WorldWideScience

Sample records for aerobic reactions abbau

  1. Degradation of organic pollutants in sewage sludge by aerobic-thermophilic sludge treatment. Final report; Abbau organischer Schadstoffe im Klaerschlamm durch aerob-thermophile Schlammbehandlung. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prechtl, S.

    1999-07-01

    Klaerschlamm. Im organischen Anteil des Klaerschlammfeststoffes sind bis heute ueber 300 verschiedene organische Spurenstoffe nachgewiesen worden. Neben den in der Klaerschlammverordnung erfassten Stoffgruppen (Dioxine/Furane und PCB) sind weitere Stoffgruppen als relevant eingestuft worden. Um die in diesem Bereich z.T. noch unzureichende Datenlage zu erweitern wurde im Forschungsvorhaben die Moeglichkeit untersucht, durch eine aerob-thermophile Schlammbehandlung (ATS) eine Verbesserung der Klaerschlammqualitaet, bei der Stoffgruppe der Phthalate (Di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalat), den polyzklischen aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen (PAK) und beim 4-Nonylphenol (Abbauprodukt von nichtionischen Tensiden), zu erreichen. Zur Beurteilung der Abbaueffektivitaet aus der komplexen Matrix Klaerschlamm bildete die Schadstoffanalytik mittels HPLC und GC/MS einen Schwerpunkt des Vorhabens. Der Gehalt an Di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalat (DEHP) und 4-Nonylphenol (4-NP) konnte in Laborversuchen mit dotierten Schlaemmen um 70% bzw. 50% und in undotierten Schlaemmen um 61% bzw. 53% reduziert werden. Bei halbtechnischen Versuchen lag die Reduktion fuer DEHP bei 14% und fuer 4-NP bei 68%. Fuer Pyren liess sich in Laborversuchen ein Abbau bis zu 57% erreichen, im Vergleich zu halbtechnischen Untersuchungen mit 22% Abbau. Die Ergebnisse erster grundlegender Untersuchungen zu einer Verfahrenskombination aus verkuerzter Faulstufe und ATS-Folgestufe zeigten fuer DEHP eine Reduktion von ca. 60%. Der Gehalt an einzelnen PAK konnten bis Anthracen reduziert werden. Fuer hoeherkondensierte PAK (Grundbelastung im ppb-Bereich) ergab sich keine einheitliche Aussage. Ein Abbau von 4-NP wurde bei den Versuchen zur Verfahrenskombination durch die Neubildung von 4-NP aus Alkylphenolethoxylaten unter anaeroben und aeroben Bedingungen ueberdeckt. Die erhaltenen Untersuchungsergebnisse bestaetigen die Korrelation zwischen einer Hygienisierung des Klaerschlamms und der entsprechenden Verweilzeit im Reaktorsystem. Sowohl in der

  2. Microbial degradation of chloro- and methylphenol mixtures under aerobic and denitrifying conditions. Regulation and interaction in a mixed culture; Mikrobieller Abbau von Chlor- und Methylphenolen im Gemisch unter aeroben und denitrifizierenden Bedingungen. Regulation und Interaktion in einer Mischkultur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollender, J.

    1994-12-31

    The mechanism and the regulation of the microbial aerobic degradation of chloro- and methylphenol mixtures were investigated by comparing the mixed culture enriched of these phenolic compounds with the isolated pure cultures. The degradation assays and the characterization of the central degrading enzymes involved show that the degradation potential of the mixed culture was essentially determined by the additive abilities of the three pure cultures Alcaligenes xylosoxidans subspecies denitrificans JH1, Pseudomonas stutzeri JH3 and Comamonas testosteroni JH5. Degradation of some substrate mixtures and avoidance of enrichment of metabolites can only be explained by the interaction of the pure cultures or the participation of other organisms in the mixed culture which were not further investigated. (orig.) [Deutsch] Bei den Untersuchungen zum Mechanismus und der Regulation des aeroben Abbaus von Chlor- und Methylphenolen im Gemisch stand der Vergleich zwischen der auf diesen Phenolen angereicherten Mischkultur und den daraus isolierten Reinkulturen im Vordergrund. Die Abbauversuche und die Charakterisierung der am Metabolismus beteiligten zentralen Enzyme zeigen, dass fuer das Abbaupotential der Mischkultur im wesentlichen die additiven Abbauleistungen der drei Reinkulturen Alcaligenes xylosoxidans subspecies dentrificans JH1, Pseudomonas stutzeri JH3 und Comamonas testosteroni JH5 verantwortlich sind. Der Abbau einiger Substratmischungen und die Vermeidung einer Anreicherung von Metaboliten in der Mischkultur sind jedoch nur durch eine Interaktion der Reinkulturen oder durch eine Beteiligung anderer nicht naeher untersuchter Organismen in der Mischkultur zu erklaeren. (orig.)

  3. Stimulating kinetic of aerobic reactions skilled athlete in sport dance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Bo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Changes speed of development of reaction of frequency of heart-throbs are appraised under act of the program of trainings facilities. Directions stimulation of the cardiorespiratory system of sportsmen are rotined. In research took part 2 homogeneous groups of sportsmen for 12 sportsmen (6 pair. It is set that the high-rate of development of reactions of aerobic power providing reflects reactive properties of the cardiorespiratory system and influences on efficiency of functional preparation on the whole. Possibilities of estimation of reactive properties of the cardiorespiratory system are rotined in the natural terms of training process.

  4. Degradation of phenols by microorganisms. Abbau von Phenolen durch Mikroorganismen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klapp, K.U.; Wachtendonk, D. von (Lebensmittel- und chemisches Untersuchungsamt Aachen (Germany))

    1994-11-01

    Aerobic degradation of phenols is via oxidations, dealkylation and hydrolysis. These reactions are catalysed by enzymes. Upon completion of the reactions and elimation of eventual nitro, amino or sulfate acid residues, protocatechuate, catechol and gentisic acid remain as main intermediate products. There then follows ring splitting, which may take the form of a meta or para splitting. The end products are acetaldehyde, pyruvate, 3-oxo-adipate and fumarate, which are transferred into the citrate cycle. Protocatechuate is hard to analyse because of its reactivity. Searching for a phenol-metabolizing micro-organisms, Pseudomonas putida was insolated following a short adaptation time. Exotoxicity for Pseudomonads is at 350 mg/l phenol, but under optimized conditions it may be higher. (orig./EF)

  5. Formation of meso, N-diphenylprotoporphyrin IX by an aerobic reaction of phenylhydrazine with oxyhemoglobins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakanishi A

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Administration of phenylhydrazine to rabbits resulted in the denaturation of hemoglobins in erythrocytes, causing the formation of intracellular precipitates known as Heinz bodies, severe hemolytic anemia, and reticulocytosis. To elucidate the molecular mechanism of the destabilization, we allowed human oxyhemoglobins to react aerobically with phenylhydrazine. After treatment with acetic acid/HCl and H2SO4/methanol, the chloroform extract contained blue-green pigments of major products accompanied by different minor products. Each product was isolated by column chromatography. By fast-atom-bombardment mass spectrometry (FAB-MS and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR spectrometry, dimethyl esters of N-phenylprotoporphyrin IX and meso, N-diphenylprotoporphyrin IX were determined. Other major products also were determined to be dimethyl esters of triphenyl-and tetraphenyl-substituted protoporphyrins by FAB-MS. The formation of meso, N-diphenylprotoporphyrin indicated that the addition of a phenyl radical to the meso-carbon atom of the protoporphyrin ring occurred. Triphenyl and tetraphenyl adducts also indicated the formation of phenyl radicals in the aerobic reaction of phenylhydrazine with oxyhemoglobins. From these results, we suggest that the formation of phenyl radicals and the replacement of heme with phenyl-substituted protoporphyrins cause the destabilization of hemoglobins to induce Heinz bodies and hemolytic anemia with phenylhydrazine.

  6. The Pd(0) nanoparticles stabilized by collagen fibres as a recyclable heterogeneous catalyst for the Stille reaction under aerobic condition

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Babak Mohammadi-Aghdam; Siavash Bahari; Rahim Molaei

    2013-07-01

    The stabilized palladium(0) nanoparticles by collagen fibres was a highly active, air-stable and recyclable heterogeneous catalyst that could be used for the Stille coupling reactions between aryl iodides and organostannanes under aerobic conditions. This method offered the several advantages: high yield under facile reaction condition and easy work-up procedure. The catalyst was easily recovered from the reaction mixture by filtration and reused multiple times without significant reduction or decrease in the activity.

  7. Hydroacylation of N=N bonds via aerobic C-H activation of aldehydes, and reactions of the products thereof

    OpenAIRE

    Akhbar, A. R.

    2014-01-01

    The development of methods to construct new chemical bonds efficiently and selectively whilst minimising energy usage and waste production is of high importance in organic chemistry. Many current methods employ inefficient, costly and often toxic multi step protocols to generate new chemical bonds. The hydroacylation reaction is one method of reducing such inefficiencies. The development of an aerobic hydroacylation protocol in the Caddick group has recently allowed the functionalisation of a...

  8. The synthesis of a bifunctional copper metal organic framework and its application in the aerobic oxidation/Knoevenagel condensation sequential reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Zongcheng; Luan, Yi; Qi, Chao; Ramella, Daniele

    2016-09-21

    A novel one-pot aerobic oxidation/Knoevenagel condensation reaction system was developed employing a Cu(ii)/amine bifunctional, basic metal-organic framework (MOF) as the catalyst. The sequential aerobic alcohol oxidation/Knoevenagel condensation reaction was efficiently promoted by the Cu3TATAT MOF catalyst in the absence of basic additives. The benzylidenemalononitrile product was produced in high yield and selectivity from an inexpensive benzyl alcohol starting material under an oxygen atmosphere. The role of the basic functionality was studied to demonstrate its role in the aerobic oxidation and Knoevenagel condensation reactions. The reaction progress was monitored in order to identify the reaction intermediate and follow the accumulation of the desired product. Lastly, results showed that the yield was not significantly compromised by the reuse of a batch of catalyst, even after more than five cycles.

  9. Methane oxidation in a crude oil contaminated aquifer: Delineation of aerobic reactions at the plume fringes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, R.T.; Bekins, B.A.; Delin, G.N.; Cozzarelli, I.M.; Blowes, D.W.; Kirshtein, J.D.

    2011-01-01

    High resolution direct-push profiling over short vertical distances was used to investigate CH4 attenuation in a petroleum contaminated aquifer near Bemidji, Minnesota. The contaminant plume was delineated using dissolved gases, redox sensitive components, major ions, carbon isotope ratios in CH4 and CO2, and the presence of methanotrophic bacteria. Sharp redox gradients were observed near the water table. Shifts in ??13CCH4 from an average of - 57.6??? (?? 1.7???) in the methanogenic zone to - 39.6??? (?? 8.7???) at 105 m downgradient, strongly suggest CH4 attenuation through microbially mediated degradation. In the downgradient zone the aerobic/anaerobic transition is up to 0.5 m below the water table suggesting that transport of O2 across the water table is leading to aerobic degradation of CH4 at this interface. Dissolved N2 concentrations that exceeded those expected for water in equilibrium with the atmosphere indicated bubble entrapment followed by preferential stripping of O2 through aerobic degradation of CH4 or other hydrocarbons. Multivariate and cluster analysis were used to distinguish between areas of significant bubble entrapment and areas where other processes such as the infiltration of O 2 rich recharge water were important O2 transport mechanisms. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. QuadraPure-Supported Palladium Nanocatalysts for Microwave-Promoted Suzuki Cross-Coupling Reaction under Aerobic Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kin Hong Liew

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cross-linked resin-captured palladium (XL-QPPd was readily prepared by simple physical adsorption onto the high loading QuadraPure macroporous resin and a subsequent reduction process. To enhance the mechanical stability, entrapped palladium nanocatalysts were cross-linked with succinyl chloride. Both transmission electron microscopy images and X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the palladium nanoparticles were well dispersed with diameters ranging in 4–10 nm. The catalyst performed good catalytic activity in microwave-promoted Suzuki cross-coupling reactions in water under aerobic condition with mild condition by using various aryl halides and phenylboronic acid. In addition, the catalyst showed an excellent recyclability without significant loss of catalytic activity.

  11. Poly(vinyl chloride)-supported Pd(II) complex as an efficient catalyst for Heck and Cu-free Sonogashira reactions under aerobic conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Bakherad; Ali Keivanloo; Shahrzad Samangooei

    2014-01-01

    A novel poly(vinyl chloride)-supported Pd complex was found to be a highly active catalyst for the Heck and Sonogashira reactions of aryl halides under aerobic conditions. The complex is thermally stable, and can be easily recovered and reused. The catalyst was recycled for the Heck and So-nogashira reactions for five runs without appreciable loss of its catalytic activity, and with negligible metal leaching.

  12. The Palladium-Catalyzed Aerobic Kinetic Resolution of Secondary Alcohols: Reaction Development, Scope, and Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Ebner, Davidâ C.

    2009-12-07

    The first palladium-catalyzed enantioselective oxidation of secondary alcohols has been developed, utilizing the readily available diamine (-)-sparteine as a chiral ligand and molecular oxygen as the stoichiometric oxidant. Mechanistic insights regarding the role of the base and hydrogen-bond donors have resulted in several improvements to the original system. Namely, addition of cesium carbonate and tert-butyl alcohol greatly enhances reaction rates, promoting rapid resolutions. The use of chloroform as solvent allows the use of ambient air as the terminal oxidant at 23 degrees C, resulting in enhanced catalyst selectivity. These improved reaction conditions have permitted the successful kinetic resolution of benzylic, allylic, and cyclopropyl secondary alcohols to high enantiomeric excess with good-to-excellent selectivity factors. This catalyst system has also been applied to the desymmetrization of meso-diols, providing high yields of enantioenriched hydroxyketones.

  13. Free radicals: how do we stand them? Anaerobic and aerobic free radical (chain) reactions involved in the use of fluorogenic probes and in biological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liochev, Stefan I

    2014-01-01

    Biologically significant conclusions have been based on the use of fluorogenic and luminogenic probes for the detection of reactive species. The basic mechanisms of the processes involved have not been satisfactorily elucidated. In the present work, the mechanism of the enzyme and photosensitized oxidation of NAD(P)H by resorufin is analyzed and appears to involve both aerobic and anaerobic free radical chain reactions. There are two major fallouts of this analysis. Many of the conclusions about the participation of radicals based on the use of probes such as resorufin and Amplex red need reevaluation. It is also concluded that anaerobic free radical reactions may be biologically significant, and the possible existence of enzymatic systems to eliminate certain free radicals is discussed.

  14. Investigations into the photochemical degradation of biogenic and anthropogeneous halogenated hydrocarbons in seawater; Untersuchungen zum photochemischen Abbau von biogenen und anthropogenen halogenierten Kohlenwasserstoffen im Meerwasser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faller, J.T.

    1992-05-20

    Bromoform and hexachloro-cyclohexane in seawater were studied for their possible degradation. Bromoform is demonstrably degraded through the effect of sunlight. Hydrogen peroxide present in seawater contributes to the acceleration of this effect. The second compound investigated is also photochemically degraded in seawater. This degradation mechanism is described in the paper. Increased temperature and the presence of hydrogen peroxide accelerate the degradation. (VT) [Deutsch] Bromoform und Hexachlorcyclohexan im Meerwasser sollten auf ihren moeglichen Abbau untersucht werden. Bromoform wird nachweisbar durch Einwirkung von Sonnenlicht abgebaut. Zur Beschleunigung der Reaktion traegt das im Seewasser anwesende Wasserstoffperoxid bei. Die zweite untersuchte Verbindung wird im Meer ebenfalls photochemisch abgebaut. Der Mechanismus des Abbaus ist in der Arbeit beschrieben. Die Temperaturerhoehung und die Anwesenheit des Wasserstoffperoxids beschleunigen den Abbau. (VT)

  15. Cu(OAc)2/Pyrimidines-Catalyzed Cross-coupling Reactions of Aryl Iodides and Activated Aryl Bromides with Alkynes under Aerobic, Solvent-free and Palladium-free Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Ye-Xiang; DENG Chen-Liang; PI Shao-Feng; LI Jin-Heng; YIN Du-Lin

    2006-01-01

    Excellent results have been achieved in the Cu(OAc)2-catalyzed Sonogashira cross-couplings of aryl iodides and activated aryl bromides utilizing TBAF (tetrabutylammonium fluoride) as the base and 4,6-dimethoxypyrimidin-2-amine as the ligand. It is noteworthy that the reaction is conducted under aerobic, solvent-free and palladium-free conditions.

  16. CFD Study of Full-Scale Aerobic Bioreactors: Evaluation of Dynamic O2 Distribution, Gas-Liquid Mass Transfer and Reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humbird, David; Sitaraman, Hariswaran; Stickel, Jonathan; Sprague, Michael A.; McMillan, Jim

    2016-11-18

    If advanced biofuels are to measurably displace fossil fuels in the near term, they will have to operate at levels of scale, efficiency, and margin unprecedented in the current biotech industry. For aerobically-grown products in particular, scale-up is complex and the practical size, cost, and operability of extremely large reactors is not well understood. Put simply, the problem of how to attain fuel-class production scales comes down to cost-effective delivery of oxygen at high mass transfer rates and low capital and operating costs. To that end, very large reactor vessels (>500 m3) are proposed in order to achieve favorable economies of scale. Additionally, techno-economic evaluation indicates that bubble-column reactors are more cost-effective than stirred-tank reactors in many low-viscosity cultures. In order to advance the design of extremely large aerobic bioreactors, we have performed computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of bubble-column reactors. A multiphase Euler-Euler model is used to explicitly account for the spatial distribution of air (i.e., gas bubbles) in the reactor. Expanding on the existing bioreactor CFD literature (typically focused on the hydrodynamics of bubbly flows), our simulations include interphase mass transfer of oxygen and a simple phenomenological reaction representing the uptake and consumption of dissolved oxygen by submerged cells. The simulations reproduce the expected flow profiles, with net upward flow in the center of column and downward flow near the wall. At high simulated oxygen uptake rates (OUR), oxygen-depleted regions can be observed in the reactor. By increasing the gas flow to enhance mixing and eliminate depleted areas, a maximum oxygen transfer (OTR) rate is obtained as a function of superficial velocity. These insights regarding minimum superficial velocity and maximum reactor size are incorporated into NREL's larger techno-economic models to supplement standard reactor design equations.

  17. Amide as an efficient ligand in the palladium-catalyzed Suzuki coupling reaction in water/ethanol under aerobic conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai Yang Liu; Kun Wang; Hai Yan Fu; Mao Lin Yuan; Hua Chen; Rui Xiang Li

    2011-01-01

    Amide, which is derived from proline and is inexpensive and air-stable, has been synthesized and characterized by 1H NMR,13C NMR, and MS. It was found to be an efficient ligand in the palladium-catalyzed Suzuki cross-coupling reaction. In the Pd/amide catalytic system, aryl bromides can be coupled with phenylboronic acid in ethanol/water (1:2;v/v) in excellent yields even with a low Pd loading of 0.01 mol%. Moreover, the scope of the reaction is broad, and a wide variety of functional groups are tolerant.

  18. Stochastic-convective transport with nonlinear reaction and mixing: application to intermediate-scale experiments in aerobic biodegradation in saturated porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginn, T. R.; Murphy, E. M.; Chilakapati, A.; Seeboonruang, U.

    2001-03-01

    Aerobic biodegradation of benzoate by Pseudomonas cepacia sp. in a saturated heterogeneous porous medium was simulated using the stochastic-convective reaction (SCR) approach. A laboratory flow cell was randomly packed with low permeability silt-size inclusions in a high permeability sand matrix. In the SCR upscaling approach, the characteristics of the flow field are determined by the breakthrough of a conservative tracer. Spatial information on the actual location of the heterogeneities is not used. The mass balance equations governing the nonlinear and multicomponent reactive transport are recast in terms of reactive transports in each of a finite number of discrete streamtubes. The streamtube ensemble members represent transport via a steady constant average velocity per streamtube and a conventional Fickian dispersion term, and their contributions to the observed breakthroughs are determined by flux-averaging the streamtube solute concentrations. The resulting simulations were compared to those from a high-resolution deterministic simulation of the reactive transport, and to alternative ensemble representations involving (i) effective Fickian travel time distribution function, (ii) purely convective streamtube transport, and (iii) streamtube ensemble subset simulations. The results of the SCR simulation compare favorably to that of a sophisticated high-resolution deterministic approach.

  19. Green synthesis of Pd/CuO nanoparticles by Theobroma cacao L. seeds extract and their catalytic performance for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol and phosphine-free Heck coupling reaction under aerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrollahzadeh, Mahmoud; Sajadi, S Mohammad; Rostami-Vartooni, Akbar; Bagherzadeh, Mojtaba

    2015-06-15

    We report the green synthesis of palladium/CuO nanoparticles (Pd/CuO NPs) using Theobroma cacao L. seeds extract and their catalytic activity for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol and Heck coupling reaction under aerobic conditions. The catalyst was characterized using the powder XRD, TEM, EDS, UV-vis and FT-IR. This method has the advantages of high yields, elimination of surfactant, ligand and homogeneous catalysts, simple methodology and easy work up. The catalyst can be recovered from the reaction mixture and reused several times without any significant loss of catalytic activity.

  20. What Is Aerobic Dancing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... than 24 million people participate in aerobics. Aerobic dance has blossomed into a sport for all to have fun while losing weight and keeping in shape. There are varied forms of aerobics including low-impact, swim and other water aerobics is popular. Dance is still the predominant form and may be ...

  1. Gold-catalyzed aerobic epoxidation of trans-stilbene in methylcyclohexane. Part II: Identification and quantification of a key reaction intermediate

    KAUST Repository

    Guillois, Kevin

    2013-03-01

    The gold-catalyzed aerobic oxidations of alkenes are thought to rely on the in situ synthesis of hydroperoxide species, which have however never been clearly identified. Here, we show direct experimental evidence for the presence of 1-methylcyclohexyl hydroperoxide in the aerobic co-oxidation of stilbene and methylcyclohexane catalyzed by the Au/SiO2-R972 optimized catalyst prepared in Part I. Determination of its response in gas chromatography, by triphenylphosphine titration followed by 31P NMR, allows to easily follow its concentration throughout the co-oxidation process and to clearly highlight the simultaneous existence of the methylcyclohexane autoxidation pathway and the stilbene epoxidation pathway. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Click on silica: systematic immobilization of Co(II) Schiff bases to the mesoporous silica via click reaction and their catalytic activity for aerobic oxidation of alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Bharat S; Jain, Suman L; Singh, Bhawan; Bhaumik, Asim; Sain, Bir; Sinha, Anil K

    2010-09-07

    The systematic immobilization of cobalt(II) Schiff base complexes on SBA-15 mesoporous silica via copper catalyzed [3 + 2] azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) "click reaction" involving either step-wise synthesis of silica-bound Schiff base ligand followed by its subsequent complexation with cobalt ions, or by the direct immobilization of preformed Co(II) Schiff base complex to the silica support is described. The catalytic activity of the prepared complexes was studied for the oxidation of alcohols to carbonyl compounds using molecular oxygen as oxidant. The immobilized complexes were recycled for several runs without loss in catalytic activity and no leaching was observed during this course.

  3. Remarkable effect of bimetallic nanocluster catalysts for aerobic oxidation of alcohols: combining metals changes the activities and the reaction pathways to aldehydes/carboxylic acids or esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaizuka, Kosuke; Miyamura, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Shū

    2010-11-01

    Selective oxidation of alcohols catalyzed by novel carbon-stabilized polymer-incarcerated bimetallic nanocluster catalysts using molecular oxygen has been developed. The reactivity and the selectivity were strongly dependent on the combination of metals and solvent systems; aldehydes and ketones were obtained by the gold/platinum catalyst in benzotrifluoride, and esters were formed by the gold/palladium catalyst in methanol. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example that the reaction pathway has been changed dramatically in gold catalysis by combining with a second metal. The differences in the activity and the selectivity are considered to be derived from the difference in the structure of the bimetallic clusters.

  4. A single aerobic exercise session accelerates movement execution but not central processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Kit B; Sage, Michael D; Staines, W Richard; Middleton, Laura E; McIlroy, William E

    2017-03-27

    Previous research has demonstrated that aerobic exercise has disparate effects on speed of processing and movement execution. In simple and choice reaction tasks, aerobic exercise appears to increase speed of movement execution while speed of processing is unaffected. In the flanker task, aerobic exercise has been shown to reduce response time on incongruent trials more than congruent trials, purportedly reflecting a selective influence on speed of processing related to cognitive control. However, it is unclear how changes in speed of processing and movement execution contribute to these exercise-induced changes in response time during the flanker task. This study examined how a single session of aerobic exercise influences speed of processing and movement execution during a flanker task using electromyography to partition response time into reaction time and movement time, respectively. Movement time decreased during aerobic exercise regardless of flanker congruence but returned to pre-exercise levels immediately after exercise. Reaction time during incongruent flanker trials decreased over time in both an aerobic exercise and non-exercise control condition indicating it was not specifically influenced by exercise. This disparate influence of aerobic exercise on movement time and reaction time indicates the importance of partitioning response time when examining the influence of aerobic exercise on speed of processing. The decrease in reaction time over time independent of aerobic exercise indicates that interpreting pre-to-post exercise changes in behavior requires caution.

  5. Microbial degradation of monocyclic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in case of limited pollutant availability with nitrate as a potential electron acceptor; Der mikrobielle Abbau mono- und polyzyklischer aromatischer Kohlenwasserstoffe bei einer begrenzten Schadstoffverfuegbarkeit mit Nitrat als potentiellem Elektronenakzeptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linke, C.

    2001-07-01

    The possibility of using natural degradation processes for long-term remediation of tar oil contaminated sites was investigated. Field studies have shown that microbial decomposition of pollutants does take place in many sites but that it is limited by limited availability of pollutants and oxygen in soil. The investigations focused on the activation of BTEX and PAH degradation in situ by nitrate in the absence or in the presence of oxygen. Tensides should be used in order to enhance the availability of pollutants in water, especially in the case of hardly water-soluble PAH. A large-scale experiment was carried out on tar oil contaminated terrain; it was found that the availability of oxygen and not of PAH is the limiting factor so that adding of surfactants will not improve pollutant degradation. In contrast, the adding of tensides would mean even higher concentrations of oxygen-depleting substances in soil. [German] In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurden im Hinblick auf langfristige Sanierungsstrategien fuer teeroelkontaminierte Standorte Moeglichkeiten der Nutzung natuerlicher Abbauvorgaenge untersucht. Zahlreiche Feldstudien belegen, dass ein mikrobieller Schadstoffabbau an vielen Standorten stattfindet, dieser jedoch sowohl durch eine begrenzte Schadstoffverfuegbarkeit als auch durch den im Untergrund nur begrenzt zur Verfuegung stehenden Sauerstoff limitiert wird. Ziel dieser Arbeit war es abzuklaeren, inwiefern ein BTEX- und PAK-Abbau in situ auch in Abwesenheit von Sauerstoff durch Nitrat allein oder durch Nitrat in Kombination mit Sauerstoff aktiviert werden kann. Um insbesondere fuer die schlecht wasserloeslichen PAK eine ausreichende Schadstoffverfuegbarkeit zu gewaehrleisten, sollten auch Tenside zur Erhoehung der im Wasser vorliegenden Schadstoffmenge eingesetzt werden. Aufbauend auf die Laboruntersuchungen wurde im Rahmen von VEGAS{sup ix} ein Grossversuch zum mikrobiellen PAK-Abbau im Abstrom einer simulierten Teeroelkontamination durchgefuehrt

  6. Aerobic landfill bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudgins, Mark P; Bessette, Bernard J; March, John; McComb, Scott T.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention includes a method of decomposing municipal solid waste (MSW) within a landfill by converting the landfill to aerobic degradation in the following manner: (1) injecting air via the landfill leachate collection system (2) injecting air via vertical air injection wells installed within the waste mass; (3) applying leachate to the waste mass using a pressurized drip irrigation system; (4) allowing landfill gases to vent; and (5) adjusting air injection and recirculated leachate to achieve a 40% to 60% moisture level and a temperature between 120.degree. F. and 140.degree. F. in steady state.

  7. Model experiments to estimate the influence of the stratospheric ozone depletion on the solar photochemical degradation of organic micropollutants; Modellversuche zum Einfluss der Abnahme der stratosphaerischen Ozonschichtdicke auf den solaren photochemischen Abbau organischer Mikroverunreinigungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindelin, A.J.; Frimmel, F.H. [Univ. Karlsruhe, Lehrstuhl fuer Wasserchemie (Germany)

    1998-03-01

    By means of simulated sunlight, the influence of the current ozone layer depletion on solar photochemical processes in water was investigated. The straospheric ozone decrease increases the solar UV-B flux. A Xe short-arc lamp with optical filters was used as light source and nitrate was used as a precursor of sunlight-induced reactive species. The experiments showed, that a change of the spectrum of solar UV-B radiation due to the ozone layer depletion can accelerate the nitrate-induced and direct photolytical degradation of the organic herbicides terbuthylazine, dichlorprop, and chloridazon significantly. (orig.) [Deutsch] Mit Hilfe von simuliertem Sonnenlicht wurde untersucht, inwieweit die aktuelle Verringerung der Dicke der stratosphaerischen Ozonschicht photochemische Umsetzungen in Gewaessern beeinflusst. Als Strahlungsquelle diente eine Xe-Kurzbogenlampe mit optischen Filtern. Als Modellsubstanz fuer in Gewaessern vorkommende reaktive Stoffe wurde Nitrat verwendet. Die Versuche zeigten, dass die Veraenderung des Spektrums solarer UV-B-Strahlung aufgrund einer stratosphaerischen Ozonschichtabnahme den photolytischen und nitratinduzierten Abbau organischer Herbizide erheblich beschleunigen kann. (orig.)

  8. Aerobic Oxidation of Methyl Vinyl Ketone in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OUYANG,Xiao-Yue(欧阳小月); JIANG,Huan-Feng(江焕峰); CHENG,Jin-Sheng(程金生); ZHANG,Qun-Jian(张群健)

    2002-01-01

    Aerobic oxidation of methyl vinyl ketone to acetal in supercritical carbon dioxide are achieved in high conversion and high selectivity when oxygen pressure reaches 0.5MPa. The effects of cocatalysts,additive, pressure and temperature of the reaction are studied in detail.

  9. Brain plasticity and aerobic fitness

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Regular aerobic exercise has a wide range of positive effects on health and cognition. Exercise has been demonstrated to provide a particularly powerful and replicable method of triggering a wide range of structural changes within both human and animal brains. However, the details and mechanisms of these changes remain poorly understood. This thesis undertakes a comprehensive examination of the relationship between brain plasticity and aerobic exercise. A large, longitudinal experiment ...

  10. Modeling of vapor intrusion from hydrocarbon-contaminated sources accounting for aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verginelli, Iason; Baciocchi, Renato

    2011-11-01

    A one-dimensional steady state vapor intrusion model including both anaerobic and oxygen-limited aerobic biodegradation was developed. The aerobic and anaerobic layer thickness are calculated by stoichiometrically coupling the reactive transport of vapors with oxygen transport and consumption. The model accounts for the different oxygen demand in the subsurface required to sustain the aerobic biodegradation of the compound(s) of concern and for the baseline soil oxygen respiration. In the case of anaerobic reaction under methanogenic conditions, the model accounts for the generation of methane which leads to a further oxygen demand, due to methane oxidation, in the aerobic zone. The model was solved analytically and applied, using representative parameter ranges and values, to identify under which site conditions the attenuation of hydrocarbons migrating into indoor environments is likely to be significant. Simulations were performed assuming a soil contaminated by toluene only, by a BTEX mixture, by Fresh Gasoline and by Weathered Gasoline. The obtained results have shown that for several site conditions oxygen concentration below the building is sufficient to sustain aerobic biodegradation. For these scenarios the aerobic biodegradation is the primary mechanism of attenuation, i.e. anaerobic contribution is negligible and a model accounting just for aerobic biodegradation can be used. On the contrary, in all cases where oxygen is not sufficient to sustain aerobic biodegradation alone (e.g. highly contaminated sources), anaerobic biodegradation can significantly contribute to the overall attenuation depending on the site specific conditions.

  11. Modeling of vapor intrusion from hydrocarbon-contaminated sources accounting for aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verginelli, Iason; Baciocchi, Renato

    2011-11-01

    A one-dimensional steady state vapor intrusion model including both anaerobic and oxygen-limited aerobic biodegradation was developed. The aerobic and anaerobic layer thickness are calculated by stoichiometrically coupling the reactive transport of vapors with oxygen transport and consumption. The model accounts for the different oxygen demand in the subsurface required to sustain the aerobic biodegradation of the compound(s) of concern and for the baseline soil oxygen respiration. In the case of anaerobic reaction under methanogenic conditions, the model accounts for the generation of methane which leads to a further oxygen demand, due to methane oxidation, in the aerobic zone. The model was solved analytically and applied, using representative parameter ranges and values, to identify under which site conditions the attenuation of hydrocarbons migrating into indoor environments is likely to be significant. Simulations were performed assuming a soil contaminated by toluene only, by a BTEX mixture, by Fresh Gasoline and by Weathered Gasoline. The obtained results have shown that for several site conditions oxygen concentration below the building is sufficient to sustain aerobic biodegradation. For these scenarios the aerobic biodegradation is the primary mechanism of attenuation, i.e. anaerobic contribution is negligible and a model accounting just for aerobic biodegradation can be used. On the contrary, in all cases where oxygen is not sufficient to sustain aerobic biodegradation alone (e.g. highly contaminated sources), anaerobic biodegradation can significantly contribute to the overall attenuation depending on the site specific conditions.

  12. Aerobic microbial enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torsvik, T. [Univ. of Bergen (Norway); Gilje, E.; Sunde, E.

    1995-12-31

    In aerobic MEOR, the ability of oil-degrading bacteria to mobilize oil is used to increase oil recovery. In this process, oxygen and mineral nutrients are injected into the oil reservoir in order to stimulate growth of aerobic oil-degrading bacteria in the reservoir. Experiments carried out in a model sandstone with stock tank oil and bacteria isolated from offshore wells showed that residual oil saturation was lowered from 27% to 3%. The process was time dependent, not pore volume dependent. During MEOR flooding, the relative permeability of water was lowered. Oxygen and active bacteria were needed for the process to take place. Maximum efficiency was reached at low oxygen concentrations, approximately 1 mg O{sub 2}/liter.

  13. Studies on the effects of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} as an oxygen source in microbial decomposition of hydrocarbons in liquid culture and in near-to-natural bioreactors; Untersuchungen zu den Effekten von H{sub 2}O{sub 2} als Sauerstoffquelle beim mikrobiellen Abbau von Kohlenwasserstoffen in Fluessigkultur und in-s-situ-nahen Bodenreaktoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, B.G.

    1992-08-12

    Hydrocarbon decomposition in soil with hydrogen peroxide as an oxygen source was examined. Among the model hydrocarbons was diesel fuel. Decomposition in liquid culture was studied in a bioreactor using mixed cultures. Hydrogen peroxide proved its value as an oxygen source. It was found that in soil systems hydrocarbons are largely mineralized and only small amounts of biomass are formed. (VT) [Deutsch] Untersucht wurde der Kohlenwasserstoffabbau im Boden unter Sauerstoffversorgung durch Wasserstoffperoxid. Als Modellkohlenwasserstoff wurde unter anderem Dieseloel eingesetzt. In einem Bioreaktor wurde der Abbau in Fluessigkultur durch Mischkulturen studiert. Wasserstoffperoxid hat sich als Sauerstoffversorger bewaehrt. In Bodensystemen stellte man fest, dass die Kohlenwasserstoffe weitgehend mineralisiert werden und nur wenig Biomasse gebildet wird. (VT)

  14. Aerobic conditioning for team sport athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Nicholas M; Kilding, Andrew E

    2009-01-01

    Team sport athletes require a high level of aerobic fitness in order to generate and maintain power output during repeated high-intensity efforts and to recover. Research to date suggests that these components can be increased by regularly performing aerobic conditioning. Traditional aerobic conditioning, with minimal changes of direction and no skill component, has been demonstrated to effectively increase aerobic function within a 4- to 10-week period in team sport players. More importantly, traditional aerobic conditioning methods have been shown to increase team sport performance substantially. Many team sports require the upkeep of both aerobic fitness and sport-specific skills during a lengthy competitive season. Classic team sport trainings have been shown to evoke marginal increases/decreases in aerobic fitness. In recent years, aerobic conditioning methods have been designed to allow adequate intensities to be achieved to induce improvements in aerobic fitness whilst incorporating movement-specific and skill-specific tasks, e.g. small-sided games and dribbling circuits. Such 'sport-specific' conditioning methods have been demonstrated to promote increases in aerobic fitness, though careful consideration of player skill levels, current fitness, player numbers, field dimensions, game rules and availability of player encouragement is required. Whilst different conditioning methods appear equivalent in their ability to improve fitness, whether sport-specific conditioning is superior to other methods at improving actual game performance statistics requires further research.

  15. Catalytic aerobic oxidation of bio-renewable chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorbanev, Yury

    , EDS, XRF and other methods. Supported gold and ruthenium hydroxide catalyst systems were explored for the aerobic oxidation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) to 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid (FDA), a potential polymer building block for the plastic industry, or its dimethyl ester (FDMC). High product...... for the exclusive production of intermediate products of the oxidation. Catalysts consisting of Ru(OH)x deposited on metal oxide supports, such as, for instance, CeO2 and MgAl2O4, were employed in the aerobic oxidation of HMF in different ”green” reaction media, e.g. water and various ionic liquids, under base....... Thus, the oxidative transformations of biomass-derived chemicals over different gold and ruthenium-based catalyst systems with oxygen as the abundant oxidant were explored....

  16. Lower limb loading in step aerobic dance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, H-W; Hsieh, H-M; Chang, Y-W; Wang, L-H

    2012-11-01

    Participation in aerobic dance is associated with a number of lower extremity injuries, and abnormal joint loading seems to be a factor in these. However, information on joint loading is limited. The purpose of this study was to investigate the kinetics of the lower extremity in step aerobic dance and to compare the differences of high-impact and low-impact step aerobic dance in 4 aerobic movements (mambo, kick, L step and leg curl). 18 subjects were recruited for this study. High-impact aerobic dance requires a significantly greater range of motion, joint force and joint moment than low-impact step aerobic dance. The peak joint forces and moments in high-impact step aerobic dance were found to be 1.4 times higher than in low-impact step aerobic dance. Understanding the nature of joint loading may help choreographers develop dance combinations that are less injury-prone. Furthermore, increased knowledge about joint loading may be helpful in lowering the risk of injuries in aerobic dance instructors and students.

  17. Energetic and metabolic consequences of aerobic and an-aerobic ATP-production.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreurs, V.V.A.M.; Aarts, M.J.; IJssennagger, N.; Hermans, J.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2007-01-01

    ATP, the currency of cellular energy metabolism, can be produced during aerobic and an-aerobic oxidation of metabolic substrates. The aerobic oxidation yields CO2 + H2O as metabolic end products while ATP is produced by oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondria. Carbohydrate, protein and fat pro

  18. Aerobic respiration in the Archaean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towe, K M

    1990-11-01

    The Earth's atmosphere during the Archaean era (3,800-2,500 Myr ago) is generally thought to have been anoxic, with the partial pressure of atmospheric oxygen about 10(-12) times the present value. In the absence of aerobic consumption of oxygen produced by photosynthesis in the ocean, the major sink for this oxygen would have been oxidation of dissolved Fe(II). Atmospheric oxygen would also be removed by the oxidation of biogenic methane. But even very low estimates of global primary productivity, obtained from the amounts of organic carbon preserved in Archaean rocks, seem to require the sedimentation of an unrealistically large amount of iron and the oxidation of too much methane if global anoxia was to be maintained. I therefore suggest that aerobic respiration must have developed early in the Archaean to prevent a build-up of atmospheric oxygen before the Proterozoic. An atmosphere that contained a low (0.2-0.4%) but stable proportion of oxygen is required.

  19. Aerobic rice mechanization: techniques for crop establishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khusairy, K. M.; Ayob, H.; Chan, C. S.; Fauzi, M. I. Mohamed; Mohamad Fakhrul, Z. O.; Shahril Shah, G. S. M.; Azlan, O.; Rasad, M. A.; Hashim, A. M.; Arshad, Z.; E, E. Ibrahim; Saifulizan, M. N.

    2015-12-01

    Rice being the staple food crops, hundreds of land races in it makes the diversity of rice crops. Aerobic rice production was introduced which requires much less water input to safeguard and sustain the rice production and conserve water due to decreasing water resources, climatic changes and competition from urban and industrial users. Mechanization system plays an important role for the success of aerobic rice cultivation. All farming activities for aerobic rice production are run on aerobic soil conditions. Row seeder mechanization system is developed to replace conventional seeding technique on the aerobic rice field. It is targeted for small and the large scale aerobic rice farmers. The aero - seeder machine is used for the small scale aerobic rice field, while the accord - seeder is used for the large scale aerobic rice field. The use of this mechanization machine can eliminate the tedious and inaccurate seeding operations reduce labour costs and increases work rate. The machine is easy to operate and it can increase crop establishment rate. It reduce missing hill, increasing planting and crop with high yield can be produce. This machine is designed for low costs maintenance and it is easy to dismantle and assemble during maintenance and it is safe to be used.

  20. Quinones in aerobic and anaerobic mitochondria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Klei, S.A.

    2009-01-01

    Ubiquinone (UQ), also known as coenzyme Q, is a ubiquitous quinone and is known to have several functions. One of these functions is electron carrier in the mitochondrial electron transport chain of aerobically functioning bacteria and eukaryotes. In contrast to this aerobically functioning quinone,

  1. Microbial fuel cells with highly active aerobic biocathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Edward M.; Popescu, Dorin; Curtis, Tom; Head, Ian M.; Scott, Keith; Yu, Eileen H.

    2016-08-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs), which convert organic waste to electricity, could be used to make the wastewater infrastructure more energy efficient and sustainable. However, platinum and other non-platinum chemical catalysts used for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at the cathode of MFCs are unsustainable due to their high cost and long-term degradation. Aerobic biocathodes, which use microorganisms as the biocatalysts for cathode ORR, are a good alternative to chemical catalysts. In the current work, high-performing aerobic biocathodes with an onset potential for the ORR of +0.4 V vs. Ag/AgCl were enriched from activated sludge in electrochemical half-cells poised at -0.1 and + 0.2 V vs. Ag/AgCl. Gammaproteobacteria, distantly related to any known cultivated gammaproteobacterial lineage, were identified as dominant in these working electrode biofilms (23.3-44.3% of reads in 16S rRNA gene Ion Torrent libraries), and were in very low abundance in non-polarised control working electrode biofilms (0.5-0.7%). These Gammaproteobacteria were therefore most likely responsible for the high activity of biologically catalysed ORR. In MFC tests, a high-performing aerobic biocathode increased peak power 9-fold from 7 to 62 μW cm-2 in comparison to an unmodified carbon cathode, which was similar to peak power with a platinum-doped cathode at 70 μW cm-2.

  2. Aerobic Microbial Respiration In Oceanic Oxygen Minimum Zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalvelage, Tim; Lavik, Gaute; Jensen, Marlene M; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Löscher, Carolin; Schunck, Harald; Desai, Dhwani K; Hauss, Helena; Kiko, Rainer; Holtappels, Moritz; LaRoche, Julie; Schmitz, Ruth A; Graco, Michelle I; Kuypers, Marcel M M

    2015-01-01

    Oxygen minimum zones are major sites of fixed nitrogen loss in the ocean. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of anaerobic ammonium oxidation, anammox, in pelagic nitrogen removal. Sources of ammonium for the anammox reaction, however, remain controversial, as heterotrophic denitrification and alternative anaerobic pathways of organic matter remineralization cannot account for the ammonium requirements of reported anammox rates. Here, we explore the significance of microaerobic respiration as a source of ammonium during organic matter degradation in the oxygen-deficient waters off Namibia and Peru. Experiments with additions of double-labelled oxygen revealed high aerobic activity in the upper OMZs, likely controlled by surface organic matter export. Consistently observed oxygen consumption in samples retrieved throughout the lower OMZs hints at efficient exploitation of vertically and laterally advected, oxygenated waters in this zone by aerobic microorganisms. In accordance, metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses identified genes encoding for aerobic terminal oxidases and demonstrated their expression by diverse microbial communities, even in virtually anoxic waters. Our results suggest that microaerobic respiration is a major mode of organic matter remineralization and source of ammonium (~45-100%) in the upper oxygen minimum zones, and reconcile hitherto observed mismatches between ammonium producing and consuming processes therein.

  3. Aerobic Microbial Respiration In Oceanic Oxygen Minimum Zones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Kalvelage

    Full Text Available Oxygen minimum zones are major sites of fixed nitrogen loss in the ocean. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of anaerobic ammonium oxidation, anammox, in pelagic nitrogen removal. Sources of ammonium for the anammox reaction, however, remain controversial, as heterotrophic denitrification and alternative anaerobic pathways of organic matter remineralization cannot account for the ammonium requirements of reported anammox rates. Here, we explore the significance of microaerobic respiration as a source of ammonium during organic matter degradation in the oxygen-deficient waters off Namibia and Peru. Experiments with additions of double-labelled oxygen revealed high aerobic activity in the upper OMZs, likely controlled by surface organic matter export. Consistently observed oxygen consumption in samples retrieved throughout the lower OMZs hints at efficient exploitation of vertically and laterally advected, oxygenated waters in this zone by aerobic microorganisms. In accordance, metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses identified genes encoding for aerobic terminal oxidases and demonstrated their expression by diverse microbial communities, even in virtually anoxic waters. Our results suggest that microaerobic respiration is a major mode of organic matter remineralization and source of ammonium (~45-100% in the upper oxygen minimum zones, and reconcile hitherto observed mismatches between ammonium producing and consuming processes therein.

  4. Aerobic Linear Allylic C-H Amination: Overcoming Benzoquinone Inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattillo, Christopher C; Strambeanu, Iulia I; Calleja, Pilar; Vermeulen, Nicolaas A; Mizuno, Tomokazu; White, M Christina

    2016-02-03

    An efficient aerobic linear allylic C-H amination reaction is reported under palladium(II)/bis-sulfoxide/Brønsted base catalysis. The reaction operates under preparative, operationally simple conditions (1 equiv of olefin, 1 atm O2 or air) with reduced Pd(II)/bis-sulfoxide catalyst loadings while providing higher turnovers and product yields than systems employing stoichiometric benzoquinone (BQ) as the terminal oxidant. Pd(II)/BQ π-acidic interactions have been invoked in various catalytic processes and are often considered beneficial in promoting reductive functionalizations. When such electrophilic activation for functionalization is not needed, however, BQ at high concentrations may compete with crucial ligand (bis-sulfoxide) binding and inhibit catalysis. Kinetic studies reveal an inverse relationship between the reaction rate and the concentration of BQ, suggesting that BQ is acting as a ligand for Pd(II) which results in an inhibitory effect on catalysis.

  5. The Andersen aerobic fitness test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aadland, Eivind; Terum, Torkil; Mamen, Asgeir

    2014-01-01

    of agreement) were 26.7±125.2 m for test 2 vs. test 1 (ptest 3 vs. test 2 (p = .514 for mean difference). The equation to estimate VO2peak suggested by Andersen et al. (2008) showed a poor fit in the present sample; thus, we suggest a new equation: VO2peak = 23......BACKGROUND: High aerobic fitness is consistently associated with a favorable metabolic risk profile in children. Direct measurement of peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) is often not feasible, thus indirect tests such as the Andersen test are required in many settings. The present study seeks...... to determine the reliability and validity of the Andersen test in 10-year-old children. METHODS: A total of 118 10-year-old children (67 boys and 51 girls) were recruited from one school and performed four VO2peak tests over three weeks: three Andersen tests (indirect) and one continuous progressive treadmill...

  6. Mechanistic investigation of the gold-catalyzed aerobic oxidation of alcohols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fristrup, Peter; Johansen, Louise Bahn; Christensen, Claus Hviid

    2008-01-01

    The mechanism for the gold-catalyzed aerobic oxidation of alcohols was studied using a series of para-substituted benzyl alcohols (Hammett methodology). The competition experiments clearly show that the rate-determining step of the reaction involves the generation of a partial positive charge in ...

  7. Palladium-catalyzed aerobic dehydrogenative aromatization of cyclohexanone imines to arylamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajra, Alakananda; Wei, Ye; Yoshikai, Naohiko

    2012-11-02

    Dehydrogenative aromatization of cyclohexanone imines to arylamines has been achieved using a palladium catalyst under aerobic conditions. The reaction is applicable to a variety of imines that are either preformed or generated in situ from cyclohexanone derivatives and aryl or alkylamines.

  8. Gold-Catalyzed Aerobic Oxidation of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural in Water at Ambient Temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorbanev, Yury; Kegnæs, Søren; Woodley, John

    2009-01-01

    The aerobic oxidation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, a versatile biomass-derived chemical, is examined in water with a titania-supported gold-nanoparticle catalyst at ambient temperature (30 degrees C). The selectivity of the reaction towords 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid and the intermediate oxidation...

  9. Aerobic Oxidation of Alcohols over Gold Catalysts: Role of Acid and Base

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitgaard, Søren Kegnæs; DeLa Riva, Andrew T.; Helveg, Stig

    2008-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles are deposited on potassium titanate nanowires and used as heterogeneous catalysts in the aerobic oxidation of benzyl alcohol in methanol to methyl benzoate at ambient conditions. The presence of a catalytic amount of base promotes the reaction and the formation of free benzoic...

  10. Fit women are not able to use the whole aerobic capacity during aerobic dance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edvardsen, Elisabeth; Ingjer, Frank; Bø, Kari

    2011-12-01

    Edvardsen, E, Ingjer, F, and Bø, K. Fit women are not able to use the whole aerobic capacity during aerobic dance. J Strength Cond Res 25(12): 3479-3485, 2011-This study compared the aerobic capacity during maximal aerobic dance and treadmill running in fit women. Thirteen well-trained female aerobic dance instructors aged 30 ± 8.17 years (mean ± SD) exercised to exhaustion by running on a treadmill for measurement of maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2)max) and peak heart rate (HRpeak). Additionally, all subjects performed aerobic dancing until exhaustion after a choreographed videotaped routine trying to reach the same HRpeak as during maximal running. The p value for statistical significance between running and aerobic dance was set to ≤0.05. The results (mean ± SD) showed a lower VO(2)max in aerobic dance (52.2 ± 4.02 ml·kg·min) compared with treadmill running (55.9 ± 5.03 ml·kg·min) (p = 0.0003). Further, the mean ± SD HRpeak was 182 ± 9.15 b·min in aerobic dance and 192 ± 9.62 b·min in treadmill running, giving no difference in oxygen pulse between the 2 exercise forms (p = 0.32). There was no difference in peak ventilation (aerobic dance: 108 ± 10.81 L·min vs. running: 113 ± 11.49 L·min). In conclusion, aerobic dance does not seem to be able to use the whole aerobic capacity as in running. For well endurance-trained women, this may result in a lower total workload at maximal intensities. Aerobic dance may therefore not be as suitable as running during maximal intensities in well-trained females.

  11. Low aerobic fitness in Brazilian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Augusto Santos Silva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: aerobic fitness is considered one of the most important components of health-related physical fitness, with low levels related to increased risk of premature death from all causes, especially cardiovascular diseases. OBJECTIVE: to identify the characteristics of adolescents at higher risk of low levels of aerobic fitness. METHODS: the study included 696 adolescents 15-17 years of age enrolled in public high schools of Florianópolis, southern Brazil. This cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Aerobic fitness was measured using the modified Canadian Aerobic Fitness Test mCAFT. Sociodemographic gender, age, school grade, paternal and maternal schooling, socioeconomic status, and anthropometric variables body weight, height, triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness, sexual maturation, physical activity, sedentary behavior, and eating habits were collected. RESULTS: it was found that 31.5% of adolescents had low aerobic fitness levels, being higher in boys 49.2% compared to girls 20.6%. Moreover, girls with sedentary behavior, overweight and high body fat percentage were the groups most likely to have inadequate aerobic fitness. In males, the groups most likely to have inadequate aerobic fitness were those whose parents studied more than eight years, those with low levels of physical activity, and those with inadequate nutrition and excessive body fat. CONCLUSION: low aerobic fitness levels were present in one third of adolescents and was more prevalent in boys. Lifestyle changes, including replacement of sedentary behaviors by physical and sport activities , may assist in improving the aerobic fitness of Brazilian adolescents.

  12. Aerobic oxidation of aqueous ethanol using heterogeneous gold catalysts: Efficient routes to acetic acid and ethyl acetate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Betina; Christiansen, Sofie Egholm; Thomsen, M.L.D.

    2007-01-01

    The aerobic oxidation of aqueous ethanol to produce acetic acid and ethyl acetate was studied using heterogeneous gold catalysts. Comparing the performance of Au/MgAl2O4 and Au/TiO2 showed that these two catalysts exhibited similar performance in the reaction. By proper selection of the reaction...

  13. Neuromodulation of Aerobic Exercise—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia eHeijnen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Running, and aerobic exercise in general, is a physical activity that increasingly many people engage in but that also has become popular as a topic for scientific research. Here we review the available studies investigating whether and to which degree aerobic exercise modulates hormones, amino acids, and neurotransmitters levels. In general, it seems that factors such as genes, gender, training status, and hormonal status need to be taken into account to gain a better understanding of the neuromodular underpinnings of aerobic exercise. More research using longitudinal studies and considering individual differences is necessary to determine actual benefits. We suggest that, in order to succeed, aerobic exercise programs should include optimal periodization, prevent overtraining and be tailored to interindividual differences, including neuro-developmental and genetically-based factors.

  14. Nitroglycerin degradation mediated by soil organic carbon under aerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordeleau, Geneviève; Martel, Richard; Bamba, Abraham N'Valoua; Blais, Jean-François; Ampleman, Guy; Thiboutot, Sonia

    2014-10-01

    The presence of nitroglycerin (NG) has been reported in shallow soils and pore water of several military training ranges. In this context, NG concentrations can be reduced through various natural attenuation processes, but these have not been thoroughly documented. This study aimed at investigating the role of soil organic matter (SOM) in the natural attenuation of NG, under aerobic conditions typical of shallow soils. The role of SOM in NG degradation has already been documented under anoxic conditions, and was attributed to SOM-mediated electron transfer involving different reducing agents. However, unsaturated soils are usually well-oxygenated, and it was not clear whether SOM could participate in NG degradation under these conditions. Our results from batch- and column-type experiments clearly demonstrate that in presence of dissolved organic matter (DOM) leached from a natural soil, partial NG degradation can be achieved. In presence of particulate organic matter (POM) from the same soil, complete NG degradation was achieved. Furthermore, POM caused rapid sorption of NG, which should result in NG retention in the organic matter-rich shallow horizons of the soil profile, thus promoting degradation. Based on degradation products, the reaction pathway appears to be reductive, in spite of the aerobic conditions. The relatively rapid reaction rates suggest that this process could significantly participate in the natural attenuation of NG, both on military training ranges and in contaminated soil at production facilities.

  15. Temperature effect on aerobic denitrification and nitrification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Shu-guang; ZHANG Xiao-jian; WANG Zhan-sheng

    2003-01-01

    Nitrogen loss without organic removal in biofilter was observed and its possible reason was explained. A lower hydraulic loading could improve aerobic denitrification rate. Aerobic denitrification was seriously affected by low temperature(below 10oC). However, nitrification rate remained high when the temperature dropped from 15oC to5oC. It seemed the autotrophic biofilm in BAF could alleviate the adverse effect of low temperature.

  16. Co(salophen)-Catalyzed Aerobic Oxidation of p-Hydroquinone: Mechanism and Implications for Aerobic Oxidation Catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anson, Colin W.; Ghosh, Soumya; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon; Stahl, Shannon S.

    2016-03-30

    Macrocyclic metal complexes and p-benzoquinones are commonly used as co-catalytic redox mediators in aerobic oxidation reactions. In an effort to gain insight into the mechanism and energetic efficiency of these reactions, we investigated Co(salophen)-catalyzed aerobic oxidation of p-hydroquinone. Kinetic and spectroscopic data suggest that the catalyst resting-state consists of an equilibrium between a CoII(salophen) complex, a CoIII-superoxide adduct, and a hydrogen-bonded adduct between the hydroquinone and the CoIII–O2 species. The kinetic data, together with density functional theory data, suggest that the turnover-limiting step features proton-coupled electron transfer from a semi-hydroquinone species and a CoIII-hydroperoxide intermediate. Additional experimental and computational data suggest that a coordinated H2O2 intermediate oxidizes a second equivalent of hydroquinone. This research was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences. The NSF provided partial support for the EPR instrumentation (NSF CHE-0741901).

  17. Bacterial community composition and abundance in leachate of semi-aerobic and anaerobic landfills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Zhang; Bo Yue; Qi Wang; Zechun Huang; Qifei Huang; Zengqiang Zhang

    2011-01-01

    The abundance and phylogenetic composition of bacterial community in leachate of semi-aerobic and anaerobic landfill were compared through real-time polymerase chain reaction and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis.In semi-aerobic landfill scenario,the bacterial 16S rRNA copy numbers in leachate had no significant reduction from initial stage to stable period.In the scenario of anaerobic landfill,the largest bacterial 16S rRNA gene copy number was found in leachate at initial stage,but it reduced significantly at stable period.Moreover,methane-oxidizing bacteria population in stable period was lower than that in initial period in both two landfill processes.However,semi-aerobic landfill leachate had more methanotrophic bacteria populations than that in the anaerobic one.Furthermore,according to the sequences and phylogenetic analysis,obvious difference could be detected in bacterial community composition in different scenarios.Proteobacteria and bacteroidetes took up a dominantly higher proportion in semi-aerobic landfill leachate.To summarize up,different landfill methods and its landfill ages had crucial impacts on bacterial abundance and composition in leachate of semi-aerobic and anaerobic landfills.

  18. Cognitive enhancement by transcranial laser stimulation and acute aerobic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jungyun; Castelli, Darla M; Gonzalez-Lima, F

    2016-08-01

    This is the first randomized, controlled study comparing the cognitive effects of transcranial laser stimulation and acute aerobic exercise on the same cognitive tasks. We examined whether transcranial infrared laser stimulation of the prefrontal cortex, acute high-intensity aerobic exercise, or the combination may enhance performance in sustained attention and working memory tasks. Sixty healthy young adults were randomly assigned to one of the following four treatments: (1) low-level laser therapy (LLLT) with infrared laser to two forehead sites while seated (total 8 min, 1064 nm continuous wave, 250 mW/cm(2), 60 J/cm(2) per site of 13.6 cm(2)); (2) acute exercise (EX) of high-intensity (total 20 min, with 10-min treadmill running at 85-90 % VO2max); (3) combined treatment (LLLT + EX); or (4) sham control (CON). Participants were tested for prefrontal measures of sustained attention with the psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) and working memory with the delayed match-to-sample task (DMS) before and after the treatments. As compared to CON, both LLLT and EX reduced reaction time in the PVT [F(1.56) = 4.134, p = 0.01, η (2)  = 0.181] and increased the number of correct responses in the DMS [F(1.56) = 4.690, p = 0.005, η (2)  = 0.201], demonstrating a significant enhancing effect of LLLT and EX on cognitive performance. LLLT + EX effects were similar but showed no significantly greater improvement on PVT and DMS than LLLT or EX alone. The transcranial infrared laser stimulation and acute aerobic exercise treatments were similarly effective for cognitive enhancement, suggesting that they augment prefrontal cognitive functions similarly.

  19. Mechanism of Kenaf Retting Using Aerobes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢士森; 陈季华; 黄秀宝

    2001-01-01

    The experimental results showed that the duration of microbial retting processing of kenaf fibers by using aerobic microbe was four times shorter than that by using anaerobic microbe. The residual gum percentage,breaking strength, breaking elongation and linear density of aerobic retted kenaf bundle fibers did not show significantly difference with that of anaerobic retted kenaf bundle fibers by ANOVA-Tukey's studentized test at a = 5% except for the softness. The bioenergetic principle and the calculation of the amount of ATP produced during the decomposition processing of kenaf gums were used to explain why the retting duration in the case of using aerobic microbes was much shorter than that of using anaerobic microbes.

  20. Immunological analysis of aerobic bioreactor bovine theileriosis vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Habibi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the pilot production of aerobic bioreactor tropical theileriosis vaccine was optimized with the aim of immunological assays for further mass production.We have shown earlier the delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH assay could be used for evaluating the immunity and memory cells against specific Theileria antigen in vaccinated animals. In addition, TNF-α is the principle cytokine in modulating the cytotoxic activity of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL. Immunological analysis of the vaccine was performed by using two cell mediated immunity (CMI in vitro and in vivo DTH test (Theilerin and TNF-α assay.The results of immune responses of susceptible immunized cattle by bioreactor vaccine in comparison with conventional flask vaccine revealed a significant stimulation of immune cells by transcription of high level of TNF-α and positive reaction against Theileria antigen in Theilerin skin test (DTH.The equal immunological results achieved in both above mentioned vaccines verified the satisfactory immunity for aerobic bioreactor theileriosis vaccine for advance mass vaccination in the field on a large-scale.

  1. Therapeutic aspects of aerobic dance participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estivill, M

    1995-01-01

    An ethnographic analysis of aerobic dance exercise culture was conducted to determine the impact of the culture on the mind-body connection. After a review of the predominant theories on the relationship between vigorous exercise and elevated mood, aerobic dance participants' experiences are reported to illustrate how cognitive experience and self-esteem may be influenced. Interviews revealed that some participants achieved a pleasantly altered state of consciousness and respite from depression and stress. The relationship of the work ethic to achievement of participant satisfaction is underscored.

  2. Aerobic exercise training in modulation of aerobic physical fitness and balance of burned patients

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Zizi M. Ibrahim; El-Refay, Basant H.; Ali, Rania Reffat

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine the impact of aerobic exercise on aerobic capacity, balance, and treadmill time in patients with thermal burn injury. [Subjects and Methods] Burned adult patients, aged 20–40 years (n=30), from both sexes, with second degree thermal burn injuries covering 20–40% of the total body surface area (TBSA), were enrolled in this trial for 3 months. Patients were randomly divided into; group A (n=15), which performed an aerobic exercise program 3 days/week for ...

  3. Strength training and aerobic exercise training for muscle disease (Review)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voet, N.B.M.; Kooi, E.L. van der; Riphagen, I.I.; Lindeman, E.; Engelen, B.G.M. van; Geurts, A.C.H.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Strength training or aerobic exercise programmes might optimise muscle and cardiorespiratory function and prevent additional disuse atrophy and deconditioning in people with a muscle disease. OBJECTIVES: To examine the safety and efficacy of strength training and aerobic exercise trainin

  4. Ecology of aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs in aquatic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koblížek, Michal

    2015-11-01

    Recognition of the environmental role of photoheterotrophic bacteria has been one of the main themes of aquatic microbiology over the last 15 years. Aside from cyanobacteria and proteorhodopsin-containing bacteria, aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic (AAP) bacteria are the third most numerous group of phototrophic prokaryotes in the ocean. This functional group represents a diverse assembly of species which taxonomically belong to various subgroups of Alpha-, Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria. AAP bacteria are facultative photoheterotrophs which use bacteriochlorophyll-containing reaction centers to harvest light energy. The light-derived energy increases their bacterial growth efficiency, which provides a competitive advantage over heterotrophic species. Thanks to their enzymatic machinery AAP bacteria are active, rapidly growing organisms which contribute significantly to the recycling of organic matter. This chapter summarizes the current knowledge of the ecology of AAP bacteria in aquatic environments, implying their specific role in the microbial loop.

  5. Corrosion inhibition of mild steel by aerobic biofilm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chongdar, Shobhana [Naval Materials Research Laboratory, Addl. Ambarnath 421506 (India); Gunasekaran, G. [Naval Materials Research Laboratory, Addl. Ambarnath 421506 (India)]. E-mail: gunanmrl@rediffmail.com; Kumar, Pradeep [Naval Materials Research Laboratory, Addl. Ambarnath 421506 (India)

    2005-08-30

    Mild steel electrodes were incubated in phosphate-buffered basal salt solution (BSS) having two different aerobic bacteria, viz. Pseudomonas alcaligenes and Pseudomonas cichorii. In the medium containing P. cichorii, significant reduction in the corrosion rate was observed due to the surface reaction leading to the formation of corrosion inhibiting bacterial biofilm. With a view to understand the mechanism of microbially influenced corrosion/corrosion inhibition, electrochemical and biological experiments such as electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements and biochemical analysis were made. The exposed surfaces were examined using scanning electron micrographs (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA). The scraped surface film was also examined using FT-IR spectroscopy. The results suggested that mild steel surface contained iron oxide-phosphate layer covered with bacteria and exo polymeric substance (EPS)/iron-EPS complex for P. cichorii and iron oxides and iron phosphate for P. alcaligenes.

  6. Aerobic exercise in fibromyalgia: a practical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Eric N; Blotman, Francis

    2010-07-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the current evidence to support guidelines for aerobic exercise (AE) and fibromyalgia (FM) in practice, and to outline specific research needs in these areas. Data sources consisted of a PubMed search, 2007 Cochrane Data Base Systematic review, 2008 Ottawa panel evidence-based clinical practice guidelines, as well as additional references found from the initial search. Study selection included randomized clinical trials that compared an aerobic-only exercise intervention (land or pool based) with an untreated control, a non-exercise intervention or other exercise programs in patients responding to the 1990 American College of Rheumatology criteria for FM. The following outcome data were obtained: pain, tender points, perceived improvement in FM symptoms such as the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire total score (FIQ), physical function, depression (e.g., Beck Depression Inventory, FIQ subscale for depression), fatigue and sleep were extracted from 19 clinical trials that considered the effects of aerobic-only exercise in FM patients. Data synthesis shows that there is moderate evidence of important benefit of aerobic-only exercise in FM on physical function and possibly on tender points and pain. It appears to be sufficient evidence to support the practice of AE as a part of the multidisciplinary management of FM. However, future studies must be more adequately sized, homogeneously assessed, and monitored for adherence, to draw definitive conclusions.

  7. Integrated anaerobic and aerobic treatment of sewage.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaijun Wang,

    1994-01-01

    This thesis describes results of investigations dealing with sequential concept of anaerobic-aerobic treatment of municipal wastewater. The main purposes of the study were 1) to develop a proper anaerobic hydrolytic pretreatment unit, consisting of a Hydrolysis Upflow Sludge Bed (HUSB-) reactor and

  8. Intraspecific variation in aerobic and anaerobic locomotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jon Christian; Tirsgård, Bjørn; Cordero, Gerardo A.;

    2015-01-01

    Intraspecific variation and trade-off in aerobic and anaerobic traits remain poorly understood in aquatic locomotion. Using gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata), both axial swimmers, this study tested four hypotheses: (1) gait transition from steady...

  9. Ventilation and Speech Characteristics during Submaximal Aerobic Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Susan E.; Hipp, Jenny; Alessio, Helaine

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined alterations in ventilation and speech characteristics as well as perceived dyspnea during submaximal aerobic exercise tasks. Method: Twelve healthy participants completed aerobic exercise-only and simultaneous speaking and aerobic exercise tasks at 50% and 75% of their maximum oxygen consumption (VO[subscript 2] max).…

  10. Aerobic exercise training in modulation of aerobic physical fitness and balance of burned patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Zizi M Ibrahim; El-Refay, Basant H; Ali, Rania Reffat

    2015-03-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine the impact of aerobic exercise on aerobic capacity, balance, and treadmill time in patients with thermal burn injury. [Subjects and Methods] Burned adult patients, aged 20-40 years (n=30), from both sexes, with second degree thermal burn injuries covering 20-40% of the total body surface area (TBSA), were enrolled in this trial for 3 months. Patients were randomly divided into; group A (n=15), which performed an aerobic exercise program 3 days/week for 60 min and participated in a traditional physical therapy program, and group B (n=15), which only participated in a traditional exercise program 3 days/week. Maximal aerobic capacity, treadmill time, and Berg balance scale were measured before and after the study. [Results] In both groups, the results revealed significant improvements after treatment in all measurements; however, the improvement in group A was superior to that in group B. [Conclusion] The results provide evidence that aerobic exercises for adults with healed burn injuries improve aerobic physical fitness and balance.

  11. Cobalt(II) supported on ethylenediamine-functionalized nanocellulose as an efficient catalyst for room temperature aerobic oxidation of alcohols

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ahmad Shaabani; Sajjad Keshipour; Mona Hamidzad; Mozhdeh Seyyedhamzeh

    2014-01-01

    Ethylenediamine-functionalized nanocellulose complexed with cobalt(II) was found to be a highly efficient heterogeneous catalyst for the room temperature aerobic oxidation of various types of primary and secondary benzylic alcohols into their corresponding aldehydes and ketones, respectively. The catalyst showed no significant loss of efficiency after five reaction cycles.

  12. Formation of imines by selective gold-catalysed aerobic oxidative coupling of alcohols and amines under ambient conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kegnæs, Søren; Mielby, Jerrik Jørgen; Mentzel, Uffe Vie

    2010-01-01

    The formation of imines by aerobic oxidative coupling of mixtures of alcohols and amines was studied using gold nanoparticles supported on titanium dioxide, TiO2, as a heterogeneous catalyst. The reactions were performed at ambient conditions (room temperature and atmospheric pressure) and occurred...

  13. Aerobic Catalytic Oxidation of Cyclohexene over TiZrCo Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aerobic oxidation of hydrocarbon is of great significance from the viewpoints of both fundamental and industry studies as it can transfer the petrochemical feedstock into valuable chemicals. In this work, we investigated the aerobic oxidation of cyclohexene over TiZrCo catalysts, in which 2-cyclohexen-1-one was produced with a high selectivity of 57.6% at a conversion of 92.2%, which are comparable to the best results reported for the aerobic oxidation of cyclohexene over heterogeneous catalysts. The influences of kinds of solvent, substrate concentration and reaction temperature were evaluated. Moreover, the catalytic performance of the TiZrCo catalyst and the main catalytic active species were also discussed. The results of SEM, XRD and XPS suggested that the surface CoO and Co3O4 species are the catalytic active species and contribute to the high activity and selectivity in the present cyclohexene oxidation. The present catalytic system should have wide applications in the aerobic oxidation of hydrocarbons.

  14. Anaerobic Metabolism: Linkages to Trace Gases and Aerobic Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megonigal, J. P.; Hines, M. E.; Visscher, P. T.

    2003-12-01

    's surface area, they have a profound influence on the biogeochemistry of the planet. This is evident from the observation that the O2 and CH4 content of Earth's atmosphere are in extreme disequilibrium (Sagan et al., 1993). The combination of high aerobic primary production and anoxic sediments provided the large deposits of fossil fuels that have become vital and contentious sources of energy for modern industrialized societies. Anaerobic metabolism is responsible for the abundance of N2 in the atmosphere; otherwise N2-fixing bacteria would have consumed most of the N2 pool long ago (Schlesinger, 1997). Anaerobic microorganisms are common symbionts of termites, cattle, and many other animals, where they aid digestion. Nutrient and pollutant chemistry are strongly modified by the reduced conditions that prevail in wetland and aquatic ecosystems.This review of anaerobic metabolism emphasizes aerobic oxidation, because the two processes cannot be separated in a complete treatment of the topic. It is process oriented and highlights the fascinating microorganisms that mediate anaerobic biogeochemistry. We begin this review with a brief discussion of CO2 assimilation by autotrophs, the source of most of the reducing power on Earth, and then consider the biological processes that harness this potential energy. Energy liberation begins with the decomposition of organic macromolecules to relatively simple compounds, which are simplified further by fermentation. Methanogenesis is considered next because CH4 is a product of acetate fermentation, and thus completes the catabolism of organic matter, particularly in the absence of inorganic electron acceptors. Finally, the organisms that use nitrogen, manganese, iron, and sulfur for terminal electron acceptors are considered in order of decreasing free-energy yield of the reactions.

  15. Mechanism of Copper/Azodicarboxylate-Catalyzed Aerobic Alcohol Oxidation: Evidence for Uncooperative Catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Scott D; Stahl, Shannon S

    2016-01-13

    Cooperative catalysis between Cu(II) and redox-active organic cocatalysts is a key feature of important chemical and enzymatic aerobic oxidation reactions, such as alcohol oxidation mediated by Cu/TEMPO and galactose oxidase. Nearly 20 years ago, Markó and co-workers reported that azodicarboxylates, such as di-tert-butyl azodicarboxylate (DBAD), are effective redox-active cocatalysts in Cu-catalyzed aerobic alcohol oxidation reactions [Markó, I. E., et al. Science 1996, 274, 2044], but the nature of the cooperativity between Cu and azodicarboxylates is not well understood. Here, we report a mechanistic study of Cu/DBAD-catalyzed aerobic alcohol oxidation. In situ infrared spectroscopic studies reveal a burst of product formation prior to steady-state catalysis, and gas-uptake measurements show that no O2 is consumed during the burst. Kinetic studies reveal that the anaerobic burst and steady-state turnover have different rate laws. The steady-state rate does not depend on [O2] or [DBAD]. These results, together with other EPR and in situ IR spectroscopic and kinetic isotope effect studies, reveal that the steady-state mechanism consists of two interdependent catalytic cycles that operate in sequence: a fast Cu(II)/DBAD pathway, in which DBAD serves as the oxidant, and a slow Cu(II)-only pathway, in which Cu(II) is the oxidant. This study provides significant insight into the redox cooperativity, or lack thereof, between Cu and redox-active organic cocatalysts in aerobic oxidation reactions.

  16. Acute effects of aerobic exercise promote learning

    OpenAIRE

    Renza Perini; Marta Bortoletto; Michela Capogrosso; Anna Fertonani; Carlo Miniussi

    2016-01-01

    The benefits that physical exercise confers on cardiovascular health are well known, whereas the notion that physical exercise can also improve cognitive performance has only recently begun to be explored and has thus far yielded only controversial results. In the present study, we used a sample of young male subjects to test the effects that a single bout of aerobic exercise has on learning. Two tasks were run: the first was an orientation discrimination task involving the primary visual cor...

  17. Experimental evidence for aerobic bio-denitrification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Nitrate pollution of groundwater is paid more and more attention for its hazardous to environments and human health. A strain of DN11 was isolated from soil and used in the laboratory columns filled with various media for nitrate removal. The experimental results showed that DN11could reduce nitrate at different rates in different media under the aerobic condition. The mechanism for nitrate removal with DN11 is explained meanwhile.

  18. Aerobic Exercise, Estrogens, and Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    include early age at menarche, late age at menopause and first childbirth, nulliparity, family history of breast cancer, benign breast disease, and non...et al. (24), a four-cycle intervention consisting of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise in combination with a caloric restrictive diet resulted in...vigorous exercise intervention independent of diet restriction and weight loss. We specifically sought to determine if the exercise intervention would

  19. Trace metal pyritization variability in response to mangrove soil aerobic and anaerobic oxidation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, W; Borrelli, N L; Ferreira, T O; Marques, A G B; Osterrieth, M; Guizan, C

    2014-02-15

    The degree of iron pyritization (DOP) and degree of trace metal pyritization (DTMP) were evaluated in mangrove soil profiles from an estuarine area located in Rio de Janeiro (SE Brazil). The soil pH was negatively correlated with redox potential (Eh) and positively correlated with DOP and DTMP of some elements (Mn, Cu and Pb), suggesting that pyrite oxidation generated acidity and can affect the importance of pyrite as a trace metal-binding phase, mainly in response to spatial variability in tidal flooding. Besides these aerobic oxidation effects, results from a sequential extraction analyses of reactive phases evidenced that Mn oxidized phase consumption in reaction with pyrite can be also important to determine the pyritization of trace elements. Cumulative effects of these aerobic and anaerobic oxidation processes were evidenced as factors affecting the capacity of mangrove soils to act as a sink for trace metals through pyritization processes.

  20. Acute effects of aerobic exercise on cognitive function in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamijo, Keita; Hayashi, Yoichi; Sakai, Tomoaki; Yahiro, Tatsuhisa; Tanaka, Kiyoji; Nishihira, Yoshiaki

    2009-05-01

    The present study investigated the effects of acute aerobic exercise on cognitive brain functions of older adults. Twenty-four males (12 older and 12 younger adults) performed a modified flanker task during a baseline session (no exercise) and after light and moderate cycling exercise in counterbalanced order on different days while measures of task performance and the P3 component of an event-related brain potential were collected. The results indicated that, for both age groups, reaction time following moderate exercise was shorter relative to the other sessions, and P3 latencies following both light and moderate exercise were shorter compared with the baseline session. In contrast, P3 amplitude increased only following moderate exercise in younger adults. These findings suggest that light and moderate exercises improve cognitive function across the adult lifespan, although the mechanisms underlying the effects of observed acute aerobic exercise on cognitive function may be age dependent.

  1. Decolorization and biodegradation of azo dye, reactive blue 59 by aerobic granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolekar, Yogesh M; Nemade, Harshal N; Markad, Vijay L; Adav, Sunil S; Patole, Milind S; Kodam, Kisan M

    2012-01-01

    The present study deals with development of aerobic granules from textile wastewater sludge and challenged with different concentration of reactive blue 59 (RB59) to test their dye degradation potential. The granules efficiently degraded reactive blue 59 and also sustained higher dye loading of up to 5.0 g l(-1). The significant induction of enzymes azoreductase and cytochrome P-450 indicated their prominent role in the dye degradation while genotoxicity studies demonstrated that the biotransformed product of the dye as non-toxic. The microbial community of the textile dyes degrading aerobic sludge granules analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE), revealed significantly diverse dye degrading microbial community belonging to alpha-, beta-, and gamma-proteobacteria.

  2. Palladium-Catalyzed N-Alkylation of Amides and Amines with Alcohols Employing the Aerobic Relay Race Methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余小春; 姜澜; 李强; 谢嫒媛; 徐清

    2012-01-01

    Possibly because homogeneous palladium catalysts are not typical borrowing hydrogen catalysts and ligands are thus ineffective in catalyst activation under conventional anaerobic conditions, they had not been used in the N-alkylation reactions of amines/amides with alcohols in the past. By employing the aerobic relay race methodol- ogy with Pd-catalyzed aerobic alcohol oxidation being a more effective protocol for alcohol activation, ligand-free homogeneous palladiums are successfully used as active catalysts in the dehydrative N-alkylation reactions, giving high yields and selectivities of the alkylated amides and amines. Mechanistic studies implied that the reaction most probably proceeds via the novel relay race mechanism we recently discovered and proposed.

  3. [Cardiovascular protection and mechanisms of actions of aerobic exercise].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Zuo-Xu; Zhang, Yuan; Gao, Feng

    2014-08-01

    It is well established that aerobic exercise exerts beneficial effect on cardiovascular system, but the underlying mechanisms are yet to be elucidated. Recent studies have shown that aerobic exercise ameliorates insulin resistance, inflammation and mitochondrial dysfunction which play important roles in the development of cardiovascular disease. In this review, we discussed the underlying mechanisms of the cardioprotective role of aerobic exercise, especially the latest progress in this field.

  4. Intensity Thresholds for Aerobic Exercise–Induced Hypoalgesia

    OpenAIRE

    Naugle, Kelly M.; Naugle, Keith E.; Fillingim, Roger B; Samuels, Brian; Riley, Joseph L.

    2014-01-01

    Despite many studies investigating exercise-induced hypoalgesia, there is limited understanding of the optimal intensity of aerobic exercise in producing hypoalgesic effects across different types of pain stimuli. Given that not all individuals are willing or capable of engaging in high intensity aerobic exercise, whether moderate intensity aerobic exercise is associated with a hypoalgesic response and whether this response generalizes to multiple pain induction techniques needs to be substan...

  5. Perfection aerobic possibilities of athletes in sport dance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Bo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The organized analysis to functions of the aerobic metabolism of the sport dancers. They are determined reduced components of the aerobic metabolism of partners (male and female. The motivated directivity of the training means and program for development component of the aerobic functions skilled athlete in sport dance. It is proved that loading that is used in training process by sport dances must have a character of cardiorespiratory system.

  6. Research on aerobics classes influence on physical prepareduess of students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasulia M. А.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Physical skills of female students doing aerobics have been studied. 165 female students aged 17-18 divided into three groups of 55 each have taken part in the experiment. Groups have been trained according to different methods conventionally called 'power aerobics', 'dance aerobics' and 'jump aerobics'. Level of female students' physical skills has been determined by the results of seven tests in the beginning of an academic year and after six-months term. Mathematical treatment of the results has been carried out. The most preferable as to improving physical skills level method has been discovered to be the one aimed on power abilities development method.

  7. Aerobic capacity related to cardiac size in young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, M; Wollmer, P; Karlsson, M

    2013-01-01

    Aerobic capacity, defined as peak oxygen uptake (VO2PEAK), is generally considered to be the best single marker for aerobic fitness. We assessed if VO2PEAK is related to different cardiac dimensions in healthy young children on a population base.......Aerobic capacity, defined as peak oxygen uptake (VO2PEAK), is generally considered to be the best single marker for aerobic fitness. We assessed if VO2PEAK is related to different cardiac dimensions in healthy young children on a population base....

  8. EXERCISE AND REACTION TIMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Physical exercise provides multiple benefits to an individual. It is known that exercising regularly can prevent coronary heart disease, hypertension and obesity and improve flexibility. The effect of exercise on visual reaction time needs to be studied, a s the existing data on the benefit of aerobic exercise on psychomotor functions is insufficient. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Online Visual reaction time is measured before and after exercise. Subjects were instructed to run on the spot with a springy step in ex aggerated motion for 50 to 60 counts at 2 counts per second, maintaining a constant rhythm. RESULTS: We observed that reaction time was significantly lower after performance of exercise. Individuals reported improved mental alertness, feel good factor, bet ter mood and increase circulation. CONCLUSION: Improving reaction times in sports can help the athlete to optimize his performance in making decisions and increasing attention span for example getting off the starting blocks sooner or successfully making c ontact with the ball. In addition this study shows that use of physical exercise helps improve cognitive function. Exercise proves to be a cheap non pharmacological alternative to improve cognitive performance.

  9. Screening and identification of aerobic denitrifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, K.; Deng, H. M.; Chen, Y. T.; Zhou, H. J.; Yan, G. X.

    2016-08-01

    With the standards of the effluent quality more stringent, it becomes a quite serious problem for municipalities and industries to remove nitrogen from wastewater. Bioremediation is a potential method for the removal of nitrogen and other pollutants because of its high efficiency and low cost. Seven predominant aerobic denitrifiers were screened and characterized from the activated sludge in the CAST unit. Some of these strains removed 87% nitrate nitrogen at least. Based on their phenotypic and phylogenetic characteristics, the isolates were identified as the genera of Ralstonia, Achromobacter, Aeromonas and Enterobacter.

  10. Intraspecific variation in aerobic and anaerobic locomotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jon Christian; Tirsgård, Bjørn; Cordero, Gerardo A.;

    2015-01-01

    Intraspecific variation and trade-off in aerobic and anaerobic traits remain poorly understood in aquatic locomotion. Using gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata), both axial swimmers, this study tested four hypotheses: (1) gait transition from steady...... to unsteady (i.e., burst-assisted) swimming is associated with anaerobic metabolism evidenced as excess post exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC); (2) variation in swimming performance (critical swimming speed; U crit) correlates with metabolic scope (MS) or anaerobic capacity (i.e., maximum EPOC); (3...

  11. Vanadium catalyzed direct synthesis of imines from amines or alcohols and amines by an aerobic oxidative reaction under mild conditions%温和条件下钒催化氧化胺、醇和胺直接合成亚胺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王连月; 陈波; 任兰会; 张恒耘; 吕迎; 高爽

    2015-01-01

    The direct synthesis of imines from amines or alcohols and amines by vanadium catalyzed aerobic oxidation was developed. Without an additive or promoter, various symmetrical and unsymmetrical imines were obtained in good to excellent yields under mild conditions with air as an environmen‐tally benign oxidant. The catalyst is very easy to prepare and use, and this catalytic system is also effective for the synthesis of heteroatom‐containing imines.%开发了钒催化氧化胺、醇和胺直接合成亚胺催化体系,无须额外的添加剂或促进剂,空气作为环境友好的氧源,温和条件下,能高收率地得到各种对称和非对称亚胺,并且催化剂非常容易制备和使用。该催化体系对含杂原子亚胺的合成也非常有效。

  12. Characterization and aerobic biodegradation of selected monoterpenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misra, G.; Pavlostathis, S.G.; Li, J.; Purdue, E.M. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Monoterpenes are biogenic chemicals and occur in abundance in nature. Large-scale industrial use of these chemicals has recently been initiated in an attempt to replace halogenated solvents and chlorofluorocarbons which have been implicated in the stratospheric depletion of ozone. This study examined four hydrocarbon monoterpenes (d-limonene, {alpha}-pinene, {gamma}-terpinene, and terpinolene) and four alcohols (arbanol, linalool, plinol, and {alpha}-terpineol). Water solubility, vapor pressure, and octanol/water partition coefficients were estimated. Aerobic biodegradability tests were conducted in batch reactors by utilizing forest soil extract and enriched cultures as inoculum. The hydrophobic nature and high volatility of the hydrocarbons restricted the investigation to relatively low aqueous concentrations. Each monoterpene was analyzed with a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector after extraction from the aqueous phase with isooctane. Terpene mineralization was tested by monitoring liquid-phase carbon, CO{sub 2} production and biomass growth. All four hydrocarbons and two alcohols readily degraded under aerobic conditions. Plinol resisted degradation in assays using inocula from diverse sources, while arbanol degraded very slowly. The intrinsic biokinetics coefficients for the degradation of d-limonene and {alpha}-terpineol were estimated by using cultures enriched with the respective monoterpenes. Monoterpene biodegradation followed Monod kinetics.

  13. Acute effects of aerobic exercise promote learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perini, Renza; Bortoletto, Marta; Capogrosso, Michela; Fertonani, Anna; Miniussi, Carlo

    2016-05-05

    The benefits that physical exercise confers on cardiovascular health are well known, whereas the notion that physical exercise can also improve cognitive performance has only recently begun to be explored and has thus far yielded only controversial results. In the present study, we used a sample of young male subjects to test the effects that a single bout of aerobic exercise has on learning. Two tasks were run: the first was an orientation discrimination task involving the primary visual cortex, and the second was a simple thumb abduction motor task that relies on the primary motor cortex. Forty-four and forty volunteers participated in the first and second experiments, respectively. We found that a single bout of aerobic exercise can significantly facilitate learning mechanisms within visual and motor domains and that these positive effects can persist for at least 30 minutes following exercise. This finding suggests that physical activity, at least of moderate intensity, might promote brain plasticity. By combining physical activity-induced plasticity with specific cognitive training-induced plasticity, we favour a gradual up-regulation of a functional network due to a steady increase in synaptic strength, promoting associative Hebbian-like plasticity.

  14. The Aerobic Oxidation of Bromide to Dibromine Catalyzed by Homogeneous Oxidation Catalysts and Initiated by Nitrate in Acetic Acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Partenheimer, Walt; Fulton, John L.; Sorensen, Christina M.; Pham, Van Thai; Chen, Yongsheng

    2014-06-01

    A small amount of nitrate, ~0.002 molal, initiates the Co/Mn catalyzed aerobic oxidation of bromide compounds (HBr,NaBr,LiBr) to dibromine in acetic acid at room temperature. At temperatures 40oC or less , the reaction is autocatalytic. Co(II) and Mn(II) themselves and mixed with ionic bromide are known homogeneous oxidation catalysts. The reaction was discovered serendipitously when a Co/Br and Co/Mn/Br catalyst solution was prepared for the aerobic oxidation of methyaromatic compounds and the Co acetate contained a small amount of impurity i.e. nitrate. The reaction was characterized by IR, UV-VIS, MALDI and EXAFS spectroscopies and the coordination chemistry is described. The reaction is inhibited by water and its rate changed by pH. The change in these variables, as well as others, are identical to those observed during homogeneous, aerobic oxidation of akylaromatics. A mechanism is proposed. Accidental addition of a small amount of nitrate compound into a Co/Mn/Br/acetic acid mixture in a large, commercial feedtank is potentially dangerous.

  15. Constant growth rate can be supported by decreasing energy flux and increasing aerobic glycolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slavov, Nikolai; Budnik, Bogdan A; Schwab, David; Airoldi, Edoardo M; van Oudenaarden, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Fermenting glucose in the presence of enough oxygen to support respiration, known as aerobic glycolysis, is believed to maximize growth rate. We observed increasing aerobic glycolysis during exponential growth, suggesting additional physiological roles for aerobic glycolysis. We investigated such ro

  16. Aerobic Digestion. Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopping, Paul H.

    This manual contains the textual material for a single-lesson unit on aerobic sludge digestion. Topic areas addressed include: (1) theory of aerobic digestion; (2) system components; (3) performance factors; (4) indicators of stable operation; and (5) operational problems and their solutions. A list of objectives, glossary of key terms, and…

  17. Longitudinal Predictors of Aerobic Performance in Adolescent Soccer Players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valente-dos-Santos, Joao; Coelho-e-Silva, Manuel J.; Duarte, Joao; Figueiredo, Antonio J.; Liparotti, Joao R.; Sherar, Lauren B.; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Malina, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    Background. The importance of aerobic performance in youth soccer is well established. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the contributions of chronological age (CA), skeletal age (SA), body size, and training to the longitudinal development of aerobic performance in youth male soccer play

  18. Aerobic training in persons who have recovered from juvenile dermatomyositis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisager, M; Mathiesen, P R; Vissing, J

    2013-01-01

    A recent study has shown that 36 persons who had recovered from juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) have on average an 18% decrease in maximal oxygen uptake. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a 12-week aerobic training program in this group, and assess whether aerobic training...

  19. Auto heated Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion of sewage sludge; Digestion aerobia termofila autosostenida de lodos urbanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia de las Heras, J. L.; Gutierrez, I.

    2002-07-01

    Auto heated Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion (ATAD) is one of the most promising technologies for applying the digested sludge to soil amendment. The system was studied in the 60's and developed mostly in Europe since the 70's. The full-scale facilities improvement ran in parallel to the scientific and legislative worry about the presence of pathogenic organisms both in the raw and the digested sewage sludge. ATAD is usually a two stage aerobic process working in the thermophilic temperature range (40 to 80 degree centigree) without any external heat source; the heat produced by the biochemical exergonic reactions during the aerobic degradation of the organic sludge holds the desired temperature values. A comparison of this system with the existing anaerobic stabilisation processes shows as main advantages a high hygienization capacity, small reactor volume for the same organic loading, is resistant to overloading and temperature shocks, is easily manageable, and is economically feasible for small.medium size populations. This process is specially suitable to fulfill the law requirements imposed by the most demanding countries regarding the application of treated sewage sludge to soil improvement. (Author) 19 refs.

  20. Comparison of Ca{sup 2+} and Mg{sup 2+} enhancing aerobic granulation in SBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Lin [School of Forestry, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040 (China); Gao Dawen, E-mail: dawengao@gmail.com [School of Forestry, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040 (China); State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, 73 Huanghe Rd., Harbin 150090 (China); Zhang Min [School of Forestry, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040 (China); Fu Yuan [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, 73 Huanghe Rd., Harbin 150090 (China)

    2010-09-15

    Two sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) were operated to investigate the effect of Ca{sup 2+} and Mg{sup 2+} augmentation on aerobic granulation. Reactor R1 was augmented with Ca{sup 2+} at 40 mg/L, while Mg{sup 2+} was added to the reactor R2 with 40 mg/L. Results showed that the reactor R1 had a faster granulation process compared with R2, and the mature granules in R1 showed better physical characteristics. However, the mature granules in R2 had the higher production yield of polysaccharides and proteins, and aerobic granules in R2 experienced a faster substrate biodegradation. Microbial and genetic characteristics in mature granules were analyzed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) techniques. The results revealed that Mg{sup 2+} addition led to higher microbial diversity in mature granules. In addition, an uncultured bacterium (AB447697) was major specie in R1, and {beta}-proteobacterium was dominant in R2. It can be concluded that Ca{sup 2+} had an important effect on physical properties of aerobic granules, while Mg{sup 2+} played a key role on biological properties during the sludge granulation.

  1. Estimation of rates of aerobic hydrocarbon biodegradation by simulation of gas transport in the unsaturated zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahvis, M.A.; Baehr, A.L.

    1996-01-01

    The distribution of oxygen and carbon dioxide gases in the unsaturated zone provides a geochemical signature of aerobic hydrocarbon degradation at petroleum product spill sites. The fluxes of these gases are proportional to the rate of aerobic biodegradation and are quantified by calibrating a mathematical transport model to the oxygen and carbon dioxide gas concentration data. Reaction stoichiometry is assumed to convert the gas fluxes to a corresponding rate of hydrocarbon degradation. The method is applied at a gasoline spill site in Galloway Township, New Jersey, to determine the rate of aerobic degradation of hydrocarbons associated with passive and bioventing remediation field experiments. At the site, microbial degradation of hydrocarbons near the water table limits the migration of hydrocarbon solutes in groundwater and prevents hydrocarbon volatilization into the unsaturated zone. In the passive remediation experiment a site-wide degradation rate estimate of 34,400 g yr-1 (11.7 gal. yr-1) of hydrocarbon was obtained by model calibration to carbon dioxide gas concentration data collected in December 1989. In the bioventing experiment, degradation rate estimates of 46.0 and 47.9 g m-2 yr-1 (1.45 x 10-3 and 1.51 x 10-3 gal. ft.-2 yr-1) of hydrocarbon were obtained by model calibration to oxygen and carbon dioxide gas concentration data, respectively. Method application was successful in quantifying the significance of a naturally occurring process that can effectively contribute to plume stabilization.

  2. Estimation of rates of aerobic hydrocarbon biodegradation by simulation of gas transport in the unsaturated zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahvis, Matthew A.; Baehr, Arthur L.

    1996-07-01

    The distribution of oxygen and carbon dioxide gases in the unsaturated zone provides a geochemical signature of aerobic hydrocarbon degradation at petroleum product spill sites. The fluxes of these gases are proportional to the rate of aerobic biodegradation and are quantified by calibrating a mathematical transport model to the oxygen and carbon dioxide gas concentration data. Reaction stoichiometry is assumed to convert the gas fluxes to a corresponding rate of hydrocarbon degradation. The method is applied at a gasoline spill site in Galloway Township, New Jersey, to determine the rate of aerobic degradation of hydrocarbons associated with passive and bioventing remediation field experiments. At the site, microbial degradation of hydrocarbons near the water table limits the migration of hydrocarbon solutes in groundwater and prevents hydrocarbon volatilization into the unsaturated zone. In the passive remediation experiment a site-wide degradation rate estimate of 34,400 gyr-1 (11.7 gal. yr-1) of hydrocarbon was obtained by model calibration to carbon dioxide gas concentration data collected in December 1989. In the bioventing experiment, degradation rate estimates of 46.0 and 47.9 gm-2yr-1 (1.45×10-3 and 1.51×10-3 gal.ft.-2yr-1) of hydrocarbon were obtained by model calibration to oxygen and carbon dioxide gas concentration data, respectively. Method application was successful in quantifying the significance of a naturally occurring process that can effectively contribute to plume stabilization.

  3. The association between ace gene variation and aerobic capacity in winter endurance disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orysiak, J; Zmijewski, P; Klusiewicz, A; Kaliszewski, P; Malczewska-Lenczowska, J; Gajewski, J; Pokrywka, A

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the possible relationship between I/D polymorphism of ACE gene and selected indices of aerobic capacity among male and female athletes practising winter endurance sports. Sixty-six well-trained athletes (female n = 26, male n = 40), aged 18.4 ± 2.8 years, representing winter endurance sports (cross-country skiing, n = 48; biathlon, n = 8; Nordic combined, n = 10) participated in the study. Genotyping for ACE I/D polymorphism was performed using polymerase chain reaction. Maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), maximal running velocity (Vmax) and running velocity at anaerobic threshold (VAT4) were determined in an incremental test to volitional exhaustion on a motorized treadmill. The ACE genotype had no significant effect on absolute VO2max, relative VO2max (divided by body mass or fat free body mass), VAT4 or Vmax. No interaction effect of gender x ACE genotype was found for each of the examined aerobic capacity indices. ACE gene variation was not found to be a determinant of aerobic capacity in either female or male Polish, well-trained endurance athletes participating in winter sports.

  4. Aerobic rice: crop performance and water use efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Grassi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Rice (Oryza sativa production largely depends on traditional flooded rice systems whose sustainability is threatened by a progressive decrease in water availability and a constant increase in rice demand due to strong demographic boom in world population. A newly developed water-saving rice system is aerobic rice in which rice grows in nonflooded and unsaturated soil. From 2001, at the International Rice Research Institute in the Philippines, this system has been monitored to identify potentially promising varieties of rice able to grow as an irrigated upland crop and quantify yield potential and water use efficiency. This study reports on the results of cultivating the upland rice variety Apo under different water conditions in 2004-2005 at the IRRI farm in both the dry and wet seasons. The water treatments considered were: aerobic and flooded conditions, alternated flooded and aerobic conditions and aerobic after fallow. Yield and water productivity were compared between aerobic and flooded treatment in both seasons, with the objective of analysing the differences between water treatments. In the experiment the effect of different nitrogen (N application is also considered. The results indicate that the aerobic rice yield was lower than rice production under flood treatment, confirming that observed over past years. Nevertheless, when the aerobic condition is alternated with the anaerobic condition, or a fallow period, the production under aerobic treatment provides good yields (respectively 4.2 and 4.4 ha-1. The fallow period was introduced to observe the response of rice grown under this management. Water productivity was higher in aerobic fields, especially after fallow (0.88 g kg-1. The nitrogen application induced an increase in yield and water productivity, partially compensating for the lack of water in aerobic fields.

  5. [Isoformes of Malate Dehydrogenase from Rhodovulum Steppense A-20s Grown Chemotrophically under Aerobic Condtions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eprintsev, A T; Falaleeva, M I; Lyashchenko, M S; Gataullinaa, M O; Kompantseva, E I

    2016-01-01

    Three malate dehydrogenase isoforms (65-, 60-, and 71-fold purifications) with specific activities of 4.23, 3.88, and 4.56 U/mg protein were obtained in an electrophoretically homogenous state from Rhodovulum steppense bacteria strain A-20s chemotropically grown under aerobic conditions. The physicochemical and kinetic properties of malate dehydrogenase isoforms were determined. The molecular weight and the Michaelis constants were determined; the effect of hydrogen ions on the forward and reverse MDH reaction was studied. The results of the study demonstrated that the enzyme consists of subunits; the molecular weight of subunits was determined by SDS-PAGE.

  6. Impact of acute aerobic exercise and cardiorespiratory fitness on visuospatial attention performance and serum BDNF levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chia-Liang; Chen, Fu-Chen; Pan, Chien-Yu; Wang, Chun-Hao; Huang, Tsang-Hai; Chen, Tzu-Chi

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of the current study was to explore various behavioral and neuroelectric indices after acute aerobic exercise in young adults with different cardiorespiratory fitness levels when performing a cognitive task, and also to gain a mechanistic understanding of the effects of such exercise using the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) biochemical index. Sixty young adults were separated into one non-exercise-intervention and two exercise intervention (EI) (i.e., EIH: higher-fit and EIL: lower-fit) groups according to their maximal oxygen consumption. The participants' cognitive performances (i.e., behavioral and neuroelectric indices via an endogenous visuospatial attention task test) and serum BDNF levels were measured at baseline and after either an acute bout of 30min of moderate intensity aerobic exercise or a control period. Analyses of the results revealed that although acute aerobic exercise decreased reaction times (RTs) and increased the central Contingent Negative Variation (CNV) area in both EI groups, only the EIH group showed larger P3 amplitude and increased frontal CNV area after acute exercise. Elevated BDNF levels were shown after acute exercise for both EI groups, but this was not significantly correlated with changes in behavioral and neuroelectric performances for either group. These results suggest that both EI groups could gain response-related (i.e., RT and central CNV) benefits following a bout of moderate acute aerobic exercise. However, only higher-fit individuals could obtain particular cognition-process-related efficiency with regard to attentional resource allocation (i.e., P3 amplitude) and cognitive preparation processes (i.e., frontal CNV) after acute exercise, implying that the mechanisms underlying the effects of such exercise on neural functioning may be fitness dependent. However, the facilitating effects found in this work could not be attributed to the transient change in BDNF levels after acute exercise.

  7. Aerobic biodegradation of precoagulated cheese whey wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Javier; Prazeres, Ana R; Carvalho, Fatima

    2011-03-23

    Prior to the application of an aerobic biological process, cheese whey wastewater has been pretreated by means of a precipitation stage by adding either NaOH or CaOH2. Both precipitating agents reduce roughly 50% of the raw wastewater chemical oxygen demand (COD). The sludge generated in the prestage shows acceptable settling properties, although solids from the CaOH2-treated effluent are better separated from the liquid bulk than those formed in NaOH-processed wastewater. In both situations, the presedimentation stage renders a supernatant more prone to biodegradation than the untreated effluent. The previous statement is corroborated by the determination of some biological kinetic parameters. Under the operating conditions used in this work, sludge generation after the biological process is reduced to a minimum. The sludge generated shows good settling properties, especially for those experiments in which CaOH2 has previously been added.

  8. Aerobic growth at nanomolar oxygen concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolper, Daniel; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Canfield, Donald Eugene

    2010-01-01

    known. These capabilities also provide a framework for reconstructing a critical period in the history of life, because low, but not negligible, atmospheric oxygen levels could have persisted before the "Great Oxidation" of the Earth's surface about 2.3 to 2.4 billion years ago. Here, we show......Molecular oxygen (O2) is the second most abundant gas in the Earth's atmosphere, but in many natural environments, its concentration is reduced to low or even undetectable levels. Although low-oxygen-adapted organisms define the ecology of low-oxygen environments, their capabilities are not fully...... that Escherichia coli K-12, chosen for its well-understood biochemistry, rapid growth rate, and low-oxygen-affinity terminal oxidase, grows at oxygen levels of ≤ 3 nM, two to three orders of magnitude lower than previously observed for aerobes. Our study expands both the environmental range and temporal history...

  9. Aerobic growth at nanomolar oxygen concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolper, Daniel Aaron; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Canfield, Donald Eugene

    2010-01-01

    known. These capabilities also provide a framework for reconstructing a critical period in the history of life, because low, but not negligible, atmospheric oxygen levels could have persisted before the “Great Oxidation” of the Earth’s surface about 2.3 to 2.4 billion years ago. Here, we show......Molecular oxygen (O2) is the second most abundant gas in the Earth’s atmosphere, but in many natural environments, its concentration is reduced to low or even undetectable levels. Although low-oxygen-adapted organisms define the ecology of low-oxygen environments, their capabilities are not fully...... that Escherichia coli K-12, chosen for its well-understood biochemistry, rapid growth rate, and low-oxygen-affinity terminal oxidase, grows at oxygen levels of ≤ 3 nM, two to three orders of magnitude lower than previously observed for aerobes. Our study expands both the environmental range and temporal history...

  10. Catalytic application of an organosuperbasedenderon grafted on mesoporous SBA-15 and related palladium complex in the aerobic oxidation of alcohols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojat Veisi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available An efficient synthetic method for successful application of amine denderon on SBA-15 and related Pd (II complex has been developed by employing aerobic oxidation of alcohols as model reactions. The yields of the products were in the range from 75% to 92%. The catalyst can be readily recovered and reused at least 5 consecutive cycles without significant leaching and loss its catalytic activity.

  11. Synergistic Catalytic Action of Cobalt(Ⅱ) Hydroxamates and N-Hydroxyphthalimide in the Aerobic Oxidation of p-Xylene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian LIANG; Jian Zhang LI; Bo ZHOU; Sheng Ying QIN

    2005-01-01

    The catalytic performance of a series of cobalt( Ⅱ ) hydroxamates (CoL2) and the synergistic catalytic action of the cobalt complexes combined with N-hydroxyphthalimide (NHPI) in the aerobic oxidation ofp-xylene to p-toluic acid (PTA) were investigated. The results showed that the existing synergistic action in the catalytic oxidation can shorten the induction period of the radical reaction and improve the yield of PTA.

  12. Using Pd-salen complex as an efficient catalyst for the copper- and solvent-free coupling of acyl chlorides with terminal alkynes under aerobic conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    The palladium-salen complex palladium(Ⅱ) N,N'-bis{[5-(triphenylphosphonium)-methyl]salicylidene}-l,2-ethanediamine chloride was found to be a highly active catalyst for the copper- and solvent-free coupling reaction of terminal alkynes with different acyl chlorides in the presence of triethylamine as base, giving excellent ynones under aerobic conditions.

  13. Isolation of aerobic anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria from black smoker plume waters of the juan de fuca ridge in the pacific ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurkov, V; Beatty, J T

    1998-01-01

    A strain of the aerobic anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria was isolated from a deep-ocean hydrothermal vent plume environment. The in vivo absorption spectra of cells indicate the presence of bacteriochlorophyll a incorporated into light-harvesting complex I and a reaction center. The general morphological and physiological characteristics of this new isolate are described.

  14. Development of Aerobic Fitness in Young Team Sport Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Craig B; Gill, Nicholas D; Kinugasa, Taisuke; Kilding, Andrew E

    2015-07-01

    The importance of a high level of aerobic fitness for team sport players is well known. Previous research suggests that aerobic fitness can be effectively increased in adults using traditional aerobic conditioning methods, including high-intensity interval and moderate-intensity continuous training, or more recent game-based conditioning that involves movement and skill-specific tasks, e.g. small-sided games. However, aerobic fitness training for youth team sport players has received limited attention and is likely to differ from that for adults due to changes in maturation. Given young athletes experience different rates of maturation and technical skill development, the most appropriate aerobic fitness training modes and loading parameters are likely to be specific to the developmental stage of a player. Therefore, we analysed studies that investigated exercise protocols to enhance aerobic fitness in young athletes, relative to growth and maturation, to determine current best practice and limitations. Findings were subsequently used to guide an evidence-based model for aerobic fitness development. During the sampling stage (exploration of multiple sports), regular participation in moderate-intensity aerobic fitness training, integrated into sport-specific drills, activities and skill-based games, is recommended. During the specialisation stage (increased commitment to a chosen sport), high-intensity small-sided games should be prioritised to provide the simultaneous development of aerobic fitness and technical skills. Once players enter the investment stage (pursuit of proficiency in a chosen sport), a combination of small-sided games and high-intensity interval training is recommended.

  15. Heritability of aerobic power of individuals in northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, L; Souza, Ec; Oliveira, Mv; do Nascimento, Lfe; Dantas, Pms

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic and environmental contribution to variation in aerobic power in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins. The sample consisted of 20 MZ individuals (12 females and 8 males) and 16 DZ individuals (12 females and 4 males), aged from 8 to 26 years, residents in Natal, Rio Grande do Norte. The twins were assessed by a multistage fitness test. The rate of heritability found for aerobic power was 77%. Based on the results, the estimated heritability was largely responsible for the differences in aerobic power. This implies that such measures are under strong genetic influence.

  16. An alphaproteobacterium capable of both aerobic and anaerobic anoxygenic photosynthesis but incapable of photoautotrophy: Charonomicrobium ambiphototrophicum, gen. nov., sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csotonyi, J T; Stackebrandt, E; Swiderski, J; Schumann, P; Yurkov, V

    2011-03-01

    A facultatively aerobic deep brown coccoid to ovoid bacterium, strain EG17(T), was isolated from a saline effluent stream in the NaCl-dominated brine spring system known as East German Creek in the province of Manitoba, Canada. The strain produced BChl a incorporated into a functional reaction center and two light-harvesting complexes with absorption peaks at 802, 850, and 879 nm. EG17(T) is the first reported anoxygenic phototroph capable of photoheterotrophic growth under both oxic and anoxic conditions. It yielded proportionally the greatest aerobic photosynthetic biomass under oligotrophic conditions. The results of 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons revealed that EG17(T) was related most closely to the aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs Roseibacterium elongatum (98.3%) and quite distantly to both Dinoroseobacter shibae (95.2%) and Roseicyclus mahoneyensis (94.7%). The DNA G + C content was 65.6 mol%. On the basis of the unique dual aerobic/anaerobic photosynthetic capability, the distinctive spectrophotometric absorption of the photosynthetic apparatus, diagnostic physiological and biochemical traits, and the moderate phylogenetic separation between EG17(T) and its nearest relatives, it is concluded that this microorganism should be classified as a novel genus and species, Charonomicrobium ambiphototrophicum gen. nov., sp. nov., with EG17(T) as the type strain.

  17. Bacteriocin formation by dominant aerobic sporeformers isolated from traditional maari

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaboré, Donatien; Thorsen, Line; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris

    2012-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of 8 Bacillus spp. and 2 Lysinibacillus spp. representing the predominant aerobic sporeformers during traditional maari fermentations, a traditional fermented baobab seeds product from Burkina Faso, was investigated. The antimicrobial activity was assessed against a total...

  18. Is aerobic workload positively related to ambulatory blood pressure?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korshøj, Mette; Clays, Els; Lidegaard, Mark;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Cardiovascular disease is prevalent among workers with high levels of occupational physical activity. The increased risk may be due to a high relative aerobic workload, possibly leading to increased blood pressure. However, studies investigating the relation between relative aerobic...... workload and ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) are lacking. The aim was to explore the relationship between objectively measured relative aerobic workload and ABP. METHODS: A total of 116 cleaners aged 18-65 years were included after informed consent was obtained. A portable device (Spacelabs 90217......) was mounted for 24-h measurements of ABP, and an Actiheart was mounted for 24-h heart rate measurements to calculate relative aerobic workload as percentage of relative heart rate reserve. A repeated-measure multi-adjusted mixed model was applied for analysis. RESULTS: A fully adjusted mixed model...

  19. Effect of an aerobic exercise intervention on cardiac autonomic regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallman, David M; Holtermann, Andreas; Søgaard, Karen;

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this randomized controlled trial (RCT) was to determine whether aerobic exercise during work hours affects cardiac autonomic regulation in cleaners characterized by high levels of occupational physical activity and poor cardiorespiratory fitness. METHOD: Eligible cleaners (n......=116) were randomized to an aerobic exercise group (n=59) or a reference group (n=57) with lectures. The intervention group received two 30-min sessions per week of supervised aerobic exercise over 4months. Diurnal measurements of heart rate variability (HRV) and physical activity (accelerometry) were...... tended to decrease in the exercise group compared with the reference group from baseline to follow-up, being significant for the HF spectral component (p=0.03). CONCLUSION: Among cleaners, a worksite aerobic exercise intervention improved cardiac autonomic regulation during work and leisure...

  20. Enhanced aerobic nitrifying granulation by static magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-Hua; Diao, Mu-He; Yang, Ying; Shi, Yi-Jing; Gao, Ming-Ming; Wang, Shu-Guang

    2012-04-01

    One of the main challenging issues for aerobic nitrifying granules in treating high strength ammonia wastewater is the long granulation time required for activated sludge to transform into aerobic granules. The present study provides a novel strategy for enhancing aerobic nitrifying granulation by applying an intensity of 48.0mT static magnetic field. The element analysis showed that the applied magnetic field could promote the accumulation of iron compounds in the sludge. And then the aggregation of iron decreased the full granulation time from 41 to 25days by enhancing the setting properties of granules and stimulating the secretion of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). Long-term, cycle experiments and fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) analysis proved that an intensity of 48.0mT magnetic field could enhance the activities and growth of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB). These findings suggest that magnetic field is helpful and reliable for accelerating the aerobic nitrifying granulation.

  1. Isolation of aerobic bacteria from ticks infested sheep in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed Ibrahem Jalil

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The high isolation rate of aerobic pathogens from ticks might reflect the active contribution of this arthropod in environmental contamination and increase the probability of transmitting bacterial pathogens to their hosts.

  2. THE RELATIONSHIP OF CHOREOGRAPHY PREPARATION AND ARTISTRY IN AEROBIC GYMNASTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Sokolova

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Examines the impact choreography training in sports aerobics on artistic skills.Objective to investigate whether the use of funds choreo-graphy in training athletes involved in sports aerobics, to find the relationship between choreographic training and asses-sment for artistry.Method or methodology of work methods of studying the theoretical ski works of scientific content, analysis and processing of scientific texts.The results revealed the relationship between estimates for artistry and means-you dance training in sports aerobics. The scope of the results, the materials may be used by coaches in sports aerobics, for further research on the problem of constructing workout.

  3. Sequential anaerobic-aerobic treatment for domestic wastewater - A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kassab, G.; Halalsheh, M.; Klapwijk, A.; Fayyad, M.; Lier, van J.B.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction, consolidation and even standardization of expensive conventional aerobic systems for domestic wastewater treatment imposed significant financial constraints on the expansion of sanitary services including treatment in developing countries. A viable alternative is the sequential anaerob

  4. Aerobic Exercise: Top 10 Reasons to Get Physical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... plaques in your arteries. Boost your mood Aerobic exercise may ease the gloominess of depression, reduce the tension associated with anxiety and promote relaxation. Stay active and independent as ...

  5. Direct synthesis of 1,4-diols from alkenes by iron-catalyzed aerobic hydration and C-H hydroxylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Takuma; Hirose, Daisuke; Taniguchi, Tsuyoshi

    2014-03-03

    Various 1,4-diols are easily accessible from alkenes through iron-catalyzed aerobic hydration. The reaction system consists of a user-friendly iron phthalocyanine complex, sodium borohydride, and molecular oxygen. Furthermore, the effect of additional ligands on the iron complex was examined for a model reaction. The second hydroxy group is installed by direct C(sp(3))-H oxygenation, which is based on a [1,5] hydrogen shift process of a transient alkoxy radical that is formed by formal hydration of the olefin.

  6. Nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria in aerobic granules formed in sequencing batch airlift reactors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Fang; YANG Fenglin; QI Aijiu

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate nitrifying bacteria and denitrifying bacteria isolated from aerobic granules.Aerobic granules were formed in an internal-circulate sequencing batch airlift reactor(SBAR)and biodegradation of NH3 -N was analyzed in the reactor.Bacteria were isolated and determined from aerobic granules using selected media.The growth properties and morphology of bacteria colonies were observed by controlling aerobic or anaerobic conditions in the culture medium.It was found that bacteria in aerobic granules were diverse and some of them were facultative aerobes.The diversity of bacteria in aerobic granules was a premise of simultaneous nitrification and denitrification.

  7. Effects of Acute Aerobic Exercise on Executive Function in Older Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseann Peiffer, Lynn A. Darby, Adam Fullenkamp, Amy L. Morgan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Acute aerobic exercise may increase cognitive processing speed among tasks demanding a substantial degree of executive function. Few studies have investigated executive function after acute exercise in older adults across various exercise intensities. Healthy females 60-75 years of age (n = 11 who were not on medications completed 20-min exercise sessions at a moderate (50%VO2max exercise intensity and a vigorous (75%VO2max exercise intensity. Modified flanker tasks (reaction times and d2 tests of sustained and selective attention (components of executive function were completed before, immediately after, and 30-min post-exercise. Results indicated that older adult females had improved scores on the modified flanker task reaction times (RTT, RTI, RTC and d2 tests immediately after both moderate and vigorous intensity aerobic exercise. Some of these effects were maintained 30 min post-exercise. These findings suggest that an acute bout of exercise, regardless of intensity, can improve performance on tests of executive function in older women.

  8. Aerobic training and postexercise protein in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Grete; Prahm, Kira P; Dahlqvist, Julia R;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of regular aerobic training and postexercise protein-carbohydrate supplementation in patients with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD). METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel study, we randomized untrained men (n = 21...... not add any further improvement to training effects alone. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class II evidence that regular aerobic training with or without postexercise protein-carbohydrate supplementation improves fitness and workload in patients with FSHD....

  9. Water Aerobics as a Form of Health Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna S. Batrak

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The offered literature review considers water aerobics as a form of health activities. Water aerobics is wide spread and popular, especially among women, because it is also the form of adaptive and health activities. It enlarges general physiological effect of physical exercises on the human body. Regular exercises improve physical fitness and physical development, health, mood, sleep, intensify activities and working efficiency.

  10. Membrane-bound respiratory chain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa grown aerobically.

    OpenAIRE

    Matsushita, K.; Yamada, M.; Shinagawa, E; Adachi, O; Ameyama, M

    1980-01-01

    The electron transport chain of the gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa, grown aerobically, contained a number of primary dehydrogenases and respiratory components (soluble flavin, bound flavin, coenzyme Q9, heme b, heme c, and cytochrome o) in membrane particles of the organism. Cytochrome o, about 50% of the b-type cytochrome, seemed to function as a terminal oxidase in the respiratory chain. The electron transport chain of P. aeruginosa grown aerobically was suggested to be line...

  11. Acute effects of exercise and active video games on adults' reaction time and perceived exertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, José F; López-García, Jesús

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the acute effects of resting, aerobic exercise practised alone, and aerobic exercise with active video games (AVG), on complex reaction time (CRT) and the post-exercise acute rate of perceived exertion (RPE) in young healthy adults. The experimental group was composed of 92 healthy young adults, 78 males and 13 females (age M = 21.9 ± 2.7 years) who completed two sessions, A and B. In session A, participants rode 30 min on an ergometer, while in session B they exercised for 30 min on an ergometer while playing an AVG on a Wii. The control group was composed of 30 young adults, 26 males and 4 females (age M = 21.4 ± 2.9 years) who rested for 30 min. In each session, a CRT task was performed before and after exercising or resting, and post-exercise global RPE was noted. Repeated measures general linear model (GLM) and Wilcoxon tests were performed. (1) Both aerobic exercise alone and aerobic exercise combined with AVG improved CRT, while resting did not; (2) aerobic exercise combined with AVG did not improve CRT more than aerobic exercise only; and (3) RPE was lower after aerobic exercise combined with AVG compared with aerobic exercise only. In young adults, exercise produces acute benefits on CRT, and practising exercise with AVG helps to decrease RPE.

  12. Aerobic training in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsenga, A L; Shephard, R J; Ahmaidi, S; Ahmadi, S

    2013-06-01

    Rehabilitation is a major goal for children with cerebral palsy, although the potential to enhance cardio-respiratory fitness in such individuals remains unclear. This study thus compared current cardio-respiratory status between children with cerebral palsy and able-bodied children, and examined the ability to enhance the cardio-respiratory fitness of children with cerebral palsy by cycle ergometer training. 10 children with cerebral palsy (Gross Motor Function Classification System levels I and II) participated in thrice-weekly 30 min cycle ergometer training sessions for 8 weeks (mean age: 14.2±1.9 yrs). 10 additional subjects with cerebral palsy (mean age: 14.2±1.8 yrs) and 10 able-bodied subjects (mean age: 14.1±2.1 yrs) served as controls, undertaking no training. All subjects undertook a progressive cycle ergometer test of cardio-respiratory fitness at the beginning and end of the 8-week period. Cardio-respiratory parameters [oxygen intake V˙O2), ventilation V ˙ E) and heart rate (HR)] during testing were measured by Cosmed K4 b gas analyzer. The children with cerebral palsy who engaged in aerobic training improved their peak oxygen consumption, heart rate and ventilation significantly (pchildren with cerebral palsy can benefit significantly from cardio-respiratory training, and such training should be included in rehabilitation programs.

  13. Personality, metabolic rate and aerobic capacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Terracciano

    Full Text Available Personality traits and cardiorespiratory fitness in older adults are reliable predictors of health and longevity. We examined the association between personality traits and energy expenditure at rest (basal metabolic rate and during normal and maximal sustained walking. Personality traits and oxygen (VO(2 consumption were assessed in 642 participants from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Results indicate that personality traits were mostly unrelated to resting metabolic rate and energy expenditure at normal walking pace. However, those who scored lower on neuroticism (r = -0.12 and higher on extraversion (r = 0.11, openness (r = 0.13, and conscientiousness (r = 0.09 had significantly higher energy expenditure at peak walking pace. In addition to greater aerobic capacity, individuals with a more resilient personality profile walked faster and were more efficient in that they required less energy per meter walked. The associations between personality and energy expenditure were not moderated by age or sex, but were in part explained by the proportion of fat mass. In conclusion, differences in personality may matter the most during more challenging activities that require cardiorespiratory fitness. These findings suggest potential pathways that link personality to health outcomes, such as obesity and longevity.

  14. Aerobic nitroreduction of dehydrochloramphenicol by bone marrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isildar, M; Abou-Khalil, W H; Jimenez, J J; Abou-Khalil, S; Yunis, A A

    1988-06-30

    It has been previously demonstrated that dehydrochloramphenicol (DH-CAP), a bacterial metabolite of chloramphenicol, induces DNA single strand breaks in intact cells and is profoundly more cytotoxic than chloramphenicol (CAP). In view of previous observations relating genotoxicity of nitrocompounds to their nitroreduction by the target tissue, we studied the nitroreduction of DH-CAP by human and rabbit bone marrow. Nitroreduction by tissue homogenates was determined by the Bratton Marshall colorimetric assay and by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Nitroreduction of DH-CAP by bone marrow cell homogenates was observed under aerobic conditions and the reduction was both cell concentration- and time-dependent. The formation of the amino product aminodehydrochloramphenicol was confirmed by HPLC. Reduction by other tissues including human liver, Raji cells, and HL-60 tumors was also observed. These results suggest that genotoxicity of DH-CAP may be related to its nitroreduction by the target tissue with in situ production of toxic intermediates. Together with previous studies, these observations lend support to the thesis that the p-NO2 group may be the structural feature underlying aplastic anemia from CAP.

  15. Dancing the aerobics ''hearing loss'' choreography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Beatriz M.; Carvalho, Antonio P. O.; Gallagher, Sergio

    2002-11-01

    This paper presents an overview of gymnasiums' acoustic problems when used for aerobics exercises classes (and similar) with loud noise levels of amplified music. This type of gymnasium is usually a highly reverberant space, which is a consequence of a large volume surrounded by hard surfaces. A sample of five schools in Portugal was chosen for this survey. Noise levels in each room were measured using a precision sound level meter, and analyzed to calculate the standardized daily personal noise exposure levels (LEP,d). LEP,d values from 79 to 91 dB(A) were found to be typical values in this type of room, inducing a health risk for its occupants. The reverberation time (RT) values were also measured and compared with some European legal requirements (Portugal, France, and Belgium) for nearly similar situations. RT values (1 kHz) from 0.9 s to 2.8 s were found. These reverberation time values clearly differentiate between good and acoustically inadequate rooms. Some noise level and RT limits for this type of environment are given and suggestions for the improvement of the acoustical environment are shown. Significant reductions in reverberation time values and noise levels can be obtained by simple measures.

  16. Energy efficient aerobic treatment of forest industry wastewaters; Energieffektiv aerob rening av skogsindustriella avloppsvatten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandberg, Maria; From-Aldaron, Mattias

    2011-01-15

    There is great potential to reduce energy requirements in aerobic biological purification if the oxygen demand can be reduced and oxygen delivery, when process water is aerated, is made more efficient. A model was developed to estimate the possible reduction in oxygen demand. Model variables were COD reduction, sludge withdrawal, oxygen, and alpha-value. Attempts made in an aerator in the lab-scale process shows that water content strongly affects oxygen transport and alpha-value. Surface active extract substances such as fatty acids and resin acids have greatest significance. The effect increases with the concentration of extract substances and decreases with added sodium chloride content

  17. Forced Aerobic Exercise Preceding Task Practice Improves Motor Recovery Poststroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeldt, Anson B.; Dey, Tanujit; Alberts, Jay L.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. To understand how two types of aerobic exercise affect upper-extremity motor recovery post-stroke. Our aims were to (1) evaluate the feasibility of having people who had a stroke complete an aerobic exercise intervention and (2) determine whether forced or voluntary exercise differentially facilitates upper-extremity recovery when paired with task practice. METHOD. Seventeen participants with chronic stroke completed twenty-four 90-min sessions over 8 wk. Aerobic exercise was immediately followed by task practice. Participants were randomized to forced or voluntary aerobic exercise groups or to task practice only. RESULTS. Improvement on the Fugl-Meyer Assessment exceeded the minimal clinically important difference: 12.3, 4.8, and 4.4 for the forced exercise, voluntary exercise, and repetitive task practice–only groups, respectively. Only the forced exercise group exhibited a statistically significant improvement. CONCLUSION. People with chronic stroke can safely complete intensive aerobic exercise. Forced aerobic exercise may be optimal in facilitating motor recovery associated with task practice. PMID:28218596

  18. Formation, characterization and mathematical modeling of the aerobic granular sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni, Bing-Jie [Queensland Univ., Brisbane, QLD (Australia). Advanced Water Management Centre

    2013-07-01

    Reports on successful aerobic granulation of sludge in pilot-scale reactor for treatment of low-strength municipal wastewater and identifies the key factors responsible for this process. Develops comprehensive models for sludge granulation, microbial interactions and microbial products formation to provide insights into the dynamics of all the soluble and solid components in aerobic granular sludge system. Demonstrates accelerated start-up and optimization of the anaerobic ammonia oxidation process by seeding the reactor with aerobic granules. Aerobic granular sludge technology will play an important role as an innovative technology alternative to the present activated sludge process in industrial and municipal wastewater treatment in the near future. Intended to fill the gaps in the studies of aerobic granular sludge, this thesis comprehensively investigates the formation, characterization and mathematical modeling of aerobic granular sludge, through integrating the process engineering tools and advanced molecular microbiology. The research results of this thesis contributed significantly to the advance of understanding and optimization of the bacterial granulation processes, the next generation of technology for cost-effective biological wastewater treatment.

  19. Comparison of Combined Aerobic and High-Force Eccentric Resistance Exercise With Aerobic Exercise Only for People With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Marcus, Robin L.; Smith, Sheldon; Morrell, Glen; Addison, Odessa; Dibble, Leland E.; Wahoff-Stice, Donna; LaStayo, Paul C.

    2008-01-01

    Background and Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the outcomes between a diabetes exercise training program using combined aerobic and high-force eccentric resistance exercise and a program of aerobic exercise only.

  20. [Effect of aerobic fermentation on the survival of Salmonella typhimurium (DT 104) and Escherichia coli in swine liquid manure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, T; Kliche, R; Hensel, A

    1999-12-01

    In this study aerobic-thermophilic fermentation of untreated liquid pig manure was examined for the potential of inactivating pathogenic microorganisms. As microbial tracer organisms, Salmonella typhimurium DT 104 and Escherichia coli were used. An effective reduction of survival of these microorganisms could be demonstrated by aerobic fermentation at temperatures of 50 degrees C for at least 3 h. However, these optimal process conditions without the need of additional heating, can only be achieved by microbial substrate reduction. In contrast to the impact of temperature on hygienization processes, alteration of the pH value which occurs during fermentation had no or little influence on the tenacity of the tracer bacteria. Even under mesophilic reaction conditions the influence of the pH value was not measurable. A technical realisation of such an aerobic-thermophilic fermentation process for prophylactic disinfection is questionable since a large technical expenditure is necessary to control ammonia emission. Effective partial reduction of nitrogen, phosphate, and free carbon in liquid manure requires retention times of at least 48 h. However, thermophilic reaction conditions may ensure an effective hygienization of the final fermentation products.

  1. Microbial decolorization of reactive black-5 in a two-stage anaerobic-aerobic reactor using acclimatized activated textile sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Sagarika; Dafale, Nishant; Rao, Nageswara Neti

    2006-10-01

    A two-stage anaerobic-aerobic treatment process based on mixed culture of bacteria isolated from textile dye effluent was used to degrade reactive black 5 dye (RB-5). The anaerobic step was studied in more detail by varying the dye concentration from 100 to 3000 mg l(-1). The results showed that major decolorization was achieved during the anaerobic process. The time required for decolorization by > 90% increased as the concentration of the dye increased. It was also found that maintaining dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration below 0.5 mg l(-1 )and addition of a co-substrate viz., glucose, facilitates anaerobic decolorization reaction remarkably. An attempt was made to identify the metabolites formed in anaerobic process by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and UV-VIS spectrophotometry. A plate assay was performed for the detection of dominant decolorizing bacteria. Only a few bacterial colonies with high clearing zones (decolorization zones) were found. The results showed that under anaerobic condition RB-5 molecules were reduced and aromatic amines were generated. The aromatic amine metabolite was partly removed in subsequent aerobic bio-treatment. It was possible to achieve more than 90% decolorization and approximately 46% reduction in amine metabolite concentration through two-stage anaerobic-aerobic treatment after a reaction period of 2 days.

  2. Formation and functions of aerobic microbial granula; Entstehung und Funktionen aerober mikrobieller Granula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etterer, T.; Wilderer, P.A. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Lehrstuhl und Pruefamt fuer Wasserguete- und Abfallwirtschaft

    1999-07-01

    The present project investigates the phenomenon of the formation of aerobic microbial granula and their properties. To generate granula, sequencing batch reactors fed in batches were used. As shown by microbiological assays, fungi played an above-average role in granula formation and build-up. In first degradation experiments, furthermore, chemical oxygen demand (COD) could be reduced by over 90 %. The determination yielded comparable values to activated sludge, standing on average at 1.044g/ml. (orig.) [German] Im Rahmen des hier vorgestellten Projekts wurde das Phaenomen der Bildung aerober mikrobieller Granula sowie deren Eigenschaften untersucht. Zur Erzeugung von Granula wurden schubweise beschickte Reaktoren, sogenannte Sequencing-Batch-Reaktoren (SBR) verwendet. Wie mikrobiologische Untersuchungen zeigten spielen Pilze bei der Entstehung und beim Aufbau eine ueberdurchschnittliche Rolle. Des weiteren konnte in ersten Abbauversuchen der chemische Sauerstoff-Bedarf (CSB) um ueber 90% gesenkt werden. Die Dichtebestimmung ergab vergleichbare Werte zu Belebtschlamm und zwar im Durchschnitt 1,044 g/ml. (orig.)

  3. Enhanced selection of micro-aerobic pentachlorophenol degrading granular sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv, Yuancai, E-mail: donkey1204@hotmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Pulp and Paper Engineering, College of Light Industry and Food Science, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Chen, Yuancai, E-mail: chenyc@scut.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pulp and Paper Engineering, College of Light Industry and Food Science, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Ecological Remediation for Industrial Agglomeration Area, College of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Song, Wenzhe, E-mail: songwenzhe007@126.com [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Ecological Remediation for Industrial Agglomeration Area, College of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Hu, Yongyou, E-mail: ppyyhu@scut.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pulp and Paper Engineering, College of Light Industry and Food Science, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Ecological Remediation for Industrial Agglomeration Area, College of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2014-09-15

    Graphical abstract: In this work, an aerobic column reactor was placed before the USB to maintain micro-oxygen condition in the reactor and the micro-aerobic pentachlorophenol (PCP) degrading granular sludge under oxygen-limited conditions (0.1–0.2 mg L{sup −1}) was successfully obtained. PCP degradation by the micro-aerobic system was studied and the variance of microbial community was also discussed by using PCR-DGGE analysis. - Highlights: • Micro-aerobic granular sludge was cultivated in column-type combined reactors. • PCP biodegradation, VFA accumulation and biogas production were studied. • The function of Methanogenic archaeon in the system was investigated. • Fluctuation and diversity of microbial community were discussed by DGGE analysis. • The dominated microorganisms were identified by 16S rDNA sequences. - Abstract: Column-type combined reactors were designed to cultivate micro-aerobic pentachlorophenol (PCP) degrading granular sludge under oxygen-limited conditions (0.1–0.2 mg L{sup −1}) over 39-day experimental period. Micro-aerobic granular had both anaerobic activity (SMA: 2.34 mMCH{sub 4}/h g VSS) and aerobic activity (SOUR: 2.21 mMO{sub 2}/h g VSS). Metabolite analysis results revealed that PCP was sequentially dechlorinated to TCP, DCP, and eventually to MCP. Methanogens were not directly involved in the dechlorination of PCP, but might played a vital role in stabilizing the overall structure of the granule sludge. For Eubacteria, the Shannon Index (2.09 in inoculated granular sludge) increased both in micro-aerobic granular sludge (2.61) and PCP-degradation granular sludge (2.55). However, for Archaea, it decreased from 2.53 to 1.85 and 1.84, respectively. Although the Shannon Index demonstrated slight difference between micro-aerobic granular sludge and PCP-degradation granular sludge, the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) indicated obvious variance of the microbial composition, revealing significant effect of micro-aerobic

  4. Anaerobic degradation of tetrachloroethylene; Anaerober Abbau von Tetrachlorethylen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diekert, G. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Mikrobiologie; Scholz-Muramatsu, H. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Siedlungswasserbau

    1996-12-31

    Dehalospirillum multivorans, a tetrachloroethylene-dechlorinating bacterium, was isolated in activated sludge. This organism is able to grow on a defined medium with hydrogen and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) as its only energy source. The organism was characterised and the physiology of dechlorination was studied. In this process PCE is dechlorinated to cis-1,2-dichloroethene (DCE) via trichloroethene (TCE). A fluidized-bed reactor which reduces PCE to DCE at a high rate (15 nmol/min/mg of protein at 5 {mu}M PCE) was inoculated with the bacterium. Meanwhile a reactor inoculated with D. multivorans and a fully dechlorinating mixed culture has become available which catalyses the complete dechlorination of PCE to ethene at just as high rates. Tetrachloroethene dehalogenase was purified from D. multivorans (unpublished results) and characterised. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Aus Belebtschlamm wurde ein Tetrachlorethen-dechlorierendes Bakterium, Dehalospirillum multivorans, isoliert. Der Organismus waechst auf definiertem Medium mit Wasserstoff und Tetrachlorethen (PCE) als einziger Energiequelle. Der Organismus wurde charakterisiert und die Physiologie der Dechlorierung wurde untersucht. PCE wird dabei ueber Trichlorethen (TCE) bis zum cis-1,2-Dichlorethen (DCE) dechloriert. Mit diesem Bakterium wurde ein Wirbelschichtreaktor inokuliert, der mit hohen Raten (15 nmol/min/mg Protein bei 5 {mu}M PCE) PCE zu DCE reduziert. Inzwischen steht ein Reaktor zur Verfuegung, der mit D. multivorans und einer voellig dechlorierenden Mischkultur inokuliert wurde und der mit ebenso hohen Raten eine vollstaendige Dechlorierung von PCE bis zum Ethen katalysiert. Aus D. multivorans wurde die Tetrachlorethen-Dehalogenase gereinigt (unveroeffentlichte Ergebnisse) und charakterisiert. (orig./SR)

  5. Aerobic degradation of N-methyl-4-nitroaniline (MNA by Pseudomonas sp. strain FK357 isolated from soil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazlurrahman Khan

    Full Text Available N-Methyl-4-nitroaniline (MNA is used as an additive to lower the melting temperature of energetic materials in the synthesis of insensitive explosives. Although the biotransformation of MNA under anaerobic condition has been reported, its aerobic microbial degradation has not been documented yet. A soil microcosms study showed the efficient aerobic degradation of MNA by the inhabitant soil microorganisms. An aerobic bacterium, Pseudomonas sp. strain FK357, able to utilize MNA as the sole carbon, nitrogen, and energy source, was isolated from soil microcosms. HPLC and GC-MS analysis of the samples obtained from growth and resting cell studies showed the formation of 4-nitroaniline (4-NA, 4-aminophenol (4-AP, and 1, 2, 4-benzenetriol (BT as major metabolic intermediates in the MNA degradation pathway. Enzymatic assay carried out on cell-free lysates of MNA grown cells confirmed N-demethylation reaction is the first step of MNA degradation with the formation of 4-NA and formaldehyde products. Flavin-dependent transformation of 4-NA to 4-AP in cell extracts demonstrated that the second step of MNA degradation is a monooxygenation. Furthermore, conversion of 4-AP to BT by MNA grown cells indicates the involvement of oxidative deamination (release of NH2 substituent reaction in third step of MNA degradation. Subsequent degradation of BT occurs by the action of benzenetriol 1, 2-dioxygenase as reported for the degradation of 4-nitrophenol. This is the first report on aerobic degradation of MNA by a single bacterium along with elucidation of metabolic pathway.

  6. Reaction Graph

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅育熙

    1998-01-01

    The paper proposes reaction graphs as graphical representations of computational objects.A reaction graph is a directed graph with all its arrows and some of its nodes labeled.Computations are modled by graph rewriting of a simple nature.The basic rewriting rules embody the essence of both the communications among processes and cut-eliminations in proofs.Calculi of graphs are ideentified to give a formal and algebraic account of reaction graphs in the spirit of process algebra.With the help of the calculi,it is demonstrated that reaction graphs capture many interesting aspects of computations.

  7. Parallel pathways of ethoxylated alcohol biodegradation under aerobic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zembrzuska, Joanna, E-mail: Joanna.Zembrzuska@put.poznan.pl; Budnik, Irena, E-mail: Irena.Budnik@gmail.com; Lukaszewski, Zenon, E-mail: zenon.lukaszewski@put.poznan.pl

    2016-07-01

    Non-ionic surfactants (NS) are a major component of the surfactant flux discharged into surface water, and alcohol ethoxylates (AE) are the major component of this flux. Therefore, biodegradation pathways of AE deserve more thorough investigation. The aim of this work was to investigate the stages of biodegradation of homogeneous oxyethylated dodecanol C{sub 12}E{sub 9} having 9 oxyethylene subunits, under aerobic conditions. Enterobacter strain Z3 bacteria were chosen as biodegrading organisms under conditions with C{sub 12}E{sub 9} as the sole source of organic carbon. Bacterial consortia of river water were used in a parallel test as an inoculum for comparison. The LC-MS technique was used to identify the products of biodegradation. Liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate was selected for the isolation of C{sub 12}E{sub 9} and metabolites from the biodegradation broth. The LC-MS/MS technique operating in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode was used for quantitative determination of C{sub 12}E{sub 9}, C{sub 12}E{sub 8}, C{sub 12}E{sub 7} and C{sub 12}E{sub 6}. Apart from the substrate, the homologues C{sub 12}E{sub 8}, C{sub 12}E{sub 7} and C{sub 12}E{sub 6}, being metabolites of C{sub 12}E{sub 9} biodegradation by shortening of the oxyethylene chain, as well as intermediate metabolites having a carboxyl end group in the oxyethylene chain (C{sub 12}E{sub 8}COOH, C{sub 12}E{sub 7}COOH, C{sub 12}E{sub 6}COOH and C{sub 12}E{sub 5}COOH), were identified. Poly(ethylene glycols) (E) having 9, 8 and 7 oxyethylene subunits were also identified, indicating parallel central fission of C{sub 12}E{sub 9} and its metabolites. Similar results were obtained with river water as inoculum. It is concluded that AE, under aerobic conditions, are biodegraded via two parallel pathways: by central fission with the formation of PEG, and by Ω-oxidation of the oxyethylene chain with the formation of carboxylated AE and subsequent shortening of the oxyethylene chain by a

  8. Microbial and hydrodynamic properties of aerobic granules in a sequencing batch reactor treating landfill leachate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-jie WEI; Min JI; Guo-yi LI; Fei-fei QIN

    2012-01-01

    A sequencing batch reactor (SBR) seeded with activated sludge was established for landfill leachate treatment.Small bio-aggregates began to appear after 40-d operation,and gradually changed to mature aerobic granules,with a mean size of 0.36-0.60 mm.Their sludge volume index at 5 min (SVI5 min),mixed liquor volatile suspended solids (MLVSS),and wet density were around 35 ml/g,3.4 g/L,and 1.062 g/cm3,respectively.The settling velocities of the granules in distilled water ranged from 0.3 to 1.3 cm/s,which were faster than those in landfill leachate with a salt content of 1.4% (w/v),and also slightly faster than those predicted by Stokes' law for porous but impermeable particles.Microbial community evolution during the granulation process and stages under different nitrogen loading rates (NLRs) were monitored and analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE),cloning,and sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) fragments.Results revealed that some primary and dominant communities in inoculating activated sludge died out gradually; while a few common bacteria,inhabiting soils,municipal wastewater,or activated sludge systems,dominated in the SBR system throughout.In addition,some other dominant species,associated with the aerobic granulation process,were thought to play a significant role in the formation and growth of aerobic granular sludge.During the stable operation time under low NLR,a few species were present in abundance,and may have been responsible for the high organic removal efficiency at this time.

  9. Removal of trichloroethylene (TCE) contaminated soil using a two-stage anaerobic-aerobic composting technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponza, Supat; Parkpian, Preeda; Polprasert, Chongrak; Shrestha, Rajendra P; Jugsujinda, Aroon

    2010-01-01

    The effect of organic carbon addition on remediation of trichloroethylene (TCE) contaminated clay soil was investigated using a two stage anaerobic-aerobic composting system. TCE removal rate and processes involved were determined. Uncontaminated clay soil was treated with composting materials (dried cow manure, rice husk and cane molasses) to represent carbon based treatments (5%, 10% and 20% OC). All treatments were spiked with TCE at 1,000 mg TCE/kg DW and incubated under anaerobic and mesophillic condition (35 degrees C) for 8 weeks followed by continuous aerobic condition for another 6 weeks. TCE dissipation, its metabolites and biogas composition were measured throughout the experimental period. Results show that TCE degradation depended upon the amount of organic carbon (OC) contained within the composting treatments/matrices. The highest TCE removal percentage (97%) and rate (75.06 micro Mole/kg DW/day) were obtained from a treatment of 10% OC composting matrices as compared to 87% and 27.75 micro Mole/kg DW/day for 20% OC, and 83% and 38.08 micro Mole/kg DW/day for soil control treatment. TCE removal rate was first order reaction kinetics. Highest degradation rate constant (k(1) = 0.035 day(- 1)) was also obtained from the 10% OC treatment, followed by 20% OC (k(1) = 0.026 day(- 1)) and 5% OC or soil control treatment (k(1) = 0.023 day(- 1)). The half-life was 20, 27 and 30 days, respectively. The overall results suggest that sequential two stages anaerobic-aerobic composting technique has potential for remediation of TCE in heavy texture soil, providing that easily biodegradable source of organic carbon is present.

  10. Denitrification characteristics of a marine origin psychrophilic aerobic denitrifying bacterium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haiyan Zheng; Ying Liu; Guangdong Sun; Xiyan Gao; Qingling Zhang; Zhipei Liu

    2011-01-01

    A psychrophilic aerobic denitrifying bacterium,strain S1-1,was isolated from a biological aerated filter conducted for treatment of recirculating water in a marine aquaculture system.Strain S1-1 was preliminarily identified as Psychrobacter sp.based on the analysis of its 16S rRNA gene sequence,which showed 100% sequence similarity to that of Psychrobacter sp.TSBY-70.Strain S 1-1 grew well either in high nitrate or high nitrite conditions with a removal of 100% nitrate or 63.50% nitrite,and the total nitrogen removal rates could reach to 46.48% and 31.89%,respectively.The results indicated that nitrate was mainly reduced in its logarithmic growth phase with a very low leve 1 accumulation of nitrite,suggesting that the aerobic denitrification process of strain S l-1 occurred mainly in this phase.The GC-MS results showed that N2O was formed as the major intermediate during the aerobic denitrifying process of strain S1-1.Finally,factors affecting the growth of strain Sl-1 and its aerobic denitrifying ability were also investigated.Results showed that the optimum aerobic denitrification conditions for strain S1-1 were sodium succinate as carbon source,C/N ratio15,salinity 10 g/L NaCl,incubation temperature 20℃ and initial pH 6.5.

  11. Aerobic Epoxidation of Olefins Catalyzed by the Cobalt‐Based Metal–Organic Framework STA‐12(Co)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Matthias Josef; Kleist, Wolfgang; Wharmby, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    A Co‐based metal–organic framework (MOF) was investigated as a catalytic material in the aerobic epoxidation of olefins in DMF and exhibited, based on catalyst mass, a remarkably high catalytic activity compared with the Co‐doped zeolite catalysts that are typically used in this reaction. The str......A Co‐based metal–organic framework (MOF) was investigated as a catalytic material in the aerobic epoxidation of olefins in DMF and exhibited, based on catalyst mass, a remarkably high catalytic activity compared with the Co‐doped zeolite catalysts that are typically used in this reaction....... The structure of STA‐12(Co) is similar to that of STA‐12(Ni), as shown by XRD Rietveld refinement and is stable up to 270 °C. For the epoxidation reaction, significantly different selectivities were obtained depending on the substrate. Although styrene was epoxidized with low selectivity due to oligomerization......, which was, interestingly, considerably reduced by styrene/stilbene co‐epoxidation. This could be traced back to the formation of benzaldehyde promoting the reaction. Detailed parameter and catalytic studies, including in situ EPR and EXAFS spectroscopy, were performed to obtain an initial insight...

  12. Effects of 12 weeks of aerobic training on autonomic modulation, mucociliary clearance, and aerobic parameters in patients with COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Marceli Rocha; Ramos, Ercy Mara Cipulo; Kalva-Filho, Carlos Augusto; Freire, Ana Paula Coelho Figueira; de Alencar Silva, Bruna Spolador; Nicolino, Juliana; de Toledo-Arruda, Alessandra Choqueta; Papoti, Marcelo; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos Marques; Ramos, Dionei

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exhibit aerobic function, autonomic nervous system, and mucociliary clearance alterations. These parameters can be attenuated by aerobic training, which can be applied with continuous or interval efforts. However, the possible effects of aerobic training, using progressively both continuous and interval sessions (ie, linear periodization), require further investigation. Aim To analyze the effects of 12-week aerobic training using continuous and interval sessions on autonomic modulation, mucociliary clearance, and aerobic function in patients with COPD. Methods Sixteen patients with COPD were divided into an aerobic (continuous and interval) training group (AT) (n=10) and a control group (CG) (n=6). An incremental test (initial speed of 2.0 km·h−1, constant slope of 3%, and increments of 0.5 km·h−1 every 2 minutes) was performed. The training group underwent training for 4 weeks at 60% of the peak velocity reached in the incremental test (vVO2peak) (50 minutes of continuous effort), followed by 4 weeks of sessions at 75% of vVO2peak (30 minutes of continuous effort), and 4 weeks of interval training (5×3-minute effort at vVO2peak, separated by 1 minute of passive recovery). Intensities were adjusted through an incremental test performed at the end of each period. Results The AT presented an increase in the high frequency index (ms2) (P=0.04), peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) (P=0.01), vVO2peak (P=0.04), and anaerobic threshold (P=0.02). No significant changes were observed in the CG (P>0.21) group. Neither of the groups presented changes in mucociliary clearance after 12 weeks (AT: P=0.94 and CG: P=0.69). Conclusion Twelve weeks of aerobic training (continuous and interval sessions) positively influenced the autonomic modulation and aerobic parameters in patients with COPD. However, mucociliary clearance was not affected by aerobic training. PMID:26648712

  13. Aerobic exercise reduces biomarkers related to cardiovascular risk among cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korshøj, Mette; Ravn, Marie Højbjerg; Holtermann, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Blue-collar workers have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Accordingly, elevated levels of biomarkers related to risk of cardiovascular disease, such as high-sensitive C-reactive protein, have been observed among blue-collar workers. The objective was to examine whether...... an aerobic exercise worksite intervention changes the level of inflammation biomarkers among cleaners. METHODS: The design was a cluster-randomized controlled trial with 4-month worksite intervention. Before the 116 cleaners aged 18-65 years were randomized, they signed an informed consent form....... The reference group (n = 59) received lectures, and the aerobic exercise group (n = 57) performed worksite aerobic exercise (30 min twice a week). Levels of biomarkers (high-sensitive C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, cholesterol, low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride) were collected...

  14. Virulence factors enhance Citrobacter rodentium expansion through aerobic respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Christopher A; Miller, Brittany M; Rivera-Chávez, Fabian; Velazquez, Eric M; Byndloss, Mariana X; Chávez-Arroyo, Alfredo; Lokken, Kristen L; Tsolis, Renée M; Winter, Sebastian E; Bäumler, Andreas J

    2016-09-16

    Citrobacter rodentium uses a type III secretion system (T3SS) to induce colonic crypt hyperplasia in mice, thereby gaining an edge during its competition with the gut microbiota through an unknown mechanism. Here, we show that by triggering colonic crypt hyperplasia, the C. rodentium T3SS induced an excessive expansion of undifferentiated Ki67-positive epithelial cells, which increased oxygenation of the mucosal surface and drove an aerobic C. rodentium expansion in the colon. Treatment of mice with the γ-secretase inhibitor dibenzazepine to diminish Notch-driven colonic crypt hyperplasia curtailed the fitness advantage conferred by aerobic respiration during C. rodentium infection. We conclude that C. rodentium uses its T3SS to induce histopathological lesions that generate an intestinal microenvironment in which growth of the pathogen is fueled by aerobic respiration.

  15. Isolation and denitrification characteristic of an aerobic denitrifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Dan-dan; MA Fang; WANG Hong-yu; DONG Shuang-shi; WANG Ai-jie

    2006-01-01

    Aerobic denitrifiers were enriched by activated sludge cultivation method. By this way, 105 strains were isolated from the activated sludge and 25 strains were confirmed to be capable of obtaining energy by deoxidization of nitrate to nitrogen gas under aerobic condition. The characteristic of one denitrifier, Pseudomonas chloritidismutans strain, was particularly studied due to its higher nitrogen removal rate. It was found that Pseudomonas chloritidismutans can use nitrite, nitrate and oxygen for aerobic respiration in liquid medium, and the pH increased and ORP decreased by activated denitrifier. When they used nitrite or nitrate for respiration, nitrogen removal effect was high and nitrite could be reduced more efficiently than nitrate. Denitrification process was accomplished faster when both nitrite and nitrate existed in the medium compared to each of which existed alone. Particularly, at denitrifying activity, the nitrogen removal rate of strain was not affected by the DO concentration in the culture media.

  16. Evaluation of Biodegradability of Waste Before and After Aerobic Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchowska-Kisielewicz Monika

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An important advantage of use of an aerobic biostabilization of waste prior to its disposal is that it intensifies the decomposition of the organic fraction of waste into the form which is easily assimilable for methanogenic microorganisms involved in anaerobic decomposition of waste in the landfill. In this article it is presented the influence of aerobic pre-treatment of waste as well as leachate recirculation on susceptibility to biodegradation of waste in anaerobic laboratory reactors. The research has shown that in the reactor with aerobically treated waste stabilized with recilculation conversion of the organic carbon into the methane is about 45% higher than in the reactor with untreated waste stabilized without recirculation.

  17. Nitrate and COD removal in an upflow biofilter under an aerobic atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Bin; Wang, Hongyu; Yang, Kai

    2014-04-01

    A continuous-upflow submerged biofilter packed with ceramsite was constructed for nitrate removal under an aerobic atmosphere. Pseudomonas stutzeri X31, an aerobic denitrifier isolate, was added to the bioreactor as an inoculum. The influent NO3(-)-N concentrations were 63.0-73.8 mg L(-1). The best results were achieved when dissolved oxygen level was 4.6 mg L(-1) and C/N ratio was 4.5. The maximum removal efficiencies of carbon oxygen demand (COD) and NO3(-)-N were 94.04% and 98.48%, respectively at 30°C, when the hydraulic load was 0.75 m h(-1). The top section of the bioreactor possessed less biofilm but higher COD and NO3(-)-N removal rates than the bottom section. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) technique combined with electron microscopic examination indicated P. stutzeri X31 and Paracoccus versutus were the most dominant bacteria. Amoeba sp., Vorticella sp., Philodina sp., and Stephanodiscus sp. were also found in the bioreactor.

  18. Effects of Rate-Limited Mass Transfer on Modeling Vapor Intrusion with Aerobic Biodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yiming; Hou, Deyi; Lu, Chunhui; Spain, Jim C; Luo, Jian

    2016-09-06

    Most of the models for simulating vapor intrusion accept the local equilibrium assumption for multiphase concentration distributions, that is, concentrations in solid, liquid and vapor phases are in equilibrium. For simulating vapor transport with aerobic biodegradation controlled by counter-diffusion processes, the local equilibrium assumption combined with dual-Monod kinetics and biomass decay may yield near-instantaneous behavior at steady state. The present research investigates how predicted concentration profiles and fluxes change as interphase mass transfer resistances are increased for vapor intrusion with aerobic biodegradation. Our modeling results indicate that the attenuation coefficients for cases with and without mass transfer limitations can be significantly different by orders of magnitude. Rate-limited mass transfer may lead to larger overlaps of contaminant vapor and oxygen concentrations, which cannot be simulated by instantaneous reaction models with local equilibrium mass transfer. In addition, the contaminant flux with rate-limited mass transfer is much smaller than that with local equilibrium mass transfer, indicating that local equilibrium mass transfer assumption may significantly overestimate the biodegradation rate and capacity for mitigating vapor intrusion through the unsaturated zone. Our results indicate a strong research need for field tests to examine the validity of local equilibrium mass transfer, a widely accepted assumption in modeling vapor intrusion.

  19. An Investigation into the Relation between the Technique of Movement and Overload in Step Aerobics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysocka, Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the features of a step workout technique which may be related to motor system overloading in step aerobics. Subjects participating in the research were instructors (n = 15) and students (n = 15) without any prior experience in step aerobics. Kinematic and kinetic data was collected with the use of the BTS SMART system comprised of 6 calibrated video cameras and two Kistler force plates. The subjects' task was to perform basic steps. The following variables were analyzed: vertical, anteroposterior, and mediolateral ground reaction forces; foot flexion and abduction and adduction angles; knee joint flexion angle; and trunk flexion angle in the sagittal plane. The angle of a foot adduction recorded for the instructors was significantly smaller than that of the students. The knee joint angle while stepping up was significantly higher for the instructors compared to that for the students. Our research confirmed that foot dorsal flexion and adduction performed while stepping up increased load on the ankle joint. Both small and large angles of knee flexion while stepping up and down resulted in knee joint injuries. A small trunk flexion angle in the entire cycle of step workout shut down dorsal muscles, which stopped suppressing the load put on the spine. PMID:28348501

  20. Assessment of Aerobic Exercise Adverse Effects during COPD Exacerbation Hospitalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Knaut

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Aerobic exercise performed after hospital discharge for exacerbated COPD patients is already recommended to improve respiratory and skeletal muscle strength, increase tolerance to activity, and reduce the sensation of dyspnea. Previous studies have shown that anaerobic activity can clinically benefit patients hospitalized with exacerbated COPD. However, there is little information on the feasibility and safety of aerobic physical activity performed by patients with exacerbated COPD during hospitalization. Objective. To evaluate the effects of aerobic exercise on vital signs in hospitalized patients with exacerbated COPD. Patients and Methods. Eleven COPD patients (63% female, FEV1: 34.2 ± 13.9% and age: 65 ± 11 years agreed to participate. Aerobic exercise was initiated 72 hours after admission on a treadmill; speed was obtained from the distance covered in a 6-minute walk test (6MWT. Vital signs were assessed before and after exercise. Results. During the activity systolic blood pressure increased from 125.2 ± 13.6 to 135.8 ± 15.0 mmHg (p=0.004 and respiratory rate from 20.9 ± 4.4 to 24.2 ± 4.5 rpm (p=0.008 and pulse oximetry (SpO2 decreased from 93.8 ± 2.3 to 88.5 ± 5.7% (p<0.001. Aerobic activity was considered intense, heart rate ranged from 99.2 ± 11.5 to 119.1 ± 11.1 bpm at the end of exercise (p=0.092, and patients reached on average 76% of maximum heart rate. Conclusion. Aerobic exercise conducted after 72 hours of hospitalization in patients with exacerbated COPD appears to be safe.

  1. Exercise intensity during Zumba fitness and Tae-bo aerobics

    OpenAIRE

    Hižnayová, Kristína

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzed and compared the exercise intensity in Zumba fitness and Tae-bo aerobics. Object of the research was monitoring of the heart rate and energy consumption in kcal during exercise unit, by using Heart Rate Monitor Suunto Memory Belt. All measurements were attended by randomly selected 11 women. The data we collected during the six units of the Zumba fitness and six units of the Tae-bo aerobics . Obtained data of the heart rate were evaluated in three main parts of workout: af...

  2. Copper intoxication inhibits aerobic nucleotide synthesis in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Michael D. L.; Kehl-Fie, Thomas E.; Rosch, Jason W.

    2015-01-01

    Copper is universally toxic in excess, a feature exploited by the human immune system to facilitate bacterial clearance. The mechanism of copper intoxication remains unknown for many bacterial species. Here, we demonstrate that copper toxicity in Streptococcus pneumoniae is independent from oxidative stress but, rather, is the result of copper inhibiting the aerobic dNTP biosynthetic pathway. Furthermore, we show that copper-intoxicated S. pneumoniae is rescued by manganese, which is an essential metal in the aerobic nucleotide synthesis pathway. These data provide insight into new targets to enhance copper-mediated toxicity during bacterial clearance. PMID:25730343

  3. Cardiorespiratory fitness of asthmatic children and validation of predicted aerobic capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lochte, Lene; Angermann, Marie; Larsson, Benny

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Predicted aerobic capacity (PAC) was estimated by submaximal exercise test and compared with monitored aerobic capacity (MAC) measured by laboratory conditions [maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2peak))] in 18 children and adolescents, 10 asthmatics and 8 matched controls. Objectives...

  4. Lung volumes related to physical activity, physical fitness, aerobic capacity and body mass index in students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihailova A.

    2016-01-01

    Reduced lung volumes were associated with lower aerobic fitness, lower physical fitness and lower amount of weekly physical activity. Healthier body mass index was associated with higher aerobic fitness (relative VO2max in both female and male.

  5. Reducing NO and N₂O emission during aerobic denitrification by newly isolated Pseudomonas stutzeri PCN-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Maosheng; He, Da; Ma, Tao; Chen, Qian; Liu, Sitong; Ahmad, Muhammad; Gui, Mengyao; Ni, Jinren

    2014-06-01

    As two obligatory intermediates of denitrification, both NO and N2O had harmful environmental and biological impacts. An aerobic denitrifying bacterial strain PCN-1 was newly isolated and identified as Pseudomonas stutzeri, which was capable of high efficient nitrogen removal under aerobic condition with maximal NO and N2O accumulation as low as 0.003% and 0.33% of removed NO3(-)-N, respectively. Further experiment taking nitrite as denitrifying substrate indicated similar low NO and N2O emission of 0.006% and 0.29% of reduced NO2(-)-N, respectively. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis revealed that the coordinate expression of denitrification gene nirS (for cytochrome cd1 nitrite reductase), cnorB (for NO reductase) and nosZ (for N2O reductase) was the fundamental reason of low NO and N2O accumulation. Activated sludge system bioaugmented by strain PCN-1 demonstrated a significant reduction of NO and N2O emission from wastewater during aerobic denitrification, implied great potential of PCN-1 in practical applications.

  6. Vertical distribution and characterization of aerobic phototrophic bacteria at the Juan de Fuca Ridge in the Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathgeber, Christopher; Lince, Michael T; Alric, Jean; Lang, Andrew S; Humphrey, Elaine; Blankenship, Robert E; Verméglio, André; Plumley, F Gerald; Van Dover, Cindy L; Beatty, J Thomas; Yurkov, Vladimir

    2008-09-01

    The vertical distribution of culturable anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria was investigated at five sites at or near the Juan de Fuca Ridge in the Pacific Ocean. Twelve similar strains of obligately aerobic phototrophic bacteria were isolated in pure culture, from depths ranging from 500 to 2,379 m below the surface. These strains appear morphologically, physiologically, biochemically, and phylogenetically similar to Citromicrobium bathyomarinum strain JF-1, a bacterium previously isolated from hydrothermal vent plume waters. Only one aerobic phototrophic strain was isolated from surface waters. This strain is morphologically and physiologically distinct from the strains isolated at deeper sampling locations, and phylogenetic analysis indicates that it is most closely related to the genus Erythrobacter. Phototrophs were cultivated from three water casts taken above vents but not from two casts taken away from active vent sites. No culturable anaerobic anoxygenic phototrophs were detected. The photosynthetic apparatus was investigated in strain JF-1 and contains light-harvesting I and reaction center complexes, which are functional under aerobic conditions.

  7. Treatment of anthraquinone dye wastewater by hydrolytic acidification-aerobic process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jian; WU Min; Li Dan

    2004-01-01

    Experiment on microbial degradation with two kinds of biological process, hydrolytic acidification-aerobic process and aerobic process was conducted to treat the anthraquinone dye wastewater with CODCr concentration of 400 mg/L and chroma 800. The experimental result demonstrated that the hydrolytic-aerobic process could raise the biodegradability of anthraquinone dye wastewater effectively. The effluent CODCr can reach 120-170 mg/L and chroma 150 which is superior to that from simple aerobic process.

  8. Nanoscaled copper metal-organic framework (MOF) based on carboxylate ligands as an efficient heterogeneous catalyst for aerobic epoxidation of olefins and oxidation of benzylic and allylic alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yue; Luan, Yi; Yu, Jie; Peng, Xiong; Wang, Ge

    2015-01-19

    Aerobic epoxidation of olefins at a mild reaction temperature has been carried out by using nanomorphology of [Cu3(BTC)2] (BTC = 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate) as a high-performance catalyst through a simple synthetic strategy. An aromatic carboxylate ligand was employed to furnish a heterogeneous copper catalyst and also serves as the ligand for enhanced catalytic activities in the catalytic reaction. The utilization of a copper metal-organic framework catalyst was further extended to the aerobic oxidation of aromatic alcohols. The shape and size selectivity of the catalyst in olefin epoxidation and alcohol oxidation was investigated. Furthermore, the as-synthesized copper catalyst can be easily recovered and reused several times without leaching of active species or significant loss of activity.

  9. Aerobic nitric oxide-induced thiol nitrosation in the presence and absence of magnesium cations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesnik, Bernd; Heine, Christian L; Schmidt, Renate; Schmidt, Kurt; Mayer, Bernd; Gorren, Antonius C F

    2014-11-01

    Although different routes for the S-nitrosation of cysteinyl residues have been proposed, the main in vivo pathway is unknown. We recently demonstrated that direct (as opposed to autoxidation-mediated) aerobic nitrosation of glutathione is surprisingly efficient, especially in the presence of Mg(2+). In the present study we investigated this reaction in greater detail. From the rates of NO decay and the yields of nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) we estimated values for the apparent rate constants of 8.9 ± 0.4 and 0.55 ± 0.06 M(-1)s(-1) in the presence and absence of Mg(2+). The maximum yield of GSNO was close to 100% in the presence of Mg(2+) but only about half as high in its absence. From this observation we conclude that, in the absence of Mg(2+), nitrosation starts by formation of a complex between NO and O2, which then reacts with the thiol. Omission of superoxide dismutase (SOD) reduced by half the GSNO yield in the absence of Mg(2+), demonstrating O2(-) formation. The reaction in the presence of Mg(2+) seems to involve formation of a Mg(2+)•glutathione (GSH) complex. SOD did not affect Mg(2+)-stimulated nitrosation, suggesting that no O2(-) is formed in that reaction. Replacing GSH with other thiols revealed that reaction rates increased with the pKa of the thiol, suggesting that the nucleophilicity of the thiol is crucial for the reaction, but that the thiol need not be deprotonated. We propose that in cells Mg(2+)-stimulated NO/O2-induced nitrosothiol formation may be a physiologically relevant reaction.

  10. Anaerobes unleashed: Aerobic fuel cells of Geobacter sulfurreducens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevin, Kelly P.; Zhang, Pei; Franks, Ashley E.; Woodard, Trevor L.; Lovley, Derek R.

    One of the limitations of power generation with microbial fuel cells is that the anode must typically be maintained under anaerobic conditions. When oxygen is present in the anode chamber microorganisms oxidize the fuel with the reduction of oxygen rather than electron transfer to the anode. A system in which fuel is provided from within a graphite anode and diffuses out to the outer surface of the anode was designed to overcome these limitations. A biofilm of Geobacter sulfurreducens strain KN400, pregrown on the surface of a graphite electrode in a traditional two-chambered system with an anaerobic anode chamber and acetate as an external fuel source, produced current just as well under aerobic conditions when acetate was provided via diffusion from an internal concentrated acetate solution. No acetate was detectable in the external medium. In contrast, aerobic systems in which acetate was provided in the external medium completely failed within 48 h. Internally fed anodes colonized by a strain of KN400 adapted to grow at marine salinities produced current in aerobic seawater as well as an anaerobic anode system. The ability to generate current with an anode under aerobic conditions increases the potential applications and design options for microbial fuel cells.

  11. Tumor vessel normalization after aerobic exercise enhances chemotherapeutic efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schadler, Keri L; Thomas, Nicholas J; Galie, Peter A; Bhang, Dong Ha; Roby, Kerry C; Addai, Prince; Till, Jacob E; Sturgeon, Kathleen; Zaslavsky, Alexander; Chen, Christopher S; Ryeom, Sandra

    2016-10-04

    Targeted therapies aimed at tumor vasculature are utilized in combination with chemotherapy to improve drug delivery and efficacy after tumor vascular normalization. Tumor vessels are highly disorganized with disrupted blood flow impeding drug delivery to cancer cells. Although pharmacologic anti-angiogenic therapy can remodel and normalize tumor vessels, there is a limited window of efficacy and these drugs are associated with severe side effects necessitating alternatives for vascular normalization. Recently, moderate aerobic exercise has been shown to induce vascular normalization in mouse models. Here, we provide a mechanistic explanation for the tumor vascular normalization induced by exercise. Shear stress, the mechanical stimuli exerted on endothelial cells by blood flow, modulates vascular integrity. Increasing vascular shear stress through aerobic exercise can alter and remodel blood vessels in normal tissues. Our data in mouse models indicate that activation of calcineurin-NFAT-TSP1 signaling in endothelial cells plays a critical role in exercise-induced shear stress mediated tumor vessel remodeling. We show that moderate aerobic exercise with chemotherapy caused a significantly greater decrease in tumor growth than chemotherapy alone through improved chemotherapy delivery after tumor vascular normalization. Our work suggests that the vascular normalizing effects of aerobic exercise can be an effective chemotherapy adjuvant.

  12. Aerobic Jogging Instruction for Students in Grades 7-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebraska State Dept. of Education, Lincoln.

    Jogging, a form of aerobic exercise, is the act of running at a slow trot. This guide describes an instructional program for high school students to jog progressively longer distances. The emphasis is on participation and gradual improvement. Training principles, teaching methods, common jogging problems, and safety precautions are listed to aid…

  13. Aerobic Capacity and Anaerobic Power Levels of the University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taskin, Cengiz

    2016-01-01

    The aim of study was to analyze aerobic capacity and anaerobic power levels of the university students. Total forty university students who is department physical education and department business (age means; 21.15±1.46 years for male and age means; 20.55±1.79 years for female in department physical education), volunteered to participate in this…

  14. Aerobic exercise capacity in post-polio syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorn, E.L.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to expand the body of knowledge on the diminished aerobic capacity of individuals with post-polio syndrome (PPS). The studies described in this thesis were based on the assumption that, besides a reduced muscle mass, deconditioning contributes to the severely diminished ae

  15. Aerobic Exercise Equipment Preferences among Older Adults: A Preliminary Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looney, Marilyn A.; Rimmer, James H.

    2003-01-01

    Developed an instrument to measure the aerobic exercise equipment preference of a frail older population and applied many-facet Rasch analysis to study construct validity and equipment preferences. Results for 16 participants show the usefulness of many-facet Rasch analysis in guiding instrument revision. (SLD)

  16. Aerobic capacity in children and adolescents with cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuren, Olaf; Takken, Tim

    2010-01-01

    This study described the aerobic capacity [VO(2peak) (ml/kg/min)] in contemporary children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) using a maximal exercise test protocol. Twenty-four children and adolescents with CP classified at Gross Motor Functional Classification Scale (GMFCS) level I or level

  17. Aerobic exercise and intraocular pressure in normotensive and glaucoma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatzibalis Theodosios

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the increasing number of people participating in physical aerobic exercise, jogging in particular, we considered that it would be worth knowing if there are should be limits to the exercise with regard to the intraocular pressure (IOP of the eyes. The purpose of this study is to check IOP in healthy and primary glaucoma patients after aerobic exercise. Methods 145 individuals were subdivided into seven groups: normotensives who exercised regularly (Group A; normotensives in whose right eye (RE timolol maleate 0.5% (Group B, latanoprost 0.005% (Group C, or brimonidine tartrate 0.2% (Group D was instilled; and primary glaucoma patients under monotherapy with β-blockers (Group E, prostaglandin analogues (Group F or combined antiglaucoma treatment (Group G instilled in both eyes. The IOP of both eyes was measured before and after exercise. Results A statistically significant decrease was found in IOP during jogging. The aerobic exercise reduces the IOP in those eyes where a b-blocker, a prostaglandin analogue or an α-agonist was previously instilled. The IOP is also decreased in glaucoma patients who are already under antiglaucoma treatment. Conclusion There is no ocular restriction for simple glaucoma patients in performing aerobic physical activity.

  18. COMMERCIAL-SCALE AEROBIC-ANAEROBIC BIOREACTOR LANDFILL OPERATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A sequential aerobic-anaerobic treatment system has been applied at a commercial scale (3,000 ton per day) municipal solid waste landfill in Kentucky, USA since 2001. In this system, the uppermost layer of landfilled waste is aerated and liquid waste including leachate, surface w...

  19. Intrinsic Aerobic Capacity Sets a Divide for Aging and Longevity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koch, G.; Kemi, O.J.; Qi, N.; Leng, S.X.; Bijma, P.; Gilligan, L.J.; Wilkinson, J.E.; Grevenhof, van E.M.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale: Low aerobic exercise capacity is a powerful predictor of premature morbidity and mortality for healthy adults as well as those with cardiovascular disease. For aged populations, poor performance on treadmill or extended walking tests indicates closer proximity to future health declines. T

  20. Aerobic Capacity in Children and Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschuren, Olaf; Takken, Tim

    2010-01-01

    This study described the aerobic capacity [VO[subscript 2peak] (ml/kg/min)] in contemporary children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) using a maximal exercise test protocol. Twenty-four children and adolescents with CP classified at Gross Motor Functional Classification Scale (GMFCS) level I or level II and 336 typically developing…

  1. Group Aquatic Aerobic Exercise for Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragala-Pinkham, Maria; Haley, Stephen M.; O'Neill, Margaret E.

    2008-01-01

    The effectiveness and safety of a group aquatic aerobic exercise program on cardiorespiratory endurance for children with disabilities was examined using an A-B study design. Sixteen children (11 males, five females) age range 6 to 11 years (mean age 9y 7mo [SD 1y 4mo]) participated in this twice-per-week program lasting 14 weeks. The children's …

  2. Sequenced anaerobic-aerobic treatment of hemp pulping wastewaters.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kortekaas, S.

    1998-01-01

    Biological treatment is an indispensable instrument for water management of non-wood pulp mills, either as internal measure to enable progressive closure of water cycles, or as end of pipe treatment. In this thesis, the sequenced anaerobic-aerobic treatment of hemp ( Cannabis sativa L. ) pulping was

  3. White matter connectivity and aerobic fitness in male adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan M. Herting

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Exercise has been shown to have positive effects on the brain and behavior throughout various stages of the lifespan. However, little is known about the impact of exercise on neurodevelopment during the adolescent years, particularly with regard to white matter microstructure, as assessed by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI. Both tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS and tractography-based along-tract statistics were utilized to examine the relationship between white matter microstructure and aerobic exercise in adolescent males, ages 15–18. Furthermore, we examined the data by both (1 grouping individuals based on aerobic fitness self-reports (high fit (HF vs. low fit (LF, and (2 using VO2 peak as a continuous variable across the entire sample. Results showed that HF youth had an overall higher number of streamline counts compared to LF peers, which was driven by group differences in corticospinal tract (CST and anterior corpus callosum (Fminor. In addition, VO2 peak was negatively related to FA in the left CST. Together, these results suggest that aerobic fitness relates to white matter connectivity and microstructure in tracts carrying frontal and motor fibers during adolescence. Furthermore, the current study highlights the importance of considering the environmental factor of aerobic exercise when examining adolescent brain development.

  4. Aerobic Digestion. Biological Treatment Process Control. Instructor's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopping, Paul H.

    This unit on aerobic sludge digestion covers the theory of the process, system components, factors that affect the process performance, standard operational concerns, indicators of steady-state operations, and operational problems. The instructor's guide includes: (1) an overview of the unit; (2) lesson plan; (3) lecture outline (keyed to a set of…

  5. Relative importance of aerobic versus resistance training for healthy aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    This review will focus on the importance of aerobic and resistance modes of physical activity for healthy aging as supported by findings in 2007. In line with public health recommendations, several studies in 2007 employed an exercise paradigm that combined both modes of physical activity. While a...

  6. In situ aerobic cometabolism of chlorinated solvents: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frascari, Dario; Zanaroli, Giulio; Danko, Anthony S

    2015-01-01

    The possible approaches for in situ aerobic cometabolism of aquifers and vadose zones contaminated by chlorinated solvents are critically evaluated. Bioaugmentation of resting-cells previously grown in a fermenter and in-well addition of oxygen and growth substrate appear to be the most promising approaches for aquifer bioremediation. Other solutions involving the sparging of air lead to satisfactory pollutant removals, but must be integrated by the extraction and subsequent treatment of vapors to avoid the dispersion of volatile chlorinated solvents in the atmosphere. Cometabolic bioventing is the only possible approach for the aerobic cometabolic bioremediation of the vadose zone. The examined studies indicate that in situ aerobic cometabolism leads to the biodegradation of a wide range of chlorinated solvents within remediation times that vary between 1 and 17 months. Numerous studies include a simulation of the experimental field data. The modeling of the process attained a high reliability, and represents a crucial tool for the elaboration of field data obtained in pilot tests and for the design of the full-scale systems. Further research is needed to attain higher concentrations of chlorinated solvent degrading microbes and more reliable cost estimates. Lastly, a procedure for the design of full-scale in situ aerobic cometabolic bioremediation processes is proposed.

  7. Kinetic comparisons of mesophilic and thermophilic aerobic biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogelaar, J.C.T.; Klapwijk, A.; Temmink, H.; Lier, van J.B.

    2003-01-01

    Kinetic parameters describing growth and decay of mesophilic (30degreesC) and thermophilic (55degreesC) aerobic biomass were determined in continuous and batch experiments by using oxygen uptake rate measurements
    Kinetic parameters describing growth and decay of mesophilic (30degreesC) and therm

  8. AEROBIC BIODEGRADATION OF GASOLINE OXYGENATES MTBE AND TBA

    Science.gov (United States)

    MTBE degradation was investigated using a continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) with biomass retention (porous pot reactor) operated under aerobic conditions. MTBE was fed to the reactor at an influent concentration of 150 mg/l (1.70 mmol/l). A second identifical rector was op...

  9. Strength training and aerobic exercise training for muscle disease (Review)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voet, N.B.M.; Kooi, E.L. van der; Riphagen, I.I.; Lindeman, E.; Engelen, B.G.M. van; Geurts, A.C.H.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Strength training or aerobic exercise programmes might optimise muscle and cardiorespiratory function and prevent additional disuse atrophy and deconditioning in people with a muscle disease. This is an update of a review first published in 2004. OBJECTIVES: To examine the safety and eff

  10. Reductive Dechlorination of Trichloroethylene and Tetrachloroethylene under Aerobic Conditions in a Sediment Column

    OpenAIRE

    Enzien, Michael V.; Picardal, Flynn; Terry C Hazen; Arnold, R. G.; Fliermans, Carl B.

    1994-01-01

    Biodegradation of trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene under aerobic conditions was studied in a sediment column. Cumulative mass balances indicated 87 and 90% removal for trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene, respectively. These studies suggest the potential for simultaneous aerobic and anaerobic biotransformation processes under bulk aerobic conditions.

  11. Aerobic Development of Elite Youth Ice Hockey Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiter, Jeff R; Cordingley, Dean M; MacDonald, Peter B

    2015-11-01

    Ice hockey is a physiologically complex sport requiring aerobic and anaerobic energy metabolism. College and professional teams often test aerobic fitness; however, there is a paucity of information regarding aerobic fitness of elite youth players. Without this knowledge, training of youth athletes to meet the standards of older age groups and higher levels of hockey may be random, inefficient, and or effective. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the aerobic fitness of elite youth hockey players. A retrospective database review was performed for 200 male AAA hockey players between the ages of 13 and 17 (age, 14.4 ± 1.2 years; height, 174.3 ± 8.5 cm; body mass, 67.2 ± 11.5 kg; body fat, 9.8 ± 3.5%) before the 2012-13 season. All subjects performed a graded exercise test on a cycle ergometer, whereas expired air was collected by either a Parvo Medics TrueOne 2400 or a CareFusion Oxycon Mobile metabolic cart to determine maximal oxygen consumption (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max). Body mass, absolute V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, and the power output achieved during the last completed stage increased in successive age groups from age 13 to 15 years (p ≤ 0.05). Ventilatory threshold (VT) expressed as a percentage of V[Combining Dot Above]O2max and the heart rate (HR) at which VT occurred decreased between the ages of 13 and 14 years (p ≤ 0.05), whereas the V[Combining Dot Above]O2 at which VT occurred increased from the age of 14-15 years. There were no changes in relative V[Combining Dot Above]O2max or HRmax between any successive age groups. The aerobic fitness levels of elite youth ice hockey players increased as players age and mature physically and physiologically. However, aerobic fitness increased to a lesser extent at older ages. This information has the potential to influence off-season training and maximize the aerobic fitness of elite amateur hockey players, so that these players can meet standards set by advanced elite age groups.

  12. Mechanisms of aerobic performance impairment with heat stress and dehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheuvront, Samuel N; Kenefick, Robert W; Montain, Scott J; Sawka, Michael N

    2010-12-01

    Environmental heat stress can challenge the limits of human cardiovascular and temperature regulation, body fluid balance, and thus aerobic performance. This minireview proposes that the cardiovascular adjustments accompanying high skin temperatures (T(sk)), alone or in combination with high core body temperatures (T(c)), provide a primary explanation for impaired aerobic exercise performance in warm-hot environments. The independent (T(sk)) and combined (T(sk) + T(c)) effects of hyperthermia reduce maximal oxygen uptake (Vo(2max)), which leads to higher relative exercise intensity and an exponential decline in aerobic performance at any given exercise workload. Greater relative exercise intensity increases cardiovascular strain, which is a prominent mediator of rated perceived exertion. As a consequence, incremental or constant-rate exercise is more difficult to sustain (earlier fatigue) or requires a slowing of self-paced exercise to achieve a similar sensation of effort. It is proposed that high T(sk) and T(c) impair aerobic performance in tandem primarily through elevated cardiovascular strain, rather than a deterioration in central nervous system (CNS) function or skeletal muscle metabolism. Evaporative sweating is the principal means of heat loss in warm-hot environments where sweat losses frequently exceed fluid intakes. When dehydration exceeds 3% of total body water (2% of body mass) then aerobic performance is consistently impaired independent and additive to heat stress. Dehydration augments hyperthermia and plasma volume reductions, which combine to accentuate cardiovascular strain and reduce Vo(2max). Importantly, the negative performance consequences of dehydration worsen as T(sk) increases.

  13. Acute aerobic exercise modulates primary motor cortex inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Ronan A; Coxon, James P; Cirillo, John; Glenny, Helen; Gant, Nicholas; Byblow, Winston D

    2016-12-01

    Aerobic exercise can enhance neuroplasticity although presently the neural mechanisms underpinning these benefits remain unclear. One possible mechanism is through effects on primary motor cortex (M1) function via down-regulation of the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). The aim of the present study was to examine how corticomotor excitability (CME) and M1 intracortical inhibition are modulated in response to a single bout of moderate intensity aerobic exercise. Ten healthy right-handed adults were participants. Single- and paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation was applied over left M1 to obtain motor-evoked potentials in the right flexor pollicis brevis. We examined CME, cortical silent period (SP) duration, short- and long-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI, LICI), and late cortical disinhibition (LCD), before and after acute aerobic exercise (exercise session) or an equivalent duration without exercise (control session). Aerobic exercise was performed on a cycle ergometer for 30 min at a workload equivalent to 60 % of maximal cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2 peak; heart rate reserve = 75 ± 3 %, perceived exertion = 13.5 ± 0.7). LICI was reduced at 10 (52 ± 17 %, P = 0.03) and 20 min (27 ± 8 %, P = 0.03) post-exercise compared to baseline (13 ± 4 %). No significant changes in CME, SP duration, SICI or LCD were observed. The present study shows that GABAB-mediated intracortical inhibition may be down-regulated after acute aerobic exercise. The potential effects this may have on M1 plasticity remain to be determined.

  14. Olefin Metathesis Reaction in Water and in Air Improved by Supramolecular Additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasek, Jasmine; Seßler, Miriam; Gröger, Harald; Schatz, Jürgen

    2015-10-21

    A range of water-immiscible commercially available Grubbs-type precatalysts can be used in ring-closing olefin metathesis reaction in high yields. The synthetic transformation is possible in pure water under ambient conditions. Sulfocalixarenes can help to boost the reactivity of the metathesis reaction by catalyst activation, improved mass transfer, and solubility of reactants in the aqueous reaction media. Additionally, the use of supramolecular additives allows lower catalyst loadings, but still high activity in pure water under aerobic conditions.

  15. Technical note: enumeration of mesophilic aerobes in milk: evaluation of standard official protocols and Petrifilm aerobic count plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, R; Nero, L A; Carvalho, A F

    2009-07-01

    Enumeration of mesophilic aerobes (MA) is the main quality and hygiene parameter for raw and pasteurized milk. High levels of these microorganisms indicate poor conditions in production, storage, and processing of milk, and also the presence of pathogens. Fifteen raw and 15 pasteurized milk samples were submitted for MA enumeration by a conventional plating method (using plate count agar) and Petrifilm Aerobic Count plates (3M, St. Paul, MN), followed by incubation according to 3 official protocols: IDF/ISO (incubation at 30 degrees C for 72 h), American Public Health Association (32 degrees C for 48 h), and Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture (36 degrees C for 48 h). The results were compared by linear regression and ANOVA. Considering the results from conventional methodology, good correlation indices and absence of significant differences between mean counts were observed, independent of type of milk sample (raw or pasteurized) and incubation conditions (IDF/ISO, American Public Health Association, or Ministry of Agriculture). Considering the results from Petrifilm Aerobic Count plates, good correlation indices and absence of significant differences were only observed for raw milk samples. The microbiota of pasteurized milk interfered negatively with the performance of Petrifilm Aerobic Count plates, probably because of the presence of microorganisms that poorly reduce the dye indicator of this system.

  16. Effects of Aerobic Exercise Based upon Heart Rate at Aerobic Threshold in Obese Elderly Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donini, Lorenzo Maria

    2015-01-01

    In obese diabetic subjects, a correct life style, including diet and physical activity, is part of a correct intervention protocol. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of aerobic training intervention, based on heart rate at aerobic gas exchange threshold (AerTge), on clinical and physiological parameters in obese elderly subjects with type 2 diabetes (OT2DM). Thirty OT2DM subjects were randomly assigned to an intervention (IG) or control group (CG). The IG performed a supervised aerobic exercise training based on heart rate at AerTge whereas CG maintained their usual lifestyle. Anthropometric measures, blood analysis, peak oxygen consumption (V˙O2peak), metabolic equivalent (METpeak), work rate (WRpeak), and WRAerTge were assessed at baseline and after intervention. After training, patients enrolled in the IG had significantly higher (P < 0.001) V˙O2peak, METpeak, WRpeak, and WRAerTge and significantly lower (P < 0.005) weight, BMI, %FM, and waist circumference than before intervention. Both IG and CG subjects had lower glycated haemoglobin levels after intervention period. No significant differences were found for all the other parameters between pre- and posttraining and between groups. Aerobic exercise prescription based upon HR at AerTge could be a valuable physical intervention tool to improve the fitness level and metabolic equilibrium in OT2DM patients. PMID:26089890

  17. Aerobic methylcyclohexane-promoted epoxidation of stilbene over gold nanoparticles supported on Gd-doped titania

    KAUST Repository

    Mendez, Violaine

    2010-01-01

    Aerobic partial oxidations of alkanes and alkenes are important processes of the petrochemical industry. The radical mechanisms involved can be catalyzed by soluble salts of transition metals (Co, Cu, Mn...). We show here that the model methylcyclohexane/stilbene co-oxidation reaction can be efficiently catalyzed at lower temperature by supported gold nanoparticles. The support has little influence on gold intrinsic activity but more on the apparent reaction rates which are a combination of catalytic activity and diffusion limitations. These are here minimized by using gadolinium-doped titania nanocrystallites as support for gold nanoparticles. This material is obtained by mild hydrolysis of a new Gd4TiO(OiPr)14 bimetallic oxoalkoxide. It leads to enhanced wettability of the < 3 nm gold particles in the tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP)-initiated epoxidation of stilbene in methylcyclohexane; Au/TiO2:Gd3+ is in turn as active as the state-of-the-art hydrophobic Au/SiO2 catalyst. The rate-determining step of this reaction is identified as the gold-catalyzed homolytic decomposition of TBHP generating radicals and initiating the methylcyclohexane-mediated epoxidation of stilbene, yielding a methylcyclohexan-1-ol/trans-stilbene oxide mixture. Methylcyclohexan-1-ol can also be obtained in the absence of the alkene in the gold-catalyzed solvent-free autoxidation of methylcyclohexane, evidencing the catalytic potential of gold nanoparticles for low temperature C-H activation. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  18. Effects of acute aerobic exercise on a task-switching protocol and brain-derived neurotrophic factor concentrations in young adults with different levels of cardiorespiratory fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chia-Liang; Pan, Chien-Yu; Chen, Fu-Chen; Wang, Chun-Hao; Chou, Feng-Ying

    2016-07-01

    What is the central question of this study? Neurocognitive functions can be enhanced by acute aerobic exercise, which could be associated with changes in serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentrations. We aimed to explore acute exercise-induced changes in BDNF concentrations, neuropsychological and neurophysiological performances when individuals with different levels of cardiorespiratory fitness performed a cognitive task. What is the main finding and its importance? Only young adults with higher cardiorespiratory fitness could attain switching cost and neurophysiological benefits via acute aerobic exercise. The mechanisms might be fitness dependent. Although acute aerobic exercise could enhance serum BDNF concentrations, changes in peripheral BDNF concentrations could not be the potential factor involved in the beneficial effects on neurocognitive performance. This study investigated the effects of acute aerobic exercise on neuropsychological and neurophysiological performances in young adults with different cardiorespiratory fitness levels when performing a task-switching protocol and explored the potential associations between acute aerobic exercise-induced changes in serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentrations and various neurocognitive outcomes. Sixty young adults were categorized into one control group (i.e. non-exercise-intervention; n = 20) and two exercise-intervention (EI) groups [i.e. higher (EIH , n = 20) and lower (EIL , n = 20) cardiorespiratory fitness] according to their maximal oxygen consumption. At baseline and after either an acute bout of 30 min of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise or a control period, the neuropsychological and neurophysiological performances and serum BDNF concentrations were measured when the participants performed a task-switching protocol involving executive control and greater demands on working memory. The results revealed that although acute aerobic exercise decreased reaction

  19. Does aerobic exercise improve or impair cardiorespiratory fitness and health among cleaners?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korshøj, Mette; Lidegaard, Mark; Skotte, Jørgen H;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: It is unknown if aerobic exercise overloads or improves the cardiovascular system among workers with high occupational physical activity. This was investigated in a worksite randomized controlled trial (RCT) of aerobic exercise among cleaners. METHODS: We randomized 116 cleaners between...... 18-65 years. The aerobic exercise group (N=57) performed worksite aerobic exercise (30 minutes twice a week) and the reference group (N=59) received lectures. Cardiorespiratory fitness, blood pressure (BP) and diurnal heart rate (HR) for measuring aerobic workload [% HR reserve (% HRR)] were...

  20. Capture reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endt, P.M.

    1956-01-01

    Capture reactions will be considered here from the viewpoint of the nuclear spectroscopist. Especially important to him are the capture of neutrons, protons, and alpha particles, which may proceed through narrow resonances, offering a well defined initial state for the subsequent deexcitation proces

  1. Aerobic exercise reduces biomarkers related to cardiovascular risk among cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korshøj, Mette; Ravn, Marie Højbjerg; Holtermann, Andreas;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Blue-collar workers have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Accordingly, elevated levels of biomarkers related to risk of cardiovascular disease, such as high-sensitive C-reactive protein, have been observed among blue-collar workers. The objective was to examine whether....... The reference group (n = 59) received lectures, and the aerobic exercise group (n = 57) performed worksite aerobic exercise (30 min twice a week). Levels of biomarkers (high-sensitive C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, cholesterol, low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride) were collected...... at baseline and after 4 months. A repeated-measure, multi-adjusted, mixed-model intention-to-treat analysis was applied to compare between-group differences. The study was registered as ISRCTN86682076. RESULTS: Significant (p high...

  2. Diagnosis Aerobic Component of Operational Preparedness Skill Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasylyuk Vasyl

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Considerable importance for the control system, selection and orientation of the players on the stage long-term preparation plays a selection of effective methods of testing the various components of functional fitness athlete for timely, objective information about the players. The use of reliable scientific methods of effective monitoring of the athlete contributes to the further improvement of skills, increase athletic achievements. The purpose of this article is to describe and summarize modern methods of diagnosis and development of aerobic component of operational preparedness players qualifications. This article describes methods that actively and effectively used in leading European football teams. Specifically Yo-Yo test, test Shuttle (beep-test, Bangsbo test, test Hoff-Helgerud, test Conconi, Wingate-test. These tests have a high level of reliability and security mechanisms for assessing aerobic power players.

  3. Practical Methods for Aerobic Composting of Cattle Manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghina Preda

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Fresh manure of cattle was subjected to aerobic composting process in two ways: mixed with chopped stalks of sunflower and triticale straw. The composting process has been monitored by sampling periodic chemical and biochemical samples to determine pH value and the quantity of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. It was also registered the temperature and humidity evolution of gathering together of materials that are subject of biodegradation, and finally we calculated the yield of composting. It was found that the oxygen is indispensable to the composting process because during the period of warm fermentation, the aerobic bacteria need a regeneration of oxygen to continue the oxidation of carbon. A decrease in the oxygen concentration below 6 % slows down the microbial activity. The best compost was obtained in the case of ratio C : N about 20 - 40 : 1.

  4. Large-scale synthesis of ultrathin tungsten oxide nanowire networks: an efficient catalyst for aerobic oxidation of toluene to benzaldehyde under visible light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Hua; Yi, Wencai; Liu, Jingyao; Lv, Qing; Zhang, Qing; Ma, Qiang; Yang, Haifeng; Xi, Guangcheng

    2016-07-14

    As a very important chemical raw material, the selective formation of benzaldehyde from toluene at preparative or industrial levels requires the use of highly corrosive chlorine and high reaction temperatures, which severely corrodes equipment, pollutes the environment, and consumes a lot of energy. Herein, we report a robust and highly active catalyst for the benzaldehyde evolution reaction that is constructed by the surfactant-free growth of oxygen vacancy-rich W18O49 ultrathin nanowire networks. Under atmospheric pressure and visible-light irradiation, the new catalyst can selectively (92% selectivity) catalyze the aerobic oxidation of toluene to benzaldehyde with yields of above 95%.

  5. Aerobic vs anaerobic exercise training effects on the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Harsh; Alkhawam, Hassan; Madanieh, Raef; Shah, Niel; Kosmas, Constantine E; Vittorio, Timothy J

    2017-02-26

    Physical exercise is one of the most effective methods to help prevent cardiovascular (CV) disease and to promote CV health. Aerobic and anaerobic exercises are two types of exercise that differ based on the intensity, interval and types of muscle fibers incorporated. In this article, we aim to further elaborate on these two categories of physical exercise and to help decipher which provides the most effective means of promoting CV health.

  6. Aerobic vs anaerobic exercise training effects on the cardiovascular system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Harsh; Alkhawam, Hassan; Madanieh, Raef; Shah, Niel; Kosmas, Constantine E; Vittorio, Timothy J

    2017-01-01

    Physical exercise is one of the most effective methods to help prevent cardiovascular (CV) disease and to promote CV health. Aerobic and anaerobic exercises are two types of exercise that differ based on the intensity, interval and types of muscle fibers incorporated. In this article, we aim to further elaborate on these two categories of physical exercise and to help decipher which provides the most effective means of promoting CV health. PMID:28289526

  7. Critical Period of Weed Control in Aerobic Rice

    OpenAIRE

    Anwar, M. P.; A. S. Juraimi; Samedani, B.; Puteh, A.; Man, A.

    2012-01-01

    Critical period of weed control is the foundation of integrated weed management and, hence, can be considered the first step to design weed control strategy. To determine critical period of weed control of aerobic rice, field trials were conducted during 2010/2011 at Universiti Putra Malaysia. A quantitative series of treatments comprising two components, (a) increasing duration of weed interference and (b) increasing length of weed-free period, were imposed. Critical period was determined th...

  8. Myocardial damage after continuous aerobic and anaerobic exercise in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rostika Flora

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Regular physical activity is highly recommended in preventive, curative, and rehabilitative programs in order to promote health, especially cardiovascular health. However, physical activity can also cause sudden death. In athletes, sudden death may occur during sport competitions, with myocardial infarction as the most common etiology. It is suspected that continuous training without any rest-day play a role in cardiac muscle damage and sudden death during competition. Our study was aimed to learn about cardiac muscle adaptation on continuous aerobic and anaerobic physical activity without any rest-day. Methods: The specimens in our study were cardiac muscle tissue obtained from rats that had performed aerobic and anaerobic physical activity on treadmill for 1, 3, 7, and 10 days without any rest-day. Blood gas analysis and hematological assessment were used as parameters of systemic adaptation to hypoxia during physical activity. Moreover, histopathology of cardiac muscle tissue was performed as parameter for cardiac muscle damage.Results: The results showed that aerobic and anaerobic physical activity caused a systemic hypoxic condition and triggered adaptation responses. Cardiac muscle damage occurred on the 10th day in both treatment groups, with more severe damage observed in the group with anaerobic physical activity. The tissue protein level in the anaerobic group increased progressively on the 10th day.Conclusion: Physical activity may result in hypoxia and systemic adaptation. Aerobic and anaerobic physical activities performed for 10 days without any rest-day may cause cardiac muscle damage. (Med J Indones. 2013;22:209-14. doi: 10.13181/mji.v22i4.601Keywords: Cardiac muscle, cardiac muscle damage, histopathology, physical activity

  9. On Aerobic Exercise and Behavioral and Neural Plasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Caitlin Peplinski; Ami Patel; Berggren, Kiersten L.; Kerr, Abigail L.; Rodney A. Swain; Angela M. Sikorski

    2012-01-01

    Aerobic exercise promotes rapid and profound alterations in the brain. Depending upon the pattern and duration of exercise, these changes in the brain may extend beyond traditional motor areas to regions and structures normally linked to learning, cognition, and emotion. Exercise-induced alterations may include changes in blood flow, hormone and growth factor release, receptor expression, angiogenesis, apoptosis, neurogenesis, and synaptogenesis. Together, we believe that these changes underl...

  10. Echinacea Supplementation: Does it Really Improve Aerobic Fitness?

    OpenAIRE

    Baumann, Cory W.; Kwak, Dongmin

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Echinacea is an herbal supplement used by endurance athletes for its performance boosting properties. It is thought that Echinacea improves the blood’s oxygen carrying capacity by increasing production of erythropoietin (EPO), a glycoprotein that regulates red blood cell formation. Subsequently, these changes would lead to an overall improvement in maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and running economy (RE), two markers of aerobic fitness. The purpose of this review is to briefly discus...

  11. Comparison of two aerobic field tests in young tennis players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fargeas-Gluck, Marie-Agnès; Léger, Luc A

    2012-11-01

    This study compares the maximal responses of a new aerobic tennis field test, the NAVTEN to a known aerobic field test, often used with young tennis players, that is, the continuous multistage 20-m shuttle run test (20-m SRT). The NAVTEN is an intermittent (1-minute/1-minute) multistage test with side-to-side displacements and ball hitting. Ten young elite tennis players aged 12.9 ± 0.3 (mean ± SD) randomly performed both tests and were continuously monitored for heart rate (HR) and oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2) using the Vmax ST (Sensormedics). The 20-m SRT and NAVTEN show similar HRpeak (202 ± 6.1 vs. 208 ± 9.5, respectively) and V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak (54.2 ± 5.9 vs. 54.9 ± 6.0 ml·kg·min). Pearson correlations between both tests were 0.88 and 0.92 for V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak and maximal speed, respectively. The NAVTEN yielded V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak values that are typical for active subjects of that age and are similar to the 20-m SRT supporting its use to measure aerobic fitness of young tennis players in specific and entertaining field conditions. The fact that two-thirds of the tennis players achieved a different ranking (±1 rank) with the NAVTEN and the 20-m SRT suggests that the NAVTEN may be more specific than the 20-m SRT to assess aerobic fitness of tennis players. From a practical point of view, the NAVTEN test is more specific and pedagogical for young tennis players even though both tests yield similar maximal values.

  12. Aerobic oxidation assisted by ligand-free palladium catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Rui Wang; Chu Ting Yang; Lei Liu; Qing Xiang Guo

    2007-01-01

    Aerobic oxidation of electron-rich benzylic and phenyl allylic alcohols was achieved with high yields with only 0.1 mol.% ofPd(OAc)2 catalyst in the absence of any ligand. This procedure was expected to be valuable for realistic industrial-scale applications from both economic as well as environmental points of view.(C) 2006 Qing Xiang Guo. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Chinese Chemical Society. All rights reserved.

  13. Copper-Catalyzed Aerobic C–H Trifluoromethylation of Phenanthrolines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Cheng-Liang; Zhang, Yong-Qiang; Yuan, Yong-An

    2016-01-01

    Direct C–H trifluoromethylation of heterocycles is a valuable transformation. In particular, nonprecious metal-catalyzed C–H trifluoromethylation processes, which do not proceed through CF3 radical species, have been less developed. In this cluster report, a new copper-catalyzed aerobic C–H trifluoromethylation of phenanthrolines is described. This transformation affords trifluoromethylated phenanthrolines that have not been synthesized and preliminary mechanistic studies suggest that the CF3 group transfer may occur through cooperative activation. PMID:26855477

  14. Concentric left ventricular morphology in aerobically trained kayak canoeists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Phillip E; Campbell, Ian G; George, Keith P

    2004-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that upper body aerobically trained athletes (kayak canoeists) would have greater left ventricular wall thickness, but similar left ventricular diastolic chamber dimensions, compared with recreationally active and sedentary men. Ultrasound echocardiography was used to determine cardiac structure and function in highly trained kayak canoeists (n = 10), moderately active (n = 10) and sedentary men (n = 10). The septal and posterior left ventricular walls were approximately 0.2 cm thicker in kayak canoeists (P kayak canoeists had a concentric pattern of left ventricular adaptation to aerobic upper body training. Scaling the data to body composition indices had no effect on the outcome of the statistical analysis. There were no differences in resting Doppler left ventricular diastolic or systolic function among the groups. Ejection fraction was lower in the kayak canoeists, but the magnitude of the difference was within the normal variability for this measurement. Thus aerobically upper body trained athletes demonstrated a concentric pattern of cardiac enlargement, but resting left ventricle function was not different between athletes, moderately active and sedentary individuals.

  15. Combined alkaline and ultrasonic pretreatment of sludge before aerobic digestion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Yiying; LI Huan; MAHAR Rasool Bux; WANG Zhiyu; NIE Yongfeng

    2009-01-01

    Alkaline and ultrasonic sludge disintegration can both be used as pretreatments of waste activated sludge (WAS) for improving the subsequent anaerobic or aerobic digestion. The pretreatment has been carried out using different combination of these two methods in this study. The effect was evaluated based on the quantity of soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) in the pretreated sludge as well as the degradation of organic matter in the following aerobic digestion. For WAS samples with combined pretreatment, the released COD was in high level than those with ultrasonic or alkaline treatment. When combined with the same ultrasonic treatment, NaOH treatment resulted in more solubilization of WAS than Ca(OH)2. For combined NaOH and ultrasonic treatments with different sequences, the released COD were in the order: simultaneous treatment > ultrasonic treatment following NaOH treatment > NaOH treatment following ultrasonic treatment. For simultaneous treatment, low NaOH dosage (100 g/kg dry solid), short duration (30 min) of NaOH treatment, and low ultrasonic specific energy (7 500 kJ/kg dry solid) were beneficial for sludge disintegration. Using combined NaOH and ultrasonic pretreatment with the optimium parameters, the degradation efficiency of organic matter was increased from 38.0% to 50.7%, which is much higher than with ultrasonic (42.5%) or with NaOH pretreatment (43.5%) in the subsequent aerobic digestion at the same retention time.

  16. Color Changes of Package Silage In Period of Aerobic Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Toruk

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, changes on color of the silage surface, chemical and microbiological parameters in six days period of aerobic stability of package silage were investigated. For this purpose, the effect of the silage additive materials and treatments dose also were examined. Treatments were determined as Control (C, Silo-king firm dose (FD, Silo-King double dose (D2, Sim-Silage firm dose (SF, and Sim-Silage double dose (S2.Maize was ensiled using a package silage machine. The package silages opened after three months storage was analyzed for colors during aerobic exposure. In this research, yellowness (yı* indicates were also measured to show the effect of fermentation process on the silage color properties. As the result of experiment, it was found that aerobic stability have significant effects on color of the silage surface (all parameters statistically (p<0.05. The lowest color alteration (ΔE was estimated as 8.96 in S2 treatment. The color alteration also was increased 96 h when increased at pH and temperature. The highest CO2 values were found at firm dose treatments.

  17. Improving aerobic capacity through active videogames: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luiz de Brito-Gomes

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe rate of peak workload improvement between different types of Active Video Games (AVG in young sedentary adults was investigated. Aerobic capacity improvement after a 6-week intervention between AVG types was also compared. Twenty participants, after baseline assessments, were randomized into one of three parallel groups: structured AVG (n= 6, unstructured AVG (n= 7 and a control group (n= 7. Participants played their respective AVG 3 times a week for 6-weeks (30 minutes-session. The control group maintained normal activities. Both structured and unstructured AVG improved peak workload after four weeks but only the structured group maintained this improvement through week five and six. Aerobic capacity improved in the unstructured (Pre: 36.0 ± 5.2ml.kg.min-¹,Post: 39.7 ± 4.9ml.kg.min-¹, p = .038 and structured AVG (Pre: 39.0 ± 5.9ml.kg.min-¹,Post: 47.8 ± 4.3ml.kg.min-¹, p = .006 groups. Structured AVG provide greater health benefits to aerobic capacity and peak workload in young sedentary but otherwise healthy males relative to unstructured AVG.

  18. Aerobic exercise in children with oxidative phosphorylation defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luuk Schreuder

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue and exercise intolerance are symptoms in children with metabolic myopathy. Frequently this is combined with muscle pain in children with mitochondrial myopathy. Offering therapeutic advice remains challenging in this patient group. Here we describe five children above the age of four years, with normal intelligence, myopathy, exercise intolerance, motor developmental delay, and fatigue, who were diagnosed with a mitochondrial dysfunction. Based on the positive experience of condition training in adults with mitochondrial disease and inactivity, aerobic exercise training was advised for all the children. Because of the lack of clear protocols for individualized mitochondrial myopathies, regular training was initiated. The Movement Assessment Battery of Children, the Jamar dynamometer for grip force, and the Bruce protocol treadmill test were applied for evaluation. No patient showed significant disease progression on a weekly scheme of strength training or on aerobic training during periods varying between 6 and 18 months. Only one out of the five patients has shown an improvement after a period of structured, aerobic training, demonstrating good compliance and motivation over the course of 18 months. Some patients developed severe muscle pain after explosive exercise. Even in a relatively homogenous, intelligent group of patients and motivated parents, we could not reach full compliance. With our case studies, we would like to draw attention to the importance and pitfalls of movement therapy in children with mitochondrial disease.

  19. Stimulated Growth of Aerobic Microbes Using Calcium Peroxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shejiang; LI Mujin; JIANG Bin; LI Xingang

    2006-01-01

    With continuous and slow oxygen-release characteristic,calcium peroxide (CaO2) has been a new source of supplying oxygen for aerobic microbes in bioremediation of contaminated groundwater.Batch experiments were conducted to evaluate the oxygen-release rate of CaO2 reacting with water,the regulation of high pH,as well as the growth of mixed aerobic microbes in the medium containing CaO2.The results show that the oxygen-release process of CaO2 comprises three phases.In the first phase,dissolved oxygen levels of water increased sharply,and average oxygen-release rates increased as the adding weight of CaO2 increased.However,the rates almost ly.As the necessary components of medium,potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KH2PO4) and ammonium sulphate ((NH4)2SO4) at a certain ratio could regulate pH caused by CaO2 from 12.1 to the range of 6.5-8.5,which is helpful for microbial growth.In addition,diauxic growth curve observed in the medium containing CaO2 suggested that the growth of mixed aerobic microbes could be stimulated by the addition of CaO2.

  20. Electric motor assisted bicycle as an aerobic exercise machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, T; Okada, S; Makikawa, M

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study is to maintain a continuous level of exercise intensity around the aerobic threshold (AT) during riding on an electric motor assisted bicycle using a new control system of electrical motor assistance which uses the efficient pedaling rate of popular bicycles. Five male subjects participated in the experiment, and the oxygen uptake was measured during cycling exercise using this new pedaling rate control system of electrical motor assistance, which could maintain the pedaling rate within a specific range, similar to that in previous type of electrically assisted bicycles. Results showed that this new pedaling rate control system at 65 rpm ensured continuous aerobic exercise intensity around the AT in two subjects, and this intensity level was higher than that observed in previous type. However, certain subjects were unable to maintain the expected exercise intensity because of their particular cycling preferences such as the pedaling rate. It is necessary to adjust the specific pedaling rate range of the electrical motor assist control according to the preferred pedaling rate, so that this system becomes applicable to anyone who want continuous aerobic exercise.

  1. Aerobic fitness and orthostatic tolerance: Evidence against an association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Thomas J.

    1994-01-01

    This presentation will focus on only one side of the debate as to whether high levels of aerobic fitness have a deleterious effect on tolerance to gravitational stress. This issue was raised in the early 1970's as a result of two research publications. The first work investigated the carotid sinus baroreflex of humans with an airtight chamber that surrounded the head and neck. The steady-state reflex changes in blood pressure that were recorded 3 minutes after application of the head and neck stimuli, were attenuated in an athletic group compared to a sedentary group of volunteers. A second report in the NASA literature indicated that five endurance-trained runners were less tolerant to LBNP than five nonrunners. These early research findings have stimulated a considerable amount of interest that has lead to a growing number of research efforts seeking an association between aerobic fitness and orthostatic tolerance in humans. I will briefly review some of the more pertinent published research information which suggests that there is no relationship between aerobic fitness and orthostatic tolerance in humans.

  2. Echinacea Supplementation: Does it Really Improve Aerobic Fitness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Cory W.; Kwak, Dongmin

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Echinacea is an herbal supplement used by endurance athletes for its performance boosting properties. It is thought that Echinacea improves the blood’s oxygen carrying capacity by increasing production of erythropoietin (EPO), a glycoprotein that regulates red blood cell formation. Subsequently, these changes would lead to an overall improvement in maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and running economy (RE), two markers of aerobic fitness. The purpose of this review is to briefly discuss the physiological variables associated with distance running performance and how these variables are influenced by Echinacea supplementation. [Methods] To determine Echinacea’s ergogenic potential, human studies that used Echinacea in conjunction to analyzing the blood’s oxygen carrying capacity and/or aerobic fitness were assessed. [Results] Taken together, the majority of the published literature does not support the claim that Echinacea is a beneficial ergogenic aid. With the exception of one study, several independent groups have reported Echinacea supplementation does not increase EPO production, blood markers of oxygen transport, VO2max or RE in healthy untrained or trained subjects. [Conclusion] To date, the published literature does not support the use of Echinacea as an ergogenic aid to improve aerobic fitness in healthy untrained or trained subjects.

  3. Gold-catalyzed aerobic epoxidation of trans-stilbene in methylcyclohexane. Part I: Design of a reference catalyst

    KAUST Repository

    Guillois, Kevin

    2012-02-01

    The kinetics of the heterogeneous gold-catalyzed aerobic epoxidation of stilbene in the liquid phase has been shown to be hindered by diffusion limitations, due to the use of supports which are unsuitable to apolar reaction media. The choice of these supports is generally dictated by the ability of standard methods of preparation to stabilize highly dispersed gold nanoparticles on them. Hence, new methods need to be designed in order to produce catalytically active gold nanoparticles on hydrophobic supports in general and on passivated silicas in particular. By investigating Tsukuda\\'s method to produce colloidal solutions of gold nanoparticles upon reduction of the triphenylphosphine gold chloride complex in solution, we found that direct reduction of AuPPh3Cl in the presence of a commercially available silica support functionalized with dimethylsiloxane, Aerosil R972, leads, in a highly reproducible and potentially scalable way, to the best catalyst ever reported for this reaction. (C) 2011 Elsevier BM. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of aerobic exercise on the contractile function of gastrocnemius myosin heavy chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-jun Ren

    2009-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of 4- 6 weeks' treadmill training of male SD rats on the contractile function of their gnstroenemius myosin heavy chain (MHC). Methods Forty male SD rats were randomly divided into control group and training group. The treadmill training of the training group rats was incessantly performed for 4- 6 weeks at an intensity of about 75% VO2max (18. 5- 24 m/min, gradient of 0°, each training session lasting 50 minutes, twice a day). The content of gastrocnemlas MHC mRNA was tested by reverse transcription polymernse chain reaction (RT-PCR), and the changes of muscle fibre and its cross-section area (CSA) were measured using immunohistochemistry. Electric stimulation tests were used to determine the maximal tension of isometric contraction of the post-training gastrocnemius. Results ① After continuous treadmill training for 4 - 6 weeks, we found that the content of the total MHC, MHC Ⅰ , MHC Ⅱ x, MHC Ⅱ a mRNAs was 105%, 105%, 109% and 108% of that in the resting control group, respectively, and the MHC Ⅱ b mRNA content did not change significantly. The percentage of MHC Ⅰ mRNA in the total MHC mRNA increased while that of MHC Ⅱ mRNA decreased after aerobic training. ② The slow type of fibre type Ⅰ was the main part of the MHC after training and the CSA of the muscle fibres increased simultaneously. ③ The maximal tension of isometric contraction by pulse stimulation of square wave in the training group increased significantly compared with that in the control group (P<0. 01). Conclusion The findings indicate that aerobic exercise may promote an increase in the contractile function of MHC.

  5. Pentachlorophenol aerobic removal in a sequential reactor: start-up procedure and kinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelucci, Domenica Mosca; Tomei, M Concetta

    2015-01-01

    This study has demonstrated the applicability of a simple technology such as the sequencing batch reactor (SBR), operated with suspended biomass, to the aerobic biodegradation of a highly toxic compound, the pentachlorophenol (PCP). An enrichment of a microbial consortium, originated from the biomass of an urban wastewater treatment plant, was performed and 70 days were sufficient to achieve removal efficiencies of ∼90% with the compound fed as only carbon and energy source Once completed the start-up period, the SBR was operated with the acclimatized biomass for 60 days at a feed concentration of PCP in the range of 10-20 mg L(-1). Improved performance was observed at increased influent concentration and the reached removal efficiency for the highest concentrations was stable at values≥90%. Kinetic and stoichiometric characterization of the acclimated biomass was performed with biodegradation tests carried out in the bioreactor during the reaction phase. The classical and a modified four-parameter forms of the Haldane equation were applied to model the substrate inhibited kinetics. Both models provided reliable predictions with high correlation coefficients (>0.99). The biomass characterization was completed with the evaluation of the growth yield coefficient, Y (0.075 on chemical oxygen demand base) and endogenous respiration rate, b (0.054 d(-1)). The aerobic SBR, operated in the metabolic mode with a mixed culture, showed superior performance in comparison to continuous systems applied in the same range of PCP influent loads and achieved removal rates are suitable for application.

  6. Water aerobics in pregnancy: cardiovascular response, labor and neonatal outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braga Angelica F

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the association between water aerobics, maternal cardiovascular capacity during pregnancy, labor and neonatal outcomes. Methods A randomized, controlled clinical trial was carried out in which 34 pregnant women were allocated to a water aerobics group and 37 to a control group. All women were submitted to submaximal ergometric tests on a treadmill at 19, 25 and 35 weeks of pregnancy and were followed up until delivery. Oxygen consumption (VO2 max, cardiac output (CO, physical fitness, skin temperature, data on labor and delivery, and neonate outcomes were evaluated. Frequency distributions of the baseline variables of both groups were initially performed and then analysis of the outcomes was carried out. Categorical data were compared using the chi-square test, and numerical using Student's t or Mann-Whitney tests. Wilk's Lambda or Friedman's analysis of repeat measurements were applied for comparison of physical capacity, cardiovascular outcomes and maternal temperature. Results VO2 max and physical fitness were higher in both groups in the second trimester, returning to basal levels in the third trimester. In both groups, CO increased as pregnancy progressed and peak exercise temperature was higher than resting temperature, increasing further after five minutes of recovery and remaining at this level until 15 minutes after exercise completion. There was no difference between the two groups regarding duration (457.9 ± SD 249.6 vs 428.9 ± SD 203.2 minutes or type of delivery. Labor analgesia was requested by significantly fewer women in the water aerobics group (27% vs 65%; RR = 0.42 95%CI 0.23–0.77. Neonatal results were similar in both groups. Conclusion The regular practice of moderate water aerobics by sedentary and low risk pregnant women was not detrimental to the health of the mother or the child. There was no influence on maternal cardiovascular capacity, duration of labor or type of delivery; however

  7. Effects of high-fat diet and regular aerobic exercise on global gene expression in skeletal muscle of C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Li; Liu, Xiaolei; Niu, Yanmei; Yuan, Hairui; Zhang, Ning; Lavi, Ehud

    2012-02-01

    Exercise training may decrease insulin resistance (IR) and increase glucose tolerance. However, the adaptive responses in skeletal muscle at the molecular and genetic level have not been clearly understood. Here we used oligonucleotide microarray analysis to dissect the effects of high-fat diet (HFD) and regular aerobic exercise on global gene expression in the skeletal muscle of C57BL/6 mice. C57BL/6 male mice (n = 40) were fed with normal chow (n = 20) and HFD (n = 20) for 8 weeks. The animals were then divided into 1 of 4 intervention groups: groups of mice fed with normal chow and HFD accompanied with 6-week treadmill running (60 min/d) at 75% maximum oxygen consumption (NE and HE) and their sedentary control groups (NC and HC). Oligonucleotide microarray was applied to analyze the effect of aerobic exercise and HFD at the transcriptional level, and selected genes were confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Our data showed that 6 weeks of aerobic exercise improved the plasma lipid profile and reversed the glucose intolerance induced by HFD. A set of 503 genes was differentially expressed in samples of HC mice as compared with those of the NC group. Forty of those genes were identified as involved in the process of aerobic exercise ameliorating IR by comparing the changes in expression profiles between the HE and HC groups. These changes include genes involved in metabolism, defense, and inflammation and genes of unknown function. Aerobic exercise training is able to ameliorate IR of mice maintained with HFD. The biochemical pathways involved in ameliorating IR identified in this study may represent potential targets for the treatment of IR.

  8. Effects Ala54Thr polymorphism of FABP2 on obesity index and biochemical variable in response to a aerobic exercise training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Tae Kyung

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate whether or not the FABP2 gene polymorphism modulated obesity indices, hemodynamic factor, blood lipid factor, and insulin resistance markers through 12-week aerobic exercise training in abdominal obesity group of Korean mid-life women. A total of 243 abdominally obese subjects of Korean mid-life women voluntarily participated in aerobic exercise training program for 12 weeks. Polymerase Chain Reaction with Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay was used to assess the FABP2 genotype of the participants (117 of AA homozygotes, 100 of AT heterozygotes, 26 of TT homozygotes). Prior to the participation of the exercise training program, baseline obesity indices, hemodynamic factor, blood lipid factor, and insulin resistance markers were measured. All the measurements were replicated following the 12-week aerobic exercise training program, and then the following results were found. After 12-week aerobic exercise training program, wild type (Ala54Ala) and mutant type (Ala54Thr+Thr54Thr) significantly decreased weight (P > .001), BMI (P > .001), %bf (P > .001), waist circumference (P > .001), WHR (P > .001), muscle mass (wild type p .001), RHR (P > .001), viseceral adipose area (wild type p .001), subcutaneous area (P > .001), insulin (wild type p .001) and significantly increased VO2max (P > .001). And wild type significantly decresed NEFA (P > .05), glucose (P > .05), OGTT 120min glucose (P > .05) and significantly increased HDLC (p > .005). Mutant type significantly decreased SBP (P > .001), DBP (P > .01), TC (P > .01), LPL (P > .05), LDL (P > .001), HOMA index (P > .01). The result of the present study represents that regular aerobic exercise training may beneficially prevent obesity index, blood pressure, blood lipids and insulin resistance markers independent of FABP Ala54Thr wild type and mutant type. PMID:25566432

  9. Evaluation of the petrifilm aerobic count plate for enumeration of aerobic marine bacteria from seawater and Caulerpa lentillifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudaka, Jun; Horii, Toru; Tamanaha, Koji; Itokazu, Kiyomasa; Nakamura, Masaji; Taira, Katsuya; Nidaira, Minoru; Okano, Sho; Kitahara, Akio

    2010-08-01

    The enumeration and evaluation of the activity of marine bacteria are important in the food industry. However, detection of marine bacteria in seawater or seafood has not been easy. The Petrifilm aerobic count plate (ACP) is a ready-to-use alternative to the traditional enumeration media used for bacteria associated with food. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of a simple detection and enumeration method utilizing the Petrifilm ACP for enumeration of aerobic marine bacteria from seawater and an edible seaweed, Caulerpa lentillifera. The efficiency of enumeration of total aerobic marine bacteria on Petrifilm ACP was compared with that using the spread plate method on marine agar with 80 seawater and 64 C. lentillifera samples. With sterile seawater as the diluent, a close correlation was observed between the method utilizing Petrifilm ACP and that utilizing the conventional marine agar (r=0.98 for seawater and 0.91 for C. lentillifera). The Petrifilm ACP method was simpler and less time-consuming than the conventional method. These results indicate that Petrifilm ACP is a suitable alternative to conventional marine agar for enumeration of marine microorganisms in seawater and C. lentillifera samples.

  10. Highly efficient aerobic oxidation of alcohols by using less-hindered nitroxyl-radical/copper catalysis: optimum catalyst combinations and their substrate scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasano, Yusuke; Kogure, Naoki; Nishiyama, Tomohiro; Nagasawa, Shota; Iwabuchi, Yoshiharu

    2015-04-01

    The oxidation of alcohols into their corresponding carbonyl compounds is one of the most fundamental transformations in organic chemistry. In our recent report, 2-azaadamantane N-oxyl (AZADO)/copper catalysis promoted the highly chemoselective aerobic oxidation of unprotected amino alcohols into amino carbonyl compounds. Herein, we investigated the extension of the promising AZADO/copper-catalyzed aerobic oxidation of alcohols to other types of alcohol. During close optimization of the reaction conditions by using various alcohols, we found that the optimum combination of nitroxyl radical, copper salt, and solution concentration was dependent on the type of substrate. Various alcohols, including highly hindered and heteroatom-rich ones, were efficiently oxidized into their corresponding carbonyl compounds under mild conditions with lower amounts of the catalysts.

  11. Biodegradation of Reactive blue 13 in a two-stage anaerobic/aerobic fluidized beds system with a Pseudomonas sp. isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jun; Zhang, Xingwang; Li, Zhongjian; Lei, Lecheng

    2010-01-01

    Pseudomonas sp. strain L1 capable of degrading the azo textile dye Reactive blue 13, was isolated from activated sludge in a sequencing batch reactor. A continuous two-stage anaerobic/aerobic biological fluidized bed system was used to decolorize and mineralize Reactive blue 13. The key factors affecting decolorization were investigated and the efficiency of degradation was also optimized. An overall color removal of 83.2% and COD removal of 90.7% was achieved at pH 7, a residence time of 70 h and a glucose concentration of 2 g/L, HRT=70 h and C(glucose)=2000 mg/L. Oxygen was contributing to blocking the azo bond cleavage. Consequently, decolorization occurred in the anaerobic reactor while partial mineralization was achieved in the aerobic reactor. A possible degradation pathway based on the analysis of intermediates and involving azoreduction, desulfonation, deamination and further oxidation reactions is presented.

  12. A novel terminal oxidase, cytochrome baa3 purified from aerobically grown Pseudomonas aeruginosa: it shows a clear difference between resting state and pulsed state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, T; Fukumori, Y; Yamanaka, T

    1992-08-01

    A novel type of cytochrome c oxidase was purified to homogeneity from Pseudomonas aeruginosa which was grown aerobically. The purified oxidase contained two molecules of heme a, two atoms of copper, and one molecule of protoheme per molecule. One of the two heme a molecules in the oxidase reacted with carbon monoxide, so that the enzyme was of baa3-type. The oxidase molecule was composed of three subunits with molecular weights of 38,000, 57,000, and 82,000. Although the oxidase oxidized ferrocytochrome c-550 obtained from the bacterial cells grown aerobically, the oxidizing activity was not high. The "resting form" and the "pulsed form" of the oxidase were observed clearly with this enzyme, and the transition from the resting form to the pulsed form was accompanied by a distinct change of the enzymatic activity. The difference in the kinetics of the catalytic reactions between the two forms is discussed.

  13. Gold nanoparticles located at the interface of anatase/rutile TiO2 particles as active plasmonic photocatalysts for aerobic oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Daijiro; Shiraishi, Yasuhiro; Sugano, Yoshitsune; Ichikawa, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shunsuke; Hirai, Takayuki

    2012-04-11

    Visible-light irradiation (λ > 450 nm) of gold nanoparticles loaded on a mixture of anatase/rutile TiO(2) particles (Degussa, P25) promotes efficient aerobic oxidation at room temperature. The photocatalytic activity critically depends on the catalyst architecture: Au particles with anatase/rutile TiO(2) particles behave as the active sites for reaction. This photocatalysis is promoted via plasmon activation of the Au particles by visible light followed by consecutive electron transfer in the Au/rutile/anatase contact site. The activated Au particles transfer their conduction electrons to rutile and then to adjacent anatase TiO(2). This catalyzes the oxidation of substrates by the positively charged Au particles along with reduction of O(2) by the conduction band electrons on the surface of anatase TiO(2). This plasmonic photocatalysis is successfully promoted by sunlight exposure and enables efficient and selective aerobic oxidation of alcohols at ambient temperature.

  14. Comparison of membrane fouling during short-term filtration of aerobic granular sludge and activated sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Aerobic granular sludge was cultivated adopting internal-circulate sequencing batch airlift reactor. The contradistinctive experiment about short-term membrane fouling between aerobic granular sludge system and activated sludge system were investigated. The membrane foulants was also characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy technique. The results showed that the aerobic granular sludge had excellent denitrification ability; the removal efficiency of TN could reach 90%. The aerobic granular sludge could alleviate membrane fouling effectively. The steady membrane flux of aerobic granular sludge was twice as much as that of activated sludge system. In addition, it was found that the aerobic granular sludge could result in severe membrane pore-blocking, however, the activated sludge could cause severe cake fouling. The major components of the foulants were identified as comprising of proteins and polysaccharide materials.

  15. Aerobic fitness is associated with greater hippocampal cerebral blood flow in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Chaddock-Heyman

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study is the first to investigate whether cerebral blood flow in the hippocampus relates to aerobic fitness in children. In particular, we used arterial spin labeling (ASL perfusion MRI to provide a quantitative measure of blood flow in the hippocampus in 73 7- to 9-year-old preadolescent children. Indeed, aerobic fitness was found to relate to greater perfusion in the hippocampus, independent of age, sex, and hippocampal volume. Such results suggest improved microcirculation and cerebral vasculature in preadolescent children with higher levels of aerobic fitness. Further, aerobic fitness may influence how the brain regulates its metabolic demands via blood flow in a region of the brain important for learning and memory. To add specificity to the relationship of fitness to the hippocampus, we demonstrate no significant association between aerobic fitness and cerebral blood flow in the brainstem. Our results reinforce the importance of aerobic fitness during a critical period of child development.

  16. Aerobic capacity and its relationship with parameters of health-related fitness in schoolchildren

    OpenAIRE

    Guillamón,Andrés Rosa; García-Cantó, Eliseo; Pérez Soto, Juan José; Rodríguez García, Pedro Luís

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between aerobic capacity and other parameters determining fitness in primary school. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study, 298 schoolchildren (139 males and 159 females) aged 8-12. Body composition (weight and height) and physical fitness (capacity, motor aerobic and musculoskeletal) was assessed by ALPHA-Fitness battery. Aerobic capacity and body mass index (under/normal-weight and overweight/obesity) wer...

  17. Gene expression centroids that link with low intrinsic aerobic exercise capacity and complex disease risk

    OpenAIRE

    Kivelä, Riikka; Silvennoinen, Mika; Lehti, Maarit; Rinnankoski-Tuikka,, Rita; Purhonen, Tatja; Ketola, Tarmo; Pullinen, Katri; Vuento, Meri; Mutanen, Niina; Maureen A Sartor; Reunanen, Hilkka; Koch, Lauren G.; Britton, Steven L.; Kainulainen, Heikki

    2010-01-01

    A strong link exists between low aerobic exercise capacity and complex metabolic diseases. To probe this linkage, we utilized rat models of low and high intrinsic aerobic endurance running capacity that differ also in the risk for metabolic syndrome. We investigated in skeletal muscle gene-phenotype relationships that connect aerobic endurance capacity with metabolic disease risk factors. The study compared 12 high capacity runners (HCRs) and 12 low capacity runners (LCRs) from generation 18 ...

  18. Characteristics of aerobic granules grown on glucose a sequential batch shaking reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Chun-guang; ZHU Nan-wen; LIU Jun-shen; WANG Zhen-peng; CAI Wei-min

    2004-01-01

    Aerobic heterotrophic granular sludge was cultivated in a sequencing batch shaking reactor(SBSR) in which a synthetic wastewater containing glucose as carbon source was fed. The characteristics of the aerobic granules were investigated. Compared with the conventional activated sludge flocs, the aerobic granules exhibit excellent physical characteristics in terms of settleability, size, shape, biomass density, and physical strength.Scanning electron micrographs revealed that in mature granules little filamentous bacteria could be found, rodshaped and coccoid bacteria were the dominant microorganisms.

  19. Acclimation of aerobic-activated sludge degrading benzene derivatives and co-metabolic degradation activities of trichloroethylene by benzene derivative-grown aerobic sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shizong; Yang, Qi; Bai, Zhiyong; Wang, Shidong; Wang, Yeyao; Nowak, Karolina M

    2015-01-01

    The acclimation of aerobic-activated sludge for degradation of benzene derivatives was investigated in batch experiments. Phenol, benzoic acid, toluene, aniline and chlorobenzene were concurrently added to five different bioreactors which contained the aerobic-activated sludge. After the acclimation process ended, the acclimated phenol-, benzoic acid-, toluene-, aniline- and chlorobenzene-grown aerobic-activated sludge were used to explore the co-metabolic degradation activities of trichloroethylene (TCE). Monod equation was employed to simulate the kinetics of co-metabolic degradation of TCE by benzene derivative-grown sludge. At the end of experiments, the mixed microbial communities grown under different conditions were identified. The results showed that the acclimation periods of microorganisms for different benzene derivatives varied. The maximum degradation rates of TCE for phenol-, benzoic acid-, toluene-, aniline- and chlorobenzene-grown aerobic sludge were 0.020, 0.017, 0.016, 0.0089 and 0.0047 mg g SS(-1) h(-1), respectively. The kinetic of TCE degradation in the absence of benzene derivative followed Monod equation well. Also, eight phyla were observed in the acclimated benzene derivative-grown aerobic sludge. Each of benzene derivative-grown aerobic sludge had different microbial community composition. This study can hopefully add new knowledge to the area of TCE co-metabolic by mixed microbial communities, and further the understanding on the function and applicability of aerobic-activated sludge.

  20. Asymmetric Electrophilic α-Amination of Silyl Enol Ether Derivatives via the Nitrosocarbonyl Hetero-ene Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, David; Samoshin, Andrey V; Read de Alaniz, Javier

    2015-09-18

    The first example of a general asymmetric nitrosocarbonyl hetero-ene reaction is described. The procedure uses a copper-catalyzed aerobic oxidation of a commercially available chiral nitrosocarbonyl precursor (EleNOr) and is operationally simple. The transformation is both high yielding and highly diastereoselective for a range of silyl enol ether derivatives. A variety of synthetically useful postfunctionalization reactions are presented along with a mechanistic rationale that can be used as a predictive model for future asymmetric reactions with nitrosocarbonyl intermediates.

  1. Removal of Pesticides and Inorganic Contaminants in Anaerobic and Aerobic Biological Contactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation contains data on the removal of pesticides (acetochlor, clethodim, dicrotophos), ammonia, nitrate, bromate and perchlorate through aerobic and anaerobic biological treatment processes.

  2. STUDY OF AEROBIC AND ANAEROBIC BACTERIA IN CHRONIC SUPPURATIVE OTITIS MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyanarayana

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available One hundred six patients with clinical diagnosis of CSOM were investigated bacteriologically using appropriate aerobic and anaerobic techniques. Positive cultures were obtained in 100 specimens. Aerobic bacteria alone were present in 51%, anaerobic bacteria alone in 10% and a combination of both in 34% of aural swabs . The anaerobes isolated were Bacteroides 30%, Peptostreptococci 26%, followed by others. Aerobic bacteriology showed the predominance of Pseudomonas 30.4% followed by Staphylococcus aureus 21.4%. Metronidazole was found to be most effective (87% drug aga inst anaerobes and Amikacin (98% against aerobes.

  3. Terephthalic acid wastewater treatment by using two-stage aerobic process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Based on the tests between anoxic and aerobic process, the two-stage aerobic process with a biological selector was chosen to treat terephthalic acid wastewater (PTA). By adopting the two- stage aerobic process, the CODCr in PTA wastewater could be reduced from 4000-6000 mg/L to below 100 mg/L; the COD loading in the first aerobic tank could reach 7.0-8.0 kgCODCr/(m3.d) and that of the second stage was from 0.2 to 0.4 kgCODCr/(m3.d). Further researches on the kinetics of substrate degradation were carried out.

  4. Life on the edge: thermal optima for aerobic scope of equatorial reef fishes are close to current day temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummer, Jodie L; Couturier, Christine S; Stecyk, Jonathan A W; Gardiner, Naomi M; Kinch, Jeff P; Nilsson, Göran E; Munday, Philip L

    2014-04-01

    Equatorial populations of marine species are predicted to be most impacted by global warming because they could be adapted to a narrow range of temperatures in their local environment. We investigated the thermal range at which aerobic metabolic performance is optimum in equatorial populations of coral reef fish in northern Papua New Guinea. Four species of damselfishes and two species of cardinal fishes were held for 14 days at 29, 31, 33, and 34 °C, which incorporated their existing thermal range (29-31 °C) as well as projected increases in ocean surface temperatures of up to 3 °C by the end of this century. Resting and maximum oxygen consumption rates were measured for each species at each temperature and used to calculate the thermal reaction norm of aerobic scope. Our results indicate that one of the six species, Chromis atripectoralis, is already living above its thermal optimum of 29 °C. The other five species appeared to be living close to their thermal optima (ca. 31 °C). Aerobic scope was significantly reduced in all species, and approached zero for two species at 3 °C above current-day temperatures. One species was unable to survive even short-term exposure to 34 °C. Our results indicate that low-latitude reef fish populations are living close to their thermal optima and may be more sensitive to ocean warming than higher-latitude populations. Even relatively small temperature increases (2-3 °C) could result in population declines and potentially redistribution of equatorial species to higher latitudes if adaptation cannot keep pace.

  5. N-15 NMR study of the immobilization of 2,4- and 2,6-dinitrotoluene in aerobic compost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, K.A.; Pennington, J.C.; Kennedy, K.R.; Cox, L.G.; Hayes, C.A.; Porter, B.E.

    2008-01-01

    Large-scale aerobic windrow composting has been used to bioremediate washout lagoon soils contaminated with the explosives TNT (2,4,6- trinitrotoluene) and RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) at several sites within the United States. We previously used 15N NMR to investigate the reduction and binding of T15NT in aerobic bench -scale reactors simulating the conditions of windrow composting. These studies have been extended to 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4DNT) and 2,6-dinitrotoluene (2,6DNT), which, as impurities in TNT, are usually present wherever soils have been contaminated with TNT. Liquid-state 15N NMR analyses of laboratory reactions between 4-methyl-3-nitroaniline-15N, the major monoamine reduction product of 2,4DNT, and the Elliot soil humic acid, both in the presence and absence of horseradish peroxidase, indicated that the amine underwent covalent binding with quinone and other carbonyl groups in the soil humic acid to form both heterocyclic and non-heterocyclic condensation products. Liquid-state 15N NMR analyses of the methanol extracts of 20 day aerobic bench-scale composts of 2,4-di-15N-nitrotoluene and 2,6-di-15N-nitrotoluene revealed the presence of nitrite and monoamine, but not diamine, reduction products, indicating the occurrence of both dioxygenase enzyme and reductive degradation pathways. Solid-state CP/MAS 15N NMR analyses of the whole composts, however, suggested that reduction to monoamines followed by covalent binding of the amines to organic matter was the predominant pathway. ?? 2008 American Chemical Society.

  6. Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Anxiety Disorders: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Moura, Antonio Marcos; Lamego, Murilo Khede; Paes, Flávia; Ferreira Rocha, Nuno Barbosa; Simoes-Silva, Vitor; Rocha, Susana Almeida; de Sá Filho, Alberto Souza; Rimes, Ridson; Manochio, João; Budde, Henning; Wegner, Mirko; Mura, Gioia; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Yuan, Ti-Fei; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Machado, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are the most common psychiatric disorders observed currently. It is a normal adaptive response to stress that allows coping with adverse situations. Nevertheless, when anxiety becomes excessive or disproportional in relation to the situation that evokes it or when there is not any special object directed at it, such as an irrational dread of routine stimuli, it becomes a disabling disorder and is considered to be pathological. The traditional treatment used is medication and cognitive behavioral psychotherapy, however, last years the practice of physical exercise, specifically aerobic exercise, has been investigated as a new non-pharmacological therapy for anxiety disorders. Thus, the aim of this article was to provide information on research results and key chains related to the therapeutic effects of aerobic exercise compared with other types of interventions to treat anxiety, which may become a useful clinical application in a near future. Researches have shown the effectiveness of alternative treatments, such as physical exercise, minimizing high financial costs and minimizing side effects. The sample analyzed, 66.8% was composed of women and 80% with severity of symptoms anxiety as moderate to severe. The data analyzed in this review allows us to claim that alternative therapies like exercise are effective in controlling and reducing symptoms, as 91% of anxiety disorders surveys have shown effective results in treating. However, there is still disagreement regarding the effect of exercise compared to the use of antidepressant symptoms and cognitive function in anxiety, this suggests that there is no consensus on the correct intensity of aerobic exercise as to achieve the best dose-response, with intensities high to moderate or moderate to mild.

  7. Degradation of acid orange 7 in an aerobic biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Michael F; Kinkle, Brian K; Bishop, Paul L

    2002-01-01

    A stable microbial biofilm community capable of completely mineralizing the azo dye acid orange 7 (AO7) was established in a laboratory scale rotating drum bioreactor (RDBR) using waste liquor from a sewage treatment plant. A broad range of environmental conditions including pH (5.8-8.2), nitrification (0.0-4.0 mM nitrite), and aeration (0.2-6.2 mg O2 l(-1)) were evaluated for their effects on the biodegradation of AO7. Furthermore the biofilm maintained its biodegradative ability for over a year while the effects of these environmental conditions were evaluated. Reduction of the azo bond followed by degradation of the resulting aromatic amine appears to be the mechanism by which this dye is biodegraded. Complete loss of color, sulfanilic acid, and chemical oxygen demand (COD) indicate that AO7 is mineralized. To our knowledge this is the first reported occurrence of a sulfonated phenylazonaphthol dye being completely mineralized under aerobic conditions. Two bacterial strains (ICX and SAD4i) originally isolated from the RDBR were able to mineralize, in co-culture, up to 90% of added AO7. During mineralization of AO7, strain ICX reduces the azo bond under aerobic conditions and consumes the resulting cleavage product 1-amino-2-naphthol. Strain SAD4i consumes the other cleavage product, sulfanilic acid. The ability of the RDBR biofilm to aerobically mineralize an azo dye without exogenous carbon and nitrogen sources suggests that this approach could be used to remediate industrial wastewater contaminated with spent dye.

  8. Pd(II/HPMoV-Catalyzed Direct Oxidative Coupling Reaction of Benzenes with Olefins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasutaka Ishii

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The direct aerobic coupling reaction of arenes with olefins was successfully achieved by the use of Pd(OAc2/molybdovanadophosphoric acid (HPMoV as a key catalyst under 1 atm of dioxygen. This catalytic system could be extended to the coupling reaction of various substituted benzenes with olefins such as acrylates, aclrolein, and ethylene through the direct aromatic C-H bond activation.

  9. Degradation of toxaphene in water during anaerobic and aerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LacayoR, M; van Bavel, B; Mattiasson, B

    2004-08-01

    The degradation of technical toxaphene in water with two kinds of bioreactors operating in sequence was studied. One packed bed reactor was filled with Poraver (foam glass particles) running at anaerobic conditions and one suspended carrier biofilm reactor working aerobically. Chemical oxygen demand (COD), chloride, sulphate, pH, dissolved oxygen, total toxaphene and specific toxaphene isomers were measured. After 6 weeks approx. 87% of the total toxaphene was degraded reaching 98% by week 39. The majority of the conversion took place in the anaerobic reactor. The concentrations of toxaphene isomers with more chlorine substituents decreased more rapidly than for isomers with less chlorine substituents.

  10. Aerobic fitness related to cardiovascular risk factors in young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Thorsson, Ola; Karlsson, Magnus K

    2012-01-01

    Low aerobic fitness (maximum oxygen uptake (VO(2PEAK))) is predictive for poor health in adults. In a cross-sectional study, we assessed if VO(2PEAK) is related to a composite risk factor score for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in 243 children (136 boys and 107 girls) aged 8 to 11 years. VO(2PEAK......) was assessed by indirect calorimetry during a maximal exercise test and scaled by body mass (milliliters per minute per kilogram). Total body fat mass (TBF) and abdominal fat mass (AFM) were measured by Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Total body fat was expressed as a percentage of total body mass (BF...

  11. Degradation of alkenones by aerobic heterotrophic bacteria: Selective or not ?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rontani, J-F.; Harji, R.; Guasco, S.; Prahl, F.G.; Volkman, J.K.; Bhosle, N.B.; Bonin, P.

    of alkenones by aerobic heterotrophic bacteria: selective or not? Jean-François Rontani a *, Ranjita Harji a,b , Sophie Guasco a , Fredrick G. Prahl c , John K. Volkman d , Narayan B. Bhosle b , Patricia Bonin a a Laboratoire de Microbiologie de..., Corvallis, OR 97331-5503, US. d CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, GPO Box 1538, Hobart, Tasmania 7001, Australia * Corresponding author. Tel.: +33-4-91-82-96-51; fax: +33-4-91-82-96-41. E-mail address: jean-francois.rontani@com.univmed.fr (J...

  12. Aerobic granulation of pure bacterial strain Bacillus thuringiensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sunil S ADAV; Duu-Jong LEE

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study is to cultivate aer-obic granules by pure bacterial strain, Bacillus thuringien-sis, in a sequencing batch reactor. Stable granules sized 2.0-2.2 mm were formed in the reactor after a five-week cultivation. These granules exhibited excellent settling attributes, and degraded phenol at rates of 1.49 and concentration, respectively. Confocal laser scanning microscopic test results show that Bacillus thuringiensis was distributed over the initial small aggregates, and the outer edge of the granule was away from the core regime in the following stage.

  13. Criterion Related Validity of Karate Specific Aerobic Test (KSAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaabene

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Karate is one the most popular combat sports in the world. Physical fitness assessment on a regular manner is important for monitoring the effectiveness of the training program and the readiness of karatekas to compete. Objectives The aim of this research was to examine the criterion related to validity of the karate specific aerobic test (KSAT as an indicator of aerobic level of karate practitioners. Patients and Methods Cardiorespiratory responses, aerobic performance level through both treadmill laboratory test and YoYo intermittent recovery test level 1 (YoYoIRTL1 as well as time to exhaustion in the KSAT test (TE’KSAT were determined in a total of fifteen healthy international karatekas (i.e. karate practitioners (means ± SD: age: 22.2 ± 4.3 years; height: 176.4 ± 7.5 cm; body mass: 70.3 ± 9.7 kg and body fat: 13.2 ± 6%. Results Peak heart rate obtained from KSAT represented ~99% of maximal heart rate registered during the treadmill test showing that KSAT imposes high physiological demands. There was no significant correlation between KSAT’s TE and relative (mL/min kg treadmill maximal oxygen uptake (r = 0.14; P = 0.69; [small]. On the other hand, there was a significant relationship between KSAT’s TE and the velocity associated with VO2max (vVO2max (r = 0.67; P = 0.03; [large] as well as the velocity at VO2 corresponding to the second ventilatory threshold (vVO2 VAT (r = 0.64; P = 0.04; [large]. Moreover, significant relationship was found between TE’s KSAT and both the total distance covered and parameters of intermittent endurance measured through YoYoIRTL1. Conclusions The KSAT has not proved to have indirect criterion related validity as no significant correlations have been found between TE’s KSAT and treadmill VO2max. Nevertheless, as correlated to other aerobic fitness variables, KSAT can be considered as an indicator of karate specific endurance. The establishment of the criterion related validity of the

  14. Influence of inorganic salt on aerobic biodegradability of dyestuffs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    this paper, the influence of inorganic salt on aerobic biodegradability of dyestuffs was studied by means of semicontinuous activated sludge method. It was found that: biodegradability of dyestuffs would decrease with the increase of the concentration of NaCl; however, biodegradability in the condition of NaCl = 30 g/L was better than that in the condition of NaCl =15 g/L; in the three NaCl conditions, biodegradability of tasted dyestuffs followed the following order: NaCl= 0 g/L > NaCl= 30g/L>NaCl= 15 g/L.

  15. Improved Aerobic Colony Count Technique for Hydrophobic Grid Membrane Filters

    OpenAIRE

    Parrington, Lorna J.; Sharpe, Anthony N.; Peterkin, Pearl I.

    1993-01-01

    The AOAC International official action procedure for performing aerobic colony counts on hydrophobic grid membrane filters (HGMFs) uses Trypticase soy-fast green FCF agar (FGA) incubated for 48 h. Microbial growths are various shades of green on a pale green background, which can cause problems for automated as well as manual counting. HGMFs which had been incubated 24 or 48 h at 35°C on Trypticase soy agar were flooded underneath with 1 to 2 ml of 0.1% triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) sol...

  16. Method for quantification of aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yao; JIAO Nianzhi

    2004-01-01

    Accurate quantification of aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria (AAPB) is of crucial importance for estimation of the role of AAPB in the carbon cycling in marine ecosystems. The normally used method "epifiuorescence microscope-infrared photography (EFM-IRP)"is, however, subject to positive errors introduced by mistaking cyanobacteria as AAPB due to the visibility of cyanobacteria under infrared photographic conditions for AAPB. This error could be up to 30% in the coast of the East China Sea. Such bias should be avoided by either subtracting cyanobacteira from the total infrared counts or using a fiowcytometer equipped with specific detectors for discrimination between cyanobacteria and AAPB.

  17. Electron beam/biological processing of anaerobic and aerobic sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čuba, V.; Pospíšil, M.; Múčka, V.; Jeníček, P.; Dohányos, M.; Zábranská, J.

    2003-01-01

    Besides common chemical and biological methods, the radiation technology is a promising way of sludge treatment. The paper describes possibilities of combined accelerated electrons/biological processing of both anaerobic and aerobic sludge. Besides one-shot experiments, experimental reactors for the simulation of anaerobic processes have been used. Main effort has been aimed to decrease organic compounds concentration and overall volume of solids, to improve some physico-chemical parameters of sludge, to validate hygienisation effects of the ionising radiation, and in the case of anaerobic sludge, to increase the volume of the produced biogas. Positive effects of the electron beam processing have been observed on all previously named parameters.

  18. Kinetics of aerobically activated sludge on terylene artificial silk printing and dyeing wastewater treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    官宝红; 吴忠标; 徐根良

    2004-01-01

    Aerobically activated sludge processing was carried out to treat terylene artificial silk printing and dyeing wastewater (TPD wastewater) in a lab-scale experiment, focusing on the kinetics of the COD removal.The kinetics parameters determined from experiment were applied to evaluate the biological treatability of wastewater.Experiments showed that COD removal could be divided into two stages,in which the ratio BOD/COD (B/C) was the key factor for stage division.At the rapid-removal stage with B/C>0.1,COD removal could be described by a zero order reaction. At the moderate-removal stage with B/C<0.1,COD removal could be described by a first order reaction. Then Monod equation was introduced to indicate COD removal. The reaction rate constant (K) and half saturation constant (Ks) were 0.0208-0.0642L/(gMLSS)h and 0.44-0.59(gCOD)/L respectively at 20℃-35℃.Activation energy (Ea) was 6.05×104 J/mol.By comparison of kinetic parameters, the biological treatability of TPD wastewater was superior to that of traditional textile wastewater.But COD removal from TPD-wastewater was much more difficult than that from domestic and industrial wastewater,such as papermaking, beer, phenol wastewater, etc.The expected effluent quality strongly related to un-biodegradable COD and kinetics rather than total COD. The results provide useful basis for further scaling up an defficient operation of TPD wastewater treatment.

  19. Kinetics of aerobically activated sludge on terylene artificial silk printing and dyeing wastewater treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    官宝红; 吴忠标; 徐根良

    2004-01-01

    Aerobically activated sludge processing was carried out to treat terylene artificial silk printing and dyeing wastewater (TPD wastewater) in a lab-scale experiment, focusing on the kinetics of the COD removal. The kinetics parameters determined from experiment were applied to evaluate the biological treatability of wastewater. Experiments showed that COD removal could be divided into two stages, in which the ratio BOD/COD (B/C) was the key factor for stage division. At the rapid-removal stage with B/C>0.1, COD removal could be described by a zero order reaction. At the moderate-removal stage with B/C<0.1, COD removal could be described by a first order reaction. Then Monod equation was introduced to indicate COD removal. The reaction rate constant (K) and half saturation constant (KS) were 0.0208-0.0642 L/(gMLSS)·h and 0.44-0.59 (gCOD)/L respectively at 20 ℃-35 ℃. Activation energy (Ea) was 6.05×104 J/mol. By comparison of kinetic parameters, the biological treatability of TPD wastewater was superior to that of traditional textile wastewater. But COD removal from TPD-wastewater was much more difficult than that from domestic and industrial wastewater, such as papermaking, beer, phenol wastewater, etc. The expected effluent quality strongly related to un-biodegradable COD and kinetics rather than total COD. The results provide useful basis for further scaling up and efficient operation of TPD wastewater treatment.

  20. Large-scale synthesis of ultrathin tungsten oxide nanowire networks: an efficient catalyst for aerobic oxidation of toluene to benzaldehyde under visible light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Hua; Yi, Wencai; Liu, Jingyao; Lv, Qing; Zhang, Qing; Ma, Qiang; Yang, Haifeng; Xi, Guangcheng

    2016-07-01

    As a very important chemical raw material, the selective formation of benzaldehyde from toluene at preparative or industrial levels requires the use of highly corrosive chlorine and high reaction temperatures, which severely corrodes equipment, pollutes the environment, and consumes a lot of energy. Herein, we report a robust and highly active catalyst for the benzaldehyde evolution reaction that is constructed by the surfactant-free growth of oxygen vacancy-rich W18O49 ultrathin nanowire networks. Under atmospheric pressure and visible-light irradiation, the new catalyst can selectively (92% selectivity) catalyze the aerobic oxidation of toluene to benzaldehyde with yields of above 95%.As a very important chemical raw material, the selective formation of benzaldehyde from toluene at preparative or industrial levels requires the use of highly corrosive chlorine and high reaction temperatures, which severely corrodes equipment, pollutes the environment, and consumes a lot of energy. Herein, we report a robust and highly active catalyst for the benzaldehyde evolution reaction that is constructed by the surfactant-free growth of oxygen vacancy-rich W18O49 ultrathin nanowire networks. Under atmospheric pressure and visible-light irradiation, the new catalyst can selectively (92% selectivity) catalyze the aerobic oxidation of toluene to benzaldehyde with yields of above 95%. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental procedure, XRD patterns, TEM and HRTEM images, energy-dispersive X-ray spectra, UV-vis spectra, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and EDS. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr02949c

  1. Exploration and comparison of inborn capacity of aerobic and anaerobic metabolisms of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for microbial electrical current production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Longfei; Verwoerd, Wynand S

    2013-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae possesses numerous advantageous biological features, such as being robust, easily handled, mostly non-pathogenic and having high catabolic rates, etc., which can be considered as merits for being used as a promising biocatalyst in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) for electricity generation. Previous studies have developed efficient MFC configurations to convert metabolic electron shuttles, such as cytoplasmic NADH, into usable electric current. However, no studies have elucidated the maximum potential of S. cerevisiae for current output and the underlying metabolic pathways, resulting from the interaction of thousands of reactions inside the cell during MFC operation. To address these two key issues, this study used in silico metabolic engineering techniques, flux balance analysis (FBA), and flux variability analysis with target flux minimization (FATMIN), to model the metabolic perturbation of S. cerevisiae under the MFC-energy extraction. The FBA results showed that, in the cytoplasmic NADH-dependent mediated electron transfer (MET) mode, S. cerevisiae had a potential to produce currents at up to 5.781 A/gDW for the anaerobic and 6.193 A/gDW for the aerobic environments. The FATMIN results showed that the aerobic and anaerobic metabolisms are resilient, relying on six and five contributing reactions respectively for high current production. Two reactions, catalyzed by glutamate dehydrogenase (NAD) (EC 1.4.1.3) and methylene tetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (NAD) (EC 1.5.1.5), were shared in both current-production modes and contributed to over 80% of the identified maximum current outputs. It is also shown that the NADH regeneration was much less energy costly than biomass production rate. Taken together, our finding suggests that S. cerevisiae should receive more research effort for MFC electricity production. PMID:23969939

  2. SBA-15-functionalized 3-oxo-ABNO as recyclable catalyst for aerobic oxidation of alcohols under metal-free conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Babak; Farhangi, Elham; Vali, Hojatollah; Vahdati, Saleh

    2014-09-01

    The nitroxyl radical 3-oxo-9-azabicyclo [3.3.1]nonane-N-oxyl (3-oxo-ABNO) has been prepared using a simple protocol. This organocatalyst is found to be an efficient catalyst for the aerobic oxidation of a wide variety of alcohols under metal-free conditions. In addition, the preparation and characterization of a supported version of 3-oxo-ABNO on ordered mesoporous silica SBA-15 (SABNO) is described for the first time. The catalyst has been characterized using several techniques including simultaneous thermal analysis (STA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and nitrogen sorption analysis. This catalyst exhibits catalytic performance comparable to its homogeneous analogue and much superior catalytic activity in comparison with (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-yl)oxy (TEMPO) for the aerobic oxidation of almost the same range of alcohols under identical reaction conditions. It is also found that SABNO can be conveniently recovered and reused at least 12 times without significant effect on its catalytic efficiency.

  3. Sequential anaerobic-aerobic decolourization of a real textile wastewater in a two-phase partitioning bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomei, M Concetta; Mosca Angelucci, Domenica; Daugulis, Andrew J

    2016-12-15

    This work describes the application of a solid-liquid two-phase partitioning bioreactor (TPPB) for the removal of colour from a real textile wastewater containing reactive azo-dyes. Four polymers were tested over the pH range of 4-9 to select the most effective absorbant to be used as the partitioning phase in the TPPB. The best results were obtained with Hytrel 8206 at pH4 achieving ~70% colour removal, based on the dominant wavelength, in the first 5h of contact time, and 84% after 24h. Wastewater treatment was undertaken in a solid-liquid TPPB operated with Hytrel 8206 in sequential anaerobic-aerobic configuration. The reaction time of 23h was equally distributed between the anaerobic and aerobic phases and, to favour colour uptake, the pH was controlled at 4.5 in the first 4h of the anaerobic phase, and then increased to 7.5. Colour removal (for the dominant wavelength, 536nm) increased from 70 to 85% by modifying the bioreactor operation from single-phase to TPPB mode. Based on COD measurements nearly complete biodegradation of the intermediates produced in the anaerobic phase was obtained, both in the single-phase and two-phase mode, with better performance of the TPPB system reaching 75% CODDye removal.

  4. Ascorbic acid enhanced activation of oxygen by ferrous iron: A case of aerobic degradation of rhodamine B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xiaojing; Shen, Wenjuan; Huang, Xiaopeng; Ai, Zhihui; Zhang, Lizhi

    2016-05-05

    Molecular oxygen activation by ferrous ions (Fe(II)) in aqueous solution could generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) with high oxidation potential via reaction between Fe(II) and oxygen molecules (Fe(II)/air), however, ROS yielded in the Fe(II)/air process is insufficient for removal of organic pollutants due to the irreversible ferric ions (Fe(III)) accumulation. In this study, we demonstrate that ascorbic acid (AA) could enhance ROS generation via oxygen activation by ferrous irons (AA/Fe(II)/air) and thus improve the degradation of rhodamine (RhB) significantly. It was found that the first-order aerobic degradation rate of RhB in the AA/Fe(II)/air process in the presence of ascorbic acid is more than 4 times that of the Fe(II)/Air system without adding ascorbic acid. The presence of ascorbic acid could relieve the accumulation of Fe(III) by reductive accelerating the Fe(III)/Fe(II) cycles, as well as lower the redox potential of Fe(III)/Fe(II) through chelating effect, leading to enhanced ROS generation for promoting RhB degradation. This study not only sheds light on the effect of ascorbic acid on aerobic Fe(II) oxidation, but also provides a green method for effective remediation of organic pollutants.

  5. Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria and their roles in marine ecosystems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria (AAPB) are characterized by the following physiological and ecological features. A mother AAPB cell can unusually divide into 3 daughter cells and looks like a "Y" during the division. AAPB cells sometimes adhere together forming a free-floating population. Most of the known AAPB species are obligately aerobic. Bacteriochlorophyll a (BChl a) is the only photosynthetic pigment in AAPB, and the number of BChl a molecules in an AAPB cell is much less than that in an anaerobic phototrophic bacterial cell, while the accessorial pigments carotenoids in AAPB are abundant in concentration and diverse in species. In addition to the common magnesium containing BChl a, a zinc-containing BChla was also seen in AAPB. AAPB have light harvesting complexⅠbut usually lack light harvesting complexⅡ. Although AAPB featur in photosynthesis, their growth is not necessarily light- dependent. There is a mechanism controlling the photosynthesis approach. AAPB are widely distributed in marine environments especially in oligotrophic oceans accounting for a substantial portion of the total biomass and playing a unique role in the cycle of carbon and other biogenic elements. Besides the contribution to primary production, AAPB also have great potentials in bioremediation of polluted environments. Studies on AAPB would be of great value in understanding the evolution of photosynthesis and the structure and function of marine ecosystems.

  6. Bioremediation of textile azo dyes by aerobic bacterial consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senan, Resmi C; Abraham, T Emilia

    2004-08-01

    An aerobic bacterial consortium consisting of two isolated strains (BF1, BF2) and a strain of Pseudomonas putida (MTCC1194) was developed for the aerobic degradation of a mixture of textile azodyes and individual azodyes at alkaline pH (9-10.5) and salinity (0.9-3.68 g/l) at ambient temperature (28 +/- 2 degrees C). The degradation efficiency of the strains in different media (mineral media and in the Simulated textile effluent (STE)) and at different dye concentrations were studied. The presence of a H2O2 independent oxidase-laccase (26.5 IU/ml) was found in the culture filtrate of the organism BF2. The analysis of the degraded products by TLC and HPLC, after the microbial treatment of the dyes showed the absence of amines and the presence of low molecular weight oxidative degradation products. The enzymes present in the crude supernatant was found to be reusable for the dye degradation.

  7. Training intensities for aerobic exercise determined on untrained healthy men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miura,Mochiyoshi

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the aerobic training intensity from the maximal and submaximal running exercise in 21 untrained adult men. To accomplish this, we evaluated the relationship between physiological (oxygen intake and heart rate and physical parameters (running speed of training intensity, and determined the training intensity at the submaximal exercise. Oxygen intake and heart rate were measured by a treadmill test. The maximal oxygen intake (VO2 max, and the aerobic threshold (AerT and anaerobic threshold (AT were measured to determine respiratory gas exchange. Running capacity was measured by a 12-min running and treadmill test. For the maximal exercise, there was a significant correlation (r = 0.88, P < 0.01 between VO2 max and 12-min running distance (speed. In addition, the oxygen intake and heart rate at AerT and AT in the submaximal exercise were linearly correlated with running speed. Three levels of training intensity at the submaximal exercise were termed: light, moderate, and heavy. Since AerT was the lower limit intensity and AT was the upper limit, we took the middle of their values as the moderate intensity. The end point for the determination of the training intensity at the submaximal exercise was estimated to be 85% VO2 max and 180 beats.min-1.

  8. Critical period of weed control in aerobic rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, M P; Juraimi, A S; Samedani, B; Puteh, A; Man, A

    2012-01-01

    Critical period of weed control is the foundation of integrated weed management and, hence, can be considered the first step to design weed control strategy. To determine critical period of weed control of aerobic rice, field trials were conducted during 2010/2011 at Universiti Putra Malaysia. A quantitative series of treatments comprising two components, (a) increasing duration of weed interference and (b) increasing length of weed-free period, were imposed. Critical period was determined through Logistic and Gompertz equations. Critical period varied between seasons; in main season, it started earlier and lasted longer, as compared to off-season. The onset of the critical period was found relatively stable between seasons, while the end was more variable. Critical period was determined as 7-49 days after seeding in off-season and 7-53 days in main season to achieve 95% of weed-free yield, and 23-40 days in off-season and 21-43 days in main season to achieve 90% of weed-free yield. Since 5% yield loss level is not practical from economic view point, a 10% yield loss may be considered excellent from economic view point. Therefore, aerobic rice should be kept weed-free during 21-43 days for better yield and higher economic return.

  9. Critical Period of Weed Control in Aerobic Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Anwar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Critical period of weed control is the foundation of integrated weed management and, hence, can be considered the first step to design weed control strategy. To determine critical period of weed control of aerobic rice, field trials were conducted during 2010/2011 at Universiti Putra Malaysia. A quantitative series of treatments comprising two components, (a increasing duration of weed interference and (b increasing length of weed-free period, were imposed. Critical period was determined through Logistic and Gompertz equations. Critical period varied between seasons; in main season, it started earlier and lasted longer, as compared to off-season. The onset of the critical period was found relatively stable between seasons, while the end was more variable. Critical period was determined as 7–49 days after seeding in off-season and 7–53 days in main season to achieve 95% of weed-free yield, and 23–40 days in off-season and 21–43 days in main season to achieve 90% of weed-free yield. Since 5% yield loss level is not practical from economic view point, a 10% yield loss may be considered excellent from economic view point. Therefore, aerobic rice should be kept weed-free during 21–43 days for better yield and higher economic return.

  10. Group aquatic aerobic exercise for children with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragala-Pinkham, Maria; Haley, Stephen M; O'Neil, Margaret E

    2008-11-01

    The effectiveness and safety of a group aquatic aerobic exercise program on cardiorespiratory endurance for children with disabilities was examined using an A-B study design. Sixteen children (11 males, five females) age range 6 to 11 years (mean age 9y 7mo [SD 1y 4mo]) participated in this twice-per-week program lasting 14 weeks. The children's diagnoses included autism spectrum disorder, myelomeningocele, cerebral palsy, or other developmental disability. More than half of the children ambulated independently without aids. Children swam laps and participated in relay races and games with a focus of maintaining a defined target heart rate zone. The strengthening component consisted of exercises using bar bells, aquatic noodles, and water resistance. The following outcomes were measured: half-mile walk/run, isometric muscle strength, timed floor to stand 3-meter test, and motor skills. Complaints of pain or injury were systematically collected. Significant improvements in the half-mile walk/run were observed, but not for secondary outcomes of strength or motor skills. The mean program attendance was 80%, and no injury was reported. Children with disabilities may improve their cardiorespiratory endurance after a group aquatic aerobic exercise program with a high adult:child ratio and specific goals to maintain training heart rates.

  11. Biodegradability of selected highly energetic pollutants under aerobic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, A.M.; Greer, C.W.; Hawari, J. [National Research Council of Canada, Montreal, Quebec (Canada). Biotechnology Research Inst.; Ampleman, G. [Defence Research Establishment Valcartier, Courcelette, Quebec (Canada). Div. des Materiaux Energetiques; Lavigne, J. [Canadian Embassy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Laboratory studies were conducted to assess the biodegradation potential of four energetic compounds--1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane (RDX), 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), glycidyl azide polymer (GAP), and nitrocellulose (NC)--under aerobic conditions. Soils contaminated with energetic compounds were screened for microorganisms able to degrade these compounds. Rhodococcus sp. strain A was enriched and purified from RDX-contaminated soil by its ability to use RDX as sole source of nitrogen. Using [{sup 14}C]-labeled RDX, its ability to mineralize RDX to CO{sub 2} in pure culture under aerobic conditions was verified. Bioaugmentation of RDX-contaminated soil with this bacterium enhanced the rate and extent of biodegradation. Although TNT is a more toxic and recalcitrant pollutant, concentration-dependent [{sup 14}C]TNT mineralization activity was detected in TNT-contaminated soil. A Pseudomonas sp., enriched from this soil, was able to extensively transform TNT to partially reduced amine metabolites in axenic liquid culture. In contrast to these isolates, which utilized RDX and TNT as sources of nitrogen, soil consortia developed from soils exhibiting [{sup 14}C]GAP and [{sup 14}C]NC mineralization activities used GAP and NC as sole carbon sources for growth.

  12. Aerobic and anaerobic incubation: Biological indexes of soil nitrogen availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kresović Mirjana M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Our researches have been made on brown forest soil that had been used in long-term experiments set up according to specified fertilization system for over 30 years. We have chosen those experiment variants in which quantities of nitrogen fertilizers were gradually increased. The soil samples taken from 0 cm to 30 cm depth were used to determine biological indexes of nitrogen availability (aerobic and anaerobic incubation. The same samples were also used for pot experiments with oat. Plant and soil parameters obtained in controlled conditions were used for determination of biological indexes reliability in measuring the soil nitrogen availability. On the grounds of correlation analysis, it can be concluded that biological index of nitrogen availability achieved by the anaerobic incubation (without substraction of the initial content of available nitrogen of the investigated brown forest soil is the reliable indicator of soil nitrogen availability. That is not the case with the aerobic incubation in which reliability has not been established.

  13. Enhanced aerobic sludge granulation with layered double hydroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jizhi Zhou

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aerobic granular sludge technology has been developed for the biochemical treatment of wastewater in the present study. A fast cultivation of aerobic granular sludge was realized in Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR, where Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH was used as a carrier for granules growth. In comparison, the sludge particle size with LDH addition was bigger than those without LDH, with more than 50% of compact granular sludge >1.4 mm in size. This indicatestheLDH improved the growth ofthegranular sludge. The frequency of LDH addition had little effect on the granule growth. Moreover, the formation of granules led to the low sludge volume index (SVI and high mixed liquid suspended solids (MLSS in SBR reactor. With the formation of granular sludge, more than 80% of COD was removed in SBR reactor. The high COD removal efficiency of wastewater was observed regardless of various COD loading strength. The results suggest that the growth of granular sludge with LDH as a carrier enhanced the treatment efficiency. Therefore, our results have provided a promising way to prepare the granular sludge for wastewater treatment.

  14. On Aerobic Exercise and Behavioral and Neural Plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin Peplinski

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Aerobic exercise promotes rapid and profound alterations in the brain. Depending upon the pattern and duration of exercise, these changes in the brain may extend beyond traditional motor areas to regions and structures normally linked to learning, cognition, and emotion. Exercise-induced alterations may include changes in blood flow, hormone and growth factor release, receptor expression, angiogenesis, apoptosis, neurogenesis, and synaptogenesis. Together, we believe that these changes underlie elevations of mood and prompt the heightened behavioral plasticity commonly observed following adoption of a chronic exercise regimen. In the following paper, we will explore both the psychological and psychobiological literatures relating to exercise effects on brain in both human and non-human animals and will attempt to link plastic changes in these neural structures to modifications in learned behavior and emotional expression. In addition, we will explore the therapeutic potential of exercise given recent reports that aerobic exercise may serve as a neuroprotectant and can also slow cognitive decline during normal and pathological aging.

  15. Improved aerobic colony count technique for hydrophobic grid membrane filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrington, L J; Sharpe, A N; Peterkin, P I

    1993-09-01

    The AOAC International official action procedure for performing aerobic colony counts on hydrophobic grid membrane filters (HGMFs) uses Trypticase soy-fast green FCF agar (FGA) incubated for 48 h. Microbial growths are various shades of green on a pale green background, which can cause problems for automated as well as manual counting. HGMFs which had been incubated 24 or 48 h at 35 degrees C on Trypticase soy agar were flooded underneath with 1 to 2 ml of 0.1% triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) solution by simply lifting one corner of the filter while it was still on the agar and adding the reagent. Microbial growths on HGMFs were counted after color had been allowed to develop for 15 min at room temperature. With representative foods, virtually all colonies stained pink to red. Automated electronic counts made by using the MI-100 HGMF Interpreter were easier and more reliable than control HGMF counts made by the AOAC International official action procedure. Manual counting was easier as well because of increased visibility of the microbial growths. Except in the case of dairy products, 24-h TTC counts did not differ significantly from 48-h FGA counts, whereas the FGA counts at 24 h were always significantly lower, indicating that for many food products the HGMF TTC flooding method permits aerobic colony counts to be made after 24 h.

  16. Fetal cardiotocography before and after water aerobics during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silveira Carla

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To evaluate the effect of moderate aerobic physical activity in water on fetal cardiotocography patterns in sedentary pregnant women. Method In a non-randomized controlled trial, 133 previously sedentary pregnant women participated in multiple regular sessions of water aerobics in a heated swimming pool. Cardiotocography was performed for 20 minutes before and just after the oriented exercise. Cardiotocography patterns were analyzed pre- and post-exercise according to gestational age groups (24-27, 28-31, 32-35 and 36-40 weeks. Student's t and Wilcoxon, and McNemar tests were used, respectively, to analyze numerical and categorical variables. Results No significant variations were found between pre- and post-exercise values of fetal heart rate (FHR, number of fetal body movements (FM or accelerations (A, FM/A ratio or the presence of decelerations. Variability in FHR was significantly higher following exercise only in pregnancies of 24-27 weeks. Conclusions Moderate physical activity in water was not associated with any significant alterations in fetal cardiotocography patterns, which suggests no adverse effect on the fetus.

  17. Steady-state and transient-state analyses of aerobic fermentation in Saccharomyces kluyveri

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Kasper; Bro, Christoffer; Piskur, Jure

    2002-01-01

    Some yeasts, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, produce ethanol at fully aerobic conditions, whereas other yeasts, such as Kluyveromyces lactis, do not. In this study we investigated the occurrence of aerobic alcoholic fermentation in the petite-negative yeast Saccharomyces kluyveri that is only...

  18. Protective Role of Aerobic Exercise Against Cisplatin-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Zeynali; Nematbakhsh; Mojtahedi; Poorshahnazari; Talebi; Pezeshki; Mazaheri; Moslemi

    2015-01-01

    Background Cisplatin (CP) is a chemotherapy drug and nephrotoxicity is considered as its major side effect. Aerobic exercise is well known as an approach to reduce the side effects of many drugs. Objectives This study was designed to determine the protective role of aerobic exercise against CP-induced nephrotoxicity. Materials and Methods Thirty male Wistar rats were randomly divid...

  19. Is the effect of aerobic exercise on cognition a placebo effect?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cary R Stothart

    Full Text Available A number of studies and meta-analyses conclude that aerobic fitness (walking interventions improve cognition. Such interventions typically compare improvements from these interventions to an active control group in which participants engage in non-aerobic activities (typically stretching and toning for an equivalent amount of time. However, in the absence of a double-blind design, the presence of an active control group does not necessarily control for placebo effects; participants might expect different amounts of improvement for the treatment and control interventions. We conducted a large survey to explore whether people expect greater cognitive benefits from an aerobic exercise intervention compared to a control intervention. If participants expect greater improvement following aerobic exercise, then the benefits of such interventions might be due in part to a placebo effect. In general, expectations did not differ between aerobic and non-aerobic interventions. If anything, some of the results suggest the opposite (e.g., respondents expected the control, non-aerobic intervention to yield bigger memory gains. These results provide the first evidence that cognitive improvements following aerobic fitness training are not due to differential expectations.

  20. Sweat Rates During Continuous and Interval Aerobic Exercise: Implications for NASA Multipurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Jeffrey W.; Scott, Jessica; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.

    2016-01-01

    Aerobic deconditioning is one of the effects spaceflight. Impaired crewmember performance due to loss of aerobic conditioning is one of the risks identified for mitigation by the NASA Human Research Program. Missions longer than 8 days will involve exercise countermeasures including those aimed at preventing the loss of aerobic capacity. The NASA Multipurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) will be NASA's centerpiece architecture for human space exploration beyond low Earth orbit. Aerobic exercise within the small habitable volume of the MPCV is expected to challenge the ability of the environmental control systems, especially in terms of moisture control. Exercising humans contribute moisture to the environment by increased respiratory rate (exhaling air at 100% humidity) and sweat. Current acceptable values are based on theoretical models that rely on an "average" crew member working continuously at 75% of their aerobic capacity (Human Systems Integration Requirements Document). Evidence suggests that high intensity interval exercise for much shorter durations are equally effective or better in building and maintaining aerobic capacity. This investigation will examine sweat and respiratory rates for operationally relevant continuous and interval aerobic exercise protocols using a variety of different individuals. The results will directly inform what types of aerobic exercise countermeasures will be feasible to prescribe for crewmembers aboard the MPCV.

  1. Aerobic Exercise Increases Peripheral and Hepatic Insulin Sensitivity in Sedentary Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, Gert-Jan; Toffolo, Gianna; Manesso, Erica; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Sunehag, Agneta L.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Data are limited on the effects of controlled aerobic exercise programs (without weight loss) on insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism in children and adolescents. Objective: To determine whether a controlled aerobic exercise program (without weight loss) improves peripheral and hepati

  2. Aerobic capacity influences the spatial position of individuals within fish schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Killen, Shaun S.; Marras, Stefano; Steffensen, John Fleng;

    2012-01-01

    of juvenile mullet Liza aurata were filmed at three swim speeds in a swim tunnel, with one focal fish from each school then also measured for standard metabolic rate (SMR), maximal metabolic rate (MMR), aerobic scope (AS) and maximum aerobic swim speed. At faster speeds, fish with lower MMR and AS swam near...

  3. The impact of aerobic fitness on functioning in chronic back pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wormgoor, Marjon; Indahl, Aage; Tulder, van Maurits; Kemper, Han

    2007-01-01

    Despite lack of convincing evidence that reduced aerobic fitness is associated with chronic back pain (CBP), exercise programs are regarded as being effective for persons with non-specific CBP. It is unsure whether gain in aerobic fitness following intervention is associated with functioning impro

  4. Degradation of TCE using sequential anaerobic biofilm and aerobic immobilized bed reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapatwala, Kirit D.; Babu, G. R. V.; Baresi, Larry; Trunzo, Richard M.

    1995-01-01

    Bacteria capable of degrading trichloroethylene (TCE) were isolated from contaminated wastewaters and soil sites. The aerobic cultures were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (four species) and Pseudomonas fluorescens. The optimal conditions for the growth of aerobic cultures were determined. The minimal inhibitory concentration values of TCE for Pseudomonas sps. were also determined. The aerobic cells were immobilized in calcium alginate in the form of beads. Degradation of TCE by the anaerobic and dichloroethylene (DCE) by aerobic cultures was studied using dual reactors - anaerobic biofilm and aerobic immobilized bed reactor. The minimal mineral salt (MMS) medium saturated with TCE was pumped at the rate of 1 ml per hour into the anaerobic reactor. The MMS medium saturated with DCE and supplemented with xylenes and toluene (3 ppm each) was pumped at the rate of 1 ml per hour into the fluidized air-uplift-type reactor containing the immobilized aerobic cells. The concentrations of TCE and DCE and the metabolites formed during their degradation by the anaerobic and aerobic cultures were monitored by GC. The preliminary study suggests that the anaerobic and aerobic cultures of our isolates can degrade TCE and DCE.

  5. THE EFFECT OF SLEEP DEPRIVATION ON SERUM IGG RESPONSES TO AEROBIC ACTIVITY IN COLLEGE STUDENT ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Jamshidi Far

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: Sleep is a restorative process for the immune system. There are many situations in which sleep is disturbed prior to an athletic event. However, the effect of sleep deprivation on immune indices in response to exercise remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sleep deprivation on serum IgG responses to aerobic activity. Materials & Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 10 male physical education students were voluntarily participated. Study was performed in two separate occasions; control and experimental within two weeks. In the control occasion, normal sleep and aerobic activity and in the experimental occasion, sleep deprivation and aerobic activity was applied. Aerobic activity was performed on bicycle ergometer for 30 minutes at intensity of 70 to 75 percent of maximum heart rate. Changes in serum IgG concentrations in pre-test, before and after aerobic activity in both occasions were analyzed by the two repeated measures ANOVA and dependent T-test using SPSS software. Results: The results showed that sleep deprivation not significantly effect on Serum IgG response to aerobic activity (p=0.130. Also, aerobic activity not significantly effect on Serum IgG concentration (p=0.357. But sleep deprivation caused a significantly increase in serum IgG concentration (p=0.035. Conclusion: No significant effect of sleep deprivation on serum IgG concentrations response to aerobic activity.

  6. Active Female Maximal and Anaerobic Threshold Cardiorespiratory Responses to Six Different Water Aerobics Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Amanda H.; Alberton, Cristine L.; Finatto, Paula; Pinto, Stephanie S.; Cadore, Eduardo L.; Zaffari, Paula; Kruel, Luiz F. M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Maximal tests conducted on land are not suitable for the prescription of aquatic exercises, which makes it difficult to optimize the intensity of water aerobics classes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the maximal and anaerobic threshold cardiorespiratory responses to 6 water aerobics exercises. Volunteers performed 3 of the…

  7. Aerobic and anaerobic exercise capacity in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Brussel, Marco; Lelieveld, O T H M; van der Net, J; Engelbert, R H H; Helders, P J M; Takken, T

    2007-01-01

    Objective. To compare the aerobic and anaerobic exercise capacity of children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) with healthy controls, to determine if there were differences based on disease onset type, and to examine the relationship between aerobic and anaerobic exercise capacity in childre

  8. Aerobic capacity reference data in 3816 healthy men and women 20-90 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loe, Henrik; Rognmo, Øivind; Saltin, Bengt

    2013-01-01

    To provide a large reference material on aerobic fitness and exercise physiology data in a healthy population of Norwegian men and women aged 20-90 years.......To provide a large reference material on aerobic fitness and exercise physiology data in a healthy population of Norwegian men and women aged 20-90 years....

  9. Aerobic and anaerobic exercise capacity in adolescents with juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lelieveld, Otto; van Brussel, Marco; Takken, Tim; van Weert, Ellen; van Leeuwen, Miek A.; Armbrust, Wineke

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the aerobic and anaerobic exercise capacity in adolescents with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) compared with age- and sex-matched healthy individuals, and to assess associations between disease-related variables and aerobic and anaerobic exercise capacity. METHODS: Of 25 p

  10. Relation Between Aerobic Capacity and Walking Ability in Older Adults With a Lower-Limb Amputation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wezenberg, Daphne; van der Woude, Lucas H.; Faber, Willemijn X.; de Haan, Arnold; Houdijk, Han

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the relative aerobic load, walking speed, and walking economy of older adults with a lower-limb prosthesis, and to predict the effect of an increased aerobic capacity on their walking ability. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Human motion laboratory at a rehabilitation cent

  11. Effects of anaerobic digestion and aerobic treatment on gaseous emissions from dairy manure storages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of anaerobic digestion and aerobic treatment on the reduction of gaseous emissions from dairy manure storages were evaluated in this study. Screened dairy manure containing 3.5% volatile solids (VS) was either anaerobically digested or aerobically treated prior to storage in air-tight vessel...

  12. Aerobic N2O emission for activated sludge acclimated under different aeration rates in the multiple anoxic and aerobic process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huoqing; Guan, Yuntao; Pan, Min; Wu, Guangxue

    2016-05-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a potent greenhouse gas that can be emitted during biological nitrogen removal. N2O emission was examined in a multiple anoxic and aerobic process at the aeration rates of 600mL/min sequencing batch reactor (SBRL) and 1200mL/min (SBRH). The nitrogen removal percentage was 89% in SBRL and 71% in SBRH, respectively. N2O emission mainly occurred during the aerobic phase, and the N2O emission factor was 10.1% in SBRL and 2.3% in SBRH, respectively. In all batch experiments, the N2O emission potential was high in SBRL compared with SBRH. In SBRL, with increasing aeration rates, the N2O emission factor decreased during nitrification, while it increased during denitrification and simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND). By contrast, in SBRH the N2O emission factor during nitrification, denitrification and SND was relatively low and changed little with increasing aeration rates. The microbial competition affected the N2O emission during biological nitrogen removal.

  13. Highly Dispersed Gold Nanoparticles Supported on SBA-15 for Vapor Phase Aerobic Oxidation of Benzyl Alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashish; Sreedhar, Bojja; Chary, Komandur V R

    2015-02-01

    Gold nanoparticles supported on SBA-15 are prepared by homogenous deposition-precipitation method (HDP) using urea as the precipitating agent. The structural features of the synthesized catalysts were characterized by various techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), nitrogen adsorption-desorption (BET), pore size distribution (PSD), CO chemisorption and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The catalytic activity and stability of the Au/SBA-15 catalysts are investigated during the vapor phase aerobic oxidation of benzyl alcohol. The BJH pore size distribution results of SBA-15 support and Au/SBA-15 catalysts reveals that the formation of mesoporous structure in all the samples. TEM results suggest that Au nanoparticles are highly dispersed over SBA-15 and long range order of hexagonal mesopores of SBA-15 is well retained even after the deposition of Au metallic nanoparticles. XPS study reveals the formation of Au (0) after chemical reduction by NaBH4. The particle size measured from CO-chemisorption and TEM analysis are well correlated with the TOF values of the reaction. Au/SBA-1 5 catalysts are found to show higher activity compare to Au/TiO2 and Au/MgO catalysts during the vapor phase oxidation of benzyl alcohol. The catalytic functionality are well substantiated with particle size measured from TEM. The crystallite size of Au in both fresh and spent catalysts were measured from X-ray diffraction.

  14. Diversity of the aerobic anoxygenic phototrophy genepufM in Arctic and Antarctic coastal seawaters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Yinxin; DONG Peiyan; QIAO Zongyun; ZHENG Tianling

    2016-01-01

    Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic (AAP) bacteria serve important functions in marine carbon and energy cycling because of their capability to utilize dissolved organic substrates and harvest light energy. AAP bacteria are widely distributed in marine environments, and their diversity has been examined in marine habitats. However, information about AAP bacteria at high latitudes remains insufficient to date. Therefore, this study determined the summer AAP bacterial diversity in Arctic Kongsfjorden and in the Antarctic coastal seawater of King George Island on the basis ofpufM, a gene that encodes a pigment-binding protein subunit of the reaction center complex. FourpufM clone libraries were constructed, and 674 positive clones were obtained from four investigated stations (two in Kongsfjorden and two in the Antarctic Maxwell Bay). Arctic clones were clustered within theAlphaproteobacteria, whereas Antarctic clones were classified into theAlphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria classes.Rhodobacteraceae-likepufM genes dominated in all samples. In addition, sequences closely related topufM encoded on a plasmid inSulfitobacter guttiformis were predominant in both Arctic and Antarctic samples. This result indicates the transpolar or even global distribution ofpufM genes in marine environments. Meanwhile, differences between the Arctic and Antarctic sequences may prove polar endemism. These results indicate the important role ofRhodobacteraceae as AAP bacteria in bipolar coastal waters.

  15. Effects of strengthening and aerobic exercises on pain severity and function in patients with knee rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Rahnama

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: It can be concluded that an aerobic exercise program improves functional and walking ability in patients with knee RA, and strengthening exercise has more efficient effect on knee ROM, both aerobic and strengthening exercises can equally relieve pain.

  16. Aerobic and anaerobic organism productivity as factors that determine the level of physical health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serorez T.B.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : to identify and assess the level of physical health of men of the first coming of age 21-23 years. Material : the study involved 413 students and 17 teachers and sports doctors. Results : the influence of cross-country training aerobic and anaerobic focus on physical performance, aerobic and anaerobic performance of the student body. The efficiency impact exercises using running loads of aerobic and anaerobic focus on the physical health of students. It is proved that the level of aerobic performance drops to safe limits and requires correction. To correct the body's aerobic performance is recommended to use for running load. Conclusions: found that the correction would be the most efficient and effective through the development and implementation of health technologies based on the use of extracurricular classes jogging exercises. It should take into account the frequency and methods of learning, physical work mode power supply and energy value of each class.

  17. Biodegradation of Acid Anthraquinone Dye in a Facultative-aerobic Process: Kinetics and Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yin; LI Zai-lei

    2009-01-01

    The transformation of an anthraquinone dye blue 324 in a facultative-aerobic (F-A) system was investigated. Kinetic parameter study showed that higher Vmax coupled with more recalcitrant chemical oxygen demand (COD) were found in the facuitative biofilm reactor (FBR) than in the aerobic reactor (AR). Results of the product analyses indicated that most of dye molecular could be facultatively broken down into simple intermediates, which would be further degraded under subsequent aerobic condition. The main metabolites in each reactor were detected by infrared (FT-IR) and high performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). Comparison of the toxicities among the dye and its metabolites was conducted, surprisingly, the colorless intermediates from FBR possessed less inhibitory than original dye and the median effective luminescence concentration (EC50) in 15 min for aerobic effluent could not be detected, showing that hardly toxic products existed in the aerobic process effluent.

  18. Coupled anaerobic/aerobic biodegradation of 2,4,6 trichlorophenol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Degradation of 2, 4, 6-trichlorophenol(TCP) with co-immobilizing anaerobic granular sludge and isolated aerobic bacterial specieswas studied in coupled anaerobic/aerobic integrated reactors. The synergism of aerobes and anaerobes within co-immobilized granule mightfacilitate degrading the TCP and exchange of anaerobic metabolites 4-CP, which promoted system organic removal efficiency and recovered fromorganic shock-loads more quickly. The biomass specific activities experiment further confirmed that strict anaerobes be not affected over thecourse of this experiment by the presence of an oxic environment, aerobic activity predominated in the outer co-immobilized granule layers,while the interior was characterized by anaerobic activity. The co-immobilized granule could thus enable both aerobic and anaerobic microbesfunction in the same reactor and thereby integrate the oxidative and reductive catabolism.

  19. Aerobic fitness is associated with greater white matter integrity in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eChaddock-Heyman

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aerobic fitness has been found to play a positive role in brain and cognitive health of children. Yet, many of the neural biomarkers related to aerobic fitness remain unknown. Here, using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI, we demonstrated that higher aerobic fitness was related to greater estimates of white matter microstructure in children. Higher fit 9- and 10-year-old children showed greater fractional anisotropy (FA in sections of the corpus callosum, corona radiata, and superior longitudinal fasciculus, compared to lower fit children. The FA effects were primarily characterized by aerobic fitness differences in radial diffusivity (RD, thereby raising the possibility that estimates of myelination may vary as a function of individual differences in fitness during childhood. White matter structure may be another potential neural mechanism of aerobic fitness that assists in efficient communication between gray matter regions as well as the integration of regions into networks.

  20. Complete remediation of PCE contaminated unsaturated soils by sequential anaerobic-aerobic bioventing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihopoulos, P G; Suidan, M T; Sayles, G D

    2001-01-01

    Bioventing principles have been applied to completely dechlorinate tetrachloroethylene vapors in the unsaturated zone in a sequential anaerobic-aerobic pattern. The aerobic step yields trans-DCE and VC as PCE reductive dechlorination byproducts, while TCE and cis-DCE are observed as intermediates. The aerobic step results in rapid oxidation of the VC and trans-DCE to carbon dioxide. Hydrogen was delivered in the gas phase as a reducing agent for the anaerobic step at levels of 1%, and oxygen at 4.2% was used as an electron acceptor in the aerobic step. PCE and VC half lives in the anaerobic and aerobic steps respectively, where less than 10 min.

  1. Development of a specific anaerobic field test for aerobic gymnastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Christiano Robles Rodrigues; Borelli, Marcello Tadeu Caetano; Paineli, Vitor de Salles; Azevedo, Rafael de Almeida; Borelli, Claudia Cristine Gomes; Lancha Junior, Antônio Herbert; Gualano, Bruno; Artioli, Guilherme Giannini

    2015-01-01

    The current investigation aimed to develop a valid specific field test to evaluate anaerobic physical performance in Aerobic Gymnastics athletes. We first designed the Specific Aerobic Gymnast Anaerobic Test (SAGAT), which included gymnastics-specific elements performed in maximal repeated sprint fashion, with a total duration of 80-90 s. In order to validate the SAGAT, three independent sub-studies were performed to evaluate the concurrent validity (Study I, n=8), the reliability (Study II, n=10) and the sensitivity (Study III, n=30) of the test in elite female athletes. In Study I, a positive correlation was shown between lower-body Wingate test and SAGAT performance (Mean power: p = 0.03, r = -0.69, CI: -0.94 to 0.03 and Peak power: p = 0.02, r = -0.72, CI: -0.95 to -0.04) and between upper-body Wingate test and SAGAT performance (Mean power: p = 0.03, r = -0.67, CI: -0.94 to 0.02 and Peak power: p = 0.03, r = -0.69, CI: -0.94 to 0.03). Additionally, plasma lactate was similarly increased in response to SAGAT (p = 0.002), lower-body Wingate Test (p = 0.021) and a simulated competition (p = 0.007). In Study II, no differences were found between the time to complete the SAGAT in repeated trials (p = 0.84; Cohen's d effect size = 0.09; ICC = 0.97, CI: 0.89 to 0.99; MDC95 = 0.12 s). Finally, in Study III the time to complete the SAGAT was significantly lower during the competition cycle when compared to the period before the preparatory cycle (p Gymnastics training period. Taken together, these data have demonstrated that SAGAT is a specific, reliable and sensitive measurement of specific anaerobic performance in elite female Aerobic Gymnastics, presenting great potential to be largely applied in training settings.

  2. Serine-selective aerobic cleavage of peptides and a protein using a water-soluble copper-organoradical conjugate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Yohei; Tanabe, Kana; Sasaki, Daisuke; Sohma, Youhei; Oisaki, Kounosuke; Kanai, Motomu

    2014-06-16

    The site-specific cleavage of peptide bonds is an important chemical modification of biologically relevant macromolecules. The reaction is not only used for routine structural determination of peptides, but is also a potential artificial modulator of protein function. Realizing the substrate scope beyond the conventional chemical or enzymatic cleavage of peptide bonds is, however, a formidable challenge. Here we report a serine-selective peptide-cleavage protocol that proceeds at room temperature and near neutral pH value, through mild aerobic oxidation promoted by a water-soluble copper-organoradical conjugate. The method is applicable to the site-selective cleavage of polypeptides that possess various functional groups. Peptides comprising D-amino acids or sensitive disulfide pairs are competent substrates. The system is extendable to the site-selective cleavage of a native protein, ubiquitin, which comprises more than 70 amino acid residues.

  3. Expression of the succinate dehydrogenase genes (sdhCAB) from the facultatively anaerobic paenibacillus macerans during aerobic growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirawski; Hankeln; Unden

    1998-10-01

    Paenibacillus (formerly Bacillus) macerans is capable of succinate oxidation under oxic conditions and fumarate reduction under anoxic conditions. The reactions are catalyzed by different enzymes, succinate dehydrogenase (Sdh) and fumarate reductase (Frd). The genes encoding Sdh (sdhCAB) were analyzed. The gene products of sdhA and sdhB were similar to the subunits of known Sdh and Frd enzymes. The hydrophobic subunit SdhC showed close sequence similarity to the class of Sdh/Frd enzymes containing diheme cytochrome b. From the sdhCAB gene cluster two transcripts were produced, one comprising sdhCAB, the other sdhAB. The transcripts were found only during aerobic growth, and the amount was directly proportional to Sdh activity, but inversely proportional to Frd activity.

  4. Aerobic dehydrogenation of cyclohexanone to cyclohexenone catalyzed by Pd(DMSO)2(TFA)2: evidence for ligand-controlled chemoselectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Tianning; Pun, Doris; Stahl, Shannon S

    2013-06-05

    The dehydrogenation of cyclohexanones affords cyclohexenones or phenols via removal of 1 or 2 equiv of H2, respectively. We recently reported several Pd(II) catalyst systems that effect aerobic dehydrogenation of cyclohexanones with different product selectivities. Pd(DMSO)2(TFA)2 is unique in its high chemoselectivity for the conversion of cyclohexanones to cyclohexenones, without promoting subsequent dehydrogenation of cyclohexenones to phenols. Kinetic and mechanistic studies of these reactions reveal the key role of the dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) ligand in controlling this chemoselectivity. DMSO has minimal kinetic influence on the rate of Pd(TFA)2-catalyzed dehydrogenation of cyclohexanone to cyclohexenone, while it strongly inhibits the second dehydrogenation step, conversion of cyclohexenone to phenol. These contrasting kinetic effects of DMSO provide the basis for chemoselective formation of cyclohexenones.

  5. Solvent-free aerobic oxidation of ethylbenzene over supported Ni catalysts using molecular oxygen at atmospheric pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G.Raju; P. Shiva Reddy; J.Ashok; B.Mahipal Reddy; A.Venugopal

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the aerobic oxidation of ethylbenzene in the absence of solvent or any additive carded out over Ni on difierent types of supports namely SiO2,hydroxyapatite,SBA-15,and USY Zeolites.The oxidation of ethylbenzene activities was measured in a round bottom flask immersed in oil bath at known reaction temperature.The physicochemical characteristics of the catalysts were examined by BET surface area.XRD.FT-IR and the oxidation activities were correlated with the acidities of the catalysts obtained bv TPD of NH3.It was observed that both hydroxyapatite and USY(13%Na2O)supported Ni catalysts displayed higher ethylbenzene conversion and 80%selectivity towards acetophenone.

  6. Aerobic dehydrogenation of cyclohexanone to phenol catalyzed by Pd(TFA)2/2-dimethylaminopyridine: evidence for the role of Pd nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pun, Doris; Diao, Tianning; Stahl, Shannon S

    2013-06-05

    We have carried out a mechanistic investigation of aerobic dehydrogenation of cyclohexanones and cyclohexenones to phenols with a Pd(TFA)2/2-dimethylaminopyridine catalyst system. Numerous experimental methods, including kinetic studies, filtration tests, Hg poisoning experiments, transmission electron microscopy, and dynamic light scattering, provide compelling evidence that the initial Pd(II) catalyst mediates the first dehydrogenation of cyclohexanone to cyclohexenone, after which it evolves into soluble Pd nanoparticles that retain catalytic activity. This nanoparticle formation and stabilization is facilitated by each of the components in the catalytic reaction, including the ligand, TsOH, DMSO, substrate, and cyclohexenone intermediate.

  7. Aerobic biodegradation of trichloroethylene and phenol co-contaminants in groundwater by a bacterial community using hydrogen peroxide as the sole oxygen source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Zhang, Shi-yang; Wang, Xiao-li; Yang, Jie; Gu, Ji-dong; Zhu, Rui-li; Wang, Ping; Lin, Kuang-fei; Liu, Yong-di

    2015-01-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) and phenol were often found together as co-contaminants in the groundwater of industrial contaminated sites. An effective method to remove TCE was aerobic biodegradation by co-metabolism using phenol as growth substrates. However, the aerobic biodegradation process was easily limited by low concentration of dissolved oxygen (DO) in groundwater, and DO was improved by air blast technique with difficulty. This study enriched a bacterial community using hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as the sole oxygen source to aerobically degrade TCE by co-metabolism with phenol in groundwater. The enriched cultures were acclimatized to 2-8 mM H2O2 which induced catalase, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase to decompose H2O2 to release O2 and reduce the toxicity. The bacterial community could degrade 120 mg/L TCE within 12 days by using 8 mM H2O2 as the optimum concentration, and the TCE degradation efficiency reached up to 80.6%. 16S rRNA gene cloning and sequencing showed that Bordetella, Stenotrophomonas sp., Sinorhizobium sp., Variovorax sp. and Sphingobium sp. were the dominant species in the enrichments, which were clustered in three phyla: Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria. Polymerase chain reaction detection proved that phenol hydroxylase (Lph) gene was involved in the co-metabolic degradation of phenol and TCE, which indicated that hydroxylase might catalyse the epoxidation of TCE to form the unstable molecule TCE-epoxide. The findings are significant for understanding the mechanism of biodegradation of TCE and phenol co-contamination and helpful for the potential applications of an aerobic bioremediation in situ the contaminated sites.

  8. Surface EMG based muscle activity analysis for aerobic cyclist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Venkatesh; Jayaraman, Srinivasan

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we determined the muscle activity of aerobic cyclist on biceps brachii medial, trapezius medial, latissimus dorsi medial, and erector spinae muscles bilaterally during 30 min of cycling. Thirteen male volunteers were chosen and placed in two groups (with and without low back pain (LBP)). Surface electromyography (sEMG) was recorded bilaterally from selected muscle groups for 30 min of cycling for each subject. Statistical tests were performed to determine the difference in fatigue, using mean power frequency difference. LBP group showed a significantly higher fatigue (p<0.05) in left biceps brachii medial when compared to the control group. High fatigue in the back muscles in the LBP group was not found; however, when linear regression was performed for these individuals, the data showed a possibility of worsening in their condition due to 30 min of cycling.

  9. EFFECTS OF THREE FEEDBACK CONDITIONS ON AEROBIC SWIM SPEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Pérez Soriano

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was twofold: (a to develop an underwater chronometer capable to provide feedback while the athlete is swimming, as well as being a control tool for the coach, and (b to analyse its feedback effect on swim pace control compared with feedback provided by the coach and with no feedback, in 25 m and 50 m swimming pools. 30 male swimmers of national level volunteer to participate. Each swimmer swam 3 x 200 m at aerobic speed (AS and 3 x 200 m just under the anaerobic threshold speed (AnS, each swam repetition with a different feedback condition: chronometer, coach and without feedback. Results (a validate the chronometer system developed and (b show that swimmers pace control is affected by the type of feedback provided, the swim speed elected and the size of the swimming pool

  10. Characteristics of Pb2+ biosorption with aerobic granular biomass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Lei; YE ZhengFang; WANG ZhongYou; NI JinRen

    2008-01-01

    Experimental studies were conducted on the feasibility of aerobic granular biomass as a novel type of biosorbent for Pb2+ removal. The results show that the initial pH, Pb2+ concentration (C0) and biomass concentration (X0) affected the biosorption process significantly. Both the Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models describe the biosorption process accurately, with correlation coefficients of 0.932 and 0.959 respectively. The Pb2+ biosorption kinetics is interpreted as having two stages, with the second stage described reasonably well by a Lagergren pseudo-second order model. Moreover, the surface change of granular biomass after the Pb2+ biosorption process appears to be caused by ion exchange and metal chelation according to the analysis results of Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX).

  11. Marine oscillatoria (Trichodesmium): explanation for aerobic nitrogen fixation without heterocysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, E J; Price, C C

    1976-03-26

    Nitrogen fixation in marine Oscillatoria appears to be associated with differentiated cells located in the center of the colony. These central cells exhibit reduced pigmentation relative to peripherally located cells and do not incorporate 14CO2 in photosynthesis. Central cells apparently do not produce O2 which would deactivate nitrogenase. When central cells are exposed to O2 via disruption of the colonies, N2 fixation (acetylene reduction) decreases sharply even though individual trichomes remain intact. Disruption of colonies in the absence of O2 does not cause reduced nitrogenase activity. In the sea, turbulence from wave action apparently separates trichomes allowing O2 to enter thus decreasing nitrogenase activity. These observations explain how Oscillatoria is able to fix N2 without heterocysts in an aerobic environment and why it blooms virtually always occur in calm seas.

  12. Biological phosphorus uptake under anoxic and aerobic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerrn-Jespersen, Jens Peter; Henze, Mogens

    1993-01-01

    Biological phosphorus removal was investigated under anoxic and aerobic conditions. Tests were made to establish whether phosphorus accumulating bacteria can take up phosphate under anoxic conditions and thus utilise nitrate as oxidant. Furthermore, it was tested how the amount of organic matter...... sludge from two different pilot plants incorporating phosphorus removal. The results showed that the phosphorus accumulating bacteria can be divided into two groups in respect of process; one group capable of utilising only oxygen as oxidant and another group capable of utilising both oxygen and nitrate...... taken up by the phosphorus accumulating bacteria during the anaerobic phase affects the total denitrification rate, as well as the rate at which the phosphorus accumulating bacteria take up phosphate under anoxic conditions. The tests were conducted as batch experiments in 21. reactors with activated...

  13. Enzymes and Genes Involved in Aerobic Alkane Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongze eShao

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Alkanes are major constituents of crude oil. They are also present at low concentrations in diverse non-contaminated because many living organisms produce them as chemo-attractants or as protecting agents against water loss. Alkane degradation is a widespread phenomenon in nature. The numerous microorganisms, both prokaryotic and eukaryotic, capable of utilizing alkanes as a carbon and energy source, have been isolated and characterized. This review summarizes the current knowledge of how bacteria metabolize alkanes aerobically, with a particular emphasis on the oxidation of long-chain alkanes, including factors that are responsible for chemotaxis to alkanes , transport across cell membrane of alkanes , the regulation of alkane degradation gene and initial oxidation.

  14. The relationship between aerobic exercise and cognition: is movement medicinal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lojovich, Jeanne M

    2010-01-01

    Each year approximately 1.5 million individuals sustain traumatic brain injuries often resulting in difficulties in memory and executive function that limit independence. Aerobic exercise not only has been found to impact cardiovascular systems but has also shown benefits to brain function itself and specifically in the domain of memory and learning. Recent evidence is shedding light on the mechanisms possibly impacting cognitive performance following the participation in exercise. Literature has demonstrated increased hemodynamics within the brain, changes in neurotransmitters, and increasing levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor that stimulates neurogenesis, and resistance to further injury. This review article explores the current literature and the possibility of exercise acting as an adjunct treatment to enhance the effectiveness of cognitive rehabilitation.

  15. Aerobic Exercise in People with Schizophrenia: Neural and Neurocognitive Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakhrusheva, Julia; Marino, Brielle; Stroup, T Scott; Kimhy, David

    2016-06-01

    Schizophrenia is characterized by extensive neurocognitive deficits, which are linked to greater disability, poorer functional outcome, and have been suggested to impact daily functioning more than clinical symptoms. Aerobic exercise (AE) has emerged as a potential intervention. This review examines the impact of AE on brain structure and function along with neurocognitive performance in individuals with schizophrenia. Preliminary evidence indicates that AE can increase hippocampal volume and cortical thickness, in addition to exerting a neuroprotective effect against hippocampal volume decrease and cortical thinning. There is also evidence that AE is able to significantly increase serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels, which are implicated in neurogenesis, neuroplasticity, and cognitive improvement. Finally, evidence suggests that AE plays a significant role in improving overall cognition, including improvements in processing speed, working memory, and visual learning. The authors discuss the implications of the findings and provide recommendations for future research and areas of inquiry.

  16. Targeting aerobic glycolysis: 3-bromopyruvate as a promising anticancer drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardaci, Simone; Desideri, Enrico; Ciriolo, Maria Rosa

    2012-02-01

    The Warburg effect refers to the phenomenon whereby cancer cells avidly take up glucose and produce lactic acid under aerobic conditions. Although the molecular mechanisms underlying tumor reliance on glycolysis remains not completely clear, its inhibition opens feasible therapeutic windows for cancer treatment. Indeed, several small molecules have emerged by combinatorial studies exhibiting promising anticancer activity both in vitro and in vivo, as a single agent or in combination with other therapeutic modalities. Therefore, besides reviewing the alterations of glycolysis that occur with malignant transformation, this manuscript aims at recapitulating the most effective pharmacological therapeutics of its targeting. In particular, we describe the principal mechanisms of action and the main targets of 3-bromopyruvate, an alkylating agent with impressive antitumor effects in several models of animal tumors. Moreover, we discuss the chemo-potentiating strategies that would make unparalleled the putative therapeutic efficacy of its use in clinical settings.

  17. Anaerobic/aerobic treatment of selected azo dyes in wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seshadri, S.; Bishop, P.L. (Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering); Agha, A.M. (Univ. of Aleppo (Syrian Arab Republic). Faculty of Civil Engineering)

    1994-01-01

    Azo dyes represent the largest class of dyes in use today. Current environmental concern with these dyes revolves around the potential carcinogenic health risk presented by these dyes or their intermediate biodegradation products when exposed to microflora in the human digestive tract. These dyes may build up in the environment, since many wastewater treatment plants allow these dyes to pass through the system virtually untreated. The initial step in the degradation of these dyes is the cleavage of the Azo bond. This cleavage is often impossible under aerobic conditions, but has been readily demonstrated under anaerobic conditions. The focus of the study was to determine the feasibility of using an anaerobic fluidized-bed reactor to accomplish this cleavage. The effects of typical process variables such as hydraulic retention time (HRT), influent dye concentration levels, and degree of bed fluidization on removal efficiencies were also studied. The four dyes selected for this study were Acid-Orange 7, Acid-Orange 8, Acid-Orange 10, and Acid-Red 14. The effectiveness of using a bench-scale-activated sludge reactor as a sequenced second stage was also examined. Results indicate that nearly complete cleavage of the Azo bond is easily accomplished for each of the four dyes under hydraulic retention times of either 12 or 24 h. Initial results indicate, though, that aromatic amine by-products remain. The sequenced second stage was able to remove the remaining Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) load to acceptable levels. Work is presently underway to determine the face of the anaerobic by-products in the aerobic second stage.

  18. Aerobic degradation of sulfanilic acid using activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Cheng, Ka Yu; Ginige, Maneesha P; Kaksonen, Anna H

    2012-01-01

    This paper evaluates the aerobic degradation of sulfanilic acid (SA) by an acclimatized activated sludge. The sludge was enriched for over three months with SA (>500 mg/L) as the sole carbon and energy source and dissolved oxygen (DO, >5mg/L) as the primary electron acceptor. Effects of aeration rate (0-1.74 L/min), DO concentration (0-7 mg/L) and initial SA concentration (104-1085 mg/L) on SA biodegradation were quantified. A modified Haldane substrate inhibition model was used to obtain kinetic parameters of SA biodegradation and oxygen uptake rate (OUR). Positive linear correlations were obtained between OUR and SA degradation rate (R(2)≥ 0.91). Over time, the culture consumed more oxygen per SA degraded, signifying a gradual improvement in SA mineralization (mass ratio of O(2): SA at day 30, 60 and 120 were 0.44, 0.51 and 0.78, respectively). The concomitant release of near stoichiometric quantity of sulphate (3.2 mmol SO(4)(2-) released from 3.3 mmol SA) and the high chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficacy (97.1%) indicated that the enriched microbial consortia could drive the overall SA oxidation close to a complete mineralization. In contrast to other pure-culture systems, the ammonium released from the SA oxidation was predominately converted into nitrate, revealing the presence of ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in the mixed culture. No apparent inhibitory effect of SA on the nitrification was noted. This work also indicates that aerobic SA biodegradation could be monitored by real-time DO measurement.

  19. Physical injury stimulates aerobic methane emissions from terrestrial plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.-P. Wang

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Physical injury is common in terrestrial plants as a result of grazing, harvesting, trampling, and extreme weather events. Previous studies demonstrated enhanced emission of non-microbial CH4 under aerobic conditions from plant tissues when they were exposed to increasing UV radiation and temperature. Since physical injury is also a form of environmental stress, we sought to determine whether it would also affect CH4 emissions from plants. Physical injury (cutting stimulated CH4 emission from fresh twigs of Artemisia species under aerobic conditions. More cutting resulted in more CH4 emissions. Hypoxia also enhanced CH4 emission from both uncut and cut Artemisia frigida twigs. Physical injury typically results in cell wall degradation, which may either stimulate formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS or decrease scavenging of them. Increased ROS activity might explain increased CH4 emission in response to physical injury and other forms of stress. There were significant differences in CH4 emissions among 10 species of Artemisia, with some species emitting no detectable CH4 under any circumstances. Consequently, CH4 emissions may be species-dependent and therefore difficult to estimate in nature based on total plant biomass. Our results and those of previous studies suggest that a variety of environmental stresses stimulate CH4 emission from a wide variety of plant species. Global change processes, including climate change, depletion of stratospheric ozone, increasing ground-level ozone, spread of plant pests, and land-use changes, could cause more stress in plants on a global scale, potentially stimulating more CH4 emission globally.

  20. Assessment of bacterial and structural dynamics in aerobic granular biofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. Weissbrodt

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Aerobic granular sludge is based on self-granulated flocs forming mobile biofilms with a gel-like consistence. Bacterial and structural dynamics from flocs to granules were followed in anaerobic-aerobic sequencing batch reactors fed with synthetic wastewater, namely a bubble column (BC-SBR operated under wash-out conditions for fast granulation, and two stirred-tank enrichments of Accumulibacter (PAO-SBR and Competibacter (GAO-SBR operated at steady-state. In the BC-SBR, granules formed within two weeks by swelling of Zoogloea colonies around flocs, developing subsequently smooth zoogloeal biofilms. However, Zoogloea predominance (37-79% led to deteriorated nutrient removal during the first months of reactor operation. Upon maturation, improved nitrification (80-100%, nitrogen removal (43-83%, and high but unstable dephosphatation (75-100% were obtained. Proliferation of dense clusters of nitrifiers, Accumulibacter, and Competibacter from granule cores outwards resulted in heterogeneous bioaggregates, inside which only low abundance Zoogloea (<5% were detected in biofilm interstices. The presence of different extracellular glycoconjugates detected by fluorescence lectin-binding analysis showed the complex nature of the intracellular matrix of these granules. In the PAO-SBR, granulation occurred within two months with abundant and active Accumulibacter populations (56±10% that were selected under full anaerobic uptake of volatile fatty acids and that aggregated as dense clusters within heterogeneous granules. Flocs self-granulated in the GAO-SBR after 480 days during a period of over-aeration caused by biofilm growth on the oxygen sensor. Granules were dominated by heterogeneous clusters of Competibacter (37±11%. Zoogloea were never abundant in biomass of both PAO- and GAO-SBRs. This study showed that Zoogloea, Accumulibacter, and Competibacter affiliates can form granules, and that the granulation mechanisms rely on the dominant population

  1. Aerobic power and peak power of elite America's Cup sailors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, Vernon; Pain, Matthew T G; Folland, Jonathan P

    2009-05-01

    Big-boat yacht racing is one of the only able bodied sporting activities where standing arm-cranking ('grinding') is the primary physical activity. However, the physiological capabilities of elite sailors for standing arm-cranking have been largely unreported. The purpose of the study was to assess aerobic parameters, VO(2peak) and onset of blood lactate (OBLA), and anaerobic performance, torque-crank velocity and power-crank velocity relationships and therefore peak power (P (max)) and optimum crank-velocity (omega(opt)), of America's Cup sailors during standing arm-cranking. Thirty-three elite professional sailors performed a step test to exhaustion, and a subset of ten grinders performed maximal 7 s isokinetic sprints at different crank velocities, using a standing arm-crank ergometer. VO(2peak) was 4.7 +/- 0.5 L/min (range 3.6-5.5 L/min) at a power output of 332 +/- 44 W (range 235-425 W). OBLA occurred at a power output of 202 +/- 31 W (61% of W(max)) and VO(2) of 3.3 +/- 0.4 L/min (71% of VO(2peak)). The torque-crank velocity relationship was linear for all participants (r = 0.9 +/- 0.1). P (max) was 1,420 +/- 37 W (range 1,192-1,617 W), and omega(opt) was 125 +/- 6 rpm. These data are among the highest upper-body anaerobic and aerobic power values reported. The unique nature of these athletes, with their high fat-free mass and specific selection and training for standing arm cranking, likely accounts for the high values. The influence of crank velocity on peak power implies that power production during on-board 'grinding' may be optimised through the use of appropriate gear-ratios and the development of efficient gear change mechanisms.

  2. Isolation of aerobic bacteria from ticks infested sheep in Iraq

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Waleed Ibrahem Jalil; Mohammad Mushgil Zenad

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To highlight the presence of aerobic bacteria in live ticks infested sheep,in Diyala Governorate,Iraq.Methods:One hundred and thirty adult alive ticks were picked up from sheep which were reared in different farms in Diyala Governorate,Iraq,during the period from November 2012 to May 2013.Ticks were classified in the Natural History Museum in Baghdad.They were dissected aseptically for extraction of the salivary gland and midgut.The removed tissue from each organ was inoculated in buffer peptone water(1%)and incubated for 2 h at 37 °C,to maintain weak and/or injured bacterial cells,then transmitted to nutrient broth incubated at 37 °C for 18 h.Culturing was done on three solid bacteriological media(nutrient,blood and McConkey agars),and then incubated at37 ℃ for 24 h.Bacterial identification was performed by using multiple biochemical tests and API-20 strips.Data were analyzed by using Statistical Analysis System version 9.1,2010.Chi-square test was used for comparison at significant level of P ≤ 0.05.Results:Two species of ticks were identified[Rhipicephalus(Boophilus) annulatus and Hyalomma turanicum].High bacterial isolation rate was observed(483 isolates).A significant high isolation rate was recorded from Rhipicephalus annulatus(63.14%).Six bacterial species were identified[Escherichia coli(28.36%),Pseudomonas aeruginosa(18.01%),Bacillus cereus(14.69%),Staphylococcus aureus(13.66%),Citrobacter freundii(13.04%),and Enterobacter species(12.21%)].Also the high bacterial isolation rates were recorded in the temperate months(November,March and April);these coincided with high reproductive performance of ticks.Conclusions:The high isolation rate of aerobic pathogens from ticks might reflect the active contribution of this arthropod in environmental contamination and increase the probability of transmitting bacterial pathogens to their hosts.

  3. Isolation of aerobic bacteria from ticks infested sheep in Iraq

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Waleed Ibrahem Jalil; Mohammad Mushgil Zenad

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To highlight the presence of aerobic bacteria in live ticks infested sheep, in Diyala Governorate, Iraq. Methods: One hundred and thirty adult alive ticks were picked up from sheep which were reared in different farms in Diyala Governorate, Iraq, during the period from November 2012 to May 2013. Ticks were classified in the Natural History Museum in Baghdad. They were dissected aseptically for extraction of the salivary gland and mid-gut. The removed tissue from each organ was inoculated in buffer peptone water (1%) and incubated for 2 h at 37℃, to maintain weak and/or injured bacterial cells, then transmitted to nutrient broth incubated at 37℃ for 18 h. Culturing was done on three solid bacteriological media (nutrient, blood and McConkey agars), and then incubated at 37℃ for 24 h. Bacterial identification was performed by using multiple biochemical tests and API-20 strips. Data were analyzed by using Statistical Analysis System version 9.1, 2010. Chi-square test was used for comparison at significant level of P ≤0.05. Results: Two species of ticks were identified [Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus and Hyalomma turanicum]. High bacterial isolation rate was observed (483 isolates). A significant high isolation rate was recorded from Rhipicephalus annulatus (63.14%). Six bacterial species were identified [Escherichia coli (28.36%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (18.01%), Bacillus cereus (14.69%), Staphylococcus aureus (13.66%), Citrobacter freundii (13.04%), and Enterobacter species (12.21%)]. Also the high bacterial isolation rates were recorded in the temperate months (November, March and April); these coin-cided with high reproductive performance of ticks. Conclusions: The high isolation rate of aerobic pathogens from ticks might reflect the active contribution of this arthropod in environmental contamination and increase the probability of transmitting bacterial pathogens to their hosts.

  4. Aerobic biodegradation of organic compounds in hydraulic fracturing fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kekacs, Daniel; Drollette, Brian D; Brooker, Michael; Plata, Desiree L; Mouser, Paula J

    2015-07-01

    Little is known of the attenuation of chemical mixtures created for hydraulic fracturing within the natural environment. A synthetic hydraulic fracturing fluid was developed from disclosed industry formulas and produced for laboratory experiments using commercial additives in use by Marcellus shale field crews. The experiments employed an internationally accepted standard method (OECD 301A) to evaluate aerobic biodegradation potential of the fluid mixture by monitoring the removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from an aqueous solution by activated sludge and lake water microbial consortia for two substrate concentrations and four salinities. Microbial degradation removed from 57 % to more than 90 % of added DOC within 6.5 days, with higher removal efficiency at more dilute concentrations and little difference in overall removal extent between sludge and lake microbe treatments. The alcohols isopropanol and octanol were degraded to levels below detection limits while the solvent acetone accumulated in biological treatments through time. Salinity concentrations of 40 g/L or more completely inhibited degradation during the first 6.5 days of incubation with the synthetic hydraulic fracturing fluid even though communities were pre-acclimated to salt. Initially diverse microbial communities became dominated by 16S rRNA sequences affiliated with Pseudomonas and other Pseudomonadaceae after incubation with the synthetic fracturing fluid, taxa which may be involved in acetone production. These data expand our understanding of constraints on the biodegradation potential of organic compounds in hydraulic fracturing fluids under aerobic conditions in the event that they are accidentally released to surface waters and shallow soils.

  5. Assessment of bacterial and structural dynamics in aerobic granular biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissbrodt, David G.; Neu, Thomas R.; Kuhlicke, Ute; Rappaz, Yoan; Holliger, Christof

    2013-01-01

    Aerobic granular sludge (AGS) is based on self-granulated flocs forming mobile biofilms with a gel-like consistence. Bacterial and structural dynamics from flocs to granules were followed in anaerobic-aerobic sequencing batch reactors (SBR) fed with synthetic wastewater, namely a bubble column (BC-SBR) operated under wash-out conditions for fast granulation, and two stirred-tank enrichments of Accumulibacter (PAO-SBR) and Competibacter (GAO-SBR) operated at steady-state. In the BC-SBR, granules formed within 2 weeks by swelling of Zoogloea colonies around flocs, developing subsequently smooth zoogloeal biofilms. However, Zoogloea predominance (37–79%) led to deteriorated nutrient removal during the first months of reactor operation. Upon maturation, improved nitrification (80–100%), nitrogen removal (43–83%), and high but unstable dephosphatation (75–100%) were obtained. Proliferation of dense clusters of nitrifiers, Accumulibacter, and Competibacter from granule cores outwards resulted in heterogeneous bioaggregates, inside which only low abundance Zoogloea (<5%) were detected in biofilm interstices. The presence of different extracellular glycoconjugates detected by fluorescence lectin-binding analysis showed the complex nature of the intracellular matrix of these granules. In the PAO-SBR, granulation occurred within two months with abundant and active Accumulibacter populations (56 ± 10%) that were selected under full anaerobic uptake of volatile fatty acids and that aggregated as dense clusters within heterogeneous granules. Flocs self-granulated in the GAO-SBR after 480 days during a period of over-aeration caused by biofilm growth on the oxygen sensor. Granules were dominated by heterogeneous clusters of Competibacter (37 ± 11%). Zoogloea were never abundant in biomass of both PAO- and GAO-SBRs. This study showed that Zoogloea, Accumulibacter, and Competibacter affiliates can form granules, and that the granulation mechanisms rely on the dominant

  6. Development of the aerobic spoilage flora of chilled rabbit meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Calleja, José M; García-López, María-Luisa; Santos, Jesús A; Otero, Andrés

    2005-06-01

    Even though worldwide production of rabbit meat is over 1,000,000ton, little information is available on rabbit meat microbiology. This paper reports on the microflora developing on chill-stored rabbit carcasses. Four different lots of 24h post-mortem rabbit carcasses dressed and kept at 0°C in a medium-size abattoir were collected and evaluated for sensory, physicochemical and microbiological changes during aerobic storage at 3±1°C. Mean initial pH value (pH(24)), extract-release volume (ERV) and lactate content of Biceps femoris muscle, were 6.26±0.20, 13.50±3.50ml and 0.70±0.07%, respectively. As with other muscle foods kept chilled in air, pH increased and ERV and lactate decreased as storage progressed. Initial levels (logcfu/g) of aerobes (APC), psychrotrophic flora, Pseudomonas spp., Brochothrix thermosphacta, lactic acid bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae and yeasts were 4.76±0.31, 4.81±0.81, 3.39±1.12, 2.01±0.92, 2.76±0.51, 0.49±0.45 and 3.46±0.32, respectively. Pseudomonads, most of them fluorescent, and to a lesser extent B. thermosphacta and yeasts grew faster than the remaining microorganisms and became predominant at the end of the shelf life. Carcasses spoiled when mean APC, psychrotrophic and pseudomonads numbers were ca. 8logcfu/g, their mean shelf life being estimated at 6.8 days. A lot of DFD-like rabbit carcasses, with higher pH and lower ERV values but similar microbial loads to normal meat, developed a strong putrid odour after 4 days.

  7. A cycle ergometer test of maximal aerobic power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myles, W S; Toft, R J

    1982-01-01

    An indirect test of maximal aerobic power (IMAP) was evaluated in 31 healthy male subjects by comparing it with a direct treadmill measurement of maximal aerobic power (VO2 max), with the prediction of VO2 max from heart rate during submaximal exercise on a cycle ergometer using Astrand's nomogram, with the British Army's Basic Fitness Test (BFT, a 2.4 km run performed in boots and trousers), and with a test of maximum anaerobic power. For the IMAP test, subjects pedalled on a cycle ergometer at 75 revs X min-1. The workload was 37.5 watts for the first minute, and was increased by 37.5 watts every minute until the subject could not continue. Time to exhaustion was recorded. Predicted VO2 max and times for BFT and IMAP correlated significantly (p less than 0.001) with the direct VO2 max: r = 0.70, r = 0.67 and r = 0.79 respectively. The correlation between direct VO2 max and the maximum anaerobic power test was significant (p less than 0.05) but lower, r = 0.44. Although lactate levels after direct VO2 max determination were significantly higher than those after the IMAP test, maximum heart rates were not significantly different. Submaximal VO2 values measured during the IMAP test yielded a regression equation relating VO2 and pedalling time. When individual values for direct and predicted VO2 max and times for BFT and IMAP were compared with equivalent standards, the percentages of subjects able to exceed the standard were 100, 65, 87, and 87 respectively. These data demonstrate that the IMAP test provides a valid estimate of VO2 max and indicate that it may be a practical test for establishing that an individual meets a minimum standard.

  8. Antibiogram study of aerobic bacterial isolates from uropathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallikarjuna Reddy C, Himabindu M, Maity Soumendranath, Kanta RC, Kapur Indu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bacteria are capable of invading and infecting humans, leading to disease and sometimes death. Systems and tissues in human body are vulnerable to different organisms. Infection pattern is likely to differ by geographical regions. Aim: This study was aimed to isolate and identify the type of aerobic bacteria causing Urinary Tract Infections (UTI in different age groups and sexes, and also in some predisposing conditions. Their antibiogram also was done. Materials and Methods: Midstream urine sample collected aseptically from 276 patients were subjected for isolation and identification of aerobic bacteria by standard technique and subsequently antibiogram was done by Kirby –Bayer Method. Both sexes of patients with an age range of 10-70 years and patients with diabetes (22, hypertension (8 and anemia (8 were also included in the study. Results: Escherichia coli was the predominant organism(50% among other isolates – Klebsiella species (27.3%, Proteus species(7.14%, Staphylococcus saprophyticus (5.95%, Staphylococcus aureus (3.57%, Enterococci (3.57%, Pseudomonas species(2.38%. UTI was more common among patients of 60 and more years of age; however, incidence was more in female patients (36.2 – 38.5% compared with male patients (25-30%. Anemia, Diabetes and Hypertension conditions were found to predispose UTI. Aminoglycosides and Quinolones were found to be more effective against the isolates. Conclusion: The present study reveals in spite of the topographical diversity, the infecting bacterial isolates from this area were found to be the same as from any other part of India.

  9. Development of Green and Sustainable Chemical Reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taarning, Esben

    in chapter one and two which can be helpful to know when reading the subsequent chapters. The first chapter is an introduction into the fundamentals of green and sustainable chemistry. The second chapter gives an overview of some of the most promising methods to produce value added chemicals from biomass...... and only leads to small amounts of waste formation due to the all-catalytic nature of the procedure. This chapter involves the use of transition metal catalysis as well as classic organic chemistry. In chapter four, supported gold nanoparticles are used as catalysts for the aerobic oxidation of primary......Abstract This thesis entitled Development of Green and Sustainable Chemical Reactions is divided into six chapters involving topics and projects related to green and sustainable chemistry. The chapters can be read independently, however a few concepts and some background information is introduced...

  10. Microsensor Measurements of Sulfate Reduction and Sulfide Oxidation in Compact Microbial Communities of Aerobic Biofilms Rid A-1977-2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    KUHL, M.; JØRGENSEN, BB

    1992-01-01

    The microzonation of O2 respiration, H2S oxidation, and SO4(2-) reduction in aerobic trickling-filter biofilms was studied by measuring concentration profiles at high spatial resolution (25 to 100-mu-m) with microsensors for O2, S2-, and pH. Specific reaction rates were calculated from measured......, whereas sulfate reduction occurred in deeper, anoxic parts of the biofilm. Sulfate reduction accounted for up to 50% of the total mineralization of organic carbon in the biofilms. All H2S produced from sulfate reduction was reoxidized by O2 in a narrow reaction zone, and no H2S escaped to the overlying...... water. Turnover times of H2S and O2 in the reaction zone were only a few seconds owing to rapid bacterial H2S oxidation. Anaerobic H2S oxidation with NO3- could be induced by addition of nitrate to the medium. Total sulfate reduction rates increased when the availability of SO4(2-) or organic substrate...

  11. Differences in aerobic fitness between inpatients and outpatients with severe mental disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene Daae-Qvale Holmemo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackgroundPatients with severe mental disorders have increased mortality, and cardiovascular disease (CVD accounts for a large part. Physical inactivity and low aerobic fitness have been recognized as significant risk factors for CVD. In this study, we investigated the differences in aerobic fitness and physical activity between in- and outpatients with severe mental disorders. Method and subjectsFifty in- and outpatients from a regional psychiatric department were included. The patients filled in a questionnaire on physical activity and completed a clinical examination. An estimation of aerobic fitness was calculated for each patient, using gender, age, waist circumference, resting heart rate and physical activity level as variables.ResultsInpatients had lower estimated aerobic fitness than outpatients (VO₂peak 42 vs 50 mL•kg-1•min-1, p<0.001. Compared to population data matched for age and gender, inpatients had lower aerobic fitness, while outpatients were not different from the population average.ConclusionInpatients at a psychiatric department had lower estimated aerobic fitness than outpatients, and a lower aerobic fitness compared to the general population. Our findings suggest that inpatients with severe mental disorders should be considered a high risk group for CVD.

  12. Kinetics of aerobic cometabolic biodegradation of chlorinated and brominated aliphatic hydrocarbons: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesus, João; Frascari, Dario; Pozdniakova, Tatiana; Danko, Anthony S

    2016-05-15

    This review analyses kinetic studies of aerobic cometabolism (AC) of halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbons (HAHs) from 2001-2015 in order to (i) compare the different kinetic models proposed, (ii) analyse the estimated model parameters with a focus on novel HAHs and the identification of general trends, and (iii) identify further research needs. The results of this analysis show that aerobic cometabolism can degrade a wide range of HAHs, including HAHs that were not previously tested such as chlorinated propanes, highly chlorinated ethanes and brominated methanes and ethanes. The degree of chlorine mineralization was very high for the chlorinated HAHs. Bromine mineralization was not determined for studies with brominated aliphatics. The examined research period led to the identification of novel growth substrates of potentially high interest. Decreasing performance of aerobic cometabolism were found with increasing chlorination, indicating the high potential of aerobic cometabolism in the presence of medium- and low-halogenated HAHs. Further research is needed for the AC of brominated aliphatic hydrocarbons, the potential for biofilm aerobic cometabolism processes, HAH-HAH mutual inhibition and the identification of the enzymes responsible for each aerobic cometabolism process. Lastly, some indications for a possible standardization of future kinetic studies of HAH aerobic cometabolism are provided.

  13. Long-term aerobic exercise is associated with greater muscle strength throughout the life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Justin D; Macneil, Lauren G; Tarnopolsky, Mark A

    2013-06-01

    Aging is associated with a progressive decline in muscle strength, muscle mass, and aerobic capacity, which reduces mobility and impairs quality of life in elderly adults. Exercise is commonly employed to improve muscle function in individuals of all ages; however, chronic aerobic exercise is believed to largely impact cardiovascular function and oxidative metabolism, with minimal effects on muscle mass and strength. To study the effects of long-term aerobic exercise on muscle strength, we recruited 74 sedentary (SED) or highly aerobically active (ACT) men and women from within three distinct age groups (young: 20-39 years, middle: 40-64 years, and older: 65-86 years) and tested their aerobic capacity, isometric grip and knee extensor strength, and dynamic 1 repetition maximum knee extension. As expected, ACT subjects had greater maximal oxygen uptake and peak aerobic power output compared with SED subjects (p aerobic exercise appears to attenuate age-related reductions in muscle strength in addition to its cardiorespiratory and metabolic benefits.

  14. Aerobic capacity and disease activity in children, adolescents and young adults with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Pelt Philomien A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA progress into adulthood, long-term outcome is determined by disease activity, physical and psychosocial development. Decreased aerobic capacity may play a critical role in health-related outcomes in JIA, since it has been linked with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in late adulthood. The objectives of the current study are to examine the aerobic capacity and its relation to parameters of disease activity in children, adolescents and young adults with JIA. Methods Sixty-three patients with JIA (aged 10–27 years were cross sectional studied regarding their aerobic capacity and correlations were made to demographic, disease-related variables, and medication utilization. in a cross-sectional study group of 63 patients of all subtypes. Patients were divided in three age groups, 10–13 years; 14–17 years and 18–27 years. Results Reduced aerobic capacity is found in clinical remission as well as active disease in all subtypes and all age groups. Aerobic capacity is more impaired in active disease shown by DAS 28, JADAS 27, ESR and serum thrombocyte counts. Lower haemoglobin has a negative impact. Long-term used medication including methotrexate and corticosteroids didn’t influence outcome. There is no association with current sports participation. Conclusion Reduced aerobic capacity is present in children and adolescents with JIA, both in active disease and in patients with remission. Measures of aerobic capacity may serve as important outcome measure in JIA.

  15. Health-Promoting Effects of Serial vs. Integrated Combined Strength and Aerobic Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatrantou, K; Gerodimos, V; Häkkinen, K; Zafeiridis, A

    2017-01-01

    Combined strength and aerobic training programs are widely used for improving markers of physical fitness and health. We compared the efficiency of a serial and an integrated combined training program on health and overall fitness in middle-aged females. 54 females (46.7±4.5yrs) were assigned to a serial (SCG) or an integrated (ICG) combined training group or to a control group (CG). The SCG and ICG performed a 3-month training combining aerobic dance and calisthenics. The 2 training programs differ in the sequence of aerobic and strength exercises. SCG performed the strength exercises prior to aerobic; in ICG, the aerobic and strength exercises were altered in a predetermined order. Body composition/circumferences, blood pressure, respiratory function, flexibility, balance, muscle strength/endurance, power and aerobic capacity were measured before and after training. SCG and ICG significantly increased muscle strength and endurance, power, aerobic capacity, flexibility, balance, fat-free mass and respiratory function (ptraining. Serial and integrated combined training programs confer analogous adaptations and can be used interchangeably for counteracting the detrimental effects of sedentary lifestyle on indices of physical fitness and health.

  16. High Aerobic Capacity Mitigates Changes in the Plasma Metabolomic Profile Associated with Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falegan, Oluyemi S; Vogel, Hans J; Hittel, Dustin S; Koch, Lauren G; Britton, Steven L; Hepple, Russ T; Shearer, Jane

    2017-02-03

    Advancing age is associated with declines in maximal oxygen consumption. Declines in aerobic capacity not only contribute to the aging process but also are an independent risk factor for morbidity, cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality. Although statistically convincing, the relationships between aerobic capacity, aging, and disease risk remain largely unresolved. To this end, we employed sensitive, system-based metabolomics approach to determine whether enhanced aerobic capacity could mitigate some of the changes seen in the plasma metabolomic profile associated with aging. Metabolomic profiles of plasma samples obtained from young (13 month) and old (26 month) rats bred for low (LCR) or high (HCR) running capacity using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H NMR) were examined. Results demonstrated strong profile separation in old and low aerobic capacity rats, whereas young and high aerobic capacity rat models were less predictive. Significantly differential metabolites between the groups include taurine, acetone, valine, and trimethylamine-N-oxide among other metabolites, specifically citrate, succinate, isovalerate, and proline, were differentially increased in older HCR animals compared with their younger counterparts. When interactions between age and aerobic capacity were examined, results demonstrated that enhanced aerobic capacity could mitigate some but not all age-associated alterations in the metabolomic profile.

  17. Assessment of aerobic and respiratory growth in the Lactobacillus casei group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Zotta

    Full Text Available One hundred eighty four strains belonging to the species Lactobacillus casei, L. paracasei and L. rhamnosus were screened for their ability to grow under aerobic conditions, in media containing heme and menaquinone and/or compounds generating reactive oxygen species (ROS, in order to identify respiratory and oxygen-tolerant phenotypes. Most strains were able to cope with aerobic conditions and for many strains aerobic growth and heme or heme/menaquinone supplementation increased biomass production compared to anaerobic cultivation. Only four L. casei strains showed a catalase-like activity under anaerobic, aerobic and respiratory conditions and were able to survive in presence of H2O2 (1 mM. Almost all L. casei and L. paracasei strains tolerated menadione (0.2 mM and most tolerated pyrogallol (50 mM, while L. rhamnosus was usually resistant only to the latter compound. This is the first study in which an extensive screening of oxygen and oxidative stress tolerance of members of the L. casei group has been carried out. Results allowed the selection of strains showing the typical traits of aerobic and respiratory metabolism (increased pH and biomass under aerobic or respiratory conditions and unique oxidative stress response properties. Aerobic growth and respiration may confer technological and physiological advantages in the L. casei group and oxygen-tolerant phenotypes could be exploited in several food industry applications.

  18. Aerobic conditions increase isoprenoid biosynthesis pathway gene expression levels for carotenoid production in Enterococcus gilvus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagi, Tatsuro; Kobayashi, Miho; Nomura, Masaru

    2015-06-01

    Some lactic acid bacteria that harbour carotenoid biosynthesis genes (crtNM) can produce carotenoids. Although aerobic conditions can increase carotenoid production and crtNM expression levels, their effects on the pathways that synthesize carotenoid precursors such as mevalonate and isoprene are not completely understood. In this study, we investigated whether aerobic conditions affected gene expression levels involved in the isoprenoid biosynthesis pathway that includes the mevalonate and isoprene biosynthesis pathways in Enterococcus gilvus using real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR. NADH oxidase (nox) and superoxide dismutase (sod) gene expression levels were investigated as controls for aerobic conditions. The expression levels of nox and sod under aerobic conditions were 7.2- and 8.0-fold higher, respectively, than those under anaerobic conditions. Aerobic conditions concomitantly increased the expression levels of crtNM carotenoid biosynthesis genes. HMG-CoA synthase gene expression levels in the mevalonate pathway were only slightly increased under aerobic conditions, whereas the expression levels of HMG-CoA reductase and five other genes in the isoprene biosynthesis pathways were 1.2-2.3-fold higher than those under anaerobic conditions. These results demonstrated that aerobic conditions could increase the expression levels of genes involved in the isoprenoid biosynthesis pathway via mevalonate in E. gilvus.

  19. Importance of extracellular proteins in maintaining structural integrity of aerobic granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yanghui; Liu, Yu

    2013-12-01

    Aerobic granules developed through self-immobilization of microorganisms are compact and structured microbial consortia embedded in a matrix of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). This study investigated the contribution of extracellular proteins (PN) to maintaining the structural integrity of aerobic granule. It was found that hydrolysis of PN induced by Proteinase K led to significant disintegration of aerobic granules, whereas a substantial reduction of extracellular polysaccharides (PS) was also observed. It was proposed that hydrolysis of extracellular proteins present in the EPS matrix of aerobic granules led to collapse of the EPS matrix, and subsequent disintegration of aerobic granule. These suggested that extracellular proteins would be essential for maintaining structural stability of EPS matrix of aerobic granules. In addition, it was revealed that production of signaling molecules, such as autoinducer-2 (AI-2) and N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) was also inhibited probably due to hydrolysis of quorum sensing receptor proteins by Proteinase K. This in turn provided an additional explanation for the observed Proteinase K-triggered dispersal of aerobic granules.

  20. Aerobic fitness predicts relational memory but not item memory performance in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baym, Carol L; Khan, Naiman A; Pence, Ari; Raine, Lauren B; Hillman, Charles H; Cohen, Neal J

    2014-11-01

    Health factors such as an active lifestyle and aerobic fitness have long been linked to decreased risk of cardiovascular disease, stroke, and other adverse health outcomes. Only more recently have researchers begun to investigate the relationship between aerobic fitness and memory function. Based on recent findings in behavioral and cognitive neuroscience showing that the hippocampus might be especially sensitive to the effects of exercise and fitness, the current study assessed hippocampal-dependent relational memory and non-hippocampal-dependent item memory in young adults across a range of aerobic fitness levels. Aerobic fitness was assessed using a graded exercise test to measure oxygen consumption during maximal exercise (VO2max), and relational and item memory were assessed using behavioral and eye movement measures. Behavioral results indicated that aerobic fitness was positively correlated with relational memory performance but not item memory performance, suggesting that the beneficial effects of aerobic fitness selectively affect hippocampal function and not that of the surrounding medial temporal lobe cortex. Eye movement results further supported the specificity of this fitness effect to hippocampal function, in that aerobic fitness predicted disproportionate preferential viewing of previously studied relational associations but not of previously viewed items. Potential mechanisms underlying this pattern of results, including neurogenesis, are discussed.

  1. [Formation Mechanism of Aerobic Granular Sludge and Removal Efficiencies in Integrated ABR-CSTR Reactor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kai-cheng; Wu, Peng; Xu, Yue-zhong; Li, Yue-han; Shen, Yao-liang

    2015-08-01

    Anaerobic Baffled Reactor (ABR) was altered to make an integrated anaerobic-aerobic reactor. The research investigated the mechanism of aerobic sludge granulation, under the condition of continuous-flow. The last two compartments of the ABR were altered into aeration tank and sedimentation tank respectively with seeded sludge of anaerobic granular sludge in anaerobic zone and conventional activated sludge in aerobic zone. The HRT was gradually decreased in sedimentation tank from 2.0 h to 0.75 h and organic loading rate was increased from 1.5 kg x (M3 x d)(-1) to 2.0 kg x (M3 x d)(-1) while the C/N of 2 was controlled in aerobic zone. When the system operated for 110 days, the mature granular sludge in aerobic zone were characterized by compact structure, excellent sedimentation performance (average sedimentation rate was 20.8 m x h(-1)) and slight yellow color. The system performed well in nitrogen and phosphorus removal under the conditions of setting time of 0.75 h and organic loading rate of 2.0 kg (m3 x d)(-1) in aerobic zone, the removal efficiencies of COD, NH4+ -N, TP and TN were 90%, 80%, 65% and 45%, respectively. The results showed that the increasing selection pressure and the high organic loading rate were the main propulsions of the aerobic sludge granulation.

  2. The influence of aerobic fitness status on ventilatory efficiency in patients with coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo M.L. Prado

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To test the hypotheses that 1 coronary artery disease patients with lower aerobic fitness exhibit a lower ventilatory efficiency and 2 coronary artery disease patients with lower initial aerobic fitness exhibit greater improvements in ventilatory efficiency with aerobic exercise training. METHOD: A total of 123 patients (61.0±0.7 years with coronary artery disease were divided according to aerobic fitness status into 3 groups: group 1 (n = 34, peak VO217.5 and 24.5 ml/kg/min. All patients performed a cardiorespiratory exercise test on a treadmill. Ventilatory efficiency was determined by the lowest VE/VCO2 ratio observed. The exercise training program comprised moderate-intensity aerobic exercise performed 3 times per week for 3 months. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02106533 RESULTS: Before intervention, group 1 exhibited both lower peak VO2 and lower ventilatory efficiency compared with the other 2 groups (p<0.05. After the exercise training program, group 1 exhibited greater improvements in aerobic fitness and ventilatory efficiency compared with the 2 other groups (group 1: ▵ = -2.5±0.5 units; group 2: ▵ = -0.8±0.3 units; and group 3: ▵ = -1.4±0.6 units, respectively; p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Coronary artery disease patients with lower aerobic fitness status exhibited lower ventilatory efficiency during a graded exercise test. In addition, after 3 months of aerobic exercise training, only the patients with initially lower levels of aerobic fitness exhibited greater improvements in ventilatory efficiency.

  3. Crop response of aerobic rice and winter wheat to nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in a double cropping system

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, X.Q.; Zhang, H. Y.; Spiertz, J.H.J.; J. Yu; Xie, G.H.; Bouman, B.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    In the aerobic rice system, adapted rice cultivars are grown in non-flooded moist soil. Aerobic rice may be suitable for double cropping with winter wheat in the Huai River Basin, northern China plain. Field experiments in 2005 and 2006 were conducted to study the response of aerobic rice and winter wheat to sequential rates of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) in aerobic rice—winter wheat (AR-WW) and winter wheat—aerobic rice (WW-AR) cropping sequences. Fertilizer treatments con...

  4. Catalysis of Photochemical Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albini, A.

    1986-01-01

    Offers a classification system of catalytic effects in photochemical reactions, contrasting characteristic properties of photochemical and thermal reactions. Discusses catalysis and sensitization, examples of catalyzed reactions of excepted states, complexing ground state substrates, and catalysis of primary photoproducts. (JM)

  5. Impaired aerobic work capacity in insulin dependent diabetics with increased urinary albumin excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T; Richter, Erik; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo;

    1988-01-01

    To assess whether decreased aerobic work capacity was associated with albuminuria in insulin dependent diabetics aerobic capacity was measured in three groups of 10 patients matched for age, sex, duration of diabetes, and degree of physical activity. Group 1 comprised 10 patients with normal...... were not explained by differences in metabolic control or the degree of autonomic neuropathy. Thus the insulin dependent diabetics with only slightly increased urinary albumin excretion had an appreciably impaired aerobic work capacity which could not be explained by autonomic neuropathy...

  6. Start up and operation of a pilot scale aerobic granular SBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, N.; Figueroa, M.; Val del Rio, A.; Mosquera-Corral, A.; Campos, J. L.; Mendez, R.

    2009-07-01

    The development of biomass in the form of aerobic granules is being recently under study as an improvement of conventional activated sludge system. Aerobic granules have been formed treating synthetic, municipal and industrial wastewaters in lab scale reactors, achieving good performances. The aim of this work is the study of the development and operation of aerobic granules in a pilot scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR). A SBR with a working volume of 100 L, an internal diameter of 30 cm and a useful height of 150 cm was used. (Author)

  7. Health-improving possibilities of usage of aerobics in the senior classes of comprehensive school.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kravchuk T.N.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article is opened health-improving possibilities of use of aerobics at physical training lessons in the senior classes. The technique of carrying out of lessons of physical training in the senior classes with use of different kinds of aerobics is proved and developed, and also their influence on indicators of health of senior pupils is investigated. It is shown that employment by aerobics promotes considerable improvement of health of senior pupils, increase of mood, state of health and activity.

  8. Olefin Metathesis Reaction in Water and in Air Improved by Supramolecular Additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine Tomasek

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A range of water-immiscible commercially available Grubbs-type precatalysts can be used in ring-closing olefin metathesis reaction in high yields. The synthetic transformation is possible in pure water under ambient conditions. Sulfocalixarenes can help to boost the reactivity of the metathesis reaction by catalyst activation, improved mass transfer, and solubility of reactants in the aqueous reaction media. Additionally, the use of supramolecular additives allows lower catalyst loadings, but still high activity in pure water under aerobic conditions.

  9. [Allergic reactions to transfusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hergon, E; Paitre, M L; Coeffic, B; Piard, N; Bidet, J M

    1987-04-01

    Frequent allergic reactions following transfusion are observed. Usually, they are benign but sometimes we observe severe allergic reactions. Adverse reactions may be brought about by least two mechanisms. First, immediate-type hypersensibility reactions due to IgE. Secondly, anaphylactic-type reactions due to interaction between transfused IgA and class specific anti IgA in the recipient's plasma. They are characterized by their severest form (anaphylactic shock). The frequency of severe reactions following the transfusion blood plasma is very low. These transfusion reactions are complement-mediated and kinins-mediated. Prevention of allergic reactions is necessary among blood donors and recipients.

  10. In situ spectroscopy on intact Leptospirillum ferrooxidans reveals that reduced cytochrome 579 is an obligatory intermediate in the aerobic iron respiratory chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C Blake

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Electron transfer reactions among colored biomolecules in intact bacterial cells were monitored using an integrating cavity absorption meter that permitted the acquisition of accurate absorbance data in suspensions of cells that scatter light. The aerobic iron respiratory chain of Leptospirillum ferrooxidans was dominated by the redox status of an abundant cellular cytochrome that had an absorbance peak at 579 nanometers in the reduced state. Intracellular cytochrome 579 was reduced within the time that it took to mix a suspension of the bacteria with soluble ferrous iron at pH 1.7. Steady state turnover experiments were conducted where the initial concentrations of ferrous iron were less than or equal to that of the oxygen concentration. Under these conditions, the initial absorbance spectrum of the oxidized bacterium was always regenerated from that of the iron-reduced bacterium. The kinetics of aerobic respiration on soluble iron by intact L. ferrooxidans conformed to the Michaelis-Menten formalism, where the reduced intracellular cytochrome 579 represented the Michaelis complex whose subsequent oxidation appeared to be the rate-limiting step in the overall aerobic respiratory process. The velocity of formation of ferric iron at any time point was directly proportional to the concentration of the reduced cytochrome 579. Further, the integral over time of the concentraton of the reduced cytochrome was directly proportional to the total concentration of ferrous iron in each reaction mixture. These kinetic data obtained using whole cells were consistent with the hypothesis that reduced cytochrome 579 is an obligatory steady state intermediate in the iron respiratory chain of this bacterium. The capability of conducting visible spectroscopy in suspensions of intact cells comprises a powerful post-reductionist means to study cellular respiration in situ under physiological conditions for the organism.

  11. A single source precursor route to group 13 homo- and heterometallic oxides as highly active supports for gold-catalyzed aerobic epoxidation of trans-stilbene

    KAUST Repository

    Mishra, Shashank K.

    2012-12-14

    A new Mitsubishi-type of star-shaped homoleptic derivative of indium(III), In4(mdea)6 (2, mdeaH2 = N-methyldiethanolamine) , was synthesized by the chloro-aminoalkoxo exchange reaction of a heteroleptic complex In6Cl6(mdea)6 (1) and used as a facile single source molecular precursor for the sol-gel preparation of high surface area indium oxide. Successful deposition of gold nanoparticles (1 wt.-%) of average size 3.3 nm on the above metal oxide by using HAuCl4· 3H2O afforded a highly efficient Au/In2O3 catalyst for the aerobic epoxidation of trans-stilbene at low temperature. The above single source precursor approach was further extended to obtain other group 13 homo- and heterometallic oxides, namely, α-Ga2O 3, β-Ga2O3 and Al4Ga 2O9, as highly active supports for gold catalysts. The obtained Au/M2O3 (M = Ga, In) and Au/Al4Ga 2O9 catalysts were thoroughly characterized by using several physicochemical techniques such as XRD, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). A comparative study of the above catalysts for the model aerobic oxidation of stilbene in methylcyclohexane was undertaken. Highly efficient catalysts for aerobic oxidation reactions were obtained by depositing gold nanoparticles on group 13 mono- or mixed metal oxides prepared from the hydrolysis of well-characterized homo- and heterometallic N-methyldiethanolaminate derivatives. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Aerobic Granulation in Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR Treating Saline Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ensieh Taheri

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Background and Objectives: Aerobic sludge granulation is an advanced phenomenonin which its mechanisms have not been understood. Granulation can be a promising and novel biological wastewater treatment technology to eliminate organic and inorganic materials in future. High salinity is a parameter which leads to plasmolisatian and reduction of the cell activity. This could be a problem for biological treatment of the saline wastewater. Aerobic granule was formed and investigated during this study. Materials and Methods: This study is an intervention study on the treatment of wastewater with 500-10000 mg/L concentration of NaCl by sequencing batch reactor. Asynthesized wastewater including nutrient required for microorganism's growth was prepared. Input and output pH and EC were measured. Range of pH and DO varied between 7-8, and 2-5 mg/L, respectively. SEM technology was used to identify graduals properties.Results: In terms of color, granules divided into two groups of light brown and black. Granule ranged in 3-7mm with the sediment velocity of 0.9-1.35 m/s and density of 32-60 g/L.Properties of granules were varied. Filamentous bacteria and fungi were dominant in some granules. However non filamentous bacteria were dominant in others. EDX analysis indicated the presence of Ca and PO4.Conclusion: Granules with non filamentous bacterial were compact and settled faster. Presence of different concentrations of salinity leaded to plasmolysis of the bacterial cells and increased concentrations of EPS  in the system as a result  of which granulation accelerated. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso

  13. Environmental control on aerobic methane oxidation in coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinle, Lea; Maltby, Johanna; Engbersen, Nadine; Zopfi, Jakob; Bange, Hermann; Elvert, Marcus; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe; Kock, Annette; Lehmann, Moritz; Treude, Tina; Niemann, Helge

    2016-04-01

    Large quantities of methane are produced in anoxic sediments of continental margins and may be liberated to the overlying water column, where some of it is consumed by aerobic methane oxidizing bacteria (MOB). Aerobic methane oxidation (MOx) in the water column is consequently the final sink for methane before its release to the atmosphere, where it acts as a potent greenhouse gas. In the context of the ocean's contribution to atmospheric methane, coastal seas are particularly important accounting >75% of global methane emission from marine systems. Coastal oceans are highly dynamic, in particular with regard to the variability of methane and oxygen concentrations as well as temperature and salinity, all of which are potential key environmental factors controlling MOx. To determine important environmental controls on the activity of MOBs in coastal seas, we conducted a two-year time-series study with measurements of physicochemical water column parameters, MOx activity and the composition of the MOB community in a coastal inlet in the Baltic Sea (Boknis Eck Time Series Station, Eckernförde Bay - E-Bay). In addition, we investigated the influence of temperature and oxygen on MOx during controlled laboratory experiments. In E-Bay, hypoxia developed in bottom waters towards the end of the stratification period. Constant methane liberation from sediments resulted in bottom water methane accumulations and supersaturation (with respect to the atmospheric equilibrium) in surface waters. Here, we will discuss the factors impacting MOx the most, which were (i) perturbations of the water column (ii) temperature and (iii) oxygen concentration. (i) Perturbations of the water column caused by storm events or seasonal mixing led to a decrease in MOx, probably caused by replacement of stagnant water with a high standing stock of MOB by 'new' waters with a lower abundance of methanotrophs. b) An increase in temperature generally led to higher MOx rates. c) Even though methane was

  14. Evaluation of the 3M™ Petrifilm™ Rapid Aerobic Count Plate for the Enumeration of Aerobic Bacteria: Collaborative Study, First Action 2015.13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Patrick; Flannery, Jonathan; Crowley, Erin; Agin, James; Goins, David; Jechorek, Robert

    2016-05-01

    The 3M™ Petrifilm™ Rapid Aerobic Count (RAC) Plate is a sample-ready culture medium system containing dual-sensor indicator technology for the rapid quantification of aerobic bacteria in food products. The 3M Petrifilm RAC Plate was compared to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical Manual (FDA BAM) Chapter 3 (Aerobic Plate Count) for the enumeration of aerobic bacteria in raw easy-peel shrimp and the Standard Methods for the Examination of Dairy Products (SMEDP) Chapter 6 (Standard Plate Count Method) for the enumeration of aerobic bacteria in pasteurized skim milk and instant nonfat dry milk (instant NFDM). The 3M Petrifilm RAC Plate was evaluated using a paired study design in a multilaboratory collaborative study following current AOAC validation guidelines. Three target contamination levels (low, 10-100 CFU/g; medium, 100-1000 CFU/g; and high 1000-10 000 CFU/g) were evaluated for naturally occurring aerobic microflora for each matrix. For raw easy-peel shrimp, duplicate 3M Petrifilm RAC Plates were enumerated after 24 ± 2 h incubation at both 32 and 35°C. Pasteurized skim milk 3M Petrifilm RAC Plates were enumerated after 24 ± 2 h incubation at 32°C, and instant NFDM 3M Petrifilm RAC Plates were enumerated after 48 ± 3 h incubation at 32°C. No statistical difference was observed between 3M Petrifilm RAC Plate and FDA BAM or SMEDP reference methods for each contamination level.

  15. Sustainable polysaccharide-based biomaterial recovered from waste aerobic granular sludge as a surface coating material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Y. M.; Nierop, K.G.J.; Girbal-Neuhauser, E.; Adriaanse, M.; van Loosdrecht, M. C M

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the possibility of utilizing polysaccharide-based biomaterial recovered from aerobic granular sludge as a coating material, the morphology, molecular weight distribution and chemical composition of the recovered biomaterial were investigated by atomic force microscopy, size exclusion chr

  16. Aerobic glucose metabolism of Saccharomyces kluyveri: Growth, metabolite production, and quantification of metabolic fluxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Kasper; Christensen, B.; Förster, Jochen

    2002-01-01

    .29 +/- 0.01 g/g). The glucose metabolism of S. kluyveri was further characterized by the new and powerful techniques of metabolic network analysis. Flux distributions in the central carbon metabolism were estimated for respiro-fermentative growth in aerobic batch cultivation on glucose and respiratory...... at a constant specific rate of 0.12 g ethyl acetate per g dry weight per hour. The aerobic glucose metabolism in S. kluyveri was found to be less fermentative than in S. cerevisiae, as illustrated by the comparably low yield of ethanol on glucose (0.08 +/- 0.02 g/g), and high yield of biomass on glucose (0...... growth in aerobic glucose-limited continuous cultivation. It was found that in S. kluyveri the flux into the pentose phosphate pathway was 18.8 mmole per 100 mmole glucose consumed during respiratory growth in aerobic glucose-limited continuous cultivation. Such a low flux into the pentose phosphate...

  17. Long Term Effects on Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease after 12-Months of Aerobic Exercise Intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korshøj, Mette; Lidegaard, Mark; Krustrup, Peter;

    2016-01-01

    was to evaluate the 12-months effects of worksite aerobic exercise on risk factors for CVD among cleaners. METHODS: One hundred and sixteen cleaners aged 18-65 years were randomized to a group performing aerobic exercise and a reference group receiving lectures. Outcomes were collected at baseline and after 12......-months. A repeated measures 2×2 multi-adjusted mixed-model design was applied to compare the between-group differences using intention-to-treat analysis. RESULTS: Between-group differences (paerobic exercise group: cardiorespiratory fitness 2.15 (SE 1.03) mlO2/min...... to impose a notable adverse effect on resting and ambulatory blood pressure. CONCLUSION: This long-term worksite aerobic exercise intervention among cleaners led to several beneficial effects, but also potential adverse effects among those with high relative aerobic workloads. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Controlled...

  18. Recommended aerobic fitness level for metabolic health in children and adolescents: a study of diagnostic accuracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adegboye, Amanda Ra; Anderssen, Sigmund A; Froberg, Karsten;

    2011-01-01

    Objective To define the optimal cut-off for low aerobic fitness and to evaluate its accuracy to predict clustering of risk factors for cardiovascular disease in children and adolescents. Design Study of diagnostic accuracy using a cross-sectional database. Setting European Youth Heart Study...... including Denmark, Portugal, Estonia and Norway. Participants 4500 schoolchildren aged 9 or 15 years. Main Outcome Measure Aerobic fitness was expressed as peak oxygen consumption relative to bodyweight (mlO(2)/min/kg). Results Risk factors included in the composite risk score (mean of z-scores) were...... would be expected by chance (AUC >0.5) for all cut-offs. Conclusions Aerobic fitness is easy to measure, and is an accurate tool for screening children with clustering of cardiovascular risk factors. Promoting physical activity in children with aerobic fitness level lower than the suggested cut...

  19. Adiposity, Aerobic Fitness, Muscle Fitness, and Markers of Inflammation in Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steene-Johannessen, Jostein; Kolle, Elin; Andersen, Lars Bo;

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to describe levels of inflammation markers in Norwegian children and to examine the associations of adiposity, aerobic fitness and muscle fitness with markers of inflammation. METHODS: In 2005-2006, 1467 9-year-olds wererandomly selected from all regions...... explosive, isometric and endurance strength. Aerobic fitness was measured directly during a maximal cycle ergometer test. Adiposity was expressed as waist circumference (WC). RESULTS: The girls had significantly higher levels of CRP, leptin, adiponectin and resistin and lower levels of TNF-α compared...... to the boys. We observed a graded association of CRP and leptin levels across quintiles of WC, aerobic fitness and muscle fitness (P ≤0.001 for all participants). The regression analyses revealed that WC, aerobic fitness and muscle fitness were independently associated with the CRP (WC β= 0.158, P

  20. The influence of preliminary aerobic treatment on the efficacy of waste stabilisation under leachate recirculation conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Suchowska-Kisielewicz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the changes in the chemical composition of leachate and the concentrations and quantity of methane production in each individual decomposition phases, determined for untreated and after aerobic treatment of waste stabilised in anaerobic reactors with and without leachate recirculation. The research results demonstrate that leachate recirculation intensifies the decomposition of both aerobically treated and untreated waste. The methane production in the reactor with untreated, stabilised waste with recirculation was 28% higher; and in the reactor with aerobically treated waste, the methane production was 24% higher than in the reactors without recirculation. An important finding of the study is that aerobic treatment of waste prior to landfilling effectively reduces the quantity of pollutant emissions in leachate and biogas from waste and increases the availability for methane micro-organisms of organic substrates from difficult-to-decompose organic substances.

  1. Influence of leachate recirculation on aerobic and anaerobic decomposition of solid wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilgili, M. Sinan [Yildiz Technical University, Environmental Engineering Department, 34349 Besiktas, Istanbul (Turkey)]. E-mail: mbilgili@yildiz.edu.tr; Demir, Ahmet [Yildiz Technical University, Environmental Engineering Department, 34349 Besiktas, Istanbul (Turkey)]. E-mail: ahmetd@yildiz.edu.tr; Ozkaya, Bestamin [Yildiz Technical University, Environmental Engineering Department, 34349 Besiktas, Istanbul (Turkey)]. E-mail: bozkaya@yildiz.edu.tr

    2007-05-08

    In this study, the effect of leachate recirculation on aerobic and anaerobic degradation of municipal solid wastes is determined by four laboratory-scale landfill reactors. The options studied and compared with the traditional anaerobic landfill are: leachate recirculation, landfill aeration, and aeration with leachate recirculation. Leachate quality is regularly monitored by the means of pH, alkalinity, total dissolved solids, conductivity, oxidation-reduction potential, chloride, chemical oxygen demand, ammonia, and total Kjeldahl nitrogen, in addition to generated leachate quantity. Aerobic leachate recirculated landfill appears to be the most effective option in the removal of organic matter and ammonia. The main difference between aerobic recirculated and non-recirculated landfill options is determined at leachate quantity. Recirculation is more effective on anaerobic degradation of solid waste than aerobic degradation. Further studies are going on to determine the optimum operational conditions for aeration and leachate recirculation rates, also with the operational costs of aeration and recirculation.

  2. Metal concentrations of simulated aerobic and anaerobic pilot scale landfill reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinan Bilgili, M. [Yildiz Technical University, Environmental Engineering Department, 34349 Yildiz, Besiktas, Istanbul (Turkey)]. E-mail: mbilgili@yildiz.edu.tr; Demir, Ahmet [Yildiz Technical University, Environmental Engineering Department, 34349 Yildiz, Besiktas, Istanbul (Turkey)]. E-mail: ahmetd@yildiz.edu.tr; Ince, Mahir [Department of Environmental Engineering, Gebze Institute of Technology, 41400 Gebze (Turkey)]. E-mail: mahirince@gyte.edu.tr; Ozkaya, Bestamin [Yildiz Technical University, Environmental Engineering Department, 34349 Yildiz, Besiktas, Istanbul (Turkey)]. E-mail: bozkaya@yildiz.edu.tr

    2007-06-25

    Leachate and solid waste samples from aerobic and anaerobic simulated landfill reactors operated with and without leachate recirculation were characterized in terms of metals such as Fe, Ca, K, Na, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni, and Zn. Metal concentrations of aerobic landfill reactor leachate samples are always below the regulation limits. The higher concentrations in anaerobic landfill leachate samples decreased to regulation limits after the landfill becomes methanogenic. The effect of leachate recirculation is determined in anaerobic landfills more clearly than aerobic landfills. Metal precipitation resulted in a decrease in leachate metal content and an increase in solid waste metal content as expected. Result of the study show that the metal content of landfill leachate samples is not a major concern for both aerobic and anaerobic landfills.

  3. Lightweight and Compace Multifunction Computer-Controlled Strength and Aerobic Training Device Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TDA Research proposes to develop a computer-controlled lightweight and compact device for aerobic and resistive training (DART) to counteract muscular atrophy and...

  4. Improving aerobic stability and biogas production of maize silage using silage additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Christiane; Idler, Christine; Heiermann, Monika

    2015-12-01

    The effects of air stress during storage, exposure to air at feed-out, and treatment with silage additives to enhance aerobic stability on methane production from maize silage were investigated at laboratory scale. Up to 17% of the methane potential of maize without additive was lost during seven days exposure to air on feed-out. Air stress during storage reduced aerobic stability and further increased methane losses. A chemical additive containing salts of benzoate and propionate, and inoculants containing heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria were effective to increase aerobic stability and resulted in up to 29% higher methane yields after exposure to air. Exclusion of air to the best possible extent and high aerobic stabilities should be primary objectives when ensiling biogas feedstocks.

  5. A new extreme environment for aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs: biological soil crusts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csotonyi, Julius T; Swiderski, Jolantha; Stackebrandt, Erko; Yurkov, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    Biological soil crusts improve the health of arid or semiarid soils by enhancing water content, nutrient relations and mechanical stability, facilitated largely by phototrophic microorganisms. Until recently, only oxygenic phototrophs were known from soil crusts. A recent study has demonstrated the presence of aerobic representatives of Earth's second major photosynthetic clade, the evolutionarily basal anoxygenic phototrophs. Three Canadian soil crust communities yielded pink and orange aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic strains possessing the light-harvesting pigment bacteriochlorophyll a. At relative abundances of 0.1-5.9% of the cultivable bacterial community, they were comparable in density to aerobic phototrophs in other documented habitats. 16S rDNA sequence analysis revealed the isolates to be related to Methylobacterium, Belnapia, Muricoccus and Sphingomonas. This result adds a new type of harsh habitat, dry soil environments, to the environments known to support aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs.

  6. Interaction of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers and Aerobic Granular Sludge: Biosorption and Microbial Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shou-Qing Ni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As a new category of persistent organic pollutants, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs have become ubiquitous global environmental contaminants. No literature is available on the aerobic biotransformation of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209. Herein, we investigated the interaction of PBDEs with aerobic granular sludge. The results show that the removal of BDE-209 from wastewater is mainly via biosorption onto aerobic granular sludge. The uptake capacity increased when temperature, contact time, and sludge dosage increased or solution pH dropped. Ionic strength had a negative influence on BDE-209 adsorption. The modified pseudo first-order kinetic model was appropriate to describe the adsorption kinetics. Microbial debromination of BDE-209 did not occur during the first 30 days of operation. Further study found that aerobic microbial degradation of 4,4′-dibromodiphenyl ether happened with the production of lower BDE congeners.

  7. Inlfuence of Marine Aerobic Bioiflms on Corrosion of 316L Stainless Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng-ling XU; Ji-zhou DUAN; Cun-guo LIN; Bao-rong HOU

    2015-01-01

    The inlfuence of marine aerobic bioiflms on the corrosion of 316L stainless steel (SS) in aerated and deaerated seawater was studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), potentiodynamic polarisation curves, current-potential curves and scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). EIS and SEM-EDS results showed that the aero-bic bioiflms inhibited 316L SS corrosion within the test duration. Comparison of results under aerated and deaerated conditions revealed that O2 enhanced the inhibition efifciency of the aerobic bioiflms. This result indicated that living cells were necessary for the aerobic bioiflms to inhibit the corrosion of 316L SS. Polarization curves indicated that the bioiflms mainly inhibited anode ac-tion. Current-potential curves under deaerated conditions showed that electron transfer processes occurred between microorganisms and electrodes. Moreover, 316L SS as an electron acceptor was protected from corrosion.

  8. Physical health of young and middle age women under influence of step-aerobics exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masliak I.P.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine the degree of step-aerobics exercises’ influence on 20-35 years age women’s health. Material: in the research 28 women of 20-35 years old age participated. Anthropometric indicators, heart beats rate in rest and after load (20 squats for 30 sec., blood pressure, vital capacity of lungs, hand dynamometry were registered. Results: level of physical health has been determined; influence of step-aerobics on women’s health has been found; age differences in the tested indicators have been analyzed. It was found out that step-aerobic trainings influence greatly on the following indicators: body mass, circumferential sizes and cardio vascular system; on functioning of respiratory system, strength of hand’s flexors and regulation of 31-35 years age women’s cardio-vascular system. Conclusions: application of step-aerobic exercises positively influenced on health of 20-35 years old women.

  9. Aerobics health as means of increasing somatic health of students of special medical group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pivneva M.M.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We prove the feasibility of employment by improving aerobic low intensity (LowImpact - heart rate in the range 128-140 beats / min, or 60-74% of HR max with students of special medical groups with disabilities cardiovascular system. The choice of three varieties of improving aerobics - classical, dance, tap dance - and with the help of laboratory experiment investigated the specificity of their effects on the physical health of students. According to the results of laboratory studies developed two versions of the author's method of application for improving aerobic physical education classes with students with disabilities but cardiac-vascular system, the main difference between them lies in the relationship and the manner of the classical sequence of exercises, dance, step aerobics. By comparing the results of educational experiments proved that both variants techniques contribute significantly improved key indicators of physical health subjects and thus are fairly equal in the nature of exposure.

  10. Anthropometry, somatotypes, and aerobic power in ballet, contemporary dance, and dancesport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liiv, Helena; Wyon, Matthew A; Jürimäe, Toivo; Saar, Meeli; Mäestu, Jarek; Jürimäe, Jaak

    2013-12-01

    This study compared anthropometric variables, somatotypes, and aerobic capacity between three groups of dancers: classical ballet dancers (M 33, F 56), contemporary dancers (M 28, F 109), and dancesport dancers (M 30, F 30). The assumption was that different functional requirements should produce differences in the anthropometric and aerobic capacity variables among the three groups. Anthropometric data for body mass index (BMI) and somatotypes were measured. Body fat percentage was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Maximal oxygen consumption and aerobic power were measured during an incremental treadmill test until exhaustion. Dancesport athletes were taller compared with same gender contemporary dancers (psomatotypes, and aerobic capacity, but we cannot say is it because of the training or selection or both.

  11. Aerobic fitness in children and young adults with primary ciliary dyskinesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Astrid Hellerup; Green, Kent; Buchvald, Frederik

    2013-01-01

    patients. CONCLUSION: One-third of PCD patients exhibited substantially lower aerobic fitness than healthy subjects. Aerobic fitness correlated with FEV1, DLCO/VA and self-reported complaints of limitations in vigorous physical activity. These findings are most likely explained by PCD pulmonary disease...... and its impact on pulmonary function and physical ability. Considering fitness as an important outcome and including regular strenuous physical activity in PCD treatment would probably altogether increase pulmonary clearance, lung function, aerobic fitness, and quality of life, and prevent lifestyle......BACKGROUND: Although aerobic fitness is regarded as an overall prognostic measure of morbidity and mortality, its evaluation in the chronic progressive sinopulmonary disease primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) has been infrequently and inconsistently reported. Here we assessed peak oxygen uptake (VO2...

  12. Aerobic bacterial catabolism of persistent organic pollutants - potential impact of biotic and abiotic interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jong-Rok; Murugesan, Kumarasamy; Baldrian, Petr; Schmidt, Stefan; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2016-04-01

    Several aerobic bacteria possess unique catabolic pathways enabling them to degrade persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs), polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The catabolic activity of aerobic bacteria employed for removal of POPs in the environment may be modulated by several biotic (i.e. fungi, plants, algae, earthworms, and other bacteria) and abiotic (i.e. zero-valent iron, advanced oxidation, and electricity) agents. This review describes the basic biochemistry of the aerobic bacterial catabolism of selected POPs and discusses how biotic and abiotic agents enhance or inhibit the process. Solutions allowing biotic and abiotic agents to exert physical and chemical assistance to aerobic bacterial catabolism of POPs are also discussed.

  13. Aerobic fitness in adolescents in southern Brazil: Association with sociodemographic aspects, lifestyle and nutritional status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.A.S. Silva

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: Thus, it was concluded that almost all adolescents show low aerobic fitness levels, which makes necessary effective interventions in the school environment with the promotion of sports and regular practice of physical activity.

  14. Six weeks' aerobic retraining after two weeks' immobilization restores leg lean mass and aerobic capacity but does not fully rehabilitate leg strenght in young and older men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigelsø Hansen, Andreas; Gram, Martin; Wiuff, Caroline;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of aerobic retraining as rehabilitation after short-term leg immobilization on leg strength, leg work capacity, leg lean mass, leg muscle fibre type composition and leg capillary supply, in young and older men. SUBJECTS AND DESIGN: Seventeen young (23 ± 1 years...... immobilization had marked effects on leg strength, and work capacity and 6 weeks' retraining was sufficient to increase, but not completely rehabilitate, muscle strength, and to rehabilitate aerobic work capacity and leg lean mass (in the young men)....

  15. Integrated Anaerobic-Aerobic Biodegradation of Multiple Contaminants Including Chlorinated Ethylenes, Benzene, Toluene, and Dichloromethane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Miho; Zhang, Ming; Toyota, Koki

    2017-01-01

    Complete bioremediation of soils containing multiple volatile organic compounds (VOCs) remains a challenge. To explore the possibility of complete bioremediation through integrated anaerobic-aerobic biodegradation, laboratory feasibility tests followed by alternate anaerobic-aerobic and aerobic-anaerobic biodegradation tests were performed. Chlorinated ethylenes, including tetrachloroethylene (PCE), trichloroethylene (TCE), cis-dichloroethylene (cis-DCE), and vinyl chloride (VC), and dichloromethane (DCM) were used for anaerobic biodegradation, whereas benzene, toluene, and DCM were used for aerobic biodegradation tests. Microbial communities involved in the biodegradation tests were analyzed to characterize the major bacteria that may contribute to biodegradation. The results demonstrated that integrated anaerobic-aerobic biodegradation was capable of completely degrading the seven VOCs with initial concentration of each VOC less than 30 mg/L. Benzene and toluene were degraded within 8 days, and DCM was degraded within 20 to 27 days under aerobic conditions when initial oxygen concentrations in the headspaces of test bottles were set to 5.3% and 21.0%. Dehalococcoides sp., generally considered sensitive to oxygen, survived aerobic conditions for 28 days and was activated during the subsequent anaerobic biodegradation. However, degradation of cis-DCE was suppressed after oxygen exposure for more than 201 days, suggesting the loss of viability of Dehalococcoides sp., as they are the only known anaerobic bacteria that can completely biodegrade chlorinated ethylenes to ethylene. Anaerobic degradation of DCM following previous aerobic degradation was complete, and yet-unknown microbes may be involved in the process. The findings may provide a scientific and practical basis for the complete bioremediation of multiple contaminants in situ and a subject for further exploration.

  16. Body composition changes associated with fasted versus non-fasted aerobic exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Schoenfeld, Brad Jon; Aragon, Alan Albert; Wilborn, Colin D; Krieger, James W.; Sonmez, Gul T

    2014-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that performing aerobic exercise after an overnight fast accelerates the loss of body fat. The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in fat mass and fat-free mass following four weeks of volume-equated fasted versus fed aerobic exercise in young women adhering to a hypocaloric diet. Twenty healthy young female volunteers were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 experimental groups: a fasted training (FASTED) group that performed exercise after an overnight fast (n ...

  17. Aerobic exercise modulates intracortical inhibition and facilitation in a nonexercised upper limb muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Amaya M; Duncan, Robin E; Neva, Jason L.; Staines, W. Richard

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite growing interest in the relationship between exercise and short-term neural plasticity, the effects of exercise on motor cortical (M1) excitability are not well studied. Acute, lower-limb aerobic exercise may potentially modulate M1 excitability in working muscles, but the effects on muscles not involved in the exercise are unknown. Here we examined the excitability changes in an upper limb muscle representation following a single session of lower body aerobic exercise. Inv...

  18. Differences in aerobic capacity among students with regard to their level of nutritional status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateja Kunješić

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to contemporary lifestyle, nutritional status of students is poorer and therefore it negatively affects the aerobic capacity. The purpose of this study was to determine the differences in aerobic capacity among female students of Faculty of Teacher Education with regard to their level of nutritional status. The study included 281 female students of the Faculty of Teacher Education, University of Zagreb. The sample of variables consisted of anthropometric measures: body height, body weight, sub-scapular and triceps skinfolds. Aerobic capacity was measured by 20 meter shuttle run test and nutritional status was determined by the body mass index (BMI. The subjects were divided into four groups according to their nutritional status: underweight, normal body weight, overweight and obese. Mean values of the BMI place the students into normal weight group, however, mean values of aerobic capacity show that students achieved poor results. Kruskal Wallis test and its post-hoc test (multiple comparisons for all groups with Bonferroni adjustment for determining the difference between subsamples according to the level of nutritional status among students show that the subsamples differ in four of the five variables that describe the morphological characteristics (body weight, BMI, sub-scapular skinfold, triceps skinfold as well as in aerobic capacity. The results obtained in this study show that the increased body mass have extremely high impact on the aerobic capacity results. It can be concluded that the tested students' aerobic capacity is poor and students with normal body weight have better aerobic capacity than overweight or obese students.

  19. Effects of exercise on functional aerobic capacity in lower limb osteoarthritis: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalante, Y; García-Hermoso, A; Saavedra, J M

    2011-05-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease. The reduced aerobic capacity of patients with lower limb osteoarthritis affects their independence in performing everyday activities. The purpose of this systematic review was to summarize evidence for the effectiveness and structure of exercise programs on functional aerobic capacity (ability to perform activities of daily living that require sustained aerobic metabolism) in patients with hip and knee osteoarthritis. A computerized search was made of seven databases. Effect sizes (ES) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated, and the heterogeneity of the studies was assessed using Cochran's Q statistic applied to the ES means. The 20 studies that satisfied the inclusion criteria were selected for analysis. These studies were grouped into five categories according to the characteristics of the exercise program: land-based interventions (strength programs, tai chi, aerobic programs, mixed exercise programs) and aquatic intervention (hydrotherapy). The functional aerobic capacity improved in tai chi programs (ES=0.66; 95% CI, 0.23-1.09), aerobic programs (ES=0.90; 95% CI, 0.70-1.10), and mixed programs (ES=0.47; 95% CI, -0.38-0.39). The conclusions were: (i) despite recommendations for the use of exercise programs for aerobic fitness in patients with hip and knee osteoarthritis, few randomized clinical trials have been conducted; (ii) the structure of the exercise programs (program content and duration, and session frequency and duration) is very heterogeneous; (iii) overall, exercise programs based on tai chi, aerobic, and mixed exercise seem to give better results than hydrotherapy programs, but without the differences being altogether clear.

  20. Strength and Aerobic Exercises Improve Spatial Memory in Aging Rats Through Stimulating Distinct Neuroplasticity Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela, Thais Ceresér; Muller, Alexandre Pastoris; Damiani, Adriani Paganini; Macan, Tamires Pavei; da Silva, Sabrina; Canteiro, Paula Bortoluzzi; de Sena Casagrande, Alisson; Pedroso, Giulia Dos Santos; Nesi, Renata Tiscoski; de Andrade, Vanessa Moraes; de Pinho, Ricardo Aurino

    2016-11-22

    Aging is associated with impaired cognition and memory and increased susceptibility to neurodegenerative disorders. Physical exercise is neuroprotective; however, the major evidence of this effect involves studies of only aerobic training in young animals. The benefits of other exercise protocols such as strength training in aged animals remains unknown. Here, we investigated the effect of aerobic and strength training on spatial memory and hippocampal plasticity in aging rats. Aging Wistar rats performed aerobic or strength training for 50 min 3 to 4 days/week for 8 weeks. Spatial memory and neurotrophic and glutamatergic signaling in the hippocampus of aged rats were evaluated after aerobic or strength training. Both aerobic and strength training improved cognition during the performance of a spatial memory task. Remarkably, the improvement in spatial memory was accompanied by an increase in synaptic plasticity proteins within the hippocampus after exercise training, with some differences in the intracellular functions of those proteins between the two exercise protocols. Moreover, neurotrophic signaling (CREB, BDNF, and the P75(NTR) receptor) increased after training for both exercise protocols, and aerobic exercise specifically increased glutamatergic proteins (NMDA receptor and PSD-95). We also observed a decrease in DNA damage after aerobic training. In contrast, strength training increased levels of PKCα and the proinflammatory factors TNF-α and IL-1β. Overall, our results show that both aerobic and strength training improved spatial memory in aging rats through inducing distinct molecular mechanisms of neuroplasticity. Our findings extend the idea that exercise protocols can be used to improve cognition during aging.

  1. Effects of aerobic exercise on hematologic indices of women with rheumatoid arthritis: A randomized clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background: To investigate the effects of moderate aerobic exercise on the hemoglobin, hematocrit, and red blood cell (RBC) mass of women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Materials and Methods: This randomized clinical trial was conducted at the Specialized Clinic of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Al-Zahra Hospital of Isfahan, during a 4-month period in 2014. We included patients with RA who did not have any malignancy and hematologic disorder. Two groups — one group receiving aerobic t...

  2. Effect of low-impact aerobic dance on the functional fitness of elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, D R; Murrah, B; Hoeger, W W; Rhodes, R C

    1990-04-01

    To determine the effect of low-impact aerobic dance on sedentary elderly women (N = 53), functional fitness was measured by items from the proposed American Alliance of Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance (AAHPERD) fitness test for older adults. After 12-weeks of low-impact aerobic dance, the group improved significantly on all functional fitness components except motor control/coordination, including cardiorespiratory endurance, strength/endurance, body agility, flexibility, body fat, and balance.

  3. Low intensity ultrasound stimulates biological activity of aerobic activated sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hong; YAN Yixin; WANG Wenyan; YU Yongyong

    2007-01-01

    This work aims to explore a procedure to improve biological wastewater treatment efficiency using low intensity ultrasound.The aerobic activated sludge from a municipal wastewater treatment plant was used as the experimental material.Oxygen uptake rate(OUR)of the activated sludge (AS)was determined to indicate the changes of AS activity stimulated by ultrasound at 35 kHZ for 0-40 min with ultrasonic intensities of 0-1.2 W/cm2.The highest OUR was observed at the ultrasonic intensity of 0.3 W/cm2 and an irradiation period of 10 min;more than 15% increase was achieved immediately after sonication.More significantly,the AS activity stimulated by ultrasound could last 24 h after sonication,and the AS activity achieved its peak value within 8 h after sonication.or nearly 100% higher than the initial level after sonication.Therefore,to improve the wastewater treatment efficiency of bioreactors,ultrasound with an intensity of 0.3 W/cm2 could be employed to irradiate a part of the AS in the bioreactor for 10 min every 8 h.

  4. Halophilic (aerobic) bacterial growth rate of mangrove ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, A Saleem; Ali, M Sheik; Baig, I Juned Ahmed

    2009-09-01

    Mangroves are woody specialized trees of tropics and are valuable flora contributing to economical, ecological, scientific and cultural resources. They thrive in salty environments like coastal regions and are aid towards disaster management facing the onslaught of giant waves such as Tsunami. Analysis of mangrove soil on the banks of the Adyar river behind the Theosophical society campus, Adyar, Chennai, India, gave a startling revelation of microorganisms that can tolerate different salinity ranges. Previous studies in Pichavaram delta, have reported bacterial isolates such as nitrogen fixing bacteria, halophiles and several others. However their efficiency in the growth of mangrove forest has been studied to a lesser extent. The present study has been designed and formulated to estimate halophilic (aerobic) bacterial load from mangroves soil sample based on depth and salinity of the soil and further the efficiency if any of these isolates in the growth of mangroves. Results have been correlated and a cohesive conclusion reached for further intensive research. This study throws light on the ecology of the bacterial population in the coastal marine environment inhabited bymangroves and its possible role in disaster mitigation.

  5. Aerobic exercise reduces blood pressure in resistant hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimeo, Fernando; Pagonas, Nikolaos; Seibert, Felix; Arndt, Robert; Zidek, Walter; Westhoff, Timm H

    2012-09-01

    Regular physical exercise is broadly recommended by current European and American hypertension guidelines. It remains elusive, however, whether exercise leads to a reduction of blood pressure in resistant hypertension as well. The present randomized controlled trial examines the cardiovascular effects of aerobic exercise on resistant hypertension. Resistant hypertension was defined as a blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg in spite of 3 antihypertensive agents or a blood pressure controlled by ≥4 antihypertensive agents. Fifty subjects with resistant hypertension were randomly assigned to participate or not to participate in an 8- to 12-week treadmill exercise program (target lactate, 2.0±0.5 mmol/L). Blood pressure was assessed by 24-hour monitoring. Arterial compliance and cardiac index were measured by pulse wave analysis. The training program was well tolerated by all of the patients. Exercise significantly decreased systolic and diastolic daytime ambulatory blood pressure by 6±12 and 3±7 mm Hg, respectively (P=0.03 each). Regular exercise reduced blood pressure on exertion and increased physical performance as assessed by maximal oxygen uptake and lactate curves. Arterial compliance and cardiac index remained unchanged. Physical exercise is able to decrease blood pressure even in subjects with low responsiveness to medical treatment. It should be included in the therapeutic approach to resistant hypertension.

  6. Effects of long-term aerobic exercise on EPOC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeCheminant, J D; Jacobsen, D J; Bailey, B W; Mayo, M S; Hill, J O; Smith, B K; Donnelly, J E

    2008-01-01

    This study sought to determine the influence of 16 months of progressive aerobic exercise on excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) and the extent EPOC contributed to weight management. Twenty-five overweight/obese women and 16 overweight/obese men participated in a 16-month exercise program (moderate-intensity treadmill walking) that progressed across the first 26 weeks to 5 days.wk(-1), 45 min.session(-1), and 75% HRR. Three-hour EPOC was measured at baseline, 9 months, and 16 months by indirect calorimetry in response to an exercise session (treadmill walking), in which energy expenditure (EE) was estimated from the participant's previous 10 exercise sessions. For women, EPOC was 7.5 +/- 4.9, 9.6 +/- 7.6, and 6.5 +/- 6.5 L at baseline, 9 months, and 16 months, respectively (p > 0.05). For men, EPOC increased from baseline (11.8 +/- 6.8 L) to 9 months (13.5 +/- 8.6 L) (p EPOC was correlated with change in EE at 9 months (r = 0.65; p EPOC in overweight/obese men but not women. Change in volume of exercise likely explained the increase in energy expenditure during EPOC in men. EPOC contributed modestly to EE compared to the exercise itself.

  7. Excess postexercise oxygen consumption after aerobic exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlock, Darlene A; Lee, Man-Gyoon; Flynn, Michael G; Park, Kyung-Shin; Kamimori, Gary H

    2010-08-01

    Literature examining the effects of aerobic exercise training on excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) is sparse. In this study, 9 male participants (19-32 yr) trained (EX) for 12 wk, and 10 in a control group (CON) maintained normal activity. VO(2max), rectal temperature (T(re)), epinephrine, norepinephrine, free fatty acids (FFA), insulin, glucose, blood lactate (BLA), and EPOC were measured before (PRE) and after (POST) the intervention. EPOC at PRE was measured for 120 min after 30 min of treadmill running at 70% VO(2max). EX completed 2 EPOC trials at POST, i.e., at the same absolute (ABS) and relative (REL) intensity; 1 EPOC test for CON served as both the ABS and REL trial because no significant change in VO(2max) was noted. During the ABS trial, total EPOC decreased significantly (p EPOC during the REL trial; however, epinephrine was significantly lower, and norepinephrine and FFA, significantly higher, at endexercise after training. Results indicate that EPOC varies as a function of relative rather than absolute metabolic stress and that training improves the efficiency of metabolic regulation during recovery from exercise. Mechanisms for the decreased magnitude of EPOC in the ABS trial include decreases in BLA, T(re), and perhaps epinephrine-mediated hepatic glucose production and insulin-mediated glucose uptake.

  8. Genomics of aerobic cellulose utilization systems in actinobacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iain Anderson

    Full Text Available Cellulose degrading enzymes have important functions in the biotechnology industry, including the production of biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass. Anaerobes including Clostridium species organize cellulases and other glycosyl hydrolases into large complexes known as cellulosomes. In contrast, aerobic actinobacteria utilize systems comprised of independently acting enzymes, often with carbohydrate binding domains. Numerous actinobacterial genomes have become available through the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea (GEBA project. We identified putative cellulose-degrading enzymes belonging to families GH5, GH6, GH8, GH9, GH12, GH48, and GH51 in the genomes of eleven members of the actinobacteria. The eleven organisms were tested in several assays for cellulose degradation, and eight of the organisms showed evidence of cellulase activity. The three with the highest cellulase activity were Actinosynnema mirum, Cellulomonas flavigena, and Xylanimonas cellulosilytica. Cellobiose is known to induce cellulolytic enzymes in the model organism Thermobifida fusca, but only Nocardiopsis dassonvillei showed higher cellulolytic activity in the presence of cellobiose. In T. fusca, cellulases and a putative cellobiose ABC transporter are regulated by the transcriptional regulator CelR. Nine organisms appear to use the CelR site or a closely related binding site to regulate an ABC transporter. In some, CelR also regulates cellulases, while cellulases are controlled by different regulatory sites in three organisms. Mining of genome data for cellulose degradative enzymes followed by experimental verification successfully identified several actinobacteria species which were not previously known to degrade cellulose as cellulolytic organisms.

  9. AEROBIC BACTERIOLOGY OF CHRONIC SUPPURATIVE OTITIS MEDIA: OUR EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh V .

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media (CSOM is a condition of the middle ear that is characterized by persistent or recurrent discharge through a chronic perforation of the tympanic membrane from the middle ear cleft. Untreated cases of Chronic Suppurative Oti tis Media can result in a broad range of complications like mastoiditis, labyrinthitis, facial nerve paralysis and serious intracranial complications. In this study an attempt is made to know the aerobic bacteriology of Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media, wi th antimicrobial susceptibility testing of the bacterial isolates. The present prospective study was carried out on 50 patients presenting with Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media between January 2014 to December 2014 in the department of E.N.T, Basaveshwara Medical College Hospital and Research Centre, Chitradurga. The most common bacteria in Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media in this study was Pseudomonas aeruginosa (62% followed by Staphylococcus aureus (22%. Gentamicin was the most sensitive (100% antibio tic against Pseudomonas aeruginosa followed by Amikacin (96.77%. Ceftriaxone and Gentamicin were the most sensitive (100% antibiotic against Staphylococcus aureus followed by Amikacin (90.9%

  10. Physicochemical treatments of anionic surfactants wastewater: Effect on aerobic biodegradability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloui, Fathi; Kchaou, Sonia; Sayadi, Sami

    2009-05-15

    The effect of different physicochemical treatments on the aerobic biodegradability of an industrial wastewater resulting from a cosmetic industry has been investigated. This industrial wastewater contains 11423 and 3148mgL(-1) of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and anionic surfactants, respectively. The concentration of COD and anionic surfactants were followed throughout the diverse physicochemical treatments and biodegradation experiments. Different pretreatments of this industrial wastewater using chemical flocculation process with lime and aluminium sulphate (alum), and also advanced oxidation process (electro-coagulation (Fe and Al) and electro-Fenton) led to important COD and anionic surfactants removals. The best results were obtained using electro-Fenton process, exceeding 98 and 80% of anionic surfactants and COD removals, respectively. The biological treatment by an isolated strain Citrobacter braakii of the surfactant wastewater, as well as the pretreated wastewater by the various physicochemical processes used in this study showed that the best results were obtained with electro-Fenton pretreated wastewater. The characterization of the treated surfactant wastewater by the integrated process (electro-coagulation or electro-Fenton)-biological showed that it respects Tunisian discharge standards.

  11. Aerobic cyanide degradation by bacterial isolates from cassava factory wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, Sujatha; Dananjeyan, Balachandar; Krishnamurthy, Kumar; Benckiser, Gero

    2015-01-01

    Ten bacterial strains that utilize cyanide (CN) as a nitrogen source were isolated from cassava factory wastewater after enrichment in a liquid media containing sodium cyanide (1 mM) and glucose (0.2% w/v). The strains could tolerate and grow in cyanide concentrations of up to 5 mM. Increased cyanide levels in the media caused an extension of lag phase in the bacterial growth indicating that they need some period of acclimatisation. The rate of cyanide removal by the strains depends on the initial cyanide and glucose concentrations. When initial cyanide and glucose concentrations were increased up to 5 mM, cyanide removal rate increased up to 63 and 61 per cent by Bacillus pumilus and Pseudomonas putida. Metabolic products such as ammonia and formate were detected in culture supernatants, suggesting a direct hydrolytic pathway without an intermediate formamide. The study clearly demonstrates the potential of aerobic treatment with cyanide degrading bacteria for cyanide removal in cassava factory wastewaters.

  12. Volatile dimethyl polonium produced by aerobic marine microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrou, Andrew S; Ollivier, Patrick R L; Hanson, Thomas E; Tessier, Emmanuel; Amouroux, David; Church, Thomas M

    2012-10-16

    The production of volatile polonium (Po(v)), a naturally occurring radioactive element, by pure cultures of aerobic marine tellurite-resistant microorganisms was investigated. Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, a carotogenic yeast, and a Bacillus sp. strain, a Gram-positive bacterium, generated approximately one and 2 orders of magnitude, respectively, greater amounts of Po(v) compared to the other organisms tested. Gas chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (GC-ICP-MS) analysis identified dimethyl polonide (DMPo) as the predominant volatile Po compound in culture headspace of the yeast. This species assignment is based on the exact relation between GC retention times and boiling points of this and other Group VI B analogues (S, Se, and Te). The extent of the biotic Po(v) production correlates exponentially with elevated particulate Po (Po(p)): dissolved Po (Po(aq)) ratios in the cultures, consistent with efficient Po bioaccumulation. Further experimentation demonstrated that some abiotic Po(v) generation is possible. However, high-level Po(v) generation in these cultures is predominantly biotic.

  13. Aerobic biodegradation of propylene glycol by soil bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, Giuseppe; Cavalca, Lucia; Letizia Colarieti, M; Scelza, Rosalia; Scotti, Riccardo; Rao, Maria A; Andreoni, Vincenza; Ciccazzo, Sonia; Greco, Guido

    2013-09-01

    Propylene glycol (PG) is a main component of aircraft deicing fluids and its extensive use in Northern airports is a source of soil and groundwater contamination. Bacterial consortia able to grow on PG as sole carbon and energy source were selected from soil samples taken along the runways of Oslo Airport Gardermoen site (Norway). DGGE analysis of enrichment cultures showed that PG-degrading populations were mainly composed by Pseudomonas species, although Bacteroidetes were found, as well. Nineteen bacterial strains, able to grow on PG as sole carbon and energy source, were isolated and identified as different Pseudomonas species. Maximum specific growth rate of mixed cultures in the absence of nutrient limitation was 0.014 h(-1) at 4 °C. Substrate C:N:P molar ratios calculated on the basis of measured growth yields are in good agreement with the suggested values for biostimulation reported in literature. Therefore, the addition of nutrients is suggested as a suitable technique to sustain PG aerobic degradation at the maximum rate by autochthonous microorganisms of unsaturated soil profile.

  14. Effect of Beetroot Juice Supplementation on Aerobic Response during Swimming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Pinna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The beneficial effects of beetroot juice supplementation (BJS have been tested during cycling, walking, and running. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether BJS can also improve performance in swimmers. Fourteen moderately trained male master swimmers were recruited and underwent two incremental swimming tests randomly assigned in a pool during which workload, oxygen uptake (VO2, carbon dioxide production (VCO2, pulmonary ventilation (VE, and aerobic energy cost (AEC of swimming were measured. One was a control swimming test (CSW and the other a swimming test after six days of BJS (0.5l/day organic beetroot juice containing about 5.5 mmol of NO3−. Results show that workload at anaerobic threshold was significantly increased by BJS as compared to the CSW test (6.3 ± 1 and 6.7 ± 1.1 kg during the CSW and the BJS test respectively. Moreover, AEC was significantly reduced during the BJS test (1.9 ± 0.5 during the SW test vs. 1.7 ± 0.3 kcal·kg−1·h−1 during the BJS test. The other variables lacked a statistically significant effect with BJS. The present investigation provides evidence that BJS positively affects performance of swimmers as it reduces the AEC and increases the workload at anaerobic threshold.

  15. Evaluation of an aerobic submerged filter packed with volcanic scoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan-Sagastume, J M; Noyola, A

    2008-05-01

    An aerobic submerged filter (ASF) using volcanic scoria stones as packing media was evaluated. The wastewater used was a mixture of sewage with sugar to obtain organic matter concentrations between 28 and 3230 mg CODt/L, hydraulic rates up to 2.88 m3/m2 d and organic loading rates between 0.45 and 9.4 kg CODt/m3 d. The system removed 80% of CODt as average for organic loading rates between 0.45 and 3 kg CODt/m3 d and 54% at the higher rate (9.4 kg CODt/m3 d). It was not necessary to backwash the filters, a negligible pressure drop and a good biomass attachment in the volcanic scoria stones was observed. Nitrification and organic matter biodegradation were carried out simultaneously with a nitrate production of 90% up to 1.7kgCODt/m3 d. Tracer studies revealed a completed mixed hydraulic pattern which was not affected by the presence of biomass.

  16. Anaerobic growth of a "strict aerobe" (Bacillus subtilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, M M; Zuber, P

    1998-01-01

    There was a long-held belief that the gram-positive soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis is a strict aerobe. But recent studies have shown that B. subtilis will grow anaerobically, either by using nitrate or nitrite as a terminal electron acceptor, or by fermentation. How B. subtilis alters its metabolic activity according to the availability of oxygen and alternative electron acceptors is but one focus of study. A two-component signal transduction system composed of a sensor kinase, ResE, and a response regulator, ResD, occupies an early stage in the regulatory pathway governing anaerobic respiration. One of the essential roles of ResD and ResE in anaerobic gene regulation is induction of fnr transcription upon oxygen limitation. FNR is a transcriptional activator for anaerobically induced genes, including those for respiratory nitrate reductase, narGHJI.B. subtilis has two distinct nitrate reductases, one for the assimilation of nitrate nitrogen and the other for nitrate respiration. In contrast, one nitrite reductase functions both in nitrite nitrogen assimilation and nitrite respiration. Unlike many anaerobes, which use pyruvate formate lyase, B. subtilis can carry out fermentation in the absence of external electron acceptors wherein pyruvate dehydrogenase is utilized to metabolize pyruvate.

  17. Protons and pleomorphs: aerobic hydrogen production in Azotobacters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noar, Jesse D; Bruno-Bárcena, José M

    2016-02-01

    As obligate aerobic soil organisms, the ability of Azotobacter species to fix nitrogen is unusual given that the nitrogenase complex requires a reduced cellular environment. Molecular hydrogen is an unavoidable byproduct of the reduction of dinitrogen; at least one molecule of H2 is produced for each molecule of N2 fixed. This could be considered a fault in nitrogenase efficiency, essentially a waste of energy and reducing equivalents. Wild-type Azotobacter captures this hydrogen and oxidizes it with its membrane-bound uptake hydrogenase complex. Strains lacking an active hydrogenase complex have been investigated for their hydrogen production capacities. What is the role of H2 in the energy metabolism of nitrogen-fixing Azotobacter? Is hydrogen production involved in Azotobacter species' protection from or tolerance to oxygen, or vice versa? What yields of hydrogen can be expected from hydrogen-evolving strains? Can the yield of hydrogen be controlled or increased by changing genetic, environmental, or physiological conditions? We will address these questions in the following mini-review.

  18. The upper limit of aerobic power in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtscher, Martin; Nachbauer, Werner; Wilber, Randall

    2011-10-01

    Data on the upper limit of aerobic power in humans are scarce. Thus, here we demonstrate extraordinarily high V'O(2)max and submaximal exercise performance in a young elite cross country skier (22 years, 170 cm, 63 kg; hemoglobin: 16.8 g/dL) who was evaluated before winning an Olympic gold medal. The test was performed during progressive roller-ski exercise on an outdoor uphill track (7-10% incline). The athlete demonstrated a V'O(2)max of 90.6 mL/min/kg (45 s average; 26 METs; 5.7 L/min). But even more impressive than V'O(2)max was his ability to exercise at a V'O(2) of 65 mL/min/kg (71.4% V'O(2)max) at a lactate level of 1.6 mmol/L. At the self-selected maximal lactate steady state he consumed 78 mLO(2)/min/kg (85.7% V'O(2)max) with a corresponding lactate level of 4.4 mmol/L. These values rank among the highest ever demonstrated in human beings.

  19. The training effects of dance aerobics: A review with an emphasis on the perspectives of investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaletel, Petra; Gabrilo, Goran; Perić, Mia

    2013-05-01

    The training effects of contemporary aerobics programmes (hi lo, dance aerobics, step aerobics, aqua aerobics etc.) have been frequently investigated. However, we found no recent paper which reviewed aerobic programmes with regard to their training effectiveness, characteristics of the subjects involved, variables of interest and experimental design. In this paper we summarise the findings of more than 40 studies published in the 2000-2011 period that investigated the training effects of different forms of contemporary aerobics. In this review, the studies are grouped according to their characteristics (sample of subjects, variables of interest, study design, effects, etc.). Around 80% of the investigations dealt with females, with adults being most commonly observed. In the majority of investigations, the authors studied different variables at the same time (morphological anthropometric, motor, cardiovascular, biochemical indices, etc.). In recent studies a trend toward a psychological status examination is evident. In most instances positive training effects on motor-endurance and varsity of physiological variables are declared throughout a training period of 8 to 12 weeks. However, the positive changes in anaerobic endurance are not evidenced. Knowing the tendency of the overall increase of certain psychological disorders in population (including depression) there are indications that future, potentially highly interesting studies will deal with the psychological status of adults and older subjects.

  20. Relationships among traits of aerobic and anaerobic swimming performance in individual European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marras, Stefano; Killen, Shaun S; Domenici, Paolo; Claireaux, Guy; McKenzie, David J

    2013-01-01

    Teleost fishes exhibit wide and temporally stable inter-individual variation in a suite of aerobic and anaerobic locomotor traits. One mechanism that could allow such variation to persist within populations is the presence of tradeoffs between aerobic and anaerobic performance, such that individuals with a high capacity for one type of performance have a reduced capacity for the other. We investigated this possibility in European seabass Dicentrarchuslabrax, each measured for a battery of indicators of maximum locomotor performance. Aerobic traits comprised active metabolic rate, aerobic scope for activity, maximum aerobic swimming speed, and stride length, using a constant acceleration test. Anaerobic traits comprised maximum speed during an escape response, maximum sprint speed, and maximum anaerobic burst speed during constant acceleration. The data provided evidence of significant variation in performance among individuals, but there was no evidence of any trade-offs among any traits of aerobic versus anaerobic swimming performance. Furthermore, the anaerobic traits were not correlated significantly among each other, despite relying on the same muscular structures. Thus, the variation observed may reflect trade-offs with other morphological, physiological or behavioural traits.

  1. Characteristics of a Novel Aerobic Denitrifying Bacterium, Enterobacter cloacae Strain HNR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Long-Jie; Zhao, Bin; An, Qiang; Tian, Meng

    2016-03-01

    A novel aerobic denitrifier strain HNR, isolated from activated sludge, was identified as Enterobacter cloacae by16S rRNA sequencing analysis. Glucose was considered as the most favorable C-source for strain HNR. The logistic equation well described the bacterial growth, yielding a maximum growth rate (μmax) of 0.283 h(-1) with an initial NO3 (-)-N concentration of 110 mg/L. Almost all NO3 (-)-N was removed aerobically within 30 h with an average removal rate of 4.58 mg N L(-1) h(-1). Nitrogen balance analysis revealed that proximately 70.8 % of NO3 (-)-N was removed as gas products and only 20.7 % was transformed into biomass. GC-MS result indicates that N2 was the end product of aerobic denitrification. The enzyme activities of nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase, which are related to the process of aerobic denitrification, were 0.0688 and 0.0054 U/mg protein, respectively. Thus, the aerobic denitrification of reducing NO3 (-) to N2 by strain HNR was demonstrated. The optimal conditions for nitrate removal were C/N ratio 13, pH value 8, shaking speed 127 rpm and temperature 30 °C. These findings show that E. cloacae strain HNR has a potential application on wastewater treatment to achieve nitrate removal under aerobic conditions.

  2. Relationships among traits of aerobic and anaerobic swimming performance in individual European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Marras

    Full Text Available Teleost fishes exhibit wide and temporally stable inter-individual variation in a suite of aerobic and anaerobic locomotor traits. One mechanism that could allow such variation to persist within populations is the presence of tradeoffs between aerobic and anaerobic performance, such that individuals with a high capacity for one type of performance have a reduced capacity for the other. We investigated this possibility in European seabass Dicentrarchuslabrax, each measured for a battery of indicators of maximum locomotor performance. Aerobic traits comprised active metabolic rate, aerobic scope for activity, maximum aerobic swimming speed, and stride length, using a constant acceleration test. Anaerobic traits comprised maximum speed during an escape response, maximum sprint speed, and maximum anaerobic burst speed during constant acceleration. The data provided evidence of significant variation in performance among individuals, but there was no evidence of any trade-offs among any traits of aerobic versus anaerobic swimming performance. Furthermore, the anaerobic traits were not correlated significantly among each other, despite relying on the same muscular structures. Thus, the variation observed may reflect trade-offs with other morphological, physiological or behavioural traits.

  3. Optimizing intramuscular adaptations to aerobic exercise: effects of carbohydrate restriction and protein supplementation on mitochondrial biogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Lee M; Pasiakos, Stefan M

    2013-11-01

    Mitochondrial biogenesis is a critical metabolic adaptation to aerobic exercise training that results in enhanced mitochondrial size, content, number, and activity. Recent evidence has shown that dietary manipulation can further enhance mitochondrial adaptations to aerobic exercise training, which may delay skeletal muscle fatigue and enhance exercise performance. Specifically, studies have demonstrated that combining carbohydrate restriction (endogenous and exogenous) with a single bout of aerobic exercise potentiates the beneficial effects of exercise on markers of mitochondrial biogenesis. Additionally, studies have demonstrated that high-quality protein supplementation enhances anabolic skeletal muscle intracellular signaling and mitochondrial protein synthesis following a single bout of aerobic exercise. Mitochondrial biogenesis is stimulated by complex intracellular signaling pathways that appear to be primarily regulated by 5'AMP-activated protein kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase mediated through proliferator-activated γ receptor co-activator 1 α activation, resulting in increased mitochondrial DNA expression and enhanced skeletal muscle oxidative capacity. However, the mechanisms by which concomitant carbohydrate restriction and dietary protein supplementation modulates mitochondrial adaptations to aerobic exercise training remains unclear. This review summarizes intracellular regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis and the effects of carbohydrate restriction and protein supplementation on mitochondrial adaptations to aerobic exercise.

  4. EFFECT OF HIGH & LOW INTENSITIES OF AEROBIC EXERCISE ON PHYSICAL FITNESS INDEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhusudhan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Aerobic exercise reduces body fat and improves weight control, increases HDL&Vo2 max. Also improves PFI (physical fitness index which is defined as ability to carry out daily tasks with vigour and alertness without undue fatigue. Though aerobic exercise is found to improve physical fitness, the relative merits of different intensities of aerobi c exercise in improving physical fitness is still uncertain. AIM: The present study was conducted to know the Effect of High & low intensity aerobic training on physical fitness index. MATERIALS & METHODS : 80 sedentary men (18 - 40 years were randomized in to 2 equal groups (High Intensity & low intensity group . The High [80% HR max] & Low intensity [50 % HR max] groups underwent aerobic exercise training using Bicycle ergo meter (COSCO at 900kpm & 540kpm, for 15mins/day & 30mins/day respectively, 5days a week, for a period of 14weeks. Physical fitness index of each subject was recorded by Modified Harvard step test before & after intervention. RESULTS : After 14 weeks of aerobic training both the exercise groups had improvement in PFI, but high intensity gr oup had a significant (p<0.05 improvement in PFI (97.18 - 101.14 than low intensity group (98.12 - 100.6. CONCLUSION : High intensity aerobic exercise is effective in improving physical fitness.

  5. Influence of aeration intensity on mature aerobic granules in sequencing batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Da-Wen; Liu, Lin; Liang, Hong

    2013-05-01

    Aeration intensity is well known as an important factor in the formation of aerobic granules. In this research, two identical lab-scale sequencing batch reactors with aeration intensity of 0.8 (R1) and 0.2 m(3)/h (R2) were operated to investigate the characteristics and kinetics of matured aerobic granules. Results showed that both aeration intensity conditions induced granulation, but they showed different effects on the characteristics of aerobic granules. Compared with the low aeration intensity (R2), the aerobic granules under the higher aeration intensity (R1) had better physical characteristics and settling ability. However, the observed biomass yield (Y obs) in R1 [0.673 kg mixed liquor volatile suspended solids (MLVSS)/kg chemical oxygen demand (COD)] was lower than R2 (0.749 kg MLVSS/kg COD). In addition, the maximum specific COD removal rates (q max) and apparent half rate constant (K) of mature aerobic granular sludge under the two aeration intensities were at a similar level. Therefore, the matured aerobic granule system does not require to be operated in a higher aeration intensity, which will reduce the energy consumption.

  6. Nitrogen removal by Providencia rettgeri strain YL with heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jun; Zhao, Bin; An, Qiang; Huang, Yuan-Sheng

    2016-09-01

    Providencia rettgeri strain YL shows the capability of nitrogen removal under sole aerobic conditions. By using isotope ratio mass spectrometry, (15)N-labelled N2O and N2 were detected in aerobic batch cultures containing [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] or [Formula: see text]. Strain YL converted [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] to produce more N2O than N2 in the presence of [Formula: see text]. An (15)N isotope tracing experiment confirmed that the nitrogen removal pathway of strain YL was heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification. The optimal treatment conditions for nitrogen removal were pH of 8, C/N ratio of 12, temperature of 25°C and shaking speed of 105 rpm. A continuous aerobic bioreactor inoculated with strain YL was developed. With an influent [Formula: see text] concentration of 90-200 mg/L, the [Formula: see text] removal efficiency ranged from 80% to 97% and the total nitrogen removal efficiency ranged from 72% to 95%. The nitrogen balance in the continuous bioreactor revealed that approximately 35-52% of influent [Formula: see text] was denitrified aerobically to form gaseous nitrogen. These findings show that the P. rettgeri strain YL has potential application in wastewater treatment for nitrogen removal under sole aerobic conditions.

  7. COD fractions of leachate from aerobic and anaerobic pilot scale landfill reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilgili, M. Sinan [Yildiz Technical University, Environmental Engineering Department, 34349 Besiktas, Istanbul (Turkey)], E-mail: mbilgili@yildiz.edu.tr; Demir, Ahmet [Yildiz Technical University, Environmental Engineering Department, 34349 Besiktas, Istanbul (Turkey)], E-mail: ahmetd@yildiz.edu.tr; Akkaya, Ebru [Yildiz Technical University, Environmental Engineering Department, 34349 Besiktas, Istanbul (Turkey)], E-mail: ekoca@yildiz.edu.tr; Ozkaya, Bestamin [Yildiz Technical University, Environmental Engineering Department, 34349 Besiktas, Istanbul (Turkey)], E-mail: bozkaya@yildiz.edu.tr

    2008-10-01

    One of the most important problems with designing and maintaining a landfill is managing leachate that generated when water passes through the waste. In this study, leachate samples taken from aerobic and anaerobic landfill reactors operated with and without leachate recirculation are investigated in terms of biodegradable and non-biodegradable fractions of COD. The operation time is 600 days for anaerobic reactors and 250 days for aerobic reactors. Results of this study show that while the values of soluble inert COD to total COD in the leachate of aerobic landfill with leachate recirculation and aerobic dry reactors are determined around 40%, this rate was found around 30% in the leachate of anaerobic landfill with leachate recirculation and traditional landfill reactors. The reason for this difference is that the aerobic reactors generated much more microbial products. Because of this condition, it can be concluded that total inert COD/total COD ratios of the aerobic reactors were 60%, whereas those of anaerobic reactors were 50%. This study is important for modeling, design, and operation of landfill leachate treatment systems and determination of discharge limits.

  8. The impact of nanoparticles on aerobic degradation of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazici Guvenc, Senem; Alan, Burcu; Adar, Elanur; Bilgili, Mehmet Sinan

    2017-04-01

    The amount of nanoparticles released from industrial and consumer products has increased rapidly in the last decade. These products may enter landfills directly or indirectly after the end of their useful life. In order to determine the impact of TiO2 and Ag nanoparticles on aerobic landfilling processes, municipal solid waste was loaded to three pilot-scale aerobic landfill bioreactors (80 cm diameter and 350 cm height) and exposed to TiO2 (AT) and Ag (AA) nanoparticles at total concentrations of 100 mg kg(-1) of solid waste. Aerobic landfill bioreactors were operated under the conditions about 0.03 L min(-1) kg(-1) aeration rate for 250 days, during which the leachate, solid waste, and gas characteristics were measured. The results indicate that there was no significant difference in the leachate characteristics, gas constituents, solid quality parameters, and temperature variations, which are the most important indicators of landfill operations, and overall aerobic degradation performance between the reactors containing TiO2 and Ag nanoparticles, and control (AC) reactor. The data also indicate that the pH levels, ionic strength, and the complex formation capacity of nanoparticles with Cl(-) ions can reduce the toxicity effects of nanoparticles on aerobic degradation processes. The results suggest that TiO2 and Ag nanoparticles at concentrations of 100 mg kg(-1) of solid waste do not have significant impacts on aerobic biological processes and waste management systems.

  9. The degradability of biodegradable plastics in aerobic and anaerobic waste landfill model reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishigaki, Tomonori; Sugano, Wataru; Nakanishi, Akane; Tateda, Masafumi; Ike, Michihiko; Fujita, Masanori

    2004-01-01

    Degradabilities of four kinds of commercial biodegradable plastics (BPs), polyhydroxybutyrate and hydroxyvalerate (PHBV) plastic, polycaprolactone plastic (PCL), blend of starch and polyvinyl alcohol (SPVA) plastic and cellulose acetate (CA) plastic were investigated in waste landfill model reactors that were operated as anaerobically and aerobically. The application of forced aeration to the landfill reactor for supplying aerobic condition could potentially stimulate polymer-degrading microorganisms. However, the individual degradation behavior of BPs under the aerobic condition was completely different. PCL, a chemically synthesized BP, showed film breakage under the both conditions, which may have contributed to a reduction in the waste volume regardless of aerobic or anaerobic conditions. Effective degradation of PHBV plastic was observed in the aerobic condition, though insufficient degradation was observed in the anaerobic condition. But the aeration did not contribute much to accelerate the volume reduction of SPVA plastic and CA plastic. It could be said that the recalcitrant portions of the plastics such as polyvinyl alcohol in SPVA plastic and the highly substituted CA in CA plastic prevented the BP from degradation. These results indicated existence of the great variations in the degradability of BPs in aerobic and anaerobic waste landfills, and suggest that suitable technologies for managing the waste landfill must be combined with utilization of BPs in order to enhance the reduction of waste volume in landfill sites.

  10. Effect of Aerobic Exercise Training on Chinese Population with Mild to Moderate Depression in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra W. H. Ho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Exercise has been suggested to be a viable treatment for depression. This study investigates the effect of supervised aerobic exercise training on depressive symptoms and physical performance among Chinese patients with mild to moderate depression in early in-patient phase. Methods. A randomized repeated measure and assessor-blinded study design was used. Subjects in aerobic exercise group received 30 minutes of aerobic training, five days a week for 3 weeks. Depressive symptoms (MADRS and C-BDI and domains in physical performance were assessed at baseline and program end. Results. Subjects in aerobic exercise group showed a more significant reduction in depressive scores (MADRS as compared to control (between-group mean difference = 10.08 ± 9.41; P=0.026 after 3 weeks training. The exercise group also demonstrated a significant improvement in flexibility (between-group mean difference = 4.4 ± 6.13; P=0.02. Limitations. There was lack of longitudinal followup to examine the long-term effect of aerobic exercise on patients with depression. Conclusions. Aerobic exercise in addition to pharmacological intervention can have a synergistic effect in reducing depressive symptoms and increasing flexibility among Chinese population with mild to moderate depression. Early introduction of exercise training in in-patient phase can help to bridge the gap of therapeutic latency of antidepressants during its nonresponse period.

  11. Degradation of municipal solid waste in simulated landfill bioreactors under aerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slezak, Radoslaw; Krzystek, Liliana; Ledakowicz, Stanislaw

    2015-09-01

    In this study the municipal solid waste degradation processes in simulated landfill bioreactors under aerobic and anaerobic conditions is investigated. The effect of waste aeration on the dynamics of the aerobic degradation processes in lysimeters as well as during anaerobic processes after completion of aeration is presented. The results are compared with the anaerobic degradation process to determine the stabilization stage of waste in both experimental modes. The experiments in aerobic lysimeters were carried out at small aeration rate (4.41⋅10(-3)lmin(-1)kg(-1)) and for two recirculation rates (24.9 and 1.58lm(-3)d(-1)). The change of leachate and formed gases composition showed that the application of even a small aeration rate favored the degradation of organic matter. The amount of CO2 and CH4 released from anaerobic lysimeter was about 5 times lower than that from the aerobic lysimeters. Better stabilization of the waste was obtained in the aerobic lysimeter with small recirculation, from which the amount of CO2 produced was larger by about 19% in comparison with that from the aerobic lysimeter with large leachate recirculation.

  12. Interaction between serum BDNF and aerobic fitness predicts recognition memory in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, Andrew S; Young, Daniel E; He, Xuemei; Chen, Tai C; Wagenaar, Robert C; Stern, Chantal E; Schon, Karin

    2014-02-01

    Convergent evidence from human and non-human animal studies suggests aerobic exercise and increased aerobic capacity may be beneficial for brain health and cognition. It is thought growth factors may mediate this putative relationship, particularly by augmenting plasticity mechanisms in the hippocampus, a brain region critical for learning and memory. Among these factors, glucocorticoids, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), hormones that have considerable and diverse physiological importance, are thought to effect normal and exercise-induced hippocampal plasticity. Despite these predictions, relatively few published human studies have tested hypotheses that relate exercise and fitness to the hippocampus, and none have considered the potential links to all of these hormonal components. Here we present cross-sectional data from a study of recognition memory; serum BDNF, cortisol, IGF-1, and VEGF levels; and aerobic capacity in healthy young adults. We measured circulating levels of these hormones together with performance on a recognition memory task, and a standard graded treadmill test of aerobic fitness. Regression analyses demonstrated BDNF and aerobic fitness predict recognition memory in an interactive manner. In addition, IGF-1 was positively associated with aerobic fitness, but not with recognition memory. Our results may suggest an exercise adaptation-related change in the BDNF dose-response curve that relates to hippocampal memory.

  13. A new ventilatory threshold equation for aerobically trained men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, Moh H; Coburn, Jared W

    2009-04-01

    The purposes of the present study were to (i) modify previously published ventilatory threshold (VT) equations using the constant error (CE) values for aerobically trained individuals from a recent study; (ii) cross-validate the modified equations to determine their accuracy for estimating VT in aerobically trained individuals; (iii) derive a new non-exercise based equation for estimating VT in aerobically trained individuals if the modified equations are found to be inaccurate; and (iv) cross-validate the new VT equation using the Predicted REsidual Sum of Squares (PRESS) statistic and an independent sample of aerobically trained individuals. Two hundred and eight (n = 208) aerobically trained men and women (mean +/- SD: age = 38.8 +/- 10.4 year) performed a maximal incremental test on a cycle ergometer to determine the observed VT. The predicted VT values from seven published equations were compared with the observed VT by examining the CE, standard error of estimate, validity coefficient (r), and total error (TE). Cross-validation of the modified equations resulted in high %TE values. Therefore, a new VT equation was derived. Cross-validation of this equation on an independent sample of 72 subjects resulted in a low %TE value. The new model is recommended over previous models for estimating VT in aerobically trained individuals.

  14. A model‐driven quantitative metabolomics analysis of aerobic and anaerobic metabolism in E. coli K‐12 MG1655 that is biochemically and thermodynamically consistent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCloskey, Douglas; Gangoiti, Jon A.; King, Zachary A.

    2014-01-01

    then integrated with the E. coli genome‐scale metabolic model (GEM) via a sensitivity analysis that utilized reaction thermodynamics to reconcile simulated growth rates and reaction directionalities. This analysis highlighted several optimal network usage inconsistencies, including the incorrect use of the beta......The advent of model‐enabled workflows in systems biology allows for the integration of experimental data types with genome‐scale models to discover new features of biology. This work demonstrates such a workflow, aimed at establishing a metabolomics platform applied to study the differences...... in metabolomes between anaerobic and aerobic growth of Escherichia coli. Constraint‐based modeling was utilized to deduce a target list of compounds for downstream method development. An analytical and experimental methodology was developed and tailored to the compound chemistry and growth conditions of interest...

  15. Impact of a single bout of aerobic exercise on regional brain perfusion and activation responses in healthy young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley J MacIntosh

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Despite the generally accepted view that aerobic exercise can have positive effects on brain health, few studies have measured brain responses to exercise over a short time span. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact within one hour of a single bout of exercise on brain perfusion and neuronal activation. METHODS: Healthy adults (n = 16; age range: 20-35 yrs were scanned using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI before and after 20 minutes of exercise at 70% of their age-predicted maximal heart rate. Pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (pcASL was used to measure absolute cerebral blood flow (CBF prior to exercise (pre and at 10 min (post-10 and 40 min (post-40 post-exercise. Blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD functional MRI (fMRI was performed pre and post-exercise to characterize activation differences related to a go/no-go reaction time task. RESULTS: Compared to pre-exercise levels, grey matter CBF was 11% (±9% lower at post-10 (P<0.0004 and not different at post-40 (P = 0.12, while global WM CBF was increased at both time points post-exercise (P<0.0006. Regionally, the hippocampus and insula showed a decrease in perfusion in ROI-analysis at post-10 (P<0.005, FDR corrected, whereas voxel-wise analysis identified elevated perfusion in the left medial postcentral gyrus at post-40 compared to pre (pcorrected = 0.05. BOLD activations were consistent between sessions, however, the left parietal operculum showed reduced BOLD activation after exercise. CONCLUSION: This study provides preliminary evidence of regionalized brain effects associated with a single bout of aerobic exercise. The observed acute cerebrovascular responses may provide some insight into the brain's ability to change in relation to chronic interventions.

  16. Severe Acute Local Reactions to a Hyaluronic Acid-derived Dermal Filler

    OpenAIRE

    Van Dyke, Susan; Hays, Geoffrey P.; Caglia, Anthony E.; Caglia, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Injectable fillers are normally well tolerated by patients with little or no adverse effects. The most common side effects include swelling, redness, bruising, and pain at the injection site. This report describes three cases in which patients injected with a hyaluronic acid-derived injectable filler that is premixed with lidocaine developed adverse reactions including persistent swelling, pain, and nodule formation. Two of the three patients' abscesses were cultured for aerobic and anaerobic...

  17. Aerobic Methane Generation From Plants (AMP)? Yes, Mostly!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiticar, M. J.; Ednie, A. C.

    2007-12-01

    In 2006, Keppler et al. (K) published an intriguing and revolutionary idea that aerobic methane is produced in plants (AMP) and released to the atmosphere. Their initial scaling calculations estimated the amount of AMP fluxing from living plants to range from 62-236 Tg/y and 1-7 Tg/y for plant litter. Houweling et al. (2006) (H) refined this flux to ca. 85 Tg/y PIH and 125 Tg/y present day. More recently, Dueck et al. (2007) (D) challenged the claim of AMP from intact plants. Their experiments cited "...No evidence for substantial aerobic methane emission by terrestrial plants..." (max. 0.4 ng/g h-1). Due to the significance of AMP in understanding present and palaeo-atmospheric budgets (e.g., Whiticar and Schaefer, 2007), we conducted a wide range of experiments to confirm or refute the existence and magnitude of AMP. For explanation, experiments of K were time-series batch samples measured by gas chromatography on purged and ambient samples, whereas D used continuous-flow cuvettes and measured by optical PAS with time series single injections. Our longer-term experiments with corn, wheat, tomato, red cedar, chestnut, moss and lichen (3-97 h, 32 °C) used a plant chamber, flow-through system with a GYRO, an optical spectrometer that enables continuous 1 Hz CH4 measurements with a precision of ca. 1 ppbv. We conducted over 100 chamber experiments on sterilized and non-sterilized (Cs-137 radiation) samples of: 1) intact living plants (IP), 2) fresh leaves (FL) and 3) dried leaves (DL); under both 1) high and 2) low light conditions (HL, LL), and with 1) ambient CH4 (AM, ca. 1.92 ppmv) and 2) purged methane (PM, 10 and 96 ppbv) levels. Our results demonstrate that IP-AMs have CH4 flux rates of 0.74-3.48 ng/g h-1. In contrast, IP-PMs show intense CH4 uptake rates of -28.5 to -57.9 ng/g h-1 (substantially different than K's reported emissions of 12-370 ng/g h-1 values). Our FL-AM-LL have CH4 flux rates of 0.36-2.05 ng/g h-1, whereas FL-AM-HL have significant CH4

  18. Comparison of two field tests to estimate maximum aerobic speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthoin, S; Gerbeaux, M; Turpin, E; Guerrin, F; Lensel-Corbeil, G; Vandendorpe, F

    1994-08-01

    The measurement of maximal aerobic speed (MAS) and the prediction of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) by means of field tests were carried out on 17 students studying physical education. The subjects underwent a continuous multi-stage track test (Léger and Boucher, 1980), shuttle test (Léger et al., 1984) and VO2 max measurement on a treadmill. The VO2 max values estimated using the track test (56.8 +/- 5.8 ml kg-1 min-1) were not significantly different from the values measured in the treadmill test (56.8 +/- 7.1 ml kg-1 min-1), but were higher than those estimated using the shuttle test (51.1 +/- 5.9 ml kg-1 min-1). The maximal nature of the tests was checked by measurement of heart rate and lactate concentration, taken within 2 min post-test. The means of the MAS observed in the track test (15.8 +/- 1.9 km h-1) and in the treadmill test (15.9 +/- 2.6 km h-1) were not significantly different (P > 0.10). The mean of the shuttle test MAS (13.1 +/- 1 km h-1) was significantly lower (P < 0.01) than those of the other tests. However, the MAS of the shuttle test and track test are linked. The equation for linear regression between MAS values in these two tests is MAStrack = 1.81 x MASshuttle -7.86 (r = 0.91), allowing estimation of one of these MAS values when the other is known. Thus these values may be used within diversified training.

  19. The influence of childhood aerobic fitness on learning and memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren B Raine

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: There is a growing trend of inactivity among children, which may not only result in poorer physical health, but also poorer cognitive health. Previous research has shown that lower fitness has been related to decreased cognitive function for tasks requiring perception, memory, and cognitive control as well as lower academic achievement. PURPOSE: To investigate the relationship between aerobic fitness, learning, and memory on a task that involved remembering names and locations on a fictitious map. Different learning strategies and recall procedures were employed to better understand fitness effects on learning novel material. METHODS: Forty-eight 9-10 year old children (n = 24 high fit; HF and n = 24 low fit; LF performed a task requiring them to learn the names of specific regions on a map, under two learning conditions in which they only studied (SO versus a condition in which they were tested during study (TS. The retention day occurred one day after initial learning and involved two different recall conditions: free recall and cued recall. RESULTS: There were no differences in performance at initial learning between higher fit and lower fit participants. However, during the retention session higher fit children outperformed lower fit children, particularly when the initial learning strategy involved relatively poor recall performance (i.e., study only versus test-study strategy. CONCLUSIONS: We interpret these novel data to suggest that fitness can boost learning and memory of children and that these fitness-associated performance benefits are largest in conditions in which initial learning is the most challenging. Such data have important implications for both educational practice and policy.

  20. Aerobic Microbial Skin Flora in Jeddah City, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajaa M. Milyani

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The aerobic microbial skin flora of 40 healthy subjects living in Jeddah city (Saudi Arabia was determined. Two age groups: children and adults; including males and females were investigated. Seven sites were studied: forehead, axilla, chest, groin, leg, toe web and anterior nares. The skin was sampled by rubbing the chosen site with a surfactant substance (Tween 80 moistened cotton swab which was dipped back in the surfactant container and the resulted suspension was agitated for one minute. Thirty three microbial species were isolated from the seven sites of the study group, in which Acinetobacter baumannii, Acinetobacter lwoffii, corynebacterium species and Staphylococcus (Staph. aureus dominated among children (30% each. The most other prevalent isolates recovered were Alkaligenes species, Bacillus species, Chryseomonas luteola, Staph. epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis and Staph. hominis (27.5% each. Organisms including Candida albicans, Enterobacter agglomerans, Escherichia coli, Flavobacterium meningosepticum, Klebsiella oxytoca, Micrococcus luteus, Micrococcus roseus, Micrococcus varians, Micrococcus species, Burkholderia cepacia, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Pseudomonas paucimobilis, Pseudomonas fluorescence, Pseudomonas species, Staph. capitis, Staph. cohnii, Staph. saprophyticus, Staph. simulans, Staph. warneri, Staph. xylosus, viridans-type streptococcus and yeasts were also found in different percentage. Higher isolation rates of Acinetobacter lwoffii, Staph. aureus, Alkaligenes species, Corynebacterium species, Chryseomonas luteola, Enterobacter agglomerans, Staph. epidermidis and other coagulase negative Staphylococci were noted in children from the seven sites. However, Chryseomonas luteola, and Pseudomonas species, were found only in the groin area among males. Otherwise, no significant differences were recorded in the isolation rates from each site separately in relation to age and sex. The role of the isolated microorganisms

  1. Aerobic degradation and photolysis of tylosin in water and soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Dingfei; Coats, Joel R

    2007-05-01

    Veterinary antibiotics enter the environment through the application of organic fertilizers to cropland. In this study, the aerobic degradation of tylosin, a widely used antibiotic in the production of livestock and poultry, was conducted in water and in soil in an effort to further investigate its environmental fate. Tylosin is a macrolide antibiotic, which consists of four factors (A, B, C, D). Water and soil were sampled at selected times and analyzed for tylosin and its degradation products by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), with product identification confirmed by HPLC-mass spectrometry. Tylosin A is degraded with a half-life of 200 d in the light in water, and the total loss of tylosin A in the dark is 6% of the initial spiked amount during the experimental period. Tylosin C and D are relatively stable except in ultrapure water in the light. Slight increases of tylosin B after two months and formation of two photoreaction isomers of tylosin A were observed under exposure to light. However, tylosin probably would degrade faster if the experimental containers did not prevent ultraviolet transmission. In soil, tylosin A has a dissipation half-life of 7 d, and tylosin D is slightly more stable, with a dissipation half-life of 8 d in unsterilized and sterilized soil. Sorption and abiotic degradation are the major factors influencing the loss of tylosin in the environment, and no biotic degradation was observed at the test concentration either in pond water or in an agronomic soil, as determined by comparing dissipation profiles in sterilized and unsterilized conditions.

  2. A single bout of aerobic exercise promotes motor cortical neuroplasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, Michelle N; Buckley, Jonathan D; Opie, George M; Ridding, Michael C; Semmler, John G

    2013-05-01

    Regular physical activity is associated with enhanced plasticity in the motor cortex, but the effect of a single session of aerobic exercise on neuroplasticity is unknown. The aim of this study was to compare corticospinal excitability and plasticity in the upper limb cortical representation following a single session of lower limb cycling at either low or moderate intensity, or a control condition. We recruited 25 healthy adults to take part in three experimental sessions. Cortical excitability was examined using transcranial magnetic stimulation to elicit motor-evoked potentials in the right first dorsal interosseus muscle. Levels of serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor and cortisol were assessed throughout the experiments. Following baseline testing, participants cycled on a stationary bike at a workload equivalent to 57% (low intensity, 30 min) or 77% age-predicted maximal heart rate (moderate intensity, 15 min), or a seated control condition. Neuroplasticity within the primary motor cortex was then examined using a continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) paradigm. We found that exercise did not alter cortical excitability. Following cTBS, there was a transient inhibition of first dorsal interosseus motor-evoked potentials during control and low-intensity conditions, but this was only significantly different following the low-intensity state. Moderate-intensity exercise alone increased serum cortisol levels, but brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels did not increase across any condition. In summary, low-intensity cycling promoted the neuroplastic response to cTBS within the motor cortex of healthy adults. These findings suggest that light exercise has the potential to enhance the effectiveness of motor learning or recovery following brain damage.

  3. Process Improvements: Aerobic Food Waste Composting at ISF Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Y. K.

    2015-12-01

    ISF Academy, a school with 1500 students in Hong Kong, installed an aerobic food waste composting system in November of 2013. The system has been operational for over seven months; we will be making improvements to the system to ensure the continued operational viability and quality of the compost. As a school we are committed to reducing our carbon footprint and the amount of waste we send to the local landfill. Over an academic year we produce approximately 27 metric tons of food waste. Our system processes the food waste to compost in 14 days and the compost is used by our primary school students in a organic farming project.There are two areas of improvement: a) if the composting system becomes anaerobic, there is an odor problem that is noticed by the school community; we will be testing the use of a bio-filter to eliminate the odor problem and, b) we will be working with an equipment vendor from Australia to install an improved grease trap system. The grease and oil that is collected will be sold to a local company here in Hong Kong that processes used cooking oil for making biofuels. This system will include a two stage filtration system and a heated vessel for separating the oil from the waste water.The third project will be to evaluate biodegradable cutlery for the compositing in the system. Currently, we use a significant quantity of non-biodegradable cutlery that is then thrown away after one use. Several local HK companies are selling biodegradable cutlery, but we need to evaluate the different products to determine which ones will work with our composting system. The food waste composting project at ISF Academy demonstrates the commitment of the school community to a greener environment for HK, the above listed projects will improve the operation of the system.

  4. Dynamics of activity free radical oxidation reactions in students with cerebral palsy results over the course of the educational process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makarova E.V.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of changes activity of reactions is studied freely radical oxidize for students with the consequences of child's cerebral paralysis. 20 students took part in an experiment. Found that the course of study they have more active free radical oxidation reactions and decreases the activity of antiradical protection. Given the use of additional physical activity in aerobic training indicators intracellular antioxidant defense system increased, decreased content of reaction products of lipid peroxidation. However, increased rates of maximum oxygen consumption and increased tolerance of students with cerebral palsy to the consequences of physical activity. It is set that the pathological changes of metabolism for students ground the necessity of application of the differentiated physical loadings. The optimum forms of physical rehabilitation of the aerobic training is the dosed walking, medical swimming, dosed after distance, sometimes and by the corner of getting up pedestrian ascents. Loading is increased due to a volume, but not intensity of exercises.

  5. Comparison of dry medium culture plates for mesophilic aerobic bacteria in milk, ice cream, ham, and codfish fillet products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Junghyun; Kim, Myunghee

    2013-12-01

    This study was performed to compare the performance of Sanita-Kun dry medium culture plate with those of traditional culture medium and Petrifilm dry medium culture plate for the enumeration of the mesophilic aerobic bacteria in milk, ice cream, ham, and codfish fillet. Mesophilic aerobic bacteria were comparatively evaluated in milk, ice cream, ham, and codfish fillet using Sanita-Kun aerobic count (SAC), Petrifilm aerobic count (PAC), and traditional plate count agar (PCA) media. According to the results, all methods showed high correlations of 0.989~1.000 and no significant differences were observed for enumerating the mesophilic aerobic bacteria in the tested food products. SAC method was easier to perform and count colonies efficiently as compared to the PCA and PAC methods. Therefore, we concluded that the SAC method offers an acceptable alternative to the PCA and PAC methods for counting the mesophilic aerobic bacteria in milk, ice cream, ham, and codfish fillet products.

  6. Does aerobic exercise increase 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure among workers with high occupational physical activity? - A RCT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korshøj, Mette; Krause, Niklas; Clays, Els

    2017-01-01

    .9–3.8). Cleaners with high aerobic workload exhibited particularly high 24-hour ABP increases: systolic 6.0 mm Hg (95% CI 2.4–9.6), and diastolic 3.8 mm Hg (95% CI 1.3–6.4). CONCLUSION Aerobic exercise increased 24-hour ABP among cleaners. This adverse effect raises questions about the safety and intended benefits......OBJECTIVE High occupational physical activity (OPA) increases cardiovascular risk and aerobic exercise has been recommended for reducing this risk. This paper investigates the effects of an aerobic exercise intervention on 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) among cleaners with high OPA....... METHODS Hundred and sixteen cleaners between 18 and 65 years were randomized. During the 4-month intervention period, the aerobic exercise group (AE) (n = 57) performed worksite aerobic exercise (2 × 30 minutes/week), while the reference group (REF) (n = 59) attended lectures. Between-group differences...

  7. Aerobic capacity and disease activity in children, adolescents and young adults with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Pelt Philomine A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA progress into adulthood, long-term outcome is determined by disease activity, physical and psychosocial development. Decreased aerobic capacity may play a critical role in health-related outcomes in JIA, since it has been linked with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in late adulthood. The objectives of the current study are to examine the aerobic capacity and its relation to parameters of disease activity in children, adolescents and young adults with JIA. Methods Sixty-three patients with JIA (aged 10–27 years were cross sectional studied regarding their aerobic capacity and correlations were made to demographic, disease-related variables, and medication utilization. in a cross-sectional study group of 63 patients of all subtypes. Patients were divided in three age groups, 10–13 years; 14–17 years and 18–27 years. Results Reduced aerobic capacity is found in clinical remission as well as active disease in all subtypes and all age groups. Aerobic capacity is more impaired in active disease shown by DAS 28, JADAS 27, ESR and serum thrombocyte counts. Lower haemoglobin has a negative impact. Long-term used medication including methotrexate and corticosteroids didn’t influence outcome. There is no association with current sports participation. Conclusion Reduced aerobic capacity is present in adolescents and young adults with JIA, both in active disease and in patients with remission. Measures of aerobic capacity may serve as important outcome measure in JIA.

  8. Copper-Catalyzed Aerobic Oxidations of Organic Molecules: Pathways for Two-Electron Oxidation with a Four-Electron Oxidant and a One-Electron Redox-Active Catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Scott D; Stahl, Shannon S

    2015-06-16

    Selective oxidation reactions have extraordinary value in organic chemistry, ranging from the conversion of petrochemical feedstocks into industrial chemicals and polymer precursors to the introduction of heteroatom functional groups into pharmaceutical and agrochemical intermediates. Molecular oxygen (O2) would be the ideal oxidant for these transformations. Whereas many commodity-scale oxidations of simple hydrocarbon feedstocks employ O2 as an oxidant, methods for selective oxidation of more complex molecules bearing diverse functional groups are often incompatible with existing aerobic oxidation methods. The latter limitation provides the basis for our interest in the development of new catalytic transformations and the elucidation of mechanistic principles that underlie selective aerobic oxidation reactions. One challenge inherent in such methods is the incommensurate redox stoichiometry associated with the use of O2, a four-electron oxidant, in reactions that achieve two-electron oxidation of organic molecules. This issue is further complicated by the use of first-row transition-metal catalysts, which tend to undergo facile one-electron redox steps. In recent years, we have been investigating Cu-catalyzed aerobic oxidation reactions wherein the complexities just noted are clearly evident. This Account surveys our work in this area, which has emphasized three general classes of reactions: (1) single-electron-transfer reactions for oxidative functionalization of electron-rich substrates, such as arenes and heterocycles; (2) oxidative carbon-heteroatom bond-forming reactions, including C-H oxidations, that proceed via organocopper(III) intermediates; and (3) methods for aerobic oxidation of alcohols and amines that use Cu(II) in combination with an organic redox-active cocatalyst to dehydrogenate the carbon-heteroatom bond. These reaction classes demonstrate three different pathways to achieve two-electron oxidation of organic molecules via the cooperative

  9. Dynamics Associated with Prolonged Ensiling and Aerobic Deterioration of Total Mixed Ration Silage Containing Whole Crop Corn

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Huili; Ning, Tingting; Hao, Wei; Zheng, Mingli; Xu, Chuncheng

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the dynamics associated with prolonged ensiling and aerobic deterioration of whole crop corn (WCC) silages and total mixed ration (TMR) silages containing WCC (C-TMR silages) to clarify the differences that account for the enhanced aerobic stability of TMR silages. Laboratory-scale barrel silos were randomly opened after 7, 14, 28, and 56 d of ensiling and were subjected to analyses of fermentation quality, microbial and temperature dynamics during aerobic exposure. WC...

  10. The Acute Effects of a Single Bout of Moderate-intensity Aerobic Exercise on Cognitive Functions in Healthy Adult Males

    OpenAIRE

    Nanda, Bijli; Balde, Jagruti; Manjunatha, S.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Single acute bouts of moderately-intense aerobic exercise like walking have been found to improve cognitive control of attention in children, but some studies have reported no improvement in cognitive flexibility following acute aerobic exercise. Submaximal aerobic exercise performed for 60 minutes facilitated specific aspects of information processing in adults but extended exercises leading to dehydration compromised both information processing and memory functions. Improvemen...

  11. Aerobic interval exercise with an eccentric contraction induces muscular hypertrophy and augmentation of muscular strength in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Tsumiyama, Wakako; Oki, Sadaaki; Takamiya, Naomi; Umei, Namiko; Shimizu, Michele Eisemann; Ono, Takeya; Otsuka, Akira

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine whether an aerobic interval exercise using an eccentric contraction would result in skeletal muscular hypertrophy and augmentation of muscular strength in rats. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-one female Wistar rats were used in this study. The rats were randomly divided into three groups. The control group performed no exercise. The aerobic endurance exercise group ran for 90 min. The aerobic interval exercise group ran for a total of 90 minut...

  12. Double Pion Production Reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Oset, E; Cano, F; Hernández, E; Kamalov, S S; Nacher, J C; Tejedor, J A G

    1999-01-01

    We report on reactions producing two pions induced by real and virtual photons or nucleons. The role of different resonances in these reactions is emphasized. Novel results on coherent two pion photoproduction in nuclei are also reported.

  13. Microfluidic chemical reaction circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chung-cheng; Sui, Guodong; Elizarov, Arkadij; Kolb, Hartmuth C.; Huang, Jiang; Heath, James R.; Phelps, Michael E.; Quake, Stephen R.; Tseng, Hsian-rong; Wyatt, Paul; Daridon, Antoine

    2012-06-26

    New microfluidic devices, useful for carrying out chemical reactions, are provided. The devices are adapted for on-chip solvent exchange, chemical processes requiring multiple chemical reactions, and rapid concentration of reagents.

  14. Microscale Thermite Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaiz, Francisco J.; Aguado, Rafael; Arnaiz, Susana

    1998-01-01

    Describes the adaptation of thermite (aluminum with metal oxides) reactions from whole-class demonstrations to student-run micro-reactions. Lists detailed directions and possible variations of the experiment. (WRM)

  15. Development and comparison of the effectivity of oxidation processes initiated by radicals, created by heterogeneous catalysis and by high pressure process for the reduction of persistent organic sewage pollutants. Final report; Entwicklung und vergleichende Bewertung der Leistungsfaehigkeit von radikalisch initiierten oxidativen Verfahren auf Traegerkatalysator- und Hochdruckbasis zum Abbau persistenter organischer Wasserschadstoffe. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bach, G.; Maeurer, H.

    2002-07-01

    Persistente and highly toxic sewages with an extremely high content of substances are still a problem in the waste water management. Wet oxidation offers a possibility to reduce the pollutant content in the water. Comparative experiments of the efficiency of oxidation initiated by radicals were carried out, using as heterogeneous catalysis on strap catalyst base as cavitation. By means of the wet oxidation on strap catalyst base with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} as oxidation reagent it was possible, to decontaminate effectively as single pollutants in model sewages as complex substance mixtures in real sewages. The tested catalytic systems worked especially effectively for high pollutant concentrations. At lower concentrations of sewage pollutants the amount of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} must be increased in regard to the actual CSB. In real sewages the pollutant decrease was, related on the TOC, in the cut, at 50%, a raise of the average concentration of the oxidation agent didn't produce any further decrease of the pollutant concentration. Aromatic hydrocarbons could be reduced more effectively than aliphatic ones. The conception for a technical plant was developed including cost estimate. The reduction of pollutants by cavitation was fundamentally lower than by using the heterogeneous catalysis way. Without addition of an oxidation agent (i.e. H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) only a TOC decrease of approx. 15% was registered in real sewages. The pollutant reduction increased at higher pollutant concentration. A complete elimination of all pollutants could not be obtained in none of the examined cases neither at model nor at real sewages. Especially the long reaction times (6 to 24 h) of the cavitation process in comparison with those, necessary for the catalytic reaction (2 to 6 h) are hindering a technical realization of the cavitation process, which seems to be doubtful for this and other reasons. So the use of cavitation in industrial scale sewage cleaning plants under the parameter

  16. Aerobic Microbial Respiration In Oceanic Oxygen Minimum Zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalvelage, Tim; Lavik, Gaute; Jensen, Marlene Mark;

    2015-01-01

    Oxygen minimum zones are major sites of fixed nitrogen loss in the ocean. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of anaerobic ammonium oxidation, anammox, in pelagic nitrogen removal. Sources of ammonium for the anammox reaction, however, remain controversial, as heterotrophic denitrifica...

  17. Aerobic granular sludge : scaling up a new technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Kreuk, M.K.

    2006-01-01

    Most conventional wastewater treatment plants need a large surface area for the treatment of their sewage. This is due to the open structure of the biomass used to convert the polluting components in wastewater. Because of the flocculated growth, sludge concentrations in reaction tanks are low and s

  18. Dissimilatory perchlorate reduction linked to aerobic methane oxidation via chlorite dismutase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oremland, R. S.; Baesman, S. M.; Miller, L. G.

    2013-12-01

    accumulation of chloride ions either in spent media or in slurries prepared from Searsville Lake soil, neither of these oxyanions evoked methane oxidation when added to either anaerobic mixed cultures or soils enriched in methanotrophs. This result leads us to surmise that the release of O2 during enzymatic perchlorate reduction was low, and that the oxygen produced was unavailable to the aerobic methanotrophs. This was borne out by patterns of O2 and CO2 production during experiments with lake soil, growth media, and pure cultures of dissimilatory perchlorate reducing bacteria. We observed that O2 release during incubation of D. agitata CKB with 10 mM ClO4- or ClO3- was decoupled from metabolism. More O2 was released during incubations without added acetate than with 10 mM acetate and an even greater amount of O2 was released during incubation with heat-killed cells. This suggests a chemical mechanism of O2 production during reaction with ClO4- and ClO3-. Hence, perchlorate reducing bacteria need not be present to facilitate O2 release from the surface of Mars, in support of recent interpretations of Viking LR and GEx experiments.

  19. Chemical transport reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Schäfer, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Chemical Transport Reactions focuses on the processes and reactions involved in the transport of solid or liquid substances to form vapor phase reaction products. The publication first offers information on experimental and theoretical principles and the transport of solid substances and its special applications. Discussions focus on calculation of the transport effect of heterogeneous equilibria for a gas motion between equilibrium spaces; transport effect and the thermodynamic quantities of the transport reaction; separation and purification of substances by means of material transport; and

  20. Two-stage anaerobic and post-aerobic mesophilic digestion of sewage sludge: Analysis of process performance and hygienization potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomei, M Concetta; Mosca Angelucci, Domenica; Levantesi, Caterina

    2016-03-01

    Sequential anaerobic-aerobic digestion has been demonstrated to be effective for enhanced sludge stabilization, in terms of increased solid reduction and improvement of sludge dewaterability. In this study, we propose a modified version of the sequential anaerobic-aerobic digestion process by operating the aerobic step under mesophilic conditions (T=37 °C), in order to improve the aerobic degradation kinetics of soluble and particulate chemical oxygen demand (COD). Process performance has been assessed in terms of "classical parameters" such as volatile solids (VS) removal, biogas production, COD removal, nitrogen species, and polysaccharide and protein fate. The aerobic step was operated under intermittent aeration to achieve nitrogen removal. Aerobic mesophilic conditions consistently increased VS removal, providing 32% additional removal vs. 20% at 20 °C. Similar results were obtained for nitrogen removal, increasing from 64% up to 99% at the higher temperature. Improved sludge dewaterability was also observed with a capillary suction time decrease of ~50% during the mesophilic aerobic step. This finding may be attributable to the decreased protein content in the aerobic digested sludge. The post-aerobic digestion exerted a positive effect on the reduction of microbial indicators while no consistent improvement of hygienization related to the increased temperature was observed. The techno-economic analysis of the proposed digestion layout showed a net cost saving for sludge disposal estimated in the range of 28-35% in comparison to the single-phase anaerobic digestion.

  1. Reaction systems with precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Rogalski

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes expanding Reaction Systems of Ehrenfeucht and Rozenberg by incorporating precipitation reactions into it. This improves the computing power of Reaction Systems by allowing us to implement a stack. This addition enables us to implement a Deterministic Pushdown Automaton.

  2. The Effects of Assisted Cycling Therapy (Act) and Voluntary Cycling on Reaction Time and Measures of Executive Function in Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringenbach, S. D. R.; Holzapfel, S. D.; Mulvey, G. M.; Jimenez, A.; Benson, A.; Richter, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Reports of positive effects of aerobic exercise on cognitive function in persons with Down syndrome are extremely limited. However, a novel exercise intervention, termed assisted cycling therapy (ACT), has resulted in acutely improved cognitive planning ability and reaction times as well as improved cognitive planning after 8 weeks of…

  3. Changes of the sweet taste sensitivity due to aerobic physical exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Luh Putu Ayu Wardhani

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sweet taste is a pleasant sensation. Sweet taste is mostly consumed and fancied by many people. Physiologically, glucose is body's source of energy, but if over used it can be affected to the body's metabolism. This can be worsen if the person's not doing a healthy lifestyle. One way to implement a healthy lifestyle is by doing physical exercises. Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine changes in sensory sensitivity of sweet taste due to aerobic physical exercise. Methods: This study was conducted on subjects aged 20 to 30 years. The subjects did aerobic exercise using 80% load of MHR. The measurement sensitivity of the senses of the sweet taste was done for three times before the subject take aerobic physical exercise, four weeks after doing aerobic physical exercise, and eight weeks after doing aerobic physical exercise. Results: There was significant difference towards sensitivity of sweet taste sense before doing aerobic physical exercise, 4 week after doing the aerobic physical exercise, and 8 week after doing aerobic physical exercise. Conclusion: Aerobic physical exercise during eight weeks increase sweet taste sensitivity.Latar belakang: Rasa manis memberikan sensasi yang menyenangkan. Rasa manis merupakan jenis rasa yang paling banyak dikonsumsi dan disukai oleh sekelompok orang. Secara fisiologis, glukosa bisa berperan sebagai sumber energi, namun apabila dikonsumsi secara berlebihan dapat menimbulkan efek patologis. Hal ini dihubungkan dengan individu yang mempunyai gaya hidup yang tidak sehat. Salah satu cara yang bisa dilakukan untuk membiasakan gaya hidup sehat adalah dengan latihan fisik (olah raga. Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk membuktikan adanya perubahan sensitivitas indera kecap rasa manis setelah melakukan latihan fisik aerobik. Metode: Penelitian ini melibatkan subyek laki-laki, berusia 20–30 tahun. Subjek melakukan latihan fisik aerobik dengan intensitas sebesar 80% maximal heart rate

  4. Time of day has no effect on maximal aerobic and peak power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sesboüé B

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available N Bessot1,3, S Moussay1,2, B Dufour1,2, D Davenne1,2, B Sesboüé1,3, A Gauthier1,21Inserm, ERI27, Caen, France; 2University Caen, Caen, France; 3CHRU Caen, Explorations Fonctionnelles, Caen, FranceBackground: The aim of this study was to explore the effect of time of day on peak power reached during an exercise test and maximal aerobic power achieved when the subject reached maximal oxygen uptake.Methods: Fifteen male competitive endurance cyclists performed a standardized maximal incremental exercise test at 06:00 hours and 18:00 hours. The test began with a 5-minute warmup period at a workload of 150 W. The work rate was then increased by incremental steps of 30 W per minute until the respiratory exchange ratio reached 1.00. Thereafter, workload was increased in steps of 15 W per minute until exhaustion was reached.Results: No significant diurnal variation was detected in physiological parameters (maximal oxygen uptake and maximal heart rate or biomechanical parameters (maximal aerobic power, peak power.Conclusion: Circadian variations classically reported in competitive aerobic performances could be due to fluctuations in maximal aerobic endurance and/or improvement in gestural efficiency (pattern of muscle activity, effective force production, and kinematics.Keywords: chronobiology, maximal aerobic power, peak power, maximal oxygen uptake, maximal incremental test

  5. Biotransformation of nonylphenol ethoxylates during sewage treatment under anaerobic and aerobic conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Biotransformation of nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEOs) during continuous anaerobic sewage treatment was compared with the aerobic treatment of sewage spiked with 23 μmol/L technical NPEOs over a period of 90 d. Immediate degradation of NPEOs was observed under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions, indicating that the enzymes and bacteria required for NPEO degradation existed abundantly in both aerobic and anaerobic sludge. Both treatments achieved high removal (>92%) of the spiked NPEO9 mixture.Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis showed that short-chain NPEOs (NPEO1-NPEO3) accumulated in anaerobic (2.01-2.56 μmol/L) and aerobic (1.62-2.03 μmol/L) effluents, with nonylphenol (NP) (0.24-0.31 μmol/L) as another group of metabolites in the anaerobic effluent, and nonylphenoxy carboxylates (NPECs) (2.79-3.30 μmol/L) in the aerobic effluent. Significant accumulation of NP in the anaerobic sludge and NPEO1-3 in the sludge of two reactors was observed. These results indicated that it was difficult to control these harmful metabolites in the conventional treatment processes. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles of sludge samples support the speculation that the NPEO degradation bacteria might be the dominant indigenous species.

  6. Isolation and characterization of medically important aerobic actinomycetes in soil of iran (2006 - 2007).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghamirian, Mohammad Reza; Ghiasian, Seyed Amir

    2009-01-01

    The aerobic actinomycetes are a large group of soil-inhabiting bacteria that occur worldwide. Some of them are the main cause of two important diseases, nocardiosis and actinomycetoma. To identify the prevalence and geographic distribution of aerobic actinomycetes in soil of Qazvin province, a study was carried out during 2006-2007. In this study, the incidence and diversity of medically important aerobic actinomycetes was determined in 300 soil samples of different parts of Qazvin. The suspensions of superficial soil samples were prepared by adding of normal saline, streptomycin and chloramphenicol and the supernatants were cultured on brain-heart infusion agar and Sabouraud's dextrose agar contain cycloheximide. The isolated microorganisms were examined by Gram and acid-fast stains and were identified biochemically and morphologically. Of 96 aerobic actinomycetes isolates identified, Actinomadura madurae and Streptomyces somaliensis were the most frequently isolated species each representing 19.8% of isolates, followed by Nocardia asteroides (15.6%), N. otitidiscaviarum (9.4%), N. brasiliensis (7.3%), A. peletieri, S. griseus, and Nocardia spp. (each 5.2%), and N. transvalensis, Nocardiopsis dassonvillei, Actinomadura spp. and Streptomyces spp. (each 3.1%). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on epidemiological investigation of medically important aerobic actinomycetes in soil samples from Iran. In recent years, mycetoma and nocardiosis have been increasingly reported in Iran. The results showed that medically important actinomycetes occur in the environment of Iran and soil could be potential source of actinomycotic infections.

  7. Higher circulating leukocytes in women with PCOS is reversed by aerobic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covington, Jeffrey D; Tam, Charmaine S; Pasarica, Magdalena; Redman, Leanne M

    2016-05-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by insulin resistance, elevated circulating leukocytes, and hypothesized to have higher adipose tissue inflammation. Aerobic exercise reduces circulating leukocytes and improves insulin sensitivity in obese individuals, but the effect of exercise on inflammation in PCOS is not known. We investigated circulating leukocytes, insulin sensitivity by euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp, serum pro- and anti-inflammatory markers (hsCRP, TNF-α, total and high molecular weight adiponectin), and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) gene expression of proinflammatory markers in 8 PCOS women and 8 obese control females matched for BMI. Additionally, in a prospective study, the 8 women with PCOS underwent a 16-week aerobic exercise regimen with the same measures performed post-intervention. Compared to controls, white blood cell counts (WBC) were 30% higher (p = 0.04) and circulating total adiponectin levels were 150% lower (p = 0.03) in women with PCOS at baseline/pre-exercise conditions. SAT gene expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF, p aerobic exercise, insulin sensitivity improved (p exercise-induced change in WBC and circulating neutrophils correlated inversely with changes in glucose disposal rate (r = -0.73, p = 0.03; and r = -0.82, p = 0.01, respectively). Aerobic exercise reduced serum leptin (p aerobic exercise and is associated with improvements in insulin sensitivity.

  8. Effect of Aerobic Exercise Training on Blood Pressure in Indians: Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonu Punia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. High blood pressure (BP is one of the most important modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, which accounts for one in every eight deaths worldwide. It has been predicted that, by 2020, there would be 111% increase in cardiovascular deaths in India. Aerobic exercise in the form of brisk walking, jogging, running, and cycling would result in reduction in BP. Many meta-analytical studies from western world confirm this. However, there is no such review from Indian subcontinent. Objective. Our objective is to systematically review and report the articles from India in aerobic exercise on blood pressure. Methodology. Study was done in March 2016 in Google Scholar using search terms “Aerobic exercise” AND “Training” AND “Blood pressure” AND “India.” This search produced 3210 titles. Results. 24 articles were identified for this review based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. Total of 1107 subjects participated with median of 25 subjects. Studies vary in duration from +3 weeks to 12 months with each session lasting 15–60 minutes and frequency varies from 3 to 8 times/week. The results suggest that there was mean reduction of −05.00 mmHg in SBP and −03.09 mmHg in DBP after aerobic training. Conclusion. Aerobic training reduces the blood pressure in Indians.

  9. Influence of Aerobic Training and Combinations of Interventions on Cognition and Neuroplasticity after Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constans, Annabelle; Pin-Barre, Caroline; Temprado, Jean-Jacques; Decherchi, Patrick; Laurin, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    Stroke often aggravated age-related cognitive impairments that strongly affect several aspects of quality of life. However, few studies are, to date, focused on rehabilitation strategies that could improve cognition. Among possible interventions, aerobic training is well known to enhance cardiovascular and motor functions but may also induce beneficial effects on cognitive functions. To assess the effectiveness of aerobic training on cognition, it seems necessary to know whether training promotes the neuroplasticity in brain areas involved in cognitive functions. In the present review, we first explore in both human and animal how aerobic training could improve cognition after stroke by highlighting the neuroplasticity mechanisms. Then, we address the potential effect of combinations between aerobic training with other interventions, including resistance exercises and pharmacological treatments. In addition, we postulate that classic recommendations for aerobic training need to be reconsidered to target both cognition and motor recovery because the current guidelines are only focused on cardiovascular and motor recovery. Finally, methodological limitations of training programs and cognitive function assessment are also developed in this review to clarify their effectiveness in stroke patients.

  10. Combination of ozonation with conventional aerobic oxidation for distillery wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangave, Preeti C; Gogate, Parag R; Pandit, Aniruddha B

    2007-05-01

    Laboratory-scale experiments were conducted in order to investigate the effect of ozone as pre-aerobic treatment and post-aerobic treatment for the treatment of the distillery wastewater. The degradation of the pollutants present in distillery spent wash was carried out by ozonation, aerobic biological degradation processes alone and by using the combinations of these two processes to investigate the synergism between the two modes of wastewater treatment and with the aim of reducing the overall treatment costs. Pollutant removal efficiency was followed by means of global parameters directly related to the concentration of organic compounds in those effluents: chemical oxygen demand (COD) and the color removal efficiency in terms of absorbance of the sample at 254 nm. Ozone was found to be effective in bringing down the COD (up to 27%) during the pretreatment step itself. In the combined process, pretreatment of the effluent led to enhanced rates of subsequent biological oxidation step, almost 2.5 times increase in the initial oxidation rate has been observed. Post-aerobic treatment with ozone led to further removal of COD along with the complete discoloration of the effluent. The integrated process (ozone-aerobic oxidation-ozone) achieved approximately 79% COD reduction along with discoloration of the effluent sample as compared to 34.9% COD reduction for non-ozonated sample, over a similar treatment period.

  11. Effects of extracellular polymer substances on aerobic granulation in sequencing batch reactors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhi-ping; LIU Li-li; YAO Jie; SUN Li-xin; CAI Wei-min

    2009-01-01

    The effects of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) on aerobic granulation in sequencing batch reactors (SBR) were investigated by evaluating the EPS content, and the relationship between EPS composition and surface properties of glucose-fed aerobic granules. The results show that aerobic granular sludge contains more EPS than seed sludge, and it is about 47 mg/gMLSS. Corresponding to the changes of EPS, the surface charge of microorganisms in granules increases from -0. 732 to -0. 845 meq/gMLSS, whereas the hydrophobicry changes significantly from 48.46% to 73. 16%. It is obviously that changes of EPS in sludge alter the negative surface charge and hydrophobieity of microorganisms in granules, enhance the polymeric interaction and promote the aerobic granulation. Moreover, EPS can serve as carbon and energy reserves in granulation, thus the growth between the interior and exterior bacteria is balanced, and the integrality of granules is maintained.SEM observation of the granules exhibits that EPS in granules are ropy ; by mixing with bacteria, compact matrix structure can be formed. The distribution of EPS in granules profiles the importance of EPS storage. It can be concluded that EPS play a crucial role in aerobic granulation.

  12. Biodegradation of p-cresol by aerobic granules in sequencing batch reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Farrukh Basheer; I.H.Farooqi

    2012-01-01

    The cultivation of aerobic granules in sequencing batch reactor for the biodegradation of p-cresol was studied.The reactor was started with 100 mg/L of p-cresol.Aerobic granules first appeared within one month of start up.The granules were large and strong and had a compact structure.The diameter of stable granules was in the range of 1-5 mm.The integrity coefficient and granules density was found to be 96% and 1046 kg/m3,respectively.The settling velocity of granules was found to be in the range of 2×10-2-6×10-2 m/sec.The aerobic granules were able to degrade p-cresol upto 800 mg/L at a removal efficiency of 88%.Specific p-cresol degradation rate in aerobic granules followed Haldane model for substrate inhibition.High specific p-cresol degradation rate up to 0.96 g pcresol/(g VSS.day) were sustained upto p-cresol concentration of 400 mg/L.Higher removal efficiency,good settling characteristics of aerobic granules,makes sequencing batch reactor suitable for enhancing the microorganism potential for biodegradation of inhibitory compounds.

  13. Nonmicrobial aerobic methane emission from poplar shoot cultures under low-light conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüggemann, Nicolas; Meier, Rudolf; Steigner, Dominik; Zimmer, Ina; Louis, Sandrine; Schnitzler, Jörg-Peter

    2009-06-01

    The aerobic formation of methane in plants has been reported previously, but has been questioned by a number of researchers. Recently, isotopic evidence demonstrated that ultraviolet irradiation and heating lead to photochemical or thermal aerobic methane formation mainly from plant pectin in the absence of microbial methane production. However, the origin of aerobic methane formation from plant material observed under low temperature and low-light/dark conditions is still unclear. Here we show that Grey poplar (Populus × canescens, syn. Populus tremula × Populus alba) plants derived from cell cultures under sterile conditions released 13C-labeled methane under low-light conditions after feeding the plants with 13CO2. Molecular biological analysis proved the absence of any microbial contamination with known methanogenic microorganisms and ruled out the possibility that methane emission from our poplar shoot cultures under aerobic low-light/dark and ambient temperature conditions could be of microbial origin. The CH4 release rates in our experiment were in the range of 0.16-0.7 ng g-1 DW h-1, adding evidence to the growing opinion that the quantitative role of aerobic methane emissions from plants in the global methane budget, at least from cold temperate or boreal regions, is only of minor importance.

  14. Investigating the nitrification and denitrification kinetics under aerobic and anaerobic conditions by Paracoccus denitrificans ISTOD1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medhi, Kristina; Singhal, Anjali; Chauhan, D K; Thakur, Indu Shekhar

    2017-03-16

    Municipal wastewater contains multiple nitrogen contaminants such as ammonia, nitrate and nitrite. Two heterotrophic nitrifier and aerobic denitrifiers, bacterial isolates ISTOD1 and ISTVD1 were isolated from domestic wastewater. On the basis of removal efficiency of ammonia, nitrate and nitrite under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions, ISTOD1 was selected and identified as Paracoccus denitrificans. Aerobically, NH4(+)-N had maximum specific nitrogen removal rate (Rxi) of 7.6g/gDCW/h and anaerobically, NO3(-)N showed Rxi of 2.5*10(-1)g/g DCW/h. Monod equation described the bioprocess kinetic coefficients, µmax and Ks, obtained by regression. Error functions were calculated to validate the Monod equation experimental data. Aerobic NO3(-)N showed the highest YW of 0.372mg DCW/mg NO3(-)N among the five conditions. ISTOD1 serves as a potential candidate for treating nitrogen rich wastewater using simultaneous nitrification and aerobic denitrification. It can be used in bioaugmentation studies under varied condition.

  15. Postural Balance Following Aerobic Fatigue Tests: A Longitudinal Study Among Young Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Nili; Eliakim, Alon; Zaav, Aviva; Pantanowitz, Michal; Halumi, Monder; Eisenstein, Tamir; Meckel, Yoav; Nemet, Dan

    2016-01-01

    General fatigue can cause aggravation of postural balance, with increased risk for injuries. The present longitudinal study aimed to evaluate the postural balance of young athletes following field aerobic tests throughout 1 year of training. Thirty children from a sports center in Nazareth, participating in a 3 times/week training program (specific to basketball, soccer, or athletic training), were assessed. Postural balance parameters were taken before, immediately after, and 10 min after a 20 m shuttle-run aerobic test, at 3 time points during 1 training year (Start/Y, Mid/Y, and End/Y). Fitness improved at the Mid/Y and End/Y compared to Start/Y. Postural balance significantly deteriorated immediately after the aerobic test and improved significantly in the 10-min testing in all 3 time points, with significant deterioration in the End/Y compared with the Start/Y. In conclusions, postural balance deteriorates immediately after aerobic exercises, and at the end of the year. To better practice drills related to postural balance and possibly to prevent injuries, it is best for young athletes to properly rest immediately following aerobic exercises and to practice postural balance mainly at the beginning and at the middle of the training year.

  16. Simultaneous anaerobic-aerobic biodegradation of halogenated phenolic compound under oxygen-limited conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yuan-cai; LAN Hui-xia; ZHAN Huai-yu; FU Shi-yu

    2005-01-01

    The successful application of co-immobilized aerobic-anaerobic biomaes under limited aeration in wastewater treatment systems would eliminate the problems associated with the intermediates mono-chlorophenol(MCP) and di-chlorophenol(DCP) accumulations. With low initial pentachlorophenol(PCP) concentration, all PCP could be completely removed under oxygen-limited strict anaerobic conditions,and the removal efficiencies with different initial haedspace oxygen percentage(IHOP) were not obviously different from each other. While at high initial PCP concentration, under strictly anaerobic conditions PCP and their intermediates were clearly higher than that under other conditions, and produced obvious accumulation, the highest PCP reduction was achieved by the system receiving 30 IHOP, oxygen-limited system also exhibited lower residual TOC concentration and lower concentration of metabolic intermediates MCP and DCP. These results suggested that under strictly anaerobic condition the reductive dechlorination of low chlorinated compounde became rate limiting in the reductive dechlorination pathway, less chlorinated compounds be more amenable to aerobic degradation, and the aerobes of outer layers could function under limited oxygen. The co-immobilized aerobic-anaerobic biomass for methanogeneeis under limited-aeration for chlorophenol degradation might be an attractive and efficient altemative for the sequential anaerobic/aerobic system to achieve mineralization of a broad range of recalcitrance highly chlorinated organics and low final TOC concentrations.

  17. Beneifcial mechanisms of aerobic exercise on hepatic lipid metabolism in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui Guo; Emily C Liong; Kwok Fai So; Man-Lung Fung; George L Tipoe

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) refers to any fatty liver disease that is not due to excessive use of alcohol. NAFLD probably results from abnormal hepatic lipid metabolism and insulin resistance. Aerobic exercise is shown to improve NAFLD. This review aimed to evaluate the molecular mechanisms involved in the beneifcial effects of aerobic exercise on NAFLD. DATA SOURCE:We searched articles in English on the role of aerobic exercise in NAFLD therapy in PubMed. RESULTS:The mechanisms of chronic aerobic exercise in regulating the outcome of NAFLD include: (i) reducing in-trahepatic fat content by down-regulating sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c and up-regulating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptorγ expression levels; (ii) decreas-ing hepatic oxidative stress through modulating the reactive oxygen species, and enhancing antioxidant enzymes such as catalase and glutathione peroxidase; (iii) ameliorating hepatic inlfammation via the inhibition of pro-inlfammatory media-tors such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1 beta; (iv) attenuating mitochondrial dependent apoptosis by reducing cytochrome C released from the mitochondria to the cytosol; and (v) inducing hepato-protective autophagy. CONCLUSION:Aerobic exercise, via different mechanisms, signiifcantly decreases the fat content of the liver and improves the outcomes of patients with NAFLD.

  18. The Effect of 8 weeks aerobic exercise and yoga on primary dismenorrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Siahpour

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & aim: Dysmenorrhea, menstrual cramps without physical pain is a common complaint in gynecology. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of aerobic training on primary Dysmenorrhea in a period of 8 weeks. Materials & Methods: In the present clinical-trial study, 60 non-athlete girls with primary Dysmenorrhea were randomly divided into three groups: aerobic training, yoga and control groups. Based on the visual analog scale of pain intensity, pain duration and amount of analgesics administered was assessed before and after the period of primary Dysmenorrhea using a questionnaire. In this eight-week exercise program, the aerobic exercises group for 60 minutes in three weeks and yoga exercises group in three sessions per week for 60 minutes, the yoga breathing techniques, exercises, asana and relaxation techniques were performed. There was no intervention in the control group. Data were analyzed by Wilcoxon, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann Whitney (p0.05. There was a significant decrease in the analgesic consumption in the yoga group compared to the exercise group (p<0/05. Conclusion: Both aerobic and yoga are effective in the treatment of primary Dysmenorrhea, but yoga has a greater reduction property on drug dosage. Key words: primary dysmenorrhea, aerobic exercise, yoga exercise, female student

  19. Removal of Organic Micropollutants by Aerobic Activated Sludge

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Nan

    2013-06-01

    The study examined the removal mechanism of non-acclimated and acclimated aerobic activated sludge for 29 target organic micropollutants (OMPs) at low concentration. The selection of the target OMPs represents a wide range of physical-chemical properties such as hydrophobicity, charge state as well as a diverse range of classes, including pharmaceuticals, personal care products and household chemicals. The removal mechanisms of OMPs include adsorption, biodegradation, hydrolysis, and vaporization. Adsorption and biodegradation were found to be the main routes for OMPs removal for all target OMPs. Target OMPs responded to the two dominant removal routes in different ways: (1) complete adsorption, (2) strong biodegradation and weak adsorption, (3) medium biodegradation and adsorption, and (4) weak sorption and weak biodegradatio. Kinetic study showed that adsorption of atenolol, mathylparaben and propylparaben well followed first-order model (R2: 0.939 to 0.999) with the rate constants ranging from 0.519-7.092 h-1. For biodegradation kinetics, it was found that benzafibrate, bisphenol A, diclofenac, gemfibrozil, ibuprofen, caffeine and DEET followed zero-order model (K0:1.15E-4 to 0.0142 μg/Lh-1, R2: 0.991 to 0.999), while TCEP, naproxen, dipehydramine, oxybenzone and sulfamethoxazole followed first-order model (K1:1.96E-4 to 0.101 h-1, R2: 0.912 to 0.996). 4 Inhibition by sodium azide (NaN3)and high temperature sterilization was compared, and it was found that high temperature sterilization will damage cells and change the sludge charge state. For the OMPs adaptation removal study, it was found that some of OMPs effluent concentration decreased, which may be due to the slow adaptation of the sludge or the increase of certain bacteria culture; some increased due to chromic toxicity of the chemicals; most of the OMPs had stable effluent concentration trend, it was explained that some of the OMPs were too difficutl to remove while other showed strong quick adaptation

  20. ChemInform Abstract: The Palladium-Catalyzed Aerobic Kinetic Resolution of Secondary Alcohols: Reaction Development, Scope, and Applications.

    KAUST Repository

    Ebner, David C.

    2010-03-30

    ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 100 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract of an article which was published elsewhere, please select a “Full Text” option. The original article is trackable via the “References” option.

  1. Communal microaerophilic-aerobic biodegradation of Amaranth by novel NAR-2 bacterial consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Giek Far; Rashid, Noor Aini Abdul; Chua, Lee Suan; Ab llah, Norzarini; Nasiri, Rozita; Ikubar, Mohamed Roslan Mohamad

    2012-02-01

    A novel bacterial consortium, NAR-2 which consists of Citrobacter freundii A1, Enterococcus casseliflavus C1 and Enterobacter cloacae L17 was investigated for biodegradation of Amaranth azo dye under sequential microaerophilic-aerobic condition. The NAR-2 bacterial consortium with E. casseliflavus C1 as the dominant strain enhanced the decolorization process resulting in reduction of Amaranth in 30 min. Further aerobic biodegradation, which was dominated by C. freundii A1 and E. cloacae L17, allowed biotransformation of azo reduction intermediates and mineralization via metabolic pathways including benzoyl-CoA, protocatechuate, salicylate, gentisate, catechol and cinnamic acid. The presence of autoxidation products which could be metabolized to 2-oxopentenoate was elucidated. The biodegradation mechanism of Amaranth by NAR-2 bacterial consortium was predicted to follow the steps of azo reduction, deamination, desulfonation and aromatic ring cleavage. This is for the first time the comprehensive microaerophilic-aerobic biotransformation pathways of Amaranth dye intermediates by bacterial consortium are being proposed.

  2. Effect of an aerobic training program as complementary therapy in patients with moderate depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Cerda, Pablo; Cervelló, Eduardo; Cocca, Armando; Viciana, Jesús

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of an aerobic training program as complementary therapy in patients suffering from moderate depression. 82 female patients weredivided into a group that received traditional pharmacotherapy (Fluoxetine 20 mg) and a group that received pharmacotherapy plus an aerobic training program. This program was carried out for eight consecutive weeks, three days per week, and included gymnastics, dancing, and walking. Depressive symptoms were measured with the Beck Depression Inventory and the ICD-10 Guide for Depression Diagnosis, both administered before and after treatments. The results confirm the effectiveness of the aerobic training program as a complementary therapy to diminish depressive symptoms in patients suffering from moderate depression.

  3. Increased lactate threshold after five weeks of treadmill aerobic training in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito Vieira, W H; Halsberghe, M J E; Schwantes, M L B; Perez, S E A; Baldissera, V; Prestes, J; Prestes, P; Farias, D L; Parizotto, N A

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyse the lactate threshold (LT) changes in rats submitted to an aerobic treadmill-training programme. Twenty-five Wistar rats were divided into two groups: a sedentary control group (CG), and a trained group (TG) submitted to an aerobic training during 5 weeks. All the animals were submitted to an incremental treadmill exercise test in order to determine LT. There was an increase in the maximum running speed in the TG (from 32.25 ± 1.27 to 47.75 ± 3.13 m.min-1 - p = 0.001), and running speed at LT (from 26.21 ± 1.15 to 35.30 ± 2.24 m.min-1 - p = 0.004), a part from the reduction in blood lactate at LT. LT can be determined in rats, and aerobic training induced positive oxidative physiological adaptations in the animals.

  4. Effect of aerobic exercise and raloxifene combination therapy on senile osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chengjin; Hou, Haibing; Chen, Yutao; Lv, Kai

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] This study assessed the effects of combined application of raloxifene and aerobic exercise on senile osteoporosis. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 70 elderly patients with osteoporosis, who treated at our hospital between April 2013 and August 2014, were divided into equal-sized observation and control groups. The control group was administered raloxifene, whereas the observation group received raloxifene treatment plus aerobic exercise. [Results] Outpatient outcomes were considered dependent variables. After treatment, the two groups differed significantly in terms of lumbar spine (L2-L4) and proximal femoral bone mineral density. The urine pyridine/creatinine ratio decreased significantly and serum calcitonin level increased significantly in the observation group. These differences were statistically significant. [Conclusion] Raloxifene combined with aerobic exercise therapy significantly improves bone density and promotes bone formation in patients with senile osteoporosis.

  5. [Self-aggregation property of bacterial alginates extracted from aerobic granules].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yue-Mei; Wang, Lin

    2008-05-01

    To explore bacterial alginates role in aerobic granules' formation, the alginate was extracted from aerobic granules and identified. Its aggregation property in 50 mg x L(-1) CaCl2 solution was investigated by the atomic force microscopy (AFM). Bacterial alginates amounted to 35.1% +/- 1.9% of granules' dry mass. With the concentration increased from 10 mg x L(-1) to 500 mg x L(-1) in 50 mg x L(-1) CaCl2, the extracted alginates tended to form ordered aggregations, with the shape changed from randomly distributed globules, to rod-like and flower-shaped aggregations, and finally to weblike networks due to their supramolecular self-assembly property. The three dimensional alginate-metal gel is the structural polymer of aerobic granules, and the alginates-Ca2+ gel formation plays an important role in granules' formation and structure stabilization.

  6. Factors affecting biological denitrifying dephosphatation in anaerobic/anoxic/aerobic sequencing batch reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This study was conducted to verify and discuss the denitrifying dephosphatation under different levels of nitrate concentration and retention time of anoxic/aerobic process in a Sequencing Batch Reactor ( SBR ).The results of tests demonstrated that there were two kinds of phosphorus-accumulating organisms (PAOs) in the biological excess phosphorus removal (BEPR) system. One was non-DNPAOs that could only use oxygen as terminal electron acceptors, the other was denitrifying PAOs (DNPAOs) that could use both nitrate and oxygen as terminal electron acceptors. Phosphorus uptake efficiency could be attained under anoxic period ranging from 28.7%-96.7% in an anacrobic/anoxic/aerobic system. Experimental results showed that nitrate concentration and retention time of anoxic/aerobic process were the key factors affecting the course of denitrifying dephosphatation.

  7. Biodegradation of triclosan and formation of methyl-triclosan in activated sludge under aerobic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Xijuan; Nielsen, Jeppe Lund; Furgal, Karolina;

    2011-01-01

    Triclosan is an antimicrobial agent which is widely used in household and personal care products. Widespread use of this compound has led to the elevated concentrations of triclosan in wastewater, wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and receiving waters. Removal of triclosan and formation...... of triclosan- methyl was investigated in activated sludge from a standard activated sludge WWTP equipped with enhanced biological phosphorus removal. The removal was found to occur mainly under aerobic conditions while under anoxic (nitrate reducing) and anaerobic conditions rather low removal rates were...... determined. In a laboratory-scale activated sludge reactor 75% of the triclosan was removed under aerobic conditions within 150 h, while no removal was observed under anaerobic or anoxic conditions. One percent of the triclosan was converted to triclosan-methyl under aerobic conditions, less under anoxic...

  8. The effects of acute aerobic exercise on the primary motor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amaya M; Staines, W Richard

    2015-01-01

    The effect of aerobic exercise on primary motor cortical excitability is a relevant area of interest for both motor learning and motor rehabilitation. Transient excitability changes that may follow an exercise session are a necessary precursor to more lasting neuroplastic changes. While the number of studies is limited, research suggests that a session of aerobic exercise can create an ideal environment for the early induction of plasticity. Potential mechanisms include the upregulation of neurotransmitter activity, altered cerebral metabolism and cortisol levels, and increases in brain-derived neurotrophic factor. While there is considerable evidence that chronic physical activity positively impacts brain health and function, studies examining cortical excitability changes and motor performance after a single session of exercise are lacking. Further research is required to determine the clinical utility and feasibility of aerobic exercise.

  9. Adipose tissue lipolysis is increased during a repeated bout of aerobic exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stich, V; de Glisezinski, I; Berlan, M;

    2000-01-01

    The goal of the study was to examine whether lipid mobilization from adipose tissue undergoes changes during repeated bouts of prolonged aerobic exercise. Microdialysis of the subcutaneous adipose tissue was used for the assessment of lipolysis; glycerol concentration was measured in the dialysate...... leaving the adipose tissue. Seven male subjects performed two repeated bouts of 60-min exercise at 50% of their maximal aerobic power, separated by a 60-min recovery period. The exercise-induced increases in extracellular glycerol concentrations in adipose tissue and in plasma glycerol concentrations were...... levels were lower during the second exercise bout. The results suggest that adipose tissue lipolysis during aerobic exercise of moderate intensity is enhanced when an exercise bout is preceded by exercise of the same intensity and duration performed 1 h before. This response pattern is associated...

  10. Moderate-to-high intensity aerobic exercise in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Kristian S; Sobol, Nanna; Beyer, Nina;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Physical exercise may modulate neuropathology and symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This pilot study assessed the feasibility of conducting a study of moderate-to-high intensity aerobic exercise in home-dwelling patients with mild AD. METHODS: An uncontrolled preintervention......-postintervention test design with a single group receiving the same intervention. A total of eight patients with mild to moderate AD from the Copenhagen Memory clinic were included in the study. The intervention lasted for 14 weeks and consisted of supervised, 1-h sessions of aerobic exercise three times per week (50......-to-high intensity aerobic exercise in community-dwelling patients with mild AD. Our findings indicate that aspects such as a longer adaptation period, information about injury prevention, and need for involvement and support from caregivers should be addressed when planning an exercise intervention in an AD...

  11. Stable aerobic granules for continuous-flow reactors: Precipitating calcium and iron salts in granular interiors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juang, Yu-Chuan; Sunil S, Adav; Lee, Duu-Jong; Tay, Joo-Hwa

    2010-11-01

    Aerobic sludge granules are compact, strong microbial aggregates that have excellent settling ability and capability to efficiently treat high-strength and toxic wastewaters. The aerobic granules cultivated with low ammonium and phosphates lost structural stability within 3 days in continuous-flow reactors. Conversely, stable aerobic granules were cultivated in substrate with high levels of ammonium salts that could stably exist for 216 days in continuous-flow reactors with or without submerged membrane. The scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy microanalysis and the confocal laser scanning microscopy imaging detected large amounts of calcium and iron precipitates in granule interiors. The Visual MINTEQ version 2.61 calculation showed that the phosphates and hydroxides were the main species in the precipitate.

  12. Basal blood parameters of horses subjected to aerobic activity fed with lipidic concentrated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia de Oliveira

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The feeding diets were evaluated containing low and high levels of soybean oil for horses athletes subjected to two protocols of aerobic training on the response of basal blood biochemical parameters. Four horses were used in latin square design with treatments in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement. Treatments consisted levels of 5 and 15% oil concentrates and two aerobic training, 40' and 60' minutes. Plasmatic parameters were monitored, triglyceride (TG, total cholesterol (TC, glucose (GLU and lactate (LAC, during basal metabolism. The TG, TC, GLU and LAC from horses at rest were not affected (P> 0.05 neither of diet and physical activity, 0.21, 3.79, 4.18, 0.93 mmol L-1, respectively. It can be concluded that offer concentrate with high content of soybean oil to athletic horses in aerobic activities can be performed without altering the blood biochemical profile of basal metabolism.

  13. Extensive functional evaluations to monitor aerobic training in Becker Muscular Dystrophy: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina Tramonti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Low-intensity aerobic training seems to have positive effects on muscle strength, endurance and fatigue in Becker Muscular Dystrophy (BMD patients. We describe the case of a 33-year old BMD man, who performed a four-week aerobic training. Extensive functional evaluations were executed to monitor the efficacy of the rehabilitative treatment. Results evidenced an increased force exertion and an improvement in muscle contraction during sustained exercise. An improvement of walk velocity, together with agility, endurance capacity and oxygen consumption during exercise was observed. Moreover, an enhanced metabolic efficiency was evidenced, as shown by reduced lactate blood levels after training. Interestingly, CK showed higher levels after the training protocol, revealing possible muscle damage. In conclusion, aerobic training may represent an effective method improving exercise performance, functional status and metabolic efficiency. Anyway, a careful functional assessment should be taken into account as a useful approach in the management of the disease’s rehabilitative treatment.

  14. The association between aerobic fitness and physical activity in children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Peter Lund; Moeller, Niels Christian; Korsholm, Lars;

    2010-01-01

    The link between aerobic fitness and physical activity in children has been studied in a number of earlier studies and the results have generally shown weak to moderate correlations. This overall finding has been widely questioned partly because of the difficulty in obtaining valid estimates...... of physical activity. This study investigated the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationship between aerobic fitness and physical activity in a representative sample of 9 and 15-year-old children (n = 1260 cross-sectional, n = 153 longitudinal). The specific goal was to improve past studies using...... an objective method of activity assessment and taking into account a number of major sources of error. Data came from the Danish part of the European youth heart study, 1997-2003. The cross-sectional results generally showed a weak to moderate association between aerobic fitness and physical activity...

  15. THE EFFECTS OF INOCULANT LACTIC ACID BACTERIA ON THE FERMENTATION AND AEROBIC STABILITY OF SUNFLOWER SILAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fisun Koc

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the effects of actic acid bacterial inoculant on the fermentation and aerobic stability of sunflower silages. Sunflower was harvested at the milk stage. Inoculant-1174 (Pioneer®,USA was used as homofermentative lactic acid bacterial inoculant. Inoculant was applied 6.00 log10 cfu/g silage levels. Silages with no additive served as controls. After treatment, the chopped sunflower was ensiled in the PVC type laboratory silos. Three silos for each group were sampled for chemical and microbiological analysis on days 2, 4, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 56 after ensiling. At the end of the ensiling period, all silages were subjected to an aerobic stability test for 14 days. Neither inoculant improved the fermentation parameters of sunflower silages. At the end of the ensiling period, inoculant increased lactic acid bacteria (LAB and decreased yeast and mould numbers of silages. Inoculant treatment did not affect aerobic stability of silages.

  16. Level of choreographic preparedness of sportsmen of different age groups in sports aerobics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Todorova

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the analysis of choreographic preparedness of different age groups of sportsmen on sports aerobics. Material & Methods: videos of competitive programs of the sportsmen, who are specialized in aerobics, different age groups, method of expert evaluations are used for the quantitative analysis of choreographic preparedness; methods of mathematical analysis and synthesis are used for the determination of level of choreographic preparedness of sportsmen. Results: the level of choreographic preparedness is determined on the basis of the rating scale of the criteria of implementation of the competitive programs (Competition rules of 2013–2016 of teams-participants of the Championship of Ukraine for sports aerobics. Conclusions: indicators, to which it is necessary to pay attention in the course of choreographic preparation at stages of long-term training of sportsmen, are defined.

  17. A community-based approach to trials of aerobic exercise in aging and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidoni, Eric D; Van Sciver, Angela; Johnson, David K; He, Jinghua; Honea, Robyn; Haines, Brian; Goodwin, Jami; Laubinger, M Pat; Anderson, Heather S; Kluding, Patricia M; Donnelly, Joseph E; Billinger, Sandra A; Burns, Jeffrey M

    2012-11-01

    The benefits of exercise for aging have received considerable attention in both the popular and academic press. The putative benefits of exercise for maximizing cognitive function and supporting brain health have great potential for combating Alzheimer's disease (AD). Aerobic exercise offers a low-cost, low-risk intervention that is widely available and may have disease modifying effects. Demonstrating that aerobic exercise alters the AD process would have enormous public health implications. The purpose of this paper is to report the protocol of a current, community-based pilot study of aerobic exercise for AD to guide future investigation. This manuscript provides 1) an overview of possible benefits of exercise in those with dementia, 2) a rationale and recommendations for implementation of a community-based approach, 3) recommendation for implementation of similar study protocols, and 4) unique challenges in conducting an exercise trial in AD.

  18. The role of aerobic fitness in cortical thickness and mathematics achievement in preadolescent children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaddock-Heyman, Laura; Erickson, Kirk I; Kienzler, Caitlin; King, Matthew; Pontifex, Matthew B; Raine, Lauren B; Hillman, Charles H; Kramer, Arthur F

    2015-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that aerobic fitness benefits the brain and cognition during childhood. The present study is the first to explore cortical brain structure of higher fit and lower fit 9- and 10-year-old children, and how aerobic fitness and cortical thickness relate to academic achievement. We demonstrate that higher fit children (>70th percentile VO2max) showed decreased gray matter thickness in superior frontal cortex, superior temporal areas, and lateral occipital cortex, coupled with better mathematics achievement, compared to lower fit children (achievement, particularly mathematics achievement, and raise the possibility that individual differences in aerobic fitness play an important role in cortical gray matter thinning during brain maturation. The establishment of predictors of academic performance is key to helping educators focus on interventions to maximize learning and success across the lifespan.

  19. Longitudinal study of sports injuries in practitioners of aerobic gymnastics competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Abalo Núñez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIntroduction:Aerobic gymnastics, since its membership in the International Gymnastics Federation, has undergone changes in its regulations.Objective:To analyze the injuries found in Spanish aerobic gymnastics athletes during different editions of the Code of Points.Methods:A descriptive, longitudinal and compara-tive study was carried out on the epidemiology of injuries in aerobic gymnastics published during different editions of the Code of Points.Results:It highlights that the number of injuries decreased from 156 to 38 last year. This decline has been related to the restriction on the number of difficulties in the exercise and the number of elements to be performed on the floor. However, they have increased the number and value of the difficulties.Conclusions:Therefore, it is concluded that the changes made in the regulations are intended to safeguard the health of athletes and ensure that competition develops at its best artistic and technical aspect.

  20. C3N4-H5PMo10V2O40: a dual-catalysis system for reductant-free aerobic oxidation of benzene to phenol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Zhouyang; Zhou, Yu; Chen, Guojian; Ge, Weilin; Wang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Hydroxylation of benzene is a widely studied atom economical and environmental benign reaction for producing phenol, aiming to replace the existing three-step cumene process. Aerobic oxidation of benzene with O2 is an ideal and dream process, but benzene and O2 are so inert that current systems either require expensive noble metal catalysts or wasteful sacrificial reducing agents; otherwise, phenol yields are extremely low. Here we report a dual-catalysis non-noble metal system by simultaneously using graphitic carbon nitride (C3N4) and Keggin-type polyoxometalate H5PMo10V2O40 (PMoV2) as catalysts, showing an exceptional activity for reductant-free aerobic oxidation of benzene to phenol. The dual-catalysis mechanism results in an unusual route to create phenol, in which benzene is activated on the melem unit of C3N4 and O2 by the V-O-V structure of PMoV2. This system is simple, highly efficient and thus may lead the one-step production of phenol from benzene to a more practical pathway.

  1. Preparation and catalytic activity of poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone)-protected Au nanoparticles for the aerobic oxidation of glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haijun; Li, Wenqi; Gu, Yajun; Zhang, Shaowei

    2014-08-01

    PVP-protected Au nanoparticles (NPs) for the aerobic oxidation of glucose were prepared by using NaBH4 reduction method. The effects of processing parameters such as Au3+ ion concentration, reaction temperature, ratio of NaBH4 or PVP to Au3+, and solvent composition on their particle sizes and catalytic activities were studied in detail and the synthesis conditions optimized. As-prepared Au NPs possessed a FCC structure, with an average size varying from about 100 to 2.6 nm depending on their preparation conditions. The size changes affected their catalytic activities in the aerobic oxidation of glucose. The Au NPs with the average size of 2.6 nm prepared under the optimal conditions showed a high instantaneous catalytic activity as well as a high long-time stability. Based on the kinetic study on the glucose oxidation over the PVP-protected Au NPs, the corresponding apparent activation energy was determined as 82 kJ mol(-1).

  2. Treatment of high salt oxidized modified starch waste water using micro-electrolysis, two-phase anaerobic aerobic and electrolysis for reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Xuenong; Wang, Yulin

    2016-08-01

    A combined process of micro-electrolysis, two-phase anaerobic, aerobic and electrolysis was investigated for the treatment of oxidized modified starch wastewater (OMSW). Optimum ranges for important operating variables were experimentally determined and the treated water was tested for reuse in the production process of corn starch. The optimum hydraulic retention time (HRT) of micro-electrolysis, methanation reactor, aerobic process and electrolysis process were 5, 24, 12 and 3 h, respectively. The addition of iron-carbon fillers to the acidification reactor was 200 mg/L while the best current density of electrolysis was 300 A/m2. The biodegradability was improved from 0.12 to 0.34 by micro-electrolysis. The whole treatment was found to be effective with removal of 96 % of the chemical oxygen demand (COD), 0.71 L/day of methane energy recovery. In addition, active chlorine production (15,720 mg/L) was obtained by electrolysis. The advantage of this hybrid process is that, through appropriate control of reaction conditions, effect from high concentration of salt on the treatment was avoided. Moreover, the process also produced the material needed in the production of oxidized starch while remaining emission-free and solved the problem of high process cost.

  3. The interplay between aerobic metabolism and antipredator performance: vigilance is related to recovery rate after exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun Steven Killen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available When attacked by a predator, fish respond with a sudden fast-start motion away from the threat. Although this anaerobically-powered swimming necessitates a recovery phase which is fuelled aerobically, little is known about links between escape performance and aerobic traits such as aerobic scope or recovery time after exhaustive exercise. Slower recovery ability or a reduced aerobic scope could make some individuals less likely to engage in a fast-start response or display reduced performance. Conversely, increased vigilance in some individuals could permit faster responses to an attack but also increase energy demand and prolong recovery after anaerobic exercise. We examined how aerobic scope and the ability to recover from anaerobic exercise relates to differences in fast-start escape performance in juvenile golden grey mullet at different acclimation temperatures. Individuals were acclimated to either 18, 22, or 26oC, then measured for standard and maximal metabolic rates and aerobic scope using intermittent flow respirometry. Anaerobic capacity and the time taken to recover after exercise were also assessed. Each fish was also filmed during a simulated attack to determine response latency, maximum speed and acceleration, and turning rate displayed during the escape response. Across temperatures, individuals with shorter response latencies during a simulated attack are those with the longest recovery time after exhaustive anaerobic exercise. Because a short response latency implies high preparedness to escape, these results highlight the trade-off between the increased vigilance and metabolic demand, which leads to longer recovery times in fast reactors. These results improve our understanding of the intrinsic physiological traits that generate inter-individual variability in escape ability, and emphasise that a full appreciation of trade-offs associated with predator avoidance and energy balance must include energetic costs associated with

  4. Cardiac autonomic responses at onset of exercise: effects of aerobic fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agosto, T; Peçanha, T; Bartels, R; Moreira, D N; Silva, L P; Nóbrega, A C L; Lima, J R P

    2014-09-01

    Analyzes of cardiac autonomic responses at the initial transient of exercise have been used for the investigation of the cardiovascular health. We evaluated the influence of aerobic fitness on HR and HRV responses at the onset of exercise. 25 male subjects (22.3±2.4 years) were divided into 2 groups: 'low aerobic fitness' (36.2±2.6ml.kg(-1).min(-1); n=10) and 'high aerobic fitness' (46.4±5.0ml.kg(-1).min(-1); n=15). The experimental session consisted of assessing the beat-to-beat HR at rest and during submaximal exercise. The autonomic responses at the onset of exercise were calculated by fitting the HR and HRV (rMSSD-index) curves during the initial 300s of exercise into a first-order exponential equation. The time constant of HR and of the rMSSD index (τonHR and τonrMSSD) were calculated for analysis. We observed lower values of τonrMSSD in the high aerobic fitness group compared to the low aerobic fitness group (26.8±5s vs. 38.0±18s, respectively; p=0.02). The τonHR (42.0±15 vs. 49.3±26s, p=0.38) for the groups showed no difference. Aerobic fitness partially influenced the autonomic responses during exercise, since individuals with higher fitness showed faster decreases in beat-to-beat HRV at the onset of exercise.

  5. Acute aerobic exercise increases brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in elderly with Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Flávia Gomes de Melo; Vital, Thays Martins; Stein, Angelica Miki; Arantes, Franciel José; Rueda, André Veloso; Camarini, Rosana; Teodorov, Elizabeth; Santos-Galduróz, Ruth Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Studies indicate the involvement of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Decreased BDNF levels may constitute a lack of trophic support and contribute to cognitive impairment in AD. The benefits of acute and chronic physical exercise on BDNF levels are well-documented in humans, however, exercise effects on BDNF levels have not been analyzed in older adults with AD. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of acute aerobic exercise on BDNF levels in older adults with AD and to verify associations among BDNF levels, aerobic fitness, and level of physical activity. Using a controlled design, twenty-one patients with AD (76.3 ± 6.2 years) and eighteen healthy older adults (74.6 ± 4.7 years) completed an acute aerobic exercise. The outcomes included measures of BDNF plasma levels, aerobic fitness (treadmill grade, time to exhaustion, VO2, and maximal lactate) and level of physical activity (Baecke Questionnaire Modified for the Elderly). The independent t-test shows differences between groups with respect to the BDNF plasma levels at baseline (p = 0.04; t = 4.53; df = 37). In two-way ANOVA, a significant effect of time was found (p = 0.001; F = 13.63; df = 37), the aerobic exercise significantly increased BDNF plasma levels in AD patients and healthy controls. A significant correlation (p = 0.04; r = 0.33) was found between BDNF levels and the level of physical activity. The results of our study suggest that aerobic exercise increases BDNF plasma levels in patients with AD and healthy controls. In addition to that, BDNF levels had association with level of physical activity.

  6. EFEKTIVITAS SISTEM BIOFILTER AEROB DALAM MENURUNKAN KADAR AMONIA PADA AIR LIMBAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Made Indra Wahyuni

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasingpopulationand activity of the Balinese people can increase the amount of waste as a byproduct of community activities. The presence of the metabolites in wastewater as ammonia is toxic to aquatic organisms. Application aerobic biofilter system can be used as an attempt to reduce levels of ammonia. In the aerobic biofilter, contact between the gravel media with microorganisms that form biofilmsare able to accelerate the degradation of organic matter and nitrification processes. The aims of this research are to determine the best consortium of activated sludge to reduce ammonia levels by aerobic biofilter system and to determine the effectivity of aerobic biofilter system. The first stage of this research were seeding of activated sludge from three sources are Wastewater Treatment Plan (WWTP of Suwung Denpasar, WWTP of Wangaya Hospital and WWTP of Bali Tourism Development Corporation (BTDC Nusa Dua Bali, for six days. This research was done by measuring Volatile Suspended Solid (VSS value that showed the growth rate of biomass in activated sludge. The second stage wereapplication of activated sludges and control in aerobic biofilter to reduce ammonia levels, for five days. This study used a Completely Randomized Design with four treatments and three repetitions. The results showed that the best activated sludge obtained from WWTP of Suwung Denpasar indicated by the highest biomass growth (VSS value of 2396.6 mg/L and was able to reduce ammonia up to 0.78 mg/ L. The effectivity of aerobic biofilter system with activated sludge from WWTP of Suwung Denpasar achieve effectivity of treatment process up to 92.20 % and have been able to pass the effectivity of quality standards (90% during five days of processing. The effectivity levels was the highest compared to control and activated sludgetreatments.

  7. Temperature dependent growth, feeding, nutritional condition and aerobic metabolism of juvenile spiny lobster, Sagmariasus verreauxi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgibbon, Quinn P; Simon, Cedric J; Smith, Gregory G; Carter, Chris G; Battaglene, Stephen C

    2017-02-05

    We examined the effects of temperature on the growth, feeding, nutritional condition and aerobic metabolism of juvenile spiny lobster, Sagmariasus verreauxi, in order to determine if temperature acclimated aerobic scope correlates with optimum for growth and to establish the thermal tolerance window for this emerging aquaculture species. Juvenile lobsters (initial weight=10.95±0.47g) were reared (n=7) at temperatures from 11.0 to 28.5°C for 145days. All lobsters survived from 14.5 to 25.0°C while survival was reduced at 11.0°C (86%) and all lobsters died at 28.5°C. Lobster specific growth rate and specific feed consumption displayed a unimodal response with temperature, peaking at 21.5°C. Lobster standard, routine and maximum metabolic rates, and aerobic scope all increased exponentially up to maximum non-lethal temperature. Optimum temperature for growth did not correspond to that for maximum aerobic scope suggesting that aerobic scope is not an effective predictor of the thermal optimum of spiny lobsters. Plateauing of specific feed consumption beyond 21.5°C suggests that temperature dependent growth of lobsters is limited by capacity to ingest or digest sufficient food to meet increasing maintenance metabolic demands at high temperatures. The nutritional condition of lobsters was not influenced by temperature and feed conversion ratio was improved at lower temperatures. These findings add to a growing body of evidence questioning the generality of aerobic scope to describe the physiological thermal boundaries of aquatic ectotherms and suggest that feed intake plays a crucial role in regulating performance at thermal extremes.

  8. Enhancing Cognitive Training Through Aerobic Exercise After a First Schizophrenia Episode: Theoretical Conception and Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuechterlein, Keith H; Ventura, Joseph; McEwen, Sarah C; Gretchen-Doorly, Denise; Vinogradov, Sophia; Subotnik, Kenneth L

    2016-07-01

    Cognitive training (CT) and aerobic exercise have separately shown promise for improving cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Aerobic exercise releases brain-derived neurotrophic factor, which promotes synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis. Thus, aerobic exercise provides a neurotrophic platform for neuroplasticity-based CT. The combination of aerobic exercise and CT may yield more robust effects than CT alone, particularly in the initial course of schizophrenia. In a pilot study, 7 patients with a recent onset of schizophrenia were assigned to Cognitive Training & Exercise (CT&E) and 9 to CT alone for a 10-week period. Posit Science programs were used for CT. Neurocognitive training focused on tuning neural circuits related to perceptual processing and verbal learning and memory. Social cognitive training used the same learning principles with social and affective stimuli. Both groups participated in these training sessions 2d/wk, 2h/d. The CT&E group also participated in an aerobic conditioning program for 30 minutes at our clinic 2d/wk and at home 2d/wk. The effect size for improvement in the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery Overall Composite score for CT&E patients relative to CT patients was large. Functional outcome, particularly independent living skills, also tended to improve more in the CT&E than in the CT group. Muscular endurance, cardiovascular fitness, and diastolic blood pressure also showed relative improvement in the CT&E compared to the CT group. These encouraging pilot study findings support the promise of combining CT and aerobic exercise to improve the early course of schizophrenia.

  9. The effect of regular aerobic exercise on urinary brain-derived neurotrophic factor in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunita Fediani

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Nervous system development in early life influences the quality of cognitive ability during adulthood. Neuronal development and neurogenesis are highly influenced by neurotrophins. The most active neurotrophin is brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF. Physical activity has a positive effect on cognitive function. However, few experimental studies have been done on children to assess the effect of aerobic regular exercise on BDNF levels. Objective To assess the effect of regular aerobic exercise on urinary BDNF levels in children. Methods This clinical study was performed in 67 children aged 6-8 years in Palembang. The intervention group (n=34 engaged in aerobic gymnastics three times per week for 8 weeks, while the control group (n=33 engaged in gymnastic only once per week. Measurements of urinary BDNF were performed on both groups before and after intervention. Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon rank tests were used to analyze the differences between groups. Results There was no difference in urinary BDNF levels between the two groups prior to the intervention. After intervention, the mean urinary BDNF levels were significantly higher in the intervention group than in the control group, 230.2 (SD 264.4 pg/mL vs. 88.0 (SD 35.4 pg/mL, respectively (P=0.027. We also found that engaging in aerobic gymnastics significantly increased urinary BDNF levels from baseline in both groups (P=0.001. Conclusion Regular aerobic exercise can increase urinary BDNF levels and potentially improve cognitive function. Aerobic exercise should be a routine activity in school curriculums in combination with the learning process to improve children’s cognitive ability.[Paediatr Indones. 2014;54:351-7.].

  10. Effects of heavy metals on aerobic denitrification by strain Pseudomonas stutzeri PCN-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Mengyao; Chen, Qian; Ma, Tao; Zheng, Maosheng; Ni, Jinren

    2017-02-01

    Effects of heavy metals on aerobic denitrification have been poorly understood compared with their impacts on anaerobic denitrification. This paper presented effects of four heavy metals (Cd(II), Cu(II), Ni(II), and Zn(II)) on aerobic denitrification by a novel aerobic denitrifying strain Pseudomonas stutzeri PCN-1. Results indicated that aerobic denitrifying activity decreased with increasing heavy metal concentrations due to their corresponding inhibition on the denitrifying gene expression characterized by a time lapse between the expression of the nosZ gene and that of the cnorB gene by PCN-1, which led to lower nitrate removal rate (1.67∼6.67 mg L(-1) h(-1)), higher nitrite accumulation (47.3∼99.8 mg L(-1)), and higher N2O emission ratios (5∼283 mg L(-1)/mg L(-1)). Specially, promotion of the nosZ gene expression by increasing Cu(II) concentrations (0∼0.05 mg L(-1)) was found, and the absence of Cu resulted in massive N2O emission due to poor synthesis of N2O reductase. The inhibition effect for both aerobic denitrifying activity and denitrifying gene expression was as follows from strongest to least: Cd(II) (0.5∼2.5 mg L(-1)) > Cu(II) (0.5∼5 mg L(-1)) > Ni(II) (2∼10 mg L(-1)) > Zn(II) (25∼50 mg L(-1)). Furthermore, sensitivity of denitrifying gene to heavy metals was similar in order of nosZ > nirS ≈ cnorB > napA. This study is of significance in understanding the potential application of aerobic denitrifying bacteria in practical wastewater treatment.

  11. Effect of aerobic and anaerobic exercises on glycemiccontrol in type 1 diabetic youths

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrea Lukács; László Barkai

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the long-term effect of aerobic and/ or anaerobic exercise on glycemic control in youths with type 1 diabetes. METHODS: Literature review was performed in spring and summer 2014 using PubMed/MEDLINE, Google Scholar, Scopus, and ScienceDirect with the following terms: aerobic, anaerobic, high-intensity, resistance, exercise/training, combined with glycemic/metabolic control, glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and type 1 diabetes. Only peer-reviewed articles in English wereincluded published in the last 15 years. It was selectedfrom 1999 to 2014. Glycemic control was measuredwith HbA1c. Studies with an intervention lasting atleast 12 wk were included if the HbA1c was measuredbefore and after the intervention.RESULTS: A total of nine articles were found, andthey were published between the years of 2002-2011.The sample size was 401 diabetic youths (166 malesand 235 females) with an age range of 10-19 yearsexcept one study, in which the age range was 13-30years. Study participants were from Australia, Tunisia,Lithuania, Taiwan, Turkey, Brazilia, Belgium, Egypt andFrance. Four studies were aerobic-based, four werecombined aerobic and anaerobic programs, and onecompared aerobic exercise to anaerobic one. Availablestudies had insufficient evidence that any type ofexercise or combined training would clearly improvethe glycemic control in type 1 diabetic youth. Onlythree (two aerobic-based and one combined) studiescould provide a significant positive change in glycemiccontrol.CONCLUSION: The regular physical exercise hasseveral other valuable physiological and health benefitsthat justify the inclusion of exercise in pediatricdiabetes treatment and care.

  12. The effects of Lactobacillus buchneri with or without a homolactic bacterium on the fermentation and aerobic stability of corn silages made at different locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, R J; Kung, L

    2010-04-01

    Whole-plant corn (31 to 39% dry matter) from several locations was chopped, treated with nothing (U), Lactobacillus buchneri 40788 (4 x 10(5) cfu/g; LB), or L. buchneri (4 x 10(5) cfu/g) and Pediococcus pentosaceus (1 x 10(5) cfu/g; LBPP), and packed into quadruplicate 20-L silos to determine their effects on silage fermentation and aerobic stability after 120 d of storage. The experiment was a randomized complete block design with main effects of treatment (T), block (location; L), and T x L interaction. Dry matter recovery was different among locations but unaffected by T. The population of lactic acid bacteria was greater in LB and LBPP than in U, and the opposite was true regarding the population of yeasts. Numbers of L. buchneri (colony-forming unit equivalents), determined by a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, were higher in 4 of 5 locations for LB and LBPP compared with U (T x L interaction) with an average 6.70 log cfu/g for LB and LBPP versus 4.87 log cfu/g for U. Silages inoculated with LB and LBPP had higher silage pH and higher concentrations of acetic acid and 1,2 propanediol but lower concentrations of ethanol and water-soluble carbohydrates; there was a T x L interaction for all these variables. Aerobic stability was improved by LB and LBPP (mean of 136 h) compared with U (44 h), but there was an interaction between T x L. In general, locations with the highest population of L. buchneri had the largest increases in acetic acid and, consequently, the greatest improvements in aerobic stability. The addition of L. buchneri 40788 alone or with P. pentosaceus resulted in similar effects on silage fermentation and aerobic stability, but the effects were variable among locations, suggesting that unidentified factors; for example, in the field or on the forage crop, may alter the effectiveness of microbial inoculation.

  13. Systematic analysis of adaptations in aerobic capacity and submaximal energy metabolism provides a unique insight into determinants of human aerobic performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vollaard, Niels B J; Constantin-Teodosiu, Dimitru; Fredriksson, Katarina

    2009-01-01

    not been examined in a longitudinal study. In the present study we hypothesized that improvements in aerobic capacity (Vo(2max)) and metabolic control would combine equally to explain enhanced aerobic performance. Twenty-four sedentary males (24 +/- 2 yr; 1.81 +/- 0.08 m; 76.6 +/- 11.3 kg) undertook...... supervised cycling training (45 min at 70% of pretraining Vo(2max)) 4 times/wk for 6 wk. Performance was determined using a 15-min cycling time trial, and muscle biopsies were taken before and after a 10-min cycle at 70% of pretraining Vo(2max) to quantify substrate metabolism. Substantial interindividual...... variability in training-induced adaptations was observed for most parameters, yet "low responders" for DeltaVo(2max) were not consistently low responders for other variables. While Vo(2max) and time trial performance were related at baseline (r(2) = 0.80, P Vo(2max) was completely...

  14. Nonpreventive Role of Aerobic Exercise Against Cisplatin-induced Nephrotoxicity in Female Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Jalaledin Noroozi; Farzaneh Zeynali; Mehdi Nematbakhsh; Zahra Pezeshki; Ardeshir Talebi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cisplatin (CP) is a chemotherapy drug and nephrotoxicity is a major concern for CP therapy. CP-induced nephrotoxicity is gender-dependent, and the effect of aerobic exercise in females has not been reported yet while it has a beneficial effect in males. Hence, this study was designed to determine the protective role of aerobic exercise against CP-induced nephrotoxicity in female rats. Methods: Twenty-eight adult female rats were divided into four groups. Groups I and II had ae...

  15. Biodegradation and detoxification of textile azo dyes by bacterial consortium under sequential microaerophilic/aerobic processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lade, Harshad; Kadam, Avinash; Paul, Diby; Govindwar, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Release of textile azo dyes to the environment is an issue of health concern while the use of microorganisms has proved to be the best option for remediation. Thus, in the present study, a bacterial consortium consisting of Providencia rettgeri strain HSL1 and Pseudomonas sp. SUK1 has been investigated for degradation and detoxification of structurally different azo dyes. The consortium showed 98-99 % decolorization of all the selected azo dyes viz. Reactive Black 5 (RB 5), Reactive Orange 16 (RO 16), Disperse Red 78 (DR 78) and Direct Red 81 (DR 81) within 12 to 30 h at 100 mg L(-1) concentration at 30 ± 0.2 °C under microaerophilic, sequential aerobic/microaerophilic and microaerophilic/aerobic processes. However, decolorization under microaerophilic conditions viz. RB 5 (0.26 mM), RO 16 (0.18 mM), DR 78 (0.20 mM) and DR 81 (0.23 mM) and sequential aerobic/microaerophilic processes viz. RB 5 (0.08 mM), RO 16 (0.06 mM), DR 78 (0.07 mM) and DR 81 (0.09 mM) resulted into the formation of aromatic amines. In distinction, sequential microaerophilic/ aerobic process doesn't show the formation of amines. Additionally, 62-72 % reduction in total organic carbon content was observed in all the dyes decolorized broths under sequential microaerophilic/aerobic processes suggesting the efficacy of method in mineralization of dyes. Notable induction within the levels of azoreductase and NADH-DCIP reductase (97 and 229 % for RB 5, 55 and 160 % for RO 16, 63 and 196 % for DR 78, 108 and 258 % for DR 81) observed under sequential microaerophilic/aerobic processes suggested their critical involvements in the initial breakdown of azo bonds, whereas, a slight increase in the levels of laccase and veratryl alcohol oxidase confirmed subsequent oxidation of formed amines. Also, the acute toxicity assay with Daphnia magna revealed the nontoxic nature of the dye-degraded metabolites under sequential microaerophilic/aerobic processes. As biodegradation under sequential microaerophilic/aerobic

  16. Change in energy expenditure and physical activity in response to aerobic and resistance exercise programs

    OpenAIRE

    Drenowatz, Clemens; Grieve, George L.; Madison M. DeMello

    2015-01-01

    Exercise is considered an important component of a healthy lifestyle but there remains controversy on effects of exercise on non-exercise physical activity (PA). The present study examined the prospective association of aerobic and resistance exercise with total daily energy expenditure and PA in previously sedentary, young men. Nine men (27.0 ± 3.3 years) completed two 16-week exercise programs (3 exercise sessions per week) of aerobic and resistance exercise separated by a minimum of 6 week...

  17. Aerobic granular SBR systems applied to the treatment of industrial effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rio, V. del; Figueroa, M.; Arrojo, B.; Mosquera-Corral, A.; Campos, J. L.; Garcia-Torriello, G.; Mendez, R.

    2009-07-01

    Systems based on aerobic granular biomass are an alternative to the conventional activated sludge plants for wastewater treatment. Large organic and nitrogen loads are treated in these systems where biomass grown as granules, easy to separate by setting, make unnecessary the construction of secondary settler reducing the surface requirements for the treatment system construction. Furthermore, in aerobic granular reactors simultaneously carbon and nitrogen removal is feasible. These systems have been already applied at laboratory scale for the treatment of different types of industrial and urban wastewater. (Author)

  18. Aerobic biofilters with small synthetic grains for demostric wastewater treatment: kinetics, efficiency and microbial deviersity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nacheva, M.; Moeller-Chavez, G.; Hornelas-Orozco, Y.; Bustos, C.

    2009-07-01

    The aerobic biofilters with submerged packaed bed are able to retain a large biomass quantity, which makes them compact and suitable for samll wastewater treatment plants. The characteristics of the packed bed determine the structure of the formed biofilms, the operation mode and the effectiveness. The objective of this work was to compare the biofilm kinetics and the microbial diversity in three aerobic biofilters packed with grains 3.0-4.5 mm) made of high and of low density polyethylene (HDPE and LDPE), and of polypropyline (PP). The experimental work was carried out using three 20 L reactors, operated in downflow mode. (Author)

  19. Accelerometer-measured daily physical activity related to aerobic fitness in children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Andersen, Lars Bo

    2011-01-01

    Maximum oxygen uptake ([Vdot]O(2PEAK)) is generally considered to be the best single marker for aerobic fitness. While a positive relationship between daily physical activity and aerobic fitness has been established in adults, the relationship appears less clear in children and adolescents...... if they included measurement of daily physical activity by accelerometry and related to a [Vdot]O(2PEAK) either measured directly at a maximal exercise test or estimated from maximal power output. A total of nine studies were identified, with a total number of 6116 children and adolescents investigated. Most...

  20. Is back pain during childhood or adolescence associated with muscle strength, muscle endurance or aerobic capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lardon, Arnaud; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte; Le Scanff, Christine

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Back pain is a common condition during childhood and adolescence. The causes of back pain are largely unknown but it seems plausible that some physical factors such as back muscle strength, back muscle endurance and aerobic capacity may play a role in its development, in particular...... in the early years. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this review were to investigate in childhood and adolescence 1) if muscular strength in trunk extension is associated with back pain, 2) if muscular endurance in trunk extension is associated with back pain and 3) if aerobic capacity is associated with back...