratados na Disciplina de Cirurgia do Aparelho Digestivo, Divisão de Cirurgia do Esôfago, do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, entre 1979 e 1989, com o intuito de se observar a ocorrência de múltiplos tumores primários do trato aerodigestivo alto. Observaram-se 10 (3.8% pacientes com múltiplos tumores

  2. Minor salivary gland tumors of the upper aerodigestive tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper compares the outcome of minor salivary gland tumors of the upper aerodigestive tract according to treatment modalities. One hundred fourteen patients with minor salivary gland tumors were treated between 1961 and 1986. The median follow-up was 38 months (24-225 months). There were 35 paranasal sinus tumors (31%), 62 oral cavity tumors (54%), and 17 tumors of other sites (15%). Adenoid cystic carcinoma was the most common histologic type, accounting for 70 lesions (61%), followed by mucoepidermoid carcinoma, n = 28 (25%); adenocarcinoma, 15 (13%); and malignant mixed tumor, n = 1 (1%)

  3. Brain tumor - primary - adults

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    ... Vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma) - adults; Meningioma - adults; Cancer - brain tumor (adults) ... Primary brain tumors include any tumor that starts in the brain. Primary brain tumors can start from brain cells, ...

  4. Re-irradiation associated to cetuximab and paclitaxel in the recurrences in irradiated field of upper aero-digestive ducts tumors resistant to platina salts; Re-irradiation associee au cetuximab et au paclitaxel dans les recidives en territoire irradie des tumeurs des voies aero-digestives superieures resistantes aux sels de platine

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    Martin, L.M. [Centre Guillaume-Le-Conquerant, 76 - Le Havre (France); Moran, A.R.; Pavlovitch, J.M. [Clinique du Petit-Colmoulin, 76 - Harfleur (France); El Amarti, R. [Hopital Monod, 76 - Montivilliers (France); Damour, M. [CMC Ormeaux-Vauban, 76 - Le Havre (France)

    2007-11-15

    The objective of this study is to present the preliminary results of the toxicity and efficiency evaluation of the association 're-irradiation-cetuximab-paclitaxel' in the recurrences of upper aero-digestive ducts tumors in irradiated field resistant to platinum salts. (N.C.)

  5. Primary cardiac tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardiac tumors happen to be among the less known pathologies without clear treatment standards. Even one decade ago most of the cardiac tumor diagnosis were made post mortem, and only reports of isolated cases could be found in the literature, showing the lack of interest in the investigation of these pathologies by cardiology and cardiovascular surgery specialists. With the development of echocardiography and of cardiovascular surgery, more cases of primary and metastatic cardiac tumors have been diagnosed. Many cases have been treated by palliative or curative surgical interventions, thus increasing the reports in the world literature and the experience in this field, and pointing out the real incidence of these pathologies, not being as bizarre as it had been considered. a revision of the literature will be made, in which the frequency and the suggested interventions will be reported, as well as the cases of cardiac pathology in two cardiovascular centers of the country known by the author. The echocardiographic, pathologic and histological characteristics of the representative cases will be presented, without a greater evidence level, due to the problem's incidence and the few cases reported by these centers

  6. Brain tumor - primary - adults

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    ... Vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma) - adults; Meningioma - adults; Cancer - brain tumor (adults) ... wireless devices Head injuries Smoking Hormone therapy SPECIFIC TUMOR TYPES Brain tumors are classified depending on: Location of the ...

  7. Reduced risk of head and neck second primary tumors after radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: With radiotherapy of primary tumors of the head and neck, a significant dose reaches the surrounding mucosa. The field cancerization and second field tumor theories state that premalignant lesions are present in the mucosa even at the time of primary tumor treatment. We tested the hypothesis that exposure to irradiation stabilizes subclinical premalignant lesions. This would reduce the rate of second primary tumors in the upper aerodigestive tract (UADT). Materials and methods: The cohort consisted of 346 patients treated for small localized squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (T1-2, N0, and M0). The rate of UADT second primary tumors was compared between 247 patients exposed to radiation (case subjects) and 99 patients unexposed to radiation (control subjects). Results: Median time to UADT second primary tumor was 8.6 years for irradiated patients and 3.9 years for controls (p = 0.007). Through the first 5 years after the treatment of the primary tumor, the relative risk of developing a new UADT tumor for irradiated patients compared to controls was 0.12 (p < 0.001). After 5 years the risk increased for irradiated cases. A corresponding change in risk was not found for controls. Conclusions: A slower rate of second primary tumors was seen within UADT mucosa exposed to irradiation. This could suggest a preventive effect by radiation on malignant transformation of subclinical premalignant foci.

  8. Primary omental yolk sac tumor.

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    Lim, Seon Hwa; Kim, Yon Hee; Yim, Ga Won; Nam, Eun Ji; Kim, Young Tae; Kim, Sunghoon

    2013-11-01

    Extra-ovarian yolk sac tumor arising in the omentum is extremely rare. As yolk sac tumor originated from the omentum has been rarely reported, its clinical information is very limited. The authors encountered a case of yolk sac tumor originated from the omentum, and reported the case herein. A 32-year-old woman was presented with developed low abdominal distension for a month. Magnetic resonance imaging findings were suggestive of ovarian malignancy with ascites and peritoneal seeding nodules. Explorative laparotomy was performed and then the findings from frozen biopsy of omentum were suggestive of poorly differentiated tumor though whether it was primary or metastatic was uncertain. Thus, staging laparotomy were performed. Histopathology confirmed that the tumor was a yolk sac tumor of omentum origin. Then, 6 cycles of postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy at intervals of 3 weeks were performed using bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin regimen. Four-year outpatient follow-up thereafter showed no relapse. PMID:24396822

  9. Prognostic impact of second primary tumors in head and neck cancer.

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    Patrucco, Marta S; Aramendi, Marina V

    2016-07-01

    The incidence of Second Primary Tumors in the upper aerodigestive tract varies from 5 to 30 %. Most of them are located either in the same anatomical region or in the lungs, and are related to a poor overall survival. Our objective is to assess the incidence of Second Primary Tumors, factors related to its outcome, frequent associations, and impact on overall survival. 27 patients with Second Primary Tumors were reviewed out of 307 with head and neck cancer, between 2002 and 2011. Patients had a minimum follow-up period of 3 years, or until their death after the last treatment. Sex: 85.2 % were male; male:female ratio of 23:4. The mean age of appearance for the primary tumor was 66.8 years. Only 1 patient had a synchronous Second Primary Tumor, while 26 had metachronous Second Primary Tumors. Second neoplasms were grouped into synchronous and metachronous for statistical analysis. The following parameters were considered: age at diagnosis of the first tumor, gender, smoking and persistence of the habit, primary tumor's location in the larynx, association between two squamous cell carcinomas (index and second primary tumor), and radiotherapy for the primary tumor. The incidence of Second Primary Tumors was 8.79 %. Overall survival of metachronous tumors was 95 months (7.9 years). The primary tumor's location that prevailed when developing a Second Primary Tumor was the larynx. Regarding the histology, the most common association was head and neck squamous cell carcinoma with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (9 patients). The Second Primary Tumor was the cause of death in 51.9 % of the patients and its most frequent location was the lungs. 19 patients underwent radiotherapy. Second Primary Tumors are common in the head and neck. The authors would like to enforce the importance of an extended follow-up, since second neoplasms worsen considerably the patient's prognosis. Patients who keep on smoking after treatment decrease even more their overall survival

  10. Scanning electron microscopy of primary bone tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Critical-point-drying of tumor tissue fixed in a glutaraldehyde-paraformaldehyde solution and viewed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) provides a 3-dimensional view of tumor cells and their matrices. This report describes the SEM appearance of three primary bone tumors: a canine osteosarcoma of the distal radius, a feline chondrosarcoma of the proximal tibia and a canine fibrosarcoma of the proximal humerus. The ultrastructural morphology is compared with the histologic appearance of each tumor

  11. Primary omental yolk sac tumor

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    Lim, Seon Hwa; Kim, Yon Hee; Yim, Ga Won; Nam, Eun Ji; Kim, Young Tae; KIM, SUNGHOON

    2013-01-01

    Extra-ovarian yolk sac tumor arising in the omentum is extremely rare. As yolk sac tumor originated from the omentum has been rarely reported, its clinical information is very limited. The authors encountered a case of yolk sac tumor originated from the omentum, and reported the case herein. A 32-year-old woman was presented with developed low abdominal distension for a month. Magnetic resonance imaging findings were suggestive of ovarian malignancy with ascites and peritoneal seeding nodules...

  12. [Classification of primary bone tumors].

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    Dominok, G W; Frege, J

    1986-01-01

    An expanded classification for bone tumors is presented based on the well known international classification as well as earlier systems. The current status and future trends in this area are discussed. PMID:3461626

  13. Primary carcinoid tumor of the epididymis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Carcinoid rumors have been found in various organs of the body, especially in the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts. Carcinoid tumor of the epididymis is especially rare. We describe here a case of primary carcinoid tumor of the epididymis that was detected by accident in a patient who underwent a bilateral radical orchiectomy for prostate carcinoma.

  14. Pituitary tumor secondary to primary hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 20-year-old female patient had primary hypothyroidism with a chief complaint of hypermenorrhea. She was found to have sellar dilation on cranial plain x-rays and was suspected of having pituitary tumor on cranial CT. When she was given levothyroxine, the thyroid function returned to normal and CT revealed disappearance of the tumor. (Namekawa, K.)

  15. Imaging findings of primary retroperitoneal tumors

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    Hosoki, Takuya; Oka, Takaji [Osaka National Hospital (Japan); Nakamura, Hironobu; Okumura, Akihiko

    1999-03-01

    A retrospective study was conducted in 26 primary retroperitoneal tumors which had been histologically proved (5 leiomyosarcomas, 7 neurogenic tumors, 3 malignant fibrous histiocytomas, 4 liposarcomas, 5 malignant lymphomas, one lipoma, and one synovial sarcoma). The object of the study was to evaluate the usefulness of imaging findings in differentiation of the tumors. In case of neurogenic tumor, its location and CT density provided a better characterization of the tumor. The pattern of spread and relatively homogeneous interior can frequently suggest the likelihood of malignant lymphoma. Lipoma and most types of liposarcoma can be diagnosed on the basis of their lipid element. Apart from these tumors, few retroperitoneal tumors have imaging features that allow them to be histologically distinguished from other types. (author)

  16. Quantitative Expression and Immunogenicity of MAGE-3 and -6 in Upper Aerodigestive Tract Cancer

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    Andrade Filho, Pedro A.; López-Albaitero, Andrés; Xi, Liqiang; Gooding, William; Godfrey, Tony; Ferris, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    The MAGE antigens are frequently expressed cancer vaccine targets. However, quantitative analysis of MAGE expression in upper aero-digestive tract (UADT) tumor cells and its association with T cell recognition has not been performed, hindering the selection of appropriate candidates for MAGE specific immunotherapy. Using quantitative RT-PCR (QRT-PCR), we evaluated the expression of MAGE-3/6 in 65 UADT cancers, 48 normal samples from tumor matched sites and 7 HLA-A*0201+squamous cell carcinoma...

  17. Primary melanoma tumor inhibits metastasis through alterations in systemic hemostasis.

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    Kirstein, Jennifer M; Hague, M Nicole; McGowan, Patricia M; Tuck, Alan B; Chambers, Ann F

    2016-08-01

    Progression from a primary tumor to distant metastases requires extensive interactions between tumor cells and their microenvironment. The primary tumor is not only the source of metastatic cells but also can also modulate host responses to these cells, leading to an enhancement or inhibition of metastasis. Tumor-mediated stimulation of bone marrow can result in pre-metastatic niche formation and increased metastasis. However, a primary tumor can also inhibit metastasis through concomitant tumor resistance-inhibition of metastatic growth by existing tumor mass. Here, we report that the presence of a B16F10 primary tumor significantly restricted numbers and sizes of experimental lung metastases through reduction of circulating platelets and reduced formation of metastatic tumor cell-associated thrombi. Tumor-bearing mice displayed splenomegaly, correlated with primary tumor size and platelet count. Reduction in platelet numbers in tumor-bearing animals was responsible for metastatic inhibition, as restoration of platelet numbers using isolated platelets re-established both tumor cell-associated thrombus formation and experimental metastasis. Consumption of platelets due to a B16F10 primary tumor is a form of concomitant tumor resistance and demonstrates the systemic impact of a growing tumor. Understanding the interplay between primary tumors and metastases is essential, as clarification of concomitant tumor resistance mechanisms may allow inhibition of metastatic growth following tumor resection. Key messages Mice with a primary B16F10 tumor had reduced metastasis vs. mice without a primary tumor. Tumor-bearing mice had splenomegaly and fewer platelets and tumor-associated thrombi. Restoring platelets restored tumor-associated thrombi and increased metastasis. This work shows the impact that a primary tumor can have on systemic metastasis. Understanding these interactions may lead to improved ways to inhibit metastasis. PMID:27048169

  18. MS-17PRIMARY LEPTOMENINGEAL PRIMITIVE NEUROECTODERMAL TUMOR

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    Maher, Ossama M; Sandberg, David I.; Kannan, Geoffrey; McGovern, Susan; Ketonen, Leena; Khatua, Soumen; Zaky, Wafik

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Isolated primary leptomeningeal primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) without intraparenchymal lesion is very rare and to-date few case reports have been published. We report a rare case of leptomeningeal PNET and highlight its neuroimaging features, outcome and literature review. DESIGN AND METHODS: A medline search was conducted for queries including “Children”, “PNET”, leptomeningeal involvement”. Relevant papers were selected for review. CASE REPORT: A 5-year-old female prese...

  19. Primary omental Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST

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    Hirahara Nobutsune

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We report herein a rare case of primary omental gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST. Case presentation A 65 year-old man was referred to our hospital with a huge abdominal mass occupying the entire left upper abdomen as shown by sonography. On computed tomography (CT, this appeared as a heterogeneous low-density mass with faint enhancement. Abdominal angiography revealed that the right gastroepiploic artery supplied the tumor. With such an indication of gastric GIST, liposarcoma, leiomyosarcoma or mesothelioma laparotomy was performed and revealed that this large mass measured 20 × 17 × 6 cm, arising from the greater omentum. It was completely resected. Histopathologically, it was composed of proliferating spindle and epithelioid cells with an interlacing bundle pattern. Immunohistochemically, the tumor was positive for myeloid stem cell antigen (CD34, weakly positive for c-KIT (CD117 and slightly positive for neuron-specific enolase (NSE, but negative for cytokeratin (CK, alpha-smooth muscle actin (SMA and S-100 protein. A mutation was identified in the platelet-derived growth factor alpha (PDGFRA juxtamembrane domain (exon 12, codon561 and the tumor was diagnosed as an omental GIST. The postoperative course was uneventful. The patient is treated by Glevec® and is alive well with no sign of relapse. Conclusion Our case demonstrated a weak immunohistochemical expression of c-kit (CD117 and a point mutation in PDGFRA exon 12 resulting in an Asp for Val561 substitution. Imatinib therapy as an adjuvant to complete resection has been carried out safely. Because of the rarity of primary omental GISTs, it is inevitable to analyze accumulating data from case reports for a better and more detailed understanding of primary omental GISTs.

  20. Bronchoplasty for Primary Broncho-Pulmonary Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parenchyma-sparing procedures are widely used in patients with low-grade malignancies of the airway when anatomically suited lesions exist. This study was conducted to evaluate the short-term and the long-term results of bronchoplastic procedures for patients with centrally located primary bronchopulmonary tumors. Methods: Between 2000 and 2009, 36 patients with primary lung tumors required bronchoplasty were retrospectively analyzed. Preoperative assessment included computed tomography (CT) of the chest, bronchoscopy, and spirometry. Pre operative diagnosis was achieved by bronchoscopy for all patients, mediastinoscopy was done for patients with primary lung cancer. Neo adjuvant chemotherapy was given for 6 patients with non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Results: We had 15 males and 21 female, the mean age was 37 years and the mean hospital stay was 7.2 days. Operative procedures performed were:Sleeve lobectomy in 30 patients (13 right, 17 left), partial sleeve right pneumonectomy in 3 and bronchial resection with re-anastomosis in 3 (2 left, 1 right). Twelve patients (33.3%) suffered post-operative problems. There was one operative related mortality. Post operative pathology revealed: 27 patients with typical carcinoid, 2 with atypical carcinoid, 4 with squamous cell carcinoma, 2 with adenocarcifioma and one with hamartoma. Pathological TNM staging revealed: 17 patients with stage 1A, 11 with IB, 5 with IIA and 2 with stage IIIA. Follow-up data were available for all patients except two. Two patients died with disseminated disease 1.5 year and 2 years after surgery. The patient with hamartoma developed local recurrence 5 years later and re-excision was done. One patient with lung cancer developed bone metastases and was alive with disease, while the remaining 30 patient's were alive and disease free. The overall 5 years survival was 83.3%. Conclusion: Bronchoplastic resections achieve local control and long-term survival comparable to the standard resections in

  1. Primary malignant liver mesenchymal tumor: A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Primary malignant liver mesenchymal tumor is a rare condition defined as a tumor with vascular, fibrous, adi-pose, and other mesenchymal tissue differentiation. We report a case of primary malignant liver mesenchymal tumor in a 51-year-old male with anemia, weight loss and hepatomegaly. Finally unconventional liver biopsy and histological manifestation led to the definitive diag-nosis.

  2. Primary primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the orbit

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    Das Dipankar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET is a small round cell malignant tumor of neuroectodermal origin. Most of the PNETs occur in the central nervous system (CNS. PNETs recognized outside of CNS are diagnosed as peripheral PNET (pPNET. This tumor which expresses MIC-2 gene (CD99 seems to be least aggressive after complete tumor resection. We describe a rare case of PNET in a young girl.

  3. Primary cardiac tumors: a clinicopathologic evaluation of four cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Charlotte; Timmermans-Wielenga, Vera; Daugaard, Søren;

    2010-01-01

    We report the clinical, pathological, and immunohistochemical features of four primary malignant cardiac tumors identified at the Department of Pathology, Rigshospitalet, Denmark. A panel of immunohistochemical markers for classification is proposed.......We report the clinical, pathological, and immunohistochemical features of four primary malignant cardiac tumors identified at the Department of Pathology, Rigshospitalet, Denmark. A panel of immunohistochemical markers for classification is proposed....

  4. Primary cardiac tumors: a clinicopathologic evaluation of four cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Charlotte; Timmermans-Wielenga, Vera; Daugaard, Søren;

    2011-01-01

    We report the clinical, pathological, and immunohistochemical features of four primary malignant cardiac tumors identified at the Department of Pathology, Rigshospitalet, Denmark. A panel of immunohistochemical markers for classification is proposed.......We report the clinical, pathological, and immunohistochemical features of four primary malignant cardiac tumors identified at the Department of Pathology, Rigshospitalet, Denmark. A panel of immunohistochemical markers for classification is proposed....

  5. Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy for Primary Brain Tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong-min Wang

    2004-01-01

    Radiation therapy has been used to treat primary brain tumors as standard primary and/or adjunctive therapies for decades. It is difficult for conventional radiotherapy to deliver a lethal dose of radiation to the tumors while sparing surrounding normal brain due to complicated structures and multifunction in human brain. With the understanding of radiation physics and computer technology, a number of novel and more precise radiotherapies have been developed in recent years. Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is one of these strategies. The use of IMRT in the treatment of primary brain tumors is being increasing nowadays. It shows great promise for some of primary brain tumors and also presents some problems, This review highlights current IMRT in the treatment of mainly primary brain tumors.

  6. Adult Primary Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumors: Report of Three Cases

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    Ružić, Boris; Trnski, Davor; Dimanovski, Jordan; Kraus, Ognjen; Tomašković, Igor; Krušlin, Božo

    2004-01-01

    Primary extragonadal germ cell tumors are rare neoplasms affecting young males. They usually present with abdominal retroperitoneal, mediastinal mass with varying symptoms. The rarest among these rare extragonadal germ cell tumors are embryonal cell carcinomas. Three cases of embryonal cell carcinomas are presented to show that the clinical presentation of this treatable tumor in this patient population may be quite unusual and difficult to diagnose. Differentiation between primary extragonad...

  7. Primary Neuroendocrine Tumor of the Breast: Imaging Features

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    Chang, Eun Deok [Department of Clinical Pathology, Uijeongbu St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Uijeongbu 480-717 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Min Kyun [Department of Radiology, Uijeongbu St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Uijeongbu 480-717 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jeong Soo [Department of Surgery, Uijeongbu St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Uijeongbu 480-717 (Korea, Republic of); Whang, In Yong [Department of Radiology, Uijeongbu St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Uijeongbu 480-717 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    Focal neuroendocrine differentiation can be found in diverse histological types of breast tumors. However, the term, neuroendocrine breast tumor, indicates the diffuse expression of neuroendocrine markers in more than 50% of the tumor cell population. The imaging features of neuroendocrine breast tumor have not been accurately described due to extreme rarity of this tumor type. We present a case of a pathologically confirmed, primary neuroendocrine breast tumor in a 42-year-old woman, with imaging findings difficult to be differentiated from that of invasive ductal carcinoma.

  8. Evaluation of primary neck tumors by computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application of computed tomography (CT) to neck tumors has received little attention. 40 CT scans of primary neck tumors were reviewed, and CT was proved to be extremely useful in the diagnosis and definition of extension of primary neck tumors. In the carotid triangle and sternocleidomastoid region 2nd branchial cysts, cystic hygromas and tuberculous lymphadenitis are included in the differential diagnosis of cystic tumors. In the carotid triangle markedly enhanced solid tumors must be paragangliomas, i.e. carotid body tumors, if they are located posteromedial to the carotid artery. And moderately enhanced tumors are neurilemmomas arising from sympathetic or vagus nerve. It is easy to define enlarged deep jugular lymph nodes because they are located lateral to the carotid artery. In the supraclavicular fossa enlarged lymph nodes can be differentiated from neurilemmomas of branchial plexus because enlarged lymph nodes are located anterior to subclavian vessels or anterior scalene muscle and branchial neurilemmomas are located superoposterior to them. (author)

  9. Primary intrathoracic goiter - A rare mediastinal tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary intrathoracic goiter is a rare presentation of thyroid disease. Its removal usually necessitates thoracotomy or sternotomy. This patient having a primary intrathoracic goiter presented with posterior mediastinal mass that was removed through a right lateral thoracotomy. (author)

  10. Primary tumor control after radiotherapy for carcinoma of the bronchus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary tumor control and the appearance of distant metastasis was observed closely in 62 patients entered into a randomized controlled trial of the radiosensitizing drug, misonidazole, in carcinoma of the bronchus. Sixty-one of the 62 patients are now dead; an autopsy examination was carried out in 42 (69%). Although survival was comparable to that observed in similar studies, tumor persisted or recurred at the primary site in 95% (58/61) while 39% (24/61) showed no evidence for distant metastasis. In these patients, improvement in the primary tumor control would be important in extending survival. Complications of this treatment are discussed

  11. Primary tumor control after radiotherapy for carcinoma of the bronchus

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    Saunders, M.I.; Bennett, M.H.; Dische, S.; Anderson, P.J.

    1984-04-01

    The primary tumor control and the appearance of distant metastasis was observed closely in 62 patients entered into a randomized controlled trial of the radiosensitizing drug, misonidazole, in carcinoma of the bronchus. Sixty-one of the 62 patients are now dead; an autopsy examination was carried out in 42 (69%). Although survival was comparable to that observed in similar studies, tumor persisted or recurred at the primary site in 95% (58/61) while 39% (24/61) showed no evidence for distant metastasis. In these patients, improvement in the primary tumor control would be important in extending survival. Complications of this treatment are discussed.

  12. A Case Report of Primary Cardiac Tumor in A Neonate

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    Sh. Rejaei

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Primary cardiac tumors are extremely rare in infants and children . Most primary cardiac tumors in pediatric age group are benign, and less than 10% of such tumors are malignant. Many of these tumors are asymptomatic and incidentally diagnosed. The clinical manifestations are very different and includes direct cardiac effect, systemic effect , and embolic phenomena. Every infant or child with an unusual cardiac murmur, unexplained congestive heart failure, or arrhythmia should be evaluated for cardiac tumors. Echocardiography has contributed significantly to the evaluation of these patients. Surgery is the only treatment for primary cardiac tumors that require intervention with a relatively good prognosis. Case Report: The patient was a 20 days old neonate presented with severe congestive heart failure. Evaluation of the patient showed primary cardiac tumor in the left atrium and ventricle. We recommended surgical removal of the tumor but her parents denied surgical intervention at all. Conclusion: After about one year follow up, congestive heart failure symptoms were controlled and the tumor size was decreased.

  13. Multiple primary tumor (TPM) in Uruguay - 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the incidence of TPM in Uruguay through the RNC data. Materials and Methods: Of the incident cases registered in 2008, they were selected those presented in the database prior cancer registry. The are excluded in situ of the cervix and non-melanoma skin carcinomas. Results: At the present time are entered to the the base of the RNC 11859 new cases of cancer incidents in 2008. Of these 566 (4.7%) had a prior record of criteria selection where 308 were women and 258 men. Of these, 450 met the IACR / IARC criteria (*). (Two topographies and / or different histologies). The median age of first tumor presentation was 65 years (22-89). The second 71 years (27-94). The median of the difference was about 4 years Analyzed by gender: Breast cancer (CM) was the most frequent tumor in women, cancer as first (142) and as second (85). The most common associations (excluding Bilateral) CM, CM with gynecological tumors were (TG: ovarian and corpus uteri) 11% CM and colo-rectum (CCR) (9.4%), TG and CCR (5%). 26% of female cases occurred in two hormone-dependent tumors (CM and CM bilateral or TG). In men prostate cancer (PC) is the most common tumor as first cancer (76) but the CCR is the most frequent and second (56). The association comprises CP-CCR 15% of cases and CP association and transitional tumors (TT) 10%. The association of two or more snuff-dependent tumors was observed in 8% of cases. When discriminated by sex in men is 13%, amounting to 19% if taking into account the multiple TT, while in women corresponds to 2%. Conclusions: The profile presentation of TPM in the RNC of Uruguay is similar to that reported other records in both frequency (depending on the criteria that defined) and associated type of tumors. The most frequent associations also They are similar to those observed by other authors: CCR, CM and TG women and CCR, and CP TT in men. The association of tumors are also observed with risk common factors: in women hormonal factors linked to

  14. Platelets surrounding primary tumor cells are related to chemoresistance.

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    Ishikawa, Satoko; Miyashita, Tomoharu; Inokuchi, Masafumi; Hayashi, Hironori; Oyama, Katsunobu; Tajima, Hidehiro; Takamura, Hironori; Ninomiya, Itasu; Ahmed, A Karim; Harman, John W; Fushida, Sachio; Ohta, Tetsuo

    2016-08-01

    Platelets are crucial components of the tumor microenvironment that function to promote tumor progression and metastasis. In the circulation, the interaction between tumor cells and platelets increases invasiveness, protects tumor cells from shear stress and immune surveillance, and facilitates tumor cell extravasation to distant sites. However, the role and presence of platelets in the primary tumor have not been fully determined. Here, we investigated the presence of platelets around breast cancer primary tumor cells and the associations between these cells. We further investigated the associations among platelets, tumor cells, chemoresistance, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). We retrospectively analyzed data from 74 patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)‑negative breast cancer who underwent biopsies before treatment and subsequent neo-adjuvant chemotherapy. In biopsy specimens, we evaluated the expression of platelet-specific markers and EMT markers using immunohistochemistry. The associations among the expression of platelet‑specific markers in biopsy specimens, EMT, response to neo‑adjuvant chemotherapy, and survival were analyzed. The presence of platelets was observed in 44 out of 74 (59%) primary breast cancer biopsy specimens. Platelet‑positive tumor cells showed EMT‑like morphological changes and EMT marker expression. Primary tumor cells associated with platelets were less responsive to neo‑adjuvant chemotherapy (pCR rate: 10 vs. 50%, respectively; p=0.0001). Platelets were an independent predictor of the response to chemotherapy upon multivariable analysis (pbreast cancer. Platelets surrounding primary tumor cells may represent novel predictors of chemotherapeutic responses. PMID:27349611

  15. Primary solitary fibrous tumor of the retroperitoneum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hind Charhi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Solitary fibrous tumor is an uncommon neoplasm affecting adults and typically located in the pleura and can also occur in a large number of other extra thoracic sites. We present the case of a solitary fibrous tumor (SFT of the retroperitoneum and describe their histopathological and immunohistochemical features. The identification of SFT in the retroperitoneum is of importance because its clinico-pathological behaviour is still unclear. The pathologist plays a fundamental role in establishing both the positive and differential diagnosis.

  16. Primary Carcinoid Tumor of the Testis: Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Kwai-Fong Ng; Chun-Te Wu; Cheng-Keng Chuang; Ying-Hsu Chang; Shuen-Kuei Liao

    2015-01-01

    Carcinoid tumor of the testis is exceedingly rare. Most carcinoid tumors occur in theappendix or ileocecal region (85%), while others are found in the lung, liver, and genitourinarytract (15%). A primary carcinoid testis tumor may originate from argentaffin orKulchitsky's cells, which are located in the Lieberkuhn crypt. Preoperative ultrasound mayshow a solid, hypoechoic, well-defined margin mass combined with calcification or a cyst.Differential diagnosis of the ultrasound appearance is tes...

  17. Preoperative tumor localization of primary hyperparathyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diagnostic rate of each methods were discussed in thirty six cases and following conclusions were made. 1. The diagnostic rate of US, RI, AG and VS was 64.7%, 50%, 57.9%, 60.7% respectively. 2. Ultrasonography and subtruction-scintigraphy were useful screening examination for localization of parathyroid tumor. 3. The reasonable diagnostic procedures were as follows. 1) In the cases of palpable, reno-uretrolithiasic type, and biochemical type: US → RI → VS 2) In the cases of nonpalpable osteolytic type, and previous neck surgery: US → RI → AG → VS These results indicate that the systemic diagnosis are useful to predict localization of parathyroid tumors. (author)

  18. Orbital metastatic primary mediastinal neuroendocrine tumor: a histopathological case report

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    Ayman Ayoubi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroendocrine tumors most frequently involve the gastrointestinal tract and bronchopulmonary system. Few cases of presumed primary neuroendocrine tumors in the orbit have been reported so far and most of the orbital cases are actually metastatic. We describe the unusual occurrence of this tumor in the orbit of a 16-year-old boy. The lesion was initially thought to be primary; however, the diagnosis of a metastatic orbital lesion was later supported by the histopathological appearance of his orbital biopsy, characteristic immunohistochemical profile and the presence of a primary mediastinal tumor. The patient did not have any symptoms suggestive of a carcinoid syndrome during the course of his disease. Unfortunately, tests showed lymph node involvement and distant metastatic lesions and he died from these a few months later while on palliative therapy.

  19. TERT promoter mutations in primary liver tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nault, Jean-Charles; Zucman-Rossi, Jessica

    2016-02-01

    Next-generation sequencing has drawn the genetic landscape of hepatocellular carcinoma and several signaling pathways are altered at the DNA level in tumors: Wnt/β-catenin, cell cycle regulator, epigenetic modifier, histone methyltransferase, oxidative stress, ras/raf/map kinase and akt/mtor pathways. Hepatocarcinogenesis is a multistep process starting with the exposure to different risk factors, followed by the development of a chronic liver disease and cirrhosis precede in the vast majority of the cases the development of HCC. Several lines of evidence have underlined the pivotal role of telomere maintenance in both cirrhosis and HCC pathogenesis. TERT promoter mutations were identified as the most frequent genetic alterations in hepatocellular carcinoma with an overall frequency around 60%. Moreover, in cirrhosis, TERT promoter mutations are observed at the early steps of hepatocarcinogenesis since they are recurrently identified in low-grade and high-grade dysplastic nodules. In contrast, acquisition of genomic diversity through mutations of classical oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes (TP53, CTNNB1, ARID1A…) occurred only in progressed HCC. In normal liver, a subset of HCC can derived from the malignant transformation of hepatocellular adenoma (HCA). In HCA, CTNNB1 mutations predispose to transformation of HCA in HCC and TERT promoter mutations are required in most of the cases as a second hit for a full malignant transformation. All these findings have refined our knowledge of HCC pathogenesis and have pointed telomerase as a target for tailored therapy in the future. PMID:26336998

  20. HPV infection and carcinogenesis in the upper aero-digestive tract

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    Andrés Castillo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, molecular and epidemiological studies have shown an etiologic role for human papillomavirus (HPV in a subset of upper aero-digestive tract (UADT cancers in women and men. Oral HPV infections acquired through oral sex seems to be the main risk factor for HPV-associated oral cancers. The high-risk type HPV-16 was the most prevalent infection HPV-positive in most oral cancers. Therefore, the prophylactic vaccine against HPV-16 could prevent HPV associated oral cancer if the vaccine were demonstrated to be capable of preventing oral HPV-16 infection. Thus, these findings have created new potential opportunities for the primary prevention of oral cancers.

  1. Detection of Unknown Primary Tumors Using Whole Body FDG PET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAOJun; LINXiangtong; GUANYihui; ZUOChuantao; HUAFengchun; SHENGXiaofang; WANGYang

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To assess the usefulness of 2-[fluorine-18]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in locating occult primary lesions. Methods: 50 patients with varying hetero-geneous metastases of unknown primary origin were referred for FDG PET. The locations of the known metastatic tumor manifestations were distributed as follows: cervical lymph nodes metastases (n=18),skeletal metastases (n=15), cerebral metastases (n=12), others (n=5). All patients underwent whole body 18F-FDG PET imaging. The images were interpreted by visual inspection and semi-quantitative analysis(standardized uptake value, SUV). The patients had undergone conventional imaging within 2 weeks of FDG PET. Surgical, clinical and histopathologic findings were used to assess the performance of FDG PET.Results: FDG PET was able to detect the location of the primary tumor in 32/50 patients (64%). The primary tumors were proved by histopathologic results, and located in the lungs (n=17), the nasopharynx(n=9), the breast (n=2), the ovary (n=l), the colon(n=l), the prostate(n=l),the thyroid (n=l). FDG PET were proved false positive in 2 patients (4%), and the suspicious primary tumors were in uterus and colon respectively. During the clinical follow-up of 2 to 26 months, the primary tumor was found in only 2 patients ( prostate cancer, gastric cancer). Conclusion: PET imaging allows identification of the primary site and metastatic lesions(including bone and soft tissue metastases) at a single examination.Whole body lSF-FDG PET allows effective localization of the unknown primary site of origin and can contribute substantially to patient care.

  2. Primary malignant bone tumors: diagnosis, radiological appearance and therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diagnosis, concepts of therapy and prognosis of primary malignant bone tumors require intensive cooperation between orthopedic surgeons, radiologists and pathologists with special knowledge in oncology. The present paper demonstrates relevant topics of diagnosis, radiological appearance and therapy of the osteosarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma, chondrosarcoma and malignant fibrous histiocytoma based on the material of the Vienna Bone Tumor Registry and more than 35 years of cooperation between the Institute of Pathology and Anatomy and the Department of Orthopedics at the University of Vienna. (orig.)

  3. Familial primary mediastinal nonseminomatous germ-cell tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, Adina; Culine, Stéphane; Carde, Patrice; Paugam, Bertrand; Fizazi, Karim

    2004-01-01

    In this article, we describe the case of 4 brothers, 2 of which had primary mediastinal nonseminomatous germ cell tumors (PMNSGCT), while the other 2 had benign mediastinal disease. We discuss the relationship between these diseases of the mediastinum and the thymic microenvironment. Additionally, we suggest that a genetic predisposition for germ-cell tumors (GCT) may be involved since the parents were relatives. PMID:15464924

  4. Glutamate Release by Primary Brain Tumors Induces Epileptic Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Buckingham, Susan C.; Campbell, Susan L.; Haas, Brian R.; Montana, Vedrana; Robel, Stefanie; Ogunrinu, Toyin; Sontheimer, Harald

    2011-01-01

    Epileptic seizures are a common and poorly understood co-morbidity for individuals with primary brain tumors. To investigate peritumoral seizure etiology, we implanted patient-derived glioma cells into scid mice. Within 14–18 days, glioma-bearing animals developed spontaneous, recurring abnormal EEG events consistent with epileptic activity that progressed over time. Acute brain slices from these animals showed significant glutamate release from the tumor mediated by the system xc − cystine/g...

  5. A clinicopathologic analysis of primary orbital yolk sac tumor

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    PENG Ji-ying

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective On rare occasions, yolk sac tumor may arise from extragonadal sites. Orbit is an unusual location for the primary development of this tumor. The presence of intracranial yolk sac tumor on biopsy always makes the diagnosis challenge for pathologists. Herein we report a case of intracranial primary yolk sac tumor in left orbital apex. The clinicopathology of this tumor and its differential diagnosis are discussed. Methods The clinical manifestation of a patient with primary yolk sac tumor occurring in left orbital apex was presented retrospectively. Resected orbital mass was routinely paraffin-embedded and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Dako Envision immunohistochemical staining system was used to detect the tumor antigen expressions, including alpha-fetoprotein (AFP, cytokeratin, placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP, CD30, CD34, CD45, CD99, CD117, synaptophysin (Syn and chromogranin A (CgA. Results A 2-year-old boy presented with 3-month history of ptosis of eyelid and exophthalmos on left eye. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scan revealed a lesion occupied the left orbital apex with infiltration of surrounding normal structure, including left posterior ethmoid sinus, the wall of left maxillary sinus and sphenoid. However, there was no evidence of tumor infiltrating in brain parenchyma. Craniotomy was performed and the tumor was removed by en bloc resection. Grossly, the biopsy specimen received in small pieces was 1.20 cm × 1.00 cm × 1.00 cm when aggregated. No fibrous capsule, necrosis, haemorrhage and gross calcification were found in the tissue fragments. Histological examination revealed that the tumor was arranged in a reticular pattern. The cells were relatively large with a clear cytoplasm and vesicular nuclei. Scattered mitotic figures were noted. Schiller-Duval bodies and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS positive (eosinophilic bodies were evident in the tumor tissue. Immunohistochemical staining showed that the tumor cells

  6. Aberrant LRP16 protein expression in primary neuroendocrine lung tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Shao, Yun; Li, Xiaoying; Lu, Yali; Liu, Lin; Zhao, Po

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Leukemia related protein 16 gene (LRP16) localized on chromosome 11q12.1, is an important estrogen-responsive gene and a crucial regulator for NF-kB activation. LRP16 is frequently expressed in human cancers; however, the LRP16 gene remains unexplored in lung neuroendocrine tumors. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of LRP16 expression in primary lung neuroendocrine tumors. Methods: lung neuroendocrine tumors were analyzed for LRP16 gene expression by two-step n...

  7. [Primary prevention of urologic tumors: prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz-Dräger, B J; Lümmen, G; Bismarck, E; Fischer, C

    2011-10-01

    Assessment of the role of vitamins and micronutrients in the primary prevention of prostate cancer has changed dramatically in the past 10 years. Efforts to confirm the efficacy of a single substance have not yet succeeded. Therefore, such recommendations should at present no longer be given. Consideration could even be given to discussing whether additional large-scale interventional studies are expedient in this regard. There is still solid evidence that a well-balanced moderate diet, reduced consumption of milk products, and an Asian or Mediterranean diet are not only beneficial for general good health but can also prevent the development of prostate cancer. This should be the focus of further epidemiological studies. Thus, one can certainly speak of a paradigm shift in the prevention of prostate cancer. In contrast, available data on chemoprevention with 5α-reductase inhibitors is unequivocal: intake of finasteride as well as dutasteride correlates with significantly decreased evidence for prostate cancer. Converting this result into urologic practice remains the topic of extensive controversy. PMID:21927877

  8. The clinical characteristics and the frequency of metastatic cutaneous tumors among primary skin tumors

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    Güldehan Atış

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Our aim was to find out the ratio of cutaneous metastatic tumors among all cutaneous and skin appendage tumors and to establish their clinical characteriaMaterial-methods: We scanned the histopathological diagnoses of all the skin tumors records from the archives between 2006 to 2012 and recorded the age, gender, the diagnosis of internal malignancy, the type of cutenous lesion, the location and the period between the appearance of the primary malignancies and cutaneous metastases.Results: We found that 20 (0,48% out of 4126 skin tumors were diagnosed as cutaneous metastatic tumors. Ten of the patients were men and ten of them were women ( median age of 51,3±18,34. When considered primary internal malignancies of these patients 6 patients with gastroenterologic malignancy, 4 patients with lung cancer, 4 patients with breast cancer, 3 patients with malignant melanoma, 1 patient with Ewing sarcoma, 1 with acute myeloblastic leukemia and 1 with prostatic cancer were diagnosed. The clinical appearance of the tumors were as follows; 14 nodule, 2 eczematized plaque, 2 papule, 1 papulonodule, 1 infitrated plaque. The localizations of the cutaneous metastatic tumors were as follows; 7 lesions on the anterior trunk, 5 lesions on the abdominal wall, 2 lesions on the back, 2 lesions on the thigh, 2 lesions on the scalp, 1 on the anterior arm, 1 on the inguinal site. We found that 3 patients (15 % attended with cutaneous metastatic tumors before the diagnosis of internal malignancies while 17 patients (85 % attended 18,97±24,76 months (1,5 -109 months after the diagnosis of internal malignancies.Conclusion: Cutaneous metastatic tumors are rarely seen skin lesions. We found that cutaneous metastatic tumors are mostly nodular and with trunk localization. It is important to recogniza these tumors, because they address primary internal tumor

  9. CARCINO I D TUMOR PRESENTING AS A PRIMARY MESENTERIC MASS

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    Nidhi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of large primary mesenteric carcinoid tum or which was 7x7x4 cm. The 60 yr s old patient presented with the complaint of an abdominal mass since 1 yr. On radiology she was found to have a complex density mass surrounded by mesenteric fat with clear planes. On histopathology it was confirmed to be a carcinoid tumour of benign natur e. Primary mesenteric carcinoid tumor is very rare. 90% of them are found in GI tract with secondary involvement of mesentry in 40 - 80% cases when the size is larger than 2 cm. In this case it was a primary mesenteric tumour as there was no evidence of any o ther tumor. And second distant metastasis rate reported as 80% to 90% when they are larger than 2cm. The large size, primary mesenteric location and no metastasis despite large size make our case unique and rare.

  10. Primary cerebellar extramedullary myeloid cell tumor mimicking oligodendroglioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, D M; Wong, T T; Guo, W Y; Chang, K P; Yen, S H

    1997-10-01

    Extramedullary myeloid cell tumors (EMCTs) are tumors consisting of immature cells of the myeloid series that occur outside the bone marrow. Most of them are associated with acute myelogenous leukemia or other myeloproliferative disorders, and a small number occur as primary lesions, i.e., are not associated with hematological disorders. Occurrence inside the cranium is rare, and there has been only one case of primary EMCT involving the cerebellum reported in the literature. The case we report here is a blastic EMCT occurring in the cerebellum of a 3-year-old boy who had no signs of leukemia or any hematological disorder throughout the entire course. The cerebellar tumor was at first misdiagnosed as an "oligodendroglioma" because of the uniformity and "fried egg" artifact of the tumor cells. The tumor disappeared during chemotherapy consisting of 12 treatments. However, it recurred and metastasized to the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shortly after the therapy was completed. A diagnosis of EMCT was suspected because of the presence of immature myeloid cells in the CSF, and was confirmed by anti-myeloperoxidase and anti-lysozyme immunoreactivity of the cerebellar tumor. The patient succumbed 1 year and 3 months after the first presentation of the disease. PMID:9341943

  11. MRI diagnosis of primary tumors in Molkick cave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the MRI characteristics of primary tumors in Meckel cave (MC), and to evaluate the diagnostic value of the changes of MC and adjacent structures. Methods: 14 pathologically confirmed primary tumors in Meckel cave were studied. Pre-contrast MRI scan was performed in 4 cases, post-contrast MRI scan in 2 cases, both pre- and post-contrast MRI scan in 8 cases. Results: (1) Schwannoma was the most common tumor, and followed by meningeoma, fibroneuroma, and cholesteatoma. (2) The meningeoma and cholesteatoma had characteristic signal in MRI, some Schwannoma and fibroneuroma had similar MRI demonstrations. (3) The change of MC included cave enlargement, bulging dural walls, trigeminal cistern narrowing or obliteration, loss of fibers-background contrast. (4) The changes of adjacent structures included compression of temporal lobe, pons, basilar artery, cerebellar hemisphere, and the forth ventricle, cavernous sinus narrowing, and petrous pyramid hone absorption. Conclusions: The signals of tumors were helpful to establish the diagnosis, and can be used to estimate the tumor pathological components, the changes of MC and adjacent structure can be used in localizing the tumors. (authors)

  12. Metastasis in the subcarinal lymph node with unknown primary tumor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eckardt, J.; Olsen, K. E.; Petersen, H.; Petersen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    -differentiated squamous cell carcinoma but no primary tumor was visible on PET-computed tomography. Because of his previous lymphoma the patient was scheduled for mediastinoscopy where the diagnosis was confirmed. Subsequent gastroscopy was normal and a right-sided thoracotomy showed no evidence of cancer elsewhere, only...

  13. Ablation techniques for primary and metastatic liver tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Michael J; Willatt, Jonathon; Majdalany, Bill S; Kielar, Ania Z; Chong, Suzanne; Ruma, Julie A; Pandya, Amit

    2016-01-28

    Ablative treatment methods have emerged as safe and effective therapies for patients with primary and secondary liver tumors who are not surgical candidates at the time of diagnosis. This article reviews the current literature and describes the techniques, complications and results for radiofrequency ablation, microwave ablation, cryoablation, and irreversible electroporation. PMID:26839642

  14. Primary desmoplastic small round cell tumor of the femur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Akihiko; Garcia, Joaquin [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Pathology, New York, NY (United States); Edgar, Mark A. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Pathology, New York, NY (United States); Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY (United States); Meyers, Paul A. [Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY (United States); Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Pediatrics, New York, NY (United States); Morris, Carol D. [Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY (United States); Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Surgery, Orthopaedic Service, New York, NY (United States); Panicek, David M. [Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY (United States); Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States)

    2008-09-15

    Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) is a rare malignant neoplasm typically involving the abdominal cavity of a young male. Extra-abdominal occurrence of this tumor is very rare. We report a 10-year-old girl with primary DSRCT arising within the left femur. The patient presented with knee pain, and radiological findings were strongly suggestive of osteogenic sarcoma. In addition to the typical microscopic appearance and immunophenotype, RT-PCR demonstrated the chimeric transcript of EWS-WT1, which is diagnostic of DSRCT. Pulmonary metastases were present at initial staging studies, but no abdominal or pelvic lesion was present. Despite chemotherapy and complete tumor excision, the patient developed progressive lung and bone metastases and died 3 years after initial presentation. This is the second reported case of primary DSRCT of bone with genetic confirmation. (orig.)

  15. Epidemiology of primary central nervous system tumors in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liigant, A; Asser, T; Kulla, A; Kaasik, A E

    2000-01-01

    During the period from 1986 to 1996, 1,665 cases of primary central nervous system (CNS) tumors were identified in the resident population of Estonia. Histological verification was available in 81% of the cases. Gliomas were more common in men, while meningiomas and neurinomas were more common in women. No significant difference was observed between the sexes for all primary CNS tumors. The age-specific incidence increased from the age of 30, reached a maximum in the age range of 50-69 years and declined in the elderly which may reflect under-diagnosis. The age-adjusted incidence rate for CNS tumors was 8.5/100,000 population. A comparison of our results with those of a previous study carried out in Estonia revealed a significant histology-specific increase in incidence in all age groups. PMID:11060504

  16. Malignancy risk prediction for primary jejunum-ileal tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARQUES Ruy Garcia

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is aimed at identifying factors associated with primary jejunum-ileal tumors malignancy, defining a prediction model with sensitivity, specificity and accuracy to distinguish malign from benign neoplasms. These tumors are rare, have highly unspecific presentation and, frequently, are diagnosed late. We reviewed the charts of 42 patients with primary jejunum-ileal tumors treated in the Department of General Surgery of Rio de Janeiro State University Hospital, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil, from 1969 to 1998. We performed bivariate analyses, based on chi² test, searching associations between tumors malignancy and demographic and clinical variables. Then logistic regression was employed to consider the independent effect of variables previously identified on malignancy risk. The malign tumors included 11 adenocarcinomas, 7 leiomyosarcomas, 5 carcinoids and 4 lymphomas; the benign tumors included 10 leiomyomas, 2 hamartomas, and single cases of adenoma, multiple neurilemoma and choristoma. The bivariate analyses indicated the association between malignancy and palpable abdominal mass (P = 0.003, period from signs and symptoms onset to diagnosis (P = 0.016, anemia (P = 0.020, anorexia (P = 0.003, abdominal pain (P = 0.031, weight loss (P = 0.001, nausea and vomit (P = 0.094, and intestinal obstruction (P = 0.066; no association with patients demographic characteristics were found. In the final logistic regression model, weight loss, anemia and intestinal obstruction were statistically associated with the dependent variable of interest. Based only on three variables -- weight loss, anemia and intestinal obstruction -- the model defined was able to predict primary jejunum-ileal tumors malignancy with sensitivity of 85.2%, specificity of 80.0%, and accuracy of 83.3%.

  17. Quantification of radionuclide uptake levels for primary bone tumors

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    Hasford Francis

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to quantify the level of uptake of administered radionuclide in primary bone tumors for patients undergoing bone scintigraphy. Retrospective study on 48 patient's scintigrams to quantify the uptake levels of administered radiopharmaceuticals was performed in a nuclear medicine unit in Ghana. Patients were administered with activity ranging between 0.555 and 1.110 MBq (15–30 mCi, and scanned on Siemens e.cam SPECT system. Analyses on scintigrams were performed with Image J software by drawing regions of interest (ROIs over identified hot spots (pathologic sites. Nine skeletal parts namely cranium, neck, shoulder, sacrum, sternum, vertebra, femur, ribcage, and knee were considered in the study, which involved 96 identified primary tumors. Radionuclide uptakes were quantified in terms of the estimated counts of activity per patient for identified tumor sites. Average normalized counts of activity (nGMC per patient ranged from 5.2759 ± 0.6590 cts/mm2/MBq in the case of cranium tumors to 72.7569 ± 17.8786 cts/mm2/MBq in the case of ribcage tumors. The differences in uptake levels could be attributed to different mechanisms of Tc-99m MDP uptake in different types of bones, which is directly related to blood flow and degree of osteoblastic activity. The overall normalized count of activity for the 96 identified tumors was estimated to be 23.0350 ± 19.5424 cts/mm2/MBq. The study revealed highest uptake of activity in ribcage and least uptake in cranium. Quantification of radionuclide uptakes in tumors is important and recommended in assessing patient's response to therapy, doses to critical organs and in diagnosing tumors.

  18. Vaginal Primary Malignant Melanoma: A Rare and Aggressive Tumor

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    Georgios Androutsopoulos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vaginal primary malignant melanoma is a rare and very aggressive tumor. It most commonly occurs in postmenopausal women, with a mean age of 57 years. Our patient is an 80-year-old, postmenopausal Greek woman presented with a complaint of abnormal vaginal bleeding. On gynecologic examination there was a pigmented, raised, ulcerated, and irregular lesion  cm in the upper third of anterior vaginal wall. She underwent a wide local excision of the lesion. The histopathology revealed vaginal primary malignant melanoma with ulceration and no clear surgical margins. She denied any additional surgical interventions and underwent to postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy. Follow up 5 months after initial diagnosis revealed no evidence of local recurrence or distant metastasis. The prognosis of vaginal primary malignant melanoma is very poor despite treatment modality, because most of the cases are diagnosed at advanced stage. Particularly patients with no clear surgical margins and tumor size >3 cm needed postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy.

  19. Primary duodenal adenocarcinoma: case report of an infrequent tumor

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    Óscar Moreno-Loaíza

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Primary duodenal adenocarcinoma is an infrequent tumor both in our environment and in the world. There is no conclusive evidence on its epidemiology, diagnostic criteria, treatment or prognosis. Clinical case. We report a 77 year-old female patient, of mixed racial origin, native of Cusco (Peru who consulted for abdominal pain, weight loss, nausea, postprandial vomiting and bloating of three months course. At the time of examination she had second to third degree protein malnutrition with a BMI of 16.88 kg/m2, signs of moderate to severe chronic anemia and an 8 cm abdominal tumor in the epigastrium and right hypochondrium. The multislice spiral abdominal CT and ultrasonography revealed the presence of a solid tumor in the second portion of the duodenum. The patient was submitted to a gastroenterostomy without tumor resection. Biopsy confirmed tubular adenocarcinoma. Furthermore, no other primary tumors were found in the stomach, pancreas, biliary tree and colon. The patient was stabilized and was treated with 5-fluorouracil, irinotecan and leucovorin. Literature review. The article includes a brief review on the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of this condition. Discussion. Management is not straightforward. There is little literature on the subject leaving decisions up to the attending physician’s criteria. We believe that all cases of rare diseases should be studied in depth, give rise to a thorough review of literature and, above all, be brought to the attention of the medical community.

  20. Rare presentation of four primary pediatric cardiac tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Lauren R; Caltharp, Shelley A; Milla, Sarah S; Kogon, Brian F; Cundiff, Caitlin A; Dalal, Aarti; Quigley, Phillip C; Shehata, Bahig M

    2016-01-01

    Pediatric cardiac tumors are extremely rare and usually benign. We selected four unique cases of pediatric cardiac tumors from a 15-year period at our institution. The four chosen cases represent unique, rare primary tumors of the heart. Our selection includes a case of Rosai Dorfman disease without systemic involvement, which is, to our knowledge, the second case of isolated cardiac Rosai Dorfman disease in a child. We present a case of subtotal replacement of myocardium by granulocytic sarcoma with minimal bone marrow involvement, representing the first reported case in a child manifested as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, as well as a case of a primary synovial sarcoma arising from the atrioventricular (AV) node, representing the fourth reported pediatric case of a cardiac synovial sarcoma, and it is the first to arise from the AV node. Finally, we present a primary congenital infantile fibrosarcoma of the heart, which is, to our knowledge, the first confirmed cardiac congenital infantile fibrosarcoma. These four cases represent the need for continued inclusion of rare cardiac conditions in a clinician's differential diagnosis. Furthermore, they present the need for more in-depth molecular and genomic analysis of pediatric cardiac tumors in order to identify their etiopathogenesis. PMID:26419627

  1. Delayed contrast extravasation MRI for depicting tumor and non-tumoral tissues in primary and metastatic brain tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leor Zach

    Full Text Available The current standard of care for newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is resection followed by radiotherapy with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide. Recent studies suggest that nearly half of the patients with early radiological deterioration post treatment do not suffer from tumor recurrence but from pseudoprogression. Similarly, a significant number of patients with brain metastases suffer from radiation necrosis following radiation treatments. Conventional MRI is currently unable to differentiate tumor progression from treatment-induced effects. The ability to clearly differentiate tumor from non-tumoral tissues is crucial for appropriate patient management. Ten patients with primary brain tumors and 10 patients with brain metastases were scanned by delayed contrast extravasation MRI prior to surgery. Enhancement subtraction maps calculated from high resolution MR images acquired up to 75 min after contrast administration were used for obtaining stereotactic biopsies. Histological assessment was then compared with the pre-surgical calculated maps. In addition, the application of our maps for prediction of progression was studied in a small cohort of 13 newly diagnosed GBM patients undergoing standard chemoradiation and followed up to 19.7 months post therapy. The maps showed two primary enhancement populations: the slow population where contrast clearance from the tissue was slower than contrast accumulation and the fast population where clearance was faster than accumulation. Comparison with histology confirmed the fast population to consist of morphologically active tumor and the slow population to consist of non-tumoral tissues. Our maps demonstrated significant correlation with perfusion-weighted MR data acquired simultaneously, although contradicting examples were shown. Preliminary results suggest that early changes in the fast volumes may serve as a predictor for time to progression. These preliminary results suggest that

  2. Photodynamic therapy--1994: treatment of benign and malignant upper aerodigestive tract disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweitzer, Vanessa G.

    1995-03-01

    From 1983 to 1994 Phase II and III clinical studies at Henry Ford Hospital demonstrated complete or partial responses in 46 of 47 patients treated with hematoporphyrin-derivative photodynamic therapy (HPD-PDT) for a variety of benign and malignant upper aerodigestive tract disease: (1) superficial `condemned mucosa' or `field cancerization' of the oral cavity; (2) stage III/IV head and neck cancer; (3) mucocutaneous AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma of the upper aerodigestive tract; (4) recurrent laryngotracheal papillomatosis; (5) severe dysplasia/adenocarcinoma in situ in Barrett's esophagus; (6) partial or completely obstructing terminal esophageal cancer. HPD-PDT produced complete responses in 19 patients (follow up 6 months to 8 years) with `field cancerization' (CIS, T1) of the oral cavity and larynx (6), adenocarcinoma in situ in Barrett's esophagus (2), mucocutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma (9), obstructing esophageal carcinoma (1), and stage IV squamous cell carcinoma of the nasopharynx (1). PDT treatment protocols, results, complications, and application as adjunct or primary oncologic therapy for head and neck disease are reviewed.

  3. Rare Intracardiac Tumor: Primary Cardiac Lymphoma Presenting as Atypical Angina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthigesu Aimanan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary lymphomas of the heart are extremely rare, accounting for 2% of all primary cardiac tumors. Due to the rare presentation, there is no proper consensus available on treatment strategy. Preoperative confirmation of the pathology is fundamental in guiding an early treatment plan, which allows for improved prognosis. Unfortunately, in most cases, primary cardiac lymphoma is only identified on postoperative histopathological analyses, which affect the treatment plan and outcome. Here, we report a unique case of primary cardiac lymphoma presented with dyspnea and reduced effort tolerance. Young age, rapid onset of symptom, and absence of cardiac risk factors prompted us towards further imaging and emergency resection. The patient received a course of postoperative chemotherapy and was disease-free on six months of follow-up.

  4. Primary Yolk Sac Tumor of the Omentum: Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Chang Kyu; Oh, Young Taik; Jung, Dae Chul [Dept. of Radiology, Research Institue of Radiological Science, Yensei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Yoon Sung [Dept. of Pathology, Yensei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    A 32-year-old woman had been referred to our hospital for lower abdominal pain. Pelvic ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a huge solid mass with an internal cystic portion. The patient underwent a staging laparotomy and subsequent total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, bilateral pelvic lymph nodes sampling, and total omentectomy. At staging laparotomy, a large omental mass was found. The tumor displayed the typical histological patterns observed in the yolk sac tumor. The alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) serum value on the 10th day after surgery was 11,576.67 IU/mL and decreased to 6.46 IU/mL after chemotherapy. At the end of the treatment, all the findings, including the AFP level, were normal. We report a case of primary yolk sac tumor of the omentum in a 32-year-old woman.

  5. Primary, non-exophytic, optic nerve germ cell tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiLuna, Michael L; Two, Aimee M; Levy, Gillian H; Patel, Toral; Huttner, Anita J; Duncan, Charles C; Piepmeier, Joseph M

    2009-12-01

    Tumors of the optic chiasm are relatively uncommon and usually associated with phakomatoses such as neurofibromatosis. Even more rare is the presentation of a primary, non-exophytic, isolated optic chiasm germ cell tumor (GCT). These tumors have imaging characteristics nearly indistinguishable from optic chiasmatic gliomas (OCGs). Herein we describe two cases of young men who presented with similar findings of progressive, painless visual loss and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysfunction including diabetes insipidus. Brain imaging was non-diagnostic and suggestive of an OCG. Pathology demonstrated GCTs in each case highlighting the importance of biopsy confirmation of the diagnosis. Both patients underwent a pterional craniotomy and sub-frontal approach to the optic chiasm. The chiasm was diffusely enlarged and discolored in each case without evidence of sellar, suprasellar or perichiasmatic pathology. Pathology demonstrated a malignant mixed GCT in the first patient and a germinoma in the second. This case series highlights the importance of tissue biopsy for patients with progressive symptoms from optic chiasm tumors. Furthermore, this is the first report of a primary, non-exophytic malignant mixed GCT. As the treatment regimens differ widely between optic chiasm GCTs and chiasm gliomas, tissue diagnosis is important. PMID:19554263

  6. Short telomeres initiate telomere recombination in primary and tumor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tammy A Morrish

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Human tumors that lack telomerase maintain telomeres by alternative lengthening mechanisms. Tumors can also form in telomerase-deficient mice; however, the genetic mechanism responsible for tumor growth without telomerase is unknown. In yeast, several different recombination pathways maintain telomeres in the absence of telomerase-some result in telomere maintenance with minimal effects on telomere length. To examine non-telomerase mechanisms for telomere maintenance in mammalian cells, we used primary cells and lymphomas from telomerase-deficient mice (mTR-/- and Emumyc+mTR-/- and CAST/EiJ mouse embryonic fibroblast cells. These cells were analyzed using pq-ratio analysis, telomere length distribution outliers, CO-FISH, Q-FISH, and multicolor FISH to detect subtelomeric recombination. Telomere length was maintained during long-term growth in vivo and in vitro. Long telomeres, characteristic of human ALT cells, were not observed in either late passage or mTR-/- tumor cells; instead, we observed only minimal changes in telomere length. Telomere length variation and subtelomeric recombination were frequent in cells with short telomeres, indicating that length maintenance is due to telomeric recombination. We also detected telomere length changes in primary mTR-/- cells that had short telomeres. Using mouse mTR+/- and human hTERT+/- primary cells with short telomeres, we found frequent length changes indicative of recombination. We conclude that telomere maintenance by non-telomerase mechanisms, including recombination, occurs in primary cells and is initiated by short telomeres, even in the presence of telomerase. Most intriguing, our data indicate that some non-telomerase telomere maintenance mechanisms occur without a significant increase in telomere length.

  7. Resection of the primary tumor in stage IV breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Shien, Tadahiko; Doihara, Hiroyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Stage IV breast cancer refers to breast cancer that has already metastasized to distant regions when initially diagnosed. Treatment for stage IV is intended to “prolong survival and palliate symptoms”. Resection of a primary tumor is considered to be “effective only at alleviating chest symptoms and providing local control” in spite of the advances of imaging examination and medication for breast cancer. Molecular target and endocrine drugs are very effective and useful to tailor-make a treat...

  8. Oxygenation of tumor recurrences following fractionated radiotherapy of primary tumors. Studies on the rhabdomyosarcoma R1H of the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kehrl, W. [Dept. of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, Marienkrankenhaus Hamburg (Germany); Sagowski, C.; Wenzel, S. [Dept. of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, Univ. Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany); Zywietz, F. [Inst. of Biophysics and Radiobiology, Univ. Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany)

    2004-06-01

    Background and purpose: tumor oxygenation is well recognized as a major factor of tumor response to radiotherapy. In this respect, a number of studies have examined the response of primary tumors, whereas little is known about the oxygenation of tumor recurrences after radiotherapy. It was the aim of this study to investigate the oxygenation of tumor recurrences after preceding irradiation of the primary tumor. Material and methods: tumor oxygenation in primary tumors and recurrences of rat rhabdomyosarcomas R1H was measured by using pO{sub 2} probes and Eppendorf pO{sub 2} histography. Primary tumors were irradiated at a {sup 60}Co radiotherapy facility with a total dose of 75 Gy, given in 30 fractions over 6 weeks. Oxygenation was measured in R1H tumors before and directly after completion of irradiation. In R1H recurrences oxygenation was determined, when they reached the same size as the previously treated primary tumors (V{sub o} = 3.1 {+-} 0.5 cm{sup 3}). Additionally, tumor microvessel density and the intercapillary distance of tumor blood vessels were determined on histological sections using a counting grid. Results: tumor oxygenation in R1H recurrences was significantly lower when compared to primary R1H tumors. In primary tumors a median pO{sub 2} of 17 {+-} 7 mmHg was measured. By contrast, the median pO{sub 2} in R1H recurrences was only 5 {+-} 5 mmHg (p < 0.05). The high frequency of pO{sub 2} values < 5 mmHg indicated that R1H recurrences were significantly more hypoxic (58 {+-} 5%) in comparison to primary tumors (22 {+-} 4%). The histological sections of the R1H recurrences showed a higher heterogeneity in their tissue structure than primary nonirradiated tumors. The morphometric studies demonstrated a reduced microvessel density (91 {+-} 21/9.04 mm{sup 2} in the tumor periphery; p = 0.0001) compared with recurrent tumors (68 {+-} 26) and an enhanced mean distance of tumor blood vessels, especially in the center of the R1H recurrences (184 {+-} 20

  9. Imaging of primary bone tumors in veterinary medicine: which differences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanel, Maïa; Blond, Laurent; Vanel, Daniel

    2013-12-01

    Veterinary medicine is most often a mysterious world for the human doctors. However, animals are important for human medicine thanks to the numerous biological similarities. Primary bone tumors are not uncommon in veterinary medicine and especially in small domestic animals as dogs and cats. As in human medicine, osteosarcoma is the most common one and especially in the long bones extremities. In the malignant bone tumor family, chondrosarcoma, fibrosarcoma and hemangiosarcoma are following. Benign bone tumors as osteoma, osteochondroma and bone cysts do exist but are rare and of little clinical significance. Diagnostic modalities used depend widely on the owner willing to treat his animal. Radiographs and bone biopsy are the standard to make a diagnosis but CT, nuclear medicine and MRI are more an more used. As amputation is treatment number one in appendicular bone tumor in veterinary medicine, this explains on the one hand why more recent imaging modalities are not always necessary and on the other hand, that prognostic on large animals is so poor that it is not much studied. Chemotherapy is sometimes associated with the surgery procedure, depending on the aggressivity of the tumor. Although, the strakes differs a lot between veterinary and human medicine, biological behavior are almost the same and should led to a beneficial team work between all. PMID:22197093

  10. Imaging of primary bone tumors in veterinary medicine: Which differences?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanel, Maïa, E-mail: maiavanel@yahoo.fr [Diagnostic Imaging Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Montreal, 3200 Rue Sicotte, PO Box 5000, Saint-Hyacinthe, QC (Canada); Blond, Laurent [Diagnostic Imaging Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Montreal, 3200 Rue Sicotte, PO Box 5000, Saint-Hyacinthe, QC (Canada); Vanel, Daniel [The Rizzoli Institute, Via del Barbiano 1-10, 40136, Bologna (Italy)

    2013-12-01

    Veterinary medicine is most often a mysterious world for the human doctors. However, animals are important for human medicine thanks to the numerous biological similarities. Primary bone tumors are not uncommon in veterinary medicine and especially in small domestic animals as dogs and cats. As in human medicine, osteosarcoma is the most common one and especially in the long bones extremities. In the malignant bone tumor family, chondrosarcoma, fibrosarcoma and hemangiosarcoma are following. Benign bone tumors as osteoma, osteochondroma and bone cysts do exist but are rare and of little clinical significance. Diagnostic modalities used depend widely on the owner willing to treat his animal. Radiographs and bone biopsy are the standard to make a diagnosis but CT, nuclear medicine and MRI are more an more used. As amputation is treatment number one in appendicular bone tumor in veterinary medicine, this explains on the one hand why more recent imaging modalities are not always necessary and on the other hand, that pronostic on large animals is so poor that it is not much studied. Chemotherapy is sometimes associated with the surgery procedure, depending on the agressivity of the tumor. Although, the strakes differs a lot between veterinary and human medicine, biological behavior are almost the same and should led to a beneficial team work between all.

  11. Primary tumors of the trachea. Results of radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From 1959 to 1986, 24 patients with primary malignant tumors of the trachea received radiotherapy as all or part of treatment. Common presentations included respiratory symptoms in 20 patients and hemoptysis in 15. Thirteen patients had squamous carcinomas with undifferentiated and adenoid cystic cancers in five and four patients, respectively. Overall actuarial survival was 45% at 1 year, 25% at 5 years, and 13% at 10 years. Survival was significantly correlated to histologic type (adenoid cystic versus squamous, P less than 0.03), but not to tumor extent or to patient age or sex. Local control was attained in 10 of 24 patients overall and was more frequent for patients with tumors localized to the trachea and for patients who were treated with combined surgery and radiotherapy. For the 18 patients treated with radiotherapy alone, complete response (CR) was seen to be significantly (P less than 0.001) related to dose: six of seven (86%) patients receiving greater than or equal to 6000 cGy attained CR versus one of 11 (9%) receiving less than 6000 cGy. Three patients developed complications related to radiotherapy. Radiotherapy can provide durable local control of localized tracheal tumors and should be considered for medically inoperable patients with localized tumors and for patients with high risk of recurrence after resection

  12. Imaging of primary bone tumors in veterinary medicine: Which differences?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veterinary medicine is most often a mysterious world for the human doctors. However, animals are important for human medicine thanks to the numerous biological similarities. Primary bone tumors are not uncommon in veterinary medicine and especially in small domestic animals as dogs and cats. As in human medicine, osteosarcoma is the most common one and especially in the long bones extremities. In the malignant bone tumor family, chondrosarcoma, fibrosarcoma and hemangiosarcoma are following. Benign bone tumors as osteoma, osteochondroma and bone cysts do exist but are rare and of little clinical significance. Diagnostic modalities used depend widely on the owner willing to treat his animal. Radiographs and bone biopsy are the standard to make a diagnosis but CT, nuclear medicine and MRI are more an more used. As amputation is treatment number one in appendicular bone tumor in veterinary medicine, this explains on the one hand why more recent imaging modalities are not always necessary and on the other hand, that pronostic on large animals is so poor that it is not much studied. Chemotherapy is sometimes associated with the surgery procedure, depending on the agressivity of the tumor. Although, the strakes differs a lot between veterinary and human medicine, biological behavior are almost the same and should led to a beneficial team work between all

  13. Primary infertility associated with neuroendocrine tumor (Carcinoid) of the appendix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Brad B Swelstad; Paul R Brezina; Clark T Johnson; Nina Resetkova; Irene Woo; Lisa Kolp

    2012-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors of the appendix(NET-A), formerly called appendiceal carcinoids, are rare tumors of the gastrointestinal tract.Appendiceal tumors have also been associated with infertility. However, in many of these cases, significant abdominal pathology, specifically pseudomyxoma peritonei, was identified during definitive surgical intervention.A34-year-old nulligravid woman undergoing infertility evaluation presented to an academic tertiary care fertility center. An abnormal mass was identified on hysterosalpingogram andCT confirmed appendiceal mass. Surgical removal of the mass was performed and histopathology was consistent with anNET-A with negative margins extending to the serosa.Two months after surgical intervention, the patient spontaneously conceived pregnancy and subsequently delivered a normal infant.This case exemplifies the importance of careful inspection of radiologic films by the gynecologic physician. Of added interest, this case describes an asymptomaticNET-A associated with primary infertility. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an incidentally indentifiedNET-A that resulted in primary infertility.

  14. Prolactin gene expression in primary central nervous system tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendes Graziella Alebrant

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prolactin (PRL is a hormone synthesized in both the pituitary gland and extrapituitary sites. It has been associated with the occurrence of neoplasms and, more recently, with central nervous system (CNS neoplasms. The aim of this study was to evaluate prolactin expression in primary central nervous system tumors through quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry (IH. Results Patient mean age was 49.1 years (SD 15.43, and females accounted for 70% of the sample. The most frequent subtype of histological tumor was meningioma (61.5%, followed by glioblastoma (22.9%. Twenty cases (28.6% showed prolactin expression by immunohistochemistry, most of them females (18 cases, 90%. Quantitative real-time PCR did not show any prolactin expression. Conclusions Despite the presence of prolactin expression by IH, the lack of its expression by quantitative real-time PCR indicates that its presence in primary tumors in CNS is not a reflex of local production.

  15. Factors affecting the local control of stereotactic body radiotherapy for lung tumors including primary lung cancer and metastatic lung tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors affecting local control of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for lung tumors including primary lung cancer and metastatic lung tumors. Between June 2006 and June 2009, 159 lung tumors in 144 patients (primary lung cancer, 128; metastatic lung tumor, 31) were treated with SBRT with 48-60 Gy (mean 50.1 Gy) in 4-5 fractions. Higher doses were given to larger tumors and metastatic tumors in principle. Assessed factors were age, gender, tumor origin (primary vs. metastatic), histological subtype, tumor size, tumor appearance (solid vs. ground glass opacity), maximum standardized uptake value of positron emission tomography using 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose, and SBRT doses. Follow-up time was 1-60 months (median 18 months). The 1-, 2-, and 3-year local failure-free rates of all lesions were 90, 80, and 77%, respectively. On univariate analysis, metastatic tumors (p<0.0001), solid tumors (p=0.0246), and higher SBRT doses (p=0.0334) were the statistically significant unfavorable factors for local control. On multivariate analysis, only tumor origin was statistically significant (p=0.0027). The 2-year local failure-free rates of primary lung cancer and metastatic lung tumors were 87 and 50%, respectively. A metastatic tumor was the only independently significant unfavorable factor for local control after SBRT. (author)

  16. Imaging findings in primary intracranial atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parmar, Hemant; Shroff, Manohar [Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada); Hawkins, Cynthia [Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Neuropathology, Toronto, ON (Canada); Bouffet, Eric [Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Neuro-Oncology, Toronto, ON (Canada); Rutka, James [Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Neurosurgery, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2006-02-01

    Intracranial atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (AT/RT) are rare and extremely aggressive neoplasms seen primarily in childhood. Imaging features are often considered non-specific. However, correct diagnosis of AT/RT is important because these tumors have a markedly different clinical prognosis and require more aggressive therapy. To determine the imaging features of AT/RT. We retrospectively analyzed imaging findings in 11 patients with primary intracranial AT/RT presenting over a period of 5 years. CT (n=11), MR (n=7), clinical (n=11) and pathological (n=11) features were evaluated. FISH analysis showing monosomy of chromosome 22 (absence of bcr 22q11 locus) was available for three patients. Immunohistochemical staining for INI-1 (BAF47) was performed on all tumors. There were 11 patients, 6 boys and 5 girls. The age of presentation varied from 1 month to 15 years (average age 3 years 8 months). Six tumors were located in the posterior fossa and five in the supratentorial compartment. The tumors showed a hyperdense solid component (64%) that showed moderate to marked enhancement with contrast medium. On MR imaging, the predominant signal pattern was isointensity on T1-weighted images (57%) and T2 shortening with heterogeneity on T2-weighted images (86%). All tumors were large in size (average 4.2 x 3.7 cm), and there was a tendency for calcification (36%), hemorrhage (46%), necrosis (46%) and perifocal edema (100%). There was also a high tendency for subarachnoid dissemination, with five patients (46%) demonstrating brain and/or spinal metastasis. At follow-up (n=7), six patients showed local recurrence. At the time of recurrence, all these patients showed extensive leptomeningeal spread of the disease in both intracranial and intraspinal compartments. There are no specific imaging features for intracranial AT/RT. But a high tendency toward large size, a hyperdense solid component on CT scan with calcification, hemorrhage, necrosis and subarachnoid spread suggest

  17. Primary hyperparathyroidism, adrenal tumors and neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas - clinical diagnosis and imaging requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diseases of the parathyroids, the adrenals and of neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas are primarily diagnosed by clinical and endocrinological evaluation.The requirements concerning various imaging techniques and their relative importance in localization strategies of the different tumors are complex. Current literature search, using PubMed. Evaluation of primary hyperparathyroidism requires bone densitometry by DXA and search for nephrolithiasis by ultrasound or native CT examination.While ultrasound of the thyroid and parathyroids seems useful before any parathyroid surgery,more extensive preoperative localization strategies (sestamibi scintigraphy, MRI) should be restricted to minimal invasive parathyroid surgery or re-operations.For adrenal tumors CT and MRI are of similar diagnostic value. Imaging of pheochromocytomas should be completed by MIBG scintigraphy. Each adrenal incidentaloma requires an endocrinological work-up.A fine-needle aspiration or core needle biopsy of an adrenal tumor is rarely indicated.Before adrenal biopsy a pheochromocytoma has to be excluded.Successful localization strategies for neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas include somatostatin receptor scintigraphy, endoscopic ultrasound and MRI.Discussion Specific localization strategies have been established for the aforementioned tumors.The continuous progress of different imaging techniques requires a regular reevaluation of these localization strategies. (orig.)

  18. Oxygenation of tumor recurrences following fractionated radiotherapy of primary tumors. Studies on the rhabdomyosarcoma R1H of the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: tumor oxygenation is well recognized as a major factor of tumor response to radiotherapy. In this respect, a number of studies have examined the response of primary tumors, whereas little is known about the oxygenation of tumor recurrences after radiotherapy. It was the aim of this study to investigate the oxygenation of tumor recurrences after preceding irradiation of the primary tumor. Material and methods: tumor oxygenation in primary tumors and recurrences of rat rhabdomyosarcomas R1H was measured by using pO2 probes and Eppendorf pO2 histography. Primary tumors were irradiated at a 60Co radiotherapy facility with a total dose of 75 Gy, given in 30 fractions over 6 weeks. Oxygenation was measured in R1H tumors before and directly after completion of irradiation. In R1H recurrences oxygenation was determined, when they reached the same size as the previously treated primary tumors (Vo = 3.1 ± 0.5 cm3). Additionally, tumor microvessel density and the intercapillary distance of tumor blood vessels were determined on histological sections using a counting grid. Results: tumor oxygenation in R1H recurrences was significantly lower when compared to primary R1H tumors. In primary tumors a median pO2 of 17 ± 7 mmHg was measured. By contrast, the median pO2 in R1H recurrences was only 5 ± 5 mmHg (p 2 values 2 in the tumor periphery; p = 0.0001) compared with recurrent tumors (68 ± 26) and an enhanced mean distance of tumor blood vessels, especially in the center of the R1H recurrences (184 ± 20 vs. 243 ± 70 mm; p = 0.0001). Conclusion: in R1H rhabdomyosarcomas tumor oxygenation in recurrent tumors following radiation therapy is significantly lower than in primary tumors. This observation has to be taken into account in cases of tumor recurrences where repeated radio-therapy, chemotherapy or combined treatment modalities are used. (orig.)

  19. CT findings of primary malignant pulmonary mesenchymal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To describe the CT findings and characteristic clinical manifestation of primary malignant pulmonary mesenchymal tumors. This study involved nine histopathologically proven cases of malignant primary pulmonary mesenchymal tumors, as follows:MFH(n=3D2), leiomyosarcoma(n=3D2), pulmonary blastoma(n=3D1), neurogenic sarcoma(n=3D1), rhabdomyosarcoma(n=3D1), liposarcoma(n=3D1) and hemangiopericytoma(n=3D1). Two patients were male and seven were female;their median age was 45. We retrospectively analyzed tumor size, location, characteristic of the peripheral margin, relationship to airways, and whether there was distal atelectasis or obstructive pneumonitis and lymph node involvement. We also reviewed distant metastasis, tumor growth rate and the interval between surgery and recurrence, as seen on follow-up CT scans(n=3D6). Lesions werelocated at the right upper (n=3D2), right middle (n=3D1), right lower (n=3D1) and left lower lobe (n=3D2);in three cases, the whole left lung (left upper + left lower lobe) was involved. CT findings showed that in all cases, the largest diameter of masses ranged from 3 to 15 cm;a well-demarcated margin was seen (smooth in eight cases, spiculated in one) and this was well enhanced(inhomogeneous in six cases, homogeneous in three). In six cases, masses encircled or displaced the peritumoral small bronchus, and in five cases, were located in the peripheral lung field. In four patients who underwent endobronchoscopy, no endobronchial lesions were present, and in six cases scans initial CT scans showed no lymph-node involvement. In two cases, mass size doubled within one month. On initial diagnosis, distant metastasis was seen in seven cases, and in three, recurrent lesions were detected within postoperative six months. If in the differential diagnosis of lung cancer, a mass seen on CT images is well demarcated, large, peripheral, inhomogeneously enhanced encircles or displaces the peritumoral small bronchus, shows early distant metastasis, is

  20. Salvage surgery for recurrent tumor on primary site after chemoradiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvage surgery for recurrent tumors on primary site after chemoradiotherapy was performed on thirty-seven patients between 1998 and 2007. Their primary sites were as follows: larynx 12, oral cavity 2, hypopharynx 7, oropharynx 6, and paranasal sinus 10. We examined postoperative wound problems of these patients. It was found that some postoperative wound problems occurred in about half of them, but no apprehensive serious or fatal complications happened. The reasons of no serious postoperative wound problems were speculated as follows: elective neck dissections were not performed but reconstruction procedures by microvascularized tissue transfer were performed in most patients, and the irradiated fields were smaller in the patients with laryngeal carcinoma. To our knowledge, the skilled plastic surgeon is essential to the success of salvage surgery, who can accomplish the microvascular procedures even in the bad conditions after chemoradiotherapy. (author)

  1. Rapid sequence treatment of advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract: A pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moloy, P.J.; Moran, E.M.; Azawi, S. (Permanente Medical Group, Fresno, CA (USA))

    1991-01-01

    A review of the literature suggested that prolonged treatment time may lessen the probability of cure for patients with advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract. To shorten treatment time, rapid sequence treatment (RST) was devised in which chemotherapy, surgery, and irradation were administered in a total treatment time of 8 weeks. Twelve patients were treated and followed 3 years or longer. Medical complications were minor. Osteonecrosis occurred in each of the first five patients and was the only major complication of the protocol. Surgical techniques were modified, and no additional patient developed osteonecrosis. No patient developed local or regional recurrence. Two patients developed distant metastases and three other patients developed second primaries. Absolute survival was 50%. Rapid sequence treatment is an aggressive and potentially hazardous protocol that yielded encouraging results in this pilot study.

  2. Rapid sequence treatment of advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract: A pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of the literature suggested that prolonged treatment time may lessen the probability of cure for patients with advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract. To shorten treatment time, rapid sequence treatment (RST) was devised in which chemotherapy, surgery, and irradation were administered in a total treatment time of 8 weeks. Twelve patients were treated and followed 3 years or longer. Medical complications were minor. Osteonecrosis occurred in each of the first five patients and was the only major complication of the protocol. Surgical techniques were modified, and no additional patient developed osteonecrosis. No patient developed local or regional recurrence. Two patients developed distant metastases and three other patients developed second primaries. Absolute survival was 50%. Rapid sequence treatment is an aggressive and potentially hazardous protocol that yielded encouraging results in this pilot study

  3. Circulating tumor cells in breast cancer beyond the genotype of primary tumor for tailored therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Chuanli; Han, Chongxu; Fu, Deyuan; Wang, Daxin; Chen, Hui; Chen, Yong; Shen, Ming

    2016-04-01

    Although TNM staging based on tumor, node lymph status and metastasis status-is the most widely used method in the clinic to classify breast cancer (BC) and assess prognosis, it offers limited information for different BC subgroups. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are regarded as minimal residual disease and are proven to have a strong relationship with BC. Detection of ≥5 CTCs per 7.5 mL in peripheral blood predicts poor prognosis in metastatic BC irrespective of other clinical parameters, whereas, in early-stage BC, detection of CK19(+) CTCs are also associated with poor prognosis. Increasing data and clinical trials show that CTCs can improve prognostic accuracy and help tailor treatment for patients with BC. However, heterogeneous CTCs in the process of an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in BC makes it a challenge to detect these rare cells. Moreover, the genotypic and phenotypic features of CTCs are different from primary BC tumors. Molecular analysis of CTCs in BC may benefit patients by identifying those amenable to tailored therapy. We propose that CTCs should be used alongside the TNM staging system and the genotype of primary tumor to guide tailored BC diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26178386

  4. Mutational analysis of circulating tumor cells from colorectal cancer patients and correlation with primary tumor tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lyberopoulou

    Full Text Available Circulating tumor cells (CTCs provide a non-invasive accessible source of tumor material from patients with cancer. The cellular heterogeneity within CTC populations is of great clinical importance regarding the increasing number of adjuvant treatment options for patients with metastatic carcinomas, in order to eliminate residual disease. Moreover, the molecular profiling of these rare cells might lead to insight on disease progression and therapeutic strategies than simple CTCs counting. In the present study we investigated the feasibility to detect KRAS, BRAF, CD133 and Plastin3 (PLS3 mutations in an enriched CTCs cell suspension from patients with colorectal cancer, with the hypothesis that these genes` mutations are of great importance regarding the generation of CTCs subpopulations. Subsequently, we compared CTCs mutational status with that of the corresponding primary tumor, in order to access the possibility of tumor cells characterization without biopsy. CTCs were detected and isolated from blood drawn from 52 colorectal cancer (CRC patients using a quantum-dot-labelled magnetic immunoassay method. Mutations were detected by PCR-RFLP or allele-specific PCR and confirmed by direct sequencing. In 52 patients, discordance between primary tumor and CTCs was 5.77% for KRAS, 3.85% for BRAF, 11.54% for CD133 rs3130, 7.69% for CD133 rs2286455 and 11.54% for PLS3 rs6643869 mutations. Our results support that DNA mutational analysis of CTCs may enable non-invasive, specific biomarker diagnostics and expand the scope of personalized medicine for cancer patients.

  5. Foreign bodies in the upper aerodigestive tract of Nigerian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B S Alabi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim/Background This is an audit of number, nature, sites of impaction and methods of removals and treatment outcome of upper aero-digestive foreign bodies among children in an urban University hospital in Nigeria. Patients and Methods This is an 8year retrospective review of foreign body in upper aero-digestive tract of children (January 2001 to December 2007 was conducted at the ENT department of the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin, Nigeria. Case notes of the patients were retrieved and the following were data extracted: demographic, clinical, operative and outpatient visits outcome. Results 81 children aged 9months to löyears were seen (mean 4.28, SD 2.95 with 49 males and 32 females and a male: female ratio of 1.5: 1.0.The commonest age group was 9months to 4years (76.5%. Most common of impaction sites were nasal cavity in 31 cases (38.3%, oesophagus in 23 cases (28.4%, oropharynx in 16 (19.8% and larynx in 6 (7.4%.The commonest FBs was coins in 33 (40.7% in the oesophagus and 37.5% of pharyngeal FBs. Inanimate FBs in the nose constituted 31(38.3% [Non vegetative 27(87.1%, vegetative 4(12.9 %]. Fish bones were seen in 11 cases (13.6% [6 in the larynx and 5 around the tonsillar fauces] and miscellaneous objects in 6 cases. Conclusion Upper aero-digestive foreign bodies are common especially among the under fours′, commonest sites being the nose and pharyngooesophageal region with coins and inanimate FBs constituting about four-fifth. There is the need for parental health education on object placements, and a high index of suspicion among practitioners to facilitate early referral and avoid preventable complications.

  6. The posttreatment mean apparent diffusion coefficient of primary tumor is superior to pretreatment ADCmean of primary tumor as a predictor of prognosis with cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the correlation of pretreatment and posttreatment measurements as the mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADCmean) by diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) findings with prognostic factors in patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of primary cervical cancer. The pretreatment and posttreatment ADCmean of the primary tumor were examined for their correlations with the prognosis in 69 patients with SCC of primary cervical cancer by radiotherapy (RT) with or without concurrent chemotherapy (CCRT). The median disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) times of patients were 20.97 and 23.47 months (follow-up periods for DFS and OS: 1–72 and 1–72 months). The DFS and OS rates of patients with low pretreatment and posttreatment ADCmean of the primary tumor were also significantly worse than those of patients exhibiting high pretreatment and posttreatment ADCmean of the primary tumor (DFS; P = 0.0130 and P < 0.0001, OS; P = 0.0010 and P < 0.0001). Multivariate analyses showed that low posttreatment ADCmean of the primary tumor was an independent prognostic factor for DFS and OS (P < 0.0001 and P < 0.0001). The low posttreatment ADCmean of the primary tumor is a useful clinical prognostic biomarker for recurrence and survival in patients with cervical cancer. The low posttreatment ADCmean of the primary tumor is a useful clinical prognostic biomarker for recurrence and survival in patients with cervical cancer

  7. Trans arterial embolization of primary and secondary tumors of the skeletal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percutaneous transcatheter al embolization s of primary and secondary bone tumors are important minimal invasive angiographic interventions of the skeletal system. In most of the cases embolization is performed for preoperative devascularization or as a palliative measure to treat tumor-associated pain or other tumor bulk symptoms. The transarterial embolization of primary and secondary tumors of the skeletal system has been developed to a safe and very effective method. Indications, techniques, results and complications of this minimal invasive interventional therapy for treatment of primary and secondary bone tumors are described and discussed and compared with the newer literature and our own results

  8. Correlation of primary tumor size and axillary nodal status with tumor suppressor gene p53 in breast carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Topić Brano

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Correlation of standard path morphological prognostic parameters, primary tumor size and axillary nodal status with new prognostic factor in breast carcinoma: tumor suppressor gene p53 was analyzed. The studied sample included 65 women who underwent surgery for breast carcinoma at the Surgical Clinic of Clinical Center Banja Luka, from January 1st 1997 till January 1st 1999. Statistical data analysis was performed and correlation of prognostic factors was determined. The majority of authors in this field agree that the primary tumor size and axillary nodal status are the two most important prognostic factors. These factors are the best predictors of prognosis and survival of women who had the tumor and were operated on. Tumor markers were immunohistochemically determined in the last ten years and, according to the majority of authors, are still considered the additional or relative prognostic factors in breast carcinoma. Their prognostic value and significance increase almost daily. Most frequently determined tumor markers are bcl-2, pS2, Ki-67 and p53. There was a positive, directly proportional relationship between primary tumor size and tumor suppressor gene p53, but there was no positive correlation between the axillary nodal status and tumor suppressor gene p53. Significance of determination of new tumor markers as the prognostic factors was emphasized. These markers represent a powerful tool in the early detection and prevention of breast carcinoma.

  9. Primary 4T1 tumor resection provides critical "window of opportunity" for immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghochikyan, Anahit; Davtyan, Arpine; Hovakimyan, Armine; Davtyan, Hayk; Poghosyan, Anna; Bagaev, Alexander; Ataullakhanov, Ravshan I; Nelson, Edward L; Agadjanyan, Michael G

    2014-02-01

    It is believed that primary tumor resection modulates host-tumor immune interaction, but this has not been characterized in a stringent breast cancer tumor model. This report, using the 4T1 murine mammary tumor model, characterizes for the first time the dynamic longitudinal changes in immunosuppressive and effector components of the immune system after resection of an established orthotopic primary tumor with a defined natural history of developing lung metastases. More specifically, we analyzed changes of absolute numbers and frequencies of MDSC, regulatory T cells (Treg), as well as activated CD4 and CD8 positive T cells in spleens and, in some studies, lungs of 4T1 tumor-bearing mice and mice after primary tumor resection. Importantly, using mathematical analyses we established that primary resection of an orthotopic tumor had created a "window of opportunity" with decreased tumor-associated immune suppression that existed for approximately 10 days. Although tumor resection did slightly prolong survival, it did not affect the ultimate development of metastatic disease since animals with resected tumors or intact primary tumors eventually died by day 47 and 43, respectively. This window of opportunity likely occurs in humans providing a rationale and parameters for integration and testing of immunotherapeutic strategies in this critical "window of opportunity" to combat the development of metastatic disease. PMID:24096737

  10. Imaging features of primary tumors of the spine: A pictorial essay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patnaik, Sujata; Jyotsnarani, Y; Uppin, Shantiveer G; Susarla, Rammurti

    2016-01-01

    Primary tumors of spine are rare accounting for less than 5% of new bone tumors diagnosed every year. These tumors may exhibit characteristic imaging features that can help in early diagnosis and improved prognosis. Plasmacytoma/multiple myeloma and lymphoproliferative tumors are the most common malignant primary spinal tumors. Hemangioma is the most common benign tumor of the spine. Computed tomography is useful to assess tumor matrix and osseous change. Magnetic resonance is useful to study associated soft tissue extension, marrow infiltration, and intraspinal extension. Confusing one tumor with the other based on only imaging findings is not uncommon. However, radiologic manifestations of these tumors need to be correlated with the age, sex, location, and presentation to arrive at a close clinical diagnosis.

  11. Expression of Bcl2 proto-oncogene in primary tumors of the central nervous system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyagi D

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was addressed to find out the expression of Bcl2 proto-oncogene in tumor tissues derived from 25 patients with primary central nervous system tumors. Brain parenchyma in 8 cases, with deeply located tumor, was also examined for Bcl2 expression which served as control. Both benign and malignant tumors (confirmed by histopathological examination expressed Bcl2 gene product. Tumors exhibited 2-6 fold increase in Bcl2 expression as compared to the normal parenchyma adjacent to some of these tumors studied. However, no correlation was found between the histopathological types of tumor, glial fibrillary acidic protein positivity and degree of Bcl2 expression. Based on this study, we propose that the overexpression of Bcl2 gene product found in primary CNS tumors may be an important molecular event which is known to make the various types of tumor resistant to chemotherapy or radiotherapy.

  12. Modulation of Tumor Tolerance in Primary Central Nervous System Malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore S. Johnson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Central nervous system tumors take advantage of the unique immunology of the CNS and develop exquisitely complex stromal networks that promote growth despite the presence of antigen-presenting cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. It is precisely this immunological paradox that is essential to the survival of the tumor. We review the evidence for functional CNS immune privilege and the impact it has on tumor tolerance. In this paper, we place an emphasis on the role of tumor-infiltrating myeloid cells in maintaining stromal and vascular quiescence, and we underscore the importance of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity as a myeloid-driven tumor tolerance mechanism. Much remains to be discovered regarding the tolerogenic mechanisms by which CNS tumors avoid immune clearance. Thus, it is an open question whether tumor tolerance in the brain is fundamentally different from that of peripheral sites of tumorigenesis or whether it simply stands as a particularly strong example of such tolerance.

  13. Bone-metastasizing primary renal tumors in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seven cases of childhood renal tumor with extensive bone involvement are reported. These neoplasms had been classified originally as wills tumors with atypical clinical and pathologic features. Subsequent to a retrospective histologic analysis, the lesions were reclassified as follows: three cases as bone-metastasizing renal tumors of childhood, one as rhabdomyosarcoma, two as indifferentiated Sarcomas and one case as indifferentiated malignant neoplasm. (Author)

  14. Malignant primary germ-cell tumor of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The unusual case of a 15 year old boy with three discrete paraventricular germ-cell tumors is reported.FThe first tumor was located just lateral to the left thalamus and included a massive cystic part around it, the second tumor in the paraventricular region above the head of the left caudate nucleus and the third tumor in the medial part of the left parietal lobe.FTotal removal of all tumors was successfully accomplished in stages at four separate operations, namely, the first tumor was removed through the left transsylvian approach, the second tumor via left superior frontal gyrus and the third tumor via left superior frontal gyrus and left superior parietal lobule.FHistological examination revealed that the first tumor was teratoma, the second was choriocarcinoma and the third was germinoma.FPrimary germ-cell tumors of the brain can be divided into 5 groups: 1) germinoma; 2) embryonal carcinoma; 3) choriocarcinoma; 4) yolk-sac tumor; or 5) teratoma.FIn this case, a combination of three different histological patterns was seen. If malignant germ-cell tumor is supected on CT, aggressive extirpation should be done, not only to determine the exact diagnosis, but also to provide the basis for subsequent adjunctive therapy. (author)

  15. Potential Benefits of Edible Berries in the Management of Aerodigestive and Gastrointestinal Tract Cancers: Preclinical and Clinical Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishayee, Anupam; Haskell, Yennie; Do, Chau; Siveen, Kodappully Sivaraman; Mohandas, Nima; Sethi, Gautam; Stoner, Gary D

    2016-07-26

    Epidemiological reports as well as experimental studies have demonstrated the significant health benefits provided by regular berry consumption. Berries possess both prophylactic and therapeutic potential against several chronic illnesses, such as cardiovascular, neurodegenerative, and neoplastic diseases. Berries owe their health benefits to phytoconstituents, such as polyphenolic anthocyanins, ellagic acid, and a diverse array of phytochemicals bestowed with potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects as well as the ability to engage a multitude of signaling pathways. This review highlights the principal chemical constituents present in berries and their primary molecular targets. The article presents and critically analyzes the chemopreventive and therapeutic potential of berry extracts, fractions, and bioactive components on various cancers of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), including esophageal, stomach, intestinal, and colorectal cancers as well as cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract, such as oral cancer. The current status of clinical studies evaluating berry products in several aforementioned cancers is presented. Various emerging issues including dose-ranging and dosage forms, the role of synergy and the usage of combination therapy as well as other relevant areas essential for the development of berry phytoconstituents as mainstream chemopreventive and therapeutic agents against aerodigestive and GIT cancers are critically discussed. PMID:25781639

  16. Primary osseous tumors of the pediatric spinal column: review of pathology and surgical decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindra, Vijay M; Eli, Ilyas M; Schmidt, Meic H; Brockmeyer, Douglas L

    2016-08-01

    Spinal column tumors are rare in children and young adults, accounting for only 1% of all spine and spinal cord tumors combined. They often present diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. In this article, the authors review the current management of primary osseous tumors of the pediatric spinal column and highlight diagnosis, management, and surgical decision making. PMID:27476845

  17. Primary melanocytic tumors of the central nervous system: a review with focus on molecular aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kusters-vandevelde, H.V.; Kusters, B.; Grunsven, A.C.H. van; Groenen, P.J.T.A.; Wesseling, P.; Blokx, W.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Primary melanocytic tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) represent a spectrum of rare tumors. They can be benign or malignant and occur in adults as well as in children, the latter often in the context of neurocutaneous melanosis. Until recently, the genetic alterations in these tumors were la

  18. Differentiation between tuberculosis and primary tumors in the adrenal gland: evaluation with contrast-enhanced CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Zhi-Gang; Guo, Ying-Kun; Li, Yuan; Min, Peng-Qiu; Yu, Jian-Qun; Ma, En-Sen [Sichuan University, Department of Radiology, West China Hospital, Chengdu, Sichuan (China)

    2006-09-15

    The aim of the present study is to determine imaging criteria for differentiating tuberculosis from primary tumors in the adrenal gland on contrast-enhanced CT. Non-contrast and contrast-enhanced CT features in 108 patients with adrenal tuberculosis (n=34) and primary tumor (n=74) were retrospectively assessed for the location, size, calcification and enhancement patterns. The primary tumors included 41 adenomas, 11 pheochromocytomas, 4 carcinomas, 3 lymphomas, 6 myelolipomas, 6 ganglioneuromas, 2 neurilemmomas and 1 ganglioneuroblastoma. Biochemical investigation was performed for all patients. Of the tuberculosis cases, 31 (91%) invaded with bilateral involvement, while 7 (9%) of the primary tumors invaded with bilateral involvement (P<0.001). Tuberculosis often showed calcification (20 of 34; 59%), whereas primary tumors infrequently showed calcification (6 of 74; 8%; P<0.001). Low attenuation in the center with peripheral rim enhancement was more commonly seen in tuberculosis (16 of 34; 47%) than in primary tumors (7 of 74; 9%; P<0.001). In the determination of tuberculosis, the highest sensitivity (91%) and accuracy (91%) were obtained with bilateral involvement, and the highest specificity (99%) was obtained with the contour preserved. In the determination of primary tumors using a combination of having unilateral involvement and being mass-like, the outcome was a sensitivity of 91%, specificity of 94% and accuracy of 92%. CT findings can differentiate tuberculosis from a primary tumor of the adrenal glands with high sensitivity and an acceptable specificity when combined with the endocrinological examination. (orig.)

  19. Primary cervical spine carcinoid tumor in a woman with arm paresthesias and weakness: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Narayanan, Mohan; Serban, Daniel; Tender, Gabriel C.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Carcinoid tumors are neuroendocrine neoplasms derived from the enterochromaffin cells. Central nervous system involvement is rare and has been reported either as metastases to the brain and spine or primary tumors involving the sacrococcygeal spine. We report the first case of a primary carcinoid tumor of the cervical spine. Case presentation A 50-year-old African-American woman presented with a 4-month history of numbness, paresthesias, and mild left-hand weakness. Magnetic reso...

  20. Primary carcinoid tumors of the pancreas: CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the CT findings of pancreatic carcinoid tumors. Methods: The CT imaging data of five patients with pancreatic carcinoid tumors confirmed by pathology were retrospectively analyzed. Results: The tumors ranged in maximum diameter from 2.0 to 11.0 cm with a mean of 6.4 cm. On unenhanced CT, the tumors were slightly hypodense relative to the pancreatic parenchyma, homogenous in 2 cases, and heterogenous in 3 cases. One tumor showed calcification. After contrast material injection, the solid component of the tumor showed marked heterogenous enhancement on the arterial phase scanning in 3 cases, and mild heterogenous enhancement in 2 cases. The degree of tumor enhancement was less intense than the surrounding pancreatic parenchyma due to necrosis of various degree, which led to the cystic appearance of the tumor in 1 case. On the portal phase scanning, all tumors showed marked enhancement similar to that of the pancreatic parenchyma. On the delayed phase scanning, the degree of enhancement was more intense than the surrounding pancreatic parenchyma in 1 case. Liver metastases with retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy and peripancreatic vessels invasion were seen in 1 case. No dilatation of the biliary tract or pancreatic duct was present. Conclusion: The CT features of' pancreatic carcinoid tumors included infrequent dilatation of the biliary tract or pancreatic duct and unusual vascular involvement, calcification within the mass, marked enhancement similar to that of the surrounding pancreatic parenchyma during the portal phase scanning and more intense during the delayed phase scanning. (authors)

  1. A SERIES OF UNCOMMON FOREIGN BODIES PRESENTING IN THE AERO-DIGESTIVE TRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra Singh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Foreign body impacted in the aero-digestive tract is one of the earliest reported problems. Coins, buttons, marbles, crayons, parts of toys etc. are the most commonly ingested foreign bodies in children. Fish, meat and chicken bones, dentures, nails etc.the most common foreign bodies ingested by adultsWe report a series of unusual foreign body ingestion in aero-digestive tract and their management by endoscopic retrieval.

  2. Quantitative expression and immunogenicity of MAGE-3 and -6 in upper aerodigestive tract cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filho, Pedro A Andrade; López-Albaitero, Andrés; Xi, Liqiang; Gooding, William; Godfrey, Tony; Ferris, Robert L

    2009-10-15

    The MAGE antigens are frequently expressed cancer vaccine targets. However, quantitative analysis of MAGE expression in upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) tumor cells and its association with T-cell recognition has not been performed, hindering the selection of appropriate candidates for MAGE-specific immunotherapy. Using quantitative RT-PCR (QRT-PCR), we evaluated the expression of MAGE-3/6 in 65 UADT cancers, 48 normal samples from tumor matched sites and 7 HLA-A*0201+ squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) cell lines. Expression results were confirmed using Western blot. HLA-A*0201:MAGE-3- (271-279) specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (MAGE-CTL) from SCCHN patients and healthy donors showed that MAGE-3/6 expression was highly associated with CTL recognition in vitro. On the basis of the MAGE-3/6 expression, we could identify 31 (47%) of the 65 UADT tumors, which appeared to express MAGE-3/6 at levels that correlated with efficient CTL recognition. To confirm that the level of MAGE-3 expression was responsible for CTL recognition, 2 MAGE-3/6 mRNA(high) SCCHN cell lines, PCI-13 and PCI-30, were subjected to MAGE-3/6-specific knockdown. RNAi-transfected cells showed that MAGE expression and MAGE-CTL recognition were significantly reduced. Furthermore, treatment of cells expressing low MAGE-3/6 mRNA with a demethylating agent, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (DAC), increased the expression of MAGE-3/6 and CTL recognition. Thus, using QRT-PCR UADT cancers frequently express MAGE-3/6 at levels sufficient for CTL recognition, supporting the use of a QRT-PCR-based assay for the selection of candidates likely to respond to MAGE-3/6 immunotherapy. Demethylating agents could increase the number of patients amenable for targeting epigenetically modified tumor antigens in vaccine trials. PMID:19610063

  3. Multiple brown tumors of the jaws in primary hyperparathyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyoung A; Koh, Kwang Joon [School of Dentisity, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-09-15

    Brown tumor is usually diagnosed at the terminal stage of hyperparathyroidism. Diagnosis of this tumor is confirmed by endocrinologic investigations along with clinical and radiographic examination. Radiographical differential diagnosis of this tumor includes central giant cell granuloma, aneurysmal bone cyst, metastatic tumor, multiple myeloma, and Paget disease. This report presents a rare case of multiple brown tumors occurring at the maxilla and mandible, which was initially misdiagnosed as central giant cell granuloma. Plain radiographs demonstrated multiple well-defined multilocular radiolucency. CT images showed soft tissue mass with low attenuated lesions, perforation of the lingual cortical plate, and a heterogeneous mass at the right thyroid lobe. These findings were consistent with parathyroid adenoma. The patient had hypercalcemia, hypophosphatemia, and elevated alkaline phosphatase level. Surgical excision of the tumor was performed. No recurrence was observed during a 28-month follow-up.

  4. Intra-Arterial Treatment of Primary and Metastatic Liver Tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Buijs, M.A.M.; Vossen, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    The aims of this thesis were, first, to investigate the toxicities associated with trans-arterial chemoembolization (TACE) of liver tumors and to evaluate the use of MR imaging in characterizing tumor response after this locoregional therapy, second, to further develop intra-arterial therapy of liver tumors with 3-bromopyruvate (3-BrPA), a novel anti-cancer agent, and finally, to assess the value of new MR imaging techniques in the characterization of liver lesions. In Chapter 1, the general ...

  5. Short Telomeres Initiate Telomere Recombination in Primary and Tumor Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Morrish, Tammy A.; Greider, Carol W

    2009-01-01

    Human tumors that lack telomerase maintain telomeres by alternative lengthening mechanisms. Tumors can also form in telomerase-deficient mice; however, the genetic mechanism responsible for tumor growth without telomerase is unknown. In yeast, several different recombination pathways maintain telomeres in the absence of telomerase-some result in telomere maintenance with minimal effects on telomere length. To examine non-telomerase mechanisms for telomere maintenance in mammalian cells, we us...

  6. Expression profiling of primary and metastatic ovarian tumors reveals differences indicative of aggressive disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander S Brodsky

    Full Text Available The behavior and genetics of serous epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC metastasis, the form of the disease lethal to patients, is poorly understood. The unique properties of metastases are critical to understand to improve treatments of the disease that remains in patients after debulking surgery. We sought to identify the genetic and phenotypic landscape of metastatic progression of EOC to understand how metastases compare to primary tumors. DNA copy number and mRNA expression differences between matched primary human tumors and omental metastases, collected at the same time during debulking surgery before chemotherapy, were measured using microarrays. qPCR and immunohistochemistry validated findings. Pathway analysis of mRNA expression revealed metastatic cancer cells are more proliferative and less apoptotic than primary tumors, perhaps explaining the aggressive nature of these lesions. Most cases had copy number aberrations (CNAs that differed between primary and metastatic tumors, but we did not detect CNAs that are recurrent across cases. A six gene expression signature distinguishes primary from metastatic tumors and predicts overall survival in independent datasets. The genetic differences between primary and metastatic tumors, yet common expression changes, suggest that the major clone in metastases is not the same as in primary tumors, but the cancer cells adapt to the omentum similarly. Together, these data highlight how ovarian tumors develop into a distinct, more aggressive metastatic state that should be considered for therapy development.

  7. Cilengitide in Treating Children With Refractory Primary Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-27

    Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Choroid Plexus Tumor; Childhood Craniopharyngioma; Childhood Ependymoblastoma; Childhood Grade I Meningioma; Childhood Grade II Meningioma; Childhood Grade III Meningioma; Childhood High-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood High-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Infratentorial Ependymoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Medulloepithelioma; Childhood Mixed Glioma; Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Childhood Supratentorial Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Pineoblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma

  8. Narrow Band Imaging and High Definition Television in the endoscopic evaluation of upper aero-digestive tract cancer

    OpenAIRE

    C. Piazza; Cocco, D; DEL BON, F.; Mangili, S; Nicolai, P; PERETTI, G.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Narrow band imaging and high definition television are recent innovations in upper aero-digestive tract endoscopy. Aim of this prospective, non-randomized, unblinded study was to establish the diagnostic advantage of these procedures in the evaluation of squamous cell cancer arising from various upper aero-digestive tract sites. Between April 2007 and January 2010, 444 patients affected by upper aero-digestive tract squamous cell cancer, or previously treated for it, were evaluated by...

  9. Intra-Arterial Treatment of Primary and Metastatic Liver Tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs, M.A.M.; Vossen, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    The aims of this thesis were, first, to investigate the toxicities associated with trans-arterial chemoembolization (TACE) of liver tumors and to evaluate the use of MR imaging in characterizing tumor response after this locoregional therapy, second, to further develop intra-arterial therapy of live

  10. Primary extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor of breast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Smita; Arora, Jyoti; Parakh, Anushri; Goel, Ruchika Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma (EES) is a rare soft tissue tumor that is morphologically indistinguishable from skeletal ES. We report a case of a 25-year-old female with recurrent EES/primitive neuroectodermal tumor of right breast with imaging findings on mammogram, ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging breast, and positron emission tomography–computed tomography.

  11. A Primary Pulmonary Glomus Tumor: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasushi Ariizumi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of a glomus tumor originating from the lung is reported. A 43-year-old female had undergone resection of a right lung tumor following a clinical diagnosis of carcinoid, sclerosing hemangioma, or other sarcoma. Histologically, the tumor comprised uniform small round to oval cells with centrally located nucleus, a clear cytoplasm, and apparent cell borders. The tumor also showed a focally hemangiopericytomatous pattern with irregularly branching or dilated vessels. Electron microscopy revealed smooth muscle differentiation of the tumor cells. Immunostaining further revealed that the tumor cells expressed smooth muscle actin, h-caldesmon, muscle specific actin (HHF-35, but not cytokeratin, epithelial membrane antigen, synaptophysin, or chromogranin A. Based on these findings, a diagnosis of primary pulmonary glomus tumor was established. Glomus tumors of the lung are very rare and only 21 cases have been reported to date. The histological features of the present tumor and the relevant literature are discussed.

  12. CT findings of gallbladder metastases: Emphasis on differences according to primary tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Won Seok; Kim, Se Hyung; Lee, Eun Sun; Lee, Kyoung Bun; Shin, Cheong Il; Han, Joon Koo [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Won Jae [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Inje University Seoul Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    To describe computed tomography (CT) features of metastatic gallbladder (GB) tumors (Mts) from various primary tumors and to determine whether there are differential imaging features of Mts according to different primary tumors. Twenty-one patients who had pathologically confirmed Mts and underwent CT were retrospectively enrolled. Clinical findings including presenting symptoms, type of surgery, and interval between primary and metastatic tumors were recorded. Histologic features of primary tumor and Mts including depth of invasion were also reviewed. Imaging findings were analyzed for the location and morphology of Mts, pattern and degree of enhancement, depth of invasion, presence of intact overlying mucosa, and concordance between imaging features of primary and metastatic tumors. Significant differences between the histologist of Mts and imaging features were determined. The most common primary tumor metastasized to the GB was gastric cancer (n = 8), followed by renal cell carcinoma (n = 4) and hepatocellular carcinoma (n = 3). All Mts (n = 21) manifested as infiltrative wall thickenings (n = 15) or as polyploid lesions (n = 6) on CT, similar to the features of primary GB cancers. There were significant differences in the morphology of Mts, enhancement pattern, enhancement degree, and depth of invasion according to the histology of primary tumors (p < 0.05). Metastatic adenocarcinomas of the GB manifested as infiltrative and persistently enhancing wall thickenings, while non-adenocarcinomatous metastases usually manifested as polypoid lesions with early wash-in and wash-out. Although CT findings of MGTs are similar to those of primary GB cancer, they are significantly different between the various histologies of primary tumors.

  13. DIAGNOSTIC VALUE OF WHOLE BODY DIFFUSION WEIGHTED IMAGING FOR SCREENING PRIMARY TUMORS OF PATIENTS WITH METASTASES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tai-fu Gu; Xin-lan Xiao; Fei Sun; Jian-hua Yin; Hai Zhao

    2008-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the values of whole body diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) in screening primary unknown tumor in patients with metastases.Methods Totally, 34 patients with metastases of primary unknown tumors were scanned with whole body DWI, and conventional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was performed if suspected lesions were detected. All the metastases including 27 cases of osseous metastases, 2 brain metastases, 2 liver metastases, 1 pulmonary multiple metastasis, 1 neck metastasis and 1 malignant ascites, were diagnosed by computed tomography, single photon emission computed tomography, or MR imaging. For the proven primary tumors diagnosed by biopsy or pathology of surgical specimens, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of the primary and metastatic lesions were measured respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of this technique for screening primary tumors were evaluated. Results We found 24 cases with suspected primary lesions, in which 23 lesions were proved to be primary tumors, and 1 was proved to be benign lesion. And no definite primary lesion was found in 10 cases on whole body DWI, but in which 1 case was diagnosed with primary tumor by biopsy later, and the other 9 cases remained unknown within follow-up of over half a year. The difference was not significant in ADC values between primary and metastatic lesions (P>0.05). The sensitivity and specificity of whole body DWI for searching primary tumors was 95.8% and 90.0%, respectively. Conclusion Combined with conventional MR scanning, whole body DWI can help to search primary lesions of patients with metastases.

  14. MASSIVE PARALLEL DNA PYROSEQUENCING ANALYSIS OF THE TUMOR SUPPRESSOR BRG1/SMARCA4 IN LUNG PRIMARY TUMORS

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez-Nieto, Salvador; Cañanda, Andres; Pros, Eva; Pinto, Ana Isabel; Torres-Lanzas, Juan; Lopez-Rios, Fernando; Sanchez-Verde, Lydia; Pisano, David; Sanchez-Cespedes, Montse

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The tumor suppressor gene, SMARCA4 (or BRG1), which encodes the ATPase component of the chromatin remodeling complex SWI/SNF, is commonly inactivated by mutations and deletions in lung cancer cell lines. However, SMARCA4 alterations appear to be rare in lung primary tumors. Ultra-deep sequencing technologies provide a promising alternative to achieve a sensitivity superior to that of current sequencing strategies. Here we used ultra-deep pyrosequencing to screen for mutati...

  15. Testicular seminoma metastasis to duodenum. Misdiagnosed as primary duodenal tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer Hashim Al Ani

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: High index of suspicion for testicular seminoma must be raised when treating young males with GIT complications like hemorrhage. Testicular seminoma is the most common solid tumor at this age. Sometimes it is the cause behind this complication.

  16. Postoperative radiotherapy for residual tumor of primary mediastinal carcinoid teratoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Lingli; Sun, Lan; Zhou, Yu; Gong, Youling; Xue, Jianxin; Gao, Jun; Lu, You

    2013-01-01

    A 36-year-old woman had presented with dry cough for 2 months. Thoracic computed tomography (CT) scan showed a 12 cm × 8 cm ×5 cm mass in the anterior mediastinum. Due to intimately involving the aortic arch, tumor was removed incompletely. Residual tumor remained approximate 2 cm × 3 cm × 4 cm. Histologic diagnosis was a mature cystic teratoma containing a carcinoid. Subsequently, radiotherapy (RT) was administrated on residual tumor for a total dose of 50 Gy at 2 Gy/d fraction in 25 fractions. At 2-year follow-up, the patient had stable disease. In conclusion, adjuvant radiotherapy with 50 Gy is an effective approach for residual tumor of mediastinal carcinoid teratoma. PMID:23585961

  17. (18)F-Fluorodeoxyglucose PET/Computed Tomography for Primary Brain Tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonsen Segtnan, Eivind; Hess, Søren; Grupe, Peter;

    2015-01-01

    Structural imaging with computed tomography (CT) and MR imaging is the mainstay in primary diagnosis of primary brain tumors, but these modalities depend on morphologic appearance and an intact blood-brain barrier, and important aspects of tumor biology are not addressed. Such issues may be...... alleviated by (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET and FDG-PET/CT imaging, which may provide clinically important information with regard to primary differentiation between tumor types, initial staging and risk stratification, therapy planning, response evaluation, and recurrence detection. This article...

  18. Ganglioneuroma : primary tumor or maturation of a suspected neuroblastoma?

    OpenAIRE

    Przkora, Rene; Perez-Canto, Alexandra; Ertel, Wolfgang; Heyde, Christoph E.

    2005-01-01

    Ganglioneuroma is a benign neurogenic tumor. These tumors are originating from neuroepithelium along sympathetic ganglia. Main localization is the mediastinum in children older than 10 years. An association with malignant neuroblastoma is rarely observed and it still remains a topic under current discussion. We describe the clincal course of a 17 year-old female patient with a large presacral mass causing amenorrhoea and weight loss. Eleven years before presentation, an incidental urine test ...

  19. Radiation of jejunal interposition in T3-T4 upper aerodigestive tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    30 patients with T3 and T4 tumours of the upper aero-digestive tract had their tumours resected by pharyngolaryngectomy. This was followed by reconstruction of a gullet or creation of a siphon as a tracheohypopharyngeal shunt for voice restoration with a free jejunal autograft. All patients were treated postoperatively with 60Co gamma radiation, 6 MeV photons or 7.5 to 10 MeV electrons of a β-tron, with a dose of 50-65 Gy in the area of the primary tumour and 50-65 Gy to the neck. 4 patients refused further treatment after a depth dose of between 16 and 32 Gy. Local recurrence occurred in 40% of cases. The survival rate was 36.6% (11/30) after a mean follow-up time of 21.5 months, although 2 patients died of inter-current diseases without recurrence of their tumours. The results obtained justify active surgical intervention with postoperative irradiation even at an advanced stage of the tumour. (author)

  20. Primary Pulmonary Salivary Gland-type Tumors: A Review and Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Nadja; Weissferdt, Annikka; Kalhor, Neda; Moran, Cesar A

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary salivary gland-type tumors (SGT) comprise a very small proportion of primary lung neoplasms. The most common tumors among this group are mucoepidermoid carcinoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma. Contrary to the head and neck region, benign SGT such as pleomorphic adenomas are exceedingly rare in the pulmonary system. More recently, 2 additional SGT, namely hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma and salivary duct-like carcinoma were recognized as primary lung tumors expanding the spectrum of SGT that have been described to originate in the tracheobronchial system. Primary pulmonary SGT must be clinically excluded from metastatic salivary gland neoplasms as their morphology is indistinguishable from that of their salivary gland counterparts. Little is known about the clinical behavior and best treatment approach for these unusual tumors. In this review, we provide a comprehensive summary of primary pulmonary SGT with particular emphasis on morphologic characteristics and latest developments in terms of immunohistochemical and molecular techniques. PMID:26645458

  1. Locomotor proteins in tissues of primary tumors and metastases of ovarian and breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondakova, I. V.; Yunusova, N. V.; Spirina, L. V.; Shashova, E. E.; Kolegova, E. S.; Kolomiets, L. A.; Slonimskaya, E. M.; Villert, A. B.

    2016-08-01

    The paper discusses the capability for active movement in an extracellular matrix, wherein remodeling of the cytoskeleton by actin binding proteins plays a significant role in metastases formation. We studied the expression of actin binding proteins and β-catenin in tissues of primary tumors and metastases of ovarian and breast cancer. Contents of p45 Ser β-catenin and the actin severing protein gelsolin were decreased in metastases of ovarian cancer relative to primary tumors. The level of the cofilin, functionally similar to gelsolin, was significantly higher in metastases compared to primary ovarian and breast tumor tissue. In breast cancer, significant increase in the number of an actin monomer binder protein thymosin-β4 was observed in metastases as compared to primary tumors. The data obtained suggest the involvement of locomotor proteins in metastases formation in ovarian and breast cancer.

  2. Study of factors determining caregiver burden among primary caregivers of patients with intracranial tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manju Dhandapani

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Behavioral changes in patients (especially irritability and financial constraints had a significant independent impact on the burden experienced by primary caregivers of patients operated for intracranial tumors. Identifying and managing, these are essential for reducing caregiver burden.

  3. Brown tumor of the patella caused by primary hyperparathyroidism: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irie, Tomoko; Mawatari, Taro; Ikemura, Satoshi; Matsui, Gen; Iguchi, Takahiro; Mitsuyasu, Hiroaki [Orthopaedic Surgery, Hamanomachi Hospital, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2015-06-15

    It has been reported that the common sites of brown tumors are the jaw, pelvis, ribs, femurs and clavicles. We report our experience in a case of brown tumor of the patella caused by primary hyperparathyroidism. An initial radiograph and CT showed an osteolytic lesion and MR images showed a mixed solid and multiloculated cystic tumor in the right patella. One month after the parathyroidectomy, rapid bone formation was observed on both radiographs and CT images.1.

  4. Malignant tumors and multiple primary malignant tumors of the atomic-bombed survivors in Nagasaki by autopsy cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Out of 10,674 bodies necropsied in Nagasaki district during 32 years period after World War II, 9,302 were selected, and their malignant tumors and multiple primary malignant tumors were discussed. They were divided into 4 groups, the group exposed within 1,000 m from the hypocenter, the group exposed within 2,000 m, the group exposed over 2,000 m + the group who entered the city after the explosion, and the non-exposed group who were born before the explosion. The percentage of cases of malignant tumors (4,784) was 51.4%, which was almost the same as the average in Japan. The incidence of multiple malignant tumors (112 cases of double cancer and 7 cases of triple cancer) was 2.48% of all malignant tumors, and it did not increase particularly. The incidence of malignant tumors and multiple malignant tumors tended to increase with the age. The incidence of malignant tumors was a little high in the group exposed within 1,000 m, and the incidence of leukemia and thyroid cancer was high in the group exposed near the hypocenter in Nagasaki as same as in Hiroshima. The incidence of multiple malignant tumors was markedly high in the group exposed near the hypocenter. This tendency was also shown in Hiroshima. The incidence of multiple malignant tumors was also high in women. In the group exposed near the hypocenter, there were many cases of digestive cancer or thyroid cancer combined with cancers of other organs. Multiple malignant cancer combined with leukemia was found only in one case. There were many combinations of cancer with cancer, but there was not a relation between a-bomb exposure and cancer or sarcoma. The time of onset of multiple malignant tumors was different in many cases of the exposed. (Tsunoda, M.)

  5. MicroRNA signature characterizes primary tumors that metastasize in an esophageal adenocarcinoma rat model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali H Zaidi

    Full Text Available To establish a miRNA signature for metastasis in an animal model of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC.The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC has dramatically increased and esophageal cancer is now the sixth leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Mortality rates remain high among patients with advanced stage disease and esophagectomy is associated with high complication rates. Hence, early identification of potentially metastatic disease would better guide treatment strategies.The modified Levrat's surgery was performed to induce EAC in Sprague-Dawley rats. Primary EAC and distant metastatic sites were confirmed via histology and immunofluorescence. miRNA profiling was performed on primary tumors with or without metastasis. A unique subset of miRNAs expressed in primary tumors and metastases was identified with Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA along with upstream and downstream targets. miRNA-linked gene expression analysis was performed on a secondary cohort of metastasis positive (n=5 and metastasis negative (n=28 primary tumors.The epithelial origin of distant metastasis was established by IF using villin (VIL1 and mucin 5AC (MUC5AC antibodies. miRNome analysis identified four down-regulated miRNAs in metastasis positive primary tumors compared to metastasis negative tumors: miR-92a-3p (p=0.0001, miR-141-3p (p=0.0022, miR-451-1a (p=0.0181 and miR133a-3p (p=0.0304. Six target genes identified in the top scoring networks by IPA were validated as significantly, differentially expressed in metastasis positive primary tumors: Ago2, Akt1, Kras, Bcl2L11, CDKN1B and Zeb2.In vivo metastasis was confirmed in the modified Levrat's model. Analysis of the primary tumor identified a distinctive miRNA signature for primary tumors that metastasized.

  6. Differential Gene Expression in Primary Breast Tumors Associated with Lymph Node Metastasis

    OpenAIRE

    Ellsworth, Rachel E; Field, Lori A.; Brad Love; Kane, Jennifer L.; Hooke, Jeffrey A.; Craig D. Shriver

    2011-01-01

    Lymph node status remains one of the most useful prognostic indicators in breast cancer; however, current methods to assess nodal status disrupt the lymphatic system and may lead to secondary complications. Identification of molecular signatures discriminating lymph node-positive from lymph node-negative primary tumors would allow for stratification of patients requiring surgical assesment of lymph nodes. Primary breast tumors from women with negative ( = 4 1 ) and positive ( = 3 5 ) lymp...

  7. Primary Synovial Sarcoma of Lung: A Rare Tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Prince; Kumar, Parveen; Sarin, Yogesh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Synovial sarcoma of lung is a rare tumor with few case reports in literature. Though named synovial sarcoma due to its resemblance to synovium on light microscopy, it arises from mesenchymal tissue. Here, we present a case of synovial sarcoma of lung in a 7-year old boy, with main emphasis on difficulty faced in the management. PMID:27170917

  8. Endoscopic Management of a Primary Duodenal Carcinoid Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albin Abraham

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoids are rare, slow-growing tumors originating from a variety of different neuroendocrine cell types. They are identified histologically by their affinity for silver salts and by positive reactions to neuroendocrine markers such as neuron-specific enolase, synaptophysin and chromogranin. They can present with various clinical symptoms and are difficult to diagnose. We present the case of a 43-year-old woman who was referred for evaluation of anemia. Upper endoscopy showed a duodenal bulb mass around 1 cm in size. Histopathological and immunohistochemistry staining were consistent with the diagnosis of a carcinoid tumor. Further imaging and endoscopic studies showed no other synchronous carcinoid lesions. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS revealed a 1 cm lesion confined to the mucosa and no local lymphadenopathy. Successful endoscopic mucosal resection of the mass was performed. Follow-up surveillance 6 months later with EUS and Octreoscan revealed no new lesions suggestive of recurrence. No consensus guidelines exist for the endoscopic management of duodenal carcinoid tumors. However, endoscopic resection is safe and preferred for tumors measuring 1 cm or less with no evidence of invasion of the muscularis layer.

  9. Malignant primary germ-cell tumor of the brain: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Toyoshiro; Sato, Shinichi; Nakao, Satoshi; Ban, Sadahiko; Namba, Koh (Kobe Municipal Central Hospital (Japan))

    1983-04-01

    The unusual case of a 15 year old boy with three discrete paraventricular germ-cell tumors is reported. The first tumor was located just lateral to the left thalamus and included a massive cystic part around it, the second tumor in the paraventricular region above the head of the left caudate nucleus and the third tumor in the medial part of the left parietal lobe. Total removal of all tumors was successfully accomplished in stages at four separate operations, namely, the first tumor was removed through the left transsylvian approach, the second tumor via left superior frontal gyrus and the third tumor via left superior frontal gyrus and left superior parietal lobule. Histological examination revealed that the first tumor was teratoma, the second was choriocarcinoma and the third was germinoma. Primary germ-cell tumors of the brain can be divided into 5 groups: 1) germinoma; 2) embryonal carcinoma; 3) choriocarcinoma; 4) yolk-sac tumor; or 5) teratoma. In this case, a combination of three different histological patterns was seen. If malignant germ-cell tumor is supected on CT, aggressive extirpation should be done, not only to determine the exact diagnosis, but also to provide the basis for subsequent adjunctive therapy.

  10. Correlation of primary tumor FDG uptake with histopathologic features of advanced gastric cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hae Won; Won, Kyoung Sook; Song, Bong Il; Kang, Yu Na [Keimyung University Dongsan Medical Center, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Histopathologic features could affect the FDG uptake of primary gastric cancer and detection rate on FDG PET/CT. The aim of this study was to evaluate the FDG uptake of primary gastric cancer by correlating it with the histopathologic features of the tumors. Fifty patients with locally advanced gastric adenocarcinoma who were referred for preoperative FDG-PET/CT scans were enrolled in this study. The detection rate of PET/CT and maximum standardized uptake values (SUV{sub max}) of the primary tumor were compared using the WHO, Lauren, Ming and Borrmann classifications and tumor size and location. In 45 of the 50 patients (90 %), the primary gastric tumors were detected by FDG PET/CT. On comparison using the WHO classification, the detection rate and SUV{sub max} of the tubular type were significantly higher than those of the poorly cohesive type. On comparison using the Lauren and Ming classifications, the SUV{sub maxs} of the intestinal type and expanding type were significantly higher than those of the diffuse and infiltrative type, respectively. On comparison using the Borrmann classification and tumor size and location, there was no significant difference in the detection rate and SUV{sub max} of primary gastric tumors. This study demonstrates that the poorly cohesive type according to the WHO classification, diffuse type according to the Lauren classification and infiltrative type according to the Ming classification have low FDG uptake in patients with locally advanced gastric carcinoma. Understanding the relationship between primary tumor FDG uptake and histopathologic features would be helpful in detecting the primary tumor by FDG PET/CT in patients with gastric cancer.

  11. Primary malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor at unusual location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souvagya Panigrahi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST is a rare soft tissue sarcoma. Most arise in association with major nerve trunks. Their most common anatomical sites are the proximal portions of the upper and lower extremities and the trunk. MPNSTs have rarely been reported in literature to occur in other unusual body parts. We review all such cases reported till now in terms of site of origin, surgical treatment, adjuvant therapy and outcome and shortly describe our experience with two of these cases. Both of our case presented with lump at unusual sites resembling neurofibroma, one at orbitotemporal area and other in the paraspinal region with characteristic feature of neurofibroma with the exception that both had very short history of progression. They underwent gross total removal of the tumor with adjuvant radiotherapy postoperatively. At 6-month follow-up both are doing well with no evidence of recurrence.

  12. Copy number variation analysis of matched ovarian primary tumors and peritoneal metastasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel A Malek

    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer is the most deadly gynecological cancer. The high rate of mortality is due to the large tumor burden with extensive metastatic lesion of the abdominal cavity. Despite initial chemosensitivity and improved surgical procedures, abdominal recurrence remains an issue and results in patients' poor prognosis. Transcriptomic and genetic studies have revealed significant genome pathologies in the primary tumors and yielded important information regarding carcinogenesis. There are, however, few studies on genetic alterations and their consequences in peritoneal metastatic tumors when compared to their matched ovarian primary tumors. We used high-density SNP arrays to investigate copy number variations in matched primary and metastatic ovarian cancer from 9 patients. Here we show that copy number variations acquired by ovarian tumors are significantly different between matched primary and metastatic tumors and these are likely due to different functional requirements. We show that these copy number variations clearly differentially affect specific pathways including the JAK/STAT and cytokine signaling pathways. While many have shown complex involvement of cytokines in the ovarian cancer environment we provide evidence that ovarian tumors have specific copy number variation differences in many of these genes.

  13. Primary malignant tumor of the fallopian tube : CT and MR features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahng, Yu Ri; Kim, Jeong Kon; Cho, Kyoung sik [Univ. of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-10-01

    To determine the radiologic features of primary malignant tumors of the fallopian tube. By observing six computed tomograms and one MR image, we determined the radiologic features of seven pathologically proven primary malignant tumors of the fallopian tube. The location, size, internal appearances (cystic/mixed/solid) of the tumor were analysed, and the presence or absence of ipsilateral ovary, hydrosalpinx, intrauterine fluid collection, pelvic ascites and lymphadenopathy were determined. All seven tumors were located in unilateral adnexa. Their mean diameter was 3.5 (range, 1.5-6) cm, and their morphological appearance was solid in five cases and mixed in two. In no case were ipsilateral ovaries identified. Hydrosalpinx was noted in four cases (57%) and intrauterine fluid collection in five (71%). Pelvic ascites and lymphadenopathy were each observed in one case (14%). Although it is difficult to differentiate between primary malignant tumors of the fallopian tube and other adnexal tumors, a pelvic mass with hydrosalpinx and intrauterine fluid collection suggests a primary malignant tumor of the fallopian tube.

  14. Brown tumor mimicking maxillary sinus mucocele as the first manifestation of primary hyperparathyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldfred, Liviu-Adelin; Daugaard, Søren; von Buchwald, Christian

    2012-01-01

    We describe the first case of brown tumor mimicking a maxillary sinus mucocele as the first manifestation of the patient's primary hyperparathyroidism. A 34-year old woman presented with a 14 days history of elevation of the right orbit, retrobulbar pain and cheek anesthesia. The CT and MR...... either giant cell granuloma or brown tumor. The finding of hyperparathyroidism confirmed the diagnosis of brown tumor. To our knowledge, this is the first report of cystic brown tumor mimicking a mucocele of the maxillary sinus....

  15. Primary Solitary Fibrous Tumor of the Thyroid - Report of a Case and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Song, Chunkai Yu, Xin Song, Lixin Wei, Aijun Liu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT is a rare spindle-cell neoplasm, especially in the thyroid. We report a case of primary solitary fibrous tumor of the thyroid gland in a 37 year-old Chinese man. The tumor was characterized by bland-looking spindle cells admixed with thin and thick collagen fibers. On immunohistochemistry study indicated that tumor cells were diffusely positive for CD34, Bcl-2 and CD99, and negative for Desmin, NSE, SMA, S-100, and CD68. The patient remains well 16 months after excision. The morphologic and immunohistochemical features of the thyroid SFTs are similar to their reported counterparts in other anatomic sites.

  16. Surgical Control of a Primary Hepatic Carcinoid Tumor: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norio Yokoigawa

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available We report a primary hepatic carcinoid tumor occurring in a 47-year-old man. The patient consulted our hospital complaining of epigastralgia. Abdominal ultrasonography, computed tomography scanning, and magnetic resonance imaging showed a large mass in the right lobe of the liver. FDG-PET revealed 18F-FDG uptake by the right hepatic lobe. The tumor was a solid mass with cystic components, approximately 15 cm in diameter. We conducted an extended right lobectomy of the liver. The resected specimen was a solid tumor with cystic components and hemorrhagic lesion. Microscopic findings showed that the tumor cells had round nuclei and formed trabecular patterns. Immunohistologically, tumor cells were stained positive for chromogranin A, neuron specific enolase, CD56, and S-100. Careful examinations before and after the operation revealed no other possible origin of the tumor. Based on these findings, the tumor was diagnosed as a primary hepatic carcinoid. This is a report of a rare case of a primary hepatic carcinoid tumor with a discussion of several other relevant reports.

  17. Rearrangement of a common cellular DNA domain on chromosome 4 in human primary liver tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA integration has been shown to occur frequently in human hepatocellular carcinomas. The authors have investigated whether common cellular DNA domains might be rearranged, possibly by HBV integration, in human primary liver tumors. Unique cellular DNA sequences adjacent to an HBV integration site were isolated from a patient with hepatitis B surface antigen-positive hepatocellular carcinoma. These probes detected rearrangement of this cellular region of chromosomal DNA in 3 of 50 additional primary liver tumors studied. Of these three tumor samples, two contained HBV DNA, without an apparent link between the viral DNA and the rearranged allele; HBV DNA sequences were not detected in the third tumor sample. By use of a panel of somatic cell hybrids, these unique cellular DNA sequences were shown to be located on chromosome 4. Therefore, this region of chromosomal DNA might be implicated in the formation of different tumors at one step of liver cell transformation, possible related to HBV integration

  18. Bone scintigraphy in the initial evaluation of dogs with primary bone tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone scintigraphy was performed as part of an initial diagnostic evaluation of 70 dogs admitted with primary bone tumors during a 2-year period. Tumors involved major long bones of the appendicular skeleton and included 62 osteosarcomas, 6 fibrosarcomas, and 2 chondrosarcomas. All dogs were free of radiographically detectable pulmonary metastases. Bone scintigraphy was not of value in distinguishing among various types of primary tumors. One dog with an ulnar chondrosarcoma had a scintigraphically detectable occult osseous metastasis or synchronous primary tumor, and 1 dog with osteosarcoma had a scintigraphically detectable lymph node metastasis. Pulmonary metastases were not detected scintigraphically. Of the 70 dogs, 44.3% had areas of increased isotope uptake associated with nonneoplastic disease processes

  19. The role of imaging for the surgeon in primary malignant bone tumors of the chest wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary malignant chest wall tumors are rare. The most frequent primary malignant tumor of the chest wall is chondrosarcoma, less common are primary bone tumors belonging to the Ewing Family Bone Tumors (EFBT), or even rarer are osteosarcomas. They represent a challenging clinical entities for surgeons as the treatment of choice for these neoplasms is surgical resection, excluding EFBT which are normally treated by a multidisciplinary approach. Positive margins after surgical procedure are the principal risk factor of local recurrence, therefore to perform adequate surgery a correct preoperative staging is mandatory. Imaging techniques are used for diagnosis, to determine anatomic site and extension, to perform a guided biopsy, for local and general staging, to evaluate chemotherapy response, to detect the presence of a recurrence. This article will focus on the role of imaging in guiding this often difficult surgery and the different technical possibilities adopted in our department to restore the mechanics of the thoracic cage after wide resections

  20. Surgical resection of adrenal metastasis from primary liver tumors:a report of two cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Durgatosh Pandey; Kai-Chah Tan

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although the treatment of extrahepatic metastases from primary liver tumors is essentially palliative, solitary metastasis from such tumors offers a possibility of cure by surgical resection. The adrenal gland is an uncommon site for metastasis from primary liver tumors. METHOD: We report two cases of adrenalectomy for solitary adrenal metastasis: one from intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and the other from hepatocellular carcinoma. RESULTS: The patient with intrahepatic cholangiocar-cinoma had a synchronous adrenal metastasis and underwent simultaneous liver resection and adrenalectomy. However, he developed recurrent disease 17 months following surgery for which he is presently on palliative chemotherapy. The other patient underwent adrenalectomy for adrenal metastasis 3 months following liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma. He is presently alive and disease-free 27 months after adrenalectomy. CONCLUSION: Carefully selected patients with solitary metastasis from primary liver tumors may be considered for resection.

  1. Synchronous occurrence of gastrointestinal stromal tumors and other primary gastrointestinal neoplasms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marek Wronski; Bogna Ziarkiewicz-Wroblewska; Barbara Gornicka; Wlodzimierz Cebulski; Maciej Slodkowski; Aleksander Wasiutynski; Ireneusz W Krasnodebski

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To review clinical and pathologic features of Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) occurring synchronously with other primary gastrointestinal neoplasms.METHODS: 28 patients with primary GIST were treated at our institution between 1989 and 2005. Clinical and pathologic records were reviewed.RESULTS: The gastrointestinal stromal tumor occurred simultaneously with other primary GI malignancies in 14% of all patients with GIST. The synchronous stromal tumors were located in the stomach and were incidentally found during the operation. The coexistent neoplasms were colon adenocarcinoma, gastric cancer (2 cases) and gastric lymphoma.CONCLUSION: The synchronous occurrence of GISTs and other gastrointestinal malignancies is more common than it has been considered. The development of gastrointestinal stromal tumors and other neoplasms may involvethe same carcinogenic agents.

  2. Epithelioid Hemangioendothelioma: a Rare Primary Thyroid Tumor with Confirmation of WWTR1 and CAMTA1 Rearrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Akeesha A; Ohori, N Paul; Yip, Linwah; Coyne, Christopher; Antonescu, Cristina R; Seethala, Raja R

    2016-06-01

    We report a rare case of epithelioid hemangioendothelioma as a primary thyroid tumor. To our knowledge, there are only two prior unequivocal cases of primary thyroid epithelioid hemangioendothelioma reported in the English literature. This is the first case in the thyroid with molecular confirmation. PMID:27026033

  3. Primary intracranial tumors among atomic bomb survivors and controls, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1961-75

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis was made of the relationship of radiation dose to the occurrence of primary intracranial tumors among atomic bomb survivors and nonexposed controls, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, in the fixed cohort of the Life Span Study (LSS) extended sample during the period 1961-75, or 16 to 30 years after the A-bombs. Based on various medical sources, 104 cases of primary intracranial tumors were identified among approximately 99,000 LSS extended sample members who were alive as of 1 January 1961. Of these 104 cases, 45 had manifested clinical signs of brain tumors, but, 59 cases were identified incidentally at postmortem examination. The distributions of morphologic type, age, and size of tumor were quite different for those primary intracranial tumors with and without a clinical sign of brain tumor. Glioma was the most frequent type of tumor with a clinical sign and meningioma was the most frequent type without. In relation to radiation dose the incidence rate of primary intracranial tumors with a clinical sign showed a significant excess risk for males in the high dose group who received 100 rad or more after adjustment for age at the time of the bomb (ATB). The standardized relative risk is around 5 in this group. The data also suggest that the crude relative risk of glioma is greater in the high dose group for younger ages ATB. However, there is no increased risk in females. Among the 5,012 autopsy subjects in the LSS extended sample during 1961-75, there is no relationship between radiation dose and the prevalence rate of primary intracranial tumors in those identified incidentally by autopsy. The relative risk of subclinical adenoma of the pituitary gland between high dose subjects and controls was also examined for a sample of 95 sex- and age-matched pairs using Hiroshima autopsy materials for 1961-74, but no relationship to dose was observed. (author)

  4. Neuroendocrine liver metastases: Contributions of endoscopy and surgery to primary tumor search

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Herwig Cerwenka

    2012-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are diagnosed with increasing frequency and patients often present with liver metastases at the time of diagnosis.Apart from treatment of the metastases,resection of the primary tumor at an early phase is recommended to prevent complications,although it may be difficult to locate,especially in patients with functionally inactive NETs.Small and multifocal tumors in the jejunum and ileum represent a particular challenge.Primary hepatic neuroendocrine carcinoma is extremely rare and is diagnosed only after exclusion of other primary tumors.Therefore,some uncertainty may remain,as small non-hepatic primary tumors may escape detection.Diagnostic work-up in these patients includes biochemical assays and imaging modalities (also comprising specific techniques of scintigraphy and positron emission tomography).This editorial highlights the contributions of endoscopy and operative exploration to the search for the primary tumor.Besides esophagogastro-duodenoscopy,endoscopic ultrasonography,colonoscopy and bronchoscopy,special endoscopic techniques such as balloon enteroscopy or capsule endoscopy are used with growing experience.Compared with balloon enteroscopy,capsule endoscopy is noninvasive and better tolerated,but it cannot localize a lesion precisely and does not allow biopsy or removal of lesions.Before proceeding to surgery,a discussion of the findings by a tumor board should be a standard procedure.Improvements in diagnostic tools have created new perspectives for the detection of obscure primary tumors in patients with neuroendocrine liver metastases,and these searches are best coordinated by a multidisciplinary team.

  5. Detection of unknown primary head and neck tumors by positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of using positron emission tomography (PET) with 18F-labeled fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) to detect unknown primary tumors of cervical metastases. Thirteen patients with various histologic types of cervical metastases of unknown primary origin were studied. Patients received 185-370 MBq FDG intravenously and were scanned from 30 min after injection onward. Whole-body scans were made with a Siemens ECAT 951/31 PET camera. PET identified the primary tumor in four patients: plasmocytoma, squamous cell cacinoma of the oropharynx, squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx, and bronchial carcinoma, respectively. All known metastatic tumor sites were visualized. PET did not identify a primary tumor in one patient in whom a squamous cell carcinoma at the base of the tongue was found in a latr phase. In the remaining eight patients, a primary lesion was never found. The follow up ranged from 18 to 30 months. A previously unknown primary tumor can be identified with FDG-PET in approximately 30% of patients with cervical metastases. PET can reveal useful information that results in more appropriate treatment, and it can be of value in guiding endoscopic biopsies for histologic diagnosis. (au)

  6. Modeling tissue contamination to improve molecular identification of the primary tumor site of metastases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincent, Martin; Perell, Katharina; Nielsen, Finn Cilius;

    2014-01-01

    identification of the primary tumor site of metastases because biopsies of metastases typically contain a significant amount of benign tissue. Results: A model of tissue contamination is presented. This contamination model works independently of the training of a molecular predictor, and it can be combined......Contamination of a cancer tissue by the surrounding benign (non-cancerous) tissue is a concern for molecular cancer diagnostics. This is because an observed molecular signature will be distorted by the surrounding benign tissue, possibly leading to an incorrect diagnosis. One example is molecular...... with any predictor model. The usability of the model is illustrated on primary tumor site identification of liver biopsies, specifically, on a human dataset consisting of microRNA expression measurements of primary tumor samples, benign liver samples and liver metastases. For a predictor trained on primary...

  7. Infratentorial brain tumors in children and adolescents - the significance of MRI in the diagnosis of primary and recurrent tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MRI is the current method of choice for the diagnosis of infratentorial tumors in children and adolescents. The present article discusses the individual tumor entities on the basis of their magnetic resonance imaging characteristics in the patient pool of 1991/1992. New magnetic resonance imaging procedures are considered for infratentorial vascular anomalies. In addition to its use in the primary diagnosis, the significance of MRI for the detection of recurrences is discussed. Problems arising after prior surgery and irradiation as well as metastasization through CSF pathways are also mentioned. (orig.)

  8. Effects of the removal of the primary tumor and immunotherapy with Corynebacterium parvum on metastatic tumor proliferation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashimoto,Osamu

    1983-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of surgical intervention by removal of the primary focus, and the effectiveness of an immunomodulator, Corynebacterium parvum (Cp, on the proliferation of metastatic tumor tissue were investigated by following the postoperative changes in the 3H-thymidine labelling rate of metastatic tissue in an experimental model of metastasis in mice. In addition, the delayed type hypersensitivity reaction (DTH was studied to investigate the immune capacity of the host. The labelling rate of mice that had the primary focus removed remained high with little variation, while that of the mice not operated on decreased gradually. On the other hand, in mice undergoing a sham operation, the rate was the same as that of the mice with the primary focus removed for a short while, but then gradually decreased. When Cp was administered, especially before removal of the primary focus, the rate was lower than that of the tumor bearing control group and decreased steadily. The number of pulmonary metastatic nodules was increased by removal of the primary focus, but this increase was inhibited by the administration of Cp which prolonged life. The depression in the DTH was less in the group given Cp preoperativeLy than in either the group of mice having the primary focus removed or those not having it removed.

  9. Tumor pardo maxilar: Elemento diagnóstico de hiperparatiroidismo primario Maxillary brown tumor: A diagnostic tool for primary hyperparathyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gallana Álvarez

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available El hiperparatiroidismo primario es un transtorno generalizado del metabolismo óseo producido por un aumento de la secreción de hormona paratiroidea (PTH. La etiología de este transtorno es múltiple; en la forma primaria la causa de la hipersecreción de la hormona es la propia glándula, y el motivo más frecuente el adenoma paratiroideo. Los tumores pardos son lesiones óseas focales secundarias a hiperparatiroidismo. El tratamiento de elección de los tumores pardos es la extirpación del adenoma de paratiroides, ya que la normalización de la función paratiroidea debería provocar una reducción del tamaño o desaparición del tumor. Presentamos un caso de tumor pardo mandibular en un paciente con hiperparatiroidismo primario, en el cual el tumor recidivó después de la extirpación del adenoma paratiroideo. La finalidad de la presentación de este caso es recordar el interés que para el cirujano oral y maxilofacial representan las manifestaciones orales de la patología sistémica.The primary hyperparathyroidism is a generalized disorder of the osseous metabolism, caused by hypersecretion of PTH. Hyperparathyroidism has a multiple etiology. In its primary form, the hypersecretion of the hormone is caused by the gland itself, the commonest reason being parathyroid adenoma. The treatment of first choice for brown tumor is the parathyroidectomy because the normalization of parathyroid function should lead to a reduction in size or disappearance of the tumor. We present a case of the brown tumor in the mandible and primary hyperparathyroidism in whom the tumor enlarged after removal of parathyroid adenoma. Upon presentation of this report, our aim is to bring forward the significance oral manifestations of systemic pathology has for oral and maxillofacial surgeons.

  10. Primary neuroendocrine tumor of the sacrum: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dujardin, Fanny; Beaussart, Pauline; de Muret, Anne; Rosset, Philippe; Waynberger, Eric; Mulleman, Denis; de Pinieux, Gonzague

    2009-08-01

    Primary carcinoid tumor (well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumor) of the bone involving the sacrum is extremely rare. We report the case of a 72-year-old man who presented with a 20-year history of intermittent low back pain and was found to have an intraosseous sacral mass on imaging. A needle biopsy revealed that this lesion was a well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumor. Workup did not show any primary tumor or other metastatic disease. There was no associated tailgut cyst or sacrococcygeal teratoma. The lesion was treated with radiation therapy because a surgical approach was rejected. The patient is free of metastatic disease after 28 years evolution of the lesion, retrospectively seen to be present on a conventional radiography performed in 1980. A review of the literature revealed 20 case reports of neuroendocrine tumors arising from the presacral region (with or without associated tailgut cyst or sacrococcygeal teratoma) and sometimes extending to the sacrum. One additional case was located within the neural canal and involved the sacrum, the presacral region, and the rectal wall. Our case is the only tumor arising primarily from the sacrum. The long evolution of this lesion without any other location makes metastatic disease very improbable and this case appears to be a unique example of primary intraosseous sacral carcinoid tumor. PMID:19360403

  11. Primary neuroendocrine tumor of the sacrum: case report and review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dujardin, Fanny; Muret, Anne de [Hopital Trousseau, CHRU de Tours, Department of Pathology, Tours (France); Beaussart, Pauline; Waynberger, Eric [Hopital Trousseau, CHRU de Tours, Department of Radiology, Tours (France); Rosset, Philippe [Hopital Trousseau, CHRU de Tours, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Tours (France); Mulleman, Denis [Hopital Trousseau, CHRU de Tours, Department of Rheumatology, Tours (France); Pinieux, Gonzague de [Hopital Trousseau, CHRU de Tours, Department of Pathology, Tours (France); Hopital Trousseau, CHRU de Tours, Service d' Anatomie et Cytologie Pathologiques, Tours Cedex 09 (France)

    2009-08-15

    Primary carcinoid tumor (well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumor) of the bone involving the sacrum is extremely rare. We report the case of a 72-year-old man who presented with a 20-year history of intermittent low back pain and was found to have an intraosseous sacral mass on imaging. A needle biopsy revealed that this lesion was a well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumor. Workup did not show any primary tumor or other metastatic disease. There was no associated tailgut cyst or sacrococcygeal teratoma. The lesion was treated with radiation therapy because a surgical approach was rejected. The patient is free of metastatic disease after 28 years evolution of the lesion, retrospectively seen to be present on a conventional radiography performed in 1980. A review of the literature revealed 20 case reports of neuroendocrine tumors arising from the presacral region (with or without associated tailgut cyst or sacrococcygeal teratoma) and sometimes extending to the sacrum. One additional case was located within the neural canal and involved the sacrum, the presacral region, and the rectal wall. Our case is the only tumor arising primarily from the sacrum. The long evolution of this lesion without any other location makes metastatic disease very improbable and this case appears to be a unique example of primary intraosseous sacral carcinoid tumor. (orig.)

  12. Dose, volume, and tumor control prediction in primary radiotherapy of non-small-cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: To evaluate the influence of total dose and tumor volume on local control and survival in primary radiotherapy of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: We retrospectively analyzed the clinical course and CT-derived pre- and post-therapeutic tumor volume data of 135 patients with NSCLC undergoing primary radiotherapy at our department between 1989 and 1996. Among these, a total of 192 spatially separated tumor volumes (135 primary tumors, 1 additional intrapulmonary tumor, and 56 involved lymph nodes) were available for analysis. In all patients, treatment was planned using CT-based three-dimensional treatment planning. The dose to each tumor volume was derived from the individual dose plans. Mean total dose was 59.9 Gy (range: 30-80 Gy). All but 3 patients were followed until death. For local control analysis, each tumor was analyzed separately, and its remission status was determined in serial follow-up CT scans. A total of 784 CT scans were analyzed. Actuarial local control analysis was performed for the 192 separated tumor volumes, and survival analysis was performed for the 135 patients. Tumor control probability was calculated using a Poisson statistical model. Results: Overall 1- and 2-year local control rate was 50% and 37%, respectively. The 2-year local control rate for tumors 200 ccm was 51%, 22%, and 10%, respectively (p=0.02). The 2-year local control rate for dose levels ≤60 Gy and >60 Gy was 28% and 43% (p100 ccm were controlled more than 2 years. Multivariate analysis revealed tumor volume, total dose, histopathologic type, and grading as significant and independent prognostic factors for local control. The number of delay days by split course (if used) and application of chemotherapy was not found to influence local control. Overall 1- and 2-year survival rate was 42% and 13%. Total radiation dose, chemotherapy, and T and N stage--but not tumor volume--were found to be independent and significant prognostic factors

  13. Magnetic Fluorescent Nanoformulation for Intracellular Drug Delivery to Human Breast Cancer, Primary Tumors, and Tumor Biopsies: Beyond Targeting Expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Boubbou, Kheireddine; Ali, Rizwan; Bahhari, Hassan M; AlSaad, Khaled O; Nehdi, Atef; Boudjelal, Mohamed; AlKushi, Abdulmohsen

    2016-06-15

    We report the development of a chemotherapeutic nanoformulation made of polyvinylpyrrolidone-stabilized magnetofluorescent nanoparticles (Fl-PMNPs) loaded with anticancer drugs as a promising drug carrier homing to human breast cancer cells, primary tumors, and solid tumors. First, nanoparticle uptake and cell death were evaluated in three types of human breast cells: two metastatic cancerous MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells and nontumorigenic MCF-10A cells. While Fl-PMNPs were not toxic to cells even at the highest concentrations used, Dox-loaded Fl-PMNPs showed significant potency, effectively killing the different breast cancer cells, albeit at different affinities. Interestingly and superior to free Dox, Dox-loaded Fl-PMNPs were found to be more effective in killing the metastatic cells (2- to 3-fold enhanced cytotoxicities for MDA-MB-231 compared to MCF-7), compared to the normal noncancerous MCF-10A cells (up to 8-fold), suggesting huge potentials as selective anticancer agents. Electron and live confocal microscopy imaging mechanistically confirmed that the nanoparticles were successfully endocytosed and packaged into vesicles inside the cytoplasm, where Dox is released and then translocated to the nucleus exerting its cytotoxic action and causing apoptotic cell death. Furthermore, commendable and enhanced penetration in 3D multilayered primary tumor cells derived from primary lesions as well as in patient breast tumor biopsies was observed, killing the tumor cells inside. The designed nanocarriers described here can potentially open new opportunities for breast cancer patients, especially in theranostic imaging and hyperthermia. While many prior studies have focused on targeting ligands to specific receptors to improve efficacies, we discovered that even with passive-targeted tailored delivery system enhanced toxic responses can be attained. PMID:27269304

  14. Perioperative Tumor Cell Dissemination In Patients With Primary Or Metastatic Colorectal Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Tralhão, J. G.; Hoti, E.; Serôdio, M.; Laranjeiro, P.; Paiva, A.; Abrantes, A.M.; Pais, M.L.; Botelho, M. F.; Sousa, F. Castro

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Although there is general correlation between TNM stage of colorectal cancer (CRC) and its prognosis, there is often significant variability of tumor behaviour and individual patient outcome, which is unaccounted for by pathologic factors alone. Our aim was to estimate the perioperative tumor cell dissemination in patients with primary or CRC liver metastases as a possible factor influencing the outcome. Methods Forty patients ...

  15. CXCR4-SDF-1 interaction potentially mediates trafficking of circulating tumor cells in primary breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Mego, M.; Cholujova, D.; Minarik, G.; Sedlackova, T.; Gronesova, P.; Karaba, M.; Benca, J.; Cingelova, S.; Cierna, Z.; Manasova, D.; Pindak, D.; Sufliarsky, J.; Cristofanilli, M; Reuben, J. M.; Mardiak, J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Cytokines are involved in cancer invasion and metastasis. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) play key role in tumor dissemination and are an independent survival predictor in breast cancer patients. The aim of this study was to assess correlation between CTCs and plasma cytokines in primary breast cancer (PBC) patients. Methods This study included 147 chemotherapy naïve PBC patients. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were depleted of hematopoetic cells using RossetteSep™ negati...

  16. [Primary metastatic well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumor arising in a tailgut cyst].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wöhlke, M; Sauer, J; Dommisch, K; Görling, S; Valdix, A; Hinze, R

    2011-03-01

    Tailgut cysts are unusual benign cystic retrorectal malformations arising from persistent remnants of the postanal gut. Malignant transformation within this dysontogenetic lesion is very uncommon. We report the rare occurrence of a neuroendocrine tumor arising in a tailgut cyst with primary liver and lymph node metastases in a 55-year-old woman. The neuroendocrine differentiation of the tumor determines the therapeutic approach and prognosis. PMID:21046106

  17. Technologies for deriving primary tumor cells for use in personalized cancer therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Mitra, Abhisek; Mishra, Lopa; Li, Shulin

    2013-01-01

    For decades, immortal cancer cell lines have constituted an accessible, easily usable set of biological models to investigate cancer biology and explore the potential efficacy of anticancer drugs. However, numerous studies suggest that these cell lines poorly represent the diversity, heterogeneity and drug-resistant tumors occurring in patients. The derivation and short -term culture of primary cells from solid tumors have thus gained significant importance in personalized cancer therapy. Thi...

  18. Relationship between primary tumor volume and radiotherapeutic outcome in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the correlation of primary tumor volume of nasopharyngeal carcinoma with the clinical result of radiotherapy. Methods: One hundred and fifty-four patients diagnosed as nasopharyngeal carcinoma were treated with late-course accelerated hyperfractionated radiotherapy alone to a total dose of 78 Gy/60 Fx/6 w. The primary tumor volume was first obtained by contouring the tumor lesion on the CT images, then its volume was accumulated with the area summation model. The median follow-up was 49.5 months. Results: Evident volume disparity with different T stages and the volume data overlap between continuous T stages were found. The mean primary tumor volumes and their ranges were as (cm3): T1 18.9(0.55-59.33), T2 25.8 (2.22-80.64), T3 39.3(13.97-87.97) and T4 59.7 (26.18-115.00). Univariant analysis showed that the poorer 5-year local control, disease-free survival and distant relapse-free survival rates were evident in patients with larger tumor volume (> 60 cm3). Primary tumor volume was found to be an independent prognostic factor of local control in multivariant analysis without any statistical significance to predict the disease-free survival or distant relapse-free survival rates. Conclusion: The greater volume disparity with the same T stage and the data extension overlap with different T stages are demonstrated and the primary tumor volume may be considered as a prognostic factor in the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

  19. Tumor pardo como manifestación inicial de hiperparatiroidismo primario Brown tumor as the initial manifestation of primary hyperparathyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán C. Chavin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available El tumor pardo es una forma localizada de osteítis fibrosa quística, parte del compromiso óseo por hiperparatiroidismo. Como primera expresión de hiperparatiroidismo es infrecuente, debido a que actualmente éste se diagnostica en estadios asintomáticos o mínimamente sintomáticos. Presentamos el caso de una paciente con un tumor pardo localizado en el maxilar superior izquierdo, como primera manifestación de hiperparatiroidismo primario causado por un adenoma paratiroideo. Posterior a la realización de una paratiroidectomía el tumor evolucionó con franca regresión, sin necesidad de ningún otro procedimiento quirúrgico local.Brown tumor is a localized form of osteitis fibrosa cystica, being part of the hyperparathyroid bone disease. It rarely is the first manifestation of hyperparathyroidism, since nowadays, the diagnosis is made at an asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic stage. We present a case of a left superior maxillar brown tumor as the first manifestation of primary hyperparathyroidism due to a parathyroid adenoma. A parathyroidectomy was performed, and there was a regression of the bone lesion, without the need of performing other local surgical procedures.

  20. Multimodal magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of primary brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treister, Daniel; Kingston, Sara; Hoque, Kristina E; Law, Meng; Shiroishi, Mark S

    2014-08-01

    Gliomas comprise 80% of primary brain neoplasms, with glioblastoma multiforme being the most commonly diagnosed glioma. The annual incidence is 5.26 per 100,000, or 17,000 newly diagnosed cases per year in the United States. The incidence increases with age, peaking between the 6th and 8th decades. Gliomas are more common among Caucasians and occur more often in men. They can be associated with certain rare hereditary syndromes including Cowden, Turcot, Li-Fraumeni, neurofibromatosis type 1 and type 2, tuberous sclerosis, and familial schwannomatosis. Known risk factors include a history of ionizing radiation, family history of glioma, and certain genetic susceptibility variants that are weakly associated with glioma. Preventative measures have not been shown to decrease the risk of later development. In addition, screening tests are unwarranted since early diagnosis and treatment have not been shown to improve outcome. PMID:25173141

  1. Primary ovarian neuroendocrine tumor arising in association with a mature cystic teratoma: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsi, Nicolas M; Menon, Mini

    2016-08-01

    Primary ovarian carcinoid tumors are exceptionally rare entities accounting for approximately 0.1% of all ovarian neoplasms. This report describes a primary ovarian neuroendocrine tumor arising in association with a mature cystic teratoma in a 65 year-old woman. Macroscopically, the unilateral adnexal tumor was composed of cystic, solid and mucinous elements which resolved into a dual component lesion histologically. The majority of the tumor displayed an organoid architecture with mild to moderate pleomorphism and no discernible mitotic activity, while approximately 10% consisted of sheets and groups of cells with highly pleomorphic nuclei, necrosis and occasional mitoses. Features of a mature cystic teratoma were seen very focally. Immunohistochemistry revealed strong, diffuse positivity for CD56 and synaptophysin. Chromogranin immunonegativity was noted and there was an absence of nuclear β-catenin accumulation. Ki-67 index was 10-12%. Although there is no established diagnostic framework for primary ovarian carcinoid tumors, this case was diagnosed as a well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumor, Grade 2 (intermediate grade), arising in association with a mature cystic teratoma/dermoid cyst. This case highlights the need to develop ovarian diagnostic criteria in this area. PMID:27508272

  2. Proton and carbon ion radiotherapy for primary brain tumors and tumors of the skull base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Combs, Stephanie E.; Kessel, Kerstin; Habermehl, Daniel; Debus, Jurgen [Univ. Hospital of Heidelberg, Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg (Germany)], e-mail: Stephanie.Combs@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Haberer, Thomas [Heidelberger Ionenstrahl Therapiezentrum (HIT), Heidelberg (Germany); Jaekel, Oliver [Univ. Hospital of Heidelberg, Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg (Germany); Heidelberger Ionenstrahl Therapiezentrum (HIT), Heidelberg (Germany)

    2013-10-15

    To analyze clinical concepts, toxicity and treatment outcome in patients with brain and skull base tumors treated with photons and particle therapy. Material and methods: In total 260 patients with brain tumors and tumors of the skull base were treated at the Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center (HIT). Patients enrolled in and randomized within prospective clinical trials as well as bony or soft tissue tumors are not included in this analysis. Treatment was delivered as protons, carbon ions, or combinations of photons and a carbon ion boost. All patients are included in a tight follow-up program. The median follow-up time is 12 months (range 2-39 months). Results: Main histologies included meningioma (n = 107) for skull base lesions, pituitary adenomas (n = 14), low-grade gliomas (n = 51) as well as high-grade gliomas (n = 55) for brain tumors. In all patients treatment could be completed without any unexpected severe toxicities. No side effects > CTC Grade III were observed. To date, no severe late toxicities were observed, however, for endpoints such as secondary malignancies or neuro cognitive side effects follow-up time still remains too short. Local recurrences were mainly seen in the group of high-grade gliomas or atypical meningiomas; for benign skull base meningiomas, to date, no recurrences were observed during follow-up. Conclusion: The specific benefit of particle therapy will potentially reduce the risk of secondary malignancies as well as improve neuro cognitive outcome and quality of life (QOL); thus, longer follow-up will be necessary to confirm these endpoints. Indication-specific trials on meningiomas and gliomas are underway to elucidate the role of protons and carbon ions in these indications.

  3. Proton and carbon ion radiotherapy for primary brain tumors and tumors of the skull base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To analyze clinical concepts, toxicity and treatment outcome in patients with brain and skull base tumors treated with photons and particle therapy. Material and methods: In total 260 patients with brain tumors and tumors of the skull base were treated at the Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center (HIT). Patients enrolled in and randomized within prospective clinical trials as well as bony or soft tissue tumors are not included in this analysis. Treatment was delivered as protons, carbon ions, or combinations of photons and a carbon ion boost. All patients are included in a tight follow-up program. The median follow-up time is 12 months (range 2-39 months). Results: Main histologies included meningioma (n = 107) for skull base lesions, pituitary adenomas (n = 14), low-grade gliomas (n = 51) as well as high-grade gliomas (n = 55) for brain tumors. In all patients treatment could be completed without any unexpected severe toxicities. No side effects > CTC Grade III were observed. To date, no severe late toxicities were observed, however, for endpoints such as secondary malignancies or neuro cognitive side effects follow-up time still remains too short. Local recurrences were mainly seen in the group of high-grade gliomas or atypical meningiomas; for benign skull base meningiomas, to date, no recurrences were observed during follow-up. Conclusion: The specific benefit of particle therapy will potentially reduce the risk of secondary malignancies as well as improve neuro cognitive outcome and quality of life (QOL); thus, longer follow-up will be necessary to confirm these endpoints. Indication-specific trials on meningiomas and gliomas are underway to elucidate the role of protons and carbon ions in these indications

  4. Tumor-associated B cells in cutaneous primary melanoma and improved clinical outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Kanika; Maurer, Margarita; Griss, Johannes; Brüggen, Marie-Charlotte; Wolf, Ingrid H; Wagner, Christine; Willi, Niels; Mertz, Kirsten D; Wagner, Stephan N

    2016-08-01

    B cells often infiltrate the microenvironment of human tumors. B cells can both positively and negatively regulate antitumor immune responses. In several human cancers, higher numbers of CD20(+) TAB are associated with a favorable prognosis, whereas in human primary melanomas, this association is contentious. In this study, we determined the association of TAB numbers in cutaneous primary melanoma tissue samples and patients' overall survival. The CD20 immunohistochemistry on archival nonmetastasized and metastasized cutaneous primary melanoma tissues from 2 independent patient cohorts was performed. One cohort was used in class comparison for metastasis, the most important prognostic factor for overall survival, and the other cohort for a subsequent survival analysis. Survival association was further validated with RNA data from a third independent cohort. Whole tissue sections were read automatically via quantitative digital imaging and analysis. Survival data were analyzed by Cox proportional hazard modeling. We discovered that cutaneous primary melanomas without metastasis contain significantly more TAB than primary melanomas that had metastasized. At time of first diagnosis, a higher number of TAB is associated with a significantly better overall survival in patients with cutaneous primary melanomas of >1 mm Breslow depth. Also, higher CD20/CD19 tumor mRNA levels are correlated with a significantly better overall survival. Thus, our data support TAB numbers as a prognostic biomarker in cutaneous primary melanoma patients with a tumor of >1 mm Breslow depth. For a survey in larger studies, whole tissue section analysis seems to be key to accurate assessment of TAB numbers. PMID:27107457

  5. A sex-specific association between a 15q25 variant and upper aerodigestive tract cancers.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chen, Dan

    2011-04-01

    Sequence variants located at 15q25 have been associated with lung cancer and propensity to smoke. We recently reported an association between rs16969968 and risk of upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancers (oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx, larynx, and esophagus) in women (OR = 1.24, P = 0.003) with little effect in men (OR = 1.04, P = 0.35).

  6. Effect of nasal noninvasive respiratory support methods on pharyngeal provocation-induced aerodigestive reflexes in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadcherla, Sudarshan R; Hasenstab, Kathryn A; Sitaram, Swetha; Clouse, Brian J; Slaughter, Jonathan L; Shaker, Reza

    2016-06-01

    The pharynx is a locus of provocation among infants with aerodigestive morbidities manifesting as dysphagia, life-threatening events, aspiration-pneumonia, atelectasis, and reflux, and such infants often receive nasal respiratory support. We determined the impact of different oxygen delivery methods on pharyngeal stimulation-induced aerodigestive reflexes [room air (RA), nasal cannula (NC), and nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP)] while hypothesizing that the sensory motor characteristics of putative reflexes are distinct. Thirty eight infants (28.0 ± 0.7 wk gestation) underwent pharyngoesophageal manometry and respiratory inductance plethysmography to determine the effects of graded pharyngeal stimuli (n = 271) on upper and lower esophageal sphincters (UES, LES), swallowing, and deglutition-apnea. Comparisons were made between NC (n = 19), nCPAP (n = 9), and RA (n = 10) groups. Importantly, NC or nCPAP (vs. RA) had: 1) delayed feeding milestones (P 0.05). We conclude that aerodigestive reflexes were similarly developed in infants using noninvasive respiratory support with adequate upper and lower aerodigestive protection. Increased concern for GERD is unfounded in this population. These infants may benefit from targeted oromotor feeding therapies and safe pharyngeal bolus transit to accelerate feeding milestones. PMID:27012774

  7. The aetiology of upper aerodigestive tract cancers among young adults in Europe: the ARCAGE study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Macfarlane, Tatiana V

    2010-12-01

    The incidence of cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) is increasing throughout the world. To date the increases have been proportionally greatest among young people. Several reports have suggested that they often do not have a history of tobacco smoking or heavy alcohol consumption.

  8. Local melanoma recurrences in the scar after limited surgery for primary tumor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drzewiecki, K T; Andersson, A P

    The clinical and histologic records of 46 consecutive patients were reviewed who during the period 1980-1993 had recurrence from melanoma in the scar after limited surgery for a skin tumor. They constituted about 50% of all patients admitted with local recurrence from melanoma during this period....... At reexamination of the primary tumors, 16 were found to be malignant melanomas and 9 were nevi (four atypical and five benign). Twenty-one were missing, 11 of which had never been set for histologic examination. The median thickness of nine measurable melanomas was 0.66 mm. The recurrences in scar...... of local recurrences in the form of a new primary in a scar following limited surgery supports the theory of limited field change around a primary melanoma. Furthermore, limited procedures for primary melanoma, if followed by a recurrence in the scar, worsen the prognosis....

  9. Ipsilateral Breast Tumor Relapse: Local Recurrence Versus New Primary Tumor and the Effect of Whole-Breast Radiotherapy on the Rate of New Primaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The justification for partial breast radiotherapy after breast conservation surgery assumes that ipsilateral breast tumor relapses (IBTR) outside the index quadrant are mostly new primary (NP) tumors that develop despite radiotherapy. We tested the hypothesis that whole-breast radiotherapy (WBRT) is ineffective in preventing NP by comparing development rates in irradiated and contralateral breasts after tumor excision and WBRT. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed 1,410 women with breast cancer who were entered into a prospective randomized trial of radiotherapy fractionation and monitored annually for ipsilateral breast tumor relapses (IBTR) and contralateral breast cancer (CLBC). Cases of IBTR were classified into local recurrence (LR) or NP tumors based on location and histology and were subdivided as definite or likely depending on clinical data. Rates of ipsilateral NP and CLBC were compared over a 15-year period of follow-up. Results: At a median follow-up of 10.1 years, there were 150 documented cases of IBTR: 118 (79%) cases were definite or likely LR; 27 (18%) cases were definite or likely NP; and 5 (3%) cases could not be classified. There were 71 cases of CLBC. The crude proportion of definite-plus-likely NP was 1.9% (27/1,410) patients compared with 5% (71/1,410) CLBC patients. Cumulative incidence rates at 5, 10, and 15 years were 0.8%, 2.0%, and 3.5%, respectively, for definite-plus-likely NP and 2.4%, 5.8%, and 7.9%, respectively for CLBC, suggesting a difference in the rates of NP and CLBC. Conclusions: This analysis suggests that WBRT reduces the rate of ipsilateral NP tumors. The late presentation of NP has implications for the reporting of trials that are testing partial breast radiotherapy.

  10. Primary Dural Spinal Lymphoma Presentation of a Rare Spinal Tumor Case

    OpenAIRE

    Dilber Ayçiçek Çeçen; Necati Tatarlı; Hikmet Turan Süslü; Selçuk Özdoğan; Nagehan Özdemir Barışık

    2015-01-01

    Background. Primary spinal dural lymphomas (PSDL) are tumors with characteristic histopathology of a lymphoma, which are completely in the spinal epidural space without any other systemic involvement. Extranodal primary lymphoma involving nervous system prefers thalamus/basal ganglia, periventricular region, cerebellum, eyes, meninges/dura, and cranial nerves or spinal cord. Rare spinal localization with acute spinal cord compression is worth attention. Case Presentation. A 48-year-old male p...

  11. Primary nephrectomy and intraoperative tumor spill: Report from the Children’s Oncology Group (COG) renal tumors committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gow, Kenneth W.; Barnhart, Douglas C.; Hamilton, Thomas E.; Kandel, Jessica J.; Chen, Mike K.S.; Ferrer, Fernando A.; Price, Mitchell R.; Mullen, Elizabeth A.; Geller, James I.; Gratias, Eric J.; Rosen, Nancy; Khanna, Geetika; Naranjo, Arlene; Ritchey, Michael L.; Grundy, Paul E.; Dome, Jeffrey S.; Ehrlich, Peter F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Initial Children’s Oncology Group (COG) management for Wilms’ tumor (WT) consists of primary nephroureterectomy with lymph node sampling. While this provides accurate staging to define further treatment, it may result in intraoperative spill (IOS), which is associated with higher recurrence rates and therefore requires more intensive therapy. The purpose of this study is to determine current rates and identify factors which may predispose a patient to IOS. Methods The study population was drawn from the AREN03B2 renal tumor banking and classification study of the Children’s Oncology Group. All children with a first time occurrence of a renal mass were eligible for the study. At the time of enrollment and prior to risk stratification, the institution is required to submit operative notes, pathology specimens, a chest computed tomography scan (CT), and a contrast-enhanced CT or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the abdomen and pelvis for central imaging review. These data are then used to determine an initial risk classification and therapeutic protocol eligibility. Patients who had a unilateral nephroureterectomy for favorable histology WT underwent further review to assure data accuracy and to clarify details regarding the spill. Analyses were performed using chi square and logistic regression. Odd ratios (OR) are shown with 95% confidence intervals. Results There were 1,131 primary nephrectomies for unilateral WT with an IOS rate of 9.7% with an additional 1.8% having possible tumor spill during renal vein or IVC tumor thrombectomy. IOS correlated with diameter (>12cm, p<0.0001) and laterality (right, p=0.0414). Simple logistic regression indicated that IOS increased 2.7% [p=0.0240, OR 1.027 (1.004, 1.052)] with each 1 cm increase in diameter (3 –21cm) and 4.7% [p=0.0147 OR 1.047 (1.009, 1.086)] with each 100 g increase in weight (80 – 1800 g). Multiple logistic regression indicated that laterality [right p=0.048, OR 1.46 (1.004, 2.110)] and

  12. Time-dependent effect of hypoxia on tumor progression and liver progenitor cell markers in primary liver tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliene Bogaerts

    Full Text Available Expression of liver progenitor cell (LPC characteristics has been proposed as a negative prognostic marker in primary liver tumors. Hypoxia has been linked to activation of the Notch pathway which is responsible for activation and proliferation of LPCs and hypoxia-induced LPC activation has been shown in hepatocellular carcinoma. Our aim was to elucidate the time-dependent effects of hypoxia on the LPC niche in hepatocellular carcinoma which could aid in determining a safe time frame for use of hypoxia inducing therapies.We used dimethyloxaloylglycine to mimic a hypoxic reaction in mice by stabilizing hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha at three distinct time points in diethylnitrosamine induced hepatocarcinogenesis. LPC, metastasis and Notch pathway markers were determined by quantitative PCR and (immunehistochemistry (heamatoxillin-eosin, reticulin, Sirius red and cytokeratin 19 staining.Activating the hypoxia inducible pathway early in hepatocarcinogenesis resulted in an increased incidence of both cholangioma and hepatocellular lesions, associated with high expression of LPC, metastatic and Notch pathway markers. Adversely, activating the hypoxic response during tumor development resulted in decreased incidence of hepatocellular lesions and increased cholangioma incidence, with an unaltered gene expression profile of LPC-, Notch pathway- and metastatic markers. A hypoxic insult at advanced stages of hepatocarcinogenesis severely increased the expression of LPC characteristics, however without increased expression of actors of the Notch pathway and metastatic markers and minor changes in incidence of hepatocellular and cholangioma lesions.Our results indicate that increased hypoxia at the onset of tumor development has detrimental effects on tumor progression; patients with HCC developed in a background of fibrosis/cirrhosis might therefore represent a more difficult treatment group. In contrast, hypoxia during tumor development appears to favor

  13. Multi-course PDT of malignant tumors: the influence on primary tumor, metastatic spreading and homeostasis of cancer patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Victor V.; Chissov, Valery I.; Yakubovskaya, Raisa I.; Filonenko, E. V.; Sukhin, Garry M.; Nemtsova, E. R.; Belous, T. A.; Zharkova, Natalia N.

    1996-12-01

    The first clinical trials of photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancer with two photosensitizers, PHOTOHEME and PHOTOSENS, were started in P.A. Hertzen Research Oncological Institute (Moscow, Russia) in 1992 and 1994. Up to now, 208 patients with primary, recurrent and metastatic malignant tumors (469) of skin (34 patients/185 tumors), breast cancer (24/101), head and neck (30/31), trachea and bronchus (31/42), esophagus (35/35), stomach (31/32), rectum (4/4), vagina and uterine cervix (7/8) and bladder (12/31) have been treated by PDT. One-hundred-thirty patients were injected with PHOTOHEME, 64 patients were injected with PHOTOSENS, 14 patients were injected with PHOTOHEME and PHOTOSENS. Totally, 302 courses of treatment were performed: 155 patients had one course and 53 patients were subjected to two to nine PDT sources with intervals from 1 to 18 months. A therapeutic effect of a one-course and multi- course PDT of malignant tumors (respiratory, digestive and urogenital systems) was evaluated clinically, histologically, roentgenologically, sonographically and endoscopically. The biochemical, hematological and immunological investigations were performed for all the patients in dynamics. Results of our study showed that a multi-course PDT method seems to be perspective in treatment of malignant tumors of basic localizations.

  14. Hepatic metastases of primary jejunal carcinoid tumor: A case report with radiological findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhat Avcu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Carcinoid tumors represent a group of well-differentiated tumors originating from the diffuse endocrine system outside the pancreas and thyroid. The overall prevalence of carcinoid tumors in the United States is estimated to be one to two cases per 100,000 persons. Various sites of origin of this neoplasm are appendix - 30-45%, small bowel - 25-35% (duodenum 2%, jejunum 7%, ileum 91%, multiple sites 15-35%, rectum 10-15%, caecum - 5%, and stomach - 0.5%. Liver metastases from jejunal and ileal carcinoids are generally hypervascular. Case report: Here we report a case of primary jejunal carcinoid tumor in a 66-year-old woman metastasizing to liver with ultrasonography, computed tomography, and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI findings. Conclusion: Primary jejunal carcinoid tumor is a rare entity. DWI can help in the differential diagnosis of hepatic hypervascular metastatic mass lesions from benign ones, as well as in the diagnosis of carcinoid tumor.

  15. Primary tumor location and bevacizumab effectiveness in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boisen, M K; Johansen, J S; Dehlendorff, Christian;

    2013-01-01

    There is an unmet need for predictive markers for the antiangiogenic agent bevacizumab in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). We aimed to assess whether the location of the primary tumor is associated with bevacizumab effectiveness when combined with capecitabine and oxaliplatin (CAPEOX) in the ...

  16. Primary malignant tumor of the fallopian tube: 2 cases reports papillary carcinoma and choriocarcionma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sun Hee; Yoon, Sook Ja; Yoon, Yong Kyu [Eulji Medical College Nowon Eulji Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-10-01

    Primary fallopian tube carcinoma is a very rare gynecologic malignacy, occurring during the fifth or sixth decade of postmenopausal women. The most common histological type is adenocarcinoma; squamous carcinoma, sarcoma, mixed mullerian tumors, and choriocarcinoma, for example, are exceedingly rare. The author reports one case each of adenocarcinoma and choriocarcinoma of the fallopian tube both were demonstrated by US, CT, and MRI.

  17. Predictive value of Tokuhashi scoring systems in spinal metastases, focusing on various primary tumor groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Miao; Bünger, Cody Eric; Li, Haisheng;

    2012-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a prospective cohort study of 448 patients with spinal metastases from a variety of cancer groups. OBJECTIVE: To determine the specific predictive value of the Tokuhashi scoring system (T12) and its revised version (T15) in spinal metastases of various primary tumors. S...

  18. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia as second primary tumor in a patient with retinoblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Anasua; Kaliki, Swathi; Mohammad, Faraz Ali; Mishra, Dilip K; Vanajakshi, S; Reddy, Vijay Anand

    2016-01-01

    Second primary tumor (SPT) is defined as a second tumor that presents either simultaneously or after the diagnosis of an index tumor. Second primary malignancies are the leading cause of death in patients with heritable retinoblastoma (RB). Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), as SPT in RB patients, is extremely rare. To the best of our knowledge, only five cases of ALL as SPT in patients with RB has been documented in the literature. Herein, we report a case of a 6-year-old girl with bilateral RB, who developed ALL during the course of treatment of RB. This case highlights the importance of reviewing blood investigations regularly to diagnose leukemia as SPT in RB and also the necessity for proper counseling and lifelong follow-up in these patients. PMID:27433042

  19. Role of medical history and medication use in the aetiology of upper aerodigestive tract cancers in Europe: the ARCAGE study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Macfarlane, T V

    2012-04-01

    The study aimed to investigate the role of medical history (skin warts, Candida albicans, herpetic lesions, heartburn, regurgitation) and medication use (for heartburn; for regurgitation; aspirin) in the aetiology of upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancer.

  20. Operative treatment via anterior approaches for cervicothoracic vertebrae tumors: surgical techniques and primary outcome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To sum up 7 patients with cervicothoracic vertebrae tumors (C7 to T3) from March 1999 and May 2002, who underwent operative treatment via anterior approaches. Methods :The anterior approaches included low anterior cervical approach and high transthoracic approach. In 5 cases of segments of T1 and above involved, the low anterior cervical approaches were adopted, otherwise the high transthoracic approaches were used(2 cases). Excision of tumor was carried out according to demands of the Weinstein-Boriani-Biagini (WBB) staging system. Spine stability was reconstructed by bone autografting and instrumentation. There were 4 cases of primary tumor and 3 of metastases. Their mean age was 45.1 years (23 to 66). The mean follow up was 18.9 months (3 to 45). Results were evaluated by occurrence of complications, improvement of symptoms, local recurrence and mortality. Results: All patients stood surgery well. No significant complications occurred during and after operation. Local pain was significantly alleviated and neurological deficit was improved at least one Frankel grade. Three patients died.Local tumor control was obtained in 6 patients (85.7 %) until the end of follow-up. Conclusion:Our experience showed that via low anterior cervical approach and high transthoracic approach, the cervicothoracic vertebrae tumor could be excised safely and adequately. Moreover, excision of tumor according to the WBB surgical staging system and reconstruction of spine stability have made great contribution to local tumor control and the neurological function improvement.

  1. Genetic Profiling Differentiates Second Primary Tumors from Metastases in Adult Metachronous Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefin Fernebro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Patients with soft tissue sarcomas (STS are at increased risk of second primary malignancies, including a second STS, but distinction between metastases and a second primary STS is difficult. Patients and Methods. Array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH was applied to 30 multiple STS of the extremities and the trunk wall from 13 patients. Different histotypes were present with malignant fibrous histiocytomas/undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcomas being the predominant subtype. Results. aCGH profiling revealed genetic complexity with multiple gains and losses in all tumors. In an unsupervised hierarchical cluster analysis, similar genomic profiles and close clustering between the first and subsequent STS were identified in 5 cases, suggesting metastatic disease, whereas the tumors from the remaining 8 patients did not cluster and showed only weak pairwise correlation, suggesting development of second primary STS. Discussion. The similarities and dissimilarities identified in the first and second STS suggest that genetic profiles can be used to distinguish soft tissue metastases from second primary STS. The demonstration of genetically different soft tissue sarcomas in the same patient suggests independent tumor origin and serves as a reminder to consider development of second primary STS, which has prognostic and therapeutic implications.

  2. Primary Glial and Neuronal Tumors of the Ovary or Peritoneum: A Clinicopathologic Study of 11 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Li; Olar, Adriana; Niu, Na; Jiang, Yi; Cheng, Wenjun; Bian, Xiu-Wu; Yang, Wentao; Zhang, Jing; Yemelyanova, Anna; Malpica, Anais; Zhang, Zhihong; Fuller, Gregory N; Liu, Jinsong

    2016-06-01

    Primary glial and neuronal tumors of the ovary or peritoneum are rare neuroectodermal-type tumors similar to their counterparts in the central nervous system. We retrospectively reviewed 11 cases. These cases included 4 ependymomas, 6 astrocytic tumors, and 1 neurocytoma. Patients' age ranged from 9 to 50 years (mean, 26 y; median, 24 y). All ependymal tumors with detailed clinical history (n=3) were not associated with any other ovarian neoplasm. In contrast, all astrocytic tumors were associated with immature teratoma (n=4), mature cystic teratoma (n=1), or mixed germ cell tumor (n=1). The neurocytoma arose in association with mature teratomatous components in a patient with a history of treated mixed germ cell tumor. Immunohistochemical staining showed that 7 of 7 ependymal and astrocytic tumors (100%) were positive for glial fibrillary acidic protein, and 2 of 2 ependymomas (100%) were positive for both estrogen and progesterone receptors. The neurocytoma was positive for synaptophysin and negative for S100 protein, glial fibrillary acidic protein, and SALL4. No IDH1-R132H mutation was detected in 2 of 2 (0%) astrocytomas by immunohistochemistry. Next-generation sequencing was performed on additional 2 ependymomas and 2 astrocytomas but detected no mutations in a panel of 50 genes that included IDH1, IDH2, TP53, PIK3CA, EGFR, BRAF, and PTEN. Follow-up information was available for 8 patients, with the follow-up period ranging from 4 to 59 months (mean, 15 mo; median, 8.5 mo), of which 3 had no evidence of disease and 5 were alive with disease. In conclusion, primary glial and neuronal tumors of the ovary can arise independently or in association with other ovarian germ cell tumor components. Pathologists should be aware of these rare tumors and differentiate them from other ovarian neoplasms. Even though an IDH1 or IDH2 mutation is found in the majority of WHO grade II and III astrocytomas, and in secondary glioblastomas arising from them, such mutations were

  3. Genetic and epigenetic alterations in primary-progressive paired oligodendroglial tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu-Ting Kuo

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to identify genetic and epigenetic alterations involved in the progression of oligodendroglial tumors. We characterized 21 paired, World Health Organization (WHO grade II and III oligodendroglial tumors from patients who received craniotomies for the partial or complete resection of primary and secondary oligodendroglial tumors. Tumor DNA was analyzed for alterations in selected genetic loci (1p36, 9p22, 10q23-24, 17p13, 19q13, 22q12, isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1, isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 (IDH2 and the CpG island methylation status of critical tumor-related genes (MGMT, P16, DAPK, PTEN, RASSF1A, Rb1. Alterations of these markers were common early in the tumorigenesis. In the primary tumors we identified 12 patients (57.1% with 1p36 deletions, 17 (81.0% with 19q13 deletions, 9 (42.9% with 1p36/19q13 codeletions, 11 (52.3% with 9p22 deletions, and 12 (57.1% with IDH1 mutation. Epigenetic analysis detected promoter methylation of the MGMT, P16, DAPK, PTEN, RASSF1A, and Rb1 genes in 38.1%, 19.0%, 38.1%, 33.3%, 66.7%, and 14.3% of primary tumors, respectively. After progression, additional losses of 1p, 9p, 10q, 17p, 19q and 22q were observed in 3 (14.3%, 1 (4.8%, 3 (14.3%, 2 (9.5%, 1 (4.8% and 3 (14.3% cases, respectively. Additional methylations of the MGMT, P16, DAPK, PTEN, RASSF1A, and RB1 promoters was observed in 4 (19.0%, 2 (9.5%, 0 (0%, 6 (28.6%, 2(9.5% and 3 (14.3% cases, respectively. The status of IDH1 mutation remained unchanged in all tumors after progression. The primary tumors of three patients with subsequent progression to high-grade astrocytomas, all had 9p deletion, intact 1p, intact 10q and unmethylated MGMT. Whether this may represent a molecular signature of patients at-risk for the development of aggressive astrocytomas needs further investigation.

  4. Prognostic significance of tumor-infiltrating T-lymphocytes in primary and metastatic lesions of advanced stage ovarian cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leffers, Ninke; Gooden, Marloes J. M.; de Jong, Renske A.; Hoogeboom, Baukje-Nynke; ten Hoor, Klaske A.; Hollema, Harry; Boezen, H. Marieke; van der Zee, Ate G. J.; Daemen, Toos; Nijman, Hans W.

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: Ovarian cancer patients with intra-tumoral CD3(+) T-lymphocytes in primary tumor tissue have a better prognosis. This study aims to analyze the presence and relative influence of three important T-lymphocyte subsets, tumor-infiltrating CD8(+) cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL), CD45R0(+) memory

  5. Surgery for Primary Cardiac Tumors in Children Early and Late Results in a Multicenter European Congenital Heart Surgeons Association Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Padalino, Massimo A.; Vida, Vladimiro L.; Boccuzzo, Giovanna; Tonello, Marco; Sarris, George E.; Berggren, Hakan; Comas, Juan V.; Di Carlo, Duccio; Di Donato, Roberto M.; Ebels, Tjark; Hraska, Viktor; Jacobs, Jeffrey P.; Gaynor, J. William; Metras, Dominique; Pretre, Rene; Pozzi, Marco; Rubay, Jean; Sairanen, Heikki; Schreiber, Christian; Maruszewski, Bohdan; Basso, Cristina; Stellin, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    Background-To evaluate indications and results of surgery for primary cardiac tumors in children. Methods and Results-Eighty-nine patients aged Conclusions-Surgery for primary cardiac tumors in children has good early and long-term outcomes, with low recurrence rate. Rhabdomyomas are the most freque

  6. [Primary hepatic lymphoma of MALT-type: a tumor that can simulate a liver metastasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatelain, D; Maes, C; Yzet, T; Brevet, M; Bounicaud, D; Plachot, J-P; Verhaeghe, P

    2006-02-01

    Primary hepatic lymphomas are rare tumors. We report a case of a 72 year-old woman with a past history of colonic adenocarcinoma who presented primary hepatic lymphoma of MALT-type. The patient had been operated on 3 years before for colonic adenocarcinoma, pT3N0, revealed by a bowel obstructive syndrome. She had been treated by chemotherapy for 6 months. During the follow-up, the computed tomography-scan (CT-scan) revealed the presence of a not well-demarcated mass in segment III of the liver, measuring 4 cm in diameter. The tumor was hypodense and was not enhanced on dynamic study. The mass was already present on the initial CT-scan. Left lobectomy was performed with the diagnosis of liver metastasis of the colonic adenocarcinoma. Surgical specimen showed a tumor composed of a dense infiltrate of small lymphocytes positive for B-cell markers on immunohistochemistry. The tumor contained reactive lymphoid follicles and there were numerous lympho-epithelial biliary lesions. The patient is alive and free of disease 2 years after the diagnosis. Primary hepatic lymphoma of MALT-type is a low-grade B cell lymphoma. Twenty-five cases had been reported in the literature so far. The patients were 16 females and 9 males, mean age 63.5 years. The pathogenesis is still unclear but half of the patients had a past history of chronic inflammatory liver disease (hepatitis B or C virus infection, ascaris infection, primary biliary cirrhosis) or malignant neoplasm. This tumor has a good prognosis; it is usually limited to the liver and surgical resection cures the patient in most cases. PMID:16246295

  7. Pituitary tumor visualized on x-ray CT in a girl with juvenile primary hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 7-year-old girl presented with decreased rate of growth (97.8 cm in height). Cranial X-ray showed the sella tunica enlarged. Cranial X-ray CT showed a pituitary tumor with extrasellar extension. Thyroid scintigraphy with I-123 showed normal location and morphology of the thyroid gland, although the uptake rate of I-123 was 1.4 % at 24 hr after scanning. From these imaging results, in addition to the laboratory findings, the patient was diagnosed as having primary hypothyroidism secondary to chronic atrophic thyroiditis. The pituitary tumor was supposed to be an enlarged or hyperplastic pituitary gland. (Namekawa, K.)

  8. Treatment results of stereotactic interstitial brachytherapy for primary and metastatic brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, G.L.; Luxton, G.; Cohen, D.; Petrovich, Z.; Langholz, B.; Apuzzo, M.L.; Sapozink, M.D. (USC School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (USA))

    1991-08-01

    A total of 41 stereotactic interstitial brain implants in 39 patients were performed for recurrence after teletherapy (recurrence implant), or as part of initial treatment in conjunction with teletherapy (primary implant). Implanted tumors consisted of malignant gliomas (33), other primary brain tumors (3), and single metastatic lesions (3). All patients were temporarily implanted with Ir-192 using a coaxial catheter afterloading system; two patients were implanted twice. Survival post-implant for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), 13 patients, was 10 months whether implanted primarily or for recurrence. Mean time to recurrence, measured from initiation of teletherapy to implantation, was 10 months. Twenty patients with anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) had a median survival post-implant of 23 months for primary implants (7 patients) and 11 months for recurrence implants (13 patients). Mean time to recurrence, measured from initiation of teletherapy to implantation, was 19 months. Three patients (9%) of the evaluable group required reoperation for symptomatic mass effect, all with initial diagnosis of AA. Survival for this subgroup was 14, 22, and 32 months post-implantation. Using stereotactic techniques, interstitial brachytherapy of brain tumors was technically feasible with negligible acute morbidity and mortality, and appeared to offer limited prolongation of control for a subset of patients with recurrent malignant gliomas. The role of this modality in primary treatment for malignant gliomas needs to be further defined by prospectively randomized trials.

  9. Comparative genomic and proteomic analysis of high grade glioma primary cultures and matched tumor in situ.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Howley, R

    2012-10-15

    Developing targeted therapies for high grade gliomas (HGG), the most common primary brain tumor in adults, relies largely on glioma cultures. However, it is unclear if HGG tumorigenic signaling pathways are retained under in-vitro conditions. Using array comparative genomic hybridization and immunohistochemical profiling, we contrasted the epidermal and platelet-derived growth factor receptor (EGFR\\/PDGFR) in-vitro pathway status of twenty-six primary HGG cultures with the pathway status of their original HGG biopsies. Genomic gains or amplifications were lost during culturing while genomic losses were more likely to be retained. Loss of EGFR amplification was further verified immunohistochemically when EGFR over expression was decreased in the majority of cultures. Conversely, PDGFRα and PDGFRβ were more abundantly expressed in primary cultures than in the original tumor (p<0.05). Despite these genomic and proteomic differences, primary HGG cultures retained key aspects of dysregulated tumorigenic signaling. Both in-vivo and in-vitro the presence of EGFR resulted in downstream activation of P70s6K while reduced downstream activation was associated with the presence of PDGFR and the tumor suppressor, PTEN. The preserved pathway dysregulation make this glioma model suitable for further studies of glioma tumorigenesis, however individual culture related differences must be taken into consideration when testing responsiveness to chemotherapeutic agents.

  10. Renal cell carcinoma primary cultures maintain genomic and phenotypic profile of parental tumor tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is characterized by recurrent copy number alterations (CNAs) and loss of heterozygosity (LOH), which may have potential diagnostic and prognostic applications. Here, we explored whether ccRCC primary cultures, established from surgical tumor specimens, maintain the DNA profile of parental tumor tissues allowing a more confident CNAs and LOH discrimination with respect to the original tissues. We established a collection of 9 phenotypically well-characterized ccRCC primary cell cultures. Using the Affymetrix SNP array technology, we performed the genome-wide copy number (CN) profiling of both cultures and corresponding tumor tissues. Global concordance for each culture/tissue pair was assayed evaluating the correlations between whole-genome CN profiles and SNP allelic calls. CN analysis was performed using the two CNAG v3.0 and Partek software, and comparing results returned by two different algorithms (Hidden Markov Model and Genomic Segmentation). A very good overlap between the CNAs of each culture and corresponding tissue was observed. The finding, reinforced by high whole-genome CN correlations and SNP call concordances, provided evidence that each culture was derived from its corresponding tissue and maintained the genomic alterations of parental tumor. In addition, primary culture DNA profile remained stable for at least 3 weeks, till to third passage. These cultures showed a greater cell homogeneity and enrichment in tumor component than original tissues, thus enabling a better discrimination of CNAs and LOH. Especially for hemizygous deletions, primary cultures presented more evident CN losses, typically accompanied by LOH; differently, in original tissues the intensity of these deletions was weaken by normal cell contamination and LOH calls were missed. ccRCC primary cultures are a reliable in vitro model, well-reproducing original tumor genetics and phenotype, potentially useful for future functional approaches

  11. Unusual Primary Subepithelial Tumors of the Colon: Multimodality Imaging Findings with Endoscopic and Pathologic Correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Jong Young; Kwon, Hee Jin; Cho, Jin Han; Ha, Dong Ho; Nam, Kyung Jin; Kang, Eun Ju [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Dong A University College of Medicine, Pusan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong Hoon [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Dong A University College of Medicine, Pusan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Suk [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Pusan National University College of Medicine, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    The colonoscopy has been used to diagnose various colonic lesions. However, this method has its limitations in diagnosing and differentiating subepithelial tumors. For this reason, the role of cross-sectional radiologic imaging is important for the diagnosis of colonic subepithelial tumors. Moreover, although these tumors are associated with a wide range of radiologic features, they may have unique radiologic features that suggest a specific diagnosis. Hemangiomas typically show transmural colonic wall thickening with phleboliths in intramural or extracolic areas. Colonic lymphangiomas manifest as a multilocular cystic mass at CT and sonography. Colonic lipomas are well demonstrated by CT because the masses were present with characteristic fatty density. Schwannomas usually appear as well circumscribed, homogeneous masses with low attenuation at CT. The primary form of colonic lymphoma has a wide variety of radiologic types, including a polypoid mass, circumferential mural mass, and a cavitary mass. Small gastrointestinal stromal tumors are usually homogeneous, whereas larger tumors tend to have a heterogeneous appearance with central necrosis at contrast-enhanced CT scans. Neuroendocrine tumors of the colon are most frequently observed in the rectum and are typically small incidental lesions. Familiarity with these imaging features can help distinguish particular disease entities.

  12. Use of complementary and alternative medical therapy by patients with primary brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Terri S; Gilbert, Mark R

    2008-05-01

    The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is increasing. CAM includes mind-body interventions, biologically based therapies, energy therapies, and body-based methods. Primary brain tumors arise within the brain and have a poor prognosis when malignant. Even patients with benign tumors suffer neurologic and systemic symptoms as a result of the tumor or its treatment. CAM is used by 30% of brain tumor patients, who often do not report its use to their physician. Herbal medicines may affect the metabolism of prescribed medications or produce adverse effects that may be attributed to other causes. In patients with systemic cancer, mind-body modalities such as meditation and relaxation therapy have been shown to be helpful in reducing anxiety and pain; acupuncture and hypnotherapy may also reduce both pain and nausea. Recent preclinical studies have reported that ginseng, Scutellaria baicalensis, and Angelica sinensis may promote apoptosis of tumor cells or exercise antiangiogenic effects. Further studies are needed to evaluate the impact of CAM on symptom control or tumor growth in this vulnerable patient population. PMID:18541122

  13. Residual tumor after the salvage surgery is the major risk factors for primary treatment failure in malignant ovarian germ cell tumors: A retrospective study of single institution

    OpenAIRE

    Park Jong Sup; Ryu Ki Sung; Lee Keun Ho; Lee Sung Jong; Ki Eun Young; Park Sung Taek; Song Min Jong; Lee Chung Won; Hur Soo Young

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Malignant ovarian germ cell tumors are rare, and knowledge of their prognostic factors is limited, with little available randomized data. This study was conducted to evaluate the clinicopathologic characteristics of malignant ovarian germ cell tumors and to determine the association of their prognostic factors to primary treatment failure. Methods The medical records of 57 patients with stages I to IV malignant ovarian germ cell tumor were retrospectively reviewed, and the...

  14. Nuclear imaging of neuroendocrine tumors with unknown primary: why, when and how?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santhanam, Prasanna; Chandramahanti, Sangeeta [Marshall University, Section of Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Joan C Edwards School of Medicine, Huntington, WV (United States); Kroiss, Alexander [Medical University Innsbruck, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Innsbruck (Austria); Yu, Run [Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Division of Endocrinology and Carcinoid and Neuroendocrine Tumor Center, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Ruszniewski, Philippe [Beaujon Hospital and Paris-Diderot University, Department of Gastroenterology-Pancreatology, Paris (France); Kumar, Rakesh [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Diagnostic Nuclear Medicine Division, Department of Nuclear Medicine, New Delhi (India); Taieb, David [Aix-Marseille University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, La Timone University Hospital, Marseille (France); Institut Paoli-Calmettes, Inserm UMR1068 Marseille Cancerology Research Center, Marseille (France); Aix-Marseille University, European Center for Research in Medical Imaging, Marseille (France)

    2015-03-13

    Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) with unknown primary (CUP-NET) are associated with a poor prognosis (10-year survival 22 %), grade 1 and 2 NETs having a more favorable outcome than grade 3 (also called carcinoma). There is evidence that an effort should be made to localize the primary tumor even in the presence of metastasis because resection of the primary tumor(s) may improve disease-free and overall survival, and because the choice of chemotherapeutic agent depends on the location of the primary tumor. Localization of the tumors remains challenging and often relies on a combination of radiological, endoscopic and functional imaging. The functional imaging protocol for evaluation of these patients has historically relied on somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS). However, the sensitivity and specificity of SRS may be unsatisfactory, especially for NETs of midgut origin. Newer PET radiotracers such as {sup 68}Ga-labeled somatostatin analogs ({sup 68}Ga-DOTA-SSTa) and {sup 18}F-DOPA have shown promise. In direct comparisons between {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-SSTa PET/CT and {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-octreotide/{sup 111}In-pentetreotide SPECT(/CT), {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-SSTa performed better than other techniques, giving a compelling reason for switching from SPECT/CT to PET/CT imaging. {sup 18}F-DOPA performs better than SRS and CT in well-differentiated NETs of the small intestine. For detecting pancreatic NETs, the high background uptake of {sup 18}F-DOPA by the normal exocrine pancreas can be somewhat overcome by pretreatment with carbidopa. We have suggested a protocol in which SRS is replaced by one of the two agents (preferably with {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-SSTa, alternatively {sup 18}F-DOPA) as first-line nuclear tracer for detection of CUP-NET in patients with well-differentiated NETs and {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT may be an additional diagnostic test for poorly differentiated tumors and for prognostication. In the near future, it is expected that patients with CUP-NET will benefit from newly

  15. Outcome and prognostic indicators in 20 cats with surgically treated primary lung tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maritato, Karl C; Schertel, Eric R; Kennedy, Shawn C; Dudley, Robert; Lamm, Catherine; Barnhart, Matthew; Kass, Phillip

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study of 20 client-owned cats was to describe the clinical signs, surgical interventions, histological features, stage and treatments of primary lung tumors removed by surgical excision, and to determine which factors significantly influence survival. Any cat that underwent surgical resection of a primary lung tumor between 2000 and 2007 was included in the study. Patient records were reviewed and signalment, clinical signs, preoperative diagnostics, surgical findings and histopathological results recorded. Histological reports were reviewed and scored using World Health Organization criteria. The Kaplan-Meier test was used to evaluate each potential prognostic factor with survival. Twenty cats met the inclusion criteria. The presence of clinical signs (such as dyspnea) at the time of diagnosis (P = 0.032), pleural effusion (P = 0.046), stage M1 (P = 0.015), and moderately and poorly differentiated tumors on histopathology (P = 0.011) were factors that were significantly correlated with reduced survival times. The median survival time of the 20 cats was 11 days. Cats presenting with no clinical signs had a median survival time of 578 days post-surgery vs 4 days post-surgery when presented with clinical signs. Cats staged T1N0M0 lived longer than cats at other stages (P = 0.044). Of the cats that survived to the time of suture removal, median survival time was 64 days. The results indicate that the presence of clinical signs, pleural effusion, moderately and poorly differentiated tumors on histopathology, evidence of metastasis and any stage beyond T1N0M0 are negative prognostic indicators for cats with primary lung tumors. The findings demonstrate that cats that presented with clinical signs, pleural effusion, any stage other than T1N0M0, or moderately and poorly differentiated tumors on histopathology had a poor prognosis. Therefore, extensive preoperative diagnostics, including computed tomography scans, should be performed

  16. Diffusion-weighted echo-planar MRI: a valuable tool for differentiating primary parotid gland tumors?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habermann, C.R.; Gossrau, P.; Arndt, C.; Cramer, M.C.; Adam, G. [Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Univ. Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Graessner, J. [Siemens AG, Medical Solutions, Hamburg (Germany); Reitmeier, F.; Jaehne, M. [Dept. of Oto-, Rhino-, Laryngology, Univ. Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Purpose: to investigate the feasibility of using diffusion-weighted (DW) echo-planar imaging (EPI) for differentiating primary parotid gland tumors. Material and methods: fifty consecutive patients with a suspected primary tumor of the parotid gland were examined with a DW EPI sequence (TR 1,500 msec, TE 77 msec, field of view 250 x 250 mm, pixel size 2.10 x 1.95 mm, section thickness 5 mm). The b factors used were 0, 500, and 1,000 sec/mm{sup 2}. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps were digitally transferred to MRIcro (Chris Rorden, University of Nottingham, Great Britain) and evaluated with a manually placed irregular region of interest (ROI) containing the entire tumor. Additionally, the contralateral, non affected parotid gland was measured and a circular ROI containing 100-200 pixels was placed in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) next to the spinal cord in every patient. For comparison of the results, the two-tailed Student's t test was used, based on the median ADC values for each patient, and a p-value <.05 was determined to indicate statistical significance. Results: in 45 patients, a primary neoplasm of the parotid gland could be histologically verified. For the non-affected parotid glands of all 45 evaluated patients, the mean ADC value was 1.14 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/sec {+-} 0.12 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/sec (mean {+-} standard deviation). Seven different entities of parotid gland tumors were histologically discriminated. Pleomorphic adenomas (2.14 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/sec {+-} 0.11 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/sec), Warthin tumors (0.85 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/sec {+-} 0.1 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/sec), and mucoepidermoid carcinomas (1.04 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/sec {+-} 0.3 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/sec) showed statistically significant different ADC values in comparison to all other evaluated tumors (p.001), and also among each other (p<.001). Additionally, ADC values presented by lipomas were statistically significant compared to all other entities (p

  17. Assessment of the long-term effects of primary radiation therapy for brain tumors in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One-hundred-twelve children with primary brain tumors received definitive radiotherapy between the years 1958-1979. Sixty-nine patients were alive at intervals of 1-21 years. Thirty-eight patients underwent neurologic and endocrine evaluation, psychologic and intelligence testing, and assessment for second malignancy post-treatment. A second intracranial malgnancy developed in one child, for an incidence of 1.6%. Performance status was good to excellent in 89% of the patients studied. Seventeen percent of the group were mentally retarded. Behavioral disorders were identified in 39% of the patients, 59% of the mothers, and 43% of the fathers. Of the 23 patients with nonparasellar tumors, six were found to have growth hormone deficiency, including two patients with panhypopituitarism. Disability was related to age under 3 years at the time of treatment and tumor extension to the hypothalamus

  18. Primary pericardial extragastrointestinal stromal tumor: A case report and literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    ARPACI, TANER; TOKAT, FATMA; ARPACI, RABIA BOZDOGAN; AKBAS, TUGANA; UGURLUER, GAMZE; YAVUZ, SINAN

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most prevalent mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. GISTs are considered to originate from the interstitial cells of Cajal, the pacemakers of the peristaltic activity of the gastrointestinal tract. More than 95% of GISTs express KIT protein and discovered on GIST-1. GISTs may also be encountered in locations outside the gastrointestinal tract, in which case they are referred to as extra-GISTs (EGISTs) and often behave more aggressively. This is the case report of a primary pericardial EGIST in a 53-year-old male patient, confirmed by immunohistochemistry. To the best of our knowledge, this is the third case of EGIST diagnosed above the diaphragm, without being associated with the esophageal wall. Two cases of primary EGIST arising from the pleura were reported previously. In addition, this is the first reported case of an EGIST originating from the pericardium. PMID:26137136

  19. Genomic and phenotypic profiles of two Brazilian breast cancer cell lines derived from primary human tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corrêa, Natássia C R; Kuasne, Hellen; Faria, Jerusa A Q A;

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer among women worldwide. Research using breast cancer cell lines derived from primary tumors may provide valuable additional knowledge regarding this type of cancer. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the phenotypic profiles of MACL-1...... and MGSO-3, the only Brazilian breast cancer cell lines available for comparative studies. We evaluated the presence of hormone receptors, proliferation, differentiation and stem cell markers, using immunohistochemical staining of the primary tumor, cultured cells and xenografts implanted....... This shift in expression may be due to the selection of an 'establishment' phenotype in vitro. Whole-genome DNA evaluation showed a large amount of copy number alterations (CNAs) in the two cell lines. These findings render MACL-1 and MGSO-3 the first characterized Brazilian breast cancer cell lines...

  20. Second primary tumor and radiation induced neoplasma in the uterine cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurai, Tomoyasu; Nishio, Masamichi; Kagami, Yoshikazu; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Narimatsu, Naoto; Kanemoto, Toshitaka (National Hospital of Sapporo (Japan))

    1984-09-01

    This report is concerned with multiple primary cancers developing in invasive uterine cancer. Second primary tumors were recorded 27 women with a total of 30 non-uterine cancer (exception of radiation-induced cancer). 17 patients of radiation-induced neoplasm were observed (Rectal cancer 4, soft part sarcoma 4, cancer of urinary bladder 3, bone tumor 3, uterin cancer 2 and cancer of Vulva 1). One case is 4 legions (corpus, sigma, thymoma and stomach), 2 cases are 3 lesions (uterine cervix, stomach and maxillay siuis: uterine cervix, thyroidal gland and radiation-induced soft part sarcoma). Only 5 of these 17 patients were known irradiated dose (50 Gy--55 Gy), however others unknown. The mean latent periods of 17 cases of radiation induced neoplasms are 19.4 years. 16 patients of late second cancers of the cervix appearing from 11 to 36 years (average 19.5 years) after initial radiotherapy were recorded.

  1. Hypofractionated three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy for primary liver cancer with portal vein tumor thrombosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of hypofractionated 3DCRT for primary liver cancer (PLC) with portal vein tumor thrombosis (PVTT). Methods: Between April 1999 and August 2003, 34 PLC patients with PVTT received hypofractionated 3DCRT. The severity of hepatic cirrhosis was 23 in Child-Pugh gradeA and 11 gradeB. The median value of GTV was 773 cm3 (105-2097 cm3). The radiotherapy regimen consisted of 38-63 Gy in 7-15 fractions with 4-8 Gy per fraction (median value 5 Gy), the treatment was delivered 3 times per week during every other day. Results: Having response rate (CR + PR) of 76% (26/34), the overall 1-, 2-, and 3-year survival rate at was 36%, 19% and 13%, respectively. Conclusion: Hypofractionated three dimensional conformal radiotherapy is effective for primary liver cancer with portal vein tumor thrombosis. (authors)

  2. KRAS Mutations in Primary Colorectal Cancer Tumors and Related Metastases: A Potential Role in Prediction of Lung Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cejas, Paloma; López-Gómez, Miriam; Aguayo, Cristina; Madero, Rosario; de Castro Carpeño, Javier; Belda-Iniesta, Cristóbal; Barriuso, Jorge; Moreno García, Víctor; Larrauri, Javier; López, Rocío; Casado, Enrique; Gonzalez-Barón, Manuel; Feliu, Jaime

    2009-01-01

    Background KRAS mutations in colorectal cancer primary tumors predict resistance to anti-Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) monoclonal antibody therapy in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer, and thus represent a true indicator of EGFR pathway activation status. Methodology/Principal Findings KRAS mutations were retrospectively studied using polymerase chain reactions and subsequent sequencing of codons 12 and 13 (exon 2) in 110 patients with metastatic colorectal tumors. These studies were performed using tissue samples from both the primary tumor and their related metastases (93 liver, 84%; 17 lung, 16%). All patients received adjuvant 5-Fluorouracil-based polychemotherapy after resection of metastases. None received anti-EGFR therapy. Mutations in KRAS were observed in 37 (34%) of primary tumors and in 40 (36%) of related metastases, yielding a 94% level of concordance (kappa index 0.86). Patients with primary tumors possessing KRAS mutations had a shorter disease-free survival period after metastasis resection (12.0 vs 18.0 months; P = 0.035) than those who did not. A higher percentage of KRAS mutations was detected in primary tumors of patiens with lung metastases than in patients with liver metastases (59% vs 32%; p = 0.054). To further evaluate this finding we analyzed 120 additional patients with unresectable metastatic colorectal cancer who previously had their primary tumors evaluated for KRAS mutational status for clinical purposes. Separately, the analysis of these 120 patients showed a tendency towards a higher degree of KRAS mutations in primary tumors of patients with lung metastases, although it did not reach statistical significance. Taken together the group of 230 patients showed that KRAS was mutated significantly more often in the primary tumors of patients with lung metastases (57% vs 35%; P = 0.006). Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest a role for KRAS mutations in the propensity of primary colorectal tumors to

  3. Socioeconomic factors associated with risk of upper aerodigestive tract cancer in Europe.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Conway, D I

    2010-02-01

    In the European Union, there are 180,000 new cases of upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancer cases per year--more than half of whom will die of the disease. Socioeconomic inequalities in UADT cancer incidence are recognised across Europe. We aimed to assess the components of socioeconomic risk both independently and through their influence on the known behavioural risk factors of smoking, alcohol consumption and diet.

  4. About the Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer Research Group conducts and supports research on the prevention and early detection of lung and head and neck cancers, as well as new approaches to clinical prevention studies including cancer immunoprevention.Phase 0/I/II Cancer Prevention Clinical Trials ProgramThe group jointly administers the Phase 0/I/II Cancer Prevention Clinical Trials Program evaluating new agents, surrogate biomarkers, and technologies to identify premalignant lesions, and related cancers.  |

  5. Imaging findings of primary malignant gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A primary gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) arising in the liver is extremely rare. In our case of GIST, CT and MRI showed a well-defined, weakly enhancing mass with a cystic component in the left lateral segment of the liver that showed homogeneous and avid 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) accumulation on positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT). We herein present a rare case of primary malignant GIST of the liver presenting with peritoneal seeding on CT, gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI and 18F-FDG PET/CT. (author)

  6. Survey for primary tumor site in patients with initial clinical presentation of bone metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the patients who were examined with bone scintigraphy between April 1985 and March 1991, there were 27 patients whose initial clinical manifestation was bone metastasis and who were surveyed for the primary tumor site. The primary tumor site could be identified in 20 patients (74%), consisting of 9 patients with lung cancer, 3 with prostate cancer, 3 with hepatoma, 2 with renal cancer, and one each with thyroid cancer, adrenal cancer, and pleural malignant mesothelioma. In 17 of the 20 patients, the primary site had been detected within two months after presentation. Examinations which were helpful in identifying the primary site included chest radiography, sputum cytology, abdominal sonography, serum prostatic acid phosphatase level and pathologic examination of biopsy specimens. 99mTc-pyridoxylenemethyl tryptophan (99mTc-PMT) scintigraphy was useful in the diagnosis of the hepatoma when accumulation was observed at the metastatic sites. In 2 patients, lung cancer had been recognized using follow-up chest, radiography 3 and 6 months after presentation, respectively. One patient was diagnosed at autopsy as having adrenal cancer. In 7 patients the primary site remains unknown. Histology examination of the biopsy specimen performed in 6 of these patients revealed 4 to be adenocarcinoma and 2 undifferentiated carcinoma. The average survival period of the 17 patients who died was 9.5 months. Four patients are alive, and the outcome in the remaining 6 could not be determined. (author)

  7. Seizures in patients with primary brain tumors: what is their psychosocial impact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, John Y; Kizilbash, Sani H; Robinson, Steven I; Uhm, Joon H; Hammack, Julie E; Lachance, Daniel H; Buckner, Jan C; Jatoi, Aminah

    2016-06-01

    Seizures occur in most patients with primary malignant tumors and are associated with poor quality of life. To our knowledge, no previous studies have sought descriptions of quality of life in patients' own words. Patients with a history of a malignant primary brain tumor and seizures participated in semi-structured interviews, which were analyzed with qualitative methodology. Twenty-seven patients participated, most with high grade brain tumors. Most were receiving anti-seizure medication. Three distinct themes emerged: (1) the first seizure as a sentinel event, as manifested in part by how patients described their first seizure in remarkable detail ("I clearly remember the date…"); (2) seizures as inextricably tied to the brain tumor itself; for example, one patient explained how he "always wondered what was happening with my brain tumor" with each seizure; and (3) adaptation and acceptance-or lack therefore-to seizures. With respect to this third theme, patients conveyed frustration from an inability to work, to drive, and to take care of their children ("It's like you are 15 all over again.") Others described frustration with taking antiseizure medications ("I felt like an 80 year old, now taking her pills every day"). However, some patients had adapted or resigned themselves ("…so much of life is out of control-you just gotta take what you get."). These findings have future research implications but should also serve to make healthcare providers more aware of the heavy emotional burden that seizures thrust upon brain tumor patients. PMID:26979915

  8. Selection of mesenchymal-like metastatic cells in primary tumors – an in silico investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipin eNarang

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to metastasize, cancer cells must undergo phenotypic transition from an anchorage-dependent form to a motile form via a process referred to as epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT. It is currently unclear whether metastatic cells emerge late during tumor progression by successive accumulation of mutations, or whether they derive from distinct cell populations already present during the early stages of tumorigenesis. Similarly, the selective pressures that drive metastasis are poorly understood. Selection of cancer cells with increased proliferative capacity and enhanced survival characteristics may explain how some transformations promote a metastatic phenotype. However, it is difficult to explain how disseminated mesenchymal-like cancer cells can be subjected to such selective pressure, since these cells usually remain dormant for prolonged periods of time. In the current study, we have used in silico modeling and simulation to investigate the hypothesis that mesenchymal-like cancer cells evolve during the early stages of primary tumor development, and that these cells exhibit survival and proliferative advantages within the tumor microenvironment. In an agent-based tumor microenvironment model, cancer cell agents with distinct sets of attributes governing nutrient consumption, proliferation, apoptosis, random motility and cell adhesion were allowed to compete for space and nutrients. These simulation data indicated that mesenchymal-like cancer cells displaying high motility and low adhesion proliferate more rapidly and display a survival advantage over epithelial-like cancer cells. Furthermore, the presence of mesenchymal-like cells within the primary tumor influences the macroscopic properties, emergent morphology and growth rate of tumors.

  9. The nuclide imaging of primary malignant bone tumor before and after HIFU treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the difference of bone nuclide imaging on primary malignant bone tumor before and after high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment. Methods: 99Tcm-methylene-diphosphonate (MDP) bone imaging was applied before and after HIFU treatment and 99Tcm(V)-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) imaging was used when it was needed. Results: 1) There were areas of abnormal high uptake of 99Tcm-MDP in bone foci, while the lower uptake or no-uptake areas of 99Tcm-MDP outside the foci were found simultaneously. 2) The high uptake of 99Tcm(V)-DMSA in 5 cases after the HIFU treatment in the foci indicated the relapse of the former bone tumor. Conclusions: The location and extent of the tumor, and effectiveness of HIFU treatment can be estimated sensitively with 99Tcm-MDP bone imaging. The high uptake of 99Tcm(V)-DMSA in the focus indicates the relapse of the primary malignant bone tumor or new bone lesion in a certain degree

  10. Clinical results of stereotactic body frame based fractionated radiation therapy for primary or metastatic thoracic tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Sang Min [Univ. of Ulsan, Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Radiation Oncology] (and others)

    2006-12-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the treatment outcomes of stereotactic body radiation therapy for treating primary or metastatic thoracic tumors using a stereotactic body frame. Between January 1998 and February 2004, 101 lesions from 91 patients with thoracic tumors were prospectively reviewed. A dose of 10-12 Gy per fraction was given three to four times over consecutive days to a total dose of 30-48 Gy (median 40 Gy). The overall response rate was 82%, with 20 (22%) complete responses and 55 (60%) partial responses. The one- and two-year local progression free survival rates were 90% and 81%, respectively. The patients who received 48 Gy showed a better local tumor control than those who received less than 48 Gy (Fisher exact test; p=0.004). No pulmonary complications greater than a RTOG toxicity criteria grade 2 were observed. The experience of stereotactic body frame based radiation therapy appears to be a safe and promising treatment modality for the local management of primary or metastatic lung tumors. The optimal total dose, fractionation schedule and treatment volume need to be determined after a further follow-up of these results.

  11. Liposomal cytarabine in neoplastic meningitis from primary brain tumors: a single institutional experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaviani, P; Corsini, E; Salmaggi, A; Lamperti, E; Botturi, A; Erbetta, A; Milanesi, I; Legnani, F; Pollo, B; Silvani, A

    2013-12-01

    Neoplastic meningitis (NM) is diagnosed in 1-2 % of patients with primary brain tumors. Standard treatment of NM includes single-agent or combination chemotherapy, with compounds such as methotrexate, thiotepa, and cytarabine (Ara-C) or its injectable, sustained-release formulation Depocyte(®). In this Report, we reported the data of efficacy and tolerability of an intrathecal Depocyte(®) regimen for patients presenting with NM from primary brain tumors. We described 12 patients with NM confirmed at magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and with a positive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytology. Patients were treated with repeated courses of intrathecal Depocyte(®) (once every 2 weeks for 1 month of induction therapy and as consolidation therapy on a monthly base in responding patients). Twelve patients (10 males and 2 females) were treated by our Institution. The diagnosis of primitive brain tumor was medulloblastoma in six patients, germinoma in two patients, pylocitic astrocytomas with spongioblastic aspects, teratocarcinoma, meningeal melanoma, and ependimoma in the other four patients. The total number of Depocyte(®) cycles ranged from one to nine. In 7/12 patients, there was clinical and/or radiological response after Depocyte(®), and the toxicity was moderate and transient, mainly due to the lumbar puncture procedure. In the two patients with germinoma, we observed a normalization of MRI Imaging and negativization of CSF with disappearance of the tumor cells. OS was 180 days (range 20-300, CI 95 %). PMID:23525755

  12. Primary malignant tumors originating in intraabdominal testes. A report of two cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incidence of primary tumor is greater in undescended testes than in scrotum. They are usually detected as large masses. However, there are few reports describing the radiological features of these lesions. We present two cases (a seminoma and a nonseminoma) studied by ultrasound and computed tomography. The ultrasound studies show well defined, slightly echogenic masses. In addition, computed tomography reveals areas of necrosis and calcifications. (Author) 9 refs

  13. Frequency, Clinical Correlates, and Ratings of Behavioral Changes in Primary Brain Tumor Patients: A Preliminary Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Grahame K Simpson; Koh, Eng-Siew; Whiting, Diane; Wright, Kylie M.; Simpson, Teresa; Firth, Rochelle; Gillett, Lauren; Younan, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Few studies have addressed the specific behavioral changes associated with primary brain tumor (PBT). This paper will report on the frequency and demographic/clinical correlates of such behaviors, and the reliability of rating such behaviors among people with PBT, family informants, and clinicians. The association of behavioral changes and patient functional status will also be discussed. Methods A total of 57 patients with 37 family informants were recruited from two large...

  14. Genomic and phenotypic profiles of two Brazilian breast cancer cell lines derived from primary human tumors

    OpenAIRE

    CORRÊA, NATÁSSIA C.R.; Kuasne, Hellen; Faria, Jerusa A. Q. A.; SEIXAS, CIÇA C.S.; SANTOS, IRIA G.D.; ABREU, FRANCINE B.; Nonogaki, Suely; Rocha, Rafael M.; Silva, Gerluza Aparecida Borges; Gobbi, Helenice; Silvia R Rogatto; Alfredo M. Goes; Gomes, Dawidson A

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer among women worldwide. Research using breast cancer cell lines derived from primary tumors may provide valuable additional knowledge regarding this type of cancer. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the phenotypic profiles of MACL-1 and MGSO-3, the only Brazilian breast cancer cell lines available for comparative studies. We evaluated the presence of hormone receptors, proliferation, differentiation and stem cell markers, using ...

  15. Can deceased donor with recurrent primary brain tumor donate kidneys for transplantation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Suresh; Modi, Pranjal R; Pal, Bipin C; Modi, Jayesh

    2016-01-01

    Kidney transplantation from deceased donors is in its infancy in India. Cadaver organ donation was accepted legally in 1994 by the "Human Organs Transplantation Act." Marginal donors are now accepted by many centers for kidney transplantation. We report a case of procurement of both kidneys from a young deceased donor having recurrent primary brain tumor, transplanted into two adult recipients with successful outcome. PMID:26941500

  16. Primary omental malignant mixed Müllerian tumor in a 67-year-old woman

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏丽惠; 王建六; 张岫屏; 崔恒; 沈丹华; 钱和年

    2002-01-01

    @@Malignant mixed Müllerian tumors (MMMTs) are highly aggressive neoplasms composed of sarcomatous and carcinomatous elements commonly encountered in the female genital tract and rarely occur in extragenital sites. Most of extragenital MMMTs develop from the peritoneum. To our knowledge, only 25 cases have been described in the literature. Among them, only 2 cases have arised in the major omentum.1 Here we report a case of a 67-year-old female with primary MMMT of the major omentum.

  17. Surgical Management of the Primary Tumor in Stage IV Colorectal Cancer: A Confirmatory Retrospective Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Shahid; Leis, Anne; Chandra-Kanthan, Selliah; Fields, Anthony; Reeder, Bruce; Iqbal, Nayyer; Haider, Kamal; Le, Duc; Pahwa, Punam

    2016-01-01

    Background: Observational studies have suggested that patients with stage IV colorectal cancer who undergo surgical resection of the primary tumor (SRPT) have better survival. Yet the results are not confirmed in the setting of a randomized controlled trial. Lack of randomization and failure to control prognostic variables such as performance status are major critiques to the findings of the observational studies. We previously have shown that SRPT, independent of chemotherapy and performance...

  18. Analysis of surgical complications of primary tumor resection after neoadjuvant treatment in stage IV colon cancer

    OpenAIRE

    J. Arredondo; Martinez, P; J. Baixauli; Pastor, C.; RODRIGUEZ J; Pardo, F.; F. Rotellar; Chopitea, A; Hernandez-Lizoain, J.L. (José Luis)

    2014-01-01

    Assess the surgical complications of primary tumor resection in stage IV colon cancer patients previously treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. METHODS: Between July 2001 and September 2010, 67 consecutive patients received preoperative chemotherapy. Clinical and surgical complications were obtained from the medical records. This study was retrospective in design. RESULTS: All patients were affected with liver metastasis, and 29.8% had metastasis in additional organs. Three dif...

  19. A Case of Multiple Primary Tumors of the Anterior Skull Base

    OpenAIRE

    Lenarz, Minoo; Durisin, Martin; Becker, Hartmut; Brandis, Almuth; Lenarz, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    We report a case of synchronous olfactory bulb meningioma and undifferentiated carcinoma of the nose and paranasal sinuses that involved and destroyed the anterior skull base and mimicked intracranial invasion by a carcinoma. The heterogeneity of tissue types in the skull base gives rise to a diverse variety of benign and malignant neoplasms which have totally different prognoses. Synchronous development of benign and malignant primary tumors both originating from and involving the skull base...

  20. Primary Cyst adenocarcinoma: exceptional etiology of a retroperitoneal cystic tumor.First National Communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is about the clinical case of a 29 year old patient who consulted for right lank pain, where a tumor was identified. Ultrasound confirmed the existence of a cystic process, and complete surgical abscission/exeresis was performed next to an area in the in the abdominal wall. Anatomopathological report confirmed a primary retroperitoneal cistoadenocarcinoma. No adjuvant treatment was applied, evolution was good 11 months after surgery, no evidence of the disease

  1. Development and validation of a microRNA based diagnostic assay for primary tumor site classification of liver core biopsies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perell, Katharina; Vincent, Martin; Vainer, Ben;

    2015-01-01

    Identification of the primary tumor site in patients with metastatic cancer is clinically important, but remains a challenge. Hence, efforts have been made towards establishing new diagnostic tools. Molecular profiling is a promising diagnostic approach, but tissue heterogeneity and inadequacy may...... negatively affect the accuracy and usability of molecular classifiers. We have developed and validated a microRNA-based classifier, which predicts the primary tumor site of liver biopsies, containing a limited number of tumor cells. Concurrently we explored the influence of surrounding normal tissue on...... classification. MicroRNA profiling was performed using quantitative Real-Time PCR on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples. 278 primary tumors and liver metastases, representing nine primary tumor classes, as well as normal liver samples were used as a training set. A statistical model was applied to adjust...

  2. Computed tomographic aspects of primary brain tumors in dogs and cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the years, the Veterinary Medicine has made great advances, enabling thus the diagnosis of many diseases. As a result of this new situation, there was an increased expectation of life of animals resulting in an increase in the number of clinical care of older animals. Thus, diseases considered unusual in the past, begin to be diagnosed more frequently, as is the case of brain damage. Recently, computed tomography has been widely used in Brazil as a tool to aid in the diagnosis of several diseases. This noninvasive imaging technique allows the identification and evaluation of lesions of central nervous tissue such as brain tumors. This provides information about the size, shape and location of the lesion, in addition to the magnitude of compression and invasion of adjacent structures by the tumor and its side effects (such as the peritumoral edema and hydrocephalus). The image obtained from computed tomography may suggest the presence of a certain type brain tumor, data of great importance for the prognosis and treatment of the animal. This review covers the computed tomography aspects of primary brain tumors such as meningiomas, astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, choroid plexus tumors and ependymomas. However, despite the computed tomography provide much information about the changes inside the skull; no way replace histopathological examination in determining the definitive diagnosis. (author)

  3. Primary Ewing's sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the urogenital tract in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Hong-cheng; SUN Ning; ZHANG Wei-ping; HUANG Cheng-ru

    2012-01-01

    Background Primary Ewing's sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor (ES/PNET) of urogenital tract is a rare condition with non-specific clinical presentations,which can make it difficult to diagnose.In this study,we summarize the clinical presentation,pathological features,therapeutic strategies,and prognosis of ES/PNET.Methods Clinical information on two cases of ES/PNET in the penis and ureter was analyzed,and relevant literature was reviewed.Results ES/PNET was confirmed pathologically,immunohistochemically and via molecular biology techniques in the penis (n=1) and ureter (n=1).In one case,a tumor was found at the base of penis,which had invaded the corpus cavernosum,and resulted in a massive enlargement of the penis.This tumor was initially diagnosed as an endocrine disorder.However,a confirmed diagnosis was made 11 months later when massive metastases in both lungs were noted.A tumor biopsy was performed to confirm the diagnosis,and chemotherapy with a CAV (cyclophosphamide+doxorubicin+vincristine) + IE (ifosfamide+ etoposide) regimen for 9 months was prescribed.In the second case,a child was admitted due to abdominal pain and a hydroureter in the right kidney,as determined by ultrasonography.A tumor was found in the right ureter at the level of iiiac vessels.Removal of the tumor and ureteral anastomosis were performed,and chemotherapy with CAV+IE for 8 months were prescribed.Both patients are currently being followed-up closely.Conclusions ES/PNET is a highly malignant tumor and has poor prognosis.Pre-operative diagnosis of ES/PNET of urogenital tract is difficult and largely depends on pathology,immunohistochemistry,and,if applicable,molecular biology.Comprehensive therapy may include surgery,chemotherapy and radiotherapy.

  4. Clonal mutations in primary human glial tumors: evidence in support of the mutator hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Chitra

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A verifiable consequence of the mutator hypothesis is that even low grade neoplasms would accumulate a large number of mutations that do not influence the tumor phenotype (clonal mutations. In this study, we have attempted to quantify the number of clonal mutations in primary human gliomas of astrocytic cell origin. These alterations were identified in tumor tissue, microscopically confirmed to have over 70% neoplastic cells. Methods Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD analysis was performed using a set of fifteen 10-mer primers of arbitrary but definite sequences in 17 WHO grade II astrocytomas (low grade diffuse astrocytoma or DA and 16 WHO grade IV astrocytomas (Glioblastoma Multiforme or GBM. The RAPD profile of the tumor tissue was compared with that of the leucocyte DNA of the same patient and alteration(s scored. A quantitative estimate of the overall genomic changes in these tumors was obtained by 2 different modes of calculation. Results The overall change in the tumors was estimated to be 4.24% in DA and 2.29% in GBM by one method and 11.96% and 6.03% in DA and GBM respectively by the other. The difference between high and lower grade tumors was statistically significant by both methods. Conclusion This study demonstrates the presence of extensive clonal mutations in gliomas, more in lower grade. This is consistent with our earlier work demonstrating that technique like RAPD analysis, unbiased for locus, is able to demonstrate more intra-tumor genetic heterogeneity in lower grade gliomas compared to higher grade. The results support the mutator hypothesis proposed by Loeb.

  5. Diffusion-weighted echo-planar MRI: a valuable tool for differentiating primary parotid gland tumors?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: to investigate the feasibility of using diffusion-weighted (DW) echo-planar imaging (EPI) for differentiating primary parotid gland tumors. Material and methods: fifty consecutive patients with a suspected primary tumor of the parotid gland were examined with a DW EPI sequence (TR 1,500 msec, TE 77 msec, field of view 250 x 250 mm, pixel size 2.10 x 1.95 mm, section thickness 5 mm). The b factors used were 0, 500, and 1,000 sec/mm2. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps were digitally transferred to MRIcro (Chris Rorden, University of Nottingham, Great Britain) and evaluated with a manually placed irregular region of interest (ROI) containing the entire tumor. Additionally, the contralateral, non affected parotid gland was measured and a circular ROI containing 100-200 pixels was placed in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) next to the spinal cord in every patient. For comparison of the results, the two-tailed Student's t test was used, based on the median ADC values for each patient, and a p-value -3 mm2/sec ± 0.12 x 10-3 mm2/sec (mean ± standard deviation). Seven different entities of parotid gland tumors were histologically discriminated. Pleomorphic adenomas (2.14 x 10-3 mm2/sec ± 0.11 x 10-3 mm2/sec), Warthin tumors (0.85 x 10-3 mm2/sec ± 0.1 x 10-3 mm2/sec), and mucoepidermoid carcinomas (1.04 x 10-3 mm2/sec ± 0.3 x 10-3 mm2/sec) showed statistically significant different ADC values in comparison to all other evaluated tumors (p.001), and also among each other (p<.001). Additionally, ADC values presented by lipomas were statistically significant compared to all other entities (p<.001 to.015). Among primary malignant parotid gland tumors, no statistically significant ADC values could be observed (p.18 to 1). (orig.)

  6. Collision tumor of the thyroid: follicular variant of papillary carcinoma and squamous carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kane Subhadra V

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Collision tumors of the thyroid gland are a rare entity. We present a case of a follicular variant of papillary carcinoma and squamous carcinoma in the thyroid. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first documentation of a collision tumor with a papillary carcinoma and a squamous carcinoma within the thyroid gland. The clinicopathological features and immunohistochemical profile are reported. The theories of origin, epidemiology and management are discussed with a literature review. Case presentation A 65 year old woman presented with a large thyroid swelling of 10 years duration and with swellings on the back and scalp which were diagnosed to be a follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma with metastasis. Clinical examination, radiology and endoscopy ruled out any other abnormality of the upper aerodigestive tract. The patient was treated surgically with a total thyroidectomy with central compartment clearance and bilateral selective neck dissections. The histopathology revealed a collision tumor with components of both a follicular variant of papillary carcinoma and a squamous carcinoma. Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed the independent origin of these two primary tumors. Adjuvant radio iodine therapy directed toward the follicular derived component of the thyroid tumor and external beam radiotherapy for the squamous component was planned. Conclusion Collision tumors of the thyroid gland pose a diagnostic as well as therapeutic challenge. Metastasis from distant organs and contiguous primary tumors should be excluded. The origins of squamous cancer in the thyroid gland must be established to support the true evolution of a collision tumor and to plan treatment. Treatment for collision tumors depends upon the combination of primary tumors involved and each component of the combination should be treated like an independent primary. The reporting of similar cases with longer follow-up will help define the

  7. Detection of primary tumor by 18F-FDG-TEP in patients with cup syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the performance of whole body 18F-FDG-PET in the detection of the primary tumor in patients with unknown primary carcinoma in comparison with conventional imaging. Patients and methods: Forty-one patients, without previous history of known cancer, (18 women and 23 men; average age 64,1 years) with bone, brain, lymph node, liver, cutaneous, pleural and epidural metastases were included in a retrospective study. Results of PET (UGM Penn PET 240 H) were compared with those of techniques used in the current conventional procedure. There were 26 true positives, 2 false negatives (1 renal carcinoma and 1 myeloma) and one false positive results. Origins were lung [16], gut [6], breast [3] and head and neck [1] but stayed undetermined in 8 patients. Results of PET were superior to conventional diagnostic procedure in 12 patients and led to modify the therapy management in 11 patients. All known metastatic lesions were detected by PET. FDG-PET can be useful to determine the origin of metastasis. It allows detection of the primary tumor (26/33 patients) and allows evaluation of the spread of the disease. These results have to be confirmed and particularly in patients with highly treatable unknown primary carcinoma. (author)

  8. Genetic associations of 115 polymorphisms with cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract across 10 European countries: the ARCAGE project.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Canova, Cristina

    2009-04-01

    Cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) include malignant tumors of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, and esophagus and account for 6.4% of all new cancers in Europe. In the context of a multicenter case-control study conducted in 14 centers within 10 European countries and comprising 1,511 cases and 1,457 controls (ARCAGE study), 115 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) from 62 a priori-selected genes were studied in relation to UADT cancer. We found 11 SNPs that were statistically associated with UADT cancers overall (5.75 expected). Considering the possibility of false-positive results, we focused on SNPs in CYP2A6, MDM2, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and gene amplified in squamous cell carcinoma 1 (GASC1), for which low P values for trend (P trend<0.01) were observed in the main effects analyses of UADT cancer overall or by subsite. The rare variant of CYP2A6 -47A>C (rs28399433), a phase I metabolism gene, was associated with reduced UADT cancer risk (P trend=0.01). Three SNPs in the MDM2 gene, involved in cell cycle control, were associated with UADT cancer. MDM2 IVS5+1285A>G (rs3730536) showed a strong codominant effect (P trend=0.007). The rare variants of two SNPs in the TNF gene were associated with a decreased risk; for TNF IVS1+123G>A (rs1800610), the P trend was 0.007. Variants in two SNPs of GASC1 were found to be strongly associated with increased UADT cancer risk (for both, P trend=0.008). This study is the largest genetic epidemiologic study on UADT cancers in Europe. Our analysis points to potentially relevant genes in various pathways.

  9. Primary intracranial germ-cell tumors. A retrospective analysis with special reference to long-term results of treatment and the behavior of rare types of tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, N.; Yamada, H.; Andoh, T.; Hirata, T.; Shimizu, K.; Shinoda, J.

    1988-01-01

    Thirty cases of primary intracranial germ-cell tumors were reviewed with reference to the effect of treatment. Histologically, there were 23 pure germinomas, while the remaining tumors had more unusual histology; 3 of these were teratomas, and 4 germcell tumors with the admixture of yolk sac tumor (YST) or embryonal carcinoma (EMC). Three of these rare cases are presented. The performed surgery and radiotherapy, seemed adequate for pure germinomas, and all these cases lived tumor-free after an observation time of 13 to 139 months although 4 patients developed intellectual retardation or cerebral dullness after radiotherapy. Four cases with YST and EMC elements, indicated by the elevation of AFP and HCG values in serum, were resistant to radio- and chemotherapy and developed, despite surgically total removal of the tumor, intra- or extracranial metastases. A review of the literature is included.

  10. NUT midline carcinoma in a newborn with multiorgan disseminated tumor and a 2-year-old with a pancreatic/hepatic primary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehata, Bahig M; Steelman, Charlotte K; Abramowsky, Carlos R; Olson, Thomas A; French, Christopher A; Saxe, Debra F; Ricketts, Richard R; Katzenstein, Howard M

    2010-01-01

    NUT midline carcinoma (NMC) is a rare and aggressive malignant epithelial tumor defined by rearrangement of the NUT gene on chromosome 15. In two thirds of cases, NUT is involved in a balanced translocation with BDR4 on chromosome 19, while in the remaining cases, NUT is rearranged with variant fusion partners such as BRD3. These undifferentiated tumors primarily affect midline structures, usually in the upper aerodigestive tract and mediastinum. Most reported cases have followed a rapidly lethal clinical course. We report the clinical and pathological findings of NMC in the youngest patients identified so far. The 1st case involves a newborn who presented with a supraorbital mass and extensive multiorgan involvement, including the spine, lungs, liver, pancreas, adrenal glands, and subcutaneous tissue. The 2nd patient was a 2-year-old male with an abdominal mass involving the liver and pancreas with pulmonary metastasis. Histopathological analysis of both tumors showed undifferentiated malignant neoplasms, and immunohistochemistry showed positivity for epithelial markers. Both tumors demonstrated t(15;19), and immunohistochemistry with NUT monoclonal antibodies and fluorescent in situ hybridization confirmed NUT rearrangement. The patients died from disease at 1 and 2 months postpresentation. Thus far, 25 cases have been reported, including our 2 current cases. Presentation ages range from 0 to 78 years (mean, 23 years). Herein, we report the 2 youngest reported cases of NMC, including the 1st congenital case and the 1st case arising within the liver/pancreas. Increased awareness and further molecular studies are required for a better understanding of NMC pathobiology and improved therapeutic outcomes. PMID:20017639

  11. Primary primitive neuroectodermal tumor of kidney: A rare case report with diagnostic challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunita Kakkar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs of the kidney are quite rare and can be mistaken for a wide variety of other small round blue cell tumors which includes rhabdomyosarcoma, Wilm′s tumor, carcinoid, neuroblastoma, clear cell sarcoma of the kidney, lymphoma etc. Renal Ewings/PNET can occur in the age group from 4 to 61 years. Approximately, 90% of Ewing sarcoma (ES/PNET have a specific t(11;22 which results in a chimeric EWS-FLI-1 fusion protein. Immunohistochemical for the carboxy-terminus of FLI-1 is sensitive and highly specific for the diagnosis of ES/PNET. Herein, we have an interesting presentation in a 23-year-old male who came with neck pain and progressive quadriparesis and was diagnosed as a case of poorly differentiated malignant tumor with a differential of lymphoma versus metastatic renal cell carcinoma. The patient′s condition deteriorated fast and he had a rapid downhill course. The final diagnosis of Ewings/PNET was confirmed at autopsy.

  12. Primary radiotherapy for tongue cancers with a tumor thickness exceeding 1 cm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In tongue cancers with a tumor thickness exceeding 1 cm, the validity of radiotherapy as an initial treatment remains controversial. Between 1979 and 1991, 26 patients with tongue cancer that was 1 cm or more in tumor thickness, and who were without clinical adenopathy underwent interstitial radiotherapy (mean dose, 64 Gy) following external irradiation (mean dose, 35 Gy). In 16 (62%) of the 26 patients control was achieved at the primary site (i.e., no local recurrence till the last follow-up of 41-120 months). In 5 of the 10 patients with recurrence rescue was achieved with a salvage operation. All 3 patients who developed nodal metastases were salvaged. One patient with osteonecrosis and 2 patients with tongue ulcers were operated upon. The whole tongue remained in 13 of the 26 patients and the cumulative 5-year survival was 80%. Radiotherapy is a suitable initial treatment for patients with tongue cancers exceeding 1 cm tumor thickness except for T4 tumors. (author)

  13. Computed tomography in leptomeningeal and ventricular spread of primary brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Of 8000 consecutive patients studied with computed tomography, 10 patients with primary intracranial tumors (germinoma, medulloblastoma, malignant teratoma and glioblastoma) showed ventricular or leptomeningeal spread of the tumor cells. In patients with leptomeningeal spread, computed tomography showed obliteration of basal cisterns and sulci with isodense or slightly hyperdense mass, which was markedly enhanced following administration of the contrast medium. In cases of ventricular spread, a narrow zone of high density was noted on the ependymal surface, and it was also markedly enhanced with the contrast medium. Similar CT scan appearance of contrast enhancement in the subarachnoid space or the ventricular surface was, however, noted also in the infectious processes such as basal arachnoiditis or ependymitis, and the differentiation of the neoplastic process from the infectious lesions seemed impossible based on the CT scan appearance alone. (author)

  14. CT findings of primary retroperitoneal cystic tumors. Special emphasis on the distinction benignancy from malignancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobusawa, Hiroshi; Hashimoto, Touji; Munechika, Hirotsugu [Showa Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine] [and others

    1995-10-01

    We describe the CT findings of primary retroperitoneal cystic tumors in 20 patients (cystic lymphangioma, 9; cystic teratoma, 3; cystic neurinoma, 4; mucinous cystadenocarcinoma, 3; synovial sarcoma, 1). CT findings were retrospectively reviewed and the findings correlated with the pathological findings to determine malignant or benign cystic tumors. Definite criteria for malignancy were invasion to surrounding organ and the presence of distant metastasis. However, the sensitivity of these criteria was very low (25%). Enhancement of an intracystic solid component was a reliable criterion (p<0.05) for malignancy (sensitivity 75%, specificity 81%, accuracy 80%). Either unilocular cystic appearance or the presence of a `neck` (between the cystic mass and paraaortic region) strongly suggested the possibility of benignancy (specificity 100%). The `neck` was thought to be morphologically specific for cystic lymphangioma. (author).

  15. Primary malignant bone tumors: diagnosis, radiological appearance and therapy; Primaer maligne Knochentumoren: Klinik und Therapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominkus, M.; Kotz, R. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Orthopaedie, Wien (Austria); Kainberger, F. [Abt. fuer Osteoradiologie, Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiologie, Wien (Austria); Lang, S. [Wien Univ. (Austria). Universitaetsklinik fuer Pathologische Anatomie

    1998-06-01

    Diagnosis, concepts of therapy and prognosis of primary malignant bone tumors require intensive cooperation between orthopedic surgeons, radiologists and pathologists with special knowledge in oncology. The present paper demonstrates relevant topics of diagnosis, radiological appearance and therapy of the osteosarcoma, Ewing`s sarcoma, chondrosarcoma and malignant fibrous histiocytoma based on the material of the Vienna Bone Tumor Registry and more than 35 years of cooperation between the Institute of Pathology and Anatomy and the Department of Orthopedics at the University of Vienna. (orig.) [Deutsch] Fuer die Diagnose, Therapieplanung und Prognosebeurteilung von primaer malignen Knochentumoren ist eine intensive Kooperation von onkologisch speziell ausgebildeten Fachdisziplinen wie Orthopaedie, Radiologie und Pathologie erforderlich. Die vorliegende Arbeit basiert auf dem Material des Wiener Knochengeschwulstregisters und der 35jaehrigen Zusammenarbeit des Pathologisch/Anatomischen Instituts der Universitaet Wien mit der Universitaetsklinik fuer Orthopaedie und beschreibt Diagnose, radiologisches Erscheinungsbild und Therapie der 4 haeufigsten primaer malignen Knochentumoren: Osteosarkom, Ewing`s Sarkom, Chondrosarkom und malignes fibroeses Histiozytom. (orig.)

  16. Ovarian granulosa cell tumor: An uncommon presentation with primary amenorrhea and virilization in a pubertal girl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Kota

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 16-year-old girl presented with primary amenorrhea and excess hair growth on her body and face for the last three years, along with pain and a mass in her lower abdomen for last one year. Examination revealed hirsutism and other virilizing features, with an irregular mass in the lower abdomen corresponding to 16 weeks′gestation. Serum testosterone was 320 ng / dl and ultrasonogram of the pelvis revealed a solid mass of 5 × 4 cm in the left adnexa. Suspecting it to be a virilizing tumor of the left ovary, the patient was subjected to staging laparotomy, which revealed stage 1a ovarian involvement amenable to surgical resection alone. Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of granulosa cell tumor of the ovary. Postoperatively the serum testosterone returned to 40 ng / dl and her menstrual cycle started after two months of surgery.

  17. Differential Motion Between Mediastinal Lymph Nodes and Primary Tumor in Radically Irradiated Lung Cancer Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaake, Eva E. [Department of Thoracic Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Rossi, Maddalena M.G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Buikhuisen, Wieneke A.; Burgers, Jacobus A. [Department of Thoracic Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Smit, Adrianus A.J. [Department of Pulmonary Disease, Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Belderbos, José S.A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Sonke, Jan-Jakob, E-mail: j.sonke@nki.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2014-11-15

    Purpose/Objective: In patients with locally advanced lung cancer, planning target volume margins for mediastinal lymph nodes and tumor after a correction protocol based on bony anatomy registration typically range from 1 to 1.5 cm. Detailed information about lymph node motion variability and differential motion with the primary tumor, however, is lacking from large series. In this study, lymph node and tumor position variability were analyzed in detail and correlated to the main carina to evaluate possible margin reduction. Methods and Materials: Small gold fiducial markers (0.35 × 5 mm) were placed in the mediastinal lymph nodes of 51 patients with non-small cell lung cancer during routine diagnostic esophageal or bronchial endoscopic ultrasonography. Four-dimensional (4D) planning computed tomographic (CT) and daily 4D cone beam (CB) CT scans were acquired before and during radical radiation therapy (66 Gy in 24 fractions). Each CBCT was registered in 3-dimensions (bony anatomy) and 4D (tumor, marker, and carina) to the planning CT scan. Subsequently, systematic and random residual misalignments of the time-averaged lymph node and tumor position relative to the bony anatomy and carina were determined. Additionally, tumor and lymph node respiratory amplitude variability was quantified. Finally, required margins were quantified by use of a recipe for dual targets. Results: Relative to the bony anatomy, systematic and random errors ranged from 0.16 to 0.32 cm for the markers and from 0.15 to 0.33 cm for the tumor, but despite similar ranges there was limited correlation (0.17-0.71) owing to differential motion. A large variability in lymph node amplitude between patients was observed, with an average motion of 0.56 cm in the cranial-caudal direction. Margins could be reduced by 10% (left-right), 27% (cranial-caudal), and 10% (anteroposterior) for the lymph nodes and −2%, 15%, and 7% for the tumor if an online carina registration protocol replaced a

  18. Differential Motion Between Mediastinal Lymph Nodes and Primary Tumor in Radically Irradiated Lung Cancer Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose/Objective: In patients with locally advanced lung cancer, planning target volume margins for mediastinal lymph nodes and tumor after a correction protocol based on bony anatomy registration typically range from 1 to 1.5 cm. Detailed information about lymph node motion variability and differential motion with the primary tumor, however, is lacking from large series. In this study, lymph node and tumor position variability were analyzed in detail and correlated to the main carina to evaluate possible margin reduction. Methods and Materials: Small gold fiducial markers (0.35 × 5 mm) were placed in the mediastinal lymph nodes of 51 patients with non-small cell lung cancer during routine diagnostic esophageal or bronchial endoscopic ultrasonography. Four-dimensional (4D) planning computed tomographic (CT) and daily 4D cone beam (CB) CT scans were acquired before and during radical radiation therapy (66 Gy in 24 fractions). Each CBCT was registered in 3-dimensions (bony anatomy) and 4D (tumor, marker, and carina) to the planning CT scan. Subsequently, systematic and random residual misalignments of the time-averaged lymph node and tumor position relative to the bony anatomy and carina were determined. Additionally, tumor and lymph node respiratory amplitude variability was quantified. Finally, required margins were quantified by use of a recipe for dual targets. Results: Relative to the bony anatomy, systematic and random errors ranged from 0.16 to 0.32 cm for the markers and from 0.15 to 0.33 cm for the tumor, but despite similar ranges there was limited correlation (0.17-0.71) owing to differential motion. A large variability in lymph node amplitude between patients was observed, with an average motion of 0.56 cm in the cranial-caudal direction. Margins could be reduced by 10% (left-right), 27% (cranial-caudal), and 10% (anteroposterior) for the lymph nodes and −2%, 15%, and 7% for the tumor if an online carina registration protocol replaced a

  19. CHROMOSOMAL-ABERRATIONS IN FOLLICULAR THYROID-CARCINOMA - CASE-REPORT OF A PRIMARY TUMOR AND ITS METASTASIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDENBERG, E; VANDOORMAAL, JJ; OOSTERHUIS, JW; DEJONG, B; WIERSEMA, J; VOS, A; VERMEIJ, A; Dam, A.

    1991-01-01

    We present the result of a cytogenetic study of a case of follicular carcinoma of the thyroid and its metastasis. Both tumors have a low number of chromosomes. The primary tumor is characterized by a idic(22;22)(p11;p11). The skeletal metastasis has also structural abnormalities of chromosome 22.

  20. Loss of the Y-chromosome in the primary metastasis of a male sex cord stromal tumor : Pathogenetic implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaff, WE; van Echten, J; van der Veen, AY; Sleijfer, DT; Timmer, A; de Jong, B; Schraffordt Koops, H.

    1999-01-01

    The first published chromosomal pattern of the retroperitoneal lymph node metastasis of a malignant gonadal stroma cell tumor of the adult testis is presented. Karyotyping showed structural chromosomal abnormalities and loss of the Y-chromosome. This loss was confirmed in primary tumor and metastasi

  1. CT-guidance interstitial 125Iodine seed brachytherapy as a salvage therapy for recurrent spinal primary tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Qianqian; Wang, Hao; Meng, Na; Jiang, Yuliang; Jiang, Ping; Gao, Yang; Tian, Suqing; Liu, Chen; Yang, Ruijie; Wang, Junjie; Zhang, Kaixian

    2014-01-01

    Background Management of spinal neoplasms has relied on open surgery and external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). Although primary spinal tumors are rare, their treatment remains a pervasive problem. This analysis sought to evaluate the safety and efficacy of CT-guided 125I seed brachytherapy for recurrent paraspinous and vertebral primary tumors. Methods From November 2002 to June 2014, 17 patients who met the inclusion criteria were retrospectively reviewed. 14 (82.4%) had previously undergone su...

  2. Multicenter results of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for non-resectable primary liver tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background. An excess of 100 000 individuals are diagnosed with primary liver tumors every year in USA but less than 20% of those patients are amenable to definitive surgical management due to advanced local disease or comorbidities. Local therapies to arrest tumor growth have limited response and have shown no improvement on patient survival. Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) has emerged as an alternative local ablative therapy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the tumor response to SBRT in a combined multicenter database. Study design. Patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, n = 21) or intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC, n = 11) treated with SBRT from four Academic Medical Centers were entered into a common database. Statistical analyses were performed for freedom from local progression (FFLP) and patient survival. Results. The overall FFLP for advanced HCC was 63% at a median follow-up of 12.9 months. Median tumor volume decreased from 334.2 to 135 cm3 (p < 0.004). The median time to local progression was 6.3 months. The 1- and 2-years overall survival rates were 87% and 55%, respectively. Patients with ICC had an overall FFLP of 55.5% at a median follow-up of 7.8 months. The median time to local progression was 4.2 months and the six-month and one-year overall survival rates were 75% and 45%, respectively. The incidence of grade 1-2 toxicities, mostly nausea and fatigue, was 39.5%. Grade 3 and 4 toxicities were present in two and one patients, respectively. Conclusion. Higher rates of FFLP were achieved by SBRT in the treatment of primary liver malignancies with low toxicity

  3. Evaluation of CT findings for the differentiation of benign from malignant primary retroperitoneal tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Zheng; Zhao Xinming; Zhao Yanfeng; Yang Lei; Zhao Jing; Dai Jingrui; Zhou Chunwu

    2014-01-01

    Background Benign and malignant primary retroperitoneal tumors (RT) have different pathological manifestations,and overlapping imaging characteristics.This study aimed to evaluate the value of computed tomography (CT) for differentiating benign from malignant RT.Methods One hundred and ninety-four patients with clinical and radiographic data were evaluated retrospectively following surgical resection of primary RT.There were 38.1% (n=74) benign lesions and 61.9% (n=120) malignant lesions.Categorical variables were tested with a chi-square test or Fisher's exact test for the diagnostic indexes and sensitivity and specificity of CT characteristics.Results In univariate analysis,the differences in ill-defined margins,irregular surfaces,long diameter >6.75 cm,short diameter >6.25 cm,and solid or mixed texture had statistical significance; the sensitivity and specificity were 44.2% and 91.9%,70.0% and 62.2%,68.8% and 60.7%,59.7% and 74.2%,87.5% and 35.1%,respectively.In multivariate analysis,a combination of all the above indexes was the best model for differentiating malignant tumors,resulting in the most accurate diagnosis of malignancies with a sensitivity of 77.2% and a specificity of 81.1% (P<0.0001) when the score was 4.The differences in other findings including CT attenuation,number,and calcification had no statistical significance.The unique characteristics included the spotted enhancement (mottled high density)in schwannoma (P<0.0001),adipose tissue in liposarcoma (P<0.0001)and paravertebral location in neurogenic tumors (P<0.0001).Conclusions More accurate differential diagnosis of primary RT can be made through comprehensive analysis of the combined diagnostic indexes of CT.Some specific characteristics of CT can assist in preoperative planning.

  4. Survival Analysis of Patients with Brain Metastasis by Weighting According to the Primary Tumor Oncotype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gwak, Hee Keun; Kim, Woo Chul; Kim, Hun Jung; Park, Jung Hoon; Song, Chang Hoon [Inha University Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-09-15

    This study was performed to retrospectively analyze patient survival by weighting according to the primary tumor oncotype in 160 patients with brain metastasis and who underwent whole brain radiotherapy. A total of 160 metastatic brain cancer patients who were treated with whole brain radiotherapy of 30 Gy between 2002 and 2008 were retrospectively analyzed. The primary tumor oncotype of 20 patients was breast cancer, and that of 103 patients was lung cancer. Except for 18 patients with leptomeningeal seeding, a total of 142 patients were analyzed according to the prognostic factors and the Recursive Partitioning Analysis (RPA) class. Weighted Partitioning Analysis (WPA), with the weighting being done according to the primary tumor oncotype, was performed and the results were correlated with survival and then compared with the RPA Class. The median survival of the patients in RPA Class I (8 patients) was 20.0 months, that for Class II (76 patients) was 10.0 months and that for Class III (58 patients) was 3.0 months (p<0.003). The median survival of patients in WPA Class I (3 patients) was 36 months, that for the patients in Class II (9 patients) was 23.7 months, that for the patients in Class III (70 patients) was 10.9 months and that for the patients in Class IV (60 patients) was 8.6 months (p<0.001). The WPA Class might have more accuracy in assessing survival, and it may be superior to the RPA Class for assessing survival. A new prognostic index, the WPA Class, has more prognostic value than the RPA Class for the treatment of patients with metastatic brain cancer. This WPA Class may be useful to guide the appropriate treatment of metastatic brain lesions.

  5. Combination of neck dissection for cervical metastasis and irradiation of primary tumors for carcinomas of the mesopharynx, hypopharynx, and larynx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carcinomas of the mesopharynx, hypopharynx, and larynx with early-stage primary tumor and with cervical lymph node metastasis, were treated by neck dissection for cervical metastasis and definitive irradiation of the primary tumor. In this study, the primary sites of the 16 cases were the mesopharynx (10), the hypopharynx (3), and the larynx (3). Twelve cases of early T stages (T1 or T2) and 15 cases of advanced N stages (N2 or N3) were chosen for this treatment concept. Neck lesions were controlled in all cases and all the primary tumors showed complete response at the end of the initial treatment. One case of mesopharyngeal cancer died due to recurrence of the primary tumor and one case of hypopharyngeal cancer died due to complicated lung cancer. The treatment modality for cases of early primary cancer and advanced cervical lymph node metastasis requires well-balanced strategies for both lesions. In these cases, optimal prognosis was obtained because of careful patient selection. The treatment strategy described in this paper should be considered for cases of early T tumors and advanced N tumors. (author)

  6. Surgically treated primary malignant tumor of small bowel:A clinical analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate the clinical presentation,treatment and survival of patients with primary malignant tumor of small bowel(PMTSB).METHODS:Clinicopathologic data about 141 surgically treated PMTSB patients(91 males and 50 females) at the median age of 53.5 years(range 23-79 years) were retrospectively analyzed.RESULTS:The most common initial clinical features of the patients were intermittent abdominal discomfort or vague abdominal pain(67.4%),abdominal mass(31.2%),bowel obstruction(24.1%),hemotochezia(21.3%),...

  7. Ovarian granulosa cell tumor: An uncommon presentation with primary amenorrhea and virilization in a pubertal girl

    OpenAIRE

    Sunil Kumar Kota; Kotni Gayatri; Jaya Prakash Pani; Lalit Kumar Meher; Siva Krishna Kota; Kirtikumar D Modi

    2012-01-01

    A 16-year-old girl presented with primary amenorrhea and excess hair growth on her body and face for the last three years, along with pain and a mass in her lower abdomen for last one year. Examination revealed hirsutism and other virilizing features, with an irregular mass in the lower abdomen corresponding to 16 weeks′gestation. Serum testosterone was 320 ng / dl and ultrasonogram of the pelvis revealed a solid mass of 5 × 4 cm in the left adnexa. Suspecting it to be a virilizing tumor of t...

  8. Impact of primary tumor volume and location on the prognosis of patients with locally recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun-Ming Tian; Wei-Wei Xiao; Li Bai; Xue-Wen Liu; Chong Zhao; Tai-Xiang Lu; Fei Han

    2015-01-01

    Introduction:The properties of a tumor itself were considered the main factors determining the survival of patients with locally recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). However, recurrent tumors were mainly evaluated by using the American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system, which was modeled on primary tumors and did not incorporate the tumor volume. This study aimed to investigate the prognostic values of the primary tumor location and tumor volume, and to determine whether evaluating these parameters could improve the current staging system. Methods:Magnetic resonance (MR) images for 229 patients with local y recurrent NPC who underwent IMRT were analyzed retrospectively. Results:The skul base, parapharyngeal space, and intracranial cavity were the most common sites of tumors. There was a difference in the survival between patients with T1 and T2 diseases (77.6%vs. 50.0%, P38 cm3 (48.7%vs. 15.2%, P<0.01). Conclusions:A new staging system has been proposed, with T3 tumors being down-staged to T2 and with the tumor volume being incorporated into the staging, which may lead to an improved evaluation of these tumors. This new system can be used to guide the treatment strategy for different risk groups of recurrent NPC.

  9. Primary pleuropulmonary synovial sarcoma mimicking a carcinoid tumor: Case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ani, Zeid; Naqvi, Jawad; Oh, Teik Chooi

    2016-06-01

    Primary pleuropulmonary synovial sarcoma is a rare malignancy. Commonly described radiologic features in the literature include pleural disease and/or effusion, lack of calcification and high uptake on positron emission tomography computerised tomography. A 68-year-old woman presented with a 3-month history of cough. Imaging studies showed a right upper lobe mass with internal foci of calcification, endobronchial extension, and low fluorodeoxyglucose avidity on positron emission tomography computerised tomography, leading to an initial diagnosis of carcinoid tumor. However, histologic specimens suggested an unexpected diagnosis of aggressive synovial sarcoma, and the case was referred to the sarcoma MDT. Metastatic synovial sarcoma was ruled out, and radical surgical excision of the lesion was performed. This article highlights the multiple atypical features of primary pleuropulmonary synovial sarcoma as seen in this case and reviews imaging findings described in the literature. Radiologists should be aware of this unusual yet aggressive type of sarcoma. PMID:27257447

  10. Prognostic Value of Fluoro-D-glucose Uptake of Primary Tumor and Metastatic Lesions in Advanced Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Xuan Canh; Nguyen, Khoi; Tran, Minh Thong; Maurea, Simone; Salvatore, Marco

    2014-01-01

    To assess the prognostic value of maximum standardized uptake value (maxSUV) of the primary tumor (maxSUVpt), maxSUV of whole-body tumors (maxSUVwb) and sum of maximum standardized uptake value (sumaxSUV) measured by the sum of maxSUVs of the primary tumor, metastatic lymph nodes, and metastatic lesions per each organ on fluoro-D-glucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Eighty-three patients (49 male, 34 female) with advanced NSC...

  11. Primary micro neuroendocrine tumor arising in a horseshoe kidney with cyst: report of a case and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Qingfu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Neuroendocrine tumors are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms that arise from neuroendocrine cells. Primary renal neuroendocrine tumors are among the most unusual of all renal neoplasms, since neuroendocrine cells are not found within normal renal parenchyma. Here, a case of primary micro neuroendocrine tumor (about 4.7 mm*2 mm arising in the horseshoe kidney with a cyst of a 45-year-old man was reported and a literature review was written. Virtual Slides The virtual slide(s for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/2121156944757267

  12. Immunophenotypic and Clinical Differences Between the Nasal and Extranasal Subtypes of Upper Aerodigestive Tract Natural Killer/T-Cell Lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate, in a large cohort of patients, the immunophenotypic and clinical differences of nasal and extranasal extranodal nasal-type natural killer/T-cell lymphoma of the upper aerodigestive tract (UADT-NKTCL) and examine the relevance of the immunophenotype on the clinical behavior, prognosis, and treatment. Methods and Materials: A total of 231 patients with UADT-NKTCL were recruited. One hundred eighty-one patients had primary location in the nasal cavity (nasal UADT-NKTCL), and 50 patients had primary extranasal UADT-NKTCL. Results: Patients with extranasal UADT-NKTCL had more adverse clinical features, including advanced-stage disease, regional lymph node involvement, B symptoms, and poor performance status, than patients with nasal UADT-NKTCL. In addition, CD56 and granzyme B were less frequently expressed in extranasal UADT-NKTCL. The 5-year overall survival rate was 74.1% for the entire group and 76.0% for early-stage disease. The 5-year overall survival rate for extranasal UADT-NKTCL was similar or superior to that of nasal UADT-NKTCL for all disease stages (76.9% vs 73.4%, P=.465), stage I disease (75.9% vs 79.2%, P=.786), and stage II disease (83.3% vs 50.3%, P=.018). CD56 expression and a Ki-67 proliferation rate ≥50% predicted poorer survival for extranasal UADT-NKTCL but not for nasal UADT-NKTCL. Conclusions: Patients with nasal and extranasal UADT-NKTCL have significantly different clinical features, immunophenotypes, and prognosis. Extranasal UADT-NKTCL should be considered as a distinct subgroup apart from the most commonly diagnosed prototype of nasal UADT-NKTCL

  13. Aerodigestive Foreign Bodies in Adult Ethiopian Patients: A Prospective Study at Tikur Anbessa Hospital, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abebe Bekele

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Foreign bodies (FBs in the aerodigestive tract are important causes of morbidity and mortality and pose diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. The best method of removal of an esophageal and tracheobronchial FB is endoscopic guided extraction. Objective. To present our experience of the removal of aerodigestive FBs in adult Ethiopian patients using rigid endoscopes. Methods. A hospital-based prospective study, at Tikur Anbessa Referral and Teaching Hospital, from January 2011 to December 2012 (over two years. Results. A total of 32 patients (18 males and 14 females with a mean age of 28.0±12.74 years were treated for FB ingestion and aspiration at Tikur Anbessa Hospital. The FBs were impacted at the esophagus in 18 (56.2% patients, at the pharynx in 7 (21.8%, and at the air way in 7 (21.8% patients. Pieces of bones were the commonest objects found in the esophagus (17/18 of the cases and the pharynx (4/7, while fractured tracheostomy tubes and needles were frequently seen in the air way (3/7 cases each. The foreign bodies were visible in plain radiographs of 26 (81.2% patients. Successful extraction of FBs was achieved by using Mc gill forceps in 11 cases, rigid esophagoscopes in 9 patients, and bronchoscopes in 4 cases. Four cases required open surgery to remove the foreign bodies. Two complications (one pneumothorax and one esophageal perforation occurred. All patients were discharged cured. Discussion and Recommendations. Aerodigestive FBs are not so rare in the hospital and timely diagnosis and removal of accidentally ingested and aspirated foreign body should be performed so as to avoid the potentially lethal complications associated. Rigid esophagoscopy requires general anesthesia and is associated with its own complications, but our experience and outcome of its use are encouraging.

  14. Calcification of the posterior cricoid lamina simulating a foreign body in the aerodigestive tract (2005:11b)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This interpretation corner case, reporting a man with suspicion of ingestion and perforation of the oesophagus by a foreign body, high-lights the danger of false appearances on plain radiographs for detection of foreign bodies in the aerodigestive tract. Plain radiographs and CT revealed a needle-shaped calcified object between the cricoid plate and the oesophagus lumen, which turned out to be an abnormal cricoid calcification. There is also a discussion about the role of radiology in the detection of foreign bodies in the aerodigestive tract

  15. Primary hepatic tumors with myxoid change: morphologically unique hepatic adenomas and hepatocellular carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaria, Safia N; Graham, Rondell P; Aishima, Shinichi; Mounajjed, Taofic; Yeh, Matthew M; Torbenson, Michael S

    2015-03-01

    Mucin production in primary liver neoplasms is typically interpreted as evidence for biliary differentiation. However, we have observed benign and malignant liver tumors that have abundant extracellular myxoid/mucinous material, yet have only evidence of hepatocellular differentiation. To further characterize these unusual findings, 9 cases were identified and further studied. Four cases were hepatic adenomas, whereas 5 were hepatocellular carcinomas. Extracellular myxoid/mucinous material was diffuse in 7 cases and patchy in 2 cases. The extracellular myxoid/mucinous material was typically weakly mucicarmine positive (N=6) and Alcian blue positive (N=8). All tumors were well differentiated, and none had evidence for biliary differentiation by morphology or immunohistochemistry. The hepatic adenomas arose in nondiabetic and nonobese patients. Both the hepatic adenomas and the hepatocellular carcinomas were strongly and diffusely HepPar1 positive, CK19 negative, and showed loss of LFABP protein expression. These findings indicate that extracellular myxoid/mucinous material in isolation should not be interpreted as cholangiocarcinoma. Furthermore, the unique morphology, the clinical characteristics, and the immunophenotype results suggest that myxoid hepatic adenomas and hepatocellular carcinoma may be unique tumor variants. PMID:25602798

  16. HPV infection and carcinogenesis in the upper aero-digestive tract

    OpenAIRE

    Andrés Castillo

    2011-01-01

    Recently, molecular and epidemiological studies have shown an etiologic role for human papillomavirus (HPV) in a subset of upper aero-digestive tract (UADT) cancers in women and men. Oral HPV infections acquired through oral sex seems to be the main risk factor for HPV-associated oral cancers. The high-risk type HPV-16 was the most prevalent infection HPV-positive in most oral cancers. Therefore, the prophylactic vaccine against HPV-16 could prevent HPV associated oral cancer if the vaccine w...

  17. Radiation therapy for primary carcinoma of the eyelid. Tumor control and visual function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: Surgical excision remains the standard and most reliable curative treatment for eyelid carcinoma, but frequently causes functional and cosmetic impairment of the eyelid. We therefore investigated the efficacy and safety of radiation therapy in eyelid carcinoma. Patients and methods: Twenty-three patients with primary carcinoma of the eyelid underwent radiation therapy. Sebaceous carcinoma was histologically confirmed in 16 patients, squamous cell carcinoma in 6, and basal cell carcinoma in 1. A total dose of 50-66.6 Gy (median, 60 Gy) was delivered to tumor sites in 18-37 fractions (median, 30 fractions). Results: All but 3 of the 23 patients had survived at a median follow-up period of 49 months. The overall survival and local progression-free rates were 87% and 93% at 2 years, and 80% and 93% at 5 years, respectively. Although radiation-induced cataracts developed in 3 patients, visual acuity in the other patients was relatively well preserved. There were no other therapy-related toxicities of grade 3 or greater. Conclusion: Radiation therapy is safe and effective for patients with primary carcinoma of the eyelid. It appears to contribute to prolonged survival as a result of good tumor control, and it also facilitates functional and cosmetic preservation of the eyelid. (orig.)

  18. Radiation therapy for primary carcinoma of the eyelid. Tumor control and visual function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hata, M.; Koike, I.; Odagiri, K.; Kasuya, T.; Minagawa, Y.; Kaizu, H.; Mukai, Y.; Inoue, T. [Yokohama City Univ. Graduate School of Medicine, Kanagawa (Japan). Dept. of Radiology; Maegawa, J. [Yokohama City Univ. Graduate School of Medicine, Kanagawa (Japan). Dept. of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery; Kaneko, A. [Yokohama City Univ. Graduate School of Medicine, Kanagawa (Japan). Dept. of Ophthalmology

    2012-12-15

    Background and purpose: Surgical excision remains the standard and most reliable curative treatment for eyelid carcinoma, but frequently causes functional and cosmetic impairment of the eyelid. We therefore investigated the efficacy and safety of radiation therapy in eyelid carcinoma. Patients and methods: Twenty-three patients with primary carcinoma of the eyelid underwent radiation therapy. Sebaceous carcinoma was histologically confirmed in 16 patients, squamous cell carcinoma in 6, and basal cell carcinoma in 1. A total dose of 50-66.6 Gy (median, 60 Gy) was delivered to tumor sites in 18-37 fractions (median, 30 fractions). Results: All but 3 of the 23 patients had survived at a median follow-up period of 49 months. The overall survival and local progression-free rates were 87% and 93% at 2 years, and 80% and 93% at 5 years, respectively. Although radiation-induced cataracts developed in 3 patients, visual acuity in the other patients was relatively well preserved. There were no other therapy-related toxicities of grade 3 or greater. Conclusion: Radiation therapy is safe and effective for patients with primary carcinoma of the eyelid. It appears to contribute to prolonged survival as a result of good tumor control, and it also facilitates functional and cosmetic preservation of the eyelid. (orig.)

  19. Comparative study of proteome between primary cancer and hepatic metastatic tumor in colorectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Yu; Shi-Yong Li; Ping An; Ying-Nan Zhang; Zhen-Jia Liang; Shu-Jun Yuan; Hui-Yun Cai

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To identify the differential proteins associated with colorectal cancer genesis and hepatic metastasis. METHODS: Hydrophobic protein samples were extracted from normal colorectal mucosa, primary cancer lesion and hepatic metastatic foci of colorectal cancer. With twodimensional electrophoresis and image analysis, differentially expressed protein spots were detected, and the proteins were identified by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry and peptide mass fingerprint analysis.RESULTS: Significant alterations of the proteins in number and expression levels were discovered in primary cancer and hepatic metastatic foci, the expression of a number of proteins was lost in 25-40 ku, but protein spots was increased in 14-21ku, compared with normal mucosa. Nine differentially expressed protein spots were identified. Three proteins expressed in normal mucosa, but lost in primary cancer and hepatic metastasis, were recognized ascalmodulin, ribonuclease 6 precursor and mannosidase-α.Proapolipoprotein was expressed progressively from normal mucosa to primary cancer and hepatic metastasis. The differentially expressed protein of beta-globin was found in normal mucosa and hepatic metastatic tumor, but lost in primary cancer lesion. Cdc 42, a GTP-binding protein, was identified in hepatic metastasis. The protein spots of C4 from primary cancer, M7 and M9 from hepatic metastasis had less homology with the proteins in database. CONCLUSION: Variations of hydrophobic protein expression in colorectal cancer initiation and hepatic metastasis are significant and can be observed with two-dimensionalelectrophoresis. The expression of calmodulin, ribonuclease6 precursor and mannosidase-α is lost but the expression of proapolipoprotein is enhanced which is associated with colorectal cancer genesis and hepatic metastasis. Cdc 42 and beta-globin are expressed abnormally in hepaticmetastasis. Protein C4, M7 and M9 may be associated withcolorectal

  20. Relation between primary tumor FDG avidity and site of first distant metastasis in patients with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chae Hong; Moon, Seung Hwan; Cho, Young Seok; Im, Young-Hyuck; Choe, Yearn Seong; Kim, Byung-Tae; Lee, Kyung-Han

    2016-08-01

    Identification of tumor imaging features associated with metastatic pattern may allow better understanding of cancer dissemination. Here, we investigated how primary tumor F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) avidity influences the first site of breast cancer metastasis.Subjects were 264 patients with advanced breast cancer who underwent positron emission tomography/computed tomography at diagnosis and had metastasis at presentation (n = 193) or metastatic relapse after surgery (n = 71). Primary tumor FDG avidity (maximum SUV [SUVmax] ≥10.1) was compared with histology and first metastatic sites.The most common site of first metastasis was the bone, occurring in 62.7% of patients with metastasis at presentation and 38.0% of those with metastatic relapse. First metastasis to lung occurred in 30.1% and 35.2%, and to liver in 25.4% and 15.2% of respective groups. In patients with metastasis at presentation, primary tumors were FDG avid in 98/193 cases, and this was associated with more frequent first metastasis to lung (37.8% vs 22.1%; P = 0.018). In patients with metastasis relapse, primary tumors were FDG avid in 31/71 cases, and this was associated with more frequent first metastasis to lung (48.4% vs 25.0%; P = 0.041) and liver (29.0% vs 5.0%; P = 0.008). In patients with metastasis relapse, primary tumors that were FDG avid but hormone receptor negative had more first metastasis to lung (57.9% vs 26.9%; P = 0.016).FDG-avid primary breast tumors have favored first spread to the lung and liver, which suggests that tumor cells with heightened glycolytic activity better colonize these organs. PMID:27512840

  1. Vorinostat and Temozolomide in Treating Young Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Primary Brain Tumors or Spinal Cord Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Childhood Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Choriocarcinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Teratoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Yolk Sac Tumor; Childhood Choroid Plexus Tumor; Childhood Craniopharyngioma; Childhood Ependymoblastoma; Childhood Grade I Meningioma; Childhood Grade II Meningioma; Childhood Grade III Meningioma; Childhood High-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood High-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Infratentorial Ependymoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Medulloepithelioma; Childhood Mixed Glioma; Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Childhood Supratentorial Ependymoma; Extra-adrenal Paraganglioma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Pineoblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Spinal Cord Neoplasm; Recurrent Childhood Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma

  2. The value of 18F-FDG PET/CT in diagnosing brain metastases from unknown primary tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the value of 18F-FDG PET/CT in diagnosis of brain metastases from unknown primary tumor. Method: The 18F-FDG PET/CT findings of 17 patients with brain metastases from unknown primary tumor were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Primary tumors of the seventeen cases were confirmed by biopsy, the accuracy rate was 100%. There were thirteen cases with primary lung cancer, accounted for 76%, including two cases of lung cancer which were found in the second PET/CT examination,two cases with liver cancer, accounted for 12%, one case with cardia cancer, accounted for 6%, one case with the ascending colon cancer,accounted for 6%. On the base of founding the primary tumor, 18F-FDG PET/CT also found 10 cases accompanied by lung metastasis (2 cases), lymph node metastases (3 cases), bone metastases (2 cases)and other sites of metastases (3 cases), a total of 61 lesions were detected. Two cases of liver cancer patients with single brain metastases had cerebral apoplexy. Conclusion: 18F-FDG PET/CT contributes important value in finding brain metastases from unknown primary tumor,and is very helpful for clinical staging and treatment. (authors)

  3. A comparison of tumour perfusion assessed by deconvolution-based analysis of dynamic contrast-enhanced CT and MR imaging in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisdas, Sotirios; Medov, Leon; Vogl, Thomas J. [Johann Wolfgang University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt (Germany); Baghi, Mehran; Wagenblast, Jens [Johann Wolfgang University Hospital, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Frankfurt (Germany); Konstantinou, George N. [Military Hospital, Athens (Greece); Thng, Choon Hua [Department of Oncologic Imaging, National Cancer Center, Singapore (Singapore); Koh, Tong San [Nanyang Technological University, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Singapore (Singapore)

    2008-04-15

    Our aim was to compare the perfusion [blood flow (BF)] values obtained by first-pass dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) and computed tomography (CT) imaging of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in the upper aerodigestive tract in the same patient population. Seventeen patients with histologically proven primary SCC of the upper aerodigestive tract were prospectively evaluated. The perfusion CT studies were obtained using a 16-row multi-slice CT scanner running a commercial software package with a deconvolution-based technique; while the perfusion MR studies (1.5 T) were analysed with in-house-written MR perfusion software based also on a deconvolution technique. The mean perfusion values of SCC assessed by perfusion CT and MR imaging were 68.93 {+-} 31.61 and 81.56 {+-} 49.25 ml/min/100 g, respectively. The Bland-Altman graph showed a proportional error in the perfusion values measured by DCE-CT and -MR imaging; however, the degree of agreement was acceptable (95% limits of agreement: -66.1 to 40.8). Regression analysis of the perfusion values demonstrated significant correlation between the modalities: BF{sub MR} = 1.34 x BF{sub CT} - 10.93 (P < 0.0005, r {sup 2} = 0.74). The parametric maps generated by both modalities provided insights into the tumour perfusion, while analysis of the obtained perfusion values demonstrated that both modalities may be used interchangeably in SCC in the upper aerodigestive tract. (orig.)

  4. Correlation of primary tumor FDG uptake with clinicopathologic prognostic factors in invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation of primary tumor FDG uptake to clinicopathological prognostic factors in invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast. We retrospectively reviewed 136 of 215 female patients with pathologically proven invasive ductal breast cancer from January 2008 to December 2011 who underwent F-18 FDG PET/CT for initial staging and follow-up after curative treatment with analysis of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epithelial growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). The maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of the primary breast tumor was measured and compared with hormonal receptor and HER2 overexpression status. The high SUVmax of primary breast tumors is significantly correlated with the clinicopathological factors: tumor size, histologic grade, TNM stage, negativity of ER, negativity of PR, HER2 overexpression and triple negativity. The recurrent group with non-triple negative cancer had a higher SUVmax compared with the non-recurrent group, though no significant difference in FDG uptake was noted between the recurrence and non-recurrent groups in subjects with triple-negative cancer. Lymph node involvement was the independent risk factor for cancer recurrence in the multivariate analysis. In conclusion, high FDG uptake in primary breast tumors is significantly correlated with clinicopathological factors, such as tumor size, histologic grade, TNM stage, negativity of the hormonal receptor, HER2 overexpression and triple negativity. Therefore, FDG PET/CT is a helpful prognostic tool to direct the further management of patients with breast cancer

  5. Immunohistochemical consistency between primary tumors and lymph node metastases of gastric neuroendocrine carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uchiyama Chieko

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastric neuroendocrine carcinoma (G-NEC is a rare, highly malignant tumor that exhibits aggressive growth leading to vascular invasion, distant metastasis and extremely poor prognosis. We studied the clinicopathological findings of seven patients at our institute to better under this disease. Methods Seven cases of G-NEC were identified among 1,027 cases of gastric carcinoma that underwent gastrectomy at Kansai Rousai Hospital between 2002 and 2010. We studied the pathological and immunohistochemical features of gastric neuroendocrine carcinomas at both the primary site and metastatic lymph nodes. Results The mean patient age was 73 years (range 63 to 86 years. There were no females in this series. The final staging was Stage I in one case, Stage II in two, Stage III in two and Stage IV in two. A total of 31 metastatic lymph nodes were found in these patients. This study revealed that the ratio of neuroendocrine cells was similar between the primary and metastatic sites, which tended to show the same expression patterns of neuroendocrine markers. Conclusions Metastatic lymph nodes showed heterogeneous immunohistochemical expression patterns similar to the primary sites. G-NEC is far advanced at diagnosis and rapidly reaches the lymph nodes retaining its heterogeneity, carrying a worse prognosis than common gastric cancer. Mini abstract G-NEC grows rapidly and metastasizes to the lymph nodes, retaining its pathological and immunohistochemical heterogeneity even at the metastatic sites.

  6. Aftereffect of radiotherapy of upper aero-digestive tracts in odontological care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In its first part, this thesis proposes a detailed presentation of the upper aero-digestive tract cancer. The author defines the cancerous process, describes anatomic aspects, and discusses epidemiological aspects (occurrence, mortality, survival, and epidemiological data in different countries). In the second part, the author discusses the role of radiotherapy and of dental surgery in taking a cancerous patient into care (general principles of radiotherapy, therapeutic options and choices, association of radiotherapy, chemotherapy and surgery). Principles of radiotherapy are then more precisely addressed: physical principles (X rays, gamma rays, electrons, neutrons, and protons), radioactivity doses, radiotherapy effect, main equipment, radiotherapy techniques (conformational or intensity-modulated radiotherapy, computed tomography, Cyberknife, external radiotherapy, brachytherapy). The third part addresses early oral-facial complications induced by radiotherapy: factors favouring these complications, nervous effects, effects on the blood system and on the skin, hyposialia and xerostomia, radio-induced mucositis of upper aero-digestive tracts. The next part addresses late effects: late cutaneous after-effects, late radio-mucositis, limitation of mouth opening, tooth decays, osteoradionecrosis. The last part addresses the role of the dental surgeon in taking into care a patient whose head and neck have been irradiated: role before irradiation, during irradiation, and after irradiation

  7. Differential CT features between malignant mesothelioma and pleural metastasis from lung cancer or extra thoracic primary tumor mimicking malignant mesothelioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the differential CT features found among malignant mesothelioma and pleural metastasis from lung cancer and from extra-thoracic primary tumor which on CT mimic malignant mesothelioma. Forty-four patients who on chest CT scans showed pleural thickening suggesting malignant pleural disease and in whom this condition was pathologically confirmed were included in this study. On the basis of their pathologically proven primary disease (malignant mesothelioma (n=3D14), pleural metastasis of lung cancer (n=3D18), extra thoracic primary tumor (n=3D12). They were divided into three groups. Cases of lung which on CT showed a primary lung nodule or endobronchial mass with pleural lesion, or manifested only pleural effusion, were excluded. The following eight CT features were retrospectively analyzed: 1) configuration of pleural lesion (type I, single or multiple separate nodules, type II, localized flat pleural thickening, type III, diffuse flat pleural thickening; type IV, type III with pleural nodules superimposed; type V, mass filling the hemithorax), 2) the presence of pleural effusion, 3) chest wall or rib invasion, 4) the involvement of a major fissure, 5) extra-pleural fat proliferation, 6) calcified plaque, 7) metastatic lymph nodes, 8) metastatic lung modules. In malignant mesothelioma, type IV (8/14) or II (4/14) pleural thickening was relatively frequent. Pleural metastasis of lung cancer favored type IV (8/18) or I (6/18) pleural thickening, while pleural metastasis from extrathoracic primary tumor showed a variable thickening configuration, except type V. Pleural metastasis from lung cancer and extrapleural primary tumor more frequently showed type I configuration than did malignant mesothelioma, and there were significant differences among the three groups. Fissural involvement, on the other hand, was significantly more frequent in malignant mesothelioma than in pleural metastasis from lung cancer or extrapleural primary tumor. Metastatic lymph nodes

  8. Primary liver tumors. Hepatocellular versus intrahepatic cholangiocellular carcinoma; Primaere Lebertumoren. Hepatozellulaeres vs. intrahepatisches cholangiozellulaeres Karzinom

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    Wengert, G.J.; Bickel, H.; Breitenseher, J.; Ba-Ssalamah, A. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Allgemeines Krankenhaus, Wien (Austria)

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and intrahepatic cholangiocellular carcinoma (ICC) are the most commonly occurring and important primary liver tumors. Originating from one pluripotent liver stem cell both tumor entities can occur in a cirrhotic liver and also in patients without cirrhosis. Several risk factors have been identified as causative for both carcinomas; therefore, tumor screening is advantageous, especially for high-risk patients who could be diagnosed in an early stage to allow curative treatment. Surgical resection, interventional procedures and transplantation are available as curative treatment options when diagnosed in time. Common characteristic features and morphology in cross-sectional imaging by ultrasound (US), multidetector computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as well as screening aspects are presented and discussed. Recent findings show a better understanding of the carcinogenesis model of both liver tumors originating from one pluripotent liver stem cell. Further developments of modern cross-sectional imaging modalities, especially MRI in combination with diffusion-weighted imaging and intravenous administration of hepatocyte-specific contrast agents enable early detection, exact differentiation, staging and treatment evaluation of HCC and ICC In this article we discuss modern, multiparametric imaging modalities, which allow a complete and reliable diagnosis of the majority of these tumor entities. Contrast-enhanced MRI, using hepatocyte-specific contrast agents, is currently the most accurate procedure for the noninvasive diagnosis and treatment evaluation of HCC and ICC. (orig.) [German] Das hepatozellulaere Karziom (HCC) sowie das intrahepatische cholangiozellulaere Karzinom (ICC) zaehlen zu den wichtigsten primaeren Lebertumoren. Mit dem Ursprung aus einer pluripotenten Stammzelle koennen beide Tumorentitaeten bei bestehender, aber auch bei nicht bestehender Leberzirrhose auftreten. Im Folgenden werden

  9. Diagnosis dan Penatalaksanaan Tumor Ganas Laring

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    Dolly Irfandy

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Laring berperan dalam koordinasi fungsi saluran aerodigestif atas seperti bernafas, berbicara dan menelan.Laring terbagi tiga yaitu supraglotis, glotis dan subglotis. Laring merupakan daerah tersering kedua untuk kasuskarsinoma sel skuamosa kepala-leher, biasanya berhubungan dengan tembakau dan alkohol. Lebih dari 95% kasustumor ganas laring adalah karsinoma sel skuamosa. Pasien tumor ganas laring datang dengan berbagai keluhanseperti disfonia, obstruksi jalan napas, disfagia, odinofagi dan hemoptisis. Diagnosis tumor ganas laring ditegakkanberdasarkan anamnesis, pemeriksaan klinis menggunakan endoskopi kaku, serat optik dan biopsi. Penatalaksanaantumor ganas laring tergantung stadium dengan modalitas berupa operasi, kemoterapi, radiasi atau terapi kombinasi.Dilaporkan kasus laki-laki 53 tahun dengan karsinoma glotis stadium III (T3N0M0 squamous cell ca keratinized welldifferentiated. Penatalaksanaan pada pasien ini dengan melakukan laringektomi total.Kata kunci: Tumor ganas laring, karsinoma, laringektomi, tembakau Abstract Larynx plays a certain role in coordinating functions of the upper aerodigestive tract, such as respiration,speech, and swallowing. The larynx is divided into three region; supraglottic, glottic, and subglottic. Larynx is thesecond most common site for squamous cell carcinoma in the head and neck and usually related to tobacco andalcohol exposure. Primary malignant tumors of the larynx are squamous cell carcinomas can found more than 95% ofcases. Patients with laryngeal tumors usually present with complaints of hoarseness, respiratory obstruction,dysphagia, odynophagia and hemoptysis. Diagnosis of laryngeal cancer is made by medical history, clinicalexamination using a rigid or fiberoptic endoscope and biopsy. Management of laryngeal tumour depends on stadiumwith various modality included surgery, chemotheraphy, radiotheraphy or combined therapy. Reported case of 53years old male with Glottic carcinoma of the larynx

  10. Uptake of radiolabeled anti-CEA antibodies in human colorectal primary tumors as a function of tumor mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An inverse correlation has been demonstrated between tumor uptake (u, in units of % injected dose/kg) of monoclonal antibody (Mab) and tumor mass (m, in units of g) for colorectal carcinoma in a series of 19 consecutive patients. The correlation (ρ=-0.510), developed using surgical samples was of the form u=abb and was significant at the 2% level of confidence. All tumors were positive for carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and the radiopharmaceutical was in iodine-131 labeled anti-CEA Mab. Such correlations have been predicted earlier from murine and rat tumor uptake data. The slope parameter (b) was -0.362, a number consistent with the previous value (-0.382) found in anti-CEA experiments in mice bearing human xenograft LS174T tumors. (orig.)

  11. Genome-wide copy number analysis of cerebrospinal fluid tumor cells and their corresponding archival primary tumors

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    Mark Jesus M. Magbanua

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A debilitating complication of breast cancer is the metastatic spread of tumor cells to the leptomeninges or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF. Patients diagnosed with this aggressive clinical syndrome, known as leptomeningeal carcinomatosis, have very poor prognosis. Despite improvements in detecting cerebrospinal fluid tumor cells (CSFTCs, information regarding their molecular biology is extremely limited. In our recent work, we utilized a protocol previously used for circulating tumor cell isolation to purify tumor cells from the CSF. We then performed genomic characterization of CSFTCs as well as archival tumors from the same patient. Here, we describe the microarray data and quality controls associated with our study published in the Cancer Research journal in 2013 [1]. We also provide an R script containing code for quality control of microarray data and assessment of copy number calls. The microarray data has been deposited into Gene Expression Omnibus under accession # GSE46068.

  12. Imaging differentiation of pathologic fractures caused by primary and secondary bone tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To describe pre-treatment imaging features of pathologic fractures caused by primary bone tumors (PBTs) and metastatic bone tumors (MBTs) and determine if radiographic or cross-sectional features can differentiate the underlying pathologies associated with the fractures. Methods: Sixty-nine patients with a diagnosis of a pathologic fracture were enrolled. Biopsy established PBT as the cause of the pathologic fracture in 16 (23%) cases and MBT in 53 (77%) cases. The radiographs, computed tomography (CT) scans, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of the subjects were retrospectively reviewed for the presence of multiple imaging features. Results: Compared to pathologic fractures caused by MBTs, the fractures caused by PBTs demonstrated a higher incidence of lytic bone cortex, mineralization and a soft-tissue mass on radiographs, mineralization and a soft-tissue mass on CT scans, and periosteal abnormality on MRI scans (P < 0.01). These features also exhibited a high negative predictive value in supporting the diagnosis of an underlying PBT over MBT. Conclusion: Pathologic fractures caused by PBT and MBT may be differentiated by a few specific radiographic and CT imaging features, though MRI was poor for characterization of the underlying lesion. Such knowledge may assist radiologists in raising the possibility of a PBT as the cause of a pathologic fracture

  13. Factors affecting 18 F FDOPA standardized uptake value in patients with primary brain tumors after treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To investigate the factors affecting 18 F FDOPA uptake in patients with primary brain tumors (PBT) after treatment. Materials and methods: 97 patients with PBT (6 were grade I, 40 were grade II, 29 were grade III and 22 were grade IV) underwent 18 F FDOPA positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) after treatment. Intervals from surgery, chemotherapy (CHT) and radiotherapy (RT) were 41.48 (± 42.27), 16.04 (± 29.08) and 28.62 (± 34.49) months respectively. Results: 18 F FDOPA uptake in the site of recurrence was not related to the interval from surgery and CHT while a significant relationship has been found with the interval from RT and tumor grade. Conclusions: The results of our study show that the interval from RT and the grade of PBT should be considered carefully when evaluating brain PET/CT scans since these factors could directly affect 18 F FDOPA uptake

  14. Residual tumor after the salvage surgery is the major risk factors for primary treatment failure in malignant ovarian germ cell tumors: A retrospective study of single institution

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    Park Jong Sup

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malignant ovarian germ cell tumors are rare, and knowledge of their prognostic factors is limited, with little available randomized data. This study was conducted to evaluate the clinicopathologic characteristics of malignant ovarian germ cell tumors and to determine the association of their prognostic factors to primary treatment failure. Methods The medical records of 57 patients with stages I to IV malignant ovarian germ cell tumor were retrospectively reviewed, and their clinicopathologic and treatment-related data were collected and analyzed. Results The median age at the diagnosis was 23.3 years (range: 8-65 years, and the median follow-up period was 108 months (range: 48-205 months. The histological types of the tumors were immature teratoma (n = 24, dysgerminoma (n = 20, endodermal sinus tumor (n = 8, mixed germ cell tumor (n = 4, and choriocarcinoma (n = 1. 66.7% of the patients had stage I disease; 5.2%, stage II; 26.3%, stage III; and 1.8%, stage IV. After the initial surgery, 49 patients (86% received cisplatin-based chemotherapy. The five-year survival rate was 96.5%. There were six primary treatment failures, with two of the patients dying of the disease, and the median time to the recurrence was 8 months. The histological diagnosis (P P = 0.0052, elevation of beta-hCG (P = 0.0134, operation methods (P = 0.0006, and residual tumor after the salvage surgery (P P = 0.0011, Hazard ratio = 29.046, 95% Confidence interval 3.832-220.181. Conclusion Most malignant ovarian germ cell tumors have excellent prognoses with primary treatment, and good reproductive outcomes can be expected. Because primary treatment failure is associated with the residual disease after the salvage surgery, knowledge of the presence or absence of this risk factor may be helpful in risk stratification and individualization of adjuvant therapy in malignant ovarian germ cell tumors. Further large-scale prospective studies to confirm these results

  15. Epidemiological study of primary intracranial tumors. A regional survey in Kumamoto prefecture in southern Japan. 20-year study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increased use of neuro-imaging techniques, as well as various environmental factors, has been changing the incidence and the proportions of types of intracranial tumors. However, no accurate population-based epidemiological study of intracranial tumors in Japan has been reported. We evaluated recent trends in the occurrence of primary intracranial tumors among residents of Kumamoto prefecture, Japan. We surveyed 5,448 new cases of primary intracranial tumors that were diagnosed in Kumamoto prefecture between 1989 and 2008. The overall age-adjusted incidence rate was 14.09 (11.59 for males, 16.38 for females) per 100,000 population per year. The most common tumors were meningiomas (36.8%), followed by gliomas (19.5%), adenomas (17.8%), schwannomas (9.9%), and malignant lymphomas (3.6%). The number of cases of primary brain tumors, especially meningiomas and malignant gliomas, among the elderly has steadily increased and the incidence of asymptomatic intracranial tumors also increased. The number of asymptomatic meningiomas diagnosed per year was higher than that of symptomatic meningiomas in the years between 1997 and 2008. Furthermore, the incidence rate of brain lymphoma in Kumamoto prefecture is approaching that recorded in Western countries. On the other hand, the incidence rate of germ cell tumors is on the decline, approaching that recorded for children in Western countries. Even though we adjusted the population in Kumamoto prefecture based on the Japanese population, increasing rates of several types of intracranial tumors were observed. These incidence rates are approaching those in Western countries. (author)

  16. 18F-FDG PET/CT compared to conventional imaging modalities in pediatric primary bone tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    F-Fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) is useful in adults with primary bone tumors. Limited published data exist in children. To compare hybrid FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) with conventional imaging (CI) modalities in detecting malignant lesions, predicting response to chemotherapy and diagnosing physeal involvement in pediatric primary bone tumors. Retrospective analysis of PET/CT and CI reports with histopathology or follow-up > 6 months as reference standard. Response parameters and physeal involvement at diagnosis were compared to histopathology. A total of 314 lesions were detected in 86 scans. Excluding lung lesions, PET/CT had higher sensitivity and specificity than CI (83%, 98% and 78%, 97%, respectively). In lung lesions, PET/CT had higher specificity than CI (96% compared to 87%) but lower sensitivity (80% compared to 93%). Higher initial SUVmax and greater SUVmax reduction on PET/CT after chemotherapy predicted a good response. Change in tumor size on MRI did not predict response. Both PET/CT and MRI were very sensitive but of low specificity in predicting physeal tumor involvement. PET/CT appears more accurate than CI in detecting malignant lesions in childhood primary bone tumors, excluding lung lesions. It seems better than MRI at predicting tumor response to chemotherapy. (orig.)

  17. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT compared to conventional imaging modalities in pediatric primary bone tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    London, Kevin [The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Sydney, NSW (Australia); University of Sydney, Discipline of Paediatrics and Child Health, Sydney Medical School, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Stege, Claudia; Kaspers, Gertjan [VU Medical Centre, Divisions of Paediatric Oncology/Haematology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Cross, Siobhan; Dalla-Pozza, Luciano [The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, Department of Oncology, Sydney (Australia); Onikul, Ella [The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, Department of Medical Imaging, Sydney (Australia); Graf, Nicole [The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, Department of Pathology, Sydney (Australia); Howman-Giles, Robert [The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Sydney, NSW (Australia); University of Sydney, Discipline of Imaging, Sydney Medical School, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2012-04-15

    F-Fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) is useful in adults with primary bone tumors. Limited published data exist in children. To compare hybrid FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) with conventional imaging (CI) modalities in detecting malignant lesions, predicting response to chemotherapy and diagnosing physeal involvement in pediatric primary bone tumors. Retrospective analysis of PET/CT and CI reports with histopathology or follow-up > 6 months as reference standard. Response parameters and physeal involvement at diagnosis were compared to histopathology. A total of 314 lesions were detected in 86 scans. Excluding lung lesions, PET/CT had higher sensitivity and specificity than CI (83%, 98% and 78%, 97%, respectively). In lung lesions, PET/CT had higher specificity than CI (96% compared to 87%) but lower sensitivity (80% compared to 93%). Higher initial SUV{sub max} and greater SUV{sub max} reduction on PET/CT after chemotherapy predicted a good response. Change in tumor size on MRI did not predict response. Both PET/CT and MRI were very sensitive but of low specificity in predicting physeal tumor involvement. PET/CT appears more accurate than CI in detecting malignant lesions in childhood primary bone tumors, excluding lung lesions. It seems better than MRI at predicting tumor response to chemotherapy. (orig.)

  18. Feasibility of Primary Tumor Culture Models and Preclinical Prediction Assays for Head and Neck Cancer: A Narrative Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary human tumor culture models allow for individualized drug sensitivity testing and are therefore a promising technique to achieve personalized treatment for cancer patients. This would especially be of interest for patients with advanced stage head and neck cancer. They are extensively treated with surgery, usually in combination with high-dose cisplatin chemoradiation. However, adding cisplatin to radiotherapy is associated with an increase in severe acute toxicity, while conferring only a minor overall survival benefit. Hence, there is a strong need for a preclinical model to identify patients that will respond to the intended treatment regimen and to test novel drugs. One of such models is the technique of culturing primary human tumor tissue. This review discusses the feasibility and success rate of existing primary head and neck tumor culturing techniques and their corresponding chemo- and radiosensitivity assays. A comprehensive literature search was performed and success factors for culturing in vitro are debated, together with the actual value of these models as preclinical prediction assay for individual patients. With this review, we aim to fill a gap in the understanding of primary culture models from head and neck tumors, with potential importance for other tumor types as well

  19. Feasibility of Primary Tumor Culture Models and Preclinical Prediction Assays for Head and Neck Cancer: A Narrative Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dohmen, Amy J. C., E-mail: a.dohmen@nki.nl [Department of Head and Neck Surgery and Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek, Plesmanlaan 121, Amsterdam 1066 CX (Netherlands); Department of Cell Biology, the Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek, Plesmanlaan 121, Amsterdam 1066 CX (Netherlands); Swartz, Justin E. [Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, Utrecht 3508 GA (Netherlands); Van Den Brekel, Michiel W. M. [Department of Head and Neck Surgery and Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek, Plesmanlaan 121, Amsterdam 1066 CX (Netherlands); Willems, Stefan M. [Department of Pathology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, Utrecht 3508 GA (Netherlands); Spijker, René [Medical library, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam 1100 DE (Netherlands); Dutch Cochrane Centre, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, Utrecht 3508 GA (Netherlands); Neefjes, Jacques [Department of Cell Biology, the Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek, Plesmanlaan 121, Amsterdam 1066 CX (Netherlands); Zuur, Charlotte L. [Department of Head and Neck Surgery and Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek, Plesmanlaan 121, Amsterdam 1066 CX (Netherlands)

    2015-08-28

    Primary human tumor culture models allow for individualized drug sensitivity testing and are therefore a promising technique to achieve personalized treatment for cancer patients. This would especially be of interest for patients with advanced stage head and neck cancer. They are extensively treated with surgery, usually in combination with high-dose cisplatin chemoradiation. However, adding cisplatin to radiotherapy is associated with an increase in severe acute toxicity, while conferring only a minor overall survival benefit. Hence, there is a strong need for a preclinical model to identify patients that will respond to the intended treatment regimen and to test novel drugs. One of such models is the technique of culturing primary human tumor tissue. This review discusses the feasibility and success rate of existing primary head and neck tumor culturing techniques and their corresponding chemo- and radiosensitivity assays. A comprehensive literature search was performed and success factors for culturing in vitro are debated, together with the actual value of these models as preclinical prediction assay for individual patients. With this review, we aim to fill a gap in the understanding of primary culture models from head and neck tumors, with potential importance for other tumor types as well.

  20. Role of 18F- FDG PET-CT in detection of primary tumors in carcinoma of unknown primary site: an Indian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The management of the patients with carcinoma of an unknown primary represents a difficult challenge in oncology. Metastatic cancers of unknown primary origin are characterised by a poor prognosis. Conventional radiological imaging allows only detection of 20%-27% of primary cancers. To evaluate the role of 18F-FDG PET/CT in detection of primary tumors in carcinoma of unknown primary site. Methods: In the present study, a total of 31 patients (22 males, 9 females; mean age 53.1 years) with biopsy or cytopathology proven metastatic carcinoma and negative conventional diagnostic procedures (CT, MRI or Panendoscopy) were included. All patients underwent whole body 18F-FDG PET/CT study. Patient data was retrospectively analysed. Histopathological diagnosis is kept as the gold standard. Hypermetabolic areas at the site of CT changes were considered as positive and rate of detection of primary site is evaluated. Among 31 patients, 18F-FDG PET/CT detected primary site in 14 patients. 18F-FDG PET/CT was negative in remaining 17 patients and could not localise primary. Among the 14 positive PET-CT patients, the results of 2 patients became false positive. The detection rate of 18F-FDG PET/CT in localising primary site was 38%. It is concluded that 18F-FDG PET/CT was found to be useful diagnostic procedure for the evaluation of patients with metastatic carcinoma and primary of unknown origin

  1. Synchronous primary carcinoid tumor and primary adenocarcinoma arising within mature cystic teratoma of horseshoe kidney: a unique case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perepletchikov Aleksandr M

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malignant transformation of mature cystic teratoma is a rare complication. While any of the constituent tissues of a teratoma has the potential to undergo malignant transformation, squamous cell carcinoma is the most commonly associated malignancy. Renal carcinoid tumors are rare and frequently associated with horseshoe kidney and renal teratoma. Renal teratoma rarely presents together with carcinoid tumor or adenocarcinoma. To the best of our knowledge, there has never been a report of renal teratoma coexisting with both carcinoid tumor and adenocarcinoma. Methods Here, we present a unique and first case of synchronous primary carcinoid tumor and moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma arising within mature cystic teratoma of horseshoe kidney in a 50-year-old female. Lumbar spine X-ray, done for her complaint of progressive chronic low back pain, accidentally found a large calcification overlying the lower pole of the right kidney. Further radiologic studies revealed horseshoe kidney and a large multiseptated cystic lesion immediately anterior to the right renal pelvis with central calcification and peripheral enhancement. She underwent right partial nephrectomy. Results Macroscopically, the encapsulated complex solid and multiloculated cystic tumor with large calcification, focal thickened walls and filled with yellow-tan gelatinous material. Microscopically, the tumor showed coexistent mature cystic teratoma, moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma and carcinoid tumor. Immunohistochemically, alpha-methylacyl-coenzyme A-racemase, calretinin, CD10 and thyroid transcription factor-1 were negative in all the three components of the tumor. The teratomatous cysts lined by ciliated epithelium showed strong staining for cytokeratin 7 and pancytokeratin, and those lined by colonic-like epithelium showed strong staining for CDX2, cytokeratin 20 and pancytokeratin, but both were negative for calretinin. Additionally, the

  2. Is there a role for neoadjuvant targeted therapy to downsize primary tumors for organ sparing strategies in renal cell carcinoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bex, A; Kroon, B K; de Bruijn, R

    2012-01-01

    With an increasing number of small renal masses being diagnosed organ-preserving treatment strategies such as nephron-sparing surgery (NSS) or radiofrequency and cryoablation are gaining importance. There is evidence that preserving renal function reduces the risk of death of any cause, cardiovascular events, and hospitalization. Some patients have unfavourable tumor locations or large tumors unsuitable for NSS or ablation which is a clinical problem especially in those with imperative indications to preserve renal function. These patients may benefit from downsizing primary tumors by targeted therapy. This paper provides an overview of the current evidence, safety, controversies, and ongoing trials. PMID:22778936

  3. Accurate sequential detection of primary tumor and metastatic lymphatics using a temperature-induced phase transition nanoparticulate system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oh KS

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Keun Sang Oh,1 Ji Young Yhee,2 Dong-Eun Lee,3 Kwangmeyung Kim,2 Ick Chan Kwon,2 Jae Hong Seo,4 Sang Yoon Kim,5 Soon Hong Yuk1,4 1College of Pharmacy, Korea University, Sejong, 2Biomedical Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul, 3Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeonbuk, 4Biomedical Research Center, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul, 5Department of Otolaryngology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan, College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea Abstract: Primary tumor and tumor-associated metastatic lymphatics have emerged as new targets for anticancer therapy, given that these are difficult to treat using traditional chemotherapy. In this study, docetaxel-loaded Pluronic nanoparticles with Flamma™ (FPR-675, fluorescence molecular imaging dye; DTX/FPR-675 Pluronic NPs were prepared using a temperature-induced phase transition for accurate detection of metastatic lymphatics. Significant accumulation was seen at the primary tumor and in metastatic lymph nodes within a short time. Particle size, maximum drug loading capacity, and drug encapsulation efficiency of the docetaxel-loaded Pluronic NPs were approximately 10.34±4.28 nm, 3.84 wt%, and 94±2.67 wt%, respectively. Lymphatic tracking after local and systemic delivery showed that DTX/FPR-675 Pluronic NPs were more potent in tumor-bearing mice than in normal mice, and excised mouse lymphatics showed stronger near-infrared fluorescence intensity on the tumor-bearing side than on the non-tumor-bearing side at 60 minutes post-injection. In vivo cytotoxicity and efficacy data for the NPs demonstrated that the systemically administered NPs caused little tissue damage and had minimal side effects in terms of slow renal excretion and prolonged circulation in tumor-bearing mice, and rapid renal excretion in non-tumor-bearing mice using an in vivo real-time near-infrared fluorescence imaging system. These results

  4. Primary vaginal Ewing's sarcoma or primitive neuroectodermal tumor in a 17-year-old woman: a case report

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    Kurkure Purna

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Primary Ewing's sarcoma or primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the genital tract of women is uncommon. Rarer still is its occurrence in the vagina, with only five cases described so far. Out of these, only one case was confirmed using molecular analysis. Case presentation We present an extremely rare case of Ewing's sarcoma or primitive neuroectodermal tumor in a 17-year-old Indian girl. She presented with a vaginal mass that was initially diagnosed as a malignant round cell tumor. Immunohistochemistry showed diffuse positivity for vimentin, membranous positivity for MIC2, and positivity for BCL2 and FLI-1. On the other hand, she was negative for cytokeratin, epithelial membrane antigen, desmin, Myo D-1, myogenin and smooth muscle actin. A diagnosis of primitive neuroectodermal tumor was thus offered. Furthermore, a molecular analysis of our patient using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction technique showed positivity for t(11; 22 (q24; q12 (EWSR1-FLI1, thus confirming the diagnosis of a Ewing's sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor. Our patient was offered chemotherapy on Institutional protocol EFT 2001. Conclusion This is a rare case of primary vaginal Ewing's sarcoma or primitive neuroectodermal tumor, which was confirmed with molecular analysis, in the youngest patient known so far. This study reinforces the value of integrating morphological features with membranous MIC2 positivity, along with application of molecular techniques in objective identification of an Ewing's sarcoma or primitive neuroectodermal tumor at uncommon sites.

  5. Clinical observation on the therapeutic efficacy of CyberKnife for primary or metastatic retroperitoneal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the early response rate and radiation toxicity of CyberKnife in the treatment of primary or metastatic retroperitoneal tumors. Methods: Twenty-eight patients with retroperitoneal tumors were treated with CyberKnife. The total doses were 2000-6000 cGy (median 4500 cGy) and biological effective doses were 3750-10080 cGy (median 7680 cGy) in 2-10 fractions (median 5). Of all patients, 3 received three dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) or intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) boost, 1 was treated as second-course radiotherapy, and others were treated with CyberKnife only. The survival rates were calculated by Kaplan-Meier method and compared with Logrank test. Results: The complete response, stable disease and progression disease rates were 43% (12/28), 6% (10/28), 18% (5/28), 4%, (1/28), respectively. The overall response rate was 96%. The number of patients who were followed up more than 1, 2, 3 years were 17, 9, 7, respectively. The 1-, 2- and 3-year local control rates were 92%, 86%, and 86%, respectively. The 1-, 2- and 3-year overall survival rates were 60%, 49% and 49%, respectively. The difference between local progression-free survival and overall survival was not significant (median 9.5 and 12.0 months, χ2=0.17, P=0.680), Moreover, if the patients did not have metastasis elsewhere and local treatment was effective, there was no significant difference between local progression-free survival and progression free survival (median 17 and 11 months, χ2=0.13, P=0.720), Acute radiation-induced side effects (≥ 2 grade) such as fatigue, anorexia, nausea, vomiting and epigastric discomfort occurred in 9, 9, 7, 7 and 2 patients, respectively. Intestinal stenosis of 1 grade occurred in 1 patients. Conclusions: Radiotherapy for retroperitoneal tumors with CyberKnife has provided a high response rate with minimal side effects. It is a safe and effective local treatment method for retroperitoneal tumors. (authors)

  6. Imagenological characterization by Computerized Axial Tomography of the primary intracranial tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A descriptive observational study to 56 patients with imagenological diagnosis of primary intracranial neoplasia attended in the service of imagenology of the Provincial Docent Hospital 'Dr. Antonio Luaces Iraola' was carried out from March 1st 2006 to February 1st 2008, with the aim of characterizing these injuries by Computerized Axial Tomography and establishing an evaluation with the histological diagnosis. A questionnaire with the following variables was applied: sex, presuntive age, clinic, topographical characteristics (location, size, tumoral density, changes with administration of the resistance, calcifications, effect of mass and evaluation of the imagenological diagnosis with the histological diagnosis. Masculine sex and the group of ages of 60 are more predominated. The more frequent clinical manifestations were migraine, convulsions, difficulty to walk and vertigo. The size of the injury that prevailed was of 5, 9 and 2, 1 cm with supratentorial location. The majority of primary intracranial neoplasms were hypodense, and enhancement of the injuries with the administration of the resistance was observed. The mass effect bears a close relation with the location and size of the injury. The imagenological diagnosis fitted in with the histological one, being the gliomas the more frequent histological type

  7. Bone tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumor - bone; Bone cancer; Primary bone tumor; Secondary bone tumor ... The cause of bone tumors is unknown. They often occur in areas of the bone that grow rapidly. Possible causes include: Genetic defects ...

  8. Prevalence estimates for primary brain tumors in China: a multi-center cross-sectional study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Tao; WU Nai-feng; CHEN Xiao-jun; XING Hou-xun; SU Tong-yong; WANG Zhong-cheng; TANG Gen-fu; LIN Yi; PENG Xiao-xia; ZHANG Xiao; ZHAI Xiu-wei; PENG Xiang; YANG Jin-qing; HUANG Hong-er

    2011-01-01

    Background Although the first leading cause of death in China was malignant neoplasms (mortality,374.1 per 100000 person-years),the full impact of primary brain tumors (PBT) on the healthcare system is not completely described because there are a few well documented reports about the epidemiologic features of brain tumors.This study aimed to report a comprehensive assessment on the prevalence of PBT.Methods A multicenter cross-sectional study on brain tumor (MCSBT) in China was initiated in five regional centers:Daqing (northeast),Puyang (north of China),Shiyan (center of China),Ma'anshan (center of China) and Shanghai (southeast).Prevalence rate was calculated by counting the number of people living with a PBT between October 1,2005 and September 30,2006 and dividing by the total population of the five communities at January 1,2006.Estimates of prevalence were expressed as percentages and grouped according to gender and to age in fifteen-year categories.Within these strata,the rates were estimated with 95% confidence intervals (C/) using the accurate calculation of CI for Poisson distribution.A chi-square test was used to compare the various frequencies with α<0.05.Age-standardized prevalence with the direct method was calculated with the ten-year age-specific prevalence and the age distribution of the Chinese population in 2010,obtained from Worldpopulation prospects:the 2008 revision.Results We estimated that the overall prevalence of PBT was 24.56 per 100 000 (95% CI,14.85 to 34.27),and the overall prevalence of PBT in female population (30.57 per 100 000 and its 95% CI ranged from 19.73 to 41.41 ) was higher than that in male population (18.84 per 100 000 and its 95% CI ranged from 10.33 to 27.35).However,the discrepancy between genders was not statistically significant because the 95% CI overlapped.Of 272 cases of newly diagnosed PBT,the proportion of histological subtypes by age groups,gender was statistically different (χ2=52.6510,P <0.0001).More than

  9. Primary tumor genotype is an important determinant in identification of lung cancer propagating cells

    OpenAIRE

    Curtis, Stephen J; Sinkevicius, Kerstin W; Li, Danan; Lau, Allison N; Roach, Rebecca R.; Zamponi, Raffaella; Woolfenden, Amber E.; Kirsch, David G.; Wong, Kwok-Kin; Kim, Carla F

    2010-01-01

    Successful cancer therapy requires the elimination or incapacitation of all tumor cells capable of regenerating a tumor. Therapeutic advances therefore necessitate the characterization of the cells that are able to propagate a tumor in vivo. We show an important link between tumor genotype and isolation of tumor-propagating cells (TPCs). Three mouse models of the most common form of human lung cancer each had TPCs with a unique cell surface phenotype. The cell surface marker Sca1 did not enri...

  10. The effects of radiotherapy on psychosocial and cognitive functioning in adults with a primary brain tumor: a prospective evaluation†

    OpenAIRE

    Kangas, Maria; Tate, Robyn L.; Williams, Janet R.; Smee, Robert I.

    2012-01-01

    A paucity of studies have evaluated the biopsychosocial factors contributing to quality of life (QoL) in adults with a primary brain tumor (BT). Our objective was to investigate (i) the effects of radiotherapy on the psychosocial (ie, posttraumatic stress symptoms [PTSS]) and cognitive functioning of adults with a primary BT, assessed preradiotherapy [T1] and postradiotherapy [T2], and (ii) predictors of PTSS and QoL postradiotherapy. Seventy adults with a BT were assessed at T1, and 67 patie...

  11. A collection of primary tissue cultures of tumors from vacuum packed and cooled surgical specimens: a feasibility study

    OpenAIRE

    Annaratone, Laura; Marchiò, Caterina; Russo, Rosalia; Ciardo, Luigi; Rondon-Lagos, Sandra Milena; Goia, Margherita; Scalzo, Maria Stella; Bolla, Stefania; Castellano, Isabella; Verdun di Cantogno, Ludovica; Bussolati, Gianni; Sapino, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Primary cultures represent an invaluable tool to set up functional experimental conditions; however, creation of tissue cultures from solid tumors is troublesome and often unproductive. Several features can affect the success rate of primary cultures, including technical issues from pre-analytical procedures employed in surgical theaters and pathology laboratories. We have recently introduced a new method of collection, transfer, and preservation of surgical specimens that requires immediate ...

  12. Receptor-Activator of Nuclear KappaB Ligand Expression as a New Therapeutic Target in Primary Bone Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, Tetsuro; Kawashima, Hiroyuki; Ogose, Akira; Ariizumi, Takashi; Sasaki, Taro; Hatano, Hiroshi; Hotta, Tetsuo; Endo, Naoto

    2016-01-01

    The receptor-activator of nuclear kappaB ligand (RANKL) signaling pathway plays an important role in the regulation of bone growth and mediates the formation and activation of osteoclasts. Osteoclasts are involved in significant bone resorption and destruction. Denosumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody against RANKL that specifically inhibits osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption. It has been approved for use for multiple myeloma and bone metastases, as well as for giant cell tumor of bone. However, there is no previous report quantitatively, comparing RANKL expression in histologically varied bone tumors. Therefore, we analyzed the mRNA level of various bone tumors and investigated the possibility of these tumors as a new therapeutic target for denosumab. We examined RANKL mRNA expression in 135 clinical specimens of primary and metastatic bone tumors using real-time PCR. The relative quantification of mRNA expression levels was performed via normalization with RPMI8226, a human multiple myeloma cell line that is recognized to express RANKL. Of 135 cases, 64 were also evaluated for RANKL expression by using immunohistochemistry. Among all of the tumors investigated, RANKL expression and the RANKL/osteoprotegerin ratio were highest in giant cell tumor of bone. High RANKL mRNA expression was observed in cases of aneurysmal bone cyst, fibrous dysplasia, osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, and enchondroma, as compared to cases of multiple myeloma and bone lesions from metastatic carcinoma. RANKL-positive stromal cells were detected in six cases: five cases of GCTB and one case of fibrous dysplasia. The current study findings indicate that some primary bone tumors present new therapeutic targets for denosumab, particularly those tumors expressing RANKL and those involving bone resorption by osteoclasts. PMID:27163152

  13. Primary localization and tumor thickness as prognostic factors of survival in patients with mucosal melanoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarun Mehra

    Full Text Available Data on survival with mucosal melanoma and on prognostic factors of are scarce. It is still unclear if the disease course allows for mucosal melanoma to be treated as primary cutaneous melanoma or if differences in overall survival patterns require adapted therapeutic approaches. Furthermore, this investigation is the first to present 10-year survival rates for mucosal melanomas of different anatomical localizations.116 cases from Sep 10 1984 until Feb 15 2011 retrieved from the Comprehensive Cancer Center and of the Central Register of the German Dermatologic Society databases in Tübingen were included in our analysis. We recorded anatomical location and tumor thickness, and estimated overall survival at 2, 5 and 10 years and the mean overall survival time. Survival times were analyzed with the Kaplan-Meier method. The log-rank test was used to compare survival times by localizations and by T-stages.We found a median overall survival time of 80.9 months, with an overall 2-year survival of 71.7%, 5-year survival of 55.8% and 10-year survival of 38.3%. The 10-year survival rates for patients with T1, T2, T3 or T4 stage tumors were 100.0%, 77.9%, 66.3% and 10.6% respectively. 10-year survival of patients with melanomas of the vulva was 64.5% in comparison to 22.3% of patients with non-vulva mucosal melanomas.Survival times differed significantly between patients with melanomas of the vulva compared to the rest (p = 0.0006. It also depends on T-stage at the time of diagnosis (p < 0.0001.

  14. Supra-Acetabular Brown Tumor due to Primary Hyperparathyroidism Associated with Chronic Renal Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosaria M. Ruggeri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A 63-year-old woman presented to the Orthopedic Unit of our hospital complaining of right hip pain of 6 months'duration associated with a worsening limp. Her past medical history included chronic renal insufficiency. Physical examination revealed deep pain in the iliac region and severe restriction of the right hip's articular function in the maximum degrees of range of motion. X-rays and CT scan detected an osteolytic and expansive lesion of the right supra-acetabular region with structural reabsorption of the right iliac wing. 99mTc-MDP whole-body bone scan showed an abnormal uptake in the right iliac region. Bone biopsy revealed an osteolytic lesion with multinucleated giant cells, indicating a brown tumor. Serum intact PTH was elevated (1020 pg/ml; normal values, 12 62 pg/ml, but her serum calcium was normal (total = 9.4 mg/dl, nv 8.5–10.5; ionized = 5.0 mg/dl, nv 4.2–5.4 due to the coexistence of chronic renal failure. 99mTc-MIBI scintigraphy revealed a single focus of sestamibi accumulation in the left retrosternal location, which turned out to be an intrathoracic parathyroid adenoma at surgical exploration. After surgical removal of the parathyroid adenoma, PTH levels decreased to 212 pg/ml. Three months after parathyroidectomy, the imaging studies showed complete recovery of the osteolytic lesion, thus avoiding any orthopedic surgery. This case is noteworthy because (1 primary hyperparathyroidism was not suspected due to the normocalcemia, likely attributable to the coexistence of chronic renal failure; and (2 it was associated with a brown tumor of unusual location (right supra-acetabular region.

  15. Further characterization of the adhesive-tumor-cell culture system for measuring the radiosensitivity of human tumor primary cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study extends the use of the adhesive-tumor-cell culture system to include: over 100 sensitivity measurements at 2.0 Gy; tumorgenicity determinations in nude mice; and flow cytometry of the cells grown in the system. The malignant nature of the growing cells was proved by injecting cells into nude mice. Tumors resulted in 60% of the cases and the histology of each xenograft was similar to that of the human tumor. Flow cytometry was used to obtain DNA histograms of the original cell suspension and of cultures during the two week culture period in order to obtain quantitative information about the growth of aneuploid versus diploid populations. The results thus far demonstrate that 95% of aneuploid populations yield aneuploid growth; of the first 20 cases studied, only one suspension with an aneuploid peak resulted in diploid growth. Of further interest was the observation that it is not unusual for a minor aneuploid population to become the predominate growth fraction after two weeks in culture. These results demonstrate that the adhesive-tumor-cell culture system supports the growth of malignant cells, that multiple cell populations exist in cell suspensions derived from solid tumors, and that differences exist between the radiosensitivity of cells at 2.0 Gy in different histology types

  16. Treatment of primary malignant rhabdoid tumor of the brain: report of three cases and review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Primary malignant rhabdoid tumor (MRT) of the central nervous system is an extremely aggressive tumor predominantly related to early childhood, with characteristic histopathological findings but unclear histogenesis. Owing to its low incidence, little knowledge exists concerning the best therapeutic strategy. Methods and Materials: Three children of our hospital with MRT of the brain underwent a maximum tumor resection followed by multidrug chemotherapy and radiation therapy to the craniospinal axis. Results: Relapse was disseminated along the spinal subarachnoid spaces in one child and occurred at the primary tumor site in the other two patients. Maximum survival was 15 months from diagnosis. Conclusion: A review of patients reported in the literature and a comparison to our patients reveals a high propensity to early local relapse and meningeal dissemination. In the absence of more effective therapeutic options, we recommend multidisciplinary treatment of patients in good general condition and with resectable disease. In particular, following radiation therapy, tumor remissions and delay of tumor regrowth have been observed

  17. A phase II trial with bevacizumab and irinotecan for patients with primary brain tumors and progression after standard therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Grunnet, Kirsten; Hansen, Steinbjørn;

    2012-01-01

    The combination of irinotecan and bevacizumab has shown efficacy in the treatment of recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). A prospective, phase II study of 85 patients with various recurrent brain tumors was carried out. Primary endpoints were progression free survival (PFS) and response rate....

  18. Surgical treatment of primary intramedullary spinal cord tumors in adult patients Tratamento cirúrgico de tumores intramedulares primários em adultos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Augusto Taricco

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Primary spinal cord intramedullary tumors are rare and present with insidious symptoms. Previous treatment protocols emphasized biopsy and radiation/chemotherapy but more aggressive protocols have emerged. OBJECTIVE: To report our experience. METHOD: Forty-eight patients were diagnosed with primary intramedullary tumors. The cervical cord was involved in 27% and thoracic in 42% of patients. Complete microsurgical removal was attempted whenever possible without added neurological morbidity. RESULTS: Complete resection was obtained in 33 (71% patients. Neurological function remained stable or improved in 32 patients (66.7%. Ependymoma was the most frequent tumor (66.7%. CONCLUSION: Neurological outcome is superior in patients with subtle findings; aggressive microsurgical resection should be pursued with acceptable neurological outcomes.INTRODUÇÃO: Tumores intramedulares primários são raros e apresentam-se com sintomas insidiosos. Protocolos de tratamento anteriores enfatizavam biópsia e radio/quimioterapia, mas protocolos mais agres-sivos têm surgido. OBJETIVO: Relatar nossa experiência. MÉTODO: Tumores intramedulares foram diagnosticados em 48 pacientes. O segmento cervical estava envolvido em 27% e torácico em 42% dos pacientes. Remoção completa foi tentada quando possível sem aumento da morbidade neurológica. RESULTADOS: Ressecção total foi obtida em 33 (71% pacientes. Função neurológica: permaneceu inalterada/melhorou em 32 (66,7% pacientes. O tumor mais freqüente foi ependimoma (66,7%. CONCLUSÃO: O prognóstico é melhor em pacientes oligossintomáticos; ressecção microcirúrgica agressiva deve ser tentada sempre, com resultados clínicos aceitáveis.

  19. Primary malignant tumors originating in intraabdominal testes. A report of two cases; Tumores malignos primarios originados en testiculos abdominales. A proposito de dos casos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallego, J. C.; Gonzalez, J. M.; Suarez, I.; Ruiz, A. [Hospital Arquitecto Marcide. Ferrol (Spain)

    1999-07-01

    The incidence of primary tumor is greater in undescended testes than in scrotum. They are usually detected as large masses. However, there are few reports describing the radiological features of these lesions. We present two cases (a seminoma and a nonseminoma) studied by ultrasound and computed tomography. The ultrasound studies show well defined, slightly echogenic masses. In addition, computed tomography reveals areas of necrosis and calcifications. (Author) 9 refs.

  20. Tumor pardo maxilar: Elemento diagnóstico de hiperparatiroidismo primario Maxillary brown tumor: A diagnostic tool for primary hyperparathyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    S. Gallana Álvarez; C.I. Salazar Fernandez; F.J. Avellá Vecino; J. Torres Gómez; J.M. Pérez Sanchez

    2005-01-01

    El hiperparatiroidismo primario es un transtorno generalizado del metabolismo óseo producido por un aumento de la secreción de hormona paratiroidea (PTH). La etiología de este transtorno es múltiple; en la forma primaria la causa de la hipersecreción de la hormona es la propia glándula, y el motivo más frecuente el adenoma paratiroideo. Los tumores pardos son lesiones óseas focales secundarias a hiperparatiroidismo. El tratamiento de elección de los tumores pardos es la extirpación del adenom...

  1. Tumor pardo como manifestación inicial de hiperparatiroidismo primario Brown tumor as the initial manifestation of primary hyperparathyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    Hernán C. Chavin; Ana A. Pisarevsky; Carolina Chavín; Lucrecia Kroll; Enrique A. Petrucci

    2008-01-01

    El tumor pardo es una forma localizada de osteítis fibrosa quística, parte del compromiso óseo por hiperparatiroidismo. Como primera expresión de hiperparatiroidismo es infrecuente, debido a que actualmente éste se diagnostica en estadios asintomáticos o mínimamente sintomáticos. Presentamos el caso de una paciente con un tumor pardo localizado en el maxilar superior izquierdo, como primera manifestación de hiperparatiroidismo primario causado por un adenoma paratiroideo. Posterior a la reali...

  2. Correlation of primary tumor FDG uptake with clinicopathologic prognostic factors in invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, I; Kim, Sung Hoon; Kim, Hae Won; Kang, Sung Hee [Keimyung University, School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Zeon, Seok Kil [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Bundang Jesaeng General Hospital, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Su Jin [Dept. of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Dongguk University, School of Medicine, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation of primary tumor FDG uptake to clinicopathological prognostic factors in invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast. We retrospectively reviewed 136 of 215 female patients with pathologically proven invasive ductal breast cancer from January 2008 to December 2011 who underwent F-18 FDG PET/CT for initial staging and follow-up after curative treatment with analysis of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epithelial growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). The maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}) of the primary breast tumor was measured and compared with hormonal receptor and HER2 overexpression status. The high SUV{sub max} of primary breast tumors is significantly correlated with the clinicopathological factors: tumor size, histologic grade, TNM stage, negativity of ER, negativity of PR, HER2 overexpression and triple negativity. The recurrent group with non-triple negative cancer had a higher SUV{sub max} compared with the non-recurrent group, though no significant difference in FDG uptake was noted between the recurrence and non-recurrent groups in subjects with triple-negative cancer. Lymph node involvement was the independent risk factor for cancer recurrence in the multivariate analysis. In conclusion, high FDG uptake in primary breast tumors is significantly correlated with clinicopathological factors, such as tumor size, histologic grade, TNM stage, negativity of the hormonal receptor, HER2 overexpression and triple negativity. Therefore, FDG PET/CT is a helpful prognostic tool to direct the further management of patients with breast cancer.

  3. Primary carcinoid tumor arising within mature teratoma of the kidney: report of a rare entity and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parwani Anil V

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary carcinoid tumor arising within mature teratoma of the kidney is extremely rare, and their clinicopathologic features are not well described. Our objective was to further define the clinical features and pathologic spectra of primary carcinoid tumor arising within mature teratoma of the kidney. Methods Six previously reported case reports were identified using MEDLINE and a subsequent bibliographic search of all pertinent reports and reviews was performed. We also searched the electronic medical archival records of our institution and identified one additional unreported case. Data were extracted on the demographics, predisposing factors, clinical presentation, radiographic features, gross pathology, microscopic pathology, immunophenotype, therapy, and outcome of each of these seven cases. Results Primary carcinoid tumor arising within mature teratoma of the kidney was found at a mean age of 41.4 years. Of the 7 cases, 3 were female and 4 were male. Two of the 7 cases (28.6% were associated with horseshoe kidney. It typically presented with abdominal pain without carcinoid syndrome. It typical radiologic appearance was well circumscribed partly calcified Bosniak II-III lesion. Histologically, the carcinoid tumor showed monotonous small round cells arranged in classic anastomosing cords/ribbons intermixed with solid nests. Surgery was curative, no additional treatment was required, no local recurrences occurred, and no metastases occurred in all 7 cases. The 3 cases with available outcome data were alive at the time of publication of their respective cases (mean, 5 months. Conclusion Primary carcinoid tumor arising within mature teratoma of the kidney is a rare tumor that typically presents with abdominal pain without carcinoid syndrome. It is not associated with local recurrence and metastasis, is surgically curable, and has excellent prognosis.

  4. Differential effects of drugs targeting cancer stem cell (CSC and non-CSC populations on lung primary tumors and metastasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyre Larzabal

    Full Text Available Cancer stem cells (CSCs are thought to be responsible for tumor initiation and recurrence after chemotherapy. Targeting CSCs and non-CSCs with specific compounds may be an effective approach to reduce lung cancer growth and metastasis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of salinomycin, a selective inhibitor of CSCs, with or without combination with paclitaxel, in a metastatic model. To evaluate the effect of these drugs in metastasis and tumor microenvironment we took advantage of the immunocompetent and highly metastatic LLC mouse model. Aldefluor assays were used to analyze the ALDH+/- populations in murine LLC and human H460 and H1299 lung cancer cells. Salinomycin reduced the proportion of ALDH+ CSCs in LLC cells, whereas paclitaxel increased such population. The same effect was observed for the H460 and H1299 cell lines. Salinomycin reduced the tumorsphere formation capacity of LLC by more than 7-fold, but paclitaxel showed no effect. In in vivo experiments, paclitaxel reduced primary tumor volume but increased the number of metastatic nodules (p<0.05, whereas salinomycin had no effect on primary tumors but reduced lung metastasis (p<0.05. Combination of both drugs did not improve the effect of single therapies. ALDH1A1, SOX2, CXCR4 and SDF-1 mRNA levels were higher in metastatic lesions than in primary tumors, and were significantly elevated in both locations by paclitaxel treatment. On the contrary, such levels were reduced (or in some cases did not change when mice were administered with salinomycin. The number of F4/80+ and CD11b+ cells was also reduced upon administration of both drugs, but particularly in metastasis. These results show that salinomycin targets ALDH+ lung CSCs, which has important therapeutic effects in vivo by reducing metastatic lesions. In contrast, paclitaxel (although reducing primary tumor growth promotes the selection of ALDH+ cells that likely modify the lung microenvironment to foster

  5. Differential effects of drugs targeting cancer stem cell (CSC) and non-CSC populations on lung primary tumors and metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larzabal, Leyre; El-Nikhely, Nefertiti; Redrado, Miriam; Seeger, Werner; Savai, Rajkumar; Calvo, Alfonso

    2013-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are thought to be responsible for tumor initiation and recurrence after chemotherapy. Targeting CSCs and non-CSCs with specific compounds may be an effective approach to reduce lung cancer growth and metastasis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of salinomycin, a selective inhibitor of CSCs, with or without combination with paclitaxel, in a metastatic model. To evaluate the effect of these drugs in metastasis and tumor microenvironment we took advantage of the immunocompetent and highly metastatic LLC mouse model. Aldefluor assays were used to analyze the ALDH+/- populations in murine LLC and human H460 and H1299 lung cancer cells. Salinomycin reduced the proportion of ALDH+ CSCs in LLC cells, whereas paclitaxel increased such population. The same effect was observed for the H460 and H1299 cell lines. Salinomycin reduced the tumorsphere formation capacity of LLC by more than 7-fold, but paclitaxel showed no effect. In in vivo experiments, paclitaxel reduced primary tumor volume but increased the number of metastatic nodules (p<0.05), whereas salinomycin had no effect on primary tumors but reduced lung metastasis (p<0.05). Combination of both drugs did not improve the effect of single therapies. ALDH1A1, SOX2, CXCR4 and SDF-1 mRNA levels were higher in metastatic lesions than in primary tumors, and were significantly elevated in both locations by paclitaxel treatment. On the contrary, such levels were reduced (or in some cases did not change) when mice were administered with salinomycin. The number of F4/80+ and CD11b+ cells was also reduced upon administration of both drugs, but particularly in metastasis. These results show that salinomycin targets ALDH+ lung CSCs, which has important therapeutic effects in vivo by reducing metastatic lesions. In contrast, paclitaxel (although reducing primary tumor growth) promotes the selection of ALDH+ cells that likely modify the lung microenvironment to foster metastasis. PMID

  6. Computed tomographic aspects of primary brain tumors in dogs and cats; Aspectos tomograficos de tumores cerebrais primarios em caes e gatos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babicsak, Viviam Rocco; Zardo, Karen Maciel; Santos, Debora Rodrigues dos; Silva, Luciana Carandina da; Machado, Vania Maria de Vasconcelos; Vulcano, Luiz Carlos, E-mail: viviam.babicsak@gmail.com [Setor de Diagnostico por Imagem - FMVZ - UNESP/Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Over the years, the Veterinary Medicine has made great advances, enabling thus the diagnosis of many diseases. As a result of this new situation, there was an increased expectation of life of animals resulting in an increase in the number of clinical care of older animals. Thus, diseases considered unusual in the past, begin to be diagnosed more frequently, as is the case of brain damage. Recently, computed tomography has been widely used in Brazil as a tool to aid in the diagnosis of several diseases. This noninvasive imaging technique allows the identification and evaluation of lesions of central nervous tissue such as brain tumors. This provides information about the size, shape and location of the lesion, in addition to the magnitude of compression and invasion of adjacent structures by the tumor and its side effects (such as the peritumoral edema and hydrocephalus). The image obtained from computed tomography may suggest the presence of a certain type brain tumor, data of great importance for the prognosis and treatment of the animal. This review covers the computed tomography aspects of primary brain tumors such as meningiomas, astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, choroid plexus tumors and ependymomas. However, despite the computed tomography provide much information about the changes inside the skull; no way replace histopathological examination in determining the definitive diagnosis. (author)

  7. Exploring Spirituality in Family Caregivers of Patients With Primary Malignant Brain Tumors Across the Disease Trajectory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newberry, Alyssa G.; Jean Choi, Chien-Wen; Donovan, Heidi S.; Schulz, Richard; Bender, Catherine; Given, Barbara; Sherwood, Paula

    2013-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives To determine whether the perceived level of spirituality in family caregivers of patients with primary malignant brain tumors (PMBTs) changes across the disease trajectory. Design Ongoing descriptive, longitudinal study. Setting Southwestern Pennsylvania. Sample 50 family caregivers of patients with PMBT. Methods Caregivers and care recipients were recruited at time of diagnosis. Participants were interviewed at two subse-quent time points, four and eight months following diagnosis. Main Research Variables Care recipients’ symptoms, neuro-psychologic status, and physical function, as well as caregiver social support. Findings Results showed no significant difference in spirituality scores reported at baseline and eight months (p = 0.8), suggesting that spirituality may be a stable trait across the disease trajectory. Conclusions Spirituality remains relatively stable along the course of the disease trajectory. Reports of caregiver depressive symptoms and anxiety were lower when paired with higher reports of spirituality. Implications for Nursing Clinicians can better identify caregivers at risk for negative outcomes by identifying those who report lower levels of spirituality. Future interventions should focus on the development and implementation of interventions that provide protective buffers such as increased social support. Knowledge Translation Spirituality is a relatively stable trait. High levels of spirituality can serve as a protective buffer from negative mental health outcomes. Caregivers with low levels of spirituality may be at risk for greater levels of burden, anxiety, and stress. PMID:23615145

  8. Soft-tissue reactions following irradiation of primary brain and pituitary tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One hundred and ninety-nine patients who received radiation therapy for a primary brain or pituitary tumor were studied for radiation-induced soft-tissue reactions of the cranium, scalp, ears and jaw. The frequency of these reactions was studied as a function of: the radiation dose 5 mm below the skin surface, dose distribution, field size and fraction size. Forty percent of patients had complete and permanent epilation, while 21% had some other soft-tissue complication, including: scalp swelling-6%, external otitis-6%, otitis media-5%, ear swelling-4%, etc. The frequency of soft-tissue reactions correlates directly with the radiation dose at 5 mm below the skin surface. Patients treated with small portals (2) had few soft-tissue reactions. The dose to superficial tissues, and hence the frequency of soft-tissue reactions can be reduced by: (1) using high-energy megavoltage beams; (2) using equal loading of beams; and (3) possibly avoiding the use of electron beams

  9. Primary hepatic actinomycosis mimicking a tumor (inflammatory pseudotumor: Case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Batirel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Actinomycosis often manifests with abscesses in the cervicofacial region. Hepatic involvement occurs usually secondary to an intraabdominal infection. “Isolated or primary hepatic actinomycosis (PHA defines actinomycosis in which the source of infection cannot be demonstrated elsewhere. Herein, we aimed to highlight hepatic actinomycosis in the differential diagnosis of hepatic mass lesions, and also its occurrence even in patients without underlying risk factors. A 24-year-old man, who presented with epigastric and right-upper-quadrant abdominal pain, fever, weight loss, and had a tumor-like mass in the liver was admitted to our hospital. He had no predisposing risk factors or comorbidities. We reviewed all the cases with PHA, who had no predisposing risk factors, in English medical literature from 1993 to 2014. Actinomycotic hepatic pseudotumors should be considered in the differential diagnosis of solitary liver lesions even in patients without any predisposing factors. Multi-disciplinary approach is important in the diagnosis and management. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2015;5(2: 79-84

  10. Centralized databases available for describing primary brain tumor incidence, survival, and treatment: Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States; Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results; and National Cancer Data Base.

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, F. G.; McCarthy, B J; Berger, M.S.

    1999-01-01

    Characteristics of three databases--the Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States (CBTRUS) database; the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database; and the National Cancer Data Base (NCDB)--containing information on primary brain tumors are discussed. The recently developed population-based CBTRUS database comprises incidence data on all primary brain tumors from 11 collaborating state registries; however, follow-up data are not available. SEER, the population-based g...

  11. Primary yolk sac tumor of seminal vesicle: a case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Xu-Dong

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Yolk sac tumor (endodermal sinus tumor is a rare malignant germ cell tumor arising in the testis or ovary. Extragonadal yolk sac tumor is even rarer and has only been described in case reports. Due to the rarity of the tumors, the appropriately optimal treatment remains unclear. We report a case of yolk sac tumor in the seminal vesicle. Case A 38-year-old Asian male presented with gross hematuria and hemospermia. Transrectal ultrasound scan showed a solid mass in the left seminal vesicle and the scrotal sonography showed no abnormalities. Bilateral seminal vesicles were resected, and histopathological examination showed a typical pattern of yolk sac tumor (YST. The patient responded poorly to comprehensive treatment of radiotherapy, chemotherapy and surgeries, developed systemic multiple metastases, and died of cachexia one and half years after diagnosis.

  12. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging of brown tumors mimicking multiple skeletal metastases in patient with primary hyperparathyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sait Sager

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Brown tumors of bone are highly vascular, lytic bone lesions representing a reparative cellular process rather than a neoplastic process usually seen in patients with hyperparathyroidism. These tumors can behave aggressively and be destructive. We report a 49-year-old male patient who was admitted to our hospital with a long-term history of right shoulder and right hip pain. Multiple lytic and destructive bone lesions were found in X-ray graphy and CT images. These bone lesions mimicked multiple skeletal metastatic lesions and seemed to be those of the terminal stage of malignancy. PET scan was requested for the evaluation of FDG uptake of these lesions and to search the unknown primary tumor site. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT images showed multiple hypermetabolic malignant or metastatic FDG avid bone lesions in skeletal system. However the biopsy results revealed no signs of malignancy and laboratory data showed elevated serum calcium, alkaline phosphatase, parathyroid hormone, low serum phosphate and parathyroid scintigraphy was performed. Adenoma in the left parathyroid gland was seen with Tc-99m MIBI parathyroid scintigraphy. Pathological results confirmed the diagnosis of parathyroid adenoma. Brown tumor is the potential cause of false-positive result in evaluation of a patient for unknown primary tumor or skeletal metastases with PET/CT imaging.

  13. Hepatopulmonary shunting in patients with primary and secondary liver tumors scheduled for radioembolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: In patients undergoing transarterial radioembolization (RE) of malignant liver tumors, hepatopulmonary shunts (HPS) can lead to nontarget irradiation of the lungs. This study aims at analyzing the HPS fraction in relation to liver volume, tumor volume, tumor-to-liver volume ratio, tumor vascularity, type of tumor, and portal vein occlusion. Materials and methods: In the presented retrospective study the percentage HPS fraction was calculated from SPECT/CT after infusion of Tc-99m macroaggregated albumin (Tc-99m MAA) into the proper hepatic artery of 233 patients evaluated for RE. Results: HPS fractions correlate very weakly with liver volume (r = 0.303), tumor volume (r = 0.345), and tumor-to-liver volume ratio (r = 0.340). Tumors with strong contrast enhancement (HPSmedian(range) = 11.7%(46.3%); n = 73) have significantly larger shunt fractions than tumors with little enhancement (HPS = 8.3%(16.4%); n = 61; p < 0.001). Colorectal cancer metastases (HPS = 10.6%(28.6%); n = 68) and hepatocellular cancers (HPS = 11.7%(39.4%); n = 63) have significantly larger HPS fractions than metastases from breast cancer (HPS = 7.4%(16.7%); n = 40; p = 0.012 and p = 0.001). Patients with compression (HPS = 13.9%(43.7%); n = 33) or tumor thrombosis (HPS = 15.8% (31.2%); n = 33) of a major portal vein branch have significantly higher degrees of shunting than patients with normal portal vein perfusion (HPS = 8.1% (47.0%); n = 167; both p < 0.001). The shunt fraction is largest in patients with HCC and thrombosis or occlusion of a major portal vein branch (HPS = 16.6% (31.0%); n = 32). Conclusion: The degree of hepatopulmonary shunting depends on the type of liver tumor, tumor vascularity, and portal vein perfusion. There is little to no correlation of HPS with liver volume, tumor volume, or tumor-to-liver volume ratio

  14. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α promotes primary tumor growth and tumor-initiating cell activity in breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Schwab, Luciana P; Peacock, Danielle L.; Majumdar, Debeshi; Ingels, Jesse F; Jensen, Laura C; Smith, Keisha D; Cushing, Richard C; Seagroves, Tiffany N

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Overexpression of the oxygen-responsive transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) correlates with poor prognosis in breast cancer patients. The mouse mammary tumor virus polyoma virus middle T (MMTV-PyMT) mouse is a widely utilized preclinical mouse model that resembles human luminal breast cancer and is highly metastatic. Prior studies in which the PyMT model was used demonstrated that HIF-1α is essential to promoting carcinoma onset and lung metastasis, although...

  15. Palliative treatment of primary lung tumors with Transpulmonary Chemoembolization (TPCE); Transpulmonale Chemoembolisation (TPCE) als palliatives Behandlungskonzept bei primaeren Lungentumoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogl, T.J.; Herzog, C.; Zangos, S.; Lindemayr, S. [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie

    2007-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate transpulmonary chemoembolization (TPCE) as a symptomatic palliative method for treating inoperable primary lung tumors. Materials and Method: From 2002 to 2005, 17 patients (17 males, 3 females; average age: 64.5 years) suffering from primary lung tumors were treated in 3.6 sessions (range: 2 to 8) using TPCE. The patients had the following primary tumors: adenocarcinoma (n = 6), pleural mesothelioma (n = 2), squamous cell carcinoma (n = 1), small cell carcinoma (n = 1), and non-small cell carcinoma (n = 7). After femoral vein puncture, tumor-supplying pulmonary arteries were selectively explored, and 5 - 10 mg mitomycin C and 5 - 10 mL lipiodol and microsphere particles (Spherex) (20 - 70 {mu}m in diameter) were applied with balloon protection. Diagnosis and follow-up were performed in 4-week intervals with unenhanced and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT). The mean follow-up was 11.3 months. Results: Treatment was well tolerated by all patients with no major side effects or complications. The laboratory parameters were not significantly influenced. 11.8 % of the patients (n = 2) showed high or moderate lipiodol uptake, and 76.5 % (n = 13) showed low lipiodol uptake. After evaluation of morphologic criteria, a mean volume regression of 12.1 ml (40.4 %) of the embolized areas was achieved in four patients (23.5 %), while a constant value was identified during follow-up for seven patients (41.2 %). In six patients (35.3 %), progression of the treated lung tumors was recorded. The tumor increased by a mean of 38.37 ml (165.38 %). (orig.)

  16. Incidence of first primary central nervous system tumors in California, 2001–2005: children, adolescents and teens

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Monica; Schrot, Rudolph; Bauer, Katrina; Dodge, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    This study used data from the California Cancer Registry to comprehensively examine first primary central nervous system tumors (PCNST) by the International Classification of Childhood Cancers (ICCC) diagnostic groups and to compare their incidence by age groups, sex, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status and tumor behavior. The study period, 2001–2005, represents the first 5 years of benign PCNST data collection in the state. The age-adjusted incidence rates were 2.1 for malignant and 1.3 for...

  17. Quantitative proteomics of primary tumors with varying metastatic capabilities using stable isotope-labeled proteins of multiple histogenic origins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Rikke Raaen; Terp, Mikkel Green; Laenkholm, Anne-Vibeke;

    2012-01-01

    metastatic capabilities into the mammary fat pad of immunodeficient mice. Using a protein standard generated by SILAC-labeling, a total of 675 proteins was identified and 30 were differentially expressed between at least two of the tumors. The protein standard contained the proteomes of seven cell lines from...... to metastatic capabilities. The expression of these proteins was biochemically-validated, and expression of myosin-9 in clinical breast cancer samples was further shown to be altered in primary tumors vs. corresponding lymph node metastasis. Our study demonstrates an improved strategy for...

  18. Pulmonary Metastasis from Rectal Cancer on Chest CT Is Correlated with 3T MRI Primary Tumor Location

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the association between the incidence of pulmonary metastasis on chest CT and the location of the primary tumor on rectal MRI. One hundred and nine consecutive patients with rectal adenocarcinoma underwent chest CT and 3T rectal MRI. Two radiologists classified the tumor on MRI as an upper (> 10 cm from the anal verge), mid (5-10 cm), or lower rectal tumor (< 5 cm) by consensus. All chest CT scans were retrospectively reviewed for the presence of metastasis. We used Fisher's exact test to evaluate the correlation between the incidence of pulmonary metastasis with the location of the rectal cancer and the Mantel-Haenszel test to control for local tumor stage. We only included the 60 patients with upper (n = 26) or lower (n = 34) rectal cancer, because of the complicated venous drainage system of the mid rectum. Among these, 9 (15%) showed evidence of pulmonary metastasis on chest CT and almost all (89%, 8/9) patients had lower rectal cancer. The incidence of pulmonary metastasis between the two groups was statistically different (p < 0.05) when local tumor stage was controlled. The incidence of pulmonary metastasis was significantly higher for lower than upper rectal cancers when the T-stage of the tumor was accounted for.

  19. Aldehyde Dehydrogenase1 Immunohistochemical Staining in Primary Breast Cancer Cells Independently Predicted Overall Survival But Did Not Correlate with the Presence of Circulating or Disseminated Tumors Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Woodward, Wendy A.; Krishnamurthy, Savitri; Lodhi, Ashutosh; Xiao, Lianchun; Gong, Yun; Cristofanilli, Massimo; Buchholz, Thomas A.; Lucci, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: We hypothesized that aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) staining in breast cancer tumor cells might be a simple surrogate for the presence of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) or disseminated tumor cells (DTCs). Experimental Design: Whole tissue primary tumor sections from 121 patients enrolled in a clinical trial assessing CTCs and DTCs at the time of surgery were stained for ALDH1 and scored by a dedicated breast pathologist blinded to outcome. Clinical data was extracted and staining w...

  20. Nucleolin antagonist triggers autophagic cell death in human glioblastoma primary cells and decreased in vivo tumor growth in orthotopic brain tumor model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Elisabetta; Antonosante, Andrea; d'Angelo, Michele; Cristiano, Loredana; Galzio, Renato; Destouches, Damien; Florio, Tiziana Marilena; Dhez, Anne Chloé; Astarita, Carlo; Cinque, Benedetta; Fidoamore, Alessia; Rosati, Floriana; Cifone, Maria Grazia; Ippoliti, Rodolfo; Giordano, Antonio; Courty, José; Cimini, Annamaria

    2015-12-01

    Nucleolin (NCL) is highly expressed in several types of cancer and represents an interesting therapeutic target. It is expressed at the plasma membrane of tumor cells, a property which is being used as a marker for several human cancer including glioblastoma. In this study we investigated targeting NCL as a new therapeutic strategy for the treatment of this pathology. To explore this possibility, we studied the effect of an antagonist of NCL, the multivalent pseudopeptide N6L using primary culture of human glioblastoma cells. In this system, N6L inhibits cell growth with different sensitivity depending to NCL localization. Cell cycle analysis indicated that N6L-induced growth reduction was due to a block of the G1/S transition with down-regulation of the expression of cyclin D1 and B2. By monitoring autophagy markers such as p62 and LC3II, we demonstrate that autophagy is enhanced after N6L treatment. In addition, N6L-treatment of mice bearing tumor decreased in vivo tumor growth in orthotopic brain tumor model and increase mice survival. The results obtained indicated an anti-proliferative and pro-autophagic effect of N6L and point towards its possible use as adjuvant agent to the standard therapeutic protocols presently utilized for glioblastoma. PMID:26540346

  1. Surgical Management of the Primary Tumor in Stage IV Colorectal Cancer: A Confirmatory Retrospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Shahid; Leis, Anne; Chandra-Kanthan, Selliah; Fields, Anthony; Reeder, Bruce; Iqbal, Nayyer; Haider, Kamal; Le, Duc; Pahwa, Punam

    2016-01-01

    Background: Observational studies have suggested that patients with stage IV colorectal cancer who undergo surgical resection of the primary tumor (SRPT) have better survival. Yet the results are not confirmed in the setting of a randomized controlled trial. Lack of randomization and failure to control prognostic variables such as performance status are major critiques to the findings of the observational studies. We previously have shown that SRPT, independent of chemotherapy and performance status, improves survival of stage IV CRC patients. The current study aims to validate our findings in patients with stage IV CRC who were diagnosed during the period of modern chemotherapy. Methods: A cohort of 569 patients with stage IV CRC diagnosed during 2006-2010 in the province of Saskatchewan was evaluated. Cox regression model was used for the adjustment of prognostic variables. Results: Median age was 69 years (59-95) and M: F was 1.4:1. Fifty-seven percent received chemotherapy, 91.4% received FOLFIRI or FOLFOX & 67% received a biologic agent. Median overall survival (OS) of patients who underwent SRPT and received chemotherapy was 27 months compared with 14 months of the non-resection group (p<0.0001). Median OS of patients who received all active agents and had SRPT was 39 months (95%CI: 25.1-52.9). On multivariate analysis, SRPT, hazard ratio (HR):0.44 (95%CI: 0.35-0.56), use of chemotherapy, HR: 0.33 (95%CI: 0.26-0.43), metastasectomy, HR: 0.43 (95%CI: 0.31-0.58), second line therapy, HR: 0.50 (95%CI: 0.35-0.70), and third line therapy, HR: 0.58 (95%CI: 0.41-0.83) were correlated with superior survival. Conclusions: This study confirms our findings and supports a favorable association between SRPT and survival in patients with stage IV CRC who are treated with modern therapy. PMID:27162543

  2. MRI Evaluation in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Primary Brain Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The progress of the radiology methods, namely introducing mostly MRI into clinical practice, have been useful in pre surgery assessment of brain tumors. Advanced MRI (such as DWI, MRS, PMR) lead to more precise preoperative assessment of brain tumor. MRI is also most suitable method for assessment of brian tumors after neurosurgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy as well as for distinguishing the progression, pseudo progression and postterapeutic injuries. (author)

  3. Oncogene expression in primary lung tumors in dogs that inhaled 239PuO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten radiation-induced and three spontaneous lung tumors were analyzed for aberrant expression of known oncogenes. In 12 of 13 tumors tested, sequences hybridizing to the c-myc oncogene were expressed at levels 1.5 times higher than sequences hybridizing to β-actin. This level of oncogene expression was also observed in 9 of 13 tumors for 1 or more members of the ras family of oncogenes. Seven of thirteen tumors examined express sequences that hybridize with clones of v-ros or c-met. The ros and met clones both code for oncogenes whose normal homologues are transmembrane proteins related to the insulin receptor. (author)

  4. The imaging characteristics of primary bone tumors less than 3 cm in diameter (an analysis of 57 cases)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To analyze the imaging findings of primary bone tumors less than 3 cm in diameter, and to evaluate their imaging characteristics. Methods: Out of 400 cases of primary bone tumors, 57 cases less than 3 cm in diameter (0.6-3.0 cm, mean 1.6 cm) were retrospectively analyzed. There were 33 males and 24 females, and their age ranged from 3.5 to 80.0 years (mean 25.0 years). 31 of the 57 cases were younger than 14 years. 55 cases were benign tumors and 2 were malignant. Radiography was performed in all 57 cases, CT in 16 cases, and MR in 7. Results: X-ray and CT of osteoma showed clearly demarcated and homogeneous bony density (n=9) and inhomogeneous bony density with spot-like higher density within the lesion (n=1). Inhomogeneous iso- or hyperintensity on T1WI and hypo- or isointensity on T2WI without contrast enhancement were demonstrated. X-ray and CT of osteoid osteoma (n=6) revealed oval nidus and hyperdense spots within the nidus (n=5). X-ray and CT of osteoblastoma (n=1) showed a round lesion with clear and sclerosing border, and hyperdense spots were found within the lesion. Chondroma (n=17) included enchondroma (n=15) and ecchondroma (n=2). Sclerosing border at the medullary aspect (n=15) and cortical side (n=10) was demonstrated in enchondroma, but absent at cortical side in 5 cases. The cortex was discontinued and sclerosing border was absent on X-ray film for ecchondroma (n=2). Osteochondroma (n=7) originated from tubular bone (n=6) and flat bone (n=1). The growth direction of the tumor opposed the adjacent joints in tubular bone and protruded into the spinal canal as a lobulated mass in tabular bone (left lamina of vertebra at L3). Chondroblastoma (n=2) located at the proximal epiphysis of the tibia, presenting as a clear and sclerosing bordered oval and expanding lesion with bony destruction. Isointensity on T1WI and heterogeneous iso- or high signal on T2WI was revealed on MR imaging. X-ray, CT, and/or MR findings of ossifying fibroma (n=1), non

  5. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography of the primary tumor in muscle invasive carcinoma of the urinary bladder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patients with muscle invasive carcinoma of the urinary bladder were examined with contrast-enhanced CT of the primary tumor. A specially designed technique was developed to increase the diagnostic potential of CT. The most important points about the technique were controlled filling of the bladder, the use of thin slices, series of scans before and after intravenous injection of contrast medium, and long scanning times in the precontrast series. The absorbed dose to the patient resulting from the new technique was found to be within the range of the dose from urography or barium enema. This dose was considered to be acceptable given the diagnostic gain of the procedure. Features of irradiated bladder tumors were analysed to find which parameter correlated with persistent malignancy. High contrast enhancement of a tumor relative to the bladder wall was found to be the best indicator of a malignant tumour after irradiation. 127 refs

  6. Local effect of stereotactic body radiotherapy for primary and metastatic liver tumors in 130 Japanese patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is a relatively new treatment for liver tumor. The outcomes of SBRT for liver tumor unfit for ablation and surgical resection were evaluated. Liver tumor patients treated with SBRT in seven Japanese institutions were studied retrospectively. Patients given SBRT for liver tumor between 2004 and 2012 were collected. Patients treated with SBRT preceded by trans-arterial chemoembolization (TACE) were eligible. Seventy-nine patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and 51 patients with metastatic liver tumor were collected. The median biologically effective dose (BED) (α/β = 10 Gy) was 96.3 Gy for patients with HCC and 105.6 Gy with metastatic liver tumor. The median follow-up time was 475.5 days in patients with HCC and 212.5 days with metastatic liver tumor. The 2-year local control rate (LCR) for HCC and metastatic liver tumor was 74.8% ± 6.3% and 64.2 ± 9.5% (p = 0.44). The LCR was not different between BED10 ≥ 100 Gy and < 100 Gy (p = 0.61). The LCR was significantly different between maximum tumor diameter > 30 mm vs. ≤ 30 mm (64% vs. 85%, p = 0.040) in all 130 patients. No grade 3 laboratory toxicities in the acute, sub-acute and chronic phases were observed. There was no difference in local control after SBRT in the range of median BED10 around 100 Gy for between HCC and metastatic liver tumor. SBRT is safe and might be an alternative method to resection and ablation. There was no difference in local control after SBRT in the range of median BED10 around 100 Gy for between HCC and metastatic liver tumor and SBRT is safe and might be an alternative method to resection and ablation

  7. Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization combined 125iodine seed implantation for primary hepatic carcinoma with portal vein tumor thrombus thrombosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To assess the therapeutic value of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization combined 125iodine seed implantation for primary hepatic carcinoma with portal vein tumor thrombus. Methods: The data of 23 patients ranging from 34 to 70 years old [average age ( 56 ± 8) years] with primary hepatic carcinoma with portal vein tumor thrombosis of type Ⅱ and type Ⅲ were retrospectively collected. The tumor number of liver parenchyma ranged from 1 to 15 (median number 4). The average diameter of tumor thrombus was (20.5 ± 1.5) mm and average length was (37.4 ± 2.6) mm. All of the tumors of liver parenchyma in 23 patients were treated by transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) and tumor thrombus were treated with 125iodine seed implantation. Before the 125iodine seed implantation, the formula dosage, the number, the spatial distribution, the intensity of radioactivity and the matched peripheral dosage of seed were calculated by treatment planning system (TPS). Then the 125iodine seeds were implanted in different levels and locations of port vein thrombosis under CT guided. Results: The follow-up period ranged from 1 to 26 months. The times of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization were 1 to six times (median time 3.1±0.4) and the 125iodine seed implantation in the port vein thrombosis were 1 to 2 times (median time 1.4 ± 0.5). The numbers of implanted 125iodine seeds were 4 to 17 (median number 7.0 ± 1.0). The median survival time was 18.0 months (3-24 months). The 3,6 and 12 months survival rates were 91.3% (21/23), 69.6% (16/23), and 60.9% (14/23). There was no severe side-effect related to therapy. Conclusions: Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization combined 125iodine seed implantation for portal vein tumor thrombosis could significantly prolong the median survival time of patient with primary hepatic carcinoma with portal vein tumor thrombosis. (authors)

  8. Cerebral glucose metabolism in long-term survivors of childhood primary brain tumors treated with surgery and radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Preben B.; Krabbe, Katja; Leffers, Anne M.; Schmiegelow, Marianne; Holm, Søren; Laursen, Henning; Müller, Jørn R.; Paulson, Olaf B.

    2003-01-01

    Delayed structural cerebral sequelae has been reported following cranial radiation therapy (CRT) to children with primary brain tumors, but little is known about potential functional changes. Twenty-four patients were included, diagnosed and treated at a median age of 11 years, and examined after a...... general reduction in rCMRglc in long-term recurrence free survivors of childhood primary brain tumors treated with CRT in high doses (44-56 Gy)...... evaluable and regional cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (rCMRglc) was estimated in nontumoral brain regions in 12 patients treated with surgery alone and 9 patients treated with both surgery and CRT. Furthermore 10 normal controls matched for age at examination were included. Patients treated with both...

  9. Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for oligometastatic lung tumors from colorectal cancer and other primary cancers in comparison with primary lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To analyze local control of oligometastatic lung tumors (OLTs) compared with that of primary lung cancer after stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). Materials and methods: Retrospective record review of patients with OLTs who received SBRT with 50 Gy in 5 fractions. Local control rates (LCRs), toxicities, and factors of prognostic significance were assessed. Results: Twenty-one colorectal OLTs, 23 OLTs from other origins, and 188 primary lung cancers were included. Multivariate analysis revealed only tumor origin was prognostically significant (p < 0.05). The 1-year/2-year LCRs in colorectal OLTs and OLTs from other origins were 80%/72% and 94%/94%, respectively. The LCR in colorectal OLTs was significantly worse than that in OLTs from the other origins and primary lung cancers with pathological and clinical diagnosis (p < 0.05, p < 0.0001 and p < 0.005). Among 44 OLT patients, Grades 2 and 3 radiation pneumonitis were identified in 2 and 1 patients, respectively. No other toxicities of more than Grade 3 occurred. Conclusion: SBRT for OLTs is tolerable. The LCR for OLTs from origins other than colorectal cancer is excellent. However, LCR for colorectal OLTs is worse than that from other origins. Therefore dose escalation should be considered to achieve good local control for colorectal OLTs.

  10. Glioma stem cells are more aggressive in recurrent tumors with malignant progression than in the primary tumor, and both can be maintained long-term in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the advances made during decades of research, the mechanisms by which glioma is initiated and established remain elusive. The discovery of glioma stem cells (GSCs) may help to elucidate the processes of gliomagenesis with respect to their phenotype, differentiation and tumorigenic capacity during initiation and progression. Research on GSCs is still in its infancy, so no definitive conclusions about their role can yet be drawn. To understand the biology of GSCs fully, it is highly desirable to establish permanent and biologically stable GSC lines. In the current study, GSCs were isolated from surgical specimens of primary and recurrent glioma in a patient whose malignancy had progressed during the previous six months. The GSCs were cryopreserved and resuscitated periodically during long-term maintenance to establish glioma stem/progenitor cell (GSPC) lines, which were characterized by immunofluorescence, flow cytometry and transmission electronic microscopy. The primary and recurrent GSPC lines were also compared in terms of in vivo tumorigenicity and invasiveness. Molecular genetic differences between the two lines were identified by array-based comparative genomic hybridization and further validated by real-time PCR. Two GSPC lines, SU-1 (primary) and SU-2 (recurrent), were maintained in vitro for more than 44 months and 38 months respectively. Generally, the potentials for proliferation, self-renewal and multi-differentiation remained relatively stable even after a prolonged series of alternating episodes of cryopreservation and resuscitation. Intracranial transplantation of SU-1 cells produced relatively less invasive tumor mass in athymic nude mice, while SU-2 cells led to much more diffuse and aggressive lesions strikingly recapitulated their original tumors. Neither SU-1 nor SU-2 cells reached the terminal differentiation stage under conditions that would induce terminal differentiation in neural stem cells. The differentiation of most of the tumor

  11. Uncommon primary tumors of the orbit diagnosed by computed tomography-guided core needle biopsy: report of two cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng Tyng, Chiang; Matushita Jr., João Paulo Kawaoka; Bitencourt, Almir Galvão Vieira; Neves, Flávia Branco Cerqueira Serra; Amoedo, Maurício Kauark; Barbosa, Paula Nicole Vieira; Chojniak, Rubens

    2014-01-01

    Computed tomography-guided percutaneous biopsy is a safe and effective alternative method for evaluating selected intra-orbital lesions where the preoperative diagnosis is important for the therapeutic planning. The authors describe two cases of patients with uncommon primary orbital tumors whose diagnosis was obtained by means of computed tomography-guided core needle biopsy, with emphasis on the technical aspects of the procedure. PMID:25741122

  12. Primary Intracranial Malignant Nerve Sheath Tumor in the Cerebellopontine Angle in a Woman with Neurofibromatosis Type 2

    OpenAIRE

    Bita Geramizadeh; Mehrzad Pourjafar; Ramin Mardani; Negar Azarpira; Saeid Farokhi

    2009-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 2 is an inherited disease. The mainmanifestation of the disease is the development of symmetric,non-malignant brain tumors in the region of the cranial nerveVIII usually as schwannoma. We report here a 20-year-oldwoman with primary intracranial malignant nerve sheath tumorlocated in the left cerebellopontine angle. Histologically, the tumorshowed malignant spindle cells in fascicular pattern withfocal S100 positivity on immunohistochemistry. A subtotal surgicalresection...

  13. Value of Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI to Detect Local Tumor Recurrence in Primary Head and Neck Cancer Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Young Jun; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Sung, Yu Sub; Yoon, Ra Gyoung; Park, Ji Eun; Nam, Soon Yuhl; Baek, Jung Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Treatment failures in head and neck cancer patients are mainly related to locoregional tumor recurrence. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of model-free dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) to detect local recurrence during the surveillance of head and neck cancer patients. Our retrospective study enrolled 24 patients with primary head and neck cancer who had undergone definitive treatment. Patients were grouped into ...

  14. Primary malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor of the lung in a young child without neurofibromatosis type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muwakkit, Samar A; Rodriguez-Galindo, Carlos; El Samra, Ahmad I; Khoury, Ruby; Akel, Samir R; Mroueh, Salman; Razzouk, Bassem; Abboud, Miguel R

    2006-10-15

    Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) are uncommon in children and almost half of the cases occur in patients with neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1). We report a child with a primary MPNST of the lung without NF1. MPNST of the lung has similar clinical and radiologic characteristics as pleuropulmonary blastoma. We suggest to include MPNST of the lung in the differential diagnosis of intrapulmonary masses in children. PMID:16544294

  15. Uncommon primary tumors of the orbit diagnosed by computed tomography-guided core needle biopsy: report of two cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyng, Chiang Jeng; Matushita Junior, Joao Paulo Kawaoka; Bitencourt, Almir Galvao Vieira; Amoedo, Mauricio Kauark; Barbosa, Paula Nicole Vieira; Chojniak, Rubens, E-mail: almirgvb@yahoo.com.br [A.C.Camargo Cancer Center, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Imagem; Neves, Flavia Branco Cerqueira Serra [Hospital do Servidor Publico Estadual, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Div. de Oftalmologia

    2014-11-15

    Computed tomography-guided percutaneous biopsy is a safe and effective alternative method for evaluating selected intra-orbital lesions where the preoperative diagnosis is important for the therapeutic planning. The authors describe two cases of patients with uncommon primary orbital tumors whose diagnosis was obtained by means of computed tomography-guided core needle biopsy, with emphasis on the technical aspects of the procedure. (author)

  16. Hepatopulmonary shunting in patients with primary and secondary liver tumors scheduled for radioembolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powerski, Maciej Janusz, E-mail: maciej.powerski@med.ovgu.de [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Otto-von-Guericke University, Leipziger Strasse 44, 39120 Magdeburg (Germany); Erxleben, Christoph, E-mail: christoph.erxleben@charite.de [Department of Radiology, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353 Berlin (Germany); Scheurig-Münkler, Christian, E-mail: Christian.Scheurig@charite.de [Department of Radiology, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353 Berlin (Germany); Geisel, Dominik, E-mail: dominik.geisel@charite.de [Department of Radiology, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353 Berlin (Germany); Heimann, Uwe, E-mail: uwe.heimann@charite.de [Department of Radiology, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353 Berlin (Germany); Hamm, Bernd, E-mail: bernd.hamm@charite.de [Department of Radiology, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353 Berlin (Germany); Gebauer, Bernhard, E-mail: bernhard.gebauer@charite.de [Department of Radiology, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353 Berlin (Germany)

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: In patients undergoing transarterial radioembolization (RE) of malignant liver tumors, hepatopulmonary shunts (HPS) can lead to nontarget irradiation of the lungs. This study aims at analyzing the HPS fraction in relation to liver volume, tumor volume, tumor-to-liver volume ratio, tumor vascularity, type of tumor, and portal vein occlusion. Materials and methods: In the presented retrospective study the percentage HPS fraction was calculated from SPECT/CT after infusion of Tc-99m macroaggregated albumin (Tc-99m MAA) into the proper hepatic artery of 233 patients evaluated for RE. Results: HPS fractions correlate very weakly with liver volume (r = 0.303), tumor volume (r = 0.345), and tumor-to-liver volume ratio (r = 0.340). Tumors with strong contrast enhancement (HPS{sub median(range)} = 11.7%(46.3%); n = 73) have significantly larger shunt fractions than tumors with little enhancement (HPS = 8.3%(16.4%); n = 61; p < 0.001). Colorectal cancer metastases (HPS = 10.6%(28.6%); n = 68) and hepatocellular cancers (HPS = 11.7%(39.4%); n = 63) have significantly larger HPS fractions than metastases from breast cancer (HPS = 7.4%(16.7%); n = 40; p = 0.012 and p = 0.001). Patients with compression (HPS = 13.9%(43.7%); n = 33) or tumor thrombosis (HPS = 15.8% (31.2%); n = 33) of a major portal vein branch have significantly higher degrees of shunting than patients with normal portal vein perfusion (HPS = 8.1% (47.0%); n = 167; both p < 0.001). The shunt fraction is largest in patients with HCC and thrombosis or occlusion of a major portal vein branch (HPS = 16.6% (31.0%); n = 32). Conclusion: The degree of hepatopulmonary shunting depends on the type of liver tumor, tumor vascularity, and portal vein perfusion. There is little to no correlation of HPS with liver volume, tumor volume, or tumor-to-liver volume ratio.

  17. A primary inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the scapula in a child: imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inarejos Clemente, Emilio J.; Riaza Martin, Lucia [University of Barcelona, Hospital Sant Joan de Deu, Barcelona (Spain); Esplugues de Llobregat, Barcelona (Spain); Vilanova, Joan C. [University of Girona, Clinica Girona, Hospital Sta. Caterina, Girona (Spain); Guirao-Marin, Sara [CETIR Clinica Girona-ERESA, Girona (Spain)

    2015-05-01

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is an uncommon tumor characterized by inflammatory cell infiltration and differentiated myofibroblastic spindle cells. IMT was first described in the lung and retroperitoneum. Occurrence in bone has been well described in the maxilla and occasionally in the long bones in the adult population. We present a unique case of IMT arising primarily from the scapula in an 8-year-old patient, not described previously in the pediatric or adult literature. Imaging demonstrated an ill-defined and aggressive osteolytic lesion with cortical bone destruction associated with an important soft tissue component that extended into the adjacent muscles. Histologically, the tumor was composed of spindle and polygonal cells distributed in an inflammatory background with different proportions of plasma cells, lymphocytes, eosinophils and neutrophils. The absence of cellular atypia helped to differentiate this entity from malignant spindle cell tumors, and imaging could differentiate the tumor from the nontumoral inflammatory reaction. (orig.)

  18. [Primary research on anti-tumor activity of panaxadiol fatty acid esters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chun-Hong; Zhang, Lian-Xue; Li, Xiang-Gao; Gao, Yu-Gang; Liu, Ya-Jing

    2006-11-01

    For making use of Ginseng resources and finding new anti-tumor drugs, the anti-tumor activity of three kinds of new panaxadiol fatty acid ester derivates: 3beta-acetoxy panaxadiol (I), 3beta-palmitic acid aceloxy panaxadiol (II), 3beta-octadecanoic acid aceloxy panaxadiol (Ill) and panaxaiol were compared through the method of cell stain and counting. Tumor cell was Vero cell line. Positive control was 5-FU. Blank was RPM11640 culture medium. Negative control was RPM11640 culture medium and the solvent for subjected drugs. The result showed that compound I had the strongest anti-tumor activity, second was panaxadiol, II and III had the same and the weakest antitumor activity. Furthermore, the anti-tumor activities of panaxadiol fatty acid ester derivates showed positive correlation with subjects' concentrations, but no relationship with molecular weight of fatty acid. PMID:17228662

  19. A primary inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the scapula in a child: imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is an uncommon tumor characterized by inflammatory cell infiltration and differentiated myofibroblastic spindle cells. IMT was first described in the lung and retroperitoneum. Occurrence in bone has been well described in the maxilla and occasionally in the long bones in the adult population. We present a unique case of IMT arising primarily from the scapula in an 8-year-old patient, not described previously in the pediatric or adult literature. Imaging demonstrated an ill-defined and aggressive osteolytic lesion with cortical bone destruction associated with an important soft tissue component that extended into the adjacent muscles. Histologically, the tumor was composed of spindle and polygonal cells distributed in an inflammatory background with different proportions of plasma cells, lymphocytes, eosinophils and neutrophils. The absence of cellular atypia helped to differentiate this entity from malignant spindle cell tumors, and imaging could differentiate the tumor from the nontumoral inflammatory reaction. (orig.)

  20. Primary study on the detection of hepatic tumors with spectral CT monochromatic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of spectral CT monochromatic imaging on the detection of hepatic tumors. Methods: Forty-two patients with hepatic tumors (14 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, 12 patients with metastatic tumor, 16 patients with hemangioma) underwent CT spectral imaging. During arterial phase, portal phase and venous phase, 140 kVp polychromatic images and 70 keV monochromatic images were obtained. Paired-sample t tests were used to compare the image quality score, liver noise and tumor-to-liver contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) between the two image data sets. The detection rates of various tumors during each phase were compared. Results: The image quality scores of various tumors during three phases were (4.30±0.25) and (3.63±0.22) averagely for the 70 keV and 140 kVp images. The liver noises were (8.82±0.82) and (10.66±1.10), and the CNRs were 5.39 and 3.89, respectively. The image quality score, the liver noise and the CNR of 70 keV images were significantly greater than those of 140 kVp images (P<0.05). The detection rates of various tumors during each phase were higher with 70 keV images (78%-100%) than with 140 kVp images (65%-96%), except the hepatic metastatic tumors and the hepatic hemangiomas during the arterial phase. The detection rate was more increased for the small lesions less than 1 cm (57%-100% vs. 14%-91%). Conclusion: By substantially improving the image quality and increasing the tumor-of-liver conspicuity, the 70 keV monochromatic imaging of spectral CT improves the detection of hepatic tumors and is more sensitive for the detection of small lesions. (authors)

  1. Primary intraosseous desmoplastic small round cell tumor of the calvarium: Case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim Khachaturov, MD

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT is a rare, aggressive malignancy typically occurring intra-abdominally in young adolescent males. Rare extra-abdominal primaries have been reported in the mediastinum, head and neck area, central nervous system, paratesticular region, visceral organs, and soft tissue. We report a primary intraosseous DSRCT of the calvarium in a 6-year-old male who presented with right ear pain and swelling. Imaging showed an aggressive-appearing permeative mixed lytic and sclerotic lesion of the right sphenoid and temporal bones with extensive periosteal reaction, clinically concerning for osteosarcoma. An open biopsy was performed, and the tumor was composed of primitive round cells with perinuclear cytoplasmic clearing, arranged in diffuse sheets and ill-defined nests and surrounded by a prominent desmoplastic stroma. Immunohistochemically the tumor cells were reactive for desmin (dot-like, CD99 (membranous and cytokeratin AE1/3 (focal. EWSR1-WT1 chimeric fusion transcript was detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Sequencing of the fusion transcript revealed a rare in-frame junction of EWSR1 exon 10 to WT1 exon 8. This is the third documented case of an intraosseous DSRCT with molecular confirmation, but it is the first reported case to arise in the calvarium. While the diagnosis of DSRCT is usually straightforward in the classic clinical setting of an intra-abdominal mass, awareness that this entity may present as a bone primary is necessary to prevent misclassification as osteosarcoma or other malignancy.

  2. Comparison of Expression Profiles of Metastatic versus Primary Mammary Tumors in MMTV-Wnt-1 and MMTV-Neu Transgenic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shixia Huang

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Distant metastases of human breast cancers have been suggested to be more different from each other than from their respective primary tumors, based on expression profiling. The mechanism behind this lack of similarity between individual metastases is not known. We used cDNA microarrays to determine the expression profiles of pulmonary metastases and primary mammary tumors in two distinct transgenic models expressing either the Neu or the Wnt-1 oncogene from the mouse mammary tumor virus long terminal repeat (MMTV LTR. We found that pulmonary metastases are similar to each other and to their primary tumors within the same line. However, metastases arising in one transgenic mouse line are very different from either metastases or primary tumors arising in the other line. In addition, we found that, like their primary tumors, lung metastases in Wnt-1 transgenic mice harbor both epithelial and myoepithelial tumor cells and cells that express the putative progenitor cell marker keratin 6. Our data suggest that both gene expression profiles and cellular heterogeneity are preserved after breast cancer has spread to distant sites, and that metastases are similar to each other when their primary tumors were induced by the same oncogene and from the same subset of mammary cells.

  3. A prospective comparative clinical study of peripheral blood counts and indices in patients with primary brain tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subeikshanan, V; Dutt, A; Basu, D; Tejus, MN; Maurya, VP; Madhugiri, VS

    2016-01-01

    Background: Elevation of the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has been shown to be an indicator of poor prognosis in many malignancies including recurrent glioblastoma multiforme. Objectives: This study was aimed at assessing if the NLR and other leukocyte counts and indices were deranged in treatment-naïve patients with primary brain tumors when compared with an age-matched healthy control group. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective comparative clinical observational study by design. A healthy control population was compared with treatment-naïve patients diagnosed with intra- and extraaxial brain tumors. Leukocyte counts (neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, eosinophil, and basophil counts) as well as leukocyte ratios such as the NLR and the monocyte to lymphocyte ratio (MLR) were calculated. We also evaluated if the counts and indices were related to the tumor volume. Results: In all patients with tumors, the platelet and neutrophil counts were elevated when compared to the controls. In contrast, monocyte counts and the MLR were found to be decreased in patients with tumors when compared to the controls. The subset of patients with glioblastoma showed a significant increase in NLR when compared to the controls. Conclusions: Significant changes in the neutrophil, monocyte, and platelet counts as well as NLR and MLR were observed. Prospective longitudinal studies are required to determine the prognostic and therapeutic implications of these findings. PMID:27089106

  4. Are preoperative sex-related differences of affective symptoms in primary brain tumor patients associated with postoperative histopathological grading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Andre; Jenewein, J; Krayenbühl, N; Woernle, C; Bellut, D

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to explore the impact of the histopathological tumor type on affective symptoms before surgery among male and female patients with supratentorial primary brain tumors. A total of 44 adult patients were included in the study. Depression and anxiety were measured using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Additionally, clinical interviews, including the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), were conducted. The general function of patients was measured with the Karnofsky Performance Status scale (KPS). All measures were obtained before surgery and therefore before the final histopathological diagnosis. All self-rating questionnaires but not the HDRS, showed significantly higher scores in female patients. The functional status assessed with the KPS was lower in female patients and correlated to the somatic part of the BDI. We further found a tendency for higher HDRS scores in male patients with a WHO grade 4 tumor stage compared to female patients. This finding was supported by positive correlations between HDRS scores and WHO grade in male and negative correlations between HDRS scores and WHO grade in female patients. In conclusion the preoperative evaluation of affective symptoms with self-rating questionnaires in patients with brain tumors may be invalidated by the patient’s functional status. Depression should be explored with clinical interviews in these patients. Sex differences of affective symptoms in this patient group may also be related to the malignancy of the tumor, but further studies are needed to disentangle this relationship. PMID:26468140

  5. Primary Tumor Volume Is an Important Predictor of Clinical Outcomes Among Patients With Locally Advanced Squamous Cell Cancer of the Head and Neck Treated With Definitive Chemoradiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The tumor volume has been established as a significant predictor of outcomes among patients with head-and-neck cancer undergoing radiotherapy alone. The present study attempted to add to the existing data on tumor volume as a prognostic factor among patients undergoing chemoradiotherapy. Methods and Materials: A total of 78 patients who had undergone definitive chemoradiotherapy for Stage III-IV squamous cell cancer of the hypopharynx, oropharynx, and larynx were identified. The primary tumor volumes were calculated from the treatment planning computed tomography scans, and these were correlated to the survival and tumor control data obtained from the retrospective analysis. Results: The interval to progression correlated with the primary tumor volume (p = .007). The critical cutoff point for the tumor volume was identified as 35 cm3, and patients with a tumor volume 3 had a significantly better prognosis than those with a tumor volume >35 cm3 at 5 years (43% vs. 71%, p = .010). Longer survival was also correlated with smaller primary tumor volumes (p = .022). Similarly, patients with a primary tumor volume 3 had a better prognosis in terms of both progression-free survival (61% vs. 33%, p = .004) and overall survival (84% vs. 41%, p = 3 larger than tumors without locoregional failure (p = .028) and 27.1-cm3 larger than tumors that recurred as distant metastases (p = .020). Conclusion: The results of our study have shown that the primary tumor volume is a significant prognostic factor in patients with advanced cancer of the head and neck undergoing definitive chemoradiotherapy and correlated with the treatment outcomes better than the T or N stage.

  6. Value of computerized tomography in the diagnosis of primary and recurrent pituitary gland tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of cranial computerized tomography (CCT) of 33 patients with questionable space-occupying lesions in the sella-region are compared with clinical, radiological and surgical reports. Five pituitary gland tumors could be detected for the first time. Four of them are verified by surgery. In eight cases recurrent pituitary glant tumors are suspected. Surprisingly these tumors could be found by surgery only in three cases, while in the remaining five cases only scar-tissue was demonstrable. The high accuracy of CCT in the detection of pituitary gland tumors and the possibility to save the patient expensive and high invasive examinations as well, makes CCT in the presence of corresponding clinical signs to a diagnostic 'must'. It is undecided whether in the cases with possible recurrent tumors, there are real recurrent tumors, which could not be detected by surgery, or only scar tissue. In the latter case scar tissue and recurrent pituitary gland tumors are very similar with CCT. (orig.) 891 MG/orig. 892 CKA

  7. Prognostic value of maximum diameter in axial plane of primary tumor on MRI in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the prognostic value of maximum diameter in axial plane of primary tumor (MDAPPT) on MRI in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods: From 2005 to 2007, 333 patients with newly diagnosed and biopsy-proven NPC without distant metastasis, who underwent MRI scans of the nasopharynx and neck, were included in our study. MDAPPT was measured on MRI. The univariate analysis with the log-rank test and multivariate analysis with the Cox proportional hazards model were used to analyze the relationship between MDAPPT and prognosis. Results: The median values of MDAPPT in patients with T1, T2, T3, and T4 NPC were 21.2, 30.0, 38.0, and 52.3 mm, respectively. For all patients with a MDAPPT of ≤30 mm, > 30-50 mm, and > 50 mm, the 5-year overall survival (OS) rates were 81.3%, 70.1%, and 51.5%, respectively (P =0.000); the 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) rates were 81.3%, 70.0%, and 48.9%, respectively (P =0.000); the 5-year distant metastasis free survival (DMFS) rates were 85.5%, 86.5%, and 67.2%, respectively (P =0.000); the 5-year local relapse-free survival (LRFS) rates were 97.7%, 91.5%, and 83.3%, respectively (P =0.013). The multivariate analysis showed that MDAPPT was a prognostic factor for PFS and DMFS. For the T3-T4 patients with a MDAPPT of ≤50 mm and >50 mm, the 5-year OS rates were 69.4% and 52.2% (P =0.004), the 5-year PFS rates were 68.0% and 49.6% (P =0.001), and the 5-year DMFS rates were 84.0% and 66.8% (P=0.001). In the patients with a MDAPPT ≤30 mm, the 5-year LRFS rates for those with T1, T2, T3, and T4 NPC were 100%, 95.8%, 96.3%, and 100%, respectively (P=0.643). Conclusions: MDAPPT is a prognostic factor for PFS and DMFS in NPC, and it is an important prognostic factor in patients with T3-T4 NPC. In the NPC patients with a small MDAPPT, local control rate varies little in different T stages. (authors)

  8. Primary mixed germ cell tumor of the liver with sarcomatous components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Germ cell tumor(GCT)of the liver is extremely rare. Here,we describe a case of hepatic mixed GCT with significant sarcomatous components and elevated serum α-fetoprotein(AFP)in a 34-year-old man.Histopathologically,the tumor was composed of two GCTs components:yolk sac tumor and immature teratoma.The predominant components of immature teratoma consisted of several types of tissue that represented different germinal layers(endoderm,mesoderm and ectoderm) and showed varying degrees of differentiation with sig...

  9. Three distinct co-existent primary brain tumors in a patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyer Veena

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A rare case of simultaneous occurrence of three entirely distinct intracranial tumors is described. A 55-year-old male with no evidence of phacomatoses or history of radiation therapy presented with complaints of increased drowsiness, headaches, and dysarthria. Investigations revealed an olfactory groove meningioma, a glioblastoma multiforme in the left medial temporal lobe, and a diffuse glioma in the brain stem. Occurrence of multiple varieties of tumors at the same time is extremely rare. Theories that explain their occurrences including the role of common carcinogens, autocrine growth factors, and tumor suppressor genes are discussed.

  10. Life course social mobility and risk of upper aerodigestive tract cancer in men.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Schmeisser, N

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to explore associations between social mobility and tumours of the upper aero-digestive tract (UADT), focussing on life-course transitions in social prestige (SP) based on occupational history. 1,796 cases diagnosed between 1993 and 2005 in ten European countries were compared with 1585 controls. SP was classified by the Standard International Occupational Prestige Scale (SIOPS) based on job histories. SIOPS was categorised in high (H), medium (M) and low (L). Time weighted average achieved and transitions between SP with nine trajectories: H --> H, H --> M, H --> L, M --> H, M --> M, M --> L, L --> H, L --> M and L --> L were analysed. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95%-confidence intervals [95%-CIs] were estimated with logistic regression models including age, consumption of fruits\\/vegetables, study centre, smoking and alcohol consumption. The adjusted OR for the lowest versus the highest of three categories (time weighted average of SP) was 1.28 [1.04-1.56]. The distance of SP widened between cases and controls during working life. The downward trajectory H --> L gave an OR of 1.71 [0.75-3.87] as compared to H --> H. Subjects with M --> M and L --> L trajectories ORs were also elevated relative to subjects with H --> H trajectories. The association between SP and UADT is not fully explained by confounding factors. Downward social trajectory during the life course may be an independent risk factor for UADT cancers.

  11. Population attributable risk of tobacco and alcohol for upper aerodigestive tract cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Anantharaman, Devasena

    2011-08-01

    Tobacco and alcohol are major risk factors for upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancer and significant variation is observed in UADT cancer rates across Europe. We have estimated the proportion of UADT cancer burden explained by tobacco and alcohol and how this varies with the incidence rates across Europe, cancer sub-site, gender and age. This should help estimate the minimum residual burden of other risk factors to UADT cancer, including human papillomavirus. We analysed 1981 UADT cancer cases and 1993 controls from the ARCAGE multicentre study. We estimated the population attributable risk (PAR) of tobacco alone, alcohol alone and their joint effect. Tobacco and alcohol together explained 73% of UADT cancer burden of which nearly 29% was explained by smoking alone, less than 1% due to alcohol on its own and 44% by the joint effect of tobacco and alcohol. Tobacco and alcohol together explained a larger proportion of hypopharyngeal\\/laryngeal cancer (PAR=85%) than oropharyngeal (PAR=74%), esophageal (PAR=67%) and oral cancer (PAR=61%). Tobacco and alcohol together explain only about half of the total UADT cancer burden among women. Geographically, tobacco and alcohol explained a larger proportion of UADT cancer in central (PAR=84%) than southern (PAR=72%) and western Europe (PAR=67%). While the majority of the UADT cancers in Europe are due to tobacco or the joint effect of tobacco and alcohol, our results support a significant role for other risk factors in particular, for oral and oropharyngeal cancers and also for UADT cancers in southern and western Europe.

  12. CT-guided thin needles percutaneous cryoablation (PCA) in patients with primary and secondary lung tumors: A preliminary experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pusceddu, Claudio, E-mail: clapusceddu@gmail.com [Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Oncological Radiology, Businco Hospital, Regional Referral Center for Oncologic Diseases, Cagliari, Zip code 09100 (Italy); Sotgia, Barbara, E-mail: barbara.sotgia@gmail.com [Department of Oncological Radiology, Businco Hospital, Regional Referral Center for Oncological Diseases, Cagliari, Zip code 09100 (Italy); Fele, Rosa Maria, E-mail: rosellafele@tiscali.it [Department of Oncological Radiology, Businco Hospital, Regional Referral Center for Oncological Diseases, Cagliari, Zip code 09100 (Italy); Melis, Luca, E-mail: doclucamelis@tiscali.it [Department of Oncological Radiology, Businco Hospital, Regional Referral Center for Oncological Diseases, Cagliari, Zip code 09100 (Italy)

    2013-05-15

    Purpose: To report the data of our initial experience with CT-guided thin cryoprobes for percutaneous cryoablation (PCA) in patients with primary and secondary pulmonary tumors. Material and methods: CT-guided thin needles PCA was performed on 34 lung masses (11 NSCLC = 32%; 23 secondary lung malignancies = 68%) in 32 consecutive patients (24 men and 8 women; mean age 67 ± 10 years) not suitable for surgical resection. Lung masses were treated using two types of cryoprobes: IceRod and IceSeed able to obtain different size of iceball. The number of probes used ranged from 1 to 5 depending on the size of the tumor. After insertion of the cryoprobes into the lesion, the PCA were performed with two 2 (91%) or 3 (9%) cycles each of 12 min of freezing followed by a 4 min active thawing phase and a 4 min passive thawing phase for each one for all treatments. Results: All cryoablation sessions were successfully completed. All primary and metastatic lung tumors were ablated. No procedure-related deaths occurred. Morbidity consisted of 21% (7 of 34) pneumothorax and 3% (1 of 34) cases asymptomatic small pulmonary hemorrhage, respectively, all of CTCAE grade 1 (Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events). Low density of entire lesion, central necrosis and solid mass appearance were identify in 21 (62%), 7 (21%) and 6 (17%) of cryoablated tumors, respectively. No lymphadenopathy developed in the region of treated lesions. Technical success (complete lack of enhancement) was achieved in 82%, 97% and 91% of treated lesions at 1-, 3- and 6-months CT follow-up scan, respectively (p < .000). Comparing the tumor longest diameter between the baseline and at 6 month CT images, technical success was revealed in 92% cases (p < .000). Conclusion: Our preliminary experience suggests that PCA is a feasible treatment option. Well-designed clinical trials with a larger patient population are necessary to further investigate the long-term results and prognostic factors.

  13. Effect of duration of scan acquisition on CT perfusion parameter values in primary and metastatic tumors in the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: To assess the effect of acquisition duration (Tacq) and pre-enhancement set points (T1) on computer tomography perfusion (CTp) parameter values in primary and metastatic tumors in the lung. Materials and methods: 24 lung CTp datasets (10 primary; 14 metastatic), acquired using a two phase protocol spanning 125 s, in 12 patients with lung tumors, were analyzed by deconvolution modeling to yield tumor blood flow (BF), blood volume (BV), mean transit time (MTT), and permeability (PS) values. CTp analyses were undertaken for the reference dataset (i.e., T1 = t0) with varying Tacq from 12 to 125 s. This was repeated for shifts in T1 (±0.5 s, ±1.0 s, ±2.0 s relative to the reference at t0). Resultant CTp values were plotted against Tacq; values at 30 s, 50 s, 65 s and 125 s were compared using linear mixed model. Results: All CTp parameter values were noticeably influenced by Tacq, with generally less marked changes beyond 50 s, and with no difference in behavior between primary and secondary tumors. Apart from BV, which attained a plateau at approximately 50 s, the other three CTp parameters did not reach steady-state values within the available 125 s of data, with values at 30 s, 50 s and 65 s significantly different from 125 s (p 1 also affected the CTp parameters values, with positive shifts having greater impact on CTp values than negative shifts. Conclusion: CTp parameter values derived from deconvolution modeling can be markedly affected by Tacq, and pre-enhancement set-points. 50 s acquisition may be adequate for BV, but longer than 125 s is probably required for reliable characterization of the other three CTp parameters

  14. Effect of duration of scan acquisition on CT perfusion parameter values in primary and metastatic tumors in the lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, Chaan S., E-mail: cng@mdanderson.org [Departments of Diagnostic Radiology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Chandler, Adam G., E-mail: adam.chandler@mdanderson.org [Departments of Imaging Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); CT research, GE Healthcare, Waukesha, Wisconsin (United States); Wei, Wei, E-mail: wwei@mdanderson.org [Departments of Biostatistics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Anderson, Ella F., E-mail: eanderson@mdanderson.org [Departments of Diagnostic Radiology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Herron, Delise H., E-mail: dherron@mdanderson.org [Departments of Diagnostic Radiology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Kurzrock, Razelle, E-mail: rkurzrock@ucsd.edu [Departments of Investigational Cancer Therapeutics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Charnsangavej, Chusilp, E-mail: ccharn@mdanderson.org [Departments of Diagnostic Radiology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Objectives: To assess the effect of acquisition duration (T{sub acq}) and pre-enhancement set points (T{sub 1}) on computer tomography perfusion (CTp) parameter values in primary and metastatic tumors in the lung. Materials and methods: 24 lung CTp datasets (10 primary; 14 metastatic), acquired using a two phase protocol spanning 125 s, in 12 patients with lung tumors, were analyzed by deconvolution modeling to yield tumor blood flow (BF), blood volume (BV), mean transit time (MTT), and permeability (PS) values. CTp analyses were undertaken for the reference dataset (i.e., T{sub 1} = t{sub 0}) with varying T{sub acq} from 12 to 125 s. This was repeated for shifts in T{sub 1} (±0.5 s, ±1.0 s, ±2.0 s relative to the reference at t{sub 0}). Resultant CTp values were plotted against T{sub acq}; values at 30 s, 50 s, 65 s and 125 s were compared using linear mixed model. Results: All CTp parameter values were noticeably influenced by T{sub acq}, with generally less marked changes beyond 50 s, and with no difference in behavior between primary and secondary tumors. Apart from BV, which attained a plateau at approximately 50 s, the other three CTp parameters did not reach steady-state values within the available 125 s of data, with values at 30 s, 50 s and 65 s significantly different from 125 s (p < 0.004). Shifts in T{sub 1} also affected the CTp parameters values, with positive shifts having greater impact on CTp values than negative shifts. Conclusion: CTp parameter values derived from deconvolution modeling can be markedly affected by T{sub acq}, and pre-enhancement set-points. 50 s acquisition may be adequate for BV, but longer than 125 s is probably required for reliable characterization of the other three CTp parameters.

  15. Clinical Features and Mid-Term and Long-Term Outcomes of Surgical Treatment of 8 Patients with Primary Ventricular Tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JianminYao; QingrenJia; QirenCheng; NingLu; XiangdongZhao; ZhibinXiao; XiaomengZhang

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To summarize the clinical features and surgical treatment of primary ventricular tumors. METHODS Eight patients with primary ventricular tumor, aged 3 to 52 years, underwent surgical treatment. There were 6 males and 2 females. The pathological diagnoses were as follows: multiple left ventricular myxomas in 2 cases; left ventricular rhabclomyoma, fibroma and malignant neurolemmoma in 1 case for each; right ventricular myxoma and malignant neurolemmoma in 1 case for each; intraseptal fibroma in 1 case. The operations were performed through median sternotomy with moderate hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass in 7 cases; via left anterolateral thoracotomy without extracorporeal circulation in 1 case. Tumors were totally removed in 7 cases and subtotally resectecl in 1 case. RESULTS Cardiac arrest after anaesthetization occurred in 1 case with postoperative coma for 10 days. One case died of massive gastro-intestinal hemorrhage postoperatively. Seven cases survived, During a follow-up period of 1 to 21 years, there was no recurrence or metastasis in the 6 cases who received complete tumor resection including 2 cases with malignant tumor. One case of partial tumor removal had a mild heart murmur without tumor progression. All patients were asymptomatic with cardiac functiongrade I. CONCLUSION Primary ventricular tumors showed diversity in their histological characteristics. The mid- and long-term outcomes of surgical treatment for primary ventricular tumors appear to be satisfactory.

  16. Wnt3a expression is associated with MMP-9 expression in primary tumor and metastatic site in recurrent or stage IV colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is known to affect in cancer oncogenesis and progression by interacting with the tumor microenvironment. However, the roles of wnt3a and wnt5a in colorectal cancer (CRC) have not been thoroughly studied. In the present study, we investigated the expression of wnt protein and the concordance rate in primary tumor and metastatic sites in CRC. To determine the relationship of wnt proteins with invasion related protein, we also analyzed the association between wnt protein expression and the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2). Tumor tissue was obtained from eighty-three paraffin- embedded blocks which were using resected tissue from both the primary tumor and metastatic sites for each patient. We performed immunohistochemical staining for wnt3a, wnt5a, β-catenin, MMP-9 and VEGFR-2. Wnt3a, wnt5a, β-catenin, and MMP-9 expression was high; the proteins were found in over 50% of the primary tumors, but the prevalence was lower in tissue from metastatic sites. The concordance rates between the primary tumor and metastatic site were 76.2% for wnt5a and 79.4% for wnt3a and β-catenin, but VEGFR-2 was expressed in 67.4% of the metastatic sites even when not found in the primary tumor. Wnt3a expression in primary tumors was significantly associated with lymph node involvement (p = 0.038) and MMP-9 expression in the primary tumor (p = 0.0387), mesenchyme adjacent to tumor (p = 0.022) and metastatic site (p = 0.004). There was no other relationship in the expression of these proteins. Vascular invasion in primary tumor tissue may be a potential prognostic marker for liver metastasis, but no significant association was observed among the wnt protein, MMP-9, and VEGFR-2 for peritoneal seeding. In survival analysis, β-catenin expression was significantly correlated with overall survival (p = 0.05). Wnt3a and wnt5a expression had a concordance rate higher than 60% with a

  17. Differentiation of primary chordoma, giant cell tumor and schwannoma of the sacrum by CT and MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Si, Ming-Jue, E-mail: smjsh@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025 (China); Wang, Cheng-Sheng [Department of Radiology, Union Hospital, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou 350001 (China); Ding, Xiao-Yi, E-mail: dingxiaoyi1965@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025 (China); Yuan, Fei, E-mail: yuanfeirj@hotmail.com [Department of Pathology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025 (China); Du, Lian-Jun; Lu, Yong [Department of Radiology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025 (China); Zhang, Wei-Bin [Department of Orthopedics, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025 (China)

    2013-12-01

    Objective: To evaluate criteria to differentiate sacral chordoma (SC), sacral giant cell tumor (SGCT) and giant sacral schwannoma (GSS) with CT and MRI. Materials and methods: CT and MR images of 22 SCs, 19 SGCTs and 8 GSSs were reviewed. The clinical and imaging features of each tumor were analyzed. Results: The mean ages of SC, SGCT and GSS were 55.1 ± 10.7, 34.3 ± 10.7 and 42.4 ± 15.7 years old. SCs (77.3%) were predominantly located in the midline of lower sacrum, while most SGCTs (73.7%) and GSSs (87.5%) were eccentrically located in upper sacrum. There were significant differences in age, location, eccentricity, morphology of bone residues, intratumoral bleeding and septations. Multiple small cysts were mainly observed in SGCTs (73.7%) with large central cysts in GSSs (87.5%). SGCTs expanded mainly inside sacrum while SCs and GSSs often extended into pelvic cavity (P = 0.0022). Involvement of sacroiliac joints and muscles were also different. Ascending extension within sacral canal was only displayed in SCs. The preservation of intervertebral discs showed difference between large and small tumors (P = 0.0002), regardless of tumor type (P = 0.095). No significant difference was displayed in gender (P = 0.234) or tumor size (P = 0.0832) among three groups. Conclusion: Age, epicenter of the lesion (midline vs. eccentric and upper vs. lower sacral vertebra), bone residues, cysts, bleeding, septation, expanding pattern, muscles and sacroiliac joint involvement can be criteria for diagnosis. Fluid–fluid level is specific for SGCTs and ascending extension within the sacral canal for SCs. The preservation of intervertebral discs is related to tumor size rather than tumor type.

  18. Differentiation of primary chordoma, giant cell tumor and schwannoma of the sacrum by CT and MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate criteria to differentiate sacral chordoma (SC), sacral giant cell tumor (SGCT) and giant sacral schwannoma (GSS) with CT and MRI. Materials and methods: CT and MR images of 22 SCs, 19 SGCTs and 8 GSSs were reviewed. The clinical and imaging features of each tumor were analyzed. Results: The mean ages of SC, SGCT and GSS were 55.1 ± 10.7, 34.3 ± 10.7 and 42.4 ± 15.7 years old. SCs (77.3%) were predominantly located in the midline of lower sacrum, while most SGCTs (73.7%) and GSSs (87.5%) were eccentrically located in upper sacrum. There were significant differences in age, location, eccentricity, morphology of bone residues, intratumoral bleeding and septations. Multiple small cysts were mainly observed in SGCTs (73.7%) with large central cysts in GSSs (87.5%). SGCTs expanded mainly inside sacrum while SCs and GSSs often extended into pelvic cavity (P = 0.0022). Involvement of sacroiliac joints and muscles were also different. Ascending extension within sacral canal was only displayed in SCs. The preservation of intervertebral discs showed difference between large and small tumors (P = 0.0002), regardless of tumor type (P = 0.095). No significant difference was displayed in gender (P = 0.234) or tumor size (P = 0.0832) among three groups. Conclusion: Age, epicenter of the lesion (midline vs. eccentric and upper vs. lower sacral vertebra), bone residues, cysts, bleeding, septation, expanding pattern, muscles and sacroiliac joint involvement can be criteria for diagnosis. Fluid–fluid level is specific for SGCTs and ascending extension within the sacral canal for SCs. The preservation of intervertebral discs is related to tumor size rather than tumor type

  19. Sex Differences in the Recurrence Rate and Risk Factors for Primary Giant Cell Tumors Around the Knee in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yongcheng; Zhao, Liming; Zhang, Huilin; Yu, Xiuchun; Wang, Zhen; Ye, Zhaoming; Wu, Sujia; Guo, Shibing; Zhang, Guochuan; Wang, Jinghua; Ning, Xianjia

    2016-01-01

    Although giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB) is more common in women in Western countries, it tends to be more common in men in Asian countries. We aimed to determine the sex differences in clinical characteristics, local recurrence rate, and relevant risk factors for local recurrence in primary GCTB around the knee. Between March 2000 and June 2014, patients with primary GCTB around the knee were recruited from 7 institutions in China, and 410 patients were included. The age at diagnosis was younger in women than in men (34.0 vs 37.2 years). The local recurrence rates were 23.4% overall, 25.8% in men, and 20.7% in women. Lower local recurrence rates were observed with en-bloc marginal resection in both men (6.9%) and women (3.1%). With tumors located in the distal femur, the local recurrence rate was higher for men than for women (29.1% vs 14.3%, P = 0.025). Local recurrence was significantly associated with the tumor location and surgical operation in men and only surgical operation in women. These findings suggest that more aggressive operations should be considered in men with GCTB in the proximal fibula. PMID:27321308

  20. Time course of hypothalamic-pituitary deficiency in adults receiving cranial radiotherapy for primary extrasellar brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: No longitudinal data on hypothalamic-pituitary (HP) function are available in patients who had received cranial radiation therapy (CRT) for primary extrasellar brain tumors (PBT). Purpose: To investigate the effects of CRT on HP function in adults with PBT. Patients and methods: Twenty-six adults irradiated for PBT and six CRT naive controls were studied. CRT was delivered with 6 MV X-ray by a linear accelerator (2 Gy fraction schedule). Gross Tumor Volume (GTV) excluded the HP region that was contoured on the planning CT. Median dose to the HP region was 41.8 Gy (IQR: 30.7-49.8). Results: All controls maintained normal HP function. Hypopituitarism developed in 38% of CRT patients (GH deficiency 29%, ACTH 22%, TSH 14%, gonadotropin 4%, no abnormal prolactin level or diabetes insipidus). All HP failures occurred within 32 months after CRT. Conclusions: Adults undergoing CRT for PBT are at increased risk for HP dysfunction within 3 years from CRT. Endocrine surveillance is recommended also in adults patients exposed to CRT for primary brain tumors distant from HP region.

  1. Gene expression profiles in primary pancreatic tumors and metastatic lesions of Ela-c-myc transgenic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liao Dezhong J

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pancreatic carcinoma usually is a fatal disease with no cure, mainly due to its invasion and metastasis prior to diagnosis. We analyzed the gene expression profiles of paired primary pancreatic tumors and metastatic lesions from Ela-c-myc transgenic mice in order to identify genes that may be involved in the pancreatic cancer progression. Differentially expressed selected genes were verified by semi-quantitative and quantitative RT-PCR. To further evaluate the relevance of some of the selected differentially expressed genes, we investigated their expression pattern in human pancreatic cancer cell lines with high and low metastatic potentials. Results Data indicate that genes involved in posttranscriptional regulation were a major functional category of upregulated genes in both primary pancreatic tumors (PT and liver metastatic lesions (LM compared to normal pancreas (NP. In particular, differential expression for splicing factors, RNA binding/pre-mRNA processing factors and spliceosome related genes were observed, indicating that RNA processing and editing related events may play critical roles in pancreatic tumor development and progression. High expression of insulin growth factor binding protein-1 (Igfbp1 and Serine proteinase inhibitor A1 (Serpina1, and low levels or absence of Wt1 gene expression were exclusive to liver metastatic lesion samples. Conclusion We identified Igfbp1, Serpina1 and Wt1 genes that are likely to be clinically useful biomarkers for prognostic or therapeutic purposes in metastatic pancreatic cancer, particularly in pancreatic cancer where c-Myc is overexpressed.

  2. Brain tumor - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children; Neuroglioma - children; Oligodendroglioma - children; Meningioma - children; Cancer - brain tumor (children) ... The cause of primary brain tumors is unknown. Primary brain tumors may ... (spread to nearby areas) Cancerous (malignant) Brain tumors ...

  3. Ultrastructural characterization of primary cilia in pathologically characterized human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Moser, Joanna J; Fritzler, Marvin J.; Rattner, Jerome B

    2014-01-01

    Background Primary cilia are non-motile sensory cytoplasmic organelles that are involved in cell cycle progression. Ultrastructurally, the primary cilium region is complex, with normal ciliogenesis progressing through five distinct morphological stages in human astrocytes. Defects in early stages of ciliogenesis are key features of astrocytoma/glioblastoma cell lines and provided the impetus for the current study which describes the morphology of primary cilia in molecularly characterized hum...

  4. Surgical treatment of a rare primary renal carcinoid tumor with liver metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowland Randall G

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carcinoid tumors are characteristically low grade malignant neoplasms with neuroendocrine differentiation that arise in various body sites, most commonly the lung and gastrointestinal tract, but less frequently the kidneys, breasts, ovaries, testes, prostate and other locations. We report a case of a carcinoid of renal origin with synchronous single liver metastases on radiological studies. Case presentation A 45 year-old patient who presented with abdominal pain was found on CT scan to have lesions in the right ovary, right kidney, and left hepatic lobe. CA-125, CEA, and CA 19-9 were within normal limits, as were preoperative liver function tests and renal function. Biopsy of the liver mass demonstrated metastatic neuroendocrine tumor. At laparotomy, the patient underwent total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, radical right nephrectomy with lymphadenectomy, and left hepatectomy. Pathology evaluation reported a right ovarian borderline serous tumor, well-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma of the kidney (carcinoid with 2 positive retroperitoneal lymph nodes, and a single liver metastasis. Immunohistochemistry revealed that this lesion was positive for synaptophysin and CD56, but negative for chromogranin as well as CD10, CD7, and CD20, consistent with a well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumor. She is doing well one year after her initial surgery, with no evidence of tumor recurrence. Conclusion Early surgical intervention, together with careful surveillance and follow-up, can achieve successful long-term outcomes in patients with this rare malignancy.

  5. The gene expression profiles of primary and metastatic melanoma yields a transition point of tumor progression and metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wenbin

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The process of malignant transformation, progression and metastasis of melanoma is poorly understood. Gene expression profiling of human cancer has allowed for a unique insight into the genes that are involved in these processes. Thus, we have attempted to utilize this approach through the analysis of a series of primary, non-metastatic cutaneous tumors and metastatic melanoma samples. Methods We have utilized gene microarray analysis and a variety of molecular techniques to compare 40 metastatic melanoma (MM samples, composed of 22 bulky, macroscopic (replaced lymph node metastases, 16 subcutaneous and 2 distant metastases (adrenal and brain, to 42 primary cutaneous cancers, comprised of 16 melanoma, 11 squamous cell, 15 basal cell skin cancers. A Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 array from Affymetrix, Inc. was utilized for each sample. A variety of statistical software, including the Affymetrix MAS 5.0 analysis software, was utilized to compare primary cancers to metastatic melanomas. Separate analyses were performed to directly compare only primary melanoma to metastatic melanoma samples. The expression levels of putative oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes were analyzed by semi- and real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qPCR and Western blot analysis was performed on select genes. Results We find that primary basal cell carcinomas, squamous cell carcinomas and thin melanomas express dramatically higher levels of many genes, including SPRR1A/B, KRT16/17, CD24, LOR, GATA3, MUC15, and TMPRSS4, than metastatic melanoma. In contrast, the metastatic melanomas express higher levels of genes such as MAGE, GPR19, BCL2A1, MMP14, SOX5, BUB1, RGS20, and more. The transition from non-metastatic expression levels to metastatic expression levels occurs as melanoma tumors thicken. We further evaluated primary melanomas of varying Breslow's tumor thickness to determine that the transition in expression occurs at different thicknesses for different

  6. Genetic profiling differentiates second primary tumors from metastases in adult metachronous soft tissue sarcoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernebro, Josefin; Carneiro, Ana; Rydholm, Anders;

    2008-01-01

    Purpose. Patients with soft tissue sarcomas (STS) are at increased risk of second primary malignancies, including a second STS, but distinction between metastases and a second primary STS is difficult. Patients and Methods. Array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) was applied to 30......, suggesting development of second primary STS. Discussion. The similarities and dissimilarities identified in the first and second STS suggest that genetic profiles can be used to distinguish soft tissue metastases from second primary STS. The demonstration of genetically different soft tissue sarcomas in the...

  7. Descriptive epidemiology of primary tumors of the brain, cranial nerves and cranial meninges in Los Angeles County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston-Martin, S

    1989-01-01

    This report presents data on the distribution of 8,612 cases of primary tumors of the brain, cranial nerves and cranial meninges (both benign and malignant) diagnosed among residents of Los Angeles County from 1972 to 1985. Incidence rates of gliomas, meningiomas, nerve sheath tumors and all histologic types combined are presented for specific age, sex and ethnic groups. At all ages, the highest incidence is seen for gliomas among men. Meningioma rates are higher among women than men in every ethnic group. In both sexes, glioma rates are highest among whites, and meningioma rates are highest among blacks. Asians have the lowest rates of both types of tumors. Proportional incidence ratios are elevated among those born in Eastern Europe, Southern Europe and the Middle East and among Jewish residents of Los Angeles County. A clear trend of increasing glioma incidence with increasing social class is seen among males. An analysis among white men aged 25-64 by occupation and industry at the time of diagnosis supports several previously published findings. A glioma excess is evident among workers in the aircraft industry. Workers in the petroleum industry and the rubber and plastics industry have an excess of meningiomas. Occupational groups at excess risk include dentists who have an increased risk of all types of brain tumors and electricians whose excess risk is limited to gliomas. PMID:2586698

  8. SU-E-I-100: Heterogeneity Studying for Primary and Lymphoma Tumors by Using Multi-Scale Image Texture Analysis with PET-CT Images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Dengwang [Shandong Normal University, Jinan, Shandong Province (China); Wang, Qinfen [Shandong Normal University, Jinan, Shandong (China); Li, H; Chen, J [Shandong Cancer Hospital and Institute, Jinan, Shandong (China)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is studying tumor heterogeneity of the primary and lymphoma by using multi-scale texture analysis with PET-CT images, where the tumor heterogeneity is expressed by texture features. Methods: Datasets were collected from 12 lung cancer patients, and both of primary and lymphoma tumors were detected with all these patients. All patients underwent whole-body 18F-FDG PET/CT scan before treatment.The regions of interest (ROI) of primary and lymphoma tumor were contoured by experienced clinical doctors. Then the ROI of primary and lymphoma tumor is extracted automatically by using Matlab software. According to the geometry size of contour structure, the images of tumor are decomposed by multi-scale method.Wavelet transform was performed on ROI structures within images by L layers sampling, and then wavelet sub-bands which have the same size of the original image are obtained. The number of sub-bands is 3L+1.The gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) is calculated within different sub-bands, thenenergy, inertia, correlation and gray in-homogeneity were extracted from GLCM.Finally, heterogeneity statistical analysis was studied for primary and lymphoma tumor using the texture features. Results: Energy, inertia, correlation and gray in-homogeneity are calculated with our experiments for heterogeneity statistical analysis.Energy for primary and lymphomatumor is equal with the same patient, while gray in-homogeneity and inertia of primaryare 2.59595±0.00855, 0.6439±0.0007 respectively. Gray in-homogeneity and inertia of lymphoma are 2.60115±0.00635, 0.64435±0.00055 respectively. The experiments showed that the volume of lymphoma is smaller than primary tumor, but thegray in-homogeneity and inertia were higher than primary tumor with the same patient, and the correlation with lymphoma tumors is zero, while the correlation with primary tumor isslightly strong. Conclusion: This studying showed that there were effective heterogeneity

  9. CT findings of the mediastinal tumors -excluding mediastinal granuloma and primary carcinoma-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computerized Tomography can make accurate diagnosis in most of the mediastinal tumors and cysts by assessing their location, shape and internal architecture. Authors analysed and present CT findings of 89 surgically proven mediastinal tumors and cysts that were studied and treated in Seoul National University Hospital during recent 5 years. The results are as follows; 1. The most common tumor was teratoma (25 cases). Neurogenic tumor (20 cases), thymic tumor or cyst (16 cases), lymphoma (7 cases), bronchogenic cyst (6 cases), intrathoracic goiter (6 cases), pericardial cyst (3 cases) and cystic hygroma (2 cases) were next in order of frequency. 2. The most constant findings of teratoma was thick walled cystic area (100%), while pathognomonic fat and calcified density were seen only in 52% and 48% of cases, respectively. 22 cases were located in anterior mediastinum, 2 cases were in posterior mediastinum and a case is in middle mediastinum. 3. There were 20 cases of neurogenic tumor consisting of 6 neurilemmomas, 7 ganglioneuromas, 4 neurofibromas, 1 ganglioneuroblastoma, 1 neuroblastoma and 1 malignant schwannoma. Most of them were located in posterior mediastinum with exception of 2 neurilemmomas arising from left vagus nerve and left recurrent laryngeal nerve in middle mediastinum. Cystic change was seen in 2 cases of neurilemmoma and in a case of ganglioneuroma. Calcification was seen in 3 cases, of neuroblastoma, a neurilemmoma, and a ganglioneuroma. 4. There were 11 cases of thymoma showing homogeneous solid mass with speckeld calcification in 4 cases and irregular cystic change in 3 cases. 2 cases were invasive thymoma and myasthenia gravis was present in 4 cases. A cases of thymolipoma and a case of thymic cyst were included. 5. Lymphoma (2 Hodgkin's and 4 non-Hodgkin's) appeared as lobulated, matted mass in anterior mediastinum especially in prevascular area expanding bilaterally

  10. CT findings of the mediastinal tumors -excluding mediastinal granuloma and primary carcinoma-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyung Soo; Im, Chung Kie; Han, Man Chung [College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1985-06-15

    Computerized Tomography can make accurate diagnosis in most of the mediastinal tumors and cysts by assessing their location, shape and internal architecture. Authors analysed and present CT findings of 89 surgically proven mediastinal tumors and cysts that were studied and treated in Seoul National University Hospital during recent 5 years. The results are as follows; 1. The most common tumor was teratoma (25 cases). Neurogenic tumor (20 cases), thymic tumor or cyst (16 cases), lymphoma (7 cases), bronchogenic cyst (6 cases), intrathoracic goiter (6 cases), pericardial cyst (3 cases) and cystic hygroma (2 cases) were next in order of frequency. 2. The most constant findings of teratoma was thick walled cystic area (100%), while pathognomonic fat and calcified density were seen only in 52% and 48% of cases, respectively. 22 cases were located in anterior mediastinum, 2 cases were in posterior mediastinum and a case is in middle mediastinum. 3. There were 20 cases of neurogenic tumor consisting of 6 neurilemmomas, 7 ganglioneuromas, 4 neurofibromas, 1 ganglioneuroblastoma, 1 neuroblastoma and 1 malignant schwannoma. Most of them were located in posterior mediastinum with exception of 2 neurilemmomas arising from left vagus nerve and left recurrent laryngeal nerve in middle mediastinum. Cystic change was seen in 2 cases of neurilemmoma and in a case of ganglioneuroma. Calcification was seen in 3 cases, of neuroblastoma, a neurilemmoma, and a ganglioneuroma. 4. There were 11 cases of thymoma showing homogeneous solid mass with speckeld calcification in 4 cases and irregular cystic change in 3 cases. 2 cases were invasive thymoma and myasthenia gravis was present in 4 cases. A cases of thymolipoma and a case of thymic cyst were included. 5. Lymphoma (2 Hodgkin's and 4 non-Hodgkin's) appeared as lobulated, matted mass in anterior mediastinum especially in prevascular area expanding bilaterally.

  11. Primary germ cell tumor of the mediastinum - presenting as a huge mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usha Dalal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Germ cell tumors compromise 15-20% of all anterior mediastinal masses; 50-60% of these are benign mediastinal teratoma. There may be mature, immature, and rarely with malignant component within the tumor mass. There are more chances of malignancy with immature type. We are reporting a case in 20-year young male diagnosed as giant benign cystic teratoma which was adherent to superior vena cava. The patient underwent surgical excision. In follow up of 2 years, the patient is not having any complaints.

  12. Primary germ cell tumor of the mediastinum - presenting as a huge mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalal, Usha; Jora, Manjit Singh; Dalal, Ashwani K; Attri, Ashok K; Singal, Rikki; Gupta, Samita

    2014-02-01

    Germ cell tumors compromise 15-20% of all anterior mediastinal masses; 50-60% of these are benign mediastinal teratoma. There may be mature, immature, and rarely with malignant component within the tumor mass. There are more chances of malignancy with immature type. We are reporting a case in 20-year young male diagnosed as giant benign cystic teratoma which was adherent to superior vena cava. The patient underwent surgical excision. In follow up of 2 years, the patient is not having any complaints. PMID:24627752

  13. Fatal Pulmonary Tumor Embolic Microangiopathy in Young Lady without Known Primary Malignancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Azem, M. Ali; Hanafy, Ahmed; Nakkar, Talal

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. Malignancy, prolonged recumbence, and chemotherapy are renowned risk factors for development of clinically significant PE. Cancer exerts a multitude of pathophysiological processes, for example, hypercoagulability and abnormal vessels with sluggish circulation that can lead to PE. One of the peculiar characteristics of tumor cells is their ability to reach the circulation and behave as blood clot—not a metastasis-occluding the pulmonary circulation. We present a case of fatal pulmonary embolism diagnosed histologically to be due to tumor cell embolism. PMID:25478243

  14. IL-10 expression by primary tumor cells correlates with melanoma progression from radial to vertical growth phase and development of metastatic competence

    OpenAIRE

    Itakura, Eijun; Huang, Rong-Rong; Wen, Duan-Ren; Paul, Eberhard; Wünsch, Peter H.; Cochran, Alistair J.

    2011-01-01

    Down-regulation of the immune system facilitates tumor progression at different stages of cutaneous melanoma. Sentinel nodes, the first lymph nodes on lymphatics draining directly from a primary melanoma are immune down-regulated by tumor-generated immune-suppressive cytokines including interleukin-10. To better understand the kinetics of sentinel node suppression, we investigated interleukin-10 expression by melanoma cells and tumor-associated macrophages and lymphocytes at different stages ...

  15. A collection of primary tissue cultures of tumors from vacuum packed and cooled surgical specimens: a feasibility study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Annaratone

    Full Text Available Primary cultures represent an invaluable tool to set up functional experimental conditions; however, creation of tissue cultures from solid tumors is troublesome and often unproductive. Several features can affect the success rate of primary cultures, including technical issues from pre-analytical procedures employed in surgical theaters and pathology laboratories. We have recently introduced a new method of collection, transfer, and preservation of surgical specimens that requires immediate vacuum sealing of excised specimens at surgical theaters, followed by time-controlled transferring at 4°C to the pathology laboratory. Here we investigate the feasibility and performance of short-term primary cell cultures derived from vacuum packed and cooled (VPAC preserved tissues. Tissue fragments were sampled from 52 surgical specimens of tumors larger than 2 cm for which surgical and VPAC times (the latter corresponding to cold ischemia time were recorded. Cell viability was determined by trypan blue dye-exclusion assay and hematoxylin and eosin and immunohistochemical stainings were performed to appreciate morphological and immunophenotypical features of cultured cells. Cell viability showed a range of 84-100% in 44 out of 52 (85% VPAC preserved tissues. Length of both surgical and VPAC times affected cell viability: the critical surgical time was set around 1 hour and 30 minutes, while cells preserved a good viability when kept for about 24 hours of vacuum at 4°C. Cells were maintained in culture for at least three passages. Immunocytochemistry confirmed the phenotype of distinct populations, that is, expression of cytokeratins in epithelioid cells and of vimentin in spindle cells. Our results suggest that VPAC preserved tissues may represent a reliable source for creation of primary cell cultures and that a careful monitoring of surgical and cold ischemia times fosters a good performance of primary tissue cultures.

  16. Should Patient Setup in Lung Cancer Be Based on the Primary Tumor? An Analysis of Tumor Coverage and Normal Tissue Dose Using Repeated Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Evaluation of the dose distribution for lung cancer patients using a patient setup procedure based on the bony anatomy or the primary tumor. Methods and materials: For 39 patients with non–small-cell lung cancer, the planning fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) scan was registered to a repeated FDG-PET/CT scan made in the second week of treatment. Two patient setup methods were analyzed based on the bony anatomy or the primary tumor. The original treatment plan was copied to the repeated scan, and target and normal tissue structures were delineated. Dose distributions were analyzed using dose–volume histograms for the primary tumor, lymph nodes, lungs, and spinal cord. Results: One patient showed decreased dose coverage of the primary tumor caused by progressive disease and required replanning to achieve adequate coverage. For the other patients, the minimum dose to the primary tumor did not significantly deviate from the planned dose: −0.2 ± 1.7% (p = 0.71) and −0.1 ± 1.7% (p = 0.85) for the bony anatomy setup and the primary tumor setup, respectively. For patients (n = 31) with nodal involvement, 10% showed a decrease in minimum dose larger than 5% for the bony anatomy setup and 13% for the primary tumor setup. The mean lung dose exceeded the maximum allowed 20 Gy in 21% of the patients for the bony anatomy setup and in 13% for the primary tumor setup, whereas for the spinal cord this occurred in 10% and 13% of the patients, respectively. Conclusions: In 10% and 13% of patients with nodal involvement, setup based on bony anatomy or primary tumor, respectively, led to important dose deviations in nodal target volumes. Overdosage of critical structures occurred in 10–20% of the patients. In cases of progressive disease, repeated imaging revealed underdosage of the primary tumor. Development of practical ways for setup procedures based on repeated high-quality imaging of all tumor sites during

  17. QL-21SPIRITUAL WELL-BEING AND ITS ASSOCIATION WITH HEALTH-RELATED QUALITY OF LIFE IN PRIMARY BRAIN TUMOR PATIENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Randazzo, Dina; Affronti, Mary; Lipp, Eric; McSherry, Frances; Herndon, James; Flahiff, Charlene; Miller, Elizabeth; Woodring, Sarah; Freeman, Maria; Healy, Patrick; Minchew, Janet; Boulton, Susan; Desjardins, Annick; Ranjan, Tulika; Vlahovic, Gordana

    2014-01-01

    Spirituality has been shown to impact patients' attitudes and decisions about treatment and end-of-life care when coping with chronic illnesses such as cancer. Previous studies have documented that health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and spiritual well-being are positively correlated, but little is known about the phenomenon in the primary brain tumor population. Therefore, we sought to measure spiritual well-being in primary brain tumor patients and evaluate whether it was associated with...

  18. Primary Tumor Site as a Predictor of Treatment Outcome for Definitive Radiotherapy of Advanced-Stage Oral Cavity Cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the outcome of definitive radiotherapy (RT) for oral cavity cancers and to assess prognostic factors. Methods and Materials: Definitive RT was performed on 115 patients with oral cavity cancers at Stages III, IVA, and IVB, with a distribution of 6%, 47%, and 47%, respectively. The median dose of RT was 72Gy (range, 62-76Gy). Cisplatin-based chemotherapy was administered to 95% of the patients. Eleven patients underwent salvage surgery after RT failure. Results: Eight-eight (76.5%) patients responded partially and 23 (20%) completely; of the patients who responded, 18% and 57%, respectively, experienced a durable effect of treatment. The 3-year overall survival, disease-specific survival, and progression-free survival were 22%, 27%, and 25%, respectively. The 3-year PFS rates based on the primary tumor sites were as follows: Group I (buccal, mouth floor, and gum) 51%, Group II (retromolar and hard palate) 18%, and Group III (tongue and lip) 6% (p < 0.0001). The 3-year progression-free survival was 41% for N0 patients and 19% for patients with N+ disease (p = 0.012). The T stage and RT technique did not affect survival. The patients who underwent salvage surgery demonstrated better 3-year overall survival and disease-specific survival (53% vs. 19%, p = 0.015 and 53% vs. 24%, p = 0.029, respectively). Subsite group, N+, and salvage surgery were the only significant prognostic factors for survival after multivariate analysis. Conclusion: The primary tumor site and neck stage are prognostic predictors in advanced-stage oral cancer patients who received radical RT. The primary tumor extension and RT technique did not influence survival.

  19. Assessment of metastatic liver disease in patients with primary extrahepatic tumors by contrast-enhanced sonography versus CT and MRI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christoph F Dietrich; Wolfgang Blank; Matthijs Oudkerk; Dietbert Hahn; Christian Greis; Wolfgang Kratzer; Deike Strobel; Etienne Danse; Robert Fessl; Alfred Bunk; Udo Vossas; Karlheinz Hauenstein; Wilhelm Koch

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) using SonoVue(R) in the detection of liver metastases in patients with known extrahepatic primary tumors versus the combined gold standard comprising CT,MRI and clinical/histological data.METHODS: It is an international multicenter study, and there were 12 centres and 125 patients (64 males, 61 females, aged 59 ± 11 years) involved, with 102 patients per protocol. Primary tumors were colorectal in 35%,breast in 27%, pancreatic in 17% and others in 21%.CEUS using SonoVue(R) was employed with a low-mechanical-index technique and contrast-specific software using Siemens Elegra, Philips HDI 5000 and Acuson Sequoia;continuous scanning for at least five minutes.RESULTS: CEUS with SonoVue(R) increased significantly the number of focal liver lesions detected versus unenhanced sonography. In 31.4% of the patients, more lesions were found after contrast enhancement. The total numbers of lesions detected were comparable with CEUS (55), triple-phase spiral CT (61) and MRI with a liverspecific contrast agent (53). Accuracy of detection of metastatic disease (i.e. at least one metastatic lesion) was significantly higher for CEUS (91.2%) than for unenhanced sonography (81.4%) and was similar to that of triple-phase spiral CT (89.2%). In 53 patients whose CEUS examination was negative, a follow-up examination 3-6 months later confirmed the absence of metastatic lesions in 50 patients (94.4 %).CONCLUSION: CEUS is proved to be reliable in the detection of liver metastases in patients with known extrahepatic primary tumors and suspected liver lesions.

  20. Incidentally diagnosed simultaneous second primary tumor of the sphenoid sinus in a patient with lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yigit, Ozgur; Taskin, Umit; Demir, Ahmet;

    2009-01-01

    made to proceed with chemotherapy and radiotherapy treatment regimens for the sphenoid sinus lesion, and right lobectomy was performed for the lung lesion. Asymptomatic simultaneous, synchronous, or metastatic tumors must always be kept in mind, and histopathologic diagnosis should be done for both...

  1. Immunological considerations of modern animal models of malignant primary brain tumors

    OpenAIRE

    James C David; Fang Shanna; Rutkowski Martin J; Kane Ari J; Yang Isaac; Sughrue Michael E; Parsa Andrew T

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Recent advances in animal models of glioma have facilitated a better understanding of biological mechanisms underlying gliomagenesis and glioma progression. The limitations of existing therapy, including surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy, have prompted numerous investigators to search for new therapeutic approaches to improve quantity and quality of survival from these aggressive lesions. One of these approaches involves triggering a tumor specifi...

  2. Deep soft-tissue leiomyoma of the forearm mimicking a primary bone tumor of the ulna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajoo Ramachandran, MBBS, MD

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Leiomyomas of the soft tissues are rare in general, and extremely uncommon in the forearm. In general, leiomyomas are benign soft-tissue tumors that occur where smooth muscles are present. We present a case of soft-tissue leiomyoma of the forearm eroding the midshaft of the ulna, with emphasis on radiological diagnosis and histopathological correlation.

  3. Intraoperative delineation of primary brain tumors using time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butte, Pramod V; Fang, Qiyin; Jo, Javier A; Yong, William H; Pikul, Brian K; Black, Keith L; Marcu, Laura

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study is to determine the potential of time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TR-LIFS) as an adjunctive tool for delineation of brain tumor from surrounding normal tissue in order to assist the neurosurgeon in near-complete tumor excision. A time-domain TR-LIFS prototype apparatus (gated photomultiplier detection, fast digitizer) was used for recording tissue autofluorescence in normal cortex (NC), normal white matter (NWM), and various grades of gliomas intraoperatively. Tissue fluorescence was induced with a pulsed nitrogen laser (337 nm, 700 ps), and the intensity decay profiles were recorded in the 360- to 550-nm spectral range (10-nm interval). Histopathological analysis (hematoxylin & eosin) of the biopsy samples taken from the site of TR-LIFS measurements was used for validation of spectroscopic results. Preliminary results on 17 patients demonstrate that normal cortex (N=16) and normal white matter (N=3) show two peaks of fluorescence emission at 390 nm (lifetime=1.8+/-0.3 ns) and 460 nm (lifetime=0.8+/-0.1 ns). The 390-nm emission peak is absent in low-grade glioma (N=5; lifetime=1.1 ns) and reduced in high-grade glioma (N=9; lifetime=1.7+/-0.4 ns). The emission characteristics at 460 nm in all tissues correlated with the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide fluorescence (peak: 440 to 460 nm; lifetime: 0.8 to 1.0 ns). These findings demonstrate the potential of using TR-LIFS as a tool for enhanced delineation of brain tumors during surgery. In addition, this study evaluates similarities and differences between TR-LIFS signatures of brain tumors obtained in vivo and those previously reported in ex vivo brain tumor specimens. PMID:20459282

  4. Intraoperative delineation of primary brain tumors using time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butte, Pramod V.; Fang, Qiyin; Jo, Javier A.; Yong, William H.; Pikul, Brian K.; Black, Keith L.; Marcu, Laura

    2010-03-01

    The goal of this study is to determine the potential of time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TR-LIFS) as an adjunctive tool for delineation of brain tumor from surrounding normal tissue in order to assist the neurosurgeon in near-complete tumor excision. A time-domain TR-LIFS prototype apparatus (gated photomultiplier detection, fast digitizer) was used for recording tissue autofluorescence in normal cortex (NC), normal white matter (NWM), and various grades of gliomas intraoperatively. Tissue fluorescence was induced with a pulsed nitrogen laser (337 nm, 700 ps), and the intensity decay profiles were recorded in the 360- to 550-nm spectral range (10-nm interval). Histopathological analysis (hematoxylin & eosin) of the biopsy samples taken from the site of TR-LIFS measurements was used for validation of spectroscopic results. Preliminary results on 17 patients demonstrate that normal cortex (N=16) and normal white matter (N=3) show two peaks of fluorescence emission at 390 nm (lifetime=1.8+/-0.3 ns) and 460 nm (lifetime=0.8+/-0.1 ns). The 390-nm emission peak is absent in low-grade glioma (N=5; lifetime=1.1 ns) and reduced in high-grade glioma (N=9; lifetime=1.7+/-0.4 ns). The emission characteristics at 460 nm in all tissues correlated with the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide fluorescence (peak: 440 to 460 nm lifetime: 0.8 to 1.0 ns). These findings demonstrate the potential of using TR-LIFS as a tool for enhanced delineation of brain tumors during surgery. In addition, this study evaluates similarities and differences between TR-LIFS signatures of brain tumors obtained in vivo and those previously reported in ex vivo brain tumor specimens.

  5. A novel somatic MAPK1 mutation in primary ovarian mixed germ cell tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yang; Deng, Wei; Wang, Feng; Yu, Xiao-Hong; Liu, Fa-Ying; Yang, Bi-Cheng; Huang, Mei-Zhen; Guo, Jiu-Bai; Xie, Qiu-Hua; He, Ming; Huang, Ou-Ping

    2016-02-01

    A recent exome-sequencing study revealed prevalent mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK1) p.E322K mutation in cervical carcinoma. It remains largely unknown whether ovarian carcinomas also harbor MAPK1 mutations. As paralogous gene mutations co‑occur frequently in human malignancies, we analyzed here a total of 263 ovarian carcinomas for the presence of MAPK1 and paralogous MAPK3 mutations by DNA sequencing. A previously unreported MAPK1 p.D321N somatic mutation was identified in 2 out of 18 (11.1%) ovarian mixed germ cell tumors, while no other MAPK1 or MAPK3 mutation was detected in our samples. Of note, OCC‑115, the MAPK1‑mutated sample with bilateral cancerous ovaries affected, harbored MAPK1 mutation in the right ovary while retained the left ovary intact, implicating that the genetic alterations underlying ovarian mixed germ cell tumor may be different, even in patients with similar genetic backgrounds and tumor microenvironments. The results of evolutionary conservation and protein structure modeling analysis implicated that MAPK1 p.D321N mutation may be pathogenic. Additionally, mutations in protein phosphatase 2 regulatory subunit α (PPP2R1A), ring finger protein 43 (RNF43), DNA directed polymerase ε (POLE1), ribonuclease type III (DICER1), CCCTC‑binding factor (CTCF), ribosomal protein L22 (RPL22), DNA methyltransferase 3α (DNMT3A), transformation/transcription domain‑associated protein (TRRAP), isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)1 and IDH2 were not detected in ovarian mixed germ cell tumors, implicating these genetic alterations may be not associated with MAPK1 mutation in the development of this malignancy. The present study identified a previously unreported MAPK1 mutation in ovarian mixed germ cell tumors for the first time, and this mutation may be actively involved in the tumorigenesis of this disease. PMID:26548627

  6. Screening for Psychological Distress in Adult Primary Brain Tumor Patients and Caregivers: Considerations for Cancer Care Coordination

    OpenAIRE

    Trad, Wafa; Koh, Eng-Siew; Daher, Maysaa; Bailey, Alanah; Kastelan, Marina; Legge, Dianne; Fleet, Marcia; Simpson, Grahame K.; Hovey, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Introduction This study aimed to assess psychological distress (PD) as scored by the Distress Thermometer (DT) in adult primary brain tumor patients and caregivers (CGs) in a clinic setting and ascertain if any high-risk subgroups for PD exist. Material and methods From May 2012 to August 2013, n = 96 patients and n = 32 CG underwent DT screening at diagnosis, and a differing cohort of n = 12 patients and n = 14 CGs at first recurrence. Groups were described by diagnosis (high grad...

  7. Primary localized rectal/pararectal gastrointestinal stromal tumors: results of surgical and multimodal therapy from the French Sarcoma group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rectal and pararectal gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are rare. The optimal management strategy for primary localized GISTs remains poorly defined. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 41 patients with localized rectal or pararectal GISTs treated between 1991 and 2011 in 13 French Sarcoma Group centers. Of 12 patients who received preoperative imatinib therapy for a median duration of 7 (2-12) months, 8 experienced a partial response, 3 had stable disease, and 1 had a complete response. Thirty and 11 patients underwent function-sparing conservative surgery and abdominoperineal resection, respectively. Tumor resections were mostly R0 and R1 in 35 patients. Tumor rupture occurred in 12 patients. Eleven patients received postoperative imatinib with a median follow-up of 59 (2.4-186) months. The median time to disease relapse was 36 (9.8-62) months. The 5-year overall survival rate was 86.5%. Twenty patients developed local recurrence after surgery alone, two developed recurrence after resection combined with preoperative and/or postoperative imatinib, and eight developed metastases. In univariate analysis, the mitotic index (≤5) and tumor size (≤5 cm) were associated with a significantly decreased risk of local relapse. Perioperative imatinib was associated with a significantly reduced risk of overall relapse and local relapse. Perioperative imatinib therapy was associated with improved disease-free survival. Preoperative imatinib was effective. Tumor shrinkage has a clear benefit for local excision in terms of feasibility and function preservation. Given the complexity of rectal GISTs, referral of patients with this rare disease to expert centers to undergo a multidisciplinary approach is recommended

  8. Diet and upper-aerodigestive tract cancer in Europe: the ARCAGE study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lagiou, Pagona

    2009-06-01

    There is suggestive, but inconclusive, evidence that dietary factors may affect risk of cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract (UADT). In the context of the alcohol-related cancers and genetic susceptibility in Europe study, we have examined the association of dietary factors with UADT cancer risk. We have analyzed data from 2,304 patients with UADT cancer and 2,227 control subjects recruited in 14 centers in 10 European countries. Dietary data were collected through a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire that also assessed preferred temperature of hot beverages. Statistical analyses were conducted through multiple logistic regression controlling for potential confounding variables, including alcohol intake and smoking habits. Consumption of red meat (OR per increasing tertile = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.05-1.25), but not poultry, was significantly associated with increased UADT cancer risk and the association was somewhat stronger for esophageal cancer. Consumption of fruits (OR per increasing tertile = 0.68, 95% CI: 0.62-0.75) and vegetables (OR per increasing tertile = 0.73, 95% CI: 0.66-0.81) as well as of olive oil (OR for above versus below median = 0.78, 95% CI 0.67-0.90) and tea (OR for above versus below median = 0.83, 95% CI 0.69-0.98) were significantly associated with reduced risk of UADT cancer. There was no indication that an increase in tea or coffee temperature was associated with increased risk of UADT overall or cancer of the esophagus; in fact, the association was, if anything, inverse. In conclusion, the results of this large multicentric study indicate that diet plays an important role in the etiology of UADT cancer.

  9. Occupation and risk of upper aerodigestive tract cancer: the ARCAGE study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Richiardi, Lorenzo

    2012-05-15

    We investigated the association between occupational history and upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancer risk in the ARCAGE European case-control study. The study included 1,851 patients with incident cancer of the oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx, larynx or esophagus and 1,949 controls. We estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for ever employment in 283 occupations and 172 industries, adjusting for smoking and alcohol. Men (1,457 cases) and women (394 cases) were analyzed separately and we incorporated a semi-Bayes adjustment approach for multiple comparisons. Among men, we found increased risks for occupational categories previously reported to be associated with at least one type of UADT cancer, including painters (OR = 1.74, 95% CI: 1.01-3.00), bricklayers (1.58, 1.05-2.37), workers employed in the erection of roofs and frames (2.62, 1.08-6.36), reinforced concreters (3.46, 1.11-10.8), dockers (2.91, 1.05-8.05) and workers employed in the construction of roads (3.03, 1.23-7.46), general construction of buildings (1.44, 1.12-1.85) and cargo handling (2.60, 1.17-5.75). With the exception of the first three categories, risks both increased when restricting to long duration of employment and remained elevated after semi-Bayes adjustment. Increased risks were also found for loggers (3.56, 1.20-10.5) and cattle and dairy farming (3.60, 1.15-11.2). Among women, there was no clear evidence of increased risks of UADT cancer in association with occupations or industrial activities. This study provides evidence of an association between some occupational categories and UADT cancer risk among men. The most consistent findings, also supported by previous studies, were obtained for specific workers employed in the construction industry.

  10. A genome-wide association study of upper aerodigestive tract cancers conducted within the INHANCE consortium.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McKay, James D

    2011-03-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been successful in identifying common genetic variation involved in susceptibility to etiologically complex disease. We conducted a GWAS to identify common genetic variation involved in susceptibility to upper aero-digestive tract (UADT) cancers. Genome-wide genotyping was carried out using the Illumina HumanHap300 beadchips in 2,091 UADT cancer cases and 3,513 controls from two large European multi-centre UADT cancer studies, as well as 4,821 generic controls. The 19 top-ranked variants were investigated further in an additional 6,514 UADT cancer cases and 7,892 controls of European descent from an additional 13 UADT cancer studies participating in the INHANCE consortium. Five common variants presented evidence for significant association in the combined analysis (p ≤ 5 × 10⁻⁷). Two novel variants were identified, a 4q21 variant (rs1494961, p = 1×10⁻⁸) located near DNA repair related genes HEL308 and FAM175A (or Abraxas) and a 12q24 variant (rs4767364, p =2 × 10⁻⁸) located in an extended linkage disequilibrium region that contains multiple genes including the aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) gene. Three remaining variants are located in the ADH gene cluster and were identified previously in a candidate gene study involving some of these samples. The association between these three variants and UADT cancers was independently replicated in 5,092 UADT cancer cases and 6,794 controls non-overlapping samples presented here (rs1573496-ADH7, p = 5 × 10⁻⁸); rs1229984-ADH1B, p = 7 × 10⁻⁹; and rs698-ADH1C, p = 0.02). These results implicate two variants at 4q21 and 12q24 and further highlight three ADH variants in UADT cancer susceptibility.

  11. A genome-wide association study of upper aerodigestive tract cancers conducted within the INHANCE consortium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D McKay

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have been successful in identifying common genetic variation involved in susceptibility to etiologically complex disease. We conducted a GWAS to identify common genetic variation involved in susceptibility to upper aero-digestive tract (UADT cancers. Genome-wide genotyping was carried out using the Illumina HumanHap300 beadchips in 2,091 UADT cancer cases and 3,513 controls from two large European multi-centre UADT cancer studies, as well as 4,821 generic controls. The 19 top-ranked variants were investigated further in an additional 6,514 UADT cancer cases and 7,892 controls of European descent from an additional 13 UADT cancer studies participating in the INHANCE consortium. Five common variants presented evidence for significant association in the combined analysis (p ≤ 5 × 10⁻⁷. Two novel variants were identified, a 4q21 variant (rs1494961, p = 1×10⁻⁸ located near DNA repair related genes HEL308 and FAM175A (or Abraxas and a 12q24 variant (rs4767364, p =2 × 10⁻⁸ located in an extended linkage disequilibrium region that contains multiple genes including the aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2 gene. Three remaining variants are located in the ADH gene cluster and were identified previously in a candidate gene study involving some of these samples. The association between these three variants and UADT cancers was independently replicated in 5,092 UADT cancer cases and 6,794 controls non-overlapping samples presented here (rs1573496-ADH7, p = 5 × 10⁻⁸; rs1229984-ADH1B, p = 7 × 10⁻⁹; and rs698-ADH1C, p = 0.02. These results implicate two variants at 4q21 and 12q24 and further highlight three ADH variants in UADT cancer susceptibility.

  12. Diagnostic Value of Multidetector CT and Its Multiplanar Reformation, Volume Rendering and Virtual Bronchoscopy Postprocessing Techniques for Primary Trachea and Main Bronchus Tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyue Luo

    Full Text Available To evaluate the diagnostic value of multidetector CT (MDCT and its multiplanar reformation (MPR, volume rendering (VR and virtual bronchoscopy (VB postprocessing techniques for primary trachea and main bronchus tumors.Detection results of 31 primary trachea and main bronchus tumors with MDCT and its MPR, VR and VB postprocessing techniques, were analyzed retrospectively with regard to tumor locations, tumor morphologies, extramural invasions of tumors, longitudinal involvements of tumors, morphologies and extents of luminal stenoses, distances between main bronchus tumors and trachea carinae, and internal features of tumors. The detection results were compared with that of surgery and pathology.Detection results with MDCT and its MPR, VR and VB were consistent with that of surgery and pathology, included tumor locations (tracheae, n = 19; right main bronchi, n = 6; left main bronchi, n = 6, tumor morphologies (endoluminal nodes with narrow bases, n = 2; endoluminal nodes with wide bases, n = 13; both intraluminal and extraluminal masses, n = 16, extramural invasions of tumors (brokethrough only serous membrane, n = 1; 4.0 mm-56.0 mm, n = 14; no clear border with right atelectasis, n = 1, longitudinal involvements of tumors (3.0 mm, n = 1; 5.0 mm-68.0 mm, n = 29; whole right main bronchus wall and trachea carina, n = 1, morphologies of luminal stenoses (irregular, n = 26; circular, n = 3; eccentric, n = 1; conical, n = 1 and extents (mild, n = 5; moderate, n = 7; severe, n = 19, distances between main bronchus tumors and trachea carinae (16.0 mm, n = 1; invaded trachea carina, n = 1; >20.0 mm, n = 10, and internal features of tumors (fairly homogeneous densities with rather obvious enhancements, n = 26; homogeneous density with obvious enhancement, n = 1; homogeneous density without obvious enhancement, n = 1; not enough homogeneous density with obvious enhancement, n = 1; punctate calcification with obvious enhancement, n = 1; low density

  13. Application of primary cell cultures of laryngeal carcinoma and laser scanning cytometry in the evaluation of tumor reactivity to cisplatinum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Kupisz

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Unsatisfactory effects of treatment of laryngeal carcinoma patients stimulate the clinicians as well as researchers to develop new more effective treatment models and to find new reliable prognostic factors. The aim of the present study was the evaluation of the use of primary cell cultures of the laryngeal carcinoma and laser scanning cytometry (LSC in the assessment of tumor reactivity to cisplatinum. Nineteen primary cultures of laryngeal carcinoma cells established from fragments of laryngeal carcinoma infiltrations were cultured with or without cisplatin, stained with monoclonal antibodies against P53 and BCL-2 proteins and analyzed by LSC. Cisplatin added to the culture medium leads to the significant increase of P53 expression and decrease of BCL-2 expression. Moreover, changes of P53 and BCL-2 expressions were significantly correlated. Our findings of apoptosis regulatory mechanisms could be useful in patient qualification for the chemotherapeutic follow-up treatment.

  14. Evaluation and management of the pregnant patient with suspected primary musculoskeletal tumor or metastatic carcinoma to bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puvanesarajah, Varun; Spiker, Andrea M; Shannon, Brett A; Grundy, Maureen; Levin, Adam S; Morris, Carol D

    2016-09-01

    Primary musculoskeletal cancer and metastatic disease to bone in pregnant patients presents major treatment challenges. Although uncommon, musculoskeletal malignancies in pregnant women have been reported. When diagnosing and treating these patients, the mother's health must be managed appropriately while ensuring that fetal development is not deleteriously affected. Extensive radiographic imaging and more advanced techniques are often necessary to fully characterize the extent of disease. When possible, magnetic resonance imaging should be used instead of computed tomography to limit exposure of the conceptus to radiation. If treatment is needed, therapeutic radiation, chemotherapy, and surgery should be considered. Surgical resection is the foundation of treatment of early-stage primary bone tumors and soft-tissue sarcomas during pregnancy. With surgery, anesthesia and thromboprophylaxis are important considerations. If chemotherapy is required, administration should be avoided in the first trimester to limit harm to the fetus. Therapeutic radiation should similarly be avoided during the first trimester and often can be postponed until after delivery. PMID:27566025

  15. Epo receptors are not detectable in primary human tumor tissue samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Elliott

    Full Text Available Erythropoietin (Epo is a cytokine that binds and activates an Epo receptor (EpoR expressed on the surface of erythroid progenitor cells to promote erythropoiesis. While early studies suggested EpoR transcripts were expressed exclusively in the erythroid compartment, low-level EpoR transcripts were detected in nonhematopoietic tissues and tumor cell lines using sensitive RT-PCR methods. However due to the widespread use of nonspecific anti-EpoR antibodies there are conflicting data on EpoR protein expression. In tumor cell lines and normal human tissues examined with a specific and sensitive monoclonal antibody to human EpoR (A82, little/no EpoR protein was detected and it was not functional. In contrast, EpoR protein was reportedly detectable in a breast tumor cell line (MCF-7 and breast cancer tissues with an anti-EpoR polyclonal antibody (M-20, and functional responses to rHuEpo were reported with MCF-7 cells. In another study, a functional response was reported with the lung tumor cell line (NCI-H838 at physiological levels of rHuEpo. However, the specificity of M-20 is in question and the absence of appropriate negative controls raise questions about possible false-positive effects. Here we show that with A82, no EpoR protein was detectable in normal human and matching cancer tissues from breast, lung, colon, ovary and skin with little/no EpoR in MCF-7 and most other breast and lung tumor cell lines. We show further that M-20 provides false positive staining with tissues and it binds to a non-EpoR protein that migrates at the same size as EpoR with MCF-7 lysates. EpoR protein was detectable with NCI-H838 cells, but no rHuEpo-induced phosphorylation of AKT, STAT3, pS6RP or STAT5 was observed suggesting the EpoR was not functional. Taken together these results raise questions about the hypothesis that most tumors express high levels of functional EpoR protein.

  16. Primary liver tumors in pediatric patients: proper imaging technique for diagnosis and staging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozell, Joseph M; Catanzano, Tara; Polansky, Stanley M; Rakita, Dmitry; Fox, Lindsay

    2014-08-01

    Liver tumors in children are rare and comprise a diverse set of both benign and malignant lesions, most of which are not clinically detected until they are large and often difficult to resect. Technological advances in diagnostic imaging have greatly influenced the surgical planning of these lesions and ultimately the clinical outcome. The intent of this article is to present an imaging algorithm for the effective and efficient workup of liver tumors in pediatric patients. This includes the appropriate timing and use of various imaging modalities, such as conventional radiographs, ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. This article also addresses the use of sedation, intravenous contrast agents, and the benefits and limitations of specific imaging modalities. An overview of the radiologic and pathologic findings in common liver lesions in pediatric patients, as well as individual case examples demonstrating the use of the proposed workup algorithm, is provided. PMID:25129215

  17. Evaluation and characterization of generalized anxiety and depression in patients with primary brain tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Arnold, Staci D.; Forman, Leslie M.; Brigidi, Bart D.; Carter, Karen E.; Schweitzer, Holly A.; Quinn, Heather E.; Guill, A. Bebe; Herndon, James E.; Raynor, Renee H.

    2008-01-01

    To determine clinical and sociodemographic factors that are associated with major neuropsychiatric illnesses among brain tumor patients, we administered a modified version of the Brief Patient Health Questionnaire and a demographic data form to 363 adult neuro-oncology patients. Responses were analyzed to assess for associations between demographic variables, clinical variables, and symptoms consistent with diagnoses of generalized anxiety disorder and/or depression. Multivariate logistic reg...

  18. Value of the region of interest technique in the scintigraphic diagnosis of primary bone tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Employing ROI-technique, a ratio Q was obtained from relating accumulation of 99sup(m)Tc-MDP at the site of the bone lesion (n = 150) with that of contralateral non-involved osseous areas. Values of Q were correlated with histologic tumor diagnosis, its dignity and frequency. Values of Q of greater than 3.0 were found in 95% of all sarcomas, in 100% of the osteosarcomas but in only 3.8% of all benign bone tumors. Values ranging from 1.0 to 1.2 were exclusively measured in benign tumors (e.g., in 52% of juvenile bone cysts and in 67% of non-ossifing fibromas). Since the threshold - separating benign from malignant lesions - at Q = 3.0 was blurred by tumorlike lesions, metastases and especially by Paget's disease, this method does not precisely predict dignity. However, this method may complement radiographic evaluation with low values supporting the diagnosis of a benign lesion. The combined findings of radiography and these rations gained by nuclear imaging may help determine the pathway of a patient through further diagnosis and treatment. (orig.)

  19. Pituitary Tumor-Transforming Gene 1 Is Expressed in Primary Ductal Breast Carcinoma, Lymph Node Infiltration, and Distant Metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Grizzi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the advances that have been made in the fields of molecular and cell biology, there is still considerable debate explaining how the breast cancer cells progress through carcinogenesis and acquire their metastatic ability. The lack of preventive methods and effective therapies underlines the pressing need to identify new biomarkers that can aid early diagnosis and may be targets for effective therapeutic strategies. In this study we explore the pituitary tumor-transforming gene 1 (PTTG1 expression in primary ductal breast carcinoma, lymph node infiltration, and distant metastases. Three human cell lines, 184B5 derived from normal mammary epithelium, HCC70 from a primary ductal carcinoma, and MDA-MB-361 from a breast metastasis, were used for quantifying PTTG1 mRNA expression. The PTTG1 immunohistochemical expression was carried out on specimens taken from eight patients with invasive ductal breast cancer who underwent surgical treatment and followup for five years retrospectively selected. The study demonstrated that PTTG1 is expressed gradually in primary ductal breast carcinoma, lymph node infiltration, and distant metastases. Our findings suggest that the immunohistochemical evaluation of PTTG1 expression might be a powerful biomarker of recognition and quantification of the breast cancer cells in routine pathological specimens and a potential target for developing an effective immunotherapeutic strategy for primary and metastatic breast cancer.

  20. Metastatic primary lung tumor in three dogsTumor primário pulmonar metastático em três cães

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Carlos Faria dos Reis

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Primary lung tumors (PLT are uncommon in dogs and occasionally metastasize to distant organs. This report describes three cases of PLT in dogs with epithelial origin, diagnosed post mortem through histopathology and immunohistochemistry. Case one presented nonspecific symptoms while the second and third cases presented respiratory alterations and radiographic exams revealed the presence of pulmonary nodule(s. Case 1 was diagnosed as a pulmonary papillary adenocarcinoma with metastasis to the mediastinal lymph nodes, liver and right adrenal gland. Case 2 was a pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma with metastasis to the heart, kidneys and perianal glan, whereas Case 3 was diagnosis as pulmonary papillary adenocarcinoma with metastasis to the pericardium and mediastinal lymph nodes. No previous report of epithelial TPP metastasis to pericardium, heart, liver, kidney and perianal gland. The three tumors showed positive immunostaining for the anti-pan-cytokeratin antibody and negative immunostaining for the anti-vimentin antibody. In dogs with PLT, the TNM clinical staging and histological classification and grading are fundamental for therapeutic planning and prognosis determination.Tumores primários pulmonares (TPP são incomuns em cães e ocasionalmente metastatizam para órgãos distantes. Relatam-se três casos de TPP com origem epitelial em cães, diagnosticados pós-morte por meio do exame histopatológico e imuno-histoquímico. O caso 1 apresentou sinais clínicos inespecíficos, os casos 2 e 3 apresentaram sinais clínicos de alterações respiratórias e no exame radiográfico visualizouse nódulo(s pulmonar. Os casos 1 e 3 foram diagnosticados como adenocarcinoma papilar pulmonar com metástase nos linfonodos mediastínicos, fígado, adrenal direita (caso 1 e, pericárdio e linfonodos mediastínicos (caso 3. O caso 2 apresentou carcinoma de células escamosas pulmonar com metástase no coração, rins e glândula perianal. Não há relatos

  1. Use of 5-ALA fluorescence guided endoscopic biopsy of a deep-seated primary malignant brain tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, Rainer; Feigl, Guenther C; Schuhmann, Martin U; Ehrhardt, André; Danz, Soeren; Noell, Susan; Bornemann, Antje; Tatagiba, Marcos S

    2011-05-01

    The introduction of fluorescence-guided resection of primary malignant brain tumors was a milestone in neurosurgery. Deep-seated malignant brain tumors are often not approachable for microsurgical resection. For diagnosis and therapy, new strategies are recommended. The combination of endoscopy and 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced protoporphyrin IX (5-ALA-induced Pp IX) fluorescence-guided procedures supported by neuronavigation seems an interesting option. Here the authors report on a combined approach for 5-ALA fluorescence-guided biopsy in which they use an endoscopy system based on an Xe lamp (excitation approximately λ = 407 nm; dichroic filter system λ = 380-430 nm) to treat a malignant tumor of the thalamus and perform a ventriculostomy and septostomy. The excitation filter and emission filter are adapted to ensure that the remaining visible blue remission is sufficient to superimpose on or suppress the excited red fluorescence of the endogenous fluorochromes. The authors report that the lesion was easily detectable in the fluorescence mode and that biopsy led to histological diagnosis. PMID:21166571

  2. Therapeutic Touch Has Significant Effects on Mouse Breast Cancer Metastasis and Immune Responses but Not Primary Tumor Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronowicz, Gloria; Secor, Eric R; Flynn, John R; Jellison, Evan R; Kuhn, Liisa T

    2015-01-01

    Evidence-based integrative medicine therapies have been introduced to promote wellness and offset side-effects from cancer treatment. Energy medicine is an integrative medicine technique using the human biofield to promote well-being. The biofield therapy chosen for study was Therapeutic Touch (TT). Breast cancer tumors were initiated in mice by injection of metastatic 66cl4 mammary carcinoma cells. The control group received only vehicle. TT or mock treatments were performed twice a week for 10 minutes. Two experienced TT practitioners alternated treatments. At 26 days, metastasis to popliteal lymph nodes was determined by clonogenic assay. Changes in immune function were measured by analysis of serum cytokines and by fluorescent activated cells sorting (FACS) of immune cells from the spleen and lymph nodes. No significant differences were found in body weight gain or tumor size. Metastasis was significantly reduced in the TT-treated mice compared to mock-treated mice. Cancer significantly elevated eleven cytokines. TT significantly reduced IL-1-a, MIG, IL-1b, and MIP-2 to control/vehicle levels. FACS demonstrated that TT significantly reduced specific splenic lymphocyte subsets and macrophages were significantly elevated with cancer. Human biofield therapy had no significant effect on primary tumor but produced significant effects on metastasis and immune responses in a mouse breast cancer model. PMID:26113869

  3. Therapeutic Touch Has Significant Effects on Mouse Breast Cancer Metastasis and Immune Responses but Not Primary Tumor Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Gronowicz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence-based integrative medicine therapies have been introduced to promote wellness and offset side-effects from cancer treatment. Energy medicine is an integrative medicine technique using the human biofield to promote well-being. The biofield therapy chosen for study was Therapeutic Touch (TT. Breast cancer tumors were initiated in mice by injection of metastatic 66cl4 mammary carcinoma cells. The control group received only vehicle. TT or mock treatments were performed twice a week for 10 minutes. Two experienced TT practitioners alternated treatments. At 26 days, metastasis to popliteal lymph nodes was determined by clonogenic assay. Changes in immune function were measured by analysis of serum cytokines and by fluorescent activated cells sorting (FACS of immune cells from the spleen and lymph nodes. No significant differences were found in body weight gain or tumor size. Metastasis was significantly reduced in the TT-treated mice compared to mock-treated mice. Cancer significantly elevated eleven cytokines. TT significantly reduced IL-1-a, MIG, IL-1b, and MIP-2 to control/vehicle levels. FACS demonstrated that TT significantly reduced specific splenic lymphocyte subsets and macrophages were significantly elevated with cancer. Human biofield therapy had no significant effect on primary tumor but produced significant effects on metastasis and immune responses in a mouse breast cancer model.

  4. Laser-induced thermotherapy of lung metastases and primary lung tumors; Laserinduzierte Thermotherapie von Lungenmetastasen und primaeren Lungentumoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogl, T.J. (Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Klinikum der J.-W.-Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt; Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Klinikum der J.-W.-Goethe-Universitaet, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590, Frankfurt); Fieguth, H.G. (Klinik fuer Thorax-, Herz- und thorakale Gefaesschirurgie, Klinikum der J.-W.-Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt); Eichler, K.; Straub, R.; Lehnert, T.; Zangos, S.; Mack, M. (Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Klinikum der J.-W.-Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt)

    2004-07-01

    We present laser-induced thermotherapy (LITT) of primary and secondary lung tumors analysing indications and technical concepts. Thirty patients with lung metastases of different primary tumors (n=24) as well as localized lung tumors (n=6) were prospectively treated in 41 sessions using laser-induced thermotherapy (LITT). An MR-compatible puncture system was used with direct puncture technique. The puncture was performed via CT guidance in care vision technique. Eight patients were thermoablated using MR tomographical monitoring, 22 patients using CT monitoring. Local therapy effects, tumor control rate, side effects, complications, and survival were evaluated. In 74% of cases (28/38 lesions) of 24 patients with lung metastases and in all cases of the 6 patients with lung carcinoma a complete local ablation could be achieved. The complication rate (pneumothorax) was 9,8%. One patient with bronchial carcinoma had to be thoracotomized and resected. 93% of the patients are still alive. Percutaneous LITT of lung tumors permits a complete ablation of lung metastases and lung carcinomas with a low complication rate. Indications for the procedure were defined for patients with no more than 5 metastases up to 3 cm in size. (orig.) [German] Wir stellen nachfolgend die Ergebnisse der laserinduzierten Thermotherapie (LITT) primaerer und sekundaerer Lungentumoren vor und analysieren die Indikationsstellung und die Interventionstechnik. Dreissig Patienten mit Lungenmetastasen unterschiedlicher Primaertumoren (n=24) sowie lokalisierten Bronchialkarzinomen (n=6) wurden prospektiv in 41 Sitzungen mittels MR-gesteuerter LITT therapiert. Zum Einsatz kam ein MR-kompatibles Punktionssystem in direkter Punktionstechnik; die Punktion erfolgte jeweils unter CT-Steuerung in Care-vision-Technik. Acht Patienten wurden mittels MR-tomographischem Monitoring thermoablatiert, 22 Patienten mittels CT-Monitoring. Evaluiert wurden die lokalen Therapieeffekte, Tumorkontrollrate, und die Frage von

  5. A study of histopathological spectrum and expression of Ki-67, TP53 in primary brain tumors of pediatric age group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhalakshmi Sengupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The primary brain tumors are the second most common cause of death due to malignancies in children. This study was done to analyze the histological spectrum of primary brain tumors in children and also to find out the expression of p53 and Ki67 in some of the common pediatric brain tumors. Materials and Methods: This study was done over a period of 2.5 years. The patients were followed up until 6 months to determine the outcome. We examined H and E sections from 61 pediatric brain tumors and also performed immunohistochemical stains with p53 and Ki67 on 52 of these samples. Results: Of the 61 cases of pediatric brain tumors the commonest were pilocytic astrocytomas and medulloblastomas both constituting 22.9% of total cases, followed by high grade gliomas, that is, anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastoma taken together (14.7%, diffuse astrocytomas (11.4%, ependymomas (8.1%, and oligodendrogliomas (4.9%. Other cases comprised craniopharyngiomas, astroblastomas, and gangliocytoma. The mean age of presentation was 9.3 years, male children being more commonly affected. Ki67 labeling index (LI and p53 expression in pilocytic astrocytomas and diffuse astrocytomas were significantly lower than that of high-grade astrocytomas. However, there was no significant difference of expression of these two antigens in pilocytic astrocytomas and diffuse astrocytomas. It was found that Ki67 LI was a better marker for distinguishing between grades of astrocytoma than p53 (P=0.000 and P=0.002, respectively. The survival in cases of pilocytic astrocytomas was far better than high-grade gliomas. However, there was no significant difference in survival between pilocytic astrocytoma and diffuse infiltrating astrocytoma. There was significant positive correlation between expression of p53 and Ki67 LI in cases of medulloblastomas. Both p53 (P=0.002 and Ki67 LI (P=0.000 taken individually correlated well with survival in these cases. Also, Ki67 LI is better

  6. Multiple myeloma cell lines and primary tumors proteoma: protein biosynthesis and immune system as potential therapeutic targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzotti, Diego Robles; Evangelista, Adriane Feijó; Braga, Walter Moisés Tobias; de Lourdes Chauffaille, Maria; Leme, Adriana Franco Paes; Colleoni, Gisele Wally Braga

    2015-01-01

    Despite great advance in multiple myeloma (MM) treatment since 2000s, it is still an incurable disease and novel therapies are welcome. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore MM plasma cells' (MM-PC) proteome, in comparison with their normal counterparts (derived from palatine tonsils of normal donors, ND-PC), in order to find potential therapeutic targets expressed on the surface of these cells. We also aimed to evaluate the proteome of MM cell lines with different genetic alterations, to confirm findings obtained with primary tumor cells. Bone marrow (BM) samples from eight new cases of MM and palatine tonsils from seven unmatched controls were submitted to PC separation and, in addition to two MM cell lines (U266, RPMI-8226), were submitted to protein extraction for mass spectrometry analyses. A total of 81 proteins were differentially expressed between MM-PC and ND-PC - 72 upregulated and nine downregulated; U266 vs. RPMI 8226 cell lines presented 61 differentially expressed proteins - 51 upregulated and 10 downregulated. On primary tumors, bioinformatics analyses highlighted upregulation of protein biosynthesis machinery, as well as downregulation of immune response components, such as MHC class I and II, and complement receptors. We also provided comprehensive information about U266 and RPMI-8226 cell lines' proteome and could confirm some patients' findings. PMID:26807199

  7. An experimental study on the change of the radiosensitivity of several tumor cell lines and primary cultured gingi cal fibrobrast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation sensitivity data was generated for two human cancer cell lines (KB, RPMI 2650) and human primary gingival fibroblast was tested three times using a viable cell number counting with a hemocytometer, MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol 2-yl]-2,5-dipheny tetrazolium bromide) assay, and LDH (Lactate dehydrogenase) assay. Single irradiation of 2, 4, 6, 10, 15, 20 Gy were applied to the tumor cell lines and the primary cultured gingical fibroblast. The two fractions of 4 Gy an d 10 Gy were separated with a 4 hour time interval. The irradiation was done with 241.5 cGy/min dose rate using 137 Cs MK cell irradiator at room temperature. The obtained results were as followed : 1. There was significantly different viable cell numbers as the amount of radiation dose on the tested cells were cell number counted with a hemocytometer, In fractions, there were more viable cells remaining. 2. Phase-contrast microscopically, radiation-induced morphologic changes were pronounced on the tumor cells, however, almost no differences on the gingival fibroblast. 3. There was significantly different absorbance at 2 Gy on RPMI 2650, 4 Gy on KB and GF in MTT assay. In fractions, the absorbance was significantly higher on KB. 4. The level of extracellular LDH activity in the experimental group was significantly higher in the 2-4 Gy than the control group. 5. The total level of extracellular and intracellular LDH activity was decreased as increased amounts of radiation dose was applied.

  8. DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS OF PRIMARY AND METASTATIC OVARIAN TUMORS IN PATIENTS WITH COLONIC CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. G. Komarov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This report summarizes existing data on differential diagnosis between primary and metastatic ovarian cancer in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC. The results obtained in N.N. Blokhin Russian Cancer Research Center on the management of this malignancy are also presented. The evidence in favour of the need of genetic counseling and monitoring of the patients with aggravated familial history for early diagnosis of synchronous and metachronous ovarian cancer in patients with CRC is produced. A number of clinical, laboratory and diagnostic methods in addition to immunohistology and molecular genetics should be used for differential diagnosis of primary and metastatic ovarian cancer in patients with CRC.

  9. FDG-PET/CT for detection of the unknown primary head and neck tumor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J; Petersen, H; Godballe, Christian; Loft, Annika; Grau, Cai

    2011-01-01

    The benefit of FDG-PET in addition to standard work-up for carcinoma of unknown primary (CUP) and metastatic neck lesions has been widely described. However, most studies have been of retrospective nature with large heterogeneities in terms of workup standards and patient selection leaving several...... questions to be answered regarding the real value of PET in CUP. We here present an overview of the literature with focus on the current evidence of FDG-PET in detecting a primary in CUP and discuss the rationale of PET/CT in the diagnostic armamentarium of CUP....

  10. Bladder Tumor Recurrence after Primary Surgery for Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the Upper Urinary Tract

    OpenAIRE

    Oehlschläger, Sven; Baldauf, Anka; Wiessner, Diana; Gellrich, Jörg; Hakenberg, Oliver W; Wirth, Manfred P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Primary transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the upper urinary tract represents 6–8% of all TCC cases. Nephroureterectomy with removal of a bladder cuff is the treatment of choice. The rates of TCC recurrence in the bladder after primary upper urinary tract surgery described in the literature range between 12.5 and 37.5%. In a retrospective analysis we examined the occurrence of TCC after nephroureterectomy for upper tract TCC in patients without a previous history of bladder TCC a...

  11. Evaluation of the Safety and Benefit of Phase I Oncology Trials for Patients With Primary CNS Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gounder, Mrinal M.; Nayak, Lakshmi; Sahebjam, Solmaz; Muzikansky, Alona; Sanchez, Armando J.; Desideri, Serena; Ye, Xiaobu; Ivy, S. Percy; Nabors, L. Burt; Prados, Michael; Grossman, Stuart; DeAngelis, Lisa M.; Wen, Patrick Y.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Patients with high-grade gliomas (HGG) are frequently excluded from first-in-human solid tumor trials because of perceived poor prognosis, excessive toxicities, concomitant drug interactions, and poor efficacy. We conducted an analysis of outcomes from select, single-agent phase I studies in patients with HGG. We compared outcomes to pooled analysis of published studies in solid tumors with various molecular and cytotoxic drugs evaluated as single agents or as combinations. Patient and Methods Individual records of patients with recurrent HGG enrolled onto Adult Brain Tumor Consortium trials of single-agent, cytotoxic or molecular agents from 2000 to 2008 were analyzed for baseline characteristics, toxicities, responses, and survival. Results Our analysis included 327 patients with advanced, refractory HGG who were enrolled onto eight trials involving targeted molecular (n = 5) and cytotoxic (n = 3) therapies. At enrollment, patients had a median Karnofsky performance score of 90 and median age of 52 years; 62% were men, 63% had glioblastoma, and the median number of prior systemic chemotherapies was one. Baseline laboratory values were in an acceptable range to meet eligibility criteria. Patients were on the study for a median of two cycles (range, < one to 56 cycles), and 96% were evaluable for primary end points. During cycle 1, grade ≥ 3 nonhematologic and grade ≥ 4 hematologic toxicities were 5% (28 of 565 adverse events) and 0.9% (five of 565 adverse events), respectively, and 66% of these occurred at the highest dose level. There was one death attributed to drug. Overall response rate (complete and partial response) was 5.5%. Median progression-free and overall survival times were 1.8 and 6 months, respectively. Conclusion Patients with HGG who meet standard eligibility criteria may be good candidates for solid tumor phase I studies with single-agent molecular or cytotoxic drugs with favorable preclinical rationale and pharmacokinetic properties

  12. Skull Base Clear Cell Carcinoma, Metastasis of Renal Primary Tumor: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilson Sepúlveda

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We report on a patient who presented with cranial nerve VI bilateral paresis, absence of pharyngeal reflex, dysarthria, right tongue deviation, and right facial paralysis. Imaging studies showed an expansive process in the cranial base with clivus and petrous apex osteolysis. A biopsy confirmed the presence of clear cell adenocarcinoma and suspicion of renal tumor metastases. Abdominal imaging studies revealed a mass in the right kidney. Consequently, radiotherapy was performed, and the patient was enrolled in a palliative care and pain control program.

  13. Primary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Abbas

    2014-03-01

    Immunohistochemically: The tumor showed positivity for CK7, CK20, CK8/18, GATA-3, MSH-2, MSH-6, MLH-1, Ber-EP4, and S-100-P with focal positivity for CDX-2, weak positivity for PMS-2 and negativity in TTF-1 and Her-2. Molecular pathological analysis revealed microsatellite stability and without mutation in K-ras-gene. Thus, a diagnosis of mucinous adenocarcinoma of the renal pelvis with in situ adenocarcinoma of the ureter was made.

  14. Pretreatment Primary Tumor SUVmax Measured by FDG-PET and Pathologic Tumor Depth Predict for Poor Outcomes in Patients With Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Pathologically Positive Lymph Nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The pathologic tumor depth is an independent prognosticator for local control (LC) and survival in patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). We sought to investigate the prognostic value of the preoperative maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax) at the primary tumor in OSCC patients with pathologically positive lymph nodes. Methods and Materials: A total of 109 OSCC patients with pathologically positive lymph nodes were investigated. All patients underwent 2-deoxy-2[(18)F]fluoro-D-glucose-positron emission tomography within 2 weeks before surgery and neck dissection. All patients were followed for ≥24 months after surgery or until death. The optimal cutoff value for the primary tumor SUVmax was selected according to the 5-year LC rate. Independent prognosticators were identified by Cox regression analysis. Results: The median follow-up for all patients was 26 months (39 months for surviving patients). A cutoff SUVmax of 19.3 provided the greatest prognostic information for the 5-year LC rate (55% vs. 88%, p = 0.0135). A tumor depth ≥12 mm appeared to be the most appropriate cutoff for predicting the 5-year LC rate (76% vs. 95%, p = 0.0075). A scoring system using the primary tumor SUVmax and tumor depth was formulated to define distinct prognostic groups. Patients with both a SUVmax of ≥19.3 and tumor depth of ≥12 mm (n = 8) had significantly poorer 5-year LC, 5-year disease-free, 5-year disease-specific, and 5-year overall survival rates compared with the other patient groups. Conclusion: The combination of the primary tumor SUVmax (≥19.3) and pathologic tumor depth (≥12 mm) identified a subgroup of OSCC patients at greatest risk of poor LC and death

  15. Does Local Recurrence of Prostate Cancer After Radiation Therapy Occur at the Site of Primary Tumor? Results of a Longitudinal MRI and MRSI Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine if local recurrence of prostate cancer after radiation therapy occurs at the same site as the primary tumor before treatment, using longitudinal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and MR spectroscopic imaging to assess dominant tumor location. Methods and Materials: This retrospective study was HIPAA compliant and approved by our Committee on Human Research. We identified all patients in our institutional prostate cancer database (1996 onward) who underwent endorectal MR imaging and MR spectroscopic imaging before radiotherapy for biopsy-proven prostate cancer and again at least 2 years after radiotherapy (n = 124). Two radiologists recorded the presence, location, and size of unequivocal dominant tumor on pre- and postradiotherapy scans. Recurrent tumor was considered to be at the same location as the baseline tumor if at least 50% of the tumor location overlapped. Clinical and biopsy data were collected from all patients. Results: Nine patients had unequivocal dominant tumor on both pre- and postradiotherapy imaging, with mean pre- and postradiotherapy dominant tumor diameters of 1.8 cm (range, 1–2.2) and 1.9 cm (range, 1.4–2.6), respectively. The median follow-up interval was 7.3 years (range, 2.7–10.8). Dominant recurrent tumor was at the same location as dominant baseline tumor in 8 of 9 patients (89%). Conclusions: Local recurrence of prostate cancer after radiation usually occurs at the same site as the dominant primary tumor at baseline, suggesting supplementary focal therapy aimed at enhancing local tumor control would be a rational addition to management.

  16. PAX2, PAX8 and CDX2 Expression in Metastatic Mucinous, Primary Ovarian Mucinous and Seromucinous Tumors and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates Ozdemir, D; Usubutun, A

    2016-07-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most common cause of gynecologic cancer death. Both morphologically and immunohistochemically, metastatic mucinous tumors are the best mimickers of mucinous ovarian tumors; its pathogenesis still remains a mystery. PAX2 and PAX8 immunohisyochemistries are useful for differentiating numerous primary tumour types from metastatic ones. There are few studies in literature about PAX expressions in mucinous and seromucinous tumors. None of these are takes into account the histologic type (whether it is seromucinous or mucinous) or the metastatic origin. With this purpose hematoxylin and eosine slides of ovarian mucinous and seromucinous tumors were re-evaluated and one block was chosen for each case. The study included 76 ovarian mucinous and seromucinous tumors of the ovary reported in Hacettepe University department of pathology between 2000 and 2013. Tissue microarray (TMA) was designed from the chosen blocks, PAX2, PAX8, CDX2 immunostains was preformed to the TMA slides. As a result, most of the metastatic cases were negative for PAX2 (91.2 %) and PAX8 (86.3 %), many were diffusely and strongly positive for CDX2 (68.2 %). Seromucinous tumors were devoid of CDX2 expression; but all cases (except one) displayed strong and diffuse positivity with PAX8. In other words differing from mucinous tumors, seromucinous tumors show strong PAX8 positivity-similar to serous tumors. This study shows that PAX8 and CDX2 could be useful in differentiating primary mucinous from metastatic tumor. Furthermore unlike the homogeneity in seromucinous tumors for PAX8 and CDX2 mucinous tumors shows heterogeneity with different expression patterns. PMID:26797858

  17. Correlation between displacement of GTV and volumetric parameters of primary tumor in thoracic esophageal cancer based on repeated 4DCT scans during radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the correlation between the displacement of gross tumor volume (GTV) and the volume, length, and largest diameter of primary tumor in thoracic esophageal cancer based on repeated enhanced four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) scans during fractionated radiotherapy. Methods: Thirty enrolled patients with thoracic esophageal cancer underwent enhanced 4DCT scans before radiotherapy and every ten fractions during radiotherapy. The displacements of GTV in left-right (LR), anterior-posterior (AP), and superior-inferior (SI) directions in each scan were obtained, and then the correlation between the displacements and the volume, length, and largest diameter of primary tumor was analyzed. Results: In the 20th fraction,a significant positive correlation was observed between the displacement of GTV in LR direction and the volume of primary tumor for all patients and the patients with lower-thoracic esophageal cancer (P =0.012 and 0.040), between the displacement of GTV in SI direction and the length of primary tumor for all patients and the patients with upper-and middle-thoracic esophageal cancer (P =0.003, 0.031, and 0.044), and between the displacement of GTV in LR direction and the length of primary tumor for the patients with lower-thoracic esophageal cancer (P =0.027). At the first 4DCT scan before radiotherapy, a significant positive correlation was observed between the largest diameter of primary tumor and the displacement of GTV in LR and SI directions and three-dimensional vector for all patients (P=0.036, 0.033, and 0.018) and between the largest diameter of primary tumor and the displacement of GTV in LR direction for the patients with lower-thoracic esophageal cancer (P =0.011). Conclusions: In different fractions of radiotherapy, no significant correlation is found between the displacement of GTV in AP direction and the volume, length, and largest diameter of primary tumor in patients with lower-, middle-, or upper

  18. An unusual presentation of primary hyperparathyroidism: multiple brown tumors and coexisting thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basaran, Y; Ince, S; Alagoz, E; Meric, C; Taslipinar, A

    2016-01-01

    We present a patient with a complex clinical picture of primary hyperparathyroidism with multiple destructive skeletal lesions suspicious of bone metastases and concomitant multifocal papillary thyroid carcinoma with a metastatic central lymph node. He presented with progressively worsening right hip pain and restricted motion. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed multiple lytic lesions involving predominantly the right trochanter minor and the left inferior and posterior pubic rami. Biochemical tests were consistent with primary hyperparathyroidism. Neck ultrasound and parathyroid scintigraphy revealed a single parathyroid adenoma and a thyroid nodule, preoperative cytology of which confirmed papillary thyroid carcinoma, as did the final surgical specimen. Biochemical results, regarding hyperparathyroidism, declined to normal levels and his complaints gradually decreased after surgery. Postoperative whole body bone scintigraphy showed increased tracer uptakes at multiple sites, but they were proved to be metabolically inactive by fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography. PMID:27036887

  19. Primary hepatic actinomycosis mimicking a tumor (inflammatory pseudotumor): Case report and literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Ayşe Batirel; Ferhat Arslan; Sevinç Hallaç Keser; Hasan Fehmi Kücük; Dilek Yavuzer; Oğuz Karabay; Serdar Özer

    2015-01-01

    Actinomycosis often manifests with abscesses in the cervicofacial region. Hepatic involvement occurs usually second­ary to an intraabdominal infection. “Isolated or primary hepatic actinomycosis (PHA) defines actinomycosis in which the source of infection cannot be demonstrated elsewhere. Herein, we aimed to highlight hepatic actinomycosis in the differential diagnosis of hepatic mass lesions, and also its occurrence even in patients without underlying risk factors. A 24-year-old man, who pre...

  20. Can Locoregional Treatment of the Primary Tumor Improve Outcomes for Women With Stage IV Breast Cancer at Diagnosis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To examine the effect of locoregional treatment (LRT) of the primary tumor on survival in patients with Stage IV breast cancer at diagnosis. Methods and Materials: The study cohort comprised 733 women referred to the British Columbia Cancer Agency between 1996 and 2005 with newly diagnosed clinical or pathologic M1 breast cancer. Tumor and treatment characteristics, overall survival (OS), and locoregional progression-free survival were compared between patients treated with (n = 378) and without (n = 355) LRT of the primary disease. Multivariable analysis was performed with Cox regression modeling. Results: The median follow-up time was 1.9 years. LRT consisted of surgery alone in 67% of patients, radiotherapy alone in 22%, and both in 11%. LRT was used more commonly in women with age <50 years, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status 0–1, Stage T1–2 tumors, N0–1 disease, limited M1 burden, and asymptomatic M1 disease (all p < 0.05). Systemic therapy was used in 92% of patients who underwent LRT and 85% of patients who did not. In patients treated with LRT compared with those without LRT, the 5-year OS rates were 21% vs. 14% (p < 0.001), and the rates of locoregional progression-free survival were 72% vs. 46% (p < 0.001). Among 378 patients treated with LRT, the rates of 5-year OS were higher in patients with age <50, ECOG performance status 0–1, estrogen receptor–positive disease, clear surgical margins, single subsite, bone-only metastasis, and one to four metastatic lesions (all p < 0.003). On multivariable analysis, LRT was associated with improved OS (hazard ratio, 0.78; 95% confidence interval, 0.64–0.94, p = 0.009). Conclusion: Locoregional treatment of the primary disease is associated with improved survival in some women with Stage IV breast cancer at diagnosis. Among those treated with LRT, the most favorable rates of survival were observed in subsets with young age, good performance status, estrogen receptor

  1. New agents for targeting of IL-13RA2 expressed in primary human and canine brain tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Debinski

    and thus may be appropriate candidates for IL-13RA2-targeted imaging/therapies. Canine spontaneous primary brain tumors represent an excellent translational model for human counterparts.

  2. Comparison of IGRT Registration Strategies for Optimal Coverage of Primary Lung Tumors and Involved Nodes Based on Multiple Four-Dimensional CT Scans Obtained Throughout the Radiotherapy Course

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate the impact of primary tumor and involved lymph node (LN) geometry (centroid, shape, volume) on internal target volume (ITV) throughout treatment for locally advanced non–small cell lung cancer using weekly four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT). Methods and Materials: Eleven patients with advanced non–small cell lung cancer were treated using image-guided radiotherapy with acquisition of weekly 10-Phase 4DCTs (n = 51). Initial ITV was based on planning 4DCT. Master-ITV incorporated target geometry across the entire treatment (all 4DCTs). Geographic miss was defined as the % Master-ITV positioned outside of the initial planning ITV after registration is complete. Registration strategies considered were bony (B), primary tumor soft tissue alone (T), and registration based on primary tumor and involved LNs (TLN). Results: The % geographic miss for the primary tumor, mediastinal, and hilar lymph nodes based on each registration strategy were (1) B: 30%, 30%, 30%; (2) T: 21%, 40%, 36%; and (3) TLN: 26%, 26%, 27%. Mean geographic expansions to encompass 100% of the primary tumor and involved LNs were 1.2 ± 0.7 cm and 0.8 ± 0.3 cm, respectively, for B and TLN. Primary and involved LN expansions were 0.7 ± 0.5 cm and 1.1 ± 0.5 cm for T. Conclusion: T is best for solitary targets. When treatments include primary tumor and LNs, B and TLN provide more comprehensive geographic coverage. We have identified high % geographic miss when considering multiple registration strategies. The dosimetric implications are the subject of future study.

  3. MR analysis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma: correlation of the pattern of tumor extent at the primary site with the distribution of metastasized cervical lymph nodes. Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to correlate the pattern of tumor extent of nasopharyngeal carcinoma at the primary site on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with the distribution of cervical lymph node metastasis. MR images of 32 patients with biopsy-proven nasopharyngeal carcinoma were reviewed and classified into five patterns of tumor extent in correlation with the distribution of cervical lymphadenopathy. The assessment of cervical lymph node metastasis was done on the basis of the computed tomography (CT) findings. The tumor volume was also correlated with the occurrence of contralateral lymphadenopathy. Of the 32 patients, five (16 %) presented as type 1, tumor limited to the nasopharyngeal mucosa; 12 (38 %) as type 2 a, tumor which had invaded either lateral side but did not extend over the roof of nasopharynx; three (9 %) as type 2 b, tumor which had invaded bilaterally across the midline but did not extend over the roof of nasopharynx; three (9 %) as type 2 c, tumor which had invaded mainly the skull base but did not cross the midline; and nine (28 %) as type 3, tumor which had extended anteriorly to the nasal cavity without invasion. Twenty-five patients (78 %) demonstrated cervical lymphadenopathy. Patients with type 1, type 2 b and type 3 spread had frequent bilateral cervical lymphadenopathy; those with type 2 a had only ipsilateral lymphadenopathy. There was statistical significance (P < 0.005) regarding the existence of contralateral lymphadenopathy with midline tumors as well as the absence of contralateral cervical lymphadenopathy with non-midline tumors. This study therefore suggests that the distribution of metastasized lymph nodes depends on the pattern of tumor extent at the primary site. (orig.)

  4. A Leukemic Presentation of Alveolar Rhabdomyosarcoma in a 52-Year-Old Woman Without an Identifiable Primary Tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Jason B.; Hii, Anselm; Kruse, Matthew J.; Szabo, Zsolt; Argani, Pedram; Hibbard, Michele K.; Gladstone, Douglas E.; Meyer, Christian; Zheng, Rui; Borowitz, Michael J.; Duffield, Amy S.

    2015-01-01

    A 52-year-old woman presented with fatigue and thrombocytopenia. Imaging studies were unremarkable with the exception of a positron emission tomography scan, which demonstrated intense F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose uptake fusing to the marrow. A bone marrow aspirate was notable for large discohesive cells with basophilic cytoplasm, and flow cytometric analysis identified a population of phenotypically unusual cells that coexpressed CD56 and CD71. Immunohistochemical findings in the marrow biopsy demonstrated that the neoplasm was alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma, further supported by the presence of a t(2;13). This unusual case demonstrates that leukemic presentations of rhabdomyosarcoma can occur in older adults in the absence of an identifiable primary tumor. PMID:25305220

  5. Prognostic Impact of Radiation Therapy to the Primary Tumor in Patients With Non-small Cell Lung Cancer and Oligometastasis at Diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: We investigated prognostic factors associated with survival in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and oligometastatic disease at diagnosis, particularly the influence of local treatment to the primary site on prognosis. Methods and Materials: From January 2000 through June 2011, 78 consecutive patients with oligometastatic NSCLC (80 (P=.007), had a gross tumor volume ≤124 cm3 (P=.002), had adenocarcinoma histology (P=.002), or had no history of respiratory disease (P=.016). On multivariate analysis, radiation dose, performance status, and tumor volume retained significance (P=.004, P=.006, and P<.001, respectively). The radiation dose also maintained significance when patients with and without brain metastases were analyzed separately. Conclusions: Tumor volume, KPS, and receipt of at least 63 Gy to the primary tumor are associated with improved OS in patients with oligometastatic NSCLC at diagnosis. Our results suggest that a subset of such patients may benefit from definitive local therapy.

  6. Screening for psychological distress in adult primary brain tumor patients and caregivers: considerations for cancer care coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wafa eTrad

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionThis study aimed to assess psychological distress (PD as scored by the Distress Thermometer (DT in adult primary brain tumor (PBT patients and caregivers in a clinic setting, and ascertain if any high risk sub-groups for PD exist. Material and MethodsFrom May 2012 to August 2013, n=96 patients and n=32 caregivers (CG underwent DT screening at diagnosis, and a differing cohort of n=12 patients and n=14 caregivers at first recurrence. Groups were described by diagnosis (high grade, low grade and benign, and English versus non-English speaking. Those with DT score≥4 met caseness criteria for referral to psycho-oncology services. One-way ANOVA tests were conducted to test for between group differences where appropriate.ResultsAt diagnosis and first recurrence, 37.5% and 75.0% (respectively of patients had DT scores above the cut-off for distress. At diagnosis, 78.1% of caregivers met caseness criteria for distress. All caregivers at recurrence met distress criterion. Patients with high grade glioma had significantly higher scores than those with a benign tumor. For patients at diagnosis, non-English speaking participants did not report significantly higher DT scores than English speaking participants.DiscussionPsychological distress is particularly elevated in caregivers, and in patients with high grade glioma at diagnosis. Effective PD screening, triage and referral by skilled care coordinators is vital to enable timely needs assessment, psychological support and effective intervention.

  7. Clinical outcome of hypofractionated breath-hold image-guided SABR of primary lung tumors and lung metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stereotactic Ablative RadioTherapy (SABR) of lung tumors/metastases has been shown to be an effective treatment modality with low toxicity. Outcome and toxicity were retrospectively evaluated in a unique single-institution cohort treated with intensity-modulated image-guided breath-hold SABR (igSABR) without external immobilization. The dose–response relationship is analyzed based on Biologically Equivalent Dose (BED). 50 lesions in 43 patients with primary NSCLC (n = 27) or lung-metastases of various primaries (n = 16) were consecutively treated with igSABR with Active-Breathing-Coordinator (ABC®) and repeat-breath-hold cone-beam-CT. After an initial dose-finding/-escalation period, 5x12 Gy for peripheral lesions and single doses of 5 Gy to varying dose levels for central lesions were applied. Overall-survival (OS), progression-free-survival (PFS), progression pattern, local control (LC) and toxicity were analyzed. The median BED2 was 83 Gy. 12 lesions were treated with a BED2 of <80 Gy, and 38 lesions with a BED2 of >80 Gy. Median follow-up was 15 months. Actuarial 1- and 2-year OS were 67% and 43%; respectively. Cause of death was non-disease-related in 27%. Actuarial 1- and 2-year PFS was 42% and 28%. Progression site was predominantly distant. Actuarial 1- and 2 year LC was 90% and 85%. LC showed a trend for a correlation to BED2 (p = 0.1167). Pneumonitis requiring conservative treatment occurred in 23%. Intensity-modulated breath-hold igSABR results in high LC-rates and low toxicity in this unfavorable patient cohort with inoperable lung tumors or metastases. A BED2 of <80 Gy was associated with reduced local control

  8. Basis and consequences of primary and secondary prevention of gastrointestinal tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldin-Lang, P; Kreuser, E D; Zunft, H J

    1996-01-01

    Carcinomas of the gastrointestinal tract (GI) are among the most common malignancies with regard to their incidence and mortality. Nutritional factors play an important role in the tumor development. The strength of their influence varies with the localization in the GI tract. Epidemiological studies focusing on GI cancer incidence or mortality as an endpoint necessitate large numbers of subjects to achieve significant results. Generally, a low energy and fat intake and a high intake of antioxidative vitamins (vitamin C, E, beta-carotene) and secondary plant metabolites (especially polyphenols) appear to be protective in GI carcinogenesis. Moderate drinking of alcohol and increased consumption of whole grain products, as opposed to highly refined carbohydrates, may help to reduce the risk of colon cancer. The recommended type of diet is low in fat, especially in saturated fatty acids, includes monounsaturated fatty acids, and includes moderate amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids (no more than 10% of calories). Moderate consumption of salt and of highly salted, smoked, and barbecued foods should be encouraged. Obesity should be avoided by trying to match energy intake with expenditure while increasing physical activity levels. The mechanisms by which nutritional factors act especially on molecular events still remain to be examined. The use of molecular biomarkers will help us better understand cancer development as well as the role and significance of nutritional factors in this process. PMID:8893341

  9. Humeral brown tumor as first presentation of primary hyperparathyroidism caused by ectopic parathyroid adenomas: report of two cases and review of literature

    OpenAIRE

    WANG, XIQIAN; Wang, Min; Jie ZHANG; Zhu, Yue; Zhu, Mei; Gao, Hua; He, Qing; Tian, Weijun; Liang, Xiaoyu; Suo, Xiaopeng; Hu, Meng

    2014-01-01

    Two cases of brown tumor of the humerus caused by ectopic parathyroid adenomas were presented, which to our knowledge has not been previously documented in the international literature. There are two highlights in these two cases. First, brown tumors of the long bones may commonly involve femur and tibia, rarely involve humerus in association with primary hyperparathyroidism. Second, ectopic parathyroid adenomas of our patient had an unusual location of this disorder. We explored the role of ...

  10. Lung metastasis fails in MMTV-PyMT oncomice lacking S100A4 due to a T-cell deficiency in primary tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grum-Schwensen, Birgitte; Klingelhöfer, Jörg; Grigorian, Mariam; Almholt, Kasper; Nielsen, Boye Schnack; Lukanidin, Eugene; Ambartsumian, Noona

    2010-01-01

    . In contrast, in S100A4(-/-) PyMT tumors, a significant suppression of T-cell infiltration was documented at the transition period. In vitro, the S100A4 protein mediated the attraction of T cells. Moreover, S100A4(+/+), but not S100A4(-/-), fibroblasts stimulated the invasion of T lymphocytes into......4 in the primary tumor stimulates infiltration of T cells and activates secretion of cytokines, thus triggering sequential events that fuel tumor cells to metastasize. Similar processes could occur in the premetastatic lungs, facilitating generation of inflammatory milieu favorable for metastasis...

  11. Preoperative Prediction of Cervical Lymph Node Metastasis Using Primary Tumor SUVmax on 18F-FDG PET/CT in Patients with Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Ji-hoon; Kim, Choon-Young; Son, Seung Hyun; Kim, Do-Hoon; Jeong, Shin Young; Lee, Sang-Woo; Lee, Jaetae; Ahn, Byeong-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the current study was to evaluate the value of preoperative 18F-FDG (FDG) PET/CT in predicting cervical lymph node (LN) metastasis in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Methods One hundred and ninety-three newly diagnosed PTC patients (M: F = 25:168, age = 46.8 ± 12.2) who had undergone pretreatment FDG PET/CT and had neck node dissection were included in this study. The FDG avidity of the primary tumor and the SUVmax of the primary tumor (pSUVmax) were ana...

  12. Primary Tumor-Secreted Lymphangiogenic Factors Induce Pre-Metastatic Lymphvascular Niche Formation at Sentinel Lymph Nodes in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Wakisaka, Naohiro; Hasegawa, Yasuhisa; Yoshimoto, Seiichi; Miura, Kouki; Shiotani, Akihiro; Yokoyama, Junkichi; Sugasawa, Masashi; Moriyama-Kita, Makiko; Endo, Kazuhira; Yoshizaki, Tomokazu

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The objectives of this study were to evaluate the formation of lymphvascular niches in lymph nodes of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), and investigate the roles of lymphangiogenic and angiogenic factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, VEGF-C, and VEGF-D, expressed in the primary tumors. Materials and Methods Forty-four patients with previously untreated clinically late T2 or T3 OSCC of cN0 were evaluated for primary tumors and 166 sentinel ly...

  13. Safety and efficacy of Y-90 microsphere treatment in patients with primary and metastatic liver cancer: The tumor selectivity of the treatment as a function of tumor to liver flow ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dezarn William A

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Treatment records and follow-up data on 40 patients with primary and metastatic liver malignancies who underwent a single whole-liver treatment with Y-90 resin microspheres (SIR-Spheres® Sirtex Medical, Lake Forest, IL were retrospectively reviewed. The objective of the study was to evaluate the anatomic and physiologic determinants of radiation dose distribution, and the dose response of tumor and liver toxicity in patients with liver malignancies who underwent hepatic arterial Y-90 resin microsphere treatment. Methods Liver and tumor volume calculations were performed on pre-treatment CT scans. Fractional tumor and liver flow characteristics and lung shunt fractions were determined using hepatic arterial Tc-99m MAA imaging. Absorbed dose calculations were performed using the MIRD equations. Liver toxicity was assessed clinically and by liver function tests. Tumor response to therapy was assessed by CT and/or tumor markers. Results Of the 40 patients, 5 had hepatocellular cancer (HCC, and 35 had metastatic liver tumors (15 colorectal cancer, 10 neuroendocrine tumors, 4 breast cancer, 2 lung cancer, 1 ovarian cancer, 1 endometrial cancer, and 2 unknown primary adenocarcinoma. All patients were treated in a salvage setting with a 3 to 80 week follow-up (mean: 19 weeks. Tumor volumes ranged from 15.0 to 984.2 cc (mean: 294.9 cc and tumor to normal liver uptake ratios ranged from 2.8 to 15.4 (mean: 5.4. Average administered activity was 1.2 GBq (0.4 to 2.4 GBq. Liver absorbed doses ranged from 0.7 to 99.5 Gy (mean: 17.2 Gy. Tumor absorbed doses ranged from 40.1 to 494.8 Gy (mean: 121.5 Gy. None of the patients had clinical venoocclusive disease or therapy-induced liver failure. Seven patients (17.5 % had transient and 7 patients (17.5 % had persistent LFT abnormalities. There were 27 (67.5% responders (complete response, partial response, and stable disease. Tumor response correlated with higher tumor flow ratio as measured by

  14. Brain tumor (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain tumors are classified depending on the exact site of the tumor, the type of tissue involved, benign ... tendencies of the tumor, and other factors. Primary brain tumors can arise from the brain cells, the meninges ( ...

  15. Evaluation of a new tumor marker, CYFRA 21-1, in patients with primary lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We measured the level of serum CYFRA 21-1 (CYFRA) in 38 primary lung cancer patients (21 adenocarcinomas (ACs), 12 squamous cell carcinomas (SqCCs) and 5 small cell carcinomas (SmCCs)) before undergoing therapy using a 'CYFRA immunoradiometric assay kit'. We thus determined the CYFRA cut-off level to be 1.7 ng/ml. We also measured both the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and the squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC) levels. The positive rate for CYFRA in patients with lung cancer was 71% and such positivity was related to their histology (SqCCs, SmCCs 100%; ACs 48%). The level of CYFRA was significantly higher in SqCCs than in either ACs or SmCCs. No significant differences were observed in the serum CYFRA value among the various clinical stages. In addition, no significant correlation was seen between CYFRA and SCC, or between CYFRA and CEA. Among the various clinical stages of SqCCs, the positive rate of CYFRA was higher in the early clinical stages than in SCC. Our findings therefore support the usefulness of CYFRA as a marker of SqCCs. (author)

  16. Imaging of brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contents are diagnostic approaches, general features of tumors -hydrocephalus, edema, attenuation and/or intensity value, hemorrhage, fat, contrast enhancement, intra-axial supratentorial tumors - tumors of glial origin, oligodendrogliomas, ependymomas, subependymomas, subependymal giant cell astrocytomas, choroid plexus papilloma; midline tumors - colloid cysts, craniopharyngiomas; pineal region tumors and miscellaneous tumors i.e. primary intracerebral lymphoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumors, hemangioblastomas; extraaxial tumors - meningiomas; nerve sheath tumors -schwannomas, epidermoids, dermoids, lipomas, arachnoid cysts; metastatic tumors (8 refs.)

  17. Clinico-pathological spectrum of primary ovarian malignant mixed mullerian tumors (OMMMT) from a tertiary cancer institute: A series of 27 cases

    OpenAIRE

    Santosh Menon; Kedar Deodhar; Bharat Rekhi; Rahul Dhake; Sudeep Gupta; Jaya Ghosh; Amita Maheshwari; Umesh Mahantshetty; Shyam Shrivastva; Atul Budukh; Tongaonkar, Hemant B; Rajendra Kerkar

    2013-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: To study the clinico-pathological characteristics of primary ovarian malignant mixed mullerian tumor (OMMMT) and assess the prognostic factors associated with treatment outcome and survival. Materials and methods: The pathology database was searched for primary ovarian carcinosarcoma diagnosed and/or managed at our institute from period of January 2004 to July 2010. The histological sections were reviewed, with emphasis on type and grade of epithelial and sarcomatous comp...

  18. Comparative study of 18F-DOPA, 13N-Ammonia and F18-FDG PET/CT in primary brain tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Mattakarottu J; Pandit, Aniruddha G; Jora, Charu; Mudalsha, Ravina; Sharma, Amit; Pathak, Harish C

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To determine the diagnostic reliability of 18F-FDOPA, 13N-Ammonia and F18-FDG PET/CT in primary brain tumors. We evaluated the amino acid and glucose metabolism of brain tumors by using PET with 18F-FDOPA, 13N-Ammonia and F18-FDG PET/CT. Materials and Methods: Nine patients undergoing evaluation for brain tumors were studied. Tracer uptake was quantified by the use of standardized uptake values and the ratio of tumor uptake to normal identical area of contra lateral hemisphere (T/N). In addition, PET uptake with 18F-FDOPA was quantified by use of ratio of tumor uptake to striatum uptake (T/S). The results were correlated with the patient's clinical profile. Results: Both high-grade and low-grade tumors were well visualized with 18F-FDOPA. The sensitivity for identifying tumors was substantially higher with 18F-FDOPA PET than with F18-FDG and 13N-Ammonia PET as determined by simple visual inspection. The sensitivity for identifying recurrence in low grade gliomas is higher with 13N-Ammonia than with F18-FDG. Conclusion: 18F-FDOPA PET is more reliable than F18-FDG and 13N-Ammonia PET for evaluating brain tumors. PMID:23326065

  19. Comparative study of 18F-DOPA, 13 N-ammonia and 18F-FDG PET/CT in primary brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the diagnostic reliability of 18F-FDOPA, 13N-ammonia and 18F-FDG PET/CT in primary brain tumors. We evaluated the amino acid and glucose metabolism of brain tumors by using PET with 18F-FDOPA, 13N-ammonia and 18F-FDG PET/CT. Nine patients undergoing evaluation for brain tumors were studied. Tracer uptake was quantified by the use of standardized uptake values and the ratio of tumor uptake to normal identical area of contra lateral hemisphere (T/N). In addition, PET uptake with 18F-FDOPA was quantified by use of ratio of tumor uptake to striatum uptake (T/S). The results were correlated with the patient's clinical profile. Both high-grade and low-grade tumors were well visualized with 18F-FDOPA. The sensitivity for identifying tumors was substantially higher with 18F-FDOPA PET than with 18F-FDG and 13N-Ammonia PET as determined by simple visual inspection. The sensitivity for identifying recurrence in low grade gliomas is higher with 13N-Ammonia than with 18F-FDG. 18F-FDOPA PET is more reliable than 18F-FDG and 13N-Ammonia PET for evaluating brain tumors. (author)

  20. SUBMIT: Systemic therapy with or without up front surgery of the primary tumor in breast cancer patients with distant metastases at initial presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiterkamp Jetske

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Five percent of all patients with breast cancer have distant metastatic disease at initial presentation. Because metastatic breast cancer is considered to be an incurable disease, it is generally treated with a palliative intent. Recent non-randomized studies have demonstrated that (complete resection of the primary tumor is associated with a significant improvement of the survival of patients with primary metastatic breast cancer. However, other studies have suggested that the claimed survival benefit by surgery may be caused by selection bias. Therefore, a randomized controlled trial will be performed to assess whether breast surgery in patients with primary distant metastatic breast cancer will improve the prognosis. Design Randomization will take place after the diagnosis of primary distant metastatic breast cancer. Patients will either be randomized to up front surgery of the breast tumor followed by systemic therapy or to systemic therapy, followed by delayed local treatment of the breast tumor if clinically indicated. Patients with primary distant metastatic breast cancer, with no prior treatment of the breast cancer, who are 18 years or older and fit enough to undergo surgery and systemic therapy are eligible. Important exclusion criteria are: prior invasive breast cancer, surgical treatment or radiotherapy of this breast tumor before randomization, irresectable T4 tumor and synchronous bilateral breast cancer. The primary endpoint is 2-year survival. Quality of life and local tumor control are among the secondary endpoints. Based on the results of prior research it was calculated that 258 patients are needed in each treatment arm, assuming a power of 80%. Total accrual time is expected to take 60 months. An interim analysis will be performed to assess any clinically significant safety concerns and to determine whether there is evidence that up front surgery is clinically or statistically inferior to systemic therapy

  1. Stereotactic body radiation therapy for primary and metastatic liver tumors: A single institution phase i-ii study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez Romero, Alejandra; Wunderink, Wouter [Erasmus MC - Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Hussain, Shahid M. [Univ. of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (US). Dept. of Radiology] (and others)

    2006-09-15

    The feasibility, toxicity and tumor response of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for treatment of primary and metastastic liver tumors was investigated. From October 2002 until June 2006, 25 patients not suitable for other local treatments were entered in the study. In total 45 lesions were treated, 34 metastases and 11 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Median follow-up was 12.9 months (range 0.5-31). Median lesion size was 3.2 cm (range 0.5-7.2) and median volume 22.2 cm{sup 3} (range 1.1-322). Patients with metastases, HCC without cirrhosis, and HCC < 4 cm with cirrhosis were mostly treated with 3x12.5 Gy. Patients with HCC =4cm and cirrhosis received 5x5 Gy or 3x10 Gy. The prescription isodose was 65%. Acute toxicity was scored following the Common Toxicity Criteria and late toxicity with the SOMA/LENT classification. Local failures were observed in two HCC and two metastases. Local control rates at 1 and 2 years for the whole group were 94% and 82%. Acute toxicity grade =3 was seen in four patients; one HCC patient with Child B developed a liver failure together with an infection and died (grade 5), two metastases patients presented elevation of gamma glutamyl transferase (grade 3) and another asthenia (grade 3). Late toxicity was observed in one metastases patient who developed a portal hypertension syndrome with melena (grade 3). SBRT was feasible, with acceptable toxicity and encouraging local control. Optimal dose-fractionation schemes for HCC with cirrhosis have to be found. Extreme caution should be used for patients with Child B because of a high toxicity risk.

  2. Genome-wide gene copy number and expression analysis of primary gastric tumors and gastric cancer cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignancies worldwide and the second most common cause of cancer related death. Gene copy number alterations play an important role in the development of gastric cancer and a change in gene copy number is one of the main mechanisms for a cancer cell to control the expression of potential oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. To highlight genes of potential biological and clinical relevance in gastric cancer, we carried out a systematic array-based survey of gene expression and copy number levels in primary gastric tumors and gastric cancer cell lines and validated the results using an affinity capture based transcript analysis (TRAC assay) and real-time qRT-PCR. Integrated microarray analysis revealed altogether 256 genes that were located in recurrent regions of gains or losses and had at least a 2-fold copy number- associated change in their gene expression. The expression levels of 13 of these genes, ALPK2, ASAP1, CEACAM5, CYP3A4, ENAH, ERBB2, HHIPL2, LTB4R, MMP9, PERLD1, PNMT, PTPRA, and OSMR, were validated in a total of 118 gastric samples using either the qRT-PCR or TRAC assay. All of these 13 genes were differentially expressed between cancerous samples and nonmalignant tissues (p < 0.05) and the association between copy number and gene expression changes was validated for nine (69.2%) of these genes (p < 0.05). In conclusion, integrated gene expression and copy number microarray analysis highlighted genes that may be critically important for gastric carcinogenesis. TRAC and qRT-PCR analyses validated the microarray results and therefore the role of these genes as potential biomarkers for gastric cancer

  3. Total pelvic exenterations in patients with locally advanced primary and recurrent rectal tumors: possibilities of urinary tract reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ya. Alekseyev

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Surgical and long-term results of 14 total pelvic exenteration were analyzed. The group included 6 patients (5 men, 1 woman with primary rectal cancer, and 8 patients (7 men, 1 woman with the locally-advanced recurrent rectal cancer. The mean operative time was 403 ± 133.1 min (from 240 to 680 min. The average blood loss — 5169 ml (1200 to 15 000 ml. Both female patients were underwent infralevatoric total pelvic exenteration. Supralevatoric total pelvic exenteration were performed in 5 male patients. In these patients full recovery of the colon passage, and in the urinary tract — orthotopic plastic of the urinary bladder (Studer procedure was achieved. R0 resection was performed in 11 (78.5 % cases, the presence of microscopic tumor growth in the lateral resection margin was found in 3 (21.5 %  patients (R1. Postoperative complications occurred in 8 patients, requiring surgical correction in 3 cases. Long-term results were followed up in 12 patients during the period from 16 to 57 months after surgery (median — 31 months. Overall survival in these periods was  83.3 % (10 patients. Disease-free survival — 75 % (9 patients. Influence of the reconstruction phase on the long-term results was not observed. Functional results are evaluated as good in all patients after orthotopic plastic of the bladder. Performing of pelvic exenteration for patients with locally advanced rectal cancer is a chance to achieve radical removal of the tumor and, as a consequence, the long-term survival in this extremely difficult group of patients. Performing of full reconstruction of the urinary tract allows to improve the quality of life of patientswith no adverse influence on oncologic outcomes. 

  4. Prognostic Impact of Radiation Therapy to the Primary Tumor in Patients With Non-small Cell Lung Cancer and Oligometastasis at Diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Guerra, Jose Luis [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Instituto Madrileno de Oncologia/Grupo IMO, Madrid (Spain); Gomez, Daniel, E-mail: dgomez@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Zhuang, Yan; Hong, David S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Heymach, John V. [Department of Medical Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Swisher, Stephen G. [Department of Thoracic Surgery, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Lin, Steven H.; Komaki, Ritsuko; Cox, James D.; Liao Zhongxing [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: We investigated prognostic factors associated with survival in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and oligometastatic disease at diagnosis, particularly the influence of local treatment to the primary site on prognosis. Methods and Materials: From January 2000 through June 2011, 78 consecutive patients with oligometastatic NSCLC (<5 metastases) at diagnosis underwent definitive chemoradiation therapy ({>=}45 Gy) to the primary site. Forty-four of these patients also received definitive local treatment for the oligometastases. Survival outcomes were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and risk factors were identified by univariate and multivariate analyses. Results: Univariate Cox proportional hazard analysis revealed better overall survival (OS) for those patients who received at least 63 Gy of radiation to the primary site (P=.002), received definitive local treatment for oligometastasis (P=.041), had a Karnofsky performance status (KPS) score >80 (P=.007), had a gross tumor volume {<=}124 cm{sup 3} (P=.002), had adenocarcinoma histology (P=.002), or had no history of respiratory disease (P=.016). On multivariate analysis, radiation dose, performance status, and tumor volume retained significance (P=.004, P=.006, and P<.001, respectively). The radiation dose also maintained significance when patients with and without brain metastases were analyzed separately. Conclusions: Tumor volume, KPS, and receipt of at least 63 Gy to the primary tumor are associated with improved OS in patients with oligometastatic NSCLC at diagnosis. Our results suggest that a subset of such patients may benefit from definitive local therapy.

  5. Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    A brain tumor is a growth of abnormal cells in the tissues of the brain. Brain tumors can be benign, with no cancer cells, or ... cancer cells that grow quickly. Some are primary brain tumors, which start in the brain. Others are metastatic, ...

  6. Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    A brain tumor is a growth of abnormal cells in the tissues of the brain. Brain tumors can be benign, with no cancer cells, ... cancer cells that grow quickly. Some are primary brain tumors, which start in the brain. Others are ...

  7. Evidence That MR Diffusion Tensor Imaging (Tractography) Predicts the Natural History of Regional Progression in Patients Irradiated Conformally for Primary Brain Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) is fast becoming the method of choice for treatment of nonsuperficial brain lesions. SRT treatment plans of malignant brain tumors typically incorporate a 20-mm isotropic margin to account for microscopic tumor spread; however, distant or progressive tumors occur outside this margin. Our hypothesis is that paths of elevated water diffusion may provide a preferred route for transport or migration of cancer cells. If our hypothesis is correct, then future SRT treatment volumes could be modified to provide elongated treatment margins along the paths of elevated water diffusion, thereby creating a biologically better treatment plan that may reduce the incidence of progression. Methods and Materials: Magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) datasets were acquired on patient subjects before the appearance of >5 mm diameter progressive lesions or secondary tumors. DTI was performed using an echo-planar imaging sequence on a 1.5T clinical General Electric scanner with voxel dimensions of 0.98 x 0.98 x 6 mm. After SRT, patients were given repeated magnetic resonance imaging follow-ups at regular intervals to identify early tumor progression. When progressive disease was detected, DTIstudio and FMRIB Software Library software was used to compute paths of preferred water diffusion through the primary tumor site and the site of progression. Results: Our preliminary results on 14 patient datasets suggest a strong relationship between routes of elevated water diffusion from the primary tumor and the location of tumor progression. Conclusions: Further investigation is therefore warranted. Future work will employ more sophisticated fiber analysis in a prospective study

  8. Longitudinal observational study of pediatric patients with primary brain tumors: establishment of a hospital-based registry.

    OpenAIRE

    Felix, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Although tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) represent 2 % of all malignancies in general, they cause a disproportionately large morbidity and mortality and are the second most common form of cancer in children and the major solid tumor in childhood in the U.S., occurring in 21.3% of all children with malignant disease. The treatment of brain tumors in children and adolescents has evolved significantly in recent decades. Nowadays, most children with a diagnosis of brain tumor are treat...

  9. Evaluation of Two Different Analytical Methods for Circulating Tumor Cell Detection in Peripheral Blood of Patients with Primary Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. S. Jaeger

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Evidence is accumulating that circulating tumor cells (CTC out of peripheral blood can serve as prognostic marker not only in metastatic but also in early breast cancer (BC. Various methods are available to detect CTC. Comparisons between the different techniques, however, are rare. Material and Methods. We evaluate two different methods for CTC enrichment and detection in primary BC patients: the FDA-approved CellSearch System (CSS; Veridex, Warren, USA and a manual immunocytochemistry (MICC. The cut-off value for positivity was ≥1 CTC. Results. The two different nonoverlapping patient cohorts evaluated with one or the other method were well balanced regarding common clinical parameters. Before adjuvant CHT 21.1% (416 out of 1972 and 20.6% (247 out of 1198 of the patients were CTC-positive, while after CHT 22.5% (359 out of 1598 and 16.6% (177 out of 1066 of the patients were CTC-positive using CSS or MICC, respectively. CTC positivity rate before CHT was thus similar and not significantly different (P=0.749, while CTC positivity rate immediately after CHT was significantly lower using MICC compared to CSS (P<0.001. Conclusion. Using CSS or MICC for CTC detection, we found comparable prevalence of CTC before but not after adjuvant CHT.

  10. Respiratory motion variability of primary tumors and lymph nodes during radiotherapy of locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need for target adjustment due to respiratory motion variation and the value of carina as a motion surrogate is evaluated for locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. Using weekly 4D CTs (with audio-visual biofeedback) of 12 patients, respiratory motion variation of primary tumors (PT), lymph nodes (LN) and carina (C) were determined. Mean (SD) 3D respiratory motion ranges of PT, LN and C were 4 (3), 5 (3) and 5 (3) mm. PT and LN (p = 0.003), and LN and C motion range were correlated (p = 0.03). Only 20 %/5 % of all scans had variations >3 mm/5 mm. Large respiratory motion range on the initial scan was associated with larger during-treatment variations for PT (p = 0.03) and LN (p = 0.001). Mean (SD) 3D relative displacements of PT-C, LN-C and PT-LN were each 6 (2) mm. Variations of displacements >3 mm/5 mm were observed in 28 %/6 % of scans for PT-LN, 20 %/9 % for PT-C, and 20 %/8 % for LN-C. Motion reassessment is recommended in patients with large initial motion range. Relative motion-related displacements between PT and LN were larger than PT and LN motion alone. Both PT and C appear to be comparable surrogates for LN respiratory motion

  11. Locke-Wallace Short Marital-Adjustment Test: Psychometric Evaluation in Caregivers for Persons With Primary Malignant Brain Tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yun; Terhorst, Lauren; Donovan, Heidi S.; Weimer, Jason M.; Choi, Chien-Wen J.; Schulz, Richard; Given, Barbara; Sherwood, Paula R.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Caregivers’ well-being has been found to be associated with marital adjustment. This study’s purpose was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Locke-Wallace Short Marital-Adjustment Test (LWSMAT) in a sample of caregivers of persons with primary malignant brain tumor (PMBT). Methods Secondary analysis of data collected from 114 caregivers. The LWSMAT was tested for factor structure, internal consistency reliability, and construct validity. Results 5 extracted factors explained 60.55% of the total variance. Four interpretable factors (Contentment & Communication, Leisure & Sociality, Intimacy, and Shared Philosophy) had Cronbach’s alpha between 0.63 and 0.74. Convergent validity (r = −.35 and r = −.43, respectively, both p < .0001) and discriminant validity (r = .07, p = .49; and r = −.04, p = .67) were confirmed by comparing four factors with subdimensions of the Caregiver Reaction Assessment (CRA). Conclusion The LWSMAT is a multidimensional, reliable, and valid measure of marital adjustment in caregivers of persons with a PMBT. PMID:24620520

  12. Treatment of cervical lymph node metastasis from an unknown primary tumor, with a review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: The results of treatment at the Free University Hospital of 44 patients with cervical lymph node metastasis of an unknown primary tumor were reviewed in order to establish an optimal treatment policy and to look for prognostic parameters. These results were compared with results of other treatment policies known from the literature. Patients and Method: Thirty-three out of the 44 patients received a treatment with curative intent; 22 cases received a unilateral neck dissection and postoperative radiotherapy, 7 were irradiated after an excisional biopsy and 4 received radical radiotherapy alone. Results: For the whole group 5- and 10-year overall survival was 50% and 44%, respectively, and for the group treated with curative intent 68% and 56%, respectively. Disease-free survival at 5 and 10 years after treatment for the whole group was 48% and 32%, respectively, and for the group treated with curative intent 63% and 37%, respectively. Conclusions: Multivariate analysis showed only treatment with intent and histology as significant independent prognostic factors for the whole group. For the patients treated with curative intent no significant influences of variables were found. (orig.)

  13. Polymorphisms of the Hypoxia Inducible Factor 1 and microRNA Related Genes and the Susceptibility and Survival of Lung Cancer and Upper Aero-Digestive Tract Cancers

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hypoxia inducible factor 1(HIF-1) and microRNAs (miRNAs) regulate transcriptional activities and contribute in several biological processes such as oxygen homeostasis, cell growth, progression and apoptosis that are important in lung and upper aero-digestive tract (UADT) cancer etiology and outcomes. Nonetheless, there are few published studies of the relationship between HIF-1 and miRNA gene polymorphisms and susceptibility and survival of lung cancer or UADT cancers. Methods: 1,...

  14. DMPD: Distinct functions of IRF-3 and IRF-7 in IFN-alpha gene regulation and controlof anti-tumor activity in primary macrophages. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 16846591 Distinct functions of IRF-3 and IRF-7 in IFN-alpha gene regulation and controlof anti-tumor activit...Distinct functions of IRF-3 and IRF-7 in IFN-alpha gene regulation and controlof anti-tumor activity... IFN-alpha gene regulation and controlof anti-tumor activity in primary macrophages. Authors Solis M, Goubau

  15. The differentiation status of primary gonadal germ cell tumors correlates inversely with telomerase activity and the expression level of the gene encoding the catalytic subunit of telomerase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activity of the ribonucleoprotein enzyme telomerase is detectable in germ, stem and tumor cells. One major component of telomerase is human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), which encodes the catalytic subunit of telomerase. Here we investigate the correlation of telomerase activity and hTERT gene expression and the differentiation status of primary testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT). Telomerase activity (TA) was detected by a quantitative telomerase PCR ELISA, and hTERT mRNA expression was quantified by online RT-PCR in 42 primary testicular germ cell tumors. The control group consisted of benign testicular biopsies from infertile patients. High levels of telomerase activity and hTERT expression were detected in all examined undifferentiated TGCTs and in the benign testicular tissue specimens with germ cell content. In contrast, differentiated teratomas and testicular control tissue without germ cells (Sertoli-cell-only syndrome) showed no telomerase activity and only minimal hTERT expression. These findings demonstrate an inverse relationship between the level of telomerase activity and hTERT mRNA expression and the differentiation state of germ cell tumors. Quantification of telomerase activity and hTERT mRNA expression enables a new molecular-diagnostic subclassification of germ cell tumors that describes their proliferation potential and differentiation status

  16. Progresses on treatments of primary tracheal tumor%原发性气管肿瘤治疗的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李剑; 徐向英; 胡松柳

    2015-01-01

    Primary tracheal tumor is an uncommon disease in clinical oncology .It tends to be misdiag-nosed in very early stage ,as well as lack of standards for staging and treatment nowdays .The main strategy for the treatment of primary tracheal tumors is surgical comprehensive treatments .But as the huge development of modern radiotherapy technology the past a few years ,radiotherapy could play more and more important roles in the treat-ment of tracheal tumors.Meanwhile,the application of tracheal scaffold have provided the patients with tracheal tumors some new choices on the treatments .Yet,there are no guildline for the standard of the surgery ,the dose of the radiotherapy and the definition for the tumor target volumes .Here,we give a review on the latest process and research on the treatment of primary tracheal tumors .%原发性气管肿瘤临床上较少见,早期易误诊,目前暂无统一的临床分期标准及治疗规范,以手术为主的综合治疗目前仍是气管肿瘤的主要治疗模式。随着放疗技术的发展,放疗在气管肿瘤的治疗中扮演着越来越重要的角色。气管内支架等技术的应用使气管肿瘤的治疗有了新的选择。但目前关于手术范围、放疗的剂量和照射范围仍没有定论。本文就上述有关研究进展进行综述。

  17. NSCLC: primary tumor size - radiation dose-related accelerated, twice daily radiotherapy by target splitting, preceded by 2 cycles of chemotherapy. First results of a prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ensuing a phase I trial of accelerated, twice daily high dose radiotherapy showing good tolerability, a prospective study relating primary tumor size with radiation dose in non-operated patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was started. From 01/2004 until 12/2006 79 patients with 81 histologically/cytologically proven NSCLC tumors were treated, representing 94% of all referred non-operated NSCLC patients in stage Mo, malignant pleural effusions excluded. For the majority of patients the conformal target splitting technique has been employed. The target is split into a cranial and a caudal part; beam arrangements in the two parts are completely independent. In order to reduce internal margins slow planning CTs (4 sec./slice) were used, patients freely breathing, 7 mm margins from gross tumor volume to planning target volume. We formed 4 groups with primary tumor sizes (mean number of 3 perpendicular diameters) 6,0 cm (11/41/22/7 patients, respectively); tumor doses of 73,8, 79,2, 84,6 and 90,0 Gy (ICRU) were applied to the primary tumors of the patients in the respective groups. Single dose 1,8 Gy; twice daily, interval 11 h; 5 days/week; duration 33 days median (range 29-42). Macroscopically involved nodes 61,2 Gy median (range 54,0-75,6 Gy), nodes electively 45,0 Gy (to volume about 6 cm cranial to apparently involved nodes). In 62 patients chemotherapy before radiotherapy was given, 2 cycles median, generally a cisplatin or carboplatin containing doublet; no concurrent chemotherapy. Median follow-up of all patients 16,7 months, of patients alive 19,3 months. Until now 10 local failures (0/11, 3/41, 5/22, 2/7 in the respective groups) and 2 regional failures occured, resulting in an actuarial local and regional tumor control of 80,1% and 96% at 2 years, respectively. Local failures relate to the primary tumor site, regional failures to the regional node sites. Overall actuarial 1-, 2-year survival rate for all patients: 76%, 56%, respectively, median 26

  18. Inferring primary tumor sites from mutation spectra: a meta-analysis of histology-specific aberrations in cancer-derived cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietlein, Felix; Eschner, Wolfgang

    2014-03-15

    Next-generation sequencing technologies have led to profound characterization of mutation spectra for several cancer types. Hence, we sought to systematically compare genomic aberrations between primary tumors and cancer lines. For this, we compiled publically available sequencing data of 1651 genes across 905 cell lines. We used them to characterize 23 distinct primary tumor sites by a novel approach that is based on Bayesian spam-filtering techniques. Thereby, we confirmed the strong overall similarity of alterations between patient samples and cell culture. However, we also identified several suspicious mutations, which had not been associated with their cancer types before. Based on these characterizations, we developed the inferring cancer origins from mutation spectra (ICOMS) tool. On our cell line collection, the algorithm reached a prediction specificity rate of 79%, which strongly variegated between primary cancer sites. On an independent validation cohort of 431 primary tumor samples, we observed a similar accuracy of 71%. Additionally, we found that ICOMS could be employed to deduce further attributes from mutation spectra, including sub-histology and compound sensitivity. Thus, thorough classification of site-specific mutation spectra for cell lines may decipher further genome-phenotype associations in cancer. PMID:24163242

  19. Analysis of Paired Primary-Metastatic Hormone-Receptor Positive Breast Tumors (HRPBC Uncovers Potential Novel Drivers of Hormonal Resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Manso

    Full Text Available We sought to identify genetic variants associated with disease relapse and failure to hormonal treatment in hormone-receptor positive breast cancer (HRPBC. We analyzed a series of HRPBC with distant relapse, by sequencing pairs (n = 11 of tumors (primary and metastases at >800X. Comparative genomic hybridization was performed as well. Top hits, based on the frequency of alteration and severity of the changes, were tested in the TCGA series. Genes determining the most parsimonious prognostic signature were studied for their functional role in vitro, by performing cell growth assays in hormonal-deprivation conditions, a setting that mimics treatment with aromatase inhibitors. Severe alterations were recurrently found in 18 genes in the pairs. However, only MYC, DNAH5, CSFR1, EPHA7, ARID1B, and KMT2C preserved an independent prognosis impact and/or showed a significantly different incidence of alterations between relapsed and non-relapsed cases in the TCGA series. The signature composed of MYC, KMT2C, and EPHA7 best discriminated the clinical course, (overall survival 90,7 vs. 144,5 months; p = 0.0001. Having an alteration in any of the genes of the signature implied a hazard ratio of death of 3.25 (p<0.0001, and early relapse during the adjuvant hormonal treatment. The presence of the D348N mutation in KMT2C and/or the T666I mutation in the kinase domain of EPHA7 conferred hormonal resistance in vitro. Novel inactivating mutations in KMT2C and EPHA7, which confer hormonal resistance, are linked to adverse clinical course in HRPBC.

  20. Analysis of Paired Primary-Metastatic Hormone-Receptor Positive Breast Tumors (HRPBC) Uncovers Potential Novel Drivers of Hormonal Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manso, Luis; Mourón, Silvana; Tress, Michael; Gómez-López, Gonzalo; Morente, Manuel; Ciruelos, Eva; Rubio-Camarillo, Miriam; Rodriguez-Peralto, Jose Luis; Pujana, Miguel A; Pisano, David G; Quintela-Fandino, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    We sought to identify genetic variants associated with disease relapse and failure to hormonal treatment in hormone-receptor positive breast cancer (HRPBC). We analyzed a series of HRPBC with distant relapse, by sequencing pairs (n = 11) of tumors (primary and metastases) at >800X. Comparative genomic hybridization was performed as well. Top hits, based on the frequency of alteration and severity of the changes, were tested in the TCGA series. Genes determining the most parsimonious prognostic signature were studied for their functional role in vitro, by performing cell growth assays in hormonal-deprivation conditions, a setting that mimics treatment with aromatase inhibitors. Severe alterations were recurrently found in 18 genes in the pairs. However, only MYC, DNAH5, CSFR1, EPHA7, ARID1B, and KMT2C preserved an independent prognosis impact and/or showed a significantly different incidence of alterations between relapsed and non-relapsed cases in the TCGA series. The signature composed of MYC, KMT2C, and EPHA7 best discriminated the clinical course, (overall survival 90,7 vs. 144,5 months; p = 0.0001). Having an alteration in any of the genes of the signature implied a hazard ratio of death of 3.25 (p<0.0001), and early relapse during the adjuvant hormonal treatment. The presence of the D348N mutation in KMT2C and/or the T666I mutation in the kinase domain of EPHA7 conferred hormonal resistance in vitro. Novel inactivating mutations in KMT2C and EPHA7, which confer hormonal resistance, are linked to adverse clinical course in HRPBC. PMID:27195705

  1. Value of Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI to Detect Local Tumor Recurrence in Primary Head and Neck Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Young Jun; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Sung, Yu Sub; Yoon, Ra Gyoung; Park, Ji Eun; Nam, Soon Yuhl; Baek, Jung Hwan

    2016-05-01

    Treatment failures in head and neck cancer patients are mainly related to locoregional tumor recurrence. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of model-free dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) to detect local recurrence during the surveillance of head and neck cancer patients.Our retrospective study enrolled 24 patients with primary head and neck cancer who had undergone definitive treatment. Patients were grouped into local recurrence (n = 12) or posttreatment change (n = 12) groups according to the results of biopsy or clinicoradiologic follow-up. The types of time-signal intensity (TSI) curves were classified as follows: "progressive increment" as type I, "plateau" as type II, and "washout" as type III. TSI curve types and their parameters (i.e., wash-in, Emax, Tmax, area under the curve [AUC]60, AUC90, and AUC120) were compared between the 2 study groups.The distributions of TSI curve types for local recurrence versus posttreatment change were statistically significant (P AUC parameters between 2 groups (P < 0.0083 [0.05/6]). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses indicated that the TSI curve type was the best predictor of local recurrence with a sensitivity of 100% (95% CI, 73.5-100.0) and a specificity of 83.3% (95% CI, 51.6-97.9) (cutoff with type II).Model-free DCE-MRI using TSI curves and TSI curve-derived parameters detects local recurrence in head and neck cancer patients with a high diagnostic accuracy. PMID:27175712

  2. Establishment and characteristics of two syngeneic human osteosar-coma cell lines from primary tumor and skip metastases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang-ye ZOU; Meng ZHANG; Long-juan ZHANG; Jin WANG; Jing-nan SHEN; Gang HUANG; Song JIN; Jun-qiang YIN; Qian-chen GUO; Hao-miao LI; Lan LUO

    2008-01-01

    Aim:To characterize and compare the different biological behaviors of 2 novel human osteosarcoma cell lines,Zos and Zos-M,established respectively from the primary tumor and the skip metastasis of an osteosarcoma patient.Methods:In vitro studies included morphological observations,karyotype analysis,3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-y1)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide cell proliferation assay,and cell sensitivity to chemotherapeutic drugs.Subcutaneous and intravenous in-oculations into nude mice were carried out to study the tumorigenicity and the metastatic potential.RT-PCR was performed to assess the expression of the os-teoblastic markers and some metastasis-related genes.Results:Both cell lines remained stable for more than 100 passages in vitro without interruption.The RT-PCR examination indicated that they retained the molecular characteristics of an osteoblastic lineage.The karyotype analysis displayed aneuploidy and various structural abnormalities.Both cell lines are tumorigenic;Zos-M differs from Zos by the former's ability to develop lung metastasis after intravenous injection.The comparison of the expression patterns of some metastasis-related genes revealed that the decreased expression of cadherin-11 in Zos-M may correlate with a high potential of metastases.Moreover,both cell lines are less sensitive to the current chemotherapy protocols.Conclusion:The establishment of osteosarcoma cell lines,Zos and Zos-M,and related animal models provide a useful resource for studying the aggressive behavior of osteosarcoma and will be helpful for screen-ing effective treatment strategies.

  3. 'A novel in vivo model for the study of human breast cancer metastasis using primary breast tumor-initiating cells from patient biopsies'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of breast cancer metastasis depends on the use of established breast cancer cell lines that do not accurately represent the heterogeneity and complexity of human breast tumors. A tumor model was developed using primary breast tumor-initiating cells isolated from patient core biopsies that would more accurately reflect human breast cancer metastasis. Tumorspheres were isolated under serum-free culture conditions from core biopsies collected from five patients with clinical diagnosis of invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). Isolated tumorspheres were transplanted into the mammary fat pad of NUDE mice to establish tumorigenicity in vivo. Tumors and metastatic lesions were analyzed by hematoxylin and eosin (H+E) staining and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Tumorspheres were successfully isolated from all patient core biopsies, independent of the estrogen receptor α (ERα)/progesterone receptor (PR)/Her2/neu status or tumor grade. Each tumorsphere was estimated to contain 50-100 cells. Transplantation of 50 tumorspheres (1-5 × 103 cells) in combination with Matrigel into the mammary fat pad of NUDE mice resulted in small, palpable tumors that were sustained up to 12 months post-injection. Tumors were serially transplanted three times by re-isolation of tumorspheres from the tumors and injection into the mammary fat pad of NUDE mice. At 3 months post-injection, micrometastases to the lung, liver, kidneys, brain and femur were detected by measuring content of human chromosome 17. Visible macrometastases were detected in the lung, liver and kidneys by 6 months post-injection. Primary tumors variably expressed cytokeratins, Her2/neu, cytoplasmic E-cadherin, nuclear β catenin and fibronectin but were negative for ERα and vimentin. In lung and liver metastases, variable redistribution of E-cadherin and β catenin to the membrane of tumor cells was observed. ERα was re-expressed in lung metastatic cells in two of five samples. Tumorspheres isolated under defined culture

  4. Radiosurgical treatment of previously irradiated primary brain tumors and brain metastasis: final report of radiation therapy oncology group (RTOG) protocol 90-05

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose/Objective: To determine the maximum single radiosurgical dose that can be given to patients (pts) with recurrent primary brain tumors (1 deg. BT) or brain metastasis (BM) who had received prior fractionated external beam radiation therapy (FEBRT). Materials/Methods: The treated tumor had to be ≤40 mm in maximum diameter. Dose was prescribed to the periphery of the tumor (without margin) based on diameter, to the 50% to 90% isodose line. Initial doses were: Arm 1--≤20 mm, 18 Gy; Arm 2--21 to 30 mm, 15 Gy; and Arm 3--31 to 40 mm, 12 Gy. Dose was then escalated in 3 Gy increments, providing that unacceptable neurologic toxicity (grade 3,4, or 5 using the RTOG Central Nervous System (CNS) Toxicity Criteria) occurred in 3, 5977 mm3, and 18,202 mm3 for tumors ≤20 mm, 21-30 mm, and 31-40 mm in maximum diameter, respectively. Thirty-one pts were treated on a Gamma Knife and 125 on a linear accelerator. The table below summarizes the toxicity results of the study: Analysis of variables contributing to toxicity demonstrated that tumors with a maximum diameter of 21-40 mm had a 1.2 times greater chance of developing unacceptable neurologic toxicity than tumors ≤20 mm in diameter. Local failure (in the radiosurgical treatment volume) occurred in 37 pts (24%). The most significant variable contributing to local failure was tumor type. 1 deg. BT were twice as likely to develop local failure than BM. Twenty-one pts (14%) underwent reoperation. Pathologic findings were as follows: tumor only--38%, tumor + necrosis--33%, necrosis only--19%, and non-diagnostic--10%. Conclusions: In previously irradiated patients with recurrent 1 deg. BT and BM, the maximum safe dose of single fraction radiosurgery was 24 Gy for tumors ≤20 mm in maximum diameter, 21 Gy for 21-30 mm tumors, and 15 Gy for tumors 31-40 mm

  5. Primary malignant mixed müllerian tumor of the peritoneum a case report with review of the literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurshumliu, Fisnik; Rung-Hansen, Helle; Skovlund, Vibeke Ravn;

    2011-01-01

    Malignant mixed Müllerian tumor is a rare malignancy of the genital tract and extremely uncommon in extragenital sites. This report describes a case of malignant mixed Müllerian tumor arising in the lower peritoneum of a 72-year-old female patient. The patient presented with ascites, lower...... Müllerian tumor, heterologous type. The epithelial component was positive for cytokeratin 7 and vimentin whereas the mesenchymal component was positive for Vimentin, S100 and focally for CK7. The histogenesis of this tumor arising from the peritoneum is still speculative. Based on the previous reports and...

  6. Brown tumor involving the sellar-parasellar region mimicking pituitary adenoma as the tip of the iceberg of generalized primary hyperparathyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Malicka

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The authors present a case study of a 40-year-old man with advanced, previously undiagnosed primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT, which first manifestation directing to correct diagnosis was sellar-parasellar brown tumor. Further studies disclosed PHPT. The patient presented many of the classic signs of the disease, including renal stones, duodenal ulcer, muscle weakness and bone pains, but suspicion of PHPT was made on the base of a postoperative histological examination of the sellar- parasellar tumor. Laboratory investigations showed hypercalcaemia, hypophosphataemia, elevated levels of parathyroid hormone and alkaline phosphatase. A skeletal survey showed generalized decreased density of bones and multiple brown tumors. The problems of diagnosis and localization of parathyroid glands have been discussed. The literature has been reviewed and the importance of early diagnosis and treatment has been stressed.

  7. MRI for characterization of primary tumors in the non-cirrhotic liver: Added value of Gd-EOB-DTPA enhanced hepatospecific phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donati, Olivio F.; Hunziker, Roger; Fischer, Michael A. [Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Raptis, Dimitri A.; Breitenstein, Stefan [Department of Visceral and Transplant Surgery, Swiss Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary (HPB) Center, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Patak, Michael A., E-mail: Michael.Patak@hirslanden.ch [Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Clinic Hirslanden, Hirslanden Hospital Group, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the added value of hepatospecific phase in Gd-EOB-DTPA enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with primary tumors in non-cirrhotic liver. Methods: Twenty-nine patients (median, 39 years; range, 18–81 years; 11 male) underwent preoperative Gd-EOB-DTPA enhanced MRI including hepatospecific phase after 10 and 20 min of contrast injection at four institutions in Europe, North America and New Zealand. Images were evaluated by three different readers (R1–R3) who characterized liver tumors with and without consultation of the hepatospecific phase images. Confidence in diagnosis was scored on a visual analog scale from 1 to 10. Histopathology (adenoma, n = 5; focal nodular hyperplasia, n = 11 and hepatocellular carcinoma, n = 13) in all patients served as the standard of reference. Differences were evaluated using the McNemar and Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results: Without hepatospecific phase images available, 22 (76%), 19 (66%) and 19 (66%) of 29 tumors were characterized correctly by the three readers respectively. Mean confidence in diagnosis was 6.1, 5.7 and 5.8. With the hepatospecific phase included, characterization of liver tumors did not change significantly with 21 (72%), 23 (79%) and 19 (66%) of 29 tumors diagnosed correctly (p > 0.05). According confidence ratings increased to 6.3, 6.5 and 7.7, respectively. Increase in diagnostic confidence was significant for R2 and R3 (p < 0.05) and independent of reader's experience. Conclusion: The additional hepatospecific phase in Gd-EOB-DTPA enhanced MRI did not significantly increase diagnostic accuracy in characterization of primary tumors in the non-cirrhotic liver. However, 2/3 readers showed a significant increase in diagnostic confidence after consultation of the hepatospecific phase.

  8. MRI for characterization of primary tumors in the non-cirrhotic liver: Added value of Gd-EOB-DTPA enhanced hepatospecific phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the added value of hepatospecific phase in Gd-EOB-DTPA enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with primary tumors in non-cirrhotic liver. Methods: Twenty-nine patients (median, 39 years; range, 18–81 years; 11 male) underwent preoperative Gd-EOB-DTPA enhanced MRI including hepatospecific phase after 10 and 20 min of contrast injection at four institutions in Europe, North America and New Zealand. Images were evaluated by three different readers (R1–R3) who characterized liver tumors with and without consultation of the hepatospecific phase images. Confidence in diagnosis was scored on a visual analog scale from 1 to 10. Histopathology (adenoma, n = 5; focal nodular hyperplasia, n = 11 and hepatocellular carcinoma, n = 13) in all patients served as the standard of reference. Differences were evaluated using the McNemar and Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results: Without hepatospecific phase images available, 22 (76%), 19 (66%) and 19 (66%) of 29 tumors were characterized correctly by the three readers respectively. Mean confidence in diagnosis was 6.1, 5.7 and 5.8. With the hepatospecific phase included, characterization of liver tumors did not change significantly with 21 (72%), 23 (79%) and 19 (66%) of 29 tumors diagnosed correctly (p > 0.05). According confidence ratings increased to 6.3, 6.5 and 7.7, respectively. Increase in diagnostic confidence was significant for R2 and R3 (p < 0.05) and independent of reader's experience. Conclusion: The additional hepatospecific phase in Gd-EOB-DTPA enhanced MRI did not significantly increase diagnostic accuracy in characterization of primary tumors in the non-cirrhotic liver. However, 2/3 readers showed a significant increase in diagnostic confidence after consultation of the hepatospecific phase

  9. Primary mediastinal location of the endodermal sinus tumor in a child; Pierwotne umiejscowienie guza zatoki endodermalnej w srodpiersiu u dziecka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depowska, T.; Zaleska-Czepko, E.; Armata, J. [Polsko-Amerykanski Instytut Pediatrii, Collegium Medicum, Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Cracow (Poland)

    1993-12-31

    The introduction of multidrug chemotherapy based on cisplatin has markedly improved the therapeutic results in non-seminomatous germ cells tumors. This is true, albeit to a lesser degree, in mediastinal locations of the tumor. The treatment employed in a 2-year old boy was successful, and this is rare in the literature on the subject. (author) 15 refs, 2 tabs

  10. Diagnostic accuracy of risk of malignancy index in predicting complete tumor removal at primary debulking surgery for ovarian cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagö-Olsen, Carsten L; Håkansson, Fanny; Antonsen, Sofie L;

    2013-01-01

    .64-0.80). The possibility of complete tumor removal decreased with increasing RMI and there was a tendency towards higher RMI in patients with residual tumor after PDS, but no single cut-off value of RMI produced useful clinical predictive values. In conclusion, RMI alone is not an optimal method to determine...

  11. Clinical characteristics and the incidence of extrahepatic autoimmune disease and malignant tumor in primary biliary cirrhosis-autoimmune hepatitis overlap syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨蜜蜜

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze clinical pathologic characteristics of patients with primary biliary cirrhosis-autoimmune hepatitis overlap syndrome (PBC-AIH OS) ,the incidence of extrahepatic autoimmune disease,malignant tumor and the abdominal lymph node enlargement.Methods From January 2000 to January 2012,the clinical data of 49 patients with PBC-AIH OS were retrospectively analyzed,which included general information,clinical manifestations,biochemical parameters,immu-

  12. Comparative evaluation of 18F-FDOPA, 13N-AMMONIA, 18F-FDG PET/CT and MRI in primary brain tumors - a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the diagnostic reliability of 18F-FDOPA, 13N-Ammonia and 18F-FDG PET/CT in primary brain tumors and comparison with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A total of 23 patients, 8 preoperative and 15 postoperative, undergoing evaluation for primary brain tumors were included in this study. Of them, 9/15 were operated for high grade gliomas (7/9 astrocytomas and 2/9 oligodendrogliomas) and 6/15 for low grade gliomas (5/6 astrocytomas and 1/6 oligodendroglioma). After PET study, 2 of 8 preoperative cases were histopathologically proven to be of benign etiology. 3 low grade and 2 high grade postoperative cases were disease free on 6 months follow-up. Tracer uptake was quantified by standardized uptake values (SUVmax) and the SUVmax ratio of tumor to normal symmetrical area of contra lateral hemisphere (T/N). 18F-FDOPA uptake was also quantified by SUVmax ratio of tumor to striatum (T/S). Conventional MR studies were done in all patients. Both high-grade and low-grade tumors were well visualized with 18F-FDOPA PET. Sensitivity of 18F-FDOPA PET was substantially higher (6/6 preoperative, 3/3 low grade postoperative, 7/7 high grade postoperative) than with 18F-FDG (3/6 preoperative, 1/3 low grade postoperative, 3/7 high grade postoperative) and 13N-Ammonia PET (2/6 preoperative, 1/3 low grade postoperative, 1/7 high grade postoperative). FDOPA was equally specific as FDG and Ammonia PET in operated cases but was falsely positive in two preoperative cases. Sensitivity of FDOPA (16/16) was more than MRI (13/16). 18F-FDG uptake correlates with tumor grade. Though 18F-FDOPA PET cannot distinguish between tumor grade, it is more reliable than 18F-FDG and 13N-Ammonia PET for evaluating brain tumors. 18F-FDOPA PET may prove to be superior to MRI in evaluating recurrence and residual tumor tissue. 13N-Ammonia PET did not show any encouraging results. (author)

  13. Preliminary study of the transcatheter arterial chemoembolization in combination of percutaneous injection of chemoembolization agent intra-portal vein tumor thrombosis in treatment of primary hepatic carcinoma accompanied by portal vein tumor thrombosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To assess the therapeutic outcomes of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization combined with percutaneous injection of chemoembolization agent intra-portal vein tumor thrombosis for primary hepatic carcinoma accompanied by portal vein tumor thrombus. Methods: Thirty patients with primary hepatic carcinoma accompanied by portal vein tumor thrombosis of type II and type III were randomly divided into two groups. The Child-Pugh ratings (class A and B) of group A and B were 9 vs 9 (class A) and 5 vs 7 (class B) respectively (χ2=0.201, P>0.05). The constitution of Type II and type III portal vein tumor thrombus in group A and B were 8 vs 9 and 6 vs 7 respectively (χ2= 0.002, P>0.05). The median values of ALT, TBIL, ALB and AFP in group A and B were 58.7U/L vs 70.5 U/L (W=191.5, P>0.05), 21.4 μmol/L vs 21.7 μmol/L (W=203, P>0.05), 35.3 g/L vs 37.5 g/L (W=214,P>0.05) and 680 μg/L vs 873 μg/L (W=179.00, P>0.05) respectively. Group A was treated with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) using emulsion made up of adriamycin, cisplatin, mitomycin and ultraliquidlipiodol plus percutaneous injection of chemoembolization agent intra- portal vein tumor thrombosis using emulsion consisted of cisplatin and ultraliquidlipiodol, while group B was treated with TACE only as a control group. Survival analyses were performed via the Kaplan-Meier test in SPSS11.5 with the log-rank tests with an threshold of 0.05. Results: The 3, 6 and 12 months survival cases of group A and B were 11 vs 10, 10 vs 3, and 7 vs 0 respectively. The median survival time of group A and group B were 14.0 months and 4.0 months respectively. The difference of the two groups was significantly (χ2=11.728, P<0.01). There was no severe side-effect related to therapy in both groups. Conclusion: Comparing with the control group, TACE combined with percutaneous injection of chemoembolization agent intra-portal vein tumor thrombosis could significantly prolong the median survival time of

  14. Stages of Wilms Tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Childhood Treatment for more information. Primary Renal Synovial Sarcoma Primary renal synovial sarcoma is a rare tumor ... multilocular cystic nephroma usually includes: Surgery . Primary Renal Synovial Sarcoma Treatment of primary renal synovial sarcoma usually includes: ...

  15. Differences Between Colon Cancer Primaries and Metastases Using a Molecular Assay for Tumor Radiation Sensitivity Suggest Implications for Potential Oligometastatic SBRT Patient Selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Kamran A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida (United States); Fulp, William J.; Berglund, Anders E. [Department of Biostatistics, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida (United States); Hoffe, Sarah E.; Dilling, Thomas J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida (United States); Eschrich, Steven A. [Department of Bioinformatics, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida (United States); Shridhar, Ravi [Department of Radiation Oncology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida (United States); Torres-Roca, Javier F., E-mail: javier.torresroca@moffitt.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: We previously developed a multigene expression model of tumor radiation sensitivity index (RSI) with clinical validation in multiple independent cohorts (breast, rectal, esophageal, and head and neck patients). The purpose of this study was to assess differences between RSI scores in primary colon cancer and metastases. Methods and Materials: Patients were identified from our institutional review board–approved prospective observational protocol. A total of 704 metastatic and 1362 primary lesions were obtained from a de-identified metadata pool. RSI was calculated using the previously published rank-based algorithm. An independent cohort of 29 lung or liver colon metastases treated with 60 Gy in 5 fractions stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) was used for validation. Results: The most common sites of metastases included liver (n=374; 53%), lung (n=116; 17%), and lymph nodes (n=40; 6%). Sixty percent of metastatic tumors, compared with 54% of primaries, were in the RSI radiation-resistant peak, suggesting metastatic tumors may be slightly more radiation resistant than primaries (P=.01). In contrast, when we analyzed metastases based on anatomical site, we uncovered large differences in RSI. The median RSIs for metastases in descending order of radiation resistance were ovary (0.48), abdomen (0.47), liver (0.43), brain (0.42), lung (0.32), and lymph nodes (0.31) (P<.0001). These findings were confirmed when the analysis was restricted to lesions from the same patient (n=139). In our independent cohort of treated lung and liver metastases, lung metastases had an improved local control rate compared to that in patients with liver metastases (2-year local control rate of 100% vs 73.0%, respectively; P=.026). Conclusions: Assessment of radiation sensitivity between primary and metastatic tissues of colon cancer histology revealed significant differences based on anatomical location of metastases. These initial results warrant validation in a larger

  16. Differences Between Colon Cancer Primaries and Metastases Using a Molecular Assay for Tumor Radiation Sensitivity Suggest Implications for Potential Oligometastatic SBRT Patient Selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: We previously developed a multigene expression model of tumor radiation sensitivity index (RSI) with clinical validation in multiple independent cohorts (breast, rectal, esophageal, and head and neck patients). The purpose of this study was to assess differences between RSI scores in primary colon cancer and metastases. Methods and Materials: Patients were identified from our institutional review board–approved prospective observational protocol. A total of 704 metastatic and 1362 primary lesions were obtained from a de-identified metadata pool. RSI was calculated using the previously published rank-based algorithm. An independent cohort of 29 lung or liver colon metastases treated with 60 Gy in 5 fractions stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) was used for validation. Results: The most common sites of metastases included liver (n=374; 53%), lung (n=116; 17%), and lymph nodes (n=40; 6%). Sixty percent of metastatic tumors, compared with 54% of primaries, were in the RSI radiation-resistant peak, suggesting metastatic tumors may be slightly more radiation resistant than primaries (P=.01). In contrast, when we analyzed metastases based on anatomical site, we uncovered large differences in RSI. The median RSIs for metastases in descending order of radiation resistance were ovary (0.48), abdomen (0.47), liver (0.43), brain (0.42), lung (0.32), and lymph nodes (0.31) (P<.0001). These findings were confirmed when the analysis was restricted to lesions from the same patient (n=139). In our independent cohort of treated lung and liver metastases, lung metastases had an improved local control rate compared to that in patients with liver metastases (2-year local control rate of 100% vs 73.0%, respectively; P=.026). Conclusions: Assessment of radiation sensitivity between primary and metastatic tissues of colon cancer histology revealed significant differences based on anatomical location of metastases. These initial results warrant validation in a larger

  17. Primary malignant mixed müllerian tumor of the peritoneum a case report with review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Gashi-Luci Lumturije; Skovlund Vibeke; Rung-Hansen Helle; Kurshumliu Fisnik; Horn Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Malignant mixed Müllerian tumor is a rare malignancy of the genital tract and extremely uncommon in extragenital sites. This report describes a case of malignant mixed Müllerian tumor arising in the lower peritoneum of a 72-year-old female patient. The patient presented with ascites, lower abdominal mass and pleural effusion. The serum level of CA125 was elevated. At operation a diffuse carcinosis associated with tumor mass measuring 20 × 15 × 10 cm in the vesicouterine and Duglas' p...

  18. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging of brown tumors mimicking multiple skeletal metastases in patient with primary hyperparathyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    Sait Sager; Anar Aliyev; Metin Halac; Tulin Oztürk

    2012-01-01

    Brown tumors of bone are highly vascular, lytic bone lesions representing a reparative cellular process rather than a neoplastic process usually seen in patients with hyperparathyroidism. These tumors can behave aggressively and be destructive. We report a 49-year-old male patient who was admitted to our hospital with a long-term history of right shoulder and right hip pain. Multiple lytic and destructive bone lesions were found in X-ray graphy and CT images. These bone lesions mimicked multi...

  19. Does primary neoadjuvant systemic therapy eradicate minimal residual disease? Analysis of disseminated and circulating tumor cells before and after therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Kasimir-Bauer, Sabine; BITTNER, ANN-KATHRIN; König, Lisa; Reiter, Katharina; Keller, Thomas; Kimmig, Rainer; HOFFMANN, OLIVER

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients with breast cancer (BC) undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) may experience metastatic relapse despite achieving a pathologic complete response. We analyzed patients with BC before and after NACT for disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) in the bone marrow(BM); comprehensively characterized circulating tumor cells (CTCs), including stem cell–like CTCs (slCTCs), in blood to prove the effectiveness of treatment on these cells; and correlated these findings with response to t...

  20. Acute effects of irradiation on cognition: changes in attention on a computerized continuous performance test during radiotherapy in pediatric patients with localized primary brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To assess sustained attention, impulsivity, and reaction time during radiotherapy (RT) for pediatric patients with localized primary brain tumors. Methods and Materials: Thirty-nine patients (median age 12.3 years, range 5.9-22.9) with primary brain tumors were evaluated prospectively using the computerized Conners' continuous performance test (CPT) before and during conformal RT (CRT). The data were modeled to assess the longitudinal changes in the CPT scores and the effects of clinical variables on these changes during the first 50 days after the initiation of CRT. Results: The CPT scores exhibited an increasing trend for errors of omission (inattentiveness), decreasing trend for errors of commission (impulsivity), and slower reaction times. However, none of the changes were statistically significant. The overall index, which is an algorithm-based weighted sum of the CPT scores, remained within the range of normal throughout treatment. Older patients (age >12 years) were more attentive (p<0.0005), less impulsive (p<0.07), and had faster reaction times (p<0.001) at baseline than the younger patients. The reaction time was significantly reduced during treatment for the older patients and lengthened significantly for the younger patients (p<0.04). Patients with a shunted hydrocephalus (p<0.02), seizure history (p<0.0006), and residual tumor (p<0.02) were significantly more impulsive. Nonshunted patients (p<0.0001), those with more extensive resection (p<0.0001), and patients with ependymoma (p<0.006) had slower initial reaction times. Conclusion: Children with brain tumors have problems with sustained attention and reaction time resulting from the tumor and therapeutic interventions before RT. The reaction time slowed during treatment for patients <12 years old. RT, as administered in the trial from which these data were derived, has limited acute effects on changes in the CPT scores measuring attention, impulsiveness, and reaction time

  1. Primary Tumor-Secreted Lymphangiogenic Factors Induce Pre-Metastatic Lymphvascular Niche Formation at Sentinel Lymph Nodes in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naohiro Wakisaka

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to evaluate the formation of lymphvascular niches in lymph nodes of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC, and investigate the roles of lymphangiogenic and angiogenic factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A, VEGF-C, and VEGF-D, expressed in the primary tumors.Forty-four patients with previously untreated clinically late T2 or T3 OSCC of cN0 were evaluated for primary tumors and 166 sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs. Primary tumors were immunohistochemically analyzed for expressions of VEGFs. Densities of lymphatic vessels (LVDpodoplanin and high endothelial venules (HEVD in the SLNs were also calculated using antibodies for each marker, podoplanin and MECA-79, respectively.In 25 patients, all lymph nodes were metastasis-negative, whereas, in 19 patients, metastasis was positive for at least one lymph node (either at SLN, non-SLN, or nodal recurrence. From the analyses of 140 SLNs without metastasis, LVDpodoplanin in 50 SLNs of metastasis-positive cases was significantly higher than that in 90 SLNs of metastasis-negative cases (p = 0.0025. HEVD was not associated with lymph node metastasis. The patients with VEGF-A-High or VEGF-D-High tumors had significantly higher LVDpodoplanin than patients with their Low counterparts (p = 0.0233 and p = 0.0209, respectively. In cases with lymph node metastasis, the VEGF-D-expression score was significantly higher than in those without lymph node metastasis (p = 0.0006.These results suggest that lymph node lymphangiogenesis occurs before metastasis in OSCC. VEGF-A and VEGF-D play critical roles in this process. VEGF-D is a potential predictive marker of positive lymph node metastasis in cN0 patients.

  2. Clinical outcome of stereotactic body radiotherapy for primary and oligometastatic lung tumors: a single institutional study with almost uniform dose with different five treatment schedules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate clinical outcomes of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for localized primary and oligometastatic lung tumors by assessing efficacy and safety of 5 regimens of varying fraction size and number. One-hundred patients with primary lung cancer (n = 69) or oligometastatic lung tumors (n = 31), who underwent SBRT between May 2003 and August 2010, were included. The median age was 75 years (range, 45–88). Of them, 98 were judged to have medically inoperable disease, predominantly due to chronic illness or advanced age. SBRT was performed using 3 coplanar and 3 non-coplanar fixed beams with a standard linear accelerator. Fraction sizes were escalated by 1 Gy, and number of fractions given was decreased by 1 for every 20 included patients. Total target doses were between 50 and 56 Gy, administered as 5–9 fractions. The prescribed dose was defined at the isocenter, and median overall treatment duration was 10 days (range, 5–22). The median follow-up was 51.1 months for survivors. The 3-year local recurrence rates for primary lung cancer and oligometastasis was 6 % and 3 %, respectively. The 3-year local recurrence rates for tumor sizes ≤3 cm and >3 cm were 3 % and 14 %, respectively (p = 0.124). Additionally, other factors (fraction size, total target dose, and BED10) were not significant predictors of local control. Radiation pneumonia (≥ grade 2) was observed in 2 patients. Radiation-induced rib fractures were observed in 22 patients. Other late adverse events of greater than grade 2 were not observed. Within this dataset, we did not observe a dose response in BED10 values between 86.4 and 102.6 Gy. SBRT with doses between 50 and 56 Gy, administered over 5–9 fractions achieved acceptable tumor control without severe complications

  3. Primary malignant mixed müllerian tumor of the peritoneum a case report with review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gashi-Luci Lumturije

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Malignant mixed Müllerian tumor is a rare malignancy of the genital tract and extremely uncommon in extragenital sites. This report describes a case of malignant mixed Müllerian tumor arising in the lower peritoneum of a 72-year-old female patient. The patient presented with ascites, lower abdominal mass and pleural effusion. The serum level of CA125 was elevated. At operation a diffuse carcinosis associated with tumor mass measuring 20 × 15 × 10 cm in the vesicouterine and Duglas' pouch were found. The uterus and the adnexa were unremarkable. Histopathology revealed a typical malignant mixed Müllerian tumor, heterologous type. The epithelial component was positive for cytokeratin 7 and vimentin whereas the mesenchymal component was positive for Vimentin, S100 and focally for CK7. The histogenesis of this tumor arising from the peritoneum is still speculative. Based on the previous reports and the immunohistochemical analysis of our case, we believe that this is a monoclonal tumor with carcinoma being the "precursor" element. Nevertheless, further molecular and genetic evidence is needed to support such a conclusion.

  4. Functional rearrangement of the primary and secondary motor cortex in patients with primary tumors of the central nervous system located in the region of the central sulcus depending on the histopathological type and the size of tumor: Examination by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to analyze the reorganization of the centers of the motor cortex in patients with primary neuroepithelial tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) located in the region of the central sulcus in relation to the histopathological type and the size of tumor, as determined by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The fMRI was performed prior to the surgical treatment of patients with tumors located in the region of the central sulcus (WHO stage I and II, n=15; WHO stage III and IV, n=25). The analysis included a record of the activity in the areas of the primary motor cortex (M1) and the secondary motor cortex: the premotor cortex (PMA) and the accessory motor area (SMA). The results were correlated with the histopathological type of the tumor and its size expressed in cm3. The frequency of activation of the motor center was higher in the group of patients who had less aggressive tumors, such as low-grade glioma (LGG), as well as in tumors of lower volume, and this was true both for the hemisphere where the tumor was located and in the contralateral one. Mean values of t-statistics of activation intensity, mean numbers of activated clusters, and their ranges were lower in all analyzed motor areas of LGG tumors. The values of t-statistics and activation areas were higher in the case of small tumors located in ipsilateral centers, and in large tumors located in contralateral centers, aside from the SMA area where the values of t-statistics were equal for both groups. The contralateral SMA area was characterized by the highest stability of all examined centers of secondary motor cortex. No significant association (p>0.05) was observed between the absolute value of the mean registered activity (t-statistics) and the size of examined areas (number of clusters) when the groups were stratified with regards to the analyzed parameters. The presence of a neoplastic lesion, its histopathological type and finally its size modulate the

  5. Pitfalls in the MR diagnosis of primary malignant bone tumors; Pitfalls in der MR-Diagnostik primaer maligner Knochentumoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bader, T.R. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Wien (Austria). Abt. fuer Osteologie; Imhof, H.; Breitenseher, M.J. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Wien (Austria). Abt. fuer Osteologie]|[Wien Univ. (Austria). Einrichtung UOG Magnetic Resonanz; Dominkus, M. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Orthopaedie, Wien (Austria)

    1998-06-01

    MRI has gained an undisputed place in the evaluation of malignant bone tumors, not only for verifying results of conventional radiography and clarifying differential diagnoses; it has also become increasingly important for the assessment of the malignant/benign nature of the tumor, its growth rate, definition of adequate sites for biopsy, local preoperative staging, and evaluation of the response to chemotherapy. However, several pitfalls have to be observed regarding choice of technical parameters (coils, sequences, imaging planes), tissue differentiation, and tumor staging. When staging malignant tumors, critical aspects which have to be observed are tumor extension, integrity of the cortical bone, soft tissue components, infiltration of a joint or neurovascular bundle. The use of contrast agents provides important additional information but can also give rise to misinterpretations. Thus, all features of a tumor have to be observed in order to establish a final diagnosis. Particular difficulties can occur with the interpretation of MR images of osteomyelitis, osteoid osteoma, stress and insufficiency fractures, bone infarcts, myositis ossificans, hemangiomas, and aneurysmal bone cysts. (orig.) [Deutsch] Bei der Diagnostik von malignen Knochentumoren hat die MRT einen fixen Platz nicht nur in der Verifikation der Nativdiagnostik und der Differentialdiagnostik, sondern zunehmende Bedeutung bei der primaeren Beurteilung von Dignitaet und Wachstumsgeschwindigkeit, Definition einer geeigneten Biopsiestelle, beim lokoregionaeren, praeoperativen Staging und der Evaluation des Ansprechens auf Chemotherapie. Zahlreiche Pitfalls finden sich jedoch bei der Wahl der technischen Parameter (Spulen, Sequenzen, Schichtebenen), der Tumordifferenzierung und beim Staging von malignen Tumoren. Beim Staging sind die kritischen Punkte die Beurteilung von Tumorausdehnung, Integritaet der Kortikalis, Vorhandensein einer Weichteilkomponente, Infiltration eines Gelenks oder des

  6. Herpes simplex virus type-1(HSV-1 oncolytic and highly fusogenic mutants carrying the NV1020 genomic deletion effectively inhibit primary and metastatic tumors in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Andrew T

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The NV1020 oncolytic herpes simplex virus type-1 has shown significant promise for the treatment of many different types of tumors in experimental animal models and human trials. Previously, we described the construction and use of the NV1020-like virus OncSyn to treat human breast tumors implanted in nude mice. The syncytial mutation gKsyn1 (Ala-to-Val at position 40 was introduced into the OncSyn viral genome cloned into a bacterial artificial chromosome using double-red mutagenesis in E. coli to produce the OncdSyn virus carrying syncytial mutations in both gB(syn3 and gK(syn1. Results The OncdSyn virus caused extensive virus-induced cell fusion in cell culture. The oncolytic potential of the OncSyn and OncdSyn viruses was tested in the highly metastatic syngeneic mouse model system, which utilizes 4T1 murine mammary cancer cells implanted within the interscapular region of Balb/c mice. Mice were given three consecutive intratumor injections of OncSyn, OncdSyn, or phosphate buffered saline four days apart. Both OncSyn and OncdSyn virus injections resulted in significant reduction of tumor sizes (p Conclusion These results show that the attenuated, but highly fusogenic OncSyn and OncdSyn viruses can effectively reduce primary and metastatic breast tumors in immuncompetent mice. The available bac-cloned OncSyn and OncdSyn viral genomes can be rapidly modified to express a number of different anti-tumor and immunomodulatory genes that can further enhance their anti-tumor potency.

  7. Primary microcephaly gene MCPH1 shows signatures of tumor suppressors and is regulated by miR-27a in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thejaswini Venkatesh

    Full Text Available Mutations in the MCPH1 (microcephalin 1 gene, located at chromosome 8p23.1, result in two autosomal recessive disorders: primary microcephaly and premature chromosome condensation syndrome. MCPH1 has also been shown to be downregulated in breast, prostate and ovarian cancers, and mutated in 1/10 breast and 5/41 endometrial tumors, suggesting that it could also function as a tumor suppressor (TS gene. To test the possibility of MCPH1 as a TS gene, we first performed LOH study in a panel of 81 matched normal oral tissues and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC samples, and observed that 14/71 (19.72% informative samples showed LOH, a hallmark of TS genes. Three protein truncating mutations were identified in 1/15 OSCC samples and 2/5 cancer cell lines. MCPH1 was downregulated at both the transcript and protein levels in 21/41 (51.22% and 19/25 (76% OSCC samples respectively. A low level of MCPH1 promoter methylation was also observed in 4/40 (10% tumor samples. We further observed that overexpression of MCPH1 decreased cellular proliferation, anchorage-independent growth in soft agar, cell invasion and tumor size in nude mice, indicating its tumor suppressive function. Using bioinformatic approaches and luciferase assay, we showed that the 3'-UTR of MCPH1 harbors two non-overlapping functional seed regions for miR-27a which negatively regulated its level. The expression level of miR-27a negatively correlated with the MCPH1 protein level in OSCC. Our study indicates for the first time that, in addition to its role in brain development, MCPH1 also functions as a tumor suppressor gene and is regulated by miR-27a.

  8. Polytomous diagnosis of ovarian tumors as benign, borderline, primary invasive or metastatic: development and validation of standard and kernel-based risk prediction models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Testa Antonia C

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hitherto, risk prediction models for preoperative ultrasound-based diagnosis of ovarian tumors were dichotomous (benign versus malignant. We develop and validate polytomous models (models that predict more than two events to diagnose ovarian tumors as benign, borderline, primary invasive or metastatic invasive. The main focus is on how different types of models perform and compare. Methods A multi-center dataset containing 1066 women was used for model development and internal validation, whilst another multi-center dataset of 1938 women was used for temporal and external validation. Models were based on standard logistic regression and on penalized kernel-based algorithms (least squares support vector machines and kernel logistic regression. We used true polytomous models as well as combinations of dichotomous models based on the 'pairwise coupling' technique to produce polytomous risk estimates. Careful variable selection was performed, based largely on cross-validated c-index estimates. Model performance was assessed with the dichotomous c-index (i.e. the area under the ROC curve and a polytomous extension, and with calibration graphs. Results For all models, between 9 and 11 predictors were selected. Internal validation was successful with polytomous c-indexes between 0.64 and 0.69. For the best model dichotomous c-indexes were between 0.73 (primary invasive vs metastatic and 0.96 (borderline vs metastatic. On temporal and external validation, overall discrimination performance was good with polytomous c-indexes between 0.57 and 0.64. However, discrimination between primary and metastatic invasive tumors decreased to near random levels. Standard logistic regression performed well in comparison with advanced algorithms, and combining dichotomous models performed well in comparison with true polytomous models. The best model was a combination of dichotomous logistic regression models. This model is available online

  9. True recurrence vs. new primary ipsilateral breast tumor relapse: An analysis of clinical and pathologic differences and their implications in natural history, prognoses, and therapeutic management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to classify all ipsilateral breast tumor relapses (IBTR) in patients treated with conservative surgery and radiation therapy (CS+RT) as either new primary tumors (NP) or true local recurrences (TR) and to assess the prognostic and therapeutic implications of this classification. Methods and Materials: Of the 1152 patients who have been treated at Yale-New Haven Hospital before 1990, 136 patients have experienced IBTR as their primary site of failure. These relapses were classified as either NP or TR. Specifically, patients were classified as NP if the recurrence was distinctly different from the primary tumor with respect to the histologic subtype, the recurrence location was in a different location, or if the flow cytometry changed from aneuploid to diploid. This information was determined by a detailed review of each patient's hospital and/or radiotherapy record, mammograms, and pathologic reports. Results: As of 2/99, with a mean follow-up of 14.2 years, the overall ipsilateral breast relapse-free rate for all 1152 patients was 86% at 10 years. Using the classification scheme outlined above, 60 patient relapses were classified as TR, 70 were classified as NP and 6 were unable to be classified. NP patients had a longer mean time to breast relapse than TR patients (7.3 years vs. 3.7 years, p < 0.0001) and were significantly younger than TR patients (48.9 years vs. 54.5 years, p < 0.01). Patients developed both TR and NP at similar rates until approximately 8 years, when TR rates stabilized but NP rates continued to rise. By 15 years following original diagnosis, the TR rate was 6.8% compared to 13.1% for NP. Of the patients who had been previously tested for BRCA1/2 mutations, 17% (8/52) had deleterious mutations. It is noteworthy that all patients with deleterious mutations had new primary IBTR, while patients without deleterious mutations had both TR and NP (p = 0.06). Ploidy was evenly distributed between TR and NP but NP

  10. Dual time point imaging with 18F-FDG and its comparison with MRI in primary brain tumors - a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the diagnostic reliability of delayed imaging with 18F-FDG PET/CT in primary brain tumors and its comparison with 1 hour imaging and MRI. Twenty four patients, 4 pre-operative and 20 post-operative, undergoing evaluation for primary brain tumors were imaged at 2 time points, 1 h (54-72 min) and 3 h (174-192 min) after 18F-FDG injection. 5/20 were operated for high grade gliomas (1/5 histopathologically proven oligodendroglioma and 4/5 astrocytomas) and 15/20 for low grade gliomas (12/15 astrocytomas and 3/15 oligodendrogliomas). After PET study, 1 of 4 pre op cases was histopathologically proven to be low grade astrocytoma. 2 were radiologically diagnosed midbrain gliomas. Encephalitis was diagnosed in 1 pre op case on clinico radiological follow up. 7 low grade post op cases were disease free on 6 months follow up. Tracer uptake was quantified by standardized uptake values (SUVmax) and the SUV max ratios of tumor relative to the gray matter and white matter at each imaging time point. Conventional MR studies were done in all patients

  11. Retrospective study of the evolution of nutritional, inflammatory and bacteriological profiles of patients suffering from inoperable aero-digestive duct tumour during sequential or concomitant chemo-radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors report a retrospective study which aimed at analysing a cohort of consecutive patients in terms of clinic and biological aspects reflecting their nutritional and inflammatory status as well as the status of their buccal bacterial flora during a sequential or concomitant chemo-radiotherapy. The objective was to detect a possible difference between these both therapeutic modalities, and a possible relationship with toxicity. Several data have been collected for patients suffering from inoperable aero-digestive tract tumour: weight, body mass index, prealbumin, albumin, orosomucoid, C-reactive protein, PINI index, and buccal bacterial flora. The evolution of these nutritional biological criteria appears to depend on the treatment modality. Short communication

  12. Ossification of the cervical ligamentum flavum and osseous brown tumor: late manifestations of primary hyperparathyroidism misdiagnosed in a case of parathyroid carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampanis, Nikolaos; Gavriilaki, Eleni; Paschou, Eleni; Kalaitzoglou, Asterios; Vasileiou, Sotirios

    2016-01-01

    Summary Parathyroid carcinoma represents an extremely rare neoplasm with diverse clinical manifestations. Herein we aimed at presenting an unique case of a young patient with late manifestations of parathyroid cancer and reviewing the relevant literature. A 45-year-old male patient presented in the Outpatient Clinic with an episode of nephrolithiasis. His personal medical history includes: recurrent episodes of nephrolithiasis, laminectomy in the cervical spine due to ossification of the cervical ligamentum flavum and surgical resection of a giant cell tumor of the brain. Laboratory testing revealed findings of primary hyperparathyroidism (serum calcium 16,0 mmol/l phosphorus 1,46 mg/dl and parathyroid hormone/PTH 8560 pg/ml). Neck ultrasound and technetium-99 m sestamibi scan were performed showing a parathyroid tumor. Due to the persistently high serum calcium and PTH levels, the high alkaline phosphatase levels (440 IU/L) and the late manifestations of HPT, surgical excision of the tumor was performed. The tumor was identified as parathyroid carcinoma. Immediately after surgery serum calcium and phosphorus levels were normalized. The patient is on a regular follow-up program with no signs of recurrence or metastasis one year after the excision. We describe the coexistence of rare late manifestations of HPT, which had not been adequately investigated at their onset in this young patient. Therefore, increased awareness is needed in order to recognize and further investigate signs or symptoms of HPT. PMID:27252748

  13. CD105 expression on CD34-negative spindle-shaped stromal cells of primary tumor is an unfavorable prognostic marker in early breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Leandro Marcelo; Labovsky, Vivian; Calcagno, María de Luján; Davies, Kevin Mauro; Garcia Rivello, Hernán; Rivello, Hernán Garcia; Bianchi, Maria Silvia; Wernicke, Alejandra; Vallone, Valeria Beatriz Fernández; Fernández Vallone, Valeria Beatriz; Chasseing, Norma Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have confirmed that the breast tumor microenvironment drives cancer progression and metastatic development. The aim of our research was to investigate the prognostic significance of the breast tumor microenvironment in untreated early breast cancer patients. Therefore, we analyzed the association of the expression of α-SMA, FSP, CD105 and CD146 in CD34-negative spindle-shaped stromal cells, not associated with the vasculature, in primary breast tumors with classical prognostic marker levels, metastatic recurrence, local relapse, disease-free survival, metastasis-free survival and the overall survival of patients. In the same way, we evaluated the association of the amount of intra-tumor stroma, fibroblasts, collagen deposition, lymphocytic infiltration and myxoid changes in these samples with the clinical-pathological data previously described. This study is the first to demonstrate the high CD105 expression in this stromal cell type as a possible independent marker of unfavorable prognosis in early breast cancer patients. Our study suggests that this new finding can be useful prognostic marker in the clinical-pathological routine. PMID:25803686

  14. Melanoma cell-derived exosomes promote epithelial-mesenchymal transition in primary melanocytes through paracrine/autocrine signaling in the tumor microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Deyi; Barry, Samantha; Kmetz, Daniel; Egger, Michael; Pan, Jianmin; Rai, Shesh N; Qu, Jifu; McMasters, Kelly M; Hao, Hongying

    2016-07-01

    The tumor microenvironment is abundant with exosomes that are secreted by the cancer cells themselves. Exosomes are nanosized, organelle-like membranous structures that are increasingly being recognized as major contributors in the progression of malignant neoplasms. A critical element in melanoma progression is its propensity to metastasize, but little is known about how melanoma cell-derived exosomes modulate the microenvironment to optimize conditions for tumor progression and metastasis. Here, we provide evidence that melanoma cell-derived exosomes promote phenotype switching in primary melanocytes through paracrine/autocrine signaling. We found that the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway was activated during the exosome-mediated epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-resembling process, which promotes metastasis. Let-7i, an miRNA modulator of EMT, was also involved in this process. We further defined two other miRNA modulators of EMT (miR-191 and let-7a) in seru