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Sample records for aerobic tellurite-resistant marine

  1. TELLURITE RESISTANCE AND REDUCTION DURING AEROBIC AND ANAEROBIC GROWTH OF BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM SARCHESHME COPPER MINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Akhavan Sepahei ، V. Rashetnia

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Tellurium compounds can be found in high concentrations in land and water near sites of waste discharge of industrial manufacturing processes and anodic sludge of copper mine. Potassium tellurite (K2TeO3 is toxic to many microorganisms at concentrations >1mg/mL. In this research, some species of facultative anaerobic bacteria (Bacillus sp. were isolated from Sarcheshme copper mine(Kerman, Iran which demonstrated high-level-resistance to tellurite and accumulation of metallic tellurium crystals. High-level-resistance was observed for Bacilli and cocci grown with certain organic carbon sources, implying that tellurite reduction is not essential to confer tellurite resistance. Level of adsorption was determined by inductively coupled plasma and spectrophotometer (Diethyldithiocarbamate method. The level of tellurite concentration in the bacteria cell and the formation of tellurium nanocrystals were illuminated by transmission electron microscope and scanning electron microscope. The Te(0 crystals occur internally and each microorganism forms a distinctly different structure (for example Bacillus selenitreducens make tellurium nano rod. In this study it was found that microorganism can grow 3.in 1500mg/L-2000mg/L and higher tellurite concentrations. The use of microorganisms to generate Te nanomaterials may be an alternative for bench-scale syntheses. Additionally, they may also generate products with unique properties unattainable by conventional physical/chemical methods. This study is important because native bacteria from Sarcheshme (Kerman, Iran that may show high-level-resistance to tellurite, were isolated.

  2. Expression of Aeromonas caviae ST pyruvate dehydrogenase complex components mediate tellurite resistance in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potassium tellurite (K2TeO3) is harmful to most organisms and specific mechanisms explaining its toxicity are not well known to date. We previously reported that the lpdA gene product of the tellurite-resistant environmental isolate Aeromonas caviae ST is involved in the reduction of tellurite to elemental tellurium. In this work, we show that expression of A. caviae ST aceE, aceF, and lpdA genes, encoding pyruvate dehydrogenase, dihydrolipoamide transacetylase, and dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase, respectively, results in tellurite resistance and decreased levels of tellurite-induced superoxide in Escherichia coli. In addition to oxidative damage resulting from tellurite exposure, a metabolic disorder would be simultaneously established in which the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex would represent an intracellular tellurite target. These results allow us to widen our vision regarding the molecular mechanisms involved in bacterial tellurite resistance by correlating tellurite toxicity and key enzymes of aerobic metabolism.

  3. Volatile dimethyl polonium produced by aerobic marine microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrou, Andrew S; Ollivier, Patrick R L; Hanson, Thomas E; Tessier, Emmanuel; Amouroux, David; Church, Thomas M

    2012-10-16

    The production of volatile polonium (Po(v)), a naturally occurring radioactive element, by pure cultures of aerobic marine tellurite-resistant microorganisms was investigated. Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, a carotogenic yeast, and a Bacillus sp. strain, a Gram-positive bacterium, generated approximately one and 2 orders of magnitude, respectively, greater amounts of Po(v) compared to the other organisms tested. Gas chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (GC-ICP-MS) analysis identified dimethyl polonide (DMPo) as the predominant volatile Po compound in culture headspace of the yeast. This species assignment is based on the exact relation between GC retention times and boiling points of this and other Group VI B analogues (S, Se, and Te). The extent of the biotic Po(v) production correlates exponentially with elevated particulate Po (Po(p)): dissolved Po (Po(aq)) ratios in the cultures, consistent with efficient Po bioaccumulation. Further experimentation demonstrated that some abiotic Po(v) generation is possible. However, high-level Po(v) generation in these cultures is predominantly biotic. PMID:22924583

  4. Proteomic differences between tellurite-sensitive and tellurite-resistant E.coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Aradská

    Full Text Available Tellurite containing compounds are in use for industrial processes and increasing delivery into the environment generates specific pollution that may well result in contamination and subsequent potential adverse effects on public health. It was the aim of the current study to reveal mechanism of toxicity in tellurite-sensitive and tellurite-resistant E. coli at the protein level. In this work an approach using gel-based mass spectrometrical analysis to identify a differential protein profile related to tellurite toxicity was used and the mechanism of ter operon-mediated tellurite resistance was addressed. E. coli BL21 was genetically manipulated for tellurite-resistance by the introduction of the resistance-conferring ter genes on the pLK18 plasmid. Potassium tellurite was added to cultures in order to obtain a final 3.9 micromolar concentration. Proteins from tellurite-sensitive and tellurite-resistant E. coli were run on 2-D gel electrophoresis, spots of interest were picked, in-gel digested and subsequently analysed by nano-LC-MS/MS (ion trap. In addition, Western blotting and measurement of enzymatic activity were performed to verify the expression of certain candidate proteins. Following exposure to tellurite, in contrast to tellurite-resistant bacteria, sensitive cells exhibited increased levels of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutases, catalase and oxidoreductase YqhD. Cysteine desulfurase, known to be related to tellurite toxicity as well as proteins involved in protein folding: GroEL, DnaK and EF-Tu were upregulated in sensitive cells. In resistant bacteria, several isoforms of four essential Ter proteins were observed and following tellurite treatment the abovementioned protein levels did not show any significant proteome changes as compared to the sensitive control. The absence of general defense mechanisms against tellurite toxicity in resistant bacteria thus provides further evidence that the four proteins of the ter operon

  5. Aerobic Removal of Technetium by a Marine Halomonas Strain▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Fujimoto, Ken; Morita, Takami

    2006-01-01

    A novel strain of Halomonas (Tc-202), which has the capability of removing Tc(VII) from solid- and aqueous-phase material aerobically, was isolated from the marine environment. Tc-202 removed 55% of the total 99Tc in solutions at 15°C by reducing Tc(VII) to Tc(V), but other Halomonas strains did not.

  6. Denitrification characteristics of a marine origin psychrophilic aerobic denitrifying bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Haiyan; Liu, Ying; Sun, Guangdong; Gao, Xiyan; Zhang, Qingling; Liu, Zhipei

    2011-01-01

    A psychrophilic aerobic denitrifying bacterium, strain S1-1, was isolated from a biological aerated filter conducted for treatment of recirculating water in a marine aquaculture system. Strain S1-1 was preliminarily identified as Psychrobacter sp. based on the analysis of its 16S rRNA gene sequence, which showed 100% sequence similarity to that of Psychrobacter sp. TSBY-70. Strain S1-1 grew well either in high nitrate or high nitrite conditions with a removal of 100% nitrate or 63.50% nitrite, and the total nitrogen removal rates could reach to 46.48% and 31.89%, respectively. The results indicated that nitrate was mainly reduced in its logarithmic growth phase with a very low level accumulation of nitrite, suggesting that the aerobic denitrification process of strain S1-1 occurred mainly in this phase. The GC-MS results showed that N2O was formed as the major intermediate during the aerobic denitrifying process of strain S1-1. Finally, factors affecting the growth of strain S1-1 and its aerobic denitrifying ability were also investigated. Results showed that the optimum aerobic denitrification conditions for strain S1-1 were sodium succinate as carbon source, C/N ratio15, salinity 10 g/L NaCl, incubation temperature 20 degrees C and initial pH 6.5. PMID:22432315

  7. Denitrification characteristics of a marine origin psychrophilic aerobic denitrifying bacterium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haiyan Zheng; Ying Liu; Guangdong Sun; Xiyan Gao; Qingling Zhang; Zhipei Liu

    2011-01-01

    A psychrophilic aerobic denitrifying bacterium,strain S1-1,was isolated from a biological aerated filter conducted for treatment of recirculating water in a marine aquaculture system.Strain S1-1 was preliminarily identified as Psychrobacter sp.based on the analysis of its 16S rRNA gene sequence,which showed 100% sequence similarity to that of Psychrobacter sp.TSBY-70.Strain S 1-1 grew well either in high nitrate or high nitrite conditions with a removal of 100% nitrate or 63.50% nitrite,and the total nitrogen removal rates could reach to 46.48% and 31.89%,respectively.The results indicated that nitrate was mainly reduced in its logarithmic growth phase with a very low leve 1 accumulation of nitrite,suggesting that the aerobic denitrification process of strain S l-1 occurred mainly in this phase.The GC-MS results showed that N2O was formed as the major intermediate during the aerobic denitrifying process of strain S1-1.Finally,factors affecting the growth of strain Sl-1 and its aerobic denitrifying ability were also investigated.Results showed that the optimum aerobic denitrification conditions for strain S1-1 were sodium succinate as carbon source,C/N ratio15,salinity 10 g/L NaCl,incubation temperature 20℃ and initial pH 6.5.

  8. TELLURITE RESISTANCE AND REDUCTION DURING AEROBIC AND ANAEROBIC GROWTH OF BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM SARCHESHME COPPER MINE

    OpenAIRE

    A. Akhavan Sepahei ، V. Rashetnia

    2009-01-01

    Tellurium compounds can be found in high concentrations in land and water near sites of waste discharge of industrial manufacturing processes and anodic sludge of copper mine. Potassium tellurite (K2TeO3) is toxic to many microorganisms at concentrations >1mg/mL. In this research, some species of facultative anaerobic bacteria (Bacillus sp.) were isolated from Sarcheshme copper mine(Kerman, Iran) which demonstrated high-level-resistance to tellurite and accumulation of metallic tellurium crys...

  9. Complete Genome Sequence of the Aerobic Marine Methanotroph Methylomonas methanica MC09

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boden, Rich [University of Warwick, UK; Cunliffe, Michael [University of Warwick, UK; Scanlan, Julie [University of Warwick, UK; Moussard, Helene [University of Warwick, UK; Kits, K. Dimitri [University of Alberta, Edmondton, Canada; Klotz, Martin G [University of Louisville, Louisville; Jetten, MSM [Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands; Vuilleumier, Stephane [University of Strasbourg; Han, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Peters, Lin [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mikhailova, Natalia [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Teshima, Hazuki [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pagani, Ioanna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Cheng, Jan-Fang [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Stein, Lisa Y. [University of Alberta, Edmondton, Canada; Murrell, Collin [University of Warwick, UK

    2011-01-01

    Methylomonas methanica MC09 is a mesophilic, halotolerant, aerobic, methanotrophic member of the Gammaproteobacteria, isolated from coastal seawater. Here we present the complete genome sequence of this strain, the first available from an aerobic marine methanotroph.

  10. Characterization of a marine origin aerobic nitrifying-denitrifying bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hai-Yan; Liu, Ying; Gao, Xi-Yan; Ai, Guo-Min; Miao, Li-Li; Liu, Zhi-Pei

    2012-07-01

    The bacterial strain F6 was isolated from a biological aerated filter that is used for purifying recirculating water in a marine aquaculture system and was identified as Marinobacter sp. based on the analysis of its 16S rRNA gene sequence. Strain F6 showed efficient aerobic denitrifying ability. One hundred percent of nitrates and 73.10% of nitrites were removed, and the total nitrogen (TN) removal rates reached 50.08% and 33.03% under a high nitrate and nitrite concentration in the medium, respectively. N(2)O and (15)N(2), as revealed by GC-MS and GC-IRMS, were the products of aerobic denitrification. Factors affecting the growth and aerobic denitrifying performance of strain F6 were investigated. The results showed that the optimum aerobic denitrification conditions for strain F6 were the presence of sodium succinate as a carbon source, a C/N ratio of 15, salinity ranging from 32-35 g/L of NaCl, incubation temperature of 30°C, an initial pH of 7.5, and rotation speed of 150 rpm [dissolved oxygen (DO) 6.75 mg/L]. In addition, strain F6 was confirmed to be a heterotrophic nitrifier through its NO(2)(-) generation and 25.96% TN removal when NH(4)(+) was used as the sole N source. Therefore, strain F6, the first reported member of genus Marinobacter with aerobic heterotrophic nitrifying-denitrifying ability, is an excellent candidate for facilitating simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND) in industry and aquaculture wastewater. PMID:22578593

  11. Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria and their roles in marine ecosystems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria (AAPB) are characterized by the following physiological and ecological features. A mother AAPB cell can unusually divide into 3 daughter cells and looks like a "Y" during the division. AAPB cells sometimes adhere together forming a free-floating population. Most of the known AAPB species are obligately aerobic. Bacteriochlorophyll a (BChl a) is the only photosynthetic pigment in AAPB, and the number of BChl a molecules in an AAPB cell is much less than that in an anaerobic phototrophic bacterial cell, while the accessorial pigments carotenoids in AAPB are abundant in concentration and diverse in species. In addition to the common magnesium containing BChl a, a zinc-containing BChla was also seen in AAPB. AAPB have light harvesting complexⅠbut usually lack light harvesting complexⅡ. Although AAPB featur in photosynthesis, their growth is not necessarily light- dependent. There is a mechanism controlling the photosynthesis approach. AAPB are widely distributed in marine environments especially in oligotrophic oceans accounting for a substantial portion of the total biomass and playing a unique role in the cycle of carbon and other biogenic elements. Besides the contribution to primary production, AAPB also have great potentials in bioremediation of polluted environments. Studies on AAPB would be of great value in understanding the evolution of photosynthesis and the structure and function of marine ecosystems.

  12. Lipid Biomarkers Indicating Aerobic Methanotrophy at Ancient Marine Methane- Seeps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birgel, D.; Peckmann, J.

    2007-12-01

    The inventory of lipid biomarkers of a number of ancient methane-seep limestones has been studied over the last decade. The molecular fingerprints of the chemosynthesis-based microbial communities tend to be extremely well-preserved in these limestones. The key process at seeps is the anaerobic oxidation of methane, performed by consortia of sulfate-reducing bacteria and methanotrophic archaea. Compounds preserved within modern and ancient seep settings comprise C-13-depleted lipid biomarkers. Besides the occurrence of C-13- depleted isoprenoids (archaea) and n-alkyl-chains (bacteria), C-13-depleted hopanoids have been reported in seep limestones. Here, lipid biomarker data are presented from three ancient methane-seep limestones embedded in Miocene and Campanian strata. These examples provide strong evidence that methane was not solely oxidized by an anaerobic process. In a Miocene limestone, 3-beta-methylated hopanoids were found (delta C-13: -100 per mil). Most likely, 3-beta-methylated hopanepolyols, prevailing in aerobic methanotrophs were the precursor lipids. In another Miocene limestone, a series of C-13-depleted 4-methylated steranes (lanostanes; -80 to -70 per mil) is derived from aerobic methanotrophs. Lanosterol is the most likely precursor of lanostanes, known to be produced by aerobic methanotrophs, some of which are outstanding among bacteria in having the capacity to produce steroids. In a Campanian seep limestone a suite of conspicuous secohexahydrobenzohopanes (-110 to -107 per mil) is found. These hopanoids probably represent early degradation products of seep-endemic aerobic methanotrophs. This interpretation is supported by the presence of "regular" hopanoids that can be discriminated from the unusual secohexahydrobenzohopanes by only moderately low delta C-13 values (-49 to -42 per mil). Structural and carbon isotope data reveal that aerobic methanotrophy is more common at ancient methane- seeps than previously noticed. Our data indicate that

  13. A review of the multi-level adaptations for maximizing aerobic dive duration in marine mammals: from biochemistry to behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Randall W

    2014-01-01

    Marine mammals exhibit multi-level adaptations, from cellular biochemistry to behavior, that maximize aerobic dive duration. A dive response during aerobic dives enables the efficient use of blood and muscle oxygen stores, but it is exercise modulated to maximize the aerobic dive limit at different levels of exertion. Blood volume and concentrations of blood hemoglobin and muscle myoglobin are elevated and serve as a significant oxygen store that increases aerobic dive duration. However, myoglobin is not homogeneously distributed in the locomotory muscles and is highest in areas that produce greater force and consume more oxygen during aerobic swimming. Muscle fibers are primarily fast and slow twitch oxidative with elevated mitochondrial volume densities and enhanced oxidative enzyme activities that are highest in areas that produce more force generation. Most of the muscle mitochondria are interfibriller and homogeneously distributed. This reduces the diffusion distance between mitochondria and helps maintain aerobic metabolism under hypoxic conditions. Mitochondrial volume densities and oxidative enzyme activities are also elevated in certain organs such as liver, kidneys, and stomach. Hepatic and renal function along with digestion and assimilation continue during aerobic dives to maintain physiological homeostasis. Most ATP production comes from aerobic fat metabolism in carnivorous marine mammals. Glucose is derived mostly from gluconeogenesis and is conserved for tissues such as red blood cells and the central nervous system. Marine mammals minimize the energetic cost of swimming and diving through body streamlining, efficient, lift-based propulsive appendages, and cost-efficient modes of locomotion that reduce drag and take advantage of changes in buoyancy with depth. Most dives are within the animal's aerobic dive limit, which maximizes time underwater and minimizes recovery time at the surface. The result of these adaptations is increased breath

  14. Geminicoccus roseus gen. nov., sp. nov., an aerobic phototrophic Alphaproteobacterium isolated from a marine aquaculture biofilter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foesel, Bärbel U; Gössner, Anita S; Drake, Harold L; Schramm, Andreas

    2007-12-01

    A Gram-negative, strictly aerobic, diplococcoid bacterium (strain D2-3(T)) was isolated from the biofilter of a recirculating marine aquaculture system. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of D2-3(T) indicated that the new organism occupied a novel lineage within the alpha-1 subclass of Proteobacteria and was related to the genera Rhodothalassium, Azospirillum, Craurococcus, Acidiphilium, and Tistrella. The highest sequence similarity (90.8%) of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of D2-3(T) was to that of Candidatus "Alysiosphaera europaea". D2-3(T) was mesophilic, heterotrophic, required sea salt, and had a pH optimum of 8.0. Growth in the presence of light resulted in the formation of pink colonies, a 25% increased cell yield, and a slightly increased growth rate. D2-3(T) contained carotenoids and low amounts of bacteriochlorophyll a. Membranes of D2-3(T) contained b-type cytochromes. The G+C content of the DNA was 60.3+/-0.1mol%. Phylogenetic, morphological, physiological, and biochemical analyses demonstrated that D2-3(T) represented a new aerobic phototrophic genus, for which the name Geminicoccus roseus gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed for the type species (D2-3(T)=DSM 18922(T)=ATCC BAA-1445(T)). PMID:17643894

  15. Isolation and biological characteristics of aerobic marine magnetotactic bacterium YSC-1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Jun; PAN Hongmiao; YUE Haidong; SONG Tao; ZHAO Yong; CHEN Guanjun; Wu Longfei; XIAO Tian

    2006-01-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria have become a hot spot of research in microbiology attracting intensive interest of researchers in multiple disciplinary fields. However, the studies were limited in few fastidious bacteria. The objective of this study aims at isolating new marine magnetic bacteria and better comprehension of magnetotactic bacteria. In this study, an aerobic magnetotactic bacterium YSC-1 was isolated from sediments in the Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass (YSCWM). In TEM, magnetic cells have one or several circular magnetosomes in dimeter of 100nm, and consist of Fe and Co shown on energy dispersive X-ray spectrum. The biological and physiological characteristics of this bacterium were also described. The colour of YSC-1 colony is white in small rod. The gran stain is negative. Results showed that Strain YSC-1 differs from microaerophile magnetotactic bacteria MS-1 and WD-1 in biology.

  16. The effect of widespread early aerobic marine ecosystems on methane cycling and the Great Oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daines, Stuart J.; Lenton, Timothy M.

    2016-01-01

    The balance of evidence suggests that oxygenic photosynthesis had evolved by 3.0-2.7 Ga, several hundred million years prior to the Great Oxidation ≈2.4 Ga. Previous work has shown that if oxygenic photosynthesis spread globally prior to the Great Oxidation, this could have supported widespread aerobic ecosystems in the surface ocean, without oxidising the atmosphere. Here we use a suite of models to explore the implications for carbon cycling and the Great Oxidation. We find that recycling of oxygen and carbon within early aerobic marine ecosystems would have restricted the balanced fluxes of methane and oxygen escaping from the ocean, lowering the atmospheric concentration of methane in the Great Oxidation transition and its aftermath. This in turn would have minimised any bi-stability of atmospheric oxygen, by weakening a stabilising feedback on oxygen from hydrogen escape to space. The result would have been a more reversible and probably episodic rise of oxygen at the Great Oxidation transition, consistent with existing geochemical evidence. The resulting drop in methane levels to ≈10 ppm is consistent with climate cooling at the time but adds to the puzzle of what kept the rest of the Proterozoic warm. A key test of the scenario of abundant methanotrophy in oxygen oases before the Great Oxidation is its predicted effects on the organic carbon isotope (δ13Corg) record. Our open ocean general circulation model predicts δC13org ≈ - 30 to -45‰ consistent with most data from 2.65 to 2.45 Ga. However, values of δC13org ≈ - 50 ‰ require an extreme scenario such as concentrated methanotroph production where shelf-slope upwelling of methane-rich water met oxic shelf water.

  17. Inhibitory Effect of Maillard Reaction Products on Growth of the Aerobic Marine Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Aeropyrum pernix

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Kee Woung; Lee, Sun Bok

    2003-01-01

    It was found that the growth of Aeropyrum pernix was severely inhibited in a medium containing reducing sugars and tryptone due to the formation of Maillard reaction products. The rate of the Maillard browning reaction was markedly enhanced under aerobic conditions, and the addition of Maillard reaction products to the culture medium caused fatal growth inhibition.

  18. GC-MS structural characterization of fatty acids from marine aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rontani, J. F.; Christodoulou, S.; Koblížek, Michal

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 1 (2005), s. 97-108. ISSN 0024-4201 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/05/0307 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic * fatty acids Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.905, year: 2005

  19. Aerobic degradation of highly chlorinated polychlorobiphenyls by a marine bacterium, Pseudomonas CH07

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    De, J.; Ramaiah, N.; Sarkar, A.

    studied in recent years. The genetic organization of biphenyl catabolic genes has been elucidated in various groups of microorganisms, their structures have been analyzed with respect to their evolutionary relationships, and new information on mobile... positions (3 or 5 position). The lack of ortho groups allows the atoms in these congeners to line up in a single plane (referred to as coplanar PCBs), that makes them especially toxic. A combination of anaerobic followed by aerobic biodegradation has been...

  20. Simultaneous heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification by the marine origin bacterium Pseudomonas sp. ADN-42.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Ruofei; Liu, Tianqi; Liu, Guangfei; Zhou, Jiti; Huang, Jianyu; Wang, Aijie

    2015-02-01

    Recent research has highlighted the existence of some bacteria that are capable of performing heterotrophic nitrification and have a phenomenal ability to denitrify their nitrification products under aerobic conditions. A high-salinity-tolerant strain ADN-42 was isolated from Hymeniacidon perleve and found to display high heterotrophic ammonium removal capability. This strain was identified as Pseudomonas sp. via 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Gene cloning and sequencing analysis indicated that the bacterial genome contains N2O reductase function (nosZ) gene. NH3-N removal rate of ADN-42 was very high. And the highest removal rate was 6.52 mg/L · h in the presence of 40 g/L NaCl. Under the condition of pure oxygen (DO >8 mg/L), NH3-N removal efficiency was 56.9 %. Moreover, 38.4 % of oxygen remained in the upper gas space during 72 h without greenhouse gas N2O production. Keeping continuous and low level of dissolved oxygen (DO <3 mg/L) was helpful for better denitrification performance. All these results indicated that the strain has heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification abilities, which guarantee future application in wastewater treatment. PMID:25432342

  1. Marine floating microbial fuel cell involving aerobic biofilm on stainless steel cathodes

    OpenAIRE

    Erable, Benjamin; Lacroix, Rémy; Etcheverry, Luc; Féron, Damien; Délia, Marie-Line; Bergel, Alain

    2013-01-01

    Here is presented a new design of a floating marine MFC in which the inter-electrode space is constant. This design allows the generation of stable current for applications in environments where the water column is large or subject to fluctuations such as tidal effects. The operation of the first prototype was validated by running a continuous test campaign for 6 months. Performance in terms of electricity generation was already equivalent to what is conventionally reported in the literature ...

  2. Development of a predictive model for the growth kinetics of aerobic microbial population on pomegranate marinated chicken breast fillets under isothermal and dynamic temperature conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytou, Anastasia; Panagou, Efstathios Z; Nychas, George-John E

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was the development of a model to describe the growth kinetics of aerobic microbial population of chicken breast fillets marinated in pomegranate juice under isothermal and dynamic temperature conditions. Moreover, the effect of pomegranate juice on the extension of the shelf life of the product was investigated. Samples (10 g) of chicken breast fillets were immersed in marinades containing pomegranate juice for 3 h at 4 °C following storage under aerobic conditions at 4, 10, and 15 °C for 10 days. Total Viable Counts (TVC), Pseudomonas spp and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were enumerated, in parallel with sensory assessment (odor and overall appearance) of marinated and non-marinated samples. The Baranyi model was fitted to the growth data of TVC to calculate the maximum specific growth rate (μmax) that was further modeled as a function of temperature using a square root-type model. The validation of the model was conducted under dynamic temperature conditions based on two fluctuating temperature scenarios with periodic changes from 6 to 13 °C. The shelf life was determined both mathematically and with sensory assessment and its temperature dependence was modeled by an Arrhenius type equation. Results showed that the μmax of TVC of marinated samples was significantly lower compared to control samples regardless temperature, while under dynamic temperature conditions the model satisfactorily predicted the growth of TVC in both control and marinated samples. The shelf-life of marinated samples was significantly extended compared to the control (5 days extension at 4 °C). The calculated activation energies (Ea), 82 and 52 kJ/mol for control and marinated samples, respectively, indicated higher temperature dependence of the shelf life of control samples compared to marinated ones. The present results indicated that pomegranate juice could be used as an alternative ingredient in marinades to prolong the shelf life of chicken. PMID:26742613

  3. Marine floating microbial fuel cell involving aerobic biofilm on stainless steel cathodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erable, B; Lacroix, R; Etcheverry, L; Féron, D; Delia, M L; Bergel, A

    2013-08-01

    Here is presented a new design of a floating marine MFC in which the inter-electrode space is constant. This design allows the generation of stable current for applications in environments where the water column is large or subject to fluctuations such as tidal effects. The operation of the first prototype was validated by running a continuous test campaign for 6months. Performance in terms of electricity generation was already equivalent to what is conventionally reported in the literature with basic benthic MFCs despite the identification of a large internal resistance in the proposed design of the floating system. This high internal resistance is mainly explained by poor positioning of the membrane separating the anode compartment from the open seawater. The future objectives are to achieve more consistent performance and a second-generation prototype is now being developed, mainly incorporating a modification of the separator position and a stainless steel biocathode with a large bioavailable surface. PMID:23759434

  4. The influence of the marine aerobic Pseudomonas strain on the corrosion of 70/30 Cu-Ni alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparative study of the corrosion behavior of the 70/30 Cu-Ni alloy in a nutrient-rich simulated seawater-based nutrient-rich medium in the presence and the absence of a marine aerobic Pseudomonas bacterium was carried out by electrochemical experiments, microscopic methods and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results of Tafel plot measurements showed the noticeable increase in the corrosion rate of the alloy in the presence of the Pseudomonas bacteria as compared to the corresponding control samples. The E1S data demonstrated that the charge transfer resistance, Rct, and the resistance of oxide film, Rf, gradually increased with time in the abiotic medium; whereas, both of them dramatically decreased with time in the biotic medium inoculated with the Pseudomonas, indicative of the acceleration of corrosion rates of the alloy. The bacterial cells preferentially attached themselves to the alloy surface to form patchy or blotchy biofilms, as observed by fluorescent microscopy (FM). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images revealed the occurrence of micro-pitting corrosion underneath the biofilms on the alloy surface after the biofilm removal. XPS studies presented the evolution of the passive film on the alloy surface with time in the presence and the absence of the Pseudomonas bacteria under experimental conditions, and further revealed that the presence of the Pseudomonas cells and its extra-cellular polymers (EPS) on the alloy surface retarded the formation process or impaired the protective nature of the oxide film. Furthermore, XPS results verified the difference in the chelating functional groups between the conditioning layers and the bacterial cells and the EPS in the biofilms, which was believed to connect with the loss of the passivity of the protective oxide film

  5. Evolutionary Divergence of Marine Aerobic Anoxygenic Phototrophic Bacteria as Seen from Diverse Organisations of Their Photosynthesis Gene Clusters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zheng, Q.; Koblížek, Michal; Beatty, J.T.; Jiao, N.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 2013 (2013), s. 359-383. ISSN 0065-2296 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP501/10/0221; GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0110 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria * photosynthesis * genome sequence Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.740, year: 2013

  6. DNA damage in the gill cells of the marine scallop Mizuhopecten yessoensis during anoxic stress and aerobic recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slobodskova, Valentina V.; Zhukovskaya, Avianna F.; Chelomin, Victor P.

    2012-06-01

    Anoxia-induced DNA damage in the gill cells of the marine scallop Mizuhopecten yessoensis was assessed with the alkaline comet assay (single-cell gel electrophoresis). The alkaline comet assay method for detecting DNA strand breaks and alkali labile sites in individual cells. DNA damage was determened in the scallops ( M. yessoensis) gill cells. The scallops were exposed to air for 8 h showing a clear increase in the levels of DNA damage. After the air exposure, M. yessoensis were re-submersed for a period of 12 h, leading values to return to a pre-aerial exposure level. Control animals were kept immersed during the whole period. The resulting data demonstrate that natural influences, such as oxygen depletion (anoxia) in seawater, can be responsible for the induction of DNA damage. If the scallops were re-immersed in oxic conditions, the anoxically induced breaks were repaired. The main mechanisms influencing the integrity of the DNA structure are discussed in this paper.

  7. Laboratory investigation of the microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) resistance of a novel Cu-bearing 2205 duplex stainless steel in the presence of an aerobic marine Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jin; Yang, Chunguang; Xu, Dake; Sun, Da; Nan, Li; Sun, Ziqing; Li, Qi; Gu, Tingyue; Yang, Ke

    2015-01-01

    The microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) resistance of a novel Cu-bearing 2205 duplex stainless steel (2205 Cu-DSS) against an aerobic marine Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm was investigated. The electrochemical test results showed that Rp increased and icorr decreased sharply after long-term immersion in the inoculation medium, suggesting that 2205 Cu-DSS possessed excellent MIC resistance to the P. aeruginosa biofilm. Fluorescence microscope images showed that 2205 Cu-DSS possessed a strong antibacterial ability, and its antibacterial efficiency after one and seven days was 7.75% and 96.92%, respectively. The pit morphology comparison after 14 days between 2205 DSS and 2205 Cu-DSS demonstrated that the latter showed a considerably reduced maximum MIC pit depth compared with the former (1.44 μm vs 9.50 μm). The experimental results suggest that inhibition of the biofilm was caused by the copper ions released from the 2205 Cu-DSS, leading to its effective mitigation of MIC by P. aeruginosa. PMID:26194639

  8. Aerobic exercise (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerobic exercise gets the heart working to pump blood through the heart more quickly and with more force than ... must be oxygenated more quickly, which quickens respiration. Aerobic exercise strengthens the heart and boosts healthy cholesterol ...

  9. Teaching Aerobic Fitness Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Allan N.; Ratliffe, Tom

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how to teach aerobic fitness concepts to elementary students. Some of the K-2 activities include location, size, and purpose of the heart and lungs; the exercise pulse; respiration rate; and activities to measure aerobic endurance. Some of the 3-6 activities include: definition of aerobic endurance; heart disease risk factors;…

  10. Photoacclimation of marine aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Prášil, Ondřej; Koblížek, Michal

    Santa Fe : Springer, 2007, s. 147-147. [ASLO 2007 Aquatic Sciences Meeting. Santa Fe (US), 04.02.2007-09.02.2007] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1QS500200570 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : photoheterotrophic bakteria Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  11. What Is Aerobic Dancing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... after exercising, see a physician. Common Aerobics Injuries Plantar fasciitis (arch pain) -- Arch pain is often caused by ... rearfoot instability, with excessive pronation, may result in plantar fasciitis. Shoes with proper support in the arch often ...

  12. Aerobic Anoxygenic Phototrophic Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Yurkov, Vladimir V.; Beatty, J. Thomas

    1998-01-01

    The aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria are a relatively recently discovered bacterial group. Although taxonomically and phylogenetically heterogeneous, these bacteria share the following distinguishing features: the presence of bacteriochlorophyll a incorporated into reaction center and light-harvesting complexes, low levels of the photosynthetic unit in cells, an abundance of carotenoids, a strong inhibition by light of bacteriochlorophyll synthesis, and the inability to grow photosynt...

  13. Annular purpura and step aerobics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, S J; Humphreys, F; Buxton, P K

    1994-09-01

    Step aerobic classes are at present one of the most popular forms of exercise undertaken by young adults. To date no dermatological abnormalities have been described in people regularly performing step aerobics. We describe a case in which a healthy young woman developed an extensive pigmented purpuric eruption 4 weeks after commencing regular step aerobic classes. The eruption resolved completely 8 weeks after regular exercise was ceased. PMID:7955503

  14. Aerobic landfill bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudgins, Mark P; Bessette, Bernard J; March, John; McComb, Scott T.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention includes a method of decomposing municipal solid waste (MSW) within a landfill by converting the landfill to aerobic degradation in the following manner: (1) injecting air via the landfill leachate collection system (2) injecting air via vertical air injection wells installed within the waste mass; (3) applying leachate to the waste mass using a pressurized drip irrigation system; (4) allowing landfill gases to vent; and (5) adjusting air injection and recirculated leachate to achieve a 40% to 60% moisture level and a temperature between 120.degree. F. and 140.degree. F. in steady state.

  15. Draft Genome Sequences of Gammaproteobacterial Methanotrophs Isolated from Marine Ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, James D; Hirayama, Hisako; Sakai, Yasuyoshi; Dunfield, Peter F; Klotz, Martin G; Knief, Claudia; Op den Camp, Huub J M; Jetten, Mike S M; Khmelenina, Valentina N; Trotsenko, Yuri A; Murrell, J Colin; Semrau, Jeremy D; Svenning, Mette M; Stein, Lisa Y; Kyrpides, Nikos; Shapiro, Nicole; Woyke, Tanja; Bringel, Françoise; Vuilleumier, Stéphane; DiSpirito, Alan A; Kalyuzhnaya, Marina G

    2016-01-01

    The genome sequences of Methylobacter marinus A45, Methylobacter sp. strain BBA5.1, and Methylomarinum vadi IT-4 were obtained. These aerobic methanotrophs are typical members of coastal and hydrothermal vent marine ecosystems. PMID:26798114

  16. Draft Genome Sequences of Gammaproteobacterial Methanotrophs Isolated from Marine Ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Flynn, James D.; Hirayama, Hisako; Sakai, Yasuyoshi; Dunfield, Peter F.; Klotz, Martin G.; Knief, Claudia; Op Den Camp, Huub J M; Jetten, Mike S. M.; Khmelenina, Valentina N; Trotsenko, Yuri A.; Murrell, J. Colin; Semrau, Jeremy D.; Svenning, Mette M.; Stein, Lisa Y.; Kyrpides, Nikos

    2016-01-01

    The genome sequences of Methylobacter marinus A45, Methylobacter sp. strain BBA5.1, and Methylomarinum vadi IT-4 were obtained. These aerobic methanotrophs are typical members of coastal and hydrothermal vent marine ecosystems.

  17. Draft Genome Sequences of Gammaproteobacterial Methanotrophs Isolated from Marine Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, James D.; Hirayama, Hisako; Sakai, Yasuyoshi; Dunfield, Peter F.; Knief, Claudia; Op den Camp, Huub J. M.; Jetten, Mike S. M.; Khmelenina, Valentina N.; Trotsenko, Yuri A.; Murrell, J. Colin; Semrau, Jeremy D.; Svenning, Mette M.; Stein, Lisa Y.; Kyrpides, Nikos; Shapiro, Nicole; Woyke, Tanja; Bringel, Françoise; Vuilleumier, Stéphane; DiSpirito, Alan A.

    2016-01-01

    The genome sequences of Methylobacter marinus A45, Methylobacter sp. strain BBA5.1, and Methylomarinum vadi IT-4 were obtained. These aerobic methanotrophs are typical members of coastal and hydrothermal vent marine ecosystems. PMID:26798114

  18. Brain Plasticity and Aerobic Fitness

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Adam G.; Johansen-Berg, Heidi; Bandettini, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Regular aerobic exercise has a wide range of positive effects on health and cognition. Exercise has been demonstrated to provide a particularly powerful and replicable method of triggering a wide range of structural changes within both human and animal brains. However, the details and mechanisms of these changes remain poorly understood. This thesis undertakes a comprehensive examination of the relationship between brain plasticity and aerobic exercise. A large, longitudinal experiment ...

  19. The photosynthetic apparatus and its regulation in the aerobic gammaproteobacterium Congregibacter litoralis gen. nov., sp. nov.

    OpenAIRE

    Spring, Stefan; Lünsdorf, Heinrich; Fuchs, Bernhard M.; Tindall, Brian J.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is accumulating evidence that in some marine environments aerobic bacteriochlorophyll a-producing bacteria represent a significant part of the microbial population. The interaction of photosynthesis and carbon metabolism in these interesting bacteria is still largely unknown and requires further investigation in order to estimate their contribution to the marine carbon cycle. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we analyzed the structure, composition and regulation of the p...

  20. Low-cost step aerobics system with virtual aerobics trainer

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa, Alejandro; Barbancho, Isabel; Tardón, Lorenzo J.; Barbancho, Ana M.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper a low-cost step-aerobics instructor simulation system is presented. The proposed system analyses a given song to iden- tify its rhythmic pattern. Subsequently, this rhythmic pattern is used in order to issue a set of steps-aerobics commands to the user, thus simu- lating a training session. The system uses a Wii Balance Board to track exercises performed by users and runs on an Android smartphone. A set of tests were conducted to assess user experience and opin...

  1. Method for quantification of aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yao; JIAO Nianzhi

    2004-01-01

    Accurate quantification of aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria (AAPB) is of crucial importance for estimation of the role of AAPB in the carbon cycling in marine ecosystems. The normally used method "epifiuorescence microscope-infrared photography (EFM-IRP)"is, however, subject to positive errors introduced by mistaking cyanobacteria as AAPB due to the visibility of cyanobacteria under infrared photographic conditions for AAPB. This error could be up to 30% in the coast of the East China Sea. Such bias should be avoided by either subtracting cyanobacteira from the total infrared counts or using a fiowcytometer equipped with specific detectors for discrimination between cyanobacteria and AAPB.

  2. Aerobic exercise in pulmonary rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Brasileiro de Vasconcelos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to conduct a literature review on the usefulness of aerobic exercise in pulmonary rehabilitation. This is an exploratory study of literature through the electronic databases Medline, Lilacs, Scielo, Pubmed and Google Scholar, published between 1996 and 2012, conducted during the period February to May 2012 with the following keywords: COPD, pulmonary rehabilitation, aerobic exercises, physical training, quality of life. The change in pulmonary function and dysfunction of skeletal muscles that result in exercise intolerance and reduced fitness and may cause social isolation, depression, anxiety and addiction. The training exercise is the most important component of the program of pulmonary rehabilitation where the aerobic training provides consistent results in clinical improvement in levels of exercise tolerance and decreased dyspnea generating more benefits to the body, reducing the chance of cardiovascular disease and improves quality and expectation of life. We demonstrated that the use of aerobic exercise in pulmonary rehabilitation program, allows an improvement of motor skills, decreased muscle fatigue and deconditioning, reducing sedentary lifestyle; however, has little or no effect on the reduction of strength and atrophy muscle.

  3. 一株海水异养硝化-好氧反硝化菌系统发育及脱氮特性%Phylogenetic analysis and nitrogen removal characteristics of a heterotrophic nitrifying-aerobic denitrifying bacteria strain from marine environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙雪梅; 李秋芬; 张艳; 刘淮德; 赵俊; 曲克明

    2012-01-01

    [目的] 确定一株分离自海水的异养硝化-好氧反硝化菌的系统发育地位并探索其脱氮特性和机理,以期为解释异养硝化-好氧反硝化机理以及改进海水养殖及废水的生物脱氮工艺提供理论依据.[方法] 通过形态观察、生理生化实验和16S rRNA基因序列分析,鉴定该菌株;通过测定菌株在不同无机氮源降解测试液中的生长和脱氮效率,分析其异养硝化和好氧反硝化性能.[结果] 经鉴定该菌株属于盐单胞菌属(Halomonas);最适生长条件为盐度3%、pH 8.5、温度28℃、碳氮比10∶1,在盐度为15%的培养液中仍能生长;可以同时去除氨氮、亚硝酸氮和硝酸氮,24h时对NH4+ -N、NO2- -N、和NO3- -N的去除率可分别达到98.29%、99.07%、96.48%,3种形态无机氮同时存在时,会优先利用NH4-N,且总无机氮去除率较单一存在时更高,说明该菌株可实现同步硝化反硝化.[结论] 该分离自海水的异养硝化-好氧反硝化菌属于盐单胞菌属(Halomonas),在高盐环境中仍能生长,同时具有高效的异养硝化和好氧反硝化能力,能够独立完成脱氮的全部过程.%[Objective] We determined the phylogenetic position of a heterotrophic nitrifying-aerobic denitrifying bacterium X3, and detected its nitrogen removal characteristics for providing evidence to explain the principle of heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification and to improve the process in purification of marine-culture wastewater. [Methods] The evolutionary position of the strain was determined based on its morphological, physiological,biochemical characteristics and 16SrRNA gene sequence. The nitrification-denitrification ability of this strain was detected by detecting its nitrogen removal efficiency and growth on different inorganic nitrogen source. [Results] Strain X3 was identified as Halomonas sp. It grew optimally at salinity 3% , pH 8. 5, C:N 10:1 at 28℃ , and it could still survive at 15

  4. The Andersen aerobic fitness test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aadland, Eivind; Terum, Torkil; Mamen, Asgeir;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High aerobic fitness is consistently associated with a favorable metabolic risk profile in children. Direct measurement of peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) is often not feasible, thus indirect tests such as the Andersen test are required in many settings. The present study seeks to...... agreement) were 26.7±125.2 m for test 2 vs. test 1 (p<.001 for mean difference) and 3.9±88.8 m for test 3 vs. test 2 (p = .514 for mean difference). The equation to estimate VO2peak suggested by Andersen et al. (2008) showed a poor fit in the present sample; thus, we suggest a new equation: VO2peak = 23....... Researchers should be aware of the amount of noise in indirect tests that estimate aerobic fitness....

  5. Aerobic microbial enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torsvik, T. [Univ. of Bergen (Norway); Gilje, E.; Sunde, E.

    1995-12-31

    In aerobic MEOR, the ability of oil-degrading bacteria to mobilize oil is used to increase oil recovery. In this process, oxygen and mineral nutrients are injected into the oil reservoir in order to stimulate growth of aerobic oil-degrading bacteria in the reservoir. Experiments carried out in a model sandstone with stock tank oil and bacteria isolated from offshore wells showed that residual oil saturation was lowered from 27% to 3%. The process was time dependent, not pore volume dependent. During MEOR flooding, the relative permeability of water was lowered. Oxygen and active bacteria were needed for the process to take place. Maximum efficiency was reached at low oxygen concentrations, approximately 1 mg O{sub 2}/liter.

  6. Biological synthesis of fluorescent nanoparticles by cadmium and tellurite resistant Antarctic bacteria: exploring novel natural nanofactories

    OpenAIRE

    Plaza, D. O.; Gallardo, C.; Straub, Y. D.; Bravo, D.; Pérez-Donoso, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Fluorescent nanoparticles or quantum dots (QDs) have been intensely studied for basic and applied research due to their unique size-dependent properties. There is an increasing interest in developing ecofriendly methods to synthesize these nanoparticles since they improve biocompatibility and avoid the generation of toxic byproducts. The use of biological systems, particularly prokaryotes, has emerged as a promising alternative. Recent studies indicate that QDs biosynthesis is rela...

  7. Methods to determine aerobic endurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosquet, Laurent; Léger, Luc; Legros, Patrick

    2002-01-01

    Physiological testing of elite athletes requires the correct identification and assessment of sports-specific underlying factors. It is now recognised that performance in long-distance events is determined by maximal oxygen uptake (V(2 max)), energy cost of exercise and the maximal fractional utilisation of V(2 max) in any realised performance or as a corollary a set percentage of V(2 max) that could be endured as long as possible. This later ability is defined as endurance, and more precisely aerobic endurance, since V(2 max) sets the upper limit of aerobic pathway. It should be distinguished from endurance ability or endurance performance, which are synonymous with performance in long-distance events. The present review examines methods available in the literature to assess aerobic endurance. They are numerous and can be classified into two categories, namely direct and indirect methods. Direct methods bring together all indices that allow either a complete or a partial representation of the power-duration relationship, while indirect methods revolve around the determination of the so-called anaerobic threshold (AT). With regard to direct methods, performance in a series of tests provides a more complete and presumably more valid description of the power-duration relationship than performance in a single test, even if both approaches are well correlated with each other. However, the question remains open to determine which systems model should be employed among the several available in the literature, and how to use them in the prescription of training intensities. As for indirect methods, there is quantitative accumulation of data supporting the utilisation of the AT to assess aerobic endurance and to prescribe training intensities. However, it appears that: there is no unique intensity corresponding to the AT, since criteria available in the literature provide inconsistent results; and the non-invasive determination of the AT using ventilatory and heart rate

  8. Aerobic granular processes: Current research trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Quanguo; Hu, Jianjun; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2016-06-01

    Aerobic granules are large biological aggregates with compact interiors that can be used in efficient wastewater treatment. This mini-review presents new researches on the development of aerobic granular processes, extended treatments for complicated pollutants, granulation mechanisms and enhancements of granule stability in long-term operation or storage, and the reuse of waste biomass as renewable resources. A discussion on the challenges of, and prospects for, the commercialization of aerobic granular process is provided. PMID:26873285

  9. Water quality parameters and total aerobic bacterial and vibrionaceae loads in eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) from oyster gardening sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyster gardening is a practice designed to restore habitat for marine life and to improve water quality. This study determined physical and chemical water quality parameters at two oyster gardening sites in the Delaware Inland Bays and compared them with total aerobic bacteria and Vibrionaceae conc...

  10. Planktonic and sediment-associated aerobic methanotrophs in two seep systems along the North American margin

    OpenAIRE

    Tavormina, Patricia L; Ussler, William; Orphan, Victoria J

    2008-01-01

    Methane vents are of significant geochemical and ecological importance. Notable progress has been made towards understanding anaerobic methane oxidation in marine sediments, however, the diversity and distribution of aerobic methanotrophs in the water column are poorly characterized. Both environments play an essential role in regulating methane release from the oceans to the atmosphere. In this study, the diversity of particulate methane monooxygenase (pmoA) and 16S rRNA genes from two metha...

  11. Temporal Changes and Altitudinal Distribution of Aerobic Anoxygenic Phototrophs in Mountain Lakes

    OpenAIRE

    Čuperová, Zuzana; Holzer, Evelyn; Salka, Ivette; SOMMARUGA, RUBEN; Koblížek, Michal

    2013-01-01

    Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs (AAPs) are bacteriochlorophyll a-containing microorganisms that use organic substrates for growth but can supplement their energy requirements with light. They have been reported from various marine and limnic environments; however, their ecology remains largely unknown. Here infrared epifluorescence microscopy was used to monitor temporal changes in AAPs in the alpine lake Gossenköllesee, located in the Tyrolean Alps, Austria. AAP abundance was low (103 cells m...

  12. Aerobic rice mechanization: techniques for crop establishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khusairy, K. M.; Ayob, H.; Chan, C. S.; Fauzi, M. I. Mohamed; Mohamad Fakhrul, Z. O.; Shahril Shah, G. S. M.; Azlan, O.; Rasad, M. A.; Hashim, A. M.; Arshad, Z.; E, E. Ibrahim; Saifulizan, M. N.

    2015-12-01

    Rice being the staple food crops, hundreds of land races in it makes the diversity of rice crops. Aerobic rice production was introduced which requires much less water input to safeguard and sustain the rice production and conserve water due to decreasing water resources, climatic changes and competition from urban and industrial users. Mechanization system plays an important role for the success of aerobic rice cultivation. All farming activities for aerobic rice production are run on aerobic soil conditions. Row seeder mechanization system is developed to replace conventional seeding technique on the aerobic rice field. It is targeted for small and the large scale aerobic rice farmers. The aero - seeder machine is used for the small scale aerobic rice field, while the accord - seeder is used for the large scale aerobic rice field. The use of this mechanization machine can eliminate the tedious and inaccurate seeding operations reduce labour costs and increases work rate. The machine is easy to operate and it can increase crop establishment rate. It reduce missing hill, increasing planting and crop with high yield can be produce. This machine is designed for low costs maintenance and it is easy to dismantle and assemble during maintenance and it is safe to be used.

  13. Aerobic Dancing--A Rhythmic Sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Jacki

    Fitness programs now and in the future must offer built-in cardiovascular conditioning, variety, novelty, and change to meet the physical, mental, and emotional needs of our society. Aerobic dancing (dancing designed to train and strengthen the heart, lungs, and vascular system) is one of the first indoor group Aerobic exercise programs designed…

  14. Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy after Aerobic Exercise Training

    OpenAIRE

    Konopka, Adam R.; Harber, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    Current dogma suggests aerobic exercise training has minimal effect on skeletal muscle size. We and others have demonstrated that aerobic exercise acutely and chronically alters protein metabolism and induces skeletal muscle hypertrophy. These findings promote an antithesis to the status quo by providing novel perspective on skeletal muscle mass regulation and insight into exercise-countermeasures for populations prone to muscle loss.

  15. Aerobic growth at nanomolar oxygen concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolper, Daniel; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Canfield, Donald Eugene

    2010-01-01

    Escherichia coli K-12, chosen for its well-understood biochemistry, rapid growth rate, and low-oxygen-affinity terminal oxidase, grows at oxygen levels of ≤ 3 nM, two to three orders of magnitude lower than previously observed for aerobes. Our study expands both the environmental range and temporal history of...... aerobic organisms....

  16. Fit women are not able to use the whole aerobic capacity during aerobic dance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edvardsen, Elisabeth; Ingjer, Frank; Bø, Kari

    2011-12-01

    Edvardsen, E, Ingjer, F, and Bø, K. Fit women are not able to use the whole aerobic capacity during aerobic dance. J Strength Cond Res 25(12): 3479-3485, 2011-This study compared the aerobic capacity during maximal aerobic dance and treadmill running in fit women. Thirteen well-trained female aerobic dance instructors aged 30 ± 8.17 years (mean ± SD) exercised to exhaustion by running on a treadmill for measurement of maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2)max) and peak heart rate (HRpeak). Additionally, all subjects performed aerobic dancing until exhaustion after a choreographed videotaped routine trying to reach the same HRpeak as during maximal running. The p value for statistical significance between running and aerobic dance was set to ≤0.05. The results (mean ± SD) showed a lower VO(2)max in aerobic dance (52.2 ± 4.02 ml·kg·min) compared with treadmill running (55.9 ± 5.03 ml·kg·min) (p = 0.0003). Further, the mean ± SD HRpeak was 182 ± 9.15 b·min in aerobic dance and 192 ± 9.62 b·min in treadmill running, giving no difference in oxygen pulse between the 2 exercise forms (p = 0.32). There was no difference in peak ventilation (aerobic dance: 108 ± 10.81 L·min vs. running: 113 ± 11.49 L·min). In conclusion, aerobic dance does not seem to be able to use the whole aerobic capacity as in running. For well endurance-trained women, this may result in a lower total workload at maximal intensities. Aerobic dance may therefore not be as suitable as running during maximal intensities in well-trained females. PMID:22080322

  17. Low aerobic fitness in Brazilian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Augusto Santos Silva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: aerobic fitness is considered one of the most important components of health-related physical fitness, with low levels related to increased risk of premature death from all causes, especially cardiovascular diseases. OBJECTIVE: to identify the characteristics of adolescents at higher risk of low levels of aerobic fitness. METHODS: the study included 696 adolescents 15-17 years of age enrolled in public high schools of Florianópolis, southern Brazil. This cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Aerobic fitness was measured using the modified Canadian Aerobic Fitness Test mCAFT. Sociodemographic gender, age, school grade, paternal and maternal schooling, socioeconomic status, and anthropometric variables body weight, height, triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness, sexual maturation, physical activity, sedentary behavior, and eating habits were collected. RESULTS: it was found that 31.5% of adolescents had low aerobic fitness levels, being higher in boys 49.2% compared to girls 20.6%. Moreover, girls with sedentary behavior, overweight and high body fat percentage were the groups most likely to have inadequate aerobic fitness. In males, the groups most likely to have inadequate aerobic fitness were those whose parents studied more than eight years, those with low levels of physical activity, and those with inadequate nutrition and excessive body fat. CONCLUSION: low aerobic fitness levels were present in one third of adolescents and was more prevalent in boys. Lifestyle changes, including replacement of sedentary behaviors by physical and sport activities , may assist in improving the aerobic fitness of Brazilian adolescents.

  18. Marine biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book discusses both taxonomic and ecological topics on marine biology. Full coverage of marine organisms of all five kingdoms is provided, along with interesting and thorough discussion of all major marine habitats. Organization into six major parts allows flexibility. It also provides insight into important topics such as disposal of nuclear waste at sea, the idea that life began on the ocean floor, and how whales, krill, and people interact. A full-color photo chapter reviews questions, and exercises. The contents are: an overview marine biology: fundamental concepts/investigating life in the ocean; the physical ocean, the ocean floor, the nature of water, the nature and motion of ocean water; general ecology, conditions for life in the sea, biological productivity and energy transfer; marine organisms; monera, protista, mycota and metaphyta; the smaller marine animals, the large animals marine habitats, the intertidal zone/benthos of the continental shelf, the photic zone, the deep ocean, the ocean under stress, marine pollution, appendix a: the metric system and conversion factors/ appendix b: prefixes and suffixes/ appendix c: taxonomic classification of common marine organisms, and glossary, and index

  19. Marine biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurman, H.V.; Webber, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses both taxonomic and ecological topics on marine biology. Full coverage of marine organisms of all five kingdoms is provided, along with interesting and thorough discussion of all major marine habitats. Organization into six major parts allows flexibility. It also provides insight into important topics such as disposal of nuclear waste at sea, the idea that life began on the ocean floor, and how whales, krill, and people interact. A full-color photo chapter reviews questions, and exercises. The contents are: an overview marine biology: fundamental concepts/investigating life in the ocean; the physical ocean, the ocean floor, the nature of water, the nature and motion of ocean water; general ecology, conditions for life in the sea, biological productivity and energy transfer; marine organisms; monera, protista, mycota and metaphyta; the smaller marine animals, the large animals marine habitats, the intertidal zone/benthos of the continental shelf, the photic zone, the deep ocean, the ocean under stress, marine pollution, appendix a: the metric system and conversion factors/ appendix b: prefixes and suffixes/ appendix c: taxonomic classification of common marine organisms, and glossary, and index.

  20. How "healthful" are aerobics classes? Exploring the health and wellness messages in aerobics classes for women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Abundo, Michelle Lee

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the health messages communicated by aerobics instructors in aerobics classes for women. A theoretical framework influenced by adult learning theory and feminist pedagogy was used in this qualitative study. Over a 3-month period, the practices of five aerobics instructors working at one nonprofit fitness center and one wellness facility were explored. The methods of data collection were one interview with each aerobics instructor and 14 site visits to conduct participant observations and to retrieve of documents. Despite the nonprofit and wellness-based environment of the exercise facilities in this research, there was still an overemphasis on the physical aspect of aerobics classes. Therefore, the potential wellness-related benefits of aerobics classes for women, especially in environments that identified themselves as promoting wellness, were not fully realized. PMID:17148107

  1. Neuromodulation of Aerobic Exercise—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia eHeijnen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Running, and aerobic exercise in general, is a physical activity that increasingly many people engage in but that also has become popular as a topic for scientific research. Here we review the available studies investigating whether and to which degree aerobic exercise modulates hormones, amino acids, and neurotransmitters levels. In general, it seems that factors such as genes, gender, training status, and hormonal status need to be taken into account to gain a better understanding of the neuromodular underpinnings of aerobic exercise. More research using longitudinal studies and considering individual differences is necessary to determine actual benefits. We suggest that, in order to succeed, aerobic exercise programs should include optimal periodization, prevent overtraining and be tailored to interindividual differences, including neuro-developmental and genetically-based factors.

  2. Physiological responses during aerobic dance of individuals grouped by aerobic capacity and dance experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, D; Ballor, D L

    1991-03-01

    This study examined the effects of aerobic capacity (peak oxygen uptake) and aerobic dance experience on the physiological responses to an aerobic dance routine. The heart rate (HR) and VO2 responses to three levels (intensities) of aerobic dance were measured in 27 women. Experienced aerobic dancers (AD) (mean peak VO2 = 42 ml.kg-1.min-1) were compared to subjects with limited aerobic dance experience of high (HI) (peak VO2 greater than 35 ml.kg-1.min-1) and low (LO) (peak VO2 less than 35 ml.kg-1.min-1) aerobic capacities. The results indicated the LO group exercised at a higher percentage of peak heart rate and peak VO2 at all three dance levels than did either the HI or AD groups (HI = AD). Design of aerobic dance routines must consider the exercise tolerance of the intended audience. In mixed groups, individuals with low aerobic capacities should be shown how and encouraged to modify the activity to reduce the level of exertion. PMID:2028095

  3. Marine Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewees, Christopher M.; Hooper, Jon K.

    1976-01-01

    A variety of informational material for a course in marine biology or oceanology at the secondary level is presented. Among the topics discussed are: food webs and pyramids, planktonic blooms, marine life, plankton nets, food chains, phytoplankton, zooplankton, larval plankton and filter feeders. (BT)

  4. Anaerobic Metabolism: Linkages to Trace Gases and Aerobic Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megonigal, J. P.; Hines, M. E.; Visscher, P. T.

    2003-12-01

    Life evolved and flourished in the absence of molecular oxygen (O2). As the O2 content of the atmosphere rose to the present level of 21% beginning about two billion years ago, anaerobic metabolism was gradually supplanted by aerobic metabolism. Anaerobic environments have persisted on Earth despite the transformation to an oxidized state because of the combined influence of water and organic matter. Molecular oxygen diffuses about 104 times more slowly through water than air, and organic matter supports a large biotic O2 demand that consumes the supply faster than it is replaced by diffusion. Such conditions exist in wetlands, rivers, estuaries, coastal marine sediments, aquifers, anoxic water columns, sewage digesters, landfills, the intestinal tracts of animals, and the rumen of herbivores. Anaerobic microsites are also embedded in oxic environments such as upland soils and marine water columns. Appreciable rates of aerobic respiration are restricted to areas that are in direct contact with air or those inhabited by organisms that produce O2.Rising atmospheric O2 reduced the global area of anaerobic habitat, but enhanced the overall rate of anaerobic metabolism (at least on an area basis) by increasing the supply of electron donors and acceptors. Organic carbon production increased dramatically, as did oxidized forms of nitrogen, manganese, iron, sulfur, and many other elements. In contemporary anaerobic ecosystems, nearly all of the reducing power is derived from photosynthesis, and most of it eventually returns to O2, the most electronegative electron acceptor that is abundant. This photosynthetically driven redox gradient has been thoroughly exploited by aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms for metabolism. The same is true of hydrothermal vents (Tunnicliffe, 1992) and some deep subsurface environments ( Chapelle et al., 2002), where thermal energy is the ultimate source of the reducing power.Although anaerobic habitats are currently a small fraction of Earth

  5. Temperature effect on aerobic denitrification and nitrification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Shu-guang; ZHANG Xiao-jian; WANG Zhan-sheng

    2003-01-01

    Nitrogen loss without organic removal in biofilter was observed and its possible reason was explained. A lower hydraulic loading could improve aerobic denitrification rate. Aerobic denitrification was seriously affected by low temperature(below 10oC). However, nitrification rate remained high when the temperature dropped from 15oC to5oC. It seemed the autotrophic biofilm in BAF could alleviate the adverse effect of low temperature.

  6. Collection of "strengthening sets" of aerobics lesson.\\\\

    OpenAIRE

    CAKL, Vojtěch

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this bachelor study was to create a strengthening sets for aerobic lessons including showing these possisions in practice on selective aerobic lessons . Based on special literature the author had chosen suitable muscle development exercises to increase the body strenth. These exercises were there practised for six weeks continuously. Before and after the research were selected individuals who were compared by 4 exact same tests to detect static and dynamic body strength. The result...

  7. Evaluation of A "Floating" Aerobics Floor

    OpenAIRE

    Favor, Craig M.

    1997-01-01

    Aerobics dance floors often produce annoying floor vibrations in adjacent parts of a building due to the rhythmic impact of the aerobicists. Various types of shock absorbing aerobics and dance floors are widely used to prevent injuries to the participants, but the floors may not prevent vibrations in adjacent areas of the building. The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate a temporary "floating" concrete a...

  8. Marine aerosols

    OpenAIRE

    Saltzman, Es

    2009-01-01

    The aerosol over the world oceans plays an important role in determining the physical and chemical characteristics of the Earth's atmosphere and its interactions with the climate system. The oceans contribute to the aerosols in the overlying atmosphere by the production and emission of aerosol particles and precursor gases. The marine aerosol, in turn, influences the biogeochemistry of the surface ocean through long distance transport and deposition of terrestrial and marine-derived nutrients...

  9. [Anaerobic-aerobic infection in acute appendicitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamchich, V I; Ulitovskiĭ, I V; Savich, E I; Znamenskiĭ, V A; Beliaeva, O A

    1998-01-01

    362 patients with acute appendicitis (AA) were examined. For microbiological diagnosis of aerobic and anaerobic nonclostridial microflora we used complex accelerated methods (including evaluation of gram-negative microorganisms in comparison with tinctorial-fermentative method of differential staining according to oxygen sensitivity of catalasopositive together with aerobic and cathalasonegative anaerobic microorganisms) as well as complete bacteriologic examination with determination of sensitivity of the above microorganism to antimicrobial remedies. High rate of aerobic-anaerobic microbial associations and substantial identity of microflora from appendicis and exudate from abdominal cavity was revealed, which evidenced the leading role of endogenous microorganisms in etiology and pathogenesis of AA and peritonitis i. e. autoinfection. In patients with destructive forms of AA, complicated by peritonitis it is recommended to use the accelerated method of examination of pathologic material as well as the complete scheme of examination with the identification of the isolated microorganisms and the correction of antibiotic treatment. PMID:9511291

  10. Mechanism of Kenaf Retting Using Aerobes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢士森; 陈季华; 黄秀宝

    2001-01-01

    The experimental results showed that the duration of microbial retting processing of kenaf fibers by using aerobic microbe was four times shorter than that by using anaerobic microbe. The residual gum percentage,breaking strength, breaking elongation and linear density of aerobic retted kenaf bundle fibers did not show significantly difference with that of anaerobic retted kenaf bundle fibers by ANOVA-Tukey's studentized test at a = 5% except for the softness. The bioenergetic principle and the calculation of the amount of ATP produced during the decomposition processing of kenaf gums were used to explain why the retting duration in the case of using aerobic microbes was much shorter than that of using anaerobic microbes.

  11. Diverse arrangement of photosynthetic gene clusters in aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Zheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Aerobic anoxygenic photototrophic (AAP bacteria represent an important group of marine microorganisms inhabiting the euphotic zone of the ocean. They harvest light using bacteriochlorophyll (BChl a and are thought to be important players in carbon cycling in the ocean. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic (AAP bacteria represent an important part of marine microbial communities. Their photosynthetic apparatus is encoded by a number of genes organized in a so-called photosynthetic gene cluster (PGC. In this study, the organization of PGCs was analyzed in ten AAP species belonging to the orders Rhodobacterales, Sphingomonadales and the NOR5/OM60 clade. Sphingomonadales contained comparatively smaller PGCs with an approximately size of 39 kb whereas the average size of PGCs in Rhodobacterales and NOR5/OM60 clade was about 45 kb. The distribution of four arrangements, based on the permutation and combination of the two conserved regions bchFNBHLM-LhaA-puhABC and crtF-bchCXYZ, does not correspond to the phylogenetic affiliation of individual AAP bacterial species. While PGCs of all analyzed species contained the same set of genes for bacteriochlorophyll synthesis and assembly of photosynthetic centers, they differed largely in the carotenoid biosynthetic genes. Spheroidenone, spirilloxanthin, and zeaxanthin biosynthetic pathways were found in each clade respectively. All of the carotenoid biosynthetic genes were found in the PGCs of Rhodobacterales, however Sphingomonadales and NOR5/OM60 strains contained some of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway genes outside of the PGC. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our investigations shed light on the evolution and functional implications in PGCs of marine aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs, and support the notion that AAP are a heterogenous physiological group phylogenetically scattered among Proteobacteria.

  12. ANAEROBIC AND AEROBIC TREATMENT OF CHLORINATED ALIPHATIC COMPOUNDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological degradation of 12 chlorinated aliphatic compounds (CACs) was assessed in bench-top reactors and in serum bottle tests. Three continuously mixed daily batch-fed reactor systems were evaluated: anaerobic, aerobic, and sequential-anaerobic-aerobic (sequential). Glucose,...

  13. THE RATE AND NATURE OF WOMEN INJURIES IN STEP AEROBICS

    OpenAIRE

    Gholam Ali Ghasemi; Vahid Zolaktaf; Fereshteh Kazemi

    2011-01-01

    Step aerobics is a form of aerobic exercise that utilizes a 90×45×20 centimeter platform. ItsInternational competitions are held annually. This sport is popular in Iranian specialist femalesport clubs and its national competitions are growing gradually. The purpose of this survey wasto determine the rate and nature of sport injury in Iranian athletes of step aerobics. Weadministered a structured interview using a modified version of standard questionnaire of"Aerobics Pathology". The populatio...

  14. Glycogen metabolism in aerobic mixed cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dircks, Klaus; Beun, J.J.; van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.;

    2001-01-01

    In this study, the metabolism of glycogen storage and consumption in mixed cultures under aerobic conditions is described. The experimental results are used to calibrate a metabolic model, which as sole stoichiometric variables has the efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation (delta) and maintenan...

  15. Anaerobic and aerobic transformation of TNT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulpa, C.F. [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Boopathy, R.; Manning, J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Research Div.

    1996-12-31

    Most studies on the microbial metabolism of nitroaromatic compounds have used pure cultures of aerobic microorganisms. In many cases, attempts to degrade nitroaromatics under aerobic conditions by pure cultures result in no mineralization and only superficial modifications of the structure. However, mixed culture systems properly operated result in the transformation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and in some cases mineralization of TNT occurs. In this paper, the mixed culture system is described with emphasis on intermediates and the characteristics of the aerobic microbial process including the necessity for a co-substrate. The possibility of removing TNT under aerobic/anoxic conditions is described in detail. Another option for the biodegradation of TNT and nitroaromatics is under anaerobic, sulfate reducing conditions. In this instance, the nitroaromatic compounds undergo a series of reductions with the formation of amino compounds. TNT under sulfate reducing conditions is reduced to triaminotoluene presumably by the enzyme nitrite reductase, which is commonly found in many Desulfovibrio spp. The removal of nitro groups from TNT is achieved by a series of reductive reactions with the formation of ammonia and toluene by Desulfovibrio sp. (B strain). These metabolic processes could be applied to other nitroaromatic compounds like nitrobenzene, nitrobenzoic acids, nitrophenols, and aniline. The data supporting the anaerobic transformation of TNT under different growth condition are reviewed in this report.

  16. EFFECTS OF AQUA AEROBICS AND FLOOR AEROBICS ON BREATH HOLDING TIME AMONG SCHOOL GIRLS

    OpenAIRE

    P.V. Shelvam; S. Arunadevi

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to find out the effects of aqua aerobics and floor aerobics on breath holding time among school girls. To achieve this purpose of the study, ninety school girls were selected as subjects who were studied Cornation Higher Secondary School, Sivakasi. The selected subjects were aged between 15 to 17 years. The selected subjects were randomly divided into three groups of 30 subjects each group. Group one acted as experimental group I and group two acted as experimenta...

  17. Marine localities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaar Hummelinck, P.

    1977-01-01

    Some twenty-five years have passed since short descriptions were published of marine and saltpond habitats sampled in the Caribbean during three zoological collecting trips made by the author in 1930, 1936/37 and 1948/49 (these Studies, vol. 4, no. 17, 1953). Sampling of the shallow coastal waters o

  18. AEROBIC AND STRENGTH TRAINING RESPONSES IN THE VO2max

    OpenAIRE

    Pilar Sánchez Collado; Cíntia Campolina Duarte Rocha; Sandro Fernandes da Silva; José Antonio De Paz

    2007-01-01

    The strength training of produces improvements in the skeletal muscle as to the muscular hypertrophy, already the aerobic training produces an increase in him I number and in the size of the mitochondria. The objective was verifying the answers of the aerobic training and of force in the aerobic variables. The study was composed of 3 groups. The Aerobic Group (G1) that performed 6 weeks of training of aerobic, the Strength Group (G2) that did a program of 6 strength training weeks and the Gro...

  19. Marine indikatorer

    OpenAIRE

    van der Meeren, Gro; Øigård, Tor Arne; Øien, Nils; Nilssen, Kjell Tormod; Oug, Eivind; Sunnanå, Knut; JAKOBSEN Tore; Mehl, Sigbjørn; Kvamme, Cecilie; Torstensen, Else; Stenevik, Erling Kåre; Planque, Benjamin; Helle, Gunnar; Gjøsæter, Jakob; Skiftesvik, Anne Berit

    2010-01-01

    The Nature Index (NI) is established to get an overview of the state and development of biodiversity within the major ecosystems of Norway. It includes marine, limnic and terrestrial ecosystems. The aim of the index is to measure if Norway manage to halt the loss of biodiversity by the end of 2010. A number of indicators are chosen to represent the state of biodiversity. 125 scientists from various disciplines of research have contributed with data, expert judgements or modeled data for 31...

  20. Biology of Moderately Halophilic Aerobic Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Nieto Gutiérrez, Joaquín José; Ventosa Ucero, Antonio; Oren, Aharon

    1998-01-01

    The moderately halophilic heterotrophic aerobic bacteria form a diverse group of microorganisms. The property of halophilism is widespread within the bacterial domain. Bacterial halophiles are abundant in environments such as salt lakes, saline soils, and salted food products. Most species keep their intracellular ionic concentrations at low levels while synthesizing or accumulating organic solutes to provide osmotic equilibrium of the cytoplasm with the surrounding medium. Complex mechanisms...

  1. Acute effects of aerobic exercise promote learning

    OpenAIRE

    Renza Perini; Marta Bortoletto; Michela Capogrosso; Anna Fertonani; Carlo Miniussi

    2016-01-01

    The benefits that physical exercise confers on cardiovascular health are well known, whereas the notion that physical exercise can also improve cognitive performance has only recently begun to be explored and has thus far yielded only controversial results. In the present study, we used a sample of young male subjects to test the effects that a single bout of aerobic exercise has on learning. Two tasks were run: the first was an orientation discrimination task involving the primary visual cor...

  2. Experimental evidence for aerobic bio-denitrification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Nitrate pollution of groundwater is paid more and more attention for its hazardous to environments and human health. A strain of DN11 was isolated from soil and used in the laboratory columns filled with various media for nitrate removal. The experimental results showed that DN11could reduce nitrate at different rates in different media under the aerobic condition. The mechanism for nitrate removal with DN11 is explained meanwhile.

  3. Nitrification and aerobic denitrification in anoxic-aerobic sequencing batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzate Marin, Juan C; Caravelli, Alejandro H; Zaritzky, Noemí E

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of achieving nitrogen (N) removal using a lab-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) exposed to anoxic/aerobic (AN/OX) phases, focusing to achieve aerobic denitrification. This process will minimize emissions of N2O greenhouse gas. The effects of different operating parameters on the reactor performance were studied: cycle duration, AN/OX ratio, pH, dissolved oxygen concentration (DOC), and organic load. The highest inorganic N removal (NiR), close to 70%, was obtained at pH=7.5, low organic load (440mgCOD/(Lday)) and high aeration given by 12h cycle, AN/OX ratio=0.5:1.0 and DOC higher than 4.0mgO2/L. Nitrification followed by high-rate aerobic denitrification took place during the aerobic phase. Aerobic denitrification could be attributed to Tetrad-forming organisms (TFOs) with phenotype of glycogen accumulating organisms using polyhydroxyalkanoate and/or glycogen storage. The proposed AN/OX system constitutes an eco-friendly N removal process providing N2 as the end product. PMID:26512862

  4. Marine microbial fuel cell : use of stainless steel electrodes as anode and cathode materials

    OpenAIRE

    Dumas, Claire; Mollica, Alfonso; Féron, Damien; Basséguy, Régine; Etcheverry, Luc; Bergel, Alain

    2007-01-01

    Numerous biocorrosion studies have stated that biofilms formed in aerobic seawater induce an efficient catalysis of the oxygen reduction on stainless steels. This property was implemented here for the first time in a marine microbial fuel cell (MFC). A prototype was designed with a stainless steel anode embedded in marine sediments coupled to a stainless steel cathode in the overlying seawater. Recording current/potential curves during the progress of the experiment confirmed that the cath...

  5. Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion of 2707 Hyper-Duplex Stainless Steel by Marine Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm

    OpenAIRE

    Huabing Li; Enze Zhou; Dawei Zhang; Dake Xu; Jin Xia; Chunguang Yang; Hao Feng; Zhouhua Jiang; Xiaogang Li; Tingyue Gu; Ke Yang

    2016-01-01

    Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion (MIC) is a serious problem in many industries because it causes huge economic losses. Due to its excellent resistance to chemical corrosion, 2707 hyper duplex stainless steel (2707 HDSS) has been used in the marine environment. However, its resistance to MIC was not experimentally proven. In this study, the MIC behavior of 2707 HDSS caused by the marine aerobe Pseudomonas aeruginosa was investigated. Electrochemical analyses demonstrated a positive shift...

  6. Aerobic methanotrophic communities at the Red Sea brine-seawater interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehab Z. Abdallah

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The central rift of the Red Sea contains 25 brine pools with different physicochemical conditions, dictating the diversity and abundance of the microbial community. Three of these pools, the Atlantis II, Kebrit and Discovery Deeps, are uniquely characterized by a high concentration of hydrocarbons. The brine-seawater interface, described as an anoxic-oxic (brine-seawater boundary, is characterized by a high methane concentration, thus favoring aerobic methane oxidation. The current study analyzed the aerobic free–living methane-oxidizing bacterial communities that potentially contribute to methane oxidation at the brine-seawater interfaces of the three aforementioned brine pools, using metagenomic pyrosequencing, 16S rRNA pyrotags and pmoA library constructs. The sequencing of 16S rRNA pyrotags revealed that these interfaces are characterized by high microbial community diversity. Signatures of aerobic methane-oxidizing bacteria were detected in the Atlantis II Interface (ATII-I and the Kebrit Deep Upper (KB-U and Lower (KB-L brine-seawater interfaces. Through phylogenetic analysis of pmoA, we further demonstrated that the ATII-I aerobic methanotroph community is highly diverse. We propose four ATII-I pmoA clusters. Most importantly, cluster 2 groups with marine methane seep methanotrophs, and cluster 4 represent a unique lineage of an uncultured bacterium with divergent alkane monooxygenases. Moreover, non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS based on the ordination of putative enzymes involved in methane metabolism showed that the Kebrit interface layers were distinct from the ATII-I and DD-I brine-seawater interfaces.

  7. Variable tellurite resistance profiles of clinically-relevant Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) influence their recovery from foodstuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerangart, Stéphane; Douëllou, Thomas; Delannoy, Sabine; Fach, Patrick; Beutin, Lothar; Sergentet-Thévenot, Delphine; Cournoyer, Benoit; Loukiadis, Estelle

    2016-10-01

    Tellurite (Tel)-amended selective media and resistance (Tel-R) are widely used for detecting Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) from foodstuffs. Tel-R of 81 O157 and non-O157 STEC strains isolated from animal, food and human was thus investigated. Variations of STEC tellurite minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values have been observed and suggest a multifactorial and variable tellurite resistome between strains. Some clinically-relevant STEC were found highly susceptible and could not be recovered using a tellurite-based detection scheme. The ter operon was highly prevalent among highly Tel-R STEC but was not always detected among intermediately-resistant strains. Many STEC serogroup strains were found to harbor sublines showing a gradient of MIC values. These Tel-R sublines showed statistically significant log negative correlations with increasing tellurite concentration. Whatever the tellurite concentration, the highest number of resistant sublines was observed for STEC belonging to the O26 serogroup. Variations in the number of these Tel-R sublines could explain the poor recovery of some STEC serogroups on tellurite-amended media especially from food products with low levels of contamination. Comparison of tellurite MIC values and distribution of virulence-related genes showed Tel-R and virulence to be related. PMID:27375242

  8. Environmental control on aerobic methane oxidation in coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinle, Lea; Maltby, Johanna; Engbersen, Nadine; Zopfi, Jakob; Bange, Hermann; Elvert, Marcus; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe; Kock, Annette; Lehmann, Moritz; Treude, Tina; Niemann, Helge

    2016-04-01

    Large quantities of methane are produced in anoxic sediments of continental margins and may be liberated to the overlying water column, where some of it is consumed by aerobic methane oxidizing bacteria (MOB). Aerobic methane oxidation (MOx) in the water column is consequently the final sink for methane before its release to the atmosphere, where it acts as a potent greenhouse gas. In the context of the ocean's contribution to atmospheric methane, coastal seas are particularly important accounting >75% of global methane emission from marine systems. Coastal oceans are highly dynamic, in particular with regard to the variability of methane and oxygen concentrations as well as temperature and salinity, all of which are potential key environmental factors controlling MOx. To determine important environmental controls on the activity of MOBs in coastal seas, we conducted a two-year time-series study with measurements of physicochemical water column parameters, MOx activity and the composition of the MOB community in a coastal inlet in the Baltic Sea (Boknis Eck Time Series Station, Eckernförde Bay - E-Bay). In addition, we investigated the influence of temperature and oxygen on MOx during controlled laboratory experiments. In E-Bay, hypoxia developed in bottom waters towards the end of the stratification period. Constant methane liberation from sediments resulted in bottom water methane accumulations and supersaturation (with respect to the atmospheric equilibrium) in surface waters. Here, we will discuss the factors impacting MOx the most, which were (i) perturbations of the water column (ii) temperature and (iii) oxygen concentration. (i) Perturbations of the water column caused by storm events or seasonal mixing led to a decrease in MOx, probably caused by replacement of stagnant water with a high standing stock of MOB by 'new' waters with a lower abundance of methanotrophs. b) An increase in temperature generally led to higher MOx rates. c) Even though methane was

  9. Marine fungi: A critique

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, S.; Raghukumar, C.

    Obligate marine fungi, those which grow and sporulate exclusively under marine conditions, have received all the attention from marine mycologists. Fungi originating from freshwater, or terrestrial environment and capable of growth and sporulation...

  10. Active Marine Station Metadata

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Active Marine Station Metadata is a daily metadata report for active marine bouy and C-MAN (Coastal Marine Automated Network) platforms from the National Data...

  11. Marine Lubricants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, B. H.; Green, D.

    Marine diesel engines are classified by speed, either large (medium speed) or very large (slow speed) with high efficiencies and burning low-quality fuel. Slow-speed engines, up to 200 rpm, are two-stroke with separate combustion chamber and sump connected by a crosshead, with trunk and system oil lubricants for each. Medium-speed diesels, 300-1500 rpm, are of conventional automotive design with one lubricant. Slow-speed engines use heavy fuel oil of much lower quality than conventional diesel with problems of deposit cleanliness, acidity production and oxidation. Lubricants are mainly SAE 30/40/50 monogrades using paraffinic basestocks. The main types of additives are detergents/dispersants, antioxidants, corrosion inhibitors, anti-wear/load-carrying/ep, pour-point depressants and anti-foam compounds. There are no simple systems for classifying marine lubricants, as for automotive, because of the wide range of engine design, ratings and service applications they serve. There are no standard tests; lubricant suppliers use their own tests or the Bolnes 3DNL, with final proof from field tests. Frequent lubricant analyses safeguard engines and require standard sampling procedures before determination of density, viscosity, flash point, insolubles, base number, water and wear metal content.

  12. Weed competitiveness and yielding ability of aerobic rice genotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, D.L.

    2006-01-01

    Keywords:    Broad-sense heritability; Crop vigour; Genetic correlation; Indirect selection index; Plant erectness; Rice germplasm; Seeding rate; Vegetative growth; Weed-suppressive ability.Aerobic rice, grown under aerobic soil conditions like maize or wheat, is an innovative way to cope with the growing demand for rice and the increasing water scarcity. Weeds are the most severe constraint to aerobic rice. The use of herbicides causes environmental pollution and induces the proliferation of...

  13. WAYS TO IMPROVE THE PHYSICAL FITNESS THROUGH AEROBIC GYMNASTICS MEANS

    OpenAIRE

    Zaharia A.M.; Rață G.

    2013-01-01

    This research aimed to study the probable effects that aerobic gymnastics could have on the body, for improving the physical fitness. The main goal of the research was to identify the effects the aerobic gymnastics has in improving physical fitness.This research was conducted on 15 subjects between 18 and 30 years old, who participated in aerobic gymnastics fitness-type lessons, three times a week. The programs comprised exercises of physical development , stretching and elasticity, of relaxa...

  14. Aerobic capacity related to cardiac size in young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, M; Wollmer, P; Karlsson, M;

    2013-01-01

    Aerobic capacity, defined as peak oxygen uptake (VO2PEAK), is generally considered to be the best single marker for aerobic fitness. We assessed if VO2PEAK is related to different cardiac dimensions in healthy young children on a population base.......Aerobic capacity, defined as peak oxygen uptake (VO2PEAK), is generally considered to be the best single marker for aerobic fitness. We assessed if VO2PEAK is related to different cardiac dimensions in healthy young children on a population base....

  15. Research on aerobics classes influence on physical prepareduess of students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasulia M. А.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Physical skills of female students doing aerobics have been studied. 165 female students aged 17-18 divided into three groups of 55 each have taken part in the experiment. Groups have been trained according to different methods conventionally called 'power aerobics', 'dance aerobics' and 'jump aerobics'. Level of female students' physical skills has been determined by the results of seven tests in the beginning of an academic year and after six-months term. Mathematical treatment of the results has been carried out. The most preferable as to improving physical skills level method has been discovered to be the one aimed on power abilities development method.

  16. Aerobic Biostabilization of Old MSW Landfills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Zanetti

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Many years after the end of the cultivation phase, landfills may generate intense odours, toxic and explosive gases and heavily-polluted leachate. A wide-spreading trend in the management of MSW landfills is represented by the forced aeration of wastes in order to achieve the stabilization, reducing the negative environmental impact of uncontrolled sites (old landfills which can be definitely considered as contaminated sites and the management costs of controlled and working facilities. One of the most interesting challenges is the in situ waste aerobic stabilization, obtained by insufflating air into the wastes. The aerobic metabolism is energetically convenient in comparison with the anaerobic one, it is characterized by a higher degradation rate and a temperature increase (like in the compost production. In order to obtain an aerobic biostabilization of waste in landfills, several air injection systems have been developed and applied in the last years, like Biopuster© or AEROflott® patented systems. The feasibility of the application of in situ biostabilization must be evaluated by means of different tests, in order to evaluate the main characteristics of the wastes. The main parameters to be evaluated are the biological stability and the air permeability of the wastes. In March 2006, the biological stability of the wastes located in the Trinitapoli Landfill, Italy, has been evaluated by the Politecnico di Torino. Black Index Test and Static Respirometric Index Test have been performed in the laboratories of the Politecnico. On the basis of the obtained results, the potential biogas production from the examined landfill was estimated together with the potential volume reduction.

  17. Dancing the aerobics "Hearing loss choreography"

    OpenAIRE

    Beatriz M. Pinto; Carvalho, A.; Sérgio Oliveira

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the health clubs acoustic problems when used for aerobics exercises classes (and similar) with loud noise levels in sound amplified music. A sample of five schools in Portugal was chosen for this survey. Noise levels in each room were measured and analyzed to calculate the standardized daily personal noise exposure levels (Leq8). Leq8 values up to 96 dB(A) were found in this type of room inducing a health risk for its occupants. This type of gymnasium is usu...

  18. [Heterotrophic Nitrification and Aerobic Denitrification of the Hypothermia Aerobic Denitrification Bacterium: Arthrobacter arilaitensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Teng-xia; Ni, Jiu-pai; Li, Zhen-lun; Sun, Quan; Ye Qing; Xu, Yi

    2016-03-15

    High concentrations of ammonium, nitrate and nitrite nitrogen were employed to clarify the abilities of heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification of Arthrobacter arilaitensis strain Y-10. Meanwhile, by means of inoculating the strain suspension into the mixed ammonium and nitrate, ammonium and nitrite nitrogen simulated wastewater, we studied the simultaneous nitrification and denitrification ability of Arthrobacter arilaitensis strain Y-10. In addition, cell optical density was assayed in each nitrogen removal process to analyze the relationship of cell growth and nitrogen removal efficiency. The results showed that the hypothermia denitrification strain Arthrobacter arilaitensis Y-10 exhibited high nitrogen removal efficiency during heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification. The ammonium, nitrate and nitrite removal rates were 65.0%, 100% and 61.2% respectively when strain Y-10 was cultivated for 4 d at 15°C with initial ammonium, nitrate and nitrite nitrogen concentrations of 208.43 mg · L⁻¹, 201.16 mg · L⁻¹ and 194.33 mg · L⁻¹ and initial pH of 7.2. Nitrite nitrogen could only be accumulated in the medium containing nitrate nitrogen during heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification process. Additionally, the ammonium nitrogen was mainly removed in the inorganic nitrogen mixed synthetic wastewater. In short, Arthrobacter arilaitensis Y-10 could conduct nitrification and denitrification effectively under aerobic condition and the ammonium nitrogen removal rate was more than 80.0% in the inorganic nitrogen mixed synthetic wastewater. PMID:27337904

  19. Thaumarchaeotal Signature Gene Distribution in Sediments of the Northern South China Sea: an Indicator of the Metabolic Intersection of the Marine Carbon, Nitrogen, and Phosphorus Cycles?

    OpenAIRE

    Dang, Hongyue; ZHOU, Haixia; Yang, Jinying; Ge, Huangmin; Jiao, Nianzhi; Luan, Xiwu; Zhang, Chuanlun; Martin G Klotz

    2013-01-01

    Thaumarchaeota are abundant and active in marine waters, where they contribute to aerobic ammonia oxidation and light-independent carbon fixation. The ecological function of thaumarchaeota in marine sediments, however, has rarely been investigated, even though marine sediments constitute the majority of the Earth's surface. Thaumarchaeota in the upper layer of sediments may contribute significantly to the reservoir of nitrogen oxides in ocean waters and thus to productivity, including the ass...

  20. The effects of aerobic and combined aerobic and resistance exercise training on physical fitness in young women.

    OpenAIRE

    Batalha, Nuno; Marmeleira, José; Dias, João

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of aerobic training alone or combined with strength training on the physical fitness of young women. Methods Sixty-five women (18–28 years old), who were not engaged in any exercise program for at least one year, were randomly assigned to an aerobic training group, a combined training group, or a control group. The aerobic training consisted of indoor cycling sessions and the combined training consisted of indoor cycl...

  1. Taxonomy and evolution of bacteriochlorophyll a-containing members of the OM60/NOR5 clade of marine gammaproteobacteria: description of Luminiphilus syltensis gen. nov., sp. nov., reclassification of Haliea rubra as Pseudohaliea rubra gen. nov., comb. nov., and emendation of Chromatocurvus halotolerans

    OpenAIRE

    Spring, Stefan; Riedel, Thomas; Spröer, Cathrin; Yan, Shi; Harder, Jens; Fuchs, Bernhard M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Aerobic gammaproteobacteria affiliated to the OM60/NOR5 clade are widespread in saline environments and of ecological importance in several marine ecosystems, especially the euphotic zone of coastal areas. Within this group a close relationship between aerobic anoxygenic photoheterotrophs and non-phototrophic members has been found. Results Several strains of aerobic red-pigmented bacteria affiliated to the OM60/NOR5 clade were obtained from tidal flat sediment samples at the islan...

  2. Aerobic Thermophilic Composting of Municipal Solid Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D V Wadkar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Composting is a natural process that turns organic material into a dark rich substance called compost. Aerobic Composting is the creation of compost that depends on bacteria that thrive in an oxygen rich environment. Aerobic bacteria manage the chemical process by converting the inputs (i.e. air, water and carbon and nitrogen rich materials into heat, carbon dioxide and ammonium. The ammonium is further converted by bacteria into plant nourishing nitrites and nitrates through the process of nitrification. Thermophilic Composting is breaking down biological waste with thermophilic (heat loving bacteria. A cylindrical reactor was made. Organic wasteincluded dry vegetable waste collected from MSW ramp, Koregaon park, Pune. The characteristics of compost like pH, moisture content, temperature, C/N ratio and volume reduction were studied for the period of maturation (42days. It can be concluded that the values are within the desired limits and compost is suitable for ornamental plants. The setup of reactor is affordable and thus the compost obtained is effective and economical.

  3. Marine lakes of Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becking, Leontine Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to obtain insight into the processes that play a role in biodiversity patterns of tropical marine species by using marine lakes as a model. Marine lakes are landlocked water bodies that maintain a marine character through narrow submarine connections to the sea. Two

  4. Dominant Aerobic Bacterial Community of Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus Labrax L.1758) Larvae During Weaning from Artemia to Dry Feed in Culture Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    AYAZ, Ayberk; KARATAŞ*, Süheyla

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the dominant aerobic bacterial community of sea bass larvae during their weaning period in 2 different marine hatcheries in Muğla-Bodrum region. Samplings were made in January, March, and May 2005. Larvae and water samples were diluted in certain ratios and were inoculated to Marine Agar, TCBS Agar, Pseudomonas Agar, King Bee Agar, MRS agar, Blood Agar and Plate Count Agar, in that order. Water temperature, pH, saturation, salinity, and features of the s...

  5. Aerobic Fitness Thresholds Associated with Fifth Grade Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittberg, Richard; Cottrell, Lesley A.; Davis, Catherine L.; Northrup, Karen L.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Whereas effects of physical fitness and physical activity on cognitive function have been documented, little is known about how they are related. Purpose: This study assessed student aerobic fitness measured by FITNESSGRAM Mile times and/or Pacer circuits and whether the nature of the association between aerobic fitness and…

  6. Differential production of slime under aerobic and anaerobic conditions.

    OpenAIRE

    Barker, L P; Simpson, W A; Christensen, G D

    1990-01-01

    A series of 37 clinical isolates of coagulase-negative staphylococci previously identified as negative for slime production by the tube test were reexamined by the tissue culture plate test under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. None of the strains produced slime under anaerobic conditions; however, five strains (13%) produced slime under aerobic conditions.

  7. EFFECTS OF CORN SILAGE INOCULANTS ON AEROBIC STABILITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerobic stability of corn silage can be a major problem for farmers particularly in warm weather. Silage inoculants, while the most common type of silage additive, have not been consistently effective at improving aerobic stability. This study investigated new and proposed inoculant products over ...

  8. Aerobic Digestion. Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopping, Paul H.

    This manual contains the textual material for a single-lesson unit on aerobic sludge digestion. Topic areas addressed include: (1) theory of aerobic digestion; (2) system components; (3) performance factors; (4) indicators of stable operation; and (5) operational problems and their solutions. A list of objectives, glossary of key terms, and…

  9. Water Aerobics as a Form of Health Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Anna S. Batrak; Antonina V. Polyakova

    2013-01-01

    The offered literature review considers water aerobics as a form of health activities. Water aerobics is wide spread and popular, especially among women, because it is also the form of adaptive and health activities. It enlarges general physiological effect of physical exercises on the human body. Regular exercises improve physical fitness and physical development, health, mood, sleep, intensify activities and working efficiency.

  10. Aerobic training alone or combined with strength training affects fitness in elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burich, Rasmus; Teljigović, Sanel; Boyle, Eleanor;

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate if combined strength and aerobic training can enhance aerobic capacity in the elderly to a similar extent as aerobic training alone when training duration is matched. METHODS: Elderly men and women (age 63.2 ± 4.7) were randomized into two intervention groups: an aerobic...... subsequently to the aerobic training. Combined training additionally improves strength and self-assessed general health more than aerobic training alone....

  11. Heart rate during aerobics classes in women with different previous experience of aerobics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laukkanen, R M; Kalaja, M K; Kalaja, S P; Holmala, E B; Paavolainen, L M; Tummavuori, M; Virtanen, P; Rusko, H K

    2001-01-01

    This study measured heart rate during floor and step aerobic classes at three intensity levels. A group of 20 female occasional exercisers [mean age 33 (SD 8) years, mean body mass index 21 (SD 2) kg.m-2 volunteered to participate in six aerobic classes (three floor classes, three step classes) and in a laboratory test as members of one of two groups according to their prestudy regular participation in aerobics classes. Subjects in group A had participated four or more times a week and those of group B less than twice a week. The characteristics of the groups were as follows: group A, n = 10, mean maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) 38.7 (SD 3.6) ml.kg-1.min-1, mean maximal heart rate (HRmax) 183 (SD 8) beats.min-1; group B, n = 10, VO2max 36.1 (SD 3.6) ml.kg-1.min-1, HRmax 178 (SD 7) beats.min-1. Each class consisted of a warm-up, a 20 min period of structured aerobic exercise (cardiophase) and a cool-down. The cardiophase was planned and guided as light, (rate of perceived exertion, RPE 11-12), moderate (RPE 13-14) or heavy (RPE 15-17) by an experienced instructor. The mean heart rates during the light classes were 72 (step) and 74 (floor) %HRmax in group A and 75 (step) and 79 (floor) %HRmax in group B; during the moderate classes, 84 (step) and 80 (floor) %HRmax in group A and 82 (step) and 83 (floor) %HRmax in group B, and during the heavy classes 89 (step and floor) %HRmax in group A and 88 (step) and 92 (floor) %HRmax in group B. Differences in heart rate and %HRmax were not statistically significant between the groups. However, differences in heart rate and %HRmax between the intensities (light vs moderate, moderate vs heavy and light vs heavy) were significant within both groups (all, P < 0.01). Based on the results, we conclude that intensity management during the aerobics classes was generally successful regardless of the participants' prior participation in aerobics. However, some individuals who were older and/or had less prior participation tended to

  12. Aerobic exercise reduces biomarkers related to cardiovascular risk among cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korshøj, Mette; Ravn, Marie Højbjerg; Holtermann, Andreas;

    2016-01-01

    aerobic exercise worksite intervention changes the level of inflammation biomarkers among cleaners. METHODS: The design was a cluster-randomized controlled trial with 4-month worksite intervention. Before the 116 cleaners aged 18-65 years were randomized, they signed an informed consent form. The...... reference group (n = 59) received lectures, and the aerobic exercise group (n = 57) performed worksite aerobic exercise (30 min twice a week). Levels of biomarkers (high-sensitive C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, cholesterol, low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride) were collected at...... that an aerobic exercise intervention among cleaners leads to reduced levels of high-sensitive C-reactive protein and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and an unaltered level of fibrinogen. The aerobic exercise seems to improve inflammatory levels and lipoprotein profile among cleaners, with no...

  13. Marine lakes of Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Becking, Leontine Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to obtain insight into the processes that play a role in biodiversity patterns of tropical marine species by using marine lakes as a model. Marine lakes are landlocked water bodies that maintain a marine character through narrow submarine connections to the sea. Two regions in Indonesia were studied: Berau (East Kalimantan) and Raja Ampat (West Papua). The following questions were addressed: 1. What are the different types of marine lakes in Indonesia? 2. Are ...

  14. Detection of irradiated food by using direct epifluorescent filter technique/aerobic plate count method (DEFT/APC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Direct Epifluorescent Filter Technique/Aerobic Plate Count technique(DEFT/APC) can be used to identify the irradiated food by comparing the DEFT and APC counts of the samples prior to the irradiation and after. This technology was tested by using spice and dried marine fish as testing materials in this study. The results shows that the index, log (DEFT/APC) > 4.0, can indicate that the samples have been irradiated at a dose level higher than 1.0 kGy. It also indicates that the detecting sensitivity was affected by the initial value of APC and D10 value of the samples. (authors)

  15. Aerobic exercises: their cardiovascular and other benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aerobic exercise can help prevent ischemic heart disease and other diseases. Physical inactivity is a major factor for developing Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) which is characterized by deposit of cholesterol, calcium and other substances in the inner lining of the arteries, that supply to cardiac muscle. It also contributes to other risk factors including obesity, hypertension, increased triglycerides, low level of HDL cholesterol and diabetes. The essential components of a systematic individualized exercise prescription include the appropriate mode, intensity, duration, frequency and progression of physical activity. There are four components of exercise program; a warm up, an endurance phase, optional recreational activity and a cool down. For sedentary individuals, exercise should start at 60% of maximum heart rare. Benefits of physical activity depend on the total amount of exercise. Vigorous leisure time activity should be promoted in order to give way to healthy living. (author)

  16. Aerobics trainer, health club settle discrimination lawsuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-04-01

    A health club settled out-of-court, agreeing to pay an undisclosed sum of money and to train its managers on the legal obligations of people with HIV and other disabilities, following litigation brought by an aerobics instructor at the club. The instructor filed the suit after he was forced to either disclose his HIV status to the 3,000 members or be fired. He was fired after he refused to sign a letter drafted by the club's manager. Six months later the club's president gave club employees the letter which the plaintiff argued violated his right to privacy. This is the second time a health club has settled an AIDS discrimination case. Both cases focused on the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). In settling the case, the club denied any wrongdoing and said they settled out of court to avoid the costs of litigation. PMID:11362274

  17. [Research of aerobic granule characteristics with different granule age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Man; Yang, Chang-Zhu; Pu, Wen-Hong; Luo, Ying-Dong; Gong, Jian-Yu

    2012-03-01

    In the SBR reactor, we studied the different style, physicochemical characteristic, pollutants removal and microbial activity between the short age and long age aerobic granule, respectively. The short age aerobic granule was cultivated from activated floccules sludge and the other was gotten from aerobic granular sludge which was operated stably more than one year. The results indicated that the wet density, the specific gravity and integrated coefficient (IC) of the short age aerobic granule were 1.066 g x cm(-1), 1.013 g x cm(-3) and 98.7%, respectively. And that of long age were 1.026 g x cm(-3), 1.010 g x cm(-3) and 98.4%, respectively. All of them were higher than the long age aerobic granule. The mean diameters of them were 1.9 mm and 2.2 mm, respectively. The settling velocity of short age and long age aerobic granule were 0.005-0.032 m x s(-1) and 0.003-0.028 m x s(-1), respectively, and two kinds of aerobic granule settling velocity increased with the diameter increased. SVI of the former was lower. The COD removal rates of two aerobic granules were above 90%, and the NH4(+) -N removal rates of them were about 85%. The results of the COD effluent concentration, NH4(+) -N effluent concentration and the pollutants concentration in a typical cycle indicated that the short age aerobic granule had better pollutants removal efficiency. The TP removal rates of them were between 40% -90% and 32% -85%, respectively. The TN removal rates of them were about 80%. The SOUR(H) SOUR(NH4) and SOUR(NO2) of the short age aerobic granule were 26.4, 14.8 and 11.2 mg x (h x g)(-1), respectively. And that of long age were 25.2, 14.4 and 8.4 mg x (h x g)(-1), respectively. In summary, the aerobic granule had significantly different physical and chemical characteristics because of different granule age, and the short age aerobic granule exhibited better pollutants removal ability, higher microbial activity and more stability than the long age aerobic granule. PMID:22624385

  18. Effects of Kettlebell Training on Aerobic Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falatic, J Asher; Plato, Peggy A; Holder, Christopher; Finch, Daryl; Han, Kyungmo; Cisar, Craig J

    2015-07-01

    This study examined the effects of a kettlebell training program on aerobic capacity. Seventeen female National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I collegiate soccer players (age: 19.7 ± 1.0 years, height: 166.1 ± 6.4 cm, weight: 64.2 ± 8.2 kg) completed a graded exercise test to determine maximal oxygen consumption (V̇O2max). Participants were assigned to a kettlebell intervention group (KB) (n = 9) or a circuit weight-training (CWT) control group (n = 8). Participants in the KB group completed a kettlebell snatch test to determine individual snatch repetitions. Both groups trained 3 days a week for 4 weeks in addition to their off-season strength and conditioning program. The KB group performed the 15:15 MVO2 protocol (20 minutes of kettlebell snatching with 15 seconds of work and rest intervals). The CWT group performed multiple free-weight and dynamic body-weight exercises as part of a continuous circuit program for 20 minutes. The 15:15 MVO2 protocol significantly increased V̇O2max in the KB group. The average increase was 2.3 ml·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹, or approximately a 6% gain. There was no significant change in V̇O2max in the CWT control group. Thus, the 4-week 15:15 MVO2 kettlebell protocol, using high-intensity kettlebell snatches, significantly improved aerobic capacity in female intercollegiate soccer players and could be used as an alternative mode to maintain or improve cardiovascular conditioning. PMID:26102260

  19. Survey the effect of aerobic exercise on aerobic capacity in patients with coronary artery disease (cad)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increased aerobic exercise capacity appears to reduce both all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease mortality. Physical exercise to improve maximal oxygen consumption (VO/sub 2max/) is thus strongly recommended, however evidence regarding the most efficient training intensity for patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) is still lacking. The purpose of this randomized study was to assess the effects of aerobic exercise for increasing VO/sub 2max/ in stable CAD-patients. Thirty stable CAD-patients were randomized to supervised walking 30 min three times a week for 10 weeks. Before and after training VO/sub 2max/ was predicted from Bruce treadmill test. Before training VO/sub 2max/ was 35.2+-4.32 ml/kg/min and after training the mean VO/sub 2max/ was 43.1+-3.4 ml/kg/min. This difference was significant (p<0.05). Aerobic exercise is effective for increasing VO/sub 2max/ in stable CAD-patients. As VO/sub 2max/ seems to reflect a continuum between health and cardiovascular disease and death, the present data may be useful in designing effective training programmes for improved health in the future. (author)

  20. Is aerobic workload positively related to ambulatory blood pressure?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korshøj, Mette; Clays, Els; Lidegaard, Mark;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Cardiovascular disease is prevalent among workers with high levels of occupational physical activity. The increased risk may be due to a high relative aerobic workload, possibly leading to increased blood pressure. However, studies investigating the relation between relative aerobic...... workload and ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) are lacking. The aim was to explore the relationship between objectively measured relative aerobic workload and ABP. METHODS: A total of 116 cleaners aged 18-65 years were included after informed consent was obtained. A portable device (Spacelabs 90217) was...

  1. Methanotrophic symbioses in marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Jillian M; Dubilier, Nicole

    2009-10-01

    Symbioses between marine animals and aerobic methane-oxidizing bacteria are found at hydrothermal vents and cold seeps in the deep sea where reduced, methane-rich fluids mix with the surrounding oxidized seawater. These habitats are 'oases' in the otherwise nutrient-poor deep sea, where entire ecosystems are fueled by microbial chemosynthesis. By associating with bacteria that gain energy from the oxidation of CH4 with O2 , the animal host is indirectly able to gain nutrition from methane, an energy source that is otherwise only available to methanotrophic microorganisms. The host, in turn, provides its symbionts with continuous access to both electron acceptors and donors that are only available at a narrow oxic - anoxic interface for free-living methanotrophs. Symbiotic methane oxidizers have resisted all attempts at cultivation, so that all evidence for these symbiotic associations comes from ultrastructural, enzymatic, physiological, stable isotope and molecular biological studies of the symbiotic host tissues. In this review, we present an overview of the habitats and invertebrate hosts in which symbiotic methane oxidizers have been found, and the methods used to investigate these symbioses, focusing on the symbioses of bathymodiolin mussels that have received the most attention among methanotrophic associations. PMID:23765884

  2. Effects of a Rebound Exercise Training Program on Aerobic Capacity and Body Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomassoni, Teresa L.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    This study was designed to determine if aerobic dancing on rebound exercise equipment (minitrampolines) is an effective way to improve aerobic capacity and body composition. Although aerobic capacity improved, percent body fat did not change. Results were similar to those produced by conventional aerobic dance programs of like intensity. (MT)

  3. Supermarket Marine Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, Jennifer A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes a survey used to determine the availability of intact marine vertebrates and live invertebrates in supermarkets. Results shows that local supermarkets frequently provide a variety of intact marine organisms suitable for demonstrations, experiments, or dissections. (ZWH)

  4. Mariner 10 Image Archive

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Mariner 10 Image Archive includes tools to view shaded relief maps of the surface of Mercury, a 3D globe, and all images acquired by NASA's Mariner 10 mission.

  5. Marine Mammal Protection Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA or Act) prohibits, with certain exceptions, the "take" of marine mammals in U.S. waters and by U.S. citizens on the high...

  6. Marine Jurisdiction Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The NOAA Coastal Services Center's Marine Jurisdiction dataset was created to assist in marine spatial planning and offshore alternative energy sitting. This is a...

  7. Frontiers of marine science

    OpenAIRE

    Webb, T. J.; Poloczanska, E. S.

    2011-01-01

    On 9–13 October 2010 early career scientists from the UK and Australia across marine research fields were given the opportunity to come together in Perth, Australia to discuss the frontiers of marine research and exchange ideas.

  8. MarineCadastre.gov

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MarineCadastre.gov is a marine information system that provides authoritative ocean data, offshore planning tools, and technical support to the offshore renewable...

  9. Chinese Marine Materia Medica

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Proksch

    2014-01-01

    China is one of the first countries to use marine materia medica for treating diseases. Ancient books on Chinese herbology, such as Shennong Bencaojing (Shennong’s Classic of Materia Medica), Xinxiu Bencao (Newly Revised Materia Medica) and Bencao Gangmu (Compendium of Materia Medica), have detailed more than 110 marine herbs and thousands of marine herbal formulas (including those for Chinese food therapy). A great deal of information on marine herbs and their applications in medicine, colle...

  10. Carotenoids in Marine Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Takashi Maoka

    2011-01-01

    Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of β-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine a...

  11. Nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria in aerobic granules formed in sequencing batch airlift reactors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Fang; YANG Fenglin; QI Aijiu

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate nitrifying bacteria and denitrifying bacteria isolated from aerobic granules.Aerobic granules were formed in an internal-circulate sequencing batch airlift reactor(SBAR)and biodegradation of NH3 -N was analyzed in the reactor.Bacteria were isolated and determined from aerobic granules using selected media.The growth properties and morphology of bacteria colonies were observed by controlling aerobic or anaerobic conditions in the culture medium.It was found that bacteria in aerobic granules were diverse and some of them were facultative aerobes.The diversity of bacteria in aerobic granules was a premise of simultaneous nitrification and denitrification.

  12. THE RELATIONSHIP OF CHOREOGRAPHY PREPARATION AND ARTISTRY IN AEROBIC GYMNASTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Sokolova

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Examines the impact choreography training in sports aerobics on artistic skills.Objective to investigate whether the use of funds choreo-graphy in training athletes involved in sports aerobics, to find the relationship between choreographic training and asses-sment for artistry.Method or methodology of work methods of studying the theoretical ski works of scientific content, analysis and processing of scientific texts.The results revealed the relationship between estimates for artistry and means-you dance training in sports aerobics. The scope of the results, the materials may be used by coaches in sports aerobics, for further research on the problem of constructing workout.

  13. WAYS TO IMPROVE THE PHYSICAL FITNESS THROUGH AEROBIC GYMNASTICS MEANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaharia A.M.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to study the probable effects that aerobic gymnastics could have on the body, for improving the physical fitness. The main goal of the research was to identify the effects the aerobic gymnastics has in improving physical fitness.This research was conducted on 15 subjects between 18 and 30 years old, who participated in aerobic gymnastics fitness-type lessons, three times a week. The programs comprised exercises of physical development , stretching and elasticity, of relaxation, of coordination, and not in the least, of muscle strengthening. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the applied means, the Ruffier test was used to assess the physical fitness of the subjects, and the Dorgo Index, to assess the cool-down response. The research data emphasized the subjects' interest for their physical fitness through a dynamic activity, constituting an argument for the practice of aerobic gymnastics throughout one's entire life, as a mean to preserve one's youth and beauty.

  14. Marine Education Knowledge Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hounshell, Paul B.; Hampton, Carolyn

    This 35-item, multiple-choice Marine Education Knowledge Inventory was developed for use in upper elementary/middle schools to measure a student's knowledge of marine science. Content of test items is drawn from oceanography, ecology, earth science, navigation, and the biological sciences (focusing on marine animals). Steps in the construction of…

  15. Membrane-bound respiratory chain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa grown aerobically.

    OpenAIRE

    Matsushita, K; M. Yamada; Shinagawa, E; Adachi, O; Ameyama, M

    1980-01-01

    The electron transport chain of the gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa, grown aerobically, contained a number of primary dehydrogenases and respiratory components (soluble flavin, bound flavin, coenzyme Q9, heme b, heme c, and cytochrome o) in membrane particles of the organism. Cytochrome o, about 50% of the b-type cytochrome, seemed to function as a terminal oxidase in the respiratory chain. The electron transport chain of P. aeruginosa grown aerobically was suggested to be line...

  16. A new mechanism for the aerobic catabolism of dimethyl sulfide.

    OpenAIRE

    Visscher, P T; Taylor, B F

    1993-01-01

    Aerobic degradation of dimethyl sulfide (DMS), previously described for thiobacilli and hyphomicrobia, involves catabolism to sulfide via methanethiol (CH3SH). Methyl groups are sequentially eliminated as HCHO by incorporation of O2 catalyzed by DMS monooxygenase and methanethiol oxidase. H2O2 formed during CH3SH oxidation is destroyed by catalase. We recently isolated Thiobacillus strain ASN-1, which grows either aerobically or anaerobically with denitrification on DMS. Comparative experimen...

  17. Aerobic and Anaerobic Starvation Metabolism in Methanotrophic Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Roslev, P.; King, G. M.

    1995-01-01

    The capacity for anaerobic metabolism of endogenous and selected exogenous substrates in carbon- and energy-starved methanotrophic bacteria was examined. The methanotrophic isolate strain WP 12 survived extended starvation under anoxic conditions while metabolizing 10-fold less endogenous substrate than did parallel cultures starved under oxic conditions. During aerobic starvation, the cell biomass decreased by 25% and protein and lipids were the preferred endogenous substrates. Aerobic prote...

  18. The medically important aerobic actinomycetes: epidemiology and microbiology.

    OpenAIRE

    McNeil, M. M.; Brown, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    The aerobic actinomycetes are soil-inhabiting microorganisms that occur worldwide. In 1888, Nocard first recognized the pathogenic potential of this group of microorganisms. Since then, several aerobic actinomycetes have been a major source of interest for the commercial drug industry and have proved to be extremely useful microorganisms for producing novel antimicrobial agents. They have also been well known as potential veterinary pathogens affecting many different animal species. The medic...

  19. Strength training and aerobic exercise training for muscle disease (Review)

    OpenAIRE

    Voet, N.B.M.; Kooi, E.L. van der; Riphagen, I.I.; Lindeman, E.; van Engelen, B G M; Geurts, A. C. H.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Strength training or aerobic exercise programmes might optimise muscle and cardiorespiratory function and prevent additional disuse atrophy and deconditioning in people with a muscle disease. This is an update of a review first published in 2004. OBJECTIVES: To examine the safety and efficacy of strength training and aerobic exercise training in people with a muscle disease. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Disease Group Specialized Register (July 2012), CENT...

  20. Aerobic exercise and endurance: improving fitness for health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmore, Jack H

    2003-05-01

    Clinicians who understand how the body responds to exercise, how aerobic training improves cardiovascular fitness, and the benefits and principles of prescribing aerobic exercise can effectively encourage patients to become active and optimize programs for those already active. Patients who are active at an early age and who continue to enjoy active lifestyles as adults will attenuate the normal losses in cardiovascular endurance, strength, and flexibility that accompany aging and sedentary living, thereby maintaining greater independence throughout their life spans. PMID:20086470

  1. Water Aerobics as a Form of Health Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna S. Batrak

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The offered literature review considers water aerobics as a form of health activities. Water aerobics is wide spread and popular, especially among women, because it is also the form of adaptive and health activities. It enlarges general physiological effect of physical exercises on the human body. Regular exercises improve physical fitness and physical development, health, mood, sleep, intensify activities and working efficiency.

  2. Destruction of tryptophan during the aerobic oxidation of sulfite ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tryptophan was rapidly destroyed aerobically in the presence of Mn2+ and sulfite. The rate of destruction was greatly increased when horseradish peroxidase was added. The optimal pH for the reaction was 8.0. The destruction of tryptophan was dependent on the aerobic oxidation of sulfite. Superoxide dismutase inhibited sulfite oxidation and thus inhibited the tryptophan destruction. Tracer studies using 14C indicate that tryptophan is converted into at least 4 products

  3. THE RELATIONSHIP OF CHOREOGRAPHY PREPARATION AND ARTISTRY IN AEROBIC GYMNASTICS

    OpenAIRE

    I. V. Sokolova

    2015-01-01

    Examines the impact choreography training in sports aerobics on artistic skills.Objective to investigate whether the use of funds choreo-graphy in training athletes involved in sports aerobics, to find the relationship between choreographic training and asses-sment for artistry.Method or methodology of work methods of studying the theoretical ski works of scientific content, analysis and processing of scientific texts.The results revealed the relationship between estimates for artistry and me...

  4. p53 aerobics: the major tumor suppressor fuels your workout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Jan-Philipp; Gu, Wei

    2006-07-01

    In addition to its role as the central regulator of the cellular stress response, p53 can regulate aerobic respiration via the novel transcriptional target SCO2, a critical regulator of the cytochrome c oxidase complex (Matoba et al., 2006). Loss of p53 results in decreased oxygen consumption and aerobic respiration and promotes a switch to glycolysis, thereby reducing endurance during physical exercise. PMID:16814724

  5. Dosing method of physical activity in aerobics classes for students

    OpenAIRE

    Beliak Yu. I.; Zinchenko N.M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose : reasons for the method of dosing of physical activity in aerobics classes for students. The basis of the method is the evaluation of the metabolic cost of funds used in them. Material : experiment involved the assessment of the pulse response of students to load complexes classical and step aerobics (n = 47, age 20-23 years). In complexes used various factors regulating the intensity: perform combinations of basic steps, involvement of movements with his hands, holding in hands dumb...

  6. Water aerobics in pregnancy: cardiovascular response, labor and neonatal outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Braga Angelica F; Cecatti Jose G; Pereira Rosa I; Baciuk Erica P; Cavalcante Sergio R

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background To evaluate the association between water aerobics, maternal cardiovascular capacity during pregnancy, labor and neonatal outcomes. Methods A randomized, controlled clinical trial was carried out in which 34 pregnant women were allocated to a water aerobics group and 37 to a control group. All women were submitted to submaximal ergometric tests on a treadmill at 19, 25 and 35 weeks of pregnancy and were followed up until delivery. Oxygen consumption (VO2 max), cardiac outp...

  7. Audio Processing Solution for Video Conference Based Aerobics

    OpenAIRE

    Berggren, Magnus; Stjernberg, Louise; Lindström, Fredric; Claesson, Ingvar

    2010-01-01

    In this paper an audio processing solution for video conference based aerobics is presented. The proposed solution leaves the workout music unaltered by separating it from the speech and processing each signal separately. The speech signal processing is also performed at a lower sample rate, which saves computational power. Real time evaluation of the system shows that high quality music as well as a good two-way communication is maintained during the aerobic session.

  8. Fetal cardiotocography before and after water aerobics during pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Silveira Carla; Pereira Belmiro G; Cecatti Jose G; Cavalcante Sergio R; Pereira Rosa I

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objective To evaluate the effect of moderate aerobic physical activity in water on fetal cardiotocography patterns in sedentary pregnant women. Method In a non-randomized controlled trial, 133 previously sedentary pregnant women participated in multiple regular sessions of water aerobics in a heated swimming pool. Cardiotocography was performed for 20 minutes before and just after the oriented exercise. Cardiotocography patterns were analyzed pre- and post-exercise according to gesta...

  9. Impact of brisk walking and aerobics in overweight women

    OpenAIRE

    Melam, Ganeswara Rao; Alhusaini, Adel A.; Buragadda, Syamala; Kaur, Taranpreet; Khan, Imran Ali

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Lack of physical activity and an uncontrolled diet cause excessive weight gain, which leads to obesity and other metabolic disorders. Studies have indicated that brisk walking and aerobics are the best methods for controlling and reducing weight and body mass composition. [Subjects and Methods] In this study, 45 overweight women were enrolled and divided into 3 groups. Women not involved in brisk walking or aerobics were included in group A (n = 15) as control subjects; women involv...

  10. Dancing the aerobics ''hearing loss'' choreography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Beatriz M.; Carvalho, Antonio P. O.; Gallagher, Sergio

    2002-11-01

    This paper presents an overview of gymnasiums' acoustic problems when used for aerobics exercises classes (and similar) with loud noise levels of amplified music. This type of gymnasium is usually a highly reverberant space, which is a consequence of a large volume surrounded by hard surfaces. A sample of five schools in Portugal was chosen for this survey. Noise levels in each room were measured using a precision sound level meter, and analyzed to calculate the standardized daily personal noise exposure levels (LEP,d). LEP,d values from 79 to 91 dB(A) were found to be typical values in this type of room, inducing a health risk for its occupants. The reverberation time (RT) values were also measured and compared with some European legal requirements (Portugal, France, and Belgium) for nearly similar situations. RT values (1 kHz) from 0.9 s to 2.8 s were found. These reverberation time values clearly differentiate between good and acoustically inadequate rooms. Some noise level and RT limits for this type of environment are given and suggestions for the improvement of the acoustical environment are shown. Significant reductions in reverberation time values and noise levels can be obtained by simple measures.

  11. Personality, metabolic rate and aerobic capacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Terracciano

    Full Text Available Personality traits and cardiorespiratory fitness in older adults are reliable predictors of health and longevity. We examined the association between personality traits and energy expenditure at rest (basal metabolic rate and during normal and maximal sustained walking. Personality traits and oxygen (VO(2 consumption were assessed in 642 participants from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Results indicate that personality traits were mostly unrelated to resting metabolic rate and energy expenditure at normal walking pace. However, those who scored lower on neuroticism (r = -0.12 and higher on extraversion (r = 0.11, openness (r = 0.13, and conscientiousness (r = 0.09 had significantly higher energy expenditure at peak walking pace. In addition to greater aerobic capacity, individuals with a more resilient personality profile walked faster and were more efficient in that they required less energy per meter walked. The associations between personality and energy expenditure were not moderated by age or sex, but were in part explained by the proportion of fat mass. In conclusion, differences in personality may matter the most during more challenging activities that require cardiorespiratory fitness. These findings suggest potential pathways that link personality to health outcomes, such as obesity and longevity.

  12. Maximal aerobic exercise following prolonged sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, J; Radomski, M; Hart, L; Plyley, M; Shephard, R J

    1989-12-01

    The effect of 60 h without sleep upon maximal oxygen intake was examined in 12 young women, using a cycle ergometer protocol. The arousal of the subjects was maintained by requiring the performance of a sequence of cognitive tasks throughout the experimental period. Well-defined oxygen intake plateaus were obtained both before and after sleep deprivation, and no change of maximal oxygen intake was observed immediately following sleep deprivation. The endurance time for exhausting exercise also remained unchanged, as did such markers of aerobic performance as peak exercise ventilation, peak heart rate, peak respiratory gas exchange ratio, and peak blood lactate. However, as in an earlier study of sleep deprivation with male subjects (in which a decrease of treadmill maximal oxygen intake was observed), the formula of Dill and Costill (4) indicated the development of a substantial (11.6%) increase of estimated plasma volume percentage with corresponding decreases in hematocrit and red cell count. Possible factors sustaining maximal oxygen intake under the conditions of the present experiment include (1) maintained arousal of the subjects with no decrease in peak exercise ventilation or the related respiratory work and (2) use of a cycle ergometer rather than a treadmill test with possible concurrent differences in the impact of hematocrit levels and plasma volume expansion upon peak cardiac output and thus oxygen delivery to the working muscles. PMID:2628360

  13. Energy efficient aerobic treatment of forest industry wastewaters; Energieffektiv aerob rening av skogsindustriella avloppsvatten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandberg, Maria; From-Aldaron, Mattias

    2011-01-15

    There is great potential to reduce energy requirements in aerobic biological purification if the oxygen demand can be reduced and oxygen delivery, when process water is aerated, is made more efficient. A model was developed to estimate the possible reduction in oxygen demand. Model variables were COD reduction, sludge withdrawal, oxygen, and alpha-value. Attempts made in an aerator in the lab-scale process shows that water content strongly affects oxygen transport and alpha-value. Surface active extract substances such as fatty acids and resin acids have greatest significance. The effect increases with the concentration of extract substances and decreases with added sodium chloride content

  14. The Training Effects of Dance Aerobics: A Review with an Emphasis on the Perspectives of Investigations

    OpenAIRE

    Zaletel, Petra; Gabrilo, Goran; Perić, Mia

    2013-01-01

    The training effects of contemporary aerobics programmes (hi lo, dance aerobics, step aerobics, aqua aerobics etc.) have been frequently investigated. However, we found no recent paper which reviewed aerobic programmes with regard to their training effectiveness, characteristics of the subjects involved, variables of interest and experimental design. In this paper we summarise the findings of more than 40 studies published in the 2000–2011 period that investigated the training effects of diff...

  15. Carotenoids in Marine Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Maoka

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of β-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine animal carotenoids from natural product chemistry, metabolism, food chain, and chemosystematic viewpoints, and also describe new structural carotenoids isolated from marine animals over the last decade.

  16. Supplementary Low-Intensity Aerobic Training Improves Aerobic Capacity and Does Not Affect Psychomotor Performance in Professional Female Ballet Dancers

    OpenAIRE

    Smol, Ewelina; Fredyk, Artur

    2012-01-01

    We investigated whether 6-week low-intensity aerobic training program used as a supplement to regular dance practice might improve both the aerobic capacity and psychomotor performance in female ballet dancers. To assess their maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and anaerobic threshold (AT), the dancers performed a standard graded bicycle ergometer exercise test until volitional exhaustion prior to and after the supplementary training. At both these occasions, the psychomotor performance (assessed...

  17. Marine Robot Autonomy

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Autonomy for Marine Robots provides a timely and insightful overview of intelligent autonomy in marine robots. A brief history of this emerging field is provided, along with a discussion of the challenges unique to the underwater environment and their impact on the level of intelligent autonomy required.  Topics covered at length examine advanced frameworks, path-planning, fault tolerance, machine learning, and cooperation as relevant to marine robots that need intelligent autonomy.  This book also: Discusses and offers solutions for the unique challenges presented by more complex missions and the dynamic underwater environment when operating autonomous marine robots Includes case studies that demonstrate intelligent autonomy in marine robots to perform underwater simultaneous localization and mapping  Autonomy for Marine Robots is an ideal book for researchers and engineers interested in the field of marine robots.      

  18. Formation and functions of aerobic microbial granula; Entstehung und Funktionen aerober mikrobieller Granula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etterer, T.; Wilderer, P.A. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Lehrstuhl und Pruefamt fuer Wasserguete- und Abfallwirtschaft

    1999-07-01

    The present project investigates the phenomenon of the formation of aerobic microbial granula and their properties. To generate granula, sequencing batch reactors fed in batches were used. As shown by microbiological assays, fungi played an above-average role in granula formation and build-up. In first degradation experiments, furthermore, chemical oxygen demand (COD) could be reduced by over 90 %. The determination yielded comparable values to activated sludge, standing on average at 1.044g/ml. (orig.) [German] Im Rahmen des hier vorgestellten Projekts wurde das Phaenomen der Bildung aerober mikrobieller Granula sowie deren Eigenschaften untersucht. Zur Erzeugung von Granula wurden schubweise beschickte Reaktoren, sogenannte Sequencing-Batch-Reaktoren (SBR) verwendet. Wie mikrobiologische Untersuchungen zeigten spielen Pilze bei der Entstehung und beim Aufbau eine ueberdurchschnittliche Rolle. Des weiteren konnte in ersten Abbauversuchen der chemische Sauerstoff-Bedarf (CSB) um ueber 90% gesenkt werden. Die Dichtebestimmung ergab vergleichbare Werte zu Belebtschlamm und zwar im Durchschnitt 1,044 g/ml. (orig.)

  19. Tolerance to organic loading rate by aerobic granular sludge in a cyclic aerobic granular reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Bei; Yang, Chang-zhu; Pu, Wen-hong; Yang, Jia-kuan; Liu, Fu-biao; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Jing; Cheng, Kai

    2015-04-01

    Sodium acetate as carbon source, tolerance to organic loading rate (OLR) by aerobic granular sludge in a cyclic aerobic granular reactor (CAGR) was investigated by gradually increasing the influent COD. AGS could maintain stability in the continuous flow reactor under OLR⩽15kg/m(3)d in the former 65 days, and SVI, granulation rate, average particle size and water content was 21 ml/g, 98%, 1.8mm and 97.2% on the 65th day. However, AGS gradually disintegrated after the 66 th day when OLR increased to 18 kg/m(3)d, and granules' properties deteriorated rapidly in a short time. High removal rates to pollutants were achieved by CAGR in the former 65 days, but the removal rates of pollutants dropped sharply from the 66 th day. With the increase of OLR and particle size, anaerobic cores inside the granules were formed by massive dead cells, while instability of anaerobic core eventually led to the collapse of the system. PMID:25710570

  20. Enhanced selection of micro-aerobic pentachlorophenol degrading granular sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv, Yuancai, E-mail: donkey1204@hotmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Pulp and Paper Engineering, College of Light Industry and Food Science, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Chen, Yuancai, E-mail: chenyc@scut.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pulp and Paper Engineering, College of Light Industry and Food Science, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Ecological Remediation for Industrial Agglomeration Area, College of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Song, Wenzhe, E-mail: songwenzhe007@126.com [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Ecological Remediation for Industrial Agglomeration Area, College of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Hu, Yongyou, E-mail: ppyyhu@scut.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pulp and Paper Engineering, College of Light Industry and Food Science, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Ecological Remediation for Industrial Agglomeration Area, College of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2014-09-15

    Graphical abstract: In this work, an aerobic column reactor was placed before the USB to maintain micro-oxygen condition in the reactor and the micro-aerobic pentachlorophenol (PCP) degrading granular sludge under oxygen-limited conditions (0.1–0.2 mg L{sup −1}) was successfully obtained. PCP degradation by the micro-aerobic system was studied and the variance of microbial community was also discussed by using PCR-DGGE analysis. - Highlights: • Micro-aerobic granular sludge was cultivated in column-type combined reactors. • PCP biodegradation, VFA accumulation and biogas production were studied. • The function of Methanogenic archaeon in the system was investigated. • Fluctuation and diversity of microbial community were discussed by DGGE analysis. • The dominated microorganisms were identified by 16S rDNA sequences. - Abstract: Column-type combined reactors were designed to cultivate micro-aerobic pentachlorophenol (PCP) degrading granular sludge under oxygen-limited conditions (0.1–0.2 mg L{sup −1}) over 39-day experimental period. Micro-aerobic granular had both anaerobic activity (SMA: 2.34 mMCH{sub 4}/h g VSS) and aerobic activity (SOUR: 2.21 mMO{sub 2}/h g VSS). Metabolite analysis results revealed that PCP was sequentially dechlorinated to TCP, DCP, and eventually to MCP. Methanogens were not directly involved in the dechlorination of PCP, but might played a vital role in stabilizing the overall structure of the granule sludge. For Eubacteria, the Shannon Index (2.09 in inoculated granular sludge) increased both in micro-aerobic granular sludge (2.61) and PCP-degradation granular sludge (2.55). However, for Archaea, it decreased from 2.53 to 1.85 and 1.84, respectively. Although the Shannon Index demonstrated slight difference between micro-aerobic granular sludge and PCP-degradation granular sludge, the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) indicated obvious variance of the microbial composition, revealing significant effect of micro-aerobic

  1. Enhanced selection of micro-aerobic pentachlorophenol degrading granular sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: In this work, an aerobic column reactor was placed before the USB to maintain micro-oxygen condition in the reactor and the micro-aerobic pentachlorophenol (PCP) degrading granular sludge under oxygen-limited conditions (0.1–0.2 mg L−1) was successfully obtained. PCP degradation by the micro-aerobic system was studied and the variance of microbial community was also discussed by using PCR-DGGE analysis. - Highlights: • Micro-aerobic granular sludge was cultivated in column-type combined reactors. • PCP biodegradation, VFA accumulation and biogas production were studied. • The function of Methanogenic archaeon in the system was investigated. • Fluctuation and diversity of microbial community were discussed by DGGE analysis. • The dominated microorganisms were identified by 16S rDNA sequences. - Abstract: Column-type combined reactors were designed to cultivate micro-aerobic pentachlorophenol (PCP) degrading granular sludge under oxygen-limited conditions (0.1–0.2 mg L−1) over 39-day experimental period. Micro-aerobic granular had both anaerobic activity (SMA: 2.34 mMCH4/h g VSS) and aerobic activity (SOUR: 2.21 mMO2/h g VSS). Metabolite analysis results revealed that PCP was sequentially dechlorinated to TCP, DCP, and eventually to MCP. Methanogens were not directly involved in the dechlorination of PCP, but might played a vital role in stabilizing the overall structure of the granule sludge. For Eubacteria, the Shannon Index (2.09 in inoculated granular sludge) increased both in micro-aerobic granular sludge (2.61) and PCP-degradation granular sludge (2.55). However, for Archaea, it decreased from 2.53 to 1.85 and 1.84, respectively. Although the Shannon Index demonstrated slight difference between micro-aerobic granular sludge and PCP-degradation granular sludge, the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) indicated obvious variance of the microbial composition, revealing significant effect of micro-aerobic condition and PCP on

  2. Process engineering in biological aerobic waste-water treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavrilescu, M.; Macoveanu, M. [Technical Univ. Gh. Asachi, Iasi (Romania). Dept. of Environmental Engineering

    1999-11-01

    A non-comprehensive review of several technical developments in the field of aerobic biological waste-water treatment engineering is carried out, considering the active role the engineers have to play in this field. This paper brings together conventional and advanced problems in the field of aerobic biological waste-water treatment. Such an overview of biological waste-water treatment also precedes comments on some important aspects concerning the microorganisms responsible for waste-water treatment as well as consideration of the application of fundamentals and kinetics to the analysis of the biological processes used most commonly for aerobic biological waste-water treatment. A survey of the development of the biological activated-sludge process and some modifications are given. Some problems implied in the conventional activated-sludge waste-water treatment are analyzed, considering conventional processes and bioreactor models (the continuous stirred-tank reactor model and the plug-flow reactor models of the activated-sludge process) as well as aerated lagoons. Further, modifications of the activated-sludge process are presented. These include additional details on the bioreactor progress and applications, with emphasis on aspects concerning airlift bioreactors and their variants, deep-shaft bioreactors and reciprocating jet bioreactors which are considered as the third generation of bioreactors owing to their important advantages in design, operation and performance in waste-water treatment. Sequencing-batch reactors and aerobic digestion processes, including conventional aerobic digestion, high-purity oxygen digestion, thermophilic aerobic digestion and cryophylic aerobic digestion are also reviewed. Finally, some aspects regarding the operational factors that are involved in the selection of the reactor type are included. (orig.)

  3. Field tests for evaluating the aerobic work capacity of firefighters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Sofie Lindberg

    Full Text Available Working as a firefighter is physically strenuous, and a high level of physical fitness increases a firefighter's ability to cope with the physical stress of their profession. Direct measurements of aerobic capacity, however, are often complicated, time consuming, and expensive. The first aim of the present study was to evaluate the correlations between direct (laboratory and indirect (field aerobic capacity tests with common and physically demanding firefighting tasks. The second aim was to give recommendations as to which field tests may be the most useful for evaluating firefighters' aerobic work capacity. A total of 38 subjects (26 men and 12 women were included. Two aerobic capacity tests, six field tests, and seven firefighting tasks were performed. Lactate threshold and onset of blood lactate accumulation were found to be correlated to the performance of one work task (r(s = -0.65 and -0.63, p<0.01, respectively. Absolute (mL · min(-1 and relative (mL · kg(-1 · min(-1 maximal aerobic capacity was correlated to all but one of the work tasks (r(s = -0.79 to 0.55 and -0.74 to 0.47, p<0.01, respectively. Aerobic capacity is important for firefighters' work performance, and we have concluded that the time to row 500 m, the time to run 3000 m relative to body weight (s · kg(-1, and the percent of maximal heart rate achieved during treadmill walking are the most valid field tests for evaluating a firefighter's aerobic work capacity.

  4. The aerobic activity of metronidazole against anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dione, Niokhor; Khelaifia, Saber; Lagier, Jean-Christophe; Raoult, Didier

    2015-05-01

    Recently, the aerobic growth of strictly anaerobic bacteria was demonstrated using antioxidants. Metronidazole is frequently used to treat infections caused by anaerobic bacteria; however, to date its antibacterial activity was only tested in anaerobic conditions. Here we aerobically tested using antioxidants the in vitro activities of metronidazole, gentamicin, doxycycline and imipenem against 10 common anaerobic and aerobic bacteria. In vitro susceptibility testing was performed by the disk diffusion method, and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by Etest. Aerobic culture of the bacteria was performed at 37°C using Schaedler agar medium supplemented with 1mg/mL ascorbic acid and 0.1mg/mL glutathione; the pH was adjusted to 7.2 by 10M KOH. Growth of anaerobic bacteria cultured aerobically using antioxidants was inhibited by metronidazole after 72h of incubation at 37°C, with a mean inhibition diameter of 37.76mm and an MIC of 1μg/mL; however, strains remained non-sensitive to gentamicin. No growth inhibition of aerobic bacteria was observed after 24h of incubation at 37°C with metronidazole; however, inhibition was observed with doxycycline and imipenem used as controls. These results indicate that bacterial sensitivity to metronidazole is not related to the oxygen tension but is a result of the sensitivity of the micro-organism. In future, both culture and antibiotic susceptibility testing of strictly anaerobic bacteria will be performed in an aerobic atmosphere using antioxidants in clinical microbiology laboratories. PMID:25813393

  5. Distribution of free-living and particle-attached aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria in marine environments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lami, R.; Čuperová, Zuzana; Ras, J.; Lebaron, P.; Koblížek, Michal

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 1 (2009), s. 31-38. ISSN 0948-3055 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/07/0241; GA AV ČR 1QS500200570 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : AAP bacteria * photoheterotrophy * free-living bacteria Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.743, year: 2009

  6. Summary report on the aerobic degradation of diesel fuel and the degradation of toluene under aerobic, denitrifying and sulfate reducing conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains a number of studies that were performed to better understand the technology of the biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons. Topics of investigation include the following: diesel fuel degradation by Rhodococcus erythropolis; BTEX degradation by soil isolates; aerobic degradation of diesel fuel-respirometry; aerobic degradation of diesel fuel-shake culture; aerobic toluene degradation by A3; effect of HEPES, B1, and myo-inositol addition on the growth of A3; aerobic and anaerobic toluene degradation by contaminated soils; denitrifying bacteria MPNs; sulfate-reducing bacteria MPNs; and aerobic, DNB and SRB enrichments

  7. Maternal and fetal responses to low-impact aerobic dance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurray, R G; Katz, V L; Poe, M P; Hackney, A C

    1995-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the physiologic responses to low-impact aerobics using treadmill walking as a control. Ten pregnant women between 21 and 28 weeks of gestation completed 40 minutes of low-impact aerobic dance. The maternal and fetal responses were then compared to 40 minutes of walking at the same heart rate. The aerobics program consisted of a 10-minute warm-up, 20 minutes of high-intensity exercise, and 10 minutes of decreasing intensity. Heart rates were recorded every 5 minutes, and oxygen uptake (VO2) and fetal response (real-time ultrasound) were obtained every 10 minutes. The maternal heart rates were similar during both trials (overall, 133 +/- 6 beat/min). VO2 values during walking were about 4 mL/kg/min greater than during aerobic dance (p dance caused greater fetal heart rates than walking (p rates had returned toward rest within 5 minutes following exercise. Low-impact aerobic dance, compared with walking at similar heart rates, results in a lower maternal metabolic rate and increases the transient stress on the fetus. PMID:7575837

  8. Mood alterations in mindful versus aerobic exercise modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netz, Yael; Lidor, Ronnie

    2003-09-01

    The results of most recent studies have generally indicated an improvement in mood after participation in aerobic exercise. However, only a few researchers have compared mindful modes of exercise with aerobic exercise to examine the effect of 1 single session of exercise on mood. In the present study, the authors assessed state anxiety, depressive mood, and subjective well-being prior to and following 1 class of 1 of 4 exercise modes: yoga, Feldenkrais (awareness through movement), aerobic dance, and swimming; a computer class served as a control. Participants were 147 female general curriculum and physical education teachers (mean age = 40.15, SD = 0.2) voluntarily enrolled in a 1-year enrichment program at a physical education college. Analyses of variance for repeated measures revealed mood improvement following Feldenkrais, swimming, and yoga but not following aerobic dance and computer lessons. Mindful low-exertion activities as well as aerobic activities enhanced mood in 1 single session of exercise. The authors suggest that more studies assessing the mood-enhancing benefits of mindful activities such as Feldenkrais and yoga are needed. PMID:14629072

  9. Aerobic fitness and its relationship with growth and maturation processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilson Serpeloni Cyrino

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aimf of this paper is to provide information concerning aerobic fitness and then relate the behavior of aerobic strength with growth and maturation processes, since the aerobic metabolism during the practice of physical exercises has been the target of research along the last decades, both under the perspective of health promotion and the improvement of the athletic performance. In that sense, information about aerobic fitness has provided the evaluation of the cardiorespiratory system functioning, the training efficacy control, the determining of the effort relative load, besides determining the individual’s energy expenditure in different age groups, both male and female, and with differential levels of physical fitness. The main indexes used in this purpose have been the maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max or the peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak. However, several factors may influence such indexes, being either determinant or retraint of the motor performance, mostly in predominantly aerobic activities. Among such factors the emphasis is on growth and maturation processes, which can explain many of the differences found in the behavior of different individuals submitted to similar physical efforts, providing thus a more consistent analysis of the differences in the motor performance, particularly of young male and female.

  10. Comparison of Aerobic and Anaerobic Biodegradation of Sugarcane Vinasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, V T; Araújo, T A; Amaral, M C S

    2015-07-01

    Vinasse is the main liquid waste from ethanol production, and it has a considerable pollution potential. Biological treatment is a promising alternative to reduce its organic load. The aim of this study was to analyze the biodegradation of sugarcane juice vinasse in aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The content of carbohydrates, proteins and volatile fatty acids was evaluated. Vinasse samples showed a high biodegradability (>96.5 %) and low percentage of inert chemical oxygen demand (COD) (<3.2 %) in both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The rates of substrate utilization were slightly higher in aerobic reactors, but COD stabilization occurred simultaneously in the anaerobic reactors, confirming its suitability for anaerobic digestion. Inert COD in anaerobic conditions was lower than in aerobic conditions. On the other hand, COD from metabolic products in the anaerobic reactors was higher than in the aerobic ones, indicating an increased release of soluble microbial products (SMPs) by anaerobic microorganisms. The results indicated that carbohydrates were satisfactorily degraded and protein-like substances were the major components remaining after biological degradation of vinasse. PMID:25957273

  11. Impact of brisk walking and aerobics in overweight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melam, Ganeswara Rao; Alhusaini, Adel A; Buragadda, Syamala; Kaur, Taranpreet; Khan, Imran Ali

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Lack of physical activity and an uncontrolled diet cause excessive weight gain, which leads to obesity and other metabolic disorders. Studies have indicated that brisk walking and aerobics are the best methods for controlling and reducing weight and body mass composition. [Subjects and Methods] In this study, 45 overweight women were enrolled and divided into 3 groups. Women not involved in brisk walking or aerobics were included in group A (n = 15) as control subjects; women involved in brisk walking were in group B (n = 15); and those involved in aerobics were in group C (n = 15). [Results] This program was carried out 5 days/week for 10 weeks. Pre- and post-measurements of body mass index, waist and hip circumference, and skinfold thickness of the abdomen, subscapular area, biceps, and triceps were recorded for the women in all 3 groups. All values decreased in women who participated in brisk walking and aerobics for 10 weeks. [Conclusion] These results indicate that aerobics with diet therapy is a more effective intervention program for controlling and reducing body mass index and skinfold thickness than brisk walking with diet therapy in North Indian women. PMID:26957777

  12. Marine Environmental History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Bo

    2012-01-01

    This essay provides an overview of recent trends in the historiography of marine environmental history, a sub-field of environmental history which has grown tremendously in scope and size over the last c. 15 years. The object of marine environmental history is the changing relationship between...... human society and natural marine resources. Within this broad topic, several trends and objectives are discernable. The essay argue that the so-called material marine environmental history has its main focus on trying to reconstruct the presence, development and environmental impact of past fisheries...... and whaling operations. This ambition often entails a reconstruction also of how marine life has changed over time. The time frame rages from Paleolithicum to the present era. The field of marine environmental history also includes a more culturally oriented environmental history, which mainly has come...

  13. Effects of four aromatic organic pollutants on microbial glucose metabolism and thymidine incorporation in marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The metabolism of D-(U-14C)glucose and the incorporation of (methyl-3H)thymidine by aerobic and anaerobic marine sediment microbes exposed to 1 to 1000 ppm anthracene, naphthalene, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, and pentachlorophenol were examined. Cell-specific rates of (14C)glucose metabolism averaged 1.7 x 10-21 and 0.5 x 10-21 mol/min per cell for aerobic and anaerobic sediment slurries, respectively; (3H)thymidine incorporation rates averaged 43 x 10-24 and 9 x 10-24 mol/min per cell for aerobic and anaerobic slurries, respectively. Aerobic sediments exposed to three of the organic pollutants for 2 to 7 days showed recovery of both activities. Anaerobic sediments showed little recovery after 2 days of pre-exposure to the pollutants. The authors conclude that (i) anaerobic sediments are more sensitive than aerobic sediments to pollutant additions; (ii) (3H)thymidine incorporation is more sensitive to pollutant additions than is (14C)glucose metabolism; and (iii) the toxicity of the pollutants increased in the following order: anthracene, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, naphthalene, and pentachlorophenol

  14. Marine Indole Alkaloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Netz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Marine indole alkaloids comprise a large and steadily growing group of secondary metabolites. Their diverse biological activities make many compounds of this class attractive starting points for pharmaceutical development. Several marine-derived indoles were found to possess cytotoxic, antineoplastic, antibacterial and antimicrobial activities, in addition to the action on human enzymes and receptors. The newly isolated indole alkaloids of marine origin since the last comprehensive review in 2003 are reported, and biological aspects will be discussed.

  15. Risks In Marine Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Jelena Grdinic

    2008-01-01

    The author of this paper elaborates risks in marine insurance. Firstly, the author primarily specifies the concept, types and basic characteristics of risks, emphasizing specifics of marine risk in relation to general risks. The author particularly considers determination of risk according to our legal regulations and English Marine Insurance Act, as the most important act in this matter. Special attention is paid to insured risk according to the most recent standard conditions for insurance ...

  16. Marine-Design Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul; Birmingham, R.; Sortland, B.;

    2006-01-01

    This report addresses Marine-Design Education in view of present and forecasted demands of the maritime industry, determined by a drastically transforming economic and technological maritime environment. In this framework, this report discusses in depth IT-based Marine Design education (par. 4) and...... continuity between traditional and modern ways of teaching (par. 4) and points out that Marine Design education is not only about Design, but should also address project/business administration and decision making issues (par. 7)....

  17. Marine Current Energy Conversion

    OpenAIRE

    Lundin, Staffan

    2016-01-01

    Marine currents, i.e. water currents in oceans and rivers, constitute a large renewable energy resource. This thesis presents research done on the subject of marine current energy conversion in a broad sense. A review of the tidal energy resource in Norway is presented, with the conclusion that tidal currents ought to be an interesting option for Norway in terms of renewable energy. The design of marine current energy conversion devices is studied. It is argued that turbine and generator cann...

  18. Marine electrical practice

    CERN Document Server

    Watson, G O

    1991-01-01

    Marine Engineering Series: Marine Electrical Practice, Sixth Edition focuses on changes in the marine industry, including the application of programmable electronic systems, generators, and motors. The publication first ponders on insulation and temperature ratings of equipment, protection and discrimination, and AC generators. Discussions focus on construction, shaft-drive generators, effect of unbalanced loading, subtransient and transient reactance, protection discrimination, fault current, measurement of ambient air temperature, and basis of machine ratings. The text then examines AC switc

  19. Self-Assembling Amphiphilic Siderophores from Marine Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, J. S.; Zhang, G. P.; Holt, P. D.; Jung, H.-T.; Carrano, C. J.; Haygood, M. G.; Butler, Alison

    2000-02-01

    Most aerobic bacteria secrete siderophores to facilitate iron acquisition. Two families of siderophores were isolated from strains belonging to two different genera of marine bacteria. The aquachelins, from Halomonas aquamarina strain DS40M3, and the marinobactins, from Marinobacter sp. strains DS40M6 and DS40M8, each contain a unique peptidic head group that coordinates iron(III) and an appendage of one of a series of fatty acid moieties. These siderophores have low critical micelle concentrations (CMCs). In the absence of iron, the marinobactins are present as micelles at concentrations exceeding their CMC; upon addition of iron(III), the micelles undergo a spontaneous phase change to form vesicles. These observations suggest that unique iron acquisition mechanisms may have evolved in marine bacteria.

  20. Marine Ecological Regions 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This shapefile was screen digitized from 'Calecoregions1.jpg' a georectified digital image of the original map of California's ecoregions, including the marine...

  1. High bacterial biodiversity increases degradation performance of hydrocarbons during bioremediation of contaminated harbor marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated changes of bacterial abundance and biodiversity during bioremediation experiments carried out on oxic and anoxic marine harbor sediments contaminated with hydrocarbons. Oxic sediments, supplied with inorganic nutrients, were incubated in aerobic conditions at 20 °C and 35 °C for 30 days, whereas anoxic sediments, amended with organic substrates, were incubated in anaerobic conditions at the same temperatures for 60 days. Results reported here indicate that temperature exerted the main effect on bacterial abundance, diversity and assemblage composition. At higher temperature bacterial diversity and evenness increased significantly in aerobic conditions, whilst decreased in anaerobic conditions. In both aerobic and anaerobic conditions, biodegradation efficiencies of hydrocarbons were significantly and positively related with bacterial richness and evenness. Overall results presented here suggest that bioremediation strategies, which can sustain high levels of bacterial diversity rather than the selection of specific taxa, may significantly increase the efficiency of hydrocarbon degradation in contaminated marine sediments. - Highlights: ► Bioremediation performance was investigated on hydrocarbon contaminated sediments. ► Major changes in bacterial diversity and assemblage composition were observed. ► Temperature exerted the major effect on bacterial assemblages. ► High bacterial diversity increased significantly biodegradation performance. This should be considered for sediment remediation by bio-treatments. - Bioremediation strategies which can sustain high levels of bacterial diversity may significantly increase the biodegradation of hydrocarbons in contaminated marine sediments.

  2. Aerobic Microbial Respiration In Oceanic Oxygen Minimum Zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalvelage, Tim; Lavik, Gaute; Jensen, Marlene Mark;

    2015-01-01

    Namibia and Peru. Experiments with additions of double-labelled oxygen revealed high aerobic activity in the upper OMZs, likely controlled by surface organic matter export. Consistently observed oxygen consumption in samples retrieved throughout the lower OMZs hints at efficient exploitation of vertically...... denitrification and alternative anaerobic pathways of organic matter remineralization cannot account for the ammonium requirements of reported anammox rates. Here, we explore the significance of microaerobic respiration as a source of ammonium during organic matter degradation in the oxygen-deficient waters off...... and laterally advected, oxygenated waters in this zone by aerobic microorganisms. In accordance, metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses identified genes encoding for aerobic terminal oxidases and demonstrated their expression by diverse microbial communities, even in virtually anoxic waters. Our...

  3. Impact of 6-month aerobic exercise on Alzheimer's symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fang; Thomas, William; Nelson, Nathaniel W; Bronas, Ulf G; Dysken, Maurice; Wyman, Jean F

    2015-06-01

    Little is known about how aerobic exercise affects Alzheimer's disease (AD). The purpose of this pilot study was to test the impact of 6-month cycling on AD symptoms in community-dwelling older adults with mild-to-moderate AD, using a single-group, repeated-measures design (n = 26). AD symptoms were measured with the AD Assessment Scale-Cognitive (ADAS-Cog), Disability in AD (DAD), and Neuropsychiatric Inventory-Caregiver (NPI-Q) scales at baseline, 3 and 6 months. Data were analyzed using mixed linear models. The ADAS-Cog, DAD, and NPI-Q severity scores remained unchanged over the 6-month period, while caregiver distress decreased 40% (p < .05). We conclude that aerobic exercise may reduce AD symptoms and appears effective in decreasing caregiver distress. Further randomized controlled trials are needed to examine the effects of aerobic exercise in AD. PMID:24652914

  4. Isolation and denitrification characteristic of an aerobic denitrifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Dan-dan; MA Fang; WANG Hong-yu; DONG Shuang-shi; WANG Ai-jie

    2006-01-01

    Aerobic denitrifiers were enriched by activated sludge cultivation method. By this way, 105 strains were isolated from the activated sludge and 25 strains were confirmed to be capable of obtaining energy by deoxidization of nitrate to nitrogen gas under aerobic condition. The characteristic of one denitrifier, Pseudomonas chloritidismutans strain, was particularly studied due to its higher nitrogen removal rate. It was found that Pseudomonas chloritidismutans can use nitrite, nitrate and oxygen for aerobic respiration in liquid medium, and the pH increased and ORP decreased by activated denitrifier. When they used nitrite or nitrate for respiration, nitrogen removal effect was high and nitrite could be reduced more efficiently than nitrate. Denitrification process was accomplished faster when both nitrite and nitrate existed in the medium compared to each of which existed alone. Particularly, at denitrifying activity, the nitrogen removal rate of strain was not affected by the DO concentration in the culture media.

  5. Novel aerobic tetracycline resistance gene that chemically modifies tetracycline.

    OpenAIRE

    Speer, B S; Salyers, A A

    1989-01-01

    A tetracycline resistance gene that was found originally on the Bacteroides plasmid pBF4 confers resistance on Escherichia coli but only when cells are growing aerobically. When E. coli EM24 carrying this aerobic tetracycline resistance (*Tcr) gene is grown in medium containing tetracycline, the resulting spent medium is no longer toxic to tetracycline-sensitive (Tcs) E. coli EM24 (B.S. Speer and A.A. Salyers, J. Bacteriol. 170: 1423-1429, 1988). To determine whether the *Tcr gene product mod...

  6. New records in aerobic power among octogenarian lifelong endurance athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Trappe, Scott; Hayes, Erik; Galpin, Andrew; Kaminsky, Leonard; Jemiolo, Bozena; Fink, William; Trappe, Todd; Jansson, Anna; Gustafsson, Thomas; Tesch, Per

    2012-01-01

    We examined whole body aerobic capacity and myocellular markers of oxidative metabolism in lifelong endurance athletes [n = 9, 81 ± 1 yr, 68 ± 3 kg, body mass index (BMI) = 23 ± 1 kg/m2] and age-matched, healthy, untrained men (n = 6; 82 ± 1 y, 77 ± 5 kg, BMI = 26 ± 1 kg/m2). The endurance athletes were cross-country skiers, including a former Olympic champion and several national/regional champions, with a history of aerobic exercise and participation in endurance events throughout their liv...

  7. Frequency of Combined Resistance and Aerobic Training in Older Women

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Gordon; McCarthy, John P.; Zuckerman, Paul A.; Bryan, David R.; Bickel, C. Scott; Hunter, Gary R.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the optimal frequency of combined aerobic and resistance training for improving muscular strength (MS), cardiovascular fitness (CF), and functional tasks (FTs) in women older than 60 years. Sixty-three women were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 exercise training groups. Group 1 performed 1 resistance exercise training (RET) and 1 aerobic exercise training (AET) session per week (AET/RET 1 × wk−1); group 2 performed 2 RET and 2 AET sessions per week (AET/RET ...

  8. The Effect of Aerobic Exercise on Cardiopulmonary System in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Dilek Sevimli; Fuat Kocyigit

    2009-01-01

    AIM: The purpose of this study is to investigate the changes in cardiopulmonary system stimulated by aerobic exercise in different age group of children and to find out in which age group aerobic exercise is more effective. METHOD: Totally, 76 children participated in this study. Ages of the participants ranged between 11–17, and mean age was 14.08±0.65. Participants were divided into three groups according to their age range. There were 23 in the first and second and 30 participant...

  9. Aerobic Rice: Benefits without going to the Gym?

    OpenAIRE

    Bayot, Ruvicyn; Templeton, Deborah J.

    2009-01-01

    Rice, a staple food for over 70% of Asians, is also the single biggest user of water, requiring 2‐3 times more water per unit of grain produced than crops such as wheat and maize. With growing populations, increased urbanisation and environmental degradation, the supply of fresh water is depleting. Recognising the water constraints to rice yield, the aim of the project entitled ‘Developing a System of Temperate and Tropical Aerobic Rice (STAR) in Asia’ was to develop water‐efficient aerobic r...

  10. Aerobic bioremediation of petroleum contaminated soil using controlled landfarming technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that the Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control (DNREC) has been concerned about open, uncontrolled landfarming remediation procedures producing a significant amount of atmospheric volatile petroleum discharge and increasing the probability of the remediation site's soil and groundwater becoming contaminated by rainwater. WIK Associates, Inc., therefore, has been developing full scale aerobic bioremediation technology for clients within the Delaware area in order to carry out year round, full scale, aerobic biodegradation of petroleum contaminated soils, while controlling any volatile emissions

  11. Enhancing excess sludge aerobic digestion with low intensity ultrasound

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Wen-chuan; LI Dong-xue; ZENG Xiao-lan; LONG Teng-rui

    2006-01-01

    In order to enhance the efficiency of aerobic digestion, the excess sludge was irradiated by low intensity ultrasound at a frequency of 28 kHz and acoustic intensity of 0.53 W/cm2. The results show that the sludge stabilization without ultrasonic treatment can be achieved after 17 d of digestion, whereas the digestion time of ultrasonic groups can be cut by 3 - 7 d. During the same digestion elapsing, in ultrasonic groups the total volatile suspended solid removal rate is higher than that in the control group. The kinetics of aerobic digestion of excess sludge with ultrasound can also be described with first-order reaction.

  12. Influence employment by improving aerobics on motor readiness of girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shypulo I. P.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : substantiate the effect of employment by improving aerobics on motor readiness of girls in extracurricular educational institutions. Material : the study involved 90 women aged 16-18 years old. Classes are held 3 times a week for 1 hour each. Results : defined state and the most informative indicators motor fitness girls. Built analytical model of graph model for forecasting and conducting quantitative and qualitative control of motor fitness girls. The degree of severity of each of the parameters studied motor fitness girls. Conclusions : the possibilities of predicting outcomes. Recommended method of aerobics classes, which has five stages. Its main feature - the constant objective control efficiency of employment.

  13. Exercise intensity during Zumba fitness and Tae-bo aerobics

    OpenAIRE

    Hižnayová, Kristína

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzed and compared the exercise intensity in Zumba fitness and Tae-bo aerobics. Object of the research was monitoring of the heart rate and energy consumption in kcal during exercise unit, by using Heart Rate Monitor Suunto Memory Belt. All measurements were attended by randomly selected 11 women. The data we collected during the six units of the Zumba fitness and six units of the Tae-bo aerobics . Obtained data of the heart rate were evaluated in three main parts of workout: af...

  14. Identification of hopanoid, sterol, and tetrahymanol production in the aerobic methanotroph Methylomicrobium alcaliphilum 20Z

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welander, P. V.; Summons, R. E.

    2013-12-01

    observed in freshwater and marine ciliates (such as Tetrahymena thermophila) and two bacteria unrelated to aerobic methanotrophs, Rhodopseudomonas and Bradyrhizobium. Utilizing comparative genomics we identified the oxidosqualene cyclase gene required for sterol biosynthesis as well as two copies of the squalene hopene cyclase gene necessary for hopanoid biosynthesis in the M. alcaliphilum genome. To determine if one or both copies of the squalene hopene cyclase gene were necessary for aminohopanoid or tetrahymanol production, shc gene deletions were constructed and the subsequent mutants were analyzed for impaired hopanoid production. The occurrence of sterols, hopanoids and gammacerane lipids in one bacterium not only provides a unique system in which to study the biosynthesis and function of each lipid class but also to investigate any potential functional and evolutionary relationship these three lipid classes may share. In turn, these studies provide information necessary to properly interpret the occurrence of these molecules in the rock record.

  15. Exploring marine life

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, V.R.

    Sea abounds in a variety of plant and animal life. Census of Marine Life (CoML), a global program aims to understand the diversity, geographic distribution and abundance of marine species from pole to pole covering estuarine, coastal and oceanic...

  16. iMarine project

    OpenAIRE

    Castelli, Donatella; Ellebroek, Anton; Taconet, Narc; Pagano, Pasquale (ISTI-CNR)

    2012-01-01

    The state-of-art of the iMarine project is presented. The project aim is establishing and operating an e‐infrastructure contributing to the implementation of the principles of the Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries Management and Conservation of Marine Living Resources

  17. Cultivation of marine sponges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QU Yi; ZHANG Wei; LI Hua; YU Xingju; JIN Meifang

    2005-01-01

    Sponges are the most primitive of multicellular animals, and are major pharmaceutical sources of marine secondary metabolites. A wide variety of new compounds have been isolated from sponges. In order to produce sufficient amounts of the compounds of the needed, it is necessary to obtain large amount of sponges.The production of sponge biomass has become a focus of marine biotechnology.

  18. Helping Adults to Stay Physically Fit: Preventing Relapse Following Aerobic Exercise Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrick, G. Ken; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Long-term adherence to an aerobic exercise regime is a major problem among exercise program graduates. This article discusses the steps involved in developing relapse prevention treatment strategies for aerobic exercise programs. (JMK)

  19. Solid-Phase Thermophilic Aerobic Reactor (STAR) Processing of Fecal, Food, and Plant Residues

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    A description of the Solid Waste Resource Recovery ALS-NSCORT projects: Solid Phase Thermophilic Aerobic Reactor (STAR), Nitrogen Cycling in Advanced Life Support Systems, and Plant-based Anaerobic-Aerobic Bioreactor Linked Operation (PAABLO). 26 pages.

  20. High Performance Marine Vessels

    CERN Document Server

    Yun, Liang

    2012-01-01

    High Performance Marine Vessels (HPMVs) range from the Fast Ferries to the latest high speed Navy Craft, including competition power boats and hydroplanes, hydrofoils, hovercraft, catamarans and other multi-hull craft. High Performance Marine Vessels covers the main concepts of HPMVs and discusses historical background, design features, services that have been successful and not so successful, and some sample data of the range of HPMVs to date. Included is a comparison of all HPMVs craft and the differences between them and descriptions of performance (hydrodynamics and aerodynamics). Readers will find a comprehensive overview of the design, development and building of HPMVs. In summary, this book: Focuses on technology at the aero-marine interface Covers the full range of high performance marine vessel concepts Explains the historical development of various HPMVs Discusses ferries, racing and pleasure craft, as well as utility and military missions High Performance Marine Vessels is an ideal book for student...

  1. Blood lactate level in Wistar rats after four and twelve week intermittent aerobic training

    OpenAIRE

    Dewi N. Sari; Sutjahjo Endardjo; Dewi I.S. Santoso

    2013-01-01

    Background: Aerobic training can be done not only continuously, but also intermittently. Intermittent aerobic training aimed to get blood lactate level lower than continuous aerobic training. Blood lactate concentration in one of the various factors that determine training performance. However, until recently, little studies about intermittent aerobic training and blood lactate levels have been done. Therefore, this study aimed to measure blood lactate levels in Wistar rats after 4 and 12 wee...

  2. Exercise training improves aerobic endurance and musculoskeletal fitness in female cardiac transplant recipients

    OpenAIRE

    Warburton Darren; Kim Daniel; Figgures Linda; Riess Kenneth; Haykowsky Mark; Jones Lee; Tymchak Wayne

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Aim Female cardiac transplant recipients' aerobic capacity is 60% lower than sex and age-predicted values. The effect of exercise training on restoring the impaired aerobic endurance and muscle strength in female cardiac transplant recipients is not known. This study examined the effect that aerobic and strength training have on improving aerobic endurance and muscle strength in female cardiac transplant recipients. Methods 20 female cardiac transplant recipients (51 ± 11 years) part...

  3. Treatment of anthraquinone dye wastewater by hydrolytic acidification-aerobic process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jian; WU Min; Li Dan

    2004-01-01

    Experiment on microbial degradation with two kinds of biological process, hydrolytic acidification-aerobic process and aerobic process was conducted to treat the anthraquinone dye wastewater with CODCr concentration of 400 mg/L and chroma 800. The experimental result demonstrated that the hydrolytic-aerobic process could raise the biodegradability of anthraquinone dye wastewater effectively. The effluent CODCr can reach 120-170 mg/L and chroma 150 which is superior to that from simple aerobic process.

  4. Sulfur Cycling Mediates Calcium Carbonate Geochemistry in Modern Marine Stromatolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visscher, P. T.; Hoeft, S. E.; Bebout, B. M.; Reid, R. P.

    2004-01-01

    Modem marine stromatolites forming in Highborne Cay, Exumas (Bahamas), contain microbial mats dominated by Schizothrix. Although saturating concentrations of Ca2+ and CO32- exist, microbes mediate CaCO3 precipitation. Cyanobacterial photosynthesis in these stromatolites aids calcium carbonate precipitation by removal of HS+ through CO2 use. Photorespiration and exopolymer production predominantly by oxygenic phototrophs fuel heterotrophic activity: aerobic respiration (approximately 60 umol/sq cm.h) and sulfate reduction (SR; 1.2 umol SO42-/sq cm.h) are the dominant C- consuming processes. Aerobic microbial respiration and the combination of SR and H2S oxidation both facilitate CaCO3 dissolution through H+ production. Aerobic respiration consumes much more C on an hourly basis, but duel fluctuating O2 and H2 depth profiles indicate that overall, SR consumes only slightly less (0.2-0.5) of the primary production. Moreover, due to low O2 concentrations when SR rates are peaking, reoxidation of the H2S formed is incomplete: both thiosulfate and polythionates are formed. The process of complete H2S oxidation yields H+. However, due to a low O2 concentration late in the day and relatively high O2 concentrations early in the following morning, a two-stage oxidation takes place: first, polythionates are formed from H2S, creating alkalinity which coincides with CaCO3 precipitation; secondly, oxidation of polythionates to sulfate yields acidity, resulting in dissolution, etc. Vertical profiles confirmed that the pH peaked late in the afternoon (greater than 8.8) and had the lowest values (less than 7.4) early in the morning. Thus, the effect of this S-cycling through alkalinity production, followed by acidification during H2S oxidation, results in a six times stronger fluctuation in acidity than photosynthesis plus aerobic respiration accomplish. This implies that anaerobic processes play a pivotal role in stromatolite formation.

  5. Acute effect of hematological parameters on aerobic and anaerobic exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan İbiş

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Main of aim of this study in which 18 volunteers with average of 21,6 years are involved is to search acute effect of hematological parameters on aerobic and anaerobic exercise. Max VO2 values of volunteers are obtained using Astrand bicycle ergonometric test.   Aerobic exercise was taken with %50 of max VO2 for 45 minutes and anaerobic exercise was taken with %120 of max VO2 till exhausted. Blood samples were taken before exercise, just after exercise and 24 hours after exercise and we looked at hematocrit values. Statistical analysis was done using one-way ANOVA test. There are no significant values observed in hemotological results for aerobic exercise. But, there were some significant values observed in Hb, Hct, Wbc just after anaerobic exercise whereas some significant decreases were observed for 24 hours after exercise. Comparison of both exercises time showed that there is significant increase in anaerobic exercise and decreases in aerobic exercise. As a result, maximal and hard exercise affects hematological values more then moderate exercise. The reason of this observation is because there has been a change in hematocrit levels and movement of leucocyte from margination pool to demargination pool in blood circulation duration of exercise and after exercise.

  6. Biological phosphorus uptake under anoxic and aerobic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerrn-Jespersen, Jens Peter; Henze, Mogens

    1993-01-01

    Biological phosphorus removal was investigated under anoxic and aerobic conditions. Tests were made to establish whether phosphorus accumulating bacteria can take up phosphate under anoxic conditions and thus utilise nitrate as oxidant. Furthermore, it was tested how the amount of organic matter...

  7. High Abundances of Aerobic Anoxygenic Phototrophs in Saline Steppe Lakes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Medová, Hana; Boldareva, Ekaterina; Hrouzek, Pavel; Borzenko, S. V.; Namsaraev, Z. B.; Gorlenko, V. M.; Namsaraev, B. B.; Koblížek, Michal

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 76, č. 2 (2011), s. 393-400. ISSN 0168-6496 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP501/10/0221 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : bacteriochlorophyll * soda lakes * aerobic photosynthetic bacteria Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.408, year: 2011

  8. Aerobic Capacity in Children and Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschuren, Olaf; Takken, Tim

    2010-01-01

    This study described the aerobic capacity [VO[subscript 2peak] (ml/kg/min)] in contemporary children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) using a maximal exercise test protocol. Twenty-four children and adolescents with CP classified at Gross Motor Functional Classification Scale (GMFCS) level I or level II and 336 typically developing…

  9. Strength training and aerobic exercise training for muscle disease (Review)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voet, N.B.M.; Kooi, E.L. van der; Riphagen, I.I.; Lindeman, E.; Engelen, B.G.M. van; Geurts, A.C.H.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Strength training or aerobic exercise programmes might optimise muscle and cardiorespiratory function and prevent additional disuse atrophy and deconditioning in people with a muscle disease. This is an update of a review first published in 2004. OBJECTIVES: To examine the safety and eff

  10. Intrinsic Aerobic Capacity Sets a Divide for Aging and Longevity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koch, G.; Kemi, O.J.; Qi, N.; Leng, S.X.; Bijma, P.; Gilligan, L.J.; Wilkinson, J.E.; Grevenhof, van E.M.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale: Low aerobic exercise capacity is a powerful predictor of premature morbidity and mortality for healthy adults as well as those with cardiovascular disease. For aged populations, poor performance on treadmill or extended walking tests indicates closer proximity to future health declines. T

  11. Sequenced anaerobic-aerobic treatment of hemp pulping wastewaters.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kortekaas, S.

    1998-01-01

    Biological treatment is an indispensable instrument for water management of non-wood pulp mills, either as internal measure to enable progressive closure of water cycles, or as end of pipe treatment. In this thesis, the sequenced anaerobic-aerobic treatment of hemp ( Cannabis sativa L. ) pulping was

  12. Kinetic comparisons of mesophilic and thermophilic aerobic biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogelaar, J.C.T.; Klapwijk, A.; Temmink, H.; Lier, van J.B.

    2003-01-01

    Kinetic parameters describing growth and decay of mesophilic (30degreesC) and thermophilic (55degreesC) aerobic biomass were determined in continuous and batch experiments by using oxygen uptake rate measurements
    Kinetic parameters describing growth and decay of mesophilic (30degreesC) and therm

  13. PATTERN OF AEROBIC B ACTERIAL INFECTION O F DIABETIC FOOT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmeshwari

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diabetic foot ulcer is one of the commonest complications of longstanding diabetes. Diabetic foot is a common cause of hospital admission in diabetic patients in India. The trio of problems leading onto diabetic foot is neuropathy, vascular changes and infections, which constitute the diabetic foot syndrome. OBJECTIVES: To determine prevalence of aerobic pathogens in diabetic foot lesions. METHODS: Tissue samples were taken from the affected foot of 109 diabetic patients and processed by routine microbiological methods. RESULTS : A total of 244 aerobic organisms were isolated from 100 cases with an average of 2.5 organisms per case. Staphylococcus aureus was the predominant aerobe isolated (25.4% followed by Proteus mirabilis (21.3%. The other aerobes isolated were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (10.65%, Kleb siella pneumonia (8.6%, Escherichia coli (6.9%, Enterococcus faecalis (5.32%, Coagulase Negative Staphylococcus (4.5%, Proteus vulgaris (4.09%, Klebsiella oxytoca (3.27%, Citrobacter freudii (2.86%, Corynebacterium species (2.04%, Group A streptococci and Acinetobacter species (1.63%, and Enterobacter species (0.82%. MRSA was 17.8%. CONCLUSION : Diabetic foot infections are polymicrobial in nature. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common among gram - positive organisms, while P roteus mirabilis was the most frequent isolate among the gram - negative pathogens. Hence early identification of the risk factors and timely institution of appropriate treatment is indispensable to avoid amputations.

  14. COMMERCIAL-SCALE AEROBIC-ANAEROBIC BIOREACTOR LANDFILL OPERATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A sequential aerobic-anaerobic treatment system has been applied at a commercial scale (3,000 ton per day) municipal solid waste landfill in Kentucky, USA since 2001. In this system, the uppermost layer of landfilled waste is aerated and liquid waste including leachate, surface w...

  15. Aerobic Oxidation of Methyl Vinyl Ketone in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OUYANG,Xiao-Yue(欧阳小月); JIANG,Huan-Feng(江焕峰); CHENG,Jin-Sheng(程金生); ZHANG,Qun-Jian(张群健)

    2002-01-01

    Aerobic oxidation of methyl vinyl ketone to acetal in supercritical carbon dioxide are achieved in high conversion and high selectivity when oxygen pressure reaches 0.5MPa. The effects of cocatalysts,additive, pressure and temperature of the reaction are studied in detail.

  16. Aerobic Digestion. Biological Treatment Process Control. Instructor's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopping, Paul H.

    This unit on aerobic sludge digestion covers the theory of the process, system components, factors that affect the process performance, standard operational concerns, indicators of steady-state operations, and operational problems. The instructor's guide includes: (1) an overview of the unit; (2) lesson plan; (3) lecture outline (keyed to a set of…

  17. Aerobic exercise and intraocular pressure in normotensive and glaucoma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatzibalis Theodosios

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the increasing number of people participating in physical aerobic exercise, jogging in particular, we considered that it would be worth knowing if there are should be limits to the exercise with regard to the intraocular pressure (IOP of the eyes. The purpose of this study is to check IOP in healthy and primary glaucoma patients after aerobic exercise. Methods 145 individuals were subdivided into seven groups: normotensives who exercised regularly (Group A; normotensives in whose right eye (RE timolol maleate 0.5% (Group B, latanoprost 0.005% (Group C, or brimonidine tartrate 0.2% (Group D was instilled; and primary glaucoma patients under monotherapy with β-blockers (Group E, prostaglandin analogues (Group F or combined antiglaucoma treatment (Group G instilled in both eyes. The IOP of both eyes was measured before and after exercise. Results A statistically significant decrease was found in IOP during jogging. The aerobic exercise reduces the IOP in those eyes where a b-blocker, a prostaglandin analogue or an α-agonist was previously instilled. The IOP is also decreased in glaucoma patients who are already under antiglaucoma treatment. Conclusion There is no ocular restriction for simple glaucoma patients in performing aerobic physical activity.

  18. Teaching Aerobic Cell Respiration Using the 5Es

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patro, Edward T.

    2008-01-01

    The 5E teaching model provides a five step method for teaching science. While the sequence of the model is strictly linear, it does provide opportunities for the teacher to "revisit" prior learning before moving on. The 5E method is described as it relates to the teaching of aerobic cell respiration.

  19. Aerobic Capacity and Anaerobic Power Levels of the University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taskin, Cengiz

    2016-01-01

    The aim of study was to analyze aerobic capacity and anaerobic power levels of the university students. Total forty university students who is department physical education and department business (age means; 21.15±1.46 years for male and age means; 20.55±1.79 years for female in department physical education), volunteered to participate in this…

  20. Aerobic Capacities of Early College High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loflin, Jerry W.

    2014-01-01

    The Early College High School Initiative (ECHSI) was introduced in 2002. Since 2002, limited data, especially student physical activity data, have been published pertaining to the ECHSI. The purpose of this study was to examine the aerobic capacities of early college students and compare them to state and national averages. Early college students…

  1. Research on the Characteristic of Energy Metabolism of Aerobics Sports and Reasonable Nutrition Supplement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Cheng

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The reasonable nutrition problem has received extensive attention. In this study, it takes the characteristics of aerobics sports as the breakthrough point, by analyzing the characteristics of energy metabolism of aerobics; it explains the composition of three large energy systems of energy metabolism, then discusses the nutritional requirements of Fitness Aerobics as well as the reasonable nutrition supplement measures.

  2. Research on the Characteristic of Energy Metabolism of Aerobics Sports and Reasonable Nutrition Supplement

    OpenAIRE

    Shuang Cheng

    2015-01-01

    The reasonable nutrition problem has received extensive attention. In this study, it takes the characteristics of aerobics sports as the breakthrough point, by analyzing the characteristics of energy metabolism of aerobics; it explains the composition of three large energy systems of energy metabolism, then discusses the nutritional requirements of Fitness Aerobics as well as the reasonable nutrition supplement measures.

  3. Aerobic exercise augments muscle transcriptome profile of resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Tommy R; Fernandez-Gonzalo, Rodrigo; Tesch, Per A; Rullman, Eric; Gustafsson, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Recent reports suggest that aerobic exercise may boost the hypertrophic response to short-term resistance training. This study explored the effects of an acute aerobic exercise bout on the transcriptional response to subsequent resistance exercise. Ten moderately trained men performed ∼45 min cycling on one leg followed by 4 × 7 maximal knee extensions for each leg, 15 min later. Thus, one limb performed aerobic and resistance exercise (AE + RE) while the opposing leg did resistance exercise only (RE). Biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle of each leg 3 h after the resistance exercise bout. Using DNA microarray, we analyzed differences [≥1.5-fold, false discovery rate (FDR) ≤10%] in gene expression profiles for the two modes of exercise. There were 176 genes up (127)- or downregulated (49) by AE + RE compared with RE. Among the most significant differentially expressed genes were established markers for muscle growth and oxidative capacity, novel cytokines, transcription factors, and micro-RNAs (miRNAs). The most enriched functional categories were those linked to carbohydrate metabolism and transcriptional regulation. Upstream analysis revealed that vascular endothelial growth factor, cAMP-response element-binding protein, Tet methylcytosine dioxygenase, and mammalian target of rapamycin were regulators highly activated by AE + RE, whereas JnK, NF-κβ, MAPK, and several miRNAs were inhibited. Thus, aerobic exercise alters the skeletal muscle transcriptional signature of resistance exercise to initiate important gene programs promoting both myofiber growth and improved oxidative capacity. These results provide novel insight into human muscle adaptations to diverse exercise modes and offer the very first genomic basis explaining how aerobic exercise may augment, rather than compromise, muscle growth induced by resistance exercise. PMID:27101291

  4. Marine fragrance chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hügel, Helmut M; Drevermann, Britta; Lingham, Anthony R; Marriott, Philip J

    2008-06-01

    The main marine message in perfumery is projected by Calone 1951 (7-methyl-2H-1,5-benzodioxepin-3(4H)-one). Kraft (Givaudan) and Gaudin (Firmenich) further maximized the marine fragrance molecular membership by extending the carbon chain of the 7-Me group. Our research targeted the polar group of the benzodioxepinone parent compound to investigate how this region of molecular makeup resonates with the dominant marine fragrance of the Calone 1951 structure. The olfactory evaluation of analogues prepared by chemical modification or removal of the CO group resulted in the introduction of aldehydic, sweet and floral-fruity notes with a diluted/diminished potency of the marine odor. To further analyze the olfactory properties of benzodioxepinones containing a diverse range of aromatic ring substituents, a novel synthesis route was developed. We found that a 7-alkyl group in Calone 1951 was essential for the maintenance of the significant marine odor characteristic, and our studies support the concept that the odorant structure occupying the hydrophobic binding pocket adjacent to the aromatic ring-binding site of the olfactory receptor is pivotal in the design and discovery of more potent and characteristic marine fragrances. How the structure of benzodioxepinones connects to marine sea-breeze fragrances is our continuing challenging research focus at the chemistry-biology interface. PMID:18618392

  5. LA POLLUTION MARINE

    OpenAIRE

    Goeury, David; Goeury, D

    2014-01-01

    National audience La pollution marine est définie comme l'introduction directe ou indirecte de déchets, de substances, ou d'énergie, y compris de sources sonores sous-marines d'origine humaine, qui entraîne ou qui est susceptible d'entraîner des effets nuisibles pour les ressources vivantes et les écosystèmes marins, avec pour conséquence, un appauvrissement de la biodiversité, des risques pour la santé humaine, des obstacles pour les activités maritimes, et notamment la pêche, le tourisme...

  6. Effect of 12-week-long aerobic training programme on body composition, aerobic capacity, complete blood count and blood lipid profile among young women

    OpenAIRE

    Kostrzewa-Nowak, Dorota; Nowak, Robert; Jastrzębski, Zbigniew; Zarębska, Aleksandra; Bichowska, Marta; Drobnik-Kozakiewicz, Izabela; Radzimiński, Łukasz; Leońska-Duniec, Agata; Ficek, Krzysztof; Cięszczyk, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    Background: Numerous data suggest that aerobic-type exercise improves lipoprotein-lipid profiles, cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition in young women. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biological response to high-low impact aerobic fitness among young women. Materials and methods: Thirty-four young women aged 22 (19-24) years were divided into three groups: underweight (N = 10), normal weight (N = 12) and overweight (N = 12). Aerobic capacity, anthropometry and body comp...

  7. 77 FR 2512 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA905 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine...; receipt of application. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that Dorian Houser, Ph.D., National Marine Mammal... under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA; 16 U.S.C. 1361 et...

  8. 77 FR 9627 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-17

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB005 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine.../2\\ W. 4th Avenue, Olympia, WA 98501, has applied in due form for a permit to take marine mammals in... subject permit is requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as...

  9. 75 FR 68605 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-08

    ... Register (75 FR 39915) that a request for a permit to conduct research on gray whales (Eschrictius robustus... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XX23 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine... Marine Science Center, Newport, OR has been issued a permit to conduct research on marine...

  10. Does aerobic exercise improve or impair cardiorespiratory fitness and health among cleaners?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korshøj Larsen, Mette; Lidegaard, Mark; Skotte, Jørgen H; Krustrup, Peter; Krause, Niklas; Søgaard, Karen; Holtermann, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: It is unknown if aerobic exercise overloads or improves the cardiovascular system among workers with high occupational physical activity. This was investigated in a worksite randomized controlled trial (RCT) of aerobic exercise among cleaners. METHODS: We randomized 116 cleaners between...... 18-65 years. The aerobic exercise group (N=57) performed worksite aerobic exercise (30 minutes twice a week) and the reference group (N=59) received lectures. Cardiorespiratory fitness, blood pressure (BP) and diurnal heart rate (HR) for measuring aerobic workload [% HR reserve (% HRR)] were...

  11. Marine Pollution Prevention Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Pollution Prevention Act of 2008 implements the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, including related Protocols (MARPOL)...

  12. Marine Reference Materials

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Various publications and other instructions for taking marine weather observations. includes Weather Service Observing Handbook No. 1, Weather Bureau Circular M,...

  13. Marine Natural Products Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Clifford W. J.

    1978-01-01

    Reports the chemistry of saxitoxin, a paralytic shellfish poison, and other toxins, including the structure of aplysiatoxins. Discusses the chemical signals and defense agents used in intra- and inter- species communication; anticancer agents; and organometallics in the marine environment. (MA)

  14. WMO Marine Final Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Final reports of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Commission for Marine Meteorology, Commission for Synoptic Meteorology, and Commission for Basic...

  15. Exopolysaccharides from Marine Bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHI Zhenming; FANG Yan

    2005-01-01

    Microbial polysaccharides represent a class of important products of growing interest for many sectors of industry. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in isolating new exopolysaccharides (EPSs)-producing bacteria from marine environments, particularly from various extreme marine environments. Many new marine microbial EPSs with novel chemical compositions, properties and structures have been found to have potential applications in fields such as adhesives,textiles, pharmaceuticals and medicine for anti-cancer, food additives, oil recovery and metal removal in mining and industrial waste treatments, etc This paper gives a brief summary of the information about the EPSs produced by marine bacteria,including their chemical compositions, properties and structures, together with their potential applications in industry.

  16. Marine prostanoids - a review

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.; DeSouza, L.

    The occurrence and structure of prostaglandins including clavulones, punaglandins and claviridenones in marine organisms is reviewEd. by comparison of the spectral data reported the identity of 20-acetoxy claviridenones b and c with 20 acetoxy...

  17. Mariner Outreach Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — This dataset provides MARAD with the ability to determine available personnel and resources in a time of emergency. It also provides a portal for mariners to update...

  18. Marine & hydrokinetic technology development.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LiVecchi, Al (National Renewable Energy Laboratory); Jepsen, Richard Alan

    2010-06-01

    The Wind and Water Power Program supports the development of marine and hydrokinetic devices, which capture energy from waves, tides, ocean currents, the natural flow of water in rivers, and marine thermal gradients, without building new dams or diversions. The program works closely with industry and the Department of Energy's national laboratories to advance the development and testing of marine and hydrokinetic devices. In 2008, the program funded projects to develop and test point absorber, oscillating wave column, and tidal turbine technologies. The program also funds component design, such as techniques for manufacturing and installing coldwater pipes critical for ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) systems. Rigorous device testing is necessary to validate and optimize prototypes before beginning full-scale demonstration and deployment. The program supports device testing by providing technology developers with information on testing facilities. Technology developers require access to facilities capable of simulating open-water conditions in order to refine and validate device operability. The program has identified more than 20 tank testing operators in the United States with capabilities suited to the marine and hydrokinetic technology industry. This information is available to the public in the program's Hydrodynamic Testing Facilities Database. The program also supports the development of open-water, grid-connected testing facilities, as well as resource assessments that will improve simulations done in dry-dock and closed-water testing facilities. The program has established two university-led National Marine Renewable Energy Centers to be used for device testing. These centers are located on coasts and will have open-water testing berths, allowing researchers to investigate marine and estuary conditions. Optimal array design, development, modeling and testing are needed to maximize efficiency and electricity generation at marine and

  19. Marine Microbiology: Facets & Opportunities

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, N.

    mainly to keep themselves alive and when they so do, there may be consequences that are normally beneficial, sometimes deleterious, to the ecosystem they exist in. Dr Chandramohan has compiled many useful aspects of current research trends in Marine... the scarce but relevant literature on iron chelators in marine and terrestrial microbiota in chapter 16. The many uses of siderophores and their substituted derivatives in medicine, agriculture, pharmaceuticals, health-care and cosmetics industries...

  20. Biotechnology of marine fungi

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Damare, S.; Singh, P.; Raghukumar, S.

    are capable of growth under oxygen-deficient conditions while performing anaerobic denitrification, a characteristic that is bound to interest biotechnologists.  *3. Enzymes from marine fungi  Fungi produce a variety of extracellular enzymes... and poplar wood shavings as carbon and nitrogen source (Raghukumar et al. 1999). Yet another marine-derived, white-rot fungus isolated from decaying mangrove wood, designated NIOCC #2a produced enhanced levels of laccase in the presence of several phenolics...

  1. Marine Energy in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Levy

    2012-01-01

    This is the first issue of a new series dedicated to deliver concise information on energy innovation published by the Energy Innovation Center at the IDB. This issue offers a primer on the potential for marine energy in Chile. The ocean is increasingly recognized as a viable source of renewable energy, and Chile, with its long coastline, powerful waves and tidal currents, has captured the attention of marine energy proponents. While harvesting this source of energy would increase sustainabil...

  2. Marine Anthropogenic Litter

    OpenAIRE

    Bergmann, Melanie; Gutow, Lars; Klages, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This book describes how manmade litter, primarily plastic, has spread into the remotest parts of the oceans and covers all aspects of this pollution problem from the impacts on wildlife and human health to socio-economic and political issues. Marine litter is a prime threat to marine wildlife, habitats and food webs worldwide. The book illustrates how advanced technologies from deep-sea research, microbiology and mathematic modelling as well as classic beach litter counts by volunteers co...

  3. What are the differences between aerobic and anaerobic toxic effects of sulfonamides on Escherichia coli?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Mengnan; Lin, Zhifen; Wang, Dali; Long, Xi; Zheng, Min; Qiu, Yanling

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria in the environment face the threat of antibiotics. However, most studies investigating the toxicity and toxicity mechanisms of antibiotics have been conducted on microorganisms in aerobic conditions, while studies examining the anaerobic toxicity and toxicity mechanisms of antibiotics are still limited. In this study, we determined the aerobic and anaerobic toxicities of sulfonamides (SAs) on Escherichia coli. Next, a comparison of the aerobic and anaerobic toxicities indicated that the SAs could be divided into three groups: Group I: log(1/EC50-anaerobic)>log(1/EC50-aerobic) (EC50-anaerobic/EC50-aerobic, the median effective concentration under anaerobic/aerobic conditions), Group II: log(1/EC50-anaerobic)≈log(1/EC50-aerobic), and Group III: log(1/EC50-anaerobic)reference for the risk assessment of chemicals in the environment. PMID:26748048

  4. Cultivation of aerobic granules for simultaneous nitrification and denitrification by seeding different inoculated sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Fang; YANG Feng-lin; LIU Yi-hui; ZHANG Xing-wen

    2005-01-01

    Cultivation of aerobic granules for simultaneous nitrification and denitrification in two sequencing batch airlift bioreactors was studied. Conventional activated floc and anaerobic granules served as main two inoculated sludge in the systems. Morphological variations of sludge in the reactors were observed. It was found that the cultivation of aerobic granules was closely associated with the kind of inoculated sludge. Round and regular aerobic granules were prevailed in both reactors, and the physical characteristics of the aerobic granules in terms of settling ability, specific gravity, and ratio of water containing were distinct when the inoculate sludge was different.Aerobic granules formed by seeding activated floc are more excellent in simultaneous nitrification and denitrification than that by aerobic granules formed from anaerobic granules. It was concluded that inoculated sludge plays a crucial role in the cultivation of aerobic granules for simultaneous nitrification and denitrification.

  5. A Marine Traffic Flow Model

    OpenAIRE

    Tsz Leung Yip

    2013-01-01

    A model is developed for studying marine traffic flow through classical traffic flow theories, which can provide us with a better understanding of the phenomenon of traffic flow of ships. On one hand, marine traffic has its special features and is fundamentally different from highway, air and pedestrian traffic. The existing traffic models cannot be simply extended to marine traffic without addressing marine traffic features. On the other hand, existing literature on marine traffic focuses on...

  6. Microbial colonization and degradation of polyethylene and biodegradable plastic bags in temperate fine-grained organic-rich marine sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauendorf, Alice; Krause, Stefan; Bigalke, Nikolaus K; Gorb, Elena V; Gorb, Stanislav N; Haeckel, Matthias; Wahl, Martin; Treude, Tina

    2016-02-15

    To date, the longevity of plastic litter at the sea floor is poorly constrained. The present study compares colonization and biodegradation of plastic bags by aerobic and anaerobic benthic microbes in temperate fine-grained organic-rich marine sediments. Samples of polyethylene and biodegradable plastic carrier bags were incubated in natural oxic and anoxic sediments from Eckernförde Bay (Western Baltic Sea) for 98 days. Analyses included (1) microbial colonization rates on the bags, (2) examination of the surface structure, wettability, and chemistry, and (3) mass loss of the samples during incubation. On average, biodegradable plastic bags were colonized five times higher by aerobic and eight times higher by anaerobic microbes than polyethylene bags. Both types of bags showed no sign of biodegradation during this study. Therefore, marine sediment in temperate coastal zones may represent a long-term sink for plastic litter and also supposedly compostable material. PMID:26790603

  7. Field assessment of semi-aerobic condition and the methane correction factor for the semi-aerobic landfills provided by IPCC guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Sangjae [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, College of Engineering, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Anwoo [Korea Environment Corporation, 42 Hwangyeong-ro, Seo-gu, Incheon 404-170 (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Seung-Muk [Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae Young, E-mail: jaeykim@snu.ac.kr [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, College of Engineering, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • CH{sub 4}/CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} + CO{sub 2}% are proposed as indices to evaluate semi-aerobic landfills. • A landfill which CH{sub 4}/CO{sub 2} > 1.0 is difficult to be categorized as semi-aerobic landfill. • Field conditions should be carefully investigated to determine landfill types. • The MCF default value for semi-aerobic landfills underestimates the methane emissions. - Abstract: According to IPCC guidelines, a semi-aerobic landfill site produces one-half of the amount of CH{sub 4} produced by an equally-sized anaerobic landfill site. Therefore categorizing the landfill type is important on greenhouse gas inventories. In order to assess semi-aerobic condition in the sites and the MCF value for semi-aerobic landfill, landfill gas has been measured from vent pipes in five semi-aerobically designed landfills in South Korea. All of the five sites satisfied requirements of semi-aerobic landfills in 2006 IPCC guidelines. However, the ends of leachate collection pipes which are main entrance of air in the semi-aerobic landfill were closed in all five sites. The CH{sub 4}/CO{sub 2} ratio in landfill gas, indicator of aerobic and anaerobic decomposition, ranged from 1.08 to 1.46 which is higher than the values (0.3–1.0) reported for semi-aerobic landfill sites and is rather close to those (1.0–2.0) for anaerobic landfill sites. The low CH{sub 4} + CO{sub 2}% in landfill gas implied air intrusion into the landfill. However, there was no evidence that air intrusion has caused by semi-aerobic design and operation. Therefore, the landfills investigated in this study are difficult to be classified as semi-aerobic landfills. Also MCF of 0.5 may significantly underestimate methane emissions compared to other researches. According to the carbon mass balance analyses, the higher MCF needs to be proposed for semi-aerobic landfills. Consequently, methane emission estimate should be based on field evaluation for the semi-aerobically designed landfills.

  8. Exposure factors for marine eutrophication impacts assessment based on a mechanistic biological model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cosme, Nuno Miguel Dias; Koski, Marja; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2015-01-01

    Emissions of nitrogen (N) from anthropogenic sources enrich marine waters and promote planktonic growth. This newly synthesised organic carbon is eventually exported to benthic waters where aerobic respiration by heterotrophic bacteria results in the consumption of dissolved oxygen (DO). This...... pathway is typical of marine eutrophication. A model is proposed to mechanistically estimate the response of coastal marine ecosystems to N inputs. It addresses the biological processes of nutrient-limited primary production (PP), metazoan consumption, and bacterial degradation, in four distinct sinking...... routes from primary (cell aggregates) and secondary producers (faecal pellets, carcasses, and active vertical transport). Carbon export production (PE) and ecosystems eXposure Factors (XF), which represents a nitrogen-to-oxygen 'conversion' potential, were estimated at a spatial resolution of 66 large...

  9. Aerobic Microbial Respiration In Oceanic Oxygen Minimum Zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalvelage, Tim; Lavik, Gaute; Jensen, Marlene Mark;

    2015-01-01

    denitrification and alternative anaerobic pathways of organic matter remineralization cannot account for the ammonium requirements of reported anammox rates. Here, we explore the significance of microaerobic respiration as a source of ammonium during organic matter degradation in the oxygen-deficient waters off...... and laterally advected, oxygenated waters in this zone by aerobic microorganisms. In accordance, metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses identified genes encoding for aerobic terminal oxidases and demonstrated their expression by diverse microbial communities, even in virtually anoxic waters. Our......Oxygen minimum zones are major sites of fixed nitrogen loss in the ocean. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of anaerobic ammonium oxidation, anammox, in pelagic nitrogen removal. Sources of ammonium for the anammox reaction, however, remain controversial, as heterotrophic...

  10. Axenic aerobic biofilms inhibit corrosion of copper and aluminum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraman, A; Ornek, D; Duarte, D A; Lee, C C; Mansfeld, F B; Wood, T K

    1999-11-01

    The corrosion behavior of unalloyed copper and aluminum alloy 2024 in modified Baar's medium has been studied with continuous reactors using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. An axenic aerobic biofilm of either Pseudomonas fragi K or Bacillus brevis 18 was able to lessen corrosion as evidenced by a consistent 20-fold increase in the low-frequency impedance value of copper as well as by a consistent four- to seven-fold increase in the polarization resistance of aluminum 2024 after six days exposure compared to sterile controls. This is the first report of axenic aerobic biofilms inhibiting generalized corrosion of copper and aluminum. Addition of the representative sulfate-reducing bacterium (SRB) Desulfovibrio vulgaris (to simulate consortia corrosion behavior) to either the P. fragi K or B. brevis 18 protective biofilm on copper increased the corrosion to that of the sterile control unless antibiotic (ampicillin) was added to inhibit the growth of SRB in the biofilm. PMID:10616712

  11. Aerobic and microaerophilic actinomycetes of typical agropeat and peat soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenova, G. M.; Gryadunova, A. A.; Pozdnyakov, A. I.; Zvyagintsev, D. G.

    2008-02-01

    A high number (from tens of thousands to millions of CFU/g of soil) of actinomycetes and a high diversity of genera were found in typical peat and agropeat soils. Agricultural use increases the number and diversity of the actinomycete complexes of the peat soils. In the peat soils, the actinomycete complex is represented by eight genera: Streptomyces, Micromonospora, Streptosporangium, Actinomadura, Microbispora, Saccharopolyspora, Saccharomonospora, and Microtetraspora. A considerable share of sporangial forms in the actinomycete complex of the peat soils not characteristic of the zonal soils was revealed. The number of actinomycetes that develop under aerobic conditions is smaller by 10-100 times than that of aerobic forms in the peat soils. Among the soil actinomycetes of the genera Streptomyces, Micromonospora, Streptosporangium, Actinomadura, Microbispora, and Microtetraspora, the microaerophilic forms were found; among the Saccharopolyspora and Saccharomonospora, no microaerophilic representatives were revealed.

  12. [Fluorescence fingerprint transformation of municipal wastewater caused by aerobic treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing; Cui, Shuo; Xie, Chao-bo; Cao, Zhi-ping; Chen, Mao-fu; Lü, Yan-li

    2011-12-01

    The conventional parameters such as COD and BOD only could represent information about total organic content. Fluorescence spectrum can display organic composition and it is unique for each sample, so it is referred as "fluorescence fingerprint". In the present study transformation of excitation-emission matrix of municipal wastewater with sewage as major components after aerobic treatment was investigated and then the zones of biodegradable and non-biodegradable organic matters were figured out: the fluorescence at excitation wavelength/emission wavelength of about 280/340 nm and 225/240 nm derived from biodegradable organics and those of the zone of excitation wavelength above 300 nm and the zone of excitation wavelength below 300 nm and emission wavelength above 400 nm were mainly related with non-biodegradable organics. The above-mentioned results indicated that fluorescence fingerprint could be used to evaluate the performance and instruct design and operation of aerobic systems. PMID:22295782

  13. Catalytic aerobic oxidation of bio-renewable chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorbanev, Yury

    This thesis covers the investigation of new catalytic systems for the aerobic oxidation of chemicals derived from bio-renewable sources. The effects of different factors and conditions on the reactions were examined. The employed catalysts were characterized by physisorption measurements, SEM, TEM......, EDS, XRF and other methods. Supported gold and ruthenium hydroxide catalyst systems were explored for the aerobic oxidation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) to 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid (FDA), a potential polymer building block for the plastic industry, or its dimethyl ester (FDMC). High product...... selectivities and yields were obtained under optimized conditions. Heterogeneous catalysts consisting of Au nanoparticles on different supports were shown to efficiently oxidize HMF to FDA or FDMC in water or methanol, respectively. Additionally, the reaction conditions were shown to be adjustable...

  14. Anaerobic Ammonium-Oxidizing (Anammox) Bacteria and Associated Activity in Fixed-Film Biofilters of a Marine Recirculating Aquaculture System†

    OpenAIRE

    Tal, Yossi; Joy E M Watts; Schreier, Harold J.

    2006-01-01

    Microbial communities in the biological filter and waste sludge compartments of a marine recirculating aquaculture system were examined to determine the presence and activity of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria. Community DNA was extracted from aerobic and anaerobic fixed-film biofilters and the anaerobic sludge waste collection tank and was analyzed by amplifying 16S rRNA genes by PCR using anammox-selective and universal GC-clamped primers. Separation of amplified PCR product...

  15. Identification of Novel Methane-, Ethane-, and Propane-Oxidizing Bacteria at Marine Hydrocarbon Seeps by Stable Isotope Probing ▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Redmond, Molly C.; Valentine, David L.; Sessions, Alex L.

    2010-01-01

    Marine hydrocarbon seeps supply oil and gas to microorganisms in sediments and overlying water. We used stable isotope probing (SIP) to identify aerobic bacteria oxidizing gaseous hydrocarbons in surface sediment from the Coal Oil Point seep field located offshore of Santa Barbara, California. After incubating sediment with ^(13)C-labeled methane, ethane, or propane, we confirmed the incorporation of ^(13)C into fatty acids and DNA. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) a...

  16. The effect of organic matter and oxygen on the degradation of bacterial membrane lipids in marine sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, H. Rodger; Fallon, Robert D.; Patton, John S.

    1986-05-01

    The biodegradation of purified radiolabelled membrane lipids from a methanogenic bacterium and a pseudomonad were investigated in mangrove, beach and high marsh marine sediments under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The effect of organic matter on the amount and rate of degradation was also examined by supplementing beach sediments with humic acids. In aerobic sediments, CO 2 was the major product of lipid degradation while under anaerobic conditions both CO 2 and CH 4 were major end products and the overall rates were reduced (up to 40%) relative to aerobic conditions. Total bacterial numbers increased during all incubations with the largest increases occurring in anaerobic sediments supplemented with humic acids. No lipid degradation occurred in aerobic or anaerobic sediments treated with formaldehyde or autoclaving. In low organic beach sediments, the ester-linked phospholipid of the pseudomonad was degraded much more rapidly than the diphytanyl glycerol diether of the methanogen with 69% of the phospholipid degraded in 96 hours versus only 4% of the methanogen lipid. Lipid degradation in both aerobic and anaerobic sediments was highly correlated to organic matter content with increasing amounts of organic matter inhibiting degradation. Long incubations (75 days) of the diphytanyl glycerol ether resulted in 51% degraded to CO 2 in low (0.5%) organic mangrove sediments while only 9% was mineralized in high (10.8%) organic marsh sediments. Physicochemical sorption of membrane lipids to the organic matrix is proposed as a mechanism which protects membrane lipids from microbial attack and degradation.

  17. Software Sensors Design for a Class of Aerobic Fermentation Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Trayana Patarinska; Vasil Trenev; Silvia Popova

    2010-01-01

    The problem of on-line state and parameter estimation (software sensors design) of a class of aerobic fermentation processes for metabolite product formation is considered. The class is characterized by: two limiting substrates one of which, growth factor, is practically depleted during the biomass growth where the product formation is negligible; corresponding general reaction scheme – a qualitative description of the main metabolic reactions between the main components in the liquid phase (...

  18. Poplar Lignin Decomposition by Gram-Negative Aerobic Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Odier, E.; Janin, G.; Monties, B

    1981-01-01

    Eleven gram-negative aerobic bacteria (Pseudomonadaceae and Neisseriaceae) out of 122 soil isolates were selected for their ability to assimilate poplar dioxane lignin without a cosubstrate. Dioxane lignin and milled wood lignin degradation rates ranged between 20 and 40% of initial content after 7 days in mineral medium, as determined by a loss of absorbance at 280 nm; 10 strains could degrade in situ lignin, as evidenced by the decrease of the acetyl bromide lignin content of microtome wood...

  19. Effect of Beetroot Juice Supplementation on Aerobic Response during Swimming

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Pinna; Silvana Roberto; Raffaele Milia; Elisabetta Marongiu; Sergio Olla; Andrea Loi; Gian Mario Migliaccio; Johnny Padulo; Carmine Orlandi; Filippo Tocco; Alberto Concu; Antonio Crisafulli

    2014-01-01

    The beneficial effects of beetroot juice supplementation (BJS) have been tested during cycling, walking, and running. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether BJS can also improve performance in swimmers. Fourteen moderately trained male master swimmers were recruited and underwent two incremental swimming tests randomly assigned in a pool during which workload, oxygen uptake (VO2), carbon dioxide production (VCO2), pulmonary ventilation (VE), and aerobic energy cost (AEC) ...

  20. Aerobic Methane Oxidation in Alaskan Lakes Along a Latitudinal Transect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Cruz, K. C.; Sepulveda-Jauregui, A.; Walter Anthony, K. M.; Anthony, P.; Thalasso, F.

    2013-12-01

    Karla Martinez-Cruz* **, Armando Sepulveda-Jauregui*, Katey M. Walter Anthony*, Peter Anthony*, and Frederic Thalasso**. * Water and Environmental Research Center, Institute of Northern Engineering, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, Alaska. ** Biotechnology and Bioengineering Department, Cinvestav, Mexico city, D. F., Mexico. Methane (CH4) is the third most important greenhouse gas in the atmosphere, after carbon dioxide and water vapor. Boreal lakes play an important role in the current global warming by contributing as much as 6% of global atmospheric CH4 sources annually. On the other hand, aerobic methane oxidation (methanotrophy) in lake water is a fundamental process in global methane cycling that reduces the amount of CH4 emissions to the atmosphere. Several environmental factors affect aerobic methane oxidation in the water column both directly and indirectly, including concentration of CH4 and O2, temperature and carbon budgets of lakes. We analyzed the potential of aerobic methane oxidation (PMO) rates in incubations of water collected from 30 Alaskan lakes along a north-south transect during winter and summer 2011. Our findings showed an effect of CH4 and O2 concentrations, temperature and yedoma thawing permafrost on PMO activity in the lake water. The highest PMO rates were observed in summer by lakes situated on thawing yedoma permafrost, most of them located in the interior of Alaska. We also estimated that 60-80% of all CH4 produced in Alaskan lakes could be taken up by methanotrophs in the lake water column, showing the significant influence of aerobic methane oxidation of boreal lakes to the global CH4 budget.

  1. Aerobic Methanotrophs in Natural and Agricultural Soils of European Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Irina Kravchenko; Andrey Yurkov; Anna Kizilova

    2013-01-01

    Human activities such as land management and global warming have great impact on the environment. Among changes associated with the global warming, rising methane emission is a serious concern. Therefore, we assessed methane oxidation activity and diversity of aerobic methanotrophic bacteria in eight soil types (both unmanaged and agricultural) distributed across the European part of Russia. Using a culture-independent approach targeting pmoA gene, we provide the first baseline data on the di...

  2. Kinetic study for aerobic treatment of phenolic wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Athar Hussain; Shashi Kant Dubey; Vinay Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Conventional physico-chemical treatment of industrial wastewater containing compounds such as phenol encounters difficulties due to low substrate level, additional use of chemicals, and generation of hazardous by products along with increased process cost. Biological treatment appears to be a solution for treatment of such industrial wastewater. In the present study an aerobic sequential batch reactor (SBR) has been used for treatment of synthetic wastewater containing phenol. The effects of ...

  3. A preliminary, randomized trial of aerobic exercise for alcohol dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Richard A.; Abrantes, Ana M.; Minami, Haruka; Read, Jennifer P.; Marcus, Bess H.; Jakicic, John M.; Strong, David R.; Dubreuil, Mary Ella; Gordon, Alan A.; Ramsey, Susan E.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2014-01-01

    Interventions targeting physical activity may be valuable as an adjunct to alcohol treatment, but have been relative untested. In the current study, alcohol dependent, physically sedentary patients were randomized to: a 12-week moderate-intensity, group aerobic exercise intervention (AE; n = 25) or a brief advice to exercise intervention (BA-E; n=23). Results showed that individuals in AE reported significantly fewer drinking and heavy drinking days, relative to BA-E during treatment. Further...

  4. Structural studies on aerobic and anaerobic respiratory complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Törnroth, Susanna

    2002-01-01

    All respiratory pathways, whether aerobic or anaerobic, are based on formation of an electrochemical proton gradient called proton motive force (pmf) that drives ATP formation. Membrane-bound respiratory complexes translocate protons across the membrane from a region of low [H+] and negative electrical potential to a region of high [H+] and positive electrical potential. This establishes a proton gradient and a membrane potential that together form pmf. The crystal structures of the respirat...

  5. Anaerobic/aerobic degradation of a textile dye wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Loyd, Chapman Kemper

    1992-01-01

    Consumer demands have led to the development of new, more stable textile dyes. These dyes, many of the azo type, are often incompletely degraded/removed in wastewater treatment plants, leading to the discharge of highlycolored effluents to rivers and streams. Concerns by downstream users of that water have led to enactment of effluent color and toxicity standards for plants that treat textile dye wastewater. Both anaerobic and aerobic biological degradation of a...

  6. Biodegradation of Asphalt Cement-20 by Aerobic Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Pendrys, John P.

    1989-01-01

    Seven gram-negative, aerobic bacteria were isolated from a mixed culture enriched for asphalt-degrading bacteria. The predominant genera of these isolates were Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Alcaligenes, Flavimonas, and Flavobacterium. The mixed culture preferentially degraded the saturate and naphthene aromatic fractions of asphalt cement-20. A residue remained on the surface which was resistant to biodegradation and protected the underlying asphalt from biodegradation. The most potent asphalt-...

  7. On Aerobic Exercise and Behavioral and Neural Plasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Caitlin Peplinski; Ami Patel; Kiersten L. Berggren; Kerr, Abigail L.; Swain, Rodney A.; Sikorski, Angela M.

    2012-01-01

    Aerobic exercise promotes rapid and profound alterations in the brain. Depending upon the pattern and duration of exercise, these changes in the brain may extend beyond traditional motor areas to regions and structures normally linked to learning, cognition, and emotion. Exercise-induced alterations may include changes in blood flow, hormone and growth factor release, receptor expression, angiogenesis, apoptosis, neurogenesis, and synaptogenesis. Together, we believe that these changes underl...

  8. Gaseous emissions reduction from aerobic MBT of municipal solid waste

    OpenAIRE

    Zdanevitch, Isabelle; Mallard, Pascal; Bour, Olivier; Briand, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Surface gaseous emissions, composition of soil gas and VOC concentration were determined on a French MBT plant, where the biodegradation process is aerobic. Measurements were performed on both the composting windrows and on the landfill cell which receives the sorting rejects. This allowed the comparison of the global methane and CO2 gases, as well as the characterization of the degradation process on the different parts of the site. The performance of the sorting chain allow to obtain a high...

  9. The Influence of Childhood Aerobic Fitness on Learning and Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Raine, Lauren B.; Lee, Hyun Kyu; Saliba, Brian J.; Chaddock-Heyman, Laura; Hillman, Charles H; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction There is a growing trend of inactivity among children, which may not only result in poorer physical health, but also poorer cognitive health. Previous research has shown that lower fitness has been related to decreased cognitive function for tasks requiring perception, memory, and cognitive control as well as lower academic achievement. Purpose To investigate the relationship between aerobic fitness, learning, and memory on a task that involved remembering names and locations on ...

  10. Improving aerobic capacity through active videogames: A randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Luiz de Brito-Gomes; Raphael José Perrier-Melo; Erik Anders Wikstrom; Manoel da Cunha Costa

    2015-01-01

    AbstractThe rate of peak workload improvement between different types of Active Video Games (AVG) in young sedentary adults was investigated. Aerobic capacity improvement after a 6-week intervention between AVG types was also compared. Twenty participants, after baseline assessments, were randomized into one of three parallel groups: structured AVG (n= 6), unstructured AVG (n= 7) and a control group (n= 7). Participants played their respective AVG 3 times a week for 6-weeks (30 minutes-sessio...

  11. Aerobic fitness of elite female and male wrestlers

    OpenAIRE

    E Hübner-Woźniak; A Kosmol; Gajewski, J.

    2009-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to assess the aerobic fitness of elite female wrestlers, and to determine whether there are gender differences in the physiological response to graded exercise. Materials and Methods: Ten female and ten male freestyle wrestlers volunteered for the study. They all performed a graded exercise test on the treadmill until exhaustion. To measure lactate concentration capillary blood was taken from the finger tip at the end of every workload and after 3, 5 and 7 m...

  12. The Aerobic Biodegradation Kinetics of Plant Tannins in Industrial Wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Tramšek, Marko; Goršek, Andreja; Glavič, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes an experimental determination of the biodegradation rate for tannins present in industrial wastewater, after the extraction of chestnut chips. Experiments were performed in a laboratory aerobic reactor (Armfield) by using biomass from an existing industrial wastewater treatment plant. The outlet tannins concentration was determined under various processing conditions. Simultaneously, an optical microscope was used to monitor the mix of microbiological cultures in the biom...

  13. Aerobic Microbial Skin Flora in Jeddah City, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Rajaa M. Milyani

    2001-01-01

    The aerobic microbial skin flora of 40 healthy subjects living in Jeddah city (Saudi Arabia) was determined. Two age groups: children and adults; including males and females were investigated. Seven sites were studied: forehead, axilla, chest, groin, leg, toe web and anterior nares. The skin was sampled by rubbing the chosen site with a surfactant substance (Tween 80) moistened cotton swab which was dipped back in the surfactant container and the resulted suspension was agitated for one minut...

  14. Biosorption of fluoroquinolones by activated sludge and aerobic granules sludge

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Vanessa R. A.; Amorim, Catarina L.; Cravo, Sara M.; Tiritan, Maria E.; Castro, Paula M. L.; Afonso, Carlos M. M.

    2015-01-01

    Oral communication Antibiotic residues have been detected in various environmental matrices, such as surface water and even drinking water. Although present at low levels (μg/L, ng/L), many antibiotics are bioaccumulative, pseudo-persistent and can promote resistance/alterations in bacterial populations [1]. Recent studies on antibiotics removal by activated sludge (AS) and aerobic granules (AGS) show biosorption as the dominant process, determining the fate of these micropollutants [2-3]....

  15. Aerobic oxidation assisted by ligand-free palladium catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Rui Wang; Chu Ting Yang; Lei Liu; Qing Xiang Guo

    2007-01-01

    Aerobic oxidation of electron-rich benzylic and phenyl allylic alcohols was achieved with high yields with only 0.1 mol.% ofPd(OAc)2 catalyst in the absence of any ligand. This procedure was expected to be valuable for realistic industrial-scale applications from both economic as well as environmental points of view.(C) 2006 Qing Xiang Guo. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Chinese Chemical Society. All rights reserved.

  16. Sonified Aerobics - Interactive Sonification of coordinated body movements

    OpenAIRE

    Hermann, Thomas; Zehe, Sebastian; Worall, David; Wersényi, György

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a new hard-/ and software system for the interactive sonification of sports movement involving arm- and leg movements. Two different sonifications are designed to convey rhythmical patterns that become auditory gestalt so that listeners can identify features of the underlying coordinated movement. The Sonification is designed for the application to enable visually impaired users to participate in aerobics exercises, and also to enhance the perception of movements for sig...

  17. Influence employment by improving aerobics on motor readiness of girls

    OpenAIRE

    Shypulo I. P.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose : substantiate the effect of employment by improving aerobics on motor readiness of girls in extracurricular educational institutions. Material : the study involved 90 women aged 16-18 years old. Classes are held 3 times a week for 1 hour each. Results : defined state and the most informative indicators motor fitness girls. Built analytical model of graph model for forecasting and conducting quantitative and qualitative control of motor fitness girls. The degree of severity of each of...

  18. Aerobic methanotroph diversity in Sanjiang wetland, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Juanli; Zhang, Hongxun; Deng, Yongcui; Wang, Yanfen

    2015-04-01

    Aerobic methanotrophs present in wetlands can serve as a methane filter and thereby significantly reduce methane emissions. Sanjiang wetland is a major methane source and the second largest wetland in China, yet little is known about the characteristics of aerobic methanotrophs in this region. In the present study, we investigated the diversity and abundance of methanotrophs in marsh soils from Sanjiang wetland with three different types of vegetation by 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and pmoA gene analysis. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed the highest number of pmoA gene copies in marsh soils vegetated with Carex lasiocarpa (10(9) g(-1) dry soil), followed by Carex meyeriana, and the least with Deyeuxia angustifolia (10(8) g(-1) dry soil). Consistent results were obtained using Sanger sequencing and pyrosequencing techniques, both indicating the codominance of Methylobacter and Methylocystis species in Sanjiang wetland. Other less abundant methanotrophy, including cultivated Methylomonas and Methylosinus genus, and uncultured clusters such as LP20 and JR-1, were also detected in the wetland. Methanotroph diversity was almost the same in three different vegetation covered soils, suggesting that vegetation types had very little influence on the methanotroph diversity. Our study gives an in-depth insight into the community composition of aerobic methanotrophs in the Sanjiang wetland. PMID:25351140

  19. Aerobic and anaerobic growth of Paracoccus denitrificans on methanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamforth, C W; Quayle, J R

    1978-10-01

    1. The dye-linked methanol dehydrogenase from Paracoccus denitrificans grown aerobically on methanol has been purified and its properties compared with similar enzymes from other bacteria. It was shown to be specific and to have high affinity for primary alcohols and formaldehyde as substrate, ammonia was the best activator and the enzyme could be linked to reduction of phenazine methosulphate. 2. Paracoccus denitrificans could be grown anaerobically on methanol, using nitrate or nitrite as electron acceptor. The methanol dehydrogenase synthesized under these conditions could not be differentiated from the aerobically-synthesized enzyme. 3. Activities of methanol dehydrogenase, formaldehyde dehydrogenase, formate dehydrogenase, nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase were measured under aerobic and anaerobic growth conditions. 4. Difference spectra of reduced and oxidized cytochromes in membrane and supernatant fractions of methanol-grown P. denitrificans were measured. 5. From the results of the spectral and enzymatic analyses it has been suggested that anaerobic growth on methanol/nitrate is made possible by reduction of nitrate to nitrite using electrons derived from the pyridine nucleotide-linked dehydrogenations of formaldehyde and formate, the nitrite so produced then functioning as electron acceptor for methanol dehydrogenase via cytochrome c and nitrite reductase. PMID:718372

  20. Microbial fuel cells with highly active aerobic biocathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Edward M.; Popescu, Dorin; Curtis, Tom; Head, Ian M.; Scott, Keith; Yu, Eileen H.

    2016-08-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs), which convert organic waste to electricity, could be used to make the wastewater infrastructure more energy efficient and sustainable. However, platinum and other non-platinum chemical catalysts used for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at the cathode of MFCs are unsustainable due to their high cost and long-term degradation. Aerobic biocathodes, which use microorganisms as the biocatalysts for cathode ORR, are a good alternative to chemical catalysts. In the current work, high-performing aerobic biocathodes with an onset potential for the ORR of +0.4 V vs. Ag/AgCl were enriched from activated sludge in electrochemical half-cells poised at -0.1 and + 0.2 V vs. Ag/AgCl. Gammaproteobacteria, distantly related to any known cultivated gammaproteobacterial lineage, were identified as dominant in these working electrode biofilms (23.3-44.3% of reads in 16S rRNA gene Ion Torrent libraries), and were in very low abundance in non-polarised control working electrode biofilms (0.5-0.7%). These Gammaproteobacteria were therefore most likely responsible for the high activity of biologically catalysed ORR. In MFC tests, a high-performing aerobic biocathode increased peak power 9-fold from 7 to 62 μW cm-2 in comparison to an unmodified carbon cathode, which was similar to peak power with a platinum-doped cathode at 70 μW cm-2.

  1. Color Changes of Package Silage In Period of Aerobic Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Toruk

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, changes on color of the silage surface, chemical and microbiological parameters in six days period of aerobic stability of package silage were investigated. For this purpose, the effect of the silage additive materials and treatments dose also were examined. Treatments were determined as Control (C, Silo-king firm dose (FD, Silo-King double dose (D2, Sim-Silage firm dose (SF, and Sim-Silage double dose (S2.Maize was ensiled using a package silage machine. The package silages opened after three months storage was analyzed for colors during aerobic exposure. In this research, yellowness (yı* indicates were also measured to show the effect of fermentation process on the silage color properties. As the result of experiment, it was found that aerobic stability have significant effects on color of the silage surface (all parameters statistically (p<0.05. The lowest color alteration (ΔE was estimated as 8.96 in S2 treatment. The color alteration also was increased 96 h when increased at pH and temperature. The highest CO2 values were found at firm dose treatments.

  2. Aerobic exercise in children with oxidative phosphorylation defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luuk Schreuder

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue and exercise intolerance are symptoms in children with metabolic myopathy. Frequently this is combined with muscle pain in children with mitochondrial myopathy. Offering therapeutic advice remains challenging in this patient group. Here we describe five children above the age of four years, with normal intelligence, myopathy, exercise intolerance, motor developmental delay, and fatigue, who were diagnosed with a mitochondrial dysfunction. Based on the positive experience of condition training in adults with mitochondrial disease and inactivity, aerobic exercise training was advised for all the children. Because of the lack of clear protocols for individualized mitochondrial myopathies, regular training was initiated. The Movement Assessment Battery of Children, the Jamar dynamometer for grip force, and the Bruce protocol treadmill test were applied for evaluation. No patient showed significant disease progression on a weekly scheme of strength training or on aerobic training during periods varying between 6 and 18 months. Only one out of the five patients has shown an improvement after a period of structured, aerobic training, demonstrating good compliance and motivation over the course of 18 months. Some patients developed severe muscle pain after explosive exercise. Even in a relatively homogenous, intelligent group of patients and motivated parents, we could not reach full compliance. With our case studies, we would like to draw attention to the importance and pitfalls of movement therapy in children with mitochondrial disease.

  3. Electric motor assisted bicycle as an aerobic exercise machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, T; Okada, S; Makikawa, M

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study is to maintain a continuous level of exercise intensity around the aerobic threshold (AT) during riding on an electric motor assisted bicycle using a new control system of electrical motor assistance which uses the efficient pedaling rate of popular bicycles. Five male subjects participated in the experiment, and the oxygen uptake was measured during cycling exercise using this new pedaling rate control system of electrical motor assistance, which could maintain the pedaling rate within a specific range, similar to that in previous type of electrically assisted bicycles. Results showed that this new pedaling rate control system at 65 rpm ensured continuous aerobic exercise intensity around the AT in two subjects, and this intensity level was higher than that observed in previous type. However, certain subjects were unable to maintain the expected exercise intensity because of their particular cycling preferences such as the pedaling rate. It is necessary to adjust the specific pedaling rate range of the electrical motor assist control according to the preferred pedaling rate, so that this system becomes applicable to anyone who want continuous aerobic exercise. PMID:23366293

  4. Combined alkaline and ultrasonic pretreatment of sludge before aerobic digestion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Yiying; LI Huan; MAHAR Rasool Bux; WANG Zhiyu; NIE Yongfeng

    2009-01-01

    Alkaline and ultrasonic sludge disintegration can both be used as pretreatments of waste activated sludge (WAS) for improving the subsequent anaerobic or aerobic digestion. The pretreatment has been carried out using different combination of these two methods in this study. The effect was evaluated based on the quantity of soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) in the pretreated sludge as well as the degradation of organic matter in the following aerobic digestion. For WAS samples with combined pretreatment, the released COD was in high level than those with ultrasonic or alkaline treatment. When combined with the same ultrasonic treatment, NaOH treatment resulted in more solubilization of WAS than Ca(OH)2. For combined NaOH and ultrasonic treatments with different sequences, the released COD were in the order: simultaneous treatment > ultrasonic treatment following NaOH treatment > NaOH treatment following ultrasonic treatment. For simultaneous treatment, low NaOH dosage (100 g/kg dry solid), short duration (30 min) of NaOH treatment, and low ultrasonic specific energy (7 500 kJ/kg dry solid) were beneficial for sludge disintegration. Using combined NaOH and ultrasonic pretreatment with the optimium parameters, the degradation efficiency of organic matter was increased from 38.0% to 50.7%, which is much higher than with ultrasonic (42.5%) or with NaOH pretreatment (43.5%) in the subsequent aerobic digestion at the same retention time.

  5. Improving aerobic capacity through active videogames: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luiz de Brito-Gomes

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe rate of peak workload improvement between different types of Active Video Games (AVG in young sedentary adults was investigated. Aerobic capacity improvement after a 6-week intervention between AVG types was also compared. Twenty participants, after baseline assessments, were randomized into one of three parallel groups: structured AVG (n= 6, unstructured AVG (n= 7 and a control group (n= 7. Participants played their respective AVG 3 times a week for 6-weeks (30 minutes-session. The control group maintained normal activities. Both structured and unstructured AVG improved peak workload after four weeks but only the structured group maintained this improvement through week five and six. Aerobic capacity improved in the unstructured (Pre: 36.0 ± 5.2ml.kg.min-¹,Post: 39.7 ± 4.9ml.kg.min-¹, p = .038 and structured AVG (Pre: 39.0 ± 5.9ml.kg.min-¹,Post: 47.8 ± 4.3ml.kg.min-¹, p = .006 groups. Structured AVG provide greater health benefits to aerobic capacity and peak workload in young sedentary but otherwise healthy males relative to unstructured AVG.

  6. Stimulated Growth of Aerobic Microbes Using Calcium Peroxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shejiang; LI Mujin; JIANG Bin; LI Xingang

    2006-01-01

    With continuous and slow oxygen-release characteristic,calcium peroxide (CaO2) has been a new source of supplying oxygen for aerobic microbes in bioremediation of contaminated groundwater.Batch experiments were conducted to evaluate the oxygen-release rate of CaO2 reacting with water,the regulation of high pH,as well as the growth of mixed aerobic microbes in the medium containing CaO2.The results show that the oxygen-release process of CaO2 comprises three phases.In the first phase,dissolved oxygen levels of water increased sharply,and average oxygen-release rates increased as the adding weight of CaO2 increased.However,the rates almost ly.As the necessary components of medium,potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KH2PO4) and ammonium sulphate ((NH4)2SO4) at a certain ratio could regulate pH caused by CaO2 from 12.1 to the range of 6.5-8.5,which is helpful for microbial growth.In addition,diauxic growth curve observed in the medium containing CaO2 suggested that the growth of mixed aerobic microbes could be stimulated by the addition of CaO2.

  7. Aerobic Microbial Respiration In Oceanic Oxygen Minimum Zones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Kalvelage

    Full Text Available Oxygen minimum zones are major sites of fixed nitrogen loss in the ocean. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of anaerobic ammonium oxidation, anammox, in pelagic nitrogen removal. Sources of ammonium for the anammox reaction, however, remain controversial, as heterotrophic denitrification and alternative anaerobic pathways of organic matter remineralization cannot account for the ammonium requirements of reported anammox rates. Here, we explore the significance of microaerobic respiration as a source of ammonium during organic matter degradation in the oxygen-deficient waters off Namibia and Peru. Experiments with additions of double-labelled oxygen revealed high aerobic activity in the upper OMZs, likely controlled by surface organic matter export. Consistently observed oxygen consumption in samples retrieved throughout the lower OMZs hints at efficient exploitation of vertically and laterally advected, oxygenated waters in this zone by aerobic microorganisms. In accordance, metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses identified genes encoding for aerobic terminal oxidases and demonstrated their expression by diverse microbial communities, even in virtually anoxic waters. Our results suggest that microaerobic respiration is a major mode of organic matter remineralization and source of ammonium (~45-100% in the upper oxygen minimum zones, and reconcile hitherto observed mismatches between ammonium producing and consuming processes therein.

  8. Re-activation characteristics of preserved aerobic granular sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li-li; ZHANG Bo; HUANG Yu-feng; CAI Wei-min

    2005-01-01

    In some industrial plants, wastewater was intermittently or seasonally generated. There may be periods during which wastewater treatment facilities have to be set into an idle phase over several weeks. When wastewater was generated again, the activated sludge flocs may have disintegrated. In this experiment, re-activation characteristics of aerobic granular sludge starved for 2 months were investigated.Specific oxygen utilization rate(SOUR) was used as an indicator to evaluate the metabolic activity of the sludge. The results revealed that aerobic granular sludge could be stored up to two months without running the risk of losing the integrity of the granules and metabolic potentials. The apparent color of aerobic granules stored at room temperature gradually turned from brownish-yellowish to gray brown.They appeared brownish-yellowish again 2 weeks after re-activation. The velocity and strength of granules after 2-month idle period could achieved. A stable effluent COD concentration of less than 150 mg/L was achieved during the re-activation process.

  9. Dosing method of physical activity in aerobics classes for students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beliak Yu.I.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : reasons for the method of dosing of physical activity in aerobics classes for students. The basis of the method is the evaluation of the metabolic cost of funds used in them. Material : experiment involved the assessment of the pulse response of students to load complexes classical and step aerobics (n = 47, age 20-23 years. In complexes used various factors regulating the intensity: perform combinations of basic steps, involvement of movements with his hands, holding in hands dumbbells weighing 1kg increase in the rate of musical accompaniment, varying heights step platform. Results . on the basis of the relationship between heart rate and oxygen consumption was determined by the energy cost of each admission control load intensity. This indicator has been used to justify the intensity and duration of multiplicity aerobics. Figure correspond to the level of physical condition and motor activity deficits students. Conclusions : the estimated component of this method of dosing load makes it convenient for use in automated computer programs. Also it can be easily modified to dispense load other types of recreational fitness.

  10. Comparison between Nintendo Wii Fit aerobics and traditional aerobic exercise in sedentary young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douris, Peter C; McDonald, Brittany; Vespi, Frank; Kelley, Nancy C; Herman, Lawrence

    2012-04-01

    Exergaming is becoming a popular recreational activity for young adults. The purpose was to compare the physiologic and psychological responses of college students playing Nintendo Wii Fit, an active video game console, vs. an equal duration of moderate-intensity brisk walking. Twenty-one healthy sedentary college-age students (mean age 23.2 ± 1.8 years) participated in a randomized, double cross-over study, which compared physiologic and psychological responses to 30 minutes of brisk walking exercise on a treadmill vs. 30 minutes playing Nintendo Wii Fit "Free Run" program. Physiologic parameters measured included heart rate, rate pressure product, respiratory rate, and rating of perceived exertion. Participants' positive well-being, psychological distress, and level of fatigue associated with each exercise modality were quantified using the Subjective Exercise Experience Scale. The mean maximum heart rate (HRmax) achieved when exercising with Wii Fit (142.4 ± 20.5 b·min(-1)) was significantly greater (p = 0.001) compared with exercising on the treadmill (123.2 ± 13.7 b·min(-1)). Rate pressure product was also significantly greater (p = 0.001) during exercise on the Wii Fit. Participants' rating of perceived exertion when playing Wii Fit (12.7 ± 3.0) was significantly greater (p = 0.014) when compared with brisk walking on the treadmill (10.1 ± 3.3). However, psychologically when playing Wii Fit, participants' positive well-being decreased significantly (p = 0.018) from preexercise to postexercise when compared with exercising on the treadmill. College students have the potential to surpass exercise intensities achieved when performing a conventional standard for moderate-intensity exercise when playing Nintendo Wii Fit "Free Run" with a self-selected intensity. We concluded that Nintendo Wii Fit "Free Run" may act as an alternative to traditional moderate-intensity aerobic exercise in fulfilling the American College of Sports Medicine requirements for

  11. Field evaluations of marine oil spill bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swannell, R P; Lee, K; McDonagh, M

    1996-06-01

    Bioremediation is defined as the act of adding or improving the availability of materials (e.g., nutrients, microorganisms, or oxygen) to contaminated environments to cause an acceleration of natural biodegradative processes. The results of field experiments and trials following actual spill incidents have been reviewed to evaluate the feasibility of this approach as a treatment for oil contamination in the marine environment. The ubiquity of oil-degrading microorganisms in the marine environment is well established, and research has demonstrated the capability of the indigenous microflora to degrade many components of petroleum shortly after exposure. Studies have identified numerous factors which affect the natural biodegradation rates of oil, such as the origin and concentration of oil, the availability of oil-degrading microorganisms, nutrient concentrations, oxygen levels, climatic conditions, and sediment characteristics. Bioremediation strategies based on the application of fertilizers have been shown to stimulate the biodegradation rates of oil in aerobic intertidal sediments such as sand and cobble. The ratio of oil loading to nitrogen concentration within the interstitial water has been identified to be the principal controlling factor influencing the success of this bioremediation strategy. However, the need for the seeding of natural environments with hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria has not been clearly demonstrated under natural environmental conditions. It is suggested that bioremediation should now take its place among the many techniques available for the treatment of oil spills, although there is still a clear need to set operational limits for its use. On the basis of the available evidence, we have proposed preliminary operational guidelines for bioremediation on shoreline environments. PMID:8801437

  12. Bioprospecting marine plankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abida, Heni; Ruchaud, Sandrine; Rios, Laurent; Humeau, Anne; Probert, Ian; De Vargas, Colomban; Bach, Stéphane; Bowler, Chris

    2013-11-01

    The ocean dominates the surface of our planet and plays a major role in regulating the biosphere. For example, the microscopic photosynthetic organisms living within provide 50% of the oxygen we breathe, and much of our food and mineral resources are extracted from the ocean. In a time of ecological crisis and major changes in our society, it is essential to turn our attention towards the sea to find additional solutions for a sustainable future. Remarkably, while we are overexploiting many marine resources, particularly the fisheries, the planktonic compartment composed of zooplankton, phytoplankton, bacteria and viruses, represents 95% of marine biomass and yet the extent of its diversity remains largely unknown and underexploited. Consequently, the potential of plankton as a bioresource for humanity is largely untapped. Due to their diverse evolutionary backgrounds, planktonic organisms offer immense opportunities: new resources for medicine, cosmetics and food, renewable energy, and long-term solutions to mitigate climate change. Research programs aiming to exploit culture collections of marine micro-organisms as well as to prospect the huge resources of marine planktonic biodiversity in the oceans are now underway, and several bioactive extracts and purified compounds have already been identified. This review will survey and assess the current state-of-the-art and will propose methodologies to better exploit the potential of marine plankton for drug discovery and for dermocosmetics. PMID:24240981

  13. Bioprospecting Marine Plankton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Bowler

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The ocean dominates the surface of our planet and plays a major role in regulating the biosphere. For example, the microscopic photosynthetic organisms living within provide 50% of the oxygen we breathe, and much of our food and mineral resources are extracted from the ocean. In a time of ecological crisis and major changes in our society, it is essential to turn our attention towards the sea to find additional solutions for a sustainable future. Remarkably, while we are overexploiting many marine resources, particularly the fisheries, the planktonic compartment composed of zooplankton, phytoplankton, bacteria and viruses, represents 95% of marine biomass and yet the extent of its diversity remains largely unknown and underexploited. Consequently, the potential of plankton as a bioresource for humanity is largely untapped. Due to their diverse evolutionary backgrounds, planktonic organisms offer immense opportunities: new resources for medicine, cosmetics and food, renewable energy, and long-term solutions to mitigate climate change. Research programs aiming to exploit culture collections of marine micro-organisms as well as to prospect the huge resources of marine planktonic biodiversity in the oceans are now underway, and several bioactive extracts and purified compounds have already been identified. This review will survey and assess the current state-of-the-art and will propose methodologies to better exploit the potential of marine plankton for drug discovery and for dermocosmetics.

  14. Water aerobics in pregnancy: cardiovascular response, labor and neonatal outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braga Angelica F

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the association between water aerobics, maternal cardiovascular capacity during pregnancy, labor and neonatal outcomes. Methods A randomized, controlled clinical trial was carried out in which 34 pregnant women were allocated to a water aerobics group and 37 to a control group. All women were submitted to submaximal ergometric tests on a treadmill at 19, 25 and 35 weeks of pregnancy and were followed up until delivery. Oxygen consumption (VO2 max, cardiac output (CO, physical fitness, skin temperature, data on labor and delivery, and neonate outcomes were evaluated. Frequency distributions of the baseline variables of both groups were initially performed and then analysis of the outcomes was carried out. Categorical data were compared using the chi-square test, and numerical using Student's t or Mann-Whitney tests. Wilk's Lambda or Friedman's analysis of repeat measurements were applied for comparison of physical capacity, cardiovascular outcomes and maternal temperature. Results VO2 max and physical fitness were higher in both groups in the second trimester, returning to basal levels in the third trimester. In both groups, CO increased as pregnancy progressed and peak exercise temperature was higher than resting temperature, increasing further after five minutes of recovery and remaining at this level until 15 minutes after exercise completion. There was no difference between the two groups regarding duration (457.9 ± SD 249.6 vs 428.9 ± SD 203.2 minutes or type of delivery. Labor analgesia was requested by significantly fewer women in the water aerobics group (27% vs 65%; RR = 0.42 95%CI 0.23–0.77. Neonatal results were similar in both groups. Conclusion The regular practice of moderate water aerobics by sedentary and low risk pregnant women was not detrimental to the health of the mother or the child. There was no influence on maternal cardiovascular capacity, duration of labor or type of delivery; however

  15. The influence of a six month aerobics programme on middle aged women's aerobic capacity and body composition

    OpenAIRE

    Barbora Šeděnková; Pavel Stejskal; Jaroslav Šimíček; Milan Elfmark; Tereza Bušinová; Barbora Raníková

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Regular physical activity has a positive influence on increasing physical fitness, which has considerable impact on health and, consequently, on the quality and length of human life. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess the influence of six months of physical endurance activity on the body composition and aerobic capacity of middle aged women. METHODS: Forty women between the ages of 40 to 55 years with a sedentary occupation and without regular physical activity took par...

  16. The effect of intensity controlled aerobic dance exercise on aerobic capacity of middle-aged, overweight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillett, P A; Eisenman, P A

    1987-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of intensity controlled exercise on the aerobic capacity of overweight, middle-aged women. Thirty-eight moderately overweight women, ages 35-57, participated in a 16-week dance-exercise program. Random assignment was made to an experimental group (n = 20) in which intensity of exercise was controlled and prescribed, and a control group (n = 18) in which exercise was of an intensity typical to commercial aerobic classes. Prior to the onset of training, and at the completion of 16 weeks, the following fitness tests were administered: Aerobic capacity expressed as VO2 max, body composition analysis, blood chemistry, blood pressure, resting heart rate, muscular endurance, and flexibility. T-tests, ANCOVA, and gain-score analyses were utilized to evaluate data. Both groups showed small changes in weight, percent fat, resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure, resting heart rate, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), muscular endurance, and flexibility, but these changes were statistically nonsignificant. The VO2 max for the experimental group increased 41%, while the VO2 max for the control group increased 22% (p less than 0.05). The results suggest that the cardiovascular fitness changes for overweight, middle-aged women are greater when exercise intensity and progression are tailored to their age and fitness level. PMID:3423310

  17. Marine biodiversity in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One decade ago, the seas and oceans were considered biologically less diverse that the terrestrial environment. Now it is known that it is on the contrary; 33 of the 34 categories of animals (phylum), they are represented in the sea, compared with those solely 15 that exist in earth. The investigation about the diversity of life in the sea has been relatively scorned, but there are big benefits that we can wait if this is protected. The captures of fish depend on it; the species captured by the fisheries are sustained of the biodiversity of their trophic chains and habitats. The marine species are probably the biggest reservoir of chemical substances that can be used in pharmaceutical products. The genetic material of some species can be useful in biotechnical applications. The paper treats topics like the current state of the knowledge in marine biodiversity and it is done a diagnostic of the marine biodiversity in Colombia

  18. Marine-Design Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul; Birmingham, R.; Sortland, B.; Wright, P.

    This report addresses Marine-Design Education in view of present and forecasted demands of the maritime industry, determined by a drastically transforming economic and technological maritime environment. In this framework, this report discusses in depth IT-based Marine Design education (par. 4) and...... reveals innovative educational concepts and initiatives, such as the EiT (Experts in a Team) concept (par. 3), the SFS (Student Friendly Software) initiative (par. 5), Education Driven Research (EDR, par. 6) and Research Based Education (RBE, par. 6). Nevertheless, the paper stresses the need for...... continuity between traditional and modern ways of teaching (par. 4) and points out that Marine Design education is not only about Design, but should also address project/business administration and decision making issues (par. 7)....

  19. Crystallization and initial X-ray diffraction analysis of the tellurite-resistance S-adenosyl-l-methionine transferase protein TehB from Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The E. coli TehB methyltransferase has been purified and crystallized in the presence of SAM and sinefungin. Diffraction data have been collected to 1.9 Å resolution for both complexes. TehB is an S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) dependent methyltransferase that detoxifies tellurite in bacteria. The Escherichia coli TehB protein was purified and crystallized in the presence of both SAM and sinefungin. The TehB–SAM and TehB–sinefungin crystals both diffracted X-rays to 1.9 Å resolution. The TehB–SAM crystals belonged to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 60.0, b = 56.1, c = 130.6 Å, β = 97.9°. The TehB–sinefungin crystals belonged to space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 59.1, b = 55.5, c = 129.7 Å, β = 95.9°

  20. Mariner 9 navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil, W. J.; Jordan, J. F.; Zielenbach, J. W.; Wong, S. K.; Mitchell, R. T.; Webb, W. A.; Koskela, P. E.

    1973-01-01

    A final, comprehensive description of the navigation of Mariner 9-the first U.S. spacecraft to orbit another planet is provided. The Mariner 9 navigation function included not only precision flight path control but also pointing of the spacecraft's scientific instruments mounted on a two degree of freedom scan platform. To the extent appropriate, each section describes the perflight analyses on which the operational strategies and performance predictions were based. Inflight results are then discussed and compared with the preflight predictions. Postflight analyses, which were primarily concerned with developing a thorough understanding of unexpected in-flight results, are also presented.

  1. Marine natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blunt, John W; Copp, Brent R; Keyzers, Robert A; Munro, Murray H G; Prinsep, Michèle R

    2016-03-01

    Covering: 2014. Previous review: Nat. Prod. Rep., 2015, 32, 116-211This review covers the literature published in 2014 for marine natural products (MNPs), with 1116 citations (753 for the period January to December 2014) referring to compounds isolated from marine microorganisms and phytoplankton, green, brown and red algae, sponges, cnidarians, bryozoans, molluscs, tunicates, echinoderms, mangroves and other intertidal plants and microorganisms. The emphasis is on new compounds (1378 in 456 papers for 2014), together with the relevant biological activities, source organisms and country of origin. Reviews, biosynthetic studies, first syntheses, and syntheses that lead to the revision of structures or stereochemistries, have been included. PMID:26837534

  2. Aerobic fitness is associated with greater hippocampal cerebral blood flow in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaddock-Heyman, Laura; Erickson, Kirk I; Chappell, Michael A; Johnson, Curtis L; Kienzler, Caitlin; Knecht, Anya; Drollette, Eric S; Raine, Lauren B; Scudder, Mark R; Kao, Shih-Chun; Hillman, Charles H; Kramer, Arthur F

    2016-08-01

    The present study is the first to investigate whether cerebral blood flow in the hippocampus relates to aerobic fitness in children. In particular, we used arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion MRI to provide a quantitative measure of blood flow in the hippocampus in 73 7- to 9-year-old preadolescent children. Indeed, aerobic fitness was found to relate to greater perfusion in the hippocampus, independent of age, sex, and hippocampal volume. Such results suggest improved microcirculation and cerebral vasculature in preadolescent children with higher levels of aerobic fitness. Further, aerobic fitness may influence how the brain regulates its metabolic demands via blood flow in a region of the brain important for learning and memory. To add specificity to the relationship of fitness to the hippocampus, we demonstrate no significant association between aerobic fitness and cerebral blood flow in the brainstem. Our results reinforce the importance of aerobic fitness during a critical period of child development. PMID:27419884

  3. Characteristics Research of Aerobics Physical Agility Training Based on Statistical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerobics is an emerging sport item and its audience is constantly expanding and our aerobics technology is increasingly developing and it is ongoing to move closer towards the international advanced level. In this study it first analyzes the physical agility training of aerobics, first establishes the content structure of the physical agility training project and analyzes the need of the training content and then analyzes the competitive level status of China’s competitive aerobics through the competition results, finally conducts a detailed summary analysis for aerobics players’ body shape characteristics, action dynamics requirement, the overall strength control rules and the training principles of exercise endurance. The discussion content and research results of the text provide theoretical reference for the development of China’s competitive aerobics, thus the movement of our country can develop higher and faster.

  4. Comparison of membrane fouling during short-term filtration of aerobic granular sludge and activated sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Aerobic granular sludge was cultivated adopting internal-circulate sequencing batch airlift reactor. The contradistinctive experiment about short-term membrane fouling between aerobic granular sludge system and activated sludge system were investigated. The membrane foulants was also characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy technique. The results showed that the aerobic granular sludge had excellent denitrification ability; the removal efficiency of TN could reach 90%. The aerobic granular sludge could alleviate membrane fouling effectively. The steady membrane flux of aerobic granular sludge was twice as much as that of activated sludge system. In addition, it was found that the aerobic granular sludge could result in severe membrane pore-blocking, however, the activated sludge could cause severe cake fouling. The major components of the foulants were identified as comprising of proteins and polysaccharide materials.

  5. The Danish Marine Monitoring System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ærtebjerg, G.

    1997-01-01

    Indeholder abstracts fra Workshop on Marine Monitoring Systems and Technology, Risø, 17-18 April 1996.......Indeholder abstracts fra Workshop on Marine Monitoring Systems and Technology, Risø, 17-18 April 1996....

  6. Empowering marine science through genomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volckaert, F.A M J; Barbier, M.; Canario, A; Olsen, J.L.; Wesnigk, J; Clark, M; Boyen, C

    2008-01-01

    Marine scientists in Europe summarize their successes with genome technologies in the marine sciences and make a plea for a concerted international effort to raise greater public education for support. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Marine archaeological research in India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Sundaresh; Vora, K.H.; Bandodkar, S.N.

    Marine archaeology is otherwise known as maritime, nautical or underwater archaeology. These terms include all aspects of marine archaeology in which water plays a dominant role. It deals with the study of past seafaring from material remains...

  8. MONOTERPENE BIOSYNTHESIS IN MARINE ALGAE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marine algae produce a variety of secondary metabolites involved in chemical defense. Among these the monoterpenes present several highly unusual characteristics relative to their terrestrial counterparts. The monoterpenes produced by these marine organisms are nearly always halogenated and posses...

  9. Marin miljøhistorie

    OpenAIRE

    Poulsen, Bo

    2012-01-01

    This essay provides an overview of recent trends in the historiography of marine environmental history, a sub-field of environmental history which has grown tremendously in scope and size over the last c. 15 years. The object of marine environmental history is the changing relationship between human society and natural marine resources. Within this broad topic, several trends and objectives are discernable. The essay argue that the so-called material marine environmental history has its main ...

  10. Neuroprotective Effects of Marine Algae

    OpenAIRE

    Se-Kwon Kim; Ratih Pangestuti

    2011-01-01

    The marine environment is known as a rich source of chemical structures with numerous beneficial health effects. Among marine organisms, marine algae have been identified as an under-exploited plant resource, although they have long been recognized as valuable sources of structurally diverse bioactive compounds. Presently, several lines of studies have provided insight into biological activities and neuroprotective effects of marine algae including antioxidant, anti-neuroinflammatory, choline...

  11. Interaction of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers and Aerobic Granular Sludge: Biosorption and Microbial Degradation

    OpenAIRE

    Shou-Qing Ni; Qingjie Cui; Zhen Zheng

    2014-01-01

    As a new category of persistent organic pollutants, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have become ubiquitous global environmental contaminants. No literature is available on the aerobic biotransformation of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209). Herein, we investigated the interaction of PBDEs with aerobic granular sludge. The results show that the removal of BDE-209 from wastewater is mainly via biosorption onto aerobic granular sludge. The uptake capacity increased when temperature, contac...

  12. Fate of aerobic bacterial granules with fungal contamination under different organic loading conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Li, AJ; Zhang, T.; LI, XY

    2010-01-01

    Aerobic sludge granulation is an attractive new technology for biological wastewater treatment. However, the instability of aerobic granules caused by fungal growth is still one of the main problems encountered in granular bioreactors. In this study, laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the fate and transformation of aerobic granules under different organic loading conditions. Bacterial granules (2-3 mm) in a poor condition with fungi-like black filamentous growth were seeded ...

  13. Effects of Aerobic Exercise and Whole Body Vibration on Glycaemia Control in Type 2 Diabetic Males

    OpenAIRE

    Mahyar Salavati; Hamid Aghaalinejad; Lale Behboudi; Mohammad-Ali Azarbayjani

    2011-01-01

    Purpose aerobic exercise has been identified as the main treatment for type 2 diabetic patients. Such an exercise, however, is usually repined by some of patients who suffer from lack of stamina. Therefore, whole body vibration has recently been introduced as a passive intervention. The present study aimed at comparing how aerobic exercise and whole body vibration affect glycaemia control in type 2 diabetic males. Methods Thirty diabetic males were divided into three groups, namely aerobic ex...

  14. Effect of Aerobic Exercise Training on Chinese Population with Mild to Moderate Depression in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Cassandra W. H. Ho; Chan, S.C.; Wong, J.S.; Cheung, W. T.; Chung, Dicky W S; Lau, Titanic F. O.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Exercise has been suggested to be a viable treatment for depression. This study investigates the effect of supervised aerobic exercise training on depressive symptoms and physical performance among Chinese patients with mild to moderate depression in early in-patient phase. Methods. A randomized repeated measure and assessor-blinded study design was used. Subjects in aerobic exercise group received 30 minutes of aerobic training, five days a week for 3 weeks. Depressive symptoms (...

  15. The impact of aerobic fitness on functioning in chronic back pain

    OpenAIRE

    Wormgoor, Marjon; Indahl, Aage; Tulder, van, M.; Kemper, Han

    2007-01-01

    Despite lack of convincing evidence that reduced aerobic fitness is associated with chronic back pain (CBP), exercise programs are regarded as being effective for persons with non-specific CBP. It is unsure whether gain in aerobic fitness following intervention is associated with functioning improvement in persons with CBP. The objective of this prospective cohort study was to study the impact of aerobic fitness on functioning in persons with CBP, at baseline and following 3-week intensive in...

  16. Effects of exercise rehab on male asthmatic patients: Aerobic verses rebound training

    OpenAIRE

    Vahid Zolaktaf; Ghasemi, Gholam A; Morteza Sadeghi

    2013-01-01

    Background: There are some auspicious records on applying aerobic exercise for asthmatic patients. Recently, it is suggested that rebound exercise might even increase the gains. This study was designed to compare the effects of rebound therapy to aerobic training in male asthmatic patients. Methods: Sample included 37 male asthmatic patients (20-40 years) from the same respiratory clinic. After signing the informed consent, subjects volunteered to take part in control, rebound, or aerobic ...

  17. EVALUATION OF A TWO-STAGE TREATMENT OF DOMESTIC SEWAGE WITH ANAEROBIC-AEROBIC MICROBIAL FILM

    OpenAIRE

    A.Mesdaghinia

    1986-01-01

    The objective of this research was to study the feasibility of a two stage continuous system employing anaerobic-aerobic microbial film for domestic wastewater treatment and the effect of iron on the behavior of sulfate reducing bacteria in anaerobic metabolism. A bench scale system with an anaerobic filter followed by aerobic fixed units used plastic media and was operated in up flow manner with hydraulic detention times of 6 hours, whereas the aerobic unit utilized diffused aeration. Raw do...

  18. Isolation and Characterization of Medically Important Aerobic Actinomycetes in Soil of Iran (2006 - 2007)

    OpenAIRE

    Aghamirian, Mohammad Reza; Ghiasian, Seyed Amir

    2009-01-01

    The aerobic actinomycetes are a large group of soil-inhabiting bacteria that occur worldwide. Some of them are the main cause of two important diseases, nocardiosis and actinomycetoma. To identify the prevalence and geographic distribution of aerobic actinomycetes in soil of Qazvin province, a study was carried out during 2006-2007. In this study, the incidence and diversity of medically important aerobic actinomycetes was determined in 300 soil samples of different parts of Qazvin. The suspe...

  19. Health-improving possibilities of usage of aerobics in the senior classes of comprehensive school.

    OpenAIRE

    Kravchuk T.N.; Shahov Р.V.; Gubina I.J.; Guslyaeva E.J.; Ryadinskaya I.A.

    2010-01-01

    In the article is opened health-improving possibilities of use of aerobics at physical training lessons in the senior classes. The technique of carrying out of lessons of physical training in the senior classes with use of different kinds of aerobics is proved and developed, and also their influence on indicators of health of senior pupils is investigated. It is shown that employment by aerobics promotes considerable improvement of health of senior pupils, increase of mood, state of health an...

  20. The interplay between aerobic metabolism and antipredator performance: vigilance is related to recovery rate after exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Killen, Shaun S; Reid, Donald; Marras, Stefano; Domenici, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    When attacked by a predator, fish respond with a sudden fast-start motion away from the threat. Although this anaerobically-powered swimming necessitates a recovery phase which is fueled aerobically, little is known about links between escape performance and aerobic traits such as aerobic scope (AS) or recovery time after exhaustive exercise. Slower recovery ability or a reduced AS could make some individuals less likely to engage in a fast-start response or display reduced performance. Conve...

  1. Fructose modifies the hormonal response and modulates lipid metabolism in aerobic exercise after glucose supplementation

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández, Juan Marcelo; Da Silva-Grigoletto, Marzo Edir; Ruano-Ruiz, Juan; Caballero-Villarraso, Javier; Moreno-Luna, Rafael; Tunez-Fiñana, Isaac; Tasset-Cuevas, Inmaculada; Pérez-Martinez, Pablo; López-Miranda, José; Pérez-Jiménez, Francisco

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The metabolic response, when aerobic exercise is performed after the ingestion of glucose plus fructose, is unclear. To compare the hormonal and lipid responses provoked by the ingestion of glucose plus fructose in relation to glucose alone, during aerobic exercise and the recovery phase, we administered two beverages containing glucose plus fructose or glucose in a randomised crossover design, to twenty healthy, aerobically trained volunteers. After a 15-minute resting pe...

  2. Effects of Exercise Rehab on Male Asthmatic Patients: Aerobic Verses Rebound Training

    OpenAIRE

    Zolaktaf, Vahid; Ghasemi, Gholam A; Sadeghi, Morteza

    2013-01-01

    Background: There are some auspicious records on applying aerobic exercise for asthmatic patients. Recently, it is suggested that rebound exercise might even increase the gains. This study was designed to compare the effects of rebound therapy to aerobic training in male asthmatic patients. Methods: Sample included 37 male asthmatic patients (20-40 years) from the same respiratory clinic. After signing the informed consent, subjects volunteered to take part in control, rebound, or aerobic gro...

  3. SOCIOLOGICAL STUDY REGARDING THE FEMALE ADOLESCENTS' PERCEPTION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF AEROBIC GYMNASTICS

    OpenAIRE

    Dumitru R.C.; Dobrescu T.; Zaharia A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Aerobic gymnastics is addressed in equal measure to women and men, to young and old people, the reason for its accessible nature being the harmoniously combination between simple exercises and dance elements. Starting from this premise, this research verifies the female students' knowledge regarding aerobic gymnastics as an alternative for a healty lifestyle. The main goal of this study was to identify how much the non-Physical Education female students are aware of the effects the aerobic gy...

  4. Longitudinal study of sports injuries in practitioners of aerobic gymnastics competition

    OpenAIRE

    Rocío Abalo Núñez; Águeda Gutiérrez-Sánchez; Mercedes Vernetta Santana

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTIntroduction:Aerobic gymnastics, since its membership in the International Gymnastics Federation, has undergone changes in its regulations.Objective:To analyze the injuries found in Spanish aerobic gymnastics athletes during different editions of the Code of Points.Methods:A descriptive, longitudinal and compara-tive study was carried out on the epidemiology of injuries in aerobic gymnastics published during different editions of the Code of Points.Results:It highlights that the numbe...

  5. How to Make Students Feel Happy in the Course of Aerobics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuezhi

    With its own charm, aerobics is accepted by more and more university students, and becomes one of the most popular sports for girls in colleges. So the Aerobics Teachers must change the single mode of teaching. Aerobics Teachers should start from the actual situations, adopt the method of "group teach", and teach students to appreciate themselves and help each other in a team. And teachers also should make students feel happy of success and sports when they compete in teams.

  6. Characteristics of aerobic granules grown on glucose a sequential batch shaking reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Chun-guang; ZHU Nan-wen; LIU Jun-shen; WANG Zhen-peng; CAI Wei-min

    2004-01-01

    Aerobic heterotrophic granular sludge was cultivated in a sequencing batch shaking reactor(SBSR) in which a synthetic wastewater containing glucose as carbon source was fed. The characteristics of the aerobic granules were investigated. Compared with the conventional activated sludge flocs, the aerobic granules exhibit excellent physical characteristics in terms of settleability, size, shape, biomass density, and physical strength.Scanning electron micrographs revealed that in mature granules little filamentous bacteria could be found, rodshaped and coccoid bacteria were the dominant microorganisms.

  7. Oceanic processes in marine pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book covers the following areas: bioaccumulation of Polycyclic Aromatic hydrocarbons in marine environments; behavior of drilling fluid discharges off the coast of California; effects of drilling fluids on marine organisms; and the effects of radioactive waste disposal on marine amphipods

  8. 75 FR 77616 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    ... endangered and threatened species (50 CFR parts 222-226). Permit No. 14334, issued on August 17, 2009 (74 FR... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XP18 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine... Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing...

  9. 76 FR 76949 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    ... endangered and threatened species (50 CFR 222-226). Permit No. 14534, issued on July 2, 2010 (75 FR 39665... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XR52 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine... Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing...

  10. 76 FR 25308 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-04

    ... in the Federal Register (76 FR 4091) that Dr. Burns had requested a permit to collect/receive, import... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA165 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine... ] scientific research on marine mammal parts. ADDRESSES: The permit and related documents are available...

  11. 76 FR 72680 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-25

    ... December 9, 2010, notice was published in the Federal Register (75 FR 76703) that a request for a permit... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA078 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine.... Environmental Research and Services, Fairbanks, AK, to conduct research on marine mammals in Alaska....

  12. 77 FR 14352 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ... published in the Federal Register (76 FR 30919) that a request for a permit to conduct research on humpback... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB065 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine... permit has been issued under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16...

  13. Mafia marine resources in peril

    OpenAIRE

    Mndeme, Y.E.S.

    1995-01-01

    The rich marine resource of the Mafia District, Tanzania, especially its coral reefs and mangroves, are in danger of collapse. The proposed marine park faces chronic problems of dynamite fishing and coral mining. The Mafia fisheries resources and the importance of coral reefs are presented together with proposed measures to rescue the Mafia marine environment.

  14. Marine Science Sourcebook, First Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimist, Roger J.

    This manual was prepared for a teacher workshop in marine science. It includes information on when, where, and how to collect marine mollusks, and how to prepare a shell collection; a partial key to the classes, subclasses, and orders of the mollusca; notes on the ecology and physiology of marine bivalves and snails, and recipes for solutions…

  15. The microbial nitrogen cycling potential in marine sediments is impacted by polyaromatic hydrocarbon pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole M Scott

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available During petroleum hydrocarbon exposure the composition and functional dynamics of marine microbial communities are altered, favoring bacteria that can utilize this rich carbon source. Initial exposure of high levels of hydrocarbons in aerobic surface sediments can enrich growth of heterotrophic microorganisms having hydrocarbon degradation capacity. As a result, there can be a localized reduction in oxygen potential, if the sediments are aerobic, within the surface layer of marine sediments resulting in anaerobic zones. We hypothesized that increasing exposure to elevated hydrocarbon concentrations would positively correlate with an increase in denitrification processes and the net accumulation of dinitrogen. This hypothesis was tested by comparing the relative abundance of genes associated with nitrogen metabolism and nitrogen cycling identified in 6 metagenomes from sediments contaminated by polyaromatic hydrocarbons from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, and 3 metagenomes from sediments associated with natural oil seeps in the Santa Barbara Channel. An additional 8 metagenomes from uncontaminated sediments from the Gulf of Mexico were analyzed for comparison. We predicted relative changes in metabolite turnover as a function of the differential microbial gene abundances, which showed predicted accumulation of metabolites associated with denitrification processes, including anammox, in the contaminated samples compared to uncontaminated sediments, with the magnitude of this change being positively correlated to the hydrocarbon concentration and exposure duration. These data highlight the potential impact of hydrocarbon inputs on N cycling processes in marine sediments and provide information relevant for system scale models of nitrogen metabolism in affected ecosystems.

  16. Terephthalic acid wastewater treatment by using two-stage aerobic process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Based on the tests between anoxic and aerobic process, the two-stage aerobic process with a biological selector was chosen to treat terephthalic acid wastewater (PTA). By adopting the two- stage aerobic process, the CODCr in PTA wastewater could be reduced from 4000-6000 mg/L to below 100 mg/L; the COD loading in the first aerobic tank could reach 7.0-8.0 kgCODCr/(m3.d) and that of the second stage was from 0.2 to 0.4 kgCODCr/(m3.d). Further researches on the kinetics of substrate degradation were carried out.

  17. Beyond vascularization: aerobic fitness is associated with N-acetylaspartate and working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Kirk I; Weinstein, Andrea M; Sutton, Bradley P; Prakash, Ruchika Shaurya; Voss, Michelle W; Chaddock, Laura; Szabo, Amanda N; Mailey, Emily L; White, Siobhan M; Wojcicki, Thomas R; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F

    2012-01-01

    Aerobic exercise is a promising form of prevention for cognitive decline; however, little is known about the molecular mechanisms by which exercise and fitness impacts the human brain. Several studies have postulated that increased regional brain volume and function are associated with aerobic fitness because of increased vascularization rather than increased neural tissue per se. We tested this position by examining the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness and N-acetylaspartate (NAA) levels in the right frontal cortex using magnetic resonance spectroscopy. NAA is a nervous system specific metabolite found predominantly in cell bodies of neurons. We reasoned that if aerobic fitness was predominantly influencing the vasculature of the brain, then NAA levels should not vary as a function of aerobic fitness. However, if aerobic fitness influences the number or viability of neurons, then higher aerobic fitness levels might be associated with greater concentrations of NAA. We examined NAA levels, aerobic fitness, and cognitive performance in 137 older adults without cognitive impairment. Consistent with the latter hypothesis, we found that higher aerobic fitness levels offset an age-related decline in NAA. Furthermore, NAA mediated an association between fitness and backward digit span performance, suggesting that neuronal viability as measured by NAA is important in understanding fitness-related cognitive enhancement. Since NAA is found exclusively in neural tissue, our results indicate that the effect of fitness on the human brain extends beyond vascularization; aerobic fitness is associated with neuronal viability in the frontal cortex of older adults. PMID:22574272

  18. Aspects of Marine Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awkerman, Gary L.

    This publication is designed for use in standard science curricula to develop oceanologic manifestations of certain science topics. Included are teacher guides, student activities, and demonstrations to impart ocean science understanding, specifically, aspects of marine ecology, to high school students. The course objectives include the ability of…

  19. Marine fog: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koračin, Darko; Dorman, Clive E.; Lewis, John M.; Hudson, James G.; Wilcox, Eric M.; Torregrosa, Alicia

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this review is to discuss physical processes over a wide range of spatial scales that govern the formation, evolution, and dissipation of marine fog. We consider marine fog as the collective combination of fog over the open sea along with coastal sea fog and coastal land fog. The review includes a history of sea fog research, field programs, forecasting methods, and detection of sea fog via satellite observations where similarity in radiative properties of fog top and the underlying sea induce further complexity. The main thrust of the study is to provide insight into causality of fog including its initiation, maintenance, and destruction. The interplay between the various physical processes behind the several stages of marine fog is among the most challenging aspects of the problem. An effort is made to identify this interplay between processes that include the microphysics of fog formation and maintenance, the influence of large-scale circulation and precipitation/clouds, radiation, turbulence (air-sea interaction), and advection. The environmental impact of marine fog is also addressed. The study concludes with an assessment of our current knowledge of the phenomenon, our principal areas of ignorance, and future lines of research that hold promise for advances in our understanding.

  20. Marine Electrician--Fundamentals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutliff, Ronald D.; And Others

    This self-study course is designed to familiarize Marine Corps enlisted personnel with the principles of electricity, safety, and tools. The course contains three study units. Each study unit begins with a general objective, which is a statement of what the student should learn from the unit. The study units are divided into numbered work units,…

  1. Safety of Marine Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.

    1990-01-01

    a "future safe" design code for exposed marine structures like breakwaters should be different from the ones usually applied in modern design standards for conventional structures within civil engineering. Moreover, results from ongoing development of a design code for rubble mound breakwaters are...

  2. Marine Renewable Energies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azzellino, Arianna; Conley, Daniel; Vicinanza, Diego;

    2013-01-01

    Countries with coastlines may have valuable renewable energy resources in the form of tides, currents, waves, and offshorewind.The potential to gather energy from the sea has recently gained interest in several nations, so Marine Renewable Energy Installations (hereinafter MREIs) will likely become...

  3. Marine and coastal agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    Six Central American nations have signed an agreement to improve coastal habitats, including mangrove swamps, beaches, and coral reefs.Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama signed the Convention on Cooperation in the Protection and Sustainable Development of the Marine and Coastal Environment of the Northeast Pacific on 18 February.

  4. Marine Ecosystem Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasler, Berit; Ahtiainen, Heini; Hasselström, Linus; Heiskanen, Anna-Stiina; Soutukorva, Åsa; Martinsen, Louise

    MARECOS (Marine Ecosystem Services) er et tværfagligt studie, der har haft til formål at tilvejebringe information vedrørende kortlægning og værdisætning af økosystemtjenester, som kan anvendes i forbindelse med udformning af regulering på det marine område såvel nationalt, som regionalt og...... internationalt. Denne rapport indeholder forslag til, hvordan opgørelser af økosystemers tilstand baseret på EU’s Havstrategidirektiv (EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive, MSFD), samt opgørelser baseret på anvendelse af HELCOM’s indikatorer for Østersøen, kan anvendes i forbindelse med kortlægning og...... værdisætning af økosystemtjenester. Rapporten indeholder:  Definitioner og beskrivelser af centrale begreber i forhold til opgørelse af økosystemtjenester, Forslag til, hvordan marine økosystemtjenester kan opgøres.  Eksempler på, hvordan MSFD deskriptorerne og indikatorerne relateret til opgørelse af...

  5. Cognitive enhancement by transcranial laser stimulation and acute aerobic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jungyun; Castelli, Darla M; Gonzalez-Lima, F

    2016-08-01

    This is the first randomized, controlled study comparing the cognitive effects of transcranial laser stimulation and acute aerobic exercise on the same cognitive tasks. We examined whether transcranial infrared laser stimulation of the prefrontal cortex, acute high-intensity aerobic exercise, or the combination may enhance performance in sustained attention and working memory tasks. Sixty healthy young adults were randomly assigned to one of the following four treatments: (1) low-level laser therapy (LLLT) with infrared laser to two forehead sites while seated (total 8 min, 1064 nm continuous wave, 250 mW/cm(2), 60 J/cm(2) per site of 13.6 cm(2)); (2) acute exercise (EX) of high-intensity (total 20 min, with 10-min treadmill running at 85-90 % VO2max); (3) combined treatment (LLLT + EX); or (4) sham control (CON). Participants were tested for prefrontal measures of sustained attention with the psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) and working memory with the delayed match-to-sample task (DMS) before and after the treatments. As compared to CON, both LLLT and EX reduced reaction time in the PVT [F(1.56) = 4.134, p = 0.01, η (2)  = 0.181] and increased the number of correct responses in the DMS [F(1.56) = 4.690, p = 0.005, η (2)  = 0.201], demonstrating a significant enhancing effect of LLLT and EX on cognitive performance. LLLT + EX effects were similar but showed no significantly greater improvement on PVT and DMS than LLLT or EX alone. The transcranial infrared laser stimulation and acute aerobic exercise treatments were similarly effective for cognitive enhancement, suggesting that they augment prefrontal cognitive functions similarly. PMID:27220529

  6. Adherence of older women with strength training and aerobic exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Picorelli AMA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Alexandra Miranda Assumpção Picorelli, Daniele Sirineu Pereira, Diogo Carvalho Felício, Daniela Maria Dos Anjos, Danielle Aparecida Gomes Pereira, Rosângela Corrêa Dias, Marcella Guimarães Assis, Leani Souza Máximo Pereira Graduate Program in Rehabilitation Sciences, Department of Physical Therapy, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil Background: Participation of older people in a program of regular exercise is an effective strategy to minimize the physical decline associated with age. The purpose of this study was to assess adherence rates in older women enrolled in two different exercise programs (one aerobic exercise and one strength training and identify any associated clinical or functional factors. Methods: This was an exploratory observational study in a sample of 231 elderly women of mean age 70.5 years. We used a structured questionnaire with standardized tests to evaluate the relevant clinical and functional measures. A specific adherence questionnaire was developed by the researchers to determine motivators and barriers to exercise adherence. Results: The adherence rate was 49.70% in the aerobic exercise group and 56.20% in the strength training group. Multiple logistic regression models for motivation were significant (P=0.003 for the muscle strengthening group (R2=0.310 and also significant (P=0.008 for the aerobic exercise group (R2=0.154. A third regression model for barriers to exercise was significant (P=0.003 only for the muscle strengthening group (R2=0.236. The present study shows no direct relationship between worsening health status and poor adherence. Conclusion: Factors related to adherence with exercise in the elderly are multifactorial. Keywords: older women, adherence, therapeutic exercises

  7. Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Anxiety Disorders: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Moura, Antonio Marcos; Lamego, Murilo Khede; Paes, Flávia; Ferreira Rocha, Nuno Barbosa; Simoes-Silva, Vitor; Rocha, Susana Almeida; de Sá Filho, Alberto Souza; Rimes, Ridson; Manochio, João; Budde, Henning; Wegner, Mirko; Mura, Gioia; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Yuan, Ti-Fei; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Machado, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are the most common psychiatric disorders observed currently. It is a normal adaptive response to stress that allows coping with adverse situations. Nevertheless, when anxiety becomes excessive or disproportional in relation to the situation that evokes it or when there is not any special object directed at it, such as an irrational dread of routine stimuli, it becomes a disabling disorder and is considered to be pathological. The traditional treatment used is medication and cognitive behavioral psychotherapy, however, last years the practice of physical exercise, specifically aerobic exercise, has been investigated as a new non-pharmacological therapy for anxiety disorders. Thus, the aim of this article was to provide information on research results and key chains related to the therapeutic effects of aerobic exercise compared with other types of interventions to treat anxiety, which may become a useful clinical application in a near future. Researches have shown the effectiveness of alternative treatments, such as physical exercise, minimizing high financial costs and minimizing side effects. The sample analyzed, 66.8% was composed of women and 80% with severity of symptoms anxiety as moderate to severe. The data analyzed in this review allows us to claim that alternative therapies like exercise are effective in controlling and reducing symptoms, as 91% of anxiety disorders surveys have shown effective results in treating. However, there is still disagreement regarding the effect of exercise compared to the use of antidepressant symptoms and cognitive function in anxiety, this suggests that there is no consensus on the correct intensity of aerobic exercise as to achieve the best dose-response, with intensities high to moderate or moderate to mild. PMID:26556089

  8. Aerobic granules: microbial landscape and architecture, stages, and practical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Gil, Graciela; Holliger, Christof

    2014-06-01

    For the successful application of aerobic granules in wastewater treatment, granules containing an appropriate microbial assembly able to remove contaminants should be retained and propagated within the reactor. To manipulate and/or optimize this process, a good understanding of the formation and dynamic architecture of the granules is desirable. Models of granules often assume a spherical shape with an outer layer and an inner core, but limited information is available regarding the extent of deviations from such assumptions. We report on new imaging approaches to gain detailed insights into the structural characteristics of aerobic granules. Our approach stained all components of the granule to obtain a high quality contrast in the images; hence limitations due to thresholding in the image analysis were overcome. A three-dimensional reconstruction of the granular structure was obtained that revealed the mesoscopic impression of the cavernlike interior of the structure, showing channels and dead-end paths in detail. In "old" granules, large cavities allowed for the irrigation and growth of dense microbial colonies along the path of the channels. Hence, in some areas, paradoxically higher biomass content was observed in the inner part of the granule compared to the outer part. Microbial clusters "rooting" from the interior of the mature granule structure indicate that granules mainly grow via biomass outgrowth and not by aggregation of small particles. We identify and discuss phenomena contributing to the life cycle of aerobic granules. With our approach, volumetric tetrahedral grids are generated that may be used to validate complex models of granule formation. PMID:24657859

  9. Influence of marine engine simulator training to marine engineer's competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Cheng, Xiangxin; Ma, Qiang; Song, Xiufu; Liu, Xinjian; Wang, Lianhai

    2012-01-01

    Marine engine simulator is broadly used in maritime education and training. Maritime education and training institutions usually use this facility to cultivate the hands-on ability and fault-treat ability of marine engineers and students. In this study, the structure and main function of DMS-2005 marine engine simulator is briefly introduced, several teaching methods are discussed. By using Delphi method and AHP method, a comprehensive evaluation system is built and the competence of marine engineers is assessed. After analyzing the calculating data, some conclusions can be drawn: comprehensive evaluation system could be used to assess marine engineer's competence; the training of marine engine simulator is propitious to enhance marine engineers' integrated ability, especially on the aspect of judgment of abnormal situation capacity, emergency treatment ability and safe operation ability.

  10. Combined Anaerobic-Aerobic Bacterial Degradation of Dyes

    OpenAIRE

    R. Wilfred Sugumar; Sandhya Sadanandan

    2010-01-01

    Wastewaters from the dye baths of a non-formal textile-dyeing unit containing C.I. Acid Orange 7 and C.I. Reactive Red 2 were subjected to degradation in a sequential anaerobic-aerobic treatment process based on mixed culture of bacteria. The technical samples of the dyestuffs and the dye bath wastes were treated in an anaerobic reactor, using an adapted mixed culture of anaerobic microorganisms. The dyestuffs were biotransformed into colourless substituted amine metabolites in the reactor. T...

  11. Criterion Related Validity of Karate Specific Aerobic Test (KSAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaabene

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Karate is one the most popular combat sports in the world. Physical fitness assessment on a regular manner is important for monitoring the effectiveness of the training program and the readiness of karatekas to compete. Objectives The aim of this research was to examine the criterion related to validity of the karate specific aerobic test (KSAT as an indicator of aerobic level of karate practitioners. Patients and Methods Cardiorespiratory responses, aerobic performance level through both treadmill laboratory test and YoYo intermittent recovery test level 1 (YoYoIRTL1 as well as time to exhaustion in the KSAT test (TE’KSAT were determined in a total of fifteen healthy international karatekas (i.e. karate practitioners (means ± SD: age: 22.2 ± 4.3 years; height: 176.4 ± 7.5 cm; body mass: 70.3 ± 9.7 kg and body fat: 13.2 ± 6%. Results Peak heart rate obtained from KSAT represented ~99% of maximal heart rate registered during the treadmill test showing that KSAT imposes high physiological demands. There was no significant correlation between KSAT’s TE and relative (mL/min kg treadmill maximal oxygen uptake (r = 0.14; P = 0.69; [small]. On the other hand, there was a significant relationship between KSAT’s TE and the velocity associated with VO2max (vVO2max (r = 0.67; P = 0.03; [large] as well as the velocity at VO2 corresponding to the second ventilatory threshold (vVO2 VAT (r = 0.64; P = 0.04; [large]. Moreover, significant relationship was found between TE’s KSAT and both the total distance covered and parameters of intermittent endurance measured through YoYoIRTL1. Conclusions The KSAT has not proved to have indirect criterion related validity as no significant correlations have been found between TE’s KSAT and treadmill VO2max. Nevertheless, as correlated to other aerobic fitness variables, KSAT can be considered as an indicator of karate specific endurance. The establishment of the criterion related validity of the

  12. Aerobic training in patients with anoctamin 5 myopathy and hyperckemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissing, Christoffer R; Preisler, Nicolai; Husu, Edith;

    2014-01-01

    -sit-to-stand test (FRSTST). RESULTS: Training resulted in improvements in VO(2max) (27 ± 7%; P = 0.0001) and FRSTST time (35 ± 12%; P = 0.007). Improvements in physiologic and functional muscle testing were accompanied by stable CK levels and no reports of adverse effects. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that...... supervised aerobic exercise training is safe and effective in improving oxidative capacity and muscle function in patients with anoctamin 5 deficiency....

  13. Development of a specific anaerobic field test for aerobic gymnastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Christiano Robles Rodrigues; Borelli, Marcello Tadeu Caetano; Paineli, Vitor de Salles; Azevedo, Rafael de Almeida; Borelli, Claudia Cristine Gomes; Lancha Junior, Antônio Herbert; Gualano, Bruno; Artioli, Guilherme Giannini

    2015-01-01

    The current investigation aimed to develop a valid specific field test to evaluate anaerobic physical performance in Aerobic Gymnastics athletes. We first designed the Specific Aerobic Gymnast Anaerobic Test (SAGAT), which included gymnastics-specific elements performed in maximal repeated sprint fashion, with a total duration of 80-90 s. In order to validate the SAGAT, three independent sub-studies were performed to evaluate the concurrent validity (Study I, n=8), the reliability (Study II, n=10) and the sensitivity (Study III, n=30) of the test in elite female athletes. In Study I, a positive correlation was shown between lower-body Wingate test and SAGAT performance (Mean power: p = 0.03, r = -0.69, CI: -0.94 to 0.03 and Peak power: p = 0.02, r = -0.72, CI: -0.95 to -0.04) and between upper-body Wingate test and SAGAT performance (Mean power: p = 0.03, r = -0.67, CI: -0.94 to 0.02 and Peak power: p = 0.03, r = -0.69, CI: -0.94 to 0.03). Additionally, plasma lactate was similarly increased in response to SAGAT (p = 0.002), lower-body Wingate Test (p = 0.021) and a simulated competition (p = 0.007). In Study II, no differences were found between the time to complete the SAGAT in repeated trials (p = 0.84; Cohen's d effect size = 0.09; ICC = 0.97, CI: 0.89 to 0.99; MDC95 = 0.12 s). Finally, in Study III the time to complete the SAGAT was significantly lower during the competition cycle when compared to the period before the preparatory cycle (p < 0.001), showing an improvement in SAGAT performance after a specific Aerobic Gymnastics training period. Taken together, these data have demonstrated that SAGAT is a specific, reliable and sensitive measurement of specific anaerobic performance in elite female Aerobic Gymnastics, presenting great potential to be largely applied in training settings. PMID:25876039

  14. Color Changes of Package Silage In Period of Aerobic Stability

    OpenAIRE

    F. Toruk; F. Koc; E. Gonulol

    2010-01-01

    In this study, changes on color of the silage surface, chemical and microbiological parameters in six days period of aerobic stability of package silage were investigated. For this purpose, the effect of the silage additive materials and treatments dose also were examined. Treatments were determined as Control (C), Silo-king firm dose (FD), Silo-King double dose (D2), Sim-Silage firm dose (SF), and Sim-Silage double dose (S2).Maize was ensiled using a package silage machine. The package silag...

  15. Endurance training and aerobic fitness in young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baquet, Georges; van Praagh, Emmanuel; Berthoin, Serge

    2003-01-01

    Training-induced adaptations in aerobic fitness have been extensively studied in adults, and some exercise scientists have recommended similar training programmes for young people. However, the subject of the response to aerobic training of children and adolescents is controversial. The effects of exercise training on prepubertal children are particularly debatable. The latter may be partly explained by different training designs, which make comparisons between studies very problematic. We have analysed the procedures applied to protocol design and training methods to highlight the real impact of aerobic training on the peak oxygen uptake (V-dotO2) of healthy children and adolescents. In accordance with previously published reviews on trainability in youngsters, research papers were rejected from the final analysis according to criteria such as the lack of a control group, an unclear training protocol, inappropriate statistical procedures, small sample size, studies with trained or special populations, or with no peak V-dotO2 data. Factors such as maturity, group constitution, consistency between training and testing procedures, drop out rates, or attendance were considered, and possible associations with changes in peak V-dotO2 with training are discussed. From 51 studies reviewed, 22 were finally retained. In most of the studies, there was a considerable lack of research regarding circumpubertal individuals in general, and particularly in girls. The results suggest that methodologically listed parameters will exert a potential influence on the magnitude of peak V-dotO2 improvement. Even if little difference is reported for each parameter, it is suggested that the sum of errors will result in a significant bias in the assessment of training effects. The characteristics of each training protocol were also analysed to establish their respective potential influence on peak V-dotO2 changes. In general, aerobic training leads to a mean improvement of 5-6% in the peak V

  16. Aerobic granulation of pure bacterial strain Bacillus thuringiensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sunil S ADAV; Duu-Jong LEE

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study is to cultivate aer-obic granules by pure bacterial strain, Bacillus thuringien-sis, in a sequencing batch reactor. Stable granules sized 2.0-2.2 mm were formed in the reactor after a five-week cultivation. These granules exhibited excellent settling attributes, and degraded phenol at rates of 1.49 and concentration, respectively. Confocal laser scanning microscopic test results show that Bacillus thuringiensis was distributed over the initial small aggregates, and the outer edge of the granule was away from the core regime in the following stage.

  17. The Effect of Aerobic Exercise on Cardiopulmonary System in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Sevimli

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The purpose of this study is to investigate the changes in cardiopulmonary system stimulated by aerobic exercise in different age group of children and to find out in which age group aerobic exercise is more effective. METHOD: Totally, 76 children participated in this study. Ages of the participants ranged between 11–17, and mean age was 14.08±0.65. Participants were divided into three groups according to their age range. There were 23 in the first and second and 30 participants in the third group, (15–17, (13–14 and 30 (11–12 respectively. Each of the groups then was divided into two parts one of which was experimental and the other was control group. During 8 weeks, a training programme based on doing aerobic exercise lasting one hour 3 days a week was performed in the experimental groups. Before and after training, EKG, spirometer, blood pressure, heart rate, PWC 170 test of the participants, which was the data collection method, were recorded. The results obtained were compared through t test method of SPSS. RESULTS: The results revealed a decrease in the systolic blood pressure and in the heart rate of those who did exercise as opposed to those who did not do exercise in Group I. In addition, R wave height in V6 of exercise group showed a statistically significant increase. As for second group, it was determined that the R/S, at V1 derivation obtained from the participants who did exercise showed a statistically decrease as compared to those of the participants who did not do exercise. In the third group, no changes were observed in the systolic blood pressure the heart rate, R wave height in V6 and R/S although the measures of PWC 170 test, VC and FVC obtained from all training groups made a significant increase when compared to those of control groups. CONCLUSION: The results of this study revealed that of the three groups the 15–17 age group was affected mostly by the aerobic exercise on kardiyopulmoner sytem. The results

  18. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ANTROPOMETRICS AND FLEXIBILITY IN SPORTS AEROBIC ATHLETES

    OpenAIRE

    Türkeri, Cenab

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was investigation of relationship between anthropometric measurement and flexibility in sports aerobic athletes. 14 male and 10 female sports athletes who were in national team candidate, (age: 23.5 ± 3.48 years, height: 166.4 ± 5.63 cm, weight: 62.4 ± 7.60 kg) were voluntary participated to this study.In this study, length, width, circumferences and flexibility measurement of the trunk and lower extremity were performed. SPSS 10.0 software was used for the analysis ...

  19. Electron beam/biological processing of anaerobic and aerobic sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besides common chemical and biological methods, the radiation technology is a promising way of sludge treatment. The paper describes possibilities of combined accelerated electrons/biological processing of both anaerobic and aerobic sludge. Besides one-shot experiments, experimental reactors for the simulation of anaerobic processes have been used. Main effort has been aimed to decrease organic compounds concentration and overall volume of solids, to improve some physico-chemical parameters of sludge, to validate hygienisation effects of the ionising radiation, and in the case of anaerobic sludge, to increase the volume of the produced biogas. Positive effects of the electron beam processing have been observed on all previously named parameters. (author)

  20. Aerobic microbial metabolism of condensed thiophenes found in petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aerobic microbial degradation of 21 condensed thiophenes found in petroleum or synthetic fuels have been studied, motivated by recent research which showed that resistance to biodegradation increases with increasing methyl-substitution. The specific objective was to identify metabolites in pure cultures of aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading Pseudomonas spp. incubated in mineral medium in the presence of an aromatic growth substrate and a condensed thiophene. Over 80 metabolites of the condensed thiophenes were identified using gas chromatography analysis with an atomic emission detector. Among the metabolites identified were sulfoxides, sulfones, hydroxy- and carboxyl-substituted benzothiophenes, hydroxy-substituted dibenzothiophenes, substituted benzothiophene-2,3-diones, and 3-hydroxy-2-formylbenzothiophenes

  1. Influence of inorganic salt on aerobic biodegradability of dyestuffs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    this paper, the influence of inorganic salt on aerobic biodegradability of dyestuffs was studied by means of semicontinuous activated sludge method. It was found that: biodegradability of dyestuffs would decrease with the increase of the concentration of NaCl; however, biodegradability in the condition of NaCl = 30 g/L was better than that in the condition of NaCl =15 g/L; in the three NaCl conditions, biodegradability of tasted dyestuffs followed the following order: NaCl= 0 g/L > NaCl= 30g/L>NaCl= 15 g/L.

  2. Marine Science, Back Ocean Exploring Marine Mysteries and Utilizing Marine Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Editorial Team

    2011-01-01

    Marine science, fusing biology, physics, chemistry, geology, and engineering together, has become a comprehensive and interdisciplinary sciences. Since the 1950's, many new technologies have bloomed along with the rapid development of marine science. In the twenty first century, human beings are facing severe challenges, such as food and energy shortages, climate warming, environmental degradation, and resource depletion, back to the ocean exploring marine mysteries and utilizing marine resou...

  3. Monitoring of biofilm growth in marine sediment by metal electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristiani, P.; Guandalini, R.; Del Negro, P.; Cataletto, B.

    2009-04-01

    Electrochemical monitoring of biofilm growing in marine sediments is evaluating in laboratory experiments, still in progress. The interesting preliminary results obtained during six month experiments are presented in this paper. A concept of electrochemically active bacteria has recently pointed out by several studies, showing that bacteria forming biofilms on conductive materials can achieve a direct electrochemical connection with the substrate using it as electron exchanger, also without the aid of additional mediators [1]. The electric current generated by bacteria is more than enough as signal for bio-sensors. Thanks to the developing of bio-sensors based on electrochemical probes and able to monitoring the biofilm growth on metal surfaces, this "bio-electricity" has been already exploited with success for the biofilm monitoring in industrial equipment exposed to natural waters [2]. The same, very simple, electrochemical biofilm probes, in which electrical signal is proportional to biofilm growth, already successfully used for aerobic environments, have been here tested in the anaerobic environment of marine sediments. A laboratory microcosm has been prepared by filling a large polycarbonate cylinder about one-third full with organic-rich coastal marine sediment collected in the Gulf of Trieste (Northern Adriatic Sea). The sediment was packed tightly in the container to avoid entrapping air and then covered with O2 depleted seawater. Three identical electrochemical sensors were buried in the sediment of microcosm. The cylinder was placed in the dark under controlled temperature and anaerobic conditions. During the six months of monitoring, bacterial communities developing at the water-sediment interface were periodically sampled by inserting a long thin pipette into the column and removing some coloured mud or water. The microrganisms were used to inoculate enriched media and to extract bulk DNA. The results pointed out the possibility of set up simple device

  4. The influence of a six month aerobics programme on middle aged women's aerobic capacity and body composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbora Šeděnková

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Regular physical activity has a positive influence on increasing physical fitness, which has considerable impact on health and, consequently, on the quality and length of human life. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess the influence of six months of physical endurance activity on the body composition and aerobic capacity of middle aged women. METHODS: Forty women between the ages of 40 to 55 years with a sedentary occupation and without regular physical activity took part in the study. The experimental group (n = 21 participated in dance aerobics lessons combined with strength training three times a week for 6 months, during exercise heart rate was monitored by heart rate monitors. The control group (n = 19 did not change their lifestyle during the observed period. All participants passed an all-out bicycle ergometer test to exhaustion and anthropometric measurement (bioelectrical impedance analysis method before and after this six month program. RESULTS: In the experimental group, after finishing the intervention programme, positive changes were perceptible in almost all monitored parameters; specifically an increase of fat free mass in the lower limbs, peak oxygen consumption, and the duration of the exercise test was statistically significant. Although, in the control group, some monitored parameters changed almost identically; the amount of fat free mass decreased and the duration of the exercise test diminished. Analysis of variance at repeated measurements confirmed that the intervention programme had a statistically significant and positive effect on the duration of the exercise test and on the amount of muscle and fat free mass in the right lower limb. CONCLUSIONS: Physical intervention had a statistically important positive influence on the amount of muscle and fat free mass in the right lower limb and on the duration of the exercise test (also logically significant. The results were affected by the women's poor

  5. Diversity of cultivated and metabolically active aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria along an oligotrophic gradient in the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanthon, C.; Boeuf, D.; Dahan, O.; Le Gall, F.; Garczarek, L.; Bendif, E. M.; Lehours, A.-C.

    2011-07-01

    Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic (AAP) bacteria play significant roles in the bacterioplankton productivity and biogeochemical cycles of the surface ocean. In this study, we applied both cultivation and mRNA-based molecular methods to explore the diversity of AAP bacteria along an oligotrophic gradient in the Mediterranean Sea in early summer 2008. Colony-forming units obtained on three different agar media were screened for the production of bacteriochlorophyll-a (BChl-a), the light-harvesting pigment of AAP bacteria. BChl-a-containing colonies represented a low part of the cultivable fraction. In total, 54 AAP strains were isolated and the phylogenetic analyses based on their 16S rRNA and pufM genes showed that they were all affiliated to the Alphaproteobacteria. The most frequently isolated strains belonged to Citromicrobium bathyomarinum, and Erythrobacter and Roseovarius species. Most other isolates were related to species not reported to produce BChl-a and/or may represent novel taxa. Direct extraction of RNA from seawater samples enabled the analysis of the expression of pufM, the gene coding for the M subunit of the reaction centre complex of aerobic anoxygenic photosynthesis. Clone libraries of pufM gene transcripts revealed that most phylotypes were highly similar to sequences previously recovered from the Mediterranean Sea and a large majority (~94 %) was affiliated to the Gammaproteobacteria. The most abundantly detected phylotypes occurred in the western and eastern Mediterranean basins. However, some were exclusively detected in the eastern basin, reflecting the highest diversity of pufM transcripts observed in this ultra-oligotrophic region. To our knowledge, this is the first study to document extensively the diversity of AAP isolates and to unveil the active AAP community in an oligotrophic marine environment. By pointing out the discrepancies between culture-based and molecular methods, this study highlights the existing gaps in the understanding

  6. [Optimization of aerobic/anaerobic subsurface flow constructed wetlands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng-Min; Shan, Shi; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Li, Yang; Wang, Zheng-Yu

    2012-02-01

    Previous studies showed that setting aerobic and anaerobic paragraph segments in the subsurface constructed wetlands (SFCWs) can improve the COD, NH4(+)-N, and TN removal rate, whereas the oxygen enrichment environment which produced by the artificial aeration could restrain the NO3(-)-N and NO2(-)-N removal process, and to a certain extent, inhibit the denitrification in SFCWs Therefore, in this research the structure and technology of SFCW with aerobic and anaerobic paragraph segments were optimized, by using the multi-point water inflow and setting the corresponding section for the extra pollutant removal. Results showed that with the hydraulic load of 0.06 m3 x (m2 x d)(-1), the COD, NH4(+)-N and TN removal efficiencies in the optimized SFCW achieved 91.6%, 100% and 87.7% respectively. COD/N increased to 10 speedily after the inflow supplement. The multi-point water inflow could add carbon sources, and simultaneously maximum utilization of wetland to remove pollutants. The optimized SFCW could achieve the purposes of purification process optimization, and provide theoretical basis and application foundation for improving the total nitrogen removal efficiency. PMID:22509578

  7. Balinese dance exercises improve the maximum aerobic capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adiputra, N; Alex, P; Sutjana, D P; Tirtayasa, K; Manuaba, A

    1996-06-01

    The maximum aerobic capacity can be used to predict the maximum working capacity. The maximum working capacity plays an important role in achieving the best performance. Therefore, physical fitness program for maintaining maximum working capacity is a must. A study on the application of Balinese dance exercise was carried out. Sixty young male Balinese, aged from 17 to 19 years were used as subjects. They were divided into two groups: Experimental group (EG) and control group (CG) based on their VO2max. The EG participated in a program of Balinese dance exercise 3 x 50 min per week for 8 weeks. Pretest-posttest control group design was applied. The maximum aerobic capacity was measured, based on the Modified Harvard Step-up Test and nomogram of Astrand. The results are as follows: there is a very significant improvement of VO2max from 2.7 +/- 0.5 l/min or 51.1 +/- 9.1 ml/kg/min into 3.1 +/- 0.5 l/min or 58.9 +/- 9.8 ml/kg/min. Other parameters such as resting heart rate, blood pressure and percent body fat were decreased significantly. The study concludes that Balinese dance exercise could be used as a program for physical fitness maintenance. PMID:9551128

  8. Critical Period of Weed Control in Aerobic Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Anwar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Critical period of weed control is the foundation of integrated weed management and, hence, can be considered the first step to design weed control strategy. To determine critical period of weed control of aerobic rice, field trials were conducted during 2010/2011 at Universiti Putra Malaysia. A quantitative series of treatments comprising two components, (a increasing duration of weed interference and (b increasing length of weed-free period, were imposed. Critical period was determined through Logistic and Gompertz equations. Critical period varied between seasons; in main season, it started earlier and lasted longer, as compared to off-season. The onset of the critical period was found relatively stable between seasons, while the end was more variable. Critical period was determined as 7–49 days after seeding in off-season and 7–53 days in main season to achieve 95% of weed-free yield, and 23–40 days in off-season and 21–43 days in main season to achieve 90% of weed-free yield. Since 5% yield loss level is not practical from economic view point, a 10% yield loss may be considered excellent from economic view point. Therefore, aerobic rice should be kept weed-free during 21–43 days for better yield and higher economic return.

  9. Comparison of sidestream treatment technologies: post aerobic digestion and Anammox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Heidi; Johnson, Thomas D; Johnson, Bruce R; Oerke, David; Graziano, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Post aerobic digestion (PAD) and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) are sidestream treatment technologies which are both excellent options for the reduction of nitrogen recycled back to the liquid stream without the need for supplemental carbon or alkalinity. However, the achievement of this goal is where the similarities between the two technologies end. PAD is an advanced digestion process where aerobic digestion is designed to follow anaerobic digestion. Other benefits of PAD include volatile solids reduction, odor reduction, and struvite formation reduction. Anammox harnesses a specific species of autotrophic bacteria that can help achieve partial nitritation/deammonification. Other benefits of Anammox include lower energy consumption due to requiring less oxygen compared with conventional nitrification. This manuscript describes the unique benefits and challenges of each technology. Example installations are presented with a narrative of how and why the technology was selected. A whole plant simulator is used to compare and contrast the mass balances and net present value costs on an 'apples to apples' basis. The discussion includes descriptions of conditions under which each technology would potentially be the most beneficial and cost-effective against a baseline facility without sidestream treatment. PMID:27232417

  10. Cardiovascular response to dynamic aerobic exercise: a mathematical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magosso, E; Ursino, M

    2002-11-01

    An original mathematical model of the cardiovascular response to dynamic exercise is presented. It includes the pulsating heart, the pulmonary and systemic circulation, a separate description of the vascular bed in active tissues, the local metabolic vasodilation in these tissues and the mechanical effects of muscular contractions on venous return. Moreover, the model provides a description of the ventilatory response to exercise and various neural regulatory mechanisms working on cardiovascular parameters. These mechanisms embrace the so-called central command, the arterial baroreflex and the lung inflation reflex. All parameters in the model have been given in accordance with physiological data from the literature. In this work, the model has been used to simulate the steady-state value of the main cardiorespiratory quantities at different levels of aerobic exercise and the temporal pattern in the transient phase from rest to moderate exercise. Results suggest that, with suitable parameter values the model is able accurately to simulate the cardiorespiratory response in the overall range of aerobic exercise. This response is characterised by a moderate hypertension (10-30%) and by a conspicuous increase in systemic conductance (80-130%), heart rate (64-150%) and cardiac output (100-200%). The transient pattern exhibits three distinct phases (lasting approximately 5s, 15s and 2 min), that reflect the temporal heterogeneity of the mechanisms involved. The model may be useful to improve understanding of exercise physiology and as an educational tool to analyse the complexity of cardiovascular and respiratory regulation. PMID:12507317

  11. On Aerobic Exercise and Behavioral and Neural Plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin Peplinski

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Aerobic exercise promotes rapid and profound alterations in the brain. Depending upon the pattern and duration of exercise, these changes in the brain may extend beyond traditional motor areas to regions and structures normally linked to learning, cognition, and emotion. Exercise-induced alterations may include changes in blood flow, hormone and growth factor release, receptor expression, angiogenesis, apoptosis, neurogenesis, and synaptogenesis. Together, we believe that these changes underlie elevations of mood and prompt the heightened behavioral plasticity commonly observed following adoption of a chronic exercise regimen. In the following paper, we will explore both the psychological and psychobiological literatures relating to exercise effects on brain in both human and non-human animals and will attempt to link plastic changes in these neural structures to modifications in learned behavior and emotional expression. In addition, we will explore the therapeutic potential of exercise given recent reports that aerobic exercise may serve as a neuroprotectant and can also slow cognitive decline during normal and pathological aging.

  12. Aerobic training in persons who have recovered from juvenile dermatomyositis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisager, M; Mathiesen, P R; Vissing, J;

    2013-01-01

    patients had a median disease duration of 3.4years (1.4-10.3), a median treatment duration of 2.4years (0.4-9.3) and a median duration of remission of 7.0years (1.2-30.0). Patients trained at home on a cycle ergometer for 12weeks at a heart rate interval corresponding to 65% of their maximal oxygen uptake......A recent study has shown that 36 persons who had recovered from juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) have on average an 18% decrease in maximal oxygen uptake. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a 12-week aerobic training program in this group, and assess whether aerobic training...... (VO2max). VO2max and maximal workload (Wmax) were determined before and after the 12-week training period through an incremental cycling test to exhaustion. The patients served as their own controls. Eight patients with JDM in remission completed the 12-week exercise program; one patient completed 9...

  13. Enhanced aerobic sludge granulation with layered double hydroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jizhi Zhou

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aerobic granular sludge technology has been developed for the biochemical treatment of wastewater in the present study. A fast cultivation of aerobic granular sludge was realized in Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR, where Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH was used as a carrier for granules growth. In comparison, the sludge particle size with LDH addition was bigger than those without LDH, with more than 50% of compact granular sludge >1.4 mm in size. This indicatestheLDH improved the growth ofthegranular sludge. The frequency of LDH addition had little effect on the granule growth. Moreover, the formation of granules led to the low sludge volume index (SVI and high mixed liquid suspended solids (MLSS in SBR reactor. With the formation of granular sludge, more than 80% of COD was removed in SBR reactor. The high COD removal efficiency of wastewater was observed regardless of various COD loading strength. The results suggest that the growth of granular sludge with LDH as a carrier enhanced the treatment efficiency. Therefore, our results have provided a promising way to prepare the granular sludge for wastewater treatment.

  14. Immunological analysis of aerobic bioreactor bovine theileriosis vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Habibi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the pilot production of aerobic bioreactor tropical theileriosis vaccine was optimized with the aim of immunological assays for further mass production.We have shown earlier the delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH assay could be used for evaluating the immunity and memory cells against specific Theileria antigen in vaccinated animals. In addition, TNF-α is the principle cytokine in modulating the cytotoxic activity of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL. Immunological analysis of the vaccine was performed by using two cell mediated immunity (CMI in vitro and in vivo DTH test (Theilerin and TNF-α assay.The results of immune responses of susceptible immunized cattle by bioreactor vaccine in comparison with conventional flask vaccine revealed a significant stimulation of immune cells by transcription of high level of TNF-α and positive reaction against Theileria antigen in Theilerin skin test (DTH.The equal immunological results achieved in both above mentioned vaccines verified the satisfactory immunity for aerobic bioreactor theileriosis vaccine for advance mass vaccination in the field on a large-scale.

  15. Training intensities for aerobic exercise determined on untrained healthy men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miura,Mochiyoshi

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the aerobic training intensity from the maximal and submaximal running exercise in 21 untrained adult men. To accomplish this, we evaluated the relationship between physiological (oxygen intake and heart rate and physical parameters (running speed of training intensity, and determined the training intensity at the submaximal exercise. Oxygen intake and heart rate were measured by a treadmill test. The maximal oxygen intake (VO2 max, and the aerobic threshold (AerT and anaerobic threshold (AT were measured to determine respiratory gas exchange. Running capacity was measured by a 12-min running and treadmill test. For the maximal exercise, there was a significant correlation (r = 0.88, P < 0.01 between VO2 max and 12-min running distance (speed. In addition, the oxygen intake and heart rate at AerT and AT in the submaximal exercise were linearly correlated with running speed. Three levels of training intensity at the submaximal exercise were termed: light, moderate, and heavy. Since AerT was the lower limit intensity and AT was the upper limit, we took the middle of their values as the moderate intensity. The end point for the determination of the training intensity at the submaximal exercise was estimated to be 85% VO2 max and 180 beats.min-1.

  16. Combined aerobic and physicochemical treatment of pharmaceutical industry sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Composite samples of sludge obtained from a pharmaceutical factory were analysed for their pollution characteristics. The samples were then treated by integrated aerobic biological and physicochemical methods. The analysis revealed that the BOD and COD of the sludge liquor were high, as well as were the levels of solids concentration, nitrogen, phosphorus and bacterial count. These showed that sludge from this industry had a high pollution potential, and therefore needed treatment before disposal or reuse in other applications. Percentage solids reduction achieved were in the range of 26.1 to 29% of total soluble solids, 26.1 to 33% of suspended solids, and 43 to 52% of volatile solids, BOD and COD reductions were in the range of 96.1 to 98.2% and 96.8 to 98.4% respectively. Ammonia nitrogen reductions in this sludge were about 85.2 to 93.3%. Total nitrogen and phosphorus were also found to be appreciably reduced by the combined aerobic and physicochemical treatment methods. (author)

  17. Biotechnology for aerobic conversion of food waste into organic fertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabnikova, Olena; Ding, Hong-Bo; Tay, Joo-Hwa; Wang, Jing-Yuan

    2005-02-01

    A biotechnology for aerobic conversion of food waste into organic fertilizer under controlled aeration, stirring, pH and temperature at 55-65 degrees C, is proposed. To maintain neutral pH at the beginning of the bioconversion 5% CaCO3 was added to the total solids of the food waste. The addition of 20% horticultural waste compost as a bulking agent to the food wastes (w.w./w.w.), improved the bioconversion and increased the stability of the final product. No starter culture was needed for aerobic bioconversion of food waste into organic fertilizer for 10 days. The low contents of heavy metals in the raw materials used in the bioconversions ensured the safety of fertilizer from food waste for application in agriculture. The addition of 4% organic fertilizer to the subsoil increased the yield and growth of Ipomoea aquatica (Kang Kong) by 1.5 to 2 times. The addition of phosphorus is required to enhance the positive effect of organic fertilizer on plant growth. PMID:15751394

  18. Fetal cardiotocography before and after water aerobics during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silveira Carla

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To evaluate the effect of moderate aerobic physical activity in water on fetal cardiotocography patterns in sedentary pregnant women. Method In a non-randomized controlled trial, 133 previously sedentary pregnant women participated in multiple regular sessions of water aerobics in a heated swimming pool. Cardiotocography was performed for 20 minutes before and just after the oriented exercise. Cardiotocography patterns were analyzed pre- and post-exercise according to gestational age groups (24-27, 28-31, 32-35 and 36-40 weeks. Student's t and Wilcoxon, and McNemar tests were used, respectively, to analyze numerical and categorical variables. Results No significant variations were found between pre- and post-exercise values of fetal heart rate (FHR, number of fetal body movements (FM or accelerations (A, FM/A ratio or the presence of decelerations. Variability in FHR was significantly higher following exercise only in pregnancies of 24-27 weeks. Conclusions Moderate physical activity in water was not associated with any significant alterations in fetal cardiotocography patterns, which suggests no adverse effect on the fetus.

  19. Marine04 Marine radiocarbon age calibration, 26 ? 0 ka BP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughen, K; Baille, M; Bard, E; Beck, J; Bertrand, C; Blackwell, P; Buck, C; Burr, G; Cutler, K; Damon, P; Edwards, R; Fairbanks, R; Friedrich, M; Guilderson, T; Kromer, B; McCormac, F; Manning, S; Bronk-Ramsey, C; Reimer, P; Reimer, R; Remmele, S; Southon, J; Stuiver, M; Talamo, S; Taylor, F; der Plicht, J v; Weyhenmeyer, C

    2004-11-01

    New radiocarbon calibration curves, IntCal04 and Marine04, have been constructed and internationally ratified to replace the terrestrial and marine components of IntCal98. The new calibration datasets extend an additional 2000 years, from 0-26 ka cal BP (Before Present, 0 cal BP = AD 1950), and provide much higher resolution, greater precision and more detailed structure than IntCal98. For the Marine04 curve, dendrochronologically dated tree-ring samples, converted with a box-diffusion model to marine mixed-layer ages, cover the period from 0-10.5 ka cal BP. Beyond 10.5 ka cal BP, high-resolution marine data become available from foraminifera in varved sediments and U/Th-dated corals. The marine records are corrected with site-specific {sup 14}C reservoir age information to provide a single global marine mixed-layer calibration from 10.5-26.0 ka cal BP. A substantial enhancement relative to IntCal98 is the introduction of a random walk model, which takes into account the uncertainty in both the calendar age and the radiocarbon age to calculate the underlying calibration curve. The marine datasets and calibration curve for marine samples from the surface mixed layer (Marine04) are discussed here. The tree-ring datasets, sources of uncertainty, and regional offsets are presented in detail in a companion paper by Reimer et al.

  20. Marine cage fish farming

    OpenAIRE

    Espeut, P.; Harache, Yves; Lemarie, Gilles; Ricard, Jean-marc

    1993-01-01

    Les pêcheries de captage marin en Jamaïque sont principalement de nature artisanale et elles sont dirigées principalement par les pêcheurs qui travaillent depuis des canoës. Environ 95 % de ces pêcheurs travaillent sur la plaine côtière et ses bancs associés. Les espèces commerciales récoltées comprennent les espèces benthiques, les espèces de corail et les espèces de poisson marin de nage libre. D'autres ressources de pêcheries de valeur commerciale comprennent la crevette, la conque et le h...

  1. Marine Mineral Exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    exploration requires knowledge of mineral deposits and models of their formation, of geophysical and geochemical exploration methods, and of data evaluation and interpretation methods. These topics are described in detail by an international group of authors. A short description is also given of marine......The past 20 years have seen extensive marine exploration work by the major industrialized countries. Studies have, in part, been concentrated on Pacific manganese nodule occurrences and on massive sulfides on mid-oceanic ridges. An international jurisdictional framework of the sea-bed mineral...... resources was negotiated by the United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS III). A most important outcome of this conference was the establishment of an Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of at least 200 nautical miles for all coastal states and the recognition of a deep-sea regime. Mineral deposits...

  2. Understanding Marine Mussel Adhesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. G. Silverman; F. F. Roberto

    2007-12-01

    In addition to identifying the proteins that have a role in underwater adhesion by marine mussels, research efforts have focused on identifying the genes responsible for the adhesive proteins, environmental factors that may influence protein production, and strategies for producing natural adhesives similar to the native mussel adhesive proteins. The production-scale availability of recombinant mussel adhesive proteins will enable researchers to formulate adhesives that are waterimpervious and ecologically safe and can bind materials ranging from glass, plastics, metals, and wood to materials, such as bone or teeth, biological organisms, and other chemicals or molecules. Unfortunately, as of yet scientists have been unable to duplicate the processes that marine mussels use to create adhesive structures. This study provides a background on adhesive proteins identified in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, and introduces our research interests and discusses the future for continued research related to mussel adhesion.

  3. OCEANOGRAPHY & MARINE GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20110729 Bai Youcheng(Laboratory of Marine Ecosystem and Biogeochemistry,SOA,Second Institute of Oceanography,Hangzhou 310012,China);Chen Jianfang Biomarker Records in Sediment Core of R12a from the Chukchi Sea during the Last 500 Years(Acta Sedimentologica Sinica,ISSN1000-0550,CN62-1038/P,28(4),2010,p.768-775,6 illus.,40 refs.)Key words:biomarkers,marine sediments,paleoproductivity,Arctic region This paper used multi-biomarkers to study the R12a core’s top 40 cm samples’ phytoplankton and community sampled during the Second Chinese Arctic expedition from the Chukchi Sea in summer,2003,and to obtain the information of the phytoplankton production and community change since 500 a.The results indicate the total and individual primary productivity increased over the last 500 a.The phytoplankton community structure mostly shows the contributions of

  4. Understanding marine mussel adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Heather G; Roberto, Francisco F

    2007-01-01

    In addition to identifying the proteins that have a role in underwater adhesion by marine mussels, research efforts have focused on identifying the genes responsible for the adhesive proteins, environmental factors that may influence protein production, and strategies for producing natural adhesives similar to the native mussel adhesive proteins. The production-scale availability of recombinant mussel adhesive proteins will enable researchers to formulate adhesives that are water-impervious and ecologically safe and can bind materials ranging from glass, plastics, metals, and wood to materials, such as bone or teeth, biological organisms, and other chemicals or molecules. Unfortunately, as of yet scientists have been unable to duplicate the processes that marine mussels use to create adhesive structures. This study provides a background on adhesive proteins identified in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, and introduces our research interests and discusses the future for continued research related to mussel adhesion. PMID:17990038

  5. Osmoregulation in marine mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, R. M.

    2001-01-01

    Osmoregulation in marine mammals has been investigated for over a century; however, a review of recent advances in our understanding of water and electrolyte balance and of renal function in marine mammals is warranted. The following topics are discussed: (i) kidney structure and urine concentrating ability, (ii) sources of water, (iii) the effects of feeding, fasting and diving, (iv) the renal responses to infusions of varying salinity and (v) hormonal regulation. The kidneys of pinnipeds and cetaceans are reniculate in structure, unlike those of terrestrial mammals (except bears), but this difference does not confer any greater concentrating ability. Pinnipeds, cetaceans, manatees and sea otters can concentrate their urine above the concentration of sea water, but only pinnipeds and otters have been shown to produce urine concentrations of Na+ and Cl- that are similar to those in sea water. This could afford them the capacity to drink sea water and not lose fresh water. However, with few exceptions, drinking is not a common behavior in pinnipeds and cetaceans. Water balance is maintained in these animals via metabolic and dietary water, while incidental ingestion and dietary salt may help maintain electrolyte homeostasis. Unlike most other aquatic mammals, sea otters commonly drink sea water and manatees frequently drink fresh water. Among the various taxonomic groups of marine mammals, the sensitivity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system appears to be influenced by the availability of Na+. The antidiuretic role of vasopressin remains inconclusive in marine mammals, while the natriuretic function of atrial natriuretic peptide has yet to be examined. Ideas on the direction of future studies are presented.

  6. Lipids in Marine Ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher C Parrish

    2013-01-01

    Lipids provide the densest form of energy in marine ecosystems. They are also a solvent and absorption carrier for organic contaminants and thus can be drivers of pollutant bioaccumulation. Among the lipids, certain essential fatty acids and sterols are considered to be important determinants of ecosystem health and stability. Fatty acids and sterols are also susceptible to oxidative damage leading to cytotoxicity and a decrease in membrane fluidity. The physical characteristics of biological...

  7. Radioactive marine pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Certain provision in international law aim to prevent radioactive marine pollution and others concern compensation of damage from nuclear pollution. Prevention requires regulation of the disposal of wastes from nuclear industry from the operation of nuclear powered ships and from transport of fissile materials. As regards damage, if the measures to limit the extent of the damage come under the law of the sea, the priority of nuclear law over maritime law is clear in respect of financial compensation. (Auth)

  8. Streptomyces avermitilis from marine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Li-xia; LI Jian-zhong; WANG Hui-li

    2005-01-01

    The insecticidal strain 173 was isolated from marine source and its activity was explored by the bioassay of brine shrimp and Helicoverpa armigera. Based on morphological, physiological and molecular properties, the insecticidal strain 173 was identified as Streptonycetes avermitilis, which is the best insecticidal microorganism found in the terrestrial environment. The taxonomy of the strain173, insecticidal spectrum and properties of the corresponding insecticidal antibiotics are reported.

  9. OCEANOGRAPHY & MARINE GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20141271Chang Fengming(Key Laboratory of Marine Geology and Environment,Institute of Oceanology,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Qingdao 266071,China);Li Tiegang Progress in the Paleoceanography of the Western Pacific Warm Pool:A Review(Advances in Earth Science,ISSN1001-8166,CN62-1091/P,28(8),2013,p.847-858,3 illus.,108 refs.)Key words:paleooceanography,West Pacific

  10. Alkaloids in Marine Algae

    OpenAIRE

    Ekrem Sezik; Aline Percot; Kasım Cemal Güven

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the alkaloids found in green, brown and red marine algae. Algal chemistry has interested many researchers in order to develop new drugs, as algae include compounds with functional groups which are characteristic from this particular source. Among these compounds, alkaloids present special interest because of their pharmacological activities. Alkaloid chemistry has been widely studied in terrestrial plants, but the number of studies in algae is insignificant. In this review...

  11. Effekt av aerobicsaerob utholdenhet hos inaktive førstegangsfødende gravide kvinner : en randomisert kontrollert studie

    OpenAIRE

    Halvorsen, Silje

    2009-01-01

    Friske gravide kvinner anbefales å være i fysisk aktivitet. En Cochrane oversiktsartikkel fra 2006 konkluderte med at regelmessig trening i svangerskapet ser ut til å bedre fysisk form, men påpekte at studiene var av lav metodisk kvalitet og involverte få deltakere. Hensikten med denne studien var å evaluere effekten av et aerobics treningsprogram på aerob utholdenhet hos tidligere inaktive gravide kvinner.

  12. Impaired aerobic work capacity in insulin dependent diabetics with increased urinary albumin excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T; Richter, Erik; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo;

    1988-01-01

    To assess whether decreased aerobic work capacity was associated with albuminuria in insulin dependent diabetics aerobic capacity was measured in three groups of 10 patients matched for age, sex, duration of diabetes, and degree of physical activity. Group 1 comprised 10 patients with normal urin...

  13. Effects of Aerobic Training on Primary Dysmenorrhea Symptomatology in College Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Richard G.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a 12-week aerobic training program on menstrual distress symptoms in college females with clinically diagnosed primary dysmenorrhea. The findings suggest that aerobic training can significantly reduce the symptoms associated with primary dysmenorrhea. (Author/MT)

  14. Processing of urban and agro-industrial residues by aerobic composting: review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, V.K.; Canditelli, M.; Fortuna, F.; Cornacchia, G. [ENEA, Trisaia (Italy). Centro Ricerche Energia

    1997-11-01

    The need for processing solid urban and agro-industrial wastes, the relevant characteristics of aerobic composting technology, and desirable features of input substrates are thoroughly discussed. An overview of the digestion of solid waste by an aerobic composting programme in Italy is also presented. (author)

  15. THE EFFECT OF SLEEP DEPRIVATION ON SERUM IGG RESPONSES TO AEROBIC ACTIVITY IN COLLEGE STUDENT ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Jamshidi Far

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: Sleep is a restorative process for the immune system. There are many situations in which sleep is disturbed prior to an athletic event. However, the effect of sleep deprivation on immune indices in response to exercise remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sleep deprivation on serum IgG responses to aerobic activity. Materials & Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 10 male physical education students were voluntarily participated. Study was performed in two separate occasions; control and experimental within two weeks. In the control occasion, normal sleep and aerobic activity and in the experimental occasion, sleep deprivation and aerobic activity was applied. Aerobic activity was performed on bicycle ergometer for 30 minutes at intensity of 70 to 75 percent of maximum heart rate. Changes in serum IgG concentrations in pre-test, before and after aerobic activity in both occasions were analyzed by the two repeated measures ANOVA and dependent T-test using SPSS software. Results: The results showed that sleep deprivation not significantly effect on Serum IgG response to aerobic activity (p=0.130. Also, aerobic activity not significantly effect on Serum IgG concentration (p=0.357. But sleep deprivation caused a significantly increase in serum IgG concentration (p=0.035. Conclusion: No significant effect of sleep deprivation on serum IgG concentrations response to aerobic activity.

  16. Cardiac Frequency and Caloric Cost of Aerobic Dancing in Young Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Deborah J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A study of cardiac frequency during aerobic dancing indicated that it can sustain an elevated cardiac frequency in most cases. The caloric cost of aerobic dancing is approximately 50 percent greater than an equal duration of barre and center-floor exercise by elite ballet dancers. (JD)

  17. Degradation of TCE using sequential anaerobic biofilm and aerobic immobilized bed reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapatwala, Kirit D.; Babu, G. R. V.; Baresi, Larry; Trunzo, Richard M.

    1995-01-01

    Bacteria capable of degrading trichloroethylene (TCE) were isolated from contaminated wastewaters and soil sites. The aerobic cultures were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (four species) and Pseudomonas fluorescens. The optimal conditions for the growth of aerobic cultures were determined. The minimal inhibitory concentration values of TCE for Pseudomonas sps. were also determined. The aerobic cells were immobilized in calcium alginate in the form of beads. Degradation of TCE by the anaerobic and dichloroethylene (DCE) by aerobic cultures was studied using dual reactors - anaerobic biofilm and aerobic immobilized bed reactor. The minimal mineral salt (MMS) medium saturated with TCE was pumped at the rate of 1 ml per hour into the anaerobic reactor. The MMS medium saturated with DCE and supplemented with xylenes and toluene (3 ppm each) was pumped at the rate of 1 ml per hour into the fluidized air-uplift-type reactor containing the immobilized aerobic cells. The concentrations of TCE and DCE and the metabolites formed during their degradation by the anaerobic and aerobic cultures were monitored by GC. The preliminary study suggests that the anaerobic and aerobic cultures of our isolates can degrade TCE and DCE.

  18. Is the effect of aerobic exercise on cognition a placebo effect?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cary R Stothart

    Full Text Available A number of studies and meta-analyses conclude that aerobic fitness (walking interventions improve cognition. Such interventions typically compare improvements from these interventions to an active control group in which participants engage in non-aerobic activities (typically stretching and toning for an equivalent amount of time. However, in the absence of a double-blind design, the presence of an active control group does not necessarily control for placebo effects; participants might expect different amounts of improvement for the treatment and control interventions. We conducted a large survey to explore whether people expect greater cognitive benefits from an aerobic exercise intervention compared to a control intervention. If participants expect greater improvement following aerobic exercise, then the benefits of such interventions might be due in part to a placebo effect. In general, expectations did not differ between aerobic and non-aerobic interventions. If anything, some of the results suggest the opposite (e.g., respondents expected the control, non-aerobic intervention to yield bigger memory gains. These results provide the first evidence that cognitive improvements following aerobic fitness training are not due to differential expectations.

  19. From flooded to aerobic conditions in rice cultivation: consequences for zinc uptake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, X.; Zou, C.; Fan, X.; Zhang, F.S.; Hoffland, E.

    2006-01-01

    Scarcity of water causes a shift from flooded to aerobic conditions for rice production in zinc deficient areas in Northern China. This shift alters soil conditions that affect zinc availability to the crop. This paper concerns the effect of aerobic compared to flooded conditions on crop biomass pro

  20. Influence of aerobic training on cardiovascular and metabolic parameters in elderly hypertensive women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayara F. T. Braz

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: The proposed walking program did not alter serum cholesterol, but it did reduce resting blood pressure, improve aerobic performance and accelerate the fall in heart rate and mean blood pressure during the postprogressive maximal aerobic exercise recovery period in elderly hypertensive women.

  1. Rhodium-catalyzed aerobic N-alkylation of sulfonamides with alcohols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Lin Feng; Chuan Zhi Liu; Qiang Li; Xiao Chun Yu; Qing Xu

    2011-01-01

    By using the famous Wilkinson's catalyst, N-alkylation of sulfonamides can be easily realized under mild aerobic conditions by using alcohols as the alkylating reagent, giving monoalkylated sulfonamides in high yields and selectivities with water produced as the only byproduct. This advantageous aerobic method is potentially general in substrate scope that it can also be applied to other amides, amines and alcohols.

  2. Aerobic fitness after JDM--a long-term follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Pernille Raasthøj; Ørngreen, Mette Cathrine; Vissing, John;

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. It has previously been shown that patients with active JDM have decreased aerobic fitness; however, it is not known whether these patients regain their physical fitness after recovery. The objective of this study was to investigate the long-term outcome of aerobic fitness in patients...

  3. Noise Levels during Aerobics and the Potential Effects on Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torre, Peter, III; Howell, Jennifer C.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure noise levels during aerobics classes and to examine how outer hair cell (OHC) function, using distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs), may be affected by this exposure. Fifty individuals (48 women and 2 men, ages 19-41 years) participated in 50-min aerobics classes. Noise levels were measured…

  4. Sweat Rates During Continuous and Interval Aerobic Exercise: Implications for NASA Multipurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Jeffrey W.; Scott, Jessica; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.

    2016-01-01

    Aerobic deconditioning is one of the effects spaceflight. Impaired crewmember performance due to loss of aerobic conditioning is one of the risks identified for mitigation by the NASA Human Research Program. Missions longer than 8 days will involve exercise countermeasures including those aimed at preventing the loss of aerobic capacity. The NASA Multipurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) will be NASA's centerpiece architecture for human space exploration beyond low Earth orbit. Aerobic exercise within the small habitable volume of the MPCV is expected to challenge the ability of the Air Revitalization System, especially in terms of moisture and temperature control. Exercising humans contribute moisture to the environment by increased respiratory rate (exhaling air saturated with moisture) and sweat. Current acceptable values are based on theoretical models that rely on an "average" crew member working continuously at 75% of their aerobic capacity (Human Systems Integration Requirements Document). Evidence suggests that high intensity interval exercise for much shorter durations are equally effective or better in building and maintaining aerobic capacity. This investigation will examine metabolic moisture and heat production for operationally relevant continuous and interval aerobic exercise protocols. The results will directly inform what types of aerobic exercise countermeasures will be feasible to prescribe for crewmembers aboard the MPCV.

  5. Active Female Maximal and Anaerobic Threshold Cardiorespiratory Responses to Six Different Water Aerobics Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Amanda H.; Alberton, Cristine L.; Finatto, Paula; Pinto, Stephanie S.; Cadore, Eduardo L.; Zaffari, Paula; Kruel, Luiz F. M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Maximal tests conducted on land are not suitable for the prescription of aquatic exercises, which makes it difficult to optimize the intensity of water aerobics classes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the maximal and anaerobic threshold cardiorespiratory responses to 6 water aerobics exercises. Volunteers performed 3 of the…

  6. Marine botany. Second edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawes, C.J. [Univ. of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States)

    1998-12-01

    Marine plants are a diverse group that include unicellular algae, seaweeds, seagrasses, salt marshes, and mangrove forests. They carry out a variety of ecological functions and serve as the primary producers in coastal wetlands and oceanic waters. The theme that connects such a wide variety of plants is their ecology, which was also emphasized in the 1981 edition. The goal of this revision is to present taxonomic, physiological, chemical, and ecological aspects of marine plants, their adaptations, and how abiotic and biotic factors interact in their communities. The data are presented in a concise, comparative manner in order to identify similarities and differences between communities such as salt marsh and mangroves or subtidal seaweeds and seagrasses. To accomplish this, the text is organized into five chapters that introduce the marine habitats, consider abiotic and biotic factors, and anthropogenic influences on the communities followed by seven chapters that deal with microalgae, seaweeds, salt marshes, mangroves, seagrasses, and coral reefs. Two appendixes are included; one presents simple field techniques and the other is a summary of seaweed uses.

  7. Co(salophen)-Catalyzed Aerobic Oxidation of p-Hydroquinone: Mechanism and Implications for Aerobic Oxidation Catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anson, Colin W.; Ghosh, Soumya; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon; Stahl, Shannon S.

    2016-03-30

    Macrocyclic metal complexes and p-benzoquinones are commonly used as co-catalytic redox mediators in aerobic oxidation reactions. In an effort to gain insight into the mechanism and energetic efficiency of these reactions, we investigated Co(salophen)-catalyzed aerobic oxidation of p-hydroquinone. Kinetic and spectroscopic data suggest that the catalyst resting-state consists of an equilibrium between a CoII(salophen) complex, a CoIII-superoxide adduct, and a hydrogen-bonded adduct between the hydroquinone and the CoIII–O2 species. The kinetic data, together with density functional theory data, suggest that the turnover-limiting step features proton-coupled electron transfer from a semi-hydroquinone species and a CoIII-hydroperoxide intermediate. Additional experimental and computational data suggest that a coordinated H2O2 intermediate oxidizes a second equivalent of hydroquinone. This research was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences. The NSF provided partial support for the EPR instrumentation (NSF CHE-0741901).

  8. Aerobic N2O emission for activated sludge acclimated under different aeration rates in the multiple anoxic and aerobic process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huoqing; Guan, Yuntao; Pan, Min; Wu, Guangxue

    2016-05-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a potent greenhouse gas that can be emitted during biological nitrogen removal. N2O emission was examined in a multiple anoxic and aerobic process at the aeration rates of 600mL/min sequencing batch reactor (SBRL) and 1200mL/min (SBRH). The nitrogen removal percentage was 89% in SBRL and 71% in SBRH, respectively. N2O emission mainly occurred during the aerobic phase, and the N2O emission factor was 10.1% in SBRL and 2.3% in SBRH, respectively. In all batch experiments, the N2O emission potential was high in SBRL compared with SBRH. In SBRL, with increasing aeration rates, the N2O emission factor decreased during nitrification, while it increased during denitrification and simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND). By contrast, in SBRH the N2O emission factor during nitrification, denitrification and SND was relatively low and changed little with increasing aeration rates. The microbial competition affected the N2O emission during biological nitrogen removal. PMID:27155411

  9. The effects of cadence, impact, and step on physiological responses to aerobic dance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darby, L A; Browder, K D; Reeves, B D

    1995-09-01

    The physiological responses to aerobic dance exercise of varied impact (high, low), step (less arm movement vs. more arm movement), and cadence (124 vs. 138 beats.min-1) were investigated. Experienced, female aerobic dancers (N = 16) performed activities that combined the levels of impact and step for 3 trials of 8-min each. Dependent variables included heart rate, percentage of maximal heart rate, oxygen consumption, percentage of maximal oxygen consumption, and respiratory exchange ratio. Repeated measures analyses of variance indicated a significant Impact x Step interaction whereby oxygen consumption was greater for the high impact-less arm movement activity (jog), while the low impact-more arm movement activity (power jack) was greater for heart rate. The interaction of aerobic dance characteristics (e.g., impact, arm movement) that may alter physiological responses to aerobic dance exercise should be identified in future aerobic dance routines and studies. PMID:7481084

  10. Coupled anaerobic/aerobic biodegradation of 2,4,6 trichlorophenol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Degradation of 2, 4, 6-trichlorophenol(TCP) with co-immobilizing anaerobic granular sludge and isolated aerobic bacterial specieswas studied in coupled anaerobic/aerobic integrated reactors. The synergism of aerobes and anaerobes within co-immobilized granule mightfacilitate degrading the TCP and exchange of anaerobic metabolites 4-CP, which promoted system organic removal efficiency and recovered fromorganic shock-loads more quickly. The biomass specific activities experiment further confirmed that strict anaerobes be not affected over thecourse of this experiment by the presence of an oxic environment, aerobic activity predominated in the outer co-immobilized granule layers,while the interior was characterized by anaerobic activity. The co-immobilized granule could thus enable both aerobic and anaerobic microbesfunction in the same reactor and thereby integrate the oxidative and reductive catabolism.

  11. Grey water treatment in a series anaerobic--aerobic system for irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Ghunmi, Lina; Zeeman, Grietje; Fayyad, Manar; van Lier, Jules B

    2010-01-01

    This study aims at treatment of grey water for irrigation, focusing on a treatment technology that is robust, simple to operate and with minimum energy consumption. The result is an optimized system consisting of an anaerobic unit operated in upflow mode, with a 1 day operational cycle, a constant effluent flow rate and varying liquid volume. Subsequent aerobic step is equipped with mechanical aeration and the system is insulated for sustaining winter conditions. The COD removal achieved by the anaerobic and aerobic units in summer and winter are 45%, 39% and 53%, 64%, respectively. Sludge in the anaerobic and aerobic reactor has a concentration of 168 and 8 mg VSL(-1), respectively. Stability of sludge in the anaerobic and aerobic reactors is 80% and 93%, respectively, based on COD. Aerobic effluent quality, except for pathogens, agrees with the proposed irrigation water quality guidelines for reclaimed water in Jordan. PMID:19699088

  12. Biodegradation of Acid Anthraquinone Dye in a Facultative-aerobic Process: Kinetics and Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yin; LI Zai-lei

    2009-01-01

    The transformation of an anthraquinone dye blue 324 in a facultative-aerobic (F-A) system was investigated. Kinetic parameter study showed that higher Vmax coupled with more recalcitrant chemical oxygen demand (COD) were found in the facuitative biofilm reactor (FBR) than in the aerobic reactor (AR). Results of the product analyses indicated that most of dye molecular could be facultatively broken down into simple intermediates, which would be further degraded under subsequent aerobic condition. The main metabolites in each reactor were detected by infrared (FT-IR) and high performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). Comparison of the toxicities among the dye and its metabolites was conducted, surprisingly, the colorless intermediates from FBR possessed less inhibitory than original dye and the median effective luminescence concentration (EC50) in 15 min for aerobic effluent could not be detected, showing that hardly toxic products existed in the aerobic process effluent.

  13. Aerobic biotransformation of polyfluoroalkyl phosphate esters (PAPs) in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chen; Liu, Jinxia

    2016-05-01

    Microbial transformation of polyfluoroalkyl phosphate esters (PAPs) into perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) has recently been confirmed to occur in activated sludge and soil. However, there lacks quantitative information about the half-lives of the PAPs and their significance as the precursors to PFCAs. In the present study, the biotransformation of 6:2 and 8:2 diPAP in aerobic soil was investigated in semi-dynamics reactors using improved sample preparation methods. To develop an efficient extraction method for PAPs, six different extraction solvents were compared, and the phenomenon of solvent-enhanced hydrolysis was investigated. It was found that adding acetic acid could enhance the recoveries of the diPAPs and inhibit undesirable hydrolysis during solvent extraction of soil. However 6:2 and 8:2 monoPAPs, which are the first breakdown products from diPAPs, were found to be unstable in the six solvents tested and quickly hydrolyzed to form fluorotelomer alcohols. Therefore reliable measurement of the monoPAPs from a live soil was not achievable. The apparent DT50 values of 6:2 diPAP and 8:2 diPAP biotransformation were estimated to be 12 and > 1000 days, respectively, using a double first-order in parallel model. At the end of incubation of day 112, the major degradation products of 6:2 diPAP were 5:3 fluorotelomer carboxylic acid (5:3 acid, 9.3% by mole), perfluoropentanoic acid (PFPeA, 6.4%) and perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA, 6.0%). The primary product of 8:2 diPAP was perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, 2.1%). The approximately linear relationship between the half-lives of eleven polyfluoroalkyl and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs, including 6:2 and 8:2 diPAPs) that biotransform in aerobic soils and their molecular weights suggested that the molecular weight is a good indicator of the general stability of low-molecular-weight PFAS-based compounds in aerobic soils. PMID:26849529

  14. Neuroprotective Effects of Marine Algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se-Kwon Kim

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The marine environment is known as a rich source of chemical structures with numerous beneficial health effects. Among marine organisms, marine algae have been identified as an under-exploited plant resource, although they have long been recognized as valuable sources of structurally diverse bioactive compounds. Presently, several lines of studies have provided insight into biological activities and neuroprotective effects of marine algae including antioxidant, anti-neuroinflammatory, cholinesterase inhibitory activity and the inhibition of neuronal death. Hence, marine algae have great potential to be used for neuroprotection as part of pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals and functional foods. This contribution presents an overview of marine algal neuroprotective effects and their potential application in neuroprotection.

  15. The Evolution of Marine Reptiles

    OpenAIRE

    Motani, Ryosuke

    2009-01-01

    Reptiles have repeatedly invaded marine environments despite their physiological constraints as air breathers. Marine reptiles were especially successful in the Mesozoic as major predators in the sea. There were more than a dozen groups of marine reptiles in the Mesozoic, of which four had more than 30 genera, namely sauropterygians (including plesiosaurs), ichthyopterygians, mosasaurs, and sea turtles. Medium-sized groups, such as Thalattosauria and Thalattosuchia, had about ten genera, wher...

  16. Optimization of medium and cultivation conditions for enhanced exopolysaccharide yield by marine Cyanothece sp. 113

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Cyanothece sp. 113 is a unicellular, aerobic, diazotrophic and photosynthetic marine cyanobacterium. The optimal medium for exopolysaccharide yield by the strain was 70.0 g/L of NaCl,and 0.9 g/L of MgSO4 based on the modified F/2 medium for cultivation of marine algae. The optimal cultivation condition for exopolysaccharide yield by this cyanobacterial strain was 29℃, aeration, and continuous illumination at 86.0 μE/M2/S. Under the optimal conditions, over 18.4 g/L of exopolysaccharide was produced within 12 days. This was so far the highest exopolysaccharide yield produced with strains of Cyanothece sp. obtained.

  17. Enzymes and Genes Involved in Aerobic Alkane Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZongzeShao

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Alkanes are major constituents of crude oil. They are also present at low concentrations in diverse non-contaminated because many living organisms produce them as chemo-attractants or as protecting agents against water loss. Alkane degradation is a widespread phenomenon in nature. The numerous microorganisms, both prokaryotic and eukaryotic, capable of utilizing alkanes as a carbon and energy source, have been isolated and characterized. This review summarizes the current knowledge of how bacteria metabolize alkanes aerobically, with a particular emphasis on the oxidation of long-chain alkanes, including factors that are responsible for chemotaxis to alkanes , transport across cell membrane of alkanes , the regulation of alkane degradation gene and initial oxidation.

  18. Targeting aerobic glycolysis: 3-bromopyruvate as a promising anticancer drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardaci, Simone; Desideri, Enrico; Ciriolo, Maria Rosa

    2012-02-01

    The Warburg effect refers to the phenomenon whereby cancer cells avidly take up glucose and produce lactic acid under aerobic conditions. Although the molecular mechanisms underlying tumor reliance on glycolysis remains not completely clear, its inhibition opens feasible therapeutic windows for cancer treatment. Indeed, several small molecules have emerged by combinatorial studies exhibiting promising anticancer activity both in vitro and in vivo, as a single agent or in combination with other therapeutic modalities. Therefore, besides reviewing the alterations of glycolysis that occur with malignant transformation, this manuscript aims at recapitulating the most effective pharmacological therapeutics of its targeting. In particular, we describe the principal mechanisms of action and the main targets of 3-bromopyruvate, an alkylating agent with impressive antitumor effects in several models of animal tumors. Moreover, we discuss the chemo-potentiating strategies that would make unparalleled the putative therapeutic efficacy of its use in clinical settings. PMID:22328057

  19. Aerobic training and postexercise protein in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Grete; Prahm, Kira P; Dahlqvist, Julia R;

    2015-01-01

    interval (CI) 4%-15%], 18% [CI 10%-26%], 7% [CI 4%-11%], respectively, p < 0.001, number needed to treat = 2.1). Self-assessed physical capacity and health (Short Form-36) also improved. Muscle strength and daily activity levels did not change with training. Protein-carbohydrate supplementation did not......OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of regular aerobic training and postexercise protein-carbohydrate supplementation in patients with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD). METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel study, we randomized untrained men (n = 21......) and women (n = 20) with FSHD (age 19-65 years) to 2 training groups-training with protein supplement (n = 18) and training with placebo supplement (n = 13)-and a nonintervention control group (n = 10). We assessed fitness, walking speed, muscle strength, questionnaires, and daily activity levels...

  20. Corrosion inhibition of mild steel by aerobic biofilm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mild steel electrodes were incubated in phosphate-buffered basal salt solution (BSS) having two different aerobic bacteria, viz. Pseudomonas alcaligenes and Pseudomonas cichorii. In the medium containing P. cichorii, significant reduction in the corrosion rate was observed due to the surface reaction leading to the formation of corrosion inhibiting bacterial biofilm. With a view to understand the mechanism of microbially influenced corrosion/corrosion inhibition, electrochemical and biological experiments such as electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements and biochemical analysis were made. The exposed surfaces were examined using scanning electron micrographs (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA). The scraped surface film was also examined using FT-IR spectroscopy. The results suggested that mild steel surface contained iron oxide-phosphate layer covered with bacteria and exo polymeric substance (EPS)/iron-EPS complex for P. cichorii and iron oxides and iron phosphate for P. alcaligenes

  1. EFFECTS OF THREE FEEDBACK CONDITIONS ON AEROBIC SWIM SPEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Pérez Soriano

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was twofold: (a to develop an underwater chronometer capable to provide feedback while the athlete is swimming, as well as being a control tool for the coach, and (b to analyse its feedback effect on swim pace control compared with feedback provided by the coach and with no feedback, in 25 m and 50 m swimming pools. 30 male swimmers of national level volunteer to participate. Each swimmer swam 3 x 200 m at aerobic speed (AS and 3 x 200 m just under the anaerobic threshold speed (AnS, each swam repetition with a different feedback condition: chronometer, coach and without feedback. Results (a validate the chronometer system developed and (b show that swimmers pace control is affected by the type of feedback provided, the swim speed elected and the size of the swimming pool

  2. Oxovanadium complex-catalyzed aerobic oxidation of propargylic alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Yasunari; Kakiuchi, Nobuyuki; Matsumura, Satoshi; Nishimura, Takahiro; Kawamura, Takashi; Uemura, Sakae

    2002-09-20

    A catalytic system consisting of vanadium oxyacetylacetonate [VO(acac)(2)] and 3 A molecular sieves (MS3A) in acetonitrile works effectively for the aerobic oxidation of propargylic alcohols [R(1)CH(OH)Ctbd1;CR(2)] to the corresponding carbonyl compounds under an atmospheric pressure of molecular oxygen. Although the reactivity of alpha-acetylenic alkanols (R(1) = alkyl) is lower compared to that of the alcohols of R(1) = aryl, alkenyl, and alkynyl, the use of VO(hfac)(2) as a catalyst and the addition of hexafluoroacetylacetone improve the product yield in these cases. A catalytic cycle involving a vanadium(V) alcoholate species and beta-hydrogen elimination from it has been proposed for this oxidation. PMID:12227802

  3. Clindamycin and gentamicin for aerobic and anaerobic sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fass, R J; Ruiz, D E; Gardner, W G; Rotilie, C A

    1977-01-01

    Thirty-eight adult patients with serious pleuropulmonary, soft-tissue, bone, and intra-abdominal infections caused by combinations of aerobic, facultative, and anaerobic bacteria were treated with parenterally given clindamycin phosphate and gentamicin sulfate and surgery when appropriate. Nine had associated bacteremia. In 29, infections failed to respond to other therapeutic regimens, which included penicillins, cephalosporins, aminoglycosides, and chloramphenicol. Results with clindamycin and gentamicin were excellent and were attributed primarily to the activity of clindamycin against anaerobes, particularly Bacteroides fragilis. Serum concentrations of clindamycin surpassed by manyfold the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for anaerobes. Serum concentrations of gentamicin did not consistently surpass the MICs for Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, although those organisms were consistently gentamicinsusceptible by disk diffusion susceptibility tests. Persistent colonization with Enterobacteriaceae, P aeruginosa, enterococci, or Candida were common, and occasionally they were significant in prolonging the clinical courses of patients with extensive infections. PMID:318824

  4. Biological phosphorus uptake under anoxic and aerobic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerrn-Jespersen, Jens Peter; Henze, Mogens

    1993-01-01

    Biological phosphorus removal was investigated under anoxic and aerobic conditions. Tests were made to establish whether phosphorus accumulating bacteria can take up phosphate under anoxic conditions and thus utilise nitrate as oxidant. Furthermore, it was tested how the amount of organic matter...... sludge from two different pilot plants incorporating phosphorus removal. The results showed that the phosphorus accumulating bacteria can be divided into two groups in respect of process; one group capable of utilising only oxygen as oxidant and another group capable of utilising both oxygen and nitrate...... taken up by the phosphorus accumulating bacteria during the anaerobic phase affects the total denitrification rate, as well as the rate at which the phosphorus accumulating bacteria take up phosphate under anoxic conditions. The tests were conducted as batch experiments in 21. reactors with activated...

  5. Characteristics of Pb2+ biosorption with aerobic granular biomass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Lei; YE ZhengFang; WANG ZhongYou; NI JinRen

    2008-01-01

    Experimental studies were conducted on the feasibility of aerobic granular biomass as a novel type of biosorbent for Pb2+ removal. The results show that the initial pH, Pb2+ concentration (C0) and biomass concentration (X0) affected the biosorption process significantly. Both the Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models describe the biosorption process accurately, with correlation coefficients of 0.932 and 0.959 respectively. The Pb2+ biosorption kinetics is interpreted as having two stages, with the second stage described reasonably well by a Lagergren pseudo-second order model. Moreover, the surface change of granular biomass after the Pb2+ biosorption process appears to be caused by ion exchange and metal chelation according to the analysis results of Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX).

  6. Electrocatalytic aerobic epoxidation of alkenes: Experimental and DFT investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new method for electrocatalytic aerobic epoxidation of alkenes catalyzed by binuclear Cu(II) complexes with azomethine ligands based on 2,6-diformyl-4-tert-butylphenol is described. In acetonitrile–water (5%), at the potential of CuII/CuI redox couple (–0.8 V vs. Ag/AgCl/KCl) at room temperature the epoxide is obtained in an average yield of around 50%. Contrary to the majority of known epoxidations, no strong oxidants are involved and no free hydrogen peroxide is formed in the reaction, thus making it ecologically friendly. The DFT quantum-chemical modeling of the reaction mechanism revealed that a copper hydroperoxo-complex rather than hydrogen peroxide or a copper oxo-complex oxidizes alkene. The process is very selective since neither products of hydroxylation of benzene ring in styrene nor of allylic oxidation of cyclohexene were detected.

  7. Anticancer agents from marine sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jianjun; Zhou, Feng; Al-Kareef, Ammar M Q; Wang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Marine sponges are currently one of the richest sources of anticancer active compounds found in the marine ecosystems. More than 5300 different known metabolites are from sponges and their associated microorganisms. To survive in the complicated marine environment, most of the sponge species have evolved chemical means to defend against predation. Such chemical adaptation produces many biologically active secondary metabolites including anticancer agents. This review highlights novel secondary metabolites in sponges which inhibited diverse cancer species in the recent 5 years. These natural products of marine sponges are categorized based on various chemical characteristics. PMID:25402340

  8. Aerobic biodegradation of organic compounds in hydraulic fracturing fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kekacs, Daniel; Drollette, Brian D; Brooker, Michael; Plata, Desiree L; Mouser, Paula J

    2015-07-01

    Little is known of the attenuation of chemical mixtures created for hydraulic fracturing within the natural environment. A synthetic hydraulic fracturing fluid was developed from disclosed industry formulas and produced for laboratory experiments using commercial additives in use by Marcellus shale field crews. The experiments employed an internationally accepted standard method (OECD 301A) to evaluate aerobic biodegradation potential of the fluid mixture by monitoring the removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from an aqueous solution by activated sludge and lake water microbial consortia for two substrate concentrations and four salinities. Microbial degradation removed from 57 % to more than 90 % of added DOC within 6.5 days, with higher removal efficiency at more dilute concentrations and little difference in overall removal extent between sludge and lake microbe treatments. The alcohols isopropanol and octanol were degraded to levels below detection limits while the solvent acetone accumulated in biological treatments through time. Salinity concentrations of 40 g/L or more completely inhibited degradation during the first 6.5 days of incubation with the synthetic hydraulic fracturing fluid even though communities were pre-acclimated to salt. Initially diverse microbial communities became dominated by 16S rRNA sequences affiliated with Pseudomonas and other Pseudomonadaceae after incubation with the synthetic fracturing fluid, taxa which may be involved in acetone production. These data expand our understanding of constraints on the biodegradation potential of organic compounds in hydraulic fracturing fluids under aerobic conditions in the event that they are accidentally released to surface waters and shallow soils. PMID:26037076

  9. Anaerobic and Aerobic Performances in Elite Basketball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomes de Araujo Gustavo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to propose a specific lactate minimum test for elite basketball players considering the: Running Anaerobic Sprint Test (RAST as a hyperlactatemia inductor, short distances (specific distance, 20 m during progressive intensity and mathematical analysis to interpret aerobic and anaerobic variables. The basketball players were assigned to four groups: All positions (n=26, Guard (n= 7, Forward (n=11 and Center (n=8. The hyperlactatemia elevation (RAST method consisted of 6 maximum sprints over 35 m separated by 10 s of recovery. The progressive phase of the lactate minimum test consisted of 5 stages controlled by an electronic metronome (8.0, 9.0, 10.0, 11.0 and 12.0 km/h over a 20 m distance. The RAST variables and the lactate values were analyzed using visual and mathematical models. The intensity of the lactate minimum test, determined by a visual method, reduced in relation to polynomial fits (2nd degree for the Small Forward positions and General groups. The Power and Fatigue Index values, determined by both methods, visual and 3rd degree polynomial, were not significantly different between the groups. In conclusion, the RAST is an excellent hyperlactatemia inductor and the progressive intensity of lactate minimum test using short distances (20 m can be specifically used to evaluate the aerobic capacity of basketball players. In addition, no differences were observed between the visual and polynomial methods for RAST variables, but lactate minimum intensity was influenced by the method of analysis

  10. Assessment of bacterial and structural dynamics in aerobic granular biofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. Weissbrodt

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Aerobic granular sludge is based on self-granulated flocs forming mobile biofilms with a gel-like consistence. Bacterial and structural dynamics from flocs to granules were followed in anaerobic-aerobic sequencing batch reactors fed with synthetic wastewater, namely a bubble column (BC-SBR operated under wash-out conditions for fast granulation, and two stirred-tank enrichments of Accumulibacter (PAO-SBR and Competibacter (GAO-SBR operated at steady-state. In the BC-SBR, granules formed within two weeks by swelling of Zoogloea colonies around flocs, developing subsequently smooth zoogloeal biofilms. However, Zoogloea predominance (37-79% led to deteriorated nutrient removal during the first months of reactor operation. Upon maturation, improved nitrification (80-100%, nitrogen removal (43-83%, and high but unstable dephosphatation (75-100% were obtained. Proliferation of dense clusters of nitrifiers, Accumulibacter, and Competibacter from granule cores outwards resulted in heterogeneous bioaggregates, inside which only low abundance Zoogloea (<5% were detected in biofilm interstices. The presence of different extracellular glycoconjugates detected by fluorescence lectin-binding analysis showed the complex nature of the intracellular matrix of these granules. In the PAO-SBR, granulation occurred within two months with abundant and active Accumulibacter populations (56±10% that were selected under full anaerobic uptake of volatile fatty acids and that aggregated as dense clusters within heterogeneous granules. Flocs self-granulated in the GAO-SBR after 480 days during a period of over-aeration caused by biofilm growth on the oxygen sensor. Granules were dominated by heterogeneous clusters of Competibacter (37±11%. Zoogloea were never abundant in biomass of both PAO- and GAO-SBRs. This study showed that Zoogloea, Accumulibacter, and Competibacter affiliates can form granules, and that the granulation mechanisms rely on the dominant population

  11. Isolation of aerobic bacteria from ticks infested sheep in Iraq

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Waleed Ibrahem Jalil; Mohammad Mushgil Zenad

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To highlight the presence of aerobic bacteria in live ticks infested sheep, in Diyala Governorate, Iraq. Methods: One hundred and thirty adult alive ticks were picked up from sheep which were reared in different farms in Diyala Governorate, Iraq, during the period from November 2012 to May 2013. Ticks were classified in the Natural History Museum in Baghdad. They were dissected aseptically for extraction of the salivary gland and mid-gut. The removed tissue from each organ was inoculated in buffer peptone water (1%) and incubated for 2 h at 37℃, to maintain weak and/or injured bacterial cells, then transmitted to nutrient broth incubated at 37℃ for 18 h. Culturing was done on three solid bacteriological media (nutrient, blood and McConkey agars), and then incubated at 37℃ for 24 h. Bacterial identification was performed by using multiple biochemical tests and API-20 strips. Data were analyzed by using Statistical Analysis System version 9.1, 2010. Chi-square test was used for comparison at significant level of P ≤0.05. Results: Two species of ticks were identified [Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus and Hyalomma turanicum]. High bacterial isolation rate was observed (483 isolates). A significant high isolation rate was recorded from Rhipicephalus annulatus (63.14%). Six bacterial species were identified [Escherichia coli (28.36%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (18.01%), Bacillus cereus (14.69%), Staphylococcus aureus (13.66%), Citrobacter freundii (13.04%), and Enterobacter species (12.21%)]. Also the high bacterial isolation rates were recorded in the temperate months (November, March and April); these coin-cided with high reproductive performance of ticks. Conclusions: The high isolation rate of aerobic pathogens from ticks might reflect the active contribution of this arthropod in environmental contamination and increase the probability of transmitting bacterial pathogens to their hosts.

  12. Parallel pathways of ethoxylated alcohol biodegradation under aerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zembrzuska, Joanna; Budnik, Irena; Lukaszewski, Zenon

    2016-07-01

    Non-ionic surfactants (NS) are a major component of the surfactant flux discharged into surface water, and alcohol ethoxylates (AE) are the major component of this flux. Therefore, biodegradation pathways of AE deserve more thorough investigation. The aim of this work was to investigate the stages of biodegradation of homogeneous oxyethylated dodecanol C12E9 having 9 oxyethylene subunits, under aerobic conditions. Enterobacter strain Z3 bacteria were chosen as biodegrading organisms under conditions with C12E9 as the sole source of organic carbon. Bacterial consortia of river water were used in a parallel test as an inoculum for comparison. The LC-MS technique was used to identify the products of biodegradation. Liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate was selected for the isolation of C12E9 and metabolites from the biodegradation broth. The LC-MS/MS technique operating in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode was used for quantitative determination of C12E9, C12E8, C12E7 and C12E6. Apart from the substrate, the homologues C12E8, C12E7 and C12E6, being metabolites of C12E9 biodegradation by shortening of the oxyethylene chain, as well as intermediate metabolites having a carboxyl end group in the oxyethylene chain (C12E8COOH, C12E7COOH, C12E6COOH and C12E5COOH), were identified. Poly(ethylene glycols) (E) having 9, 8 and 7 oxyethylene subunits were also identified, indicating parallel central fission of C12E9 and its metabolites. Similar results were obtained with river water as inoculum. It is concluded that AE, under aerobic conditions, are biodegraded via two parallel pathways: by central fission with the formation of PEG, and by Ω-oxidation of the oxyethylene chain with the formation of carboxylated AE and subsequent shortening of the oxyethylene chain by a single unit. PMID:27037882

  13. Mechanism of aerobic biological destabilisation of wool scour effluent emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Andrew J; Cord-Ruwisch, Ralf; William Jones, F

    2005-07-01

    Wool scouring effluent is a highly polluted industrial wastewater in which the main pollutant, wool wax, is held in a stable oil-in-water emulsion by non-ionic detergent. The use of microbial action to cause emulsion destabilisation has been proposed as a new treatment strategy for this effluent stream. This strategy aims at improving aerobic treatment performance by physically removing the high-COD, slowly bio-degradable wool wax from the system without bio-degradation. The mechanism by which an aerobic-mixed culture destabilises the wool scouring effluent emulsion was investigated. Our results show that destabilisation is due to partial bio-degradation of both the scouring detergent and the wool wax. Cleavage of the wool wax esters was the first stage in wax degradation, when 40-50% of wax was de-emulsified. Over the same period, detergent degradation was low, at 7-21%. With further incubation, detergent degradation increased, aiding further breakdown of the emulsion. The degradation of the detergent, a nonylphenol ethoxylate, resulted in both a reduction in molar concentration (of up to 82%) and a shortening of the ethoxylate chain length. The latter reduced the hydrophile-lipophile balance (HLB) from 12 to approximately 7, thereby reducing the ability of the residual detergent to stabilise the emulsion. Analysis of the emulsified and de-emulsified wax fractions could not identify a group of compounds that were preferentially de-emulsified based on molecular weight or polarity. These findings will assist in using a de-emulsification strategy in both existing and new treatment systems in order to save on aeration costs and treatment times for biological treatment of this highly polluted wastewater. PMID:15979119

  14. Physical injury stimulates aerobic methane emissions from terrestrial plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.-P. Wang

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Physical injury is common in terrestrial plants as a result of grazing, harvesting, trampling, and extreme weather events. Previous studies demonstrated enhanced emission of non-microbial CH4 under aerobic conditions from plant tissues when they were exposed to increasing UV radiation and temperature. Since physical injury is also a form of environmental stress, we sought to determine whether it would also affect CH4 emissions from plants. Physical injury (cutting stimulated CH4 emission from fresh twigs of Artemisia species under aerobic conditions. More cutting resulted in more CH4 emissions. Hypoxia also enhanced CH4 emission from both uncut and cut Artemisia frigida twigs. Physical injury typically results in cell wall degradation, which may either stimulate formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS or decrease scavenging of them. Increased ROS activity might explain increased CH4 emission in response to physical injury and other forms of stress. There were significant differences in CH4 emissions among 10 species of Artemisia, with some species emitting no detectable CH4 under any circumstances. Consequently, CH4 emissions may be species-dependent and therefore difficult to estimate in nature based on total plant biomass. Our results and those of previous studies suggest that a variety of environmental stresses stimulate CH4 emission from a wide variety of plant species. Global change processes, including climate change, depletion of stratospheric ozone, increasing ground-level ozone, spread of plant pests, and land-use changes, could cause more stress in plants on a global scale, potentially stimulating more CH4 emission globally.

  15. Physical injury stimulates aerobic methane emissions from terrestrial plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.-P. Wang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical injury is common in terrestrial plants as a result of grazing, trampling, and extreme weather events. Previous studies demonstrated enhanced emission of non-microbial CH4 under aerobic conditions from plant tissues when they were exposed to increasing UV radiation and temperature. Since physical injury is also a form of environmental stress, we sought to determine whether it would also affect CH4 emissions from plants. Physical injury (cutting stimulated CH4 emission from fresh twigs of Artemisiaspecies under aerobic conditions. More cutting resulted in more CH4 emissions. Hypoxia also enhanced CH4 emission from both uncut and cut Artemisia frigida twigs. Physical injury typically results in cell wall degradation, which may either stimulate formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS or decrease scavenging of them. Increased ROS activity might explain increased CH4 emission in response to physical injury and other forms of stress. There were significant differences in CH4 emissions among 10 species of Artemisia, with some species emitting no detectable CH4 under any circumstances. Consequently, CH4 emissions may be species-dependent and therefore difficult to estimate in nature based on total plant biomass. Our results and those of previous studies suggest that a variety environmental stresses stimulate CH4 emission from a wide variety of plant species. Global change processes, including climate change, depletion of stratospheric ozone, increasing ground-level ozone, spread of plant pests, and land-use changes, could cause more stress in plants on a global scale, potentially stimulating more CH4 emission globally.

  16. Antibiogram study of aerobic bacterial isolates from uropathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallikarjuna Reddy C, Himabindu M, Maity Soumendranath, Kanta RC, Kapur Indu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bacteria are capable of invading and infecting humans, leading to disease and sometimes death. Systems and tissues in human body are vulnerable to different organisms. Infection pattern is likely to differ by geographical regions. Aim: This study was aimed to isolate and identify the type of aerobic bacteria causing Urinary Tract Infections (UTI in different age groups and sexes, and also in some predisposing conditions. Their antibiogram also was done. Materials and Methods: Midstream urine sample collected aseptically from 276 patients were subjected for isolation and identification of aerobic bacteria by standard technique and subsequently antibiogram was done by Kirby –Bayer Method. Both sexes of patients with an age range of 10-70 years and patients with diabetes (22, hypertension (8 and anemia (8 were also included in the study. Results: Escherichia coli was the predominant organism(50% among other isolates – Klebsiella species (27.3%, Proteus species(7.14%, Staphylococcus saprophyticus (5.95%, Staphylococcus aureus (3.57%, Enterococci (3.57%, Pseudomonas species(2.38%. UTI was more common among patients of 60 and more years of age; however, incidence was more in female patients (36.2 – 38.5% compared with male patients (25-30%. Anemia, Diabetes and Hypertension conditions were found to predispose UTI. Aminoglycosides and Quinolones were found to be more effective against the isolates. Conclusion: The present study reveals in spite of the topographical diversity, the infecting bacterial isolates from this area were found to be the same as from any other part of India.

  17. Radiation induces aerobic glycolysis through reactive oxygen species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: Although radiation induced reoxygenation has been thought to increase radiosensitivity, we have shown that its associated oxidative stress can have radioprotective effects, including stabilization of the transcription factor hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF-1). HIF-1 is known to regulate many of the glycolytic enzymes, thereby promoting aerobic glycolysis, which is known to promote treatment resistance. Thus, we hypothesized that reoxygenation after radiation would increase glycolysis. We previously showed that blockade of oxidative stress using a superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimic during reoxygenation can downregulate HIF-1 activity. Here we tested whether concurrent use of this drug with radiotherapy would reduce the switch to a glycolytic phenotype. Materials and methods: 40 mice with skin fold window chambers implanted with 4T1 mammary carcinomas were randomized into (1) no treatment, (2) radiation alone, (3) SOD mimic alone, and (4) SOD mimic with concurrent radiation. All mice were imaged on the ninth day following tumor implantation (30 h following radiation treatment) following injection of a fluorescent glucose analog, 2-[N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diaxol-4-yl)amino]-2-deoxyglucose (2-NBDG). Hemoglobin saturation was measured by using hyperspectral imaging to quantify oxygenation state. Results: Mice treated with radiation showed significantly higher 2-NBDG fluorescence compared to controls (p = 0.007). Hemoglobin saturation analysis demonstrated reoxygenation following radiation, coinciding with the observed increase in glycolysis. The concurrent use of the SOD mimic with radiation demonstrated a significant reduction in 2-NBDG fluorescence compared to effects seen after radiation alone, while having no effect on reoxygenation. Conclusions: Radiation induces an increase in tumor glucose demand approximately 30 h following therapy during reoxygenation. The use of an SOD mimic can prevent the increase in aerobic glycolysis when used

  18. Bacterial diversity in oil-polluted marine coastal sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta-González, Alejandro; Marqués, Silvia

    2016-04-01

    Marine environments harbour a persistent microbial seed which can be shaped by changes of the environmental conditions such as contamination by petroleum components. Oil spills, together with small but continuous discharges of oil from transportation and recreational activities, are important sources of hydrocarbon pollution within the marine realm. Consequently, prokaryotic communities have become well pre-adapted toward oil pollution, and many microorganisms that are exposed to its presence develop an active degradative response. The natural attenuation of oil pollutants, as has been demonstrated in many sites, is modulated according to the intrinsic environmental properties such as the availability of terminal electron acceptors and elemental nutrients, together with the degree of pollution and the type of hydrocarbon fractions present. Whilst dynamics in the bacterial communities in the aerobic zones of coastal sediments are well characterized and the key players in hydrocarbon biodegradation have been identified, the subtidal ecology of the anaerobic community is still not well understood. However, current data suggest common patterns of response in these ecosystems. PMID:26773654

  19. Marine biogeochemistry of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclides entering the ocean from runoff, fallout, or deliberate release rapidly become involved in marine biogeochemical cycles. Sources, sinks and transport of radionuclides and analogue elements are discussed with emphasis placed on how these elements interact with marine organisms. Water, food and sediments are the source terms from which marine biota acquire radionuclides. Uptake from water occurs by surface adsorption, absorption across body surfaces, or a combination of both. Radionuclides ingested with food are either assimilated into tissue or excreted. The relative importance of the food and water pathway in uptake varies with the radionuclide and the conditions under which exposure occurs. Evidence suggests that, compared to the water and food pathways, bioavailability of sediment-bound radionuclides is low. Bioaccumulation processes are controlled by many environmental and intrinsic factors including exposure time, physical-chemical form of the radionuclide, salinity, temperature, competitive effects with other elements, organism size, physiology, life cycle and feeding habits. Once accumulated, radionuclides are transported actively by vertical and horizontal movements of organisms and passively by release of biogenic products, e.g., soluble excreta, feces, molts and eggs. Through feeding activities, particles containing radionuclides are ''packaged'' into larger aggregates which are redistributed upon release. Most radionuclides are not irreversibly bound to such particles but are remineralized as they sink and/or decompose. In the pelagic zones, sinking aggregates can further scavenge particle-reactive elements thus removing them from the surface layers and transporting them to depth. Evidence from both radiotracer experiments and in situ sediment trap studies is presented which illustrates the importance of biological scavenging in controlling the distribution of radionuclides in the water column. (author)

  20. 50 CFR 216.25 - Exempted marine mammals and marine mammal products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exempted marine mammals and marine mammal... AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 216.25 Exempted marine mammals and marine...

  1. A novel marine nitrite-oxidizing Nitrospira species from Dutch coastal North Sea water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Caroline Marianne Haaijer

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Marine microorganisms are important for the global nitrogen cycle, but marine nitrifiers, especially aerobic nitrite-oxidizers, remain largely unexplored. To increase the number of cultured representatives of marine nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB, a bioreactor cultivation approach was adopted to first enrich nitrifiers and ultimately nitrite oxidizers from Dutch coastal North Sea water. With solely ammonia as the substrate an active nitrifiying community consisting of novel marine Nitrosomonas aerobic ammonia oxidizers (AOB and Nitrospina and Nitrospira NOB was obtained which converted a maximum of 2 mmoles of ammonia per liter per day. Switching the feed of the culture to nitrite as a sole substrate resulted in a Nitrospira NOB dominated community (approximately 80% of the total microbial community based on FISH and metagenomic data converting a maximum of 3 mmoles of nitrite per liter per day. Phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rRNA gene indicated that the Nitrospira enriched from the North Sea is a novel Nitrospira species with Nitrospira marina as the next taxonomically described relative (94% 16S rRNA sequence identity. Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed a cell plan typical for Nitrospira species. The cytoplasm contained electron light particles that might represent glycogen storage. A large periplasmic space was present which was filled with electron dense particles. Nitrospira-targeted PCR analyses demonstrated the presence of the enriched Nitrospira species in a time series of North Sea genomic DNA samples. The availability of this new Nitrospira species enrichment culture facilitates further in-depth studies such as determination of physiological constraints, and comparison to other NOB species.

  2. Faunistics (marine animals)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    These PowerPoint files are compiled from various sources: Internet, field guides, scientific monographs, textbooks, my own photos and drawings, etc. I have no copyright or permission to use most of the illustrations. The file is therefore only intended for internal use within the Marine Biology c...... these? It is a difficult question and it could always be argued that additional species should be included, but I had to define the limit somewhere. I decided to include the species in the two books stated below, plus a few more. The files were made on a Macintosh computer (PowerBook G4...

  3. Marine Archaeology in India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh

    history of mankind. The underwater heritage of India, in the form of sub- merged cities and sunken ships spans a period of around 4000 years or more. The best efforts of S.R. Rao helped initiate this interdisciplinary subject in NIO (National Institute... and discov- ered remains of an early civilisation. NIO has carried out both onshore and offshore explorations along the East and West Coast of India in order to locate submerged ports, coastal cities and shipwrecks. Objectives and Sources of Marine...

  4. Mesophilic anaerobic stabilization of sewage sludge. Mesophile anaerobe Klaerschlammstabilisierung mit aerober Folgebehandlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoll, U.

    1988-01-01

    Sludges treated in two stages in experiments - 7 days of anaerobic treatment and 2 days of aerobic-thermophilic treatment - can be judged to be completely stabilized because of the stabilization parameters BOD/sub 5//COD ratio and respiratory activity. The degradation results obtained are comparable to or better than those of the 20-day digestion (reference process). For all aerobic processes under investigation a clear temperature increase in the aerobic reactor was measured because of the exothermal metabolic processes of the aerobic biocenosis. There was a temperature rise of 15/sup 0/C in the tests in the aerobic reactor even after longer digestion times of 15 and 20 days. The results of the epidemics and hygiene investigations show that a secondary aerobic-thermophilic stage after the mesophilic digestion with adequate marginal conditions - germ retention time of 23 hours in the aerobic reactor at process temperatures higher than 50/sup 0/C as well as charging in batch quantities - leads to a safe and complete decontamination. Under these process and operation conditions all salmonellae were killed and the number of the enterobacteriaceae in 1 g of sludge was always less than 1.000. (orig./EF).

  5. Kinetics of aerobic cometabolic biodegradation of chlorinated and brominated aliphatic hydrocarbons: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesus, João; Frascari, Dario; Pozdniakova, Tatiana; Danko, Anthony S

    2016-05-15

    This review analyses kinetic studies of aerobic cometabolism (AC) of halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbons (HAHs) from 2001-2015 in order to (i) compare the different kinetic models proposed, (ii) analyse the estimated model parameters with a focus on novel HAHs and the identification of general trends, and (iii) identify further research needs. The results of this analysis show that aerobic cometabolism can degrade a wide range of HAHs, including HAHs that were not previously tested such as chlorinated propanes, highly chlorinated ethanes and brominated methanes and ethanes. The degree of chlorine mineralization was very high for the chlorinated HAHs. Bromine mineralization was not determined for studies with brominated aliphatics. The examined research period led to the identification of novel growth substrates of potentially high interest. Decreasing performance of aerobic cometabolism were found with increasing chlorination, indicating the high potential of aerobic cometabolism in the presence of medium- and low-halogenated HAHs. Further research is needed for the AC of brominated aliphatic hydrocarbons, the potential for biofilm aerobic cometabolism processes, HAH-HAH mutual inhibition and the identification of the enzymes responsible for each aerobic cometabolism process. Lastly, some indications for a possible standardization of future kinetic studies of HAH aerobic cometabolism are provided. PMID:26874310

  6. Promoting Motor Cortical Plasticity with Acute Aerobic Exercise: A Role for Cerebellar Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mang, Cameron S.; Brown, Katlyn E.; Neva, Jason L.; Snow, Nicholas J.; Campbell, Kristin L.; Boyd, Lara A.

    2016-01-01

    Acute aerobic exercise facilitated long-term potentiation-like plasticity in the human primary motor cortex (M1). Here, we investigated the effect of acute aerobic exercise on cerebellar circuits, and their potential contribution to altered M1 plasticity in healthy individuals (age: 24.8 ± 4.1 years). In Experiment   1, acute aerobic exercise reduced cerebellar inhibition (CBI) (n = 10, p = 0.01), elicited by dual-coil paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation. In Experiment   2, we evaluated the facilitatory effects of aerobic exercise on responses to paired associative stimulation, delivered with a 25 ms (PAS25) or 21 ms (PAS21) interstimulus interval (n = 16 per group). Increased M1 excitability evoked by PAS25, but not PAS21, relies on trans-cerebellar sensory pathways. The magnitude of the aerobic exercise effect on PAS response was not significantly different between PAS protocols (interaction effect: p = 0.30); however, planned comparisons indicated that, relative to a period of rest, acute aerobic exercise enhanced the excitatory response to PAS25 (p = 0.02), but not PAS21 (p = 0.30). Thus, the results of these planned comparisons indirectly provide modest evidence that modulation of cerebellar circuits may contribute to exercise-induced increases in M1 plasticity. The findings have implications for developing aerobic exercise strategies to “prime” M1 plasticity for enhanced motor skill learning in applied settings.

  7. Performance of sequential anaerobic/aerobic digestion applied to municipal sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomei, M Concetta; Rita, Sara; Mininni, Giuseppe

    2011-07-01

    A promising alternative to conventional single phase processing, the use of sequential anaerobic-aerobic digestion, was extensively investigated on municipal sewage sludge from a full scale wastewater treatment plant. The objective of the work was to evaluate sequential digestion performance by testing the characteristics of the digested sludge in terms of volatile solids (VS), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and nitrogen reduction, biogas production, dewaterability and the content of proteins and polysaccharides. VS removal efficiencies of 32% in the anaerobic phase and 17% in the aerobic one were obtained, and similar COD removal efficiencies (29% anaerobic and 21% aerobic) were also observed. The aerobic stage was also efficient in nitrogen removal providing a decrease of the nitrogen content in the supernatant attributable to nitrification and simultaneous denitrification. Moreover, in the aerobic phase an additional marked removal of proteins and polysaccharides produced in the anaerobic phase was achieved. The sludge dewaterability was evaluated by determining the Optimal Polymer Dose (OPD) and the Capillary Suction Time (CST) and a significant positive effect due to the aerobic stage was observed. Biogas production was close to the upper limit of the range of values reported in the literature in spite of the low anaerobic sludge retention time of 15 days. From a preliminary analysis it was found that the energy demand of the aerobic phase was significantly lower than the recovered energy in the anaerobic phase and the associated additional cost was negligible in comparison to the saving derived from the reduced amount of sludge to be disposed. PMID:21477916

  8. Aerobic fitness predicts relational memory but not item memory performance in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baym, Carol L; Khan, Naiman A; Pence, Ari; Raine, Lauren B; Hillman, Charles H; Cohen, Neal J

    2014-11-01

    Health factors such as an active lifestyle and aerobic fitness have long been linked to decreased risk of cardiovascular disease, stroke, and other adverse health outcomes. Only more recently have researchers begun to investigate the relationship between aerobic fitness and memory function. Based on recent findings in behavioral and cognitive neuroscience showing that the hippocampus might be especially sensitive to the effects of exercise and fitness, the current study assessed hippocampal-dependent relational memory and non-hippocampal-dependent item memory in young adults across a range of aerobic fitness levels. Aerobic fitness was assessed using a graded exercise test to measure oxygen consumption during maximal exercise (VO2max), and relational and item memory were assessed using behavioral and eye movement measures. Behavioral results indicated that aerobic fitness was positively correlated with relational memory performance but not item memory performance, suggesting that the beneficial effects of aerobic fitness selectively affect hippocampal function and not that of the surrounding medial temporal lobe cortex. Eye movement results further supported the specificity of this fitness effect to hippocampal function, in that aerobic fitness predicted disproportionate preferential viewing of previously studied relational associations but not of previously viewed items. Potential mechanisms underlying this pattern of results, including neurogenesis, are discussed. PMID:24893739

  9. Differences in aerobic fitness between inpatients and outpatients with severe mental disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene Daae-Qvale Holmemo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackgroundPatients with severe mental disorders have increased mortality, and cardiovascular disease (CVD accounts for a large part. Physical inactivity and low aerobic fitness have been recognized as significant risk factors for CVD. In this study, we investigated the differences in aerobic fitness and physical activity between in- and outpatients with severe mental disorders. Method and subjectsFifty in- and outpatients from a regional psychiatric department were included. The patients filled in a questionnaire on physical activity and completed a clinical examination. An estimation of aerobic fitness was calculated for each patient, using gender, age, waist circumference, resting heart rate and physical activity level as variables.ResultsInpatients had lower estimated aerobic fitness than outpatients (VO₂peak 42 vs 50 mL•kg-1•min-1, p<0.001. Compared to population data matched for age and gender, inpatients had lower aerobic fitness, while outpatients were not different from the population average.ConclusionInpatients at a psychiatric department had lower estimated aerobic fitness than outpatients, and a lower aerobic fitness compared to the general population. Our findings suggest that inpatients with severe mental disorders should be considered a high risk group for CVD.

  10. Fermentation and aerobic stability of corn silage inoculated with Lactobacillus buchneri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Carvalho Basso

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of fermentation and aerobic stability were evaluated in corn silage inoculated with different doses of Lactobacillus buchneri. The whole corn plant (300 g/kg DM was ensiled in quadruplicate laboratory silos (7L. L. buchneri 40788 was applied at 5×10(4, 1×10(5, 5×10(5 and 1×10(6 cfu/g of fresh forage. Silages with no additive were used as controls. After 130 d of ensiling, the silages were subjected to an aerobic stability evaluation for 12 days, in which chemical and microbiological parameters as well as the temperature of the silage were measured to determine the aerobic deterioration. The addition of L. buchneri resulted in increased acetic acid concentrations. The number of yeast colonies was low in all treated silages. The pH, lactic and propionic acid concentrations did not differ between silages. Under aerobic conditions, all the treated silages showed a low number of yeasts and a great aerobic stability. Therefore, L. buchneri is effective against yeasts and improves the aerobic stability of corn silage in laboratory silos. However, doses equal or superior to 1×10(5 cfu/g of fresh forage were more efficient in the control of aerobic spoilage.

  11. Influence of different substrates on the formation and characteristics of aerobic granules in sequencing batch reactors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Fei-yun; YANG Cheng-yong; LI Jiu-yi; YANG Ya-jing

    2006-01-01

    The effects of different substrates on the aerobic granulation process were studied using laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactors (SBRs). Four parallel granules sequencing batch reactors (GSBR): R1, R2, R3, and R4 were fed with acetate, glucose, peptone and fecula, respectively. Stable aerobic granules were successfully cultivated in R1, R2, R4, and smaller granules less than 500 μm were formed in R3. Morphology and the physic-chemical characteristics of aerobic granules fed with different carbon substrates were investigated by the four reactors operated under the same pressure. The aerobic granules in the four reactors were observed and found that peptone was the most stable one due to its good settleability even after a sludge age as short as l0 d. A strong correlation was testified between the characteristics of aerobic granules and the properties of carbon substrates. The stability of aerobic granules was affected by extracellular polymer substances (EPS) derived from microorganism growth during feast time fed with different carbon substrates, and the influence of the property of storage substance was greater than that of its quantity. Optimal carbon substrates, which are helpful in the cultivation and retention of well-settling granules and in the enhancement of the overall ability of the aerobic granules reactors, were found.

  12. A global census of marine microbes

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Amaral-Zettler, L.; Artigas, L.F.; Baross, J.; LokaBharathi, P.A; Boetius, A; Chandramohan, D.; Herndl, G.; Kogure, K.; Neal, P.; Pedros-Alio, C.; Ramette, A; Schouten, S.; Stal, L.; Thessen, A; De Leeuw, J.; Sogin, M.

    In this chapter we provide a brief history of what is known about marine microbial diversity, summarize our achievements in performing a global census of marine microbes, and reflect on the questions and priorities for the future of the marine...

  13. Marine conservation strategies for Maharashtra Coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.; Dhargalkar, V.K.

    , Wildlife Sanctuaries, Marine Parks and Protected Areas. Detailed studies of 37 sites along the Maharashtra Coast, for their marine biota and also the ecological conditions, were taken up. Out of these, seven most luxuriant areas in marine biodiversity have...

  14. Is aerobic dance an effective alternative to walk-jog exercise training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garber, C E; McKinney, J S; Carleton, R A

    1992-06-01

    In order to compare the physiological effects of an 8 week aerobic dance program to those of a walk-jog exercise training program, 60 male and female University employees ages 24-48 years were randomly assigned to an aerobic dance program (N = 22), a walk-jog program (N = 24), or a sedentary control group (N = 15). Subjects who had an exercise compliance rate less than or equal to 85% were dropped from the study, as were control subjects who had scheduling conflicts or illnesses precluding post-treatment testing. Thirty-five subjects completed the 8 week period with a compliance rate greater than or equal to 85%, leaving 14 in the aerobics group, 11 in the walk-jog group and 10 in the control group. Significant increases (p less than 0.001) in maximal oxygen uptake occurred in both the aerobics (+3.9 ml/kg-1/min-1) and walk-jog group (+3.4 ml/kg-1/min-1), while no significant change was observed in the control group. Peak heart rate decreased significantly (p less than 0.05) in the aerobics (-4 b/min-1) and walk-jog groups (-3 b/min-1 but was unchanged in the control group (-1 b/min-1) following the treatment period. Body weight, peak respiratory exchange ratio and peak minute ventilation remained the same in the aerobics, walk-jog and control groups throughout the treatment period. It is concluded that aerobic dance programs can result in similar improvements in aerobic power as a walk-jog program. Thus, an aerobic dance program is an effective alternative to a traditional walk-jog training regime. PMID:1434581

  15. The influence of aerobic fitness status on ventilatory efficiency in patients with coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo M.L. Prado

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To test the hypotheses that 1 coronary artery disease patients with lower aerobic fitness exhibit a lower ventilatory efficiency and 2 coronary artery disease patients with lower initial aerobic fitness exhibit greater improvements in ventilatory efficiency with aerobic exercise training. METHOD: A total of 123 patients (61.0±0.7 years with coronary artery disease were divided according to aerobic fitness status into 3 groups: group 1 (n = 34, peak VO217.5 and 24.5 ml/kg/min. All patients performed a cardiorespiratory exercise test on a treadmill. Ventilatory efficiency was determined by the lowest VE/VCO2 ratio observed. The exercise training program comprised moderate-intensity aerobic exercise performed 3 times per week for 3 months. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02106533 RESULTS: Before intervention, group 1 exhibited both lower peak VO2 and lower ventilatory efficiency compared with the other 2 groups (p<0.05. After the exercise training program, group 1 exhibited greater improvements in aerobic fitness and ventilatory efficiency compared with the 2 other groups (group 1: ▵ = -2.5±0.5 units; group 2: ▵ = -0.8±0.3 units; and group 3: ▵ = -1.4±0.6 units, respectively; p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Coronary artery disease patients with lower aerobic fitness status exhibited lower ventilatory efficiency during a graded exercise test. In addition, after 3 months of aerobic exercise training, only the patients with initially lower levels of aerobic fitness exhibited greater improvements in ventilatory efficiency.

  16. Marine Ecotourism Development Analysis in South Sulawesi

    OpenAIRE

    Ambo Tuwo

    2010-01-01

    Land based development pt:ority tends to ignore marine resources development, especially marine ecotourism. The study analyzed marine ecotourism development prospect in South Sulawesi, Indonesia. The study was conducted in four districts, namely: Pangkep, Makassar, Takalar and Selayar. This study planned to analyze marine and coastal resources that could support the marine ecotourism development in South Sulawesi. Indonesia. Tic study aims to: (1) analyze comprehensively marine ecotourism dev...

  17. Analysis of the assessment of caloric expenditure in four modes of aerobic dance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rixon, Kendall P; Rehor, Peter R; Bemben, Michael G

    2006-08-01

    Aerobic dance has been purported to help with weight management; however, it is not known if various forms of dance are as effective as traditional modalities. This study estimated energy expenditure by heart rate for 28 women participating in 4 modes of aerobic dance (Bodycombat [i.e., TAEBO]; Pump; Step; and RPM [i.e., spinning]) compared to 2 running speeds. Pump had significantly (p heart rate assessment provided a quantitative method for estimating energy expenditure and the effectiveness of different aerobic programs. PMID:16937973

  18. Frequency and duration of interval training programs and changes in aerobic power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, E. L.; Bartels, R. L.; Obrien, R.; Bason, R.; Mathews, D. K.; Billings, C. E.

    1975-01-01

    The present study was designed to ascertain whether a training frequency of 2 days/wk for a 7- and 13-wk interval training program would produce improvement in maximal aerobic power comparable to that obtained from 7- and 13-wk programs of the same intensity consisting of 4 training days/wk. After training, there was a significant increase in maximal aerobic power that was independent of both training frequency and duration. Maximal heart rate was significantly decreased following training. Submaximal aerobic power did not change with training, but submaximal heart rate decreased significantly with greater decreases the more frequent and the longer the training.

  19. Aerobic training enhances muscle deoxygenation in early post-myocardial infarction

    OpenAIRE

    Takagi, Shun; Murase, Norio; Kime, Ryotaro; Niwayama, Masatsugu; Osada, Takuya; Katsumura, Toshihito

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Exercise-induced skeletal muscle deoxygenation is startling by its absence in early post-myocardial infarction (MI) patients. Exercise training early post-MI is associated with reduced cardiovascular risk and increased aerobic capacity. We therefore investigated whether aerobic training could enhance the muscle deoxygenation in early post-MI patients. Methods 21 ± 8 days after the first MI patients (n = 16) were divided into 12-week aerobic training (TR, n = 10) or non-training (CON, ...

  20. Impaired aerobic work capacity in insulin dependent diabetics with increased urinary albumin excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T; Richter, E A; Feldt-Rasmussen, B;

    1988-01-01

    To assess whether decreased aerobic work capacity was associated with albuminuria in insulin dependent diabetics aerobic capacity was measured in three groups of 10 patients matched for age, sex, duration of diabetes, and degree of physical activity. Group 1 comprised 10 patients with normal...... were not explained by differences in metabolic control or the degree of autonomic neuropathy. Thus the insulin dependent diabetics with only slightly increased urinary albumin excretion had an appreciably impaired aerobic work capacity which could not be explained by autonomic neuropathy or the...

  1. Health-improving possibilities of usage of aerobics in the senior classes of comprehensive school.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kravchuk T.N.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article is opened health-improving possibilities of use of aerobics at physical training lessons in the senior classes. The technique of carrying out of lessons of physical training in the senior classes with use of different kinds of aerobics is proved and developed, and also their influence on indicators of health of senior pupils is investigated. It is shown that employment by aerobics promotes considerable improvement of health of senior pupils, increase of mood, state of health and activity.

  2. Steady-state and transient-state analyses of aerobic fermentation in Saccharomyces kluyveri

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Kasper; Bro, Christoffer; Piskur, Jure;

    2002-01-01

    Some yeasts, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, produce ethanol at fully aerobic conditions, whereas other yeasts, such as Kluyveromyces lactis, do not. In this study we investigated the occurrence of aerobic alcoholic fermentation in the petite-negative yeast Saccharomyces kluyveri that is only...... distantly related to S. cerevisiae. In aerobic glucose-limited continuous cultures of S. kluyveri, two growth regimens were observed: at dilution rates below 0.5 h(-1) the metabolism was purely respiratory, and at dilution rates above 0.5 h-1 the metabolism was respiro-fermentative. The dilution rate at...

  3. Hydrolysis of particulate substrate by activated sludge under aerobic, anoxic and anaerobic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henze, Mogens; Mladenovski, C.

    1991-01-01

    An investigation of hydrolysis of particulate organic substrate by activated sludge has been made. Raw municipal wastewater was used as substrate. It was mixed with activated sludge from a high loaded activated sludge plant with pure oxygen aeration. During 4 days batch experiments under aerobic......, anoxic and anaerobic conditions, the hydrolysis was following through the production of ammonia. The hydrolysis rate of nitrogeneous compounds is significantly affected by the electron donor available. The rate is high under aerobic conditions, medium under anaerobic conditions and low under anoxic...... conditions. The ratio between the hydrolysis rates under aerobic and under anoxic conditions are very similar to the respiration rates measured as electron equivalents....

  4. Marine Biology and Human Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, F. S.

    1976-01-01

    Marine biology has become an important area for study throughout the world. The author of this article discusses some of the important discoveries and fields of research in marine biology that are useful for mankind. Topics include food from the sea, fish farming, pesticides, pollution, and conservation. (MA)

  5. NORTHERN PUGET SOUND MARINE MAMMALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A baseline study of the marine mammals of northern Puget Sound and the Strait of Juan de Fuca was undertaken from November 1977 to September 1979 emphasizing certain aspects of the biology of the harbor seal, which is the most abundant marine mammal in this area. The local abunda...

  6. Conservation physiology of marine fishes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christian; Peck, Myron A.; Antognarelli, Fabio;

    2012-01-01

    At the end of May, 17 scientists involved in an EU COST Action on Conservation Physiology of Marine Fishes met in Oristano, Sardinia, to discuss how physiology can be better used in modelling tools to aid in management of marine ecosystems. Current modelling approaches incorporate physiology to...

  7. Metatranscriptomic and functional metagenomic analysis of methylphosphonate utilization by marine bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asuncion eMartinez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Aerobic degradation of methylphosphonate (MPn by marine bacterioplankton has been hypothesized to contribute significantly to the ocean’s methane supersaturation, yet little is known about MPn utilization by marine microbes. To identify the microbial taxa and metabolic functions associated with MPn-driven methane production we performed parallel metagenomic, metatranscriptomic, and functional screening of microcosm perturbation experiments using surface water collected in North Pacific Subtropical Gyre. In nutrient amended microcosms containing MPn, a substrate-driven microbial succession occurred. Initially, the addition of glucose and nitrate resulted in a bloom of Vibrionales and a transcriptional profile dominated by glucose-specific PTS transport and polyhydroxyalkanoate biosynthesis. Transcripts associated with phosphorus (P acquisition were also overrepresented and suggested that the addition of glucose and nitrate had driven the community to P depletion. At this point, a second community shift occurred characterized by the increase in C-P lyase containing microbes of the Vibrionales and Rhodobacterales orders. Transcripts associated with C-P lyase components were among the most highly expressed at the community level, and only C-P lyase clusters were recovered in a functional screen for MPn utilization, consistent with this pathway being responsible for the majority, if not all the methane accumulation we observed. Our results identify specific bacterioplankton taxa that can utilize MPn aerobically under conditions of P limitation using the C-P lyase pathway, and thereby elicit a significant increase in the dissolved methane concentration.

  8. Biogeochemical implications of the ubiquitous colonization of marine habitats and redox gradients by Marinobacter species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Marie Handley

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Marinobacter genus comprises widespread marine bacteria, found in localities as diverse as the deep ocean, coastal seawater and sediment, hydrothermal settings, oceanic basalt, sea-ice, sand, solar salterns, and oil fields. Terrestrial sources include saline soil and wine-barrel-decalcification wastewater. The genus was designated in 1992 for the Gram-negative, hydrocarbon-degrading bacterium Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus. Since then, a further 31 type strains have been designated. Nonetheless, the metabolic range of many Marinobacter species remains largely unexplored. Most species have been classified as aerobic heterotrophs, and assessed for limited anaerobic pathways (fermentation or nitrate reduction, whereas studies of low-temperature hydrothermal sediments, basalt at oceanic spreading centers, and phytoplankton have identified species that possess a respiratory repertoire with significant biogeochemical implications. Notable physiological traits include nitrate-dependent Fe(II-oxidation, arsenic and fumarate redox cycling, and Mn(II oxidation. There is also evidence for Fe(III reduction, and metal(loid resistance. Considering the ubiquity and metabolic capabilities of the genus, Marinobacter species may perform an important and underestimated role in the biogeochemical cycling of organics and metals in varied marine habitats, and spanning aerobic-to-anoxic redox gradients.

  9. In situ quantification of mitochondrial respiration in permeabilized fibers of a marine invertebrate with low aerobic capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichaud, Nicolas; Rioux, Pierre; Blier, Pierre U

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to design a protocol to allow the assessment of normal and alternative pathways for electron transport in mitochondria using an in situ approach (on permeabilized fibers) in high-resolution respirometry. We measured the oxygen consumption of permeabilized fibers from Nereis (Neanthes) virens with different substrates and the presence of ADP. To estimate the alternative oxidase (AOX) activity, antimycin A was introduced in order to inhibit complex III. Moreover, the apparent complex IV (COX) excess capacity was evaluated using different substrates to assess the implication of this complex in the partitioning of electrons during its progressive inhibition. Our in situ method enabled to quantify the activity of the normal COX pathway as well as the AOX pathway when different substrates were oxidized by either complex I, complex II or both. Using this approach, we confirmed that according to the substrates used, each pathway has a different role and consequently is otherwise involved in the partitioning of electrons through the electron transport system, and suggested that the AOX activity is triggered not only by the redox state of the cell but also by the type of substrates provided to mitochondria. PMID:22244894

  10. Influence of selected environmental factors on the abundance of aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs in peat-bog lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, Sylwia; Lew, Marcin; Koblížek, Michal

    2016-07-01

    Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs (AAPs) are photoheterotrophic prokaryotes that are widespread in many limnic and marine environments. So far, little is known about their distribution in peat-bog lakes. Seventeen peat-bog lakes were sampled during three summer seasons 2009, 2011, and 2012, and the vertical distribution of AAPs was determined by infrared epifluorescence microscopy. The analysis demonstrated that in the surface layers of the studied lakes, AAP abundance ranged from 0.3 to 12.04 × 10(5) cells mL(-1), which represents water column with minimum numbers in the anoxic bottom waters. We have shown that the AAP abundance was significantly positively correlated with the water pH, and the highest proportion of photoheterotrophs was found in peat-bog lakes with a pH between 6.7 and 7.6. Our results demonstrated an influence of water acidity on the abundance of AAPs, which may reflect a fundamental difference in the microbial composition between acidic and pH neutral peat-bog lakes. PMID:27032635

  11. Marine spatial planning in Cyprus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjimitsis, Diofantos; Agapiou, Athos; Mettas, Christodoulos; Themistocleous, Kyriacos; Evagorou, Evagoras; Cuca, Branka; Papoutsa, Christiana; Nisantzi, Argyro; Mamouri, Rodanthi-Elisavet; Soulis, George; Xagoraris, Zafiris; Lysandrou, Vasiliki; Aliouris, Kyriacos; Ioannou, Nicolas; Pavlogeorgatos, Gerasimos

    2015-06-01

    Marine Spatial Planning (MSP), which is in concept similar to land-use planning, is a public process by which the relevant Member State's authorities analyse and organise human activities in marine areas to achieve ecological, economic and social objectives. MSP aims to promote sustainable growth of maritime economies, sustainable development of marine areas and sustainable use of marine resources. This paper highlights the importance of MSP and provides basic outcomes of the main European marine development. The already successful MSP plans can provide useful feedback and guidelines for other countries that are in the process of implementation of an integrated MSP, such as Cyprus. This paper presents part of the MSP project, of which 80% funded by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) and 20% from national contribution. An overview of the project is presented, including data acquisition, methodology and preliminary results for the implementation of MSP in Cyprus.

  12. Marine Casualty and Pollution Data for Researchers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Marine Casualty and Pollution Data files provide details about marine casualty and pollution incidents investigated by Coast Guard Offices throughout the United...

  13. Aerobic Granulation in Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR Treating Saline Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ensieh Taheri

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Background and Objectives: Aerobic sludge granulation is an advanced phenomenonin which its mechanisms have not been understood. Granulation can be a promising and novel biological wastewater treatment technology to eliminate organic and inorganic materials in future. High salinity is a parameter which leads to plasmolisatian and reduction of the cell activity. This could be a problem for biological treatment of the saline wastewater. Aerobic granule was formed and investigated during this study. Materials and Methods: This study is an intervention study on the treatment of wastewater with 500-10000 mg/L concentration of NaCl by sequencing batch reactor. Asynthesized wastewater including nutrient required for microorganism's growth was prepared. Input and output pH and EC were measured. Range of pH and DO varied between 7-8, and 2-5 mg/L, respectively. SEM technology was used to identify graduals properties.Results: In terms of color, granules divided into two groups of light brown and black. Granule ranged in 3-7mm with the sediment velocity of 0.9-1.35 m/s and density of 32-60 g/L.Properties of granules were varied. Filamentous bacteria and fungi were dominant in some granules. However non filamentous bacteria were dominant in others. EDX analysis indicated the presence of Ca and PO4.Conclusion: Granules with non filamentous bacterial were compact and settled faster. Presence of different concentrations of salinity leaded to plasmolysis of the bacterial cells and increased concentrations of EPS  in the system as a result  of which granulation accelerated. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso

  14. Exploiting Aerobic Fitness to Reduce Risk of Hypobaric Decompression Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conkin, J.; Gernhardt, M. L.; Wessel, J. H.

    2007-01-01

    Decompression sickness (DCS) is multivariable. But we hypothesize an aerobically fit person is less likely to experience hypobaric DCS than an unfit person given that fitness is exploited as part of the denitrogenation (prebreathe, PB) process prior to an altitude exposure. Aerobic fitness is peak oxygen uptake (VO2pk, ml/kg/min). Treadmill or cycle protocols were used over 15 years to determine VO2pks. We evaluated dichotomous DCS outcome and venous gas emboli (VGE) outcome detected in the pulmonary artery with Doppler ultrasound associated with VO2pk for two classes of experiments: 1) those with no PB or PB under resting conditions prior to ascent in an altitude chamber, and 2) PB that included exercise for some part of the PB. There were 165 exposures (mean VO2pk 40.5 plus or minus 7.6 SD) with 25 cases of DCS in the first protocol class and 172 exposures (mean VO2pk 41.4 plus or minus 7.2 SD) with 25 cases of DCS in the second. Similar incidence of the DCS (15.2% vs. 14.5%) and VGE (45.5% vs. 44.8%) between the two classes indicates that decompression stress was similar. The strength of association between outcome and VO2pk was evaluated using univariate logistic regression. An inverse relationship between the DCS outcome and VO2pk was evident, but the relationship was strongest when exercise was done as part of the PB (exercise PB, coef. = -0.058, p = 0.07; rest or no PB, coef. = -0.005, p = 0.86). There was no relationship between VGE outcome and VO2pk (exercise PB, coef. = -0.003, p = 0.89; rest or no PB, coef. = 0.014, p = 0.50). A significant change in probability of DCS was associated with fitness only when exercise was included in the denitrogenation process. We believe a fit person that exercises during PB efficiently eliminates dissolved nitrogen from tissues.

  15. Potential Impacts of PCBs on Sediment Microbiomes in a Tropical Marine Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James S. Klaus

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Within the tropical marine study site of Guánica Bay, Puerto Rico, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are subjected to coastal and oceanic currents coupled with marine microbial and geochemical processes. To evaluate these processes a hydrodynamic model was developed to simulate the transport of PCBs within nearshore and offshore marine areas of Guánica Bay. Material transport and circulation information from the model were matched with measurements from samples collected from within the bay. These samples, consisting of both intertidal and submerged sediments, were analyzed for physical characteristics (organic carbon, grain size, and mineralogy, microbial characteristics (target bacteria levels and microbial community analyses, presence of PCBs, and PCB-degrading enzymes. Results show that the bay geometry and bathymetry limit the mixing of the extremely high levels of PCBs observed in the eastern portion of the bay. Bay bottom sediments showed the highest levels of PCBs and these sediments were characterized by high organic carbon content and finer grain size. Detectable levels of PCBs were also observed within sediments found along the shore. Microbes from the bay bottom sediments showed a greater relative abundance of microbes from the Chloroflexi, phylum with close phylogenetic associations with known anaerobic PCB-degrading organisms. Based on quantitative PCR measurement of the biphenyl dioxygenase gene, the intertidal sediments showed the greatest potential for aerobic PCB degradation. These results elucidate particular mechanisms of PCB’s fate and transport in coastal, tropical marine environments.

  16. Taxonomic and functional microbial signatures of the endemic marine sponge Arenosclera brasiliensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaro E Trindade-Silva

    Full Text Available The endemic marine sponge Arenosclera brasiliensis (Porifera, Demospongiae, Haplosclerida is a known source of secondary metabolites such as arenosclerins A-C. In the present study, we established the composition of the A. brasiliensis microbiome and the metabolic pathways associated with this community. We used 454 shotgun pyrosequencing to generate approximately 640,000 high-quality sponge-derived sequences (∼150 Mb. Clustering analysis including sponge, seawater and twenty-three other metagenomes derived from marine animal microbiomes shows that A. brasiliensis contains a specific microbiome. Fourteen bacterial phyla (including Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Cloroflexi were consistently found in the A. brasiliensis metagenomes. The A. brasiliensis microbiome is enriched for Betaproteobacteria (e.g., Burkholderia and Gammaproteobacteria (e.g., Pseudomonas and Alteromonas compared with the surrounding planktonic microbial communities. Functional analysis based on Rapid Annotation using Subsystem Technology (RAST indicated that the A. brasiliensis microbiome is enriched for sequences associated with membrane transport and one-carbon metabolism. In addition, there was an overrepresentation of sequences associated with aerobic and anaerobic metabolism as well as the synthesis and degradation of secondary metabolites. This study represents the first analysis of sponge-associated microbial communities via shotgun pyrosequencing, a strategy commonly applied in similar analyses in other marine invertebrate hosts, such as corals and algae. We demonstrate that A. brasiliensis has a unique microbiome that is distinct from that of the surrounding planktonic microbes and from other marine organisms, indicating a species-specific microbiome.

  17. iMarine - iMarine Data Management Software

    OpenAIRE

    Coro, Gianpaolo; Lelii, Lucio; Manzi, Andrea; Drakopoulos, Nikolaos; Marioli, Valentina; Cirillo, Roberto; Simeoni, Fabio; Antoniadis, Alexandros; Brito, Fabrice; Caumont, Herve

    2014-01-01

    The iMarine Data Management Software comprises a number of components and subsystems offering facilities for accessing, transferring and harmonising a rich array of data typologies. This document describes the novelties within the iMarine Data Management Software from M12 (Oct.'12) to M27 (Jan.'14). It complements D9.2 [10] which describes iMarine Data Management Software up to M11 (Sept.'12). This deliverable is intended for documentation purposes only. The actual deliverable is represented ...

  18. iMarine - iMarine Data Management Software

    OpenAIRE

    Coro, Gianpaolo; De Faveri, Federico; Lelii, Lucio; Manzi, Andrea; Drakopoulos, Nikolaos; Marioli, Valentina; Simeoni, Fabio; Antoniadis, Alexandros

    2012-01-01

    The iMarine Data Management Software comprises a number of components and subsystems offering facilities for accessing, transferring and harmonising a rich array of data typologies. This document describes the novelties within the iMarine Data Management Software from M7 (May.'12) to M11 (Sept.'12). It complements D9.1 [10] which describes iMarine Data Management Software up to M6 (Apr.'12). This deliverable is intended for documentation purposes only. The actual deliverable is represented by...

  19. Marine radioecology. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of the EKO-1 project for the period 1994-1997 are summarised in this report. The aim of the project was to make a joint Nordic study on radionuclides in sediment and water and the interaction between these two phases. Relatively less emphasis has been put on this factor compared to others in previous Nordic studies on marine radioecology. For some of the participating countries this work was the first of its kind undertaken. The project work involved field, laboratory and model studies. Results of the study have appeared in various scientific journal and it has formed the bases for two Ph.D. theses and two M.Sc. theses. (au)

  20. On China's Marine Safety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xianglin

    2010-01-01

    @@ The rising incidence of Somalian and Malaccan piracy has sounded an alarm bell for countries around the world.In order to ensure the safety of global shipping lanes,at least in the short term,it is necessary for countries to unite to combat these pirates.However,dealing with pirate activities is not easy.All countries know that competition for maritime rights and interests between various international powers lay behind the piracy.As a major developing country,China should understand the Somalian and Malaccan piracy from a national security perspective,while at the same time combating piracy and safeguarding world peace.In order to protect China's legitimate maritime rights,we should enact a long-term strategy for marine safety.By so doing,national security,as well as the uninterrupted use of the international sea lanes can be guaranteed.

  1. OCEANOGRAPHY & MARINE GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>20102130 A.M.Gorodnitskiy(Shirshov Institute of Oceanology,Moscow);A.M.Filin Southern Barents Sea Anomalous Magnetic Field and Its Correlation with Bottom Geological Structure(Earth Science Frontiers,ISSN1005-2321,CN11-3370/P,16(6),2009,p.240-247,12 illus.,10 refs.)Key words:magnetic anomaly,submarine fracture zones,Barents Sea The results of data processing of marine magnetic surveys in a southern part of Barents Sea,executed from 1986 to 2001 are considered.The geomagnetic investigation of Southern Barents Sea bottom points on its complicated many-stage geologic-tectonic structures in which two disjunctive structures prevail:Riphean-Vendian inherited rift structures with north-west s

  2. Why marine phytoplankton calcify.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Fanny M; Bach, Lennart T; Brownlee, Colin; Bown, Paul; Rickaby, Rosalind E M; Poulton, Alex J; Tyrrell, Toby; Beaufort, Luc; Dutkiewicz, Stephanie; Gibbs, Samantha; Gutowska, Magdalena A; Lee, Renee; Riebesell, Ulf; Young, Jeremy; Ridgwell, Andy

    2016-07-01

    Calcifying marine phytoplankton-coccolithophores- are some of the most successful yet enigmatic organisms in the ocean and are at risk from global change. To better understand how they will be affected, we need to know "why" coccolithophores calcify. We review coccolithophorid evolutionary history and cell biology as well as insights from recent experiments to provide a critical assessment of the costs and benefits of calcification. We conclude that calcification has high energy demands and that coccolithophores might have calcified initially to reduce grazing pressure but that additional benefits such as protection from photodamage and viral/bacterial attack further explain their high diversity and broad spectrum ecology. The cost-benefit aspect of these traits is illustrated by novel ecosystem modeling, although conclusive observations remain limited. In the future ocean, the trade-off between changing ecological and physiological costs of calcification and their benefits will ultimately decide how this important group is affected by ocean acidification and global warming. PMID:27453937

  3. MERCHANT MARINE SHIP REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumm, J.F.; North, D.C. Jr.; Rock, H.R.; Geston, D.K.

    1961-05-01

    A nuclear reactor is described for use in a merchant marine ship. The reactor is of pressurized light water cooled and moderated design in which three passes of the water through the core in successive regions of low, intermediate, and high heat generation and downflow in a fuel region are made. The foregoing design makes a compact reactor construction with extended core life. The core has an egg-crate lattice containing the fuel elements confined between a lower flow baffle and upper grid plate, with the latter serving also as part of a turn- around manifold from which the entire coolant is distributed into the outer fuel elements for the second pass through the core. The inner fuel elements are cooled in the third pass.

  4. Enhancement of aerobic granulation by zero-valent iron in sequencing batch airlift reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Qiang; Ngo, Huu Hao; Shu, Li; Fu, Rong-Shu; Jiang, Chun-Hui; Miao, Ming-sheng

    2014-08-30

    This study elucidates the enhancement of aerobic granulation by zero-valent iron (ZVI). A reactor augmented with ZVI had a start-up time of aerobic granulation (43 days) that was notably less than that for a reactor without augmentation (64 days). The former reactor also had better removal efficiencies for chemical oxygen demand and ammonium. Moreover, the mature granules augmented with ZVI had better physical characteristics and produced more extracellular polymeric substances (especially of protein). Three-dimensional-excitation emission matrix fluorescence showed that ZVI enhanced organic material diversity. Additionally, ZVI enhanced the diversity of the microbial community. Fe(2+) dissolution from ZVI helped reduce the start-up time of aerobic granulation and increased the extracellular polymeric substance content. Conclusively, the use of ZVI effectively enhanced aerobic granulation. PMID:25108827

  5. Sustainable polysaccharide-based biomaterial recovered from waste aerobic granular sludge as a surface coating material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Y.M.; Nierop, K.G.J.; Girbal-Neuhauser, E.; Adriaanse, M.; Van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the possibility of utilizing polysaccharide-based biomaterial recovered from aerobic granular sludge as a coating material, the morphology, molecular weight distribution and chemical composition of the recovered biomaterial were investigated by atomic force microscopy, size exclusion chr

  6. Aerobic bacterial catabolism of persistent organic pollutants - potential impact of biotic and abiotic interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jong-Rok; Murugesan, Kumarasamy; Baldrian, Petr; Schmidt, Stefan; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2016-04-01

    Several aerobic bacteria possess unique catabolic pathways enabling them to degrade persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs), polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The catabolic activity of aerobic bacteria employed for removal of POPs in the environment may be modulated by several biotic (i.e. fungi, plants, algae, earthworms, and other bacteria) and abiotic (i.e. zero-valent iron, advanced oxidation, and electricity) agents. This review describes the basic biochemistry of the aerobic bacterial catabolism of selected POPs and discusses how biotic and abiotic agents enhance or inhibit the process. Solutions allowing biotic and abiotic agents to exert physical and chemical assistance to aerobic bacterial catabolism of POPs are also discussed. PMID:26851837

  7. Aerobic fitness in children and young adults with primary ciliary dyskinesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Astrid Hellerup; Green, Kent; Buchvald, Frederik;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although aerobic fitness is regarded as an overall prognostic measure of morbidity and mortality, its evaluation in the chronic progressive sinopulmonary disease primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) has been infrequently and inconsistently reported. Here we assessed peak oxygen uptake (VO...

  8. The influence of preliminary aerobic treatment on the efficacy of waste stabilisation under leachate recirculation conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Suchowska-Kisielewicz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the changes in the chemical composition of leachate and the concentrations and quantity of methane production in each individual decomposition phases, determined for untreated and after aerobic treatment of waste stabilised in anaerobic reactors with and without leachate recirculation. The research results demonstrate that leachate recirculation intensifies the decomposition of both aerobically treated and untreated waste. The methane production in the reactor with untreated, stabilised waste with recirculation was 28% higher; and in the reactor with aerobically treated waste, the methane production was 24% higher than in the reactors without recirculation. An important finding of the study is that aerobic treatment of waste prior to landfilling effectively reduces the quantity of pollutant emissions in leachate and biogas from waste and increases the availability for methane micro-organisms of organic substrates from difficult-to-decompose organic substances.

  9. Lightweight and Compace Multifunction Computer-Controlled Strength and Aerobic Training Device Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TDA Research proposes to develop a computer-controlled lightweight and compact device for aerobic and resistive training (DART) to counteract muscular atrophy and...

  10. Inhibition of mitomycin C's aerobic toxicity by the seleno-organic antioxidant PZ-51.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, D L; Pritsos, C A

    1991-01-01

    Mitomycin C (MMC) is a bioreductive alkylating agent that is capable of generating oxygen radicals. Porfiromycin (PM) is an analog to MMC that generates oxygen radicals at a significantly lower level than the parent compound. Under aerobic conditions, the toxicity of MMC to EMT6 cells is 2.5-fold that of PM, whereas hypoxically the two are equitoxic. In the present studies, the protective effect of PZ-51 in combination with NAC was assessed against the dose-dependent toxicity of either MMC or PM under both aerobic and hypoxic conditions. Aerobically, the PZ-51 and NAC combination inhibited the toxicity of MMC at concentrations of between 0.25 and 2 microM but had no effect on PM toxicity. Under hypoxic conditions, the PZ-51 and NAC combination had no effect on either MMC or PM toxicity. These findings support a role for oxygen radical generation in the aerobic toxicity of MMC at clinically relevant doses. PMID:1906786

  11. Effects of acute physical exercise on executive functions: a comparison between aerobic and strength exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Christiano Rodrigues; Gualano, Bruno; Takao, Pollyana Pereira; Avakian, Paula; Fernandes, Rafael Mistura; Morine, Diego; Takito, Monica Yuri

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of acute aerobic and strength exercises on selected executive functions. A counterbalanced, crossover, randomized trial was performed. Forty-two healthy women were randomly submitted to three different conditions: (1) aerobic exercise, (2) strength exercise, and (3) control condition. Before and after each condition, executive functions were measured by the Stroop Test and the Trail Making Test. Following the aerobic and strength sessions, the time to complete the Stroop "non-color word" and "color word" condition was lower when compared with that of the control session. The performance in the Trail Making Test was unchanged. In conclusion, both acute aerobic and strength exercises improve the executive functions. Nevertheless, this positive effect seems to be task and executive function dependent. PMID:22889693

  12. Aerobic fitness in adolescents in southern Brazil: Association with sociodemographic aspects, lifestyle and nutritional status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.A.S. Silva

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: Thus, it was concluded that almost all adolescents show low aerobic fitness levels, which makes necessary effective interventions in the school environment with the promotion of sports and regular practice of physical activity.

  13. Role of aerobic glycolysis in genetically engineered mouse models of cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dang Chi V

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The propensity of cancer cells to convert high levels of glucose to lactate through aerobic glycolysis has been intensively studied in vitro, and is now understood to be a metabolic adaptation that shunts glucose carbons toward building blocks for the growing cell, as well as producing ATP. Much less is known, however, about the role of aerobic glycolysis and glycolytic enzymes in vivo. A paper in Cancer and Metabolism now documents aerobic glycolysis in the proliferating neural progenitors that form the cerebellum in normal newborn mice, as well as in medulloblastoma tumors derived from these cells in transgenic mice. Hexokinase II is demonstrated to be an essential driver of the observed aerobic glycolysis and the malignancy of the tumors. See research article: http://www.cancerandmetabolism.com/content/1/1/2

  14. Improving aerobic stability and biogas production of maize silage using silage additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Christiane; Idler, Christine; Heiermann, Monika

    2015-12-01

    The effects of air stress during storage, exposure to air at feed-out, and treatment with silage additives to enhance aerobic stability on methane production from maize silage were investigated at laboratory scale. Up to 17% of the methane potential of maize without additive was lost during seven days exposure to air on feed-out. Air stress during storage reduced aerobic stability and further increased methane losses. A chemical additive containing salts of benzoate and propionate, and inoculants containing heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria were effective to increase aerobic stability and resulted in up to 29% higher methane yields after exposure to air. Exclusion of air to the best possible extent and high aerobic stabilities should be primary objectives when ensiling biogas feedstocks. PMID:26348286

  15. Physical health of young and middle age women under influence of step-aerobics exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masliak I.P.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine the degree of step-aerobics exercises’ influence on 20-35 years age women’s health. Material: in the research 28 women of 20-35 years old age participated. Anthropometric indicators, heart beats rate in rest and after load (20 squats for 30 sec., blood pressure, vital capacity of lungs, hand dynamometry were registered. Results: level of physical health has been determined; influence of step-aerobics on women’s health has been found; age differences in the tested indicators have been analyzed. It was found out that step-aerobic trainings influence greatly on the following indicators: body mass, circumferential sizes and cardio vascular system; on functioning of respiratory system, strength of hand’s flexors and regulation of 31-35 years age women’s cardio-vascular system. Conclusions: application of step-aerobic exercises positively influenced on health of 20-35 years old women.

  16. WATER AEROBICS AS NON-TRADITIONAL MEANS OF OPTIMIZATION PHYSICAL EDUCATION UNIVERSITY STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Scherbakova, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Describes the problem of students on the basis of use of innovative means of physical education. The theoretical and methodological aspects of the implementation of water aerobics within the educational process of the physical culture at the University.

  17. Reductive dechlorination of trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene under aerobic conditions in a sediment column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigated the bioremediation of chlorinated solvents in a sediment column. Biodegradation potentials of trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene during aerobic methanotrophic biostimulation were studied at the Savannah River Site. 30 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  18. Aerobics health as means of increasing somatic health of students of special medical group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pivneva M.M.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We prove the feasibility of employment by improving aerobic low intensity (LowImpact - heart rate in the range 128-140 beats / min, or 60-74% of HR max with students of special medical groups with disabilities cardiovascular system. The choice of three varieties of improving aerobics - classical, dance, tap dance - and with the help of laboratory experiment investigated the specificity of their effects on the physical health of students. According to the results of laboratory studies developed two versions of the author's method of application for improving aerobic physical education classes with students with disabilities but cardiac-vascular system, the main difference between them lies in the relationship and the manner of the classical sequence of exercises, dance, step aerobics. By comparing the results of educational experiments proved that both variants techniques contribute significantly improved key indicators of physical health subjects and thus are fairly equal in the nature of exposure.

  19. Cardiorespiratory fitness of asthmatic children and validation of predicted aerobic capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lochte, Lene; Angermann, Marie; Larsson, Benny

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Predicted aerobic capacity (PAC) was estimated by submaximal exercise test and compared with monitored aerobic capacity (MAC) measured by laboratory conditions [maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2peak))] in 18 children and adolescents, 10 asthmatics and 8 matched controls. Objectives: To...... compare aerobic capacity between asthmatic children and controls, to estimate the agreement between PAC and MAC and observe for trend of PAC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The design was prospective, 4 years (PAC) and cross-sectional (MAC and VO(2peak)). Non-parametric Wilcoxon rank sums were applied for......). Physical activity level and subjective health showed no differences between groups, or level and categories, respectively. CONCLUSION: The asthmatic participants presented with lower aerobic capacity than controls in both PAC and MAC; therefore, results confirmed the validity of the PAC method. Data...

  20. Effect of aerobic exercise on Pancreas Beta-cells function in adult obese males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Eizadi

    2014-08-01

    Conclusion: Aerobic exercise training increases beta cells function and decreases FBS in obese men. These findings support the hypothesis that regular physical activity postpones the occurrence of type 2 diabetes in adult obese subjects.