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Sample records for aerobic nonylphenol degradation

  1. Biotransformation of nonylphenol ethoxylates during sewage treatment under anaerobic and aerobic conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Biotransformation of nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEOs) during continuous anaerobic sewage treatment was compared with the aerobic treatment of sewage spiked with 23 μmol/L technical NPEOs over a period of 90 d. Immediate degradation of NPEOs was observed under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions, indicating that the enzymes and bacteria required for NPEO degradation existed abundantly in both aerobic and anaerobic sludge. Both treatments achieved high removal (>92%) of the spiked NPEO9 mixture.Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis showed that short-chain NPEOs (NPEO1-NPEO3) accumulated in anaerobic (2.01-2.56 μmol/L) and aerobic (1.62-2.03 μmol/L) effluents, with nonylphenol (NP) (0.24-0.31 μmol/L) as another group of metabolites in the anaerobic effluent, and nonylphenoxy carboxylates (NPECs) (2.79-3.30 μmol/L) in the aerobic effluent. Significant accumulation of NP in the anaerobic sludge and NPEO1-3 in the sludge of two reactors was observed. These results indicated that it was difficult to control these harmful metabolites in the conventional treatment processes. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles of sludge samples support the speculation that the NPEO degradation bacteria might be the dominant indigenous species.

  2. Fate and degradation of nonylphenolic compounds during wastewater treatment process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Lian; Junxin Liu

    2013-01-01

    In order to explore the biodegradation behavior of nonylphenolic compounds during wastewater treatment processing,two full-scale wastewater treatment plants were investigated and batch biodegradation experiments were conducted.The biodegradation pathways under the various operational conditions were identified from batch experiments:shortening of ethoxy-chains dominated under the anaerobic condition,whereas oxidizing of the terminal alcoholic group prevailed over the other routes under the aerobic condition.Results showed that the anoxic condition could accelerate the biodegradation rates of nonylphenolic compounds,but had no influence on the biodegradation pathway.The biodegradation rates of nonylphenol (NP) and short-chain nonylphenol polyethoxylates (NPnEOs,n:number of ethoxy units) increased from the anaerobic condition,then the anoxic,finally to the aerobic condition,while those of long-chain NPnEOs and nonylphenoxy carboxylates (NPECs) seemed similar under the various conditions.Under every operational condition,long-chain NPnEOs showed the highest biodegradation activity,followed by NPECs and short-chain NPnEOs,whereas NP showed relatively recalcitrant characteristics especially under the anaerobic condition.In addition,introducing sulfate and nitrate to the anaerobic condition could enhance the biodegradation of NP and short-chain NPnEOs by supplying more positive redox potentials.

  3. Fate and degradation of nonylphenolic compounds during wastewater treatment process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Jing; Liu, Junxin

    2013-08-01

    In order to explore the biodegradation behavior of nonylphenolic compounds during wastewater treatment processing, two full-scale wastewater treatment plants were investigated and batch biodegradation experiments were conducted. The biodegradation pathways under the various operational conditions were identified from batch experiments: shortening of ethoxy-chains dominated under the anaerobic condition, whereas oxidizing of the terminal alcoholic group prevailed over the other routes under the aerobic condition. Results showed that the anoxic condition could accelerate the biodegradation rates of nonylphenolic compounds, but had no influence on the biodegradation pathway. The biodegradation rates of nonylphenol (NP) and short-chain nonylphenol polyethoxylates (NPnEOs, n: number of ethoxy units) increased from the anaerobic condition, then the anoxic, finally to the aerobic condition, while those of long-chain NPnEOs and nonylphenoxy carboxylates (NPECs) seemed similar under the various conditions. Under every operational condition, long-chain NPnEOs showed the highest biodegradation activity, followed by NPECs and short-chain NPnEOs, whereas NP showed relatively recalcitrant characteristics especially under the anaerobic condition. In addition, introducing sulfate and nitrate to the anaerobic condition could enhance the biodegradation of NP and short-chain NPnEOs by supplying more positive redox potentials. PMID:24520688

  4. The Bioconcentration and Degradation of Nonylphenol and Nonylphenol Polyethoxylates by Chlorella vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Wen Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonylphenol polyethoxylates (NPnEOs, a major class of nonionic surfactants, can easily enter into aquatic environments through various pathways due to their wide applications, which leads to the extensive existence of their relative stable metabolites, namely nonylphenol (NP and mono- to tri-ethoxylates. This study investigated the bioconcentration and degradation of NP and NPnEO oligomers (n = 1–12 by a green algae, Chlorella vulgaris. Experimental results showed that C. vulgaris can remove NP from water phase efficiently, and bioconcentration and degradation accounted for approximately half of its loss, respectively, with a 48 h BCF (bioconcentration factor of 2.42 × 103. Moreover, C. vulgaris could concentrate and degrade NPnEOs, distribution profiles of the series homologues of the NPnEOs in algae and water phase were quite different from the initial homologue profile. The 48 h BCF of the NPnEO homologues increased with the length of the EO chain. Degradation extent of total NPnEOs by C. vulgaris was 95.7%, and only 1.1% remained in water phase, and the other 3.2% remained in the algal cells. The algae removed the NPnEOs mainly through degradation. Due to rapid degradation, concentrations of the long chain NPnEO homologous in both water (n ≥ 2 and the algal phase (n ≥ 5 was quite low at the end of a 48 h experiment.

  5. Degradation and bound-residue formation of nonylphenol in red soil and the effects of ammonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fate of nonylphenol (NP) in soils and the effects of nitrogen fertilizers are unclear. Using 14C-tracer, we studied the aerobic and anaerobic degradation of 4-NP111 in a paddy red soil amended without and with ammonium chloride. Under oxic conditions, 4-NP111 had a half-life of 16.1 ± 1.6 days and minor mineralization (3.84 ± 0.02%), forming no extractable metabolite but abundant bound residues (60.9 ± 1.7%, mostly bound to humin) after 49 days of incubation. The ammonium amendment (8 mmol/kg soil) significantly inhibited the degradation (half-life of 68.0 ± 7.7 days), mineralization (2.0 ± 1.1%), and bound-residue formation (23.7 ± 0.2%). Under anoxic conditions, 4-NP111 did not degrade during 49 days of incubation and the ammonium amendment (40 mmol/kg soil) did not affect its persistence. Our results demonstrate that bound-residue formation was a major mechanism for NP dissipation in the red soil under oxic conditions and that chemical nitrogen fertilizer at average field application rate may already considerably increase NP recalcitrance in agricultural soils. -- Highlights:: • Aerobic mineralization of the nonylphenol isomer 4-NP111 in paddy red soil is minor. • Bound-residue formation is the major mechanism for aerobic NP degradation in soil. • The majority of the bound residues of NP are localized in soil humin fraction. • Amendment of soil by ammonium strongly increase the persistence of NP in oxic soil. • Amendment of soil by ammonium does not affect the recalcitrance of NP in anoxic soil. -- Formation of bound residues was the major mechanism in paddy red soil under oxic conditions for nonylphenol dissipation, which was significantly inhibited by amendment with ammonium

  6. Degradation and plant uptake of nonylphenol (NP) and nonylphenol-12-ethoxylate (NP12EO) in four contrasting agricultural soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoestroem, A.E. [Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, London (United Kingdom); Collins, C.D. [Department of Soil Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading RG6 6DW (United Kingdom); Smith, S.R. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Shaw, G. [Division of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)], E-mail: george.shaw@nottingham.ac.uk

    2008-12-15

    Nonylphenol polyethoxylates (NPEOs) are surfactants found ubiquitously in the environment due to widespread industrial and domestic use. Biodegradation of NPEOs produces nonylphenol (NP), an endocrine disruptor. Sewage sludge application introduces NPEOs and NP into soils, potentially leading to accumulation in soils and crops. We examined degradation of NP and nonylphenol-12-ethoxylate (NP12EO) in four soils. NP12EO degraded rapidly (initial half time 0.3-5 days). Concentrations became undetectable within 70-90 days, with a small increase in NP concentrations after 30 days. NP initially degraded quickly (mean half time 11.5 days), but in three soils a recalcitrant fraction of 26-35% remained: the non-degrading fraction may consist of branched isomers, resistant to biodegradation. Uptake of NP by bean plants was also examined. Mean bioconcentration factors for shoots and seeds were 0.71 and 0.58, respectively. Removal of NP from the soil by plant uptake was negligible (0.01-0.02% of initial NP). Root concentrations were substantially higher than shoot and seed concentrations. - Degradation curves of nonylphenol (NP) and nonylphenol-12-ethoxylate (NP12EO) in four soils indicate that 26-35% of NP is recalcitrant, with minor NP ingrowth from NP12EO breakdown.

  7. The effect of thermal hydrolysis pretreatment on the anaerobic degradation of nonylphenol and short-chain nonylphenol ethoxylates in digested biosolids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, P J; Wilson, C A; Wogen, M T; Murthy, S N; Novak, J T; Novak, P J

    2012-06-01

    The presence of micropollutants can be a concern for land application of biosolids. Of particular interest are nonylphenol diethoxylate (NP(2)EO), nonylphenol monoethoxylate (NP(1)EO), and nonylphenol (NP), collectively referred to as NPE, which accumulate in anaerobically digested biosolids and are subject to regulation based on the environmental risks associated with them. Because biosolids are a valuable nutrient resource, it is essential that we understand how various treatment processes impact the fate of NPE in biosolids. Thermal hydrolysis (TH) coupled with mesophilic anaerobic digestion (MAD) is an advanced digestion process that destroys pathogens in biosolids and increases methane yields and volatile solids destruction. We investigated the impact of thermal hydrolysis pretreatment on the subsequent biodegradation of NPE in digested biosolids. Biosolids were treated with TH, anaerobic digestion, and aerobic digestion in laboratory-scale reactors, and NPE were analyzed in the influent and effluent of the digesters. NP(2)EO and NP(1)EO have been observed to degrade to the more estrogenic NP under anaerobic conditions; therefore, changes in the ratio of NP:NPE were of interest. The increase in NP:NPE following MAD was 56%; the average increase of this ratio in four sets of TH-MAD samples, however, was only 24.6 ± 3.1%. In addition, TH experiments performed in pure water verified that, during TH, the high temperature and pressure alone did not directly destroy NPE; TH experiments with NP added to sludge also showed that NP was not destroyed by the high temperature and pressure of TH when in a more complex sludge matrix. The post-aerobic digestion phases removed NPE, regardless of whether TH pretreatment occurred. This research indicates that changes in biosolids processing can have impacts beyond just gas production and solids destruction. PMID:22494493

  8. Fate of nonylphenol ethoxylate (NPEO) and its inhibitory impact on the biodegradation of acetate under aerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekdal, Alpaslan

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the kinetics of nonylphenol ethoxylate (NPEO) and acetate biodegradation at a moderate sludge age by acclimated culture under aerobic conditions. A laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactor was set and fed only with acetate mixture. The system was operated at steady state with a sludge age of 8 days. Following this stage, a mixture of NPEO and acetate was fed to the mixed culture in order to assess the biodegradation kinetics of NPEO and its impact on acetate utilization. A mechanistic model was developed involving model components and kinetic parameters for both substrates. The model was calibrated with parameters such as oxygen uptake rate and polyhydroxyalkanoates. Biodegradation characteristics and kinetics of acetate and NPEO were estimated by using the model results. Evaluation of calibrated model indicated that exposure of NPEO to non-acclimated sludge caused significant inhibitory impact on the utilization and storage of acetate. However, acclimation ofbiomass greatly suppressed inhibitory effects of NPEO on growth process involved in the degradation of acetate.

  9. Degradation behaviors of nonylphenol ethoxylates by isolated bacteria using improved isolation method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Xin; ZHANG Yu; ZHANG Jing; YANG Min; Hideyuki Tamaki; Yoichi Kamagata

    2008-01-01

    Nonylphenol ethoxylate (NPEO)-degrading bacteria were isolated from activated sludge using an improved isolation method, and the corresponding degradation behaviours were investigated. Eight NPEO-degrading strains distributed in genera Pseudomonas, Sphingomonas, Sphingobium, Cupriavidus, Ralstonia, Achromobacter, and Staphylococcus were acquired. The latter five genera have never been reported for the degradation of NPEOs. Four degradation patterns were observed for the eight pure strains. In pattern A, NPEOs were converted to short-chain NPEOs and carboxylated products, while in pattern B, lower ethoxylated oligomers appeared. Nonylphenol monoethoxylate was the main product in pattern C, while in pattern D ethoxylated units was oxidized but not shortened. Pattern C and D have not yet been reported.

  10. Antioxidant enzyme activities of Microcystis aeruginosa in response to nonylphenols and degradation of nonylphenols by M. aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingxian; Xie, Ping

    2007-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of chemical nonylphenols (NPs) on the antioxidant system of Microcystis aeruginosa strains. The degradation and sorption of NPs by M. aeruginosa were also evaluated. High concentrations of NPs (1 and 2 mg/l) were found to cause increases in superoxidase dismutase (SOD) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities and in glutathione (GSH) levels. These results suggest that toxic stress manifested by elevated SOD and GST levels and GSH contents may be responsible for the toxicity of NPs to M. aeruginosa and that the algal cells could improve their antioxidant and detoxification ability through the enhancement of enzymatic and nonenzymatic prevention substances. The observed elevations in GSH levels and GST activities were relatively higher than those in SOD activities, indicating that GSH and GST contributed more in eliminating toxic effects than SOD. Low concentrations of NPs (0.05-0.2 mg/l) enhanced cell growth and decreased GST activity in algal cells of M. aeruginosa, suggesting that NPs may have acted as a protecting factor, such as an antioxidant. The larger portion of the NPs (>60%) disappeared after 12 days of incubation, indicating the strong ability of M. aeruginosa to degrade the moderate persistent NP compounds. The sorption ratio of M. aeruginosa after a 12-day exposure to low nominal concentrations of NPs (0.02-0.5 mg/l) was relatively high (>30%). The fact that M. aeruginosa effectively resisted the toxic effects of NPs and strongly degraded these pollutants indicate that M. aeruginosa cells have a strong ability to adapt to variations in environmental conditions and that low and moderate concentrations of organic compounds may favor its survival. Further studies are needed to provide detailed information on the fate of persistent organic pollutants and the survival of algae and to determine the possible role of organic pollutants in the occurrence of water blooms in eutrophic lakes. PMID:17342429

  11. Exploring the potential of applying proteomics for tracking bisphenol A and nonylphenol degradation in activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, Neus; Buttiglieri, Gianluigi; Kolvenbach, Boris A; Comas, Joaquim; Corvini, Philippe F-X; Rodríguez-Roda, Ignasi

    2013-02-01

    A significant percentage of bisphenol A and nonylphenol removal in municipal wastewater treatment plants relies on biodegradation. Nonetheless, incomplete information is available concerning their degradation pathways performed by microbial communities in activated sludge systems. Hydroquinone dioxygenase (HQDO) is a specific degradation marker enzyme, involved in bisphenol A and nonylphenol biodegradation, and it can be produced by axenic cultures of the bacterium Sphingomonas sp. strain TTNP3. Proteomics, a technique based on the analysis of microbial community proteins, was applied to this strain. The bacterium proteome map was obtained and a HQDO subunit was successfully identified. Additionally, the reliability of the applied proteomics protocol was evaluated in activated sludge samples. Proteins belonging to Sphingomonas were searched at decreasing biomass ratios, i.e. serially diluting the bacterium in activated sludge. The protein patterns were compared and Sphingomonas proteins were discriminated against the ones from sludge itself on 2D-gels. The detection limit of the applied protocol was defined as 10(-3) g TTNP3 g(-1) total suspended solids (TSSs). The results proved that proteomics can be a promising methodology to assess the presence of specific enzymes in activated sludge samples, however improvements of its sensitivity are still needed.

  12. Degradation of the commercial surfactant nonylphenol ethoxylate by advanced oxidation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • NP4EO in industrial effluents can be treated before reaching water reservoirs. • Advanced oxidation processes are proposed for the degradation of NP4EO. • The degradation rate depends mainly on the light intensity. • The mineralization rate depends mainly on the current density. • Photo-assisted electrochemical oxidation showed the best degradation results. - Abstract: Four different oxidation process, namely direct photolysis (DP) and three advanced oxidation processes (heterogeneous photocatalysis – HP, eletrochemical oxidation – EO and photo-assisted electrochemical oxidation – PEO) were applied in the treatment of wastewater containing nonylphenol ethoxylate (NPnEO). The objective of this work was to determine which treatment would be the best option in terms of degradation of NPnEO without the subsequent generation of toxic compounds. In order to investigate the degradation of the surfactant, the processes were compared in terms of UV/Vis spectrum, mineralization (total organic carbon), reaction kinetics, energy efficiency and phytotoxicity. A solution containing NPnEO was prepared as a surrogate of the degreasing wastewater, was used in the processes. The results showed that the photo-assisted processes degrade the surfactant, producing biodegradable intermediates in the reaction. On the other hand, the electrochemical process influences the mineralization of the surfactant. The process of PEO carried out with a 250 W lamp and a current density of 10 mA/cm2 showed the best results in terms of degradation, mineralization, reaction kinetics and energy consumption, in addition to not presenting phytotoxicity. Based on this information, this process can be a viable alternative for treating wastewater containing NPnEO, avoiding the contamination of water resources

  13. Degradation of the commercial surfactant nonylphenol ethoxylate by advanced oxidation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohlmuth da Silva, Salatiel, E-mail: salatielws@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS) – Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Minas, Metalúrgica e de Materiais (PPGEM), Av. Bento Gonçalves, 9500, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Klauck, Cláudia Regina, E-mail: claudiark@feevale.br [Universidade Feevale, Campus II ERS-239, 2755, Novo Hamburgo, RS (Brazil); Siqueira, Marco Antônio, E-mail: marcor@feevale.br [Universidade Feevale, Campus II ERS-239, 2755, Novo Hamburgo, RS (Brazil); Bernardes, Andréa Moura, E-mail: amb@ufrgs.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS) – Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Minas, Metalúrgica e de Materiais (PPGEM), Av. Bento Gonçalves, 9500, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2015-01-23

    Highlights: • NP{sub 4}EO in industrial effluents can be treated before reaching water reservoirs. • Advanced oxidation processes are proposed for the degradation of NP{sub 4}EO. • The degradation rate depends mainly on the light intensity. • The mineralization rate depends mainly on the current density. • Photo-assisted electrochemical oxidation showed the best degradation results. - Abstract: Four different oxidation process, namely direct photolysis (DP) and three advanced oxidation processes (heterogeneous photocatalysis – HP, eletrochemical oxidation – EO and photo-assisted electrochemical oxidation – PEO) were applied in the treatment of wastewater containing nonylphenol ethoxylate (NP{sub n}EO). The objective of this work was to determine which treatment would be the best option in terms of degradation of NP{sub n}EO without the subsequent generation of toxic compounds. In order to investigate the degradation of the surfactant, the processes were compared in terms of UV/Vis spectrum, mineralization (total organic carbon), reaction kinetics, energy efficiency and phytotoxicity. A solution containing NP{sub n}EO was prepared as a surrogate of the degreasing wastewater, was used in the processes. The results showed that the photo-assisted processes degrade the surfactant, producing biodegradable intermediates in the reaction. On the other hand, the electrochemical process influences the mineralization of the surfactant. The process of PEO carried out with a 250 W lamp and a current density of 10 mA/cm{sup 2} showed the best results in terms of degradation, mineralization, reaction kinetics and energy consumption, in addition to not presenting phytotoxicity. Based on this information, this process can be a viable alternative for treating wastewater containing NP{sub n}EO, avoiding the contamination of water resources.

  14. Enhanced selection of micro-aerobic pentachlorophenol degrading granular sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: In this work, an aerobic column reactor was placed before the USB to maintain micro-oxygen condition in the reactor and the micro-aerobic pentachlorophenol (PCP) degrading granular sludge under oxygen-limited conditions (0.1–0.2 mg L−1) was successfully obtained. PCP degradation by the micro-aerobic system was studied and the variance of microbial community was also discussed by using PCR-DGGE analysis. - Highlights: • Micro-aerobic granular sludge was cultivated in column-type combined reactors. • PCP biodegradation, VFA accumulation and biogas production were studied. • The function of Methanogenic archaeon in the system was investigated. • Fluctuation and diversity of microbial community were discussed by DGGE analysis. • The dominated microorganisms were identified by 16S rDNA sequences. - Abstract: Column-type combined reactors were designed to cultivate micro-aerobic pentachlorophenol (PCP) degrading granular sludge under oxygen-limited conditions (0.1–0.2 mg L−1) over 39-day experimental period. Micro-aerobic granular had both anaerobic activity (SMA: 2.34 mMCH4/h g VSS) and aerobic activity (SOUR: 2.21 mMO2/h g VSS). Metabolite analysis results revealed that PCP was sequentially dechlorinated to TCP, DCP, and eventually to MCP. Methanogens were not directly involved in the dechlorination of PCP, but might played a vital role in stabilizing the overall structure of the granule sludge. For Eubacteria, the Shannon Index (2.09 in inoculated granular sludge) increased both in micro-aerobic granular sludge (2.61) and PCP-degradation granular sludge (2.55). However, for Archaea, it decreased from 2.53 to 1.85 and 1.84, respectively. Although the Shannon Index demonstrated slight difference between micro-aerobic granular sludge and PCP-degradation granular sludge, the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) indicated obvious variance of the microbial composition, revealing significant effect of micro-aerobic condition and PCP on

  15. Enhanced selection of micro-aerobic pentachlorophenol degrading granular sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv, Yuancai, E-mail: donkey1204@hotmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Pulp and Paper Engineering, College of Light Industry and Food Science, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Chen, Yuancai, E-mail: chenyc@scut.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pulp and Paper Engineering, College of Light Industry and Food Science, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Ecological Remediation for Industrial Agglomeration Area, College of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Song, Wenzhe, E-mail: songwenzhe007@126.com [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Ecological Remediation for Industrial Agglomeration Area, College of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Hu, Yongyou, E-mail: ppyyhu@scut.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pulp and Paper Engineering, College of Light Industry and Food Science, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Ecological Remediation for Industrial Agglomeration Area, College of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2014-09-15

    Graphical abstract: In this work, an aerobic column reactor was placed before the USB to maintain micro-oxygen condition in the reactor and the micro-aerobic pentachlorophenol (PCP) degrading granular sludge under oxygen-limited conditions (0.1–0.2 mg L{sup −1}) was successfully obtained. PCP degradation by the micro-aerobic system was studied and the variance of microbial community was also discussed by using PCR-DGGE analysis. - Highlights: • Micro-aerobic granular sludge was cultivated in column-type combined reactors. • PCP biodegradation, VFA accumulation and biogas production were studied. • The function of Methanogenic archaeon in the system was investigated. • Fluctuation and diversity of microbial community were discussed by DGGE analysis. • The dominated microorganisms were identified by 16S rDNA sequences. - Abstract: Column-type combined reactors were designed to cultivate micro-aerobic pentachlorophenol (PCP) degrading granular sludge under oxygen-limited conditions (0.1–0.2 mg L{sup −1}) over 39-day experimental period. Micro-aerobic granular had both anaerobic activity (SMA: 2.34 mMCH{sub 4}/h g VSS) and aerobic activity (SOUR: 2.21 mMO{sub 2}/h g VSS). Metabolite analysis results revealed that PCP was sequentially dechlorinated to TCP, DCP, and eventually to MCP. Methanogens were not directly involved in the dechlorination of PCP, but might played a vital role in stabilizing the overall structure of the granule sludge. For Eubacteria, the Shannon Index (2.09 in inoculated granular sludge) increased both in micro-aerobic granular sludge (2.61) and PCP-degradation granular sludge (2.55). However, for Archaea, it decreased from 2.53 to 1.85 and 1.84, respectively. Although the Shannon Index demonstrated slight difference between micro-aerobic granular sludge and PCP-degradation granular sludge, the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) indicated obvious variance of the microbial composition, revealing significant effect of micro-aerobic

  16. Gamma radiation/H2O2 treatment of a nonylphenol ethoxylates: Degradation, cytotoxicity, and mutagenicity evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Munawar; Bhatti, Ijaz Ahmad

    2015-12-15

    Gamma radiation/H2O2 treatment of nonylphenol polyethoxylates (NPEO) was performed and treatment effect was evaluated on the basis of degradation, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total organic carbon (TOC), and toxicity reduction efficiencies. The radiolytic by-products were determined by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques. Low mass carboxylic acids, aldehyde, ketone, and acetic acid were identified as the by-products of the NPEO degradation. NPEO sample irradiated to the absorbed dose of 15 kGy/4.58% H2O2 showed more than 90% degradation. Allium cepa (A. cepa), brine shrimp, heamolytic tests were used for cytotoxicity study, while mutagenicity was evaluated through Ames test (TA98 and TA100 strains) of treated and un-treated NPEO. The reductions in COD and TOC were greater than 70% and 50%, respectively. Gamma radiation/H2O2 treatment revealed a considerable reduction in cytotoxicity and mutagenicity. A. cepa, heamolytic and shrimp assays showed cytotoxicity reduction up to 68.65%, 77%, and 94%, respectively. The mutagenicity reduced up to 62%, 74%, and 79% (TA98) and 68%, 78%, and 82% (TA100), respectively of NPEO-6, NPEO-9, and NPEO-30 irradiated to the absorbed dose of 15 kGy/4.58% H2O2. NPEO-6 detoxified more efficiently versus NPEO-9 and NPEO-30 and results showed that Gamma radiation/H2O2 treatment has the potential to mineralize and detoxify NPEO. PMID:26143198

  17. Purification and Characterization of a Nonylphenol (NP)-degrading Enzyme from Bacillus cereus.Frankland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ge; ZHANG Ying; BAI Yanfen

    2011-01-01

    An extracellular NP-degrading enzyme secreted by Bacillus cereus.Frankland was purified to homogeneity by a combination of ammonium sulfate precipitation,Phenyl-Sepharose hydrophobic-interaction chromatography and DEAE anion-exchange chromatography.On SDS(sodium dodecyl sulfate)-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis,the purified enzyme showed a relative molecular mass of 58.3 kDa.The depolymerzation of subunits was accompanied with the loss of NP-degrading enzyme activity,and removing denaturing factors by dialysis could restore the dimer structure and enzymatic activity.The enzyme had an isoelectric point of 5.5 and an optimal temperature of 60℃,and was the most active at pH 6.0.The enzymatic activity was stable at pH 4-8 and inhibited by Cu2+.TenN-terminal amino acids were determined to be ASVNSIKIGY,demonstrating that the purified enzyme was a novel one.The hydrolysis pattern of the purified enzyme indicated that the NP-degrading enzyme was an endo NP-degrading enzyme.The extraordinary thermo-stability provided the enzyme with a good prospect to be used as a new tool for clean-production process for textile industry.

  18. Combined Anaerobic-Aerobic Bacterial Degradation of Dyes

    OpenAIRE

    R. Wilfred Sugumar; Sandhya Sadanandan

    2010-01-01

    Wastewaters from the dye baths of a non-formal textile-dyeing unit containing C.I. Acid Orange 7 and C.I. Reactive Red 2 were subjected to degradation in a sequential anaerobic-aerobic treatment process based on mixed culture of bacteria. The technical samples of the dyestuffs and the dye bath wastes were treated in an anaerobic reactor, using an adapted mixed culture of anaerobic microorganisms. The dyestuffs were biotransformed into colourless substituted amine metabolites in the reactor. T...

  19. Aerobic Degradation of Trichloroethylene by Co-Metabolism Using Phenol and Gasoline as Growth Substrates

    OpenAIRE

    Yan Li; Bing Li; Cui-Ping Wang; Jun-Zhao Fan; Hong-Wen Sun

    2014-01-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a common groundwater contaminant of toxic and carcinogenic concern. Aerobic co-metabolic processes are the predominant pathways for TCE complete degradation. In this study, Pseudomonas fluorescens was studied as the active microorganism to degrade TCE under aerobic condition by co-metabolic degradation using phenol and gasoline as growth substrates. Operating conditions influencing TCE degradation efficiency were optimized. TCE co-metabolic degradation rate reached ...

  20. Sorption and degradation of bisphenol A by aerobic activated sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory-scale batch experiments were conducted to investigate the sorption and degradation of bisphenol A (BPA) at μg/L range in an aerobic activated sludge system. The sorption isotherms and thermodynamics indicated that the sorption of BPA on sludge was mainly a physical process in which partitioning played a dominating role. The values of sorption coefficient Koc were between 621 and 736 L/kg in the temperature range of 10-30 deg. C. Both mixed liquor suspended solid (MLSS) and temperature influenced BPA sorption on sludge. The degradation of BPA by acclimated activated sludge could be described by first-order reaction equation with the first-order degradation rate constant of 0.80 h-1 at 20 deg. C. The decrease of initial COD concentration and the increase of MLSS concentration and temperature enhanced BPA degradation rate. The removal of BPA in the activated sludge system was characterized by a quick sorption on the activated sludge and subsequent biodegradation

  1. Aerobic degradation of sulfanilic acid using activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Cheng, Ka Yu; Ginige, Maneesha P; Kaksonen, Anna H

    2012-01-01

    This paper evaluates the aerobic degradation of sulfanilic acid (SA) by an acclimatized activated sludge. The sludge was enriched for over three months with SA (>500 mg/L) as the sole carbon and energy source and dissolved oxygen (DO, >5mg/L) as the primary electron acceptor. Effects of aeration rate (0-1.74 L/min), DO concentration (0-7 mg/L) and initial SA concentration (104-1085 mg/L) on SA biodegradation were quantified. A modified Haldane substrate inhibition model was used to obtain kinetic parameters of SA biodegradation and oxygen uptake rate (OUR). Positive linear correlations were obtained between OUR and SA degradation rate (R(2)≥ 0.91). Over time, the culture consumed more oxygen per SA degraded, signifying a gradual improvement in SA mineralization (mass ratio of O(2): SA at day 30, 60 and 120 were 0.44, 0.51 and 0.78, respectively). The concomitant release of near stoichiometric quantity of sulphate (3.2 mmol SO(4)(2-) released from 3.3 mmol SA) and the high chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficacy (97.1%) indicated that the enriched microbial consortia could drive the overall SA oxidation close to a complete mineralization. In contrast to other pure-culture systems, the ammonium released from the SA oxidation was predominately converted into nitrate, revealing the presence of ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in the mixed culture. No apparent inhibitory effect of SA on the nitrification was noted. This work also indicates that aerobic SA biodegradation could be monitored by real-time DO measurement.

  2. Degradation of acid orange 7 in an aerobic biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Michael F; Kinkle, Brian K; Bishop, Paul L

    2002-01-01

    A stable microbial biofilm community capable of completely mineralizing the azo dye acid orange 7 (AO7) was established in a laboratory scale rotating drum bioreactor (RDBR) using waste liquor from a sewage treatment plant. A broad range of environmental conditions including pH (5.8-8.2), nitrification (0.0-4.0 mM nitrite), and aeration (0.2-6.2 mg O2 l(-1)) were evaluated for their effects on the biodegradation of AO7. Furthermore the biofilm maintained its biodegradative ability for over a year while the effects of these environmental conditions were evaluated. Reduction of the azo bond followed by degradation of the resulting aromatic amine appears to be the mechanism by which this dye is biodegraded. Complete loss of color, sulfanilic acid, and chemical oxygen demand (COD) indicate that AO7 is mineralized. To our knowledge this is the first reported occurrence of a sulfonated phenylazonaphthol dye being completely mineralized under aerobic conditions. Two bacterial strains (ICX and SAD4i) originally isolated from the RDBR were able to mineralize, in co-culture, up to 90% of added AO7. During mineralization of AO7, strain ICX reduces the azo bond under aerobic conditions and consumes the resulting cleavage product 1-amino-2-naphthol. Strain SAD4i consumes the other cleavage product, sulfanilic acid. The ability of the RDBR biofilm to aerobically mineralize an azo dye without exogenous carbon and nitrogen sources suggests that this approach could be used to remediate industrial wastewater contaminated with spent dye.

  3. Nonylphenols degradation in the UV, UV/H₂O₂, O₃and UV/O₃processes - comparison of the methods and kinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felis, E; Miksch, K

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the results of experiments on the decomposition of selected nonylphenols (NPs) in aqueous solutions using the UV, UV/H₂O₂, O₃and UV/O₃processes. The goal of the research was to determine the kinetic parameters of the above-mentioned processes, and to estimate their effectiveness. These substances were selected because of their ubiquitous occurrence in the aquatic environment, resistance to biodegradation and environmental significance. As a result of the experiments, the quantum yields of the 4-n-nonylphenol (4NP) and NP (technical mixture) photodegradation in aqueous solution were calculated to be 0.15 and 0.17, respectively. The values of the second-order rate constants of the investigated compounds with hydroxyl radical and NP with ozone were also determined. The estimated second-order rate constants of 4NP and NP with hydroxyl radicals were equal to 7.6 × 10⁸-1.3 × 10⁹ mol⁻¹ L s⁻¹. For NP, the determined rate constant with ozone was equal to 2.01 × 10⁶ mol⁻¹ L s⁻¹. The performed experiments showed that NP was slightly more susceptible to degradation by the UV radiation and hydroxyl radicals than 4NP. The study demonstrated also that the polychromatic UV-light alone and also in combination with selected oxidizers (i.e. hydrogen peroxide, ozone) may be successfully used for the removal of selected NPs from the aqueous medium. PMID:25714646

  4. Occurrence and Biodegradation of Nonylphenol in the Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonylphenol (NP is an ultimate degradation product of nonylphenol polyethoxylates (NPE that is primarily used in cleaning and industrial processes. Its widespread use has led to the wide existence of NP in various environmental matrices, such as water, sediment, air and soil. NP can be decreased by biodegradation through the action of microorganisms under aerobic or anaerobic conditions. Half-lives of biodegradation ranged from a few days to almost one hundred days. The degradation rate for NP was influenced by temperature, pH and additions of yeast extracts, surfactants, aluminum sulfate, acetate, pyruvate, lactate, manganese dioxide, ferric chloride, sodium chloride, hydrogen peroxide, heavy metals, and phthalic acid esters. Although NP is present at low concentrations in the environment, as an endocrine disruptor the risks of long-term exposure to low concentrations remain largely unknown. This paper reviews the occurrence of NP in the environment and its aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation in natural environments and sewage treatment plants, which is essential for assessing the potential risk associated with low level exposure to NP and other endocrine disruptors.

  5. Degradation of TCE using sequential anaerobic biofilm and aerobic immobilized bed reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapatwala, Kirit D.; Babu, G. R. V.; Baresi, Larry; Trunzo, Richard M.

    1995-01-01

    Bacteria capable of degrading trichloroethylene (TCE) were isolated from contaminated wastewaters and soil sites. The aerobic cultures were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (four species) and Pseudomonas fluorescens. The optimal conditions for the growth of aerobic cultures were determined. The minimal inhibitory concentration values of TCE for Pseudomonas sps. were also determined. The aerobic cells were immobilized in calcium alginate in the form of beads. Degradation of TCE by the anaerobic and dichloroethylene (DCE) by aerobic cultures was studied using dual reactors - anaerobic biofilm and aerobic immobilized bed reactor. The minimal mineral salt (MMS) medium saturated with TCE was pumped at the rate of 1 ml per hour into the anaerobic reactor. The MMS medium saturated with DCE and supplemented with xylenes and toluene (3 ppm each) was pumped at the rate of 1 ml per hour into the fluidized air-uplift-type reactor containing the immobilized aerobic cells. The concentrations of TCE and DCE and the metabolites formed during their degradation by the anaerobic and aerobic cultures were monitored by GC. The preliminary study suggests that the anaerobic and aerobic cultures of our isolates can degrade TCE and DCE.

  6. The degradability of biodegradable plastics in aerobic and anaerobic waste landfill model reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishigaki, Tomonori; Sugano, Wataru; Nakanishi, Akane; Tateda, Masafumi; Ike, Michihiko; Fujita, Masanori

    2004-01-01

    Degradabilities of four kinds of commercial biodegradable plastics (BPs), polyhydroxybutyrate and hydroxyvalerate (PHBV) plastic, polycaprolactone plastic (PCL), blend of starch and polyvinyl alcohol (SPVA) plastic and cellulose acetate (CA) plastic were investigated in waste landfill model reactors that were operated as anaerobically and aerobically. The application of forced aeration to the landfill reactor for supplying aerobic condition could potentially stimulate polymer-degrading microorganisms. However, the individual degradation behavior of BPs under the aerobic condition was completely different. PCL, a chemically synthesized BP, showed film breakage under the both conditions, which may have contributed to a reduction in the waste volume regardless of aerobic or anaerobic conditions. Effective degradation of PHBV plastic was observed in the aerobic condition, though insufficient degradation was observed in the anaerobic condition. But the aeration did not contribute much to accelerate the volume reduction of SPVA plastic and CA plastic. It could be said that the recalcitrant portions of the plastics such as polyvinyl alcohol in SPVA plastic and the highly substituted CA in CA plastic prevented the BP from degradation. These results indicated existence of the great variations in the degradability of BPs in aerobic and anaerobic waste landfills, and suggest that suitable technologies for managing the waste landfill must be combined with utilization of BPs in order to enhance the reduction of waste volume in landfill sites. PMID:14575734

  7. Aerobic degradation potential of the herbicides mecoprop, dichlorprop and bentazone in groundwater from chalk aquifers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levi, Suzi; Hybel, Anne-Marie; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup;

    2011-01-01

    The aerobic degradation potential of mecoprop, dichlorprop and bentazone was studied at concentration of 1 μg/L in laboratory batch experiments with groundwater from chalk aquifers. Within the incubation period of 129 days, 14C-mecoprop concentration decreased to 60-80% in the microcosms with gro......The aerobic degradation potential of mecoprop, dichlorprop and bentazone was studied at concentration of 1 μg/L in laboratory batch experiments with groundwater from chalk aquifers. Within the incubation period of 129 days, 14C-mecoprop concentration decreased to 60-80% in the microcosms...... with groundwater collected from two monitoring wells (Well 1 and 2). Dichlorprop degradation was neither observed under aerobic nor anaerobic conditions, while 17-27% of the initial concentration of 14C-bentazone was removed. The results indicated a degradation potential of mecoprop and bentazone under aerobic...

  8. Degradation of municipal solid waste in simulated landfill bioreactors under aerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slezak, Radoslaw; Krzystek, Liliana; Ledakowicz, Stanislaw

    2015-09-01

    In this study the municipal solid waste degradation processes in simulated landfill bioreactors under aerobic and anaerobic conditions is investigated. The effect of waste aeration on the dynamics of the aerobic degradation processes in lysimeters as well as during anaerobic processes after completion of aeration is presented. The results are compared with the anaerobic degradation process to determine the stabilization stage of waste in both experimental modes. The experiments in aerobic lysimeters were carried out at small aeration rate (4.41⋅10(-3)lmin(-1)kg(-1)) and for two recirculation rates (24.9 and 1.58lm(-3)d(-1)). The change of leachate and formed gases composition showed that the application of even a small aeration rate favored the degradation of organic matter. The amount of CO2 and CH4 released from anaerobic lysimeter was about 5 times lower than that from the aerobic lysimeters. Better stabilization of the waste was obtained in the aerobic lysimeter with small recirculation, from which the amount of CO2 produced was larger by about 19% in comparison with that from the aerobic lysimeter with large leachate recirculation.

  9. Variability of Biological Degradation of Aromatic Hydrocarbons in an Aerobic Aquifer Determined by Laboratory Batch Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Henning; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    1994-01-01

    The biological aerobic degradation of 7 aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, o-xylene, p-dichlorobenzene, o-dichlorobenzene, naphthalene and biphenyl) was studied for 149 days in replicate laboratory batch experiments with groundwater and sediment from 8 localities representing a 15 m × 30 m...... section of an aerobic aquifer. Compared to biologically deactivated control experiments all compounds were biologically degraded. Degradation curves were very reproducible for some compounds (benzene, toluene, o-xylene, o-dichlorobenzene and p-dichlorobenzene) and less reproducible for other (naphthalene...... and biphenyl). Based on observed length of lag phases, length of the degradation periods and percent degradation, the variation among the 8 localities appears to be modest. However, detailed examination of the degradation rates revealed statistically significant variation among localities for benzene, toluene...

  10. Aerobic and anaerobic microbial degradation of crude (4-methylcyclohexyl)methanol in river sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Li; Zhi, Wei; Liu, Yangsheng; Smiley, Elizabeth; Gallagher, Daniel; Chen, Xi; Dietrich, Andrea; Zhang, Husen

    2016-03-15

    Cyclohexane and some of its derivatives have been a major concern because of their significant adverse human health effects and widespread occurrence in the environment. The 2014 West Virginia chemical spill has raised public attention to (4-methylcyclohexyl)methanol (4-MCHM), one cyclohexane derivative, which is widely used in coal processing but largely ignored. In particular, the environmental fate of its primary components, cis- and trans-4-MCHM, remains largely unexplored. This study aimed to investigate the degradation kinetics and mineralization of cis- and trans-4-MCHM by sediment microorganisms under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. We found the removal of cis- and trans-4-MCHM was mainly attributed to biodegradation with little contribution from sorption. A nearly complete aerobic degradation of 4-MCHM occurred within 14 days, whereas the anaerobic degradation was reluctant with residual percentages of 62.6% of cis-4-MCHM and 85.0% of trans-4-MCHM after 16-day incubation. The cis-4-MCHM was degraded faster than the trans under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions, indicating an isomer-specific degradation could occur during the 4-MCHM degradation. Nitrate addition enhanced 4-MCHM mineralization by about 50% under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Both cis- and trans-4-MCHM fit well with the first-order kinetic model with respective degradation rates of 0.46-0.52 and 0.19-0.31 day(-)(1) under aerobic condition. Respective degradation rates of 0.041-0.095 and 0.013-0.052 day(-)(1) occurred under anaerobic condition. One bacterial strain capable of effectively degrading 4-MCHM isomers was isolated from river sediments and identified as Bacillus pumilus at the species level based on 16S rRNA gene sequence and 97% identity. Our findings will provide critical information for improving the prediction of the environmental fate of 4-MCHM and other cyclohexane derivatives with similar structure as well as enhancing the development of feasible treatment

  11. Isolation of microorganisms capable of degrading isoquinoline under aerobic conditions.

    OpenAIRE

    Aislabie, J; Rothenburger, S; Atlas, R M

    1989-01-01

    Isoquinoline-degrading microbial cultures were isolated from oil- and creosote-contaminated soils. The establishment of initial enrichment cultures required the use of emulsified isoquinoline. Once growth on isoquinoline was established, isoquinoline emulsification was no longer required for utilization of isoquinoline as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen by these cultures. An isoquinoline-degrading Acinetobacter strain was isolated from one of the enrichment cultures. The degradation of...

  12. Degradation of the herbicide mecoprop in an aerobic aquifer determined by laboratory batch studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heron, Gorm; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    1992-01-01

    The potential of a shallow aerobic aquifer to degrade the herbicide Mecoprop (2-(2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxy)propionic acid) was evaluated in the laboratory using groundwater and sediment suspension batches. Mecoprop was added to the batches to obtain concentrations of 65, 140, 400 and 1400 μg...

  13. Variability of Biological Degradation of Phenolic Hydrocarbons in an Aerobic Aquifer Determined by Laboratory Batch Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Henning; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    1994-01-01

    and groundwater from 8 localities representing a 15 m × 30 m section of an aerobic aquifer. Three patterns of variation were found: (1) phenol, o-cresol and in most cases p-nitrophenol showed very fast degradation with no or only short lag phases and with very little variation among localities; (2) 2......,4-dichlorophenol was degraded in all localities and showed large variability among localities with respect to lag phases (0–50 days) and some variation with respect to degradation periods (20–40 days); and (3) nitrobenzene, o-nitrophenol, 2,6-dichlorophenol and 4,6-o-dichlorocresol showed very large variability...... among localities ranging from no degradation within 149 days in some localities to degradation within 2 days in other localities. The degradation patterns were highly sequential, indicating a general sequence, for those compounds degradable, valid in all localities. The results are of importance...

  14. Aerobic degradation of 4-nitroaniline (4-NA) via novel degradation intermediates by Rhodococcus sp. strain FK48

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • This study reports isolation of a novel bacterium capable of mineralizing 4-nitroaniline (4-NA). • This bacterium has been identified as Rhodococcus sp. strain FK48. • Strain FK48 degrades 4-NA via a novel aerobic degradation pathway that involves 4-AP and 1,2,4-BT. • Subsequent degradation proceeds via ring fission and formation of maleylacetate. • This is the first report showing elucidation of catabolic pathway for microbial degradation 4-NA. -- Abstract: An aerobic strain, Rhodococcus sp. strain FK48, capable of growing on 4-nitroaniline (4-NA) as the sole source of carbon, nitrogen, and energy has been isolated from enrichment cultures originating from contaminated soil samples. During growth studies with non- induced cells of FK48 catalyzed sequential denitrification (release of NO2 substituent) and deamination (release of NH2 substituent) of 4-NA. However, none of the degradation intermediates could be identified with growth studies. During resting cell studies, 4-NA-induced cells of strain FK48 transformed 4-NA via a previously unknown pathway which involved oxidative hydroxylation leading to formation of 4-aminophenol (4-AP). Subsequent degradation involved oxidated deamination of 4-AP and formation of 1,2,4-benzenetriol (BT) as the major identified terminal aromatic intermediate. Identification of these intermediates was ascertained by HPLC, and GC–MS analyses of the culture supernatants. 4-NA-induced cells of strain FK48 showed positive activity for 1,2,4-benzenetriol dioxygenase in spectrophotometric assay. This is the first conclusive study on aerobic microbial degradation of 4-NA and elucidation of corresponding metabolic pathway

  15. Effect of the pollution level on the functional bacterial groups aiming at degrading bisphenol A and nonylphenol in natural biofilms of an urban river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wei; Li, Yi; Wang, Peifang; Niu, Lihua; Zhang, Wenlong; Wang, Chao

    2016-08-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) and 4-nonylphenol (NP) are ubiquitous pollutants with estrogenic activity in aquatic environment and have attracted global concern due to their disruption of endocrine systems. This study investigated the spatial distribution characteristics of the bacterial groups involved in the degradation of BPA and NP within biofilms in an urban river using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. The effects of the pollution level and water parameters on these groups were also assessed. Hierarchical cluster analysis grouped the sampling sites into three clusters reflecting their varying nutrient pollution levels of relatively slight pollution (SP), moderate pollution (MP), and high pollution (HP) based on water quality data and Environmental Quality Standard for Surface Water of China (GB3838-2002). The BPA and NP concentration in river water ranged from 0.8 to 77.5 and 10.2 to 162.9 ng L(-1), respectively. Comamonadaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, Alcaligenaceae, Bacillaceae, Sphingomonadacea, Burkholderiaceae, and Rhizobiaceae were the dominant bacterial taxa involved in BPA and NP degradation, comprising an average of 9.8, 8.1, 7.6, 6.7, 6.2, 4.1, and 2.8 % of total sequences, respectively. The total abundance of these groups showed a slight upward trend and subsequently rapidly decreased with increasing pollution levels. The average proportion of Comamonadaceae in MP river sections was almost 1.5-2 times than that in SP or HP one. The distribution of functional groups was found related to environmental variables, especially pH, conductivity, ammonium nitrogen (NH3-N), and BPA. The abundance of Comamonadaceae and Rhizobiaceae was both closely related to higher values of pH and conductivity as well as lower concentrations of NP and BPA. Alcaligenaceae and Pseudomonadaceae were associated with higher concentrations of TP and CODMn and inversely correlated with DO concentration. This study might provide effective data on

  16. Effect of the pollution level on the functional bacterial groups aiming at degrading bisphenol A and nonylphenol in natural biofilms of an urban river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wei; Li, Yi; Wang, Peifang; Niu, Lihua; Zhang, Wenlong; Wang, Chao

    2016-08-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) and 4-nonylphenol (NP) are ubiquitous pollutants with estrogenic activity in aquatic environment and have attracted global concern due to their disruption of endocrine systems. This study investigated the spatial distribution characteristics of the bacterial groups involved in the degradation of BPA and NP within biofilms in an urban river using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. The effects of the pollution level and water parameters on these groups were also assessed. Hierarchical cluster analysis grouped the sampling sites into three clusters reflecting their varying nutrient pollution levels of relatively slight pollution (SP), moderate pollution (MP), and high pollution (HP) based on water quality data and Environmental Quality Standard for Surface Water of China (GB3838-2002). The BPA and NP concentration in river water ranged from 0.8 to 77.5 and 10.2 to 162.9 ng L(-1), respectively. Comamonadaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, Alcaligenaceae, Bacillaceae, Sphingomonadacea, Burkholderiaceae, and Rhizobiaceae were the dominant bacterial taxa involved in BPA and NP degradation, comprising an average of 9.8, 8.1, 7.6, 6.7, 6.2, 4.1, and 2.8 % of total sequences, respectively. The total abundance of these groups showed a slight upward trend and subsequently rapidly decreased with increasing pollution levels. The average proportion of Comamonadaceae in MP river sections was almost 1.5-2 times than that in SP or HP one. The distribution of functional groups was found related to environmental variables, especially pH, conductivity, ammonium nitrogen (NH3-N), and BPA. The abundance of Comamonadaceae and Rhizobiaceae was both closely related to higher values of pH and conductivity as well as lower concentrations of NP and BPA. Alcaligenaceae and Pseudomonadaceae were associated with higher concentrations of TP and CODMn and inversely correlated with DO concentration. This study might provide effective data on

  17. Aerobic Microbial Degradation of Chlorochromate Compounds Polluting the Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eight soil and sludge samples which have been polluted with petroleum wastes for more than 41 years were used for isolation of adapted indigenous microbial communities able to mineralize the chloro aromatic compounds [3-chlorobenzoic acid (3-CBA), 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), 2,6-dichlorophenol indole phenol (2,6-DCPP) and 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (1,2,4-TCB)] and use them as a sole carbon and energy sources. From these communities, the most promising bacterial strain MAM-24 which has the ability to degrade the four chosen aromatic compounds was isolated and identified by comparative sequence analysis for its 16S-rRNA coding genes and it was identified as Bacillus mucilaginosus HQ 013329. Degradation percentage was quantified by HPLC. Degradation products were identified by GC-MS analysis which revealed that the isolated strain and its mutant dechlorinated the four chloro aromatic compounds in the first step forming acetophenone which is considered as the corner stone of the intermediate compounds

  18. Degradation of 1-(2-chlorobenzoyl)-3-(4-chlorophenyl) urea by nanoscale zerovalent iron under aerobic and anaerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Haiying; Hou, Shaogang; Xie, Guohong; Yao, Ziwei; Zhou, Qingxiang

    2012-01-01

    The goal of present study was to investigate the applicability of nanoscale zerovalent iron (NZVI) on the degradation of 1-(2-chlorobenzoyl)-3-(4-chlorophenyl) urea (CCU) under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, respectively. The experimental results showed that NZVI could effectively degrade CCU, but the removal efficiencies were different under these two different conditions. The best removal efficiencies for CCU were 90.2 and 75.8% under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, respectively. The highly oxidative hydroxyl radicals and reductively hydrogen would account for the rapid degradation of CCU under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, respectively. The experimental results also showed that surfactant Tween 20 significantly inhibited the degradation of CCU under aerobic conditions. However it markedly enhanced the degradation of CCU under anaerobic condition.

  19. Ammonium-oxidizing bacteria facilitate aerobic degradation of sulfanilic acid in activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Ginige, Maneesha P; Kaksonen, Anna H; Cheng, Ka Yu

    2014-01-01

    Sulfanilic acid (SA) is a toxic sulfonated aromatic amine commonly found in anaerobically treated azo dye contaminated effluents. Aerobic acclimatization of SA-degrading mixed microbial culture could lead to co-enrichment of ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) because of the concomitant release of ammonium from SA oxidation. To what extent the co-enriched AOB would affect SA oxidation at various ammonium concentrations was unclear. Here, a series of batch kinetic experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of AOB on aerobic SA degradation in an acclimatized activated sludge culture capable of oxidizing SA and ammonium simultaneously. To account for the effect of AOB on SA degradation, allylthiourea was used to inhibit AOB activity in the culture. The results indicated that specific SA degradation rate of the mixed culture was negatively correlated with the initial ammonium concentration (0-93 mM, R²= 0.99). The presence of AOB accelerated SA degradation by reducing the inhibitory effect of ammonium (≥ 10 mM). The Haldane substrate inhibition model was used to correlate substrate concentration (SA and ammonium) and oxygen uptake rate. This study revealed, for the first time, that AOB could facilitate SA degradation at high concentration of ammonium (≥ 10 mM) in an enriched activated sludge culture.

  20. Stimulation of aerobic degradation of bentazone, mecoprop and dichlorprop by oxygen addition to aquifer sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levi, Suzi; Hybel, Anne-Marie; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup;

    2014-01-01

    to the oxidation of organic matter and other reduced species such as Fe2+, S2- and Mn in sediment before the biodegradation of herbicides takes place. This study suggests that oxygen enhancement around a drinking water abstraction field could stimulate the bioremediation of diffuse source contamination. © 2013 .......In order to investigate aerobic degradation potential for the herbicides bentazone, mecoprop and dichlorprop, anaerobic groundwater samples from two monitoring and three drinking water wells near a drinking water abstraction field in Nybølle, Denmark, were screened for their degradation potential...

  1. Modeling Aerobic Carbon Source Degradation Processes using Titrimetric Data and Combined Respirometric-Titrimetric Data: Experimental Data and Model Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist; Petersen, B.; Nopens, I.;

    2002-01-01

    Experimental data are presented that resulted from aerobic batch degradation experiments in activated sludge with simple carbon sources (acetate and dextrose) as substrates. Data collection was done using combined respirometric-titrimetric measurements. The respirometer consists of an open aerate...

  2. Effects of environmental conditions on aerobic degradation of a commercial naphthenic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinley, Ciera M; Gaspari, Daniel P; McQueen, Andrew D; Rodgers, John H; Castle, James W; Friesen, Vanessa; Haakensen, Monique

    2016-10-01

    Naphthenic acids (NAs) are problematic constituents in energy-derived waters, and aerobic degradation may provide a strategy for mitigating risks to aquatic organisms. The overall objective of this study was to determine the influence of concentrations of N (as ammonia) and P (as phosphate), and DO, as well as pH and temperatures on degradation of a commercial NA in bench-scale reactors. Commercial NAs provided replicable compounds necessary to compare influences of environmental conditions on degradation. NAs were quantified using high performance liquid chromatography. Microbial diversity and relative abundance were measured in treatments as explanatory parameters for potential effects of environmental conditions on microbial populations to support analytically measured NA degradation. Environmental conditions that positively influenced degradation rates of Fluka NAs included nutrients (C:N 10:1-500:1, C:P 100:1-5000:1), DO (4.76-8.43 mg L(-1)), pH (6-8), and temperature (5-25 °C). Approximately 50% removal of 61 ± 8 mg L(-1) was achieved in less than 2 d after NA introduction, achieving the method detection limit (5 mg L(-1)) by day 6 of the experiment in treatments with a C:N:P ratio of 100:10:1, DO > 8 mg L(-1), pH ∼8-9, and temperatures >23 °C. Microbial diversity was lowest in lower temperature treatments (6-16 °C), which may have resulted in observed slower NA degradation. Based on results from this study, when macro- and micronutrients were available, DO, pH, and temperature (within environmentally relevant ranges) influenced rates of aerobic degradation of Fluka NAs. This study could serve as a model for systematically evaluating environmental factors that influence NA degradation in field scenarios. PMID:27459161

  3. Effects of environmental conditions on aerobic degradation of a commercial naphthenic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinley, Ciera M; Gaspari, Daniel P; McQueen, Andrew D; Rodgers, John H; Castle, James W; Friesen, Vanessa; Haakensen, Monique

    2016-10-01

    Naphthenic acids (NAs) are problematic constituents in energy-derived waters, and aerobic degradation may provide a strategy for mitigating risks to aquatic organisms. The overall objective of this study was to determine the influence of concentrations of N (as ammonia) and P (as phosphate), and DO, as well as pH and temperatures on degradation of a commercial NA in bench-scale reactors. Commercial NAs provided replicable compounds necessary to compare influences of environmental conditions on degradation. NAs were quantified using high performance liquid chromatography. Microbial diversity and relative abundance were measured in treatments as explanatory parameters for potential effects of environmental conditions on microbial populations to support analytically measured NA degradation. Environmental conditions that positively influenced degradation rates of Fluka NAs included nutrients (C:N 10:1-500:1, C:P 100:1-5000:1), DO (4.76-8.43 mg L(-1)), pH (6-8), and temperature (5-25 °C). Approximately 50% removal of 61 ± 8 mg L(-1) was achieved in less than 2 d after NA introduction, achieving the method detection limit (5 mg L(-1)) by day 6 of the experiment in treatments with a C:N:P ratio of 100:10:1, DO > 8 mg L(-1), pH ∼8-9, and temperatures >23 °C. Microbial diversity was lowest in lower temperature treatments (6-16 °C), which may have resulted in observed slower NA degradation. Based on results from this study, when macro- and micronutrients were available, DO, pH, and temperature (within environmentally relevant ranges) influenced rates of aerobic degradation of Fluka NAs. This study could serve as a model for systematically evaluating environmental factors that influence NA degradation in field scenarios.

  4. Enhanced degradation of 14C-HCB in two tropical clay soils using multiple anaerobic–aerobic cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the study was to induce and enhance the degradation of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), a highly-chlorinated persistent organic pollutant, in two ecologically different tropical soils: a paddy soil (PS) and a non-paddy soil (FS). The degradation of HCB was enhanced using two anaerobic–aerobic cycles in model laboratory experiments. There was greater degradation of HCB in the PS (half-life of 224 days) relative to the FS (half-life of 286 days). It was further shown that soils amended with compost had higher metabolite concentrations relative to the non-amended soils. In the first cycle, there was little degradation of HCB in both soils. However, in the second cycle, there was enhanced mineralization in the PS under aerobic conditions, with the compost-treated samples showing higher mineralization. There was also extensive volatilization in both soils. The metabolite pattern revealed that the increased mineralization and volatilization was due to the formation of lower chlorinated benzenes. - Highlights: ► Two anaerobic–aerobic cycles enhanced the dissipation of HCB in two tropical soils – a paddy and non-paddy soil. ► The paddy soil was more effective in degrading HCB. ► The non-paddy soil adapted and degraded HCB in the second anaerobic–aerobic cycle. ► An additional carbon source enhanced degradation and mineralisation of HCB in both soils. - Two anaerobic–aerobic cycles enhance the degradation of HCB in two ecologically different tropical clay soils.

  5. Acetate-fed aerobic granular sludge for the degradation of 4-chlorophenol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chlorinated phenols are considered a critical environmental problem, due to their extreme toxicity and their widespread use both in industrial and agricultural activities. In this study, aerobic granular sludge was initially developed into an acetate-fed Granulated Sequencing Batch Reactor (GSBR) and then used for the degradation of low chlorinated 4-mono-chlorophenol (4CP), with readily biodegradable sodium acetate (NaAc) as co-substrate. Influent 4CP concentration ranged between 0 and 50 mg/l, with a maximum volumetric organic loading rate of 0.20 kg4CP/m3 d (0.32 kgCOD-4CP/m3 d). Differences in granules shape and size were observed with 4CP dosed in the influent at different concentrations, and the effects of such toxic compound on acetate removal were evaluated, with both unacclimated and acclimated biomass. Aerobic granules grown on acetate as carbon source proved to be an interesting solution for the degradation of 4CP, showing good resistance to high 4CP concentrations in the influent even if unacclimated (short term effects). Moreover, the monitoring of intermediate products and the evaluation of chloride release due to 4CP degradation proved that acclimated granular sludge could completely remove 4CP (long term effects), with high specific removal rates.

  6. AromaDeg, a novel database for phylogenomics of aerobic bacterial degradation of aromatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Márcia; Jauregui, Ruy; Vilchez-Vargas, Ramiro; Junca, Howard; Pieper, Dietmar H

    2014-01-01

    Understanding prokaryotic transformation of recalcitrant pollutants and the in-situ metabolic nets require the integration of massive amounts of biological data. Decades of biochemical studies together with novel next-generation sequencing data have exponentially increased information on aerobic aromatic degradation pathways. However, the majority of protein sequences in public databases have not been experimentally characterized and homology-based methods are still the most routinely used approach to assign protein function, allowing the propagation of misannotations. AromaDeg is a web-based resource targeting aerobic degradation of aromatics that comprises recently updated (September 2013) and manually curated databases constructed based on a phylogenomic approach. Grounded in phylogenetic analyses of protein sequences of key catabolic protein families and of proteins of documented function, AromaDeg allows query and data mining of novel genomic, metagenomic or metatranscriptomic data sets. Essentially, each query sequence that match a given protein family of AromaDeg is associated to a specific cluster of a given phylogenetic tree and further function annotation and/or substrate specificity may be inferred from the neighboring cluster members with experimentally validated function. This allows a detailed characterization of individual protein superfamilies as well as high-throughput functional classifications. Thus, AromaDeg addresses the deficiencies of homology-based protein function prediction, combining phylogenetic tree construction and integration of experimental data to obtain more accurate annotations of new biological data related to aerobic aromatic biodegradation pathways. We pursue in future the expansion of AromaDeg to other enzyme families involved in aromatic degradation and its regular update. Database URL: http://aromadeg.siona.helmholtz-hzi.de

  7. Biological degradation of triclocarban and triclosan in a soil under aerobic and anaerobic conditions and comparison with environmental fate modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triclocarban and triclosan are two antimicrobial agents widely used in many personal care products. Their biodegradation behaviour in soil was investigated by laboratory degradation experiments and environmental fate modelling. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analyses showed that triclocarban and triclosan had a tendency to partition into soil or sediment in the environment. Fate modelling suggests that either triclocarban or triclosan 'does not degrade fast' with its primary biodegradation half-life of 'weeks' and ultimate biodegradation half-life of 'months'. Laboratory experiments showed that triclocarban and triclosan were degraded in the aerobic soil with half-life of 108 days and 18 days, respectively. No negative effect of these two antimicrobial agents on soil microbial activity was observed in the aerobic soil samples during the experiments. But these two compounds persisted in the anaerobic soil within 70 days of the experimental period. - Triclocarban and triclosan can be degraded by microbial processes in aerobic soil, but will persist in anaerobic soil

  8. Particulate organics degradation and sludge minimization in aerobic, complete SRT bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanatidou, Elisavet; Samiotis, Georgios; Trikoilidou, Eleni; Tsikritzis, Lazaros

    2016-05-01

    The study evaluates the assumption that in activated sludge processes and under specific operating conditions, the considered unbiodegradable particulate organic fractions of influent (XU) organic solids and biomass decay residues (cell debris, XE) are degraded. The evaluation was performed by comparing sludge observed yield (Yobs) evolution in two full scale, complete solids retention time (SRT), aerobic bioreactors, to the predictions of two activated sludge models. The results showed that in steady state operating conditions of complete solids retention AS processes very low solids accumulation occur. In these conditions, solids accumulation is slightly affected by kinetic coefficients and significantly affected by XU and XE degradation rates. High endogenous residues degradation rate values of 0.05 d(-1) and 0.02 d(-1) were estimated for the two bioreactors, resulting in low solids accumulation, calculated at 1.6 tons and 3.59 tons per year respectively, of which 1.37 and 0.87 tons were non volatile suspended solids. Depending on WWTP operating conditions the endogenous residues degradation rate is the limiting factor of solids accumulation and consequently for particulate organics degradation.

  9. Particulate organics degradation and sludge minimization in aerobic, complete SRT bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanatidou, Elisavet; Samiotis, Georgios; Trikoilidou, Eleni; Tsikritzis, Lazaros

    2016-05-01

    The study evaluates the assumption that in activated sludge processes and under specific operating conditions, the considered unbiodegradable particulate organic fractions of influent (XU) organic solids and biomass decay residues (cell debris, XE) are degraded. The evaluation was performed by comparing sludge observed yield (Yobs) evolution in two full scale, complete solids retention time (SRT), aerobic bioreactors, to the predictions of two activated sludge models. The results showed that in steady state operating conditions of complete solids retention AS processes very low solids accumulation occur. In these conditions, solids accumulation is slightly affected by kinetic coefficients and significantly affected by XU and XE degradation rates. High endogenous residues degradation rate values of 0.05 d(-1) and 0.02 d(-1) were estimated for the two bioreactors, resulting in low solids accumulation, calculated at 1.6 tons and 3.59 tons per year respectively, of which 1.37 and 0.87 tons were non volatile suspended solids. Depending on WWTP operating conditions the endogenous residues degradation rate is the limiting factor of solids accumulation and consequently for particulate organics degradation. PMID:26971804

  10. Cultivation and characters of aerobic granules for pentachlorophenol (PCP) degradation under microaerobic condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAN Hui-xia; CHEN Yuan-cai; CHEN Zhong-hao; CHEN Rong

    2005-01-01

    Cultivation of aerobic granular sludge for pentachlorophenol (PCP) degradation under microaerobic condition ( DO concentration was controlled at 0.2-0.7 mg/L) was studied in this paper. Anaerobic granules were selected as inoculum. The changes of appearance were observed and the variations of SVI, VSS/TSS, PN/PS and the size of sludge were measured during cultivating. The capabilities for degradation of PCP, AOX and CODcr were also studied. Observations on mature granules were carried out by scanning electron microscope, and the results indicated bacillus was dominant on the surface of granules while in the inner of granules both bacillus and coccus were the dominant microorganisms. K, Na, Fe, Ca, Mg, Ni, Co, Mn, Cu and Zn were detected in the granules by element analysis.

  11. Hydrolysis and degradation of filtrated organic particulates in a biofilm reactor under anoxic and aerobic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janning, K.F.; Mesterton, K.; Harremoës, P.

    1997-01-01

    Two experiments were performed in order to investigate the anoxic and the aerobic degradation of filtrated organic matter in a biofilter. In submerged lab: scale reactors with Biocarbone media as filter material, accumulated particulate organic matter from pre-settled wastewater served as the only...... occurred. The maximum nitrate removal rate, with particulate organic matter as carbon source, was found to I g NO3-N/(.)(-)(m(2)d), declining exponentially as tau(ANO3-N) = 1.04 e(-4t) g NO3-N/(m(2)d) (t = days). A significant release of soluble organic matter (... carbon to the bulk liquid was observed as an indication of hydrolysis taking place. The second experiment was designed as a series of on-line OUR batch experiments in a biofilm reactor with recirculation, in order to investigate further the degradation of particulate organic matter. After the biofilm had...

  12. Degradation of organic contaminants found in organic waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini; Mogensen, Anders Skibsted; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2000-01-01

    . The objective of our study has been to develop biological methods by which selected organic xenobiotic compounds can be biotransformed by anaerobic or aerobic treatment. Screening tests assessed the capability of various inocula to degrade two phthalates di-n-butylphthalate, and di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, five......In recent years, great interest has arisen in recycling of the waste created by modern society. A common way of recycling the organic fraction is amendment on farmland. However, these wastes may contain possible hazardous components in small amounts, which may prevent their use in farming...... polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, linear alkylbenzene sulfonates and three nonylphenol ethoxylates under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Under aerobic conditions, by selecting the appropriate inoculum most of the selected xenobiotics could be degraded. Aerobic degradation of di(2-ethylhexyl...

  13. Biofuel components change the ecology of bacterial volatile petroleum hydrocarbon degradation in aerobic sandy soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We tested the hypothesis that the biodegradation of volatile petroleum hydrocarbons (VPHs) in aerobic sandy soil is affected by the blending with 10 percent ethanol (E10) or 20 percent biodiesel (B20). When inorganic nutrients were scarce, competition between biofuel and VPH degraders temporarily slowed monoaromatic hydrocarbon degradation. Ethanol had a bigger impact than biodiesel, reflecting the relative ease of ethanol compared to methyl ester biodegradation. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of bacterial 16S rRNA genes revealed that each fuel mixture selected for a distinct bacterial community, each dominated by Pseudomonas spp. Despite lasting impacts on soil bacterial ecology, the overall effects on VHP biodegradation were minor, and average biomass yields were comparable between fuel types, ranging from 0.40 ± 0.16 to 0.51 ± 0.22 g of biomass carbon per gram of fuel carbon degraded. Inorganic nutrient availability had a greater impact on petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation than fuel composition. Highlights: ► The effect of 10% ethanol or 20% biodiesel on the biodegradability of volatile petroleum hydrocarbons in soil was investigated. ► Competition for scarce inorganic nutrients between biofuel and VPH degraders slowed monoaromatic hydrocarbon degradation. ► Biofuel effects were transitional. ► Each fuel selected for a distinct predominant bacterial community. ► All bacterial communities were dominated by Pseudomonas spp. - Blending of petroleum with ethanol or biodiesel changes the fuel degrading soil bacterial community structure, but the long-term effects on fuel biodegradability are minor.

  14. Aerobic degradation of N-methyl-4-nitroaniline (MNA by Pseudomonas sp. strain FK357 isolated from soil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazlurrahman Khan

    Full Text Available N-Methyl-4-nitroaniline (MNA is used as an additive to lower the melting temperature of energetic materials in the synthesis of insensitive explosives. Although the biotransformation of MNA under anaerobic condition has been reported, its aerobic microbial degradation has not been documented yet. A soil microcosms study showed the efficient aerobic degradation of MNA by the inhabitant soil microorganisms. An aerobic bacterium, Pseudomonas sp. strain FK357, able to utilize MNA as the sole carbon, nitrogen, and energy source, was isolated from soil microcosms. HPLC and GC-MS analysis of the samples obtained from growth and resting cell studies showed the formation of 4-nitroaniline (4-NA, 4-aminophenol (4-AP, and 1, 2, 4-benzenetriol (BT as major metabolic intermediates in the MNA degradation pathway. Enzymatic assay carried out on cell-free lysates of MNA grown cells confirmed N-demethylation reaction is the first step of MNA degradation with the formation of 4-NA and formaldehyde products. Flavin-dependent transformation of 4-NA to 4-AP in cell extracts demonstrated that the second step of MNA degradation is a monooxygenation. Furthermore, conversion of 4-AP to BT by MNA grown cells indicates the involvement of oxidative deamination (release of NH2 substituent reaction in third step of MNA degradation. Subsequent degradation of BT occurs by the action of benzenetriol 1, 2-dioxygenase as reported for the degradation of 4-nitrophenol. This is the first report on aerobic degradation of MNA by a single bacterium along with elucidation of metabolic pathway.

  15. Stimulation of aerobic degradation of bentazone, mecoprop and dichlorprop by oxygen addition to aquifer sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to investigate aerobic degradation potential for the herbicides bentazone, mecoprop and dichlorprop, anaerobic groundwater samples from two monitoring and three drinking water wells near a drinking water abstraction field in Nybølle, Denmark, were screened for their degradation potential for the herbicides. In the presence of oxygen 14C-labelled bentazone and mecoprop were removed significantly from the two monitoring wells' groundwater samples. Oxygen was added to microcosms in order to investigate whether different oxygen concentrations stimulate the biodegradation of the three herbicides in microcosms using groundwater and sandy aquifer materials. To maintain a certain oxygen concentration this level was measured from the outside of the bottles with a fibre oxygen meter using oxygen-sensitive luminescent sensor foil mounted inside the microcosm, to which supplementary oxygen was added. The highest oxygen concentrations (corresponding to 4–11 mg L−1) stimulated degradation (a 14–27% increase for mecoprop, 3–9% for dichlorprop and 15–20% for bentazone) over an experimental period of 200 days. Oxygen was required to biodegrade the herbicides, since no degradation was observed under anaerobic conditions. This is the first time bentazone degradation has been observed in aquifer material at low oxygen concentrations (2 mg L−1). The sediment had substantial oxygen consumption (0.92–1.45 O2 g-1 dw over 200 days) and oxygen was depleted rapidly in most incubations soon after its addition, which might be due to the oxidation of organic matter and other reduced species such as Fe2+, S2− and Mn in sediment before the biodegradation of herbicides takes place. This study suggests that oxygen enhancement around a drinking water abstraction field could stimulate the bioremediation of diffuse source contamination. - Highlights: • Addition of different oxygen concentrations stimulated degradation of herbicides in anaerobic aquifer sediment material.

  16. Stimulation of aerobic degradation of bentazone, mecoprop and dichlorprop by oxygen addition to aquifer sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levi, S.; Hybel, A.-M.; Bjerg, P.L.; Albrechtsen, H.-J., E-mail: hana@env.dtu.dk

    2014-03-01

    In order to investigate aerobic degradation potential for the herbicides bentazone, mecoprop and dichlorprop, anaerobic groundwater samples from two monitoring and three drinking water wells near a drinking water abstraction field in Nybølle, Denmark, were screened for their degradation potential for the herbicides. In the presence of oxygen {sup 14}C-labelled bentazone and mecoprop were removed significantly from the two monitoring wells' groundwater samples. Oxygen was added to microcosms in order to investigate whether different oxygen concentrations stimulate the biodegradation of the three herbicides in microcosms using groundwater and sandy aquifer materials. To maintain a certain oxygen concentration this level was measured from the outside of the bottles with a fibre oxygen meter using oxygen-sensitive luminescent sensor foil mounted inside the microcosm, to which supplementary oxygen was added. The highest oxygen concentrations (corresponding to 4–11 mg L{sup −1}) stimulated degradation (a 14–27% increase for mecoprop, 3–9% for dichlorprop and 15–20% for bentazone) over an experimental period of 200 days. Oxygen was required to biodegrade the herbicides, since no degradation was observed under anaerobic conditions. This is the first time bentazone degradation has been observed in aquifer material at low oxygen concentrations (2 mg L{sup −1}). The sediment had substantial oxygen consumption (0.92–1.45 O{sub 2} g{sup -1} dw over 200 days) and oxygen was depleted rapidly in most incubations soon after its addition, which might be due to the oxidation of organic matter and other reduced species such as Fe{sup 2+}, S{sup 2−} and Mn in sediment before the biodegradation of herbicides takes place. This study suggests that oxygen enhancement around a drinking water abstraction field could stimulate the bioremediation of diffuse source contamination. - Highlights: • Addition of different oxygen concentrations stimulated degradation of

  17. Degradation of weathered diesel fuel by microorganisms from a contaminated aquifer in aerobic and anaerobic microcosms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A diesel fuel-contaminated aquifer in Menziken, Canton of Aargau, Switzerland, was in situ bioremediated from 1989 to 1994 by adding O2, NO3-, PO43-, and NH4+ through an infiltration well. After a remediation time of 3.5 years, aquifer material from the contaminated zone was excavated and found to contain > 106 hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms/g and 1.15 ± 0.15 mg/g weathered diesel fuel comprising mainly isoprenoid alkanes and an unresolved complex mixture (UCM) of unknown components. Samples of this material were incubated for up to 470 days in aerobic and anaerobic microcosms. The microbial activity was determined by measuring the production of inorganic carbon and the consumption of O2 and NO3-. The degradation of the weathered diesel fuel was quantified by infrared spectroscopy and by capillary gas chromatography. In aerobic microcosms, all isoprenoid alkanes and most of the UCM were biodegraded as long as a nitrogen source was present. The O2 consumption could be stimulated by adding KH2PO4 and by elevating the temperature to 22 C. In anaerobic microcosms with KNO3, NO3- was consumed, inorganic carbon was produced, and the isoprenoid alkanes and the UCM were partially metabolized. In some selected microcosms, the NO3- consumption rate was stimulated by adding external substrates such as toluene, o-xylene, m-xylene, p-xylene, n-alkanes, or fatty acids. Mineralization of toluene, naphthalene, and hexadecane to CO2 under denitrifying conditions was confirmed by using [14C]-labelled substrates

  18. Effect of exposure history on microbial herbicide degradation in an aerobic aquifer affected by a point source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuxen, Nina; de Lipthay, J.R.; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen;

    2002-01-01

    The effects of in situ exposure to low concentrations (micrograms per liter) of herbicides on aerobic degradation of herbicides in aquifers were studied by laboratory batch experiments. Aquifer material and groundwater were collected from a point source with known exposure histories to the herbic...

  19. Bioaugmentation of aerobic sludge granules with a plasmid donor strain for enhanced degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aerobic sludge granules pre-grown on glucose were bioaugmented with a plasmid pJP4 carrying strain Pseudomonas putida SM1443 in a fed-batch microcosm system and a lab-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) to enhance their degradation capacity to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). The fed-batch test results showed that the bioaugmented aerobic granule system gained 2,4-D degradation ability faster and maintained a more stable microbial community than the control in the presence of 2,4-D. 2,4-D at the initial concentration of about 160 mg/L was nearly completely removed by the bioaugmented granule system within 62 h, while the control system only removed 26% within 66 h. In the bioaugmented SBR which had been operated for 90 days, the seeded aerobic granules pre-grown on glucose successfully turned into 2,4-D degrading granules through bioaugmentation and stepwise increase of 2,4-D concentration from 8 to 385 mg/L. The granules showed a compact structure and good settling ability with the mean diameter of about 450 μm. The degradation kinetics of 2,4-D by the aerobic granules can be described with the Haldane kinetics model with Vmax = 31.1 mg 2,4-D/gVSS h, Ki = 597.9 mg/L and Ks = 257.3 mg/L, respectively. This study shows that plasmid mediated bioaugmentation is a feasible strategy to cultivate aerobic granules degrading recalcitrant pollutants.

  20. Sublethal toxic effects of nonylphenol ethoxylate and nonylphenol to Moina macrocopa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xue-lei; Sun, Zhi-wei; Wang, Jing-jing; An, Min; Duan, Shun-shan

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this paper was to examine the sublethal toxic effects of nonylphenol ethoxylate (NP10EO), its primary degradation product nonylphenol (NP), and their mixture on Moina macrocopa. Chronic toxicity tests were carried out by using sublethal chemical concentrations. Results showed that all treatments reduced the survivorship, body length, and reproduction of M. macrocopa with NP being 10 %-20 % more toxic to M. macrocopa than NP10EO. Results also indicated that the toxic effects of NP10EO and NP mixture on M. macrocopa were more severe than that of any single chemical alone. At the highest concentration in this experiment, 0.337 mg L(-1) NP10EO plus 0.0154 mg L(-1) NP treatment caused the survivorship of M. macrocopa to zero, neonates number of reproductions to zero, 45.5 % reduction in the body length, and 88 % reduction in the total neonates number. PMID:24891144

  1. Micropollutants removal in an anaerobic membrane bioreactor and in an aerobic conventional treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abargues, M R; Robles, A; Bouzas, A; Seco, A

    2012-01-01

    The paper expresses an attempt to tackle the problem due to the presence of micropollutants in wastewater which may be able to disrupt the endocrine system of some organisms. These kinds of compounds are ubiquitously present in municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents. The aim of this paper is to compare the fate of the alkylphenols-APs (4-(tert-octyl)) phenol, t-nonylphenol and 4-p-nonylphenol and the hormones (estrone, 17β-estradiol and 17α-ethinylestradiol) in a submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (SAMBR) pilot plant and in a conventional activated sludge wastewater treatment plant (CTP). The obtained results are also compared with the results obtained in a previous study carried out in an aerobic MBR pilot plant. The results showed that the APs soluble concentrations in the SAMBR effluent were always significantly higher than the CTP ones. Moreover, the analyses of the suspended fraction revealed that the AP concentrations in the SAMBR reactor were usually higher than in the CTP reactor, indicating that under anaerobic conditions the APs were accumulated in the digested sludge. The aerobic conditions maintained both in the CTP system and in the aerobic MBR favoured the APs and hormones degradation, and gave rise to lower concentrations in the effluent and in the reactor of these systems. Furthermore, the results also indicated that the degradation of APs under aerobic conditions was enhanced working at high solid retention time (SRT) and hydraulic retention time (HRT) values. PMID:22643422

  2. Biological degradation of triclocarban and triclosan in a soil under aerobic and anaerobic conditions and comparison with environmental fate modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ying Guangguo [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); CSIRO Land and Water, Adelaide Laboratory, PMB2, Glen Osmond SA 5064 (Australia)], E-mail: guang-guo.ying@gig.ac.cn; Yu Xiangyang [CSIRO Land and Water, Adelaide Laboratory, PMB2, Glen Osmond SA 5064 (Australia); Food Safety Research Institute, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nanjing 210014 (China); Kookana, Rai S. [CSIRO Land and Water, Adelaide Laboratory, PMB2, Glen Osmond SA 5064 (Australia)

    2007-12-15

    Triclocarban and triclosan are two antimicrobial agents widely used in many personal care products. Their biodegradation behaviour in soil was investigated by laboratory degradation experiments and environmental fate modelling. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analyses showed that triclocarban and triclosan had a tendency to partition into soil or sediment in the environment. Fate modelling suggests that either triclocarban or triclosan 'does not degrade fast' with its primary biodegradation half-life of 'weeks' and ultimate biodegradation half-life of 'months'. Laboratory experiments showed that triclocarban and triclosan were degraded in the aerobic soil with half-life of 108 days and 18 days, respectively. No negative effect of these two antimicrobial agents on soil microbial activity was observed in the aerobic soil samples during the experiments. But these two compounds persisted in the anaerobic soil within 70 days of the experimental period. - Triclocarban and triclosan can be degraded by microbial processes in aerobic soil, but will persist in anaerobic soil.

  3. Stable carbon and hydrogen isotopic fractionations of alkane compounds and crude oil during aerobically microbial degradation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Xianzhi; ZHANG Gan; CHEN Fanzhong; LIU Guoqing

    2004-01-01

    Normal alkane compounds dodecane, pentadecane, hexadecane, octadecane, tetracosane, isoprenoid alkane pristane and a crude oil sample were aerobically biodegraded with a pure bacterial strain GIM2.5 and white rot fungus Phanerochaete Chrysosporium-1767 to monitor the kinetic fractionation of the molecular stable carbon (δ13C) and hydrogen (δD) isotopes in the course of biodegradation. Both δ13C (V-PDB) and δ D (V-SMOW) remained stable for the standard alkane compounds and n-alkane components (from n-C13 to n-C25) of the crude oil, generally varying in the range of ±0.5‰ and ±5‰ respectively, within the range of the instrumental precisions, especially for those molecularly heavier than n-C16 during microbial degradation. These results indicate that molecular stable carbon and hydrogen isotopic fingerprints can be promising indicators for tracing the sources of petroleum-related contaminants in the environment, especially in the case of severe weathering when they are difficult to be unambiguously identified by the chemical fingerprints alone.

  4. Interaction of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers and Aerobic Granular Sludge: Biosorption and Microbial Degradation

    OpenAIRE

    Shou-Qing Ni; Qingjie Cui; Zhen Zheng

    2014-01-01

    As a new category of persistent organic pollutants, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have become ubiquitous global environmental contaminants. No literature is available on the aerobic biotransformation of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209). Herein, we investigated the interaction of PBDEs with aerobic granular sludge. The results show that the removal of BDE-209 from wastewater is mainly via biosorption onto aerobic granular sludge. The uptake capacity increased when temperature, contac...

  5. Microrespirometric determination of the effectiveness factor and biodegradation kinetics of aerobic granules degrading 4-chlorophenol as the sole carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vital-Jacome, Miguel; Buitrón, Germán; Moreno-Andrade, Ivan; Garcia-Rea, Victor; Thalasso, Frederic

    2016-08-01

    In this study, a microrespirometric method was used, i.e., pulse respirometry in microreactors, to characterize mass transfer and biodegradation kinetics in aerobic granules. The experimental model was an aerobic granular sludge in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) degrading synthetic wastewater containing 4-chlorophenol as the sole carbon source. After 15 days of acclimation, the SBR process degraded 4-chlorophenol at a removal rate of up to 0.9kg CODm(-3)d(-1), and the degradation kinetics were well described by the Haldane model. The microrespirometric method consisted of injecting pulses of 4-chlorophenol into the 24 wells of a microreactor system containing the SBR samples. From the respirograms obtained, the following five kinetic parameters were successfully determined during reactor operation: (i) Maximum specific oxygen uptake rate, (ii) substrate affinity constant, (iii) substrate inhibition constant, (iv) maximum specific growth rate, and (v) cell growth yield. Microrespirometry tests using granules and disaggregated granules allowed for the determination of apparent and intrinsic parameters, which in turn enabled the determination of the effectiveness factor of the granular sludge. It was concluded that this new high-throughput method has the potential to elucidate the complex biological and physicochemical processes of aerobic granular biosystems. PMID:27054670

  6. DECOLORIZATION AND BIOLOGICAL DEGRADATION OF AZO DYE REACTIVE RED2 BY ANAEROBIC/AEROBIC SEQUENTIAL PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Naimabadi ، H. Movahedian Attar ، A. Shahsavani

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the anaerobic treatability of reactive Red2 in an anaerobic/aerobic sequential process. Laboratory scale anaerobic baffled reactor and fixed activated sludge reactor were operated at different organic loadings and hydraulic retention times. The effects of shock dye concentration on the chemical oxygen demand and color removal efficiencies were investigated in the anaerobic baffled reactor. The effect of hydraulic retention time on the color and chemical oxygen demand removal efficiencies were also investigated in the aerobic reactor. The studies were carried out in continuous mode and the effluent of the anaerobic baffled reactor was used as feed for the fixed activated sludge reactor. Chemical oxygen demand removal efficiency of 54.5% was obtained at HRT =1 day in the anaerobic reactor. The average color removal was 89.5%. Chemical oxygen demand removal efficiency of 69% was obtained at HRT =7 h in the aerobic fixed activated sludge reactor. A slight decrease of the color was also observed in the aerobic reactor. This investigation has shown that successful treatment of a highly colored wastewater is possible in the anaerobic baffled reactor. Also the results showed that, anaerobic biological system has higher efficiency in dye removal than fixed activated sludge system, while aerobic system has higher efficiency in chemical oxygen demand removal comparing with the anaerobic baffled reactor.

  7. Physiological and functional diversity of phenol degraders isolated from phenol-grown aerobic granules: Phenol degradation kinetics and trichloroethylene co-metabolic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Tay, Joo Hwa

    2016-03-15

    Aerobic granule is a novel form of microbial aggregate capable of degrading toxic and recalcitrant substances. Aerobic granules have been formed on phenol as the growth substrate, and used to co-metabolically degrade trichloroethylene (TCE), a synthetic solvent not supporting aerobic microbial growth. Granule formation process, rate limiting factors and the comprehensive toxic effects of phenol and TCE had been systematically studied. To further explore their potential at the level of microbial population and functions, phenol degraders were isolated and purified from mature granules in this study. Phenol and TCE degradation kinetics of 15 strains were determined, together with their TCE transformation capacities and other physiological characteristics. Isolation in the presence of phenol and TCE exerted stress on microbial populations, but the procedure was able to preserve their diversity. Wide variation was found with the isolates' kinetic behaviors, with the parameters often spanning 3 orders of magnitude. Haldane kinetics described phenol degradation well, and the isolates exhibited actual maximum phenol-dependent oxygen utilization rates of 9-449 mg DO g DW(-1) h(-1), in phenol concentration range of 4.8-406 mg L(-1). Both Michaelis-Menten and Haldane types were observed for TCE transformation, with the actual maximum rate of 1.04-21.1 mg TCE g DW(-1) h(-1) occurring between TCE concentrations of 0.42-4.90 mg L(-1). The TCE transformation capacities and growth yields on phenol ranged from 20-115 mg TCE g DW(-1) and 0.46-1.22 g DW g phenol(-1), respectively, resulting in TCE transformation yields of 10-70 mg TCE g phenol(-1). Contact angles of the isolates were between 34° and 82°, suggesting both hydrophobic and hydrophilic cell surface. The diversity in the isolates is a great advantage, as it enables granules to be versatile and adaptive under different operational conditions.

  8. Physiological and functional diversity of phenol degraders isolated from phenol-grown aerobic granules: Phenol degradation kinetics and trichloroethylene co-metabolic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Tay, Joo Hwa

    2016-03-15

    Aerobic granule is a novel form of microbial aggregate capable of degrading toxic and recalcitrant substances. Aerobic granules have been formed on phenol as the growth substrate, and used to co-metabolically degrade trichloroethylene (TCE), a synthetic solvent not supporting aerobic microbial growth. Granule formation process, rate limiting factors and the comprehensive toxic effects of phenol and TCE had been systematically studied. To further explore their potential at the level of microbial population and functions, phenol degraders were isolated and purified from mature granules in this study. Phenol and TCE degradation kinetics of 15 strains were determined, together with their TCE transformation capacities and other physiological characteristics. Isolation in the presence of phenol and TCE exerted stress on microbial populations, but the procedure was able to preserve their diversity. Wide variation was found with the isolates' kinetic behaviors, with the parameters often spanning 3 orders of magnitude. Haldane kinetics described phenol degradation well, and the isolates exhibited actual maximum phenol-dependent oxygen utilization rates of 9-449 mg DO g DW(-1) h(-1), in phenol concentration range of 4.8-406 mg L(-1). Both Michaelis-Menten and Haldane types were observed for TCE transformation, with the actual maximum rate of 1.04-21.1 mg TCE g DW(-1) h(-1) occurring between TCE concentrations of 0.42-4.90 mg L(-1). The TCE transformation capacities and growth yields on phenol ranged from 20-115 mg TCE g DW(-1) and 0.46-1.22 g DW g phenol(-1), respectively, resulting in TCE transformation yields of 10-70 mg TCE g phenol(-1). Contact angles of the isolates were between 34° and 82°, suggesting both hydrophobic and hydrophilic cell surface. The diversity in the isolates is a great advantage, as it enables granules to be versatile and adaptive under different operational conditions. PMID:26720328

  9. Aerobic cometabolic degradation of chlorinated ethenes in a two step system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sipkema, EM; Mocoroa, J; deKoning, W; Vlieg, JETV; Ganzeveld, KJ; Beenackers, AACM; Janssen, DB

    1997-01-01

    Many of the chlorinated ethenes (CEs) can aerobically only be converted by cometabolism, a process in which the organism converts the contaminant that it cannot use for growth as a result of the nonspecificity of one of its enzymes. For bioremediation systems, the methanotroph Methylosinus trichospo

  10. Modeling Aerobic Carbon Source Degradation Processes using Titrimetric Data and Combined Respirometric-Titrimetric Data: Structural and Practical Identifiability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist; Petersen, B.; Dochain, D.;

    2002-01-01

    considerably more for dextrose than for acetate degradation models. Noteworthy is the finding that the half-saturation substrate concentrations can be different depending on whether they are estimated from respirometric or titrimetric data. Moreover, this difference appears to be dependent on the carbon source...... the initial substrate concentration S-S(O) is known. The values found correspond to values reported in literature, but, interestingly, also seem able to reflect the occurrence of storage processes when pulses of acetate and dextrose are added. (C) 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.......The structural and practical identifiability of a model for description of respirometric-titrimetric data derived from aerobic batch substrate degradation experiments of a CxHyOz carbon source with activated sludge was evaluated. The model processes needed to describe titrimetric data included...

  11. Importance of Unattached Bacteria and Bacteria Attached to Sediment in Determining Potentials for Degradation of Xenobiotic Organic Contaminants in an Aerobic Aquifer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Henning; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Christensen, Thomas Højlund;

    1992-01-01

    The bacterial abundance, distribution, and degradation potential (in terms of degradation versus lack of degradation) for four xenobiotic compounds in an aerobic aquifer sediment have been examined in laboratory and field experiments. The xenobiotic compounds studied were benzene, toluene, o......-xylene, and naphthalene (all at concentrations of approximately 120 pg/liter). The aerobic degradation experiments ran for approximately 90 days at 10°C, which corresponded to the groundwater temperature. At the end of the experiment, the major part of the microbial biomass, quantified as acridine orange direct counts...... for studying the degradation potential for xenobiotic organic contaminants should contain sediment to obtain the highest numbers of bacteria as well as the broadest and most stable degradation. When only the fine (silt- and clay-size) particles of the sediment were used, nearly the same advantages were gained...

  12. Metabolism of 2-Chloro-4-Nitroaniline via Novel Aerobic Degradation Pathway by Rhodococcus sp. Strain MB-P1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Fazlurrahman; Pal, Deepika; Vikram, Surendra; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh

    2013-01-01

    2-chloro-4-nitroaniline (2-C-4-NA) is used as an intermediate in the manufacture of dyes, pharmaceuticals, corrosion inhibitor and also used in the synthesis of niclosamide, a molluscicide. It is marked as a black-listed substance due to its poor biodegradability. We report biodegradation of 2-C-4-NA and its pathway characterization by Rhodococcus sp. strain MB-P1 under aerobic conditions. The strain MB-P1 utilizes 2-C-4-NA as the sole carbon, nitrogen, and energy source. In the growth medium, the degradation of 2-C-4-NA occurs with the release of nitrite ions, chloride ions, and ammonia. During the resting cell studies, the 2-C-4-NA-induced cells of strain MB-P1 transformed 2-C-4-NA stoichiometrically to 4-amino-3-chlorophenol (4-A-3-CP), which subsequently gets transformed to 6-chlorohydroxyquinol (6-CHQ) metabolite. Enzyme assays by cell-free lysates prepared from 2-C-4-NA-induced MB-P1 cells, demonstrated that the first enzyme in the 2-C-4-NA degradation pathway is a flavin-dependent monooxygenase that catalyzes the stoichiometric removal of nitro group and production of 4-A-3-CP. Oxygen uptake studies on 4-A-3-CP and related anilines by 2-C-4-NA-induced MB-P1 cells demonstrated the involvement of aniline dioxygenase in the second step of 2-C-4-NA degradation. This is the first report showing 2-C-4-NA degradation and elucidation of corresponding metabolic pathway by an aerobic bacterium. PMID:23614030

  13. Metabolism of 2-chloro-4-nitroaniline via novel aerobic degradation pathway by Rhodococcus sp. strain MB-P1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazlurrahman Khan

    Full Text Available 2-chloro-4-nitroaniline (2-C-4-NA is used as an intermediate in the manufacture of dyes, pharmaceuticals, corrosion inhibitor and also used in the synthesis of niclosamide, a molluscicide. It is marked as a black-listed substance due to its poor biodegradability. We report biodegradation of 2-C-4-NA and its pathway characterization by Rhodococcus sp. strain MB-P1 under aerobic conditions. The strain MB-P1 utilizes 2-C-4-NA as the sole carbon, nitrogen, and energy source. In the growth medium, the degradation of 2-C-4-NA occurs with the release of nitrite ions, chloride ions, and ammonia. During the resting cell studies, the 2-C-4-NA-induced cells of strain MB-P1 transformed 2-C-4-NA stoichiometrically to 4-amino-3-chlorophenol (4-A-3-CP, which subsequently gets transformed to 6-chlorohydroxyquinol (6-CHQ metabolite. Enzyme assays by cell-free lysates prepared from 2-C-4-NA-induced MB-P1 cells, demonstrated that the first enzyme in the 2-C-4-NA degradation pathway is a flavin-dependent monooxygenase that catalyzes the stoichiometric removal of nitro group and production of 4-A-3-CP. Oxygen uptake studies on 4-A-3-CP and related anilines by 2-C-4-NA-induced MB-P1 cells demonstrated the involvement of aniline dioxygenase in the second step of 2-C-4-NA degradation. This is the first report showing 2-C-4-NA degradation and elucidation of corresponding metabolic pathway by an aerobic bacterium.

  14. Metabolism of 2-chloro-4-nitroaniline via novel aerobic degradation pathway by Rhodococcus sp. strain MB-P1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Fazlurrahman; Pal, Deepika; Vikram, Surendra; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh

    2013-01-01

    2-chloro-4-nitroaniline (2-C-4-NA) is used as an intermediate in the manufacture of dyes, pharmaceuticals, corrosion inhibitor and also used in the synthesis of niclosamide, a molluscicide. It is marked as a black-listed substance due to its poor biodegradability. We report biodegradation of 2-C-4-NA and its pathway characterization by Rhodococcus sp. strain MB-P1 under aerobic conditions. The strain MB-P1 utilizes 2-C-4-NA as the sole carbon, nitrogen, and energy source. In the growth medium, the degradation of 2-C-4-NA occurs with the release of nitrite ions, chloride ions, and ammonia. During the resting cell studies, the 2-C-4-NA-induced cells of strain MB-P1 transformed 2-C-4-NA stoichiometrically to 4-amino-3-chlorophenol (4-A-3-CP), which subsequently gets transformed to 6-chlorohydroxyquinol (6-CHQ) metabolite. Enzyme assays by cell-free lysates prepared from 2-C-4-NA-induced MB-P1 cells, demonstrated that the first enzyme in the 2-C-4-NA degradation pathway is a flavin-dependent monooxygenase that catalyzes the stoichiometric removal of nitro group and production of 4-A-3-CP. Oxygen uptake studies on 4-A-3-CP and related anilines by 2-C-4-NA-induced MB-P1 cells demonstrated the involvement of aniline dioxygenase in the second step of 2-C-4-NA degradation. This is the first report showing 2-C-4-NA degradation and elucidation of corresponding metabolic pathway by an aerobic bacterium. PMID:23614030

  15. Degradation of Reactive Black 5 dye using anaerobic/aerobic membrane bioreactor (MBR) and photochemical membrane reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three different types of advance treatment methods were evaluated for the degradation of Reactive Black 5 (RB5). The performance of two stage anaerobic SBR-aerobic MBR, anaerobic MBR with immobilized and suspended biocells and an integrated membrane photocatalytic reactor (MPR) using slurry UV/TiO2 system were investigated. The results suggest that, nearly 99.9% color removal and 80-95% organic COD and TOC removal can be achieved using different reactor systems. Considering the Taiwan EPA effluent standard discharge criteria for COD/TOC, the degree of treatment achieved by combining the anaerobic-aerobic system was found to be acceptable. Anew, Bacilluscereus, high color removal bacterium was isolated from Anaerobic SBR. Furthermore, when this immobilized into PVA-calcium alginate pellets, and suspended in the anaerobic MBR was able to achieve high removal efficiencies, similar to the suspended biocells system. However, the immobilized cell Anaerobic MBR was found to be more advantageous, due to lower fouling rates in the membrane unit. Results from slurry type MPR system showed that this system was capable of mineralizing RB5 dyes with faster degradation rate as compared to other systems. The reactor was also able to separate the catalyst effectively and perform efficiently without much loss of catalyst activity.

  16. Laboratory simulation of the successive aerobic and anaerobic degradation of oil products in oil-contaminated high-moor peat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolpeshta, I. I.; Trofimov, S. Ya.; Erkenova, M. I.; Sokolova, T. A.; Stepanov, A. L.; Lysak, L. V.; Lobanenkov, A. M.

    2015-03-01

    A model experiment has been performed on the successive aerobic and anaerobic degradation of oil products in samples of oil-contaminated peat sampled from a pine-subshrub-sphagnum bog near the Sutormin oilfield pipeline in the Yamal-Nenets autonomous district. During the incubation of oil-contaminated peat with lime and mineral fertilizers under complete flooding, favorable conditions are created for the aerobic oxidation of oil products at the beginning of the experiment and, as the redox potential decreases, for the anaerobic degradation of oil products conjugated with the reduction of N5+ and S+6 and methanogenesis. From the experimental data on the dynamics of the pH; Eh; and the NO{3/-}, NO{2/-}, and SO{4/2-} concentrations in the liquid phase of the samples, it has been found that denitrifiers significantly contributed to the biodegradation of oil products under the experimental conditions. After the end of the experiment, the content of oil products in the contaminated samples decreased by 21-26%.

  17. DECOLORIZATION AND BIOLOGICAL DEGRADATION OF AZO DYE REACTIVE RED2 BY ANAEROBIC/AEROBIC SEQUENTIAL PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    A. Naimabadi ، H. Movahedian Attar ، A. Shahsavani

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the anaerobic treatability of reactive Red2 in an anaerobic/aerobic sequential process. Laboratory scale anaerobic baffled reactor and fixed activated sludge reactor were operated at different organic loadings and hydraulic retention times. The effects of shock dye concentration on the chemical oxygen demand and color removal efficiencies were investigated in the anaerobic baffled reactor. The effect of hydraulic retention time on the color and chemical oxygen demand r...

  18. Mechanism and kinetics of organic matter degradation based on particle structure variation during pig manure aerobic composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jinyi; Huang, Guangqun; Huang, Jing; Zeng, Jianfei; Han, Lujia

    2015-07-15

    Characterization of the dynamic structure of composting particles may facilitate our understanding of the mechanisms of organic matter degradation during pig manure-wheat straw aerobic composting. In this study, changes in the size, shape, pores, chemical compositions, and crystal structures of pig manure particles during composting were investigated. The results showed that the median diameter (D50) decreased exponentially, while the particle aspect ratio and sphericity were unchanged, suggesting that particles were degraded uniformly along different radial directions. Pores had a mean diameter of 15-30 μm and were elliptical. The particle porosity increased linearly mainly because of hemicellulose degradation. Furthermore, the influence of particle structure variation on the first order rate constant (k) of organic matter degradation was corrected, which may facilitate the optimization of operation conditions. The k value was proportional to the reciprocal of D50 according to the specific surface area of particles, and it decreased with increased porosity due to the stabilized chemical compositions and crystal structures of particles. However, the applicability of these data to other composting materials should be verified. PMID:25781372

  19. Biodegradation of low-ethoxylated nonylphenols in a bioreactor packed with a new ceramic support (Vukopor ® S10).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciubba, Luigi; Bertin, Lorenzo; Todaro, Daniela; Bettini, Cristina; Fava, Fabio; Di Gioia, Diana

    2014-03-01

    This work was aimed at studying the possibility of biodegrading 4-nonylphenol and low ethoxylated nonylphenol mixtures, which are particularly recalcitrant to microbial degradation, by employing a biofilm reactor packed with a ceramic support (Vukopor® S10). A selected microbial consortium (Consortium A) was used to colonize the support. 4-Nonylphenol and ethoxylated nonylphenol degradation and mineralization capabilities were studied both in batch and continuous mode. The results showed that Vukopor® S10 was able to be colonized by an active biofilm for the degradation of the target pollutants with the reactor operating both in batch and continuous mode. On the other hand, pollutant adsorption on the support was negligible. FISH showed equal proportion of Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria in the Igepal CO-520 degrading reactor. A shift towards high proportion of Gammaproteobacteria was observed by supplying Igepal CO-210. PCR-density gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analyses also evidenced that the biofilm evolved with time by changing the mixture applied and that Proteobacteria were the most represented phylum in the biofilm. Taken together, the data obtained provide a strong indication that the biofilm reactor packed with Vukopor® S10 and inoculated with Consortium A could potentially be used to develop a technology for the decontamination of 4-nonylphenol and low ethoxylated nonylphenol polluted effluents.

  20. Deciphering the genetic determinants for aerobic nicotinic acid degradation: the nic cluster from Pseudomonas putida KT2440.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, José I; Canales, Angeles; Jiménez-Barbero, Jesús; Ginalski, Krzysztof; Rychlewski, Leszek; García, José L; Díaz, Eduardo

    2008-08-12

    The aerobic catabolism of nicotinic acid (NA) is considered a model system for degradation of N-heterocyclic aromatic compounds, some of which are major environmental pollutants; however, the complete set of genes as well as the structural-functional relationships of most of the enzymes involved in this process are still unknown. We have characterized a gene cluster (nic genes) from Pseudomonas putida KT2440 responsible for the aerobic NA degradation in this bacterium and when expressed in heterologous hosts. The biochemistry of the NA degradation through the formation of 2,5-dihydroxypyridine and maleamic acid has been revisited, and some gene products become the prototype of new types of enzymes with unprecedented molecular architectures. Thus, the initial hydroxylation of NA is catalyzed by a two-component hydroxylase (NicAB) that constitutes the first member of the xanthine dehydrogenase family whose electron transport chain to molecular oxygen includes a cytochrome c domain. The Fe(2+)-dependent dioxygenase (NicX) converts 2,5-dihydroxypyridine into N-formylmaleamic acid, and it becomes the founding member of a new family of extradiol ring-cleavage dioxygenases. Further conversion of N-formylmaleamic acid to formic and maleamic acid is catalyzed by the NicD protein, the only deformylase described so far whose catalytic triad is similar to that of some members of the alpha/beta-hydrolase fold superfamily. This work allows exploration of the existence of orthologous gene clusters in saprophytic bacteria and some pathogens, where they might stimulate studies on their role in virulence, and it provides a framework to develop new biotechnological processes for detoxification/biotransformation of N-heterocyclic aromatic compounds.

  1. Aerobic degradation of highly chlorinated polychlorobiphenyls by a marine bacterium, Pseudomonas CH07

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    De, J.; Ramaiah, N.; Sarkar, A.

    and the other coplanar tetrachloro congener CB-77 was degraded by more than 40% within 40 hours by this microorganism. Apparently absence of bphC in this bacterium led to proposition of different mechanism of PCBs degradation. KEY WORDS: Pseudomonas CH07...

  2. Incomplete aerobic degradation of the antidiabetic drug Metformin and identification of the bacterial dead-end transformation product Guanylurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautwein, Christoph; Kümmerer, Klaus

    2011-10-01

    Active pharmaceutical ingredients as well as personal care products are detected in increasing prevalence in different environmental compartments such as surface water, groundwater and soil. Still little is known about the environmental fate of these substances. The type II antidiabetic drug Metformin has already been detected in different surface waters worldwide, but concentrations were significantly lower than the corresponding predicted environmental concentration (PEC). In human and mammal metabolism so far no metabolites of Metformin have been identified, so the expected environmental concentrations should be very high. To assess the aerobic biodegradability of Metformin and the possible formation of degradation products, three Organisation of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) test series were performed in the present study. In the Closed Bottle test (OECD 301 D), a screening test that simulates the conditions of an environmental surface water compartment, Metformin was classified as not readily biodegradable (no biodegradation). In the Manometric Respiratory test (OEDC 301 F) working with high bacterial density, Metformin was biodegraded in one of three test bottles to 48.7% and in the toxicity control bottle to 57.5%. In the Zahn-Wellens test (OECD 302 B) using activated sludge, Metformin was biodegraded in both test vessels to an extent of 51.3% and 49.9%, respectively. Analysis of test samples by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to multiple stage mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS(n)) showed in the tests vessels were biodegradation was observed full elimination of Metformin and revealed Guanylurea (Amidinourea, Dicyandiamidine) as single and stable aerobic bacterial degradation product. In another Manometric Respiratory test Guanylurea showed no more transformation. Photodegradation of Guanylurea was also negative. A first screening in one of the greatest sewage treatment plant in southern Germany found Metformin with high concentrations

  3. Aerobic degradation of methyl tert-butyl ether by a Proteobacteria strain in a closed culture system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Wei-hong; CHEN Jian-meng; LU Zheng; CHEN Dong-zhi; CHEN Xiao

    2007-01-01

    The contamination of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in underground waters has become a widely concerned problem all over the world. In this study, a novel closed culture system with oxygen supplied by H2O2 was introduced for MTBE aerobic biodegradation. After 7 d, almost all MTBE was degraded by a pure culture, a member of β-Proteobacteria named as PM1, in a closed system with oxygen supply, while only 40% MTBE was degraded in one without oxygen supply. Dissolved oxygen (DO) levels of the broth in closed systems respectively with and without H2O2 were about 5-6 and 4 mg/L. Higher DO may improve the activity of monooxygemase, which is the key enzyme of metabolic pathway from MTBE to tert-butyl alcohol and finally to CO2, and may result in the increase of the degrading activity of PM1 cell. The purge and trap GC-MS result of the broth in closed systems showed that tert-butyl alcohol,isopronol and acetone were the main intermediate products.

  4. Study on the aerobic biodegradability and degradation kinetics of 3-NP; 2,4-DNP and 2,6-DNP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We assessed the biodegradability of three nitrophenols using four methods. ► We simulated the degradation kinetics model and estimated relevant parameters. ► We compared the kinetics performances of solo substrates and co-substrates. - Abstract: Four biodegradability tests (BOD5/COD ratio, production of carbon dioxide, relative oxygen uptake rate and relative enzymatic activity) were used to determine the aerobic biodegradability of 3-nitrophenol (3-NP), 2,4-dinitrophenol (2,4-DNP) and 2,6-dinitrophenol (2,6-DNP). Furthermore, biodegradation kinetics of the compounds was investigated in sequencing batch reactors both in the presence of glucose (co-substrate) and with nitrophenol as the sole carbon source. Among the three tested compounds, 3-NP showed the best biodegradability while 2,6-DNP was the most difficult to be biodegraded. The Haldane equation was applied to the kinetic test data of the nitrophenols. The kinetic constants are as follows: the maximum specific degradation rate (Kmax), the saturation constants (KS) and the inhibition constants (KI) were in the range of 0.005–2.98 mg (mgSS d)−1, 1.5–51.9 mg L−1 and 1.8–95.8 mg L−1, respectively. The presence of glucose enhanced the degradation of the nitrophenols at low glucose concentrations. The degradation of 3-NP was found to be accelerated with the increasing of glucose concentrations from 0 to 660 mg L−1. At high (1320–2000 mg L−1) glucose concentrations, the degradation rate of 3-NP was reduced and the Kmax of 3-NP was even lower than the value obtained in the absence of glucose, suggesting that high concentrations of co-substrate could inhibit 3-NP biodegradation. At 2,4-DNP concentration of 30 mg L−1, the Kmax of 2,4-DNP with glucose as co-substrate was about 30 times the value with 2,4-DNP as sole substrate. 2,6-DNP preformed high toxicity in the case of sole carbon source degradation and the kinetic data was hardly obtained.

  5. Study on the aerobic biodegradability and degradation kinetics of 3-NP; 2,4-DNP and 2,6-DNP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    She, Zonglian; Xie, Tian; Zhu, Yingjie; Li, Leilei; Tang, Gaifeng [Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science and Ecology, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China); Huang, Jian, E-mail: jianhuang666@hotmail.com [Department of Environmental Ecology, College of Marine Life Sciences, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003 (China)

    2012-11-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We assessed the biodegradability of three nitrophenols using four methods. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We simulated the degradation kinetics model and estimated relevant parameters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We compared the kinetics performances of solo substrates and co-substrates. - Abstract: Four biodegradability tests (BOD{sub 5}/COD ratio, production of carbon dioxide, relative oxygen uptake rate and relative enzymatic activity) were used to determine the aerobic biodegradability of 3-nitrophenol (3-NP), 2,4-dinitrophenol (2,4-DNP) and 2,6-dinitrophenol (2,6-DNP). Furthermore, biodegradation kinetics of the compounds was investigated in sequencing batch reactors both in the presence of glucose (co-substrate) and with nitrophenol as the sole carbon source. Among the three tested compounds, 3-NP showed the best biodegradability while 2,6-DNP was the most difficult to be biodegraded. The Haldane equation was applied to the kinetic test data of the nitrophenols. The kinetic constants are as follows: the maximum specific degradation rate (K{sub max}), the saturation constants (K{sub S}) and the inhibition constants (K{sub I}) were in the range of 0.005-2.98 mg (mgSS d){sup -1}, 1.5-51.9 mg L{sup -1} and 1.8-95.8 mg L{sup -1}, respectively. The presence of glucose enhanced the degradation of the nitrophenols at low glucose concentrations. The degradation of 3-NP was found to be accelerated with the increasing of glucose concentrations from 0 to 660 mg L{sup -1}. At high (1320-2000 mg L{sup -1}) glucose concentrations, the degradation rate of 3-NP was reduced and the K{sub max} of 3-NP was even lower than the value obtained in the absence of glucose, suggesting that high concentrations of co-substrate could inhibit 3-NP biodegradation. At 2,4-DNP concentration of 30 mg L{sup -1}, the K{sub max} of 2,4-DNP with glucose as co-substrate was about 30 times the value with 2,4-DNP as sole substrate. 2,6-DNP preformed high

  6. Oral exposure to low-dose of nonylphenol impairs memory performance in Sprague-Dawley rats

    OpenAIRE

    KAWAGUCHI,SHINICHIRO; Kuwahara, Rika; Kohara, Yumi; Uchida, Yutaro; Oku, Yushi; Yamashita, Kimihiro

    2015-01-01

    Nonylphenol ethoxylate (NPE) is a non-ionic surfactant, that is degraded to short-chain NPE and 4-nonylphenol (NP) by bacteria in the environment. NP, one of the most common environmental endocrine disruptors, exhibits weak estrogen-like activity. In this study, we investigated whether oral administration of NP (at 0.5 and 5 mg/kg doses) affects spatial learning and memory, general activity, emotionality, and fear-motivated learning and memory in male and female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. SD r...

  7. N20 and NH3 emissions from a bioreactor landfill operated under limited aerobic degradation conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pinjing He; Na Yang; Huili Gu; Hua Zhang; Liming Shao

    2011-01-01

    The combination of leachate recirculation and aeration to landfill may be an efficient way for in-situ nitrogen removal. However,nitrogenous substances contained in the landfill layer are concomitantly transformed into N20 and NH3, leading to increased emissions into the atmosphere. In the present study, the emissions of N20 and NH3 were measured under conditions of fresh or partially stabilized refuse with or without leachate recirculation or intermittent aeration. The results showed that the largest N20 emission (12.4 mg-N/L of the column) was observed in the aerated column loaded with partially stabilized refuse and recycled with the leachate of low C/N ratio; while less than 0.33 mg-N/L of the column was produced in the other columns. N20 production was positively correlated with the prolonged aerobic time and negatively related with the C/N ratio in the recycled leachate. NH3 volatilization increased with enhanced gas flow and concentration of free ammonia in the leachate, and the highest cumulative vola tilization quantity was 1.7 mg-N/L of the column.

  8. Aerobic degradation of ibuprofen in batch and continuous reactors by an indigenous bacterial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunato, María Susana; Fuentes Abril, Nancy Piedad; Martinefski, Manuela; Trípodi, Valeria; Papalia, Mariana; Rádice, Marcela; Gutkind, Gabriel; Gallego, Alfredo; Korol, Sonia Edith

    2016-10-01

    Water from six points from the Riachuelo-Matanza basin was analyzed in order to assess ibuprofen biodegradability. In four of them biodegradation of ibuprofen was proved and degrading bacterial communities were isolated. Biodegradation in each point could not be correlated with sewage pollution. The indigenous bacterial community isolated from the point localized in the La Noria Bridge showed the highest degradative capacity and was selected to perform batch and continuous degradation assays. The partial 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that the community consisted of Comamonas aquatica and Bacillus sp. In batch assays the community was capable of degrading 100 mg L(-1) of ibuprofen in 33 h, with a specific growth rate (μ) of 0.21 h(-1). The removal of the compound, as determined by High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), exceeded 99% of the initial concentration, with a 92.3% removal of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD). In a down-flow fixed-bed continuous reactor, the community shows a removal efficiency of 95.9% of ibuprofen and 92.3% of COD for an average inlet concentration of 110.4 mg. The reactor was kept in operation for 70 days. The maximal removal rate for the compound was 17.4 g m(-3) d(-1). Scanning electron microscopy was employed to observe biofilm development in the reactor. The ability of the isolated indigenous community can be exploited to improve the treatment of wastewaters containing ibuprofen. PMID:26905769

  9. Use of Advanced Oxidation and Aerobic Degradation for Remediation of Various Hydrocarbon Contaminates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Fallgren

    2009-03-06

    Western Research Institute in conjunction with Sierra West Consultants, Inc., Tetra Tech, Inc., and the U.S. Department of Energy conducted laboratory and field studies to test different approaches to enhance degradation of hydrocarbons and associated contaminants. WRI in conjunction with Sierra West Consultants, Inc., conducted a laboratory and field study for using ozone to treat a site contaminated with MTBE and other hydrocarbons. Results from this study demonstrate that a TOD test can be used to resolve the O{sub 3} dosage problem by establishing a site-specific benchmark dosage for field ozone applications. The follow-up testing of the laboratory samples provided indications that intrinsic biodegradation could be stimulated by adding oxygen. Laboratory studies also suggests that O3 dosage in the full-scale field implementation could be dialed lower than stoichiometrically designed to eliminate the formation of Cr(VI). WRI conducted a study involving a series of different ISCO oxidant applications to diesel-contaminated soil and determined the effects on enhancing biodegradation to degrade the residual hydrocarbons. Soils treated with permanganate followed by nutrients and with persulfate followed by nutrients resulted in the largest decrease in TPH. The possible intermediates and conditions formed from NOM and TPH oxidation by permanganate and activated persulfate favors microbial TPH degrading activity. A 'passive-oxidation' method using microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology was conducted by WRI in conjunction with Tetra Tech, Inc., to degrade MTBE in groundwater. These experiments have demonstrated that a working MFC (i.e., one generating power) could be established in the laboratory using contaminated site water or buffered media inoculated with site water and spiked with MTBE, benzene, or toluene. Electrochemical methods were studied by WRI with goal of utilizing low voltage and amperage electrical sources for 'geo-oxidation' of organic

  10. Biodegradation of malachite green by Pseudomonas sp. strain DY1 under aerobic condition: characteristics, degradation products, enzyme analysis and phytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Lin-Na; Wang, Sheng; Li, Gang; Wang, Bing; Jia, Xiao-Ming; Zhao, Yu-Hua; Chen, Yun-Long

    2011-03-01

    Malachite green (MG), a widely-used and recalcitrant dye, has been confirmed to be carcinogenic and mutagenic against many organisms. The main objective of this study is to investigate the capability of Pseudomonas sp. strain DY1 to decolorize MG, and to explore the possible mechanism. The results showed that this strain demonstrated high decolorizing capability (90.3-97.2%) at high concentrations of MG (100-1,000 mg/l) under shaking condition within 24 h. In static conditions, lower but still effective decolorization (78.9-84.3%) was achieved. The optimal pH and temperature for the decolorization was pH 6.6 and 28-30°C, respectively. Mg(2+) and Mn(2+) (1 mM) were observed to significantly enhance the decolorization. The intermediates of the MG degradation under aerobic condition identified by UV-visible, GC-MS and LC-MS analysis included malachite green carbinol, (dimethyl amino-phenyl)-phenyl-methanone, N,N-dimethylaniline, (methyl amino-phenyl)-phenyl-methanone, (amino phenyl)-phenyl methanone and di-benzyl methane. The enzyme analysis indicated that Mn-peroxidase, NADH-DCIP and MG reductase were involved in the biodegradation of MG. Moreover, phytotoxicity of MG and detoxification for MG by the strain were observed. Therefore, this strain could be potentially used for bioremediation of MG.

  11. Occurrence and risk assessment of nonylphenol and nonylphenol ethoxylates in sewage sludge from different conventional treatment processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, M M; Martín, J; Santos, J L; Aparicio, I; Alonso, E

    2010-01-01

    In the present work, the concentrations of the organic pollutants nonylphenol (NP) and nonylphenol mono- and diethoxylates (NP1EO and NP2EO, respectively) in primary, secondary, mixed, aerobically-digested, anaerobically-digested, dehydrated, compost and lagoon sludge samples from different sludge treatments have been evaluated. Toxicological risk assessment of these compounds in sludge and sludge-amended soil has also been reported. NP, NP1EO and NP2EO were monitored in sludge samples obtained from treatment plants located in Andalusia (south of Spain) based on anaerobic treatments (11 anaerobic-digestion wastewater treatment plants and 3 anaerobic wastewater stabilization ponds) or on aerobic treatments (3 aerobic-digestion wastewater treatment plants, 1 dehydration treatment plant and 2 composting plants). The sum of NP, NP1EO and NP2EO (NPE) concentrations has been evaluated in relation to the limit value of 50 mg/kg set by the European Union Sludge Directive draft published in April 2000 (Working Document on Sludge). In most of the samples, NP was present at higher concentration levels (mean value 88.0 mg/kg dm) than NP1EO (mean value 33.8 mg/kg dm) and NP2EO (mean value 14.0 mg/kg dm). The most contaminated samples were compost, anaerobically-digested sludge, lagoon sludge and aerobically-digested sludge samples, which contained NPE concentrations in the ranges 44-962 mg/kg dm, 8-669 mg/kg dm, 27-319 mg/kg dm and 61-282 mg/kg dm, respectively. Risk quotients, expressed as the ratios between environmental concentrations and the predicted no-effect concentrations, were higher than 1 for NP, NP1EO and NP2EO in the 99%, 92% and 36% of the studied samples, respectively; and higher than 1 in the 86%, 6% and 2%, respectively, after sludge application to soil, leading to a significant ecotoxicological risk mainly due to the presence of NP. PMID:19896162

  12. In utero reproductive study in rats exposed to nonylphenol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hossaini, Alireza; Dalgaard, Majken; Vinggaard, Anne;

    2001-01-01

    Alkylphenol ethoxylates are widely used non-ionic surfactants. Nonylphenol ethoxylate constitutes 82% of the production of all alkylphenol ethoxylates and the breakdown product of nonylphenol ethoxylate, nonylphenol (NP) has been shown to be estrogenic in both in vitro and in vivo screening assay...

  13. Phthalates and Nonylphenols in Roskilde Fjord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikelsøe, J.; Fauser, P.; Sørensen, P. B.;

    The aim of the study has been to investigate the occurrence, sources, transport and fate of nonylphenols and phthalates in the aquatic environment of Roskilde Fjord. It was further intended to find the temporal as well as the spatial variation of these xenobiotics in the fjord and stream water....... Further, to investigate nonylphenols and phthalates in sediment in the fjord including a sediment core in the southern part, expected to yield clues regarding the historical variation of the concentration of xenobiotics, as well as some streams and lakes. Finally, an important aim was to make a mass...

  14. Effects of gene-augmentation on the formation, characteristics and microbial community of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid degrading aerobic microbial granules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The first study to cultivate aerobic granules capable of utilizing 2,4-D as the sole carbon source. ► Granules cultivated through gene-augmentation were first compared systematically with the control on granule formation, degradation kinetics, morphology, and microbial community. ► The first report on the fate of transconjugats in the granules during long term operation after bioaugmentation. ► The first study to isolate in dominant bacteria in 2,4-D degrading microbial granules. - Abstract: Development of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) degrading aerobic granular sludge was conducted in two sequencing batch reactors (SBR) with one bioaugmented with a plasmid pJP4 donor strain Pseudomonas putida SM1443 and the other as a control. Half-matured aerobic granules pre-grown on glucose were used as the starting seeds and a two-stage operation strategy was applied. Granules capable of utilizing 2,4-D (about 500 mg/L) as the sole carbon source was successfully cultivated in both reactors. Gene-augmentation resulted in the enhancement of 2,4-D degradation rates by the percentage of 65–135% for the granules on Day 18, and 6–24% for the granules on Day 105. Transconjugants receiving plasmid pJP4 were established in the granule microbial community after bioaugmentation and persisted till the end of operation. Compared with the control granules, the granules in the bioaugmented reactor demonstrated a better settling ability, larger size, more abundant microbial diversity and stronger tolerance to 2,4-D. The finally obtained granules in the bioaugmented and control reactor had a granule size of around 600 μm and 500 μm, a Shannon–Weaver diversity index (H) of 0.96 and 0.55, respectively. A shift in microbial community was found during the granulation process.

  15. Comparative toxicity of nonylphenol, nonylphenol-4-ethoxylate and nonylphenol-10-ethoxylate to wheat seedlings (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingming; Wang, Feifei; Xue, Changhui; Wang, Caixia; Chi, Shengqi; Zhang, Jianfeng

    2016-09-01

    Nonylphenol polyethoxylates (NPEOs) are a group of surfactants that are widely used in industrial and household products and often detected in the environment. The metabolite of NPEOs, named nonylphenol (NP), has proven to be an endocrine disruptor, and its environmental behavior and eco-toxicity have been widely investigated in previous studies. However, to the best of our knowledge, insight into the toxicity differences of NP and NPEOs on important crops remains limited. Therefore, this study investigated the comparative toxicity of NP, nonylphenol-4-ethoxylate (NP4EO), and nonylphenol-10-ethoxylate (NP10EO) on wheat seedlings using hydroponic experiments. The results indicated that NP is most toxic to wheat followed by NP4EO, and NP10EO is the least toxic to wheat. The adverse effects of NP on wheat were observed for all the tested parameters including germination, shoot length, root length, chlorophyll, lipid peroxidation, and enzymatic activities. To gain insight into the molecular response, we analyzed the transcript abundance of SOD-Cu/Zn and CAT with NP, NP4EO, and NP10EO exposure using quantitative real-time PCR. The data revealed that both genes exhibited up- or down-regulated expression patterns that were consistent with the activities of the two enzymes. This result further conformed that NP is most toxic to wheat plants. PMID:27162129

  16. Mechanism study on UV-induced photodegradation of nonylphenol ethoxylates by intermediate products analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling Chen; Hai Yun Zhou; Lan Liu; Qin Ying Deng

    2007-01-01

    Photodegradation of nonylphenol ethoxylates (NP10EO) was investigated in laboratory scale under UV irradiation. The intermediate photodegradation products were analyzed by LC-ESI-MS. Three kinds of intermediate products including aldehydic compounds, carboxylic compounds and cyclohexanyl compounds were identified. Five main degradation routes involving the oxidation of the alkyl chain and ethoxylate unit, shortening of the alkyl chain and ethoxylate unit, hydrogenation of the benzene ring were proposed.

  17. Sperm of rosy barb (Puntius conchonius) as an in vitro assay system of nonylphenol cytotoxicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Qin; ZHANG Shi-cui; HU Jia-hui; XU Yu-yan

    2006-01-01

    @@ Nonylphenol (NP) is the final degradation product of alkylphenol polyethoxylates (APEs), which are widely present in plastics, papers, pulp, detergents,pesticides, herbicides, paints and cosmetics. It is estimated that annual global production of APEs is about 500000 t, 60% of which eventually ends up in aquatic ecosystems primarily via wastewater (Sol?et al., 2000). NP is resistant to biodegradation and persistent in the environment (Arukwe et al., 2000).

  18. Investigations in the microbial degradation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and means of reductive dechlorination and aerobic mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work had the objective to develop a biological method for cleaning up PCDD/PCDF contaminated upper soil layers (PCDDs/PCDFs: polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans). Since highly chlorinated aromatic compounds persist in soil under aerobic conditions, reductive dechlorination of the compounds under anaerobic conditions was aimed at in a first phase of the project. A second, topped phase was destined for aerobic mineralization of the dechlorinated matrices. The tests were carried out on three farmland soils following long-term contamination with PCDDs/PCDFs. (orig./MG)

  19. Post-treatment of anaerobically degraded azo dye Acid Red 18 using aerobic moving bed biofilm process: enhanced removal of aromatic amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koupaie, E Hosseini; Moghaddam, M R Alavi; Hashemi, S H

    2011-11-15

    The application of aerobic moving bed biofilm process as post-treatment of anaerobically degraded azo dye Acid Red 18 was investigated in this study. The main objective of this work was to enhance removal of anaerobically formed the dye aromatic metabolites. Three separate sequential treatment systems were operated with different initial dye concentrations of 100, 500 and 1000 mg/L. Each treatment system consisted of an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (An-SBR) followed by an aerobic moving bed sequencing batch biofilm reactor (MB-SBBR). Up to 98% of the dye decolorization and more than 80% of the COD removal occurred anaerobically. The obtained results suggested no significant difference in COD removal as well as the dye decolorization efficiency using three An-SBRs receiving different initial dye concentrations. Monitoring the dye metabolites through HPLC suggested that more than 80% of anaerobically formed 1-naphthylamine-4-sulfonate was completely removed in the aerobic biofilm reactors. Based on COD analysis results, at least 65-72% of the dye total metabolites were mineralized during the applied treatment systems. According to the measured biofilm mass and also based on respiration-inhibition test results, increasing the initial dye concentration inhibited the growth and final mass of the attached-growth biofilm in MB-SBBRs.

  20. Post-treatment of anaerobically degraded azo dye Acid Red 18 using aerobic moving bed biofilm process: Enhanced removal of aromatic amines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseini Koupaie, E., E-mail: ehssan.hosseini.k@gmail.com [Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology (AUT), Hafez Ave., Tehran 15875-4413 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Alavi Moghaddam, M.R., E-mail: alavim@yahoo.com [Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology (AUT), Hafez Ave., Tehran 15875-4413 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hashemi, S.H., E-mail: h_hashemi@sbu.ac.ir [Environmental Science Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: {yields} Biofilm process was applied as post-treatment of anaerobically degraded an azo dye. {yields} More than 65% of the dye total metabolites was completely mineralized. {yields} Based on HPLC analysis, more than 80% of 1-naphthylamine-4-sulfonate was removed. {yields} Inhibition of biofilm growth was increased with increasing the initial dye concentration. {yields} Considerable porous morphology was observed in the SEM photographs of the biofilm. - Abstract: The application of aerobic moving bed biofilm process as post-treatment of anaerobically degraded azo dye Acid Red 18 was investigated in this study. The main objective of this work was to enhance removal of anaerobically formed the dye aromatic metabolites. Three separate sequential treatment systems were operated with different initial dye concentrations of 100, 500 and 1000 mg/L. Each treatment system consisted of an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (An-SBR) followed by an aerobic moving bed sequencing batch biofilm reactor (MB-SBBR). Up to 98% of the dye decolorization and more than 80% of the COD removal occurred anaerobically. The obtained results suggested no significant difference in COD removal as well as the dye decolorization efficiency using three An-SBRs receiving different initial dye concentrations. Monitoring the dye metabolites through HPLC suggested that more than 80% of anaerobically formed 1-naphthylamine-4-sulfonate was completely removed in the aerobic biofilm reactors. Based on COD analysis results, at least 65-72% of the dye total metabolites were mineralized during the applied treatment systems. According to the measured biofilm mass and also based on respiration-inhibition test results, increasing the initial dye concentration inhibited the growth and final mass of the attached-growth biofilm in MB-SBBRs.

  1. Post-treatment of anaerobically degraded azo dye Acid Red 18 using aerobic moving bed biofilm process: Enhanced removal of aromatic amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Biofilm process was applied as post-treatment of anaerobically degraded an azo dye. → More than 65% of the dye total metabolites was completely mineralized. → Based on HPLC analysis, more than 80% of 1-naphthylamine-4-sulfonate was removed. → Inhibition of biofilm growth was increased with increasing the initial dye concentration. → Considerable porous morphology was observed in the SEM photographs of the biofilm. - Abstract: The application of aerobic moving bed biofilm process as post-treatment of anaerobically degraded azo dye Acid Red 18 was investigated in this study. The main objective of this work was to enhance removal of anaerobically formed the dye aromatic metabolites. Three separate sequential treatment systems were operated with different initial dye concentrations of 100, 500 and 1000 mg/L. Each treatment system consisted of an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (An-SBR) followed by an aerobic moving bed sequencing batch biofilm reactor (MB-SBBR). Up to 98% of the dye decolorization and more than 80% of the COD removal occurred anaerobically. The obtained results suggested no significant difference in COD removal as well as the dye decolorization efficiency using three An-SBRs receiving different initial dye concentrations. Monitoring the dye metabolites through HPLC suggested that more than 80% of anaerobically formed 1-naphthylamine-4-sulfonate was completely removed in the aerobic biofilm reactors. Based on COD analysis results, at least 65-72% of the dye total metabolites were mineralized during the applied treatment systems. According to the measured biofilm mass and also based on respiration-inhibition test results, increasing the initial dye concentration inhibited the growth and final mass of the attached-growth biofilm in MB-SBBRs.

  2. Aerobic decolorization and degradation of Acid Orange G (AOG) by suspended growing cells and immobilized cells of a yeast strain Candida tropicalis TL-F1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Liang; Li, Hua; Ning, Shuxiang; Hao, Jia

    2014-10-01

    In this study, aerobic decolorization and degradation of azo dye Acid Orange G (AOG) by both suspended growing cells and immobilized cells of a yeast strain Candida tropicalis TL-F1 were studied. The effects of different parameters on decolorization of AOG by both growing suspended and immobilized strain TL-F1 were investigated. Furthermore, a possible decolorization mechanism of AOG was proposed through analyzing metabolic intermediates using UV-vis and high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) methods. Strain TL-F1 could decolorize AOG in both liquid and solid mediums through degradation. The optimal conditions for decolorization with suspended growing cells of strain TL-F1 were as follows: 6-10 g/L sucrose, 5-7 g/L urea, ≥6 % (v/v) inoculation size, ≥160 rpm, 35-40 °C, and pH 5.0-6.0; and those for immobilized cells, the conditions were as follows: 4-6 g/L glucose, 0.2-0.4 g/L urea, 6-10 g/L (wet cell pellets) inoculation size, ≥160 rpm, 35-40 °C, and pH 5.0-7.0. Results of UV-vis scanning spectra suggested that AOG was decolorized through biodegradation, and the possible pathway was proposed through the results of HPLC-MS analysis and related literature. This is a systematic research on aerobic decolorization and degradation of AOG by both suspended and immobilized cells of a C. tropicalis strain.

  3. In situ and laboratory determined first-order degradation rate constants of specific organic compounds in an aerobic aquifer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, P.H.; Bjerg, P.L.; Nielsen, P.;

    1996-01-01

    experiments. First-order degradation rate constants for aromatic and phenolic hydrocarbons ranged between 0.01 and 0.9 day(-1). Local variations in first-order degradation rates and variations between rate constants determined by ISM and LBM were generally with in a factor of 5, but no systematic differences...

  4. Metabolism of 2-Chloro-4-Nitroaniline via Novel Aerobic Degradation Pathway by Rhodococcus sp. Strain MB-P1

    OpenAIRE

    Fazlurrahman Khan; Deepika Pal; Surendra Vikram; Swaranjit Singh Cameotra

    2013-01-01

    2-chloro-4-nitroaniline (2-C-4-NA) is used as an intermediate in the manufacture of dyes, pharmaceuticals, corrosion inhibitor and also used in the synthesis of niclosamide, a molluscicide. It is marked as a black-listed substance due to its poor biodegradability. We report biodegradation of 2-C-4-NA and its pathway characterization by Rhodococcus sp. strain MB-P1 under aerobic conditions. The strain MB-P1 utilizes 2-C-4-NA as the sole carbon, nitrogen, and energy source. In the growth medium...

  5. MALDI-TOF MS Imaging evidences spatial differences in the degradation of solid polycaprolactone diol in water under aerobic and denitrifying conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Daniel; Ginebreda, Antoni; Pérez, Sandra; Quero, Carmen; Barceló, Damià

    2016-10-01

    Degradation of solid polymers in the aquatic environment encompasses a variety of biotic and abiotic processes giving rise to heterogeneous patterns across the surface of the material, which cannot be investigated using conventional Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) that only renders an "average" picture of the sample. In that context, MALDI-TOF MS Imaging (MALDI MSI) provides a rapid and efficient tool to study 2D spatial changes occurred in the chemical composition of the polymer surface. Commercial polycaprolactone diol (average molecular weight of 1250Da) was selected as test material because it had been previously known to be amenable to biological degradation. The test oligomer probe was incubated under aerobic and denitrifying conditions using synthetic water and denitrifying mixed liquor obtained from a wastewater treatment plant respectively. After ca. seven days of exposure the mass spectra obtained by MALDI MSI showed the occurrence of chemical modifications in the sample surface. Observed heterogeneity across the probe's surface indicated significant degradation and suggested the contribution of biotic processes. The results were investigated using different image processing tools. Major changes on the oligomer surface were observed when exposed to denitrifying conditions. PMID:27213667

  6. Phthalates, Nonylphenols and LAS in Roskilde Wastewater Treatment Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fauser, P.; Sørensen, P. B.; Carlsen, L.;

    sludge and secondary sludge samples were taken and analysed for phthalates, nonylphenols and LAS. Generally the modelled half-lives for the phthalates were low and the removal efficiencies of the nonylphenols and phthalates were high compared to literature values. The results from the modelling work...

  7. Influence of reductive diet and physical aerobic training on binding and degradation of 125J-insulin by erythrocyte receptors in children with simple obesity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Insuline resistance, expressed by lower insuline binding by receptors, is related to the obesity. Improvement of the binding was observed together with reduction of body weight and in result of physical exercise. In the work was investigated an influence of complex result of reductive diet at the level of 1300-1500 kcal and systematic half-an-hour aerobic exercise on binding and degradation of 125J-insulin by erythrocyte receptors in children with simple obesity. The rest binding of insulin by erythrocyte receptors in obese children was compared with the result observed in the children having normal body weight. Results of these researches confirm that systematic physical exercise connected with reductive diet improves the indexes of lipid balance, increases efficiency of the organism, estimated by maximal oxygen absorption, decreases body weight and improves binding of 125J-insulin to erythrocyte receptors. (authors)

  8. Several genes encoding enzymes with the same activity are necessary for aerobic fungal degradation of cellulose in nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busk, Peter K; Lange, Mette; Pilgaard, Bo; Lange, Lene

    2014-01-01

    The cellulose-degrading fungal enzymes are glycoside hydrolases of the GH families and lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases. The entanglement of glycoside hydrolase families and functions makes it difficult to predict the enzymatic activity of glycoside hydrolases based on their sequence. In the present study we further developed the method Peptide Pattern Recognition to an automatic approach not only to find all genes encoding glycoside hydrolases and lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases in fungal genomes but also to predict the function of the genes. The functional annotation is an important feature as it provides a direct route to predict function from primary sequence. Furthermore, we used Peptide Pattern Recognition to compare the cellulose-degrading enzyme activities encoded by 39 fungal genomes. The results indicated that cellobiohydrolases and AA9 lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases are hallmarks of cellulose-degrading fungi except brown rot fungi. Furthermore, a high number of AA9, endocellulase and β-glucosidase genes were identified, not in what are known to be the strongest, specialized lignocellulose degraders but in saprophytic fungi that can use a wide variety of substrates whereas only few of these genes were found in fungi that have a limited number of natural, lignocellulotic substrates. This correlation suggests that enzymes with different properties are necessary for degradation of cellulose in different complex substrates. Interestingly, clustering of the fungi based on their predicted enzymes indicated that Ascomycota and Basidiomycota use the same enzymatic activities to degrade plant cell walls. PMID:25461894

  9. Several genes encoding enzymes with the same activity are necessary for aerobic fungal degradation of cellulose in nature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter K Busk

    Full Text Available The cellulose-degrading fungal enzymes are glycoside hydrolases of the GH families and lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases. The entanglement of glycoside hydrolase families and functions makes it difficult to predict the enzymatic activity of glycoside hydrolases based on their sequence. In the present study we further developed the method Peptide Pattern Recognition to an automatic approach not only to find all genes encoding glycoside hydrolases and lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases in fungal genomes but also to predict the function of the genes. The functional annotation is an important feature as it provides a direct route to predict function from primary sequence. Furthermore, we used Peptide Pattern Recognition to compare the cellulose-degrading enzyme activities encoded by 39 fungal genomes. The results indicated that cellobiohydrolases and AA9 lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases are hallmarks of cellulose-degrading fungi except brown rot fungi. Furthermore, a high number of AA9, endocellulase and β-glucosidase genes were identified, not in what are known to be the strongest, specialized lignocellulose degraders but in saprophytic fungi that can use a wide variety of substrates whereas only few of these genes were found in fungi that have a limited number of natural, lignocellulotic substrates. This correlation suggests that enzymes with different properties are necessary for degradation of cellulose in different complex substrates. Interestingly, clustering of the fungi based on their predicted enzymes indicated that Ascomycota and Basidiomycota use the same enzymatic activities to degrade plant cell walls.

  10. Prolonged aerobic degradation of shredded and pre-composted municipal solid waste: report from a 21-year study of leachate quality characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisey, Elise; Aleya, Lotfi

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the degree of long-term waste maturation at a closed landfill (Etueffont, France) over a period of 21 years (1989-2010) through analysis of the physicochemical characteristics of leachates as well as biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and metal content in waste. The results show that the leachates, generated in two different sections (older and newer) of the landfill, have low organic, mineral, and metallic loads, as the wastes were mainly of household origin from a rural area where sorting and composting were required. Based on pH and BOD/COD assessments, leachate monitoring in the landfill's newer section showed a rapid decrease in the pollution load over time and an early onset of methanogenic conditions. The closing of the older of the two sections contributed to a significant decline for the majority of parameters, attributable to degradation and leaching. A gradual decreasing trend was observed after waste placement had ceased in the older section, indicating that degradation continued and the waste mass had not yet fully stabilized. At the end of monitoring, leachates from the two landfill linings contained typical old leachates in the maturation period, with a pH ≥ 7 and a low BOD/COD ratio indicating a low level of waste biodegradability. Age actually contributes to a gradual removal of organic, inorganic, and metallic wastes, but it is not the only driving factor behind advanced degradation. The lack of compaction and cover immediately after deposit extended the aerobic degradation phase, significantly reducing the amount of organic matter. In addition, waste shredding improved water infiltration into the waste mass, hastening removal of polluting components through percolation.

  11. Several genes encoding enzymes with the same activity are necessary for aerobic fungal degradation of cellulose in nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busk, Peter Kamp; Lange, Mette; Pilgaard, Bo;

    2014-01-01

    The cellulose-degrading fungal enzymes are glycoside hydrolases of the GH families and lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases. The entanglement of glycoside hydrolase families and functions makes it difficult to predict the enzymatic activity of glycoside hydrolases based on their sequence...... only few of these genes were found in fungi that have a limited number of natural, lignocellulotic substrates. This correlation suggests that enzymes with different properties are necessary for degradation of cellulose in different complex substrates. Interestingly, clustering of the fungi based...... feature as it provides a direct route to predict function from primary sequence. Furthermore, we used Peptide Pattern Recognition to compare the cellulose-degrading enzyme activities encoded by 39 fungal genomes. The results indicated that cellobiohydrolases and AA9 lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases...

  12. Evaluation of Biostimulation and Bioaugmentation To Stimulate Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5,-triazine Degradation in an Aerobic Groundwater Aquifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalsen, Mandy M; King, Aaron S; Rule, Rebecca A; Fuller, Mark E; Hatzinger, Paul B; Condee, Charles W; Crocker, Fiona H; Indest, Karl J; Jung, Carina M; Istok, Jack D

    2016-07-19

    Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5,-triazine (RDX) is a toxic and mobile groundwater contaminant common to military sites. This study compared in situ RDX degradation rates following bioaugmentation with Gordonia sp. strain KTR9 (henceforth KTR9) to rates under biostimulation conditions in an RDX-contaminated aquifer in Umatilla, OR. Bioaugmentation was achieved by injecting site groundwater (6000 L) amended with KTR9 cells (10(8) cells mL(-1)) and low carbon substrate concentrations (15 mM fructose) carbon substrate concentrations in an effort to stimulate aerobic or anaerobic microbial activity, respectively. Single-well push-pull tests were conducted to measure RDX degradation rates for each treatment. Average rate coefficients were 1.2 day(-1) for bioaugmentation and 0.7 day(-1) for high carbon biostimulation; rate coefficients for low carbon biostimulation were not significantly different from zero (p values ≥0.060). Our results suggest that bioaugmentation with KTR9 is a feasible strategy for in situ biodegradation of RDX and, at this site, is capable of achieving RDX concentration reductions comparable to those obtained by high carbon biostimulation while requiring ~97% less fructose. Bioaugmentation has potential to minimize substrate quantities and associated costs, as well as secondary groundwater quality impacts associated with anaerobic biostimulation processes (e.g., hydrogen sulfide, methane production) during full-scale RDX remediation.

  13. Degradation pathway, toxicity and kinetics of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol with different co-substrate by aerobic granules in SBR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad Zain; Mondal, Pijush Kanti; Sabir, Suhail; Tare, Vinod

    2011-07-01

    The present study deals with cultivation of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP) degrading aerobic granules in two SBR systems based on glucose and acetate as co-substrate. Biodegradation of TCP containing wastewater starting from 10 to 360 mg L(-1) with more than 90% efficiency was achieved. Sludge volume index decreases as the operation proceeds to stabilize at 35 and 30 mL g(-1) while MLVSS increases from 4 to 6.5 and 6.2 g L(-1) for R1 (with glucose as co-substrate) and R2 (with sodium acetate as co-substrate), respectively. FTIR, GC and GC/MS spectral studies shows that the biodegradation occurred via chlorocatechol pathway and the cleavage may be at ortho-position. Haldane model for inhibitory substrate was applied to the system and it was observed that glucose fed granules have a high specific degradation rate and efficiency than acetate fed granules. Genotoxicity studies shows that effluent coming from SBRs was non-toxic. PMID:21565491

  14. Evaluation of Biostimulation and Bioaugmentation To Stimulate Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5,-triazine Degradation in an Aerobic Groundwater Aquifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalsen, Mandy M; King, Aaron S; Rule, Rebecca A; Fuller, Mark E; Hatzinger, Paul B; Condee, Charles W; Crocker, Fiona H; Indest, Karl J; Jung, Carina M; Istok, Jack D

    2016-07-19

    Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5,-triazine (RDX) is a toxic and mobile groundwater contaminant common to military sites. This study compared in situ RDX degradation rates following bioaugmentation with Gordonia sp. strain KTR9 (henceforth KTR9) to rates under biostimulation conditions in an RDX-contaminated aquifer in Umatilla, OR. Bioaugmentation was achieved by injecting site groundwater (6000 L) amended with KTR9 cells (10(8) cells mL(-1)) and low carbon substrate concentrations (15 mM fructose) carbon substrate concentrations in an effort to stimulate aerobic or anaerobic microbial activity, respectively. Single-well push-pull tests were conducted to measure RDX degradation rates for each treatment. Average rate coefficients were 1.2 day(-1) for bioaugmentation and 0.7 day(-1) for high carbon biostimulation; rate coefficients for low carbon biostimulation were not significantly different from zero (p values ≥0.060). Our results suggest that bioaugmentation with KTR9 is a feasible strategy for in situ biodegradation of RDX and, at this site, is capable of achieving RDX concentration reductions comparable to those obtained by high carbon biostimulation while requiring ~97% less fructose. Bioaugmentation has potential to minimize substrate quantities and associated costs, as well as secondary groundwater quality impacts associated with anaerobic biostimulation processes (e.g., hydrogen sulfide, methane production) during full-scale RDX remediation. PMID:27301804

  15. Aerobic biodegradation potential of endocrine disrupting chemicals in surface-water sediment at Rocky Mountains National Park, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Paul M.; Battaglin, William A.; Iwanowicz, Luke; Clark, Jimmy M.; Journey, Celeste A.

    2016-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) in surface water and bed sediment threaten the structure and function of aquatic ecosystems. In natural, remote, and protected surface-water environments where contaminant releases are sporadic, contaminant biodegradation is a fundamental driver of exposure concentration, timing, duration, and, thus, EDC ecological risk. Anthropogenic contaminants, including known and suspected EDC, were detected in surface water and sediment collected from 2 streams and 2 lakes in Rocky Mountains National Park (ROMO). The potential for aerobic EDC biodegradation was assessed in collected sediments using 6 14C-radiolabeled model compounds. Aerobic microbial mineralization of natural (estrone and 17β-estradiol) and synthetic (17α-ethinylestradiol) estrogen was significant at all sites. ROMO bed sediment microbial communities also effectively degraded the xenoestrogens, bisphenol-A and 4-nonylphenol. The same sediment samples exhibited little potential for aerobic biodegradation of triclocarban, however, illustrating the need to assess a wider range of contaminant compounds. The current results support recent concerns over the widespread environmental occurrence of carbanalide antibacterials, like triclocarban and triclosan, and suggest that backcountry use of products containing these compounds should be discouraged.

  16. Aerobic biodegradation potential of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in surface-water sediment at Rocky Mountain National Park, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Paul M; Battaglin, William A; Iwanowicz, Luke R; Clark, Jimmy M; Journey, Celeste A

    2016-05-01

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in surface water and bed sediment threaten the structure and function of aquatic ecosystems. In natural, remote, and protected surface-water environments where contaminant releases are sporadic, contaminant biodegradation is a fundamental driver of exposure concentration, timing, duration, and, thus, EDC ecological risk. Anthropogenic contaminants, including known and suspected EDCs, were detected in surface water and sediment collected from 2 streams and 2 lakes in Rocky Mountain National Park (Colorado, USA). The potential for aerobic EDC biodegradation was assessed in collected sediments using 6 (14) C-radiolabeled model compounds. Aerobic microbial mineralization of natural (estrone and 17β-estradiol) and synthetic (17α-ethinylestradiol) estrogen was significant at all sites. Bed sediment microbial communities in Rocky Mountain National Park also effectively degraded the xenoestrogens bisphenol-A and 4-nonylphenol. The same sediment samples exhibited little potential for aerobic biodegradation of triclocarban, however, illustrating the need to assess a wider range of contaminant compounds. The present study's results support recent concerns over the widespread environmental occurrence of carbanalide antibacterials, like triclocarban and triclosan, and suggest that backcountry use of products containing these compounds should be discouraged. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1087-1096. Published 2015 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US Government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America. PMID:26588039

  17. Investigations on degradation of nitrogen compounds by anaerobic-aerobic treatment of concentrated wastewaters with special regard to nitrogen removal via nitrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main result is, that the two-stage anaerobic-aerobic treatment of high strength ammonium wastewater is an economical solution, save to operate and with high efficiency. Therefore its very important, to project and optimize the total process. On the one hand the biogas production has to be maximized, on the other hand the energy consumption for aeration and excess sludge treatment and resulting excess sludge has to be minimized. One possibility to realize this, is the nitrogen removal via nitrite. This process has been investigated in half-technical pilot plants. The carbon consumption amounts only to 63% in comparison with dentrification via nitrate. The 37% which are saved could be transformed into biogas during the anaerobic stage. The excess sludge production and the energy consumption in the aerobic stage is correspondingly lower. The essential parameter for regulating the process is the concentration of free ammonia (1-5 mg NH3/l) in the reactor (controlled by means of a continuous NH4- and pH-measurement). The inhibition of the nitrobacter amounts to 80%. - The storage of nitrifying biomass for several months (for industries working in campaigns) is possible without adding nitrogen and with an aeration intensity of e.g. 1 h/d, depending on the actual ammonium increase in the reactor (< 10 mg/l). To avoid inhibition during the reactivation of the sludge, the load has to be adapted to the actual activity (measured by means of an ammonium-degradation-test) and the dentrification has to be started at the same time. (orig.). 27 figs., 42 tabs., 104 refs

  18. Evidence of α-, β- and γ-HCH mixture aerobic degradation by the native actinobacteria Streptomyces sp. M7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sineli, P E; Tortella, G; Dávila Costa, J S; Benimeli, C S; Cuozzo, S A

    2016-05-01

    The organochlorine insecticide γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (γ-HCH, lindane) and its non-insecticidal α- and β-isomers continue to pose serious environmental and health concerns, although their use has been restricted or completely banned for decades. In this study we report the first evidence of the growth ability of a Streptomyces strain in a mineral salt medium containing high doses of α- and β-HCH (16.6 mg l(-1)) as a carbon source. Degradation of HCH isomers by Streptomyces sp. M7 was investigated after 1, 4, and 7 days of incubation, determining chloride ion release, and residues in the supernatants by GC with µECD detection. The results show that both the α- and β-HCH isomers were effectively metabolized by Streptomyces sp. M7, with 80 and 78 % degradation respectively, after 7 days of incubation. Moreover, pentachlorocyclohexenes and tetrachlorocyclohexenes were detected as metabolites. In addition, the formation of possible persistent compounds such as chlorobenzenes and chlorophenols were studied by GC-MS, while no phenolic compounds were detected. In conclusion, we have demonstrated for the first time that Streptomyces sp. M7 can degrade α- and β-isomers individually or combined with γ-HCH and could be considered as a potential agent for bioremediation of environments contaminated by organochlorine isomers. PMID:27038951

  19. Alkanindiges illinoisensis gen. nov., sp. nov., an obligately hydrocarbonoclastic, aerobic squalane-degrading bacterium isolated from oilfield soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogan, Bill W; Sullivan, Wendy R; Kayser, Kevin J; Derr, K D; Aldrich, Henry C; Paterek, J Robert

    2003-09-01

    An alkane-degrading bacterium, designated GTI MVAB Hex1(T), was isolated from chronically crude oil-contaminated soil from an oilfield in southern Illinois. The isolate grew very weakly or not at all in minimal or rich media without hydrocarbons. Straight-chain aliphatic hydrocarbons, such as hexadecane and heptadecane, greatly stimulated growth; shorter-chain (squalane. The latter of these was most intriguing, as catabolism of squalane has hitherto been reported only for Mycobacterium species. Although unable to utilize mono- or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as sole carbon sources, the isolate did show slight fluorene-mineralizing capability in Luria-Bertani medium, which was partially repressed by hexadecane. In contrast, hexadecane supplementation greatly increased mineralization of (14)C-dodecane, which was not a growth substrate. Further testing emphasized the isolate's extremely narrow substrate range, as only Tween 40 and Tween 80 supported significant growth. Microscopic examination (by scanning and transmission electron microscopy) revealed a slightly polymorphic coccoidal to bacillar morphology, with hydrocarbon-grown cells tending to be more elongated. When grown with hexadecane, GTI MVAB Hex1(T) accumulated a large number of electron-transparent intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies. These were also prevalent during growth in the presence of squalane. Smaller inclusion bodies were observed occasionally with pristane supplementation; they were, however, absent during growth on crude oil. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence data and range of growth substrates, classification of this isolate as the type strain of Alkanindiges illinoisensis gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed, which is most closely related (approx. 94 % sequence similarity) to Acinetobacter junii.

  20. Microbial aerobic and anaerobic degradation of acrylamide in sludge and water under environmental conditions--case study in a sand and gravel quarry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guezennec, A G; Michel, C; Ozturk, S; Togola, A; Guzzo, J; Desroche, N

    2015-05-01

    Polyacrylamides (PAMs) are used in sand and gravel quarries as water purification flocculants for recycling process water in a recycling loop system where the flocculants remove fine particles in the form of sludge. The PAM-based flocculants, however, contain residual amounts of acrylamide (AMD) that did not react during the polymerization process. This acrylamide is released into the environment when the sludge is discharged into a settling basin. Here, we explore the microbial diversity and the potential for AMD biodegradation in water and sludge samples collected in a quarry site submitted to low AMD concentrations. The microbial diversity, analyzed by culture-dependent methods and the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis approach, reveals the presence of Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, and Actinobacteria, among which some species are known to have an AMD biodegradation activity. Results also show that the two main parts of the water recycling loop-the washing process and the settling basin-display significantly different bacterial profiles. The exposure time with residual AMD could, thus, be one of the parameters that lead to a selection of specific bacterial species. AMD degradation experiments with 0.5 g L(-1) AMD showed a high potential for biodegradation in all parts of the washing process, except the make-up water. The AMD biodegradation potential in samples collected from the washing process and settling basin was also analyzed taking into account on-site conditions: low (12 °C) and high (25 °C) temperatures reflecting the winter and summer seasons, and AMD concentrations of 50 μg L(-1). Batch tests showed rapid (as little as 18 h) AMD biodegradation under aerobic and anaerobic conditions at both the winter and summer temperatures, although there was a greater lag time before activity started with the AMD biodegradation at 12 °C. This study, thus, demonstrates that bacteria present in sludge and water samples exert an in situ and rapid

  1. Environmental analysis of alcohol ethoxylates and nonylphenol ethoxylate metabolites by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara-Martín, Pablo A; González-Mazo, Eduardo; Brownawell, Bruce J

    2012-03-01

    Surfactants and their metabolites can be found in aquatic environments at relatively high concentrations compared with other micropollutants due in part to the exceptionally large volumes produced every year. We have focused our attention here on the most widely used nonionic surfactants, alcohol ethoxylates (AEOs), and on nonylphenol ethoxylate (NPEO) degradation products (short-chain nonylphenol ethoxylates, NP1-3EO, nonylphenol, NP, and nonylphenol ethoxycarboxylates, NP1-2EC), which are endocrine-disrupting compounds. Our main objective in this work was to develop a methodology aimed at the extraction, isolation, and improved analysis of these analytes in environmental samples at trace levels. Extraction recoveries of target compounds were determined for sediment samples after ultrasonic extraction and purification using HLB or C18 solid-phase extraction minicolumns. Recovery percentages were usually between 61 and 102% but were lower for longer AEO ethoxymers. Identification and quantification of target compounds was carried out using a novel ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS-MS) approach, a combination that provides higher sensitivity and faster analysis than prior methods using conventional high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Limits of detection were usually below 0.5 ng/g, being higher for monoethoxylate species (>5 ng/g) because of poor ionization. The method was used for analyzing surface sediment samples collected at Jamaica Bay (NY) in 2008. The highest values (28,500 ng/g for NP, 4,200 ng/g for NP1-3EO, 22,400 ng/g for NP1-2EC, and 1,500 ng/g for AEOs) were found in a sampling station from a restricted water circulation area that is heavily impacted by wastewater discharges. PMID:22002557

  2. The nonylphenol biodegradation study by estuary sediment-derived fungus Penicillium simplicissimum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Liu, Ying; Dong, Han; Li, Xianguo; Zhang, Dahai

    2016-08-01

    Nonylphenols (NPs) are persistent organic pollutants (POPs) with estrogenic properties that can perform endocrine-disrupting activities. By using high-concentration NP as environmental selection pressure, one NP biodegradation strain named NPF-4 was isolated and purified from estuary sediment of the Moshui River. It was identified as Penicillium simplicissimum (PS1) by appearance and 18S rDNA analysis. In different culture situations, the strain mass growth and biodegradation ability were evaluated. Within 4-n-nonylphenol (4-n-NP) initial concentration of 20 mg L(-1), it could be degraded 53.76, 90.08, and 100.00 % at 3, 7, and 14 days, respectively. In feeding experiments, it showed that NPF-4 could use 4-n-NP as a sole carbon source. Based on seven products/intermediates detected with GC and LC-MS, a novel biopathway for 4-n-NP biodegradation was proposed, in which sequential hydroxylation, oxidation, and decarboxylation at terminal β-C atom may occur for 4-n-NP detoxification, even complete mineralization in the end. PMID:27094271

  3. ANAEROBIC AND AEROBIC TREATMENT OF CHLORINATED ALIPHATIC COMPOUNDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological degradation of 12 chlorinated aliphatic compounds (CACs) was assessed in bench-top reactors and in serum bottle tests. Three continuously mixed daily batch-fed reactor systems were evaluated: anaerobic, aerobic, and sequential-anaerobic-aerobic (sequential). Glucose,...

  4. Toxicity of nonylphenol diethoxylate in lab-scale anaerobic digesters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozkurt, Hande; Sanin, F. Dilek

    2014-01-01

    Nonylphenol compounds have high commercial, industrial and domestic uses owing to their surface active properties. In addition to their toxic, carcinogenic and persistent characteristics; they have drawn the attention of scientists lately due to their endocrine disrupting properties. Their widesp......Nonylphenol compounds have high commercial, industrial and domestic uses owing to their surface active properties. In addition to their toxic, carcinogenic and persistent characteristics; they have drawn the attention of scientists lately due to their endocrine disrupting properties....... Their widespread use and disposal cause them to enter wastewater treatment systems at high concentrations. Since they are highly persistent and hydrophobic, they accumulate mostly on sludge.In this study using Anaerobic Toxicity Assay (ATA) tests, the toxicity of a model nonylphenol compound, nonylphenol...... the fate, the target compounds were extracted from water and sludge and analyzed using GC/MS. The sludge samples used for assembling the reactors were found to contain NP and NP1EO but no NP2EO. After the assay was completed, all the NP2EO spiked into the live reactors was found to disappear. The increase...

  5. THE TOXIC EFFECT OF 4-NONYLPHENOL ON MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Lukáčová

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive system influences many environmental toxicants that present the serious risk to the reproduction of human and animals, including hormone-like compounds called endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs. The interest about EDCs increased during the last 50 years due to their interference with the development and functioning of the endocrine system in aquatic animals. One of these toxic contaminants is nonylphenol that has the negative impact on the reproductive parameters not only on fish, but also on amphibians and mammals. Nonylphenol can decrease male fertility following a disruption of testicular development, a damage of Sertoli and Leydig cells and a reduction of a count and motility of spermatReproductive system influences many environmental toxicants that present the serious risk to the reproduction of human and animals, including hormone-like compounds called endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs. The interest about EDCs increased during the last 50 years due to their interference with the development and functioning of the endocrine system in aquatic animals. One of these toxic contaminants is nonylphenol that has the negative impact on the reproductive parameters not only on fish, but also on amphibians and mammals. Nonylphenol can decrease male fertility following a disruption of testicular development, a damage of Sertoli and Leydig cells and a reduction of a count and motility of spermatozoa.

  6. 水中壬基酚的去除研究进展%Advance in the Study on Removal of Nonylphenol in Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽君; 李文岩

    2011-01-01

    Nonylphenol is a representative sample of material of environmental endocrine disrupting chemicals. It is one of the degradation products of nonylphenol ethoxylate used as non - ionic surfaetant in the environment, and causes great harm to the organism. GC - MS and HPLC are now mainly applied to determine the concentration of nonylphenol in water samples, and solid phase extraction (SPE) and liquid - liquid extraction are used as pretreatment technique. Recent researches show that conventional water treatment processes can not remove nonylphenol efficiently, while physical processes such as activated carbons and chemical processes such as sonolytic d the deep treatment egradation, electrochemical oxidation process in recent years show effective or photodecomposition which paid much attention to decomposition of nonylphenol in water.%壬基酚是环境内分泌干扰物质中具有代表性的物质,非离子表面活性剂壬基酚聚氧乙烯醚在环境中的降解产物,对生物体造成很大危害。目前检测水样中壬基酚的主要方法是采用GC—MS和HPLC,预处理主要采用固相萃取和液一液萃取。研究表明自来水厂的常规处理工艺对于水中壬基酚的去除有限;近年来倍受关注的深度处理工艺如活性炭吸附等物理方法,电化学氧化、光分解、超声化等化学方法对于水中壬基酚的去除效果明显。

  7. [Mechanism and pathway of the ozonation of nonylphenol in aqueous solution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiang; Li, Jin; Pi, Yun-Zheng; Wang, Jiang-Long

    2007-03-01

    20 mg/L nonylphenol solution was ozonized. The removal efficiency and the intermediate products were studied during the ozonation of nonylphenol, the possible reaction mechanism of the ozonation of nonylphenol was proposed. The experimental results indicate that there are two kinds of ozonation patterns, the oxidation by molecule O3 alone and by O3/*OH. Both ozonation patterns can remove nonylphenol completely within 18 minutes. However, the combined oxidation can remove 96% of the initial nonylphenol within 4 minutes, and it took 12 minutes in the single O3 molecule oxidation system. The formaldehyde was detected during the ozonation of nonylphenol. The concentration reached stability after 8 minutes during the oxidation by single O3 and gradually increased during the combined oxidation process.

  8. Sources of Phthalates and Nonylphenoles in Municipal Waste Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikelsøe, J.; Thomsen, M.; Johansen, E.

    to estimate the contribution from all of these sources to the waste water as well as the role of long-range air transport. Two local rivers were analysed for comparison. Finally, waste water inlet from the local water treatment plant, where the sources converge at a single point, were analysed. A mass balance......The overall aim of the present study is to identify and evaluate the importance of sources of nonylphenoles and phthalates in waste water in a local environment. The investigations were carried out in a Danish local community, Roskilde city and surroundings. Nonylphenoles and phthalates were...... analysed in the waste water from different institutions and industries thought to be potential sources. These were: car wash centers, a hospital, a kindergarten, an adhesive industry and a industrial laundry. Furthermore, analysis of the deposition in the area were carried out. This made it possible...

  9. Presence of nonylphenol ethoxylate surfactants in a watershed in central Mexico and removal from domestic sewage in a treatment wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmont, Marco A; Ikonomou, Michael; Metcalfe, Chris D

    2006-01-01

    The Texcoco River in central Mexico is polluted with domestic wastewater as a result of discharges of untreated or inadequately treated sewage. Since nonylphenol ethoxylate (NPEO) surfactants and their intermediate degradation products such as nonylphenol (NP) and NP mono- and diethoxylate (NP1EO, NP2EO) have been found in domestic wastewater and in surface waters near wastewater discharges in industrialized countries, the Texcoco River was sampled to determine whether these compounds were present. The results indicated that NPEOs were present at very high concentrations (> 100 microg/L) in the lower reaches of the Texcoco River, but unlike rivers in industrialized countries, relatively low concentrations of intermediate degradation products, including NP1EO, NP2EO, and NP, were present. The presence and fate of NPEOs compounds in wastewater treatment plants have been studied only in conventional treatment systems in industrialized countries. In this study, the fate of these compounds was studied in a pilot-scale treatment wetland constructed in the small community of Santa Maria Nativitas in the Texcoco River watershed. The treatment wetland removed > 75% of NPEOs from the domestic wastewater, but the greatest proportion of removal occurred in parts of the treatment wetland where sedimentation existed. This is the first report of NPEO compounds in the water resources of a developing country. These data indicate that construction of low-cost and technologically simple treatment wetlands may be one solution to reducing the impacts of contaminants from domestic sewage in developing countries, such as Mexico.

  10. Isomer-Specific Biodegradation and Chemical Oxidation of Nonylphenol

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Zhijiang

    2014-01-01

    Nonylphenol (NP), a well-known environmental estrogen with numerous isomers, is commonly treated as a single compound in the evaluation of its environmental occurrence, fate and transport, treatment removal and toxicity. Recent studies showed that NP isomers exhibited different estrogenicity and biodegradability. However, at present little systematic information is available on its isomer-specific biodegradation and chemical oxidation under natural and engineered conditions.We comprehensively...

  11. Determination of nonylphenol isomers in landfill leachate and municipal wastewater using steam distillation extraction coupled with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Caixiang; Eganhouse, Robert P.; Pontolillo, James; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Wang, Yanxin

    2012-01-01

    4-Nonylphenols (4-NPs) are known endocrine disruptors and by-products of the microbial degradation of nonylphenol polyethoxylate surfactants. One of the challenges to understanding the toxic effects of nonylphenols is the large number of isomers that may exist in environmental samples. In order to attribute toxic effects to specific compounds, a method is needed for the separation and quantitation of individual nonylphenol isomers. The pre-concentration methods of solvent sublimation, solid-phase extraction or liquid–liquid extraction prior to chromatographic analysis can be problematic because of co-extraction of thousands of compounds typically found in complex matrices such as municipal wastewater or landfill leachate. In the present study, steam distillation extraction (SDE) was found to be an effective pre-concentration method for extraction of 4-NPs from leachate and wastewater, and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC) coupled with fast mass spectral data acquisition by time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ToFMS) enhanced the resolution and identification of 4-NP isomers. Concentrations of eight 4-NP isomers were determined in leachate from landfill cells of different age and wastewater influent and effluent samples. 4-NP isomers were about 3 times more abundant in leachate from the younger cell than the older one, whereas concentrations in wastewater effluent were either below detection limits or <1% of influent concentrations. 4-NP isomer distribution patterns were found to have been altered following release to the environment. This is believed to reflect isomer-specific degradation and accumulation of 4-NPs in the aquatic environment.

  12. Fate of 4-nonylphenol and 17β-estradiol in the Redwood River of Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Writer, Jeffrey; Ryan, Joseph N.; Keefe, Steffanie H.; Barber, Larry B.

    2012-01-01

    The majority of previous research investigating the fate of endocrine-disrupting compounds has focused on single processes generally in controlled laboratory experiments, and limited studies have directly evaluated their fate and transport in rivers. This study evaluated the fate and transport of 4-nonylphenol, 17β-estradiol, and estrone in a 10-km reach of the Redwood River in southwestern Minnesota. The same parcel of water was sampled as it moved downstream, integrating chemical transformation and hydrologic processes. The conservative tracer bromide was used to track the parcel of water being sampled, and the change in mass of the target compounds relative to bromide was determined at two locations downstream from a wastewater treatment plant effluent outfall. In-stream attenuation coefficients (kstream) were calculated by assuming first-order kinetics (negative values correspond to attenuation, whereas positive values indicate production). Attenuation of 17β-estradiol (kstream = −3.2 ± 1.0 day–1) was attributed primarily due to sorption and biodegradation by the stream biofilm and bed sediments. Estrone (kstream = 0.6 ± 0.8 day–1) and 4-nonylphenol (kstream = 1.4 ± 1.9 day–1) were produced in the evaluated 10-km reach, likely due to biochemical transformation from parent compounds (17β-estradiol, 4-nonylphenolpolyethoxylates, and 4-nonyphenolpolyethoxycarboxylates). Despite attenuation, these compounds were transported kilometers downstream, and thus additive concentrations from multiple sources and transformation of parent compounds into degradates having estrogenic activity can explain their environmental persistence and widespread observations of biological disruption in surface waters.

  13. Aerobic landfill bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudgins, Mark P; Bessette, Bernard J; March, John; McComb, Scott T.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention includes a method of decomposing municipal solid waste (MSW) within a landfill by converting the landfill to aerobic degradation in the following manner: (1) injecting air via the landfill leachate collection system (2) injecting air via vertical air injection wells installed within the waste mass; (3) applying leachate to the waste mass using a pressurized drip irrigation system; (4) allowing landfill gases to vent; and (5) adjusting air injection and recirculated leachate to achieve a 40% to 60% moisture level and a temperature between 120.degree. F. and 140.degree. F. in steady state.

  14. Experiment on degradation of methane adsorption in coal by aerobic microorganism under low oxygen condition%低氧条件下好氧型微生物降解煤吸附甲烷实验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田坤云; 崔学锋; 张瑞林

    2016-01-01

    In order to study the degradation efficiency of aerobic microorganism on methane adsorption in coal under low oxy-gen environment condition, the aerobic methane oxidizing bacteria for degradation of methane with high efficiency was culti-vated, isolated and preliminary identified.An experimental analysis system on methane degradation under low oxygen envi-ronment was self-developed based on the methane adsorption and desorption device using high-pressure volumetric method, and the degradation efficiencies of methane oxidizing bacteria under the conditions of 0%, 5%and 15%oxygen concentra-tion were studied.By comparing the decrement of methane, increment of carbon dioxide and decrement of oxygen before and after experiment, it showed that in the range of oxygen concentration (0~15%) , with the increase of oxygen concentration and the duration of degradation time, the decrement of methane could reach 130.5 cm3 , the maximum increment of carbon dioxide could reach 25.7 cm3 , while 69 cm3 oxygen could be consumed at most.Under the condition of anaerobic environ-ment, the physiological activity of aerobic methane oxidizing bacteria was subject to certain restrictions, but the maximum degradation amount of methane could still reach 11.9 cm3 , and 3.5 cm3 carbon dioxide was produced.%为了研究好氧型微生物对低氧气浓度环境条件下煤吸附甲烷的降解效能,培养、分离、初步鉴定了高效降解甲烷的好氧型甲烷氧化菌。并在高压容量法瓦斯吸附-解吸装置的基础上,自主开发了低氧环境下甲烷降解实验分析系统,研究了氧气浓度为0%、5%和15%三种条件下甲烷氧化菌的降解效能,通过对实验前后甲烷减少量,二氧化碳增加量,氧气减少量进行分析。结果表明:在氧气浓度(0%~15%)范围内,随着氧气浓度升高及降解时间的持续,甲烷的减少量可达130.5 cm3,二氧化碳的增加量最高可达25.7 cm3,同时最多消耗69

  15. Preparation and Characterization of Nonylphenol Magnetic Molecularly Imprinted Polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonylphenol (NP) is a toxic xenobiotic compound classified as an endocrine disrupter, which can interface with the hormonal system of numerous organisms, and then cause a series of pathological changes. It is of great significance to remove nonyl phenol from the environment. In this paper, an effective method for the preparation of molecularly imprinted nanoparticles was reported. Firstly, Fe/sub 3/O/sub 4/ at the rate SiO/sub 2/ magnetic carrier material modified by trimethoxysilane was achieved through three-step reaction. After that, the selective magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer sorbent for NP (Fe/sub 3/O/sub 4/ at the rate SiO/sub 2/-MIP) was synthesized by surface molecular imprinting technique, using NP as template, 4-vinyl pyridine(4-Vpy) as functional monomers, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as cross linker and azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as initiator. The morphous, composition, structure and performance of polymer adsorbent was characterized by SEM, TEM, FT-IR, XRD, EDS, VSM and nitrogen adsorption-desorption techniques. The results indicated that the polymer adsorbent was successfully prepared. The size of the polymer particle was about 50 nm, the aperture on the surface was 3.71 nm, the BET specific surface area was 61.80 m/sup 2/g and the Langmuir specific surface area was 101.24 m/sup 2/g. The selective adsorption rate for NP of 0.5 mmol/L attained value of 86.5%, and for NP with low concentration (less than 2.0 mg/L), the selective adsorption rate reached more than 90%. The synthesized magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer had higher selective recognition ability towards the template molecule nonylphenol. It has good magnetism and can be rapidly separated after being employed by using adscititious magnetic field. It has potential application value in treatment and enrichment of nonylphenol. (author)

  16. DETECTION OF A MICROBIAL CONSORTIUM, INCLUDING TYPE 2 METHANOTROPHS, BY USE OF PHOSPHOLIPID FATTY ACIDES IN AN AEROBIC HALOGENATED HYDROCARBON-DEGRADING SOIL COLUMN ENRICHED WITH NATURAL GAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The phospholipid ester-linked normal and lipopolysaccharide layer hydroxy fatty acids from microbes in a natural gas (85% methane)-stimulated soil column capable of degrading halogenated hydrocarbons were analyzed in detail by capillary column GC-MS. Microbial biomass, calculated...

  17. Aerobic microbial enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torsvik, T. [Univ. of Bergen (Norway); Gilje, E.; Sunde, E.

    1995-12-31

    In aerobic MEOR, the ability of oil-degrading bacteria to mobilize oil is used to increase oil recovery. In this process, oxygen and mineral nutrients are injected into the oil reservoir in order to stimulate growth of aerobic oil-degrading bacteria in the reservoir. Experiments carried out in a model sandstone with stock tank oil and bacteria isolated from offshore wells showed that residual oil saturation was lowered from 27% to 3%. The process was time dependent, not pore volume dependent. During MEOR flooding, the relative permeability of water was lowered. Oxygen and active bacteria were needed for the process to take place. Maximum efficiency was reached at low oxygen concentrations, approximately 1 mg O{sub 2}/liter.

  18. Biodegradation and utilization of 4-n-nonylphenol by Aspergillus versicolor as a sole carbon and energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupiński, Mariusz; Janicki, Tomasz [Department of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, University of Lodz, Banacha 12/16, 90-237 Łódź (Poland); Pałecz, Bartłomiej [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Lodz, Pomorska 165, 90-236 Łódź (Poland); Długoński, Jerzy, E-mail: jdlugo@biol.uni.lodz.pl [Department of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, University of Lodz, Banacha 12/16, 90-237 Łódź (Poland)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • A. versicolor is able to degrade 4-n-NP as the sole source of carbon and energy. • 4-n-NP removal by A. versicolor was accompanied by the formation of metabolites. • Radioactive experiments show complete 4-n-NP mineralization by A. versicolor. • 4-n-NP initiates heat production in the A. versicolor spores. - Abstract: 4-n-Nonylphenol (4-n-NP) is an environmental pollutant with endocrine-disrupting activities that is formed during the degradation of nonylphenol polyethoxylates, which are widely used as surfactants. Utilization of 4-n-NP by the filamentous fungus Aspergillus versicolor as the sole carbon and energy source was investigated. By means of gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, we showed that in the absence of any carbon source other than 4-n-NP in the medium, A. versicolor completely removed the xenobiotic (100 mg L{sup −1}) after 3 d of cultivation. Moreover, mass spectrometric analysis of intracellular extracts led to the identification of eight intermediates. The mineralization of the xenobiotic in cultures supplemented with 4-n-NP [ring-{sup 14}C(U)] as a growth substrate was also assessed. After 3 d of incubation, approximately 50% of the initially applied radioactivity was recovered in the form of {sup 14}CO{sub 2}, proving that this xenobiotic was completely metabolized and utilized by A. versicolor as a carbon source. Based on microscopic analysis, A. versicolor is capable of germinating spores under such conditions. To confirm these observations, a microcalorimetric method was used. The results show that even the highest amount of 4-n-NP initiates heat production in the fungal samples, proving that metabolic processes were affected by the use of 4-n-NP as an energetic substrate.

  19. Biodegradation and utilization of 4-n-nonylphenol by Aspergillus versicolor as a sole carbon and energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A. versicolor is able to degrade 4-n-NP as the sole source of carbon and energy. • 4-n-NP removal by A. versicolor was accompanied by the formation of metabolites. • Radioactive experiments show complete 4-n-NP mineralization by A. versicolor. • 4-n-NP initiates heat production in the A. versicolor spores. - Abstract: 4-n-Nonylphenol (4-n-NP) is an environmental pollutant with endocrine-disrupting activities that is formed during the degradation of nonylphenol polyethoxylates, which are widely used as surfactants. Utilization of 4-n-NP by the filamentous fungus Aspergillus versicolor as the sole carbon and energy source was investigated. By means of gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, we showed that in the absence of any carbon source other than 4-n-NP in the medium, A. versicolor completely removed the xenobiotic (100 mg L−1) after 3 d of cultivation. Moreover, mass spectrometric analysis of intracellular extracts led to the identification of eight intermediates. The mineralization of the xenobiotic in cultures supplemented with 4-n-NP [ring-14C(U)] as a growth substrate was also assessed. After 3 d of incubation, approximately 50% of the initially applied radioactivity was recovered in the form of 14CO2, proving that this xenobiotic was completely metabolized and utilized by A. versicolor as a carbon source. Based on microscopic analysis, A. versicolor is capable of germinating spores under such conditions. To confirm these observations, a microcalorimetric method was used. The results show that even the highest amount of 4-n-NP initiates heat production in the fungal samples, proving that metabolic processes were affected by the use of 4-n-NP as an energetic substrate

  20. Effects of Nonylphenol on Brain Gene Expression Profiles in F1 Generation Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN-YIN XIA; PING ZHANG; YANG WANG

    2008-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of nonylphenol on brain gene expression profiles in F1 generation rats by microarray technique.Methods mRNA was extracted from the brain of 2-day old F1 generation male rats Whose F0 female generation was either exposed to nonylphenol or free from nonylphenol exposure,and then it was reversely transcribed to cDNA hbeled with cy5 and cy3 fluorescence.Subsequently,cDNA probes were hybridized to two BiostarR-40S cDNA gene chips and fluorescent signals of cy5 and cy3 were scanned and analyzed. Results Two genes were differentially down-regulated.Conclusion Nonylphenol may disturb the neurcendocrine function of male rats when administered perinatally.

  1. Influence of an aerobic fungus grown on solid culture on ruminal degradability and on a mixture culture of anaerobic cellulolytic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Díaz, R; Pimentel-González, D J; Figueira, A C; Viniegra-González, G; Campos-Montiel, R G

    2010-06-01

    In this work, the effect of a solid fungal culture of Aspergillus niger (An) grown on coffee pulp on the in situ ruminal degradability (RD) of corn stover was evaluated. In addition, the effect of its extracts on the in vitro dry matter disappearance (IVDMD) and on a mixed culture of anaerobic cellulolytic bacteria (MCACB) was also investigated. The solid ferment was a crude culture of An, grown on coffee pulp. Regarding in situ RD, a significant difference (p < 0.05) was found between treatment with 200 g/day of the solid culture and control (no solid culture added) on dry matter, crude protein and neutral detergent fibre on RD. All the water extracts (pH 4, 7 and 10) enhanced IVDMD and stimulated the cellulolytic activity on a MCACB. Ultrafiltration results showed that active compounds with a molecular weight lower than 30 kDa were responsible for the effect on MCACB. Such results suggest that the effects of the solid An culture in RD are related to the presence of water soluble compounds having a molecular weight lower than 30 kDa.

  2. The effect of nonylphenol on gene expression in Atlantic salmon smolts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Laura S.; McCormick, Stephen D.

    2012-01-01

    The parr–smolt transformation in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) is a complex developmental process that culminates in the ability to migrate to and live in seawater. Exposure to environmental contaminants like nonylphenol can disrupt smolt development and may be a contributing factor in salmon population declines. We used GRASP 16K cDNA microarrays to investigate the effects of nonylphenol on gene expression in Atlantic salmon smolts. Nonylphenol exposure reduced gill Na+/K+-ATPase activity and plasma cortisol and triiodothyronine levels. Transcriptional responses were examined in gill, liver, olfactory rosettes, hypothalamus, and pituitary. Expression of 124 features was significantly altered in the liver of fish exposed to nonylphenol; little to no transcriptional effects were observed in other tissues. mRNA abundance of genes involved in protein biosynthesis, folding, modification, transport and catabolism; nucleosome assembly, cell cycle, cell differentiation, microtubule-based movement, electron transport, and response to stress increased in nonylphenol-treated fish. This study expands our understanding of the effect of nonylphenol on smolting and provides potential targets for development of biomarkers.

  3. Removal of micropollutants from aerobically treated grey water via ozone and activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Leal, L; Temmink, H; Zeeman, G; Buisman, C J N

    2011-04-01

    Ozonation and adsorption onto activated carbon were tested for the removal micropollutants of personal care products from aerobically treated grey water. MilliQ water spiked with micropollutants (100-1600 μgL(-1)) was ozonated at a dosing rate of 1.22. In 45 min, this effectively removed (>99%): Four parabens, bisphenol-A, hexylcinnamic aldehyde, 4-methylbenzylidene-camphor (4MBC), benzophenone-3 (BP3), triclosan, galaxolide and ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate. After 60 min, the removal efficiency of benzalkonium chloride was 98%, tonalide and nonylphenol 95%, octocrylene 92% and 2-phenyl-5-benzimidazolesulfonic acid (PBSA) 84%. Ozonation of aerobically treated grey water at an applied ozone dose of 15 mgL(-1), reduced the concentrations of octocrylene, nonylphenol, triclosan, galaxolide, tonalide and 4-methylbenzylidene-camphor to below limits of quantification, with removal efficiencies of at least 79%. Complete adsorption of all studied micropollutants onto powdered activated carbon (PAC) was observed in batch tests with milliQ water spiked with 100-1600 μgL(-1) at a PAC dose of 1.25 gL(-1) and a contact time of 5 min. Three granular activated carbon (GAC) column experiments were operated to treat aerobically treated grey water. The operation of a GAC column with aerobically treated grey water spiked with micropollutants in the range of 0.1-10 μgL(-1) at a flow of 0.5 bed volumes (BV)h(-1) showed micropollutant removal efficiencies higher than 72%. During the operation time of 1728 BV, no breakthrough of TOC or micropollutants was observed. Removal of micropollutants from aerobically treated grey water was tested in a GAC column at a flow of 2 BVh(-1). Bisphenol-A, triclosan, tonalide, BP3, galaxolide, nonylphenol and PBSA were effectively removed even after a stable TOC breakthrough of 65% had been reached. After spiking the aerobically treated effluent with micropollutants to concentrations of 10-100 μgL(-1), efficient removal to below limits of quantification

  4. 猪粪好氧堆肥过程有机质降解和热量平衡模型%Modeling of Organic Matter Degradation and Thermal Balance during Pig Slurry Aerobic Composting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永江; 黄光群; 韩鲁佳

    2011-01-01

    Modeling of organic matter degradation and thermal balance were built based on the first order assumption with respect to the quantity of biodegradable volatile solid ( BVS) and the law of thermal conservation during composting. Different kinds of organic matter were mainly degraded in different composting stages. For the organic matter degradation model,temperature,moisture content,oxygen content and free air space were considered as key influence factors to degeneration rate. For the model of thermal balance,forced convention and conduction were considered as the main heat removal form. In order to verify the constructed models,an aerobic composting process of pig slurry was conducted. Temperature,oxygen content,moisture content and organic matter concentration were all monitored in the process of composting. The results could be helpful for guiding composting process operation.%依据有机质降解一级动力学方程和系统热量平衡方程,充分考虑猪粪好氧堆肥有机质降解的梯次性对数学建模的影响,建立了反应器好氧堆肥过程有机质降解Monod模型和热量平衡模型.有机质降解Monod模型考虑了温度、含水率、氧体积分数和自由空域4种因素对降解系数的影响,其中温度作为最主要影响因素;热量平衡模型中主要考虑了对流、传导的热量传递方式.利用实验室好氧堆肥反应器进行的模型验证试验结果表明:堆肥试验实测值与模型模拟值表现出较好的一致性,有机质降解的实测值与模型模拟值的相对标准误差为13.02%,温度变化的实测值与模型模拟值的相对标准误差为9.9%.

  5. Aerobic exercise (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerobic exercise gets the heart working to pump blood through the heart more quickly and with more force than ... must be oxygenated more quickly, which quickens respiration. Aerobic exercise strengthens the heart and boosts healthy cholesterol ...

  6. Anaerobic biodegradation of nonylphenol in river sediment under nitrate- or sulfate-reducing conditions and associated bacterial community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • NP biodegradation can occur under both nitrate- and sulfate-reducing conditions. • Anaerobic condition affects sediment bacterial diversity during NP biodegradation. • NP-degrading bacterial community structure varies under different anaerobic conditions. - Abstract: Nonylphenol (NP) is a commonly detected pollutant in aquatic ecosystem and can be harmful to aquatic organisms. Anaerobic degradation is of great importance for the clean-up of NP in sediment. However, information on anaerobic NP biodegradation in the environment is still very limited. The present study investigated the shift in bacterial community structure associated with NP degradation in river sediment microcosms under nitrate- or sulfate-reducing conditions. Nearly 80% of NP (100 mg kg−1) could be removed under these two anaerobic conditions after 90 or 110 days’ incubation. Illumina MiSeq sequencing analysis indicated that Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Chloroflexi became the dominant phylum groups with NP biodegradation. The proportion of Gammaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria and Choloroflexi showed a marked increase in nitrate-reducing microcosm, while Gammaproteobacteria and Firmicutes in sulfate-reducing microcosm. Moreover, sediment bacterial diversity changed with NP biodegradation, which was dependent on type of electron acceptor

  7. Degradation of herbicides in shallow Danish aquifers - an integrated laboratory and field study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Mills, M.; Aamand, J.;

    2001-01-01

    , results were compared. Some herbicides were degraded under aerobic conditions (some phenoxy acids, DNOC and glyphosate) and others under aerobic conditions (other phenoxy acids, DNOC; there was some indication of atrazine transformation). Certain pesticides were not degraded in any investigations...

  8. Toxicity of the xenoestrogen nonylphenol and its biodegradation by the alga Cyclotella caspia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Liu; Xiaokang Dai; Jie Wei

    2013-01-01

    Alkylphenols (APs),the breakdown products of alkylphenol polyethoxylates that are widely used as surfactants,have been proven to exert estrogenic effects.With industrial development,higher concentrations of APs are discharged into aquatic environments.Nonylphenol (NP),the most noxious AP,is included in the blacklist of several countries.The toxicity of NP to the alga Cyclotella caspia and the biodegradation of NP by C.caspia were studied in the laboratory.The median effective concentration at 96 hr (96 hr EC50) of NP for C.caspia was found to be 0.18 mg/L.Five toxicity and three degradation indices were selected for toxicity and biodegradation experiments,respectively,in five or three concentrations of NP set by the 96 hr EC5o of NP.The algal growth rate and chlorophyll a contents decreased as NP concentration increased.The main manifestations of morphological deformity of the cells included volume expansion and the presence of cytoplasmic inclusions (lipid droplets).The abnormality rate of the cells increased with NP concentration and time,and was 100% at 0.22 and 0.26 mg/L of NP after 192 hr of culture.Superoxide dismutase activity initially increased and then declined at a higher NP toxicity of greater than 0.18 mg/L.After 192 hr of culture,the biodegradation rates of NP by C.caspia with initial concentrations of 0.14,0.18,and 0.22 mg/L were 37.7%,31.7%,and 6.5%,respectively.The kinetic equation of C.caspia biodegradation on NP was correlated with algal growth rate and initial NP concentration.

  9. Immunosuppressive effects of triclosan, nonylphenol, and DDT on human natural killer cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udoji, Felicia; Martin, Tamara; Etherton, Rachel; Whalen, Margaret M

    2010-01-01

    Human natural killer (NK) cells are a first-line immune defense against tumor cells and virally-infected cells. If their function is impaired, it leaves an individual more susceptible to cancer development or viral infection. The ability of compounds that contaminate the environment to suppress the function of NK cells could contribute to the increased risk of cancer development. There are a wide spectrum of compounds that significantly contaminate water and food that are consumed by humans, leading to accumulation of some of these compounds in human tissues. In the current study, we examined the ability of three such compounds to diminish the function of human NK cells. Triclosan (TC) is an antimicrobial agent used in a large number of antibacterial soaps. Nonylphenol (NP) is a degradation product of compounds used as surfactants and as stabilizers in plastics. 4,4'-Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) is a pesticide that is mainly used to control mosquitoes. The compounds were examined for their ability to suppress NK function following exposures of 1 h, 24 h, 48 h, and 6 days. Each agent was able to substantially decrease NK lytic function within 24 h. At a concentration of 5 microM, both TC and NP inhibited NK lytic function by 87 and 30%, respectively; DDT decreased function by 55% at 2.5 microM. The negative effects of each of these compounds persisted and/or intensified following a brief (1 h) exposure to the compounds, indicating that the impairment of function cannot be eliminated by removal of the compound under in vitro conditions. PMID:20297919

  10. Deposition patterns and transport mechanisms for the endocrine disruptor 4-nonylphenol across the Sierra Nevada Mountains, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Rebecca; Van de Bittner, Kyle; Morgan-Jones, Sean

    2014-12-01

    Dust and particulate distribution patterns are shifting as global climate change brings about longer drought periods. Particulates act as vehicles for long range transport of organic pollutants, depositing at locations far from their source. Nonylphenol, a biodegradation product of nonylphenol polyethoxylate, is a known endocrine disruptor. Nonylphenol polyethoxylate enters the environment as an inert ingredient in pesticide sprays, potentially traveling great distances from its application site. This is of concern when a highly agricultural region, California's Central Valley, lies adjacent to sensitive areas like the Eastern Sierra Nevada Mountains. The distribution and transport mechanisms for 4-nonylphenol were investigated in Eastern Sierra Nevada canyons. Regions close to canyon headwalls showed trace amounts of 4-nonylphenol in surface water, snow, and atmospheric deposition. Exposed areas had yearly average concentrations as high as 9 μg/L. Distribution patterns are consistent with particulate-bound transport. This suggests with increasing drought periods, higher levels of persistent organic pollutants are likely.

  11. Treatment of anthraquinone dye wastewater by hydrolytic acidification-aerobic process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jian; WU Min; Li Dan

    2004-01-01

    Experiment on microbial degradation with two kinds of biological process, hydrolytic acidification-aerobic process and aerobic process was conducted to treat the anthraquinone dye wastewater with CODCr concentration of 400 mg/L and chroma 800. The experimental result demonstrated that the hydrolytic-aerobic process could raise the biodegradability of anthraquinone dye wastewater effectively. The effluent CODCr can reach 120-170 mg/L and chroma 150 which is superior to that from simple aerobic process.

  12. In utero and neonate exposure to nonylphenol develops hyperadrenalism and metabolic syndrome later in life. I. First generation rats (F(1)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ling-Ling; Wun, Wan-Song A; Wang, Paulus S

    2012-11-15

    Nonylphenol (NP) is an endocrine disruptor (ENDR). It is a chemical associated with the production and degradation of nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPE). NPE is widely used as nonionic surfactants. Previously, we observed that NP increased the production of corticosterone and aldosterone from zona fasciculata-reticularis, and zona glomerulosa cells, respectively. By the "fetal origins adult diseases" (Barker hypothesis), we examined the possible impact of NP exposure during developmental (in utero and neonatal) period with focus on disturbed adrenal function and related hyperadrenal syndrome, i.e. Cushings syndrome/metabolic syndrome. In this study, female rats drink NP water during pregnancy and lactation conferred F(1) generation: (1) increase the corticosterone, aldosterone concentration in plasma; (2) increase 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) activity in liver and adipose tissue; (3) increase aldosterone synthase activity in adrenal for adult offspring. Furthermore, it can increase body weight, adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) concentration in plasma, 11β-HSD1 protein expression in liver, steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein expression and 11β-hydroxylase activity in adrenal for male adult offspring. In summary, NP exposure during developmental period bestowed F(1) generation with hyperadrenalism and its consequence of metabolic syndrome.

  13. Enhanced growth and reproduction of Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematoda) in the presence of 4-Nonylphenol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoess, Sebastian; Juettner, I.Ingrid; Traunspurger, Walter; Pfister, Gerd; Schramm, K.-W.; Steinberg, C.E.W

    2002-12-01

    4-Nonylphenol can enhance growth and reproduction of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. - The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans was exposed over a whole life-cycle (72 h) to several concentrations of 4-nonylphenol (NP; nominal concentrations: 0-350 {mu}g/l). Growth and reproduction of C. elegans were enhanced at NP concentrations of 66 and 40 {mu}g/l, respectively, with effects showing dose-response relationships. These stimulatory effects might be of ecological relevance in benthic habitats, where organisms can be exposed to high concentrations of NP.

  14. Evaluation of 4-nonylphenol toxicity in the clam Tapes philippinarum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lethal and sub lethal effects of 4-nonylphenol (NP) were investigated in the clam Tapes philippinarum from the Lagoon of Venice. In a 96-h lethality test, bivalves were exposed to the following NP concentrations: 0, 0+acetone, .19, 0.38, 0.75, 1.5, and 3.0 mg NP/L. The 96-h LC50 value was 1.12 mg P/L. No mortality was observed at 0.19 mg NP/L, whereas at 1.5 and 3.0 mg P/L both siphons and foot of clams were often cut-off, the animals being unable to withdraw them before shell closure, suggesting the possible narcotic effect of NP. Lower concentrations (0, 0+acetone, 0.025, 0.05, 0.1, nd 0.2 mg NP/L) were then used to evaluate sub lethal NP effects on clearance rate (CR), respiration rate (RR), scope for growth (SFG), and survival in ir. Following a 7-day exposure, decreased RRs were found at all NP concentrations tested. Significant decreases in the CR and SFG were only observed at the two highest NP concentrations (0.1 and 0.2 mg/L), with SFG reductions reaching 54% and 71%, respectively. Last, the highest concentrations tested significantly decreased the resistance of clams to exposure to air and enhanced the mortality rate. As the lowest effective NP concentrations are similar to environmentally realistic levels, a condition of potential risk for the well-being of clam populations in estuarine areas is highlighted

  15. Effects of nonylphenol on key hormonal balances and histopathology of the endangered Caspian brown trout (Salmo trutta caspius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirdel, Iman; Kalbassi, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Endocrine disruptor chemicals (EDCs) potentially pose a hazard to endangered species. Evaluation of the sensitivity of these species to EDCs could be helpful for protecting their populations. So, the present study investigated the adverse effects of nonylphenol, an EDC, on the endocrine hormones and histopathology of male and female juvenile Caspian brown trout (Salmo trutta caspius) following 21 days of exposure to nominal concentrations of 1, 10 and 100 μg/l. The results showed that the HSI and plasma total calcium of male and female fishes exposed to 100 μg/l nonylphenol were significantly increased compared with the control groups (P0.05). No significant effect of nonylphenol exposure was observed on male plasma TSH levels (P>0.05), whereas, in females, nonylphenol at all concentrations significantly reduced TSH levels. A bell-shaped response was observed in male and female plasma GH levels. Moreover, various histopathological lesions were observed in gill and intestine tissues of fishes exposed to different nonylphenol concentrations. These results demonstrate the high sensitivity of this endangered species to even environmentally relevant concentrations of nonylphenol. Furthermore, Caspian brown trout could be used as bioindicators reflecting the toxicity of nonylphenol. PMID:26811907

  16. Drying and recovery of aerobic granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jianjun; Zhang, Quanguo; Chen, Yu-You; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2016-10-01

    To dehydrate aerobic granules to bone-dry form was proposed as a promising option for long-term storage of aerobic granules. This study cultivated aerobic granules with high proteins/polysaccharide ratio and then dried these granules using seven protocols: drying at 37°C, 60°C, 4°C, under sunlight, in dark, in a flowing air stream or in concentrated acetone solutions. All dried granules experienced volume shrinkage of over 80% without major structural breakdown. After three recovery batches, although with loss of part of the volatile suspended solids, all dried granules were restored most of their original size and organic matter degradation capabilities. The strains that can survive over the drying and storage periods were also identified. Once the granules were dried, they can be stored over long period of time, with minimal impact yielded by the applied drying protocols. PMID:27392096

  17. 4-Nonylphenol and bisphenol A in Swedish food and exposure in Swedish nursing women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gyllenhammar, I.; Glynn, A.; Darnerud, P.O.; Lignell, S.; Delft, R. van; Aune, M.

    2012-01-01

    4-Nonylphenol (NP) and bisphenol A (BPA) are phenolic substances used in high volumes by the industry. Studies on cells and in experimental animals have shown that both these compounds can be classified as estrogenic hormone disrupters. Information about the exposure of humans to NP and BPA is still

  18. 78 FR 37176 - Addition of Nonylphenol Category; Community Right-to-Know Toxic Chemical Release Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ... minnows was calculated to be 14 g/L (Ref. 21). 2. Saltwater Species. Two chronic toxicity tests have been... grazing snail. Acute toxicity values for freshwater fish ranged from 110 g/L for the fountain darter to...., E.A. Makynen, P.A. Kosian and G.T. Ankley. 1997. Toxicity of 4-nonylphenol in a life-cycle test...

  19. Modeling bioaccumulation and biomagnification of nonylphenol and its ethoxylates in estuarine-marine food chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korsman, J.C.; Schipper, A.M.; Vos, de M.G.; Heuvel-Greve, van den M.J.; Vethaak, A.D.; Voogt, de Pim; Hendriks, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    There are several studies on bioaccumulation and biomagnification of nonylphenol (NP) and its ethoxylates (NPEOs), but their toxico-kinetic mechanisms remain unclear. In the present investigation, we explored the accumulation of NP and NPEOs in estuarine-marine food chains with a bioaccumulation

  20. Modeling bioaccumulation and biomagnification of nonylphenol and its ethoxylates in estuarine-marine food chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. Korsman; A.M. Schipper; M.G. de Vos; M.J. van den Heuvel-Greve; A.D. Vethaak; P. de Voogt; A.J. Hendriks

    2015-01-01

    There are several studies on bioaccumulation and biomagnification of nonylphenol (NP) and its ethoxylates (NPEOs), but their toxico-kinetic mechanisms remain unclear. In the present investigation, we explored the accumulation of NP and NPEOs in estuarine-marine food chains with a bioaccumulation mod

  1. Examining the biodegradation of endocrine disrupting bisphenol A and nonylphenol in WWTPs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Press-Kristensen, Kåre; Lindblom, Erik Ulfson; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye;

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work was to examine biodegradation of the endocrine disrupting chemicals bisphenol A (BPA) and nonylphenol (NP) in activated sludge. Experiments were performed in a pilot wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Copenhagen, Denmark. During standard operation the BPA concentration...

  2. GESTATIONAL EXPOSURE TO NONYLPHENOL CAUSES PRECOCIOUS MAMMARY GLAND DEVELOPMENT IN FEMALE RAT OFFSPRING

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examined whether or not exposure to 4-nonylphenol (NP) during late gestation affects reproductive and mammary development in the offspring of female rats. Time pregnant Long Evans rats were gavaged with NP (10 or 100 mg/kg), atrazine (ATR, 100 mg/kg), or corn oil on ge...

  3. Nonylphenol stimulates fecundity but not population growth rate (λ) of Folsomia candida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Widarto, T. H.; Krogh, P. H.; Forbes, V. E.

    2007-01-01

    The toxicity of nonylphenol (NP) to springtails was pronounced at 40 mg/kg dry weight soil, at which no animals survived. Body length and fecundity were the individual life-history traits significantly stimulated by sublethal concentrations of NP during a 64-day experiment. However, the effects o...

  4. Role of biofilms in sorptive removal of steroidal hormones and 4-nonylphenol compounds from streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Writer, Jeffrey H.; Ryan, Joseph N.; Barber, Larry B.

    2011-01-01

    Stream biofilms play an important role in geochemical processing of organic matter and nutrients, however, the significance of this matrix in sorbing trace organic contaminants is less understood. This study focused on the role of stream biofilms in sorbing steroidal hormones and 4-nonylphenol compounds from surface waters using biofilms colonized in situ on artificial substrata and subsequently transferred to the laboratory for controlled batch sorption experiments. Steroidal hormones and 4-nonylphenol compounds readily sorb to stream biofilms as indicated by organic matter partition coefficients (Kom, L kg-1) for 17β-estradiol (102.5-2.8 L kg-1), 17α-ethynylestradiol (102.5-2.9 L kg-1), 4-nonylphenol (103.4-4.6 L kg-1), 4-nonylphenolmonoethoxylate (103.5-4.0 L kg-1), and 4-nonylphenoldiethoxylate (103.9-4.3 L kg-1). Experiments using water quality differences to induce changes in the relative composition of periphyton and heterotrophic bacteria in the stream biofilm did not significantly affect the sorptive properties of the stream biofilm, providing additional evidence that stream biofilms will sorb trace organic compounds under of variety of environmental conditions. Because sorption of the target compounds to stream biofilms was linearly correlated with organic matter content, hydrophobic partition into organic matter appears to be the dominant mechanism. An analysis of 17β-estradiol and 4-nonylphenol hydrophobic partition into water, biofilm, sediment, and dissolved organic matter matrices at mass/volume ratios typical of smaller rivers showed that the relative importance of the stream biofilm as a sorptive matrix was comparable to bed sediments. Therefore, stream biofilms play a primary role in attenuating these compounds in surface waters. Because the stream biofilm represents the base of the stream ecosystem, accumulation of steroidal hormones and 4-nonylphenol compounds in the stream biofilm may be an exposure pathway for organisms in higher trophic

  5. Role of biofilms in sorptive removal of steroidal hormones and 4-nonylphenol compounds from streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Writer, J.H.; Ryan, J.N.; Barber, L.B.

    2011-01-01

    Stream biofilms play an important role in geochemical processing of organic matter and nutrients, however, the significance of this matrix in sorbing trace organic contaminants is less understood. This study focused on the role of stream biofilms in sorbing steroidal hormones and 4-nonylphenol compounds from surface waters using biofilms colonized in situ on artificial substrata and subsequently transferred to the laboratory for controlled batch sorption experiments. Steroidal hormones and 4-nonylphenol compounds readily sorb to stream biofilms as indicated by organic matter partition coefficients (K om, L kg-1) for 17??-estradiol (102.5-2.8 L kg-1), 17??-ethynylestradiol (102.5-2.9 L kg -1), 4-nonylphenol (103.4-4.6 L kg-1), 4-nonylphenolmonoethoxylate (103.5-4.0 L kg-1), and 4-nonylphenoldiethoxylate (103.9-4.3 L kg-1). Experiments using water quality differences to induce changes in the relative composition of periphyton and heterotrophic bacteria in the stream biofilm did not significantly affect the sorptive properties of the stream biofilm, providing additional evidence that stream biofilms will sorb trace organic compounds under of variety of environmental conditions. Because sorption of the target compounds to stream biofilms was linearly correlated with organic matter content, hydrophobic partition into organic matter appears to be the dominant mechanism. An analysis of 17??-estradiol and 4-nonylphenol hydrophobic partition into water, biofilm, sediment, and dissolved organic matter matrices at mass/volume ratios typical of smaller rivers showed that the relative importance of the stream biofilm as a sorptive matrix was comparable to bed sediments. Therefore, stream biofilms play a primary role in attenuating these compounds in surface waters. Because the stream biofilm represents the base of the stream ecosystem, accumulation of steroidal hormones and 4-nonylphenol compounds in the stream biofilm may be an exposure pathway for organisms in higher trophic

  6. What Is Aerobic Dancing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... after exercising, see a physician. Common Aerobics Injuries Plantar fasciitis (arch pain) -- Arch pain is often caused by ... rearfoot instability, with excessive pronation, may result in plantar fasciitis. Shoes with proper support in the arch often ...

  7. EFFECTS OF P-NONYLPHENOL, METHOXYCHLOR AND ENDOSULFAN ON VITELLOGENIN INDUCTION AND EXPRESSION IN THE SHEEPSHEAD MINNOW, CYPRINODON VARIEGATUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temporal and dose-response relationships of vitellogenin (VTG) mRNA induction and subsequent plasma VTG accumulation were established for sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus) treated with p-nonylphenol, an alkylphenol, and the organochlorine pesticides methoxychlor and endo...

  8. COMPARISON OF THE ESTROGENIC POTENCIES OF ESTRADIOL, ETHYNYLESTRADIOL, DIETHYLSTILBESTROL, NONYLPHENOL AND METHOXYCHLOR IN VIVO AND IN VITRO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Five natural, pharmaceutical, or xenobiotic chemicals (17b-estradiol, ethynylestradiol, diethystilbestrol, nonylphenol, methoxychlor) were tested in two in vitro (MCF-7 breast tumor cell proliferation [E-screen], yeast estrogen system [YES]), and one in vivo (male sheepshead min...

  9. RXRα, PXR and CAR xenobiotic receptors mediate the apoptotic and neurotoxic actions of nonylphenol in mouse hippocampal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwa, E; Rzemieniec, J; Wnuk, A; Lason, W; Krzeptowski, W; Kajta, M

    2016-02-01

    In the present study, we investigated the role of the retinoid X receptor (RXR), the pregnane X receptor (PXR) and the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), in the apoptotic and toxic effects of nonylphenol in mouse primary neuronal cell cultures. Our study demonstrated that nonylphenol activated caspase-3 and induced lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release in hippocampal cells, which was accompanied by an increase in the mRNA expression and protein levels of RXRα, PXR and CAR. Nonylphenol stimulated Rxra, Pxr, and Car mRNA expression. These effects were followed by increase in the protein levels of particular receptors. Immunofluorescence labeling revealed the cellular distribution of RXRα, PXR and CAR in hippocampal neurons in response to nonylphenol, shortening of neurites and cytoplasmic shrinking, as indicated by MAP2 staining. It also showed NP-induced translocation of receptor-specific immunofluorescence from cytoplasm to the nucleus. The use of specific siRNAs demonstrated that Rxra-, Pxr-, and Car-siRNA-transfected cells were less vulnerable to nonylphenol-induced activation of caspase-3 and LDH, thus confirming the key involvement of RXRα/PXR/CAR signaling pathways in the apoptotic and neurotoxic actions of nonylphenol. These new data give prospects for the targeting xenobiotic nuclear receptors to protect the developing nervous system against endocrine disrupting chemicals. PMID:26643981

  10. Effects of multi-walled carbon nanotubes on mineralization and mobility of nonylphenol and sodium dodecyl sulfate in agricultural soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillotte, Julia; Marschner, Bernd; Stumpe, Britta

    2014-05-01

    Nanotechnology is one of the major scientific research fields in this decade. One of the most wide-spread nanomaterials are carbon based nanoparticles (CNPs) which are increasingly be used in industry. Several studies shows that CNPs are interacting with other chemical compounds and organic pollutants in the environment. It is assumed that the interactions between CNPs and organic pollutants are affected by solution and aggregate behavior. Based on the knowledge of the behavior of CNPs and organic pollutants in aquatic systems the interactions of CNPs and organic pollutants in agricultural soils have to be studied. As organic pollutants two environmental substances, nonylphenol (NP) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) were selected as model substances. They occur frequently in aqueous systems and also show different solubility behavior. As CNP representatives, two different multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) were selected. They differed either in length or outer diameter. Conclusions therefrom are to be closed the influence of length and diameter of the sorption capacity of different organic pollutants. In addition, two agricultural soils (sandy and silty soil) and one forest soil (sandy soil) were chosen. Mineralization and sorption experiments were conducted to provide information about the degradation of organic pollutants in presence of multi-walled carbon nanotubes in soils. To analyze the CNPs mineralization potential, peroxidase activity was measured. Further extraction experiments were conducted to detect the extractable part of organic pollutants. The results show that the surface area of the MWNT has a significant impact on the sorption behav-ior of NP and SDS in soils. The sorption of NP and SDS is much higher than without MWNT. However, the properties of the organic pollutants (different water solubility and hydrophobicity) are equally important and should be noted. The degradation of both pollutants is influenced by MWNT. Due to the strong sorption of

  11. The influence of sewage sludge treatment on the fate of nonylphenol in sludge amended soils

    OpenAIRE

    Kouloumpos, Vasileios

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of the current work were a) to identify the correlation between sewage sludge conditioning / dewatering processing and fate of a major sludge organic pollutant (Nonylphenol, NP) in sludge-amended soils and b) to provide, if possible, clues about the mechanism driving this correlation. In view was a contribution to predicting and controlling the fate of organic xenobiotics in the soil-sludge environment, by examining an until now not adequately studied, but nevertheless potentia...

  12. 4-Nonylphenol (NP) in Food Contact Materials: Review, Analytical Methodology and Occurrence

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Alwyn R; Rose, Martin; Charlton, Claire

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Nonylphenol (NP) is a recognised environmental contaminant but it is unclear whether its occurrence in food arises only through environmental pathways or also during the processing or packaging of food, as there are reports that indicate that materials in contact with food such as rubber products and polyvinylchloride (PVC) wraps can contain NP. A review of the literature has highlighted the scarcity of robust analytical methodology or data on the occurrence of NP in packa...

  13. Environmental Levels of para-Nonylphenol Are Able to Affect Cytokine Secretion in Human Placenta

    OpenAIRE

    Bechi, Nicoletta; Ietta, Francesca; Romagnoli, Roberta; Jantra, Silke; Cencini, Marco; Galassi, Gianmichele; Serchi, Tommaso; Corsi, Ilaria; Focardi, Silvano; Paulesu, Luana

    2009-01-01

    Background para-Nonylphenol (p-NP) is a metabolite of alkylphenols widely used in the chemical industry and manufacturing. It accumulates in the environment, where it acts with estrogen-like activity. We previously showed that p-NP acts on human placenta by inducing trophoblast differentiation and apoptosis. Objective The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of p-NP on cytokine secretion in human placenta. Methods In vitro cultures of chorionic villous explants from human pl...

  14. Characterization and aerobic biodegradation of selected monoterpenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misra, G.; Pavlostathis, S.G.; Li, J.; Purdue, E.M. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Monoterpenes are biogenic chemicals and occur in abundance in nature. Large-scale industrial use of these chemicals has recently been initiated in an attempt to replace halogenated solvents and chlorofluorocarbons which have been implicated in the stratospheric depletion of ozone. This study examined four hydrocarbon monoterpenes (d-limonene, {alpha}-pinene, {gamma}-terpinene, and terpinolene) and four alcohols (arbanol, linalool, plinol, and {alpha}-terpineol). Water solubility, vapor pressure, and octanol/water partition coefficients were estimated. Aerobic biodegradability tests were conducted in batch reactors by utilizing forest soil extract and enriched cultures as inoculum. The hydrophobic nature and high volatility of the hydrocarbons restricted the investigation to relatively low aqueous concentrations. Each monoterpene was analyzed with a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector after extraction from the aqueous phase with isooctane. Terpene mineralization was tested by monitoring liquid-phase carbon, CO{sub 2} production and biomass growth. All four hydrocarbons and two alcohols readily degraded under aerobic conditions. Plinol resisted degradation in assays using inocula from diverse sources, while arbanol degraded very slowly. The intrinsic biokinetics coefficients for the degradation of d-limonene and {alpha}-terpineol were estimated by using cultures enriched with the respective monoterpenes. Monoterpene biodegradation followed Monod kinetics.

  15. Distrubution of the Endocrine Disruptor Nonylphenol and the Effects of Topographical Sheilding in an Eastern Sierra Nevada Mountain Drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, R. A.; Van de Bittner, K.; Morgan Jones, S.

    2013-12-01

    Nonylphenol is a biodegradation product of nonylphenol polyethoxylates, a pervasive compound used in many industrial processes and notably in pesticides as a surfactant. Nonylphenol has been shown to act as an endocrine disruptor at low concentrations. It causes hermaphrodism, birth defects, and high mortality in fish, frogs and other amphibians. The Sierra Nevada Mountains separate the Central Valley in the west from the high desert of Mono Country on the east side of the state of California. The Central Valley represents some of the most heavily cultivated agricultural land in the United States. San Joaquin County alone had an annual pesticide use of over 8 million pounds in 2009 according to the Pesticide Action Network, compared with 4800 pounds in Mono County the same year. Fragile alpine ecosystems in the Sierra Nevadas may be highly susceptible to the effects of endocrine disruptors like nonylphenol. The distribution of nonylphenol is affected by localized topography in a steep walled montane canyon in the Eastern Sierra Nevada Mountains, Convict Creek canyon. The concentration of nonylphenol in snow and surface water increases as the elevation in Convict Creek canyon decreases in an easterly direction from not detectable at the highest elevations to as much as .01mg/L in water and 1.8 mg/L in snow at the lowest elevations. The steep head wall of Convict Creek canyon, facing southeast, provides shielding to the higher elevation lakes from deposition of compounds and particulate matter. As a canyon becomes less steep and broader, more nonylphenol is deposited. Identifying these deposition patterns may assist in determining amphibian and fish populations that are at higher risk of negative impact from these compounds.

  16. Evaluation of four mathematical models to describe dissipation kinetics of 4-n-nonylphenol and bisphenol-A in groundwater-aquifer material slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmah, Ajit K; Rohan, Maheswaran

    2011-01-01

    The performance of four mathematical models (hockey stick, biexponential, first-order double exponential decay, and first-order two-compartment) was evaluated to describe the dissipation kinetics for 4-n-nonylphenol (4-n-NP) and bisphenol-A (BPA) in groundwater-aquifer material slurry under aerobic and anaerobic conditions conducted under controlled laboratory conditions. The fit of each model to the measured values under both conditions was tested using an array of statistical indices to judge the model's ability to fit the measured datasets. Corresponding 50% (DT(50)) and 90% (DT(90)) dissipation values for each compound were numerically obtained and compared against each model. The model derived DT(50) values in groundwater-aquifer material ranged from 1.06 to 1.24 (4-n-NP) and 0.341 to 0.568 days (BPA) under aerobic condition, while they were 2- to 4-fold higher under anoxic condition. DT(90) values for 4-n-NP ranged anywhere between 2.3 and 4.45 days under both conditions, while DT(90) values for BPA ranged from around 1 day to as high as 12 days under both conditions tested. A visual examination of the measured and fitted plots as well as the statistical indices showed that, with the exception of the hockey stick model, the models performed satisfactorily. Despite having only 3 parameters, the biexponential model could describe the dissipation kinetics very well and this was supported by the statistical indices generated for each case. PMID:21069247

  17. Antioxidant and antiapoptotic activities of Calotropis procera latex on Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) exposed to toxic 4-nonylphenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayed, Alaa El-Din H; Mohamed, Nadia H; Ismail, Mady A; Abdel-Mageed, Wael M; Shoreit, Ahmed A M

    2016-06-01

    Calotropis procera L. is known as medicinal plant. The Phytochemical analyzes of its latex revealed that it possessed antioxidants, namely terpenes, phenolic compounds and cardenolides, flavonoids and saponins, while tannins, alkaloids and resin were absent in moderate to high concentration. In the present study, the role of latex of Calotropis procera as antioxidant and antiapoptotic was reported. To carry out this aim, fishes were exposed to 100 µg l(-1) 4-nonylphenol as chemical pollutant. The enzymes, superoxidase dismutase, catalase, acetlycholinstrase (AchE), glutathione s-transferase, cortisol, G6PDH) and apoptotic cells increased significantly (p<0.05) accompanied by irregular disturbance of (Na(+), K(+)) ions in the presence of 4-nonylphenol. On the other hand, these enzymes, ions, and apoptotic cells decreased normally and significantly (p<0.05) in the presence of latex. Total phenol content, total capacity antioxidant, reducing power decrease significantly (p<0.05) in the presence of 4-nonylphenol and increase normally in the presence of latex. Latex was used for the first time to protect catfish after 4-nonylphenol exposure. Our study confirms that crude latex of Calotropis procera possessed antioxidant and antiapoptotic activities against the toxicity of 4-Nonylphenol. PMID:26946283

  18. Fate of sulfamethoxazole, 4-nonylphenol, and 17β-estradiol in groundwater contaminated by wastewater treatment plant effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Larry B.; Keefe, Steffanie H.; LeBlanc, Denis R.; Bradley, Paul M.; Chapelle, Francis H.; Meyer, Michael T.; Loftin, Keith A.; Koplin, Dana W.; Rubio, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    Organic wastewater contaminants (OWCs) were measured in samples collected from monitoring wells located along a 4.5-km transect of a plume of groundwater contaminated by 60 years of continuous rapid infiltration disposal of wastewater treatment plant effluent. Fifteen percent of the 212 OWCs analyzed were detected, including the antibiotic sulfamethoxazole (SX), the nonionic surfactant degradation product 4-nonylphenol (NP), the solvent tetrachloroethene (PCE), and the disinfectant 1,4-dichlorobenzene (DCB). Comparison of the 2005 sampling results to data collected from the same wells in 1985 indicates that PCE and DCB are transported more rapidly in the aquifer than NP, consistent with predictions based on compound hydrophobicity. Natural gradient in situ tracer experiments were conducted to evaluate the subsurface behavior of SX, NP, and the female sex hormone 17β-estradiol (E2) in two oxic zones in the aquifer: (1) a downgradient transition zone at the interface between the contamination plume and the overlying uncontaminated groundwater and (2) a contaminated zone located beneath the infiltration beds, which have not been loaded for 10 years. In both zones, breakthrough curves for the conservative tracer bromide (Br−) and SX were nearly coincident, whereas NP and E2 were retarded relative to Br− and showed mass loss. Retardation was greater in the contaminated zone than in the transition zone. Attenuation of NP and E2 in the aquifer was attributed to biotransformation, and oxic laboratory microcosm experiments using sediments from the transition and contaminated zones show that uniform-ring-labeled 14C 4-normal-NP was biodegraded more rapidly (30−60% recovered as 14CO2 in 13 days) than 4-14C E2 (20−90% recovered as 14CO2in 54 days). There was little difference in mineralization potential between sites.

  19. Poplar Lignin Decomposition by Gram-Negative Aerobic Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Odier, E.; Janin, G.; Monties, B

    1981-01-01

    Eleven gram-negative aerobic bacteria (Pseudomonadaceae and Neisseriaceae) out of 122 soil isolates were selected for their ability to assimilate poplar dioxane lignin without a cosubstrate. Dioxane lignin and milled wood lignin degradation rates ranged between 20 and 40% of initial content after 7 days in mineral medium, as determined by a loss of absorbance at 280 nm; 10 strains could degrade in situ lignin, as evidenced by the decrease of the acetyl bromide lignin content of microtome wood...

  20. Biodegradation of Asphalt Cement-20 by Aerobic Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Pendrys, John P.

    1989-01-01

    Seven gram-negative, aerobic bacteria were isolated from a mixed culture enriched for asphalt-degrading bacteria. The predominant genera of these isolates were Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Alcaligenes, Flavimonas, and Flavobacterium. The mixed culture preferentially degraded the saturate and naphthene aromatic fractions of asphalt cement-20. A residue remained on the surface which was resistant to biodegradation and protected the underlying asphalt from biodegradation. The most potent asphalt-...

  1. AEROBIC BIODEGRADATION OF GASOLINE OXYGENATES MTBE AND TBA

    Science.gov (United States)

    MTBE degradation was investigated using a continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) with biomass retention (porous pot reactor) operated under aerobic conditions. MTBE was fed to the reactor at an influent concentration of 150 mg/l (1.70 mmol/l). A second identifical rector was op...

  2. Terephthalic acid wastewater treatment by using two-stage aerobic process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Based on the tests between anoxic and aerobic process, the two-stage aerobic process with a biological selector was chosen to treat terephthalic acid wastewater (PTA). By adopting the two- stage aerobic process, the CODCr in PTA wastewater could be reduced from 4000-6000 mg/L to below 100 mg/L; the COD loading in the first aerobic tank could reach 7.0-8.0 kgCODCr/(m3.d) and that of the second stage was from 0.2 to 0.4 kgCODCr/(m3.d). Further researches on the kinetics of substrate degradation were carried out.

  3. Biodegradation of 4-n-nonylphenol by the non-ligninolytic filamentous fungus Gliocephalotrichum simplex: A proposal of a metabolic pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozalska, Sylwia; Szewczyk, Rafal [Department of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, University of Lodz, Banacha 12/16, 90-237 Lodz (Poland); Dlugonski, Jerzy, E-mail: jdlugo@biol.uni.lodz.pl [Department of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, University of Lodz, Banacha 12/16, 90-237 Lodz (Poland)

    2010-08-15

    4-Nonylphenols (NPs) are endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) which are known to interfere with the endocrine system of humans and animals. The aim of this study was to test the ability of non-ligninolytic filamentous fungus Gliocephalotrichum simplex to biodegrade 4-n-NP. The results revealed that during the first 24 h of incubation, 4-n-NP at the concentration of 50 mg L{sup -1} was eliminated from the culture medium by 88%, whereas at the concentration of 100 mg L{sup -1} by 50%. In this paper, glucose utilization as a co-substrate during toxic compound degradation was also shown. It was found that the presence of 4-n-NP caused sugar metabolism retardation and this inhibition was dependent on NP concentration. The qualitative GC-MS analysis showed the presence of products of G. simplex 4-n-NP biodegradation. We proposed the metabolic pathway of 4-n-NP biodegradation, which is based on subsequent C1 removals from the alkyl chain followed by the aromatic ring cleavage. In further experiments with 4-n-NP [ring-{sup 14}C(U)] we proved aromatic ring cleavage occurrence. After 72 h of incubation the evolution of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} was observed and the mineralization efficiency was on the level of 29%. The results suggest the existence of a novel mechanism of 4-n-NP degradation in fungi.

  4. Coupled anaerobic/aerobic biodegradation of 2,4,6 trichlorophenol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Degradation of 2, 4, 6-trichlorophenol(TCP) with co-immobilizing anaerobic granular sludge and isolated aerobic bacterial specieswas studied in coupled anaerobic/aerobic integrated reactors. The synergism of aerobes and anaerobes within co-immobilized granule mightfacilitate degrading the TCP and exchange of anaerobic metabolites 4-CP, which promoted system organic removal efficiency and recovered fromorganic shock-loads more quickly. The biomass specific activities experiment further confirmed that strict anaerobes be not affected over thecourse of this experiment by the presence of an oxic environment, aerobic activity predominated in the outer co-immobilized granule layers,while the interior was characterized by anaerobic activity. The co-immobilized granule could thus enable both aerobic and anaerobic microbesfunction in the same reactor and thereby integrate the oxidative and reductive catabolism.

  5. Annular purpura and step aerobics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, S J; Humphreys, F; Buxton, P K

    1994-09-01

    Step aerobic classes are at present one of the most popular forms of exercise undertaken by young adults. To date no dermatological abnormalities have been described in people regularly performing step aerobics. We describe a case in which a healthy young woman developed an extensive pigmented purpuric eruption 4 weeks after commencing regular step aerobic classes. The eruption resolved completely 8 weeks after regular exercise was ceased. PMID:7955503

  6. Aerobic Rice: Benefits without going to the Gym?

    OpenAIRE

    Bayot, Ruvicyn; Templeton, Deborah J.

    2009-01-01

    Rice, a staple food for over 70% of Asians, is also the single biggest user of water, requiring 2‐3 times more water per unit of grain produced than crops such as wheat and maize. With growing populations, increased urbanisation and environmental degradation, the supply of fresh water is depleting. Recognising the water constraints to rice yield, the aim of the project entitled ‘Developing a System of Temperate and Tropical Aerobic Rice (STAR) in Asia’ was to develop water‐efficient aerobic r...

  7. THE IMPACT OF NONYLPHENOL (NP ON THE SPERMATOZOA MOTILITY IN VITRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Lukáčová

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Nonylphenol (NP is an environmental endocrine disruptor that has toxic, estrogenic and carcinogenic effects in fish, amphibians and mammals. NP can result in male reproductive dysfunction, altered testicular development, decreased male fertility and a decline of spermatozoa count. The target of this in vitro study was to determine the effect of NP on the spermatozoa motility. Specifically, we examined the dose- and time-dependent effect of nonylphenol (1, 10, 100 and 200 µg/mL dissolved either in 0.1% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO or 0.1% ethanol (ETOH on the motility of bovine spermatozoa during several time periods (0 h, 2 h, 4 h and 6 h. The spermatozoa motility was determined by CASA (Computer Assisted Semen Analyzer system using the Sperm VisionTM program. The results showed a decreased spermatozoa motility in all experimental groups with the addition of NP. Significant differences (P<0.001 and P<0.05 between the control group and all experimental groups were recorded. The lowest motility of bovine spermatozoa was found at doses > 100 µg/mL of NP in comparison with the control group. The obtained data indicate that the exposure to high doses of NP has the negative effect on spermatozoa motility.

  8. Octyl- and Nonylphenol Ethoxylates and Carboxylates in Wastewater and Sediments by Isotope Dilution Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    This work presents an LC-MS-MS-based method for the quantitation of nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEOs) and octylphenol ethoxylates (OPEOs) in water, sediment, and suspended particulate matter, and three of their carboxylated derivatives in water. The alkylphenol ethoxylates (APEOs) were analyzed using...

  9. Interpreting toxicity data in a DEB framework: A case study for nonylphenol in the marine polychaete Capitella teleta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jager, Tjalling; Selck, Henriette

    2011-01-01

    framework. The case study we selected is a previously published data set for 4-n-nonylphenol in the polychaete worm Capitella teleta (formerly Capitella sp. I). Particular aspects of interest in this study are an apparent slow initial growth, and low-dose stimulation (hormesis) of growth and reproduction...

  10. Effects of triclosan, diclofenac, and nonylphenol on mesophilic and thermophilic methanogenic activity and on the methanogenic communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Symsaris, Evangelos C.; Fotidis, Ioannis; Stasinakis, Athanasios S.;

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a toxicity assay using a mesophilic wastewater treatment plant sludge-based (SI) and a thermophilic manure-based inoculum (MI), under different biomass concentrations was performed to define the effects of diclofenac (DCF), triclosan (TCS), and nonylphenol (NP) on anaerobic digestion...

  11. Synergistic interaction between 4-nonylphenol and high but not low temperatures in Dendrobaena octaedra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dorthe; Bayley, Mark; Holmstrup, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Studies on joint effects of toxic compounds and temperature have clearly shown that single stressor tests often underestimate the critical limits of the stressor evaluated. In the present study, the joint effects of nonylphenol (NP) and high (25-35 °C) or low (1.4 to -6.4 °C) temperatures in Dend...

  12. Assessing the impact of global change on micropollutants in aquatic ecosystems: Modelling the fate of nonylphenolic compounds in the Seine River

    OpenAIRE

    Cladière, Mathieu; Bonhomme, Céline; Vilmin, Lauriane; Gasperi, Johnny; Flipo, Nicolas; Habets, Florence; Tassin, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    This study aims at modelling the annual variability in concentrations of nonylphenolic compounds such as 4 nonylphenol (4-NP), nonylphenol monoethoxylate (NP1EO) and nonylphenoxy acetic acid (NP1EC) within the Seine River in the Paris metropolitan area. These compounds are of prime interest because the 4-NP is a well known endocrine disrupting chemical, while NP1EO and NP1EC are expected to be biodegraded into 4-NP in the environment (Giger et al. 2009). Thus the potential consequence of clim...

  13. Microbial Degradation of Indole and Its Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Kumar Arora

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Indole and its derivatives, including 3-methylindole and 4-chloroindole, are environmental pollutants that are present worldwide. Microbial degradation of indole and its derivatives can occur in several aerobic and anaerobic pathways; these pathways involve different known and characterized genes. In this minireview, we summarize and explain the microbial degradation of indole, indole-3-acetic acid, 4-chloroindole, and methylindole.

  14. Aerobic Microbial Respiration In Oceanic Oxygen Minimum Zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalvelage, Tim; Lavik, Gaute; Jensen, Marlene Mark;

    2015-01-01

    Namibia and Peru. Experiments with additions of double-labelled oxygen revealed high aerobic activity in the upper OMZs, likely controlled by surface organic matter export. Consistently observed oxygen consumption in samples retrieved throughout the lower OMZs hints at efficient exploitation of vertically...... denitrification and alternative anaerobic pathways of organic matter remineralization cannot account for the ammonium requirements of reported anammox rates. Here, we explore the significance of microaerobic respiration as a source of ammonium during organic matter degradation in the oxygen-deficient waters off...... and laterally advected, oxygenated waters in this zone by aerobic microorganisms. In accordance, metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses identified genes encoding for aerobic terminal oxidases and demonstrated their expression by diverse microbial communities, even in virtually anoxic waters. Our...

  15. Catalytic aerobic oxidation of bio-renewable chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorbanev, Yury

    -free conditions. Moreover, a detailed study on the performance and stability of the ruthenium hydroxide catalysts on magnesium-containing supports under reaction conditions was conducted. The aerobic oxidation of HMF to form another value-added chemical, 2,5-diformylfuran (DFF), was also investigated......, EDS, XRF and other methods. Supported gold and ruthenium hydroxide catalyst systems were explored for the aerobic oxidation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) to 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid (FDA), a potential polymer building block for the plastic industry, or its dimethyl ester (FDMC). High product......Ox deposited on various metal oxides. Furthermore, this thesis presents the results of the catalytic aerobic oxidative degradation of higher alcohols over supported ruthenium hydroxide catalysts. A very efficient oxidative cleavage of vic-diols to form respective acids was also shown under examined conditions...

  16. 多氯联苯污染土壤好氧降解菌群的分离与鉴定%Isolation and Identification of Aerobic Polychlorinated Biphenyls-Degrading Bacterial Strains in PCBs-contaminated Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐伟; 李英; 梁璐怡; 朱优峰; 王凤平

    2013-01-01

    Growth of microorganisms was stimulated by incubating polychlorinated biphenyl-polluted soils in Wenling and Xiaoshan with biphenyl as sole carbon and energy source.After 4 weeks,a total of thirty five strains of bacteria which were able to grow on biphenyl-containing minimal medium plates were isolated.Sixty percent of them are gram-negative bacteria.The results of 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that the dominant strains are Stenotrophomonas sp.and Pandoraea sp..We chose two well growing strains from each soil to further study PCB-degradation.The four strains are Corynebacterium sp.WLS,Bacillus sp.WL10,Microbacterium sp.XS4 and Citrobacter sp.XS7.All of them were cultured in fresh mineral medium containing 100 mg ·L-1 biphenyl and 2 mg· L-1 2,3,4,5-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB61) for five days.The residual concentrations of PCB61 determined by gas chromatography showed all the strains could degrade PCB61.Especially,the transformation rate of PCB61 by Corynebacterium sp.WL 8,isolated from Wenling soil,reached 50%.This result will benefit further research of genetic screening,cloning and restructuring,as well as providing guidance for the cultivation of PCBs-degrading bacteria.%从浙江温岭和萧山长期受多氯联苯污染的土壤中,以联苯为唯一碳源和能源进行菌类的富集筛选共得到35株纯菌,其中革兰氏阴性菌占细菌总数的60%.对得到的35株菌株进行16S rRNA基因序列分析,结果显示温岭和萧山土壤中的优势菌属分别为寡养单胞菌(Stenotrophomonas sp.)和潘多拉菌属(Pandoraea sp.).挑选的4株细菌棒状杆菌(Corynebacterium sp.)WL8、芽孢杆菌(Bacillus sp.)WL10、微杆菌属(Microbacterium sp.)XS4和柠檬酸杆菌(Citrobacter sp.)XS7均可在联苯存在情况下共代谢降解2,3,4,5-四氯代多氯联苯(PCB61),其中从温岭土壤中筛选到的Corynebacterium sp.WL 8对PCB61的5d去除率达到了50%.

  17. Transcription factor activity of estrogen receptor α activation upon nonylphenol or bisphenol A treatment enhances the in vitro proliferation, invasion, and migration of neuroblastoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongda; Yao, Yao; Wang, Changli; Zhang, Liyu; Cheng, Long; Wang, Yiren; Wang, Tao; Liang, Erguang; Jia, Hui; Ye, Qinong; Hou, Mingxiao; Feng, Fan

    2016-01-01

    Many kinds of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), for example, the environmental estrogens bisphenol A and nonylphenol, may regulate the activity of estrogen receptor α (ERα) and therefore induce potential disruption of normal endocrine function. However, the involvement of EDCs in human cancers, especially in endocrine-related cancer neuroblastoma regulation, is not very clear. In this work, results showed that upon bisphenol A or nonylphenol treatment, the transcription factor activity of ERα was significantly increased in neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y. Bisphenol A and nonylphenol could enhance ERα activity via recruiting it to the target gene promoter. Furthermore, treatment of bisphenol A and nonylphenol enhanced the in vitro proliferation, invasion, and migration ability of neuroblastoma cells. By investigating the role of EDC-induced ERα upregulation, our data extend the understanding of the function of EDCs and further suggest that ERα might be a potential therapeutic target in human neuroblastoma treatment. PMID:27366082

  18. Cultivation of aerobic granular sludge in Acid Red 14 wastewater and the possible Acid Red 14 degradation mechanism%好氧颗粒污泥在酸性红14废水中的形成及降解酸性红14机理的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高景峰; 苏凯; 陈冉妮; 张倩

    2011-01-01

    The aerobic granular sludge( AGS) was cultivated in a sequencing batch reactor(SBR) treating synthetic Acid Red 14(AR14) wastewater with sucrose as co-substrate. The passible AR14 biodegradation mechanism was also investigated. During phase Ⅰ, the SBR was run in aerobic mode with COD increasing gradually, the AGS appeared on day 29, mean diameter of AGS was (0.16 ± 0.04) mm,the particle size of AGS increased gradually with the increasing COD.However, reduction of AR14 did not occur under aerobic condition.The decolorization rate was only 5 % in phase Ⅰ, adsorption may be the reason. During phase Ⅱ, the SBR was run in anaerobic/aerobic mode, the AR14 decolorization rate increased gradually. On day 102, the decolorization rate increased up to 89% and was kept on the level steadily. On day 120, the MLSS increased to 10 548 mg/L, the average diameter of AGS was (2.18 :± 0.25) mm and sludge volume index was maintained at 38 ml/g. There were lots of bacilli on the surface of AGS, but cocci in the inner part, and no filamentous bacteria were found. The existence of AR14 effectively promoted the stability of aerobic granular sludge. Oxidation reduction potential(ORP) decreased to - 250 mV to - 300 mV under anaerobic condition of phase Ⅱ, and the reduction of AR14 occurred. In the anaerobic period, sucrose was not only used as the carbon source of AGS cultivation but also acted as a co-metabolism substrate of AR14 degradation.This study shows that AGS could be successfully cultivated and stably maintain the treatment of AR14 wastewater. ORP was a very important process control parameter in the anaerobic degradation of azo dyes.%为了考察好氧颗粒污泥在酸性红14(Acid Red 14,AR14)废水中的形成以及降解AR14的能力,在序批式反应器(Sequencing Batch Reactor,SBR)内以蔗糖和AR14为底物培养好氧颗粒污泥.在第I阶段(1~75 d),采用单一好氧的运行方式,好氧颗粒污泥出现在第29 d,粒径为(0.16±0.04) mm.随着

  19. ANAEROBIC/AEROBIC BIODEGRADATION OF PENTACHLOROPHENOL USING GAC FLUIDIXED BED REACTORS: OPTIMIZATION OF THE EMPTY BED CONTACT TIME

    Science.gov (United States)

    An integrated reactor system has been developed to remediate pentachlorophenol (PCP) containing wastes using sequential anaerobic and aerobic biodegradation. Anaerobically, PCP was degraded to approximately equimolar concentrations (>99%) of chlorophenol (CP) in a granular activa...

  20. Electronic Structure and Mesoscopic Simulations of Nonylphenol Ethoxylate Surfactants. A Combined DFT and DPD Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isidoro García-Cruz

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to gain insight into the effect of ethylene oxide (EO chains on the properties of a series of nonylphenol ethoxylate (NPE surfactants. We performed a theoretical study of NPE surfactants by means of density functional theory (DFT and dissipative particle dynamics (DPD. Both approximations were used separately to obtain different properties. Four NPEs were selected for this purpose (EO = 4, 7, 11 and 15 length chains. DFT methods provided some electronic properties that are related to the EO units. One of them is the solvation Gibbs energy, which exhibited a linear trend with EO chain length. DPD calculations allow us to observe the dynamic behavior in water of the NPE surfactants. We propose a coarse-grained model which properly simulates the mesophases of each surfactant. This model can be used in other NPEs applications.

  1. Biodegradation of tributyl phosphate, an organosphate triester, by aerobic granular biofilms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Aerobic granular biomass was cultivated by feeding TBP along with acetate. • Rapid biodegradation of TBP when used as a co-substrate or as the sole carbon source. • Biodegradation of 2 mM TBP in 5 h with degradation rate of 0.4 μmol mL−1 h−1. • High phosphatase activity was observed in TBP-degrading granular biomass. • n-Butanol, hydrolyzed product of TBP, was rapidly metabolized by aerobic granules. - Abstract: Tributyl phosphate (TBP) is commercially used in large volumes for reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. TBP is a very stable compound and persistent in natural environments and it is not removed in conventional wastewater treatment plants. In this study, cultivation of aerobic granular biofilms in a sequencing batch reactor was investigated for efficient biodegradation of TBP. Enrichment of TBP-degrading strains resulted in efficient degradation of TBP as sole carbon or along with acetate. Complete biodegradation of 2 mM of TBP was achieved within 5 h with a degradation rate of 0.4 μmol mL−1 h−1. TBP biodegradation was accompanied by release of inorganic phosphate in stoichiometric amounts. n-Butanol, hydrolysed product of TBP was rapidly biodegraded. But, dibutyl phosphate, a putative intermediate of TBP degradation was only partially degraded pointing to an alternative degradation pathway. Phosphatase activity was 22- and 7.5-fold higher in TBP-degrading biofilms as compared to bioflocs and acetate-fed aerobic granules. Community analysis by terminal restriction length polymorphism revealed presence of 30 different bacterial strains. Seven bacterial stains, including Sphingobium sp. a known TBP degrader were isolated. The results show that aerobic granular biofilms are promising for treatment of TBP-bearing wastes or ex situ bioremediation of TBP-contaminated sites

  2. Biodegradation of tributyl phosphate, an organosphate triester, by aerobic granular biofilms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nancharaiah, Y.V., E-mail: venkatany@gmail.com; Kiran Kumar Reddy, G.; Krishna Mohan, T.V.; Venugopalan, V.P.

    2015-02-11

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Aerobic granular biomass was cultivated by feeding TBP along with acetate. • Rapid biodegradation of TBP when used as a co-substrate or as the sole carbon source. • Biodegradation of 2 mM TBP in 5 h with degradation rate of 0.4 μmol mL{sup −1} h{sup −1}. • High phosphatase activity was observed in TBP-degrading granular biomass. • n-Butanol, hydrolyzed product of TBP, was rapidly metabolized by aerobic granules. - Abstract: Tributyl phosphate (TBP) is commercially used in large volumes for reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. TBP is a very stable compound and persistent in natural environments and it is not removed in conventional wastewater treatment plants. In this study, cultivation of aerobic granular biofilms in a sequencing batch reactor was investigated for efficient biodegradation of TBP. Enrichment of TBP-degrading strains resulted in efficient degradation of TBP as sole carbon or along with acetate. Complete biodegradation of 2 mM of TBP was achieved within 5 h with a degradation rate of 0.4 μmol mL{sup −1} h{sup −1}. TBP biodegradation was accompanied by release of inorganic phosphate in stoichiometric amounts. n-Butanol, hydrolysed product of TBP was rapidly biodegraded. But, dibutyl phosphate, a putative intermediate of TBP degradation was only partially degraded pointing to an alternative degradation pathway. Phosphatase activity was 22- and 7.5-fold higher in TBP-degrading biofilms as compared to bioflocs and acetate-fed aerobic granules. Community analysis by terminal restriction length polymorphism revealed presence of 30 different bacterial strains. Seven bacterial stains, including Sphingobium sp. a known TBP degrader were isolated. The results show that aerobic granular biofilms are promising for treatment of TBP-bearing wastes or ex situ bioremediation of TBP-contaminated sites.

  3. The distribution of 4-nonylphenol in marine organisms of North American Pacific Coast estuaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Jennifer; Johnson, Sarah E; Xia, Kang; West, Amy; Tomanek, Lars

    2012-04-01

    One of the chemical breakdown products of nonylphenol ethoxylates, 4-nonylphenol (4-NP), accumulates in organisms and is of concern as an environmental pollutant due to its endocrine disrupting effects. We measured 4-NP levels in the seawater, sediment, and twelve organisms within the California estuary, Morro Bay, and examined biomagnification of 4-NP using stable isotope abundances (δ(15)N and δ(13)C) to quantify trophic position. 4-NP concentrations in organisms from Morro Bay included 25000±8600 ng g(-1) lw in liver of California sea lion, 14000±5600 ng g(-1) lw in liver of harbor porpoise, 138000±55000 ng g(-1) lw in liver of sea otters, 15700±3600 ng g(-1) lw in liver of seabirds, 36100±6100 ng g(-1) lw in arrow goby fish, 62800±28400 ng g(-1) lw in oysters, and 12700±1300 ng g(-1) lw in mussels. 4-NP levels generally showed a pattern of trophic dilution among organisms in Morro Bay, with exceptions of biomagnification observed between three trophic links: mussel to sea otter (BMF 10.9), oyster to sea otter (BMF 2.2), and arrow goby to staghorn sculpin (BMF 2.7). Our examination of other west coast estuaries of USA and Canada revealed that mean 4-NP concentrations in gobies and mussels from Morro Bay were significantly higher than those from a more urbanized estuary, San Francisco Bay (goby: 11100±3800 ng g(-1) lw) and from a remote estuary, Bamfield Inlet, Canada (goby: 9000±900 ng g(-1) lw, mussel: 6100±700 ng g(-1) lw). Relative to other estuaries worldwide, 4-NP levels in seawater (0.42±0.16 μg L(-1)) and sediment (53±14 ng g(-1) dw) of Morro Bay are low, but gobies and oysters have higher 4-NP levels than comparable fauna. PMID:22257992

  4. Biodegradation of Acid Anthraquinone Dye in a Facultative-aerobic Process: Kinetics and Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yin; LI Zai-lei

    2009-01-01

    The transformation of an anthraquinone dye blue 324 in a facultative-aerobic (F-A) system was investigated. Kinetic parameter study showed that higher Vmax coupled with more recalcitrant chemical oxygen demand (COD) were found in the facuitative biofilm reactor (FBR) than in the aerobic reactor (AR). Results of the product analyses indicated that most of dye molecular could be facultatively broken down into simple intermediates, which would be further degraded under subsequent aerobic condition. The main metabolites in each reactor were detected by infrared (FT-IR) and high performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). Comparison of the toxicities among the dye and its metabolites was conducted, surprisingly, the colorless intermediates from FBR possessed less inhibitory than original dye and the median effective luminescence concentration (EC50) in 15 min for aerobic effluent could not be detected, showing that hardly toxic products existed in the aerobic process effluent.

  5. Aerobic Biostabilization of Old MSW Landfills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Zanetti

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Many years after the end of the cultivation phase, landfills may generate intense odours, toxic and explosive gases and heavily-polluted leachate. A wide-spreading trend in the management of MSW landfills is represented by the forced aeration of wastes in order to achieve the stabilization, reducing the negative environmental impact of uncontrolled sites (old landfills which can be definitely considered as contaminated sites and the management costs of controlled and working facilities. One of the most interesting challenges is the in situ waste aerobic stabilization, obtained by insufflating air into the wastes. The aerobic metabolism is energetically convenient in comparison with the anaerobic one, it is characterized by a higher degradation rate and a temperature increase (like in the compost production. In order to obtain an aerobic biostabilization of waste in landfills, several air injection systems have been developed and applied in the last years, like Biopuster© or AEROflott® patented systems. The feasibility of the application of in situ biostabilization must be evaluated by means of different tests, in order to evaluate the main characteristics of the wastes. The main parameters to be evaluated are the biological stability and the air permeability of the wastes. In March 2006, the biological stability of the wastes located in the Trinitapoli Landfill, Italy, has been evaluated by the Politecnico di Torino. Black Index Test and Static Respirometric Index Test have been performed in the laboratories of the Politecnico. On the basis of the obtained results, the potential biogas production from the examined landfill was estimated together with the potential volume reduction.

  6. Genome sequence of Citrobacter sp. strain A1, a dye-degrading bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Giek Far; Gan, Han Ming; Rashid, Noor Aini Abdul

    2012-10-01

    Citrobacter sp. strain A1, isolated from a sewage oxidation pond, is a facultative aerobe and mesophilic dye-degrading bacterium. This organism degrades azo dyes efficiently via azo reduction and desulfonation, followed by the successive biotransformation of dye intermediates under an aerobic environment. Here we report the draft genome sequence of Citrobacter sp. A1.

  7. Degradation of chlorobenzoates and chlorophenols by methanogenic consortia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ennik-Maarsen, K.

    1999-01-01

    Pollution of the environment with chlorinated organic compounds mainly results from (agro)industrial activity. In many studies, biodegradation is examined under anaerobic conditions, because highly chlorinated compounds are more easily degradable under anaerobic than under aerobic conditions. Proble

  8. Gaseous emissions reduction from aerobic MBT of municipal solid waste

    OpenAIRE

    Zdanevitch, Isabelle; Mallard, Pascal; Bour, Olivier; Briand, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Surface gaseous emissions, composition of soil gas and VOC concentration were determined on a French MBT plant, where the biodegradation process is aerobic. Measurements were performed on both the composting windrows and on the landfill cell which receives the sorting rejects. This allowed the comparison of the global methane and CO2 gases, as well as the characterization of the degradation process on the different parts of the site. The performance of the sorting chain allow to obtain a high...

  9. Photocatalytic Degradation of Diethyl Phthalate with Surfactant Addition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Tianyong; HU Juan; ZHANG Youlan; LI Bin; FEI Xuening

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies the adsorption of diethyl phthalate (DEP,an environmental hormone) on the surface of nanoscale TiO2, effects of pH value of solutions, initial concentrations of DEP and additive surfactant on photocatalytic degradation and dynamics of DEP. Under ultra violet illumination, the interaction between DEP and surfactants including DBS (sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate), CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide), and OP-10 (nonylphenol polyoxyethylene ether)was exploited from the perspective of degradation speed calculated by the data of high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and UV-Vis spectra, respectively. Photocatalytic degradation of DEP followed pseudo first-order reaction kinetics. DEP as substrate degraded fast when its initial concentration was 130 mg/L. TiO2 had certain adsorption ability of DEP. TiO2 could adsorb the most DEP at the approximately neutral pH of 6.91. Degradation of DEP was not affected obviously by ad ditives OP-10 and JBS. Degradation rate of DEP was not enhanced greatly in the presence of surfactants, but degradation of DBS was sped up. Degradation rate of DEP was depressed in the presence of additive CTAB. The more CTAB was added, the less DEP was degraded. Degradation rate of CTAB became slow with the increase of initial CTAB concentration. The possible adsorption models among TiO2, DEP and surfactants were given.

  10. Brain Plasticity and Aerobic Fitness

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Adam G.; Johansen-Berg, Heidi; Bandettini, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Regular aerobic exercise has a wide range of positive effects on health and cognition. Exercise has been demonstrated to provide a particularly powerful and replicable method of triggering a wide range of structural changes within both human and animal brains. However, the details and mechanisms of these changes remain poorly understood. This thesis undertakes a comprehensive examination of the relationship between brain plasticity and aerobic exercise. A large, longitudinal experiment ...

  11. Aerobic microbial metabolism of condensed thiophenes found in petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aerobic microbial degradation of 21 condensed thiophenes found in petroleum or synthetic fuels have been studied, motivated by recent research which showed that resistance to biodegradation increases with increasing methyl-substitution. The specific objective was to identify metabolites in pure cultures of aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading Pseudomonas spp. incubated in mineral medium in the presence of an aromatic growth substrate and a condensed thiophene. Over 80 metabolites of the condensed thiophenes were identified using gas chromatography analysis with an atomic emission detector. Among the metabolites identified were sulfoxides, sulfones, hydroxy- and carboxyl-substituted benzothiophenes, hydroxy-substituted dibenzothiophenes, substituted benzothiophene-2,3-diones, and 3-hydroxy-2-formylbenzothiophenes

  12. Bioremediation of textile azo dyes by aerobic bacterial consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senan, Resmi C; Abraham, T Emilia

    2004-08-01

    An aerobic bacterial consortium consisting of two isolated strains (BF1, BF2) and a strain of Pseudomonas putida (MTCC1194) was developed for the aerobic degradation of a mixture of textile azodyes and individual azodyes at alkaline pH (9-10.5) and salinity (0.9-3.68 g/l) at ambient temperature (28 +/- 2 degrees C). The degradation efficiency of the strains in different media (mineral media and in the Simulated textile effluent (STE)) and at different dye concentrations were studied. The presence of a H2O2 independent oxidase-laccase (26.5 IU/ml) was found in the culture filtrate of the organism BF2. The analysis of the degraded products by TLC and HPLC, after the microbial treatment of the dyes showed the absence of amines and the presence of low molecular weight oxidative degradation products. The enzymes present in the crude supernatant was found to be reusable for the dye degradation.

  13. Influence of operating parameters on the biodegradation of steroid estrogens and nonylphenolic compounds during biological wastewater treatment processes

    OpenAIRE

    Chiu, TY; Boobis, AR; Scrimshaw, MD; Bagnall, JP; Soares, A.; Pollard, S; Cartmell, E; Lester, JN

    2009-01-01

    This document is the unedited author's version of a Submitted Work that was subsequently accepted for publication in Environmental Science & Technology, copyright © American Chemical Society after peer review. To access the final edited and published work see http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/es901612v. This study investigated operational factors influencing the removal of steroid estrogens and nonylphenolic compounds in two sewage treatment works, one a nitrifying/denitrifying act...

  14. Enzymatic removal of estrogenic activity of nonylphenol and octylphenol aqueous solutions by immobilized laccase from Trametes versicolor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catapane, Maria [Institute of Genetics and Biophysics “ABT”, Via P. Castellino, 111, 80131 Naples (Italy); National Institute of Biostructures and Biosystems (INBB), Viale Medaglie d’Oro, 305, 00136 Rome (Italy); Nicolucci, Carla; Menale, Ciro; Mita, Luigi [National Institute of Biostructures and Biosystems (INBB), Viale Medaglie d’Oro, 305, 00136 Rome (Italy); Department of Experimental Medicine, Second University of Naples, Via S. M. di Costantinopoli, 16, 80138 Naples (Italy); Rossi, Sergio [Institute of Genetics and Biophysics “ABT”, Via P. Castellino, 111, 80131 Naples (Italy); Mita, Damiano G., E-mail: mita@igb.cnr.it [Institute of Genetics and Biophysics “ABT”, Via P. Castellino, 111, 80131 Naples (Italy); National Institute of Biostructures and Biosystems (INBB), Viale Medaglie d’Oro, 305, 00136 Rome (Italy); Department of Experimental Medicine, Second University of Naples, Via S. M. di Costantinopoli, 16, 80138 Naples (Italy); Diano, Nadia [Institute of Genetics and Biophysics “ABT”, Via P. Castellino, 111, 80131 Naples (Italy); National Institute of Biostructures and Biosystems (INBB), Viale Medaglie d’Oro, 305, 00136 Rome (Italy); Department of Experimental Medicine, Second University of Naples, Via S. M. di Costantinopoli, 16, 80138 Naples (Italy)

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► Endocrine disruptors cause adverse effects in living organisms. ► Nonylphenol and Octylphenol are alkylphenols recognized as endocrine disruptors. ► It is necessary to remove or reduce their presence in the environment. ► Waters polluted by these pollutants have been bioremediated by immobilized laccase from Trametes versicolor. ► Laccase treated solutions were found to have lost any estrogenic activity. -- Abstract: A fluidized bed reactor, filled with laccase-based beads, has been employed to bioremediate aqueous solutions polluted by endocrine disruptors belonging to the alkylphenols (APs) class. In particular Octylphenol and Nonylphenol have been studied. The catalytic activity of free and immobilized laccase from Trametes versicolor has been characterized as a function of pH, temperature and substrate concentration in the reaction medium. In view of practical applications for each substrate concentration the removal efficiency (RE), the time to halve the initial concentration (τ{sub 50}), and the t{sub c=0}, i.e. the time to reach complete pollutant removal, have been calculated. The immobilized laccase exhibited a lower affinity for octylphenol (K{sub m} = 1.11 mM) than for Nonylphenol (K{sub m} = 0.72 mM), but all the other parameters of applicative interest resulted more significant for octylphenol. For example, the times to reach the complete removal of octylphenol compared to those for nonylphenol at the same concentration is shorter of about 15% (at low concentrations) up to 40% (at high concentrations). The study of cell proliferation with MPP89 cells, a human mesothelioma cell line, and the assay with the YES test indicated the loss of estrogenic activity of the APs solutions after laccase treatment.

  15. The biological degradation as an energy option, determination of the effects of the aerobic phase on the subsequent production of biogas in a sanitary landfill; La degradacion biologica como una opcion energetica, determinacion de los efectos de la fase aerobia sobre la subsecuente produccion de biogas en un relleno sanitario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar Juarez, Oscar [Asesoria de Servicios Ambientales del Bajio (ASSB), (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    The present work deals with the energy evaluation of biological processes as energy source and is based on works concerning laboratory, pilot and field research. The objective of the research is to integrate the effect of the aerobic phase during the process of degradation of organic residues (basically the organic fraction of domestic residues), where the last aim is the biogas production. The usefulness of the results is reflected in the suitable estimation of the filling of a sanitary landfill considering the composition of the residues deposited and the effects that this management will have on the run-up time of the same and the velocity of biogas production. Finally, integrates a reflection on the intrinsic energy implications of the process and of the biogas yielding, which is evaluated as well as energy source. [Spanish] El presente trabajo trata sobre la valoracion energetica de procesos biologicos como fuente de energia y se basa en trabajos de investigacion a nivel de laboratorio, piloto y de campo. El objetivo de la investigacion es integrar el efecto de la fase aerobia durante el proceso de degradacion de residuos organicos (basicamente la fraccion organica de residuos domesticos), donde el fin ultimo es la produccion de biogas. La utilidad de los resultados se refleja en la estimacion adecuada del llenado de un relleno sanitario considerando la composicion de los residuos ahi depositados y los efectos que tendra esta gestion sobre el tiempo de estabilizacion de los mismos y la velocidad de produccion de biogas. Finalmente, se integra una reflexion sobre las implicaciones energeticas intrinsecas al proceso y del rendimiento de biogas, el cual a su vez es valorizado como fuente de energia.

  16. Selección mediante Simulación de una Estructura de Modelo Cinético para la Degradación Aeróbica de Efluentes de una Industria Láctea Selection by Simulation of a Model for the Kinetic Structure of an Aerobic Degradation System for Effluents from a Milk Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Rosa

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este trabajo consiste en implementar una metodología de selección de estructuras de modelos cinéticos, para el caso concreto de la degradación aerobia de los efluentes industriales de una empresa láctea regional, utilizando como herramienta la simulación. Esta se encuentra disponible en un software comercial específico y consiste en configurar para uno o varios sustratos, un set de estructuras de modelos de complejidad creciente, con velocidades de degradación independientes, para evaluar el comportamiento del sistema mediante combinaciones de las mismas, confrontando los resultados obtenidos por simulación con los datos experimentales. Los resultados alcanzados para una estructura relativamente simple se consideran satisfactorios para ser implementados industrialmente. El aporte más importante lo constituye la convalidación tanto de la metodología propuesta como de la potencialidad del software para ser aplicado al análisis de situaciones reales, lo cual resulta de especial importancia para el análisis y diseño de plantas de tratamientoThis work consisted in implementing a methodology for the selection of kinetic model structures for a real case of aerobic degradation of industrial effluents from a regional milk industry using simulation as a tool. This tool is available in a specific commercial software and consists of making configurations for one or several substrates with a set of structural models of increasing complexity and independent degradation velocities. The behavior of the system is evaluated using various combinations of the preceding considerations and comparing the simulated results with industrial experimental data. The results obtained using a relatively simple structure were satisfactory for industrial application. The most important contribution was the proof that both the proposed methodology and the power of the software could be applied to real situations, which is of especial importance

  17. Low-cost step aerobics system with virtual aerobics trainer

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa, Alejandro; Barbancho, Isabel; Tardón, Lorenzo J.; Barbancho, Ana M.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper a low-cost step-aerobics instructor simulation system is presented. The proposed system analyses a given song to iden- tify its rhythmic pattern. Subsequently, this rhythmic pattern is used in order to issue a set of steps-aerobics commands to the user, thus simu- lating a training session. The system uses a Wii Balance Board to track exercises performed by users and runs on an Android smartphone. A set of tests were conducted to assess user experience and opin...

  18. Decolorization and biodegradation of azo dye, reactive blue 59 by aerobic granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolekar, Yogesh M; Nemade, Harshal N; Markad, Vijay L; Adav, Sunil S; Patole, Milind S; Kodam, Kisan M

    2012-01-01

    The present study deals with development of aerobic granules from textile wastewater sludge and challenged with different concentration of reactive blue 59 (RB59) to test their dye degradation potential. The granules efficiently degraded reactive blue 59 and also sustained higher dye loading of up to 5.0 g l(-1). The significant induction of enzymes azoreductase and cytochrome P-450 indicated their prominent role in the dye degradation while genotoxicity studies demonstrated that the biotransformed product of the dye as non-toxic. The microbial community of the textile dyes degrading aerobic sludge granules analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE), revealed significantly diverse dye degrading microbial community belonging to alpha-, beta-, and gamma-proteobacteria.

  19. Fate of herbicides in a shallow aerobic aquifer: A continuous field injection experiment (Vejen,Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broholm, Mette; Rügge, K.; Tuxen, Nina;

    2001-01-01

    degradation of the phenoxy acids, indicating growth kinetics. The phenoxy acids were completely degraded within 1 m downgradient of the injection wells, resulting in the plumes being divided into small plumes at the injection wells and pulses farther downgradient. During the lag phase, phenoxy acids had...... of bentazone was observed in the aerobic aquifer during the monitoring period. BAM and isoproturon were not degraded within 5 m downgradient of the injection. The two phenoxy acids MCPP and dichlorprop were both degraded in the aerobic aquifer. Near the source a lag phase was observed followed by fast...... spread beyond the 25 m long monitoring network. However, the mass of the phenoxy acids passing the 10–25 m fences never matched the corresponding bentazone or bromide masses, and the pulse was observed to shrink in size. This indicates that this pulse of phenoxy acids was being partially degraded...

  20. Physiological and phylogenetic characterization of a stable chlorate-reducing benzene-degrading microbial community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weelink, S.A.B.; Tan, N.C.G.; Broeke, ten H.; Doesburg, van W.C.J.; Langenhoff, A.A.M.; Gerritse, J.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    stable anoxic enrichment culture was obtained that degraded benzene with chlorate as an electron acceptor. The benzene degradation rate was 1.65 mM benzene per day, which is similar to reported aerobic benzene degradation rates but 20¿1650 times higher than reported for anaerobic benzene degradation

  1. In situ aerobic cometabolism of chlorinated solvents: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frascari, Dario; Zanaroli, Giulio; Danko, Anthony S

    2015-01-01

    The possible approaches for in situ aerobic cometabolism of aquifers and vadose zones contaminated by chlorinated solvents are critically evaluated. Bioaugmentation of resting-cells previously grown in a fermenter and in-well addition of oxygen and growth substrate appear to be the most promising approaches for aquifer bioremediation. Other solutions involving the sparging of air lead to satisfactory pollutant removals, but must be integrated by the extraction and subsequent treatment of vapors to avoid the dispersion of volatile chlorinated solvents in the atmosphere. Cometabolic bioventing is the only possible approach for the aerobic cometabolic bioremediation of the vadose zone. The examined studies indicate that in situ aerobic cometabolism leads to the biodegradation of a wide range of chlorinated solvents within remediation times that vary between 1 and 17 months. Numerous studies include a simulation of the experimental field data. The modeling of the process attained a high reliability, and represents a crucial tool for the elaboration of field data obtained in pilot tests and for the design of the full-scale systems. Further research is needed to attain higher concentrations of chlorinated solvent degrading microbes and more reliable cost estimates. Lastly, a procedure for the design of full-scale in situ aerobic cometabolic bioremediation processes is proposed. PMID:25306537

  2. In situ aerobic cometabolism of chlorinated solvents: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frascari, Dario; Zanaroli, Giulio; Danko, Anthony S

    2015-01-01

    The possible approaches for in situ aerobic cometabolism of aquifers and vadose zones contaminated by chlorinated solvents are critically evaluated. Bioaugmentation of resting-cells previously grown in a fermenter and in-well addition of oxygen and growth substrate appear to be the most promising approaches for aquifer bioremediation. Other solutions involving the sparging of air lead to satisfactory pollutant removals, but must be integrated by the extraction and subsequent treatment of vapors to avoid the dispersion of volatile chlorinated solvents in the atmosphere. Cometabolic bioventing is the only possible approach for the aerobic cometabolic bioremediation of the vadose zone. The examined studies indicate that in situ aerobic cometabolism leads to the biodegradation of a wide range of chlorinated solvents within remediation times that vary between 1 and 17 months. Numerous studies include a simulation of the experimental field data. The modeling of the process attained a high reliability, and represents a crucial tool for the elaboration of field data obtained in pilot tests and for the design of the full-scale systems. Further research is needed to attain higher concentrations of chlorinated solvent degrading microbes and more reliable cost estimates. Lastly, a procedure for the design of full-scale in situ aerobic cometabolic bioremediation processes is proposed.

  3. Study of 4-t-octylphenol degradation and microbial community in granular sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the authors have investigated the effects of various factors on both aerobic and anaerobic degradation of 4-t-octylphenol (4-t-OP) in granular sludge. In comparison, the aerobic degradation rate was much higher than that of anaerobic degradation. The optimal pH values for 4-t-OP degradation in granular sludge were 9 and 7 under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, respectively. And the degradation rate decreased with an increase in the initial 4-t-OP concentration. Addition of yeast extract or homologous compounds such as phenol also enhanced the 4-t-OP degradation, especially under the aerobic condition. To investigate the bacterial community in this study, the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) method was applied, based on the primers, for the 16S rDNA V3 region of bacteria. γ-proteobacteria and bacillus were identified as the major species of sludge.

  4. Degradation Action of the Anaerobic Bacteria and Oxygen to the Polymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Xiang-Guo; ZHANG Ke

    2008-01-01

    Oxygen could prohibit anaerobic bacterium in the produced water and degrade the polymer molecular chains.Aiming at problems making up aerobic polymer solution by the produced water in Daqing Oil Field, some evaluations were done on the viscosity characteristics of polymer solution and bactericide in anaerobic and aerobic environments. Reasonable aerobic concentration of the produced water was obtained. The experimental results indicate that the viscosity of polymer solution confected by the produced water in the aerobic environment is higher than that of the polymer solution confected by the produced water in the anaerobic environment, and the reasonable ments, but the sterilization effect is better in the aerobic environment.

  5. Degradation of alkenones by aerobic heterotrophic bacteria: Selective or not ?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rontani, J-F.; Harji, R.; Guasco, S.; Prahl, F.G.; Volkman, J.K.; Bhosle, N.B.; Bonin, P.

    Four bacterial communities were isolated from Emiliania huxleyi strain TWP1 cultures before and after the algal cells had been treated with different antibiotics. Incubation of E. huxleyi with these bacterial communities resulted in dramatically...

  6. Anaerobic-Aerobic Process for Microbial Degradation of Tetrabromobisphenol A

    OpenAIRE

    Ronen, Zeev; Abeliovich, Aharon

    2000-01-01

    Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) is a flame retardant that is used as an additive during manufacturing of plastic polymers and electronic circuit boards. Little is known about the fate of this compound in the environment. In the current study we investigated biodegradation of TBBPA, as well as 2,4,6-tribromophenol (TBP), in slurry of anaerobic sediment from a wet ephemeral desert stream bed contaminated with chemical industry waste. Anaerobic incubation of the sediment with TBBPA and peptone-try...

  7. Combined alkaline and ultrasonic pretreatment of sludge before aerobic digestion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Yiying; LI Huan; MAHAR Rasool Bux; WANG Zhiyu; NIE Yongfeng

    2009-01-01

    Alkaline and ultrasonic sludge disintegration can both be used as pretreatments of waste activated sludge (WAS) for improving the subsequent anaerobic or aerobic digestion. The pretreatment has been carried out using different combination of these two methods in this study. The effect was evaluated based on the quantity of soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) in the pretreated sludge as well as the degradation of organic matter in the following aerobic digestion. For WAS samples with combined pretreatment, the released COD was in high level than those with ultrasonic or alkaline treatment. When combined with the same ultrasonic treatment, NaOH treatment resulted in more solubilization of WAS than Ca(OH)2. For combined NaOH and ultrasonic treatments with different sequences, the released COD were in the order: simultaneous treatment > ultrasonic treatment following NaOH treatment > NaOH treatment following ultrasonic treatment. For simultaneous treatment, low NaOH dosage (100 g/kg dry solid), short duration (30 min) of NaOH treatment, and low ultrasonic specific energy (7 500 kJ/kg dry solid) were beneficial for sludge disintegration. Using combined NaOH and ultrasonic pretreatment with the optimium parameters, the degradation efficiency of organic matter was increased from 38.0% to 50.7%, which is much higher than with ultrasonic (42.5%) or with NaOH pretreatment (43.5%) in the subsequent aerobic digestion at the same retention time.

  8. Occurrence of nonylphenol and bisphenol A in household water pipes made of different materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yang-Chen; Chen, Huei-Wen; Chen, Wen-Ling; Chen, Chia-Yang; Wang, Gen-Shuh

    2015-10-01

    We assessed the occurrence of nonylphenol (NP) and bisphenol A (BPA) in tap water supplied through polyvinyl chloride (PVC), stainless steel, and galvanized pipes. Water samples were collected from selected households in Taipei and Kaohsiung (Northern and Southern Taiwan, respectively) in different seasons to elucidate the effects of pipeline materials and ambient temperatures on NP and BPA concentrations in tap water. We detected higher concentrations of NP in tap water from households using PVC pipes (64-195 ng/L) than from those using stainless steel pipes (17-44 ng/L) and galvanized pipes (27-96 ng/L). To verify that water can absorb NP and BPA from PVC pipes, we sealed Milli-Q and tap water in PVC and stainless steel pipes to assess the potential release of NP and BPA from the pipes into the water. Both NP and BPA concentrations initially increased with contact time in the PVC pipes, and the concentration profiles during the retention appeared to be more strongly affected by ambient temperatures. Concentration variations in the stainless steel pipes were smaller than those in the PVC pipes. PMID:27624744

  9. Combined Effects of Nonylphenol and Bisphenol A on the Human Prostate Epithelial Cell Line RWPE-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weidong Gan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The xenoestrogens nonylphenol (NP and bisphenol A (BPA are regarded as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs which have widespread occurrence in our daily life. In the present study, the purpose was to analyze the combined effects of NP and BPA on the human prostate epithelial cell line RWPE-1 using two mathematical models based on the Loewe additivity (LA theory and the Bliss independence (BI theory. RWPE-1 cells were treated with NP (0.01–100 µM and BPA (1–5000 µM in either a single or a combined format. A cell viability assay and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH leakage rate assay were employed as endpoints. As predicted by the two models and based on the cell viability assay, significant synergism between NP and BPA were observed. However, based on the LDH assay, the trends were reversed. Given that environmental contaminants are frequently encountered simultaneously, these data indicated that there were potential interactions between NP and BPA, and the combined effects of the chemical mixture might be stronger than the additive values of individual chemicals combined, which should be taken into consideration for the risk assessment of EDCs.

  10. Biosorption of nonylphenol by pure algae, field-collected planktons and their fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algal samples were fractionated into lipid (LP), lipid free (LF), alkaline nonhydrolyzable carbon (ANHC), and acid nonhydrolyzable carbon (NHC) fractions, and were characterized by the quantitative 13C multiCP NMR technique. The biosorption isotherms for nonylphenol (NP) were established and compared with previously published data for phenanthrene (Phen). The log KOC values are significantly higher for the field-collected plankton samples than for the commercial algae and cultured algae samples, correlating with their lipid contents and aliphatic carbon structure. As the NHC fraction contains more poly(methylene) carbon, it exhibits a higher biosorption capacity. The sorption capacities are negatively related to the polarity index, COO/N–C=O, polar C and O-alkyl C concentrations, but are positively related to the H/O atomic ratios and poly(methylene) carbon. The higher sorption capacities observed for NP than for Phen on the investigated samples are explained by specific interactions such as hydrogen bonding and π–π interaction. - Highlights: • Quantitative 13C NMR technique was applied to algae and their fraction samples. • The biosorption isotherms for the ANHC and NHC fractions are nonlinear. • Polarity and lipid affect the biosorption capacity of NP. • The sorption capacity is positively related to polymethylene carbon. • The hydrogen and π–π interactions between NP and algae could be important. - The NHC fractions are chemically and structurally different from other fractions, and their biosorption for NP is much higher than that of the bulk algae

  11. Absorption, bioavailability, and metabolism of para-nonylphenol in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Trevor; Swain, Cindy; Van Miller, John P; Joiner, Ronald L

    2003-08-01

    To better interpret the responses to para-nonylphenol (NP; CASRN84852-15-3) in in vivo toxicity studies, including estrogen-like activity, the bioavailability of 14C-radiolabelled NP has been determined in male and female CD rats following either single oral doses of 10 and 100 mg/kg, single i.v. doses of 10 mg/kg, or repeated daily oral doses of 10 mg/kg for up to 14 d. Up to 80% of an oral dose of NP was rapidly absorbed, the remainder being excreted unchanged in faeces. Excretion was largely complete within 24 h of dosing. Following absorption, NP was metabolised in the liver, with the majority of the metabolites excreted in bile, mainly as glucuronide conjugates. Unchanged NP was found only in bile and urine from female rats given a 100 mg/kg dose, indicating that metabolic saturation occurred. Following repeated dosing, steady state was reached within 7 d. There was no evidence of significant accumulation into tissue compartments nor of a significant change in clearance or the metabolite profiles in urine. These data suggest that the estrogen-like effects observed in toxicity studies with female rats at oral NP doses of approximately 50 mg/kg/d and greater are a result of the increased bioavailability of NP which occurs following metabolic saturation.

  12. Sorption behavior of nonylphenol on marine sediments: Effect of temperature, medium, sediment organic carbon and surfactant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → NP sorption kinetics accorded with non-linear Ho-McKay pseudo-second-order model. → Kd values showed positive correlation with sediment OC contents. → Medium salinity showed positive correlation with Kd and negative with DOC. → CTAB enhanced NP sorption amount the most while SDBS enhanced the lest. → NP sorption was an exothermic physical and spontaneous entropy-decreasing reaction. - Abstract: The sorption behavior of nonylphenol (NP, a toxic endocrine disruptor) on marine sediments was studied in detail through a series of kinetic and thermodynamic sorption experiments. The results showed that the sorption reaction of NP on marine sediments reached equilibrium in 1.5 h and that it accorded well with the non-linear Ho-McKay pseudo-second-order model. The sorption isotherms of NP on H2O-treated sediments could be well described by the Linear isotherm model, while the sorption isotherm on H2O2-treated sediments could be well fitted with the Freundlich isotherm model. A positive correlation was found between the distribution coefficient (Kd) and the sediment organic carbon contents. The medium salinity showed a positive relation with the Kd and a negative relation with the dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) enhanced the sorption amount of NP the most, while sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS) enhanced it the least. The sorption reaction of NP on marine sediments was a spontaneous, physical, exothermic and entropy-decreasing process.

  13. Modeling bioaccumulation and biomagnification of nonylphenol and its ethoxylates in estuarine-marine food chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsman, John C; Schipper, Aafke M; de Vos, Martine G; van den Heuvel-Greve, Martine J; Vethaak, A Dick; de Voogt, Pim; Hendriks, A Jan

    2015-11-01

    There are several studies on bioaccumulation and biomagnification of nonylphenol (NP) and its ethoxylates (NPEOs), but their toxico-kinetic mechanisms remain unclear. In the present investigation, we explored the accumulation of NP and NPEOs in estuarine-marine food chains with a bioaccumulation model comprising five trophic levels. Using this model, we estimated uptake and elimination rate constants for NPEOs based on the organisms' weight and lipid content and the chemicals' Kow. Further, we calculated accumulation factors for NP and NPEOs, including biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAF) and biomagnification factors (BMF), and compared these to independent field measurements collected in the Western Scheldt estuary in The Netherlands and field data reported in the literature. The estimated BSAF values for NP and total NPEOs were below 1 for all trophic levels. The estimated BMF values were around 1 for all trophic levels except for the highest level (carnivorous mammals and birds). For this trophic level, the estimated BMF value varied between 0.1 and 2.4, depending on the biotransformation capacity. For all trophic levels, except primary producers, the accumulation estimates that accounted for biotransformation of NPEOs into NP were closer to the field data than model estimates that did not include biotransformation, indicating that NP formation by biotransformation of NPEOs might occur in organisms. PMID:26026901

  14. Analysis of octylphenol, nonylphenol, di-octylphthalate in sewage sludge by GC/MS-SIM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.H. [Jeonju University, Cheonju (Korea)

    1999-06-01

    Sewage sludge samples were extracted with dichlomethane by Soxhlet extraction. The extracts were analysed for the endocrine disrupting compounds (EDC), octylphenol(OP), nonylphenol (NP) and bis (2-ethylhexyl)phthalate(DOP) using GC/MS-SIM. In industrial sewage sludge (sample Z-I) the concentration of NP and DOP were respectively 1168 {mu}g/g and 1172{mu}g/g whereas in domestic sludge (sample Z-2) the concentration were respectively 10.8 {mu}g/g and 80 {mu}g/g. OP was not detected in Z-2, but detected a small amount in Z-2 of the samples. Environmental EDC have been shown to affect the fertility of range of living organisms, including humans, and the high levels of NP and DOP in industrial sewage sludge could have serious implications for the reproductive health of humans particularly if the compounds entered the human food chain through water or the ingestion of vegetables or animal products. 17 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Detection of nonylphenol and persistent organic pollutants in fish from the North Pacific Central Gyre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassel, Margy; Harwani, Suhash; Park, June-Soo; Jahn, Andrew

    2013-08-15

    Despite scientific and public concern, research on food web contamination from chemicals in plastic is limited, and distinguishing plastic sources from prey remains a challenge. We analyzed juvenile yellowtail (Seriola lalandi) from the North Pacific Central Gyre for plastic ingestion and tissue concentrations of persistent organic pollutants and nonionic surfactants to investigate potential contamination from plastic exposure. Ingestion of synthetic debris occurred in ~10% of the sample population. PCBs and DDTs were 352±240 (mean±SD) and 1425±1118 ng/g lw, respectively. PBDEs were 9.08±10.6 ng/g lw, with BDEs-47, 99, and 209 representing 90% of PBDEs. Nonylphenol (NP) was detected in one-third of the yellowtail with a mean of 52.8±88.5 ng/g ww overall and 167±72.3 ng/g ww excluding non-detects. Because environmental NP is strongly associated with wastewater treatment effluents, long-range transport is unlikely, and NP was previously measured in gyre plastic, we concluded that plastic-mediated exposure best explained our findings of NP in yellowtail. PMID:23746941

  16. Decomposition of ρ-nonylphenols in water by 60Co γ-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ρ-Nonylphenols (NPs), one of endocrine disrupting chemicals, are used as plastic flexibilizers or nonionic surfactants, and widely released into the water environment. Hydroxyl radicals produced from water molecules by γ-ray irradiation have high oxidation reactivity. Recently, treatments with the hydroxyl radicals have drawn much attention to conserve the water environment. In this study, decompositions of NPs in water were investigated using hydroxyl radicals by 60Co γ-rays irradiation. The concentrations of the NPs at initial concentration from 45 to 1000 nM were decomposed by γ-ray irradiation. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of NPs were carried out by high performance liquid chromatography. The decomposition curves of NPs at each initial concentration were analyzed as single exponential functions. Alkylphenol activity of aqueous NPs solution, which was estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, implies the irradiation products have alkylphenol activity. Two products having molecular weight of 236 were investigated by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and were considered to be ρ-nonylcatechol and 1-(ρ-hydroxyphenyl)-1-nonanol on the basis of the oxidation mechanisms of ρ-cresol and 4-ethylphenol. (author)

  17. The effect of para-nonylphenol on Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica) spermatogenesis in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, C. [Laboratory of Fish Reproductive Physiology, Faculty of Agriculture, Ehime University, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8566 (Japan); ' Times Arrow and Biosignaling' PRESTO Japan Science and Technology Agency, Kawaguchi 332-0012 (Japan); Takahashi, N. [Iwate Fisheries Technology Center, Fisheries and Resource Management Division, 3-75-3 Oaza-hirata, Kamaishi, Iwate 026-0001 (Japan); Michino, F. [Laboratory of Fish Reproductive Physiology, Faculty of Agriculture, Ehime University, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8566 (Japan); Miura, T. [Laboratory of Fish Reproductive Physiology, Faculty of Agriculture, Ehime University, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8566 (Japan); ' Times Arrow and Biosignaling' PRESTO Japan Science and Technology Agency, Kawaguchi 332-0012 (Japan)

    2005-01-26

    Endocrine disrupters have been recognized to interfere with endocrine systems that regulate reproduction, for example, by mimicking or inhibiting the action of endogenous sex steroid hormones including estradiol-17{beta} (E2). In the present study, we examined the effect of an endocrine disrupter, para-nonylphenol (p-NP) on spermatogenesis, and compared it with the action of E2, using an eel testicular organ culture system. p-NP alone stimulated early spermatogonial renewal in the same manner as E2. Neither induced further progress in spermatogenesis. In the presence of 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT), the major androgen in teleosts, p-NP did not prevent the 11-KT-induced progress in spermatogenesis. However, this treatment enlarged the Sertoli cells. Electron microscopic observation revealed that enlarged Sertoli cells contained well-developed organelles. Moreover, the proportion of germ cells appeared to have decreased as a result of Sertoli cell hypertrophy. These results clearly show that p-NP has an effect on Sertoli cells in the presence of an androgen (11-KT), potentially disturbing 11-KT-induced spermatogenesis.

  18. Uptake and distribution of bisphenol A and nonylphenol in vegetable crops irrigated with reclaimed water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jian; Wu, Jun; Stoffella, Peter J; Wilson, P Chris

    2015-01-01

    The potential uptake and distribution of bisphenol A (BPA) and nonylphenol (NP) (from reclaimed irrigation water) in edible crops was investigated. BPA and NP were spiked into simulated reclaimed water at environmentally relevant concentrations. Two crops (lettuce, Lactuca sativa and tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum) were grown hydroponically in a greenhouse using the spiked irrigation water under two irrigation exposure scenarios (overhead foliar exposure and subsurface root exposure). BPA concentrations in tomato fruit were 26.6 ± 5.8 (root exposure) and 18.3 ± 3.5 (foliar exposure) μg kg(-1), while concentrations in lettuce leaves were 80.6 ± 23.1 (root exposure) and 128.9 ± 17.4 (foliar exposure) μg kg(-1). NP concentrations in tomato fruit were 46.1 ± 6.6 (root exposure) and 24.6 ± 6.4 (foliar exposure) μg kg(-1), while concentrations in lettuce leaves were 144.1 ± 9.2 (root exposure) and 195.0 ± 16.9 (foliar exposure) μg kg(-1). BPA was relatively mobile in lettuce plants regardless of exposure route. Limited mobility was observed for NP in both crops and BPA in tomatoes. The estimated daily intake of BPA and NP through consumption of vegetables irrigated with reclaimed water ranged from 8.9-62.9 to 11.9-95.1 μg, respectively, depending on the exposure route.

  19. Spatial distribution and migration of nonylphenol in groundwater following long-term wastewater irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shiyu; Wu, Wenyong; Liu, Fei; Yin, Shiyang; Bao, Zhe; Liu, Honglu

    2015-06-01

    Seen as a solution to water shortages, wastewater reuse for crop irrigation does however poses a risk owing to the potential release of organic contaminants into soil and water. The frequency of detection (FOD), concentration, and migration of nonylphenol (NP) isomers in reclaimed water (FODRW), surface water (FODSW), and groundwater (FODGW) were investigated in a long-term wastewater irrigation area in Beijing. The FODRW, FODSW and FODGW of any or all of 12 NP isomers were 66.7% to 100%, 76.9% to 100% and 13.3% to 60%, respectively. The mean (± standard deviation) NP concentrations of the reclaimed water, surface water, and groundwater (NPRW, NPSW, NPGW, repectively) were 469.4 ± 73.4 ng L- 1, 694.6 ± 248.7 ng- 1 and 244.4 ± 230.8 ng- 1, respectively. The existence of external pollution sources during water transmission and distribution resulted in NPSW exceeding NPRW. NP distribution in groundwater was related to the duration and quantity of wastewater irrigation, the sources of aquifer recharge, and was seen to decrease with increasing aquifer depth. Higher riverside infiltration rate nearby leads to higher FODGW values. The migration rate of NP isomers was classified as high, moderate or low.

  20. Aerobic exercise in pulmonary rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Brasileiro de Vasconcelos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to conduct a literature review on the usefulness of aerobic exercise in pulmonary rehabilitation. This is an exploratory study of literature through the electronic databases Medline, Lilacs, Scielo, Pubmed and Google Scholar, published between 1996 and 2012, conducted during the period February to May 2012 with the following keywords: COPD, pulmonary rehabilitation, aerobic exercises, physical training, quality of life. The change in pulmonary function and dysfunction of skeletal muscles that result in exercise intolerance and reduced fitness and may cause social isolation, depression, anxiety and addiction. The training exercise is the most important component of the program of pulmonary rehabilitation where the aerobic training provides consistent results in clinical improvement in levels of exercise tolerance and decreased dyspnea generating more benefits to the body, reducing the chance of cardiovascular disease and improves quality and expectation of life. We demonstrated that the use of aerobic exercise in pulmonary rehabilitation program, allows an improvement of motor skills, decreased muscle fatigue and deconditioning, reducing sedentary lifestyle; however, has little or no effect on the reduction of strength and atrophy muscle.

  1. Mesophilic anaerobic stabilization of sewage sludge. Mesophile anaerobe Klaerschlammstabilisierung mit aerober Folgebehandlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoll, U.

    1988-01-01

    Sludges treated in two stages in experiments - 7 days of anaerobic treatment and 2 days of aerobic-thermophilic treatment - can be judged to be completely stabilized because of the stabilization parameters BOD/sub 5//COD ratio and respiratory activity. The degradation results obtained are comparable to or better than those of the 20-day digestion (reference process). For all aerobic processes under investigation a clear temperature increase in the aerobic reactor was measured because of the exothermal metabolic processes of the aerobic biocenosis. There was a temperature rise of 15/sup 0/C in the tests in the aerobic reactor even after longer digestion times of 15 and 20 days. The results of the epidemics and hygiene investigations show that a secondary aerobic-thermophilic stage after the mesophilic digestion with adequate marginal conditions - germ retention time of 23 hours in the aerobic reactor at process temperatures higher than 50/sup 0/C as well as charging in batch quantities - leads to a safe and complete decontamination. Under these process and operation conditions all salmonellae were killed and the number of the enterobacteriaceae in 1 g of sludge was always less than 1.000. (orig./EF).

  2. Kinetics of aerobic cometabolic biodegradation of chlorinated and brominated aliphatic hydrocarbons: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesus, João; Frascari, Dario; Pozdniakova, Tatiana; Danko, Anthony S

    2016-05-15

    This review analyses kinetic studies of aerobic cometabolism (AC) of halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbons (HAHs) from 2001-2015 in order to (i) compare the different kinetic models proposed, (ii) analyse the estimated model parameters with a focus on novel HAHs and the identification of general trends, and (iii) identify further research needs. The results of this analysis show that aerobic cometabolism can degrade a wide range of HAHs, including HAHs that were not previously tested such as chlorinated propanes, highly chlorinated ethanes and brominated methanes and ethanes. The degree of chlorine mineralization was very high for the chlorinated HAHs. Bromine mineralization was not determined for studies with brominated aliphatics. The examined research period led to the identification of novel growth substrates of potentially high interest. Decreasing performance of aerobic cometabolism were found with increasing chlorination, indicating the high potential of aerobic cometabolism in the presence of medium- and low-halogenated HAHs. Further research is needed for the AC of brominated aliphatic hydrocarbons, the potential for biofilm aerobic cometabolism processes, HAH-HAH mutual inhibition and the identification of the enzymes responsible for each aerobic cometabolism process. Lastly, some indications for a possible standardization of future kinetic studies of HAH aerobic cometabolism are provided. PMID:26874310

  3. Aerobic Microbial Respiration In Oceanic Oxygen Minimum Zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalvelage, Tim; Lavik, Gaute; Jensen, Marlene Mark;

    2015-01-01

    denitrification and alternative anaerobic pathways of organic matter remineralization cannot account for the ammonium requirements of reported anammox rates. Here, we explore the significance of microaerobic respiration as a source of ammonium during organic matter degradation in the oxygen-deficient waters off...... and laterally advected, oxygenated waters in this zone by aerobic microorganisms. In accordance, metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses identified genes encoding for aerobic terminal oxidases and demonstrated their expression by diverse microbial communities, even in virtually anoxic waters. Our......Oxygen minimum zones are major sites of fixed nitrogen loss in the ocean. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of anaerobic ammonium oxidation, anammox, in pelagic nitrogen removal. Sources of ammonium for the anammox reaction, however, remain controversial, as heterotrophic...

  4. Biodegradation of p-cresol by aerobic granules in sequencing batch reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Farrukh Basheer; I.H.Farooqi

    2012-01-01

    The cultivation of aerobic granules in sequencing batch reactor for the biodegradation of p-cresol was studied.The reactor was started with 100 mg/L of p-cresol.Aerobic granules first appeared within one month of start up.The granules were large and strong and had a compact structure.The diameter of stable granules was in the range of 1-5 mm.The integrity coefficient and granules density was found to be 96% and 1046 kg/m3,respectively.The settling velocity of granules was found to be in the range of 2×10-2-6×10-2 m/sec.The aerobic granules were able to degrade p-cresol upto 800 mg/L at a removal efficiency of 88%.Specific p-cresol degradation rate in aerobic granules followed Haldane model for substrate inhibition.High specific p-cresol degradation rate up to 0.96 g pcresol/(g VSS.day) were sustained upto p-cresol concentration of 400 mg/L.Higher removal efficiency,good settling characteristics of aerobic granules,makes sequencing batch reactor suitable for enhancing the microorganism potential for biodegradation of inhibitory compounds.

  5. Aerobic bacterial catabolism of persistent organic pollutants - potential impact of biotic and abiotic interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jong-Rok; Murugesan, Kumarasamy; Baldrian, Petr; Schmidt, Stefan; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2016-04-01

    Several aerobic bacteria possess unique catabolic pathways enabling them to degrade persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs), polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The catabolic activity of aerobic bacteria employed for removal of POPs in the environment may be modulated by several biotic (i.e. fungi, plants, algae, earthworms, and other bacteria) and abiotic (i.e. zero-valent iron, advanced oxidation, and electricity) agents. This review describes the basic biochemistry of the aerobic bacterial catabolism of selected POPs and discusses how biotic and abiotic agents enhance or inhibit the process. Solutions allowing biotic and abiotic agents to exert physical and chemical assistance to aerobic bacterial catabolism of POPs are also discussed. PMID:26851837

  6. Aerobic bacterial catabolism of persistent organic pollutants - potential impact of biotic and abiotic interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jong-Rok; Murugesan, Kumarasamy; Baldrian, Petr; Schmidt, Stefan; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2016-04-01

    Several aerobic bacteria possess unique catabolic pathways enabling them to degrade persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs), polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The catabolic activity of aerobic bacteria employed for removal of POPs in the environment may be modulated by several biotic (i.e. fungi, plants, algae, earthworms, and other bacteria) and abiotic (i.e. zero-valent iron, advanced oxidation, and electricity) agents. This review describes the basic biochemistry of the aerobic bacterial catabolism of selected POPs and discusses how biotic and abiotic agents enhance or inhibit the process. Solutions allowing biotic and abiotic agents to exert physical and chemical assistance to aerobic bacterial catabolism of POPs are also discussed.

  7. Preliminary Study on the Performance and Interaction of Recycling Hydrolytic-Aerobic Combined Process of High Concentration Starch Wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李清彪; 廖鑫凯; 吴志旺; 邓旭; 黄益丽; 卢英华; 孙道华; 洪铭媛; 王琳

    2004-01-01

    A new recycling hydrolytic-aerobic combined process was developed to treat the high concentration organic wastewater. Simulated wastewater containing 10 g·L-1 starch with a CODcr value of 10000 mg·L-1 wasused. At first, the hydrolytic degradation and aerobic degradation process were examined in two batch reactors, respectively. In the stand-alone hydrolytic process, starch in the wastewater almost disappeared after 11 h treatment, but CODCr remained as high as 5803mg·L-1 after two days. In the aerobic process, the biodegradation rate of starch was much slower during the first 11 h than that in the hydrolytic process, although the CODCr removal efficiency reached 89.6% and more than 90% starch could be degraded after 37.5 h. To determine the interaction effects of the two processes, a series of hydrolytic-aerobic combinations were examined in details. Hydrolytic process played an important role in the whole recycle combination process as it could improve the biodegradability of the high concentration starch wastewater. However, from the other experiments, the negative effect of hydrolytic acidification was found in the hydrolytic-aerobic combination, which suggested that the aerobic microorganisms needed time to adapt themselves to the acidic environment. The effect of the degrading time, which was spent in the hydrolytic and aerobic unit, and the number of circulations, with which the wastewater went through the two units were investigated. It was found that a recycle combination of 6 h hydrolytic process with 12 h aerobic process was highly effective and potentially economical, in which the final removal efficiency of CODcr and efficiency of starch degradation reached 94.1% and 98.8%, respectively.

  8. Formation and functions of aerobic microbial granula; Entstehung und Funktionen aerober mikrobieller Granula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etterer, T.; Wilderer, P.A. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Lehrstuhl und Pruefamt fuer Wasserguete- und Abfallwirtschaft

    1999-07-01

    The present project investigates the phenomenon of the formation of aerobic microbial granula and their properties. To generate granula, sequencing batch reactors fed in batches were used. As shown by microbiological assays, fungi played an above-average role in granula formation and build-up. In first degradation experiments, furthermore, chemical oxygen demand (COD) could be reduced by over 90 %. The determination yielded comparable values to activated sludge, standing on average at 1.044g/ml. (orig.) [German] Im Rahmen des hier vorgestellten Projekts wurde das Phaenomen der Bildung aerober mikrobieller Granula sowie deren Eigenschaften untersucht. Zur Erzeugung von Granula wurden schubweise beschickte Reaktoren, sogenannte Sequencing-Batch-Reaktoren (SBR) verwendet. Wie mikrobiologische Untersuchungen zeigten spielen Pilze bei der Entstehung und beim Aufbau eine ueberdurchschnittliche Rolle. Des weiteren konnte in ersten Abbauversuchen der chemische Sauerstoff-Bedarf (CSB) um ueber 90% gesenkt werden. Die Dichtebestimmung ergab vergleichbare Werte zu Belebtschlamm und zwar im Durchschnitt 1,044 g/ml. (orig.)

  9. Two-stage anaerobic and post-aerobic mesophilic digestion of sewage sludge: Analysis of process performance and hygienization potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomei, M Concetta; Mosca Angelucci, Domenica; Levantesi, Caterina

    2016-03-01

    Sequential anaerobic-aerobic digestion has been demonstrated to be effective for enhanced sludge stabilization, in terms of increased solid reduction and improvement of sludge dewaterability. In this study, we propose a modified version of the sequential anaerobic-aerobic digestion process by operating the aerobic step under mesophilic conditions (T=37 °C), in order to improve the aerobic degradation kinetics of soluble and particulate chemical oxygen demand (COD). Process performance has been assessed in terms of "classical parameters" such as volatile solids (VS) removal, biogas production, COD removal, nitrogen species, and polysaccharide and protein fate. The aerobic step was operated under intermittent aeration to achieve nitrogen removal. Aerobic mesophilic conditions consistently increased VS removal, providing 32% additional removal vs. 20% at 20 °C. Similar results were obtained for nitrogen removal, increasing from 64% up to 99% at the higher temperature. Improved sludge dewaterability was also observed with a capillary suction time decrease of ~50% during the mesophilic aerobic step. This finding may be attributable to the decreased protein content in the aerobic digested sludge. The post-aerobic digestion exerted a positive effect on the reduction of microbial indicators while no consistent improvement of hygienization related to the increased temperature was observed. The techno-economic analysis of the proposed digestion layout showed a net cost saving for sludge disposal estimated in the range of 28-35% in comparison to the single-phase anaerobic digestion. PMID:26760266

  10. Identification of Comamonas testosteroni as an androgen degrader in sewage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Lung; Wang, Chia-Hsiang; Yang, Fu-Chun; Ismail, Wael; Wang, Po-Hsiang; Shih, Chao-Jen; Wu, Yu-Ching; Chiang, Yin-Ru

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have reported the masculinization of freshwater wildlife exposed to androgens in polluted rivers. Microbial degradation is a crucial mechanism for eliminating steroid hormones from contaminated ecosystems. The aerobic degradation of testosterone was observed in various bacterial isolates. However, the ecophysiological relevance of androgen-degrading microorganisms in the environment is unclear. Here, we investigated the biochemical mechanisms and corresponding microorganisms of androgen degradation in aerobic sewage. Sewage samples collected from the Dihua Sewage Treatment Plant (Taipei, Taiwan) were aerobically incubated with testosterone (1 mM). Androgen metabolite analysis revealed that bacteria adopt the 9, 10-seco pathway to degrade testosterone. A metagenomic analysis indicated the apparent enrichment of Comamonas spp. (mainly C. testosteroni) and Pseudomonas spp. in sewage incubated with testosterone. We used the degenerate primers derived from the meta-cleavage dioxygenase gene (tesB) of various proteobacteria to track this essential catabolic gene in the sewage. The amplified sequences showed the highest similarity (87–96%) to tesB of C. testosteroni. Using quantitative PCR, we detected a remarkable increase of the 16S rRNA and catabolic genes of C. testosteroni in the testosterone-treated sewage. Together, our data suggest that C. testosteroni, the model microorganism for aerobic testosterone degradation, plays a role in androgen biodegradation in aerobic sewage. PMID:27734937

  11. [Application of Micro-aerobic Hydrolysis Acidification in the Pretreatment of Petrochemical Wastewater].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chen; Wu, Chang-yong; Zhou, Yue-xi; Fu, Xiao-yong; Chen, Xue-min; Qiu, Yan-bo; Wu, Xiao-feng

    2015-10-01

    Micro-aerobic hydrolysis acidification technology was applied in the reconstruction of ananaerobic hydrolysis acidification tank in a north petrochemical wastewater treatment plant. After put into operation, the monitoring results showed that the average removal rate of COD was 11.7% when influent COD was 490.3-673.2 mg x L(-1), hydraulic retention time (HRT) was 24 and the dissolved oxygen (DO) was 0.2-0.35 mg x L(-1). In addition, the BOD5/COD value was increased by 12.4%, the UV254 removal rate reached 11.2%, and the VFA concentration was increased by 23.0%. The relative molecular weight distribution (MWD) results showed that the small molecule organic matter ( 100 x 10(3)) percentage was decreased from 31.8% to 14.0% after micro-aerobic hydrolysis acidification. The aerobic biodegradation batch test showed that the degradation of petrochemical wastewater was significantly improved by the pretreatment of micro-aerobic hydrolysis acidification. The COD of influent can be degraded to 102.2 mg x L(-1) by 48h aerobic treatment while the micro-aerobic hydrolysis acidification effluent COD can be degraded to 71.5 mg x L(-1) on the same condition. The effluent sulfate concentration of micro-aerobic hydrolysis acidification tank [(930.7 ± 60.1) mg x L(-1)] was higher than that of the influent [(854.3 ± 41.5) mg x L(-1)], indicating that sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) was inhibited. The toxic and malodorous gases generation was reduced with the improvement of environment. PMID:26841606

  12. Isomer-specific determination of 4-nonylphenols using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eganhouse, R.P.; Pontolillo, J.; Gaines, R.B.; Frysinger, G.S.; Gabriel, F.L.P.; Kohler, H.-P.E.; Giger, W.; Barber, L.B.

    2009-01-01

    Technical nonylphenol (tNP), used for industrial production of nonylphenol polyethoxylate surfactants, is a complex mixture of C3-10-phenols. The major components, 4-nonylphenols, are weak endocrine disruptors whose estrogenicities vary according to the structure of the branched nonyl group. Thus, accurate risk assessment requires isomer-specific determination of 4-NPs. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC x GC/ ToFMS) was used to characterize tNP samples obtained from seven commercial suppliers. Under optimal chromatographic conditions, 153-204 alkylphenol peaks, 59-66 of which were identified as 4-NPs, were detected. The 4-NPs comprised ???86-94% of tNP, with 2-NPs and decylphenols making up???2-9%and???2-5%, respectively. The tNP products were analyzed for eight synthetic 4-NP isomers, and results were compared with published data based on GC/ MS analysis. Significant differences were found among the products and between two samples from a single supplier. The enhanced resolution of GC x GC coupled with fast mass spectral data acquisition by ToFMS facilitated identification of all major 4-NP isomers and a number of previously unrecognized components. Analysis of tNP altered by the bacterium, Sphingobium xenophagum Bayram, revealed several persistent 4-NPs whose structures and estrogenicities are presently unknown. The potential of this technology for isomer-specific determination of 4-NP isomers in environmental matrices is demonstrated using samples of wastewatercontaminated groundwater and municipal wastewater. ?? 2009 American Chemical Society.

  13. Histopathology and histomorphometric investigation of bisphenol a and nonylphenol on the male rat reproductive system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohrab Kazemi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bisphenol A (BPA and nonylphenol (NP have harmful effects on the endocrine system of humans and animals. Aim: We sought to investigate the effect of three doses of BPA and NP on the reproductive parameters of rats. Materials and Methods: Adult Wistar male rats weighing 150–200 g were used for a consecutive 35-day study. BPA and NP were given as gavage in three doses (5, 25, and 125 μg/kg. At the end of the study, the rats were anesthetized and 2 ml blood sample was obtained from the auxiliary venous plexus for the assessment of sex hormone levels. The testes were removed and kept in 10% formalin for the histomorphometric and histopathologic analyses. Results: BPA and NP significantly decreased the body weight of the animals compared to the controls (P < 0.05. The seminiferous tubule diameter and thickness of the seminiferous epithelium were significantly decreased in the groups receiving BPA and NP compared to the control (P < 0.05. The number of seminiferous tubules in every experimental group increased, except for the highest dose of NP (125 μg/kg, which showed a significant difference compared to the controls (P < 0.05. The number of spermatocytes and spermatogonia (54.97 ± 5.824, 35.78 ± 3.956, respectively in the group receiving NP (125 μg/kg was significantly decreased compared to the other groups. Serum levels of luteinizing hormone, Follicle stimulating hormone, and testosterone did not show any significant change compared to the controls. Conclusion: Based on the results, all three doses of BPA and NP significantly produced weight loss, as well as destruction of the testis tissue and impairment of the spermatogenesis.

  14. miRNA regulation of cytotoxic effects in mouse Sertoli cells exposed to nonylphenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Seung Jun

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is known that some environmental chemicals affect the human endocrine system. The harmful effects of endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC nonylphenol (NP have been studied since the 1980s. It is known that NP adversely affects physiological functions by mimicking the natural hormone 17 beta-estradiol. In the present study, we analyzed the expression of miRNAs and their target genes in mouse Sertoli TM4 cells to better understand the regulatory roles of miRNAs on Sertoli cells after NP exposure. Methods Mouse TM4 Sertoli cells were treated with NP for 3 or 24 h, and global gene and miRNA expression were analyzed using Agilent mouse whole genome and mouse miRNA v13 arrays. Results We identified genes that were > 2-fold differentially expressed in NP-treated cells and control cells (P Ppara may regulate the expression of certain miRNAs, including miR-378, miR-125a-3p miR-20a, miR-203, and miR-101a, after exposure to NP. Additionally, comprehensive analysis of predicted target genes for miRNAs showed that the expression of genes with roles in cell proliferation, the cell cycle, and cell death were regulated by miRNA in NP-treated TM4 cells. Levels of expression of the miRNAs miR-135a* and miR-199a-5p were validated by qRT-PCR. Finally, miR-135a* target gene analysis suggests that the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS following exposure to NP exposure may be mediated by miR-135a* through regulation of the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway. Conclusions Collectively, these data help to determine NP's actions on mouse TM4 Sertoli cells and increase our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the adverse effects of xenoestrogens on the reproductive system.

  15. Effects of nonylphenol and ethinylestradiol on copper redhorse (Moxostoma hubbsi), an endangered species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltais, Domynick; Roy, Robert L

    2014-10-01

    The copper redhorse, Moxostoma hubbsi, is an endangered species endemic to Quebec. The presence of contaminants, in particular endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), in its habitat has been advanced as partly responsible for the reproductive difficulties encountered by the species. In the present study, immature copper redhorse were exposed to the estrogenic surfactant nonylphenol (NP; 1, 10 and 50µg/l) and the synthetic estrogen 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2; 10ng/l) for 21 days in a flow-through system. The endpoints investigated included general health indicators (hepatosomatic index and hematocrit), thyroid hormones, sex steroids, brain aromatase activity, plasma and mucus vitellogenin (VTG), cytochrome P4501A protein expression and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity, heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and muscle acetylcholinesterase. Exposure to 10ng EE2/l significantly increased brain aromatase activity. Exposure to 50µg NP/l resulted in a significant reduction of plasma testosterone concentrations and a significant induction of hepatic HSP70 protein expression. NP at 50µg/l also induced plasma and mucus VTG. The presence of elevated VTG levels in the surface mucus of immature copper redhorse exposed to NP, and its correlation to plasma VTG, supports the use of mucus VTG as a non-invasive biomarker to evaluate copper redhorse exposure to EDCs in the environment and contribute to restoration efforts of the species. The results of the present study indicate that exposure to high environmentally relevant concentrations of NP and EE2 can affect molecular endpoints related to reproduction in the copper redhorse. PMID:25063883

  16. The association between nonylphenols and sexual hormones levels among pregnant women: a cohort study in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Huang Chang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nonylphenol (NP has been proven as an endocrine disrupter and had the ability to interfere with the endocrine system. Though the health effects of NP on pregnant women and their fetuses are sustained, these negative associations related to the mechanisms of regulation for estrogen during pregnancy need to be further clarified. The objective of this study is to explore the association between maternal NP and hormonal levels, such as estradiol, testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, and progesterone. METHODS: A pregnant women cohort was established in North Taiwan between March and December 2010. Maternal urine and blood samples from the first, second, and third trimesters of gestation were collected. Urinary NP concentration was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescent detection. A mixed-effects model using a generalised estimating equation (GEE was applied to assess the associations between maternal NP concentration and plasma hormones throughout the three trimesters. RESULTS: In total, 162 singleton pregnant women completed this study through delivery. The geometric mean of creatinine-adjusted urinary NP concentrations were 4.27, 4.21, and 4.10 µg/g cre. in the first, second, and third trimesters respectively. A natural log-transformation of urinary NP concentrations were significantly associated with LH in the GEE model (β = -0.23 mIU/ml, p<0.01. CONCLUSION: This perspective cohort study demonstrates that negative association occurs between maternal NP exposure and plasma LH levels. The estrogen-mimic effect of NP might influence the negative feedback on LH during pregnancy.

  17. Estimation of rates of aerobic hydrocarbon biodegradation by simulation of gas transport in the unsaturated zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahvis, Matthew A.; Baehr, Arthur L.

    1996-07-01

    The distribution of oxygen and carbon dioxide gases in the unsaturated zone provides a geochemical signature of aerobic hydrocarbon degradation at petroleum product spill sites. The fluxes of these gases are proportional to the rate of aerobic biodegradation and are quantified by calibrating a mathematical transport model to the oxygen and carbon dioxide gas concentration data. Reaction stoichiometry is assumed to convert the gas fluxes to a corresponding rate of hydrocarbon degradation. The method is applied at a gasoline spill site in Galloway Township, New Jersey, to determine the rate of aerobic degradation of hydrocarbons associated with passive and bioventing remediation field experiments. At the site, microbial degradation of hydrocarbons near the water table limits the migration of hydrocarbon solutes in groundwater and prevents hydrocarbon volatilization into the unsaturated zone. In the passive remediation experiment a site-wide degradation rate estimate of 34,400 gyr-1 (11.7 gal. yr-1) of hydrocarbon was obtained by model calibration to carbon dioxide gas concentration data collected in December 1989. In the bioventing experiment, degradation rate estimates of 46.0 and 47.9 gm-2yr-1 (1.45×10-3 and 1.51×10-3 gal.ft.-2yr-1) of hydrocarbon were obtained by model calibration to oxygen and carbon dioxide gas concentration data, respectively. Method application was successful in quantifying the significance of a naturally occurring process that can effectively contribute to plume stabilization.

  18. Estimation of rates of aerobic hydrocarbon biodegradation by simulation of gas transport in the unsaturated zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahvis, M.A.; Baehr, A.L.

    1996-01-01

    The distribution of oxygen and carbon dioxide gases in the unsaturated zone provides a geochemical signature of aerobic hydrocarbon degradation at petroleum product spill sites. The fluxes of these gases are proportional to the rate of aerobic biodegradation and are quantified by calibrating a mathematical transport model to the oxygen and carbon dioxide gas concentration data. Reaction stoichiometry is assumed to convert the gas fluxes to a corresponding rate of hydrocarbon degradation. The method is applied at a gasoline spill site in Galloway Township, New Jersey, to determine the rate of aerobic degradation of hydrocarbons associated with passive and bioventing remediation field experiments. At the site, microbial degradation of hydrocarbons near the water table limits the migration of hydrocarbon solutes in groundwater and prevents hydrocarbon volatilization into the unsaturated zone. In the passive remediation experiment a site-wide degradation rate estimate of 34,400 g yr-1 (11.7 gal. yr-1) of hydrocarbon was obtained by model calibration to carbon dioxide gas concentration data collected in December 1989. In the bioventing experiment, degradation rate estimates of 46.0 and 47.9 g m-2 yr-1 (1.45 x 10-3 and 1.51 x 10-3 gal. ft.-2 yr-1) of hydrocarbon were obtained by model calibration to oxygen and carbon dioxide gas concentration data, respectively. Method application was successful in quantifying the significance of a naturally occurring process that can effectively contribute to plume stabilization.

  19. Assessing aerobic natural attenuation of trichloroethene at four DOE sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koelsch, Michael C. [North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Starr, Robert C. [North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sorenson, Jr., Kent S. [CDM, Inc., Denver, CO (United States)

    2005-03-01

    A 3-year Department of Energy Environmental Science Management Program (EMSP) project is currently investigating natural attenuation of trichloroethane (TCE) in aerobic groundwater. This presentation summarizes the results of a screening process to identify TCE plumes at DOE facilities that are suitable for assessing the rate of TCE cometabolism under aerobic conditions. In order to estimate aerobic degradation rates, plumes had to meet the following criteria: TCE must be present in aerobic groundwater, a conservative co-contaminant must be present and have approximately the same source as TCE, and the groundwater velocity must be known. A total of 127 TCE plumes were considered across 24 DOE sites. The four sites retained for the assessment were: (1) Brookhaven National Laboratory, OU III; (2) Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Northwest Plume; (3) Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, Industrialized Area--Southwest Plume and 903 Pad South Plume; and (4) Savannah River Site, A/M Area Plume. For each of these sites, a co-contaminant derived from the same source area as TCE was used as a nonbiodegrading tracer. The tracer determined the extent to which concentration decreases in the plume can be accounted for solely by abiotic processes such as dispersion and dilution. Any concentration decreases not accounted for by these processes must be explained by some other natural attenuation mechanism. Thus, ''half-lives'' presented herein are in addition to attenuation that occurs due to hydrologic mechanisms. This ''tracer-corrected method'' has previously been used at the DOE's Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory in conjunction with other techniques to document the occurrence of intrinsic aerobic cometabolism. Application of this method to other DOE sites is the first step to determining whether this might be a significant natural attenuation mechanism on a broader scale. Application of the tracer

  20. Aerobic granulation of pure bacterial strain Bacillus thuringiensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sunil S ADAV; Duu-Jong LEE

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study is to cultivate aer-obic granules by pure bacterial strain, Bacillus thuringien-sis, in a sequencing batch reactor. Stable granules sized 2.0-2.2 mm were formed in the reactor after a five-week cultivation. These granules exhibited excellent settling attributes, and degraded phenol at rates of 1.49 and concentration, respectively. Confocal laser scanning microscopic test results show that Bacillus thuringiensis was distributed over the initial small aggregates, and the outer edge of the granule was away from the core regime in the following stage.

  1. Aerobic conditioning for team sport athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Nicholas M; Kilding, Andrew E

    2009-01-01

    Team sport athletes require a high level of aerobic fitness in order to generate and maintain power output during repeated high-intensity efforts and to recover. Research to date suggests that these components can be increased by regularly performing aerobic conditioning. Traditional aerobic conditioning, with minimal changes of direction and no skill component, has been demonstrated to effectively increase aerobic function within a 4- to 10-week period in team sport players. More importantly, traditional aerobic conditioning methods have been shown to increase team sport performance substantially. Many team sports require the upkeep of both aerobic fitness and sport-specific skills during a lengthy competitive season. Classic team sport trainings have been shown to evoke marginal increases/decreases in aerobic fitness. In recent years, aerobic conditioning methods have been designed to allow adequate intensities to be achieved to induce improvements in aerobic fitness whilst incorporating movement-specific and skill-specific tasks, e.g. small-sided games and dribbling circuits. Such 'sport-specific' conditioning methods have been demonstrated to promote increases in aerobic fitness, though careful consideration of player skill levels, current fitness, player numbers, field dimensions, game rules and availability of player encouragement is required. Whilst different conditioning methods appear equivalent in their ability to improve fitness, whether sport-specific conditioning is superior to other methods at improving actual game performance statistics requires further research.

  2. Methods to determine aerobic endurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosquet, Laurent; Léger, Luc; Legros, Patrick

    2002-01-01

    Physiological testing of elite athletes requires the correct identification and assessment of sports-specific underlying factors. It is now recognised that performance in long-distance events is determined by maximal oxygen uptake (V(2 max)), energy cost of exercise and the maximal fractional utilisation of V(2 max) in any realised performance or as a corollary a set percentage of V(2 max) that could be endured as long as possible. This later ability is defined as endurance, and more precisely aerobic endurance, since V(2 max) sets the upper limit of aerobic pathway. It should be distinguished from endurance ability or endurance performance, which are synonymous with performance in long-distance events. The present review examines methods available in the literature to assess aerobic endurance. They are numerous and can be classified into two categories, namely direct and indirect methods. Direct methods bring together all indices that allow either a complete or a partial representation of the power-duration relationship, while indirect methods revolve around the determination of the so-called anaerobic threshold (AT). With regard to direct methods, performance in a series of tests provides a more complete and presumably more valid description of the power-duration relationship than performance in a single test, even if both approaches are well correlated with each other. However, the question remains open to determine which systems model should be employed among the several available in the literature, and how to use them in the prescription of training intensities. As for indirect methods, there is quantitative accumulation of data supporting the utilisation of the AT to assess aerobic endurance and to prescribe training intensities. However, it appears that: there is no unique intensity corresponding to the AT, since criteria available in the literature provide inconsistent results; and the non-invasive determination of the AT using ventilatory and heart rate

  3. Microbial fuel cells with highly active aerobic biocathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Edward M.; Popescu, Dorin; Curtis, Tom; Head, Ian M.; Scott, Keith; Yu, Eileen H.

    2016-08-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs), which convert organic waste to electricity, could be used to make the wastewater infrastructure more energy efficient and sustainable. However, platinum and other non-platinum chemical catalysts used for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at the cathode of MFCs are unsustainable due to their high cost and long-term degradation. Aerobic biocathodes, which use microorganisms as the biocatalysts for cathode ORR, are a good alternative to chemical catalysts. In the current work, high-performing aerobic biocathodes with an onset potential for the ORR of +0.4 V vs. Ag/AgCl were enriched from activated sludge in electrochemical half-cells poised at -0.1 and + 0.2 V vs. Ag/AgCl. Gammaproteobacteria, distantly related to any known cultivated gammaproteobacterial lineage, were identified as dominant in these working electrode biofilms (23.3-44.3% of reads in 16S rRNA gene Ion Torrent libraries), and were in very low abundance in non-polarised control working electrode biofilms (0.5-0.7%). These Gammaproteobacteria were therefore most likely responsible for the high activity of biologically catalysed ORR. In MFC tests, a high-performing aerobic biocathode increased peak power 9-fold from 7 to 62 μW cm-2 in comparison to an unmodified carbon cathode, which was similar to peak power with a platinum-doped cathode at 70 μW cm-2.

  4. Aerobic Microbial Respiration In Oceanic Oxygen Minimum Zones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Kalvelage

    Full Text Available Oxygen minimum zones are major sites of fixed nitrogen loss in the ocean. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of anaerobic ammonium oxidation, anammox, in pelagic nitrogen removal. Sources of ammonium for the anammox reaction, however, remain controversial, as heterotrophic denitrification and alternative anaerobic pathways of organic matter remineralization cannot account for the ammonium requirements of reported anammox rates. Here, we explore the significance of microaerobic respiration as a source of ammonium during organic matter degradation in the oxygen-deficient waters off Namibia and Peru. Experiments with additions of double-labelled oxygen revealed high aerobic activity in the upper OMZs, likely controlled by surface organic matter export. Consistently observed oxygen consumption in samples retrieved throughout the lower OMZs hints at efficient exploitation of vertically and laterally advected, oxygenated waters in this zone by aerobic microorganisms. In accordance, metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses identified genes encoding for aerobic terminal oxidases and demonstrated their expression by diverse microbial communities, even in virtually anoxic waters. Our results suggest that microaerobic respiration is a major mode of organic matter remineralization and source of ammonium (~45-100% in the upper oxygen minimum zones, and reconcile hitherto observed mismatches between ammonium producing and consuming processes therein.

  5. Simultaneous anaerobic-aerobic biodegradation of halogenated phenolic compound under oxygen-limited conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yuan-cai; LAN Hui-xia; ZHAN Huai-yu; FU Shi-yu

    2005-01-01

    The successful application of co-immobilized aerobic-anaerobic biomaes under limited aeration in wastewater treatment systems would eliminate the problems associated with the intermediates mono-chlorophenol(MCP) and di-chlorophenol(DCP) accumulations. With low initial pentachlorophenol(PCP) concentration, all PCP could be completely removed under oxygen-limited strict anaerobic conditions,and the removal efficiencies with different initial haedspace oxygen percentage(IHOP) were not obviously different from each other. While at high initial PCP concentration, under strictly anaerobic conditions PCP and their intermediates were clearly higher than that under other conditions, and produced obvious accumulation, the highest PCP reduction was achieved by the system receiving 30 IHOP, oxygen-limited system also exhibited lower residual TOC concentration and lower concentration of metabolic intermediates MCP and DCP. These results suggested that under strictly anaerobic condition the reductive dechlorination of low chlorinated compounde became rate limiting in the reductive dechlorination pathway, less chlorinated compounds be more amenable to aerobic degradation, and the aerobes of outer layers could function under limited oxygen. The co-immobilized aerobic-anaerobic biomass for methanogeneeis under limited-aeration for chlorophenol degradation might be an attractive and efficient altemative for the sequential anaerobic/aerobic system to achieve mineralization of a broad range of recalcitrance highly chlorinated organics and low final TOC concentrations.

  6. Physiological and phylogenetic characterization of a stable benzene-degrading, chlorate-reducing microbial community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weelink, S.A.B.; Tan, N.C.G.; Broeke, H. ten; Doesburg, W. van; Langenhoff, A.A.M.; Gerritse, J.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    A stable anoxic enrichment culture was obtained that degraded benzene with chlorate as an electron acceptor. The benzene degradation rate was 1.65 mM benzene per day, which is similar to reported aerobic benzene degradation rates but 20-1650 times higher than reported for anaerobic benzene degradati

  7. Aerobic remediation of petroleum sludge through soil supplementation: Microbial community analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Enhanced aerobic-degradation of PAHs was noticed with increasing soil concentration. ► Lower ring PAHs showed superior degradation over higher ring PAHs. ► Role of dehydrogenase activity, redox pattern and dissolved oxygen was investigated. ► Community analysis detected survival of efficient aromatic degrading microorganisms. - Abstract: The effect of soil concentration on the aerobic degradation of real-field petroleum sludge was studied in slurry phase reactor. Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) showed effective removal but found to depend on the soil concentration. Aromatic fraction (48.12%) documented effective degradation compared to aliphatics (47.31%), NSO (28.69%) and asphaltenes (26.66%). PAHs profile showed efficient degradation of twelve individual aromatic compounds where lower ring compounds showed relatively higher degradation efficiency compared to the higher ring compounds. The redox behaviour and dehydrogenase activity showed a linear increment with the degradation pattern. Microbial community composition and changes during bioremediation were studied using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Among the 12 organisms identified, Proteobacteria was found to be dominant representing 50% of the total population (25% of γ-proteobacteria; 16.6% of β-proteobacteria; 8.3% of α-proteobacteria), while 33.3% were of uncultured bacteria and 16.6% were of firmicutes.

  8. Fungal Laccases Degradation of Endocrine Disrupting Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Macellaro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decades, water pollution by trace organic compounds (ng/L has become one of the key environmental issues in developed countries. This is the case of the emerging contaminants called endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs. EDCs are a new class of environmental pollutants able to mimic or antagonize the effects of endogenous hormones, and are recently drawing scientific and public attention. Their widespread presence in the environment solicits the need of their removal from the contaminated sites. One promising approach to face this challenge consists in the use of enzymatic systems able to react with these molecules. Among the possible enzymes, oxidative enzymes are attracting increasing attention because of their versatility, the possibility to produce them on large scale, and to modify their properties. In this study five different EDCs were treated with four different fungal laccases, also in the presence of both synthetic and natural mediators. Mediators significantly increased the efficiency of the enzymatic treatment, promoting the degradation of substrates recalcitrant to laccase oxidation. The laccase showing the best performances was chosen to further investigate its oxidative capabilities against micropollutant mixtures. Improvement of enzyme performances in nonylphenol degradation rate was achieved through immobilization on glass beads.

  9. Genomics of aerobic cellulose utilization systems in actinobacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iain Anderson

    Full Text Available Cellulose degrading enzymes have important functions in the biotechnology industry, including the production of biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass. Anaerobes including Clostridium species organize cellulases and other glycosyl hydrolases into large complexes known as cellulosomes. In contrast, aerobic actinobacteria utilize systems comprised of independently acting enzymes, often with carbohydrate binding domains. Numerous actinobacterial genomes have become available through the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea (GEBA project. We identified putative cellulose-degrading enzymes belonging to families GH5, GH6, GH8, GH9, GH12, GH48, and GH51 in the genomes of eleven members of the actinobacteria. The eleven organisms were tested in several assays for cellulose degradation, and eight of the organisms showed evidence of cellulase activity. The three with the highest cellulase activity were Actinosynnema mirum, Cellulomonas flavigena, and Xylanimonas cellulosilytica. Cellobiose is known to induce cellulolytic enzymes in the model organism Thermobifida fusca, but only Nocardiopsis dassonvillei showed higher cellulolytic activity in the presence of cellobiose. In T. fusca, cellulases and a putative cellobiose ABC transporter are regulated by the transcriptional regulator CelR. Nine organisms appear to use the CelR site or a closely related binding site to regulate an ABC transporter. In some, CelR also regulates cellulases, while cellulases are controlled by different regulatory sites in three organisms. Mining of genome data for cellulose degradative enzymes followed by experimental verification successfully identified several actinobacteria species which were not previously known to degrade cellulose as cellulolytic organisms.

  10. Sorption of a branched nonylphenol isomer and perfluorooctanoic acid on geosorbents and carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Chengliang

    2011-10-13

    As metabolites of organic surfactants, both nonylphenol (NP) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) are toxic and ubiquitous in the environment. Their sorption on soils and sediments is of importance for their fate and transport in the environment. Especially in China, there is still a lack of consolidated knowledge on the sorption behavior of NP and PFOA on geosorbents such as Yangtze River sediments. Thus, the present thesis investigates the sorption of a branched NP isomer [4-(1-ethyl-1, 3-dimethylpentyl) phenol] (NP111) and PFOA on Yangtze River sediments and their model components, i.e. a clay mineral (illite), metal oxides (goethite and {delta}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and organic matter (isolated from Yangtze River sediments and commercial organic matter) by both batch and dialysis techniques. NP111 is the most environmentally relevant NP isomer and its fate in the environment is unknown. Because PFOA is weakly adsorbed on geosorbents, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were studied as promising adsorbents. One of the MWCNTs studied contained traces of metal catalyst on the outer surface. Sorption isotherms of NP111 and PFOA on the sediments and their model components were fitted well by the Freundlich model. Sorption of NP111 on the sediments depended largely on their organic carbon content, resulting in organic carbon-normalized sorption coefficient (K{sub OC}) values between 6.3 x 10{sup 3} and 1.1 x 10{sup 4} L kg{sup -1}. The sorption of NP111 on {delta}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and illite was comparable to that on sediments, but significantly lower than that on goethite. In contrast, the sorption of PFOA on the sediments was significantly lower. The affinity of PFOA to goethite and {delta}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was slightly higher than to the sediments, but it was negligible to natural organic matter and illite. The results suggest that the organic carbon content of the sediments plays a dominant role in the sorption of NP111, whereas goethite acts as a potential sink

  11. An integrated evaluation of the persistence and effects of 4-nonylphenol in an experimental littoral ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liber, K. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Superior, WI (United States). Lake Superior Research Inst.; Knuth, M.L.; Stay, F.S. [Environmental Protection Agency, Duluth, MN (United States). Mid-Continent Ecology Div.

    1999-03-01

    A comprehensive littoral enclosure study was conducted to assess the persistence and distribution of 4-nonylphenol (NP) in a littoral ecosystem, and to evaluate the compound`s effects on resident aquatic biota. Enclosures with a mean ({+-} SD) surface area and volume of 31.4 {+-} 3.3 m{sup 2} and 32.0 {+-} 6.4 m{sup 3}, respectively, received eleven applications at 48-h intervals with one of four different rates of NP. This created a 20-d application period which was followed by a three to fourteen month observation period, depending on the endpoint measured. Mean {+-} SD NP concentrations in the water column measured 2 h after each application averaged 5 {+-} 4, 23 {+-} 11, 76 {+-} 21, and 243 {+-} 41 {micro}g/L at nominal treatments of 3, 30, 100, and 300 {micro}g/L, respectively. Persistence in the water column was relatively short, with a dissipation half-life estimated at {le} 1.2 d. Persistence of NP in sediment and on macrophytes was substantially longer, with estimated half-lives of 28 to 104 d and 8 to 13 d, respectively. Zooplankton was the most sensitive group of organisms evaluated, with significant reductions in population abundances of some copepod taxa observed at the 23 {+-} 11-{micro}g/L treatment. Fish survival was affected at 243 {+-} 41 {micro}g/L. The most sensitive benthic macroinvertebrate taxon, Pisidium (Bivalvia) was affected at 76 {+-} 21 {micro}g/L, but most taxa were only affected at the 243 {+-} 41-{micro}g/L treatment. None of the assessed populations were affected at the 5 {+-} 4-{micro}g/L treatment. Macrophytes and periphyton were not adversely affected by any of the treatments. Overall community composition, assessed at the family level or higher, was not affected at or below the 23 {+-} 11-{micro}g/L treatment, but did exhibit substantial changes at the 243 {+-} 41-{micro}g/L treatment. Some minor changes were observed at the 76 {+-} 21-{micro}g/L treatment. The maximum acceptable toxicant concentration in the water column, based

  12. Effect of nonylphenol on male reproduction: Analysis of rat epididymal biochemical markers and antioxidant defense enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aly, Hamdy A.A., E-mail: hamdyaali@yahoo.com [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Domènech, Òscar [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Barcelona University (Spain); Banjar, Zainy M. [Department of Medical Biology, School of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    2012-06-01

    The mechanism by which nonylphenol (NP) interferes with male reproduction is not fully elucidated. Therefore, the present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of NP on male reproductive organ's weight, sperm characteristics, and to elucidate the nature and mechanism of action of NP on the epididymis. Adult male Wistar rats were gavaged with NP, dissolved in corn oil, at 0, 100, 200 or 300 mg/kg/day for 30 consecutive days. Control rats were gavaged with vehicle (corn oil) alone. Body weight did not show any significant change while, absolute testes and epididymides weights were significantly decreased. Sperm count in cauda and caput/corpus epididymides, and sperm motility was significantly decreased. Daily sperm production was significantly decreased in a dose-related manner. Sperm transit time in cauda epididymis was significantly decreased by 300 mg/kg, while in the caput/corpus epididymis it was significantly decreased by 200 and 300 mg/kg of NP. Plasma LDH was significantly increased while; plasma testosterone was significantly decreased in a dose-related pattern. In the epididymal sperm, NP decreased acrosome integrity, Δψm and 5′-nucleotidase activity. Hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) production and LPO were significantly increased in a dose-related pattern. The activities of SOD, CAT and GPx were significantly decreased in the epididymal sperm. In conclusion, this study revealed that NP treatment impairs spermatogenesis and has a cytotoxic effect on epididymal sperm. It disrupts the prooxidant and antioxidant balance. This leads oxidative stress in epididymal sperms of rat. Moreover, the reduction in sperm transit time may affect sperm quality and fertility potential. -- Highlights: ► The nature and mechanism of action of NP on rat epididymis were elucidated. ► NP decreased sperm count, motility, daily sperm production and sperm transit time. ► NP decreased sperm acrosome integrity, Δψm and 5′-nucleotidase activity. ► Plasma

  13. Transcription factor activity of estrogen receptor α activation upon nonylphenol or bisphenol A treatment enhances the in vitro proliferation, invasion, and migration of neuroblastoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma H

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hongda Ma,1 Yao Yao,2 Changli Wang,1 Liyu Zhang,3 Long Cheng,4 Yiren Wang,5 Tao Wang,6 Erguang Liang,6 Hui Jia,1 Qinong Ye,4 Mingxiao Hou,1 Fan Feng11Department of Pharmacy, General Hospital of Shenyang Military Area Command, Shenyang, 2Department of Pharmacy, Women & Infants Hospital of Zhengzhou, Zhengzhou, 3Shaanxi Institute of Pediatric Disease, Xi’an Children’s Hospital, Xi’an, 4Institute of Biotechnology, Chinese Military Medical Science Academy, Beijing, 5School of Life Science, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang, 6Institute of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Chinese Military Medical Science Academy, Beijing, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: Many kinds of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs, for example, the environmental estrogens bisphenol A and nonylphenol, may regulate the activity of estrogen receptor α (ERα and therefore induce potential disruption of normal endocrine function. However, the involvement of EDCs in human cancers, especially in endocrine-related cancer neuroblastoma regulation, is not very clear. In this work, results showed that upon bisphenol A or nonylphenol treatment, the transcription factor activity of ERα was significantly increased in neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y. Bisphenol A and nonylphenol could enhance ERα activity via recruiting it to the target gene promoter. Furthermore, treatment of bisphenol A and nonylphenol enhanced the in vitro proliferation, invasion, and migration ability of neuroblastoma cells. By investigating the role of EDC-induced ERα upregulation, our data extend the understanding of the function of EDCs and further suggest that ERα might be a potential therapeutic target in human neuroblastoma treatment.Keywords: neuroblastoma, endocrine-disrupting chemicals, environmental estrogens, bisphenol A and nonylphenol, proliferation and metastasis

  14. Aerobic granulation strategy for bioaugmentation of a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) treating high strength pyridine wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abstract: Aerobic granules were successfully cultivated in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR), using a single bacterial strain Rhizobium sp. NJUST18 as the inoculum. NJUST18 presented as both a good pyridine degrader and an efficient autoaggregator. Stable granules with diameter of 0.5–1 mm, sludge volume index of 25.6 ± 3.6 mL g−1 and settling velocity of 37.2 ± 2.7 m h−1, were formed in SBR following 120-day cultivation. These granules exhibited excellent pyridine degradation performance, with maximum volumetric degradation rate (Vmax) varied between 1164.5 mg L−1 h−1 and 1867.4 mg L−1 h−1. High-throughput sequencing analysis exhibited a large shift in microbial community structure, since the SBR was operated under open condition. Paracoccus and Comamonas were found to be the most predominant species in the aerobic granule system after the system had stabilized. The initially inoculated Rhizobium sp. lost its dominance during aerobic granulation. However, the inoculation of Rhizobium sp. played a key role in the start-up process of this bioaugmentation system. This study demonstrated that, in addition to the hydraulic selection pressure during settling and effluent discharge, the selection of aggregating bacterial inocula is equally important for the formation of the aerobic granule

  15. Aerobic granulation strategy for bioaugmentation of a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) treating high strength pyridine wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiaodong; Chen, Yan [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Chemical Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, Jiangsu Province (China); Zhang, Xin [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Chemical Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, Jiangsu Province (China); Suzhou Institute of Architectural Design Co., Ltd, Suzhou 215021, Jiangsu Province (China); Jiang, Xinbai; Wu, Shijing [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Chemical Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, Jiangsu Province (China); Shen, Jinyou, E-mail: shenjinyou@mail.njust.edu.cn [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Chemical Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, Jiangsu Province (China); Sun, Xiuyun; Li, Jiansheng; Lu, Lude [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Chemical Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, Jiangsu Province (China); Wang, Lianjun, E-mail: wanglj@mail.njust.edu.cn [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Chemical Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, Jiangsu Province (China)

    2015-09-15

    Abstract: Aerobic granules were successfully cultivated in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR), using a single bacterial strain Rhizobium sp. NJUST18 as the inoculum. NJUST18 presented as both a good pyridine degrader and an efficient autoaggregator. Stable granules with diameter of 0.5–1 mm, sludge volume index of 25.6 ± 3.6 mL g{sup −1} and settling velocity of 37.2 ± 2.7 m h{sup −1}, were formed in SBR following 120-day cultivation. These granules exhibited excellent pyridine degradation performance, with maximum volumetric degradation rate (V{sub max}) varied between 1164.5 mg L{sup −1} h{sup −1} and 1867.4 mg L{sup −1} h{sup −1}. High-throughput sequencing analysis exhibited a large shift in microbial community structure, since the SBR was operated under open condition. Paracoccus and Comamonas were found to be the most predominant species in the aerobic granule system after the system had stabilized. The initially inoculated Rhizobium sp. lost its dominance during aerobic granulation. However, the inoculation of Rhizobium sp. played a key role in the start-up process of this bioaugmentation system. This study demonstrated that, in addition to the hydraulic selection pressure during settling and effluent discharge, the selection of aggregating bacterial inocula is equally important for the formation of the aerobic granule.

  16. Energetic and metabolic consequences of aerobic and an-aerobic ATP-production.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreurs, V.V.A.M.; Aarts, M.J.; IJssennagger, N.; Hermans, J.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2007-01-01

    ATP, the currency of cellular energy metabolism, can be produced during aerobic and an-aerobic oxidation of metabolic substrates. The aerobic oxidation yields CO2 + H2O as metabolic end products while ATP is produced by oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondria. Carbohydrate, protein and fat pro

  17. Aerobic rice mechanization: techniques for crop establishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khusairy, K. M.; Ayob, H.; Chan, C. S.; Fauzi, M. I. Mohamed; Mohamad Fakhrul, Z. O.; Shahril Shah, G. S. M.; Azlan, O.; Rasad, M. A.; Hashim, A. M.; Arshad, Z.; E, E. Ibrahim; Saifulizan, M. N.

    2015-12-01

    Rice being the staple food crops, hundreds of land races in it makes the diversity of rice crops. Aerobic rice production was introduced which requires much less water input to safeguard and sustain the rice production and conserve water due to decreasing water resources, climatic changes and competition from urban and industrial users. Mechanization system plays an important role for the success of aerobic rice cultivation. All farming activities for aerobic rice production are run on aerobic soil conditions. Row seeder mechanization system is developed to replace conventional seeding technique on the aerobic rice field. It is targeted for small and the large scale aerobic rice farmers. The aero - seeder machine is used for the small scale aerobic rice field, while the accord - seeder is used for the large scale aerobic rice field. The use of this mechanization machine can eliminate the tedious and inaccurate seeding operations reduce labour costs and increases work rate. The machine is easy to operate and it can increase crop establishment rate. It reduce missing hill, increasing planting and crop with high yield can be produce. This machine is designed for low costs maintenance and it is easy to dismantle and assemble during maintenance and it is safe to be used.

  18. Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy after Aerobic Exercise Training

    OpenAIRE

    Konopka, Adam R.; Harber, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    Current dogma suggests aerobic exercise training has minimal effect on skeletal muscle size. We and others have demonstrated that aerobic exercise acutely and chronically alters protein metabolism and induces skeletal muscle hypertrophy. These findings promote an antithesis to the status quo by providing novel perspective on skeletal muscle mass regulation and insight into exercise-countermeasures for populations prone to muscle loss.

  19. Fluorometric determination of nonylphenol in water samples enriched with zirconium doped titanium dioxide nanotubes solid phase extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xian Fa Su; Xin Ning Zhao; Guo Hong Xie; Qing Xiang Zhou

    2012-01-01

    This paper developed a fluorometric method for the sensitive determination of nonylphenol in water samples by preconcentration with zirconium doped titanium dioxide nanotubes solid phase extraction.The parameters on extraction that would influence the enrichment performance such as the kind and volume of eluent,sample pH,sample flow rate,and sample volume were optimized in detail.Under the optimal conditions,the proposed method provided an excellent linear range of 1-150 μg/L and good LOD of 0.076 μg/L.The relative standard deviation (RSD,n =6) was 2.8%.Proposed method was also used for the analysis of real water samples and the spiked recoveries were satisfied in the range of 98.7-103%.

  20. Aerobic Degradation of Dinitrotoluenes and Pathway for Bacterial Degradation of 2,6-Dinitrotoluene

    OpenAIRE

    Nishino, Shirley F.; Paoli, George C.; Spain, Jim C.

    2000-01-01

    An oxidative pathway for the mineralization of 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT) by Burkholderia sp. strain DNT has been reported previously. We report here the isolation of additional strains with the ability to mineralize 2,4-DNT by the same pathway and the isolation and characterization of bacterial strains that mineralize 2,6-dinitrotoluene (2,6-DNT) by a different pathway. Burkholderia cepacia strain JS850 and Hydrogenophaga palleronii strain JS863 grew on 2,6-DNT as the sole source of carbon...

  1. Nonylphenol in pregnant women and their matching fetuses: Placental transfer and potential risks of infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yu-Fang [Institute of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, National Yang Ming University, No. 155, Sec. 2, Li-Nong St., Beitou, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Education and Research, Taipei City Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Wang, Pei-Wei [Department of Pediatrics, Taipei City Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Huang, Li-Wei [Department of OBS and GYN, Taipei City Hospital, Women and Children' s Campus, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Yang, Winnie [Department of Pediatrics, Taipei City Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Yu, Ching-Jung; Yang, Shang-Han; Chiu, Hsin-Hao [Institute of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, National Yang Ming University, No. 155, Sec. 2, Li-Nong St., Beitou, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Mei-Lien, E-mail: mlchen@ym.edu.tw [Institute of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, National Yang Ming University, No. 155, Sec. 2, Li-Nong St., Beitou, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2014-10-15

    As the predominant environmental biodegradation product of nonylphenol (NP) ethoxylates and with proven estrogenic effects, NP is formed during the alkylation process of phenols. The purposes of this study were (1) to examine maternal and prenatal exposure to NP in Taiwan, (2) to determine the level of placental protection against NP exposure as well as the level of NP in breast milk, and (3) to assess the potential risk for breastfed newborns exposed to NP through the milk. Thirty pairs of maternal and fetal blood samples, placenta, and breast milk during the 1st and the 3rd months of lactation were collected. External NP exposures of these specimens were then analyzed by using high-performance liquid chromatography coupling with fluorescence detection. Next, the socio-demographics, lifestyle, delivery method, dietary and work history were collected using a questionnaire. In addition, the daily intake of NP from consuming breast milk in the 1st and 3rd months for newborns was studied through deterministic and probabilistic risk assessment methods. The geometric means and geometric standard deviation of NP levels in maternal blood, fetal cord blood, placenta, and breast milk in the 1st and 3rd months were 14.6 (1.7) ng/ml, 18.8 (1.8) ng/ml, 19.8 (1.9) ng/g, 23.5 (3.2) ng/ml, and 57.3 (1.4) ng/ml, respectively. The probabilistic percentiles (50th, 75th, and 95th) of daily intake NP in breast milk were 4.33, 7.79, and 18.39 μg/kg-bw/day in the 1st month, respectively, and were 8.11, 10.78, 16.08 μg/kg-bw/day in the 3rd month, respectively. The probabilistic distributions (5th, 25th, and 50th) of risk for infants aged 1 month old were 0.27, 0.64, and 1.15, respectively, and that for infants aged 3 month old were 0.31, 0.46, and 0.62, respectively. Through repeated exposure from the dietary intake of expectant mothers, fetuses could encounter a high NP exposure level due to transplacental absorption, partitioning between the maternal and fetal compartments. Daily NP

  2. Nonylphenol in pregnant women and their matching fetuses: Placental transfer and potential risks of infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the predominant environmental biodegradation product of nonylphenol (NP) ethoxylates and with proven estrogenic effects, NP is formed during the alkylation process of phenols. The purposes of this study were (1) to examine maternal and prenatal exposure to NP in Taiwan, (2) to determine the level of placental protection against NP exposure as well as the level of NP in breast milk, and (3) to assess the potential risk for breastfed newborns exposed to NP through the milk. Thirty pairs of maternal and fetal blood samples, placenta, and breast milk during the 1st and the 3rd months of lactation were collected. External NP exposures of these specimens were then analyzed by using high-performance liquid chromatography coupling with fluorescence detection. Next, the socio-demographics, lifestyle, delivery method, dietary and work history were collected using a questionnaire. In addition, the daily intake of NP from consuming breast milk in the 1st and 3rd months for newborns was studied through deterministic and probabilistic risk assessment methods. The geometric means and geometric standard deviation of NP levels in maternal blood, fetal cord blood, placenta, and breast milk in the 1st and 3rd months were 14.6 (1.7) ng/ml, 18.8 (1.8) ng/ml, 19.8 (1.9) ng/g, 23.5 (3.2) ng/ml, and 57.3 (1.4) ng/ml, respectively. The probabilistic percentiles (50th, 75th, and 95th) of daily intake NP in breast milk were 4.33, 7.79, and 18.39 μg/kg-bw/day in the 1st month, respectively, and were 8.11, 10.78, 16.08 μg/kg-bw/day in the 3rd month, respectively. The probabilistic distributions (5th, 25th, and 50th) of risk for infants aged 1 month old were 0.27, 0.64, and 1.15, respectively, and that for infants aged 3 month old were 0.31, 0.46, and 0.62, respectively. Through repeated exposure from the dietary intake of expectant mothers, fetuses could encounter a high NP exposure level due to transplacental absorption, partitioning between the maternal and fetal compartments. Daily NP

  3. Improvement of Bioremediation Performance for the Degradation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Contaminated Sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Rocchetti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Microcosm bioremediation strategies were applied to sediments contaminated with hydrocarbons. Experiments were performed in aerobic conditions in a single-step treatment and in a two-step anaerobic-aerobic treatment. In aerobic conditions, either inorganic nutrients or composts were added to the microcosms, while, in the first anaerobic phase of the two-step experiment, acetate and/or allochthonous sulfate-reducing bacteria were used. After the treatment under anaerobic conditions, samples were exposed to aerobic conditions in the presence of compost. In the aerobic treatments, 81% hydrocarbon biodegradation was observed after 43 days in the presence of inorganic nutrients. In aerobic conditions in the presence of mature compost, hydrocarbon biodegradation was 51% after 43 days of treatment, whereas it was 47% after 21 days with fresh compost. The two-step experiment allowed us to obtain a hydrocarbon degradation of 91%, after a first anaerobic step with an inoculum of sulfate-reducing prokaryotes.

  4. Aerobic biodegradation of organic compounds in hydraulic fracturing fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kekacs, Daniel; Drollette, Brian D; Brooker, Michael; Plata, Desiree L; Mouser, Paula J

    2015-07-01

    Little is known of the attenuation of chemical mixtures created for hydraulic fracturing within the natural environment. A synthetic hydraulic fracturing fluid was developed from disclosed industry formulas and produced for laboratory experiments using commercial additives in use by Marcellus shale field crews. The experiments employed an internationally accepted standard method (OECD 301A) to evaluate aerobic biodegradation potential of the fluid mixture by monitoring the removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from an aqueous solution by activated sludge and lake water microbial consortia for two substrate concentrations and four salinities. Microbial degradation removed from 57 % to more than 90 % of added DOC within 6.5 days, with higher removal efficiency at more dilute concentrations and little difference in overall removal extent between sludge and lake microbe treatments. The alcohols isopropanol and octanol were degraded to levels below detection limits while the solvent acetone accumulated in biological treatments through time. Salinity concentrations of 40 g/L or more completely inhibited degradation during the first 6.5 days of incubation with the synthetic hydraulic fracturing fluid even though communities were pre-acclimated to salt. Initially diverse microbial communities became dominated by 16S rRNA sequences affiliated with Pseudomonas and other Pseudomonadaceae after incubation with the synthetic fracturing fluid, taxa which may be involved in acetone production. These data expand our understanding of constraints on the biodegradation potential of organic compounds in hydraulic fracturing fluids under aerobic conditions in the event that they are accidentally released to surface waters and shallow soils. PMID:26037076

  5. Minireview: Selective Degradation of Mitochondria by Mitophagy*

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Insil; Rodriguez-Enriquez, Sara; Lemasters, John J.

    2007-01-01

    Mitochondria are the essential site of aerobic energy production in eukaryotic cells. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are an inevitable by-product of mitochondria metabolism and can cause mitochondrial DNA mutations and dysfunction. Mitochondrial damage can also be the consequence of disease processes. Therefore, maintaining a healthy population of mitochondria is essential to the well-being of cells. Autophagic delivery to lysosomes is the major degradative pathway in mitochondrial turnover, a...

  6. Aerobic mineralization of MTBE and tert-butyl alcohol by stream-bed sediment microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, P.M.; Landmeyer, J.E.; Chapelle, F.H.

    1999-01-01

    Microorganisms indigenous to the stream-bed sediments at two gasoline- contaminated groundwater sites demonstrated significant mineralization of the fuel oxygenates, methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and tert-butyl alcohol (TBA). Up to 73% of [U-14C]-MTBE and 84% of [U-14C]-TBA were degraded to 14CO2 under mixed aerobic/anaerobic conditions. No significant mineralization was observed under strictly anaerobic conditions. The results indicate that, under the mixed aerobic/anaerobic conditions characteristic of stream-bed sediments, microbial processes may provide a significant environmental sink for MTBE and TBA delivered to surface water bodies by contaminated groundwater or by other sources.Microorganisms indigenous to the stream-bed sediments at two gasoline-contaminated groundwater sites demonstrated significant mineralization of the fuel oxygenates, methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and tert-butyl alcohol (TBA). Up to 73% of [U-14C]-MTBE and 84% of [U-14C]-TBA were degraded to 14CO2 under mixed aerobic/anaerobic conditions. No significant mineralization was observed under strictly anaerobic conditions. The results indicate that, under the mixed aerobic/anaerobic conditions characteristic of stream-bed sediments, microbial processes may provide a significant environmental sink for MTBE and TBA delivered to surface water bodies by contaminated groundwater or by other sources.

  7. Low aerobic fitness in Brazilian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Augusto Santos Silva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: aerobic fitness is considered one of the most important components of health-related physical fitness, with low levels related to increased risk of premature death from all causes, especially cardiovascular diseases. OBJECTIVE: to identify the characteristics of adolescents at higher risk of low levels of aerobic fitness. METHODS: the study included 696 adolescents 15-17 years of age enrolled in public high schools of Florianópolis, southern Brazil. This cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Aerobic fitness was measured using the modified Canadian Aerobic Fitness Test mCAFT. Sociodemographic gender, age, school grade, paternal and maternal schooling, socioeconomic status, and anthropometric variables body weight, height, triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness, sexual maturation, physical activity, sedentary behavior, and eating habits were collected. RESULTS: it was found that 31.5% of adolescents had low aerobic fitness levels, being higher in boys 49.2% compared to girls 20.6%. Moreover, girls with sedentary behavior, overweight and high body fat percentage were the groups most likely to have inadequate aerobic fitness. In males, the groups most likely to have inadequate aerobic fitness were those whose parents studied more than eight years, those with low levels of physical activity, and those with inadequate nutrition and excessive body fat. CONCLUSION: low aerobic fitness levels were present in one third of adolescents and was more prevalent in boys. Lifestyle changes, including replacement of sedentary behaviors by physical and sport activities , may assist in improving the aerobic fitness of Brazilian adolescents.

  8. Laboratory evaluation of bioaugmentation for aerobic treatment of RDX in groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Mark E; Hatzinger, Paul B; Condee, Charles W; Andaya, Christina; Vainberg, Simon; Michalsen, Mandy M; Crocker, Fiona H; Indest, Karl J; Jung, Carina M; Eaton, Hillary; Istok, Jonathan D

    2015-02-01

    The potential for bioaugmentation with aerobic explosive degrading bacteria to remediate hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) contaminated aquifers was demonstrated. Repacked aquifer sediment columns were used to examine the transport and RDX degradation capacity of the known RDX degrading bacterial strains Gordonia sp. KTR9 (modified with a kanamycin resistance gene) Pseudomonas fluorescens I-C, and a kanamycin resistant transconjugate Rhodococcus jostii RHA1 pGKT2:Km+. All three strains were transported through the columns and eluted ahead of the conservative bromide tracer, although the total breakthrough varied by strain. The introduced cells responded to biostimulation with fructose (18 mg L(-1), 0.1 mM) by degrading dissolved RDX (0.5 mg L(-1), 2.3 µM). The strains retained RDX-degrading activity for at least 6 months following periods of starvation when no fructose was supplied to the column. Post-experiment analysis of the soil indicated that the residual cells were distributed along the length of the column. When the strains were grown to densities relevant for field-scale application, the cells remained viable and able to degrade RDX for at least 3 months when stored at 4 °C. These results indicate that bioaugmentation may be a viable option for treating RDX in large dilute aerobic plumes. PMID:25503243

  9. Bioaccumulation of 4-nonylphenol and effects on biomarkers, acetylcholinesterase, glutathione-S-transferase and glutathione peroxidase, in Mytilus galloprovincialis mussel gilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal-Liñán, Leticia; Bellas, Juan; Salgueiro-González, Noelia; Muniategui, Soledad; Beiras, Ricardo

    2015-05-01

    Wild marine mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis showed a moderate bioaccumulation ability when exposed to waterborne 4-nonylphenol (4-NP), with a bioconcentration factor (BCF) of 6850 L Kg(-1) (dry weight). Kinetic and concentration-response experiments were performed and three enzymatic biomarkers in mussel gills were measured: Glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Exposure of mussels to environmentally relevant concentrations (25-100 μg L(-1)) of 4-nonylphenol significantly inhibited the AChE activity and induced the GST and GPx activities. GST induction was dose dependent whilst GPx activity showed a less consistent pattern, but in both cases the induction remained after a 10 d depuration period. Mussels seem capable of eliminating 4-NP from their tissues through a mechanism involving GST induction.

  10. Pentachlorophenol (PCP) degradation microorganism community structure under microaeration condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Yuancai; Hao Yuan; Fu Shiyu; Zhan Huaiyu

    2007-01-01

    The comparison of pentachlorophenol (PCP)degradation was conducted under micro-aeration and anaerobic condition with three series of batch experiment,results of which indicated that during micro-aeration condition co-immobilized of anaerobic granular sludge and isolated aerobic bacterial species could enhance the efficiency of PCP reduction through the synergism of aerobes and anaerobes reductive dechlorination and exchange of metabolites within the co-immobilized granular sludge.While during anaerobic condition,there was no great difference in the three series.The specific activities experiment further confirmed that strict anaerobes were not affected over the presence of micro aeration environment.Microorganism community construction of co-immobilized anaerobic granular sludge and the mixed isolated aerobic community was also deduced.By the efficient cooperation of aerobes and anaerobes,the high efficiency removal rate of PCP was implemented.

  11. How "healthful" are aerobics classes? Exploring the health and wellness messages in aerobics classes for women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Abundo, Michelle Lee

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the health messages communicated by aerobics instructors in aerobics classes for women. A theoretical framework influenced by adult learning theory and feminist pedagogy was used in this qualitative study. Over a 3-month period, the practices of five aerobics instructors working at one nonprofit fitness center and one wellness facility were explored. The methods of data collection were one interview with each aerobics instructor and 14 site visits to conduct participant observations and to retrieve of documents. Despite the nonprofit and wellness-based environment of the exercise facilities in this research, there was still an overemphasis on the physical aspect of aerobics classes. Therefore, the potential wellness-related benefits of aerobics classes for women, especially in environments that identified themselves as promoting wellness, were not fully realized. PMID:17148107

  12. Tissue features of lipid peroxidation in rats in conditions of the long-term influence of oxyethylized nonylphenols and their derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marakushin D.I.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The research of LPO state of white rats in conditions of the long-term influence of oxyethylized nonylphenols and their derivatives was carried out. It was established, that oxyethylized nonylphenols on day 45 of influence in the doses of 1/10 and 1/100 DL50 caused the increase of diene conjugates, TBA-reactants, Schiff bases content in the blood, liver and brain gomogenate. The latter, because of a high reactogenic capability, probably, plays the role of a basic link limiting stability of an organism to the long-term influence of the studied compounds due to change of physicochemical properties of cellular membranes, activity of membrane-localized and lipid-depending enzymes, reactivity of neuroendocrine, immune and other systems of an organism. Intensification of LPO processes is one of the pathogenic links of the mechanisms of action of oxyethylized nonylphenols and their derivatives; this is necessary to take into account developing methods of their correction.

  13. Neuromodulation of Aerobic Exercise—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia eHeijnen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Running, and aerobic exercise in general, is a physical activity that increasingly many people engage in but that also has become popular as a topic for scientific research. Here we review the available studies investigating whether and to which degree aerobic exercise modulates hormones, amino acids, and neurotransmitters levels. In general, it seems that factors such as genes, gender, training status, and hormonal status need to be taken into account to gain a better understanding of the neuromodular underpinnings of aerobic exercise. More research using longitudinal studies and considering individual differences is necessary to determine actual benefits. We suggest that, in order to succeed, aerobic exercise programs should include optimal periodization, prevent overtraining and be tailored to interindividual differences, including neuro-developmental and genetically-based factors.

  14. Aerobic digester design for the biodegradation of plant tannins in industrial wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Tramšek, Marko; Goršek, Andreja

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes aerobic digester design for the biodegradation of plant tannins in industrial wastewater. For optimal design, using the criterion of minimal total holding time, some experimental investigations into tannins’ biodegradation rate in industrial wastewater were performed in the first part of this research. The chemical oxygen demand method (COD) was applied to follow the tannins degradation rate. The kinetic parameters of a supposed Aiba’s inhibition kinetic model were determ...

  15. Biodegradation and detoxification of textile azo dyes by bacterial consortium under sequential microaerophilic/aerobic processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lade, Harshad; Kadam, Avinash; Paul, Diby; Govindwar, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Release of textile azo dyes to the environment is an issue of health concern while the use of microorganisms has proved to be the best option for remediation. Thus, in the present study, a bacterial consortium consisting of Providencia rettgeri strain HSL1 and Pseudomonas sp. SUK1 has been investigated for degradation and detoxification of structurally different azo dyes. The consortium showed 98-99 % decolorization of all the selected azo dyes viz. Reactive Black 5 (RB 5), Reactive Orange 16 (RO 16), Disperse Red 78 (DR 78) and Direct Red 81 (DR 81) within 12 to 30 h at 100 mg L(-1) concentration at 30 ± 0.2 °C under microaerophilic, sequential aerobic/microaerophilic and microaerophilic/aerobic processes. However, decolorization under microaerophilic conditions viz. RB 5 (0.26 mM), RO 16 (0.18 mM), DR 78 (0.20 mM) and DR 81 (0.23 mM) and sequential aerobic/microaerophilic processes viz. RB 5 (0.08 mM), RO 16 (0.06 mM), DR 78 (0.07 mM) and DR 81 (0.09 mM) resulted into the formation of aromatic amines. In distinction, sequential microaerophilic/ aerobic process doesn't show the formation of amines. Additionally, 62-72 % reduction in total organic carbon content was observed in all the dyes decolorized broths under sequential microaerophilic/aerobic processes suggesting the efficacy of method in mineralization of dyes. Notable induction within the levels of azoreductase and NADH-DCIP reductase (97 and 229 % for RB 5, 55 and 160 % for RO 16, 63 and 196 % for DR 78, 108 and 258 % for DR 81) observed under sequential microaerophilic/aerobic processes suggested their critical involvements in the initial breakdown of azo bonds, whereas, a slight increase in the levels of laccase and veratryl alcohol oxidase confirmed subsequent oxidation of formed amines. Also, the acute toxicity assay with Daphnia magna revealed the nontoxic nature of the dye-degraded metabolites under sequential microaerophilic/aerobic processes. As biodegradation under sequential microaerophilic/aerobic

  16. Collection of "strengthening sets" of aerobics lesson.\\\\

    OpenAIRE

    CAKL, Vojtěch

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this bachelor study was to create a strengthening sets for aerobic lessons including showing these possisions in practice on selective aerobic lessons . Based on special literature the author had chosen suitable muscle development exercises to increase the body strenth. These exercises were there practised for six weeks continuously. Before and after the research were selected individuals who were compared by 4 exact same tests to detect static and dynamic body strength. The result...

  17. Evaluation of A "Floating" Aerobics Floor

    OpenAIRE

    Favor, Craig M.

    1997-01-01

    Aerobics dance floors often produce annoying floor vibrations in adjacent parts of a building due to the rhythmic impact of the aerobicists. Various types of shock absorbing aerobics and dance floors are widely used to prevent injuries to the participants, but the floors may not prevent vibrations in adjacent areas of the building. The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate a temporary "floating" concrete a...

  18. Temperature effect on aerobic denitrification and nitrification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Shu-guang; ZHANG Xiao-jian; WANG Zhan-sheng

    2003-01-01

    Nitrogen loss without organic removal in biofilter was observed and its possible reason was explained. A lower hydraulic loading could improve aerobic denitrification rate. Aerobic denitrification was seriously affected by low temperature(below 10oC). However, nitrification rate remained high when the temperature dropped from 15oC to5oC. It seemed the autotrophic biofilm in BAF could alleviate the adverse effect of low temperature.

  19. Enhanced in situ aerobic bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharfe, K. [CleanEARTH Solutions Ltd., Concord, ON (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    An enhanced in situ aerobic bioremediation process was described. The process used microbe supporting emulsifications to enhance bioavailability as well as to attenuate microbe competition and boost microbial production. Microbes were added prior to application and rapidly initiated bioremediation once applied to impacted areas. The microbe supporting emulsifiers were metabolically active. The study showed that exposed surface areas increased as hydrocarbon masses were divided, which in turn increased the water/substrate interface where microbial action occurred. Nutrients were used to ensure that crowding and waste accumulation were attenuated in order to ensure that the speed of growth and reproduction progressed exponentially. Water-carrying bacteria, enzymes and nutrients were adsorbed to the soil's particle surface and then diffused between particles. The sequestered hydrocarbons were then emulsified and removed in order to be bioremediated. It was concluded that biological catalysts were used to increase microbial activity and to trigger anabolic responses in microbes. Details of a biocatalyst laboratory solution analysis were also included. tabs., figs.

  20. A Field Method For Determination of Groundwater and Groundwater-sediment Associated Potentials for Degradation of Xenobiotic Organic Compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Henning; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Holm, Peter Engelund

    1992-01-01

    Determination of the degradation potentials for a mixture of eight organic trace contaminants (benzene, toluene, o-xylene, naphthalene, tetrachloromethane, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, trichloroethene, tetrachloroethene) has been made by specially developed in situ microcosms under aerobic and anaerobic...

  1. Methane oxidation in a crude oil contaminated aquifer: Delineation of aerobic reactions at the plume fringes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, R.T.; Bekins, B.A.; Delin, G.N.; Cozzarelli, I.M.; Blowes, D.W.; Kirshtein, J.D.

    2011-01-01

    High resolution direct-push profiling over short vertical distances was used to investigate CH4 attenuation in a petroleum contaminated aquifer near Bemidji, Minnesota. The contaminant plume was delineated using dissolved gases, redox sensitive components, major ions, carbon isotope ratios in CH4 and CO2, and the presence of methanotrophic bacteria. Sharp redox gradients were observed near the water table. Shifts in ??13CCH4 from an average of - 57.6??? (?? 1.7???) in the methanogenic zone to - 39.6??? (?? 8.7???) at 105 m downgradient, strongly suggest CH4 attenuation through microbially mediated degradation. In the downgradient zone the aerobic/anaerobic transition is up to 0.5 m below the water table suggesting that transport of O2 across the water table is leading to aerobic degradation of CH4 at this interface. Dissolved N2 concentrations that exceeded those expected for water in equilibrium with the atmosphere indicated bubble entrapment followed by preferential stripping of O2 through aerobic degradation of CH4 or other hydrocarbons. Multivariate and cluster analysis were used to distinguish between areas of significant bubble entrapment and areas where other processes such as the infiltration of O 2 rich recharge water were important O2 transport mechanisms. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Rhamnolipid-enhanced aerobic biodegradation of triclosan (TCS) by indigenous microorganisms in water-sediment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qian; Yan, Jia; Wen, Junjie; Hu, Yongyou; Chen, Yuanbo; Wu, Wenjin

    2016-11-15

    Bioremediation of triclosan (TCS) is a challenge because of its low bioavailability, persistence in the environment and recalcitrance to remediation efforts. Rhamnolipid (RL) was used to enhance TCS biodegradation by indigenous microbes in an aerobic water-sediment system. However, knowledge of the effects of TCS on the bacterial community and environmental factors in an RL-enhanced, TCS-degrading system are lacking. Therefore, in this study, the influence of environmental factors on RL-enhanced biodegradation of TCS was investigated by single factor experiments, and shifts in aerobic TCS-degrading bacterial populations, with and without RL, were analyzed by high-throughput sequencing technology. The results showed that aerobic biodegradation of TCS was significantly promoted by the addition of RL. Environmental conditions, which included RL addition (0.125-0.5g/L), medium concentrations of TCS (environments (pH8-9), were monitored. High concentrations of TCS had a remarkable influence on the bacterial community structure, and this influence on the distribution proportion of the main microorganisms was strengthened by RL addition. Alpha-proteobacteria (e.g., Sphingomonadaceae and Caulobacteraceae) might be resistant to TCS or even capable of TCS biodegradation, while Sphingobacteria, Beta- and Delta-proteobacteria were sensitive to TCS toxicity. This research provides ecological information on the degradation efficiency and bacterial community stability in RL-enhanced bioremediation of TCS-polluted aquatic environments. PMID:27476727

  3. Methane oxidation in a crude oil contaminated aquifer: Delineation of aerobic reactions at the plume fringes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, Richard T.; Bekins, Barbara A.; Delin, Geoffrey N.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Blowes, David W.; Kirshtein, Julie D.

    2011-07-01

    High resolution direct-push profiling over short vertical distances was used to investigate CH 4 attenuation in a petroleum contaminated aquifer near Bemidji, Minnesota. The contaminant plume was delineated using dissolved gases, redox sensitive components, major ions, carbon isotope ratios in CH 4 and CO 2, and the presence of methanotrophic bacteria. Sharp redox gradients were observed near the water table. Shifts in δ 13C CH4 from an average of - 57.6‰ (± 1.7‰) in the methanogenic zone to - 39.6‰ (± 8.7‰) at 105 m downgradient, strongly suggest CH 4 attenuation through microbially mediated degradation. In the downgradient zone the aerobic/anaerobic transition is up to 0.5 m below the water table suggesting that transport of O 2 across the water table is leading to aerobic degradation of CH 4 at this interface. Dissolved N 2 concentrations that exceeded those expected for water in equilibrium with the atmosphere indicated bubble entrapment followed by preferential stripping of O 2 through aerobic degradation of CH 4 or other hydrocarbons. Multivariate and cluster analysis were used to distinguish between areas of significant bubble entrapment and areas where other processes such as the infiltration of O 2 rich recharge water were important O 2 transport mechanisms.

  4. Biodegradation of bisphenol A and other bisphenols by a gram-negative aerobic bacterium.

    OpenAIRE

    Lobos, J. H.; Leib, T K; Su, T. M.

    1992-01-01

    A novel bacterium designated strain MV1 was isolated from a sludge enrichment taken from the wastewater treatment plant at a plastics manufacturing facility and shown to degrade 2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)propane (4,4'-isopropylidenediphenol or bisphenol A). Strain MV1 is a gram-negative, aerobic bacillus that grows on bisphenol A as a sole source of carbon and energy. Total carbon analysis for bisphenol A degradation demonstrated that 60% of the carbon was mineralized to CO2, 20% was associated...

  5. Transport and degradation of propylene glycol in the vadose zone: model development and sensitivity analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schotanus, D.; Meeussen, J.C.L.; Lissner, H.; Ploeg, van der M.J.; Wehrer, M.; Totsche, K.U.; Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.

    2014-01-01

    Transport and degradation of de-icing chemical (containing propylene glycol, PG) in the vadose zone were studied with a lysimeter experiment and a model, in which transient water flow, kinetic degradation of PG and soil chemistry were combined. The lysimeter experiment indicated that aerobic as well

  6. Quantifying pesticide sorption and degradation parameters: Modeling a field injection experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højberg, Anker Lajer; Christensen, J. L.; Engesgaard, Peter Knudegaard;

    2000-01-01

    The potential for natural attenuation of pesticides in a shallow aerobic aquifer was investigated in three injection experiments. Two pesticides could readily be identified as easily degradable from the observed decrease in solute concentration whereas degradation could only be quantified by use...

  7. EFEKTIVITAS SISTEM BIOFILTER AEROB DALAM MENURUNKAN KADAR AMONIA PADA AIR LIMBAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Made Indra Wahyuni

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasingpopulationand activity of the Balinese people can increase the amount of waste as a byproduct of community activities. The presence of the metabolites in wastewater as ammonia is toxic to aquatic organisms. Application aerobic biofilter system can be used as an attempt to reduce levels of ammonia. In the aerobic biofilter, contact between the gravel media with microorganisms that form biofilmsare able to accelerate the degradation of organic matter and nitrification processes. The aims of this research are to determine the best consortium of activated sludge to reduce ammonia levels by aerobic biofilter system and to determine the effectivity of aerobic biofilter system. The first stage of this research were seeding of activated sludge from three sources are Wastewater Treatment Plan (WWTP of Suwung Denpasar, WWTP of Wangaya Hospital and WWTP of Bali Tourism Development Corporation (BTDC Nusa Dua Bali, for six days. This research was done by measuring Volatile Suspended Solid (VSS value that showed the growth rate of biomass in activated sludge. The second stage wereapplication of activated sludges and control in aerobic biofilter to reduce ammonia levels, for five days. This study used a Completely Randomized Design with four treatments and three repetitions. The results showed that the best activated sludge obtained from WWTP of Suwung Denpasar indicated by the highest biomass growth (VSS value of 2396.6 mg/L and was able to reduce ammonia up to 0.78 mg/ L. The effectivity of aerobic biofilter system with activated sludge from WWTP of Suwung Denpasar achieve effectivity of treatment process up to 92.20 % and have been able to pass the effectivity of quality standards (90% during five days of processing. The effectivity levels was the highest compared to control and activated sludgetreatments.

  8. The fate of bisphenol A, 4-tert-octylphenol and 4-nonylphenol leached from plastic debris into marine water--experimental studies on biodegradation and sorption on suspended particulate matter and nano-TiO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staniszewska, Marta; Graca, Bożena; Nehring, Iga

    2016-02-01

    Experiments were carried out, the aim of which was to determine the leaching rates for bisphenol A (4,4'-(propane-2,2-diyl)diphenol - BPA), 4-tert-octylphenol (OP), 4-nonylphenol (NP) from polycarbonate and recycled tyre granules into the seawater. Additionally biodegradation, sorption on marine suspended particulate matter and sorption on various types of nano-TiO2 of BPA, OP, NP were studied. Experiments were carried out on plastics at various stages of degradation. The conducted experiment confirmed the flux of BPA, OP and NP from the studied plastics into seawater. The initial photodegradation of the plastic had a significant influence on the amount of the studied components released into water. During the first days of the experiment leaching was weaker from aged materials. After 60 days leaching of BPA and OP was higher for aged plastic compared to unaged. On average, suspension adsorbed OP, BPA and NP from seawater at respective levels of 37%, 75% and 100%. On the other hand, during biodegradation on average 25%, 9% and 2% of OP, BPA and NP respectively are removed from water. Nano-TiO2 of 21 nm pore size diameter adsorbed all the compounds more strongly than nano-TiO2 of 15 nm pores sized coated with Al and stearic acid. The strongest sorption (100%) on different types of nano-TiO2 was that of the most hydrophobic and more linear structured NP with just one phenol group. The weakest sorption was observed in the case of BPA, which is the least hydrophobic, and characterized by higher compared to NP and OP steric hindrance and electrostatic repulsion. PMID:26702557

  9. In vitro effects of nonylphenol on motility, mitochondrial, acrosomal and chromatin integrity of ram and boar spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uguz, C; Varisli, O; Agca, C; Evans, T; Agca, Y

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of nonylphenol (NP) on viability of ram and boar sperm in vitro. Ram or boar spermatozoa were exposed to 1, 10, 100, 250 and 500 μg NP ml(-1) for 1, 2, 3 or 4 h. Computer-assisted sperm motility analysis (CASA) system was used to evaluate sperm motility characteristics. Flow cytometry was used to determine mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and chromatin integrity, while epifluorescent microscopy was used to determine sperm acrosomal status. Exposure of both species spermatozoa to 250 and 500 μg NP ml(-1) was detrimental to progressive motility (P ram and boar spermatozoa with high MMP declined drastically after exposures to ≥250 μg ml(-1) NP (P ram spermatozoa. These data show adverse effects of NP on ram and boar spermatozoa and thus its potential harmful effects on male reproduction as NP is found in fruits, vegetables, human milk, fish and livestock products.

  10. Continuing Exposure to Low-Dose Nonylphenol Aggravates Adenine-Induced Chronic Renal Dysfunction and Role of Rosuvastatin Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen Chia-Hung

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nonylphenol (NP, an environmental organic compound, has been demonstrated to enhance reactive-oxygen species (ROS synthesis. Chronic exposure to low-dose adenine (AD has been reported to induce chronic kidney disease (CKD. Methods In this study, we tested the hypothesis that chronic exposure to NP will aggravate AD-induced CKD through increasing generations of inflammation, ROS, and apoptosis that could be attenuated by rosuvastatin. Fifty male Wistar rats were equally divided into group 1 (control, group 2 (AD in fodder at a concentration of 0.25%, group 3 (NP: 2 mg/kg/day, group 4 (combined AD & NP, and group 5 (AD-NP + rosuvastatin: 20 mg/kg/day. Treatment was continued for 24 weeks for all animals before being sacrificed. Results By the end of 24 weeks, serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN and creatinine levels were increased in group 4 than in groups 1–3, but significantly reduced in group 5 as compared with group 4 (all p  Conclusion NP worsened AD-induced CKD that could be reversed by rosuvastatin therapy.

  11. In vitro assessment ofROS on motility of epididymal sperm of male rat exposed to intraperitoneal administration of nonylphenol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ansoumane Kourouma; Duan Peng; Hady Keita; Aidogie Osamuyimen; Qi Suqin; Quan Chao; Yu Tingting; Yang Kedi

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the mechanism by which nonylphenol (NP) interferes with male infertility through evaluation of its effects on epididymal sperm of adult male rats.Methods:Twenty four Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were used as epididymal sperm donors. Previously rats were administrated with NP (0, 2, 10 and 50 mg/kg) body weight respectively in corn oil every forty-eight hours by intraperitoneal injection for 30 days. Computer assisted sperm analysis (CASA) was used to determine parameters of sperm. The sperm morphology examination was conducted with a high resolution microscope.Results:Results indicated that exposure to NP has no effect on body weight, while testes weights were significantly decreased. Computer assisted sperm analysis (CASA) showed significant decline in the percentage of motile spermatozoa (P<0.001), STR and LIN (P<0.01), significant increase in ALH (P<0.001), while significant decline in BCF (P<0.001) respectively. Plasma LDH was significantly increased while; plasmaγ-GT activity was significantly decreased. H2O2production and malondialdehyde (MDA) were significantly increased. The Plasma CAT, GSH-Px and SOD activities were significantly decreased.Conclusions:This concludes that NP leads oxidative stress in the epididymal sperm of rats. Moreover, NP can disrupt sperm motility and alterations in the sperm morphology.

  12. Competitive sorption between 17α-ethinyl estradiol and bisphenol A/4-n-nonylphenol by soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianzhong Li; Lu Jiang; Xi Xiang; Shuang Xu; Rou Wen; Xiang Liu

    2013-01-01

    The sorption of 17αt-ethinyl estradiol (EE2),bisphenol A (BPA),and 4-n-nonylphenol (NP) in single systems and the sorption of EE2 with different initial aqueous concentrations of BPA or NP were examined using three soils.Results showed that all sorption isotherms were nonlinear and fit the Freundlich model.The degree of nonlinearity was in the order BPA (0.537-0.686) > EE2 (0.705-0.858) >NP (0.875-0.0.951) in single systems.The isotherm linearity index of EE2 sorption calculated by the Freundlich model for Loam,Silt Loam and Silt increased from 0.758,0.705 and 0.858,to 0.889,0.910 and 0.969,respectively,when BPA concentration increased from 0 to 1000 μg/L,but the effect of NP was comparably minimal.Additionally,EE2 significantly suppressed the sorption of BPA,but insignificantly suppressed that of NP.These findings can be attributed to the difference of sorption affinity of EE2,NP and BPA on the hard carbon (e.g.,black carbon) of soil organic matter that dominated the sorption in the low equilibrium aqueous concentration range of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs).Competitive sorption among EDCs presents new challenges for predicting the transport and fate of EDCs under the influence of co-solutes.

  13. Bisphenol A, 4-tert-octylphenol, and 4-nonylphenol in the Gulf of Gdańsk (Southern Baltic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staniszewska, Marta; Falkowska, Lucyna; Grabowski, Paweł; Kwaśniak, Justyna; Mudrak-Cegiołka, Stella; Reindl, Andrzej R; Sokołowski, Adam; Szumiło, Emilia; Zgrundo, Aleksandra

    2014-10-01

    The organic derivatives of phenol are classed as dangerous compounds, and their presence has been detected in surface water, bottom water, phytoplankton, zooplankton, and mussel as well as liver and muscle of fish from the Gulf of Gdańsk and in liver, muscle, and guano of gulls residing in the coastal zone of this basin. The greatest sources of bisphenol A (BPA), 4-tert-octylphenol (OP), and 4-nonylphenol (NP) were found to be the Vistula River and the water purification plant in Dębogórze. In living organisms, concentrations of BPA, OP, and NP ranged between the limit of quantification and several hundred ng g(-1) dry weight (dw), and the highest concentrations were found for BPA. Prolonged alimentary exposure to BPA, OP, and NP in fish and birds was indicated by liver/muscle concentration ratios generally >1. The most influential factors on BPA and alkylphenol concentrations in the tissues of fishes and gulls were mainly diet and habitat. The study confirmed possible bioaccumulation in the food web. High BPA and NP concentrations in guano (≤2,700 and ≤300 ng g(-1) dw, respectively) indicated the ability of birds to detoxify and signalled the reintroduction of these compounds to seawater. Herring, flounder, and cod from the Southern Baltic are a safe food source for human consumption because their BPA and alkylphenol contents are low.

  14. Patterns of Fluctuating Asymmetry and Shape Variation in Chironomus riparius (Diptera, Chironomidae) Exposed to Nonylphenol or Lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arambourou, Hélène; Beisel, Jean-Nicolas; Branchu, Philippe; Debat, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Deformities and fluctuating asymmetry in chironomid larvae have been proposed as sensitive indicators of biological stress and are commonly used to assess the ecological impact of human activities. In particular, they have been associated in Chironomus riparius, the most commonly used species, with heavy metal and pesticide river pollution. In this study, the effect of lead and 4-nonylphenol on mouthpart morphological variation of Chironomus riparius larvae was investigated by traditional and geometric morphometrics. For this purpose, first to fourth instar larvae were exposed to sediment spiked with lead (from 3.0 to 456.9 mg/kg dry weight) or 4-NP (from 0.1 to 198.8 mg/kg dry weight). Mentum phenotypic response to pollutants was assessed by four parameters: (1) the frequency of deformities, (2) fluctuating asymmetry of mentum length, (3) fluctuating asymmetry of mentum shape and (4) the mentum mean shape changes. Despite the bioaccumulation of pollutants in the chironomid’s body, no significant differences between control and stressed groups were found for mouthpart deformities and fluctuating asymmetry of mentum length. Slight effects on mentum shape fluctuating asymmetry were observed for two stressed groups. Significant mean shape changes, consisting of tooth size increase and tooth closing, were detected for lead and 4-NP exposure respectively. Those variations, however, were negligible in comparison to mentum shape changes due to genetic effects. These results suggest that the use of mentum variation as an indicator of toxic stress in Chironomus riparius should be considered cautiously. PMID:23133660

  15. Short-term responses of selected endocrine parameters in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to 4-nonylphenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi, Mohammad; Zargham, Davood; Asadi, Asad; Bashti, Tayebeh; Kamayi, Kianoosh

    2015-12-01

    The synthetic organic compound 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) has been shown to have a wide range of adverse effects on the endocrine system of various animals including fish. The present study evaluated the potential effects of 4-NP on vitellogenin (VTG) synthesis, steroid, and thyroid hormone concentrations in both juvenile male and female rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Fish were exposed by intraperitoneal injection to different doses of 4-NP (1, 10, 50, and 100 μg g(-1)) or vehicle (coconut oil) over a period of 14 days. Blood samples were collected 7 and 14 days after initiation of treatment. Plasma VTG levels in 4-NP-treated fish were detected by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis as a high molecular weight protein band of 180 KDa. In addition, plasma VTG concentrations were quantified indirectly using plasma alkali-labile phosphate (ALP) and plasma calcium. Both ALP and calcium levels in plasma showed similar and parallel increase patterns after exposure to 4-NP that were significantly higher compared with controls. The analysis of plasma sex steroid levels revealed a significant increase in 17β-estradiol and testosterone in plasma of juvenile males and females, respectively. Furthermore, a significant increase was observed in plasma cortisol levels. On the other hand, 4-NP decreased both plasma triiodothyronine and thyroxine after 7 and 14 days of treatment. These results suggest that 4-NP can affect different parts of the endocrine system, which may lead to serious impairments in physiological homeostasis of juvenile rainbow trout. PMID:23771873

  16. Effects of 4-nonylphenol on spermatogenesis and induction of testicular apoptosis through oxidative stress-related pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Peng; Hu, Chunhui; Butler, Holly J; Quan, Chao; Chen, Wei; Huang, Wenting; Tang, Sha; Zhou, Wei; Yuan, Meng; Shi, Yuqin; Martin, Francis L; Yang, Kedi

    2016-07-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that prepubertal exposure to 4-nonylphenol (NP) affects reproductive function in male rats. Twenty-four rats at five-weeks-old were randomly divided into four groups and treated with NP at varying concentrations (0, 5, 20, and 60mg/kg/2d) for thirty days by intra-peritoneal injection. 60mg/kg NP induced spermatogenic degeneration and pronounced deficits in epididymal sperm count, motility and function, whereas potentially stimulatory effects were observed at 5 NPmg/kg. Moreover, 60mg/kg NP resulted in a significant reduction in fructose, FSH and LH; induced apoptosis related to oxidative stress; inhibited mRNA and protein levels of Bcl-2 and PCNA; as well as the additional up-regulation of p53, Bax, Apaf-1, cytochrome c, cleaved-caspase-3, Fas and FasL expression. Our data suggest potentially hormetic effects of NP on spermatogenic function. High-dose NP impairs testicular development and function by reducing cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis involving oxidative stress-related p53-Bcl-2/Bax and -Fas/FasL pathways. PMID:27109770

  17. Histological alternation and vitellogenin induction in adult rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) after exposure to ethynylestradiol and nonylphenol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, J.; Wang, Z.; Wang, N.; Ingersoll, C.

    2007-01-01

    Adult rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) were exposed to 0, 1, 5, and 25 ng/l (nominal concentrations) of 17??-ethynylestradiol (EE2) and 3, 10, and 30 ??g/l (nominal concentrations) of 4-nonylphenol (NP) under flow-through conditions for a period of 28 d. Low mortality was observed at 5 and 25 ng/l EE2 and the growth of fish reduced significantly at 25 ng/l EE2 compared to controls. However, the gonadosomatic indices (GSI) of male fish were significantly higher in 1 ng/l EE2 treatments and in 10 and 30 ??g/l NP treatments (p kidney tubules and hypertrophy of the tubular epithelia. Also at these levels of exposure, feminization of male fish could be noticed and parts of males manifested the testis-ova phenomenon. Ovaries of female rare minnow in 25 ng/l EE2 treatment group were degenerated. Therefore when exposed to EE2 and NP even at environmental observed concentrations, adverse effects could occur in the reproductive system of adult fishes. The observed hepatic tissue and renal tissue impairment should be due to the induction and accumulation of VTG in organs, especially in males. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Anaerobic-aerobic infection in acute appendicitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamchich, V I; Ulitovskiĭ, I V; Savich, E I; Znamenskiĭ, V A; Beliaeva, O A

    1998-01-01

    362 patients with acute appendicitis (AA) were examined. For microbiological diagnosis of aerobic and anaerobic nonclostridial microflora we used complex accelerated methods (including evaluation of gram-negative microorganisms in comparison with tinctorial-fermentative method of differential staining according to oxygen sensitivity of catalasopositive together with aerobic and cathalasonegative anaerobic microorganisms) as well as complete bacteriologic examination with determination of sensitivity of the above microorganism to antimicrobial remedies. High rate of aerobic-anaerobic microbial associations and substantial identity of microflora from appendicis and exudate from abdominal cavity was revealed, which evidenced the leading role of endogenous microorganisms in etiology and pathogenesis of AA and peritonitis i. e. autoinfection. In patients with destructive forms of AA, complicated by peritonitis it is recommended to use the accelerated method of examination of pathologic material as well as the complete scheme of examination with the identification of the isolated microorganisms and the correction of antibiotic treatment. PMID:9511291

  19. Mechanism of Kenaf Retting Using Aerobes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢士森; 陈季华; 黄秀宝

    2001-01-01

    The experimental results showed that the duration of microbial retting processing of kenaf fibers by using aerobic microbe was four times shorter than that by using anaerobic microbe. The residual gum percentage,breaking strength, breaking elongation and linear density of aerobic retted kenaf bundle fibers did not show significantly difference with that of anaerobic retted kenaf bundle fibers by ANOVA-Tukey's studentized test at a = 5% except for the softness. The bioenergetic principle and the calculation of the amount of ATP produced during the decomposition processing of kenaf gums were used to explain why the retting duration in the case of using aerobic microbes was much shorter than that of using anaerobic microbes.

  20. Detoxification of furfural in Corynebacterium glutamicum under aerobic and anaerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuge, Yota; Hori, Yoshimi; Kudou, Motonori; Ishii, Jun; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Kondo, Akihiko

    2014-10-01

    The toxic fermentation inhibitors in lignocellulosic hydrolysates raise serious problems for the microbial production of fuels and chemicals. Furfural is considered to be one of the most toxic compounds among these inhibitors. Here, we describe the detoxification of furfural in Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC13032 under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Under aerobic culture conditions, furfuryl alcohol and 2-furoic acid were produced as detoxification products of furfural. The ratio of the products varied depending on the initial furfural concentration. Neither furfuryl alcohol nor 2-furoic acid showed any toxic effect on cell growth, and both compounds were determined to be the end products of furfural degradation. Interestingly, unlike under aerobic conditions, most of the furfural was converted to furfuryl alcohol under anaerobic conditions, without affecting the glucose consumption rate. Both the NADH/NAD(+) and NADPH/NADP(+) ratio decreased in the accordance with furfural concentration under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. These results indicate the presence of a single or multiple endogenous enzymes with broad and high affinity for furfural and co-factors in C. glutamicum ATCC13032.

  1. Hydrogen Isotope Fractionation As a Tool to Identify Aerobic and Anaerobic PAH Biodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kümmel, Steffen; Starke, Robert; Chen, Gao; Musat, Florin; Richnow, Hans H; Vogt, Carsten

    2016-03-15

    Aerobic and anaerobic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) biodegradation was characterized by compound specific stable isotope analysis (CSIA) of the carbon and hydrogen isotope effects of the enzymatic reactions initiating specific degradation pathways, using naphthalene and 2-methylnaphtalene as model compounds. Aerobic activation of naphthalene and 2-methylnaphthalene by Pseudomonas putida NCIB 9816 and Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 17483 containing naphthalene dioxygenases was associated with moderate carbon isotope fractionation (εC = -0.8 ± 0.1‰ to -1.6 ± 0.2‰). In contrast, anaerobic activation of naphthalene by a carboxylation-like mechanism by strain NaphS6 was linked to negligible carbon isotope fractionation (εC = -0.2 ± 0.2‰ to -0.4 ± 0.3‰). Notably, anaerobic activation of naphthalene by strain NaphS6 exhibited a normal hydrogen isotope fractionation (εH = -11 ± 2‰ to -47 ± 4‰), whereas an inverse hydrogen isotope fractionation was observed for the aerobic strains (εH = +15 ± 2‰ to +71 ± 6‰). Additionally, isotope fractionation of NaphS6 was determined in an overlaying hydrophobic carrier phase, resulting in more reliable enrichment factors compared to immobilizing the PAHs on the bottle walls without carrier phase. The observed differences especially in hydrogen fractionation might be used to differentiate between aerobic and anaerobic naphthalene and 2-methylnaphthalene biodegradation pathways at PAH-contaminated field sites. PMID:26855125

  2. 蛋白组学技术研究有氧运动影响C57BL/6小鼠骨骼肌代谢系列报道之四——有氧运动对胰岛素抵抗小鼠骨骼肌蛋白折叠/降解通路相关蛋白的影响%"Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Skeletal Muscle Metabolism in C57BL/6 Mice with Proteome Analysis" Serial Report 4: Effects of Aerobic Exercise on the Fold / Degradation Protein in Skeletal Muscle of C57BL/6 Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    褚晓蕾; 牛燕媚; 袁海瑞; 刘效磊; 尹苗苗; 黄雯; 傅力

    2011-01-01

    Precursor)运动后下降38%,β型蛋白酶体7前体(Proteasome Subunit Beta Type-7 Precursor)运动后增加3.27倍,α型蛋白酶体1(Proteasome Subunit Alpha Type-1)运动后增加1.67倍,伴侣素β亚基(Chaperonin Containing Tcp-1 Beta Subunit,CCTβ)、Ester Hydrolase ClIOrf54 Homolog为运动后新增蛋白.结论:6周有氧运动可通过调节IR小鼠骨骼肌蛋白折叠/降解通路相关蛋白的表达,改善高脂饮食诱导的IR.%Objective The aim of this study was to explore the role of fold / degradation proteins involved in aerobic exercise ameliorating insulin resistance (IR) by identifying the differentially expressed proteins in the skeletal muscle of mice after exercise. Methods Eighty male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into IR model group (IR, n = 60) and normal diet group (NC, n = 60) . Rats in IR group were fed with high-fat diet for 10 weeks. The IR was confirmed by fasting serum insulin level (FIN) and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) . Then the IR group was randomly subdivided into a high-fat-diet exercise group (HE) and a high-fat-diet control group (HC) . The HE group was required to run on a treadmill for 6 weeks with the intensity of 75%VO2 max. After the completion of the 6-week exercise, the proteins extracted from the quadriceps femoris were quantified with Bradford and then separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) . The result was analyzed by ImageMas-ter 2D Platinum V5.0. The selected differentially expressed proteins were analyzed using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS ) and Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC/LC-MS/MS) . The differentially expressed proteins were identified using Mascot software and NCBI nr database. Results Compared with the NC group, FIN of 10-week high-fat-diet group increased by 50%, and time point of OGTT peak shifted backward obviously with a platform stage. After 6-week aerobic exercise, the FIN in HE group decreased by 17.2% as compared

  3. Abundance of polymers degrading microorganisms in a sea-based solid waste disposal site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishigaki, T; Sugano, W; Ike, M; Kawagoshi, Y; Fukunaga, I; Fujita, M

    2000-01-01

    In order to assess the degradability of plastics in solid waste disposal landfill sites, microbial populations capable of degrading five kinds of plastic-constituting polymers, poly epsilon-caprolactone (PCL), polylactic acid (PLA), polyethylene glycol (PEG), poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) and cellulose acetate (CA), in a sea-based solid waste disposal site were investigated. Enumeration of aerobic and anaerobic polymers-degrading microorganisms (PDMs) was performed against to total 8 leachate samples, which were seasonally collected from the facultative pretreatment pond and the aerated lagoon. Both aerobic and anaerobic PDMs for natural polymers, PHB and CA, were found in all of the samples, while those for chemically-synthesized polymers, PCL, PLA and PEG, could not be always detected. In most cases, the ratios of the PHB- and CA-degraders to the heterotrophic bacterial population were more than 0.1%. On the other hand, the ratios of PCL-, PLA- and PEG-degraders were often much lower. These data indicate that the plastics degradation potential is commonly present in the studied disposal site, and that the degradation potential for plastics composed of chemically-synthesized polymers is inferior to that of natural polymers. Population sizes of the PDMs correlated to those of heterotrophic bacteria, and the counts of aerobic heterotrophic bacteria and PDMs in the aerated lagoon tended to be higher than those of anaerobic ones, indicating that the aeration of the leachate resulted in the activation of growth of whole aerobic microbial community including the PDMs. PMID:10957959

  4. Carbamazepine degradation by photolysis and titanium dioxide photocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Jong-Kwon; Son, Hyun-Seok; Kang, Young-Min; Zoh, Kyung-Duk

    2012-07-01

    We investigated the degradation of carbamazepine by photolysis/ultraviolet (UV)-C only and titanium dioxide photocatalysis. The degradation of carbamazepine by UV-only and titanium-dioxide-only (adsorption) reactions were inefficient, however, complete degradation of carbamazepine was observed by titanium dioxide photocatalysis within 30 min. The rate of degradation increased as initial carbamazepine concentration decreased, and the removal kinetics fit well with the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model. The addition of methanol, a radical scavenger, decreased carbamazepine removal, suggesting that the hydroxide radical played an important role during carbamazepine degradation. The addition of oxygen during titanium dioxide photocatalysis accelerated hydroxide radical production, thus improving mineralization activity. The photocatalytic degradation was more efficient at a higher pH, whereas the removal of carbamazepine and acridine (a major intermediate) were more efficient under aerobic conditions. The mineralization of carbamazepine during photocatalysis produced various ionic by-products such as ammonium and nitrate by way of nitrogen dioxide.

  5. Mathematical modelling of the effects of aerobic and anaerobic chelate biodegradation on actinide speciation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biodegradation of natural and anthropogenic chelating agents directly and indirectly affects the speciation, and hence, the mobility of actinides in subsurface environments. We combined mathematical modelling with laboratory experimentation to investigate the effects of aerobic and anaerobic chelate biodegradation on actinide [Np(IV/V), Pu(IV)] speciation. Under aerobic conditions, nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) biodegradation rates were strongly influenced by the actinide concentration. Actinide-chelate complexation reduced the relative abundance of available growth substrate in solution and actinide species present or released during chelate degradation were toxic to the organisms. Aerobic bioutilization of the chelates as electron-donor substrates directly affected actinide speciation by releasing the radionuclides from complexed form into solution, where their fate was controlled by inorganic ligands in the system. Actinide speciation was also indirectly affected by pH changes caused by organic biodegradation. The two concurrent processes of organic biodegradation and actinide aqueous chemistry were accurately linked and described using CCBATCH, a computer model developed at Northwestern University to investigate the dynamics of coupled biological and chemical reactions in mixed waste subsurface environments. CCBATCH was then used to simulate the fate of Np during anaerobic citrate biodegradation. The modelling studies suggested that, under some conditions, chelate degradation can increase Np(IV) solubility due to carbonate complexation in closed aqueous systems. (orig.)

  6. Contamination of nonylphenolic compounds in creek water, wastewater treatment plant effluents, and sediments from Lake Shihwa and vicinity, Korea: Comparison with fecal pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Minkyu; Furlong, Edward T.; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Yu, Jun; Choi, Hee-Gu

    2011-01-01

    Nonylphenolic compounds (NPs), coprostanol (COP), and cholestanol, major contaminants in industrial and domestic wastewaters, were analyzed in creek water, wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent, and sediment samples from artificial Lake Shihwa and its vicinity, one of the most industrialized regions in Korea. We also determined mass discharge of NPs and COP, a fecal sterol, into the lake, to understand the linkage between discharge and sediment contamination. Total NP (the sum of nonylphenol, and nonylphenol mono- and di-ethoxylates) were 0.32–875 μg L-1 in creeks, 0.61–87.0 μg L-1 in WWTP effluents, and 29.3–230 μg g-1 TOC in sediments. Concentrations of COP were 0.09–19.0 μg L-1 in creeks, 0.11–44.0 μg L-1 in WWTP effluents, and 2.51–438 μg g-1 TOC in sediments. The spatial distributions of NPs in creeks and sediments from the inshore region were different from those of COP, suggesting that Lake Shihwa contamination patterns from industrial effluents differ from those from domestic effluents. The mass discharge from the combined outfall of the WWTPs, located in the offshore region, was 2.27 kg d-1 for NPs and 1.00 kg d-1 for COP, accounting for 91% and 95% of the total discharge into Lake Shihwa, respectively. The highest concentrations of NPs and COP in sediments were found in samples at sites near the submarine outfall of the WWTPs, indicating that the submarine outfall is an important point source of wastewater pollution in Lake Shihwa.

  7. Oxidation of aquatic pollutants by ferrous–oxalate complexes under dark aerobic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Electron transfer from ferrous–oxalate complexes to oxygen occurs in dark conditions. • OH radicals generated by ferrous–oxalate complexes initiate the oxidation process. • Degradation kinetics depends on the speciation of ferrous–oxalate complexes. • Ferrous–oxalate complexes are the most efficient for the degradation of pollutants. - Abstract: This study evaluates the ability of FeII–oxalate complexes for the generation of ·OH through oxygen reduction and the oxidative degradation of aquatic pollutants under dark aerobic conditions (i.e., with oxygen but without light). The degradation of 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) was rapid in the mixture of Fe2+ and oxalate prepared using ultrapure water, but was absent without either Fe2+ or oxalate. The formation of FeII–oxalate complexes enables two-electron reduction of oxygen to generate H2O2 and subsequent production of ·OH. The significant inhibition of 4-CP degradation in the presence of H2O2 and ·OH scavenger confirms such mechanisms. The degradation experiments with varying [Fe2+], [oxalate], and initial pH demonstrated that the degradation rate depends on [FeII(Ox)22−], but the degree of degradation is primarily determined by [FeII(Ox)22−] + [FeII(Ox)0]. Efficient degradation of diverse aquatic pollutants, especially phenolic pollutants, was observed in the FeII–oxalate complexes system, wherein the oxidation efficacy was primarily correlated with the reaction rate constant between pollutant and ·OH. The effect of various organic ligands (oxalate, citrate, EDTA, malonate, and acetate) on the degradation kinetics of 4-CP was investigated. The highest efficiency of oxalate for the oxidative degradation is attributed to its high capability to enhance the reducing power and low reactivity with ·OH

  8. Polysaccharide Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Bruce A.; Svensson, Birte; Collins, Michelle E.; Rastall, Robert A.

    An overview of current and potential enzymes used to degrade polysaccharides is presented. Such depolymerases are comprised of glycoside hydrolases, glycosyl transferases, phosphorylases and lyases, and their classification, active sites and action patterns are discussed. Additionally, the mechanisms that these enzymes use to cleave glycosidic linkages is reviewed as are inhibitors of depolymerase activity; reagents which react with amino acid residues, glycoside derivatives, transition state inhibitors and proteinaceous inhibitors. The characterization of various enzymes of microbial, animal or plant origin has led to their widespread use in the production of important oligosaccharides which can be incorporated into food stuffs. Sources of polysaccharides of particular interest in this chapter are those from plants and include inulin, dextran, xylan and pectin, as their hydrolysis products are purported to be functional foods in the context of gastrointestinal health. An alternative use of degraded polysaccharides is in the treatment of disease. The possibility exists to treat bacterial exopolysaccharide with lyases from bacteriophage to produce oligosaccharides exhibiting bioactive sequences. Although this area is currently in its infancy the knowledge is available to investigate further.

  9. THE RATE AND NATURE OF WOMEN INJURIES IN STEP AEROBICS

    OpenAIRE

    Gholam Ali Ghasemi; Vahid Zolaktaf; Fereshteh Kazemi

    2011-01-01

    Step aerobics is a form of aerobic exercise that utilizes a 90×45×20 centimeter platform. ItsInternational competitions are held annually. This sport is popular in Iranian specialist femalesport clubs and its national competitions are growing gradually. The purpose of this survey wasto determine the rate and nature of sport injury in Iranian athletes of step aerobics. Weadministered a structured interview using a modified version of standard questionnaire of"Aerobics Pathology". The populatio...

  10. Reflections on Psychotherapy and Aerobic Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Wade

    This document provides a series of reflections by a practicing psychologist on the uses of aerobic workouts in psychotherapy. Two case histories are cited to illustrate the contention that the mode of exercise, rather than simply its presence or absence, is the significant indicator of a patient's emotional well-being or psychopathology. The first…

  11. Glycogen metabolism in aerobic mixed cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dircks, Klaus; Beun, J.J.; van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.;

    2001-01-01

    In this study, the metabolism of glycogen storage and consumption in mixed cultures under aerobic conditions is described. The experimental results are used to calibrate a metabolic model, which as sole stoichiometric variables has the efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation (delta) and maintenan...

  12. Mechanism of and relation between the sorption and desorption of nonylphenol on black carbon-inclusive sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correlation between the sorption and desorption of nonylphenol (NP) and binary linear regression were conducted to reveal the underlying mechanism of and relation between sorption domains and desorption sites in black carbon (BC)-amended sediment. The sorption and desorption data could be fitted well using dual-mode (R2 = 0.971–0.996) and modified two-domain model (R2 = 0.986–0.995), respectively, and there were good correlations between these two parts of parameters (R2 = 0.884–0.939, P < 0.01). The NP percentage in desorbable fraction was almost equal to that of the partition fraction, suggesting the desorbed NP came from linear partition domain, whereas the resistant desorption NP was segregated in nonlinear adsorption sites, which were dominated by pores in BC-amended sediment. Our investigation refined theory about the relation between sorption domains and desorption sites in sediment and could be used to predict the release risk of NP using sorption data when BC is used for NP pollution control. - Highlights: • Modified two-domain model fits kinetic data of NP desorbed from BC-sediment well. • NP of partition domain can desorb, but NP of adsorption domain resists desorbing. • Pore of BC is responsible for the nonlinear adsorption of NP in sediment. • The release risk of NP from BC-sediment could be predicted by sorption data. • The study perfects theory of relation between sorption domain and desorption site. - NP in partition domain can desorb, but NP in adsorption domain resists desorbing, and the release risk of NP could be predicted by sorption data in BC-amended sediment

  13. Nonylphenol polyethoxylate adjuvant mitigates the reproductive toxicity of fomesafen on the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis in outdoor experimental ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumel, Audrey; Coutellec, Marie-Agnès; Cravedi, Jean-Pierre; Lagadic, Laurent

    2002-09-01

    The influence of nonylphenol polyethoxylates (NPEO), formulated as the adjuvant Agral 90, on the effects of the diphenyl ether herbicide fomesafen in the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis was investigated, with particular attention to the reproductive performances and underlying energetic and hormonal processes. Separate short-term exposures to low concentrations of fomesafen and fomesafen-Agral mixture were performed in the laboratory. Outdoor experimental ponds (mesocosms) were used for long-term exposures to higher chemical concentrations. At the concentrations used in the studies, NPEO were known as nontoxic in L stagnalis. Fomesafen was mixed with the adjuvant in the 3:7 ratio recommended for agricultural uses (nominal herbicide concentrations of 22 and 40 microg/L in laboratory and mesocosm, respectively). In mesocosms, multiple application of fomesafen, leading to maximal herbicide concentrations of 60.33 +/- 2.68 microg/L in water, resulted in reduced number of egg masses and altered glycogen metabolism in contaminated snails. These changes, as well as affected steroid-like levels in fomesafen-exposed snails, support the hypothesis of impaired neuroendocrine functions. When Agral 90 was added to the herbicide, results obtained in mesocosms showed that the adjuvant softened the impact of fomesafen. In mesocosms treated with the fomesafen-Agral mixture, significantly lower herbicide levels were found in the water (30.33 +/- 14.91 microg/L at the end of the contamination period). Consequently, internal exposure of the snails to fomesafen was reduced when the herbicide was mixed with the adjuvant. Mitigation of the effects of fomesafen by the adjuvant may therefore result from nonionic surfactant activity of NPEO that prevented fomesafen from reaching the snails.

  14. Isomer-specific analysis of nonylphenols with estrogenic activity and their distribution in aquatic environment in relation to endocrine disrupters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Y.S.; Katase, T.; Inoue, T. [Nihon Univ., Fujisawa, Kanagawa (Japan). College of Bioresource Sciences; Horii, Y.; Yamashita, N. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Makino, M.; Uchiyama, T.; Fujimoto, Y. [Nihon Univ., Chiba (Japan). College of Pharmacy

    2004-09-15

    The effect of estrogen-exposure on levels of a larval storage protein of Balanus amphitrite, cypris major protein (CMP), which is related to barnacle vitellin, has been examined at low concentrations (0.01-1.0 {mu}g/l) of 4-nonylphenol (NP) and 17{beta}-estradiol (E2) (1.0 {mu}g/l) from egg hatching until the nauplius cypris stage. Eventually, the exposure to 0.01 {mu}g/l of NP led to a ca. 50% increase in the optical density of the CMP. There are theoretically ca. 170 kinds of isomers of NP, based on the structure of the nonyl side chain in NP. We fractionated a commercial NP by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to give six fractions (Fr. 1- Fr. 6). Fr. 3 - Fr. 5 were further separated to afford 14 fractions by using gas chromatograph equipped with a preparative fraction collector (GC-PFC) and 11 NP isomers were identified by gas chromatograph equipped with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). The chemical structures of 11 isomers (NP1 to NP14) were characterized and estrogenicities of the selected isomers were tested in recombinant yeast screen system. The 4-(1,1-dimethyl-2-ethyl-pentyl)- phenol (NP7) was found to exhibit the highest estrogenic activity corresponding to 1.9 x 10{sup -3} that of E2. The NP4 and 6 were structurally in diastereomer. The individual isomer of NP in aquatic samples taken from Ariake Sea and Tokyo, Japan was analyzed by steam distillation extraction in the present study.

  15. Nonylphenol Toxicity Evaluation and Discovery of Biomarkers in Rat Urine by a Metabolomics Strategy through HPLC-QTOF-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Xin Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nonylphenol (NP was quantified using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS in the urine and plasma of rats treated with 0, 50, and 250 mg/kg/day of NP for four consecutive days. A urinary metabolomic strategy was originally implemented by high performance liquid chromatography time of flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-QTOF-MS to explore the toxicological effects of NP and determine the overall alterations in the metabolite profiles so as to find potential biomarkers. It is essential to point out that from the observation, the metabolic data were clearly clustered and separated for the three groups. To further identify differentiated metabolites, multivariate analysis, including principal component analysis (PCA, orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA, high-resolution MS/MS analysis, as well as searches of Metlin and Massbank databases, were conducted on a series of metabolites between the control and dose groups. Finally, five metabolites, including glycine, glycerophosphocholine, 5-hydroxytryptamine, malonaldehyde (showing an upward trend, and tryptophan (showing a downward trend, were identified as the potential urinary biomarkers of NP-induced toxicity. In order to validate the reliability of these potential biomarkers, an independent validation was performed by using the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM-based targeted approach. The oxidative stress reflected by urinary 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG levels was elevated in individuals highly exposed to NP, supporting the hypothesis that mitochondrial dysfunction was a result of xenoestrogen accumulation. This study reveals a promising approach to find biomarkers to assist researchers in monitoring NP.

  16. Biochemical and morphological changes in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells induced by treatment of rats with p-Nonylphenol

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    Mohammad Hossein Abnosi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:In previous investigations, we have shown para-nonylphenol (p-NP caused significant reduction of proliferation and differentiation of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs in vitro. In this study, we first treat the rats with p-NP, then carried out the biochemical and morphological studies on MSCs. Materials and Methods: Proliferation property of cells was evaluated with the help of MTT assay, trypan blue, population doubling number, and colony forming assay. Differentiation property was evaluated with quantitative alizarin red assay, measurement of alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity as well as intracellular calcium content. In addition; morphological study, TUNEL test, activated caspase assay, and comet assay were performed to evaluate the mechanism of the cell death. Results: The results showed significant reduction in the colony-forming-ability and population-doubling-number of extracted cells when compared to control ones. In addition, it was revealed that the p-NP treatment of rats caused significant reduction in nuclear diameter, cytoplasm shrinkage, and induction of caspase-dependent-apoptosis. Also there was significant reduction in ALP activity, intracellular calcium content, and intracellular matrix following osteogenic differentiation. Conclusion: As MSCs are the cellular back up for bone remodeling and repair, we suggest more investigations to be conducted regarding the correlation between the increasing number of patients suffering from osteoporosis and p-NP toxicity. Also, we strongly recommend WHO and local health organization to prevent industries of using p-NP in formulation of industrial products which may cause changes in proliferation and differentiation properties of stem cells.

  17. Anaerobic/aerobic treatment of selected azo dyes in wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seshadri, S.; Bishop, P.L. (Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering); Agha, A.M. (Univ. of Aleppo (Syrian Arab Republic). Faculty of Civil Engineering)

    1994-01-01

    Azo dyes represent the largest class of dyes in use today. Current environmental concern with these dyes revolves around the potential carcinogenic health risk presented by these dyes or their intermediate biodegradation products when exposed to microflora in the human digestive tract. These dyes may build up in the environment, since many wastewater treatment plants allow these dyes to pass through the system virtually untreated. The initial step in the degradation of these dyes is the cleavage of the Azo bond. This cleavage is often impossible under aerobic conditions, but has been readily demonstrated under anaerobic conditions. The focus of the study was to determine the feasibility of using an anaerobic fluidized-bed reactor to accomplish this cleavage. The effects of typical process variables such as hydraulic retention time (HRT), influent dye concentration levels, and degree of bed fluidization on removal efficiencies were also studied. The four dyes selected for this study were Acid-Orange 7, Acid-Orange 8, Acid-Orange 10, and Acid-Red 14. The effectiveness of using a bench-scale-activated sludge reactor as a sequenced second stage was also examined. Results indicate that nearly complete cleavage of the Azo bond is easily accomplished for each of the four dyes under hydraulic retention times of either 12 or 24 h. Initial results indicate, though, that aromatic amine by-products remain. The sequenced second stage was able to remove the remaining Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) load to acceptable levels. Work is presently underway to determine the face of the anaerobic by-products in the aerobic second stage.

  18. Physical injury stimulates aerobic methane emissions from terrestrial plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.-P. Wang

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Physical injury is common in terrestrial plants as a result of grazing, harvesting, trampling, and extreme weather events. Previous studies demonstrated enhanced emission of non-microbial CH4 under aerobic conditions from plant tissues when they were exposed to increasing UV radiation and temperature. Since physical injury is also a form of environmental stress, we sought to determine whether it would also affect CH4 emissions from plants. Physical injury (cutting stimulated CH4 emission from fresh twigs of Artemisia species under aerobic conditions. More cutting resulted in more CH4 emissions. Hypoxia also enhanced CH4 emission from both uncut and cut Artemisia frigida twigs. Physical injury typically results in cell wall degradation, which may either stimulate formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS or decrease scavenging of them. Increased ROS activity might explain increased CH4 emission in response to physical injury and other forms of stress. There were significant differences in CH4 emissions among 10 species of Artemisia, with some species emitting no detectable CH4 under any circumstances. Consequently, CH4 emissions may be species-dependent and therefore difficult to estimate in nature based on total plant biomass. Our results and those of previous studies suggest that a variety of environmental stresses stimulate CH4 emission from a wide variety of plant species. Global change processes, including climate change, depletion of stratospheric ozone, increasing ground-level ozone, spread of plant pests, and land-use changes, could cause more stress in plants on a global scale, potentially stimulating more CH4 emission globally.

  19. Physical injury stimulates aerobic methane emissions from terrestrial plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.-P. Wang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical injury is common in terrestrial plants as a result of grazing, trampling, and extreme weather events. Previous studies demonstrated enhanced emission of non-microbial CH4 under aerobic conditions from plant tissues when they were exposed to increasing UV radiation and temperature. Since physical injury is also a form of environmental stress, we sought to determine whether it would also affect CH4 emissions from plants. Physical injury (cutting stimulated CH4 emission from fresh twigs of Artemisiaspecies under aerobic conditions. More cutting resulted in more CH4 emissions. Hypoxia also enhanced CH4 emission from both uncut and cut Artemisia frigida twigs. Physical injury typically results in cell wall degradation, which may either stimulate formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS or decrease scavenging of them. Increased ROS activity might explain increased CH4 emission in response to physical injury and other forms of stress. There were significant differences in CH4 emissions among 10 species of Artemisia, with some species emitting no detectable CH4 under any circumstances. Consequently, CH4 emissions may be species-dependent and therefore difficult to estimate in nature based on total plant biomass. Our results and those of previous studies suggest that a variety environmental stresses stimulate CH4 emission from a wide variety of plant species. Global change processes, including climate change, depletion of stratospheric ozone, increasing ground-level ozone, spread of plant pests, and land-use changes, could cause more stress in plants on a global scale, potentially stimulating more CH4 emission globally.

  20. EFFECTS OF AQUA AEROBICS AND FLOOR AEROBICS ON BREATH HOLDING TIME AMONG SCHOOL GIRLS

    OpenAIRE

    P.V. Shelvam; S. Arunadevi

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to find out the effects of aqua aerobics and floor aerobics on breath holding time among school girls. To achieve this purpose of the study, ninety school girls were selected as subjects who were studied Cornation Higher Secondary School, Sivakasi. The selected subjects were aged between 15 to 17 years. The selected subjects were randomly divided into three groups of 30 subjects each group. Group one acted as experimental group I and group two acted as experimenta...

  1. Binary Interactions of Antagonistic Bacteria with Candida albicans Under Aerobic and Anaerobic Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benadé, Eliska; Stone, Wendy; Mouton, Marnel; Postma, Ferdinand; Wilsenach, Jac; Botha, Alfred

    2016-04-01

    We used both aerobic and anaerobic liquid co-cultures, prepared with Luria Bertani broth, to study the effect of bacteria on the survival of Candida albicans in the external environment, away from an animal host. The bacteria were represented by Aeromonas hydrophila, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Clostridium, Enterobacter, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Kluyvera ascorbata and Serratia marcescens. Under aerobic conditions, the yeast's growth was inhibited in the presence of bacterial growth; however, under anaerobic conditions, yeast and bacterial growth in co-cultures was similar to that observed for pure cultures. Subsequent assays revealed that the majority of bacterial strains aerobically produced extracellular hydrolytic enzymes capable of yeast cell wall hydrolysis, including chitinases and mannan-degrading enzymes. In contrast, except for the A. hydrophila strain, these enzymes were not detected in anaerobic bacterial cultures, nor was the antimicrobial compound prodigiosin found in anaerobic cultures of S. marcescens. When we suspended C. albicans cells in crude extracellular enzyme preparations from K. pneumoniae and S. marcescens, we detected no negative effect on yeast viability. However, we found that these preparations enhance the toxicity of prodigiosin towards the yeast, especially in combination with mannan-degrading enzymes. Analyses of the chitin and mannan content of yeast cell walls revealed that less chitin was produced under anaerobic than aerobic conditions; however, the levels of mannan, known for its low permeability, remained the same. The latter phenomenon, as well as reduced production of the bacterial enzymes and prodigiosin, may contribute to anaerobic growth and survival of C. albicans in the presence of bacteria. PMID:26566932

  2. Hypertrophy-Promoting Effects of Leucine Supplementation and Moderate Intensity Aerobic Exercise in Pre-Senescent Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Zhi; Cholewa, Jason; Zhao, Yan; Yang, Yue-Qin; Shang, Hua-Yu; Guimarães-Ferreira, Lucas; Naimo, Marshall Alan; Su, Quan-Sheng; Zanchi, Nelo Eidy

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have indicated a positive influence of leucine supplementation and aerobic training on the aging skeletal muscle signaling pathways that control muscle protein balance and muscle remodeling. However, the effect of a combined intervention requires further clarification. Thirteen month old CD-1(®) mice were subjected to moderate aerobic exercise (45 min swimming per day with 3% body weight workload) and fed a chow diet with 5% leucine or 3.4% alanine for 8 weeks. Serum and plasma were prepared for glucose, urea nitrogen, insulin and amino acid profile analysis. The white gastrocnemius muscles were used for determination of muscle size and signaling proteins involved in protein synthesis and degradation. The results show that both 8 weeks of leucine supplementation and aerobic training elevated the activity of mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) and its downstream target p70S6K and 4E-BP1, inhibited the ubiquitin-proteasome system, and increased fiber cross-sectional area (CSA) in white gastrocnemius muscle. Moreover, leucine supplementation in combination with exercise demonstrated more significant effects, such as greater CSA, protein content and altered phosphorylation (suggestive of increased activity) of protein synthesis signaling proteins, in addition to lower expression of proteins involved in protein degradation compared to leucine or exercise alone. The current study shows moderate aerobic training combined with 5% leucine supplementation has the potential to increase muscle size in fast-twitch skeletal muscle during aging, potentially through increased protein synthesis and decreased protein breakdown. PMID:27144582

  3. Hypertrophy-Promoting Effects of Leucine Supplementation and Moderate Intensity Aerobic Exercise in Pre-Senescent Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Xia

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have indicated a positive influence of leucine supplementation and aerobic training on the aging skeletal muscle signaling pathways that control muscle protein balance and muscle remodeling. However, the effect of a combined intervention requires further clarification. Thirteen month old CD-1® mice were subjected to moderate aerobic exercise (45 min swimming per day with 3% body weight workload and fed a chow diet with 5% leucine or 3.4% alanine for 8 weeks. Serum and plasma were prepared for glucose, urea nitrogen, insulin and amino acid profile analysis. The white gastrocnemius muscles were used for determination of muscle size and signaling proteins involved in protein synthesis and degradation. The results show that both 8 weeks of leucine supplementation and aerobic training elevated the activity of mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin and its downstream target p70S6K and 4E-BP1, inhibited the ubiquitin-proteasome system, and increased fiber cross-sectional area (CSA in white gastrocnemius muscle. Moreover, leucine supplementation in combination with exercise demonstrated more significant effects, such as greater CSA, protein content and altered phosphorylation (suggestive of increased activity of protein synthesis signaling proteins, in addition to lower expression of proteins involved in protein degradation compared to leucine or exercise alone. The current study shows moderate aerobic training combined with 5% leucine supplementation has the potential to increase muscle size in fast-twitch skeletal muscle during aging, potentially through increased protein synthesis and decreased protein breakdown.

  4. Adsorption and degradation of five selected antibiotics in agricultural soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Min; Chu, L M

    2016-03-01

    Large quantities of antibiotics are being added to agricultural fields worldwide through the application of wastewater, manures and biosolids, resulting in antibiotic contamination and elevated environmental risks in terrestrial environments. Most studies on the environmental fate of antibiotics focus on aquatic environments or wastewater treatment plants. Little is known about the behavior of antibiotics at environmentally relevant concentrations in agricultural soil. In this study we evaluated the adsorption and degradation of five different antibiotics (tetracycline, sulfamethazine, norfloxacin, erythromycin, and chloramphenicol) in sterilized and non-sterilized agricultural soils under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Adsorption was highest for tetracycline (Kd, 1093 L/kg), while that for sulfamethazine was negligible (Kd, 1.365 L/kg). All five antibiotics were susceptible to microbial degradation under aerobic conditions, with half-lives ranging from 2.9 to 43.3 d in non-sterilized soil and 40.8 to 86.6 d in sterilized soil. Degradation occurred at a higher rate under aerobic conditions but was relatively persistent under anaerobic conditions. For all the antibiotics, a higher initial concentration was found to slow down degradation and prolong persistence in soil. The degradation behavior of the antibiotics varied in relation to their physicochemical properties as well as the microbial activities and aeration of the recipient soil. The poor adsorption and relative persistence of sulfamethazine under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions suggest that it may pose a higher risk to groundwater quality. An equation was proposed to predict the fate of antibiotics in soil under different field conditions, and assess their risks to the environment.

  5. 壬基酚水溶液的臭氧氧化研究%Degradation of Nonylphenol in Aqueous Solution by Ozonation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张霞; 冯精兰; 吴峰; 邓南圣

    2009-01-01

    研究了壬基酚(NP)溶液初始浓度、溶液初始pH值、臭氧含量对NP降解的影响.结果表明:在pH值为3.0~9.0范围内,pH初始值越大,NP降解率越高;在5~20 mg/L范围内,臭氧体系对它的降解过程遵循表现1级反应动力学规律,表观降解速率常量kobs为0.473 8 min-1;臭氧含量不同时,NI'的降解速率也不同,臭氧浓度越高,降解也越快.氧化过程中有小分子羧酸类物质生成.HPLC色谱图表明,在氧化过程中,没有含苯环结构中间产物的明显积累,可能是由于中间产物生成的量很少或者是由于这些中间产物易于进一步氧化降解形成对280 nm紫外光没有吸收的产物(如苯环分裂的产物等).

  6. Experimentally nonylphenol-polluted diet induces the expression of silent genes VTG and ER{alpha} in the liver of male lizard Podarcis sicula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verderame, Mariailaria; Prisco, Marina; Andreuccetti, Piero [Department of Biological Sciences, Evolutionary and Comparative Biology Division, University Federico II of Naples, Via Mezzocannone 8, 80134 Naples (Italy); Aniello, Francesco [Department of Biological Sciences, Genetic and Molecular Biology Division, University Federico II of Naples, Via Mezzocannone 8, 80134 Naples (Italy); Limatola, Ermelinda, E-mail: limatola@unina.it [Department of Biological Sciences, Evolutionary and Comparative Biology Division, University Federico II of Naples, Via Mezzocannone 8, 80134 Naples (Italy)

    2011-05-15

    Endocrine Disruptor Chemicals (EDCs) with estrogen-like properties i.e nonylphenol (NP) induce vitellogenin (VTG) synthesis in males of aquatic and semi-aquatic specie. In the oviparous species VTG is a female-specific oestrogen dependent protein. Males are unable to synthesize VTG except after E{sub 2} treatment. This study aimed to verify if NP, administered via food and water, is able to induce the expression of VTG even in males of vertebrates with a terrestrial habitat such as the lizard Podarcis. By means of ICC, ISH, W/B and ELISA we demonstrated that NP induces the presence of VTG in the plasma and its expression in the liver. VTG, undetectable in untreated males, reaches the value of 4.34 {mu}g/{mu}l in the experimental ones. Expression analysis and ISH in the liver showed that an NP-polluted diet also elicits the expression of ER{alpha} in the liver which is known to be related to VTG synthesis in Podarcis. - Highlights: > Nonylphenol (NP) polluted diet induces VTG synthesis in a terrestrial vertebrate. > VTG and ER{alpha} genes are unexpressed in the liver of untreated male lizards Podarcis. > In the liver cells of NP-treated males the expression of both VTG and ER{alpha} occurs. > In treated males VTG synthesis is coupled with ER{alpha} expression as in breeding females. - NP-polluted diet induces the expression of ER{alpha} and VTG in the liver.

  7. Estimación de Parámetros Cinéticos de la Degradación Aeróbica de Efluentes Lácteos usando AQUASIM v 2.1b Estimation of Kinetic Parameters of the Aerobic Degradation of Dairy Wastewater using AQUASIM v 2.1b

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A Rosa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estimaron parámetros cinéticos del mecanismo de biodegradación aeróbica de efluentes lácteos, empleando técnicas de simulación, estimación de parámetros y análisis sensitivo, disponibles en el software Aquasim v 2.1b. Se utilizó un reactor tanque agitado discontinuo de 4 litros de capacidad con inyección de aire permanente. El consumo de sustrato se representó considerando cinética de primer orden en un caso y del tipo de Monod en el otro. Se obtuvo un elevado valor de la constante de Monod, K S, lo cual limitó el análisis a la primera alternativa. Los valores hallados de los parámetros de respiración endógena k d y síntesis celular Y, fueron similares en ambos casos, mientras que el análisis sensitivo determinó parámetros de Monod no identificables. Se concluye que para este caso resulta válida una cinética de primer orden para representar el consumo de sustrato y se destaca la importancia de esta herramienta para efectuar el análisis.The kinetic constants of an aerobic biodegradation mechanism of dairy wastewaters were estimated using techniques of simulation, estimation of parameters and sensitivity analysis, available in the software Aquasim v 2.1b. A discontinuous, agitated reactor, of 4 liters capacity with a permanent air injection was used. Two kinetic models, Monod and first order were considered to represent substrate consumption as a function of time. Due to a high value of Monod's constant, K S, the data analysis was restricted to the first kinetic proposed. The values obtained for the parameters of endogenous breathing k d and cellular synthesis Y, were similar, whereas the sensitivity analysis revealed non-identifying Monod parameters. The importance of this software to carry out the analysis shown above and the validation of the first order kinetic for representing the substrate consumption are two of the most important conclusions of this work.

  8. Anaerobic and aerobic transformations affecting stability of dewatered sludge during long-term storage in a lagoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukicheva, Irina; Tian, Guanglong; Cox, Albert; Granato, Thomas; Pagilla, Krishna

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this work was to study long-term behavior of anaerobically digested and dewatered sludge (biosolids) in a lagoon under anaerobic and aerobic conditions to determine the stability of the final product as an indicator of its odor potential. Field lagoons were sampled to estimate spatial and temporal variations in the physical-chemical properties and biological stability characteristics such as volatile solids content, accumulated oxygen uptake, and soluble protein content and odorous compound assessment. The analyses of collected data suggest that the surface layer of the lagoon (depth of above 0.15 m) undergoes long-term aerobic oxidation resulting in a higher degree of stabilization in the final product. The subsurface layers (depth 0.15 m below the surface and deeper) are subjected to an anaerobic environment where the conditions favor the initial rapid organic matter degradation within approximately the first year, followed by slow degradation. PMID:22368823

  9. Biological treatment of thin-film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) wastewater using aerobic and anoxic/oxic sequencing batch reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Chin-Nan; Whang, Liang-Ming; Chen, Po-Chun

    2010-09-01

    The amount of pollutants produced during manufacturing processes of thin-film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) substantially increases due to an increasing production of the opto-electronic industry in Taiwan. This study presents the treatment performance of one aerobic and one anoxic/oxic (A/O) sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) treating synthetic TFT-LCD wastewater containing dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), monoethanolamine (MEA), and tetra-methyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH). The long-term monitoring results for the aerobic and A/O SBRs demonstrate that stable biodegradation of DMSO, MEA, and TMAH can be achieved without any considerably adverse impacts. The ammonium released during MEA and TMAH degradation can also be completely oxidized to nitrate through nitrification in both SBRs. Batch studies on biodegradation rates for DMSO, MEA, and TMAH under anaerobic, anoxic, and aerobic conditions indicate that effective MEA degradation can be easily achieved under all three conditions examined, while efficient DMSO and TMAH degradation can be attained only under anaerobic and aerobic conditions, respectively. The potential odor problem caused by the formation of malodorous dimethyl sulfide from DMSO degradation under anaerobic conditions, however, requires insightful consideration in treating DMSO-containing wastewater.

  10. Characterization of the molecular degradation mechanism of diphenyl ethers by Cupriavidus sp. WS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng; Bai, Naling; Wang, Bing; Feng, Zhuo; Hutchins, William C; Yang, Ching-Hong; Zhao, Yuhua

    2015-11-01

    Commonly used flame retardants, such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers, are extremely persistent in the environment, causing serious environmental risks. Certain strains of bacteria are able to degrade several low brominated congeners of PBDEs aerobically. However, the aerobic degradation pathway is not yet well understood, particularly at the genetic level. In this study, we isolated Cupriavidus sp. WS from the environment that could degrade diphenyl ether (DE), 4-bromodiphenyl ether, and 4,4'-bromodiphenyl ether. DE was completely degraded in 6 days without any detectable end-product. Using transposon mutagenesis, several DE degradation-deficient mutants were obtained. Knocking out bphA1, bphA2, and bphA3 eliminated the ability of the Cupriavidus sp. WS bacterium to degrade DE, indicating that the bph genes play a crucial role in DE degradation by this strain. The specific roles of bphA, bphB, and bphC were identified by systematically expressing these genes in Escherichia coli. The dihydrodiol product of BphA was dehydrogenated into 2,3-dihydroxydiphenyl ether by BphB. 2,3-Dihydroxydiphenyl ether was then decomposed into phenol and 2-pyrone-6-carboxylic acid by BphC. Thus, BphA, BphB, and BphC act sequentially in the aerobic degradation of DE, 4-bromodiphenyl ether, and 4,4'-dibromodiphenyl ether by the Cupriavidus sp. WS bacterium.

  11. Comparison of bioaugmented EGSB and GAC–FBB reactors and their combination with aerobic SBR for the abatement of chlorophenols

    OpenAIRE

    Puyol, Daniel; Monsalve, Víctor Manuel; Sanchís, Sonia; Sanz, José Luis; Fernández Mohedano, Ángel; Rodríguez, Juan José

    2015-01-01

    The biological abatement of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (246TCP) and its chlorinated degradation byproducts using anaerobic and aerobic biological reactors coupled in series has been studied. The performance of an anaerobic fluidized bed biofilm reactor (FBBR) and expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactors bioaugmented with Desulfitobacterium strains was compared within a wide range of 246TCP loading rates. The bioaugmentation of an EGSB reactor with Desulfitobacterium strains enhanced the chloro...

  12. Experimental evidence for aerobic bio-denitrification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Nitrate pollution of groundwater is paid more and more attention for its hazardous to environments and human health. A strain of DN11 was isolated from soil and used in the laboratory columns filled with various media for nitrate removal. The experimental results showed that DN11could reduce nitrate at different rates in different media under the aerobic condition. The mechanism for nitrate removal with DN11 is explained meanwhile.

  13. Acute effects of aerobic exercise promote learning

    OpenAIRE

    Renza Perini; Marta Bortoletto; Michela Capogrosso; Anna Fertonani; Carlo Miniussi

    2016-01-01

    The benefits that physical exercise confers on cardiovascular health are well known, whereas the notion that physical exercise can also improve cognitive performance has only recently begun to be explored and has thus far yielded only controversial results. In the present study, we used a sample of young male subjects to test the effects that a single bout of aerobic exercise has on learning. Two tasks were run: the first was an orientation discrimination task involving the primary visual cor...

  14. Nitrification and aerobic denitrification in anoxic-aerobic sequencing batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzate Marin, Juan C; Caravelli, Alejandro H; Zaritzky, Noemí E

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of achieving nitrogen (N) removal using a lab-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) exposed to anoxic/aerobic (AN/OX) phases, focusing to achieve aerobic denitrification. This process will minimize emissions of N2O greenhouse gas. The effects of different operating parameters on the reactor performance were studied: cycle duration, AN/OX ratio, pH, dissolved oxygen concentration (DOC), and organic load. The highest inorganic N removal (NiR), close to 70%, was obtained at pH=7.5, low organic load (440mgCOD/(Lday)) and high aeration given by 12h cycle, AN/OX ratio=0.5:1.0 and DOC higher than 4.0mgO2/L. Nitrification followed by high-rate aerobic denitrification took place during the aerobic phase. Aerobic denitrification could be attributed to Tetrad-forming organisms (TFOs) with phenotype of glycogen accumulating organisms using polyhydroxyalkanoate and/or glycogen storage. The proposed AN/OX system constitutes an eco-friendly N removal process providing N2 as the end product. PMID:26512862

  15. 17-Beta estradiol and 4-nonylphenol delay smolt development and downstream migration in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Steffen S; Skovbølling, Søren; Nielsen, Christian; Korsgaard, Bodil

    2004-06-10

    The effect of 17-beta estradiol (E2) and 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) on smoltification and downstream migration of Atlantic salmon was studied in an integrated laboratory and field study. In a stock of hatchery-raised 1-year-old salmon, smoltification progressed from February until late May as judged by increased gill Na+, K+ -ATPase activity and 24 h sea water (SW)-tolerance. Starting late March, three groups of 150 fish were each given 6 serial injections over 20 days of 2 microg/g body weight E2, 120 microg/g 4-NP dissolved in peanut oil or peanut oil (4 microl/g) as control. After the last injection, all fish were individually tagged (Passive Integrated Transponder tags) and a non-lethal gill biopsy was taken. Two days later (8 April), 100 fish per group were transported to the field site and released into a small stream. Smolt migration was registered by measuring arrival time at a trap downstream of the release site. Serum vitellogenin levels increased several-fold in both male and female E2- and 4-NP-treated fish. Overall, E2- and 4-NP-treatment impaired smolting as judged by elevated condition factor, reduced gill Na+, K+ -ATPase activity and alpha-subunit Na+, K+ -ATPase mRNA level, reduced muscle water content and increased mortality following 24 h SW-challenge. After release, control fish initiated downstream migration immediately, with 50% of the total number of migrants appearing in the trap within 10 days. E2- and 4-NP-treated fish appeared in the trap with a delay in comparison to controls of 6 and 8 days, respectively. After the smolt run, no fish were registered by electro-fishing upstream of the trap. The total number of fish reaching the trap and thus post-release survival was in the order control (81%), E2 (53%), 4-NP (12%). Representatives from all treatment groups held under simulated natural conditions in the laboratory survived 100% through the migration period, suggesting that a combination of behavioural and in-stream factors (predation by herons

  16. Simultaneous heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification at high initial phenol concentration by isolated bacterium Diaphorobacter sp. PD-7

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qilong Ge; Xiuping Yue; Guoying Wang

    2015-01-01

    A strain capable of phenol degradation, heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification was isolated from activated sludge of coking-plant wastewater ponds under aerobic condition. Based on its morphology, physiology, biochemical analysis and phylogenetic characteristics, the isolate was identified as Diaphorobacter sp. PD-7. Biodegradation tests of phenol showed that the maximum phenol degradation occurred at the late phase of exponential growth stages, with 1400 mg·L-1 phenol completely degraded within 85 h. Diaphorobacter sp. PD-7 accumulated a vast quantity of phenol hydroxylase in this physiological phase, ensuring that the cel s quickly utilize phenol as a sole carbon and energy source. The kinetic behavior of Diaphorobacter sp. PD-7 in batch cultures was investigated over a wide range of initial phenol concentrations (0–1400 mg·L-1) by using the Haldane model, which adequately describes the dynamic behavior of phenol biodegradation by strain Diaphorobacter sp. PD-7. At initial phenol concentration of 1400 mg·L-1, batch experiments (0.25 L flask) of nitrogen removal under aerobic condition gave almost entirely removal of 120.69 mg·L-1 ammonium nitrogen within 75 h, while nitrate nitrogen removal reached 91%within 65 h. Moreover, hydroxylamine oxidase, periplasmic nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase were successful y expressed in the isolate.

  17. Anaerobic microbial degradation of organochlorine insecticides Aldrin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, T.C.; Yen, J.H.; Wang, Y.S. [National Taiwan Univ. (Taiwan)

    2004-09-15

    Aldrin (1,2,3,4,10,10-hexachloro-1,4,4a,5,8,8a-hexahydro-1,4-endo-exo-5,8-dimethanonnaphthalene), a cyclodiene organochlorine insecticide, was banned by nations and classified as B2 carcinogen by United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Because of its chemical stability and lipophilicity, aldrin is regarded as a persistent and recalcitrant compound. Aldrin is easily adsorbed to soil and sediment after spreading to the environments, furthermore, it may be accumulated in animal's tissue or milk and then cause adverse effects by food-chain. The dissipation process of aldrin in environments has continuously been paid much attention by researchers. In general, the dissipation of aldrin has been thought as relating to three mechanisms: photo-degradation, chemical hydrolysis, and microbial degradation. And it has been well known that microbial degradation is the most important agent for breakdown of organochlorine pesticides. There has been shown that aldrin could be transformed to its metabolites, such as dieldrin or photo-dieldrin, by microorganisms under aerobic conditions, however, limited information has been shown under anaerobic conditions. For this reason, the degradation potential of aldrin by anaerobic microorganisms obtained from indigenous river sediment was evaluated, and the effect of environmental factors such as temperatures and nutrients on the aldrin degradation was also investigated in this study.

  18. Stable carbon isotope fractionation in chlorinated ethene degradation by bacteria expressing three toluene oxygenases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott eClingenpeel

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available One difficulty in using bioremediation at a contaminated site is demonstrating that biodegradation is actually occurring in situ. The stable isotope composition of contaminants may help with this, since they can serve as an indicator of biological activity. To use this approach it is necessary to establish how a particular biodegradation pathway affects the isotopic composition of a contaminant. This study examined bacterial strains expressing three aerobic enzymes for their effect on the 13C/12C ratio when degrading both trichloroethene (TCE and cis-1,2-dichloroethene (c-DCE: toluene 3-monoxygenase, toluene 4-monooxygenase, and toluene 2,3-dioxygenase. We found no significant differences in fractionation among the three enzymes for either compound. Aerobic degradation of c-DCE occurred with low fractionation producing δ13C enrichment factors of -0.9±0.5 to -1.2±0.5, in contrast to reported anaerobic degradation δ13C enrichment factors of -14.1‰ to -20.4‰. Aerobic degradation of TCE resulted in δ13C enrichment factors of -11.6±4.1‰ to -14.7±3.0‰ which overlap reported δ13C enrichment factors for anaerobic TCE degradation of -2.5‰ to -13.8‰. The data from this study suggest that stable isotopes could serve as a diagnostic for detecting aerobic biodegradation of TCE by toluene oxygenases at contaminated sites.

  19. Impact of intermittent aerations on leachate quality and greenhouse gas reduction in the aerobic-anaerobic landfill method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, Mitali; Shimaoka, Takayuki; Komiya, Teppei

    2016-09-01

    The aerobic-anaerobic landfill method (AALM) is a novel approach in solid waste management that could shorten the landfill post-closure period and minimize the environmental loads. In this study, the aerobic-anaerobic landfill method was evaluated by using intermittent aeration. In addition, the nitrification-denitrification process was assessed as a means of reducing the emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and improving the leachate quality during the degradation of the organic solid waste. The leachate quality and the gas composition in each of the reactors were measured during the experimental period (408days). The aeration process entailed the injection of air into plexiglass cylinders (200cm height×10 cm diameter), filled with fresh organic solid waste collected from a composting plant. Different aeration routines were applied, namely, continuous aeration (aerobic reactor A), aeration for three days/week (aerobic-anaerobic reactor B), aeration for 6h/day (aerobic-anaerobic reactor C), and no aeration (non-aerated reactor D). It was found that aerobic reactor A produced the best results in terms of reduction of GHGs and improvement of the leachate quality. The aerobic-anaerobic reactor C was found to be more effective than reactor B in respect of both the emission of GHGs and the leachate quality; moreover, compared with aerobic reactor A, energy costs were reduced by operating this reactor. The transition period phenomenon was investigated during an intensive seven-day experiment conducted on the discharged leachate obtained from aerobic-anaerobic reactors B and C. The experiment concerned the differences in the composition of the gas during the aeration and the non-aeration periods. It was found that the transition period between the aeration and non-aeration cycles, which followed the simultaneous nitrification-denitrification had a considerable effect on the leachate quality of both the reactors. The results indicated that AALM has the potential to reduce

  20. Impact of intermittent aerations on leachate quality and greenhouse gas reduction in the aerobic-anaerobic landfill method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, Mitali; Shimaoka, Takayuki; Komiya, Teppei

    2016-09-01

    The aerobic-anaerobic landfill method (AALM) is a novel approach in solid waste management that could shorten the landfill post-closure period and minimize the environmental loads. In this study, the aerobic-anaerobic landfill method was evaluated by using intermittent aeration. In addition, the nitrification-denitrification process was assessed as a means of reducing the emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and improving the leachate quality during the degradation of the organic solid waste. The leachate quality and the gas composition in each of the reactors were measured during the experimental period (408days). The aeration process entailed the injection of air into plexiglass cylinders (200cm height×10 cm diameter), filled with fresh organic solid waste collected from a composting plant. Different aeration routines were applied, namely, continuous aeration (aerobic reactor A), aeration for three days/week (aerobic-anaerobic reactor B), aeration for 6h/day (aerobic-anaerobic reactor C), and no aeration (non-aerated reactor D). It was found that aerobic reactor A produced the best results in terms of reduction of GHGs and improvement of the leachate quality. The aerobic-anaerobic reactor C was found to be more effective than reactor B in respect of both the emission of GHGs and the leachate quality; moreover, compared with aerobic reactor A, energy costs were reduced by operating this reactor. The transition period phenomenon was investigated during an intensive seven-day experiment conducted on the discharged leachate obtained from aerobic-anaerobic reactors B and C. The experiment concerned the differences in the composition of the gas during the aeration and the non-aeration periods. It was found that the transition period between the aeration and non-aeration cycles, which followed the simultaneous nitrification-denitrification had a considerable effect on the leachate quality of both the reactors. The results indicated that AALM has the potential to reduce

  1. Auto heated Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion of sewage sludge; Digestion aerobia termofila autosostenida de lodos urbanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia de las Heras, J. L.; Gutierrez, I.

    2002-07-01

    Auto heated Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion (ATAD) is one of the most promising technologies for applying the digested sludge to soil amendment. The system was studied in the 60's and developed mostly in Europe since the 70's. The full-scale facilities improvement ran in parallel to the scientific and legislative worry about the presence of pathogenic organisms both in the raw and the digested sewage sludge. ATAD is usually a two stage aerobic process working in the thermophilic temperature range (40 to 80 degree centigree) without any external heat source; the heat produced by the biochemical exergonic reactions during the aerobic degradation of the organic sludge holds the desired temperature values. A comparison of this system with the existing anaerobic stabilisation processes shows as main advantages a high hygienization capacity, small reactor volume for the same organic loading, is resistant to overloading and temperature shocks, is easily manageable, and is economically feasible for small.medium size populations. This process is specially suitable to fulfill the law requirements imposed by the most demanding countries regarding the application of treated sewage sludge to soil improvement. (Author) 19 refs.

  2. Role of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in micropollutant removal from wastewater with aerobic granular sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margot, Jonas; Lochmatter, Samuel; Barry, D A; Holliger, Christof

    2016-01-01

    Nitrifying wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are more efficient than non-nitrifying WWTPs to remove several micropollutants such as pharmaceuticals and pesticides. This may be related to the activity of nitrifying organisms, such as ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOBs), which could possibly co-metabolically oxidize micropollutants with their ammonia monooxygenase (AMO). The role of AOBs in micropollutant removal was investigated with aerobic granular sludge (AGS), a promising technology for municipal WWTPs. Two identical laboratory-scale AGS sequencing batch reactors (AGS-SBRs) were operated with or without nitrification (inhibition of AMOs) to assess their potential for micropollutant removal. Of the 36 micropollutants studied at 1 μg l(-1) in synthetic wastewater, nine were over 80% removed, but 17 were eliminated by less than 20%. Five substances (bisphenol A, naproxen, irgarol, terbutryn and iohexol) were removed better in the reactor with nitrification, probably due to co-oxidation catalysed by AMOs. However, for the removal of all other micropollutants, AOBs did not seem to play a significant role. Many compounds were better removed in aerobic condition, suggesting that aerobic heterotrophic organisms were involved in the degradation. As the AGS-SBRs did not favour the growth of such organisms, their potential for micropollutant removal appeared to be lower than that of conventional nitrifying WWTPs. PMID:26877039

  3. Taxonomic characterization of the cellulose-degrading bacterium NCIB 10462

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dees, C.; Ringleberg, D.; Scott, T.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Phelps, T. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1994-06-01

    The gram negative cellulase-producing bacterium NCIB 10462 has been previously named Pseudomonas fluorescens subsp. or var. cellulosa. Since there is renewed interest in cellulose-degrading bacteria for use in bioconversion of cellulose to chemical feed stocks and fuels, we re-examined the characteristics of this microorganism to determine its proper taxonomic characterization and to further define it`s true metabolic potential. Metabolic and physical characterization of NCIB 10462 revealed that this was an alkalophilic, non-fermentative, gram negative, oxidase positive, motile, cellulose-degrading bacterium. The aerobic substrate utilization profile of this bacterium was found to have few characteristics consistent with a classification of P. fluorescens with a very low probability match with the genus Sphingomonas. Total lipid analysis did not reveal that any sphingolipid bases are produced by this bacterium. NCIB 10462 was found to grow best aerobically but also grows well in complex media under reducing conditions. NCIB 10462 grew slowly under full anaerobic conditions on complex media but growth on cellulosic media was found only under aerobic conditions. Total fatty acid analysis (MIDI) of NCIB 10462 failed to group this bacterium with a known pseudomonas species. However, fatty acid analysis of the bacteria when grown at temperatures below 37{degrees}C suggest that the organism is a pseudomonad. Since a predominant characteristic of this bacterium is it`s ability to degrade cellulose, we suggest it be called Pseudomonas cellulosa.

  4. Weed competitiveness and yielding ability of aerobic rice genotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, D.L.

    2006-01-01

    Keywords:    Broad-sense heritability; Crop vigour; Genetic correlation; Indirect selection index; Plant erectness; Rice germplasm; Seeding rate; Vegetative growth; Weed-suppressive ability.Aerobic rice, grown under aerobic soil conditions like maize or wheat, is an innovative way to cope with the growing demand for rice and the increasing water scarcity. Weeds are the most severe constraint to aerobic rice. The use of herbicides causes environmental pollution and induces the proliferation of...

  5. Perfection aerobic possibilities of athletes in sport dance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Bo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The organized analysis to functions of the aerobic metabolism of the sport dancers. They are determined reduced components of the aerobic metabolism of partners (male and female. The motivated directivity of the training means and program for development component of the aerobic functions skilled athlete in sport dance. It is proved that loading that is used in training process by sport dances must have a character of cardiorespiratory system.

  6. Micropollutants removal in an anaerobic membrane bioreactor and in an aerobic conventional treatment plant

    OpenAIRE

    Agargues Llamas, Miguel Rafael; Robles Martínez, Ángel; Bouzas Blanco, Alberto; SECO TORRECILLAS, AURORA

    2012-01-01

    The paper expresses an attempt to tackle the problem due to the presence of micropollutants in wastewater which may be able to disrupt the endocrine system of some organisms. These kinds of compounds are ubiquitously present in municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents. The aim of this paper is to compare the fate of the alkylphenols-APs (4-(tert-octyl)) phenol, t-nonylphenol and 4-p-nonylphenol and the hormones (estrone, 17ß-estradiol and 17¿-ethinylestradiol) in a submerged anae...

  7. Degradation kinetics and products of triazophos in intertidal sediment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Kun-de; YUAN Dong-xing

    2005-01-01

    This work presents laboratory studies on the degradation of triazophos in intertidal sediment. The overall degradations were found to follow the first-order decay model. After being incubated for 6 d, the percentage of degradations of triazophos in unsterilized and sterilized sediments were 94.5% and 20.5%, respectively. Between the temperatures of 15℃ and 35℃, the observed degradation rate constant( kobsd ) enhanced as the incubation temperature increased. Triazophos in sediment degraded faster under aerobic condition than under anaerobic one. The water content of sediment had little influence on the degradation when it was in the range of 50%-100%. The values of kobsd decreased with increasing initial concentration of triazophos in sediment, which could result from the microorganism inhibition by triazophos. Four major degradation products, o, o-diethyl phosphorothioic acid, monoethyl phosphorothioic acid, phosphorothioic acid,and 1-phenyl-3-hydroxy-1,2,4-triazole, were tentatively identified as their corresponding trimethylsilyl derivatives with a gas chromatography-mass spectrometer. The possible degradation pathway of triazophos in intertidal sediment was proposed. The results revealed that triazophos in intertidal sediment was relatively unstable and could be easily degraded.

  8. Delineation of Steroid-Degrading Microorganisms through Comparative Genomic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee H. Bergstrand

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Steroids are ubiquitous in natural environments and are a significant growth substrate for microorganisms. Microbial steroid metabolism is also important for some pathogens and for biotechnical applications. This study delineated the distribution of aerobic steroid catabolism pathways among over 8,000 microorganisms whose genomes are available in the NCBI RefSeq database. Combined analysis of bacterial, archaeal, and fungal genomes with both hidden Markov models and reciprocal BLAST identified 265 putative steroid degraders within only Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria, which mainly originated from soil, eukaryotic host, and aquatic environments. These bacteria include members of 17 genera not previously known to contain steroid degraders. A pathway for cholesterol degradation was conserved in many actinobacterial genera, particularly in members of the Corynebacterineae, and a pathway for cholate degradation was conserved in members of the genus Rhodococcus. A pathway for testosterone and, sometimes, cholate degradation had a patchy distribution among Proteobacteria. The steroid degradation genes tended to occur within large gene clusters. Growth experiments confirmed bioinformatic predictions of steroid metabolism capacity in nine bacterial strains. The results indicate there was a single ancestral 9,10-seco-steroid degradation pathway. Gene duplication, likely in a progenitor of Rhodococcus, later gave rise to a cholate degradation pathway. Proteobacteria and additional Actinobacteria subsequently obtained a cholate degradation pathway via horizontal gene transfer, in some cases facilitated by plasmids. Catabolism of steroids appears to be an important component of the ecological niches of broad groups of Actinobacteria and individual species of Proteobacteria.

  9. Research on aerobics classes influence on physical prepareduess of students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasulia M. А.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Physical skills of female students doing aerobics have been studied. 165 female students aged 17-18 divided into three groups of 55 each have taken part in the experiment. Groups have been trained according to different methods conventionally called 'power aerobics', 'dance aerobics' and 'jump aerobics'. Level of female students' physical skills has been determined by the results of seven tests in the beginning of an academic year and after six-months term. Mathematical treatment of the results has been carried out. The most preferable as to improving physical skills level method has been discovered to be the one aimed on power abilities development method.

  10. Aerobic capacity related to cardiac size in young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, M; Wollmer, P; Karlsson, M;

    2013-01-01

    Aerobic capacity, defined as peak oxygen uptake (VO2PEAK), is generally considered to be the best single marker for aerobic fitness. We assessed if VO2PEAK is related to different cardiac dimensions in healthy young children on a population base.......Aerobic capacity, defined as peak oxygen uptake (VO2PEAK), is generally considered to be the best single marker for aerobic fitness. We assessed if VO2PEAK is related to different cardiac dimensions in healthy young children on a population base....

  11. Biodegradation of Reactive blue 13 in a two-stage anaerobic/aerobic fluidized beds system with a Pseudomonas sp. isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jun; Zhang, Xingwang; Li, Zhongjian; Lei, Lecheng

    2010-01-01

    Pseudomonas sp. strain L1 capable of degrading the azo textile dye Reactive blue 13, was isolated from activated sludge in a sequencing batch reactor. A continuous two-stage anaerobic/aerobic biological fluidized bed system was used to decolorize and mineralize Reactive blue 13. The key factors affecting decolorization were investigated and the efficiency of degradation was also optimized. An overall color removal of 83.2% and COD removal of 90.7% was achieved at pH 7, a residence time of 70 h and a glucose concentration of 2 g/L, HRT=70 h and C(glucose)=2000 mg/L. Oxygen was contributing to blocking the azo bond cleavage. Consequently, decolorization occurred in the anaerobic reactor while partial mineralization was achieved in the aerobic reactor. A possible degradation pathway based on the analysis of intermediates and involving azoreduction, desulfonation, deamination and further oxidation reactions is presented.

  12. Effects of aerobic training on heart rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos B. Almeida

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Regular physical exercise is an important factor to reduce the indexes of cardiovascular and all causes morbimortality. However, there is, apparently, additional and independent benefits of the regular practice of physical exercise and the improvement of the level of aerobic condition. Heart rate (HR is mediated primarily by the direct activity of the autonomic nervous system (ANS, specifically through the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches activities over the sinus node autorhythmicity, with predominance of the vagal activity (parasympathetic at rest, that is progressively inhibited since the onset of the exercise. The HR behavior has been widely studied during different conditions and protocols associated to the exercise. A reduction of the cardiac vagal tone (parasympathetic function and consequently a diminished HR variability in rest, independently of the protocol of measurement used, is related to an autonomic dysfunction, chronic-degenerative diseases and increased mortality risk. Individuals with high levels of aerobic condition have a lower resting HR, along with a larger parasympathetic activity or smaller sympathetic activity, but it is not necessarily a direct consequence of the exercise training, as long as other inherent adaptations to the aerobic conditioning can influence the resting HR. The HR response in the onset of the exercise represents the integrity of the vagus nerve, and the HR recovery on the post-exercise transient also denotes important prognostic information; by the way, individuals that have a slow HR recovery in the first minute post-exercise have increased mortality risk. In conclusion, the physiological mechanisms modulating HR during or after an exercise program are not totally clear, and further studies are needed.

  13. Dancing the aerobics "Hearing loss choreography"

    OpenAIRE

    Beatriz M. Pinto; Carvalho, A.; Sérgio Oliveira

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the health clubs acoustic problems when used for aerobics exercises classes (and similar) with loud noise levels in sound amplified music. A sample of five schools in Portugal was chosen for this survey. Noise levels in each room were measured and analyzed to calculate the standardized daily personal noise exposure levels (Leq8). Leq8 values up to 96 dB(A) were found in this type of room inducing a health risk for its occupants. This type of gymnasium is usu...

  14. Simultaneous determination of 4-tert-octylphenol,4-nonylphenol and bisphenol A in Guanting Reservoir using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with selected ion monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Xing-long; HUANG Guo-lan; JIANG Gui-bin; ZHOU Qun-fang; LIU Jing-fu

    2004-01-01

    The wide occurrence of estrogenic compounds 4-tert-octylphenol, 4-nonylphenol, bisphenol A in surface water of Guanting Reservoir was successfully determined. The target compounds in water samples were preconcentrated by liquid-liquid extraction with dichloromethane, derivatized by trifluoroacetic anhydride, and quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS) with selected ion monitoring(SIM). In the selected seven sampling sites(S1-S7), the concentrations of NP in sample S7 were significantly higher than the other in reservoir. The pollution status in S3 and S7 were much more serious. The concentrations of OP, NP and BPA were in the range of 44.5-48.8, 221.6-349.6 and 30.2-82.7 ng/L, respectively. The pollution were mainly inputted from the upper river and released from sediments in Guanting Reservoir.

  15. Distribution patterns of octylphenol and nonylphenol in the aquatic system at Mai Po Marshes Nature Reserve, a Subtropical Estuarine Wetland in Hong Kong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiang-li; LUAN Tian-gang; LIANG Yan; WONG Ming-hung; LAN Chong-yu

    2007-01-01

    Spatial and temporal distribution of octylphenol (OP) and nonylphenol (NP) in Mai Po Marshes, a subtropical estuarine wetland in Hong Kong, were investigated. Surface water samples were collected every month from 11 sites during the period of September-December 2004. Concentrations of OP and NP ranged from 11.3 to 348 ng/L and from 29 to 2591 ng/L, respectively. The high levels of NP and OP were found in November and December than in September and October. The levels of OP and NP have no significant spatial differences except September. Total organic matter in the sediments appeared to be an important factor in controlling the fate of these compounds in the aquatic environment.

  16. [Heterotrophic Nitrification and Aerobic Denitrification of the Hypothermia Aerobic Denitrification Bacterium: Arthrobacter arilaitensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Teng-xia; Ni, Jiu-pai; Li, Zhen-lun; Sun, Quan; Ye Qing; Xu, Yi

    2016-03-15

    High concentrations of ammonium, nitrate and nitrite nitrogen were employed to clarify the abilities of heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification of Arthrobacter arilaitensis strain Y-10. Meanwhile, by means of inoculating the strain suspension into the mixed ammonium and nitrate, ammonium and nitrite nitrogen simulated wastewater, we studied the simultaneous nitrification and denitrification ability of Arthrobacter arilaitensis strain Y-10. In addition, cell optical density was assayed in each nitrogen removal process to analyze the relationship of cell growth and nitrogen removal efficiency. The results showed that the hypothermia denitrification strain Arthrobacter arilaitensis Y-10 exhibited high nitrogen removal efficiency during heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification. The ammonium, nitrate and nitrite removal rates were 65.0%, 100% and 61.2% respectively when strain Y-10 was cultivated for 4 d at 15°C with initial ammonium, nitrate and nitrite nitrogen concentrations of 208.43 mg · L⁻¹, 201.16 mg · L⁻¹ and 194.33 mg · L⁻¹ and initial pH of 7.2. Nitrite nitrogen could only be accumulated in the medium containing nitrate nitrogen during heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification process. Additionally, the ammonium nitrogen was mainly removed in the inorganic nitrogen mixed synthetic wastewater. In short, Arthrobacter arilaitensis Y-10 could conduct nitrification and denitrification effectively under aerobic condition and the ammonium nitrogen removal rate was more than 80.0% in the inorganic nitrogen mixed synthetic wastewater. PMID:27337904

  17. Biostimulation and enhancement of pesticide degradation around water abstraction fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levi, Suzi

    and precipitation of iron followed by the growth of iron bacteria leading to bioclogging reduces the efficiency of bioremediation of contaminated aquifers. The overall scope of this PhD study was to investigate biostimulated degradation potentials of pesticides at low concentrations in groundwater contaminated...... was degradable in aquifer sediments under aerobic conditions. Furthermore, we were able to transfer bacteria with the capability to degrade bentazone over a wide range of bentazone concentrations from the aquifer material to laboratory experiments. Laboratory microbial studies, aiming to support the observations...... of transformation of dichlorprop to 4-CPP by different analytic methods at an old landfill, were conducted to investigate anaerobic degradation of 14C-labeled dichlorprop. Concentrations of dichlorprop and 4-CPP with groundwater from the same field site under anaerobic conditions were also measured by analytical...

  18. Bioremediation of 2-chlorophenol containing wastewater by aerobic granules-kinetics and toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → 2-Chlorophenol degrading aerobic granules were cultivated in sequencing batch reactor in presence of glucose and the organic loading rate (OLR) was increased from 6.9 to 9.7 kg COD m-3 d-1 during the experiment. → Spectral studies confirmed that the biodegradation occurs via chlorocatechol pathway and modified ortho-cleavage. → Biodegradation kinetics of 2-CP followed the Haldane model with kinetic parameters (R2 > 0.9) Vmax = 840 mg2-CP gMLVSS-1 d-1, Ks = 24.61 mg L-1, Ki = 315.02 mg L-1. → Genotoxic examination by plasmid nicking assay confirmed that the effluent was non-toxic. - Abstract: 2-Chlorophenol (2-CP) degrading aerobic granules were cultivated in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) in presence of glucose. The organic loading rate (OLR) was increased from 6.9 to 9.7 kg COD m-3 d-1 (1150-1617 mg L-1COD per cycle) during the experiment. The alkalinity (1000 mg L-1 as CaCO3) was maintained throughout the experiment. The specific cell growth rate was found to be 0.013 d-1. A COD removal efficiency of 94% was achieved after steady state at 8 h HRT (hydraulic retention time). FTIR, UV, GC, GC/MS studies confirmed that the biodegradation of 2-CP occurs via chlorocatechol (modified ortho-cleavage) pathway. Biodegradation kinetics followed the Haldane model with kinetic parameters: Vmax = 840 mg2-CP gMLVSS-1 d-1, Ks = 24.61 mg L-1, Ki = 315.02 mg L-1. Abiotic losses of 2-CP due to volatilization and photo degradation by sunlight were less than 3% and the results of genotoxicity showed that the degradation products are eco-friendly.

  19. Biodegradation of azo dyes in a sequential anaerobic-aerobic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaguru, P; Kalaiselvi, K; Palanivel, M; Subburam, V

    2000-08-01

    A sequential anaerobic aerobic treatment process based on mixed culture of bacteria isolated from textile dye effluent-contaminated soil was used to degrade sulfonated azo dyes Orange G (OG), Amido black 10B (AB), Direct red 4BS (DR) and Congo red (CR). Under anaerobic conditions in a fixed-bed column using glucose as co-substrate, the azo dyes were reduced and amines were released by the bacterial biomass. The amines were completely mineralized in a subsequent aerobic treatment using the same isolates. The maximum degradation rate observed in the treatment system for OG was 60.9 mg/l per day (16.99 mg/g glucose utilized), for AB 571.3 mg/l per day (14.46 mg/g glucose utilized), for DR 112.5 mg/l per day (32.02 mg/g glucose utilized) and for CR 134.9 mg/l per day (38.9 mg/g glucose utilized).

  20. Comparison of factors influencing trichloroethylene degradation by toluene-oxidizing bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Leahy, J G; Byrne, A M; Olsen, R H

    1996-01-01

    The degradation of trichloroethylene (TCE) by toluene-oxidizing bacteria has been extensively studied, and yet the influence of environmental conditions and physiological characteristics of individual strains has received little attention. To consider these effects, the levels of TCE degradation by strains distinguishable on the basis of toluene and nitrate metabolism were compared under aerobic or hypoxic conditions in the presence and absence of nitrate and an exogenous electron donor, lact...

  1. Reductive transformation and detoxification mechanism of 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene in combined zero valent iron and anaerobic-aerobic process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinyou Shen; Zongyuan Zhou; Changjin Ou; Xiuyun Sun; Jiansheng Li; Weiqing Han; Lin Zhou; Lianjun Wang

    2012-01-01

    A combined zero valent iron (ZVI) and anaerobic-aerobic process was adopted for the treatment of 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB)-containing wastewater.The transformation pathway,reduction of acute toxicity and enhancement of biodegradability were investigated.After pretreatment by ZVI,DNCB in wastewater could be completely converted into 2,4-diaminochlorobenzene (DACB).The ratio of BOD5/COD increased from 0.005 ± 0.001 to 0.168 ± 0.007,while EC50,48 hr (V/V) increased from 0.65% to 5.20%,indicating the enhancement of biodegradability and reduction of acute toxicity with the pretreatment by ZVI.DACB was further dechlorinated to m-phenylenediamine during the anaerobic process using methanol as electron donor,with EC50,48 hr increasing from 5.20% to 48.2%.After the subsequent anaerobic-aerobic process,m-phenylenediamine was degraded completely,with effluent COD of 67.5 ± 10.8 mg/L.This effluent of the subsequent anaerobic-aerobic process was not toxic to zebrafish.The combined ZVI and anaerobic-aerobic process offers bright prospects for the treatment of chlorinated nitroaromatic compound-containing wastewater.

  2. Aerobic Thermophilic Composting of Municipal Solid Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D V Wadkar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Composting is a natural process that turns organic material into a dark rich substance called compost. Aerobic Composting is the creation of compost that depends on bacteria that thrive in an oxygen rich environment. Aerobic bacteria manage the chemical process by converting the inputs (i.e. air, water and carbon and nitrogen rich materials into heat, carbon dioxide and ammonium. The ammonium is further converted by bacteria into plant nourishing nitrites and nitrates through the process of nitrification. Thermophilic Composting is breaking down biological waste with thermophilic (heat loving bacteria. A cylindrical reactor was made. Organic wasteincluded dry vegetable waste collected from MSW ramp, Koregaon park, Pune. The characteristics of compost like pH, moisture content, temperature, C/N ratio and volume reduction were studied for the period of maturation (42days. It can be concluded that the values are within the desired limits and compost is suitable for ornamental plants. The setup of reactor is affordable and thus the compost obtained is effective and economical.

  3. Constant growth rate can be supported by decreasing energy flux and increasing aerobic glycolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slavov, Nikolai; Budnik, Bogdan A; Schwab, David; Airoldi, Edoardo M; van Oudenaarden, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Fermenting glucose in the presence of enough oxygen to support respiration, known as aerobic glycolysis, is believed to maximize growth rate. We observed increasing aerobic glycolysis during exponential growth, suggesting additional physiological roles for aerobic glycolysis. We investigated such ro

  4. A reactor system combining reductive dechloirnation with cometabolic oxidation for complete degradation of tetrachloroentylene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A laboratory sequential anaerobic-aerobic bioreactor system,which consisted of an anaerobic fixed film reactor and twoaerobic chemostats, was set up to degrade tetrachloroethylene (PCE)without accumulating highly toxic degradation intermediates. A soil(ca. 150 mg/liter) of PCE stoichiometrically intocis-1,2-dichloroethylene (cis-DCE), was attached to ceramic mediain the anaerobic fixed film reactor. A phenol degrading strain,Alcaligenes sp. R5, which can efficiently degrade cis-DCE byco-metabolic oxidation, was used as inoculum for the aerobicchemostats consisted of a transformation reactor and a growthreactor. The anaerobic fixed film bioreactor showed more than 99 %of PCE transformation into cis-DCE in the range of influent PCE48h. On the other hand, efficient degradation of the resultantcis-DCE by strain R5 in the following aerobic system could not beachieved due to oxygen limitation. However, 54% of the maximum(H2O2) was supplemented to the transformation reactor as anadditional oxygen source. Further studies are needed to achievemore efficient co-metabolic degradation of cis-DCE in the aerobic reactor.

  5. Characterization of Methane Degradation and Methane-Degrading Microbes in Alaska Coastal Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchman, David L. [Univ. of Delaware, Lewes, DE (United States)

    2012-03-29

    The net flux of methane from methane hydrates and other sources to the atmosphere depends on methane degradation as well as methane production and release from geological sources. The goal of this project was to examine methane-degrading archaea and organic carbon oxidizing bacteria in methane-rich and methane-poor sediments of the Beaufort Sea, Alaska. The Beaufort Sea system was sampled as part of a multi-disciplinary expedition (Methane in the Arctic Shelf or MIDAS) in September 2009. Microbial communities were examined by quantitative PCR analyses of 16S rRNA genes and key methane degradation genes (pmoA and mcrA involved in aerobic and anaerobic methane degradation, respectively), tag pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes to determine the taxonomic make up of microbes in these sediments, and sequencing of all microbial genes (metagenomes ). The taxonomic and functional make-up of the microbial communities varied with methane concentrations, with some data suggesting higher abundances of potential methane-oxidizing archaea in methane-rich sediments. Sequence analysis of PCR amplicons revealed that most of the mcrA genes were from the ANME-2 group of methane oxidizers. According to metagenomic data, genes involved in methane degradation and other degradation pathways changed with sediment depth along with sulfate and methane concentrations. Most importantly, sulfate reduction genes decreased with depth while the anaerobic methane degradation gene (mcrA) increased along with methane concentrations. The number of potential methane degradation genes (mcrA) was low and inconsistent with other data indicating the large impact of methane on these sediments. The data can be reconciled if a small number of potential methane-oxidizing archaea mediates a large flux of carbon in these sediments. Our study is the first to report metagenomic data from sediments dominated by ANME-2 archaea and is one of the few to examine the entire microbial assemblage potentially involved in

  6. Differential production of slime under aerobic and anaerobic conditions.

    OpenAIRE

    Barker, L P; Simpson, W A; Christensen, G D

    1990-01-01

    A series of 37 clinical isolates of coagulase-negative staphylococci previously identified as negative for slime production by the tube test were reexamined by the tissue culture plate test under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. None of the strains produced slime under anaerobic conditions; however, five strains (13%) produced slime under aerobic conditions.

  7. Longitudinal Predictors of Aerobic Performance in Adolescent Soccer Players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valente-dos-Santos, Joao; Coelho-e-Silva, Manuel J.; Duarte, Joao; Figueiredo, Antonio J.; Liparotti, Joao R.; Sherar, Lauren B.; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Malina, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    Background. The importance of aerobic performance in youth soccer is well established. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the contributions of chronological age (CA), skeletal age (SA), body size, and training to the longitudinal development of aerobic performance in youth male soccer play

  8. Aerobic Fitness Thresholds Associated with Fifth Grade Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittberg, Richard; Cottrell, Lesley A.; Davis, Catherine L.; Northrup, Karen L.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Whereas effects of physical fitness and physical activity on cognitive function have been documented, little is known about how they are related. Purpose: This study assessed student aerobic fitness measured by FITNESSGRAM Mile times and/or Pacer circuits and whether the nature of the association between aerobic fitness and…

  9. Water Aerobics as a Form of Health Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Anna S. Batrak; Antonina V. Polyakova

    2013-01-01

    The offered literature review considers water aerobics as a form of health activities. Water aerobics is wide spread and popular, especially among women, because it is also the form of adaptive and health activities. It enlarges general physiological effect of physical exercises on the human body. Regular exercises improve physical fitness and physical development, health, mood, sleep, intensify activities and working efficiency.

  10. Aerobic Digestion. Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopping, Paul H.

    This manual contains the textual material for a single-lesson unit on aerobic sludge digestion. Topic areas addressed include: (1) theory of aerobic digestion; (2) system components; (3) performance factors; (4) indicators of stable operation; and (5) operational problems and their solutions. A list of objectives, glossary of key terms, and…

  11. Degradation changes stable carbon isotope depth profiles in palsa peatlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Krüger

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Palsa peatlands are a significant carbon pool in the global carbon cycle and are projected to change by global warming due to accelerated permafrost thaw. Our aim was to use stable carbon isotopes as indicators of palsa degradation. Depth profiles of stable carbon isotopes generally reflect organic matter dynamics in soils with an increase of δ13C values during aerobic decomposition and stable or decreasing δ13C values with depth during anaerobic decomposition. Stable carbon isotope depth profiles of undisturbed and degraded sites of hummocks as well as hollows at three palsa peatlands in northern Sweden were used to investigate the degradation processes. The depth patterns of stable isotopes clearly differ between intact and degraded hummocks at all sites. Erosion and cryoturbation at the degraded sites significantly changes the stable carbon isotope depth profiles. At the intact hummocks the uplifting of peat material by permafrost is indicated by a turning in the δ13C depth trend and this assessment is supported by a change in the C / N ratios. For hollows isotope patterns were less clear, but some hollows and degraded hollows in the palsa peatlands show differences in their stable carbon isotope depth profiles indicating enhanced degradation rates. We conclude that the degradation of palsa peatlands by accelerated permafrost thawing could be identified with stable carbon isotope depth profiles. At intact hummocks δ13C depth patterns display the uplifting of peat material by a change in peat decomposition processes.

  12. Heart rate during aerobics classes in women with different previous experience of aerobics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laukkanen, R M; Kalaja, M K; Kalaja, S P; Holmala, E B; Paavolainen, L M; Tummavuori, M; Virtanen, P; Rusko, H K

    2001-01-01

    This study measured heart rate during floor and step aerobic classes at three intensity levels. A group of 20 female occasional exercisers [mean age 33 (SD 8) years, mean body mass index 21 (SD 2) kg.m-2 volunteered to participate in six aerobic classes (three floor classes, three step classes) and in a laboratory test as members of one of two groups according to their prestudy regular participation in aerobics classes. Subjects in group A had participated four or more times a week and those of group B less than twice a week. The characteristics of the groups were as follows: group A, n = 10, mean maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) 38.7 (SD 3.6) ml.kg-1.min-1, mean maximal heart rate (HRmax) 183 (SD 8) beats.min-1; group B, n = 10, VO2max 36.1 (SD 3.6) ml.kg-1.min-1, HRmax 178 (SD 7) beats.min-1. Each class consisted of a warm-up, a 20 min period of structured aerobic exercise (cardiophase) and a cool-down. The cardiophase was planned and guided as light, (rate of perceived exertion, RPE 11-12), moderate (RPE 13-14) or heavy (RPE 15-17) by an experienced instructor. The mean heart rates during the light classes were 72 (step) and 74 (floor) %HRmax in group A and 75 (step) and 79 (floor) %HRmax in group B; during the moderate classes, 84 (step) and 80 (floor) %HRmax in group A and 82 (step) and 83 (floor) %HRmax in group B, and during the heavy classes 89 (step and floor) %HRmax in group A and 88 (step) and 92 (floor) %HRmax in group B. Differences in heart rate and %HRmax were not statistically significant between the groups. However, differences in heart rate and %HRmax between the intensities (light vs moderate, moderate vs heavy and light vs heavy) were significant within both groups (all, P < 0.01). Based on the results, we conclude that intensity management during the aerobics classes was generally successful regardless of the participants' prior participation in aerobics. However, some individuals who were older and/or had less prior participation tended to

  13. Is aerobic workload positively related to ambulatory blood pressure?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korshøj, Mette; Clays, Els; Lidegaard, Mark;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Cardiovascular disease is prevalent among workers with high levels of occupational physical activity. The increased risk may be due to a high relative aerobic workload, possibly leading to increased blood pressure. However, studies investigating the relation between relative aerobic...... workload and ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) are lacking. The aim was to explore the relationship between objectively measured relative aerobic workload and ABP. METHODS: A total of 116 cleaners aged 18-65 years were included after informed consent was obtained. A portable device (Spacelabs 90217...... relative aerobic workload and ABP were significant. CONCLUSIONS: Because workers may have an elevated relative aerobic workload for several hours each working day, this relationship may elucidate a mechanism behind the increased risk for cardiovascular disease among workers exposed to high levels...

  14. Oxidation of aquatic pollutants by ferrous–oxalate complexes under dark aerobic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jaesang [School of Civil, Environmental, and Architectural Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jungwon, E-mail: jwk@hallym.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Sciences and Biotechnology, Hallym University, Chuncheon, Gangwon-do 200-702 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Wonyong [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: • Electron transfer from ferrous–oxalate complexes to oxygen occurs in dark conditions. • OH radicals generated by ferrous–oxalate complexes initiate the oxidation process. • Degradation kinetics depends on the speciation of ferrous–oxalate complexes. • Ferrous–oxalate complexes are the most efficient for the degradation of pollutants. - Abstract: This study evaluates the ability of Fe{sup II}–oxalate complexes for the generation of ·OH through oxygen reduction and the oxidative degradation of aquatic pollutants under dark aerobic conditions (i.e., with oxygen but without light). The degradation of 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) was rapid in the mixture of Fe{sup 2+} and oxalate prepared using ultrapure water, but was absent without either Fe{sup 2+} or oxalate. The formation of Fe{sup II}–oxalate complexes enables two-electron reduction of oxygen to generate H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and subsequent production of ·OH. The significant inhibition of 4-CP degradation in the presence of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and ·OH scavenger confirms such mechanisms. The degradation experiments with varying [Fe{sup 2+}], [oxalate], and initial pH demonstrated that the degradation rate depends on [Fe{sup II}(Ox){sub 2}{sup 2−}], but the degree of degradation is primarily determined by [Fe{sup II}(Ox){sub 2}{sup 2−}] + [Fe{sup II}(Ox){sup 0}]. Efficient degradation of diverse aquatic pollutants, especially phenolic pollutants, was observed in the Fe{sup II}–oxalate complexes system, wherein the oxidation efficacy was primarily correlated with the reaction rate constant between pollutant and ·OH. The effect of various organic ligands (oxalate, citrate, EDTA, malonate, and acetate) on the degradation kinetics of 4-CP was investigated. The highest efficiency of oxalate for the oxidative degradation is attributed to its high capability to enhance the reducing power and low reactivity with ·OH.

  15. Aerobic rice: crop performance and water use efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Grassi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Rice (Oryza sativa production largely depends on traditional flooded rice systems whose sustainability is threatened by a progressive decrease in water availability and a constant increase in rice demand due to strong demographic boom in world population. A newly developed water-saving rice system is aerobic rice in which rice grows in nonflooded and unsaturated soil. From 2001, at the International Rice Research Institute in the Philippines, this system has been monitored to identify potentially promising varieties of rice able to grow as an irrigated upland crop and quantify yield potential and water use efficiency. This study reports on the results of cultivating the upland rice variety Apo under different water conditions in 2004-2005 at the IRRI farm in both the dry and wet seasons. The water treatments considered were: aerobic and flooded conditions, alternated flooded and aerobic conditions and aerobic after fallow. Yield and water productivity were compared between aerobic and flooded treatment in both seasons, with the objective of analysing the differences between water treatments. In the experiment the effect of different nitrogen (N application is also considered. The results indicate that the aerobic rice yield was lower than rice production under flood treatment, confirming that observed over past years. Nevertheless, when the aerobic condition is alternated with the anaerobic condition, or a fallow period, the production under aerobic treatment provides good yields (respectively 4.2 and 4.4 ha-1. The fallow period was introduced to observe the response of rice grown under this management. Water productivity was higher in aerobic fields, especially after fallow (0.88 g kg-1. The nitrogen application induced an increase in yield and water productivity, partially compensating for the lack of water in aerobic fields.

  16. Degradation of the pharmaceuticals diclofenac and sulfamethoxazole and their transformation products under controlled environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier-Larabie, S; Segura, P A; Gagnon, C

    2016-07-01

    Contamination of the aquatic environment by pharmaceuticals via urban effluents is well known. Several classes of drugs have been identified in waterways surrounding these effluents in the last 15years. To better understand the fate of pharmaceuticals in ecosystems, degradation processes need to be investigated and transformation products must be identified. Thus, this study presents the first comparative study between three different natural environmental conditions: photolysis and biodegradation in aerobic and anaerobic conditions both in the dark of diclofenac and sulfamethoxazole, two common drugs present in significant amounts in impacted surface waters. Results indicated that degradation kinetics differed depending on the process and the type of drug and the observed transformation products also differed among these exposure conditions. Diclofenac was nearly degraded by photolysis after 4days, while its concentration only decreased by 42% after 57days of exposure to bacteria in aerobic media and barely 1% in anaerobic media. For sulfamethoxazole, 84% of the initial concentration was still present after 11days of exposure to light, while biodegradation decreased its concentration by 33% after 58days of exposure under aerobic conditions and 5% after 70days of anaerobic exposure. In addition, several transformation products were observed and persisted over time while others degraded in turn. For diclofenac, chlorine atoms were lost primarily in the photolysis, while a redox reaction was promoted by biodegradation under aerobic conditions. For sulfamethoxazole, isomerization was favored by photolysis while a redox reaction was also favored by the biodegradation under aerobic conditions. To summarize this study points out the occurrence of different transformation products under variable degradation conditions and demonstrates that specific functional groups are involved in the tested natural attenuation processes. Given the complexity of environmental samples

  17. Microbial degradation of clomazone under simulated California rice field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomco, Patrick L; Holstege, Dirk M; Zou, Wei; Tjeerdema, Ronald S

    2010-03-24

    Clomazone (trade names Cerano and Command) is a popular herbicide used on California rice fields to control aquatic weeds. Its physicochemical characteristics indicate that it will persist primarily in the water column, where microbial degradation may drive its environmental fate. The objectives were to determine microbial degradation rates and compare the metabolic products under aerobic and anaerobic conditions similar to those in California rice fields during the summer. Time-series samples were extracted and analyzed by LC/MS/MS. Metabolic profiling revealed the following clomazone-derived transitions: m/z 240 --> 125 (clomazone), m/z 242 --> 125 (ring-open clomazone), m/z 256 --> 125 (5-hydroxyclomazone), m/z 256 --> 141 (aromatic hydroxyclomazone), m/z 268 --> 125 (unknown metabolite), and m/z 272 --> 141 (4'5-dihydroxyclomazone). Results indicate an anaerobic half-life of 7.9 days, with ring-open clomazone reaching 67.4% of application at 38 days. Aerobically, clomazone degraded more slowly (t(1/2) = 47.3 days), forming mostly soil-bound residues. Thus, under summer conditions, clomazone is likely to dissipate rapidly from fields via anaerobic degradation.

  18. Aerobics trainer, health club settle discrimination lawsuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-04-01

    A health club settled out-of-court, agreeing to pay an undisclosed sum of money and to train its managers on the legal obligations of people with HIV and other disabilities, following litigation brought by an aerobics instructor at the club. The instructor filed the suit after he was forced to either disclose his HIV status to the 3,000 members or be fired. He was fired after he refused to sign a letter drafted by the club's manager. Six months later the club's president gave club employees the letter which the plaintiff argued violated his right to privacy. This is the second time a health club has settled an AIDS discrimination case. Both cases focused on the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). In settling the case, the club denied any wrongdoing and said they settled out of court to avoid the costs of litigation. PMID:11362274

  19. Aerobic exercises: their cardiovascular and other benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aerobic exercise can help prevent ischemic heart disease and other diseases. Physical inactivity is a major factor for developing Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) which is characterized by deposit of cholesterol, calcium and other substances in the inner lining of the arteries, that supply to cardiac muscle. It also contributes to other risk factors including obesity, hypertension, increased triglycerides, low level of HDL cholesterol and diabetes. The essential components of a systematic individualized exercise prescription include the appropriate mode, intensity, duration, frequency and progression of physical activity. There are four components of exercise program; a warm up, an endurance phase, optional recreational activity and a cool down. For sedentary individuals, exercise should start at 60% of maximum heart rare. Benefits of physical activity depend on the total amount of exercise. Vigorous leisure time activity should be promoted in order to give way to healthy living. (author)

  20. Aerobic growth at nanomolar oxygen concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolper, Daniel; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Canfield, Donald Eugene

    2010-01-01

    known. These capabilities also provide a framework for reconstructing a critical period in the history of life, because low, but not negligible, atmospheric oxygen levels could have persisted before the "Great Oxidation" of the Earth's surface about 2.3 to 2.4 billion years ago. Here, we show......Molecular oxygen (O2) is the second most abundant gas in the Earth's atmosphere, but in many natural environments, its concentration is reduced to low or even undetectable levels. Although low-oxygen-adapted organisms define the ecology of low-oxygen environments, their capabilities are not fully...... that Escherichia coli K-12, chosen for its well-understood biochemistry, rapid growth rate, and low-oxygen-affinity terminal oxidase, grows at oxygen levels of ≤ 3 nM, two to three orders of magnitude lower than previously observed for aerobes. Our study expands both the environmental range and temporal history...

  1. Aerobic growth at nanomolar oxygen concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolper, Daniel Aaron; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Canfield, Donald Eugene

    2010-01-01

    known. These capabilities also provide a framework for reconstructing a critical period in the history of life, because low, but not negligible, atmospheric oxygen levels could have persisted before the “Great Oxidation” of the Earth’s surface about 2.3 to 2.4 billion years ago. Here, we show......Molecular oxygen (O2) is the second most abundant gas in the Earth’s atmosphere, but in many natural environments, its concentration is reduced to low or even undetectable levels. Although low-oxygen-adapted organisms define the ecology of low-oxygen environments, their capabilities are not fully...... that Escherichia coli K-12, chosen for its well-understood biochemistry, rapid growth rate, and low-oxygen-affinity terminal oxidase, grows at oxygen levels of ≤ 3 nM, two to three orders of magnitude lower than previously observed for aerobes. Our study expands both the environmental range and temporal history...

  2. Effects of Kettlebell Training on Aerobic Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falatic, J Asher; Plato, Peggy A; Holder, Christopher; Finch, Daryl; Han, Kyungmo; Cisar, Craig J

    2015-07-01

    This study examined the effects of a kettlebell training program on aerobic capacity. Seventeen female National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I collegiate soccer players (age: 19.7 ± 1.0 years, height: 166.1 ± 6.4 cm, weight: 64.2 ± 8.2 kg) completed a graded exercise test to determine maximal oxygen consumption (V̇O2max). Participants were assigned to a kettlebell intervention group (KB) (n = 9) or a circuit weight-training (CWT) control group (n = 8). Participants in the KB group completed a kettlebell snatch test to determine individual snatch repetitions. Both groups trained 3 days a week for 4 weeks in addition to their off-season strength and conditioning program. The KB group performed the 15:15 MVO2 protocol (20 minutes of kettlebell snatching with 15 seconds of work and rest intervals). The CWT group performed multiple free-weight and dynamic body-weight exercises as part of a continuous circuit program for 20 minutes. The 15:15 MVO2 protocol significantly increased V̇O2max in the KB group. The average increase was 2.3 ml·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹, or approximately a 6% gain. There was no significant change in V̇O2max in the CWT control group. Thus, the 4-week 15:15 MVO2 kettlebell protocol, using high-intensity kettlebell snatches, significantly improved aerobic capacity in female intercollegiate soccer players and could be used as an alternative mode to maintain or improve cardiovascular conditioning. PMID:26102260

  3. Preliminary Study on the Performance and Interaction of Recycling Hydrolytic-Aerobic Combined Process of High Concentration Starch Wastewater%高浓度淀粉废水水解--好氧循环一体化处理工艺的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李清彪; 廖鑫凯; 吴志旺; 邓旭; 黄益丽; 卢英华; 孙道华; 洪铭嫒; 王琳

    2004-01-01

    A new recycling hydrolytic-aerobic combined process was developed to treat the high concentration used. At first, the hydrolytic degradation and aerobic degradation process were examined in two batch reactors,respectively. In the stand-alone hydrolytic process, starch in the wastewater almost disappeared after 11 h treatment,but CODCr remained as high as 5803mg. L-1 after two days. In the aerobic process, the biodegradation rate of starch was much slower during the first 11 h than that in the hydrolytic process, although the CODCr removal efficiency reached 89.6% and more than 90% starch could be degraded after 37.5 h. To determine the interaction effects of the two processes, a series of hydrolytic-aerobic combinations were examined in details. Hydrolytic process played an important role in the whole recycle combination process as it could improve the biodegradability of the high concentration starch wastewater. However, from the other experiments, the negative effect of hydrolytic acidification was found in the hydrolytic-aerobic combination, which suggested that the aerobic microorganisms needed time to adapt themselves to the acidic environment. The effect of the degrading time, which was spent in the hydrolytic and aerobic unit, and the number of circulations, with which the wastewater went through the two units were investigated. It was found that a recycle combination of 6 h hydrolytic process with 12 h aerobic process was highly effective and potentially economical, in which the final removal efficiency of CODCr and efficiency of starch degradation reached 94.1% and 98.8%, respectively.

  4. Effects of biodegradation of mecoprop, dichlorprop and bentazone by changing the redox conditions from anaerobic to aerobic in sandy aquifer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levi, Suzi; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    in combination with geological variations may affect microbial degradation processes by mixing in even low oxygen concentrations and create steep gradients and drastic redox zones in aquifers. The aim of the current study was to investigate the stimulation of pesticides biodegradation by adding oxygen...... knowledge, this is the first observation of bentazone degradation with aquifer. Optimization of redox conditions from anaerobic to aerobic by adding oxygen stimulated the biodegradation of three pesticides.......Pesticides and metabolites are detected in an increasing number of aquifers resulting in closure of many drinking water wells. The natural redox conditions of aquifers are considered to be one of the important factors governing the pesticides degradation in groundwater. Water abstraction strategy...

  5. Monitoring of growth and physiological activities of biofilm during succession on polystyrene from activated sludge under aerobic and anaerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naz, Iffat; Batool, Syeda Ain-ul; Ali, Naeem; Khatoon, Nazia; Atiq, Niama; Hameed, Abdul; Ahmed, Safia

    2013-08-01

    The present research work monitored the successive biofilm development and its catabolic role in the degradation of polystyrene (PS). PS material was artificially colonized with biofilm by incubating it with activated sludge under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Biofilm formation was monitored by gravimetric weight analysis, spectrophotometric absorbance technique, heterotrophic plate count, and scanning electron microscopy under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The wet weight (1.59 and 1.17 g) and dry weight (0.41 and 0.08 g) of a biofilm showed a significant constant increase under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, respectively, from first till 9 weeks of incubation. Plate count of the selected bacteria (Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella dysenteriae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) considerably declined (90-99 %) in the biofilm after seventh and fifth weeks of incubation under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, respectively, indicating a positive shift from pathogenic to beneficial microbial community. While most probable number index of fecal coliforms and E. coli in the sludge showed more reduction (98 and 99 %) under aerobic as compare to anaerobic conditions (86 and 91 %) after 9 weeks of biofilm formation on PS cubes. Correspondingly, the decreasing levels of chemical oxygen demand and biochemical oxygen demand (up to 73 %) showed signs of sludge digestion. Scanning electron microscope coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscope revealed nature of PS media containing high carbon content. However, biofilm development proved to be involved in the biochemical transformation of the PS medium as indicated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

  6. PEM fuel cell degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borup, Rodney L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mukundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    The durability of PEM fuel cells is a major barrier to the commercialization of these systems for stationary and transportation power applications. While significant progress has been made in understanding degradation mechanisms and improving materials, further improvements in durability are required to meet commercialization targets. Catalyst and electrode durability remains a primary degradation mode, with much work reported on understanding how the catalyst and electrode structure degrades. Accelerated Stress Tests (ASTs) are used to rapidly evaluate component degradation, however the results are sometimes easy, and other times difficult to correlate. Tests that were developed to accelerate degradation of single components are shown to also affect other component's degradation modes. Non-ideal examples of this include ASTs examining catalyst degradation performances losses due to catalyst degradation do not always well correlate with catalyst surface area and also lead to losses in mass transport.

  7. Relationships between chemical oxygen demand (COD) components and toxicity in a sequential anaerobic baffled reactor/aerobic completely stirred reactor system treating Kemicetine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study the interactions between toxicity removals and Kemicetine, COD removals, intermediate products of Kemicetine and COD components (CODs originating from slowly degradable organics, readily degradable organics, inert microbial products and from the inert compounds) were investigated in a sequential anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR)/aerobic completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR) system with a real pharmaceutical wastewater. The total COD and Kemicetine removal efficiencies were 98% and 100%, respectively, in the sequential ABR/CSTR systems. 2-Amino-1 (p-nitrophenil)-1,3 propanediol, l-p-amino phenyl, p-amino phenol and phenol were detected in the ABR as the main readily degradable inter-metabolites. In the anaerobic ABR reactor, the Kemicetin was converted to corresponding inter-metabolites and a substantial part of the COD was removed. In the aerobic CSTR reactor the inter-metabolites produced in the anaerobic reactor were completely removed and the COD remaining from the anerobic reactor was biodegraded. It was found that the COD originating from the readily degradable organics did not limit the anaerobic degradation process, while the CODs originating from the slowly degradable organics and from the inert microbial products significantly decreased the anaerobic ABR reactor performance. The acute toxicity test results indicated that the toxicity decreased from the influent to the effluent of the aerobic CSTR reactor. The ANOVA test statistics showed that there was a strong linear correlation between acute toxicity, CODs originating from the slowly degradable organics and inert microbial products. A weak correlation between acute toxicity and CODs originating from the inert compounds was detected.

  8. Relationships between chemical oxygen demand (COD) components and toxicity in a sequential anaerobic baffled reactor/aerobic completely stirred reactor system treating Kemicetine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sponza, Delia Teresa; Demirden, Pinar

    2010-04-15

    In this study the interactions between toxicity removals and Kemicetine, COD removals, intermediate products of Kemicetine and COD components (CODs originating from slowly degradable organics, readily degradable organics, inert microbial products and from the inert compounds) were investigated in a sequential anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR)/aerobic completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR) system with a real pharmaceutical wastewater. The total COD and Kemicetine removal efficiencies were 98% and 100%, respectively, in the sequential ABR/CSTR systems. 2-Amino-1 (p-nitrophenil)-1,3 propanediol, l-p-amino phenyl, p-amino phenol and phenol were detected in the ABR as the main readily degradable inter-metabolites. In the anaerobic ABR reactor, the Kemicetin was converted to corresponding inter-metabolites and a substantial part of the COD was removed. In the aerobic CSTR reactor the inter-metabolites produced in the anaerobic reactor were completely removed and the COD remaining from the anerobic reactor was biodegraded. It was found that the COD originating from the readily degradable organics did not limit the anaerobic degradation process, while the CODs originating from the slowly degradable organics and from the inert microbial products significantly decreased the anaerobic ABR reactor performance. The acute toxicity test results indicated that the toxicity decreased from the influent to the effluent of the aerobic CSTR reactor. The ANOVA test statistics showed that there was a strong linear correlation between acute toxicity, CODs originating from the slowly degradable organics and inert microbial products. A weak correlation between acute toxicity and CODs originating from the inert compounds was detected.

  9. Numerical simulation of competitive aerobic / anaerobic hydrocarbon plume biodegradation in two-dimensional bench scale lab-experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, C.; Ballarini, E.; Bauer, R.; Griebler, C.; Bauer, S.

    2011-12-01

    The biodegradation of oxidizable hydrocarbon contaminants in the subsurface requires the presence of compatible microbial communities as well as sufficient amounts of electron acceptors and nutrients. In this context, transverse mixing, driven by dispersion and diffusion, is one of the main mechanisms governing the availability of dissolved electron acceptors at a hydrocarbon plume fringe. Aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation of hydrocarbons limited by transverse mixing has been studied experimentally in 2D bench-scale flow-through tanks, filled with a saturated porous medium. Flow of groundwater through the tanks was induced by pumping water at one side through injection ports, and simultaneously extracting water at the other side of the tank. An ethylbenzene plume was established by injection through the central inlet port. A mixture of unlabeled and fully deuterium-labeled isotopomers was used in order to investigate the spatial distribution of degradation processes via monitoring of compound-specific stable isotope fractionation. In the first phase of the experiment, aerobic biodegradation was studied. For this purpose, the tank was recharged with water containing oxygen as a dissolved electron acceptor and the aerobic strain Pseudomonas putida F1 was inoculated. Later, nitrate was added to the recharge water as an additional electron acceptor and the denitrifying strain Aromatoleum aromaticum EbN1 was amended to study competitive aerobic/anaerobic biodegradation. A numerical reactive transport model of the experiment was set up for a model based interpretation of the observed degradation patterns. In a sensitivity analysis, the influence of the relevant hydrodynamic parameters on the observable distributions of ethylbenzene isotopomers, oxygen and nitrate was studied. Subsequent model calibration allowed for a good agreement with ethylbenzene concentrations measured at the tank outlet ports as well as oxygen concentrations, which were measured at several

  10. Degradation of Refuse in Hybrid Bioreactor Landfill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN LONG; Yu-YANG LONG; HAI-CHUN LIU; DONG-SHENG SHEN

    2009-01-01

    Objectivess To explore the process of refuse decomposition in hybrid bioreactor landfill. Methods The bioreactor landfill was operated in sequencing of facultative-anaerobic and aerobic conditions with leachate recireulation, pH, COD, and ammonia in the leachate and pH, biodegradable organic matter (BDM), and cation exchange capacity (CEC) in refuse were detected. Results CEC increased gradually with the degradation of refuse, which was negatively correlad, With BDM. COD and ammonia in the leachate was declined to 399.2 mg L-1 and 20.6 mg N L-1, respectively, during the 357-day operation. The respective concentrations of ammonia and COD were below the second and the third levels of current discharge standards in China. Conclusion The refuse is relatively stable at the end of hybrid bioreactor landfill operation. Most of the readily biodegradable organic matter is mineralized in the initial phase of refuse degradation, whereas the hard-biodegradable organic matter is mainly humidified in the maturity phase of refuse degradation.

  11. Heritability of aerobic power of individuals in northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, L; Souza, Ec; Oliveira, Mv; do Nascimento, Lfe; Dantas, Pms

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic and environmental contribution to variation in aerobic power in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins. The sample consisted of 20 MZ individuals (12 females and 8 males) and 16 DZ individuals (12 females and 4 males), aged from 8 to 26 years, residents in Natal, Rio Grande do Norte. The twins were assessed by a multistage fitness test. The rate of heritability found for aerobic power was 77%. Based on the results, the estimated heritability was largely responsible for the differences in aerobic power. This implies that such measures are under strong genetic influence.

  12. Biotic and abiotic degradation of CL-20 and RDX in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, Fiona H; Thompson, Karen T; Szecsody, James E; Fredrickson, Herbert L

    2005-01-01

    The caged cyclic nitramine 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20) is a new explosive that has the potential to replace existing military explosives, but little is known about its environmental toxicity, transport, and fate. We quantified and compared the aerobic environmental fate of CL-20 to the widely used cyclic nitramine explosive hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in surface and subsurface soil microcosms. Soil-free controls and biologically attenuated soil controls were used to separate abiotic processes from biologically mediated processes. Both abiotic and biological processes significantly degraded CL-20 in all soils examined. Apparent abiotic, first-order degradation rates (k) for CL-20 were not significantly different between soil-free controls (0.018 CL-20 degradation rates (0.068 CL-20 to (14)CO(2) in biologically active soil microcosms were 41.1 to 55.7%, indicating that the CL-20 cage was broken, since all carbons are part of the heterocyclic cage. Under aerobic conditions, abiotic degradation rates of RDX were generally slower (0 CL-20 degradation rates. In biologically active soil microcosms amended with glucose aerobic RDX degradation rates varied between 0.010 and 0.474 d(-1). Biodegradation was a key factor in determining the environmental fate of RDX, while a combination of biotic and abiotic processes was important with CL-20. Our data suggest that CL-20 should be less recalcitrant than RDX in aerobic soils. PMID:16275722

  13. Biotic and Abiotic Degradation of CL-20 and RDX in Soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crocker, Fiona H.; Thompson, Karen T.; Szecsody, Jim E.; Fredrickson, Herbert L.

    2005-11-01

    The caged cyclic nitramine 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20) is a new explosive that has the potential to replace existing military explosives, but little is known about its environmental toxicity, transport, and fate. We quantified and compared the aerobic environmental fate of CL-20 to the widely used cyclic nitramine explosive hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in surface and subsurface soil microcosms. Soil-free controls and biologically mediated processes. Both abiotic and biological processes significantly degraded CL-20 in all soils examined. Apparent abiotic, first-order degradation rates (k) for CL-20 were not significantly different between soil-free controls (0.018 < k < 0.030 d-1) and biologically attenuated soil controls (0.003 degradation rates (0.068 < k <1.22 d-1). Extents of mineralization of 14C–CL-20 to 14CO2 in biologically active soil microcosms were 41.1 to 55.7%, indicating that the CL-20 cage was broken, since all carbons are part of the heterocyclic cage. Under aerobic conditions, abiotic degradation rates of RDX were generally slower (0 < k < 0.032 d-1) than abiotic CL-20 degradation rates. In biologically active soil microcosms amended with glucose aerobic RDX degradation rates varied between 0.010 and 0.474 d-1. Biodegradation was a key factor in determining the environmental fate of RDX, while a combination of biotic and abiotic processes was important with CL-20. Our data suggest that CL-20 should be less recalcitrant than RDX in aerobic soils.

  14. Effect of leachate inoculum on biopretreatment of municipal solid waste by a combined hydrolytic-aerobic process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Dongqing; HE Pinjing; SHAO Liming

    2009-01-01

    The biopretreatment of municipal solid waste by a combined hydrolytic-aerobic process has become of great interest for biostabilization or biodrying.The study aimed at investigating the effect of leachate inoculum on the biopretreatment.During the hydrolytic stage, the inoculum addition at the ratio of leachate to waste (LWR) of 5% or 7% stimulated the start-up of hydrolysis and enhanced the hydrolysis rate by 27.4% or 24.2%; whereas the inoculation at LWR of 1% had almost no effect on the hydrolysis rate and the inoculation at LWR of 10% reduced the hydrolysis rate by 12.7%.During the subsequent aerobic stage, the inoculations at LWRs greater than 5% decreased organics degradation rate.As a whole, compared with none inoculation, the total degradation rates of organics for inoculating trials at LWRs of 5%, 7% and 10% decreased by 14.5%, 14.3% and 32.7%, respectively.Correspondingly, their net water removal rates were reduced by 4.4%, 5.8% and 19.0%.The inoculation at LWR of 1% could not significantly affect the biopretreatment.The inoculum addition at LWR of 5% or 7% could shorten hydrolytic stage and thus accelerate the whole combined process.Moreover, the inoculations at LWRs greater than 5% were favorable for lignocelluloses degradation.

  15. Degradation of microbial polyesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokiwa, Yutaka; Calabia, Buenaventurada P

    2004-08-01

    Microbial polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), one of the largest groups of thermoplastic polyesters are receiving much attention as biodegradable substitutes for non-degradable plastics. Poly(D-3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) is the most ubiquitous and most intensively studied PHA. Microorganisms degrading these polyesters are widely distributed in various environments. Although various PHB-degrading microorganisms and PHB depolymerases have been studied and characterized, there are still many groups of microorganisms and enzymes with varying properties awaiting various applications. Distributions of PHB-degrading microorganisms, factors affecting the biodegradability of PHB, and microbial and enzymatic degradation of PHB are discussed in this review. We also propose an application of a new isolated, thermophilic PHB-degrading microorganism, Streptomyces strain MG, for producing pure monomers of PHA and useful chemicals, including D-3-hydroxycarboxylic acids such as D-3-hydroxybutyric acid, by enzymatic degradation of PHB. PMID:15289671

  16. Digestion and degradation, air for life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettinga, G

    2001-01-01

    Anaerobic degradation of dead biomass is a natural gasification process, an anaerobic crematorium producing a very useful end-product composed of methane and carbon dioxide, generally polluted with small amounts of some malodorous and quite toxic volatile S-compounds. It leads to the production of essential building elements for new life. This exciting field became my faith, vision, hope and expectation. This paper intends to present a reflection of more than three decades of research, teaching and advertisement in the field of sustainable environmental protection technologies, particularly of systems based on anaerobic digestion and the biological sulphur cycle. Considerable progress has been made during these decades worldwide, both in the basic understanding of the various processes and concepts, but also in the implementation of these systems, despite the fact that particularly the implementation frequently proceeded very laboriously. The difficulties certainly can no longer be attributed to technological limitations and/or insufficient understanding of the microbiology and chemistry only, but mainly to the frustrating social rigidity and short-term self-interest in all sectors of our society. By combining anaerobic processes with other microbiological degradation or transformation processes, like those based on the biological sulphur cycle, micro-aerobic and conventional aerobic and anoxic processes, ideal conditions can be created to valorise residues (wastes) from domestic, industrial and agricultural origin. It is simply not just "technology", but also a route to achieve more sustainability and justice in society. It is a fight against conservative establishments. Decomposition, disintegration disbandment, it also stands for deliverance and liberation, space and air for continuation of life. PMID:11730132

  17. Paddy field – A natural sequential anaerobic–aerobic bioreactor for polychlorinated biphenyls transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The environmental pollution and health risks caused by the improper disposal of electric and electronic waste (e-waste) have become urgent issues for the developing countries. One of the typical pollutants, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), is commonly found in farmland in Taizhou, a major hotspot of e-waste recycling in China. This study investigated the amount of PCB residue in local farmlands. Biotransformation of PCBs was further studied under different water management conditions in paddy field with or without rice cultivation, with a special focus on the alternating flooded and drying processes. It was found that paddy field improved the attenuation of PCBs, especially for highly chlorinated congeners. In the microcosm experiment, 40% or more of the initial total PCBs was removed after sequential flood–drying treatments, compared to less than 10% in the sterilized control and 20% in the constant-drying system. Variation in the quantity of PCBs degrading and dechlorinating bacterial groups were closely related to the alteration of anaerobic–aerobic conditions. These results suggested that alternating anoxic–oxic environment in paddy field led to the sequential aerobic–anaerobic transformation of PCBs, which provided a favorable environment for natural PCB attenuation. - Highlights: • Paddy fields hold significantly lower level of PCBs than drylands, especially highly-chlorinated PCBs. • Microbial dechlorination of PCBs is favored under flooded conditions in paddy field. • Aerobic biodegradation of PCBs is benefited under dry conditions in paddy field. • PCBs dechlorination rate is accelerated in rice planted paddy field compared to the unplanted one. • Alternating anoxic–oxic environment in paddy field led to the sequential aerobic–anaerobic transformation of PCBs. - Alternating anoxic–oxic environment led to the sequential aerobic–anaerobic transformation of PCBs in paddy field, which could act as a natural sequential anaerobic–aerobic

  18. Augmentation of aerobic respiration and mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle by hypoxia preconditioning with cobalt chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High altitude/hypoxia training is known to improve physical performance in athletes. Hypoxia induces hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) and its downstream genes that facilitate hypoxia adaptation in muscle to increase physical performance. Cobalt chloride (CoCl2), a hypoxia mimetic, stabilizes HIF-1, which otherwise is degraded in normoxic conditions. We studied the effects of hypoxia preconditioning by CoCl2 supplementation on physical performance, glucose metabolism, and mitochondrial biogenesis using rodent model. The results showed significant increase in physical performance in cobalt supplemented rats without (two times) or with training (3.3 times) as compared to control animals. CoCl2 supplementation in rats augmented the biological activities of enzymes of TCA cycle, glycolysis and cytochrome c oxidase (COX); and increased the expression of glucose transporter-1 (Glut-1) in muscle showing increased glucose metabolism by aerobic respiration. There was also an increase in mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle observed by increased mRNA expressions of mitochondrial biogenesis markers which was further confirmed by electron microscopy. Moreover, nitric oxide production increased in skeletal muscle in cobalt supplemented rats, which seems to be the major reason for peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) induction and mitochondrial biogenesis. Thus, in conclusion, we state that hypoxia preconditioning by CoCl2 supplementation in rats increases mitochondrial biogenesis, glucose uptake and metabolism by aerobic respiration in skeletal muscle, which leads to increased physical performance. The significance of this study lies in understanding the molecular mechanism of hypoxia adaptation and improvement of work performance in normal as well as extreme conditions like hypoxia via hypoxia preconditioning. -- Highlights: ► We supplemented rats with CoCl2 for 15 days along with training. ► CoCl2 supplementation augmented

  19. Enhanced aerobic nitrifying granulation by static magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-Hua; Diao, Mu-He; Yang, Ying; Shi, Yi-Jing; Gao, Ming-Ming; Wang, Shu-Guang

    2012-04-01

    One of the main challenging issues for aerobic nitrifying granules in treating high strength ammonia wastewater is the long granulation time required for activated sludge to transform into aerobic granules. The present study provides a novel strategy for enhancing aerobic nitrifying granulation by applying an intensity of 48.0mT static magnetic field. The element analysis showed that the applied magnetic field could promote the accumulation of iron compounds in the sludge. And then the aggregation of iron decreased the full granulation time from 41 to 25days by enhancing the setting properties of granules and stimulating the secretion of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). Long-term, cycle experiments and fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) analysis proved that an intensity of 48.0mT magnetic field could enhance the activities and growth of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB). These findings suggest that magnetic field is helpful and reliable for accelerating the aerobic nitrifying granulation.

  20. THE RELATIONSHIP OF CHOREOGRAPHY PREPARATION AND ARTISTRY IN AEROBIC GYMNASTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Sokolova

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Examines the impact choreography training in sports aerobics on artistic skills.Objective to investigate whether the use of funds choreo-graphy in training athletes involved in sports aerobics, to find the relationship between choreographic training and asses-sment for artistry.Method or methodology of work methods of studying the theoretical ski works of scientific content, analysis and processing of scientific texts.The results revealed the relationship between estimates for artistry and means-you dance training in sports aerobics. The scope of the results, the materials may be used by coaches in sports aerobics, for further research on the problem of constructing workout.

  1. WAYS TO IMPROVE THE PHYSICAL FITNESS THROUGH AEROBIC GYMNASTICS MEANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaharia A.M.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to study the probable effects that aerobic gymnastics could have on the body, for improving the physical fitness. The main goal of the research was to identify the effects the aerobic gymnastics has in improving physical fitness.This research was conducted on 15 subjects between 18 and 30 years old, who participated in aerobic gymnastics fitness-type lessons, three times a week. The programs comprised exercises of physical development , stretching and elasticity, of relaxation, of coordination, and not in the least, of muscle strengthening. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the applied means, the Ruffier test was used to assess the physical fitness of the subjects, and the Dorgo Index, to assess the cool-down response. The research data emphasized the subjects' interest for their physical fitness through a dynamic activity, constituting an argument for the practice of aerobic gymnastics throughout one's entire life, as a mean to preserve one's youth and beauty.

  2. Aerobic training and postexercise protein in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Grete; Prahm, Kira P; Dahlqvist, Julia R;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of regular aerobic training and postexercise protein-carbohydrate supplementation in patients with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD). METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel study, we randomized untrained men (n = 21...

  3. Nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria in aerobic granules formed in sequencing batch airlift reactors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Fang; YANG Fenglin; QI Aijiu

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate nitrifying bacteria and denitrifying bacteria isolated from aerobic granules.Aerobic granules were formed in an internal-circulate sequencing batch airlift reactor(SBAR)and biodegradation of NH3 -N was analyzed in the reactor.Bacteria were isolated and determined from aerobic granules using selected media.The growth properties and morphology of bacteria colonies were observed by controlling aerobic or anaerobic conditions in the culture medium.It was found that bacteria in aerobic granules were diverse and some of them were facultative aerobes.The diversity of bacteria in aerobic granules was a premise of simultaneous nitrification and denitrification.

  4. Aerobic and Anaerobic Starvation Metabolism in Methanotrophic Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Roslev, P.; King, G. M.

    1995-01-01

    The capacity for anaerobic metabolism of endogenous and selected exogenous substrates in carbon- and energy-starved methanotrophic bacteria was examined. The methanotrophic isolate strain WP 12 survived extended starvation under anoxic conditions while metabolizing 10-fold less endogenous substrate than did parallel cultures starved under oxic conditions. During aerobic starvation, the cell biomass decreased by 25% and protein and lipids were the preferred endogenous substrates. Aerobic prote...

  5. p53 aerobics: the major tumor suppressor fuels your workout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Jan-Philipp; Gu, Wei

    2006-07-01

    In addition to its role as the central regulator of the cellular stress response, p53 can regulate aerobic respiration via the novel transcriptional target SCO2, a critical regulator of the cytochrome c oxidase complex (Matoba et al., 2006). Loss of p53 results in decreased oxygen consumption and aerobic respiration and promotes a switch to glycolysis, thereby reducing endurance during physical exercise. PMID:16814724

  6. Dosing method of physical activity in aerobics classes for students

    OpenAIRE

    Beliak Yu. I.; Zinchenko N.M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose : reasons for the method of dosing of physical activity in aerobics classes for students. The basis of the method is the evaluation of the metabolic cost of funds used in them. Material : experiment involved the assessment of the pulse response of students to load complexes classical and step aerobics (n = 47, age 20-23 years). In complexes used various factors regulating the intensity: perform combinations of basic steps, involvement of movements with his hands, holding in hands dumb...

  7. Water aerobics in pregnancy: cardiovascular response, labor and neonatal outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Braga Angelica F; Cecatti Jose G; Pereira Rosa I; Baciuk Erica P; Cavalcante Sergio R

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background To evaluate the association between water aerobics, maternal cardiovascular capacity during pregnancy, labor and neonatal outcomes. Methods A randomized, controlled clinical trial was carried out in which 34 pregnant women were allocated to a water aerobics group and 37 to a control group. All women were submitted to submaximal ergometric tests on a treadmill at 19, 25 and 35 weeks of pregnancy and were followed up until delivery. Oxygen consumption (VO2 max), cardiac outp...

  8. Audio Processing Solution for Video Conference Based Aerobics

    OpenAIRE

    Berggren, Magnus; Stjernberg, Louise; Lindström, Fredric; Claesson, Ingvar

    2010-01-01

    In this paper an audio processing solution for video conference based aerobics is presented. The proposed solution leaves the workout music unaltered by separating it from the speech and processing each signal separately. The speech signal processing is also performed at a lower sample rate, which saves computational power. Real time evaluation of the system shows that high quality music as well as a good two-way communication is maintained during the aerobic session.

  9. Fetal cardiotocography before and after water aerobics during pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Silveira Carla; Pereira Belmiro G; Cecatti Jose G; Cavalcante Sergio R; Pereira Rosa I

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objective To evaluate the effect of moderate aerobic physical activity in water on fetal cardiotocography patterns in sedentary pregnant women. Method In a non-randomized controlled trial, 133 previously sedentary pregnant women participated in multiple regular sessions of water aerobics in a heated swimming pool. Cardiotocography was performed for 20 minutes before and just after the oriented exercise. Cardiotocography patterns were analyzed pre- and post-exercise according to gesta...

  10. Impact of brisk walking and aerobics in overweight women

    OpenAIRE

    Melam, Ganeswara Rao; Alhusaini, Adel A.; Buragadda, Syamala; Kaur, Taranpreet; Khan, Imran Ali

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Lack of physical activity and an uncontrolled diet cause excessive weight gain, which leads to obesity and other metabolic disorders. Studies have indicated that brisk walking and aerobics are the best methods for controlling and reducing weight and body mass composition. [Subjects and Methods] In this study, 45 overweight women were enrolled and divided into 3 groups. Women not involved in brisk walking or aerobics were included in group A (n = 15) as control subjects; women involv...

  11. THE RELATIONSHIP OF CHOREOGRAPHY PREPARATION AND ARTISTRY IN AEROBIC GYMNASTICS

    OpenAIRE

    I. V. Sokolova

    2015-01-01

    Examines the impact choreography training in sports aerobics on artistic skills.Objective to investigate whether the use of funds choreo-graphy in training athletes involved in sports aerobics, to find the relationship between choreographic training and asses-sment for artistry.Method or methodology of work methods of studying the theoretical ski works of scientific content, analysis and processing of scientific texts.The results revealed the relationship between estimates for artistry and me...

  12. The medically important aerobic actinomycetes: epidemiology and microbiology.

    OpenAIRE

    McNeil, M. M.; Brown, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    The aerobic actinomycetes are soil-inhabiting microorganisms that occur worldwide. In 1888, Nocard first recognized the pathogenic potential of this group of microorganisms. Since then, several aerobic actinomycetes have been a major source of interest for the commercial drug industry and have proved to be extremely useful microorganisms for producing novel antimicrobial agents. They have also been well known as potential veterinary pathogens affecting many different animal species. The medic...

  13. Water Aerobics as a Form of Health Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna S. Batrak

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The offered literature review considers water aerobics as a form of health activities. Water aerobics is wide spread and popular, especially among women, because it is also the form of adaptive and health activities. It enlarges general physiological effect of physical exercises on the human body. Regular exercises improve physical fitness and physical development, health, mood, sleep, intensify activities and working efficiency.

  14. Maximal aerobic exercise following prolonged sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, J; Radomski, M; Hart, L; Plyley, M; Shephard, R J

    1989-12-01

    The effect of 60 h without sleep upon maximal oxygen intake was examined in 12 young women, using a cycle ergometer protocol. The arousal of the subjects was maintained by requiring the performance of a sequence of cognitive tasks throughout the experimental period. Well-defined oxygen intake plateaus were obtained both before and after sleep deprivation, and no change of maximal oxygen intake was observed immediately following sleep deprivation. The endurance time for exhausting exercise also remained unchanged, as did such markers of aerobic performance as peak exercise ventilation, peak heart rate, peak respiratory gas exchange ratio, and peak blood lactate. However, as in an earlier study of sleep deprivation with male subjects (in which a decrease of treadmill maximal oxygen intake was observed), the formula of Dill and Costill (4) indicated the development of a substantial (11.6%) increase of estimated plasma volume percentage with corresponding decreases in hematocrit and red cell count. Possible factors sustaining maximal oxygen intake under the conditions of the present experiment include (1) maintained arousal of the subjects with no decrease in peak exercise ventilation or the related respiratory work and (2) use of a cycle ergometer rather than a treadmill test with possible concurrent differences in the impact of hematocrit levels and plasma volume expansion upon peak cardiac output and thus oxygen delivery to the working muscles. PMID:2628360

  15. Personality, metabolic rate and aerobic capacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Terracciano

    Full Text Available Personality traits and cardiorespiratory fitness in older adults are reliable predictors of health and longevity. We examined the association between personality traits and energy expenditure at rest (basal metabolic rate and during normal and maximal sustained walking. Personality traits and oxygen (VO(2 consumption were assessed in 642 participants from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Results indicate that personality traits were mostly unrelated to resting metabolic rate and energy expenditure at normal walking pace. However, those who scored lower on neuroticism (r = -0.12 and higher on extraversion (r = 0.11, openness (r = 0.13, and conscientiousness (r = 0.09 had significantly higher energy expenditure at peak walking pace. In addition to greater aerobic capacity, individuals with a more resilient personality profile walked faster and were more efficient in that they required less energy per meter walked. The associations between personality and energy expenditure were not moderated by age or sex, but were in part explained by the proportion of fat mass. In conclusion, differences in personality may matter the most during more challenging activities that require cardiorespiratory fitness. These findings suggest potential pathways that link personality to health outcomes, such as obesity and longevity.

  16. Aerobic training in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsenga, A L; Shephard, R J; Ahmaidi, S; Ahmadi, S

    2013-06-01

    Rehabilitation is a major goal for children with cerebral palsy, although the potential to enhance cardio-respiratory fitness in such individuals remains unclear. This study thus compared current cardio-respiratory status between children with cerebral palsy and able-bodied children, and examined the ability to enhance the cardio-respiratory fitness of children with cerebral palsy by cycle ergometer training. 10 children with cerebral palsy (Gross Motor Function Classification System levels I and II) participated in thrice-weekly 30 min cycle ergometer training sessions for 8 weeks (mean age: 14.2±1.9 yrs). 10 additional subjects with cerebral palsy (mean age: 14.2±1.8 yrs) and 10 able-bodied subjects (mean age: 14.1±2.1 yrs) served as controls, undertaking no training. All subjects undertook a progressive cycle ergometer test of cardio-respiratory fitness at the beginning and end of the 8-week period. Cardio-respiratory parameters [oxygen intake V˙O2), ventilation V ˙ E) and heart rate (HR)] during testing were measured by Cosmed K4 b gas analyzer. The children with cerebral palsy who engaged in aerobic training improved their peak oxygen consumption, heart rate and ventilation significantly (pchildren with cerebral palsy can benefit significantly from cardio-respiratory training, and such training should be included in rehabilitation programs.

  17. Energy efficient aerobic treatment of forest industry wastewaters; Energieffektiv aerob rening av skogsindustriella avloppsvatten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandberg, Maria; From-Aldaron, Mattias

    2011-01-15

    There is great potential to reduce energy requirements in aerobic biological purification if the oxygen demand can be reduced and oxygen delivery, when process water is aerated, is made more efficient. A model was developed to estimate the possible reduction in oxygen demand. Model variables were COD reduction, sludge withdrawal, oxygen, and alpha-value. Attempts made in an aerator in the lab-scale process shows that water content strongly affects oxygen transport and alpha-value. Surface active extract substances such as fatty acids and resin acids have greatest significance. The effect increases with the concentration of extract substances and decreases with added sodium chloride content

  18. Simultaneous methanogenesis and denitrification of aniline wastewater by using anaerobic-aerobic biofilm system with recirculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wastewater containing highly concentrated nitrogenous and aromatic compounds, such as aniline, is difficult to degrade and very toxic to microorganisms, especially to nitrifier. In order to remove both carbon and nitrogen from aniline wastewater, recently two biofilm reactors equipped with anaerobic-aerobic cycle and internal recirculation have demonstrated some potential in treating the wastewater. In such system, ammonification, methanogenesis and denitrification reactions occurred simultaneously in one anaerobic reactor, followed by COD removal and nitrification in the aerobic reactor. The effect of recirculation ratio on COD and nitrogen removal using such reactor arrangement was therefore investigated in the present work. The results showed that recirculation had little impact on the overall COD removal or denitrification activity in the anaerobic reactor at any tested ratio, 96-98% of overall COD removal efficiency was achieved with a final effluent COD value below 200 mg/L. But nitrification and TN removal were strongly affected by recirculation. The nitrification rate reached a maximum of 0.48 kg N/(m3 d) at recirculation ratio of 1 and complete nitrification was achieved at the recirculation ratios over 2. TN removal efficiency increased continuously and a sharp reduction of sludge production in the system was observed with increasing recirculation.

  19. Biodegradation kinetics of selected brominated flame retardants in aerobic and anaerobic soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyholm, Jenny Rattfelt, E-mail: jenny.rattfelt@chem.umu.s [Department of Chemistry, Umea University, SE-901 87 Umea (Sweden); Lundberg, Charlott; Andersson, Patrik L. [Department of Chemistry, Umea University, SE-901 87 Umea (Sweden)

    2010-06-15

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the biodegradation kinetics in aerobic and anaerobic soil of the following brominated flame retardants: 2,4,4'-tribromodiphenyl ether (BDE 28), decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE 209), tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), 1,2-dibromo-4-(1,2-dibromoethyl)cyclohexane (TBECH), 2,4,6-tribromophenol (246BrPh), and hexabromobenzene (HxBrBz). For comparison, the biodegradation of the chlorinated compounds 2,4,4'-trichlorodiphenyl ether (CDE 28), 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (246ClPh), hexachlorobenzene (HxClBz), and 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 153) was also assessed. In aerobic soil, BDE 209 showed no significant degradation during the test period, but concentrations of the other BFRs declined, with half-lives decreasing in the following order: BDE 28 > TBBPA > TBECH > HxBrBz > 246BrPh. Declines in almost the same order were observed in anaerobic soil: BDE 28, BDE 209 > TBBPA > HxBrBz > TBECH >246BrPh. - Intra- and extrapolated half-lives in soil of tested brominated flame retardants ranged from 7 days for 2,4,6-tribromorophenol to >400 days for decabromodiphenyl ether.

  20. Expression of stress response HSP70 gene in Asian paddle crabs, Charybdis japonica, exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals, bisphenol A (BPA) and 4-nonylphenol (NP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kiyun; Kwak, Ihn-Sil

    2013-06-01

    The Asian paddle crab, Charybdis japonica, is a potential bio-indicator reflecting marine sediment toxicity as well as a commercially important species living along coastal areas in Korea. This study investigated its stress response by looking at the heat shock protein (HSP70) gene of C. japonica when the organism is exposed to bisphenol A (BPA) and 4-nonylphenol (NP). We characterized partial sequence of HSP70 as the stressresponse gene of C. japonica. The nucleotide sequence of C. japonica HSP70 is over 90% homologous with the corresponding gene of other crabs. Phylogenetic tree analysis revealed a close relationship between C. japonica HSP70 and HSP70 in other species of lobster and shrimps. HSP70 mRNA transcripts were detected in all the examined tissues of C. japonica, with the highest level in gills, the organ that most frequently came into contact with the external BPA or NP-laden water. As no reference data were available for C. japonica crab exposure, the BPA and NP 24-h LC50 values have not been previously determined. The expression of the C. japonica HSP70 gene to various BPA or NP concentrations during short and longer times was assessed. Gene expression was significantly induced in concentration- and time-dependent manners after BPA or NP exposures. These results support the postulation that crab C. japonica HSP70 could be a potential stress response molecular marker to monitor marine ecosystems.

  1. Removal of trace nonylphenol from water in the coexistence of suspended inorganic particles and NOMs by using a cellulose-based flocculant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhen; Ren, Kexin; Guibal, Eric; Jia, Shuying; Shen, Jiachun; Zhang, Xuntong; Yang, Weiben

    2016-10-01

    A flocculation method was used for the removal of trace nonylphenol (NP) from synthetic surface water containing natural organic matters (humic acid, HA) and suspended inorganic particles (kaolin). A polymeric flocculant (CMCND), with enhanced cationic property and unique switchable hydrophobic/hydrophilic characteristic, was specially designed for this application. CMCND showed a high efficiency for trace NP removal, turbidity and UV254 abatements: under optimized conditions (pH: 4; T: 35 °C; dosage: 40 mg/L), the removal of NP reached up to 79%. By using dosage-pH flocculation diagrams and correlation analyses as tools, kaolin and HA were found to exert synergistic effects on NP removal, with the aid of CMCND; the synergistic effect of HA is higher due to π-π stacking. Zeta potential-dosage profiles clearly demonstrated charge neutralization predominated at pH 4, due to the strong cationic groups in the flocculant. Floc size monitoring displayed that the delayed phase transformation process (from hydrophilicity to hydrophobicity) of CMCND at 35 °C enhanced NP removal. In addition, spectral analyses clarified the interactions among CMCND, NP, kaolin and HA: charge attraction and hydrophobic interaction between CMCND and NP played the key roles. The findings are of significance for removing endocrine-disrupting chemicals in environmental remediation. PMID:27459160

  2. The Training Effects of Dance Aerobics: A Review with an Emphasis on the Perspectives of Investigations

    OpenAIRE

    Zaletel, Petra; Gabrilo, Goran; Perić, Mia

    2013-01-01

    The training effects of contemporary aerobics programmes (hi lo, dance aerobics, step aerobics, aqua aerobics etc.) have been frequently investigated. However, we found no recent paper which reviewed aerobic programmes with regard to their training effectiveness, characteristics of the subjects involved, variables of interest and experimental design. In this paper we summarise the findings of more than 40 studies published in the 2000–2011 period that investigated the training effects of diff...

  3. Recent advances in azo dye degrading enzyme research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huizhong

    2006-04-01

    Azo dyes, which are characterized by one or more azo bonds, are a predominant class of colorants used in tattooing, cosmetics, foods, and consumer products. These dyes are mainly metabolized by bacteria to colorless aromatic amines, some of which are carcinogenic, by azoreductases that catalyze a NAD(P)H-dependent reduction. The resulting amines are further degraded aerobically by bacteria. Some bacteria have the ability to degrade azo dyes both aerobically and anaerobically. Plant-degrading white rot fungi can break down azo dyes by utilizing a number of oxidases and peroxidases as well. In yeast, a ferric reductase system participates in the extracellular reduction of azo dyes. Recently, two types of azoreductases have been discovered in bacteria. The first class of azoreductases is monomeric flavin-free enzymes containing a putative NAD(P)H binding motif at their N-termini; the second class is polymeric flavin dependent enzymes which are studied more extensively. Azoreductases from bacteria represent novel families of enzymes with little similarity to other reductases. Dissociation and reconstitution of the flavin dependent azoreductases demonstrate that the non-covalent bound flavin prosthetic group is required for the enzymatic functions. In this review, structures and carcinogenicity of azo colorants, protein structure, enzymatic function, and substrate specificity, as well as application of the azo dyes and azoreductases will be discussed.

  4. Degradation of Parathion by Microorganisms from Cranberry Bogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Oxygen concentration and different carbon sources drastically altered parathion degradation in culture media inoculated with microorganisms from Wisconsin cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) growing soils. These microorganisms also grew in basal salts media utilizing parathion as a sole carbon source. 14CO2 was produced only from phenyl-labelled parathion while 14C-(ethyl)-parathion derived radiocarbon remained in the stale media of the soil-free cultures. Addition of 0.05% glucose to basal salts medium inhibited 14C-(phenyl)-parathion degradation while the addition of 0.05% yeast extract to basal salts medium also inhibited microbiological degradation of the insecticide to 14CO2, but to a lesser extent. Aminoparathion and aminoparaoxon were formed only in basal salts medium with 0.05% yeast extract. Aerobic cultures produced more 14CO2 from 14C-(phenyl)-parathion and less aminoparathion than anaerobic cultures. Aminoparathion was more abundant in cultures with inocula obtained from the 18- to 23-cm layer than with culture inocula obtained from the 0- to 5-cm soil layer under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. (author)

  5. Epoxy Coenzyme A Thioester pathways for degradation of aromatic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Wael; Gescher, Johannes

    2012-08-01

    Aromatic compounds (biogenic and anthropogenic) are abundant in the biosphere. Some of them are well-known environmental pollutants. Although the aromatic nucleus is relatively recalcitrant, microorganisms have developed various catabolic routes that enable complete biodegradation of aromatic compounds. The adopted degradation pathways depend on the availability of oxygen. Under oxic conditions, microorganisms utilize oxygen as a cosubstrate to activate and cleave the aromatic ring. In contrast, under anoxic conditions, the aromatic compounds are transformed to coenzyme A (CoA) thioesters followed by energy-consuming reduction of the ring. Eventually, the dearomatized ring is opened via a hydrolytic mechanism. Recently, novel catabolic pathways for the aerobic degradation of aromatic compounds were elucidated that differ significantly from the established catabolic routes. The new pathways were investigated in detail for the aerobic bacterial degradation of benzoate and phenylacetate. In both cases, the pathway is initiated by transforming the substrate to a CoA thioester and all the intermediates are bound by CoA. The subsequent reactions involve epoxidation of the aromatic ring followed by hydrolytic ring cleavage. Here we discuss the novel pathways, with a particular focus on their unique features and occurrence as well as ecological significance.

  6. Development of an Intermediate-Scale Aerobic Bioreactor to Regenerate Nutrients from Inedible Crop Residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, Barry W.; Strayer, Richard F.

    1994-01-01

    Three Intermediate-Scale Aerobic Bioreactors were designed, fabricated, and operated. They utilized mixed microbial communities to bio-degrade plant residues. The continuously stirred tank reactors operated at a working volume of 8 L, and the average oxygen mass transfer coefficient, k(sub L)a, was 0.01 s(exp -1). Mixing time was 35 s. An experiment using inedible wheat residues, a replenishment rate of 0.125/day, and a solids loading rate of 20 gdw/day yielded a 48% reduction in biomass. Bioreactor effluent was successfully used to regenerate a wheat hydroponic nutrient solution. Over 80% of available potassium, calcium, and other minerals were recovered and recycled in the 76-day wheat growth experiment.

  7. Aerobic digestion of tannery wastewater in a sequential batch reactor by salt-tolerant bacterial strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durai, G.; Rajasimman, M.; Rajamohan, N.

    2011-09-01

    Among the industries generating hyper saline effluents, tanneries are prominent in India. Hyper saline wastewater is difficult to treat by conventional biological treatment methods. Salt-tolerant microbes can adapt to these conditions and degrade the organics in hyper saline wastewater. In this study, the performance of a bench scale aerobic sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was investigated to treat the tannery wastewater by the salt-tolerant bacterial strains namely Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus flexus, Exiguobacterium homiense and Styphylococcus aureus. The study was carried out under different operating conditions by changing the hydraulic retention time, organic loading rate and initial substrate concentration. From the results it was found that a maximum COD reduction of 90.4% and colour removal of 78.6% was attained. From this study it was found that the salt-tolerant microorganisms could improve the reduction efficiency of COD and colour of the tannery wastewater.

  8. Primary biodegradation of veterinary antibiotics in aerobic and anaerobic surface water simulation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Flemming; Toräng, Lars; Loke, M.-L.;

    2001-01-01

    The primary aerobic and anaerobic biodegradability at intermediate concentrations (50-5000 mug/l) of the antibiotics olaquindox (OLA), metronidazole (MET), tylosin (TYL) and oxytetracycline (OTC) was studied in a simple shake flask system simulating the conditions in surface waters. The purpose...... of the study was to provide rate data for primary biodegradation in the scenario where antibiotics pollute surface waters as a result of run-off from arable land. The source of antibiotics may be application of manure as fertilizer or excreta of grazing animals. Assuming first-order degradation kinetics...... substances. The biodegradation behaviour was influenced by neither the concentrations of antibiotics nor the time of the year and location for sampling of surface water. Addition of 1 g/l of sediment or 3 mg/l of activated sludge from wastewater treatment increased the biodegradation potential which...

  9. Theagalloflavic Acid, a New Pigment Derived from Hexahydroxydiphenoyl Group, and Lignan Oxidation Products Produced by Aerobic Microbial Fermentation of Green Tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Yosuke; Matsuda, Tomoko; Sugihara, Keisuke; Saito, Yoshinori; Zhang, Ying-Jun; Yang, Chong-Ren; Tanaka, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Chinese ripe pu-erh tea is produced by aerobic microbial fermentation of green tea. To clarify the microbial degradation of tea polyphenols, Japanese commercial green tea was mixed with Chinese ripe pu-erh tea, which retains microorganisms, and fermented for 5 d. Chromatographic separation yielded a novel water-soluble yellow pigment termed theagalloflavic acid. Spectroscopic and chemical evidence suggested that this pigment was produced by oxidative ring cleavage of hexahydroxydiphenoyl esters. In addition, two new oxygenated lignin metabolites, (+)-5,5'-dihydroxypinoresinol and 5-hydroxydihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol, were also isolated together with known degradation products of quercetin and tea catechins. PMID:27373646

  10. Supplementary Low-Intensity Aerobic Training Improves Aerobic Capacity and Does Not Affect Psychomotor Performance in Professional Female Ballet Dancers

    OpenAIRE

    Smol, Ewelina; Fredyk, Artur

    2012-01-01

    We investigated whether 6-week low-intensity aerobic training program used as a supplement to regular dance practice might improve both the aerobic capacity and psychomotor performance in female ballet dancers. To assess their maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and anaerobic threshold (AT), the dancers performed a standard graded bicycle ergometer exercise test until volitional exhaustion prior to and after the supplementary training. At both these occasions, the psychomotor performance (assessed...

  11. INTERMITTENT DEGRADATION AND SCHIZOTYPY

    OpenAIRE

    Roché, Matthew W.; Silverstein, Steven M.; Lenzenweger, Mark F.

    2015-01-01

    Intermittent degradation refers to transient detrimental disruptions in task performance. This phenomenon has been repeatedly observed in the performance data of patients with schizophrenia. Whether intermittent degradation is a feature of the liability for schizophrenia (i.e., schizotypy) is an open question. Further, the specificity of intermittent degradation to schizotypy has yet to be investigated. To address these questions, 92 undergraduate participants completed a battery of self-repo...

  12. Microbial decolorization of reactive black-5 in a two-stage anaerobic-aerobic reactor using acclimatized activated textile sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Sagarika; Dafale, Nishant; Rao, Nageswara Neti

    2006-10-01

    A two-stage anaerobic-aerobic treatment process based on mixed culture of bacteria isolated from textile dye effluent was used to degrade reactive black 5 dye (RB-5). The anaerobic step was studied in more detail by varying the dye concentration from 100 to 3000 mg l(-1). The results showed that major decolorization was achieved during the anaerobic process. The time required for decolorization by > 90% increased as the concentration of the dye increased. It was also found that maintaining dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration below 0.5 mg l(-1 )and addition of a co-substrate viz., glucose, facilitates anaerobic decolorization reaction remarkably. An attempt was made to identify the metabolites formed in anaerobic process by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and UV-VIS spectrophotometry. A plate assay was performed for the detection of dominant decolorizing bacteria. Only a few bacterial colonies with high clearing zones (decolorization zones) were found. The results showed that under anaerobic condition RB-5 molecules were reduced and aromatic amines were generated. The aromatic amine metabolite was partly removed in subsequent aerobic bio-treatment. It was possible to achieve more than 90% decolorization and approximately 46% reduction in amine metabolite concentration through two-stage anaerobic-aerobic treatment after a reaction period of 2 days.

  13. Performance and dye-degrading bacteria isolation of a hybrid membrane process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Sheng-Jie, E-mail: sjyou@cycu.edu.tw [Department of Bioenvironmental Engineering and R and D Center for Membrane Technology, Chung Yuan Christian University, No. 200, Rd. Chung-Pei, Chungli 320, Taiwan (China); Teng, Jun-Yu, E-mail: nickprometheus@yahoo.com.tw [Department of Civil Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chungli 320, Taiwan (China)

    2009-12-15

    Textile dyeing wastewater contains harmful compounds, which are toxic to both marine organisms and human beings if it discharged into an aquatic environmental without suitable treatment. In this study, the wastewater containing the azo dye, Reactive Black 5 (RB5), was partially treated in an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor which was further treated either in an aerobic membrane bioreactors (AOMBR) or in combined aerobic membrane bioreactor/reverse osmosis (AOMBR/RO) process. The results showed that in the anaerobic sequencing batch reactor the RB5 dye was degraded to form aromatic amine intermediate metabolites, which were further mineralized in the AOMBR. It was also observed that although all effluents from the AOMBR and AOMBR/RO processes met the Taiwan EPA's effluent criteria, irrespective of which membranes were used in the aerobic tank, the effluent from the AOMBR/RO process met the criteria for reuse for toilet flushing, landscaping, irrigation, and cooling water purposes, where as the AOMBR effluent only met the criteria for cooling water due to incomplete color removal. Five anaerobic high dye-degrading bacteria were isolated, which were identified to be the same species of Lactococcus lactis by 16S rRNA sequencing. The L. lactis showed complete degradation of RB5 and further studies showed that it can also able to degrade Reactive Red 120 and Reactive Yellow 84 efficiently within 6 h.

  14. Enantioselectivity in tebuconazole and myclobutanil non-target toxicity and degradation in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanbo; Dong, Fengshou; Liu, Xingang; Xu, Jun; Han, Yongtao; Zheng, Yongquan

    2015-03-01

    Tebuconazole and myclobutanil are two widely used triazole fungicides, both comprising two enantiomers with different fungicidal activity. However, their non-target toxicity and environmental behavior with respect to enantioselectivity have received limited attention. In the present study, tebuconazole and myclobutanil enantiomers were isolated and used to evaluate the occurrence of enantioselectivity in their acute toxicity to three non-target organisms (Scenedesmus obliquus, Daphnia magna, and Danio rerio). Significant differences were found: R-(-)-tebuconazole was about 1.4-5.9 times more toxic than S-(+)-tebuconazole; rac-myclobutanil was about 1.3-6.1 and 1.4-7.3 more toxic than (-)-myclobutanil and (+)-myclobutanil, respectively. Enantioselectivity was further investigated in terms of fungicide degradation in seven soil samples, which were selected to cover a broad range of soil properties. In aerobic or anaerobic soils, the S-(+)-tebuconazole degraded faster than R-(-)-tebuconazole, and the enantioselectivity showed a correlation with soil organic carbon content. (+)-Myclobutanil was preferentially degraded than (-)-myclobutanil in aerobic soils, whereas both enantiomers degraded at similar rates in anaerobic soils. Apparent correlations of enantioselectivity with soil pH and soil texture were observed for myclobutanil under aerobic conditions. In addition, both fungicides were configurationally stable in soils, i.e., no enantiomerization was found. Enantioselectivity may be a common phenomenon in both aquatic toxicity and biodegradation of chiral triazole fungicides, and this should be considered when assessing ecotoxicological risks of these compounds in the environment.

  15. Chlordecone fate and mineralisation in a tropical soil (andosol) microcosm under aerobic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernández-Bayo, Jesus D., E-mail: fernanje@supagro.inra.fr [IRD, UMR LISAH Bât 24, 2 Place Viala, 34060 Montpellier cedex 1 (France); INRA, UMR LISAH Bât 24, 2 Place Viala, 34060 Montpellier cedex 1 (France); Saison, Carine [IRD, UMR LISAH Bât 24, 2 Place Viala, 34060 Montpellier cedex 1 (France); Voltz, Marc [INRA, UMR LISAH Bât 24, 2 Place Viala, 34060 Montpellier cedex 1 (France); Disko, Ulrich; Hofmann, Diana; Berns, Anne E. [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, IBG 3, 52425 Jülich (Germany)

    2013-10-01

    Chlordecone is a persistent organochlorine insecticide that, even decades after its ban, poses a threat to the environment and human health. Nevertheless, its environmental fate in soils has scarcely been investigated, and elementary data on its degradation and behaviour in soil are lacking. The mineralisation and sorption of chlordecone and the formation of possible metabolites were evaluated in a tropical agricultural andosol. Soil microcosms with two different soil horizons (S-A and S-B) were incubated for 215 days with {sup 14}C-chlordecone. At five different times (1, 33, 88, 150 and 215 days) the extractability of {sup 14}C-chlordecone was analysed. Mineralisation was monitored using {sup 14}CO{sub 2} traps of NaOH. The appearance of metabolites was studied using thin layer and gas chromatography techniques. At the end of the experiment, the water soluble {sup 14}C-activity was 2% of the remaining {sup 14}C-chlordecone for S-A and 8% for S-B. Only 12% of the remaining activity was non extractable and more than 80% remained extractable with organic solvents. For the first time to our knowledge, a significant mineralisation of chlordecone was measured in a microcosm under aerobic conditions (4.9% for S-A and 3.2% for S-B of the initial {sup 14}C-activity). The drastically lower emission of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} in sterilised microcosms indicated the biological origin of chlordecone mineralisation in the non-sterilised microcosms. No metabolites could be detected in the soil extracts. The mineralisation rate of chlordecone decreased by one order of magnitude throughout the incubation period. Thus, the chlordecone content in the soil remained large. This study confirms the existence of chlordecone degrading organisms in a tropical andosol. The reasons why their activity is restricted should be elucidated to allow the development of bioremediation approaches. Possible reasons are a heterogeneous distribution a chlordecone between sub-compartments with different

  16. Chlordecone fate and mineralisation in a tropical soil (andosol) microcosm under aerobic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chlordecone is a persistent organochlorine insecticide that, even decades after its ban, poses a threat to the environment and human health. Nevertheless, its environmental fate in soils has scarcely been investigated, and elementary data on its degradation and behaviour in soil are lacking. The mineralisation and sorption of chlordecone and the formation of possible metabolites were evaluated in a tropical agricultural andosol. Soil microcosms with two different soil horizons (S-A and S-B) were incubated for 215 days with 14C-chlordecone. At five different times (1, 33, 88, 150 and 215 days) the extractability of 14C-chlordecone was analysed. Mineralisation was monitored using 14CO2 traps of NaOH. The appearance of metabolites was studied using thin layer and gas chromatography techniques. At the end of the experiment, the water soluble 14C-activity was 2% of the remaining 14C-chlordecone for S-A and 8% for S-B. Only 12% of the remaining activity was non extractable and more than 80% remained extractable with organic solvents. For the first time to our knowledge, a significant mineralisation of chlordecone was measured in a microcosm under aerobic conditions (4.9% for S-A and 3.2% for S-B of the initial 14C-activity). The drastically lower emission of 14CO2 in sterilised microcosms indicated the biological origin of chlordecone mineralisation in the non-sterilised microcosms. No metabolites could be detected in the soil extracts. The mineralisation rate of chlordecone decreased by one order of magnitude throughout the incubation period. Thus, the chlordecone content in the soil remained large. This study confirms the existence of chlordecone degrading organisms in a tropical andosol. The reasons why their activity is restricted should be elucidated to allow the development of bioremediation approaches. Possible reasons are a heterogeneous distribution a chlordecone between sub-compartments with different microbial activities or a degradation of chlordecone by co

  17. Bioremediation of 2-chlorophenol containing wastewater by aerobic granules-kinetics and toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Mohammad Zain [Environmental Research Laboratory, Department of chemistry, Aligarh Muslim University, Faculty of Science, Aligarh 202002, UP (India); Mondal, Pijush Kanti, E-mail: pijushamu@gmail.com [Environmental Research laboratory, Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002, UP (India); Sabir, Suhail, E-mail: sabirsuhail09@gmail.com [Environmental Research Laboratory, Department of chemistry, Aligarh Muslim University, Faculty of Science, Aligarh 202002, UP (India)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: {yields} 2-Chlorophenol degrading aerobic granules were cultivated in sequencing batch reactor in presence of glucose and the organic loading rate (OLR) was increased from 6.9 to 9.7 kg COD m{sup -3} d{sup -1} during the experiment. {yields} Spectral studies confirmed that the biodegradation occurs via chlorocatechol pathway and modified ortho-cleavage. {yields} Biodegradation kinetics of 2-CP followed the Haldane model with kinetic parameters (R{sup 2} > 0.9) V{sub max} = 840 mg2-CP gMLVSS{sup -1} d{sup -1}, K{sub s} = 24.61 mg L{sup -1}, K{sub i} = 315.02 mg L{sup -1}. {yields} Genotoxic examination by plasmid nicking assay confirmed that the effluent was non-toxic. - Abstract: 2-Chlorophenol (2-CP) degrading aerobic granules were cultivated in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) in presence of glucose. The organic loading rate (OLR) was increased from 6.9 to 9.7 kg COD m{sup -3} d{sup -1} (1150-1617 mg L{sup -1}COD per cycle) during the experiment. The alkalinity (1000 mg L{sup -1} as CaCO{sub 3}) was maintained throughout the experiment. The specific cell growth rate was found to be 0.013 d{sup -1}. A COD removal efficiency of 94% was achieved after steady state at 8 h HRT (hydraulic retention time). FTIR, UV, GC, GC/MS studies confirmed that the biodegradation of 2-CP occurs via chlorocatechol (modified ortho-cleavage) pathway. Biodegradation kinetics followed the Haldane model with kinetic parameters: V{sub max} = 840 mg2-CP gMLVSS{sup -1} d{sup -1}, K{sub s} = 24.61 mg L{sup -1}, K{sub i} = 315.02 mg L{sup -1}. Abiotic losses of 2-CP due to volatilization and photo degradation by sunlight were less than 3% and the results of genotoxicity showed that the degradation products are eco-friendly.

  18. Field tests for evaluating the aerobic work capacity of firefighters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Sofie Lindberg

    Full Text Available Working as a firefighter is physically strenuous, and a high level of physical fitness increases a firefighter's ability to cope with the physical stress of their profession. Direct measurements of aerobic capacity, however, are often complicated, time consuming, and expensive. The first aim of the present study was to evaluate the correlations between direct (laboratory and indirect (field aerobic capacity tests with common and physically demanding firefighting tasks. The second aim was to give recommendations as to which field tests may be the most useful for evaluating firefighters' aerobic work capacity. A total of 38 subjects (26 men and 12 women were included. Two aerobic capacity tests, six field tests, and seven firefighting tasks were performed. Lactate threshold and onset of blood lactate accumulation were found to be correlated to the performance of one work task (r(s = -0.65 and -0.63, p<0.01, respectively. Absolute (mL · min(-1 and relative (mL · kg(-1 · min(-1 maximal aerobic capacity was correlated to all but one of the work tasks (r(s = -0.79 to 0.55 and -0.74 to 0.47, p<0.01, respectively. Aerobic capacity is important for firefighters' work performance, and we have concluded that the time to row 500 m, the time to run 3000 m relative to body weight (s · kg(-1, and the percent of maximal heart rate achieved during treadmill walking are the most valid field tests for evaluating a firefighter's aerobic work capacity.

  19. Degradations and Rearrangement Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianbo

    This section deals with recent reports concerning degradation and rearrangement reactions of free sugars as well as some glycosides. The transformations are classified in chemical and enzymatic ways. In addition, the Maillard reaction will be discussed as an example of degradation and rearrangement transformation and its application in current research in the fields of chemistry and biology.

  20. Rate of NDF degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Koukolová, V; Lund, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Degradation profiles for NDF were estimated for 83 samples of grass/grass-clover, 27 samples of cereal whole crop and 14 samples of maize whole crop.......Degradation profiles for NDF were estimated for 83 samples of grass/grass-clover, 27 samples of cereal whole crop and 14 samples of maize whole crop....

  1. Determination of bisphenol A, 4-octylphenol, and 4-nonylphenol in soft drinks and dairy products by ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with derivatization and high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Tao; Zhao, Xian-En; Zhu, Shuyun; Qu, Fei; Song, Cuihua; You, Jinmao; Suo, Yourui

    2014-10-01

    A novel hyphenated method based on ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled to precolumn derivatization has been established for the simultaneous determination of bisphenol A, 4-octylphenol, and 4-nonylphenol by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Different parameters that influence microextraction and derivatization have been optimized. The quantitative linear range of analytes is 5.0-400.0 ng/L, and the correlation coefficients are more than 0.9998. Limits of detection for soft drinks and dairy products have been obtained in the range of 0.5-1.2 ng/kg and 0.01-0.04 μg/kg, respectively. Relative standard deviations of intra- and inter-day precision for retention time and peak area are in the range of 0.47-2.31 and 2.76-8.79%, respectively. Accuracy is satisfactory in the range of 81.5-118.7%. Relative standard deviations of repeatability are in the range of 0.35-1.43 and 2.36-4.75% for retention time and peak area, respectively. Enrichment factors for bisphenol A, 4-octylphenol, and 4-nonylphenol are 170.5, 240.3, and 283.2, respectively. The results of recovery and matrix effect are in the range of 82.7-114.9 and 92.0-109.0%, respectively. The proposed method has been applied to the determination of bisphenol A, 4-octylphenol, and 4-nonylphenol in soft drinks and dairy products with much higher sensitivity than many other methods. PMID:25045130

  2. Impact of brisk walking and aerobics in overweight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melam, Ganeswara Rao; Alhusaini, Adel A; Buragadda, Syamala; Kaur, Taranpreet; Khan, Imran Ali

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Lack of physical activity and an uncontrolled diet cause excessive weight gain, which leads to obesity and other metabolic disorders. Studies have indicated that brisk walking and aerobics are the best methods for controlling and reducing weight and body mass composition. [Subjects and Methods] In this study, 45 overweight women were enrolled and divided into 3 groups. Women not involved in brisk walking or aerobics were included in group A (n = 15) as control subjects; women involved in brisk walking were in group B (n = 15); and those involved in aerobics were in group C (n = 15). [Results] This program was carried out 5 days/week for 10 weeks. Pre- and post-measurements of body mass index, waist and hip circumference, and skinfold thickness of the abdomen, subscapular area, biceps, and triceps were recorded for the women in all 3 groups. All values decreased in women who participated in brisk walking and aerobics for 10 weeks. [Conclusion] These results indicate that aerobics with diet therapy is a more effective intervention program for controlling and reducing body mass index and skinfold thickness than brisk walking with diet therapy in North Indian women. PMID:26957777

  3. Denitrification characteristics of a marine origin psychrophilic aerobic denitrifying bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Haiyan; Liu, Ying; Sun, Guangdong; Gao, Xiyan; Zhang, Qingling; Liu, Zhipei

    2011-01-01

    A psychrophilic aerobic denitrifying bacterium, strain S1-1, was isolated from a biological aerated filter conducted for treatment of recirculating water in a marine aquaculture system. Strain S1-1 was preliminarily identified as Psychrobacter sp. based on the analysis of its 16S rRNA gene sequence, which showed 100% sequence similarity to that of Psychrobacter sp. TSBY-70. Strain S1-1 grew well either in high nitrate or high nitrite conditions with a removal of 100% nitrate or 63.50% nitrite, and the total nitrogen removal rates could reach to 46.48% and 31.89%, respectively. The results indicated that nitrate was mainly reduced in its logarithmic growth phase with a very low level accumulation of nitrite, suggesting that the aerobic denitrification process of strain S1-1 occurred mainly in this phase. The GC-MS results showed that N2O was formed as the major intermediate during the aerobic denitrifying process of strain S1-1. Finally, factors affecting the growth of strain S1-1 and its aerobic denitrifying ability were also investigated. Results showed that the optimum aerobic denitrification conditions for strain S1-1 were sodium succinate as carbon source, C/N ratio15, salinity 10 g/L NaCl, incubation temperature 20 degrees C and initial pH 6.5. PMID:22432315

  4. [EPIDEMIOLOGICAL, CLINICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL FINDINGS IN WOMEN WITH AEROBIC VAGINITIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermendjiev, T; Pehlivanov, B; Hadjieva, K; Stanev, S

    2015-01-01

    Aerobic vaginitis (AV) is an alterarion of the normal lactobacillic flora accompanied by signs of inflammation, presence of mainly aerobic microorganisms from intestinal commensals or other aerobic pathogens. Clinical symptoms may vary by type and intensity and are marked by a high tendency for recurrence and chronification. Inflammation and ulcerations in AV could increase the risk of contracting HIV or other sexually transmitted infections. The aim is to study some epidemiological, clinical and microbiological features of the aerobic vaginitis in patients of the specialized Obstetric and Gynecological Clinic in Plovdiv, Bulgaria. In a retrospective research 4687 vaginal smears have been gathered in Microbiological laboratory at "St. George" Hospital - Plovdiv. We used clinical, microbiological and statistical methods. Information processing is performed by variation, alternative, correlation and graphical analysis using specialized package SPSS v13.0. The overall prevalence rate of AV in the studied population is 11.77%. The levels of prevalence of AV in pregnant and non-pregnant women are respectively 13.08% and 4.34%. The highest frequency of AV is in the age group 21-30 years (32.3%). The results show a marked association between Escherichia coli and the cases of AV (p vaginal symptoms in patients of specialized ambulatory outpatient. One in ten women with vaginal complaints suffers from AV Streptococcus agalactiae and Escherichia coli are most often isolated aerobic microorganisms. PMID:26863788

  5. Denitrification characteristics of a marine origin psychrophilic aerobic denitrifying bacterium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haiyan Zheng; Ying Liu; Guangdong Sun; Xiyan Gao; Qingling Zhang; Zhipei Liu

    2011-01-01

    A psychrophilic aerobic denitrifying bacterium,strain S1-1,was isolated from a biological aerated filter conducted for treatment of recirculating water in a marine aquaculture system.Strain S1-1 was preliminarily identified as Psychrobacter sp.based on the analysis of its 16S rRNA gene sequence,which showed 100% sequence similarity to that of Psychrobacter sp.TSBY-70.Strain S 1-1 grew well either in high nitrate or high nitrite conditions with a removal of 100% nitrate or 63.50% nitrite,and the total nitrogen removal rates could reach to 46.48% and 31.89%,respectively.The results indicated that nitrate was mainly reduced in its logarithmic growth phase with a very low leve 1 accumulation of nitrite,suggesting that the aerobic denitrification process of strain S l-1 occurred mainly in this phase.The GC-MS results showed that N2O was formed as the major intermediate during the aerobic denitrifying process of strain S1-1.Finally,factors affecting the growth of strain Sl-1 and its aerobic denitrifying ability were also investigated.Results showed that the optimum aerobic denitrification conditions for strain S1-1 were sodium succinate as carbon source,C/N ratio15,salinity 10 g/L NaCl,incubation temperature 20℃ and initial pH 6.5.

  6. LC-MS/MS analytical procedure to quantify tris(nonylphenyl)phosphite, as a source of the endocrine disruptors 4-nonylphenols, in food packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottier, Pascal; Frank, Nancy; Dubois, Mathieu; Tarres, Adrienne; Bessaire, Thomas; Romero, Roman; Delatour, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    Tris(nonylphenyl)phosphite, an antioxidant used in polyethylene resins for food applications, is problematic since it is a source of the endocrine-disrupting chemicals 4-nonylphenols (4NP) upon migration into packaged foods. As a response to concerns surrounding the presence of 4NP-based compounds in packaging materials, some resin producers and additive suppliers have decided to eliminate TNPP from formulations. This paper describes an analytical procedure to verify the "TNPP-free" statement in multilayer laminates used for bag-in-box packaging. The method involves extraction of TNPP from laminates with organic solvents followed by detection/quantification by LC-MS/MS using the atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation (APCI) mode. A further acidic treatment of the latter extract allows the release of 4NP from potentially extracted TNPP. 4NP is then analysed by LC-MS/MS using electrospray ionisation (ESI) mode. This two-step analytical procedure ensures not only TNPP quantification in laminates, but also allows the flagging of other possible sources of 4NP in such packaging materials, typically as non-intentionally added substances (NIAS). The limits of quantification were 0.50 and 0.48 µg dm⁻² for TNPP and 4NP in laminates, respectively, with recoveries ranging between 87% and 114%. Usage of such analytical methodologies in quality control operations has pointed to a lack of traceability at the packaging supplier level and cross-contamination of extrusion equipment at the converter level, when TNPP-containing laminates are processed on the same machine beforehand. PMID:24552621

  7. A mechanism of male germ cell apoptosis induced by bisphenol-A and nonylphenol involving ADAM17 and p38 MAPK activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Urriola-Muñoz

    Full Text Available Germ cell apoptosis regulation is pivotal in order to maintain proper daily sperm production. Several reports have shown that endocrine disruptors such as Bisphenol-A (BPA and Nonylphenol (NP induce germ cell apoptosis along with a decrease in sperm production. Given their ubiquitous distribution in plastic products used by humans it is important to clarify their mechanism of action. TACE/ADAM17 is a widely distributed extracellular metalloprotease and participates in the physiological apoptosis of germ cells during spermatogenesis. The aims of this work were: 1 to determine whether BPA and NP induce ADAM17 activation; and 2 to study whether ADAM17 and/or ADAM10 are involved in germ cell apoptosis induced by BPA and NP in the pubertal rat testis. A single dose of BPA or NP (50 mg/kg induces germ cell apoptosis in 21-day-old male rats, which was prevented by a pharmacological inhibitor of ADAM17, but not by an inhibitor of ADAM10. In vitro, we showed that BPA and NP, at similar concentrations to those found in human samples, induce the shedding of exogenous and endogenous (TNF-α ADAM17 substrates in primary rat Sertoli cell cultures and TM4 cell line. In addition, pharmacological inhibitors of metalloproteases and genetic silencing of ADAM17 prevent the shedding induced in vitro by BPA and NP. Finally, we showed that in vivo BPA and NP induced early activation (phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and translocation of ADAM17 to the cell surface. Interestingly, the inhibition of p38 MAPK prevents germ cell apoptosis and translocation of ADAM17 to the cell surface. These results show for the first time that xenoestrogens can induce activation of ADAM17 at concentrations similar to those found in human samples, suggesting a mechanism by which they could imbalance para/juxtacrine cell-to-cell-communication and induce germ cell apoptosis.

  8. Aqueous exposure to 4-nonylphenol and 17β-estradiol increases stress sensitivity and disrupts ion regulatory ability of juvenile atlantic salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Darrren T.; Bjornsson, Bjorn Thrandur; McCormick, Stephen D.

    2007-01-01

    Population declines of wild Atlantic salmon have been attributed to an array of anthropogenic disturbances, including dams, commercial and recreational fishing, habitat loss, and pollution. Environmental contaminants in particular, can act as environmental stressors on fish, typically causing disruption of ion homeostasis due to their close association with the aquatic environment. To examine the effects of the xenoestrogen 4-nonylphenol (NP) or 17β-estradiol (E2) on stress sensitivity and ion regulation, we exposed juvenile Atlantic salmon continuously for 21 d to either 10 or 100 μg/L NP (NP-L or NP-H), 2 μg/L E2 (positive control), or vehicle control during the parr-smolt transformation in April. After treatment, fish were sampled in freshwater (FW), transferred to 30‰ seawater (SW) for 24 h, or subjected to a handling stress. Estradiol and NP-H increased plasma vitellogenin in males and females, and E2 increased gonadosomatic index only in males. In FW, E2 reduced sodium potassium–activated adenosine triphosphatase activity as well as plasma levels of growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor I, and triiodothyronine. Both E2 and NP-H reduced plasma sodium in FW and increased plasma chloride in SW. Plasma Cortisol levels pre- and poststressor were significantly elevated by all treatments relative to controls, but only E2 increased plasma glucose before and after the stressor. These results indicate that exposure of anadromous salmonids to environmental estrogens heightens sensitivity to external stressors, impairs ion regulation in both FW and SW, and disrupts endocrine pathways critical for smolt development.

  9. Larval exposure to 4-nonylphenol and 17β-estradiol affects physiological and behavioral development of seawater adaptation in Atlantic salmon smolts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Darrren T.; Bjornsson, Bjorn Thrandur; McCormick, Stephen D.

    2007-01-01

    Population declines of anadromous salmonids are attributed to anthropogenic disturbances including dams, commercial and recreational fisheries, and pollutants, such as estrogenic compounds. Nonylphenol (NP), a xenoestrogen, is widespread in the aquatic environment due to its use in agricultural, industrial, and household products. We exposed Atlantic salmon yolk-sac larvae to waterborne 10 or 100 μg L-1 NP (NP-L or NP-H, respectively), 2 μg L-1 17β-estradiol (E2), or vehicle, for 21 days to investigate their effects on smolt physiology and behavior 1 year later. NP-H caused approximately 50% mortality during exposure, 30 days after exposure, and 60 days after exposure. Mortality rates of NP-L and E2 fish were not affected until 60 days after treatment, when they were 4-fold greater than those of controls. Treatment with NP-L or E2 as yolk-sac larvae decreased gill sodium-potassium-activated adenosine triphosphatase (Na+,K+-ATPase) activity and seawater (SW) tolerance during smolt development, 1 year after exposure. Exposure to NP-L and E2 resulted in a latency to enter SW and reduced preference for SW approximately 2- and 5-fold, respectively. NP-L-exposed fish had 20% lower plasma insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) levels and 35% lower plasma triiodothyronine (T3). Plasma growth hormone and thyroxine (T4) were unaffected. Exposure to E2 did not affect plasma levels of IGF-I, GH, T3, or T4. Both treatment groups exhibited increased plasma cortisol and decreased osmoregulatory capacity in response to a handling stressor. These results suggest that early exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of NP, and other estrogenic compounds, can cause direct and delayed mortalities and that this exposure can have long term, “organizational” effects on life-history events in salmonids.

  10. Myelotoxicity in genistein-, nonylphenol-, methoxychlor-, vinclozolin- or ethinyl estradiol-exposed F1 generations of Sprague-Dawley rats following developmental and adult exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, T L; Germolec, D R; Musgrove, D L; Delclos, K B; Newbold, R R; Weis, C; White, K L

    2005-08-01

    The myelotoxicity of five endocrine active chemicals was evaluated in F1 generation of Sprague-Dawley rats following developmental and adult exposures at three concentration levels. Rats were exposed to genistein (GEN: 25, 250 and 1250 ppm), nonylphenol (NPH: 25, 500 and 2000 ppm), methoxychlor (MXC: 10, 100 and 1000 ppm), vinclozolin (VCZ: 10, 150 and 750 ppm) and ethinyl estradiol (EE2: 5, 25 and 200 ppb) gestationally and lactationally through dams from day 7 of gestation and through feed after weaning on postnatal day (PND) 22 to PND 64. The parameters examined included the number of recovered bone marrow cells, DNA synthesis, and colony forming units (CFU) in the presence of granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and erythropoietin. Except for the EE2, the concentrations of other individual chemicals in the diet were in an approximate range that allowed for a comparison to be made in terms of myelotoxic potency. Decreases in the DNA synthesis, CFU-GM and CFU-M seemed to be the common findings among the alterations induced by these compounds. Using the numbers of alterations induced by each chemical in the parameters examined as criteria for comparison, the order of myelotoxic potency in F(1) males was: GEN>MXC>NPH>VCZ; the order in females: GEN>NPH>VCZ. Additionally, some of the functional changes induced by these compounds were gender-specific or dimorphic. Overall, the results demonstrated that developmental and adult exposures of F1 rats to these endocrine active chemicals at the concentrations tested had varied degrees of myelotoxicity with GEN being the most potent. Furthermore, the sex-specific effects of these chemicals in F1 male and female rats suggest that there may be interactions between these compounds and sex hormone in modulating these responses.

  11. Effects of p-nonylphenol and resveratrol on body and organ weight and in vivo fertility of outbred CD-1 mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boubelik Michael

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to analyse the multigenerational effects of para-nonylphenol (NP and resveratrol (RES on the body weight, organ weight and reproductive fitness of outbred CD-1 mice. The data indicate that in male mice, NP had an effect on the weight of selected reproductive organs and the kidneys in the parental (P generation males. Effects on selected reproductive organs, the liver and kidneys in the F1-generation males were also seen. In females, effects of NP on body weight and kidney weight were seen in the P generation, but no effects on any measured parameter were seen in the F1 generation. RES had no effect on body weight but did have some effect on selected male and female reproductive organs in the P generation. RES altered the spleen and liver weights of P-generation males and the kidney weight of F1-generation males. Acrosomal integrity (using a monoclonal antibody against intra-acrosomal sperm proteins was assessed for both generations of NP- and RES-treated mice. A significant reduction in acrosomal integrity was seen in both generations of NP-treated, but not in RES-treated, mice. Fewer offspring were observed in the second litter of the F2 generation of mice treated with NP; no similar effect was seen in RES-treated mice. The litter sex ratio was not different from controls. Unlike RES, NP had a negative effect on spermatogenesis and sperm quality with a resultant impact on in vivo fertility.

  12. Nonylphenol disrupts the cardio-protective effects of 17β-estradiol on ischemia/reperfusion injury in isolated hearts of guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Hu, Huiyuan; Zhao, Meimi; Zhao, Jinsheng; Yin, Dandan; Sun, Xuefei; Liu, Shuyuan; Gao, Qinghua; Yu, Lifeng; Hao, Liying

    2013-01-01

    Nonylphenol (NP), a widely distributed, toxic, endocrine-disrupting chemical, has estrogenic properties. However, its cardiac effects remain unclear. In this study, the effects of NP on isolated guinea pig hearts were studied in three separate experiments. First, hearts were perfused with 10⁻⁷ M NP or 10⁻⁵ M NP to determine whether NP was toxic to isolated healthy hearts. Next, hearts were subjected to 50 min of ischemia and 60 min of reperfusion (I50R60) with 10⁻⁷ M NP or 10⁻⁵ M NP to determine whether NP could aggravate ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Finally, the interaction of the cardio-protective agent 17β-estradiol (E₂) with NP was studied using 10⁻⁷ M E₂, 10⁻⁷ M E₂ plus 10⁻⁷ M NP, and 10⁻⁷ M E₂ plus 10⁻⁵ M NP. Heart rate (HR) and coronary flow (CF) were significantly decreased and the leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in effluent was increased in the 10⁻⁵ M NP group. However, there were no obvious changes in HR, CF, the leakage of LDH or creatine kinase (CK), or the activity of superoxide dismutase in either of the NP treatments in the I50R60 model. Treatment with 10⁻⁷ M E₂ attenuated I/R injury by increasing HR, decreasing the leakage of LDH and CK, and decreasing infarct size. However, these effects were reversed by both concentrations of NP. These data demonstrate that NP had direct toxic effects on normal hearts and NP might disrupt the cardio-protective effects of E₂ on I/R injury. PMID:24067721

  13. LC-MS/MS analytical procedure to quantify tris(nonylphenyl)phosphite, as a source of the endocrine disruptors 4-nonylphenols, in food packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottier, Pascal; Frank, Nancy; Dubois, Mathieu; Tarres, Adrienne; Bessaire, Thomas; Romero, Roman; Delatour, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    Tris(nonylphenyl)phosphite, an antioxidant used in polyethylene resins for food applications, is problematic since it is a source of the endocrine-disrupting chemicals 4-nonylphenols (4NP) upon migration into packaged foods. As a response to concerns surrounding the presence of 4NP-based compounds in packaging materials, some resin producers and additive suppliers have decided to eliminate TNPP from formulations. This paper describes an analytical procedure to verify the "TNPP-free" statement in multilayer laminates used for bag-in-box packaging. The method involves extraction of TNPP from laminates with organic solvents followed by detection/quantification by LC-MS/MS using the atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation (APCI) mode. A further acidic treatment of the latter extract allows the release of 4NP from potentially extracted TNPP. 4NP is then analysed by LC-MS/MS using electrospray ionisation (ESI) mode. This two-step analytical procedure ensures not only TNPP quantification in laminates, but also allows the flagging of other possible sources of 4NP in such packaging materials, typically as non-intentionally added substances (NIAS). The limits of quantification were 0.50 and 0.48 µg dm⁻² for TNPP and 4NP in laminates, respectively, with recoveries ranging between 87% and 114%. Usage of such analytical methodologies in quality control operations has pointed to a lack of traceability at the packaging supplier level and cross-contamination of extrusion equipment at the converter level, when TNPP-containing laminates are processed on the same machine beforehand.

  14. In vivo metabolism and organ distribution of a branched {sup 14}C-nonylphenol isomer in pond snails, Lymnaea stagnalis L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalah, J.O.; Schramm, K.-W.; Severin, G.F.; Lenoir, D; Henkelmann, B.; Behechti, A.; Guenther, K.; Kettrup, A

    2003-02-26

    The branched isomers of p-nonylphenol (NP) are perceived to be more resistant to biodegradation in aquatic environments as well as to have more estrogen-like toxicity than the straight chain isomers. By use of GC-MS, some of them have been identified and found to exist in higher concentrations in the isomeric compound mixture than the straight chain isomers. The investigations of the distribution and metabolism of these branched isomers in aquatic organisms are therefore considered to be important in understanding the mechanisms of toxicity of NP. A single tertiary isomer of NP, 4(3'-,6'-dimethyl-3'-heptyl)-phenol, was synthesized in the laboratory and used in in vivo studies of its organ distribution and metabolism in Lymnaea stagnalis L., following a constant exposure of the organisms to {sup 14}C-NP isomer in water over a period of 8 days at an average exposure concentration of 105 ppb (range: 93-116 ppb). The results obtained clearly showed the distribution and bioconcentration of the isomer residues in various internal organs of Lymnaea after uptake in water and food. Analysis of the extracts of the organ tissues and faeces by HPLC and GC-MS after digestion with Pankreatin/{beta}-glucuronidase and nitric acid, respectively, showed that the isomer was metabolized by conjugation to glucuronic acid and hydroxylation to a catechol. The findings from these studies and their implications in the biotransformation and estrogenicity of NP in Lymnaea stagnalis L. are further discussed in detail in this paper.

  15. Ubiquitous occurrence of chlorinated byproducts of bisphenol A and nonylphenol in bleached food contacting papers and their implications for human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuyin; Chen, Mo; Zhao, Fanrong; Mu, Di; Zhang, Zhaobin; Hu, Jianying

    2015-06-16

    The occurrence of bisphenol A (BPA), nonylphenol (NP), and their six chlorinated byproducts were investigated in 74 food contacting papers (FCPs) from China, the U.S.A., Japan, and Europe using a sensitive dansylation LC-MS/MS method. BPA (paper production. The mean concentrations of monochloro-BPA (MCBPA), dichloro-BPA (DCBPA), trichloro-BPA (TCBPA), tetrachloro-BPA (TeCBPA), monochloro-NP (MCNP), and dichloro-NP (DCNP) in bleached FCPs were 0.019 ± 0.025, 0.0033 ± 0.0059, 0.0030 ± 0.0045, 0.0081 ± 0.019, 0.23 ± 0.46, and 0.066 ± 0.11 ng/g, respectively, much higher than those (0.0021 ± 0.0020 ng/g for MCBPA, 0.00068 ± 0.00076 ng/g for DCBPA,

  16. Silk structure and degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Song, Yu-wei; Jin, Li; Wang, Zhi-jian; Pu, De-yong; Lin, Shao-qiang; Zhou, Chan; You, Hua-jian; Ma, Yan; Li, Jin-min; Yang, Li; Sung, K L Paul; Zhang, Yao-guang

    2015-07-01

    To investigate the structure of silk and its degradation properties, we have monitored the structure of silk using scanning electron microscopy and frozen sections. Raw silk and degummed raw silk were immersed in four types of degradation solutions for 156 d to observe their degradation properties. The subcutaneous implants in rats were removed after 7, 14, 56, 84, 129, and 145 d for frozen sectioning and subsequent staining with hematoxylin and eosin (H.E.), DAPI, Beta-actin and Collagen I immunofluorescence staining. The in vitro weight loss ratio of raw silk and degummed raw silk in water, PBS, DMEM and DMEM containing 10% FBS (F-DMEM) were, respectively, 14%/11%, 12.5%/12.9%, 11.1%/14.3%, 8.8%/11.6%. Silk began to degrade after 7 d subcutaneous implantation and after 145 d non-degraded silk was still observed. These findings suggest the immunogenicity of fibroin and sericin had no essential difference. In the process of in vitro degradation of silk, the role of the enzyme is not significant. The in vivo degradation of silk is related to phagocytotic activity and fibroblasts may be involved in this process to secrete collagen. This study also shows the developing process of cocoons and raw silk. PMID:25982316

  17. Kinetics of p-aminoazobenzene degradation by Bacillus subtilis under denitrifying conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zissi, U.S.; Kornaros, M.E.; Lyberatos, G.C.

    1999-05-01

    Bacillus subtilis is an organism capable of degrading an azo dye, such as p-aminoazobenzene (pAAB), under both aerobic and anoxic conditions. In both cases, pAAB is co-metabolized with a main carbon source and under anoxic conditions denitrification is observed. Kinetic experiments were carried out with a pure culture of B. subtilis and a mathematical model that accurately describes both biodegradation of pAAB under anoxic conditions and the denitrification process under both carbon- and nitrate- or nitrite-limited conditions is developed. Presence of pAAB in culture medium causes an inhibition of bacterial growth and of nitrite accumulation. Bacterial growth and pAAB degradation rates are found to be slower under anoxic conditions compared to the corresponding rates under aerobic conditions.

  18. Biological degradation and greenhouse gas emissions during pre-storage of liquid animal manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Henrik Bjarne; Sommer, S.G.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2004-01-01

    digestion may be a significant source of CH4 and could reduce the potential CH4 production in the biogas reactor. Degradation of energy-rich organic components in slurry and emissions of CH4 and carbon dioxide (CO2) from aerobic and anaerobic degradation processes during pre-storage were examined...... in the laboratory. Newly mixed slurry was added to vessels and stored at 15 and 20degreesC for 100 to 220 d. During storage, CH4 and CO2 emissions were measured with a dynamic chamber technique. The ratio of decomposition in the subsurface to that at the surface indicated that the aerobic surface processes...... contributed significantly to CO2 emission. The measured CH4 emission was used to calculate the methane conversion factor (MCF) in relation to storage time and temperature, and the total carbon-C emission was used to calculate the decrease in potential CH4 production by anaerobic digestion following pre-storage...

  19. Impact of 6-month aerobic exercise on Alzheimer's symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fang; Thomas, William; Nelson, Nathaniel W; Bronas, Ulf G; Dysken, Maurice; Wyman, Jean F

    2015-06-01

    Little is known about how aerobic exercise affects Alzheimer's disease (AD). The purpose of this pilot study was to test the impact of 6-month cycling on AD symptoms in community-dwelling older adults with mild-to-moderate AD, using a single-group, repeated-measures design (n = 26). AD symptoms were measured with the AD Assessment Scale-Cognitive (ADAS-Cog), Disability in AD (DAD), and Neuropsychiatric Inventory-Caregiver (NPI-Q) scales at baseline, 3 and 6 months. Data were analyzed using mixed linear models. The ADAS-Cog, DAD, and NPI-Q severity scores remained unchanged over the 6-month period, while caregiver distress decreased 40% (p < .05). We conclude that aerobic exercise may reduce AD symptoms and appears effective in decreasing caregiver distress. Further randomized controlled trials are needed to examine the effects of aerobic exercise in AD. PMID:24652914

  20. Isolation and denitrification characteristic of an aerobic denitrifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Dan-dan; MA Fang; WANG Hong-yu; DONG Shuang-shi; WANG Ai-jie

    2006-01-01

    Aerobic denitrifiers were enriched by activated sludge cultivation method. By this way, 105 strains were isolated from the activated sludge and 25 strains were confirmed to be capable of obtaining energy by deoxidization of nitrate to nitrogen gas under aerobic condition. The characteristic of one denitrifier, Pseudomonas chloritidismutans strain, was particularly studied due to its higher nitrogen removal rate. It was found that Pseudomonas chloritidismutans can use nitrite, nitrate and oxygen for aerobic respiration in liquid medium, and the pH increased and ORP decreased by activated denitrifier. When they used nitrite or nitrate for respiration, nitrogen removal effect was high and nitrite could be reduced more efficiently than nitrate. Denitrification process was accomplished faster when both nitrite and nitrate existed in the medium compared to each of which existed alone. Particularly, at denitrifying activity, the nitrogen removal rate of strain was not affected by the DO concentration in the culture media.

  1. Virulence factors enhance Citrobacter rodentium expansion through aerobic respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Christopher A; Miller, Brittany M; Rivera-Chávez, Fabian; Velazquez, Eric M; Byndloss, Mariana X; Chávez-Arroyo, Alfredo; Lokken, Kristen L; Tsolis, Renée M; Winter, Sebastian E; Bäumler, Andreas J

    2016-09-16

    Citrobacter rodentium uses a type III secretion system (T3SS) to induce colonic crypt hyperplasia in mice, thereby gaining an edge during its competition with the gut microbiota through an unknown mechanism. Here, we show that by triggering colonic crypt hyperplasia, the C. rodentium T3SS induced an excessive expansion of undifferentiated Ki67-positive epithelial cells, which increased oxygenation of the mucosal surface and drove an aerobic C. rodentium expansion in the colon. Treatment of mice with the γ-secretase inhibitor dibenzazepine to diminish Notch-driven colonic crypt hyperplasia curtailed the fitness advantage conferred by aerobic respiration during C. rodentium infection. We conclude that C. rodentium uses its T3SS to induce histopathological lesions that generate an intestinal microenvironment in which growth of the pathogen is fueled by aerobic respiration. PMID:27634526

  2. Supplementary Low-Intensity Aerobic Training Improves Aerobic Capacity and Does Not Affect Psychomotor Performance in Professional Female Ballet Dancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smol, Ewelina; Fredyk, Artur

    2012-01-01

    We investigated whether 6-week low-intensity aerobic training program used as a supplement to regular dance practice might improve both the aerobic capacity and psychomotor performance in female ballet dancers. To assess their maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and anaerobic threshold (AT), the dancers performed a standard graded bicycle ergometer exercise test until volitional exhaustion prior to and after the supplementary training. At both these occasions, the psychomotor performance (assessed as multiple choice reaction time) and number of correct responses to audio-visual stimuli was assessed at rest and immediately after cessation of maximal intensity exercise. The supplementary low-intensity exercise training increased VO2max and markedly shifted AT toward higher absolute workload. Immediately after completion of the graded exercise to volitional exhaustion, the ballerinas’ psychomotor performance remained at the pre-exercise (resting) level. Neither the resting nor the maximal multiple choice reaction time and accuracy of responses were affected by the supplementary aerobic training. The results of this study indicate that addition of low-intensity aerobic training to regular dance practice increases aerobic capacity of ballerinas with no loss of speed and accuracy of their psychomotor reaction. PMID:23485962

  3. Degradation of transuranic-contaminated wastes under geological isolation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of extensive experimental studies on the degradation of existing defense transuranic-contaminated (TRU) wastes are presented. Environmental conditions for waste degradation are representative of deep geological isolation of TRU wastes in a bedded-salt repository, as anticipated for the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in southeastern New Mexico. TRU-contaminated waste matrices investigated include cellulosics, plastics, rubbers, mixed organic composite, bitumen, a developmental concrete-TRU ash matrix, mild steel, and inorganic process sludges. Degradation mechanisms studied were alpha radiolysis, microbial action, thermal decomposition and dewatering, and chemical corrosion. Experimental variables are waste composition, alpha-contamination level, temperature, pressure, time, water or brine content, aerobic or anaerobic conditions, etc. Results of waste degradation are presented in terms of gas generation rates, gas compositions, container corrosion rates, effectiveness of anti-corrosion coatings, microbial formation and degradation of chelating agents. Based on experimental results, the relative quantities of gas generated by individual mechanisms acting on the organic matrix wastes can be ranked as follows: (1) microbial action, (2) thermal decomposition (at 400C and higher), (3) alpha radiolysis, and (4) corrosion. Corrosion of metallic waste canisters and realistic bedded-salt repository conditions was determined not to have a significant effect on potential waste retrievability. The technical data provided in these studies are used in assessments to determine whether existing forms of TRU wastes are acceptable for safe geological isolation. (author)

  4. SPECIFIC DEGRADATION OF WATERSHEDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Boubacar KANE; Pierre Y.JULIEN

    2007-01-01

    An extensive database of reservoir sedimentation surveys throughout continental United States is compiled and analyzed to determine specific degradation SD relationships as function of mean annual rainfall R, drainage area A, and watershed slope S. The database contains 1463 field measurements and specific degradation relationships are defined as function of A, R and S. Weak trends and significant variability in the data are noticeable. Specific degradation measurements are log normally distributed with respect to R, A, and S and 95% confidence intervals are determined accordingly. The accuracy of the predictions does not significantly increase as more independent variables are added to the regression analyses.

  5. Aerobic bioremediation of petroleum contaminated soil using controlled landfarming technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that the Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control (DNREC) has been concerned about open, uncontrolled landfarming remediation procedures producing a significant amount of atmospheric volatile petroleum discharge and increasing the probability of the remediation site's soil and groundwater becoming contaminated by rainwater. WIK Associates, Inc., therefore, has been developing full scale aerobic bioremediation technology for clients within the Delaware area in order to carry out year round, full scale, aerobic biodegradation of petroleum contaminated soils, while controlling any volatile emissions

  6. Enhancing excess sludge aerobic digestion with low intensity ultrasound

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Wen-chuan; LI Dong-xue; ZENG Xiao-lan; LONG Teng-rui

    2006-01-01

    In order to enhance the efficiency of aerobic digestion, the excess sludge was irradiated by low intensity ultrasound at a frequency of 28 kHz and acoustic intensity of 0.53 W/cm2. The results show that the sludge stabilization without ultrasonic treatment can be achieved after 17 d of digestion, whereas the digestion time of ultrasonic groups can be cut by 3 - 7 d. During the same digestion elapsing, in ultrasonic groups the total volatile suspended solid removal rate is higher than that in the control group. The kinetics of aerobic digestion of excess sludge with ultrasound can also be described with first-order reaction.

  7. Influence employment by improving aerobics on motor readiness of girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shypulo I. P.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : substantiate the effect of employment by improving aerobics on motor readiness of girls in extracurricular educational institutions. Material : the study involved 90 women aged 16-18 years old. Classes are held 3 times a week for 1 hour each. Results : defined state and the most informative indicators motor fitness girls. Built analytical model of graph model for forecasting and conducting quantitative and qualitative control of motor fitness girls. The degree of severity of each of the parameters studied motor fitness girls. Conclusions : the possibilities of predicting outcomes. Recommended method of aerobics classes, which has five stages. Its main feature - the constant objective control efficiency of employment.

  8. Exercise intensity during Zumba fitness and Tae-bo aerobics

    OpenAIRE

    Hižnayová, Kristína

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzed and compared the exercise intensity in Zumba fitness and Tae-bo aerobics. Object of the research was monitoring of the heart rate and energy consumption in kcal during exercise unit, by using Heart Rate Monitor Suunto Memory Belt. All measurements were attended by randomly selected 11 women. The data we collected during the six units of the Zumba fitness and six units of the Tae-bo aerobics . Obtained data of the heart rate were evaluated in three main parts of workout: af...

  9. Novel aerobic tetracycline resistance gene that chemically modifies tetracycline.

    OpenAIRE

    Speer, B S; Salyers, A A

    1989-01-01

    A tetracycline resistance gene that was found originally on the Bacteroides plasmid pBF4 confers resistance on Escherichia coli but only when cells are growing aerobically. When E. coli EM24 carrying this aerobic tetracycline resistance (*Tcr) gene is grown in medium containing tetracycline, the resulting spent medium is no longer toxic to tetracycline-sensitive (Tcs) E. coli EM24 (B.S. Speer and A.A. Salyers, J. Bacteriol. 170: 1423-1429, 1988). To determine whether the *Tcr gene product mod...

  10. Copper intoxication inhibits aerobic nucleotide synthesis in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Michael D. L.; Kehl-Fie, Thomas E.; Rosch, Jason W.

    2015-01-01

    Copper is universally toxic in excess, a feature exploited by the human immune system to facilitate bacterial clearance. The mechanism of copper intoxication remains unknown for many bacterial species. Here, we demonstrate that copper toxicity in Streptococcus pneumoniae is independent from oxidative stress but, rather, is the result of copper inhibiting the aerobic dNTP biosynthetic pathway. Furthermore, we show that copper-intoxicated S. pneumoniae is rescued by manganese, which is an essential metal in the aerobic nucleotide synthesis pathway. These data provide insight into new targets to enhance copper-mediated toxicity during bacterial clearance. PMID:25730343

  11. Complete degradation of polychlorinated hydrocarbons by a two-stage biofilm reactor.

    OpenAIRE

    Fathepure, B Z; Vogel, T M

    1991-01-01

    A two-stage anaerobic-aerobic biofilm reactor successfully degraded a mixture of chlorinated organic compounds to water-soluble metabolic intermediates and carbon dioxide. Reductive dechlorination of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), tetrachloroethylene (PCE), and chloroform (CF) occurred on all tested primary carbon sources such as glucose, methanol, and acetate. However, the extent of dechlorination was maximum when the anaerobic biofilm column was fed acetate as a primary carbon source. HCB, PCE, a...

  12. Characterization of the novel dimethyl sulfide-degrading bacterium Alcaligenes sp. SY1 and its biochemical degradation pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yiming; Qiu, Jiguo; Chen, Dongzhi; Ye, Jiexu; Chen, Jianmeng

    2016-03-01

    Recently, the biodegradation of volatile organic sulfur compounds (VOSCs) has become a burgeoning field, with a growing focus on the reduction of VOSCs. The reduction of VOSCs encompasses both organic emission control and odor control. Herein, Alcaligenes sp. SY1 was isolated from active sludge and found to utilize dimethyl sulfide (DMS) as a growth substrate in a mineral salt medium. Response surface methodology (RSM) analysis was applied to optimize the incubation conditions. The following conditions for optimal degradation were identified: temperature 27.03°C; pH 7.80; inoculum salinity 0.84%; and initial DMS concentration 1585.39 μM. Under these conditions, approximately 99% of the DMS was degraded within 30 h of incubation. Two metabolic compounds were detected and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS): dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) and dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS). The DMS degradation kinetics for different concentrations were evaluated using the Haldane-Andrews model and the pseudo first-order model. The maximum specific growth rate and degradation rate of Alcaligenes sp. SY1 were 0.17 h(-1) and 0.63 gs gx(-1)h(-1). A possible degradation pathway is proposed, and the results suggest that Alcaligenes sp. SY1 has the potential to control odor emissions under aerobic conditions. PMID:26623933

  13. Effect of biochar on the fate of volatile petroleum hydrocarbons in an aerobic sandy soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushnaf, Khaled M.; Puricelli, Sara; Saponaro, Sabrina; Werner, David

    2011-11-01

    Biochar addition to soil is currently being investigated as a novel technology to remediate polluted sites. A critical consideration is the impact of biochar on the intrinsic microbial pollutant degradation, in particular at sites polluted with a mixture of readily biodegradable and more persistent organic pollutants. We therefore studied the impact of biochar (2% on dry weight basis) on the fate of volatile petroleum hydrocarbons in an aerobic sandy soil with batch and column studies. The soil-water partitioning coefficient, K d, was enhanced in the biochar-amended soil up to a factor 36, and petroleum hydrocarbon vapor migration was retarded accordingly. Despite increased sorption, in particular of monoaromatic hydrocarbons, the overall microbial respiration was comparable in the biochar-amended and unamended soil. This was due to more rapid biodegradation of linear, cyclic and branched alkanes in the biochar amended soil. We concluded that the total petroleum hydrocarbon degradation rate was controlled by a factor other than substrate availability and the reduced availability of monoaromatic hydrocarbons in the biochar amended soil led to greater biodegradation of the other petroleum compounds.

  14. Chlorine isotope investigation of natural attenuation of trichloroethene in an aerobic aquifer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural attenuation of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) can be an important mechanism for groundwater remediation. It is difficult to determine the effectiveness of natural CAH attenuation from chemical analyses of groundwater samples because mixing, dispersion, and secondary reactions can mask the chemical evidence of attenuation. In this paper, the authors explore the application of stable chlorine isotope ratio measurements as a new tool for evaluating natural attenuation of CAHs. They report stable isotope ratios of chlorine in both trichloroethene (TCE) and inorganic chloride in groundwater from an aerobic aquifer beneath an extensively contaminated industrial site, the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant in western Kentucky. Variations in the concentrations and chlorine isotope ratios of TCE and chloride in the groundwater are consistent with those expected from natural attenuation. These data support a model in which partial TCE degradation occurred in relatively impermeable, clay-rich sediments above the aquifer, and little or no further degradation of TCE occurred within the aquifer. A record of changing conditions within the TCE source area can be inferred from the spatial variation of chlorine isotope ratios for TCE and chloride within the plume

  15. Biodegradation of aniline by Candida tropicalis AN1 isolated from aerobic granular sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dianzhan Wang; Guanyu Zheng; Shimei Wang; Dewei Zhang; Lixiang Zhou

    2011-01-01

    Aniline-degrading microbes were cultivated and acclimated with the initial activated sludge collected from a chemical wastewater treatment plant.During the acclimation processes,aerobic granular sludge being able to effectively degrade aniline was successfully formed,from which a preponderant bacterial strain was isolated and named as ANi.Effects of factors including pH,temperature,and second carbon/nitrogen source on the biodegradation of aniline were investigated.Results showed that the optimal conditions for the biodegradation of aniline by the strain AN1 were at pH 7.0 and 28-35°C.At the optimal pH and temperature,the biodegradation rate of aniline could reach as high as 17.8 mg/(L.hr) when the initial aniline concentration was 400 mg/L.Further studies revealed that the addition of 1 g/L glucose or ammonium chloride as a second carbon or nitrogen source could slightly enhance the biodegradation efficiency from 93.0% to 95.1%-98.5%.However,even more addition of glucose or ammonium could not further enhance the biodegradation process but delayed the biodegradation of aniline by the strain AN1.Based on morphological and physiological characteristics as well as the phylogenetic analysis of 26S rDNA sequences,the strain AN1 was identified as Candida tropicalis.

  16. Transformation of {sup 14}C-pyrimidynyloxybenzoic herbicide ZJ0273 in aerobic soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haiyan, Wang; Zhiyang, Yu; Ling, Yue; Ailiang, Han; Yanfei, Zhang; Juying, Li [Institute of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences, Key Laboratory of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences of Ministry of Agriculture, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Qingfu, Ye, E-mail: qfye@zju.edu.cn [Institute of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences, Key Laboratory of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences of Ministry of Agriculture, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Zhengmin, Yang [Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200032 (China); Long, Lu, E-mail: lulong@mail.sioc.ac.cn [Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200032 (China)

    2010-04-15

    A soil metabolism study of propyl 4-(2-(4,6-dimethoxypyrimidin-2-yloxy)benzylamino)benzoate (ZJ0273), a novel broad-spectrum herbicide, was carried out using {sup 14}C labeled on two different rings, i.e., [pyrimidine-4,6-{sup 14}C] ZJ0273 and [benzyl-U-{sup 14}C] ZJ0273. Ultralow liquid scintillation counting and LC-MS/MS were used to identify the degradation intermediates and quantify their dynamics in aerobic soils. Four aromatic intermediates, 4-(2-(4,6-dimethoxypyrimidin-2-yloxy)benzylamino)benzoic acid (M1), 4-(2-(4,6-dimethoxypyrimidin-2-yloxy)benzamido)benzoic acid (M2), 2-(4,6-dimethoxypyrimidin-2-yloxy)benzoic acid (M3), and 4,6-dimethoxypyrimidin-2-ol (M4), were identified and their identity was further confirmed against authentic standards. Analysis of metabolites suggested two degradation pathways: (1) Upon loss of the propyl group, M1 was produced via hydrolysis of propyl 4-(2-(4,6-dimethoxypyrimidin-2-yloxy)benzylamino)benzoate after which the C-N bond between rings A and B was cleaved by oxidation and biochemical degradation to yield M3, which was further converted into M4 and finally mineralized to CO{sub 2}; and (2) the first step was the same as in pathway 1, but M1 first underwent a carbonylation to form M2. The C-N bond between rings A and B of M2 was cleaved by hydrolysis to yield M3. Dynamic changes in the four metabolites in aerobic soils were also investigated by HPLC coupled analysis of radioactivity of isolated peaks. After a 100-day incubation, 1.7-9.7% of applied {sup 14}C was found as M1, 0.3-1.1% as M2, 14.5-20.9% as M3, and 3.7-6.7% as M4 in the soils, and pH appeared to be the most influential soil property affecting the formation and dissipation of these metabolites.

  17. Transformation of 14C-pyrimidynyloxybenzoic herbicide ZJ0273 in aerobic soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A soil metabolism study of propyl 4-(2-(4,6-dimethoxypyrimidin-2-yloxy)benzylamino)benzoate (ZJ0273), a novel broad-spectrum herbicide, was carried out using 14C labeled on two different rings, i.e., [pyrimidine-4,6-14C] ZJ0273 and [benzyl-U-14C] ZJ0273. Ultralow liquid scintillation counting and LC-MS/MS were used to identify the degradation intermediates and quantify their dynamics in aerobic soils. Four aromatic intermediates, 4-(2-(4,6-dimethoxypyrimidin-2-yloxy)benzylamino)benzoic acid (M1), 4-(2-(4,6-dimethoxypyrimidin-2-yloxy)benzamido)benzoic acid (M2), 2-(4,6-dimethoxypyrimidin-2-yloxy)benzoic acid (M3), and 4,6-dimethoxypyrimidin-2-ol (M4), were identified and their identity was further confirmed against authentic standards. Analysis of metabolites suggested two degradation pathways: (1) Upon loss of the propyl group, M1 was produced via hydrolysis of propyl 4-(2-(4,6-dimethoxypyrimidin-2-yloxy)benzylamino)benzoate after which the C-N bond between rings A and B was cleaved by oxidation and biochemical degradation to yield M3, which was further converted into M4 and finally mineralized to CO2; and (2) the first step was the same as in pathway 1, but M1 first underwent a carbonylation to form M2. The C-N bond between rings A and B of M2 was cleaved by hydrolysis to yield M3. Dynamic changes in the four metabolites in aerobic soils were also investigated by HPLC coupled analysis of radioactivity of isolated peaks. After a 100-day incubation, 1.7-9.7% of applied 14C was found as M1, 0.3-1.1% as M2, 14.5-20.9% as M3, and 3.7-6.7% as M4 in the soils, and pH appeared to be the most influential soil property affecting the formation and dissipation of these metabolites.

  18. Purex diluent degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tallent, O.K.; Mailen, J.C.; Pannell, K.D.

    1984-02-01

    The chemical degradation of normal paraffin hydrocarbon (NPH) diluents both in the pure state and mixed with 30% tributyl phosphate (TBP) was investigated in a series of experiments. The results show that degradation of NPH in the TBP-NPH-HNO/sub 3/ system is consistent with the active chemical agent being a radical-like nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/) molecule, not HNO/sub 3/ as such. Spectrophotometric, gas chromatographic, mass spectrographic, and titrimetric methods were used to identify the degradation products, which included alkane nitro and nitrate compounds, alcohols, unsaturated alcohols, nitro alcohols, nitro alkenes, ketones, and carboxylic acids. The degradation rate was found to increase with increases in the HNO/sub 3/ concentration and the temperature. The rate was decreased by argon sparging to remove NO/sub 2/ and by the addition of butanol, which probably acts as a NO/sub 2/ scavenger. 13 references, 11 figures.

  19. How do polymers degrade?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Suping

    2011-03-01

    Materials derived from agricultural products such as cellulose, starch, polylactide, etc. are more sustainable and environmentally benign than those derived from petroleum. However, applications of these polymers are limited by their processing properties, chemical and thermal stabilities. For example, polyethylene terephthalate fabrics last for many years under normal use conditions, but polylactide fabrics cannot due to chemical degradation. There are two primary mechanisms through which these polymers degrade: via hydrolysis and via oxidation. Both of these two mechanisms are related to combined factors such as monomer chemistry, chain configuration, chain mobility, crystallinity, and permeation to water and oxygen, and product geometry. In this talk, we will discuss how these materials degrade and how the degradation depends on these factors under application conditions. Both experimental studies and mathematical modeling will be presented.

  20. Conceptualizing Forest Degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazoul, Jaboury; Burivalova, Zuzana; Garcia-Ulloa, John; King, Lisa A

    2015-10-01

    Forest degradation is a global environmental issue, but its definition is problematic. Difficulties include choosing appropriate reference states, timescales, thresholds, and forest values. We dispense with many such ambiguities by interpreting forest degradation through the frame of ecological resilience, and with reference to forest dynamics. Specifically, we define forest degradation as a state of anthropogenically induced arrested succession, where ecological processes that underlie forest dynamics are diminished or severely constrained. Metrics of degradation might include those that reflect ecological processes shaping community dynamics, notably the regeneration of plant species. Arrested succession implies that management intervention is necessary to recover successional trajectories. Such a definition can be applied to any forest ecosystem, and can also be extended to other ecosystems. PMID:26411619