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Sample records for aerobic nonylphenol degradation

  1. Biotransformation of nonylphenol ethoxylates during sewage treatment under anaerobic and aerobic conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Biotransformation of nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEOs) during continuous anaerobic sewage treatment was compared with the aerobic treatment of sewage spiked with 23 μmol/L technical NPEOs over a period of 90 d. Immediate degradation of NPEOs was observed under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions, indicating that the enzymes and bacteria required for NPEO degradation existed abundantly in both aerobic and anaerobic sludge. Both treatments achieved high removal (>92%) of the spiked NPEO9 mixture.Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis showed that short-chain NPEOs (NPEO1-NPEO3) accumulated in anaerobic (2.01-2.56 μmol/L) and aerobic (1.62-2.03 μmol/L) effluents, with nonylphenol (NP) (0.24-0.31 μmol/L) as another group of metabolites in the anaerobic effluent, and nonylphenoxy carboxylates (NPECs) (2.79-3.30 μmol/L) in the aerobic effluent. Significant accumulation of NP in the anaerobic sludge and NPEO1-3 in the sludge of two reactors was observed. These results indicated that it was difficult to control these harmful metabolites in the conventional treatment processes. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles of sludge samples support the speculation that the NPEO degradation bacteria might be the dominant indigenous species.

  2. Fate and degradation of nonylphenolic compounds during wastewater treatment process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Jing; Liu, Junxin

    2013-08-01

    In order to explore the biodegradation behavior of nonylphenolic compounds during wastewater treatment processing, two full-scale wastewater treatment plants were investigated and batch biodegradation experiments were conducted. The biodegradation pathways under the various operational conditions were identified from batch experiments: shortening of ethoxy-chains dominated under the anaerobic condition, whereas oxidizing of the terminal alcoholic group prevailed over the other routes under the aerobic condition. Results showed that the anoxic condition could accelerate the biodegradation rates of nonylphenolic compounds, but had no influence on the biodegradation pathway. The biodegradation rates of nonylphenol (NP) and short-chain nonylphenol polyethoxylates (NPnEOs, n: number of ethoxy units) increased from the anaerobic condition, then the anoxic, finally to the aerobic condition, while those of long-chain NPnEOs and nonylphenoxy carboxylates (NPECs) seemed similar under the various conditions. Under every operational condition, long-chain NPnEOs showed the highest biodegradation activity, followed by NPECs and short-chain NPnEOs, whereas NP showed relatively recalcitrant characteristics especially under the anaerobic condition. In addition, introducing sulfate and nitrate to the anaerobic condition could enhance the biodegradation of NP and short-chain NPnEOs by supplying more positive redox potentials. PMID:24520688

  3. The Bioconcentration and Degradation of Nonylphenol and Nonylphenol Polyethoxylates by Chlorella vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Wen Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonylphenol polyethoxylates (NPnEOs, a major class of nonionic surfactants, can easily enter into aquatic environments through various pathways due to their wide applications, which leads to the extensive existence of their relative stable metabolites, namely nonylphenol (NP and mono- to tri-ethoxylates. This study investigated the bioconcentration and degradation of NP and NPnEO oligomers (n = 1–12 by a green algae, Chlorella vulgaris. Experimental results showed that C. vulgaris can remove NP from water phase efficiently, and bioconcentration and degradation accounted for approximately half of its loss, respectively, with a 48 h BCF (bioconcentration factor of 2.42 × 103. Moreover, C. vulgaris could concentrate and degrade NPnEOs, distribution profiles of the series homologues of the NPnEOs in algae and water phase were quite different from the initial homologue profile. The 48 h BCF of the NPnEO homologues increased with the length of the EO chain. Degradation extent of total NPnEOs by C. vulgaris was 95.7%, and only 1.1% remained in water phase, and the other 3.2% remained in the algal cells. The algae removed the NPnEOs mainly through degradation. Due to rapid degradation, concentrations of the long chain NPnEO homologous in both water (n ≥ 2 and the algal phase (n ≥ 5 was quite low at the end of a 48 h experiment.

  4. Degradation and bound-residue formation of nonylphenol in red soil and the effects of ammonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fate of nonylphenol (NP) in soils and the effects of nitrogen fertilizers are unclear. Using 14C-tracer, we studied the aerobic and anaerobic degradation of 4-NP111 in a paddy red soil amended without and with ammonium chloride. Under oxic conditions, 4-NP111 had a half-life of 16.1 ± 1.6 days and minor mineralization (3.84 ± 0.02%), forming no extractable metabolite but abundant bound residues (60.9 ± 1.7%, mostly bound to humin) after 49 days of incubation. The ammonium amendment (8 mmol/kg soil) significantly inhibited the degradation (half-life of 68.0 ± 7.7 days), mineralization (2.0 ± 1.1%), and bound-residue formation (23.7 ± 0.2%). Under anoxic conditions, 4-NP111 did not degrade during 49 days of incubation and the ammonium amendment (40 mmol/kg soil) did not affect its persistence. Our results demonstrate that bound-residue formation was a major mechanism for NP dissipation in the red soil under oxic conditions and that chemical nitrogen fertilizer at average field application rate may already considerably increase NP recalcitrance in agricultural soils. -- Highlights:: • Aerobic mineralization of the nonylphenol isomer 4-NP111 in paddy red soil is minor. • Bound-residue formation is the major mechanism for aerobic NP degradation in soil. • The majority of the bound residues of NP are localized in soil humin fraction. • Amendment of soil by ammonium strongly increase the persistence of NP in oxic soil. • Amendment of soil by ammonium does not affect the recalcitrance of NP in anoxic soil. -- Formation of bound residues was the major mechanism in paddy red soil under oxic conditions for nonylphenol dissipation, which was significantly inhibited by amendment with ammonium

  5. Degradation of a chiral nonylphenol isomer in two agricultural soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The degradation of a chiral nonylphenol isomer, 4-(1-ethyl-1,4-dimethylpentyl)phenol (NP112), in two agricultural soils from Monheim and Dortmund, Germany has been studied. The degradation of NP112 and the formation of a nitro-nonylphenol metabolite were determined by means of GC-MS analysis. The degradation followed bi-exponential order kinetics, with half-life of less than 5 days in both soils. The nitro-metabolite was found at different concentration levels in the two soils. The nitro-metabolite of NP112 was more persistent than its parent compound. After 150 days about 13% of the initially applied NP112 remained in the Monheim soil as its nitro-metabolite. Results of the E-screen assay revealed that the nitro-NP112 has oestrogenic potency of 85% of that of NP112. Furthermore, the results of chiral GC-MS analysis revealed that no chiral degradation of NP112 occurred in this study. - The degradation of a chiral nonylphenol isomer in agricultural soils followed bi-exponential order kinetics resulting in a more persistent nitro-metabolite.

  6. Degradation and plant uptake of nonylphenol (NP) and nonylphenol-12-ethoxylate (NP12EO) in four contrasting agricultural soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoestroem, A.E. [Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, London (United Kingdom); Collins, C.D. [Department of Soil Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading RG6 6DW (United Kingdom); Smith, S.R. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Shaw, G. [Division of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)], E-mail: george.shaw@nottingham.ac.uk

    2008-12-15

    Nonylphenol polyethoxylates (NPEOs) are surfactants found ubiquitously in the environment due to widespread industrial and domestic use. Biodegradation of NPEOs produces nonylphenol (NP), an endocrine disruptor. Sewage sludge application introduces NPEOs and NP into soils, potentially leading to accumulation in soils and crops. We examined degradation of NP and nonylphenol-12-ethoxylate (NP12EO) in four soils. NP12EO degraded rapidly (initial half time 0.3-5 days). Concentrations became undetectable within 70-90 days, with a small increase in NP concentrations after 30 days. NP initially degraded quickly (mean half time 11.5 days), but in three soils a recalcitrant fraction of 26-35% remained: the non-degrading fraction may consist of branched isomers, resistant to biodegradation. Uptake of NP by bean plants was also examined. Mean bioconcentration factors for shoots and seeds were 0.71 and 0.58, respectively. Removal of NP from the soil by plant uptake was negligible (0.01-0.02% of initial NP). Root concentrations were substantially higher than shoot and seed concentrations. - Degradation curves of nonylphenol (NP) and nonylphenol-12-ethoxylate (NP12EO) in four soils indicate that 26-35% of NP is recalcitrant, with minor NP ingrowth from NP12EO breakdown.

  7. The effect of thermal hydrolysis pretreatment on the anaerobic degradation of nonylphenol and short-chain nonylphenol ethoxylates in digested biosolids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, P J; Wilson, C A; Wogen, M T; Murthy, S N; Novak, J T; Novak, P J

    2012-06-01

    The presence of micropollutants can be a concern for land application of biosolids. Of particular interest are nonylphenol diethoxylate (NP(2)EO), nonylphenol monoethoxylate (NP(1)EO), and nonylphenol (NP), collectively referred to as NPE, which accumulate in anaerobically digested biosolids and are subject to regulation based on the environmental risks associated with them. Because biosolids are a valuable nutrient resource, it is essential that we understand how various treatment processes impact the fate of NPE in biosolids. Thermal hydrolysis (TH) coupled with mesophilic anaerobic digestion (MAD) is an advanced digestion process that destroys pathogens in biosolids and increases methane yields and volatile solids destruction. We investigated the impact of thermal hydrolysis pretreatment on the subsequent biodegradation of NPE in digested biosolids. Biosolids were treated with TH, anaerobic digestion, and aerobic digestion in laboratory-scale reactors, and NPE were analyzed in the influent and effluent of the digesters. NP(2)EO and NP(1)EO have been observed to degrade to the more estrogenic NP under anaerobic conditions; therefore, changes in the ratio of NP:NPE were of interest. The increase in NP:NPE following MAD was 56%; the average increase of this ratio in four sets of TH-MAD samples, however, was only 24.6 ± 3.1%. In addition, TH experiments performed in pure water verified that, during TH, the high temperature and pressure alone did not directly destroy NPE; TH experiments with NP added to sludge also showed that NP was not destroyed by the high temperature and pressure of TH when in a more complex sludge matrix. The post-aerobic digestion phases removed NPE, regardless of whether TH pretreatment occurred. This research indicates that changes in biosolids processing can have impacts beyond just gas production and solids destruction. PMID:22494493

  8. Characterization of 4-nonylphenol-degrading bacterial consortium obtained from a textile wastewater pretreatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Gioia, Diana; Salvadori, Laura; Zanaroli, Giulio; Coppini, Ester; Fava, Fabio; Barberio, Claudia

    2008-12-01

    4-Nonylphenol (4-NP) isomers are toxic and recalcitrant compounds often resulting, together with short-chain ethoxylated nonylphenol (NPnEO, where n is the number of ethylene oxide units), from NPnEO biodegradation in conventional activated sludge plants. In this work, a microbial consortium, defined as Consortium A, capable of removing 100 mg/L of 4-NP with no accumulation of metabolites with aromatic moiety was isolated from textile wastewaters after enrichment with 4-NP. The consortium showed remarkable degradation activities toward several short-chain NPnEO congeners. Culture-dependent techniques were used to isolate from the consortium twenty-six strains assigned to seven different amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis groups. Two- and three-member cocultures were prepared with the strains showing highest 4-NP-degrading capabilities, but neither the single strains nor the cocultures were as efficient in 4-NP degradation as Consortium A. FISH was used to characterize the microbial composition of Consortium A: it evidenced a strong occurrence of Proteobacteria and, in particular, of Gammaproteobacteria along with a relevant stability of the culture. Therefore, the isolated consortium has the potential of being used in the development of a biotechnological process for the tertiary treatment of effluents of activated sludge plants fed with NPnEO-contaminated wastewaters. PMID:18830582

  9. Degradation of the commercial surfactant nonylphenol ethoxylate by advanced oxidation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • NP4EO in industrial effluents can be treated before reaching water reservoirs. • Advanced oxidation processes are proposed for the degradation of NP4EO. • The degradation rate depends mainly on the light intensity. • The mineralization rate depends mainly on the current density. • Photo-assisted electrochemical oxidation showed the best degradation results. - Abstract: Four different oxidation process, namely direct photolysis (DP) and three advanced oxidation processes (heterogeneous photocatalysis – HP, eletrochemical oxidation – EO and photo-assisted electrochemical oxidation – PEO) were applied in the treatment of wastewater containing nonylphenol ethoxylate (NPnEO). The objective of this work was to determine which treatment would be the best option in terms of degradation of NPnEO without the subsequent generation of toxic compounds. In order to investigate the degradation of the surfactant, the processes were compared in terms of UV/Vis spectrum, mineralization (total organic carbon), reaction kinetics, energy efficiency and phytotoxicity. A solution containing NPnEO was prepared as a surrogate of the degreasing wastewater, was used in the processes. The results showed that the photo-assisted processes degrade the surfactant, producing biodegradable intermediates in the reaction. On the other hand, the electrochemical process influences the mineralization of the surfactant. The process of PEO carried out with a 250 W lamp and a current density of 10 mA/cm2 showed the best results in terms of degradation, mineralization, reaction kinetics and energy consumption, in addition to not presenting phytotoxicity. Based on this information, this process can be a viable alternative for treating wastewater containing NPnEO, avoiding the contamination of water resources

  10. The mechanism study of efficient degradation of hydrophobic nonylphenol in solution by a chemical-free technology of sonophotolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, L J; Chu, W; Lee, Po-Heng; Wang, Jian

    2016-05-01

    Nonylphenol is a hydrophobic endocrine disrupting compound, which can inhibit the growth of sewage bacteria in biological processes. This study investigated the degradation of 4-n-nonylphenol (NP) in water by a chemical-free technology of sonophotolysis with emphasis on the impacts of several important parameters, including light intensity, solution pH, two commonly seen inorganic ions (i.e. NO3(-) and HCO3(-)), and principally on the examination of degradation mechanisms. It was found that, solution pH could significantly influence both NP degradation efficiency and the synergistic effect of sonophotolytic process, where higher synergistic effect was obtained at more acidic condition. In addition, the presence of NO3(-) accelerated NP degradation by both acting as a photosensitizer and providing NO2 radicals, while HCO3(-) had little effect on NP degradation. Identification of intermediates of NP degradation indicated that NP sonophotolysis was mainly initiated by the formation of hydroxy-NP, and a new intermediate di-hydroxy-NP was identified for the first time ever in this study. Through thermodynamic analysis, results indicated that both ortho- and meta-hydroxy-NP species can coexist in the solution but the ortho-4-NBZQ (4-nonyl-benzoquinone) is dominant. In addition, the mechanism of ortho-hydroxy-NP formation was suggested by the addition of HO and H radicals. PMID:26855185

  11. Biodegradation of Polyethoxylated Nonylphenols

    OpenAIRE

    Oscar Valbuena; Nairalith Ramos; Margarita Borusiak; Yassellis Ruiz; Luis Medina; Gilberto Pinto

    2013-01-01

    Polyethoxylated nonylphenols, with different ethoxylation degrees (NPEO x ), are incorporated into many commercial and industrial products such as detergents, domestic disinfectants, emulsifiers, cosmetics, and pesticides. However, the toxic effects exerted by their degradation products, which are persistent in natural environments, have been demonstrated in several animal and invertebrate aquatic species. Therefore, it seems appropriate to look for indigenous bacteria capable of degrading na...

  12. Summary report on the aerobic degradation of diesel fuel and the degradation of toluene under aerobic, denitrifying and sulfate reducing conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains a number of studies that were performed to better understand the technology of the biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons. Topics of investigation include the following: diesel fuel degradation by Rhodococcus erythropolis; BTEX degradation by soil isolates; aerobic degradation of diesel fuel-respirometry; aerobic degradation of diesel fuel-shake culture; aerobic toluene degradation by A3; effect of HEPES, B1, and myo-inositol addition on the growth of A3; aerobic and anaerobic toluene degradation by contaminated soils; denitrifying bacteria MPNs; sulfate-reducing bacteria MPNs; and aerobic, DNB and SRB enrichments

  13. Enhanced selection of micro-aerobic pentachlorophenol degrading granular sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv, Yuancai, E-mail: donkey1204@hotmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Pulp and Paper Engineering, College of Light Industry and Food Science, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Chen, Yuancai, E-mail: chenyc@scut.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pulp and Paper Engineering, College of Light Industry and Food Science, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Ecological Remediation for Industrial Agglomeration Area, College of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Song, Wenzhe, E-mail: songwenzhe007@126.com [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Ecological Remediation for Industrial Agglomeration Area, College of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Hu, Yongyou, E-mail: ppyyhu@scut.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pulp and Paper Engineering, College of Light Industry and Food Science, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Ecological Remediation for Industrial Agglomeration Area, College of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2014-09-15

    Graphical abstract: In this work, an aerobic column reactor was placed before the USB to maintain micro-oxygen condition in the reactor and the micro-aerobic pentachlorophenol (PCP) degrading granular sludge under oxygen-limited conditions (0.1–0.2 mg L{sup −1}) was successfully obtained. PCP degradation by the micro-aerobic system was studied and the variance of microbial community was also discussed by using PCR-DGGE analysis. - Highlights: • Micro-aerobic granular sludge was cultivated in column-type combined reactors. • PCP biodegradation, VFA accumulation and biogas production were studied. • The function of Methanogenic archaeon in the system was investigated. • Fluctuation and diversity of microbial community were discussed by DGGE analysis. • The dominated microorganisms were identified by 16S rDNA sequences. - Abstract: Column-type combined reactors were designed to cultivate micro-aerobic pentachlorophenol (PCP) degrading granular sludge under oxygen-limited conditions (0.1–0.2 mg L{sup −1}) over 39-day experimental period. Micro-aerobic granular had both anaerobic activity (SMA: 2.34 mMCH{sub 4}/h g VSS) and aerobic activity (SOUR: 2.21 mMO{sub 2}/h g VSS). Metabolite analysis results revealed that PCP was sequentially dechlorinated to TCP, DCP, and eventually to MCP. Methanogens were not directly involved in the dechlorination of PCP, but might played a vital role in stabilizing the overall structure of the granule sludge. For Eubacteria, the Shannon Index (2.09 in inoculated granular sludge) increased both in micro-aerobic granular sludge (2.61) and PCP-degradation granular sludge (2.55). However, for Archaea, it decreased from 2.53 to 1.85 and 1.84, respectively. Although the Shannon Index demonstrated slight difference between micro-aerobic granular sludge and PCP-degradation granular sludge, the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) indicated obvious variance of the microbial composition, revealing significant effect of micro-aerobic

  14. Enhanced selection of micro-aerobic pentachlorophenol degrading granular sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: In this work, an aerobic column reactor was placed before the USB to maintain micro-oxygen condition in the reactor and the micro-aerobic pentachlorophenol (PCP) degrading granular sludge under oxygen-limited conditions (0.1–0.2 mg L−1) was successfully obtained. PCP degradation by the micro-aerobic system was studied and the variance of microbial community was also discussed by using PCR-DGGE analysis. - Highlights: • Micro-aerobic granular sludge was cultivated in column-type combined reactors. • PCP biodegradation, VFA accumulation and biogas production were studied. • The function of Methanogenic archaeon in the system was investigated. • Fluctuation and diversity of microbial community were discussed by DGGE analysis. • The dominated microorganisms were identified by 16S rDNA sequences. - Abstract: Column-type combined reactors were designed to cultivate micro-aerobic pentachlorophenol (PCP) degrading granular sludge under oxygen-limited conditions (0.1–0.2 mg L−1) over 39-day experimental period. Micro-aerobic granular had both anaerobic activity (SMA: 2.34 mMCH4/h g VSS) and aerobic activity (SOUR: 2.21 mMO2/h g VSS). Metabolite analysis results revealed that PCP was sequentially dechlorinated to TCP, DCP, and eventually to MCP. Methanogens were not directly involved in the dechlorination of PCP, but might played a vital role in stabilizing the overall structure of the granule sludge. For Eubacteria, the Shannon Index (2.09 in inoculated granular sludge) increased both in micro-aerobic granular sludge (2.61) and PCP-degradation granular sludge (2.55). However, for Archaea, it decreased from 2.53 to 1.85 and 1.84, respectively. Although the Shannon Index demonstrated slight difference between micro-aerobic granular sludge and PCP-degradation granular sludge, the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) indicated obvious variance of the microbial composition, revealing significant effect of micro-aerobic condition and PCP on

  15. Anaerobic/aerobic degradation of a textile dye wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Loyd, Chapman Kemper

    1992-01-01

    Consumer demands have led to the development of new, more stable textile dyes. These dyes, many of the azo type, are often incompletely degraded/removed in wastewater treatment plants, leading to the discharge of highlycolored effluents to rivers and streams. Concerns by downstream users of that water have led to enactment of effluent color and toxicity standards for plants that treat textile dye wastewater. Both anaerobic and aerobic biological degradation of a...

  16. Influence of post-treatment temperature of TNTa photoelectrodes on photoelectrochemical properties and photocatalytic degradation of 4-nonylphenol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Yanjun; Liu, Huiling; Li, Junjing; Chen, Qinghua; Ma, Dong

    2013-03-01

    TiO2/Ti Nanotube array (TNTa) photoelectrodes were prepared by galvanostatic and potentiostatic anodization technique, and annealed at different temperature. The morphology and structure were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectra. Optical properties and photoelectrochemical (PECH) properties were investigated by surface photovoltage (SPV), ultra UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra (UV/vis/DRS), open-circuit potential (OCP) and transient photocurrent. Photodecomposition performances were evaluated by the yield of •OH radicals and photocatalytic (PC) degradation rate of 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) under xenon light. The results showed that with the increase of post-treatment temperature, PECH and PC properties increased gradually and then decreased. The photocurrent densities, yield of *OH radicals and photodecomposition rates of 4-NP were following the trend of TNT-823>TNT-873>TNT-773>TNT-673>TNT-973>TNT-298. When the annealing temperature was 823 K, the photoelectrodes were composed of mixed crystal structure and ordered nanotube array, which exhibited superior PECH properties. When the annealed temperature arrived to 973 K, the nanotube collapsed and the PECH and PC properties of TNTa photoelectrodes decreased. For TNT-823 photoelectrodes, after the assistant potential was applied, the degradation rate of 4-NP increased significantly from 77% to 97% after 120 min illumination.

  17. Gamma radiation/H2O2 treatment of a nonylphenol ethoxylates: Degradation, cytotoxicity, and mutagenicity evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Munawar; Bhatti, Ijaz Ahmad

    2015-12-15

    Gamma radiation/H2O2 treatment of nonylphenol polyethoxylates (NPEO) was performed and treatment effect was evaluated on the basis of degradation, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total organic carbon (TOC), and toxicity reduction efficiencies. The radiolytic by-products were determined by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques. Low mass carboxylic acids, aldehyde, ketone, and acetic acid were identified as the by-products of the NPEO degradation. NPEO sample irradiated to the absorbed dose of 15 kGy/4.58% H2O2 showed more than 90% degradation. Allium cepa (A. cepa), brine shrimp, heamolytic tests were used for cytotoxicity study, while mutagenicity was evaluated through Ames test (TA98 and TA100 strains) of treated and un-treated NPEO. The reductions in COD and TOC were greater than 70% and 50%, respectively. Gamma radiation/H2O2 treatment revealed a considerable reduction in cytotoxicity and mutagenicity. A. cepa, heamolytic and shrimp assays showed cytotoxicity reduction up to 68.65%, 77%, and 94%, respectively. The mutagenicity reduced up to 62%, 74%, and 79% (TA98) and 68%, 78%, and 82% (TA100), respectively of NPEO-6, NPEO-9, and NPEO-30 irradiated to the absorbed dose of 15 kGy/4.58% H2O2. NPEO-6 detoxified more efficiently versus NPEO-9 and NPEO-30 and results showed that Gamma radiation/H2O2 treatment has the potential to mineralize and detoxify NPEO. PMID:26143198

  18. Purification and Characterization of a Nonylphenol (NP)-degrading Enzyme from Bacillus cereus.Frankland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ge; ZHANG Ying; BAI Yanfen

    2011-01-01

    An extracellular NP-degrading enzyme secreted by Bacillus cereus.Frankland was purified to homogeneity by a combination of ammonium sulfate precipitation,Phenyl-Sepharose hydrophobic-interaction chromatography and DEAE anion-exchange chromatography.On SDS(sodium dodecyl sulfate)-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis,the purified enzyme showed a relative molecular mass of 58.3 kDa.The depolymerzation of subunits was accompanied with the loss of NP-degrading enzyme activity,and removing denaturing factors by dialysis could restore the dimer structure and enzymatic activity.The enzyme had an isoelectric point of 5.5 and an optimal temperature of 60℃,and was the most active at pH 6.0.The enzymatic activity was stable at pH 4-8 and inhibited by Cu2+.TenN-terminal amino acids were determined to be ASVNSIKIGY,demonstrating that the purified enzyme was a novel one.The hydrolysis pattern of the purified enzyme indicated that the NP-degrading enzyme was an endo NP-degrading enzyme.The extraordinary thermo-stability provided the enzyme with a good prospect to be used as a new tool for clean-production process for textile industry.

  19. Combined Anaerobic-Aerobic Bacterial Degradation of Dyes

    OpenAIRE

    R. Wilfred Sugumar; Sandhya Sadanandan

    2010-01-01

    Wastewaters from the dye baths of a non-formal textile-dyeing unit containing C.I. Acid Orange 7 and C.I. Reactive Red 2 were subjected to degradation in a sequential anaerobic-aerobic treatment process based on mixed culture of bacteria. The technical samples of the dyestuffs and the dye bath wastes were treated in an anaerobic reactor, using an adapted mixed culture of anaerobic microorganisms. The dyestuffs were biotransformed into colourless substituted amine metabolites in the reactor. T...

  20. Enzymes and Genes Involved in Aerobic Alkane Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZongzeShao

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Alkanes are major constituents of crude oil. They are also present at low concentrations in diverse non-contaminated because many living organisms produce them as chemo-attractants or as protecting agents against water loss. Alkane degradation is a widespread phenomenon in nature. The numerous microorganisms, both prokaryotic and eukaryotic, capable of utilizing alkanes as a carbon and energy source, have been isolated and characterized. This review summarizes the current knowledge of how bacteria metabolize alkanes aerobically, with a particular emphasis on the oxidation of long-chain alkanes, including factors that are responsible for chemotaxis to alkanes , transport across cell membrane of alkanes , the regulation of alkane degradation gene and initial oxidation.

  1. Aerobic Degradation of Trichloroethylene by Co-Metabolism Using Phenol and Gasoline as Growth Substrates

    OpenAIRE

    Yan Li; Bing Li; Cui-Ping Wang; Jun-Zhao Fan; Hong-Wen Sun

    2014-01-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a common groundwater contaminant of toxic and carcinogenic concern. Aerobic co-metabolic processes are the predominant pathways for TCE complete degradation. In this study, Pseudomonas fluorescens was studied as the active microorganism to degrade TCE under aerobic condition by co-metabolic degradation using phenol and gasoline as growth substrates. Operating conditions influencing TCE degradation efficiency were optimized. TCE co-metabolic degradation rate reached ...

  2. Sorption and degradation of bisphenol A by aerobic activated sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory-scale batch experiments were conducted to investigate the sorption and degradation of bisphenol A (BPA) at μg/L range in an aerobic activated sludge system. The sorption isotherms and thermodynamics indicated that the sorption of BPA on sludge was mainly a physical process in which partitioning played a dominating role. The values of sorption coefficient Koc were between 621 and 736 L/kg in the temperature range of 10-30 deg. C. Both mixed liquor suspended solid (MLSS) and temperature influenced BPA sorption on sludge. The degradation of BPA by acclimated activated sludge could be described by first-order reaction equation with the first-order degradation rate constant of 0.80 h-1 at 20 deg. C. The decrease of initial COD concentration and the increase of MLSS concentration and temperature enhanced BPA degradation rate. The removal of BPA in the activated sludge system was characterized by a quick sorption on the activated sludge and subsequent biodegradation

  3. Nonylphenols degradation in the UV, UV/H₂O₂, O₃and UV/O₃processes - comparison of the methods and kinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felis, E; Miksch, K

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the results of experiments on the decomposition of selected nonylphenols (NPs) in aqueous solutions using the UV, UV/H₂O₂, O₃and UV/O₃processes. The goal of the research was to determine the kinetic parameters of the above-mentioned processes, and to estimate their effectiveness. These substances were selected because of their ubiquitous occurrence in the aquatic environment, resistance to biodegradation and environmental significance. As a result of the experiments, the quantum yields of the 4-n-nonylphenol (4NP) and NP (technical mixture) photodegradation in aqueous solution were calculated to be 0.15 and 0.17, respectively. The values of the second-order rate constants of the investigated compounds with hydroxyl radical and NP with ozone were also determined. The estimated second-order rate constants of 4NP and NP with hydroxyl radicals were equal to 7.6 × 10⁸-1.3 × 10⁹ mol⁻¹ L s⁻¹. For NP, the determined rate constant with ozone was equal to 2.01 × 10⁶ mol⁻¹ L s⁻¹. The performed experiments showed that NP was slightly more susceptible to degradation by the UV radiation and hydroxyl radicals than 4NP. The study demonstrated also that the polychromatic UV-light alone and also in combination with selected oxidizers (i.e. hydrogen peroxide, ozone) may be successfully used for the removal of selected NPs from the aqueous medium. PMID:25714646

  4. Occurrence and Biodegradation of Nonylphenol in the Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonylphenol (NP is an ultimate degradation product of nonylphenol polyethoxylates (NPE that is primarily used in cleaning and industrial processes. Its widespread use has led to the wide existence of NP in various environmental matrices, such as water, sediment, air and soil. NP can be decreased by biodegradation through the action of microorganisms under aerobic or anaerobic conditions. Half-lives of biodegradation ranged from a few days to almost one hundred days. The degradation rate for NP was influenced by temperature, pH and additions of yeast extracts, surfactants, aluminum sulfate, acetate, pyruvate, lactate, manganese dioxide, ferric chloride, sodium chloride, hydrogen peroxide, heavy metals, and phthalic acid esters. Although NP is present at low concentrations in the environment, as an endocrine disruptor the risks of long-term exposure to low concentrations remain largely unknown. This paper reviews the occurrence of NP in the environment and its aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation in natural environments and sewage treatment plants, which is essential for assessing the potential risk associated with low level exposure to NP and other endocrine disruptors.

  5. Aerobic cyanide degradation by bacterial isolates from cassava factory wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujatha Kandasamy

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ten bacterial strains that utilize cyanide (CN as a nitrogen source were isolated from cassava factory wastewater after enrichment in a liquid media containing sodium cyanide (1 mM and glucose (0.2% w/v. The strains could tolerate and grow in cyanide concentrations of up to 5 mM. Increased cyanide levels in the media caused an extension of lag phase in the bacterial growth indicating that they need some period of acclimatisation. The rate of cyanide removal by the strains depends on the initial cyanide and glucose concentrations. When initial cyanide and glucose concentrations were increased up to 5 mM, cyanide removal rate increased up to 63 and 61 per cent by Bacillus pumilus and Pseudomonas putida. Metabolic products such as ammonia and formate were detected in culture supernatants, suggesting a direct hydrolytic pathway without an intermediate formamide. The study clearly demonstrates the potential of aerobic treatment with cyanide degrading bacteria for cyanide removal in cassava factory wastewaters.

  6. Degradation of TCE using sequential anaerobic biofilm and aerobic immobilized bed reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapatwala, Kirit D.; Babu, G. R. V.; Baresi, Larry; Trunzo, Richard M.

    1995-01-01

    Bacteria capable of degrading trichloroethylene (TCE) were isolated from contaminated wastewaters and soil sites. The aerobic cultures were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (four species) and Pseudomonas fluorescens. The optimal conditions for the growth of aerobic cultures were determined. The minimal inhibitory concentration values of TCE for Pseudomonas sps. were also determined. The aerobic cells were immobilized in calcium alginate in the form of beads. Degradation of TCE by the anaerobic and dichloroethylene (DCE) by aerobic cultures was studied using dual reactors - anaerobic biofilm and aerobic immobilized bed reactor. The minimal mineral salt (MMS) medium saturated with TCE was pumped at the rate of 1 ml per hour into the anaerobic reactor. The MMS medium saturated with DCE and supplemented with xylenes and toluene (3 ppm each) was pumped at the rate of 1 ml per hour into the fluidized air-uplift-type reactor containing the immobilized aerobic cells. The concentrations of TCE and DCE and the metabolites formed during their degradation by the anaerobic and aerobic cultures were monitored by GC. The preliminary study suggests that the anaerobic and aerobic cultures of our isolates can degrade TCE and DCE.

  7. Aerobic degradation of BDE-209 by Enterococcus casseliflavus: Isolation, identification and cell changes during degradation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shaoyu; Yin, Hua; Chen, Shuona; Peng, Hui; Chang, Jingjing; Liu, Zehua; Dang, Zhi

    2016-05-01

    Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) is one of the most commonly used brominated flame retardants that have contaminated the environment worldwide. Microbial bioremediation has been considered as an effective technique to remove these sorts of persistent organic pollutants. Enterococcus casseliflavus, a gram-positive bacterium capable of aerobically transforming BDE-209, was isolated by our team from sediments in Guiyu, an e-waste dismantling area in Guangdong Province, China. To promote microbial bioremediation of BDE-209 and elucidate the mechanism behind its aerobic degradation, the effects of BDE-209 on the cell changes of E. casseliflavus were examined in this study. The experimental results demonstrated that the high cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH) of E. casseliflavus made the bacteria absorb hydrophobic BDE-209 more easily. E. casseliflavus responded to BDE-209 stress, resulting in an increase in cell membrane permeability and accumulation of BDE-209 inside the cell. The differential expression of intracellular protein was analyzed through two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). More than 50 differentially expressed protein spots were reproducibly detected, including 25 up, and 25 down regulated after a 4 days exposure. Moreover, the apoptotic-like cell changes were observed during E. casseliflavus mediated degradation of BDE-209 by means of flow cytometry. PMID:26852209

  8. Biodegradation of polyethoxylated nonylphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Yassellis; Medina, Luis; Borusiak, Margarita; Ramos, Nairalith; Pinto, Gilberto; Valbuena, Oscar

    2013-01-01

    Polyethoxylated nonylphenols, with different ethoxylation degrees (NPEO x ), are incorporated into many commercial and industrial products such as detergents, domestic disinfectants, emulsifiers, cosmetics, and pesticides. However, the toxic effects exerted by their degradation products, which are persistent in natural environments, have been demonstrated in several animal and invertebrate aquatic species. Therefore, it seems appropriate to look for indigenous bacteria capable of degrading native NPEO x and its derivatives. In this paper, the isolation of five bacterial strains, capable of using NPEO 15 , as unique carbon source, is described. The most efficient NPEO 15 degrader bacterial strains were identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens (strain Yas2) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (strain Yas1). Maximal growth rates were reached at pH 8, 27°C in a 5% NPEO 15 medium. The NPEO 15 degradation extension, followed by viscometry assays, reached 65% after 54.5 h and 134 h incubation times, while the COD values decreased by 95% and 85% after 24 h for the Yas1 and Yas2 systems, respectively. The BOD was reduced by 99% and 99.9% levels in 24 h and 48 h incubations. The viscosity data indicated that the NPEO 15 biodegradation by Yas2 follows first-order kinetics. Kinetic rate constant (k) and half life time (τ) for this biotransformation were estimated to be 0.0072 h(-1) and 96.3 h, respectively. PMID:23936727

  9. Acetylene degradation by new isolates of aerobic bacteria and comparison of acetylene hydratase enzymes

    OpenAIRE

    Rosner, Bettina M; Rainey, Frederick A.; Kroppenstedt, Reiner M.; Schink, Bernhard

    1997-01-01

    Aerobic acetylene-degrading bacteria were isolated from soil samples. Two isolates were assigned to the species Rhodococcus opacus, two others to Rhodococcus ruber and Gordona sp. They were compared with known strains of aerobic acetylene-, cyanide-, or nitrile-utilizing bacteria. The acetylene hydratases of R. opacus could be measured in cell-free extracts only in the presence of a strong reductant like titanium(III) citrate. Expression of these enzymes was molybdenum-dependent. Acetylene hy...

  10. Aerobic and anaerobic microbial degradation of crude (4-methylcyclohexyl)methanol in river sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Li; Zhi, Wei; Liu, Yangsheng; Smiley, Elizabeth; Gallagher, Daniel; Chen, Xi; Dietrich, Andrea; Zhang, Husen

    2016-03-15

    Cyclohexane and some of its derivatives have been a major concern because of their significant adverse human health effects and widespread occurrence in the environment. The 2014 West Virginia chemical spill has raised public attention to (4-methylcyclohexyl)methanol (4-MCHM), one cyclohexane derivative, which is widely used in coal processing but largely ignored. In particular, the environmental fate of its primary components, cis- and trans-4-MCHM, remains largely unexplored. This study aimed to investigate the degradation kinetics and mineralization of cis- and trans-4-MCHM by sediment microorganisms under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. We found the removal of cis- and trans-4-MCHM was mainly attributed to biodegradation with little contribution from sorption. A nearly complete aerobic degradation of 4-MCHM occurred within 14days, whereas the anaerobic degradation was reluctant with residual percentages of 62.6% of cis-4-MCHM and 85.0% of trans-4-MCHM after 16-day incubation. The cis-4-MCHM was degraded faster than the trans under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions, indicating an isomer-specific degradation could occur during the 4-MCHM degradation. Nitrate addition enhanced 4-MCHM mineralization by about 50% under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Both cis- and trans-4-MCHM fit well with the first-order kinetic model with respective degradation rates of 0.46-0.52 and 0.19-0.31day(-)(1) under aerobic condition. Respective degradation rates of 0.041-0.095 and 0.013-0.052day(-)(1) occurred under anaerobic condition. One bacterial strain capable of effectively degrading 4-MCHM isomers was isolated from river sediments and identified as Bacillus pumilus at the species level based on 16S rRNA gene sequence and 97% identity. Our findings will provide critical information for improving the prediction of the environmental fate of 4-MCHM and other cyclohexane derivatives with similar structure as well as enhancing the development of feasible treatment

  11. A novel denitrifying bacterial isolate that degrades trimethylamine both aerobically and anaerobically via two different pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S G; Bae, H S; Lee, S T

    2001-10-01

    The aerobic and anaerobic degradation of trimethylamine by a newly isolated denitrifying bacterium from an enrichment culture with trimethylamine inoculated with activated sludge was studied. Based on 16S rDNA analysis, this strain was identified as a Paracoccus sp. The isolate, strain T231, aerobically degraded trimethylamine, dimethylamine and methylamine and released a stoichiometric amount of ammonium ion into the culture fluid as a metabolic product, indicating that these methylated amines were completely degraded to formaldehyde and ammonia. The strain degraded trimethylamine also under denitrifying conditions and consumed a stoichiometric amount of nitrate, demonstrating that complete degradation of trimethylamine was coupled with nitrate reduction. Cell-free extract prepared from cells grown aerobically on trimethylamine exhibited activities of trimethylamine mono-oxygenase, trimethylamine N-oxide demethylase, dimethylamine mono-oxygenase, and methylamine mono-oxygenase. Cell-free extract from cells grown anaerobically on trimethylamine and nitrate exhibited activities of trimethylamine dehydrogenase and dimethylamine dehydrogenase. These results indicate that strain T231 had two different pathways for aerobic and anaerobic degradation of trimethylamine. This is a new feature for trimethylamine metabolism in denitrifying bacteria. PMID:11685371

  12. Isolation of microorganisms capable of degrading isoquinoline under aerobic conditions.

    OpenAIRE

    Aislabie, J; Rothenburger, S; Atlas, R M

    1989-01-01

    Isoquinoline-degrading microbial cultures were isolated from oil- and creosote-contaminated soils. The establishment of initial enrichment cultures required the use of emulsified isoquinoline. Once growth on isoquinoline was established, isoquinoline emulsification was no longer required for utilization of isoquinoline as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen by these cultures. An isoquinoline-degrading Acinetobacter strain was isolated from one of the enrichment cultures. The degradation of...

  13. Variability of Biological Degradation of Phenolic Hydrocarbons in an Aerobic Aquifer Determined by Laboratory Batch Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Henning; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    1994-01-01

    The biological aerobic degradation of 7 phenolic hydrocarbons (phenol, o-cresol, o-nitrophenol, p-nitrophenol, 2,6-dichlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol, 4,6-o-dichlorocresol) and 1 aromatic hydrocarbon (nitrobenzene) was studied for 149 days in replicate laboratory batch microcosms with sediment and...... groundwater from 8 localities representing a 15 m × 30 m section of an aerobic aquifer. Three patterns of variation were found: (1) phenol, o-cresol and in most cases p-nitrophenol showed very fast degradation with no or only short lag phases and with very little variation among localities; (2) 2...

  14. Aerobic Degradation of N-Methyl-4-Nitroaniline (MNA) by Pseudomonas sp. Strain FK357 Isolated from Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Fazlurrahman; Vyas, Bhawna; Pal, Deepika; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh

    2013-01-01

    N-Methyl-4-nitroaniline (MNA) is used as an additive to lower the melting temperature of energetic materials in the synthesis of insensitive explosives. Although the biotransformation of MNA under anaerobic condition has been reported, its aerobic microbial degradation has not been documented yet. A soil microcosms study showed the efficient aerobic degradation of MNA by the inhabitant soil microorganisms. An aerobic bacterium, Pseudomonas sp. strain FK357, able to utilize MNA as the sole car...

  15. Stimulation of aerobic degradation of bentazone, mecoprop and dichlorprop by oxygen addition to aquifer sediment

    OpenAIRE

    Levi, Suzi; Hybel, Anne-Marie; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    In order to investigate aerobic degradation potential for the herbicides bentazone, mecoprop and dichlorprop, anaerobic groundwater samples from two monitoring and three drinking water wells near a drinking water abstraction field in Nybølle, Denmark, were screened for their degradation potential for the herbicides. In the presence of oxygen 14C-labelled bentazone and mecoprop were removed significantly from the two monitoring wells' groundwater samples. Oxygen was added to microcosms in orde...

  16. Variability of Biological Degradation of Aromatic Hydrocarbons in an Aerobic Aquifer Determined by Laboratory Batch Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Henning; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    1994-01-01

    The biological aerobic degradation of 7 aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, o-xylene, p-dichlorobenzene, o-dichlorobenzene, naphthalene and biphenyl) was studied for 149 days in replicate laboratory batch experiments with groundwater and sediment from 8 localities representing a 15 m × 30 m...

  17. Degradation of the herbicide mecoprop in an aerobic aquifer determined by laboratory batch studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heron, Gorm; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    1992-01-01

    The potential of a shallow aerobic aquifer to degrade the herbicide Mecoprop (2-(2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxy)propionic acid) was evaluated in the laboratory using groundwater and sediment suspension batches. Mecoprop was added to the batches to obtain concentrations of 65, 140, 400 and 1400 μg...

  18. Degradation of alkenones by aerobic heterotrophic bacteria: Selective or not ?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rontani, J-F.; Harji, R.; Guasco, S.; Prahl, F.G.; Volkman, J.K.; Bhosle, N.B.; Bonin, P.

    Géochimie et d’Ecologie Marines (UMR 6117), Centre d'Océanologie de Marseille, F-13288 Marseille, France b National Institute of Oceanography (CSIR), Dona Paula – 403 004, Goa, India c College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon State University... with antibiotics. 2. Experimental 2.1. Substrate preparation for degradation studies Emiliania huxleyi strain TWP1 obtained from the Caen (France) Algobank were used as substrate for alkenone degradation. A 100 ml starter culture was transferred to flasks...

  19. Aerobic degradation of 4-nitroaniline (4-NA) via novel degradation intermediates by Rhodococcus sp. strain FK48

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Fazlurrahman; Pandey, Janmejay; Vikram, Surendra; Pal, Deepika; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh, E-mail: ssc@imtech.res.in

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: • This study reports isolation of a novel bacterium capable of mineralizing 4-nitroaniline (4-NA). • This bacterium has been identified as Rhodococcus sp. strain FK48. • Strain FK48 degrades 4-NA via a novel aerobic degradation pathway that involves 4-AP and 1,2,4-BT. • Subsequent degradation proceeds via ring fission and formation of maleylacetate. • This is the first report showing elucidation of catabolic pathway for microbial degradation 4-NA. -- Abstract: An aerobic strain, Rhodococcus sp. strain FK48, capable of growing on 4-nitroaniline (4-NA) as the sole source of carbon, nitrogen, and energy has been isolated from enrichment cultures originating from contaminated soil samples. During growth studies with non- induced cells of FK48 catalyzed sequential denitrification (release of NO{sub 2} substituent) and deamination (release of NH{sub 2} substituent) of 4-NA. However, none of the degradation intermediates could be identified with growth studies. During resting cell studies, 4-NA-induced cells of strain FK48 transformed 4-NA via a previously unknown pathway which involved oxidative hydroxylation leading to formation of 4-aminophenol (4-AP). Subsequent degradation involved oxidated deamination of 4-AP and formation of 1,2,4-benzenetriol (BT) as the major identified terminal aromatic intermediate. Identification of these intermediates was ascertained by HPLC, and GC–MS analyses of the culture supernatants. 4-NA-induced cells of strain FK48 showed positive activity for 1,2,4-benzenetriol dioxygenase in spectrophotometric assay. This is the first conclusive study on aerobic microbial degradation of 4-NA and elucidation of corresponding metabolic pathway.

  20. Aerobic degradation of 4-nitroaniline (4-NA) via novel degradation intermediates by Rhodococcus sp. strain FK48

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • This study reports isolation of a novel bacterium capable of mineralizing 4-nitroaniline (4-NA). • This bacterium has been identified as Rhodococcus sp. strain FK48. • Strain FK48 degrades 4-NA via a novel aerobic degradation pathway that involves 4-AP and 1,2,4-BT. • Subsequent degradation proceeds via ring fission and formation of maleylacetate. • This is the first report showing elucidation of catabolic pathway for microbial degradation 4-NA. -- Abstract: An aerobic strain, Rhodococcus sp. strain FK48, capable of growing on 4-nitroaniline (4-NA) as the sole source of carbon, nitrogen, and energy has been isolated from enrichment cultures originating from contaminated soil samples. During growth studies with non- induced cells of FK48 catalyzed sequential denitrification (release of NO2 substituent) and deamination (release of NH2 substituent) of 4-NA. However, none of the degradation intermediates could be identified with growth studies. During resting cell studies, 4-NA-induced cells of strain FK48 transformed 4-NA via a previously unknown pathway which involved oxidative hydroxylation leading to formation of 4-aminophenol (4-AP). Subsequent degradation involved oxidated deamination of 4-AP and formation of 1,2,4-benzenetriol (BT) as the major identified terminal aromatic intermediate. Identification of these intermediates was ascertained by HPLC, and GC–MS analyses of the culture supernatants. 4-NA-induced cells of strain FK48 showed positive activity for 1,2,4-benzenetriol dioxygenase in spectrophotometric assay. This is the first conclusive study on aerobic microbial degradation of 4-NA and elucidation of corresponding metabolic pathway

  1. Investigation of a metagenomic library for aerobic toluene degradation genes

    OpenAIRE

    Bouhajja, Emna; George, Isabelle; Liles, Marc; Agathos, Spiros N.; 14th International Symposium on Microbial Ecology (ISME14)

    2012-01-01

    A metagenomic study on sediment from a former gasworks site located in Düsseldorf- Flingern was conducted to assess the tar oil hydrocarbon degradation potential at that site. A sediment sample was collected from 6.70 m to 7.10 m below surface in the anoxic contaminant plume. This plume consisted mainly of benzene, toluene, ethylene, xylene and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. The first step was to extract enough high quality, high molecular weight DNA despite low cell density within the sediment. ...

  2. Aerobic Microbial Degradation of Chlorochromate Compounds Polluting the Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eight soil and sludge samples which have been polluted with petroleum wastes for more than 41 years were used for isolation of adapted indigenous microbial communities able to mineralize the chloro aromatic compounds [3-chlorobenzoic acid (3-CBA), 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), 2,6-dichlorophenol indole phenol (2,6-DCPP) and 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (1,2,4-TCB)] and use them as a sole carbon and energy sources. From these communities, the most promising bacterial strain MAM-24 which has the ability to degrade the four chosen aromatic compounds was isolated and identified by comparative sequence analysis for its 16S-rRNA coding genes and it was identified as Bacillus mucilaginosus HQ 013329. Degradation percentage was quantified by HPLC. Degradation products were identified by GC-MS analysis which revealed that the isolated strain and its mutant dechlorinated the four chloro aromatic compounds in the first step forming acetophenone which is considered as the corner stone of the intermediate compounds

  3. Effect of the pollution level on the functional bacterial groups aiming at degrading bisphenol A and nonylphenol in natural biofilms of an urban river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wei; Li, Yi; Wang, Peifang; Niu, Lihua; Zhang, Wenlong; Wang, Chao

    2016-08-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) and 4-nonylphenol (NP) are ubiquitous pollutants with estrogenic activity in aquatic environment and have attracted global concern due to their disruption of endocrine systems. This study investigated the spatial distribution characteristics of the bacterial groups involved in the degradation of BPA and NP within biofilms in an urban river using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. The effects of the pollution level and water parameters on these groups were also assessed. Hierarchical cluster analysis grouped the sampling sites into three clusters reflecting their varying nutrient pollution levels of relatively slight pollution (SP), moderate pollution (MP), and high pollution (HP) based on water quality data and Environmental Quality Standard for Surface Water of China (GB3838-2002). The BPA and NP concentration in river water ranged from 0.8 to 77.5 and 10.2 to 162.9 ng L(-1), respectively. Comamonadaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, Alcaligenaceae, Bacillaceae, Sphingomonadacea, Burkholderiaceae, and Rhizobiaceae were the dominant bacterial taxa involved in BPA and NP degradation, comprising an average of 9.8, 8.1, 7.6, 6.7, 6.2, 4.1, and 2.8 % of total sequences, respectively. The total abundance of these groups showed a slight upward trend and subsequently rapidly decreased with increasing pollution levels. The average proportion of Comamonadaceae in MP river sections was almost 1.5-2 times than that in SP or HP one. The distribution of functional groups was found related to environmental variables, especially pH, conductivity, ammonium nitrogen (NH3-N), and BPA. The abundance of Comamonadaceae and Rhizobiaceae was both closely related to higher values of pH and conductivity as well as lower concentrations of NP and BPA. Alcaligenaceae and Pseudomonadaceae were associated with higher concentrations of TP and CODMn and inversely correlated with DO concentration. This study might provide effective data on

  4. Degradation of the herbicide mecoprop in an aerobic aquifer determined by laboratory batch studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heron, Gorm; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    1992-01-01

    The potential of a shallow aerobic aquifer to degrade the herbicide Mecoprop (2-(2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxy)propionic acid) was evaluated in the laboratory using groundwater and sediment suspension batches. Mecoprop was added to the batches to obtain concentrations of 65, 140, 400 and 1400 μg...... the second lag period. The natural degradation potential for mecoprop varied among locations within a distance of few metres and was affected by different mecoprop concentrations. The observed stepwise degradation was supposedly due to different populations or different microbial mechanisms involved...

  5. Ammonium-oxidizing bacteria facilitate aerobic degradation of sulfanilic acid in activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Ginige, Maneesha P; Kaksonen, Anna H; Cheng, Ka Yu

    2014-01-01

    Sulfanilic acid (SA) is a toxic sulfonated aromatic amine commonly found in anaerobically treated azo dye contaminated effluents. Aerobic acclimatization of SA-degrading mixed microbial culture could lead to co-enrichment of ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) because of the concomitant release of ammonium from SA oxidation. To what extent the co-enriched AOB would affect SA oxidation at various ammonium concentrations was unclear. Here, a series of batch kinetic experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of AOB on aerobic SA degradation in an acclimatized activated sludge culture capable of oxidizing SA and ammonium simultaneously. To account for the effect of AOB on SA degradation, allylthiourea was used to inhibit AOB activity in the culture. The results indicated that specific SA degradation rate of the mixed culture was negatively correlated with the initial ammonium concentration (0-93 mM, R²= 0.99). The presence of AOB accelerated SA degradation by reducing the inhibitory effect of ammonium (≥ 10 mM). The Haldane substrate inhibition model was used to correlate substrate concentration (SA and ammonium) and oxygen uptake rate. This study revealed, for the first time, that AOB could facilitate SA degradation at high concentration of ammonium (≥ 10 mM) in an enriched activated sludge culture. PMID:25259503

  6. Stimulation of aerobic degradation of bentazone, mecoprop and dichlorprop by oxygen addition to aquifer sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levi, Suzi; Hybel, Anne-Marie; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup;

    2014-01-01

    In order to investigate aerobic degradation potential for the herbicides bentazone, mecoprop and dichlorprop, anaerobic groundwater samples from two monitoring and three drinking water wells near a drinking water abstraction field in Nybølle, Denmark, were screened for their degradation potential...... herbicides in microcosms using groundwater and sandy aquifer materials. To maintain a certain oxygen concentration this level was measured from the outside of the bottles with a fibre oxygen meter using oxygen-sensitive luminescent sensor foil mounted inside the microcosm, to which supplementary oxygen was...

  7. Hydrolysis and degradation of filtrated organic particulates in a biofilm reactor under anoxic and aerobic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janning, K.F.; Mesterton, K.; Harremoës, P.

    1997-01-01

    carbon to the bulk liquid was observed as an indication of hydrolysis taking place. The second experiment was designed as a series of on-line OUR batch experiments in a biofilm reactor with recirculation, in order to investigate further the degradation of particulate organic matter. After the biofilm had......Two experiments were performed in order to investigate the anoxic and the aerobic degradation of filtrated organic matter in a biofilter. In submerged lab: scale reactors with Biocarbone media as filter material, accumulated particulate organic matter from pre-settled wastewater served as the only...

  8. Modeling Aerobic Carbon Source Degradation Processes using Titrimetric Data and Combined Respirometric-Titrimetric Data: Experimental Data and Model Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist; Petersen, B.; Nopens, I.;

    2002-01-01

    Experimental data are presented that resulted from aerobic batch degradation experiments in activated sludge with simple carbon sources (acetate and dextrose) as substrates. Data collection was done using combined respirometric-titrimetric measurements. The respirometer consists of an open aerate...

  9. Enhanced degradation of 14C-HCB in two tropical clay soils using multiple anaerobic–aerobic cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the study was to induce and enhance the degradation of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), a highly-chlorinated persistent organic pollutant, in two ecologically different tropical soils: a paddy soil (PS) and a non-paddy soil (FS). The degradation of HCB was enhanced using two anaerobic–aerobic cycles in model laboratory experiments. There was greater degradation of HCB in the PS (half-life of 224 days) relative to the FS (half-life of 286 days). It was further shown that soils amended with compost had higher metabolite concentrations relative to the non-amended soils. In the first cycle, there was little degradation of HCB in both soils. However, in the second cycle, there was enhanced mineralization in the PS under aerobic conditions, with the compost-treated samples showing higher mineralization. There was also extensive volatilization in both soils. The metabolite pattern revealed that the increased mineralization and volatilization was due to the formation of lower chlorinated benzenes. - Highlights: ► Two anaerobic–aerobic cycles enhanced the dissipation of HCB in two tropical soils – a paddy and non-paddy soil. ► The paddy soil was more effective in degrading HCB. ► The non-paddy soil adapted and degraded HCB in the second anaerobic–aerobic cycle. ► An additional carbon source enhanced degradation and mineralisation of HCB in both soils. - Two anaerobic–aerobic cycles enhance the degradation of HCB in two ecologically different tropical clay soils.

  10. The direct role of aerobic heterotrophic bacteria associated with cyanobacteria in the degradation of oil compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abed, R.M.M. [Max-Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology, Bremen (Germany); Koester, J. [University of Oldenburg (Germany). Institute for Chemistry and Biology of the Marine Environment

    2005-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the role of cyanobacteria and their associated aerobic heterotrophic bacteria in biodegradation of petroleum compounds. We investigated the potential of ten non-axenic typical mat-forming cyanobacterial strains to degrade phenanthrene, pristane, n-octadecane, and dibenzothiophene. Five strains (Aphanothece halophyletica, Dactyolococcopsis salina, Halothece strain EPUS, Oscillatoria strain OSC, and Synechocystis strain UNIGA) were able to degrade n-alkanes. In case of the other five strains (Microcoleus chthonoplastes, Oscillatoria sp. MPI 95 OS 01, Halothece strain EPUG, Halomicronema exentricum, and Phormidium strain UNITF) alkanes were not significantly affected. Moderate changes in the concentration of the aromatic compounds were observed for three isolates only. In follow-up experiments with Oscillatoria strain OSC, we demonstrated that the cyanobacteria-associated aerobic heterotrophic bacteria were responsible for the observed biodegradation. The cyanobacteria themselves apparently do not degrade petroleum compounds, but more likely play a significant, indirect role in biodegradation by supporting the growth and activity of the actual degraders. (author)

  11. Acetate-fed aerobic granular sludge for the degradation of 4-chlorophenol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chlorinated phenols are considered a critical environmental problem, due to their extreme toxicity and their widespread use both in industrial and agricultural activities. In this study, aerobic granular sludge was initially developed into an acetate-fed Granulated Sequencing Batch Reactor (GSBR) and then used for the degradation of low chlorinated 4-mono-chlorophenol (4CP), with readily biodegradable sodium acetate (NaAc) as co-substrate. Influent 4CP concentration ranged between 0 and 50 mg/l, with a maximum volumetric organic loading rate of 0.20 kg4CP/m3 d (0.32 kgCOD-4CP/m3 d). Differences in granules shape and size were observed with 4CP dosed in the influent at different concentrations, and the effects of such toxic compound on acetate removal were evaluated, with both unacclimated and acclimated biomass. Aerobic granules grown on acetate as carbon source proved to be an interesting solution for the degradation of 4CP, showing good resistance to high 4CP concentrations in the influent even if unacclimated (short term effects). Moreover, the monitoring of intermediate products and the evaluation of chloride release due to 4CP degradation proved that acclimated granular sludge could completely remove 4CP (long term effects), with high specific removal rates.

  12. AromaDeg, a novel database for phylogenomics of aerobic bacterial degradation of aromatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Márcia; Jauregui, Ruy; Vilchez-Vargas, Ramiro; Junca, Howard; Pieper, Dietmar H.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding prokaryotic transformation of recalcitrant pollutants and the in-situ metabolic nets require the integration of massive amounts of biological data. Decades of biochemical studies together with novel next-generation sequencing data have exponentially increased information on aerobic aromatic degradation pathways. However, the majority of protein sequences in public databases have not been experimentally characterized and homology-based methods are still the most routinely used approach to assign protein function, allowing the propagation of misannotations. AromaDeg is a web-based resource targeting aerobic degradation of aromatics that comprises recently updated (September 2013) and manually curated databases constructed based on a phylogenomic approach. Grounded in phylogenetic analyses of protein sequences of key catabolic protein families and of proteins of documented function, AromaDeg allows query and data mining of novel genomic, metagenomic or metatranscriptomic data sets. Essentially, each query sequence that match a given protein family of AromaDeg is associated to a specific cluster of a given phylogenetic tree and further function annotation and/or substrate specificity may be inferred from the neighboring cluster members with experimentally validated function. This allows a detailed characterization of individual protein superfamilies as well as high-throughput functional classifications. Thus, AromaDeg addresses the deficiencies of homology-based protein function prediction, combining phylogenetic tree construction and integration of experimental data to obtain more accurate annotations of new biological data related to aerobic aromatic biodegradation pathways. We pursue in future the expansion of AromaDeg to other enzyme families involved in aromatic degradation and its regular update. Database URL: http://aromadeg.siona.helmholtz-hzi.de PMID:25468931

  13. Biodegradation of dimethyl phthalate by Sphingomonas sp. isolated from phthalic-acid-degrading aerobic granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ping; Moy, Benjamin Yan-Pui; Song, Yong-Hui; Tay, Joo-Hwa

    2008-10-01

    Phthalic acid esters (PAEs) contamination in water, air, and soil is one of the major environmental concerns in many countries. Besides the PAE biodegradation process, the PAE degrading bacteria have become one of the focuses of study. This study reports the successful isolation of one kind of indigenous bacterium PA-02 from phthalic acid (PA)-degrading aerobic granules. Based on its 16S ribosomal DNA sequence, isolate PA-02 was identified as Sphingomonas genus with 100% similarity to Sphingomonas sp. strain D84532. Strain PA-02 was a Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium with strong auto-aggregation ability. In particular, the strain PA-02 possessed PAE-degrading ability without acclimation. Results of growth tests showed that strain PA-02 could degrade dimethyl phthalate (DMP), dibutyl phthalate, and diethylhexyl phthalate. The specific degradation rates of DMP and PA were concentration-dependent with maximum values of 0.4 g-DMP g(-1) biomass h(-1) and 1.3 g-PA g(-1) biomass h(-1), respectively. Kinetic studies also revealed that PA-02 was robust under high concentrations of DMP and PA. Even when the PA concentration was increased to 1,000.0 mg l(-1), the specific PA degradation rate was about 0.25 g-PA g(-1) biomass h(-1). The corresponding value for DMP was 0.067 g-DMP g(-1) biomass h(-1) at 1,000 mg l(-1). PMID:18751698

  14. Biological degradation of triclocarban and triclosan in a soil under aerobic and anaerobic conditions and comparison with environmental fate modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triclocarban and triclosan are two antimicrobial agents widely used in many personal care products. Their biodegradation behaviour in soil was investigated by laboratory degradation experiments and environmental fate modelling. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analyses showed that triclocarban and triclosan had a tendency to partition into soil or sediment in the environment. Fate modelling suggests that either triclocarban or triclosan 'does not degrade fast' with its primary biodegradation half-life of 'weeks' and ultimate biodegradation half-life of 'months'. Laboratory experiments showed that triclocarban and triclosan were degraded in the aerobic soil with half-life of 108 days and 18 days, respectively. No negative effect of these two antimicrobial agents on soil microbial activity was observed in the aerobic soil samples during the experiments. But these two compounds persisted in the anaerobic soil within 70 days of the experimental period. - Triclocarban and triclosan can be degraded by microbial processes in aerobic soil, but will persist in anaerobic soil

  15. Particulate organics degradation and sludge minimization in aerobic, complete SRT bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanatidou, Elisavet; Samiotis, Georgios; Trikoilidou, Eleni; Tsikritzis, Lazaros

    2016-05-01

    The study evaluates the assumption that in activated sludge processes and under specific operating conditions, the considered unbiodegradable particulate organic fractions of influent (XU) organic solids and biomass decay residues (cell debris, XE) are degraded. The evaluation was performed by comparing sludge observed yield (Yobs) evolution in two full scale, complete solids retention time (SRT), aerobic bioreactors, to the predictions of two activated sludge models. The results showed that in steady state operating conditions of complete solids retention AS processes very low solids accumulation occur. In these conditions, solids accumulation is slightly affected by kinetic coefficients and significantly affected by XU and XE degradation rates. High endogenous residues degradation rate values of 0.05 d(-1) and 0.02 d(-1) were estimated for the two bioreactors, resulting in low solids accumulation, calculated at 1.6 tons and 3.59 tons per year respectively, of which 1.37 and 0.87 tons were non volatile suspended solids. Depending on WWTP operating conditions the endogenous residues degradation rate is the limiting factor of solids accumulation and consequently for particulate organics degradation. PMID:26971804

  16. Cultivation and characters of aerobic granules for pentachlorophenol (PCP) degradation under microaerobic condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAN Hui-xia; CHEN Yuan-cai; CHEN Zhong-hao; CHEN Rong

    2005-01-01

    Cultivation of aerobic granular sludge for pentachlorophenol (PCP) degradation under microaerobic condition ( DO concentration was controlled at 0.2-0.7 mg/L) was studied in this paper. Anaerobic granules were selected as inoculum. The changes of appearance were observed and the variations of SVI, VSS/TSS, PN/PS and the size of sludge were measured during cultivating. The capabilities for degradation of PCP, AOX and CODcr were also studied. Observations on mature granules were carried out by scanning electron microscope, and the results indicated bacillus was dominant on the surface of granules while in the inner of granules both bacillus and coccus were the dominant microorganisms. K, Na, Fe, Ca, Mg, Ni, Co, Mn, Cu and Zn were detected in the granules by element analysis.

  17. Aerobic stability, chemical composition and ruminal degradability of sugarcane silage with glycerin from biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Bensimon Gomes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was performed with the objective of studying the ensiled sugarcane silage with 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% of glycerin in experimental PVC silos. The aerobic stability was assessed by measuring the pH and the temperature of the silage at 0, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120h. The chemical composition, the levels of non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC and the total digestible nutrients (TDN were evaluated. The in vitro digestibility of dry matter (IVDDM and the in vitro digestibility of the cell wall (IVDCW in the silages were evaluated. In three fistulated cattle the in situ degradability of dry matter (DM and the disappearance percentage of the neutral detergent fiber (NDF in samples incubated at 0, 2, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96h were analyzed. The experimental design was completely randomized and the statistical analyzes were done using Bayesian inference. Increases were observed in DM, TDN, mineral matter, NFC and reductions in NDF, acid detergent fiber, crude protein and ether extract as the inclusion of glycerin was higher. IVDDM increased (P <0.05 in silage with 15 and 20% of glycerin in relation to those with 0, 5 and 10%. The IVDCW at levels of 10, 15 and 20% of glycerin was higher (P <0.05 compared to the other treatments. Increases were observed in the soluble portion (a, a reduction in the insoluble fraction (b, and an increase in the degradability fraction constant (c of the silages with 5, 10, 15 and 20% of glycerin (P <0.05 compared to the control. Glycerin improved aerobic stability while maintaining a low pH and temperature during the observation period at levels of 15 and 20% of glycerin against the silage with 0, 5 and 10%. These results indicate glycerin as a promising additive for sugarcane silage, being able to enhance energy density and improve the aerobic stability of the ensiled matter when its inclusion is from 10 to 20%.

  18. Biofuel components change the ecology of bacterial volatile petroleum hydrocarbon degradation in aerobic sandy soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We tested the hypothesis that the biodegradation of volatile petroleum hydrocarbons (VPHs) in aerobic sandy soil is affected by the blending with 10 percent ethanol (E10) or 20 percent biodiesel (B20). When inorganic nutrients were scarce, competition between biofuel and VPH degraders temporarily slowed monoaromatic hydrocarbon degradation. Ethanol had a bigger impact than biodiesel, reflecting the relative ease of ethanol compared to methyl ester biodegradation. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of bacterial 16S rRNA genes revealed that each fuel mixture selected for a distinct bacterial community, each dominated by Pseudomonas spp. Despite lasting impacts on soil bacterial ecology, the overall effects on VHP biodegradation were minor, and average biomass yields were comparable between fuel types, ranging from 0.40 ± 0.16 to 0.51 ± 0.22 g of biomass carbon per gram of fuel carbon degraded. Inorganic nutrient availability had a greater impact on petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation than fuel composition. Highlights: ► The effect of 10% ethanol or 20% biodiesel on the biodegradability of volatile petroleum hydrocarbons in soil was investigated. ► Competition for scarce inorganic nutrients between biofuel and VPH degraders slowed monoaromatic hydrocarbon degradation. ► Biofuel effects were transitional. ► Each fuel selected for a distinct predominant bacterial community. ► All bacterial communities were dominated by Pseudomonas spp. - Blending of petroleum with ethanol or biodiesel changes the fuel degrading soil bacterial community structure, but the long-term effects on fuel biodegradability are minor.

  19. Aerobic Degradation of N-Methyl-4-Nitroaniline (MNA) by Pseudomonas sp. Strain FK357 Isolated from Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Fazlurrahman; Vyas, Bhawna; Pal, Deepika; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh

    2013-01-01

    N-Methyl-4-nitroaniline (MNA) is used as an additive to lower the melting temperature of energetic materials in the synthesis of insensitive explosives. Although the biotransformation of MNA under anaerobic condition has been reported, its aerobic microbial degradation has not been documented yet. A soil microcosms study showed the efficient aerobic degradation of MNA by the inhabitant soil microorganisms. An aerobic bacterium, Pseudomonas sp. strain FK357, able to utilize MNA as the sole carbon, nitrogen, and energy source, was isolated from soil microcosms. HPLC and GC-MS analysis of the samples obtained from growth and resting cell studies showed the formation of 4-nitroaniline (4-NA), 4-aminophenol (4-AP), and 1, 2, 4-benzenetriol (BT) as major metabolic intermediates in the MNA degradation pathway. Enzymatic assay carried out on cell-free lysates of MNA grown cells confirmed N-demethylation reaction is the first step of MNA degradation with the formation of 4-NA and formaldehyde products. Flavin-dependent transformation of 4-NA to 4-AP in cell extracts demonstrated that the second step of MNA degradation is a monooxygenation. Furthermore, conversion of 4-AP to BT by MNA grown cells indicates the involvement of oxidative deamination (release of NH2 substituent) reaction in third step of MNA degradation. Subsequent degradation of BT occurs by the action of benzenetriol 1, 2-dioxygenase as reported for the degradation of 4-nitrophenol. This is the first report on aerobic degradation of MNA by a single bacterium along with elucidation of metabolic pathway. PMID:24116023

  20. Aerobic degradation of N-methyl-4-nitroaniline (MNA by Pseudomonas sp. strain FK357 isolated from soil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazlurrahman Khan

    Full Text Available N-Methyl-4-nitroaniline (MNA is used as an additive to lower the melting temperature of energetic materials in the synthesis of insensitive explosives. Although the biotransformation of MNA under anaerobic condition has been reported, its aerobic microbial degradation has not been documented yet. A soil microcosms study showed the efficient aerobic degradation of MNA by the inhabitant soil microorganisms. An aerobic bacterium, Pseudomonas sp. strain FK357, able to utilize MNA as the sole carbon, nitrogen, and energy source, was isolated from soil microcosms. HPLC and GC-MS analysis of the samples obtained from growth and resting cell studies showed the formation of 4-nitroaniline (4-NA, 4-aminophenol (4-AP, and 1, 2, 4-benzenetriol (BT as major metabolic intermediates in the MNA degradation pathway. Enzymatic assay carried out on cell-free lysates of MNA grown cells confirmed N-demethylation reaction is the first step of MNA degradation with the formation of 4-NA and formaldehyde products. Flavin-dependent transformation of 4-NA to 4-AP in cell extracts demonstrated that the second step of MNA degradation is a monooxygenation. Furthermore, conversion of 4-AP to BT by MNA grown cells indicates the involvement of oxidative deamination (release of NH2 substituent reaction in third step of MNA degradation. Subsequent degradation of BT occurs by the action of benzenetriol 1, 2-dioxygenase as reported for the degradation of 4-nitrophenol. This is the first report on aerobic degradation of MNA by a single bacterium along with elucidation of metabolic pathway.

  1. Degradation of weathered diesel fuel by microorganisms from a contaminated aquifer in aerobic and anaerobic microcosms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A diesel fuel-contaminated aquifer in Menziken, Canton of Aargau, Switzerland, was in situ bioremediated from 1989 to 1994 by adding O2, NO3-, PO43-, and NH4+ through an infiltration well. After a remediation time of 3.5 years, aquifer material from the contaminated zone was excavated and found to contain > 106 hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms/g and 1.15 ± 0.15 mg/g weathered diesel fuel comprising mainly isoprenoid alkanes and an unresolved complex mixture (UCM) of unknown components. Samples of this material were incubated for up to 470 days in aerobic and anaerobic microcosms. The microbial activity was determined by measuring the production of inorganic carbon and the consumption of O2 and NO3-. The degradation of the weathered diesel fuel was quantified by infrared spectroscopy and by capillary gas chromatography. In aerobic microcosms, all isoprenoid alkanes and most of the UCM were biodegraded as long as a nitrogen source was present. The O2 consumption could be stimulated by adding KH2PO4 and by elevating the temperature to 22 C. In anaerobic microcosms with KNO3, NO3- was consumed, inorganic carbon was produced, and the isoprenoid alkanes and the UCM were partially metabolized. In some selected microcosms, the NO3- consumption rate was stimulated by adding external substrates such as toluene, o-xylene, m-xylene, p-xylene, n-alkanes, or fatty acids. Mineralization of toluene, naphthalene, and hexadecane to CO2 under denitrifying conditions was confirmed by using [14C]-labelled substrates

  2. Stimulation of aerobic degradation of bentazone, mecoprop and dichlorprop by oxygen addition to aquifer sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to investigate aerobic degradation potential for the herbicides bentazone, mecoprop and dichlorprop, anaerobic groundwater samples from two monitoring and three drinking water wells near a drinking water abstraction field in Nybølle, Denmark, were screened for their degradation potential for the herbicides. In the presence of oxygen 14C-labelled bentazone and mecoprop were removed significantly from the two monitoring wells' groundwater samples. Oxygen was added to microcosms in order to investigate whether different oxygen concentrations stimulate the biodegradation of the three herbicides in microcosms using groundwater and sandy aquifer materials. To maintain a certain oxygen concentration this level was measured from the outside of the bottles with a fibre oxygen meter using oxygen-sensitive luminescent sensor foil mounted inside the microcosm, to which supplementary oxygen was added. The highest oxygen concentrations (corresponding to 4–11 mg L−1) stimulated degradation (a 14–27% increase for mecoprop, 3–9% for dichlorprop and 15–20% for bentazone) over an experimental period of 200 days. Oxygen was required to biodegrade the herbicides, since no degradation was observed under anaerobic conditions. This is the first time bentazone degradation has been observed in aquifer material at low oxygen concentrations (2 mg L−1). The sediment had substantial oxygen consumption (0.92–1.45 O2 g-1 dw over 200 days) and oxygen was depleted rapidly in most incubations soon after its addition, which might be due to the oxidation of organic matter and other reduced species such as Fe2+, S2− and Mn in sediment before the biodegradation of herbicides takes place. This study suggests that oxygen enhancement around a drinking water abstraction field could stimulate the bioremediation of diffuse source contamination. - Highlights: • Addition of different oxygen concentrations stimulated degradation of herbicides in anaerobic aquifer sediment material.

  3. Modeling Aerobic Carbon Source Degradation Processes using Titrimetric Data and Combined Respirometric-Titrimetric Data: Structural and Practical Identifiability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist; Petersen, B.; Dochain, D.;

    2002-01-01

    The structural and practical identifiability of a model for description of respirometric-titrimetric data derived from aerobic batch substrate degradation experiments of a CxHyOz carbon source with activated sludge was evaluated. The model processes needed to describe titrimetric data included su...

  4. Bioaugmentation of aerobic sludge granules with a plasmid donor strain for enhanced degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aerobic sludge granules pre-grown on glucose were bioaugmented with a plasmid pJP4 carrying strain Pseudomonas putida SM1443 in a fed-batch microcosm system and a lab-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) to enhance their degradation capacity to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). The fed-batch test results showed that the bioaugmented aerobic granule system gained 2,4-D degradation ability faster and maintained a more stable microbial community than the control in the presence of 2,4-D. 2,4-D at the initial concentration of about 160 mg/L was nearly completely removed by the bioaugmented granule system within 62 h, while the control system only removed 26% within 66 h. In the bioaugmented SBR which had been operated for 90 days, the seeded aerobic granules pre-grown on glucose successfully turned into 2,4-D degrading granules through bioaugmentation and stepwise increase of 2,4-D concentration from 8 to 385 mg/L. The granules showed a compact structure and good settling ability with the mean diameter of about 450 μm. The degradation kinetics of 2,4-D by the aerobic granules can be described with the Haldane kinetics model with Vmax = 31.1 mg 2,4-D/gVSS h, Ki = 597.9 mg/L and Ks = 257.3 mg/L, respectively. This study shows that plasmid mediated bioaugmentation is a feasible strategy to cultivate aerobic granules degrading recalcitrant pollutants.

  5. Photodegradation of nonylphenol by simulated sunlight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The effects of some environmental factors on the photolysis of NP were studied. ► Experimental range of the factors was selected based on their occurrence in water. ► The degradation intermediates were identified by GC–MS. ► The photodegradation mechanism of NP in natural seawater was proposed. -- Abstract: The photodegradation of nonylphenol (NP) was studied to simulate its photolysis process in natural seawater. The effects of the initial NP concentration, the light intensity, the temperature, the initial pH, the dissolved oxygen content and the presence of common water constituents (i.e., Fe(III), NO3- and HCO3-) on the photodegradation of NP in pure water have been assessed. The degradation rate increased in the presence of Fe(III), NO3- or HCO3-, and the photolysis rate of 4-NP was more rapid in alkaline solution than in an acidic medium. The DO content is a key factor in the photodegradation, and the rate of the photoreaction depended on the O2 concentration. The degradation rate was slower in natural seawater than in pure water. 4-Nonylcatechol was identified as the intermediate of photodegradation of nonylphenol in natural seawater. The proposed pathway involved a reaction between irradiated NP and the reactive oxygen species that existed in the seawater

  6. Micropollutants removal in an anaerobic membrane bioreactor and in an aerobic conventional treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abargues, M R; Robles, A; Bouzas, A; Seco, A

    2012-01-01

    The paper expresses an attempt to tackle the problem due to the presence of micropollutants in wastewater which may be able to disrupt the endocrine system of some organisms. These kinds of compounds are ubiquitously present in municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents. The aim of this paper is to compare the fate of the alkylphenols-APs (4-(tert-octyl)) phenol, t-nonylphenol and 4-p-nonylphenol and the hormones (estrone, 17β-estradiol and 17α-ethinylestradiol) in a submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (SAMBR) pilot plant and in a conventional activated sludge wastewater treatment plant (CTP). The obtained results are also compared with the results obtained in a previous study carried out in an aerobic MBR pilot plant. The results showed that the APs soluble concentrations in the SAMBR effluent were always significantly higher than the CTP ones. Moreover, the analyses of the suspended fraction revealed that the AP concentrations in the SAMBR reactor were usually higher than in the CTP reactor, indicating that under anaerobic conditions the APs were accumulated in the digested sludge. The aerobic conditions maintained both in the CTP system and in the aerobic MBR favoured the APs and hormones degradation, and gave rise to lower concentrations in the effluent and in the reactor of these systems. Furthermore, the results also indicated that the degradation of APs under aerobic conditions was enhanced working at high solid retention time (SRT) and hydraulic retention time (HRT) values. PMID:22643422

  7. Biological degradation of triclocarban and triclosan in a soil under aerobic and anaerobic conditions and comparison with environmental fate modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ying Guangguo [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); CSIRO Land and Water, Adelaide Laboratory, PMB2, Glen Osmond SA 5064 (Australia)], E-mail: guang-guo.ying@gig.ac.cn; Yu Xiangyang [CSIRO Land and Water, Adelaide Laboratory, PMB2, Glen Osmond SA 5064 (Australia); Food Safety Research Institute, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nanjing 210014 (China); Kookana, Rai S. [CSIRO Land and Water, Adelaide Laboratory, PMB2, Glen Osmond SA 5064 (Australia)

    2007-12-15

    Triclocarban and triclosan are two antimicrobial agents widely used in many personal care products. Their biodegradation behaviour in soil was investigated by laboratory degradation experiments and environmental fate modelling. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analyses showed that triclocarban and triclosan had a tendency to partition into soil or sediment in the environment. Fate modelling suggests that either triclocarban or triclosan 'does not degrade fast' with its primary biodegradation half-life of 'weeks' and ultimate biodegradation half-life of 'months'. Laboratory experiments showed that triclocarban and triclosan were degraded in the aerobic soil with half-life of 108 days and 18 days, respectively. No negative effect of these two antimicrobial agents on soil microbial activity was observed in the aerobic soil samples during the experiments. But these two compounds persisted in the anaerobic soil within 70 days of the experimental period. - Triclocarban and triclosan can be degraded by microbial processes in aerobic soil, but will persist in anaerobic soil.

  8. Interaction of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers and Aerobic Granular Sludge: Biosorption and Microbial Degradation

    OpenAIRE

    Shou-Qing Ni; Qingjie Cui; Zhen Zheng

    2014-01-01

    As a new category of persistent organic pollutants, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have become ubiquitous global environmental contaminants. No literature is available on the aerobic biotransformation of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209). Herein, we investigated the interaction of PBDEs with aerobic granular sludge. The results show that the removal of BDE-209 from wastewater is mainly via biosorption onto aerobic granular sludge. The uptake capacity increased when temperature, contac...

  9. Comparative toxicity and bioconcentration of nonylphenol in freshwater organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spehar, Robert L; Brooke, Larry T; Markee, Thomas P; Kahl, Michael D

    2010-09-01

    Degradation of alkylphenol ethoxylates to more persistent alkylphenols such as nonylphenol occurs in wastewater treatment plants where nonylphenol is released to aquatic systems. In this study, acute and chronic tests were conducted to determine the toxicity and bioconcentration of nonylphenol to freshwater organisms for use in deriving national water quality criteria. Acute median effect concentrations (EC50s) based on loss of equilibrium, immobility, and lethality for species representing several taxonomic groups ranged from 21 to 596 microg/L. The EC50s were up to a factor of 2 less than median lethal concentrations (LC50s) and decreased with time over the test periods of 24 to 96 h. In chronic tests, early life stages of rainbow trout were 14 times more sensitive to nonylphenol than in acute tests and approximately 20 times more sensitive than Daphnia magna exposed over their complete life cycle. Comparisons of chronic test endpoints showed that 20% effect concentrations (EC20s), determined by regression testing, and chronic values, determined by hypothesis testing, were similar for both the rainbow trout and Daphnia magna. The lowest mean tissue-effect concentrations of nonylphenol appeared to be greater for the fathead minnow than bluegill, and ranged from approximately 130 to 160 microg/g after 96-h exposure and from approximately 20 to 90 microg/g after 28-d exposure. Mean lipid normalized bioconcentration factors (BCFs) associated with no-effect concentrations were approximately 180 and 50 for the fathead minnow and bluegill, respectively. The present test results suggest that long-term exposures to nonylphenol at concentrations found in some surface waters could adversely impact sensitive components of freshwater communities. PMID:20821669

  10. Microrespirometric determination of the effectiveness factor and biodegradation kinetics of aerobic granules degrading 4-chlorophenol as the sole carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vital-Jacome, Miguel; Buitrón, Germán; Moreno-Andrade, Ivan; Garcia-Rea, Victor; Thalasso, Frederic

    2016-08-01

    In this study, a microrespirometric method was used, i.e., pulse respirometry in microreactors, to characterize mass transfer and biodegradation kinetics in aerobic granules. The experimental model was an aerobic granular sludge in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) degrading synthetic wastewater containing 4-chlorophenol as the sole carbon source. After 15 days of acclimation, the SBR process degraded 4-chlorophenol at a removal rate of up to 0.9kg CODm(-3)d(-1), and the degradation kinetics were well described by the Haldane model. The microrespirometric method consisted of injecting pulses of 4-chlorophenol into the 24 wells of a microreactor system containing the SBR samples. From the respirograms obtained, the following five kinetic parameters were successfully determined during reactor operation: (i) Maximum specific oxygen uptake rate, (ii) substrate affinity constant, (iii) substrate inhibition constant, (iv) maximum specific growth rate, and (v) cell growth yield. Microrespirometry tests using granules and disaggregated granules allowed for the determination of apparent and intrinsic parameters, which in turn enabled the determination of the effectiveness factor of the granular sludge. It was concluded that this new high-throughput method has the potential to elucidate the complex biological and physicochemical processes of aerobic granular biosystems. PMID:27054670

  11. DECOLORIZATION AND BIOLOGICAL DEGRADATION OF AZO DYE REACTIVE RED2 BY ANAEROBIC/AEROBIC SEQUENTIAL PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Naimabadi ، H. Movahedian Attar ، A. Shahsavani

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the anaerobic treatability of reactive Red2 in an anaerobic/aerobic sequential process. Laboratory scale anaerobic baffled reactor and fixed activated sludge reactor were operated at different organic loadings and hydraulic retention times. The effects of shock dye concentration on the chemical oxygen demand and color removal efficiencies were investigated in the anaerobic baffled reactor. The effect of hydraulic retention time on the color and chemical oxygen demand removal efficiencies were also investigated in the aerobic reactor. The studies were carried out in continuous mode and the effluent of the anaerobic baffled reactor was used as feed for the fixed activated sludge reactor. Chemical oxygen demand removal efficiency of 54.5% was obtained at HRT =1 day in the anaerobic reactor. The average color removal was 89.5%. Chemical oxygen demand removal efficiency of 69% was obtained at HRT =7 h in the aerobic fixed activated sludge reactor. A slight decrease of the color was also observed in the aerobic reactor. This investigation has shown that successful treatment of a highly colored wastewater is possible in the anaerobic baffled reactor. Also the results showed that, anaerobic biological system has higher efficiency in dye removal than fixed activated sludge system, while aerobic system has higher efficiency in chemical oxygen demand removal comparing with the anaerobic baffled reactor.

  12. Fermentation Characteristics, In Situ Rumen Degradation and Aerobic Stability of Whole Crop Barley Ensiled with Urea or Aqueous Ammonia

    OpenAIRE

    Vatandoost, Moosa; Mesgaran, Mohsen Danesh; Vakili, AliReza

    2011-01-01

    Various chemical compounds might be added to forage to maintain or improve the quality value of a crop ensiled. The aim of the present experiment was to evaluate the fermentation characteristics, in situ rumen degradation and Aerobic Stability of whole crop barley ensiled with Urea or aqueous Ammonia. In the first experiment, Whole crop barley was harvested (35% DM), chopped, and then ensiled using laboratory silos (n= 4) as untreated (UT) or treated with urea (10, 20, 30 and 40 g kg-1 DM; U1...

  13. Physiological and functional diversity of phenol degraders isolated from phenol-grown aerobic granules: Phenol degradation kinetics and trichloroethylene co-metabolic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Tay, Joo Hwa

    2016-03-15

    Aerobic granule is a novel form of microbial aggregate capable of degrading toxic and recalcitrant substances. Aerobic granules have been formed on phenol as the growth substrate, and used to co-metabolically degrade trichloroethylene (TCE), a synthetic solvent not supporting aerobic microbial growth. Granule formation process, rate limiting factors and the comprehensive toxic effects of phenol and TCE had been systematically studied. To further explore their potential at the level of microbial population and functions, phenol degraders were isolated and purified from mature granules in this study. Phenol and TCE degradation kinetics of 15 strains were determined, together with their TCE transformation capacities and other physiological characteristics. Isolation in the presence of phenol and TCE exerted stress on microbial populations, but the procedure was able to preserve their diversity. Wide variation was found with the isolates' kinetic behaviors, with the parameters often spanning 3 orders of magnitude. Haldane kinetics described phenol degradation well, and the isolates exhibited actual maximum phenol-dependent oxygen utilization rates of 9-449 mg DO g DW(-1) h(-1), in phenol concentration range of 4.8-406 mg L(-1). Both Michaelis-Menten and Haldane types were observed for TCE transformation, with the actual maximum rate of 1.04-21.1 mg TCE g DW(-1) h(-1) occurring between TCE concentrations of 0.42-4.90 mg L(-1). The TCE transformation capacities and growth yields on phenol ranged from 20-115 mg TCE g DW(-1) and 0.46-1.22 g DW g phenol(-1), respectively, resulting in TCE transformation yields of 10-70 mg TCE g phenol(-1). Contact angles of the isolates were between 34° and 82°, suggesting both hydrophobic and hydrophilic cell surface. The diversity in the isolates is a great advantage, as it enables granules to be versatile and adaptive under different operational conditions. PMID:26720328

  14. Metabolism of 2-Chloro-4-Nitroaniline via Novel Aerobic Degradation Pathway by Rhodococcus sp. Strain MB-P1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Fazlurrahman; Pal, Deepika; Vikram, Surendra; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh

    2013-01-01

    2-chloro-4-nitroaniline (2-C-4-NA) is used as an intermediate in the manufacture of dyes, pharmaceuticals, corrosion inhibitor and also used in the synthesis of niclosamide, a molluscicide. It is marked as a black-listed substance due to its poor biodegradability. We report biodegradation of 2-C-4-NA and its pathway characterization by Rhodococcus sp. strain MB-P1 under aerobic conditions. The strain MB-P1 utilizes 2-C-4-NA as the sole carbon, nitrogen, and energy source. In the growth medium, the degradation of 2-C-4-NA occurs with the release of nitrite ions, chloride ions, and ammonia. During the resting cell studies, the 2-C-4-NA-induced cells of strain MB-P1 transformed 2-C-4-NA stoichiometrically to 4-amino-3-chlorophenol (4-A-3-CP), which subsequently gets transformed to 6-chlorohydroxyquinol (6-CHQ) metabolite. Enzyme assays by cell-free lysates prepared from 2-C-4-NA-induced MB-P1 cells, demonstrated that the first enzyme in the 2-C-4-NA degradation pathway is a flavin-dependent monooxygenase that catalyzes the stoichiometric removal of nitro group and production of 4-A-3-CP. Oxygen uptake studies on 4-A-3-CP and related anilines by 2-C-4-NA-induced MB-P1 cells demonstrated the involvement of aniline dioxygenase in the second step of 2-C-4-NA degradation. This is the first report showing 2-C-4-NA degradation and elucidation of corresponding metabolic pathway by an aerobic bacterium. PMID:23614030

  15. Metabolism of 2-chloro-4-nitroaniline via novel aerobic degradation pathway by Rhodococcus sp. strain MB-P1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazlurrahman Khan

    Full Text Available 2-chloro-4-nitroaniline (2-C-4-NA is used as an intermediate in the manufacture of dyes, pharmaceuticals, corrosion inhibitor and also used in the synthesis of niclosamide, a molluscicide. It is marked as a black-listed substance due to its poor biodegradability. We report biodegradation of 2-C-4-NA and its pathway characterization by Rhodococcus sp. strain MB-P1 under aerobic conditions. The strain MB-P1 utilizes 2-C-4-NA as the sole carbon, nitrogen, and energy source. In the growth medium, the degradation of 2-C-4-NA occurs with the release of nitrite ions, chloride ions, and ammonia. During the resting cell studies, the 2-C-4-NA-induced cells of strain MB-P1 transformed 2-C-4-NA stoichiometrically to 4-amino-3-chlorophenol (4-A-3-CP, which subsequently gets transformed to 6-chlorohydroxyquinol (6-CHQ metabolite. Enzyme assays by cell-free lysates prepared from 2-C-4-NA-induced MB-P1 cells, demonstrated that the first enzyme in the 2-C-4-NA degradation pathway is a flavin-dependent monooxygenase that catalyzes the stoichiometric removal of nitro group and production of 4-A-3-CP. Oxygen uptake studies on 4-A-3-CP and related anilines by 2-C-4-NA-induced MB-P1 cells demonstrated the involvement of aniline dioxygenase in the second step of 2-C-4-NA degradation. This is the first report showing 2-C-4-NA degradation and elucidation of corresponding metabolic pathway by an aerobic bacterium.

  16. Metabolism of 2-chloro-4-nitroaniline via novel aerobic degradation pathway by Rhodococcus sp. strain MB-P1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Fazlurrahman; Pal, Deepika; Vikram, Surendra; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh

    2013-01-01

    2-chloro-4-nitroaniline (2-C-4-NA) is used as an intermediate in the manufacture of dyes, pharmaceuticals, corrosion inhibitor and also used in the synthesis of niclosamide, a molluscicide. It is marked as a black-listed substance due to its poor biodegradability. We report biodegradation of 2-C-4-NA and its pathway characterization by Rhodococcus sp. strain MB-P1 under aerobic conditions. The strain MB-P1 utilizes 2-C-4-NA as the sole carbon, nitrogen, and energy source. In the growth medium, the degradation of 2-C-4-NA occurs with the release of nitrite ions, chloride ions, and ammonia. During the resting cell studies, the 2-C-4-NA-induced cells of strain MB-P1 transformed 2-C-4-NA stoichiometrically to 4-amino-3-chlorophenol (4-A-3-CP), which subsequently gets transformed to 6-chlorohydroxyquinol (6-CHQ) metabolite. Enzyme assays by cell-free lysates prepared from 2-C-4-NA-induced MB-P1 cells, demonstrated that the first enzyme in the 2-C-4-NA degradation pathway is a flavin-dependent monooxygenase that catalyzes the stoichiometric removal of nitro group and production of 4-A-3-CP. Oxygen uptake studies on 4-A-3-CP and related anilines by 2-C-4-NA-induced MB-P1 cells demonstrated the involvement of aniline dioxygenase in the second step of 2-C-4-NA degradation. This is the first report showing 2-C-4-NA degradation and elucidation of corresponding metabolic pathway by an aerobic bacterium. PMID:23614030

  17. Degradation of Reactive Black 5 dye using anaerobic/aerobic membrane bioreactor (MBR) and photochemical membrane reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three different types of advance treatment methods were evaluated for the degradation of Reactive Black 5 (RB5). The performance of two stage anaerobic SBR-aerobic MBR, anaerobic MBR with immobilized and suspended biocells and an integrated membrane photocatalytic reactor (MPR) using slurry UV/TiO2 system were investigated. The results suggest that, nearly 99.9% color removal and 80-95% organic COD and TOC removal can be achieved using different reactor systems. Considering the Taiwan EPA effluent standard discharge criteria for COD/TOC, the degree of treatment achieved by combining the anaerobic-aerobic system was found to be acceptable. Anew, Bacilluscereus, high color removal bacterium was isolated from Anaerobic SBR. Furthermore, when this immobilized into PVA-calcium alginate pellets, and suspended in the anaerobic MBR was able to achieve high removal efficiencies, similar to the suspended biocells system. However, the immobilized cell Anaerobic MBR was found to be more advantageous, due to lower fouling rates in the membrane unit. Results from slurry type MPR system showed that this system was capable of mineralizing RB5 dyes with faster degradation rate as compared to other systems. The reactor was also able to separate the catalyst effectively and perform efficiently without much loss of catalyst activity.

  18. Aerobic degradation of highly chlorinated polychlorobiphenyls by a marine bacterium, Pseudomonas CH07

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    De, J.; Ramaiah, N.; Sarkar, A.

    studied in recent years. The genetic organization of biphenyl catabolic genes has been elucidated in various groups of microorganisms, their structures have been analyzed with respect to their evolutionary relationships, and new information on mobile... positions (3 or 5 position). The lack of ortho groups allows the atoms in these congeners to line up in a single plane (referred to as coplanar PCBs), that makes them especially toxic. A combination of anaerobic followed by aerobic biodegradation has been...

  19. DECOLORIZATION AND BIOLOGICAL DEGRADATION OF AZO DYE REACTIVE RED2 BY ANAEROBIC/AEROBIC SEQUENTIAL PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    A. Naimabadi ، H. Movahedian Attar ، A. Shahsavani

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the anaerobic treatability of reactive Red2 in an anaerobic/aerobic sequential process. Laboratory scale anaerobic baffled reactor and fixed activated sludge reactor were operated at different organic loadings and hydraulic retention times. The effects of shock dye concentration on the chemical oxygen demand and color removal efficiencies were investigated in the anaerobic baffled reactor. The effect of hydraulic retention time on the color and chemical oxygen demand r...

  20. DEGRADATION OF ASPHALTENES BY INDIVIDUAL OIL-UTILIZING AEROBIC BACTERIAL STRAINS

    OpenAIRE

    Shkidchenko, Alexander; Akhmetov, Lenar; Gafarov, Arslan

    2013-01-01

    The possibility of biodegradation of asphaltenes at a room temperature by single aerobic strains Microbacterium liquefaciens Ash-10, Pseudomonas putida Ash-4, Rhodococcus erythropolis Sh-3 and Bacillus sp. 2, isolated from soil with chronic petroleum pollution has been shown. All strains possess high oil-utilizing activity and the ability to grow on agar media containing polycondensed hydrocarbons, black oil, alcohol-benzene resins, benzene resins as sole sources of carbon and energy. The str...

  1. Mechanism and kinetics of organic matter degradation based on particle structure variation during pig manure aerobic composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jinyi; Huang, Guangqun; Huang, Jing; Zeng, Jianfei; Han, Lujia

    2015-07-15

    Characterization of the dynamic structure of composting particles may facilitate our understanding of the mechanisms of organic matter degradation during pig manure-wheat straw aerobic composting. In this study, changes in the size, shape, pores, chemical compositions, and crystal structures of pig manure particles during composting were investigated. The results showed that the median diameter (D50) decreased exponentially, while the particle aspect ratio and sphericity were unchanged, suggesting that particles were degraded uniformly along different radial directions. Pores had a mean diameter of 15-30 μm and were elliptical. The particle porosity increased linearly mainly because of hemicellulose degradation. Furthermore, the influence of particle structure variation on the first order rate constant (k) of organic matter degradation was corrected, which may facilitate the optimization of operation conditions. The k value was proportional to the reciprocal of D50 according to the specific surface area of particles, and it decreased with increased porosity due to the stabilized chemical compositions and crystal structures of particles. However, the applicability of these data to other composting materials should be verified. PMID:25781372

  2. Incomplete aerobic degradation of the antidiabetic drug Metformin and identification of the bacterial dead-end transformation product Guanylurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautwein, Christoph; Kümmerer, Klaus

    2011-10-01

    Active pharmaceutical ingredients as well as personal care products are detected in increasing prevalence in different environmental compartments such as surface water, groundwater and soil. Still little is known about the environmental fate of these substances. The type II antidiabetic drug Metformin has already been detected in different surface waters worldwide, but concentrations were significantly lower than the corresponding predicted environmental concentration (PEC). In human and mammal metabolism so far no metabolites of Metformin have been identified, so the expected environmental concentrations should be very high. To assess the aerobic biodegradability of Metformin and the possible formation of degradation products, three Organisation of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) test series were performed in the present study. In the Closed Bottle test (OECD 301 D), a screening test that simulates the conditions of an environmental surface water compartment, Metformin was classified as not readily biodegradable (no biodegradation). In the Manometric Respiratory test (OEDC 301 F) working with high bacterial density, Metformin was biodegraded in one of three test bottles to 48.7% and in the toxicity control bottle to 57.5%. In the Zahn-Wellens test (OECD 302 B) using activated sludge, Metformin was biodegraded in both test vessels to an extent of 51.3% and 49.9%, respectively. Analysis of test samples by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to multiple stage mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS(n)) showed in the tests vessels were biodegradation was observed full elimination of Metformin and revealed Guanylurea (Amidinourea, Dicyandiamidine) as single and stable aerobic bacterial degradation product. In another Manometric Respiratory test Guanylurea showed no more transformation. Photodegradation of Guanylurea was also negative. A first screening in one of the greatest sewage treatment plant in southern Germany found Metformin with high concentrations

  3. Microbiological Degradation of Malodorous Substances of Swine Waste under Aerobic Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Bourque, Denis; Bisaillon, Jean-Guy; Beaudet, Réjean; Sylvestre, M; Ishaque, Muhammad; Morin, André

    1987-01-01

    Phenol, p-cresol, and volatile fatty acids (VFA; acetic, propionic, isobutyric, butyric, isovaleric, and valeric acids) were used as odor indicators of swine waste. Aeration of the waste allowed the indigenous microorganisms to grow and degrade these malodorous substances. The time required for degradation of these substances varied according to the waste used, and it was not necessarily related to their concentrations. Using a minimal medium which contained one of the malodorous compounds as...

  4. Continuous aerobic phenol degradation by defined mixed immobilized cultutre in packed bed reactors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Páca jr., J.; Páca, J.; Kostečková, A.; Stiborová, M.; Sobotka, Miroslav; Gerrard, A. M.; Soccol, C. R.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 4 (2005), s. 301-308. ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/03/0407 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : phenol degradation * pseudomonas putida * commamonas testosteroni Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.918, year: 2005

  5. ANALYSIS OF AN AEROBIC FLUIDIZED BED REACTOR DEGRADING MTBE AND BTEX AT REDUCED EBCTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the biodegradation of MTBE and BTEX using a fluidized bed reactor (FBR) with granular activated carbon (GAC) as a biological attachment medium. Batch experiments were run to analyze the MTBE and TBA degradation kinetics of the culture ...

  6. Oral exposure to low-dose of nonylphenol impairs memory performance in Sprague-Dawley rats

    OpenAIRE

    KAWAGUCHI,SHINICHIRO; Kuwahara, Rika; Kohara, Yumi; Uchida, Yutaro; Oku, Yushi; Yamashita, Kimihiro

    2015-01-01

    Nonylphenol ethoxylate (NPE) is a non-ionic surfactant, that is degraded to short-chain NPE and 4-nonylphenol (NP) by bacteria in the environment. NP, one of the most common environmental endocrine disruptors, exhibits weak estrogen-like activity. In this study, we investigated whether oral administration of NP (at 0.5 and 5 mg/kg doses) affects spatial learning and memory, general activity, emotionality, and fear-motivated learning and memory in male and female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. SD r...

  7. Study on the aerobic biodegradability and degradation kinetics of 3-NP; 2,4-DNP and 2,6-DNP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    She, Zonglian; Xie, Tian; Zhu, Yingjie; Li, Leilei; Tang, Gaifeng [Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science and Ecology, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China); Huang, Jian, E-mail: jianhuang666@hotmail.com [Department of Environmental Ecology, College of Marine Life Sciences, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003 (China)

    2012-11-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We assessed the biodegradability of three nitrophenols using four methods. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We simulated the degradation kinetics model and estimated relevant parameters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We compared the kinetics performances of solo substrates and co-substrates. - Abstract: Four biodegradability tests (BOD{sub 5}/COD ratio, production of carbon dioxide, relative oxygen uptake rate and relative enzymatic activity) were used to determine the aerobic biodegradability of 3-nitrophenol (3-NP), 2,4-dinitrophenol (2,4-DNP) and 2,6-dinitrophenol (2,6-DNP). Furthermore, biodegradation kinetics of the compounds was investigated in sequencing batch reactors both in the presence of glucose (co-substrate) and with nitrophenol as the sole carbon source. Among the three tested compounds, 3-NP showed the best biodegradability while 2,6-DNP was the most difficult to be biodegraded. The Haldane equation was applied to the kinetic test data of the nitrophenols. The kinetic constants are as follows: the maximum specific degradation rate (K{sub max}), the saturation constants (K{sub S}) and the inhibition constants (K{sub I}) were in the range of 0.005-2.98 mg (mgSS d){sup -1}, 1.5-51.9 mg L{sup -1} and 1.8-95.8 mg L{sup -1}, respectively. The presence of glucose enhanced the degradation of the nitrophenols at low glucose concentrations. The degradation of 3-NP was found to be accelerated with the increasing of glucose concentrations from 0 to 660 mg L{sup -1}. At high (1320-2000 mg L{sup -1}) glucose concentrations, the degradation rate of 3-NP was reduced and the K{sub max} of 3-NP was even lower than the value obtained in the absence of glucose, suggesting that high concentrations of co-substrate could inhibit 3-NP biodegradation. At 2,4-DNP concentration of 30 mg L{sup -1}, the K{sub max} of 2,4-DNP with glucose as co-substrate was about 30 times the value with 2,4-DNP as sole substrate. 2,6-DNP preformed high

  8. Study on the aerobic biodegradability and degradation kinetics of 3-NP; 2,4-DNP and 2,6-DNP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We assessed the biodegradability of three nitrophenols using four methods. ► We simulated the degradation kinetics model and estimated relevant parameters. ► We compared the kinetics performances of solo substrates and co-substrates. - Abstract: Four biodegradability tests (BOD5/COD ratio, production of carbon dioxide, relative oxygen uptake rate and relative enzymatic activity) were used to determine the aerobic biodegradability of 3-nitrophenol (3-NP), 2,4-dinitrophenol (2,4-DNP) and 2,6-dinitrophenol (2,6-DNP). Furthermore, biodegradation kinetics of the compounds was investigated in sequencing batch reactors both in the presence of glucose (co-substrate) and with nitrophenol as the sole carbon source. Among the three tested compounds, 3-NP showed the best biodegradability while 2,6-DNP was the most difficult to be biodegraded. The Haldane equation was applied to the kinetic test data of the nitrophenols. The kinetic constants are as follows: the maximum specific degradation rate (Kmax), the saturation constants (KS) and the inhibition constants (KI) were in the range of 0.005–2.98 mg (mgSS d)−1, 1.5–51.9 mg L−1 and 1.8–95.8 mg L−1, respectively. The presence of glucose enhanced the degradation of the nitrophenols at low glucose concentrations. The degradation of 3-NP was found to be accelerated with the increasing of glucose concentrations from 0 to 660 mg L−1. At high (1320–2000 mg L−1) glucose concentrations, the degradation rate of 3-NP was reduced and the Kmax of 3-NP was even lower than the value obtained in the absence of glucose, suggesting that high concentrations of co-substrate could inhibit 3-NP biodegradation. At 2,4-DNP concentration of 30 mg L−1, the Kmax of 2,4-DNP with glucose as co-substrate was about 30 times the value with 2,4-DNP as sole substrate. 2,6-DNP preformed high toxicity in the case of sole carbon source degradation and the kinetic data was hardly obtained.

  9. N20 and NH3 emissions from a bioreactor landfill operated under limited aerobic degradation conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pinjing He; Na Yang; Huili Gu; Hua Zhang; Liming Shao

    2011-01-01

    The combination of leachate recirculation and aeration to landfill may be an efficient way for in-situ nitrogen removal. However,nitrogenous substances contained in the landfill layer are concomitantly transformed into N20 and NH3, leading to increased emissions into the atmosphere. In the present study, the emissions of N20 and NH3 were measured under conditions of fresh or partially stabilized refuse with or without leachate recirculation or intermittent aeration. The results showed that the largest N20 emission (12.4 mg-N/L of the column) was observed in the aerated column loaded with partially stabilized refuse and recycled with the leachate of low C/N ratio; while less than 0.33 mg-N/L of the column was produced in the other columns. N20 production was positively correlated with the prolonged aerobic time and negatively related with the C/N ratio in the recycled leachate. NH3 volatilization increased with enhanced gas flow and concentration of free ammonia in the leachate, and the highest cumulative vola tilization quantity was 1.7 mg-N/L of the column.

  10. Sorption behaviour of nonylphenol and nonylphenol monoethoxylate in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milinovic, J; Lacorte, S; Rigol, A; Vidal, M

    2015-11-01

    Sorption behaviour of two alkylphenolic compounds (APCs), nonylphenol (NP) and nonylphenol monoethoxylate (NP1EO), was studied in five soils with contrasting characteristics. Sorption isotherms were obtained by equilibrating the soil samples with 0.01 mol L(-1) CaCl2 solutions containing different initial concentrations of NP or NP1EO. Linear fitting was generally appropriate for describing the sorption behaviour of NP and NP1EO in the soils, with the exception of two cases, for which the Freundlich model was more suitable for describing the sorption pattern of NP1EO. Solid-liquid distribution coefficients derived from sorption isotherms (Kd) varied from 24 to 1059 mL g(-1) for NP and from 51 to 740 mL g(-1) for NP1EO. For most soils, sorption Kd values were higher for NP than for NP1EO due to the higher hydrophobicity of NP. Sorption reversibility of NP and NP1EO was also tested from desorption isotherms. Desorption solid-liquid distribution coefficients (Kd,des), obtained from linear fitting, were between 130 and 1467 mL g(-1) for NP and between 24 and 1285 mL g(-1) for NP1EO. Kd,des values were higher than Kd values, which demonstrated that target compounds were irreversibly sorbed into soils, with the exception of the high desorption yield (45%) of NP1EO in the soil with the lowest content of organic matter. The fraction of soil organic carbon (FOC) was a key parameter that influenced the sorption of NP and NP1EO in soils, with logKOC values of 4.0 and 3.8, respectively. PMID:25595537

  11. Storage and degradation of poly-ß-hydroxybutyrate in activated sludge under aerobic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dircks, Klaus; Henze, Mogens; van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.; Mosbæk, Hans; Aspegren, H.

    2001-01-01

    This research analyses the accumulation and degradation of poly-b-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) in experiments with pulse addition of acetate to samples of activated sludge from pilot-plant and full-scale wastewater treatment plants. The experiments are divided into two periods: a feast period defined as...... the time when acetate is consumed and a famine period when the added acetate has been exhausted. In the feast period the significant process occurring is the production of PHB from acetate. The produced PHB is utilised in the famine period for production of glycogen and biomass. According to modelling...... results approximately 90% of the total potential growth occurs in the famine period utilising the stored PHB. The degradation rate for PHB in the famine period is found to be dependent on the level of PHB obtained at the end of the feast period. It was found that multiple order kinetics gives a good...

  12. Aerobic degradation of ibuprofen in batch and continuous reactors by an indigenous bacterial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunato, María Susana; Fuentes Abril, Nancy Piedad; Martinefski, Manuela; Trípodi, Valeria; Papalia, Mariana; Rádice, Marcela; Gutkind, Gabriel; Gallego, Alfredo; Korol, Sonia Edith

    2016-10-01

    Water from six points from the Riachuelo-Matanza basin was analyzed in order to assess ibuprofen biodegradability. In four of them biodegradation of ibuprofen was proved and degrading bacterial communities were isolated. Biodegradation in each point could not be correlated with sewage pollution. The indigenous bacterial community isolated from the point localized in the La Noria Bridge showed the highest degradative capacity and was selected to perform batch and continuous degradation assays. The partial 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that the community consisted of Comamonas aquatica and Bacillus sp. In batch assays the community was capable of degrading 100 mg L(-1) of ibuprofen in 33 h, with a specific growth rate (μ) of 0.21 h(-1). The removal of the compound, as determined by High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), exceeded 99% of the initial concentration, with a 92.3% removal of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD). In a down-flow fixed-bed continuous reactor, the community shows a removal efficiency of 95.9% of ibuprofen and 92.3% of COD for an average inlet concentration of 110.4 mg. The reactor was kept in operation for 70 days. The maximal removal rate for the compound was 17.4 g m(-3) d(-1). Scanning electron microscopy was employed to observe biofilm development in the reactor. The ability of the isolated indigenous community can be exploited to improve the treatment of wastewaters containing ibuprofen. PMID:26905769

  13. Use of Advanced Oxidation and Aerobic Degradation for Remediation of Various Hydrocarbon Contaminates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Fallgren

    2009-03-06

    Western Research Institute in conjunction with Sierra West Consultants, Inc., Tetra Tech, Inc., and the U.S. Department of Energy conducted laboratory and field studies to test different approaches to enhance degradation of hydrocarbons and associated contaminants. WRI in conjunction with Sierra West Consultants, Inc., conducted a laboratory and field study for using ozone to treat a site contaminated with MTBE and other hydrocarbons. Results from this study demonstrate that a TOD test can be used to resolve the O{sub 3} dosage problem by establishing a site-specific benchmark dosage for field ozone applications. The follow-up testing of the laboratory samples provided indications that intrinsic biodegradation could be stimulated by adding oxygen. Laboratory studies also suggests that O3 dosage in the full-scale field implementation could be dialed lower than stoichiometrically designed to eliminate the formation of Cr(VI). WRI conducted a study involving a series of different ISCO oxidant applications to diesel-contaminated soil and determined the effects on enhancing biodegradation to degrade the residual hydrocarbons. Soils treated with permanganate followed by nutrients and with persulfate followed by nutrients resulted in the largest decrease in TPH. The possible intermediates and conditions formed from NOM and TPH oxidation by permanganate and activated persulfate favors microbial TPH degrading activity. A 'passive-oxidation' method using microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology was conducted by WRI in conjunction with Tetra Tech, Inc., to degrade MTBE in groundwater. These experiments have demonstrated that a working MFC (i.e., one generating power) could be established in the laboratory using contaminated site water or buffered media inoculated with site water and spiked with MTBE, benzene, or toluene. Electrochemical methods were studied by WRI with goal of utilizing low voltage and amperage electrical sources for 'geo-oxidation' of organic

  14. Mechanism of aerobic biological destabilisation of wool scour effluent emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Andrew J; Cord-Ruwisch, Ralf; William Jones, F

    2005-07-01

    Wool scouring effluent is a highly polluted industrial wastewater in which the main pollutant, wool wax, is held in a stable oil-in-water emulsion by non-ionic detergent. The use of microbial action to cause emulsion destabilisation has been proposed as a new treatment strategy for this effluent stream. This strategy aims at improving aerobic treatment performance by physically removing the high-COD, slowly bio-degradable wool wax from the system without bio-degradation. The mechanism by which an aerobic-mixed culture destabilises the wool scouring effluent emulsion was investigated. Our results show that destabilisation is due to partial bio-degradation of both the scouring detergent and the wool wax. Cleavage of the wool wax esters was the first stage in wax degradation, when 40-50% of wax was de-emulsified. Over the same period, detergent degradation was low, at 7-21%. With further incubation, detergent degradation increased, aiding further breakdown of the emulsion. The degradation of the detergent, a nonylphenol ethoxylate, resulted in both a reduction in molar concentration (of up to 82%) and a shortening of the ethoxylate chain length. The latter reduced the hydrophile-lipophile balance (HLB) from 12 to approximately 7, thereby reducing the ability of the residual detergent to stabilise the emulsion. Analysis of the emulsified and de-emulsified wax fractions could not identify a group of compounds that were preferentially de-emulsified based on molecular weight or polarity. These findings will assist in using a de-emulsification strategy in both existing and new treatment systems in order to save on aeration costs and treatment times for biological treatment of this highly polluted wastewater. PMID:15979119

  15. Phthalates and Nonylphenols in Roskilde Fjord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikelsøe, J.; Fauser, P.; Sørensen, P. B.; Carlsen, L.

    The aim of the study has been to investigate the occurrence, sources, transport and fate of nonylphenols and phthalates in the aquatic environment of Roskilde Fjord. It was further intended to find the temporal as well as the spatial variation of these xenobiotics in the fjord and stream water....... Further, to investigate nonylphenols and phthalates in sediment in the fjord including a sediment core in the southern part, expected to yield clues regarding the historical variation of the concentration of xenobiotics, as well as some streams and lakes. Finally, an important aim was to make a mass...

  16. Effects of gene-augmentation on the formation, characteristics and microbial community of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid degrading aerobic microbial granules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The first study to cultivate aerobic granules capable of utilizing 2,4-D as the sole carbon source. ► Granules cultivated through gene-augmentation were first compared systematically with the control on granule formation, degradation kinetics, morphology, and microbial community. ► The first report on the fate of transconjugats in the granules during long term operation after bioaugmentation. ► The first study to isolate in dominant bacteria in 2,4-D degrading microbial granules. - Abstract: Development of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) degrading aerobic granular sludge was conducted in two sequencing batch reactors (SBR) with one bioaugmented with a plasmid pJP4 donor strain Pseudomonas putida SM1443 and the other as a control. Half-matured aerobic granules pre-grown on glucose were used as the starting seeds and a two-stage operation strategy was applied. Granules capable of utilizing 2,4-D (about 500 mg/L) as the sole carbon source was successfully cultivated in both reactors. Gene-augmentation resulted in the enhancement of 2,4-D degradation rates by the percentage of 65–135% for the granules on Day 18, and 6–24% for the granules on Day 105. Transconjugants receiving plasmid pJP4 were established in the granule microbial community after bioaugmentation and persisted till the end of operation. Compared with the control granules, the granules in the bioaugmented reactor demonstrated a better settling ability, larger size, more abundant microbial diversity and stronger tolerance to 2,4-D. The finally obtained granules in the bioaugmented and control reactor had a granule size of around 600 μm and 500 μm, a Shannon–Weaver diversity index (H) of 0.96 and 0.55, respectively. A shift in microbial community was found during the granulation process.

  17. Comparative toxicity of nonylphenol, nonylphenol-4-ethoxylate and nonylphenol-10-ethoxylate to wheat seedlings (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingming; Wang, Feifei; Xue, Changhui; Wang, Caixia; Chi, Shengqi; Zhang, Jianfeng

    2016-09-01

    Nonylphenol polyethoxylates (NPEOs) are a group of surfactants that are widely used in industrial and household products and often detected in the environment. The metabolite of NPEOs, named nonylphenol (NP), has proven to be an endocrine disruptor, and its environmental behavior and eco-toxicity have been widely investigated in previous studies. However, to the best of our knowledge, insight into the toxicity differences of NP and NPEOs on important crops remains limited. Therefore, this study investigated the comparative toxicity of NP, nonylphenol-4-ethoxylate (NP4EO), and nonylphenol-10-ethoxylate (NP10EO) on wheat seedlings using hydroponic experiments. The results indicated that NP is most toxic to wheat followed by NP4EO, and NP10EO is the least toxic to wheat. The adverse effects of NP on wheat were observed for all the tested parameters including germination, shoot length, root length, chlorophyll, lipid peroxidation, and enzymatic activities. To gain insight into the molecular response, we analyzed the transcript abundance of SOD-Cu/Zn and CAT with NP, NP4EO, and NP10EO exposure using quantitative real-time PCR. The data revealed that both genes exhibited up- or down-regulated expression patterns that were consistent with the activities of the two enzymes. This result further conformed that NP is most toxic to wheat plants. PMID:27162129

  18. Investigations in the microbial degradation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and means of reductive dechlorination and aerobic mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work had the objective to develop a biological method for cleaning up PCDD/PCDF contaminated upper soil layers (PCDDs/PCDFs: polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans). Since highly chlorinated aromatic compounds persist in soil under aerobic conditions, reductive dechlorination of the compounds under anaerobic conditions was aimed at in a first phase of the project. A second, topped phase was destined for aerobic mineralization of the dechlorinated matrices. The tests were carried out on three farmland soils following long-term contamination with PCDDs/PCDFs. (orig./MG)

  19. Post-treatment of anaerobically degraded azo dye Acid Red 18 using aerobic moving bed biofilm process: Enhanced removal of aromatic amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Biofilm process was applied as post-treatment of anaerobically degraded an azo dye. → More than 65% of the dye total metabolites was completely mineralized. → Based on HPLC analysis, more than 80% of 1-naphthylamine-4-sulfonate was removed. → Inhibition of biofilm growth was increased with increasing the initial dye concentration. → Considerable porous morphology was observed in the SEM photographs of the biofilm. - Abstract: The application of aerobic moving bed biofilm process as post-treatment of anaerobically degraded azo dye Acid Red 18 was investigated in this study. The main objective of this work was to enhance removal of anaerobically formed the dye aromatic metabolites. Three separate sequential treatment systems were operated with different initial dye concentrations of 100, 500 and 1000 mg/L. Each treatment system consisted of an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (An-SBR) followed by an aerobic moving bed sequencing batch biofilm reactor (MB-SBBR). Up to 98% of the dye decolorization and more than 80% of the COD removal occurred anaerobically. The obtained results suggested no significant difference in COD removal as well as the dye decolorization efficiency using three An-SBRs receiving different initial dye concentrations. Monitoring the dye metabolites through HPLC suggested that more than 80% of anaerobically formed 1-naphthylamine-4-sulfonate was completely removed in the aerobic biofilm reactors. Based on COD analysis results, at least 65-72% of the dye total metabolites were mineralized during the applied treatment systems. According to the measured biofilm mass and also based on respiration-inhibition test results, increasing the initial dye concentration inhibited the growth and final mass of the attached-growth biofilm in MB-SBBRs.

  20. Several genes encoding enzymes with the same activity are necessary for aerobic fungal degradation of cellulose in nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busk, Peter Kamp; Lange, Mette; Pilgaard, Bo;

    2014-01-01

    hallmarks of cellulose-degrading fungi except brown rot fungi. Furthermore, a high number of AA9, endocellulase and β-glucosidase genes were identified, not in what are known to be the strongest, specialized lignocellulose degraders but in saprophytic fungi that can use a wide variety of substrates whereas...

  1. Metabolism of 2-Chloro-4-Nitroaniline via Novel Aerobic Degradation Pathway by Rhodococcus sp. Strain MB-P1

    OpenAIRE

    Fazlurrahman Khan; Deepika Pal; Surendra Vikram; Swaranjit Singh Cameotra

    2013-01-01

    2-chloro-4-nitroaniline (2-C-4-NA) is used as an intermediate in the manufacture of dyes, pharmaceuticals, corrosion inhibitor and also used in the synthesis of niclosamide, a molluscicide. It is marked as a black-listed substance due to its poor biodegradability. We report biodegradation of 2-C-4-NA and its pathway characterization by Rhodococcus sp. strain MB-P1 under aerobic conditions. The strain MB-P1 utilizes 2-C-4-NA as the sole carbon, nitrogen, and energy source. In the growth medium...

  2. MALDI-TOF MS Imaging evidences spatial differences in the degradation of solid polycaprolactone diol in water under aerobic and denitrifying conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Daniel; Ginebreda, Antoni; Pérez, Sandra; Quero, Carmen; Barceló, Damià

    2016-10-01

    Degradation of solid polymers in the aquatic environment encompasses a variety of biotic and abiotic processes giving rise to heterogeneous patterns across the surface of the material, which cannot be investigated using conventional Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) that only renders an "average" picture of the sample. In that context, MALDI-TOF MS Imaging (MALDI MSI) provides a rapid and efficient tool to study 2D spatial changes occurred in the chemical composition of the polymer surface. Commercial polycaprolactone diol (average molecular weight of 1250Da) was selected as test material because it had been previously known to be amenable to biological degradation. The test oligomer probe was incubated under aerobic and denitrifying conditions using synthetic water and denitrifying mixed liquor obtained from a wastewater treatment plant respectively. After ca. seven days of exposure the mass spectra obtained by MALDI MSI showed the occurrence of chemical modifications in the sample surface. Observed heterogeneity across the probe's surface indicated significant degradation and suggested the contribution of biotic processes. The results were investigated using different image processing tools. Major changes on the oligomer surface were observed when exposed to denitrifying conditions. PMID:27213667

  3. Influence of reductive diet and physical aerobic training on binding and degradation of 125J-insulin by erythrocyte receptors in children with simple obesity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Insuline resistance, expressed by lower insuline binding by receptors, is related to the obesity. Improvement of the binding was observed together with reduction of body weight and in result of physical exercise. In the work was investigated an influence of complex result of reductive diet at the level of 1300-1500 kcal and systematic half-an-hour aerobic exercise on binding and degradation of 125J-insulin by erythrocyte receptors in children with simple obesity. The rest binding of insulin by erythrocyte receptors in obese children was compared with the result observed in the children having normal body weight. Results of these researches confirm that systematic physical exercise connected with reductive diet improves the indexes of lipid balance, increases efficiency of the organism, estimated by maximal oxygen absorption, decreases body weight and improves binding of 125J-insulin to erythrocyte receptors. (authors)

  4. Several genes encoding enzymes with the same activity are necessary for aerobic fungal degradation of cellulose in nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busk, Peter K; Lange, Mette; Pilgaard, Bo; Lange, Lene

    2014-01-01

    The cellulose-degrading fungal enzymes are glycoside hydrolases of the GH families and lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases. The entanglement of glycoside hydrolase families and functions makes it difficult to predict the enzymatic activity of glycoside hydrolases based on their sequence. In the present study we further developed the method Peptide Pattern Recognition to an automatic approach not only to find all genes encoding glycoside hydrolases and lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases in fungal genomes but also to predict the function of the genes. The functional annotation is an important feature as it provides a direct route to predict function from primary sequence. Furthermore, we used Peptide Pattern Recognition to compare the cellulose-degrading enzyme activities encoded by 39 fungal genomes. The results indicated that cellobiohydrolases and AA9 lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases are hallmarks of cellulose-degrading fungi except brown rot fungi. Furthermore, a high number of AA9, endocellulase and β-glucosidase genes were identified, not in what are known to be the strongest, specialized lignocellulose degraders but in saprophytic fungi that can use a wide variety of substrates whereas only few of these genes were found in fungi that have a limited number of natural, lignocellulotic substrates. This correlation suggests that enzymes with different properties are necessary for degradation of cellulose in different complex substrates. Interestingly, clustering of the fungi based on their predicted enzymes indicated that Ascomycota and Basidiomycota use the same enzymatic activities to degrade plant cell walls. PMID:25461894

  5. Several genes encoding enzymes with the same activity are necessary for aerobic fungal degradation of cellulose in nature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter K Busk

    Full Text Available The cellulose-degrading fungal enzymes are glycoside hydrolases of the GH families and lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases. The entanglement of glycoside hydrolase families and functions makes it difficult to predict the enzymatic activity of glycoside hydrolases based on their sequence. In the present study we further developed the method Peptide Pattern Recognition to an automatic approach not only to find all genes encoding glycoside hydrolases and lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases in fungal genomes but also to predict the function of the genes. The functional annotation is an important feature as it provides a direct route to predict function from primary sequence. Furthermore, we used Peptide Pattern Recognition to compare the cellulose-degrading enzyme activities encoded by 39 fungal genomes. The results indicated that cellobiohydrolases and AA9 lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases are hallmarks of cellulose-degrading fungi except brown rot fungi. Furthermore, a high number of AA9, endocellulase and β-glucosidase genes were identified, not in what are known to be the strongest, specialized lignocellulose degraders but in saprophytic fungi that can use a wide variety of substrates whereas only few of these genes were found in fungi that have a limited number of natural, lignocellulotic substrates. This correlation suggests that enzymes with different properties are necessary for degradation of cellulose in different complex substrates. Interestingly, clustering of the fungi based on their predicted enzymes indicated that Ascomycota and Basidiomycota use the same enzymatic activities to degrade plant cell walls.

  6. Prolonged aerobic degradation of shredded and pre-composted municipal solid waste: report from a 21-year study of leachate quality characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisey, Elise; Aleya, Lotfi

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the degree of long-term waste maturation at a closed landfill (Etueffont, France) over a period of 21 years (1989-2010) through analysis of the physicochemical characteristics of leachates as well as biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and metal content in waste. The results show that the leachates, generated in two different sections (older and newer) of the landfill, have low organic, mineral, and metallic loads, as the wastes were mainly of household origin from a rural area where sorting and composting were required. Based on pH and BOD/COD assessments, leachate monitoring in the landfill's newer section showed a rapid decrease in the pollution load over time and an early onset of methanogenic conditions. The closing of the older of the two sections contributed to a significant decline for the majority of parameters, attributable to degradation and leaching. A gradual decreasing trend was observed after waste placement had ceased in the older section, indicating that degradation continued and the waste mass had not yet fully stabilized. At the end of monitoring, leachates from the two landfill linings contained typical old leachates in the maturation period, with a pH ≥ 7 and a low BOD/COD ratio indicating a low level of waste biodegradability. Age actually contributes to a gradual removal of organic, inorganic, and metallic wastes, but it is not the only driving factor behind advanced degradation. The lack of compaction and cover immediately after deposit extended the aerobic degradation phase, significantly reducing the amount of organic matter. In addition, waste shredding improved water infiltration into the waste mass, hastening removal of polluting components through percolation. PMID:26341336

  7. Degradation pathway, toxicity and kinetics of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol with different co-substrate by aerobic granules in SBR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad Zain; Mondal, Pijush Kanti; Sabir, Suhail; Tare, Vinod

    2011-07-01

    The present study deals with cultivation of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP) degrading aerobic granules in two SBR systems based on glucose and acetate as co-substrate. Biodegradation of TCP containing wastewater starting from 10 to 360 mg L(-1) with more than 90% efficiency was achieved. Sludge volume index decreases as the operation proceeds to stabilize at 35 and 30 mL g(-1) while MLVSS increases from 4 to 6.5 and 6.2 g L(-1) for R1 (with glucose as co-substrate) and R2 (with sodium acetate as co-substrate), respectively. FTIR, GC and GC/MS spectral studies shows that the biodegradation occurred via chlorocatechol pathway and the cleavage may be at ortho-position. Haldane model for inhibitory substrate was applied to the system and it was observed that glucose fed granules have a high specific degradation rate and efficiency than acetate fed granules. Genotoxicity studies shows that effluent coming from SBRs was non-toxic. PMID:21565491

  8. Evaluation of Biostimulation and Bioaugmentation To Stimulate Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5,-triazine Degradation in an Aerobic Groundwater Aquifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalsen, Mandy M; King, Aaron S; Rule, Rebecca A; Fuller, Mark E; Hatzinger, Paul B; Condee, Charles W; Crocker, Fiona H; Indest, Karl J; Jung, Carina M; Istok, Jack D

    2016-07-19

    Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5,-triazine (RDX) is a toxic and mobile groundwater contaminant common to military sites. This study compared in situ RDX degradation rates following bioaugmentation with Gordonia sp. strain KTR9 (henceforth KTR9) to rates under biostimulation conditions in an RDX-contaminated aquifer in Umatilla, OR. Bioaugmentation was achieved by injecting site groundwater (6000 L) amended with KTR9 cells (10(8) cells mL(-1)) and low carbon substrate concentrations (15 mM fructose) carbon substrate concentrations in an effort to stimulate aerobic or anaerobic microbial activity, respectively. Single-well push-pull tests were conducted to measure RDX degradation rates for each treatment. Average rate coefficients were 1.2 day(-1) for bioaugmentation and 0.7 day(-1) for high carbon biostimulation; rate coefficients for low carbon biostimulation were not significantly different from zero (p values ≥0.060). Our results suggest that bioaugmentation with KTR9 is a feasible strategy for in situ biodegradation of RDX and, at this site, is capable of achieving RDX concentration reductions comparable to those obtained by high carbon biostimulation while requiring ~97% less fructose. Bioaugmentation has potential to minimize substrate quantities and associated costs, as well as secondary groundwater quality impacts associated with anaerobic biostimulation processes (e.g., hydrogen sulfide, methane production) during full-scale RDX remediation. PMID:27301804

  9. Aerobic biodegradation potential of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in surface-water sediment at Rocky Mountain National Park, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Paul M; Battaglin, William A; Iwanowicz, Luke R; Clark, Jimmy M; Journey, Celeste A

    2016-05-01

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in surface water and bed sediment threaten the structure and function of aquatic ecosystems. In natural, remote, and protected surface-water environments where contaminant releases are sporadic, contaminant biodegradation is a fundamental driver of exposure concentration, timing, duration, and, thus, EDC ecological risk. Anthropogenic contaminants, including known and suspected EDCs, were detected in surface water and sediment collected from 2 streams and 2 lakes in Rocky Mountain National Park (Colorado, USA). The potential for aerobic EDC biodegradation was assessed in collected sediments using 6 (14) C-radiolabeled model compounds. Aerobic microbial mineralization of natural (estrone and 17β-estradiol) and synthetic (17α-ethinylestradiol) estrogen was significant at all sites. Bed sediment microbial communities in Rocky Mountain National Park also effectively degraded the xenoestrogens bisphenol-A and 4-nonylphenol. The same sediment samples exhibited little potential for aerobic biodegradation of triclocarban, however, illustrating the need to assess a wider range of contaminant compounds. The present study's results support recent concerns over the widespread environmental occurrence of carbanalide antibacterials, like triclocarban and triclosan, and suggest that backcountry use of products containing these compounds should be discouraged. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1087-1096. Published 2015 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US Government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America. PMID:26588039

  10. Aerobic biodegradation potential of endocrine disrupting chemicals in surface-water sediment at Rocky Mountains National Park, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Paul M.; Battaglin, William A.; Iwanowicz, Luke; Clark, Jimmy M.; Journey, Celeste A.

    2016-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) in surface water and bed sediment threaten the structure and function of aquatic ecosystems. In natural, remote, and protected surface-water environments where contaminant releases are sporadic, contaminant biodegradation is a fundamental driver of exposure concentration, timing, duration, and, thus, EDC ecological risk. Anthropogenic contaminants, including known and suspected EDC, were detected in surface water and sediment collected from 2 streams and 2 lakes in Rocky Mountains National Park (ROMO). The potential for aerobic EDC biodegradation was assessed in collected sediments using 6 14C-radiolabeled model compounds. Aerobic microbial mineralization of natural (estrone and 17β-estradiol) and synthetic (17α-ethinylestradiol) estrogen was significant at all sites. ROMO bed sediment microbial communities also effectively degraded the xenoestrogens, bisphenol-A and 4-nonylphenol. The same sediment samples exhibited little potential for aerobic biodegradation of triclocarban, however, illustrating the need to assess a wider range of contaminant compounds. The current results support recent concerns over the widespread environmental occurrence of carbanalide antibacterials, like triclocarban and triclosan, and suggest that backcountry use of products containing these compounds should be discouraged.

  11. Investigations on degradation of nitrogen compounds by anaerobic-aerobic treatment of concentrated wastewaters with special regard to nitrogen removal via nitrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main result is, that the two-stage anaerobic-aerobic treatment of high strength ammonium wastewater is an economical solution, save to operate and with high efficiency. Therefore its very important, to project and optimize the total process. On the one hand the biogas production has to be maximized, on the other hand the energy consumption for aeration and excess sludge treatment and resulting excess sludge has to be minimized. One possibility to realize this, is the nitrogen removal via nitrite. This process has been investigated in half-technical pilot plants. The carbon consumption amounts only to 63% in comparison with dentrification via nitrate. The 37% which are saved could be transformed into biogas during the anaerobic stage. The excess sludge production and the energy consumption in the aerobic stage is correspondingly lower. The essential parameter for regulating the process is the concentration of free ammonia (1-5 mg NH3/l) in the reactor (controlled by means of a continuous NH4- and pH-measurement). The inhibition of the nitrobacter amounts to 80%. - The storage of nitrifying biomass for several months (for industries working in campaigns) is possible without adding nitrogen and with an aeration intensity of e.g. 1 h/d, depending on the actual ammonium increase in the reactor (< 10 mg/l). To avoid inhibition during the reactivation of the sludge, the load has to be adapted to the actual activity (measured by means of an ammonium-degradation-test) and the dentrification has to be started at the same time. (orig.). 27 figs., 42 tabs., 104 refs

  12. Enzymes Involved in the Aerobic Bacterial Degradation of N-Heteroaromatic Compounds: Molybdenum Hydroxylases and Ring-Opening 2,4-Dioxygenases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetzner, S.

    Many N-heteroaromatic compounds are utilized by micro-organisms as a source of carbon (and nitrogen) and energy. The aerobic bacterial degradation of these growth substrates frequently involves several hydroxylation steps and subsequent dioxygenolytic cleavage of (di)hydroxy-substituted heteroaromatic intermediates to aliphatic metabolites which finally are channeled into central metabolic pathways. As a rule, the initial bacterial hydroxylation of a N-heteroaromatic compound is catalyzed by a molybdenum hydroxylase, which uses a water molecule as source of the incorporated oxygen. The enzyme's redox-active centers - the active site molybdenum ion coordinated to a distinct pyranopterin cofactor, two different [2Fe2S] centers, and in most cases, flavin adenine dinucleotide - transfer electrons from the N-heterocyclic substrate to an electron acceptor, which for many molybdenum hydroxylases is still unknown. Ring-opening 2,4-dioxygenases involved in the bacterial degradation of quinaldine and 1H-4-oxoquinoline catalyze the cleavage of two carbon-carbon bonds with concomitant formation of carbon monoxide. Since they contain neither a metal center nor an organic cofactor, and since they do not show any sequence similarity to known oxygenases, these unique dioxygenases form a separate enzyme family. Quite surprisingly, however, they appear to be structurally and mechanistically related to enzymes of the α/β hydrolase fold superfamily. Microbial enzymes are a great resource for biotechnological applications. Microbial strains or their enzymes may be used for degradative (bioremediation) or synthetic (biotransformation) purposes. Modern bioremediation or biotransformation strategies may even involve microbial catalysts or strains designed by protein engineering or pathway engineering. Prerequisite for developing such modern tools of biotechnology is a comprehensive understanding of microbial metabolic pathways, of the structure and function of enzymes, and of the

  13. Evidence of α-, β- and γ-HCH mixture aerobic degradation by the native actinobacteria Streptomyces sp. M7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sineli, P E; Tortella, G; Dávila Costa, J S; Benimeli, C S; Cuozzo, S A

    2016-05-01

    The organochlorine insecticide γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (γ-HCH, lindane) and its non-insecticidal α- and β-isomers continue to pose serious environmental and health concerns, although their use has been restricted or completely banned for decades. In this study we report the first evidence of the growth ability of a Streptomyces strain in a mineral salt medium containing high doses of α- and β-HCH (16.6 mg l(-1)) as a carbon source. Degradation of HCH isomers by Streptomyces sp. M7 was investigated after 1, 4, and 7 days of incubation, determining chloride ion release, and residues in the supernatants by GC with µECD detection. The results show that both the α- and β-HCH isomers were effectively metabolized by Streptomyces sp. M7, with 80 and 78 % degradation respectively, after 7 days of incubation. Moreover, pentachlorocyclohexenes and tetrachlorocyclohexenes were detected as metabolites. In addition, the formation of possible persistent compounds such as chlorobenzenes and chlorophenols were studied by GC-MS, while no phenolic compounds were detected. In conclusion, we have demonstrated for the first time that Streptomyces sp. M7 can degrade α- and β-isomers individually or combined with γ-HCH and could be considered as a potential agent for bioremediation of environments contaminated by organochlorine isomers. PMID:27038951

  14. Environmental analysis of alcohol ethoxylates and nonylphenol ethoxylate metabolites by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara-Martín, Pablo A; González-Mazo, Eduardo; Brownawell, Bruce J

    2012-03-01

    Surfactants and their metabolites can be found in aquatic environments at relatively high concentrations compared with other micropollutants due in part to the exceptionally large volumes produced every year. We have focused our attention here on the most widely used nonionic surfactants, alcohol ethoxylates (AEOs), and on nonylphenol ethoxylate (NPEO) degradation products (short-chain nonylphenol ethoxylates, NP1-3EO, nonylphenol, NP, and nonylphenol ethoxycarboxylates, NP1-2EC), which are endocrine-disrupting compounds. Our main objective in this work was to develop a methodology aimed at the extraction, isolation, and improved analysis of these analytes in environmental samples at trace levels. Extraction recoveries of target compounds were determined for sediment samples after ultrasonic extraction and purification using HLB or C18 solid-phase extraction minicolumns. Recovery percentages were usually between 61 and 102% but were lower for longer AEO ethoxymers. Identification and quantification of target compounds was carried out using a novel ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS-MS) approach, a combination that provides higher sensitivity and faster analysis than prior methods using conventional high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Limits of detection were usually below 0.5 ng/g, being higher for monoethoxylate species (>5 ng/g) because of poor ionization. The method was used for analyzing surface sediment samples collected at Jamaica Bay (NY) in 2008. The highest values (28,500 ng/g for NP, 4,200 ng/g for NP1-3EO, 22,400 ng/g for NP1-2EC, and 1,500 ng/g for AEOs) were found in a sampling station from a restricted water circulation area that is heavily impacted by wastewater discharges. PMID:22002557

  15. ANAEROBIC AND AEROBIC TREATMENT OF CHLORINATED ALIPHATIC COMPOUNDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological degradation of 12 chlorinated aliphatic compounds (CACs) was assessed in bench-top reactors and in serum bottle tests. Three continuously mixed daily batch-fed reactor systems were evaluated: anaerobic, aerobic, and sequential-anaerobic-aerobic (sequential). Glucose,...

  16. Toxicity of nonylphenol diethoxylate in lab-scale anaerobic digesters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozkurt, Hande; Sanin, F. Dilek

    2014-01-01

    seen in NP1EO and NP and further accumulation of NP in the system, indicated the conversion of NP2EO to these metabolites. On the other hand, no conversion was observed in abiotic reactors. Inhibition of NP2EO for anaerobic microorganisms was not observed throughout the tests considering the biogas....... Their widespread use and disposal cause them to enter wastewater treatment systems at high concentrations. Since they are highly persistent and hydrophobic, they accumulate mostly on sludge.In this study using Anaerobic Toxicity Assay (ATA) tests, the toxicity of a model nonylphenol compound, nonylphenol...... diethoxylate (NP2EO), for anaerobic digestion of sludge was determined. The test bottles were dosed with NP2EO in acetone, with concentrations ranging from 1mgL-1 to 30mgL-1. During the tests, gas productions and compositions in terms of methane and carbon dioxide were monitored. To be able to judge about...

  17. Sources of Phthalates and Nonylphenoles in Municipal Waste Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikelsøe, J.; Thomsen, M.; Johansen, E.

    estimate the contribution from all of these sources to the waste water as well as the role of long-range air transport. Two local rivers were analysed for comparison. Finally, waste water inlet from the local water treatment plant, where the sources converge at a single point, were analysed. A mass balance......The overall aim of the present study is to identify and evaluate the importance of sources of nonylphenoles and phthalates in waste water in a local environment. The investigations were carried out in a Danish local community, Roskilde city and surroundings. Nonylphenoles and phthalates were...... analysed in the waste water from different institutions and industries thought to be potential sources. These were: car wash centers, a hospital, a kindergarten, an adhesive industry and a industrial laundry. Furthermore, analysis of the deposition in the area were carried out. This made it possible to...

  18. Isomer-Specific Biodegradation and Chemical Oxidation of Nonylphenol

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Zhijiang

    2014-01-01

    Nonylphenol (NP), a well-known environmental estrogen with numerous isomers, is commonly treated as a single compound in the evaluation of its environmental occurrence, fate and transport, treatment removal and toxicity. Recent studies showed that NP isomers exhibited different estrogenicity and biodegradability. However, at present little systematic information is available on its isomer-specific biodegradation and chemical oxidation under natural and engineered conditions.We comprehensively...

  19. Aerobic landfill bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudgins, Mark P; Bessette, Bernard J; March, John; McComb, Scott T.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention includes a method of decomposing municipal solid waste (MSW) within a landfill by converting the landfill to aerobic degradation in the following manner: (1) injecting air via the landfill leachate collection system (2) injecting air via vertical air injection wells installed within the waste mass; (3) applying leachate to the waste mass using a pressurized drip irrigation system; (4) allowing landfill gases to vent; and (5) adjusting air injection and recirculated leachate to achieve a 40% to 60% moisture level and a temperature between 120.degree. F. and 140.degree. F. in steady state.

  20. Alternative primer sets for PCR detection of genotypes involved in bacterial aerobic BTEX degradation: Distribution of the genes in BTEX degrading isolates and in subsurface soils of a BTEX contaminated industrial site

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hendrickx, B.; Junca, H.; Vosáhlová, Jolana; Lindner, A.; Rüegg, I.; Bucheli-Vitschel, M.; Faber, F.; Egli, F.; Mau, M.; Schlömann, M.; Brennerová, Mária; Brenner, Vladimír; Pieper, D. H.; Top, E.M.; Dejonghe, W.; Bastiaens, L.; Springael, D.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 64, - (2006), s. 250-265. ISSN 0167-7012 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : pcr detection * aerobic btex biodegradation * catabolic gene distribution Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.442, year: 2006

  1. Determination of nonylphenol isomers in landfill leachate and municipal wastewater using steam distillation extraction coupled with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Caixiang; Eganhouse, Robert P.; Pontolillo, James; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Wang, Yanxin

    2012-01-01

    4-Nonylphenols (4-NPs) are known endocrine disruptors and by-products of the microbial degradation of nonylphenol polyethoxylate surfactants. One of the challenges to understanding the toxic effects of nonylphenols is the large number of isomers that may exist in environmental samples. In order to attribute toxic effects to specific compounds, a method is needed for the separation and quantitation of individual nonylphenol isomers. The pre-concentration methods of solvent sublimation, solid-phase extraction or liquid–liquid extraction prior to chromatographic analysis can be problematic because of co-extraction of thousands of compounds typically found in complex matrices such as municipal wastewater or landfill leachate. In the present study, steam distillation extraction (SDE) was found to be an effective pre-concentration method for extraction of 4-NPs from leachate and wastewater, and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC) coupled with fast mass spectral data acquisition by time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ToFMS) enhanced the resolution and identification of 4-NP isomers. Concentrations of eight 4-NP isomers were determined in leachate from landfill cells of different age and wastewater influent and effluent samples. 4-NP isomers were about 3 times more abundant in leachate from the younger cell than the older one, whereas concentrations in wastewater effluent were either below detection limits or <1% of influent concentrations. 4-NP isomer distribution patterns were found to have been altered following release to the environment. This is believed to reflect isomer-specific degradation and accumulation of 4-NPs in the aquatic environment.

  2. Preparation and Characterization of Nonylphenol Magnetic Molecularly Imprinted Polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonylphenol (NP) is a toxic xenobiotic compound classified as an endocrine disrupter, which can interface with the hormonal system of numerous organisms, and then cause a series of pathological changes. It is of great significance to remove nonyl phenol from the environment. In this paper, an effective method for the preparation of molecularly imprinted nanoparticles was reported. Firstly, Fe/sub 3/O/sub 4/ at the rate SiO/sub 2/ magnetic carrier material modified by trimethoxysilane was achieved through three-step reaction. After that, the selective magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer sorbent for NP (Fe/sub 3/O/sub 4/ at the rate SiO/sub 2/-MIP) was synthesized by surface molecular imprinting technique, using NP as template, 4-vinyl pyridine(4-Vpy) as functional monomers, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as cross linker and azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as initiator. The morphous, composition, structure and performance of polymer adsorbent was characterized by SEM, TEM, FT-IR, XRD, EDS, VSM and nitrogen adsorption-desorption techniques. The results indicated that the polymer adsorbent was successfully prepared. The size of the polymer particle was about 50 nm, the aperture on the surface was 3.71 nm, the BET specific surface area was 61.80 m/sup 2/g and the Langmuir specific surface area was 101.24 m/sup 2/g. The selective adsorption rate for NP of 0.5 mmol/L attained value of 86.5%, and for NP with low concentration (less than 2.0 mg/L), the selective adsorption rate reached more than 90%. The synthesized magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer had higher selective recognition ability towards the template molecule nonylphenol. It has good magnetism and can be rapidly separated after being employed by using adscititious magnetic field. It has potential application value in treatment and enrichment of nonylphenol. (author)

  3. Removal of nonylphenol by pulsed corona discharge in water

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tothová, I.; Janda, V.; Lukeš, Petr; Člupek, Martin; Babický, Václav

    Vol. 2. Prague: MATFYZPRESS, Prague, 2009 - (Šafránková, J.; Pavlů, J.), s. 89-94 ISBN 978-80-7378-102-6. [Annual conference of doctoral students - WDS 2009 /18./. Prague (CZ), 02.06.2009-05.06.2009] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAAX00430802 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : nonylphenol * corona discharge in water * hydroxyl radical * HPLC Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics http://www.mff.cuni.cz/veda/konference/wds/contents/pdf09/WDS09_214_f2_Tothova.pdf

  4. DETECTION OF A MICROBIAL CONSORTIUM, INCLUDING TYPE 2 METHANOTROPHS, BY USE OF PHOSPHOLIPID FATTY ACIDES IN AN AEROBIC HALOGENATED HYDROCARBON-DEGRADING SOIL COLUMN ENRICHED WITH NATURAL GAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The phospholipid ester-linked normal and lipopolysaccharide layer hydroxy fatty acids from microbes in a natural gas (85% methane)-stimulated soil column capable of degrading halogenated hydrocarbons were analyzed in detail by capillary column GC-MS. Microbial biomass, calculated...

  5. Aerobic microbial enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torsvik, T. [Univ. of Bergen (Norway); Gilje, E.; Sunde, E.

    1995-12-31

    In aerobic MEOR, the ability of oil-degrading bacteria to mobilize oil is used to increase oil recovery. In this process, oxygen and mineral nutrients are injected into the oil reservoir in order to stimulate growth of aerobic oil-degrading bacteria in the reservoir. Experiments carried out in a model sandstone with stock tank oil and bacteria isolated from offshore wells showed that residual oil saturation was lowered from 27% to 3%. The process was time dependent, not pore volume dependent. During MEOR flooding, the relative permeability of water was lowered. Oxygen and active bacteria were needed for the process to take place. Maximum efficiency was reached at low oxygen concentrations, approximately 1 mg O{sub 2}/liter.

  6. Nonylphenol- and octylphenol-ethoxylates in surfactant products : need control or not? : an overview of their consumption, environmental fate and risks and public awareness in Hong Kong as compared to overseas countries

    OpenAIRE

    Leung, Sau-Mei; 梁秀媚

    2013-01-01

    Nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEO) and octylphenol ethoxylates (OPEO), both are alkylphenol ethoxylates (APEO), a type of non-ionic surfactants commonly used in synthetic detergents for household and industrial cleaning purposes. These compounds and their degraded intermediates are xenoestrogens ubiquitously found in runoffs, sewage discharge and sludge. Not only that they persist in our surface waters and sediment, they are also found in the bodies of wildlife and human worldwide. Because of the...

  7. Atmospheric concentrations and air-sea exchanges of nonylphenol, tertiary octylphenol and nonylphenol monoethoxylate in the North Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations of nonylphenol isomers (NP), tertiary octylphenol (t-OP) and nonylphenol monoethoxylate isomers (NP1EO) have been simultaneously determined in the sea water and atmosphere of the North Sea. A decreasing concentration profile appeared following the distance increasing from the coast to the central part of the North Sea. Air-sea exchanges of t-OP and NP were estimated using the two-film resistance model based upon relative air-water concentrations and experimentally derived Henry's law constant. The average of air-sea exchange fluxes was -12 ± 6 ng m-2 day-1 for t-OP and -39 ± 19 ng m-2 day-1 for NP, which indicates a net deposition is occurring. These results suggest that the air-sea vapour exchange is an important process that intervenes in the mass balance of alkylphenols in the North Sea. - Air-sea vapour exchanges of estrogenic alkylphenols are studied in the North Sea and it is shown that a net deposition is occurring

  8. Efficiency of supercritical fluid extraction for determining 4-nonylphenol in municipal sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J G; Arunkumar, R; Liu, C H

    1999-04-23

    When the sewage sludge containing the persistent, lipophilic, metabolite 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) has been disposed of in the environment it's toxic nature can lead to serious health risks to human beings and can also affect plants and aquatic organisms. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) is a new and powerful technique for extracting the organic contaminants from the solid phase. The present study was conducted to investigate optimal conditions for the quantitative extraction of 4-NP by SFE and to determine the concentration of 4-NP in municipal sewage sludge. The effect of several parameters such as temperature, pressure, static extraction time, dynamic extraction time, CO2 flow-rate, sample mass and modifier on the extraction were investigated. The optimal conditions for the extraction of the spiked sample were fluid pressure 97 bar, temperature 40 degrees C, flow-rate 3.0 ml/min, static extraction time 2 min, dynamic extraction time 5 min and modifier methanol (0.5 ml). Extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Concentration of 4-NP in the anaerobically degraded sludge of the De-Haw Sewage Treatment Plant in Taiwan was found to be 243.9 mg/kg. The extraction efficiency of the SFE method was compared with the conventional Soxhlet extraction method. The overall recovery of the SFE method was found to be greater and the results indicate that SFE is an efficient method for extracting 4-NP from sewage sludge. PMID:10335612

  9. Uptake and Elimination of 4-Nonylphenol in the Enchytraeid Enchytraeus albidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrício Silva, A L; Amorim, M J B; Holmstrup, M

    2016-02-01

    We determined the uptake and elimination kinetics of 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) in Enchytraeus albidus. A relatively fast degradation of 4-NP in test soil occurred at 20°C (λ = 0.11 day(-1)). The concentration of 4-NP in worm tissue followed a three-phase kinetics model, with a short phase of fast 4-NP accumulation shortly after exposure start (k u  = 0.97 mg kg(-1) day(-1)), followed by partial elimination (K e1 = 1.47 day(-1)) until reaching the equilibrium phase (A = 44.7 mg kg(-1) fresh tissue), and finally the elimination upon transfer to uncontaminated soil (K e2 = 0.67 day(-1)). During uptake, the internal concentration was similar to the concentration found in the soil, with a BAF ~ 1. In un-spiked soil, elimination took place within the first 24 h (elimination t1/2 ~ 1 day). PMID:26597288

  10. Biodegradation and utilization of 4-n-nonylphenol by Aspergillus versicolor as a sole carbon and energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupiński, Mariusz; Janicki, Tomasz [Department of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, University of Lodz, Banacha 12/16, 90-237 Łódź (Poland); Pałecz, Bartłomiej [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Lodz, Pomorska 165, 90-236 Łódź (Poland); Długoński, Jerzy, E-mail: jdlugo@biol.uni.lodz.pl [Department of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, University of Lodz, Banacha 12/16, 90-237 Łódź (Poland)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • A. versicolor is able to degrade 4-n-NP as the sole source of carbon and energy. • 4-n-NP removal by A. versicolor was accompanied by the formation of metabolites. • Radioactive experiments show complete 4-n-NP mineralization by A. versicolor. • 4-n-NP initiates heat production in the A. versicolor spores. - Abstract: 4-n-Nonylphenol (4-n-NP) is an environmental pollutant with endocrine-disrupting activities that is formed during the degradation of nonylphenol polyethoxylates, which are widely used as surfactants. Utilization of 4-n-NP by the filamentous fungus Aspergillus versicolor as the sole carbon and energy source was investigated. By means of gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, we showed that in the absence of any carbon source other than 4-n-NP in the medium, A. versicolor completely removed the xenobiotic (100 mg L{sup −1}) after 3 d of cultivation. Moreover, mass spectrometric analysis of intracellular extracts led to the identification of eight intermediates. The mineralization of the xenobiotic in cultures supplemented with 4-n-NP [ring-{sup 14}C(U)] as a growth substrate was also assessed. After 3 d of incubation, approximately 50% of the initially applied radioactivity was recovered in the form of {sup 14}CO{sub 2}, proving that this xenobiotic was completely metabolized and utilized by A. versicolor as a carbon source. Based on microscopic analysis, A. versicolor is capable of germinating spores under such conditions. To confirm these observations, a microcalorimetric method was used. The results show that even the highest amount of 4-n-NP initiates heat production in the fungal samples, proving that metabolic processes were affected by the use of 4-n-NP as an energetic substrate.

  11. Biodegradation and utilization of 4-n-nonylphenol by Aspergillus versicolor as a sole carbon and energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A. versicolor is able to degrade 4-n-NP as the sole source of carbon and energy. • 4-n-NP removal by A. versicolor was accompanied by the formation of metabolites. • Radioactive experiments show complete 4-n-NP mineralization by A. versicolor. • 4-n-NP initiates heat production in the A. versicolor spores. - Abstract: 4-n-Nonylphenol (4-n-NP) is an environmental pollutant with endocrine-disrupting activities that is formed during the degradation of nonylphenol polyethoxylates, which are widely used as surfactants. Utilization of 4-n-NP by the filamentous fungus Aspergillus versicolor as the sole carbon and energy source was investigated. By means of gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, we showed that in the absence of any carbon source other than 4-n-NP in the medium, A. versicolor completely removed the xenobiotic (100 mg L−1) after 3 d of cultivation. Moreover, mass spectrometric analysis of intracellular extracts led to the identification of eight intermediates. The mineralization of the xenobiotic in cultures supplemented with 4-n-NP [ring-14C(U)] as a growth substrate was also assessed. After 3 d of incubation, approximately 50% of the initially applied radioactivity was recovered in the form of 14CO2, proving that this xenobiotic was completely metabolized and utilized by A. versicolor as a carbon source. Based on microscopic analysis, A. versicolor is capable of germinating spores under such conditions. To confirm these observations, a microcalorimetric method was used. The results show that even the highest amount of 4-n-NP initiates heat production in the fungal samples, proving that metabolic processes were affected by the use of 4-n-NP as an energetic substrate

  12. In utero reproductive study in rats exposed to nonylphenol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hossaini, Alireza; Dalgaard, Majken; Vinggaard, Anne;

    2001-01-01

    reduced in the DES group. The absolute weight of the right epididymis were also significantly decreased in the animals exposed to 75 or 15 mg/kg/day NP, effects which disappeared when organ weight was related to body weight. This study showed a dose-dependent effect of nonylphenol on male reproductive....... To determine the potential reproductive toxicity of NP, a one-generation in utero study was conducted, Rats were dosed from gestation day 11 through 18 with NP at 3, 15, or 75 mg/kg/day or diethylstilbestrol (DES) at 30 mug/kg/day. DES was used as a positive control. Both substances were given orally...... by gavage. Male offspring were sacrificed at postnatal day (PND) 11, 21, or 110 and reproductive parameters were evaluated. Pup birth weight and body weight and percent motile sperm at age of 110 day were significantly reduced by DES. The absolute weight of the right epididymis was significantly...

  13. The effect of nonylphenol on gene expression in Atlantic salmon smolts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, Laura S., E-mail: lrobertson@usgs.gov [USGS, Leetown Science Center, 11649 Leetown Road, Kearneysville, WV 25430 (United States); McCormick, Stephen D., E-mail: smccormick@usgs.gov [USGS, Leetown Science Center, Conte Anadromous Fish Research Center, Turners Falls, MA 01376 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    The parr-smolt transformation in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) is a complex developmental process that culminates in the ability to migrate to and live in seawater. Exposure to environmental contaminants like nonylphenol can disrupt smolt development and may be a contributing factor in salmon population declines. We used GRASP 16K cDNA microarrays to investigate the effects of nonylphenol on gene expression in Atlantic salmon smolts. Nonylphenol exposure reduced gill Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase activity and plasma cortisol and triiodothyronine levels. Transcriptional responses were examined in gill, liver, olfactory rosettes, hypothalamus, and pituitary. Expression of 124 features was significantly altered in the liver of fish exposed to nonylphenol; little to no transcriptional effects were observed in other tissues. mRNA abundance of genes involved in protein biosynthesis, folding, modification, transport and catabolism; nucleosome assembly, cell cycle, cell differentiation, microtubule-based movement, electron transport, and response to stress increased in nonylphenol-treated fish. This study expands our understanding of the effect of nonylphenol on smolting and provides potential targets for development of biomarkers.

  14. IMPACT OF 4-NONYLPHENOL ON TESTOSTERONE PRODUCTION IN MICE LEYDIG CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Jambor

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Nonylphenol (NP is an important environmental toxicant and potential endocrine disrupting chemical. It is also the primary final biodegradation product of nonylphenol polyethoxylate, a non-ionic surfactant that is frequently incorporated into detergent formulation. Several studies have reported adverse effects of NP on the male reproductive system, including hormonal changes and testicular abnormalities. However, its mechanisms are not clearly understood. In the present study, experiments were performed to examine the effects of 4-nonylphenol on the testosterone production in mice Leydig cells. Interstitial (Leydig cells were cultured with addition of 0.04, 0.2, 1.0, 2.5 and 5 μg/mL of 4-nonylphenol and compared with control. Concentrations of testosterone in the media were determined using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Hormone production significantly (P<0.05 increased at 1.0, 2.5 and 5.0 μg/mL of 4-nonylphenol concentrations. Results of the study indicated dose-dependent increases in testosterone production of interstitial (Leydig cells following a 48 h in vitro 4-nonylphenol exposure. Further investigations are required to establish the biological significance and possible reproductive implications.

  15. Aerobic exercise (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerobic exercise gets the heart working to pump blood through the heart more quickly and with more force than ... must be oxygenated more quickly, which quickens respiration. Aerobic exercise strengthens the heart and boosts healthy cholesterol ...

  16. Removal of micropollutants from aerobically treated grey water via ozone and activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Leal, L; Temmink, H; Zeeman, G; Buisman, C J N

    2011-04-01

    Ozonation and adsorption onto activated carbon were tested for the removal micropollutants of personal care products from aerobically treated grey water. MilliQ water spiked with micropollutants (100-1600 μgL(-1)) was ozonated at a dosing rate of 1.22. In 45 min, this effectively removed (>99%): Four parabens, bisphenol-A, hexylcinnamic aldehyde, 4-methylbenzylidene-camphor (4MBC), benzophenone-3 (BP3), triclosan, galaxolide and ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate. After 60 min, the removal efficiency of benzalkonium chloride was 98%, tonalide and nonylphenol 95%, octocrylene 92% and 2-phenyl-5-benzimidazolesulfonic acid (PBSA) 84%. Ozonation of aerobically treated grey water at an applied ozone dose of 15 mgL(-1), reduced the concentrations of octocrylene, nonylphenol, triclosan, galaxolide, tonalide and 4-methylbenzylidene-camphor to below limits of quantification, with removal efficiencies of at least 79%. Complete adsorption of all studied micropollutants onto powdered activated carbon (PAC) was observed in batch tests with milliQ water spiked with 100-1600 μgL(-1) at a PAC dose of 1.25 gL(-1) and a contact time of 5 min. Three granular activated carbon (GAC) column experiments were operated to treat aerobically treated grey water. The operation of a GAC column with aerobically treated grey water spiked with micropollutants in the range of 0.1-10 μgL(-1) at a flow of 0.5 bed volumes (BV)h(-1) showed micropollutant removal efficiencies higher than 72%. During the operation time of 1728 BV, no breakthrough of TOC or micropollutants was observed. Removal of micropollutants from aerobically treated grey water was tested in a GAC column at a flow of 2 BVh(-1). Bisphenol-A, triclosan, tonalide, BP3, galaxolide, nonylphenol and PBSA were effectively removed even after a stable TOC breakthrough of 65% had been reached. After spiking the aerobically treated effluent with micropollutants to concentrations of 10-100 μgL(-1), efficient removal to below limits of quantification

  17. Teaching Aerobic Fitness Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Allan N.; Ratliffe, Tom

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how to teach aerobic fitness concepts to elementary students. Some of the K-2 activities include location, size, and purpose of the heart and lungs; the exercise pulse; respiration rate; and activities to measure aerobic endurance. Some of the 3-6 activities include: definition of aerobic endurance; heart disease risk factors;…

  18. Application of the GREAT-ER model for environmental risk assessment of nonylphenol and nonylphenol ethoxylates in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lai; Cao, Yan; Hao, Xuewen; Zhang, Yongyong; Liu, Jianguo

    2015-12-01

    The environmental risk presented by "down-the-drain" chemicals to receiving rivers in large urban areas has received increasing attention in recent years. Geo-referenced Regional Environmental Assessment Tool for European Rivers (GREAT-ER) is a typical river catchment model that has been specifically developed for the risk assessment of these chemicals and applied in many European rivers. By utilizing the new version of the model, GREAT-ER 3.0, which is the first completely open source software for worldwide application, this study represents the first attempt to conduct an application of GREAT-ER in the Wenyu River of China. Aquatic exposure simulation and an environmental risk assessment of nonylphenol (NP) and its environmental precursor nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEOs) were conducted effectively by GREAT-ER model, since NP is one of typical endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and its environmental precursor NPEOs as a "down-the-drain" chemical are extensively used in China. In the result, the predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) of NP and NPEOs in the water of Wenyu River were 538 and 4320 ng/L, respectively, at the regional scale, and 1210 and 8990 ng/L, respectively, at the local scale. From the results profile of the RCR, the combination of high emissions from large STPs with insufficient dilution of the river caused the high RCR. The PECs of NP in the sediment were in the range of 216.8-8218.3 ng/g (dry weight), which was consistent with the available monitoring data. The study showed the worldwide applicability and reliability of GREAT-ER as a river catchment model for the risk assessment of these chemicals and also revealed the general environmental risks presented by NP and NPEOs in the Wenyu River catchment in Beijing due to the extensive use of these chemicals. The results suggest that specific control or treatment measures are probably warranted for these chemicals to reduce their discharge in major cities. PMID:26358209

  19. Anaerobic biodegradation of nonylphenol in river sediment under nitrate- or sulfate-reducing conditions and associated bacterial community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • NP biodegradation can occur under both nitrate- and sulfate-reducing conditions. • Anaerobic condition affects sediment bacterial diversity during NP biodegradation. • NP-degrading bacterial community structure varies under different anaerobic conditions. - Abstract: Nonylphenol (NP) is a commonly detected pollutant in aquatic ecosystem and can be harmful to aquatic organisms. Anaerobic degradation is of great importance for the clean-up of NP in sediment. However, information on anaerobic NP biodegradation in the environment is still very limited. The present study investigated the shift in bacterial community structure associated with NP degradation in river sediment microcosms under nitrate- or sulfate-reducing conditions. Nearly 80% of NP (100 mg kg−1) could be removed under these two anaerobic conditions after 90 or 110 days’ incubation. Illumina MiSeq sequencing analysis indicated that Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Chloroflexi became the dominant phylum groups with NP biodegradation. The proportion of Gammaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria and Choloroflexi showed a marked increase in nitrate-reducing microcosm, while Gammaproteobacteria and Firmicutes in sulfate-reducing microcosm. Moreover, sediment bacterial diversity changed with NP biodegradation, which was dependent on type of electron acceptor

  20. Degradation of alkylphenol ethoxylates by Pseudomonas sp. strain TR01.

    OpenAIRE

    Maki, H; Masuda, N.; Fujiwara, Y; Ike, M; Fujita, M.

    1994-01-01

    An alkylphenol ethoxylate-degrading bacterium was isolated from activated sludge of a municipal sewage treatment plant by enrichment culture. This organism was found to belong to the genus Pseudomonas; since no corresponding species was identified, we designated it as Pseudomonas sp. strain TR01. This strain had an optimal temperature and pH of 30 degrees C and 7, respectively, for both growth and the degradation of Triton N-101 (a nonylphenol ethoxylate in which the average number of ethylen...

  1. Toxicity of the xenoestrogen nonylphenol and its biodegradation by the alga Cyclotella caspia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Liu; Xiaokang Dai; Jie Wei

    2013-01-01

    Alkylphenols (APs),the breakdown products of alkylphenol polyethoxylates that are widely used as surfactants,have been proven to exert estrogenic effects.With industrial development,higher concentrations of APs are discharged into aquatic environments.Nonylphenol (NP),the most noxious AP,is included in the blacklist of several countries.The toxicity of NP to the alga Cyclotella caspia and the biodegradation of NP by C.caspia were studied in the laboratory.The median effective concentration at 96 hr (96 hr EC50) of NP for C.caspia was found to be 0.18 mg/L.Five toxicity and three degradation indices were selected for toxicity and biodegradation experiments,respectively,in five or three concentrations of NP set by the 96 hr EC5o of NP.The algal growth rate and chlorophyll a contents decreased as NP concentration increased.The main manifestations of morphological deformity of the cells included volume expansion and the presence of cytoplasmic inclusions (lipid droplets).The abnormality rate of the cells increased with NP concentration and time,and was 100% at 0.22 and 0.26 mg/L of NP after 192 hr of culture.Superoxide dismutase activity initially increased and then declined at a higher NP toxicity of greater than 0.18 mg/L.After 192 hr of culture,the biodegradation rates of NP by C.caspia with initial concentrations of 0.14,0.18,and 0.22 mg/L were 37.7%,31.7%,and 6.5%,respectively.The kinetic equation of C.caspia biodegradation on NP was correlated with algal growth rate and initial NP concentration.

  2. Immunosuppressive effects of triclosan, nonylphenol, and DDT on human natural killer cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udoji, Felicia; Martin, Tamara; Etherton, Rachel; Whalen, Margaret M

    2010-01-01

    Human natural killer (NK) cells are a first-line immune defense against tumor cells and virally-infected cells. If their function is impaired, it leaves an individual more susceptible to cancer development or viral infection. The ability of compounds that contaminate the environment to suppress the function of NK cells could contribute to the increased risk of cancer development. There are a wide spectrum of compounds that significantly contaminate water and food that are consumed by humans, leading to accumulation of some of these compounds in human tissues. In the current study, we examined the ability of three such compounds to diminish the function of human NK cells. Triclosan (TC) is an antimicrobial agent used in a large number of antibacterial soaps. Nonylphenol (NP) is a degradation product of compounds used as surfactants and as stabilizers in plastics. 4,4'-Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) is a pesticide that is mainly used to control mosquitoes. The compounds were examined for their ability to suppress NK function following exposures of 1 h, 24 h, 48 h, and 6 days. Each agent was able to substantially decrease NK lytic function within 24 h. At a concentration of 5 microM, both TC and NP inhibited NK lytic function by 87 and 30%, respectively; DDT decreased function by 55% at 2.5 microM. The negative effects of each of these compounds persisted and/or intensified following a brief (1 h) exposure to the compounds, indicating that the impairment of function cannot be eliminated by removal of the compound under in vitro conditions. PMID:20297919

  3. Treatment of anthraquinone dye wastewater by hydrolytic acidification-aerobic process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jian; WU Min; Li Dan

    2004-01-01

    Experiment on microbial degradation with two kinds of biological process, hydrolytic acidification-aerobic process and aerobic process was conducted to treat the anthraquinone dye wastewater with CODCr concentration of 400 mg/L and chroma 800. The experimental result demonstrated that the hydrolytic-aerobic process could raise the biodegradability of anthraquinone dye wastewater effectively. The effluent CODCr can reach 120-170 mg/L and chroma 150 which is superior to that from simple aerobic process.

  4. Aerobic phenol degradation in packed bed reactors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Páca, J.; Marek, J.; Sobotka, Miroslav; Schmauder, H. P.

    Vol. 2. Praha : Czech Society of Chemical Engineering, 1998. s. 20. [International Congress of Chemical and Process Engineering CHISA'98 /13./. 23.08.1998-28.08.1998, Praha] Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  5. Evaluation of 4-nonylphenol toxicity in the clam Tapes philippinarum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lethal and sub lethal effects of 4-nonylphenol (NP) were investigated in the clam Tapes philippinarum from the Lagoon of Venice. In a 96-h lethality test, bivalves were exposed to the following NP concentrations: 0, 0+acetone, .19, 0.38, 0.75, 1.5, and 3.0 mg NP/L. The 96-h LC50 value was 1.12 mg P/L. No mortality was observed at 0.19 mg NP/L, whereas at 1.5 and 3.0 mg P/L both siphons and foot of clams were often cut-off, the animals being unable to withdraw them before shell closure, suggesting the possible narcotic effect of NP. Lower concentrations (0, 0+acetone, 0.025, 0.05, 0.1, nd 0.2 mg NP/L) were then used to evaluate sub lethal NP effects on clearance rate (CR), respiration rate (RR), scope for growth (SFG), and survival in ir. Following a 7-day exposure, decreased RRs were found at all NP concentrations tested. Significant decreases in the CR and SFG were only observed at the two highest NP concentrations (0.1 and 0.2 mg/L), with SFG reductions reaching 54% and 71%, respectively. Last, the highest concentrations tested significantly decreased the resistance of clams to exposure to air and enhanced the mortality rate. As the lowest effective NP concentrations are similar to environmentally realistic levels, a condition of potential risk for the well-being of clam populations in estuarine areas is highlighted

  6. An unexpected gene cluster for downstream degradation of alkylphenols in Sphingomonas sp strain TTNP3

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolvenbach, B.A.; Dobrowinski, H.; Fousek, Jan; Vlček, Čestmír; Schaffer, A.; Gabriel, F.L.P.; Kohler, H.P.E.; Corvini, P.F.X.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 93, č. 3 (2012), s. 1315-1324. ISSN 0175-7598 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0520 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : hydroquinone * degradation * Sphingomonas * nonylphenol * bisphenol A Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.689, year: 2012

  7. Effects of nonylphenol on key hormonal balances and histopathology of the endangered Caspian brown trout (Salmo trutta caspius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirdel, Iman; Kalbassi, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Endocrine disruptor chemicals (EDCs) potentially pose a hazard to endangered species. Evaluation of the sensitivity of these species to EDCs could be helpful for protecting their populations. So, the present study investigated the adverse effects of nonylphenol, an EDC, on the endocrine hormones and histopathology of male and female juvenile Caspian brown trout (Salmo trutta caspius) following 21 days of exposure to nominal concentrations of 1, 10 and 100 μg/l. The results showed that the HSI and plasma total calcium of male and female fishes exposed to 100 μg/l nonylphenol were significantly increased compared with the control groups (P0.05). No significant effect of nonylphenol exposure was observed on male plasma TSH levels (P>0.05), whereas, in females, nonylphenol at all concentrations significantly reduced TSH levels. A bell-shaped response was observed in male and female plasma GH levels. Moreover, various histopathological lesions were observed in gill and intestine tissues of fishes exposed to different nonylphenol concentrations. These results demonstrate the high sensitivity of this endangered species to even environmentally relevant concentrations of nonylphenol. Furthermore, Caspian brown trout could be used as bioindicators reflecting the toxicity of nonylphenol. PMID:26811907

  8. 78 FR 37176 - Addition of Nonylphenol Category; Community Right-to-Know Toxic Chemical Release Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ... criterion.'' EPA published in the Federal Register of November 30, 1994 (59 FR 61432) a statement clarifying... diatom (Skeletonema costatum) (Ref. 25). The EC 50 for nonylphenol effect on vegetative growth was 27 g/L... environmental effects pursuant to EPCRA section 313(d)(2)(C) (see 59 FR 61440-61442). Therefore, in...

  9. Modeling bioaccumulation and biomagnification of nonylphenol and its ethoxylates in estuarine-marine food chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korsman, J.C.; Schipper, A.M.; Vos, de M.G.; Heuvel-Greve, van den M.J.; Vethaak, A.D.; Voogt, de Pim; Hendriks, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    There are several studies on bioaccumulation and biomagnification of nonylphenol (NP) and its ethoxylates (NPEOs), but their toxico-kinetic mechanisms remain unclear. In the present investigation, we explored the accumulation of NP and NPEOs in estuarine-marine food chains with a bioaccumulation

  10. Modeling bioaccumulation and biomagnification of nonylphenol and its ethoxylates in estuarine-marine food chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. Korsman; A.M. Schipper; M.G. de Vos; M.J. van den Heuvel-Greve; A.D. Vethaak; P. de Voogt; A.J. Hendriks

    2015-01-01

    There are several studies on bioaccumulation and biomagnification of nonylphenol (NP) and its ethoxylates (NPEOs), but their toxico-kinetic mechanisms remain unclear. In the present investigation, we explored the accumulation of NP and NPEOs in estuarine-marine food chains with a bioaccumulation mod

  11. Nonylphenol stimulates fecundity but not population growth rate (λ) of Folsomia candida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Widarto, T. H.; Krogh, P. H.; Forbes, V. E.

    2007-01-01

    The toxicity of nonylphenol (NP) to springtails was pronounced at 40 mg/kg dry weight soil, at which no animals survived. Body length and fecundity were the individual life-history traits significantly stimulated by sublethal concentrations of NP during a 64-day experiment. However, the effects o...

  12. Role of biofilms in sorptive removal of steroidal hormones and 4-nonylphenol compounds from streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Writer, J.H.; Ryan, J.N.; Barber, L.B.

    2011-01-01

    Stream biofilms play an important role in geochemical processing of organic matter and nutrients, however, the significance of this matrix in sorbing trace organic contaminants is less understood. This study focused on the role of stream biofilms in sorbing steroidal hormones and 4-nonylphenol compounds from surface waters using biofilms colonized in situ on artificial substrata and subsequently transferred to the laboratory for controlled batch sorption experiments. Steroidal hormones and 4-nonylphenol compounds readily sorb to stream biofilms as indicated by organic matter partition coefficients (K om, L kg-1) for 17??-estradiol (102.5-2.8 L kg-1), 17??-ethynylestradiol (102.5-2.9 L kg -1), 4-nonylphenol (103.4-4.6 L kg-1), 4-nonylphenolmonoethoxylate (103.5-4.0 L kg-1), and 4-nonylphenoldiethoxylate (103.9-4.3 L kg-1). Experiments using water quality differences to induce changes in the relative composition of periphyton and heterotrophic bacteria in the stream biofilm did not significantly affect the sorptive properties of the stream biofilm, providing additional evidence that stream biofilms will sorb trace organic compounds under of variety of environmental conditions. Because sorption of the target compounds to stream biofilms was linearly correlated with organic matter content, hydrophobic partition into organic matter appears to be the dominant mechanism. An analysis of 17??-estradiol and 4-nonylphenol hydrophobic partition into water, biofilm, sediment, and dissolved organic matter matrices at mass/volume ratios typical of smaller rivers showed that the relative importance of the stream biofilm as a sorptive matrix was comparable to bed sediments. Therefore, stream biofilms play a primary role in attenuating these compounds in surface waters. Because the stream biofilm represents the base of the stream ecosystem, accumulation of steroidal hormones and 4-nonylphenol compounds in the stream biofilm may be an exposure pathway for organisms in higher trophic

  13. What Is Aerobic Dancing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... after exercising, see a physician. Common Aerobics Injuries Plantar fasciitis (arch pain) -- Arch pain is often caused by ... rearfoot instability, with excessive pronation, may result in plantar fasciitis. Shoes with proper support in the arch often ...

  14. A new mechanism for the aerobic catabolism of dimethyl sulfide.

    OpenAIRE

    Visscher, P T; Taylor, B F

    1993-01-01

    Aerobic degradation of dimethyl sulfide (DMS), previously described for thiobacilli and hyphomicrobia, involves catabolism to sulfide via methanethiol (CH3SH). Methyl groups are sequentially eliminated as HCHO by incorporation of O2 catalyzed by DMS monooxygenase and methanethiol oxidase. H2O2 formed during CH3SH oxidation is destroyed by catalase. We recently isolated Thiobacillus strain ASN-1, which grows either aerobically or anaerobically with denitrification on DMS. Comparative experimen...

  15. RXRα, PXR and CAR xenobiotic receptors mediate the apoptotic and neurotoxic actions of nonylphenol in mouse hippocampal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwa, E; Rzemieniec, J; Wnuk, A; Lason, W; Krzeptowski, W; Kajta, M

    2016-02-01

    In the present study, we investigated the role of the retinoid X receptor (RXR), the pregnane X receptor (PXR) and the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), in the apoptotic and toxic effects of nonylphenol in mouse primary neuronal cell cultures. Our study demonstrated that nonylphenol activated caspase-3 and induced lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release in hippocampal cells, which was accompanied by an increase in the mRNA expression and protein levels of RXRα, PXR and CAR. Nonylphenol stimulated Rxra, Pxr, and Car mRNA expression. These effects were followed by increase in the protein levels of particular receptors. Immunofluorescence labeling revealed the cellular distribution of RXRα, PXR and CAR in hippocampal neurons in response to nonylphenol, shortening of neurites and cytoplasmic shrinking, as indicated by MAP2 staining. It also showed NP-induced translocation of receptor-specific immunofluorescence from cytoplasm to the nucleus. The use of specific siRNAs demonstrated that Rxra-, Pxr-, and Car-siRNA-transfected cells were less vulnerable to nonylphenol-induced activation of caspase-3 and LDH, thus confirming the key involvement of RXRα/PXR/CAR signaling pathways in the apoptotic and neurotoxic actions of nonylphenol. These new data give prospects for the targeting xenobiotic nuclear receptors to protect the developing nervous system against endocrine disrupting chemicals. PMID:26643981

  16. Degradability of ionic liquids : Systematic investigations on aerobic and anaerobic biodegradability of ionic liquid cations and anions as well as on the hydrolytical stability of ionic liquid anions - contributions to a sound hazard assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Neumann, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The presented studies deal with the degradability of ionic liquids under conditions that occur in biological waste water treatment and within the environment. Degradation studies are relevant for the assessment of the technological applicability of chemicals and of their hazard potential, including their environmental fate. In former studies some ionic liquids have shown to remain stable against abiotic and biotic degradation processes. The systematic investigation of chemical structures whic...

  17. Anaerobic and aerobic transformation of TNT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulpa, C.F. [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Boopathy, R.; Manning, J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Research Div.

    1996-12-31

    Most studies on the microbial metabolism of nitroaromatic compounds have used pure cultures of aerobic microorganisms. In many cases, attempts to degrade nitroaromatics under aerobic conditions by pure cultures result in no mineralization and only superficial modifications of the structure. However, mixed culture systems properly operated result in the transformation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and in some cases mineralization of TNT occurs. In this paper, the mixed culture system is described with emphasis on intermediates and the characteristics of the aerobic microbial process including the necessity for a co-substrate. The possibility of removing TNT under aerobic/anoxic conditions is described in detail. Another option for the biodegradation of TNT and nitroaromatics is under anaerobic, sulfate reducing conditions. In this instance, the nitroaromatic compounds undergo a series of reductions with the formation of amino compounds. TNT under sulfate reducing conditions is reduced to triaminotoluene presumably by the enzyme nitrite reductase, which is commonly found in many Desulfovibrio spp. The removal of nitro groups from TNT is achieved by a series of reductive reactions with the formation of ammonia and toluene by Desulfovibrio sp. (B strain). These metabolic processes could be applied to other nitroaromatic compounds like nitrobenzene, nitrobenzoic acids, nitrophenols, and aniline. The data supporting the anaerobic transformation of TNT under different growth condition are reviewed in this report.

  18. Presence of nonylphenols in plastic films and their migration into food simulants

    OpenAIRE

    Alfirević, Marjetka; Križanec, Boštjan; Vončina, Ernest; Brodnjak-Vončina, Darinka

    2012-01-01

    Nonylphenols (NP) possess estrogenic activities and may cause increased risk of cancerous and reproductive abnormalities in several living organisms. Despite their harmful nature, NPs are used as additives in food packaging material, especially plastic, which is the main food contact material in today's packaging landscape. According to the fact that food packaging is one of the major potential food contaminant sources regarding NPs, there is a need for more information on identifying and qua...

  19. Sorption of a branched nonylphenol and perfluorooctanoic acid on Yangtze River sediments and their model components

    OpenAIRE

    Li, C L; R. Ji; Schaffer, A.; Sequaris, J.M.; Amelung, W.; H. Vereecken; E. Klumpp

    2012-01-01

    Many metabolites of organic surfactants such as nonylphenol (NP) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) are ubiquitously found in the environment and are toxic if not sorbed on soils and sediments. In this study, we quantified the sorption of the NP isomer with the highest endocrine activity, [4-(1-ethyl-1,3-dimethylpentyl) phenol] (NP111), and that of PFOA on Yangtze River sediments and its model components illite, goethite and natural organic matter. The sorption experiments were performed with ...

  20. Sorption of a branched nonylphenol isomer and perfluorooctanoic acid on geosorbents and carbon nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Li, C.

    2011-01-01

    As metabolites of organic surfactants, both nonylphenol (NP) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) are toxic and ubiquitous in the environment. Their sorption on soils and sediments is of importance for their fate and transport in the environment. Especially in China, there is still a lack of consolidated knowledge on the sorption behavior of NP and PFOA on geosorbents such as Yangtze River sediments. Thus, the present thesis investigates the sorption of a branched NP isomer [4-(1-ethyl-1, 3-dime...

  1. The influence of sewage sludge treatment on the fate of nonylphenol in sludge amended soils

    OpenAIRE

    Kouloumpos, Vasileios

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of the current work were a) to identify the correlation between sewage sludge conditioning / dewatering processing and fate of a major sludge organic pollutant (Nonylphenol, NP) in sludge-amended soils and b) to provide, if possible, clues about the mechanism driving this correlation. In view was a contribution to predicting and controlling the fate of organic xenobiotics in the soil-sludge environment, by examining an until now not adequately studied, but nevertheless potentia...

  2. 4-Nonylphenol (NP) in Food Contact Materials: Review, Analytical Methodology and Occurrence

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Alwyn R; Rose, Martin; Charlton, Claire

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Nonylphenol (NP) is a recognised environmental contaminant but it is unclear whether its occurrence in food arises only through environmental pathways or also during the processing or packaging of food, as there are reports that indicate that materials in contact with food such as rubber products and polyvinylchloride (PVC) wraps can contain NP. A review of the literature has highlighted the scarcity of robust analytical methodology or data on the occurrence of NP in packa...

  3. Environmental Levels of para-Nonylphenol Are Able to Affect Cytokine Secretion in Human Placenta

    OpenAIRE

    Bechi, Nicoletta; Ietta, Francesca; Romagnoli, Roberta; Jantra, Silke; Cencini, Marco; Galassi, Gianmichele; Serchi, Tommaso; Corsi, Ilaria; Focardi, Silvano; Paulesu, Luana

    2009-01-01

    Background para-Nonylphenol (p-NP) is a metabolite of alkylphenols widely used in the chemical industry and manufacturing. It accumulates in the environment, where it acts with estrogen-like activity. We previously showed that p-NP acts on human placenta by inducing trophoblast differentiation and apoptosis. Objective The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of p-NP on cytokine secretion in human placenta. Methods In vitro cultures of chorionic villous explants from human pl...

  4. Evaluation of four mathematical models to describe dissipation kinetics of 4-n-nonylphenol and bisphenol-A in groundwater-aquifer material slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmah, Ajit K; Rohan, Maheswaran

    2011-01-01

    The performance of four mathematical models (hockey stick, biexponential, first-order double exponential decay, and first-order two-compartment) was evaluated to describe the dissipation kinetics for 4-n-nonylphenol (4-n-NP) and bisphenol-A (BPA) in groundwater-aquifer material slurry under aerobic and anaerobic conditions conducted under controlled laboratory conditions. The fit of each model to the measured values under both conditions was tested using an array of statistical indices to judge the model's ability to fit the measured datasets. Corresponding 50% (DT(50)) and 90% (DT(90)) dissipation values for each compound were numerically obtained and compared against each model. The model derived DT(50) values in groundwater-aquifer material ranged from 1.06 to 1.24 (4-n-NP) and 0.341 to 0.568 days (BPA) under aerobic condition, while they were 2- to 4-fold higher under anoxic condition. DT(90) values for 4-n-NP ranged anywhere between 2.3 and 4.45 days under both conditions, while DT(90) values for BPA ranged from around 1 day to as high as 12 days under both conditions tested. A visual examination of the measured and fitted plots as well as the statistical indices showed that, with the exception of the hockey stick model, the models performed satisfactorily. Despite having only 3 parameters, the biexponential model could describe the dissipation kinetics very well and this was supported by the statistical indices generated for each case. PMID:21069247

  5. Distrubution of the Endocrine Disruptor Nonylphenol and the Effects of Topographical Sheilding in an Eastern Sierra Nevada Mountain Drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, R. A.; Van de Bittner, K.; Morgan Jones, S.

    2013-12-01

    Nonylphenol is a biodegradation product of nonylphenol polyethoxylates, a pervasive compound used in many industrial processes and notably in pesticides as a surfactant. Nonylphenol has been shown to act as an endocrine disruptor at low concentrations. It causes hermaphrodism, birth defects, and high mortality in fish, frogs and other amphibians. The Sierra Nevada Mountains separate the Central Valley in the west from the high desert of Mono Country on the east side of the state of California. The Central Valley represents some of the most heavily cultivated agricultural land in the United States. San Joaquin County alone had an annual pesticide use of over 8 million pounds in 2009 according to the Pesticide Action Network, compared with 4800 pounds in Mono County the same year. Fragile alpine ecosystems in the Sierra Nevadas may be highly susceptible to the effects of endocrine disruptors like nonylphenol. The distribution of nonylphenol is affected by localized topography in a steep walled montane canyon in the Eastern Sierra Nevada Mountains, Convict Creek canyon. The concentration of nonylphenol in snow and surface water increases as the elevation in Convict Creek canyon decreases in an easterly direction from not detectable at the highest elevations to as much as .01mg/L in water and 1.8 mg/L in snow at the lowest elevations. The steep head wall of Convict Creek canyon, facing southeast, provides shielding to the higher elevation lakes from deposition of compounds and particulate matter. As a canyon becomes less steep and broader, more nonylphenol is deposited. Identifying these deposition patterns may assist in determining amphibian and fish populations that are at higher risk of negative impact from these compounds.

  6. Aerobic Anoxygenic Phototrophic Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Yurkov, Vladimir V.; Beatty, J. Thomas

    1998-01-01

    The aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria are a relatively recently discovered bacterial group. Although taxonomically and phylogenetically heterogeneous, these bacteria share the following distinguishing features: the presence of bacteriochlorophyll a incorporated into reaction center and light-harvesting complexes, low levels of the photosynthetic unit in cells, an abundance of carotenoids, a strong inhibition by light of bacteriochlorophyll synthesis, and the inability to grow photosynt...

  7. Antioxidant and antiapoptotic activities of Calotropis procera latex on Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) exposed to toxic 4-nonylphenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayed, Alaa El-Din H; Mohamed, Nadia H; Ismail, Mady A; Abdel-Mageed, Wael M; Shoreit, Ahmed A M

    2016-06-01

    Calotropis procera L. is known as medicinal plant. The Phytochemical analyzes of its latex revealed that it possessed antioxidants, namely terpenes, phenolic compounds and cardenolides, flavonoids and saponins, while tannins, alkaloids and resin were absent in moderate to high concentration. In the present study, the role of latex of Calotropis procera as antioxidant and antiapoptotic was reported. To carry out this aim, fishes were exposed to 100 µg l(-1) 4-nonylphenol as chemical pollutant. The enzymes, superoxidase dismutase, catalase, acetlycholinstrase (AchE), glutathione s-transferase, cortisol, G6PDH) and apoptotic cells increased significantly (p<0.05) accompanied by irregular disturbance of (Na(+), K(+)) ions in the presence of 4-nonylphenol. On the other hand, these enzymes, ions, and apoptotic cells decreased normally and significantly (p<0.05) in the presence of latex. Total phenol content, total capacity antioxidant, reducing power decrease significantly (p<0.05) in the presence of 4-nonylphenol and increase normally in the presence of latex. Latex was used for the first time to protect catfish after 4-nonylphenol exposure. Our study confirms that crude latex of Calotropis procera possessed antioxidant and antiapoptotic activities against the toxicity of 4-Nonylphenol. PMID:26946283

  8. Poplar Lignin Decomposition by Gram-Negative Aerobic Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Odier, E.; Janin, G.; Monties, B

    1981-01-01

    Eleven gram-negative aerobic bacteria (Pseudomonadaceae and Neisseriaceae) out of 122 soil isolates were selected for their ability to assimilate poplar dioxane lignin without a cosubstrate. Dioxane lignin and milled wood lignin degradation rates ranged between 20 and 40% of initial content after 7 days in mineral medium, as determined by a loss of absorbance at 280 nm; 10 strains could degrade in situ lignin, as evidenced by the decrease of the acetyl bromide lignin content of microtome wood...

  9. Biodegradation of Asphalt Cement-20 by Aerobic Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Pendrys, John P.

    1989-01-01

    Seven gram-negative, aerobic bacteria were isolated from a mixed culture enriched for asphalt-degrading bacteria. The predominant genera of these isolates were Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Alcaligenes, Flavimonas, and Flavobacterium. The mixed culture preferentially degraded the saturate and naphthene aromatic fractions of asphalt cement-20. A residue remained on the surface which was resistant to biodegradation and protected the underlying asphalt from biodegradation. The most potent asphalt-...

  10. Fate of sulfamethoxazole, 4-nonylphenol, and 17β-estradiol in groundwater contaminated by wastewater treatment plant effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Larry B.; Keefe, Steffanie H.; LeBlanc, Denis R.; Bradley, Paul M.; Chapelle, Francis H.; Meyer, Michael T.; Loftin, Keith A.; Koplin, Dana W.; Rubio, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    Organic wastewater contaminants (OWCs) were measured in samples collected from monitoring wells located along a 4.5-km transect of a plume of groundwater contaminated by 60 years of continuous rapid infiltration disposal of wastewater treatment plant effluent. Fifteen percent of the 212 OWCs analyzed were detected, including the antibiotic sulfamethoxazole (SX), the nonionic surfactant degradation product 4-nonylphenol (NP), the solvent tetrachloroethene (PCE), and the disinfectant 1,4-dichlorobenzene (DCB). Comparison of the 2005 sampling results to data collected from the same wells in 1985 indicates that PCE and DCB are transported more rapidly in the aquifer than NP, consistent with predictions based on compound hydrophobicity. Natural gradient in situ tracer experiments were conducted to evaluate the subsurface behavior of SX, NP, and the female sex hormone 17β-estradiol (E2) in two oxic zones in the aquifer: (1) a downgradient transition zone at the interface between the contamination plume and the overlying uncontaminated groundwater and (2) a contaminated zone located beneath the infiltration beds, which have not been loaded for 10 years. In both zones, breakthrough curves for the conservative tracer bromide (Br−) and SX were nearly coincident, whereas NP and E2 were retarded relative to Br− and showed mass loss. Retardation was greater in the contaminated zone than in the transition zone. Attenuation of NP and E2 in the aquifer was attributed to biotransformation, and oxic laboratory microcosm experiments using sediments from the transition and contaminated zones show that uniform-ring-labeled 14C 4-normal-NP was biodegraded more rapidly (30−60% recovered as 14CO2 in 13 days) than 4-14C E2 (20−90% recovered as 14CO2in 54 days). There was little difference in mineralization potential between sites.

  11. Terephthalic acid wastewater treatment by using two-stage aerobic process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Based on the tests between anoxic and aerobic process, the two-stage aerobic process with a biological selector was chosen to treat terephthalic acid wastewater (PTA). By adopting the two- stage aerobic process, the CODCr in PTA wastewater could be reduced from 4000-6000 mg/L to below 100 mg/L; the COD loading in the first aerobic tank could reach 7.0-8.0 kgCODCr/(m3.d) and that of the second stage was from 0.2 to 0.4 kgCODCr/(m3.d). Further researches on the kinetics of substrate degradation were carried out.

  12. Coupled anaerobic/aerobic biodegradation of 2,4,6 trichlorophenol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Degradation of 2, 4, 6-trichlorophenol(TCP) with co-immobilizing anaerobic granular sludge and isolated aerobic bacterial specieswas studied in coupled anaerobic/aerobic integrated reactors. The synergism of aerobes and anaerobes within co-immobilized granule mightfacilitate degrading the TCP and exchange of anaerobic metabolites 4-CP, which promoted system organic removal efficiency and recovered fromorganic shock-loads more quickly. The biomass specific activities experiment further confirmed that strict anaerobes be not affected over thecourse of this experiment by the presence of an oxic environment, aerobic activity predominated in the outer co-immobilized granule layers,while the interior was characterized by anaerobic activity. The co-immobilized granule could thus enable both aerobic and anaerobic microbesfunction in the same reactor and thereby integrate the oxidative and reductive catabolism.

  13. Comparison of Aerobic and Anaerobic Biodegradation of Sugarcane Vinasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, V T; Araújo, T A; Amaral, M C S

    2015-07-01

    Vinasse is the main liquid waste from ethanol production, and it has a considerable pollution potential. Biological treatment is a promising alternative to reduce its organic load. The aim of this study was to analyze the biodegradation of sugarcane juice vinasse in aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The content of carbohydrates, proteins and volatile fatty acids was evaluated. Vinasse samples showed a high biodegradability (>96.5 %) and low percentage of inert chemical oxygen demand (COD) (<3.2 %) in both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The rates of substrate utilization were slightly higher in aerobic reactors, but COD stabilization occurred simultaneously in the anaerobic reactors, confirming its suitability for anaerobic digestion. Inert COD in anaerobic conditions was lower than in aerobic conditions. On the other hand, COD from metabolic products in the anaerobic reactors was higher than in the aerobic ones, indicating an increased release of soluble microbial products (SMPs) by anaerobic microorganisms. The results indicated that carbohydrates were satisfactorily degraded and protein-like substances were the major components remaining after biological degradation of vinasse. PMID:25957273

  14. Biodegradation of 4-n-nonylphenol by the non-ligninolytic filamentous fungus Gliocephalotrichum simplex: A proposal of a metabolic pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    4-Nonylphenols (NPs) are endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) which are known to interfere with the endocrine system of humans and animals. The aim of this study was to test the ability of non-ligninolytic filamentous fungus Gliocephalotrichum simplex to biodegrade 4-n-NP. The results revealed that during the first 24 h of incubation, 4-n-NP at the concentration of 50 mg L-1 was eliminated from the culture medium by 88%, whereas at the concentration of 100 mg L-1 by 50%. In this paper, glucose utilization as a co-substrate during toxic compound degradation was also shown. It was found that the presence of 4-n-NP caused sugar metabolism retardation and this inhibition was dependent on NP concentration. The qualitative GC-MS analysis showed the presence of products of G. simplex 4-n-NP biodegradation. We proposed the metabolic pathway of 4-n-NP biodegradation, which is based on subsequent C1 removals from the alkyl chain followed by the aromatic ring cleavage. In further experiments with 4-n-NP [ring-14C(U)] we proved aromatic ring cleavage occurrence. After 72 h of incubation the evolution of 14CO2 was observed and the mineralization efficiency was on the level of 29%. The results suggest the existence of a novel mechanism of 4-n-NP degradation in fungi.

  15. Annular purpura and step aerobics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, S J; Humphreys, F; Buxton, P K

    1994-09-01

    Step aerobic classes are at present one of the most popular forms of exercise undertaken by young adults. To date no dermatological abnormalities have been described in people regularly performing step aerobics. We describe a case in which a healthy young woman developed an extensive pigmented purpuric eruption 4 weeks after commencing regular step aerobic classes. The eruption resolved completely 8 weeks after regular exercise was ceased. PMID:7955503

  16. Aerobic Rice: Benefits without going to the Gym?

    OpenAIRE

    Bayot, Ruvicyn; Templeton, Deborah J.

    2009-01-01

    Rice, a staple food for over 70% of Asians, is also the single biggest user of water, requiring 2‐3 times more water per unit of grain produced than crops such as wheat and maize. With growing populations, increased urbanisation and environmental degradation, the supply of fresh water is depleting. Recognising the water constraints to rice yield, the aim of the project entitled ‘Developing a System of Temperate and Tropical Aerobic Rice (STAR) in Asia’ was to develop water‐efficient aerobic r...

  17. THE IMPACT OF NONYLPHENOL (NP ON THE SPERMATOZOA MOTILITY IN VITRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Lukáčová

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Nonylphenol (NP is an environmental endocrine disruptor that has toxic, estrogenic and carcinogenic effects in fish, amphibians and mammals. NP can result in male reproductive dysfunction, altered testicular development, decreased male fertility and a decline of spermatozoa count. The target of this in vitro study was to determine the effect of NP on the spermatozoa motility. Specifically, we examined the dose- and time-dependent effect of nonylphenol (1, 10, 100 and 200 µg/mL dissolved either in 0.1% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO or 0.1% ethanol (ETOH on the motility of bovine spermatozoa during several time periods (0 h, 2 h, 4 h and 6 h. The spermatozoa motility was determined by CASA (Computer Assisted Semen Analyzer system using the Sperm VisionTM program. The results showed a decreased spermatozoa motility in all experimental groups with the addition of NP. Significant differences (P<0.001 and P<0.05 between the control group and all experimental groups were recorded. The lowest motility of bovine spermatozoa was found at doses > 100 µg/mL of NP in comparison with the control group. The obtained data indicate that the exposure to high doses of NP has the negative effect on spermatozoa motility.

  18. Degradation and environmental risk of surfactants after the application of compost sludge to the soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Degradation of surfactants in soil amended with sewage sludge during 100 days. ► Temperature influences on the degradation of the studied compounds. ► Overall, the LAS degradation is faster than the NP compounds degradation. ► Therefore, the LAS presented lower environmental risk than the NP compounds. - Abstract: In this work, the degradation of anionic and non-ionic surfactants in agricultural soil amended with sewage sludge is reported. The compounds analysed were: linear alkylbenzene sulphonates (LAS) with a 10–13 carbon alkylic chain, and nonylphenolic compounds (NPE), including nonylphenol (NP) and nonylphenol ethoxylates with one and two ethoxy groups (NP1EO and NP2EO). The degradation studies were carried out under winter (12.7 °C) and summer (22.4 °C) conditions in Andalusia region. The concentration of LAS was reduced to 2% of the initial concentration 100 day after sludge-application to the soil. The half-life time measured for LAS homologues were ranged between 4 and 14 days at 12.7 °C and between 4 and 7 days at 22.4 °C. With regard to NPE compounds, after 8 and 4 days from the beginning of the experiment at 12.7 and 22.4 °C, respectively, their concentration levels were increased to 6.5 and 13.5 mg/kg dm (dry matter) as consequence of the degradation of nonylphenol polyethoxylates. These concentration levels were reduced to 5% after 63 and 70 days for 12.7 °C and 22.4 °C, respectively. The half-life times measured for NPEs were from 8 to 16 days at 12.7 °C and from 8 to 18 days at 22.4 °C. Environmental risk assessment revealed that for LAS homologues no environment risk could be expected after 7 and 8 days of sludge application to the soil for 22.4 and 12.7 °C, respectively; however, potential toxic effects could be observed for the nonylphenolic compounds during the first 56 days after sludge application to the soil.

  19. Octyl- and Nonylphenol Ethoxylates and Carboxylates in Wastewater and Sediments by Isotope Dilution Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    This work presents an LC-MS-MS-based method for the quantitation of nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEOs) and octylphenol ethoxylates (OPEOs) in water, sediment, and suspended particulate matter, and three of their carboxylated derivatives in water. The alkylphenol ethoxylates (APEOs) were analyzed using...

  20. IN VITRO STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF 17β-ESTRADIOL AND 4-NONYLPHENOL ON BOVINE SPERMATOZOA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Lukáčová

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Nonylphenol (NP, an environmental endocrine disruptor, is a final metabolite of nonylphenol ethoxylate (NPE that is able to interfere with hormonal system of numerous organisms. Estrogens play a central role in female reproduction, but also affect the male reproductive system. In males, stimulate mammalian spermatozoa capacitation, acrosome reaction and fertilizing ability. The aim of this in vitro study was to determine the effect of 17β-estradiol and nonylphenol (NP on the spermatozoa motility. Specifically, we examined the dose- and time-dependent effect of nonylphenol (1, 10, 100 and 200 µg/mL with the addition 1 µg/mL of 17β-estradiol on the motility and progressive motility of bovine spermatozoa during two time periods (0 h and 6 h. The spermatozoa motility was determined by CASA (Computer Assisted Semen Analyzer system using the Sperm VisionTM program. The results showed decreased average values of motility in all experimental groups during 0 h of in vitro cultivation. The motility and the progressive motility of bovine spermatozoa increased in the experimental groups using concentrations 10, 100 and 200 µg/mL after 6 h of cultivation and significant differences (P<0.05 were detected between these groups and the control group. The results suggest that the addition of 17β-estradiol could positively affect spermatozoa motility during the short-term cultivation of spermatozoa with NP.

  1. Effects of triclosan, diclofenac, and nonylphenol on mesophilic and thermophilic methanogenic activity and on the methanogenic communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Symsaris, Evangelos C.; Fotidis, Ioannis; Stasinakis, Athanasios S.;

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a toxicity assay using a mesophilic wastewater treatment plant sludge-based (SI) and a thermophilic manure-based inoculum (MI), under different biomass concentrations was performed to define the effects of diclofenac (DCF), triclosan (TCS), and nonylphenol (NP) on anaerobic digestion...

  2. Assessing the impact of global change on micropollutants in aquatic ecosystems: Modelling the fate of nonylphenolic compounds in the Seine River

    OpenAIRE

    Cladière, Mathieu; Bonhomme, Céline; Vilmin, Lauriane; Gasperi, Johnny; Flipo, Nicolas; Habets, Florence; Tassin, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    This study aims at modelling the annual variability in concentrations of nonylphenolic compounds such as 4 nonylphenol (4-NP), nonylphenol monoethoxylate (NP1EO) and nonylphenoxy acetic acid (NP1EC) within the Seine River in the Paris metropolitan area. These compounds are of prime interest because the 4-NP is a well known endocrine disrupting chemical, while NP1EO and NP1EC are expected to be biodegraded into 4-NP in the environment (Giger et al. 2009). Thus the potential consequence of clim...

  3. Aerobic Microbial Respiration In Oceanic Oxygen Minimum Zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalvelage, Tim; Lavik, Gaute; Jensen, Marlene Mark;

    2015-01-01

    Namibia and Peru. Experiments with additions of double-labelled oxygen revealed high aerobic activity in the upper OMZs, likely controlled by surface organic matter export. Consistently observed oxygen consumption in samples retrieved throughout the lower OMZs hints at efficient exploitation of vertically...... denitrification and alternative anaerobic pathways of organic matter remineralization cannot account for the ammonium requirements of reported anammox rates. Here, we explore the significance of microaerobic respiration as a source of ammonium during organic matter degradation in the oxygen-deficient waters off...... and laterally advected, oxygenated waters in this zone by aerobic microorganisms. In accordance, metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses identified genes encoding for aerobic terminal oxidases and demonstrated their expression by diverse microbial communities, even in virtually anoxic waters. Our...

  4. Microbial Degradation of Indole and Its Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Kumar Arora

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Indole and its derivatives, including 3-methylindole and 4-chloroindole, are environmental pollutants that are present worldwide. Microbial degradation of indole and its derivatives can occur in several aerobic and anaerobic pathways; these pathways involve different known and characterized genes. In this minireview, we summarize and explain the microbial degradation of indole, indole-3-acetic acid, 4-chloroindole, and methylindole.

  5. Stable isotope fractionation during PCE halorespiration and aerobic cisDCE and VC biodegradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of our study were to identify the anaerobic/aerobic dechlorination mechanisms at two chloroethene-contaminated sites, to assess the isotopic enrichment factors in groundwater microcosms, and to evaluate microbial degradation in the field based on the isotopic signatures. In anaerobic microcosms, a transformation of PCE and TCE to cisDCE was observed. Halo respiration was accompanied by isotopic fractionation effects similar to previous publications. In aerobic microcosms, cisDCE and VC were degraded indicating a co-metabolic degradation of cisDCE in the course of VC degradation. In other experiments, only VC was degraded. Enrichment factors were determined during aerobic degradation of cisDCE and VC. These factors are significantly higher than factors published previously. This study demonstrates that isotope fractionation is suitable for assessing anaerobic/aerobic chloroethene degradation. However, the factors vary for different degradation pathways and micro organisms. Therefore, site-specific enrichment factors have to be determined in order to quantify natural attenuation processes in the field. (author)

  6. ANAEROBIC/AEROBIC BIODEGRADATION OF PENTACHLOROPHENOL USING GAC FLUIDIXED BED REACTORS: OPTIMIZATION OF THE EMPTY BED CONTACT TIME

    Science.gov (United States)

    An integrated reactor system has been developed to remediate pentachlorophenol (PCP) containing wastes using sequential anaerobic and aerobic biodegradation. Anaerobically, PCP was degraded to approximately equimolar concentrations (>99%) of chlorophenol (CP) in a granular activa...

  7. Transcription factor activity of estrogen receptor α activation upon nonylphenol or bisphenol A treatment enhances the in vitro proliferation, invasion, and migration of neuroblastoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongda; Yao, Yao; Wang, Changli; Zhang, Liyu; Cheng, Long; Wang, Yiren; Wang, Tao; Liang, Erguang; Jia, Hui; Ye, Qinong; Hou, Mingxiao; Feng, Fan

    2016-01-01

    Many kinds of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), for example, the environmental estrogens bisphenol A and nonylphenol, may regulate the activity of estrogen receptor α (ERα) and therefore induce potential disruption of normal endocrine function. However, the involvement of EDCs in human cancers, especially in endocrine-related cancer neuroblastoma regulation, is not very clear. In this work, results showed that upon bisphenol A or nonylphenol treatment, the transcription factor activity of ERα was significantly increased in neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y. Bisphenol A and nonylphenol could enhance ERα activity via recruiting it to the target gene promoter. Furthermore, treatment of bisphenol A and nonylphenol enhanced the in vitro proliferation, invasion, and migration ability of neuroblastoma cells. By investigating the role of EDC-induced ERα upregulation, our data extend the understanding of the function of EDCs and further suggest that ERα might be a potential therapeutic target in human neuroblastoma treatment. PMID:27366082

  8. Biodegradation of Acid Anthraquinone Dye in a Facultative-aerobic Process: Kinetics and Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yin; LI Zai-lei

    2009-01-01

    The transformation of an anthraquinone dye blue 324 in a facultative-aerobic (F-A) system was investigated. Kinetic parameter study showed that higher Vmax coupled with more recalcitrant chemical oxygen demand (COD) were found in the facuitative biofilm reactor (FBR) than in the aerobic reactor (AR). Results of the product analyses indicated that most of dye molecular could be facultatively broken down into simple intermediates, which would be further degraded under subsequent aerobic condition. The main metabolites in each reactor were detected by infrared (FT-IR) and high performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). Comparison of the toxicities among the dye and its metabolites was conducted, surprisingly, the colorless intermediates from FBR possessed less inhibitory than original dye and the median effective luminescence concentration (EC50) in 15 min for aerobic effluent could not be detected, showing that hardly toxic products existed in the aerobic process effluent.

  9. Biodegradation of tributyl phosphate, an organosphate triester, by aerobic granular biofilms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nancharaiah, Y.V., E-mail: venkatany@gmail.com; Kiran Kumar Reddy, G.; Krishna Mohan, T.V.; Venugopalan, V.P.

    2015-02-11

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Aerobic granular biomass was cultivated by feeding TBP along with acetate. • Rapid biodegradation of TBP when used as a co-substrate or as the sole carbon source. • Biodegradation of 2 mM TBP in 5 h with degradation rate of 0.4 μmol mL{sup −1} h{sup −1}. • High phosphatase activity was observed in TBP-degrading granular biomass. • n-Butanol, hydrolyzed product of TBP, was rapidly metabolized by aerobic granules. - Abstract: Tributyl phosphate (TBP) is commercially used in large volumes for reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. TBP is a very stable compound and persistent in natural environments and it is not removed in conventional wastewater treatment plants. In this study, cultivation of aerobic granular biofilms in a sequencing batch reactor was investigated for efficient biodegradation of TBP. Enrichment of TBP-degrading strains resulted in efficient degradation of TBP as sole carbon or along with acetate. Complete biodegradation of 2 mM of TBP was achieved within 5 h with a degradation rate of 0.4 μmol mL{sup −1} h{sup −1}. TBP biodegradation was accompanied by release of inorganic phosphate in stoichiometric amounts. n-Butanol, hydrolysed product of TBP was rapidly biodegraded. But, dibutyl phosphate, a putative intermediate of TBP degradation was only partially degraded pointing to an alternative degradation pathway. Phosphatase activity was 22- and 7.5-fold higher in TBP-degrading biofilms as compared to bioflocs and acetate-fed aerobic granules. Community analysis by terminal restriction length polymorphism revealed presence of 30 different bacterial strains. Seven bacterial stains, including Sphingobium sp. a known TBP degrader were isolated. The results show that aerobic granular biofilms are promising for treatment of TBP-bearing wastes or ex situ bioremediation of TBP-contaminated sites.

  10. Biodegradation of tributyl phosphate, an organosphate triester, by aerobic granular biofilms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Aerobic granular biomass was cultivated by feeding TBP along with acetate. • Rapid biodegradation of TBP when used as a co-substrate or as the sole carbon source. • Biodegradation of 2 mM TBP in 5 h with degradation rate of 0.4 μmol mL−1 h−1. • High phosphatase activity was observed in TBP-degrading granular biomass. • n-Butanol, hydrolyzed product of TBP, was rapidly metabolized by aerobic granules. - Abstract: Tributyl phosphate (TBP) is commercially used in large volumes for reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. TBP is a very stable compound and persistent in natural environments and it is not removed in conventional wastewater treatment plants. In this study, cultivation of aerobic granular biofilms in a sequencing batch reactor was investigated for efficient biodegradation of TBP. Enrichment of TBP-degrading strains resulted in efficient degradation of TBP as sole carbon or along with acetate. Complete biodegradation of 2 mM of TBP was achieved within 5 h with a degradation rate of 0.4 μmol mL−1 h−1. TBP biodegradation was accompanied by release of inorganic phosphate in stoichiometric amounts. n-Butanol, hydrolysed product of TBP was rapidly biodegraded. But, dibutyl phosphate, a putative intermediate of TBP degradation was only partially degraded pointing to an alternative degradation pathway. Phosphatase activity was 22- and 7.5-fold higher in TBP-degrading biofilms as compared to bioflocs and acetate-fed aerobic granules. Community analysis by terminal restriction length polymorphism revealed presence of 30 different bacterial strains. Seven bacterial stains, including Sphingobium sp. a known TBP degrader were isolated. The results show that aerobic granular biofilms are promising for treatment of TBP-bearing wastes or ex situ bioremediation of TBP-contaminated sites

  11. Electronic Structure and Mesoscopic Simulations of Nonylphenol Ethoxylate Surfactants. A Combined DFT and DPD Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isidoro García-Cruz

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to gain insight into the effect of ethylene oxide (EO chains on the properties of a series of nonylphenol ethoxylate (NPE surfactants. We performed a theoretical study of NPE surfactants by means of density functional theory (DFT and dissipative particle dynamics (DPD. Both approximations were used separately to obtain different properties. Four NPEs were selected for this purpose (EO = 4, 7, 11 and 15 length chains. DFT methods provided some electronic properties that are related to the EO units. One of them is the solvation Gibbs energy, which exhibited a linear trend with EO chain length. DPD calculations allow us to observe the dynamic behavior in water of the NPE surfactants. We propose a coarse-grained model which properly simulates the mesophases of each surfactant. This model can be used in other NPEs applications.

  12. Aerobic Biostabilization of Old MSW Landfills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Zanetti

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Many years after the end of the cultivation phase, landfills may generate intense odours, toxic and explosive gases and heavily-polluted leachate. A wide-spreading trend in the management of MSW landfills is represented by the forced aeration of wastes in order to achieve the stabilization, reducing the negative environmental impact of uncontrolled sites (old landfills which can be definitely considered as contaminated sites and the management costs of controlled and working facilities. One of the most interesting challenges is the in situ waste aerobic stabilization, obtained by insufflating air into the wastes. The aerobic metabolism is energetically convenient in comparison with the anaerobic one, it is characterized by a higher degradation rate and a temperature increase (like in the compost production. In order to obtain an aerobic biostabilization of waste in landfills, several air injection systems have been developed and applied in the last years, like Biopuster© or AEROflott® patented systems. The feasibility of the application of in situ biostabilization must be evaluated by means of different tests, in order to evaluate the main characteristics of the wastes. The main parameters to be evaluated are the biological stability and the air permeability of the wastes. In March 2006, the biological stability of the wastes located in the Trinitapoli Landfill, Italy, has been evaluated by the Politecnico di Torino. Black Index Test and Static Respirometric Index Test have been performed in the laboratories of the Politecnico. On the basis of the obtained results, the potential biogas production from the examined landfill was estimated together with the potential volume reduction.

  13. The distribution of 4-nonylphenol in marine organisms of North American Pacific Coast estuaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Jennifer; Johnson, Sarah E; Xia, Kang; West, Amy; Tomanek, Lars

    2012-04-01

    One of the chemical breakdown products of nonylphenol ethoxylates, 4-nonylphenol (4-NP), accumulates in organisms and is of concern as an environmental pollutant due to its endocrine disrupting effects. We measured 4-NP levels in the seawater, sediment, and twelve organisms within the California estuary, Morro Bay, and examined biomagnification of 4-NP using stable isotope abundances (δ(15)N and δ(13)C) to quantify trophic position. 4-NP concentrations in organisms from Morro Bay included 25000±8600 ng g(-1) lw in liver of California sea lion, 14000±5600 ng g(-1) lw in liver of harbor porpoise, 138000±55000 ng g(-1) lw in liver of sea otters, 15700±3600 ng g(-1) lw in liver of seabirds, 36100±6100 ng g(-1) lw in arrow goby fish, 62800±28400 ng g(-1) lw in oysters, and 12700±1300 ng g(-1) lw in mussels. 4-NP levels generally showed a pattern of trophic dilution among organisms in Morro Bay, with exceptions of biomagnification observed between three trophic links: mussel to sea otter (BMF 10.9), oyster to sea otter (BMF 2.2), and arrow goby to staghorn sculpin (BMF 2.7). Our examination of other west coast estuaries of USA and Canada revealed that mean 4-NP concentrations in gobies and mussels from Morro Bay were significantly higher than those from a more urbanized estuary, San Francisco Bay (goby: 11100±3800 ng g(-1) lw) and from a remote estuary, Bamfield Inlet, Canada (goby: 9000±900 ng g(-1) lw, mussel: 6100±700 ng g(-1) lw). Relative to other estuaries worldwide, 4-NP levels in seawater (0.42±0.16 μg L(-1)) and sediment (53±14 ng g(-1) dw) of Morro Bay are low, but gobies and oysters have higher 4-NP levels than comparable fauna. PMID:22257992

  14. Brain Plasticity and Aerobic Fitness

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Adam G.; Johansen-Berg, Heidi; Bandettini, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Regular aerobic exercise has a wide range of positive effects on health and cognition. Exercise has been demonstrated to provide a particularly powerful and replicable method of triggering a wide range of structural changes within both human and animal brains. However, the details and mechanisms of these changes remain poorly understood. This thesis undertakes a comprehensive examination of the relationship between brain plasticity and aerobic exercise. A large, longitudinal experiment ...

  15. Gaseous emissions reduction from aerobic MBT of municipal solid waste

    OpenAIRE

    Zdanevitch, Isabelle; Mallard, Pascal; Bour, Olivier; Briand, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Surface gaseous emissions, composition of soil gas and VOC concentration were determined on a French MBT plant, where the biodegradation process is aerobic. Measurements were performed on both the composting windrows and on the landfill cell which receives the sorting rejects. This allowed the comparison of the global methane and CO2 gases, as well as the characterization of the degradation process on the different parts of the site. The performance of the sorting chain allow to obtain a high...

  16. EFEKTIVITAS SISTEM BIOFILTER AEROB DALAM MENURUNKAN KADAR AMONIA PADA AIR LIMBAH

    OpenAIRE

    Ni Made Indra Wahyuni; I Wayan Budiarsa Suyasa; I Gede Mahardika

    2015-01-01

    The increasingpopulationand activity of the Balinese people can increase the amount of waste as a byproduct of community activities. The presence of the metabolites in wastewater as ammonia is toxic to aquatic organisms. Application aerobic biofilter system can be used as an attempt to reduce levels of ammonia. In the aerobic biofilter, contact between the gravel media with microorganisms that form biofilmsare able to accelerate the degradation of organic matter and nitrification processes. T...

  17. Degradation of alkylphenol ethoxylates by Pseudomonas sp. strain TR01.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, H; Masuda, N; Fujiwara, Y; Ike, M; Fujita, M

    1994-07-01

    An alkylphenol ethoxylate-degrading bacterium was isolated from activated sludge of a municipal sewage treatment plant by enrichment culture. This organism was found to belong to the genus Pseudomonas; since no corresponding species was identified, we designated it as Pseudomonas sp. strain TR01. This strain had an optimal temperature and pH of 30 degrees C and 7, respectively, for both growth and the degradation of Triton N-101 (a nonylphenol ethoxylate in which the average number of ethylene oxide [EO] units is 9.5). The strain was unable to mineralize Triton N-101 but was able to degrade its EO chain exclusively. The resulting dominant intermediate was identified by normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as a nonylphenol ethoxylate with 2 mol of EO units. A carboxylated metabolite, [(nonylphenoxy)ethoxy]acetic acid, was detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. This bacterium also metabolized alcohol ethoxylates with various numbers of EO units but not polyethylene glycols whatever their degree of polymerization. By oxygen consumption assay, the alkyl group or arene corresponding to the hydrophobic part of alcohol ethoxylates or alkylphenol ethoxylates was shown to contribute to the induction of the metabolic system of the EO chain of Triton N-101, instead of the EO chain itself, which corresponds to its hydrophilic part. Thus, the isolated pseudomonad bacterium has unique substrate assimilability: it metabolizes the EO chain only when the chain linked to bulky hydrophobic groups. PMID:8074508

  18. Aerobic microbial metabolism of condensed thiophenes found in petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aerobic microbial degradation of 21 condensed thiophenes found in petroleum or synthetic fuels have been studied, motivated by recent research which showed that resistance to biodegradation increases with increasing methyl-substitution. The specific objective was to identify metabolites in pure cultures of aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading Pseudomonas spp. incubated in mineral medium in the presence of an aromatic growth substrate and a condensed thiophene. Over 80 metabolites of the condensed thiophenes were identified using gas chromatography analysis with an atomic emission detector. Among the metabolites identified were sulfoxides, sulfones, hydroxy- and carboxyl-substituted benzothiophenes, hydroxy-substituted dibenzothiophenes, substituted benzothiophene-2,3-diones, and 3-hydroxy-2-formylbenzothiophenes

  19. Lipid Biomarkers Indicating Aerobic Methanotrophy at Ancient Marine Methane- Seeps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birgel, D.; Peckmann, J.

    2007-12-01

    The inventory of lipid biomarkers of a number of ancient methane-seep limestones has been studied over the last decade. The molecular fingerprints of the chemosynthesis-based microbial communities tend to be extremely well-preserved in these limestones. The key process at seeps is the anaerobic oxidation of methane, performed by consortia of sulfate-reducing bacteria and methanotrophic archaea. Compounds preserved within modern and ancient seep settings comprise C-13-depleted lipid biomarkers. Besides the occurrence of C-13- depleted isoprenoids (archaea) and n-alkyl-chains (bacteria), C-13-depleted hopanoids have been reported in seep limestones. Here, lipid biomarker data are presented from three ancient methane-seep limestones embedded in Miocene and Campanian strata. These examples provide strong evidence that methane was not solely oxidized by an anaerobic process. In a Miocene limestone, 3-beta-methylated hopanoids were found (delta C-13: -100 per mil). Most likely, 3-beta-methylated hopanepolyols, prevailing in aerobic methanotrophs were the precursor lipids. In another Miocene limestone, a series of C-13-depleted 4-methylated steranes (lanostanes; -80 to -70 per mil) is derived from aerobic methanotrophs. Lanosterol is the most likely precursor of lanostanes, known to be produced by aerobic methanotrophs, some of which are outstanding among bacteria in having the capacity to produce steroids. In a Campanian seep limestone a suite of conspicuous secohexahydrobenzohopanes (-110 to -107 per mil) is found. These hopanoids probably represent early degradation products of seep-endemic aerobic methanotrophs. This interpretation is supported by the presence of "regular" hopanoids that can be discriminated from the unusual secohexahydrobenzohopanes by only moderately low delta C-13 values (-49 to -42 per mil). Structural and carbon isotope data reveal that aerobic methanotrophy is more common at ancient methane- seeps than previously noticed. Our data indicate that

  20. Atrazine and terbutryn degradation in deposits from groundwater environment within the boreal region in Lahti, Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talja, K Marja; Kaukonen, Sanna; Kilpi-Koski, Johanna; Malin, Ismo; Kairesalo, Timo; Romantschuk, Martin; Tuominen, Jari; Kontro, Merja H

    2008-12-24

    The degradation of pesticides atrazine and terbutryn was investigated under aerobic and anaerobic conditions in the northern boreal region subsurface deposits and sterilized controls from the depths of 6.3-21.0 m below the surface and 1.2-16.9 m below the groundwater table. During 1.3-1.7 years of laboratory incubation, atrazine degradation under aerobic conditions varied from rapid (half-live 38 days) to no degradation. Anaerobically, atrazine half-lives were 430-829 days. Organic matter, nitrogen, and lead in deposits correlated positively with the atrazine concentration in groundwater. Aerobic and anaerobic terbutryn half-lives were 193-644 and 266-400 days, respectively. Microbial aerobic atrazine and terbutryn degradation was confirmed in the deep deposits near the water table. Under aerobic conditions, the high amounts of Cr, Mn, Ni, and Zn in deposits decreased the chemical degradation of terbutryn. PMID:19053391

  1. Influence of operating parameters on the biodegradation of steroid estrogens and nonylphenolic compounds during biological wastewater treatment processes

    OpenAIRE

    Chiu, TY; Boobis, AR; Scrimshaw, MD; Bagnall, JP; Soares, A.; Pollard, S; Cartmell, E; Lester, JN

    2009-01-01

    This document is the unedited author's version of a Submitted Work that was subsequently accepted for publication in Environmental Science & Technology, copyright © American Chemical Society after peer review. To access the final edited and published work see http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/es901612v. This study investigated operational factors influencing the removal of steroid estrogens and nonylphenolic compounds in two sewage treatment works, one a nitrifying/denitrifying act...

  2. Enzymatic removal of estrogenic activity of nonylphenol and octylphenol aqueous solutions by immobilized laccase from Trametes versicolor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catapane, Maria [Institute of Genetics and Biophysics “ABT”, Via P. Castellino, 111, 80131 Naples (Italy); National Institute of Biostructures and Biosystems (INBB), Viale Medaglie d’Oro, 305, 00136 Rome (Italy); Nicolucci, Carla; Menale, Ciro; Mita, Luigi [National Institute of Biostructures and Biosystems (INBB), Viale Medaglie d’Oro, 305, 00136 Rome (Italy); Department of Experimental Medicine, Second University of Naples, Via S. M. di Costantinopoli, 16, 80138 Naples (Italy); Rossi, Sergio [Institute of Genetics and Biophysics “ABT”, Via P. Castellino, 111, 80131 Naples (Italy); Mita, Damiano G., E-mail: mita@igb.cnr.it [Institute of Genetics and Biophysics “ABT”, Via P. Castellino, 111, 80131 Naples (Italy); National Institute of Biostructures and Biosystems (INBB), Viale Medaglie d’Oro, 305, 00136 Rome (Italy); Department of Experimental Medicine, Second University of Naples, Via S. M. di Costantinopoli, 16, 80138 Naples (Italy); Diano, Nadia [Institute of Genetics and Biophysics “ABT”, Via P. Castellino, 111, 80131 Naples (Italy); National Institute of Biostructures and Biosystems (INBB), Viale Medaglie d’Oro, 305, 00136 Rome (Italy); Department of Experimental Medicine, Second University of Naples, Via S. M. di Costantinopoli, 16, 80138 Naples (Italy)

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► Endocrine disruptors cause adverse effects in living organisms. ► Nonylphenol and Octylphenol are alkylphenols recognized as endocrine disruptors. ► It is necessary to remove or reduce their presence in the environment. ► Waters polluted by these pollutants have been bioremediated by immobilized laccase from Trametes versicolor. ► Laccase treated solutions were found to have lost any estrogenic activity. -- Abstract: A fluidized bed reactor, filled with laccase-based beads, has been employed to bioremediate aqueous solutions polluted by endocrine disruptors belonging to the alkylphenols (APs) class. In particular Octylphenol and Nonylphenol have been studied. The catalytic activity of free and immobilized laccase from Trametes versicolor has been characterized as a function of pH, temperature and substrate concentration in the reaction medium. In view of practical applications for each substrate concentration the removal efficiency (RE), the time to halve the initial concentration (τ{sub 50}), and the t{sub c=0}, i.e. the time to reach complete pollutant removal, have been calculated. The immobilized laccase exhibited a lower affinity for octylphenol (K{sub m} = 1.11 mM) than for Nonylphenol (K{sub m} = 0.72 mM), but all the other parameters of applicative interest resulted more significant for octylphenol. For example, the times to reach the complete removal of octylphenol compared to those for nonylphenol at the same concentration is shorter of about 15% (at low concentrations) up to 40% (at high concentrations). The study of cell proliferation with MPP89 cells, a human mesothelioma cell line, and the assay with the YES test indicated the loss of estrogenic activity of the APs solutions after laccase treatment.

  3. The biological degradation as an energy option, determination of the effects of the aerobic phase on the subsequent production of biogas in a sanitary landfill; La degradacion biologica como una opcion energetica, determinacion de los efectos de la fase aerobia sobre la subsecuente produccion de biogas en un relleno sanitario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar Juarez, Oscar [Asesoria de Servicios Ambientales del Bajio (ASSB), (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    The present work deals with the energy evaluation of biological processes as energy source and is based on works concerning laboratory, pilot and field research. The objective of the research is to integrate the effect of the aerobic phase during the process of degradation of organic residues (basically the organic fraction of domestic residues), where the last aim is the biogas production. The usefulness of the results is reflected in the suitable estimation of the filling of a sanitary landfill considering the composition of the residues deposited and the effects that this management will have on the run-up time of the same and the velocity of biogas production. Finally, integrates a reflection on the intrinsic energy implications of the process and of the biogas yielding, which is evaluated as well as energy source. [Spanish] El presente trabajo trata sobre la valoracion energetica de procesos biologicos como fuente de energia y se basa en trabajos de investigacion a nivel de laboratorio, piloto y de campo. El objetivo de la investigacion es integrar el efecto de la fase aerobia durante el proceso de degradacion de residuos organicos (basicamente la fraccion organica de residuos domesticos), donde el fin ultimo es la produccion de biogas. La utilidad de los resultados se refleja en la estimacion adecuada del llenado de un relleno sanitario considerando la composicion de los residuos ahi depositados y los efectos que tendra esta gestion sobre el tiempo de estabilizacion de los mismos y la velocidad de produccion de biogas. Finalmente, se integra una reflexion sobre las implicaciones energeticas intrinsecas al proceso y del rendimiento de biogas, el cual a su vez es valorizado como fuente de energia.

  4. Low-cost step aerobics system with virtual aerobics trainer

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa, Alejandro; Barbancho, Isabel; Tardón, Lorenzo J.; Barbancho, Ana M.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper a low-cost step-aerobics instructor simulation system is presented. The proposed system analyses a given song to iden- tify its rhythmic pattern. Subsequently, this rhythmic pattern is used in order to issue a set of steps-aerobics commands to the user, thus simu- lating a training session. The system uses a Wii Balance Board to track exercises performed by users and runs on an Android smartphone. A set of tests were conducted to assess user experience and opin...

  5. Selección mediante Simulación de una Estructura de Modelo Cinético para la Degradación Aeróbica de Efluentes de una Industria Láctea Selection by Simulation of a Model for the Kinetic Structure of an Aerobic Degradation System for Effluents from a Milk Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Rosa

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este trabajo consiste en implementar una metodología de selección de estructuras de modelos cinéticos, para el caso concreto de la degradación aerobia de los efluentes industriales de una empresa láctea regional, utilizando como herramienta la simulación. Esta se encuentra disponible en un software comercial específico y consiste en configurar para uno o varios sustratos, un set de estructuras de modelos de complejidad creciente, con velocidades de degradación independientes, para evaluar el comportamiento del sistema mediante combinaciones de las mismas, confrontando los resultados obtenidos por simulación con los datos experimentales. Los resultados alcanzados para una estructura relativamente simple se consideran satisfactorios para ser implementados industrialmente. El aporte más importante lo constituye la convalidación tanto de la metodología propuesta como de la potencialidad del software para ser aplicado al análisis de situaciones reales, lo cual resulta de especial importancia para el análisis y diseño de plantas de tratamientoThis work consisted in implementing a methodology for the selection of kinetic model structures for a real case of aerobic degradation of industrial effluents from a regional milk industry using simulation as a tool. This tool is available in a specific commercial software and consists of making configurations for one or several substrates with a set of structural models of increasing complexity and independent degradation velocities. The behavior of the system is evaluated using various combinations of the preceding considerations and comparing the simulated results with industrial experimental data. The results obtained using a relatively simple structure were satisfactory for industrial application. The most important contribution was the proof that both the proposed methodology and the power of the software could be applied to real situations, which is of especial importance

  6. Combined alkaline and ultrasonic pretreatment of sludge before aerobic digestion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Yiying; LI Huan; MAHAR Rasool Bux; WANG Zhiyu; NIE Yongfeng

    2009-01-01

    Alkaline and ultrasonic sludge disintegration can both be used as pretreatments of waste activated sludge (WAS) for improving the subsequent anaerobic or aerobic digestion. The pretreatment has been carried out using different combination of these two methods in this study. The effect was evaluated based on the quantity of soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) in the pretreated sludge as well as the degradation of organic matter in the following aerobic digestion. For WAS samples with combined pretreatment, the released COD was in high level than those with ultrasonic or alkaline treatment. When combined with the same ultrasonic treatment, NaOH treatment resulted in more solubilization of WAS than Ca(OH)2. For combined NaOH and ultrasonic treatments with different sequences, the released COD were in the order: simultaneous treatment > ultrasonic treatment following NaOH treatment > NaOH treatment following ultrasonic treatment. For simultaneous treatment, low NaOH dosage (100 g/kg dry solid), short duration (30 min) of NaOH treatment, and low ultrasonic specific energy (7 500 kJ/kg dry solid) were beneficial for sludge disintegration. Using combined NaOH and ultrasonic pretreatment with the optimium parameters, the degradation efficiency of organic matter was increased from 38.0% to 50.7%, which is much higher than with ultrasonic (42.5%) or with NaOH pretreatment (43.5%) in the subsequent aerobic digestion at the same retention time.

  7. Bacterial Degradation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Macková, M.; Uhlík, O.; Lovecká, P.; Viktorová, J.; Nováková, M.; Demnerová, K.; Sylvestre, M.; Macek, Tomáš

    Dordrecht: Springer, 2010 - (Barton, L.; Mandl, M.; Loy, A.), s. 347-366 ISBN 978-90-481-9203-8 Grant ostatní: GA ČR(CZ) GA525/09/1058; GA MŠk(CZ) 2B06156; GA MŠk(CZ) 2B08031 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : bioremediation * PCB * anaerobic reductive dechlorination * aerobic degradation Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics

  8. Degradation Action of the Anaerobic Bacteria and Oxygen to the Polymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Xiang-Guo; ZHANG Ke

    2008-01-01

    Oxygen could prohibit anaerobic bacterium in the produced water and degrade the polymer molecular chains.Aiming at problems making up aerobic polymer solution by the produced water in Daqing Oil Field, some evaluations were done on the viscosity characteristics of polymer solution and bactericide in anaerobic and aerobic environments. Reasonable aerobic concentration of the produced water was obtained. The experimental results indicate that the viscosity of polymer solution confected by the produced water in the aerobic environment is higher than that of the polymer solution confected by the produced water in the anaerobic environment, and the reasonable ments, but the sterilization effect is better in the aerobic environment.

  9. Aerobic exercise in pulmonary rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Brasileiro de Vasconcelos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to conduct a literature review on the usefulness of aerobic exercise in pulmonary rehabilitation. This is an exploratory study of literature through the electronic databases Medline, Lilacs, Scielo, Pubmed and Google Scholar, published between 1996 and 2012, conducted during the period February to May 2012 with the following keywords: COPD, pulmonary rehabilitation, aerobic exercises, physical training, quality of life. The change in pulmonary function and dysfunction of skeletal muscles that result in exercise intolerance and reduced fitness and may cause social isolation, depression, anxiety and addiction. The training exercise is the most important component of the program of pulmonary rehabilitation where the aerobic training provides consistent results in clinical improvement in levels of exercise tolerance and decreased dyspnea generating more benefits to the body, reducing the chance of cardiovascular disease and improves quality and expectation of life. We demonstrated that the use of aerobic exercise in pulmonary rehabilitation program, allows an improvement of motor skills, decreased muscle fatigue and deconditioning, reducing sedentary lifestyle; however, has little or no effect on the reduction of strength and atrophy muscle.

  10. Biosorption of nonylphenol by pure algae, field-collected planktons and their fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algal samples were fractionated into lipid (LP), lipid free (LF), alkaline nonhydrolyzable carbon (ANHC), and acid nonhydrolyzable carbon (NHC) fractions, and were characterized by the quantitative 13C multiCP NMR technique. The biosorption isotherms for nonylphenol (NP) were established and compared with previously published data for phenanthrene (Phen). The log KOC values are significantly higher for the field-collected plankton samples than for the commercial algae and cultured algae samples, correlating with their lipid contents and aliphatic carbon structure. As the NHC fraction contains more poly(methylene) carbon, it exhibits a higher biosorption capacity. The sorption capacities are negatively related to the polarity index, COO/N–C=O, polar C and O-alkyl C concentrations, but are positively related to the H/O atomic ratios and poly(methylene) carbon. The higher sorption capacities observed for NP than for Phen on the investigated samples are explained by specific interactions such as hydrogen bonding and π–π interaction. - Highlights: • Quantitative 13C NMR technique was applied to algae and their fraction samples. • The biosorption isotherms for the ANHC and NHC fractions are nonlinear. • Polarity and lipid affect the biosorption capacity of NP. • The sorption capacity is positively related to polymethylene carbon. • The hydrogen and π–π interactions between NP and algae could be important. - The NHC fractions are chemically and structurally different from other fractions, and their biosorption for NP is much higher than that of the bulk algae

  11. Combined Effects of Nonylphenol and Bisphenol A on the Human Prostate Epithelial Cell Line RWPE-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weidong Gan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The xenoestrogens nonylphenol (NP and bisphenol A (BPA are regarded as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs which have widespread occurrence in our daily life. In the present study, the purpose was to analyze the combined effects of NP and BPA on the human prostate epithelial cell line RWPE-1 using two mathematical models based on the Loewe additivity (LA theory and the Bliss independence (BI theory. RWPE-1 cells were treated with NP (0.01–100 µM and BPA (1–5000 µM in either a single or a combined format. A cell viability assay and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH leakage rate assay were employed as endpoints. As predicted by the two models and based on the cell viability assay, significant synergism between NP and BPA were observed. However, based on the LDH assay, the trends were reversed. Given that environmental contaminants are frequently encountered simultaneously, these data indicated that there were potential interactions between NP and BPA, and the combined effects of the chemical mixture might be stronger than the additive values of individual chemicals combined, which should be taken into consideration for the risk assessment of EDCs.

  12. Uptake and distribution of bisphenol A and nonylphenol in vegetable crops irrigated with reclaimed water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jian; Wu, Jun; Stoffella, Peter J; Wilson, P Chris

    2015-01-01

    The potential uptake and distribution of bisphenol A (BPA) and nonylphenol (NP) (from reclaimed irrigation water) in edible crops was investigated. BPA and NP were spiked into simulated reclaimed water at environmentally relevant concentrations. Two crops (lettuce, Lactuca sativa and tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum) were grown hydroponically in a greenhouse using the spiked irrigation water under two irrigation exposure scenarios (overhead foliar exposure and subsurface root exposure). BPA concentrations in tomato fruit were 26.6 ± 5.8 (root exposure) and 18.3 ± 3.5 (foliar exposure) μg kg(-1), while concentrations in lettuce leaves were 80.6 ± 23.1 (root exposure) and 128.9 ± 17.4 (foliar exposure) μg kg(-1). NP concentrations in tomato fruit were 46.1 ± 6.6 (root exposure) and 24.6 ± 6.4 (foliar exposure) μg kg(-1), while concentrations in lettuce leaves were 144.1 ± 9.2 (root exposure) and 195.0 ± 16.9 (foliar exposure) μg kg(-1). BPA was relatively mobile in lettuce plants regardless of exposure route. Limited mobility was observed for NP in both crops and BPA in tomatoes. The estimated daily intake of BPA and NP through consumption of vegetables irrigated with reclaimed water ranged from 8.9-62.9 to 11.9-95.1 μg, respectively, depending on the exposure route. PMID:25464330

  13. Sorption behavior of nonylphenol on marine sediments: Effect of temperature, medium, sediment organic carbon and surfactant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → NP sorption kinetics accorded with non-linear Ho-McKay pseudo-second-order model. → Kd values showed positive correlation with sediment OC contents. → Medium salinity showed positive correlation with Kd and negative with DOC. → CTAB enhanced NP sorption amount the most while SDBS enhanced the lest. → NP sorption was an exothermic physical and spontaneous entropy-decreasing reaction. - Abstract: The sorption behavior of nonylphenol (NP, a toxic endocrine disruptor) on marine sediments was studied in detail through a series of kinetic and thermodynamic sorption experiments. The results showed that the sorption reaction of NP on marine sediments reached equilibrium in 1.5 h and that it accorded well with the non-linear Ho-McKay pseudo-second-order model. The sorption isotherms of NP on H2O-treated sediments could be well described by the Linear isotherm model, while the sorption isotherm on H2O2-treated sediments could be well fitted with the Freundlich isotherm model. A positive correlation was found between the distribution coefficient (Kd) and the sediment organic carbon contents. The medium salinity showed a positive relation with the Kd and a negative relation with the dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) enhanced the sorption amount of NP the most, while sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS) enhanced it the least. The sorption reaction of NP on marine sediments was a spontaneous, physical, exothermic and entropy-decreasing process.

  14. Modeling bioaccumulation and biomagnification of nonylphenol and its ethoxylates in estuarine-marine food chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsman, John C; Schipper, Aafke M; de Vos, Martine G; van den Heuvel-Greve, Martine J; Vethaak, A Dick; de Voogt, Pim; Hendriks, A Jan

    2015-11-01

    There are several studies on bioaccumulation and biomagnification of nonylphenol (NP) and its ethoxylates (NPEOs), but their toxico-kinetic mechanisms remain unclear. In the present investigation, we explored the accumulation of NP and NPEOs in estuarine-marine food chains with a bioaccumulation model comprising five trophic levels. Using this model, we estimated uptake and elimination rate constants for NPEOs based on the organisms' weight and lipid content and the chemicals' Kow. Further, we calculated accumulation factors for NP and NPEOs, including biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAF) and biomagnification factors (BMF), and compared these to independent field measurements collected in the Western Scheldt estuary in The Netherlands and field data reported in the literature. The estimated BSAF values for NP and total NPEOs were below 1 for all trophic levels. The estimated BMF values were around 1 for all trophic levels except for the highest level (carnivorous mammals and birds). For this trophic level, the estimated BMF value varied between 0.1 and 2.4, depending on the biotransformation capacity. For all trophic levels, except primary producers, the accumulation estimates that accounted for biotransformation of NPEOs into NP were closer to the field data than model estimates that did not include biotransformation, indicating that NP formation by biotransformation of NPEOs might occur in organisms. PMID:26026901

  15. The effect of para-nonylphenol on Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica) spermatogenesis in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, C. [Laboratory of Fish Reproductive Physiology, Faculty of Agriculture, Ehime University, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8566 (Japan); ' Times Arrow and Biosignaling' PRESTO Japan Science and Technology Agency, Kawaguchi 332-0012 (Japan); Takahashi, N. [Iwate Fisheries Technology Center, Fisheries and Resource Management Division, 3-75-3 Oaza-hirata, Kamaishi, Iwate 026-0001 (Japan); Michino, F. [Laboratory of Fish Reproductive Physiology, Faculty of Agriculture, Ehime University, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8566 (Japan); Miura, T. [Laboratory of Fish Reproductive Physiology, Faculty of Agriculture, Ehime University, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8566 (Japan); ' Times Arrow and Biosignaling' PRESTO Japan Science and Technology Agency, Kawaguchi 332-0012 (Japan)

    2005-01-26

    Endocrine disrupters have been recognized to interfere with endocrine systems that regulate reproduction, for example, by mimicking or inhibiting the action of endogenous sex steroid hormones including estradiol-17{beta} (E2). In the present study, we examined the effect of an endocrine disrupter, para-nonylphenol (p-NP) on spermatogenesis, and compared it with the action of E2, using an eel testicular organ culture system. p-NP alone stimulated early spermatogonial renewal in the same manner as E2. Neither induced further progress in spermatogenesis. In the presence of 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT), the major androgen in teleosts, p-NP did not prevent the 11-KT-induced progress in spermatogenesis. However, this treatment enlarged the Sertoli cells. Electron microscopic observation revealed that enlarged Sertoli cells contained well-developed organelles. Moreover, the proportion of germ cells appeared to have decreased as a result of Sertoli cell hypertrophy. These results clearly show that p-NP has an effect on Sertoli cells in the presence of an androgen (11-KT), potentially disturbing 11-KT-induced spermatogenesis.

  16. The effect of para-nonylphenol on Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica) spermatogenesis in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endocrine disrupters have been recognized to interfere with endocrine systems that regulate reproduction, for example, by mimicking or inhibiting the action of endogenous sex steroid hormones including estradiol-17β (E2). In the present study, we examined the effect of an endocrine disrupter, para-nonylphenol (p-NP) on spermatogenesis, and compared it with the action of E2, using an eel testicular organ culture system. p-NP alone stimulated early spermatogonial renewal in the same manner as E2. Neither induced further progress in spermatogenesis. In the presence of 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT), the major androgen in teleosts, p-NP did not prevent the 11-KT-induced progress in spermatogenesis. However, this treatment enlarged the Sertoli cells. Electron microscopic observation revealed that enlarged Sertoli cells contained well-developed organelles. Moreover, the proportion of germ cells appeared to have decreased as a result of Sertoli cell hypertrophy. These results clearly show that p-NP has an effect on Sertoli cells in the presence of an androgen (11-KT), potentially disturbing 11-KT-induced spermatogenesis

  17. Decomposition of ρ-nonylphenols in water by 60Co γ-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ρ-Nonylphenols (NPs), one of endocrine disrupting chemicals, are used as plastic flexibilizers or nonionic surfactants, and widely released into the water environment. Hydroxyl radicals produced from water molecules by γ-ray irradiation have high oxidation reactivity. Recently, treatments with the hydroxyl radicals have drawn much attention to conserve the water environment. In this study, decompositions of NPs in water were investigated using hydroxyl radicals by 60Co γ-rays irradiation. The concentrations of the NPs at initial concentration from 45 to 1000 nM were decomposed by γ-ray irradiation. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of NPs were carried out by high performance liquid chromatography. The decomposition curves of NPs at each initial concentration were analyzed as single exponential functions. Alkylphenol activity of aqueous NPs solution, which was estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, implies the irradiation products have alkylphenol activity. Two products having molecular weight of 236 were investigated by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and were considered to be ρ-nonylcatechol and 1-(ρ-hydroxyphenyl)-1-nonanol on the basis of the oxidation mechanisms of ρ-cresol and 4-ethylphenol. (author)

  18. Biosorption of nonylphenol on dead biomass of Rhizopus arrhizus encapsulated in chitosan beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Weeranuch; Dejma, Chomawan; Sirisansaneeyakul, Sarote; Sakairi, Nobuo

    2009-12-01

    The nonylphenol (NP) biosorption and desorption potential for fungal biomass used under batch conditions was investigated using kinetics and isotherm models. Fungal biomass of Rhizopus arrhizus TISTR 3610 exhibited preferential uptake of NP, an endocrine disrupting chemicals. Sporangiospores, asexual spores, were immobilised in chitosan beads. The biosorption data of NP on the moist heat inactivated R. arrhizus-chitosan beads were analyzed using four popular adsorption isotherms and, by using non-linear least-regression with the solver add-in in Microsoft Excel, correlated in order with the Fritz-Schluender>Redlich-Peterson>Freundlich>Langmuir isotherms. The pseudo first-order kinetics was found to have the best fit with the experimental data. The diffusivity of NP in the R. arrhizus-chitosan beads was calculated using the shrinking core model, and the diffusivity values were in the ranges of 2.3736x10(-4)-1.8950x10(-4) cm(2) s(-1). Desorption to recover the adsorbed NP from the beads was performed in methanol and was best described using a pseudo second-order kinetic model. PMID:19589674

  19. A Facile Electrochemical Sensor for Nonylphenol Determination Based on the Enhancement Effect of Cetyltrimethylammonium Bromide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Lu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A facile electrochemical sensor for the determination of nonylphenol (NP was fabricated in this work. Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB, which formed a bilayer on the surface of the carbon paste (CP electrode, displayed a remarkable enhancement effect for the electrochemical oxidation of NP. Moreover, the oxidation peak current of NP at the CTAB/CP electrode demonstrated a linear relationship with NP concentration, which could be applied in the direct determination of NP. Some experimental parameters were investigated, such as external solution pH, mode and time of accumulation, concentration and modification time of CTAB and so on. Under optimized conditions, a wide linear range from 1.0 × 10−7 mol·L−1 to 2.5 × 10−5 mol·L−1 was obtained for the sensor, with a low limit of detection at 1.0 × 10−8 mol·L−1. Several distinguishing advantages of the as-prepared sensor, including facile fabrication, easy operation, low cost and so on, suggest a great potential for its practical applications.

  20. Aerobic cyanide degradation by bacterial isolates from cassava factory wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Sujatha Kandasamy; Balachandar Dananjeyan; Kumar Krishnamurthy; Gero Benckiser

    2015-01-01

    Ten bacterial strains that utilize cyanide (CN) as a nitrogen source were isolated from cassava factory wastewater after enrichment in a liquid media containing sodium cyanide (1 mM) and glucose (0.2% w/v). The strains could tolerate and grow in cyanide concentrations of up to 5 mM. Increased cyanide levels in the media caused an extension of lag phase in the bacterial growth indicating that they need some period of acclimatisation. The rate of cyanide removal by the strains depends on the in...

  1. Anaerobic-Aerobic Process for Microbial Degradation of Tetrabromobisphenol A

    OpenAIRE

    Ronen, Zeev; Abeliovich, Aharon

    2000-01-01

    Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) is a flame retardant that is used as an additive during manufacturing of plastic polymers and electronic circuit boards. Little is known about the fate of this compound in the environment. In the current study we investigated biodegradation of TBBPA, as well as 2,4,6-tribromophenol (TBP), in slurry of anaerobic sediment from a wet ephemeral desert stream bed contaminated with chemical industry waste. Anaerobic incubation of the sediment with TBBPA and peptone-try...

  2. Mesophilic anaerobic stabilization of sewage sludge. Mesophile anaerobe Klaerschlammstabilisierung mit aerober Folgebehandlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoll, U.

    1988-01-01

    Sludges treated in two stages in experiments - 7 days of anaerobic treatment and 2 days of aerobic-thermophilic treatment - can be judged to be completely stabilized because of the stabilization parameters BOD/sub 5//COD ratio and respiratory activity. The degradation results obtained are comparable to or better than those of the 20-day digestion (reference process). For all aerobic processes under investigation a clear temperature increase in the aerobic reactor was measured because of the exothermal metabolic processes of the aerobic biocenosis. There was a temperature rise of 15/sup 0/C in the tests in the aerobic reactor even after longer digestion times of 15 and 20 days. The results of the epidemics and hygiene investigations show that a secondary aerobic-thermophilic stage after the mesophilic digestion with adequate marginal conditions - germ retention time of 23 hours in the aerobic reactor at process temperatures higher than 50/sup 0/C as well as charging in batch quantities - leads to a safe and complete decontamination. Under these process and operation conditions all salmonellae were killed and the number of the enterobacteriaceae in 1 g of sludge was always less than 1.000. (orig./EF).

  3. Kinetics of aerobic cometabolic biodegradation of chlorinated and brominated aliphatic hydrocarbons: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesus, João; Frascari, Dario; Pozdniakova, Tatiana; Danko, Anthony S

    2016-05-15

    This review analyses kinetic studies of aerobic cometabolism (AC) of halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbons (HAHs) from 2001-2015 in order to (i) compare the different kinetic models proposed, (ii) analyse the estimated model parameters with a focus on novel HAHs and the identification of general trends, and (iii) identify further research needs. The results of this analysis show that aerobic cometabolism can degrade a wide range of HAHs, including HAHs that were not previously tested such as chlorinated propanes, highly chlorinated ethanes and brominated methanes and ethanes. The degree of chlorine mineralization was very high for the chlorinated HAHs. Bromine mineralization was not determined for studies with brominated aliphatics. The examined research period led to the identification of novel growth substrates of potentially high interest. Decreasing performance of aerobic cometabolism were found with increasing chlorination, indicating the high potential of aerobic cometabolism in the presence of medium- and low-halogenated HAHs. Further research is needed for the AC of brominated aliphatic hydrocarbons, the potential for biofilm aerobic cometabolism processes, HAH-HAH mutual inhibition and the identification of the enzymes responsible for each aerobic cometabolism process. Lastly, some indications for a possible standardization of future kinetic studies of HAH aerobic cometabolism are provided. PMID:26874310

  4. Aerobic Microbial Respiration In Oceanic Oxygen Minimum Zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalvelage, Tim; Lavik, Gaute; Jensen, Marlene Mark;

    2015-01-01

    denitrification and alternative anaerobic pathways of organic matter remineralization cannot account for the ammonium requirements of reported anammox rates. Here, we explore the significance of microaerobic respiration as a source of ammonium during organic matter degradation in the oxygen-deficient waters off...... and laterally advected, oxygenated waters in this zone by aerobic microorganisms. In accordance, metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses identified genes encoding for aerobic terminal oxidases and demonstrated their expression by diverse microbial communities, even in virtually anoxic waters. Our......Oxygen minimum zones are major sites of fixed nitrogen loss in the ocean. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of anaerobic ammonium oxidation, anammox, in pelagic nitrogen removal. Sources of ammonium for the anammox reaction, however, remain controversial, as heterotrophic...

  5. Aerobic bacterial catabolism of persistent organic pollutants - potential impact of biotic and abiotic interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jong-Rok; Murugesan, Kumarasamy; Baldrian, Petr; Schmidt, Stefan; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2016-04-01

    Several aerobic bacteria possess unique catabolic pathways enabling them to degrade persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs), polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The catabolic activity of aerobic bacteria employed for removal of POPs in the environment may be modulated by several biotic (i.e. fungi, plants, algae, earthworms, and other bacteria) and abiotic (i.e. zero-valent iron, advanced oxidation, and electricity) agents. This review describes the basic biochemistry of the aerobic bacterial catabolism of selected POPs and discusses how biotic and abiotic agents enhance or inhibit the process. Solutions allowing biotic and abiotic agents to exert physical and chemical assistance to aerobic bacterial catabolism of POPs are also discussed. PMID:26851837

  6. Biodegradation of p-cresol by aerobic granules in sequencing batch reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Farrukh Basheer; I.H.Farooqi

    2012-01-01

    The cultivation of aerobic granules in sequencing batch reactor for the biodegradation of p-cresol was studied.The reactor was started with 100 mg/L of p-cresol.Aerobic granules first appeared within one month of start up.The granules were large and strong and had a compact structure.The diameter of stable granules was in the range of 1-5 mm.The integrity coefficient and granules density was found to be 96% and 1046 kg/m3,respectively.The settling velocity of granules was found to be in the range of 2×10-2-6×10-2 m/sec.The aerobic granules were able to degrade p-cresol upto 800 mg/L at a removal efficiency of 88%.Specific p-cresol degradation rate in aerobic granules followed Haldane model for substrate inhibition.High specific p-cresol degradation rate up to 0.96 g pcresol/(g VSS.day) were sustained upto p-cresol concentration of 400 mg/L.Higher removal efficiency,good settling characteristics of aerobic granules,makes sequencing batch reactor suitable for enhancing the microorganism potential for biodegradation of inhibitory compounds.

  7. Two-stage anaerobic and post-aerobic mesophilic digestion of sewage sludge: Analysis of process performance and hygienization potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomei, M Concetta; Mosca Angelucci, Domenica; Levantesi, Caterina

    2016-03-01

    Sequential anaerobic-aerobic digestion has been demonstrated to be effective for enhanced sludge stabilization, in terms of increased solid reduction and improvement of sludge dewaterability. In this study, we propose a modified version of the sequential anaerobic-aerobic digestion process by operating the aerobic step under mesophilic conditions (T=37 °C), in order to improve the aerobic degradation kinetics of soluble and particulate chemical oxygen demand (COD). Process performance has been assessed in terms of "classical parameters" such as volatile solids (VS) removal, biogas production, COD removal, nitrogen species, and polysaccharide and protein fate. The aerobic step was operated under intermittent aeration to achieve nitrogen removal. Aerobic mesophilic conditions consistently increased VS removal, providing 32% additional removal vs. 20% at 20 °C. Similar results were obtained for nitrogen removal, increasing from 64% up to 99% at the higher temperature. Improved sludge dewaterability was also observed with a capillary suction time decrease of ~50% during the mesophilic aerobic step. This finding may be attributable to the decreased protein content in the aerobic digested sludge. The post-aerobic digestion exerted a positive effect on the reduction of microbial indicators while no consistent improvement of hygienization related to the increased temperature was observed. The techno-economic analysis of the proposed digestion layout showed a net cost saving for sludge disposal estimated in the range of 28-35% in comparison to the single-phase anaerobic digestion. PMID:26760266

  8. Formation and functions of aerobic microbial granula; Entstehung und Funktionen aerober mikrobieller Granula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etterer, T.; Wilderer, P.A. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Lehrstuhl und Pruefamt fuer Wasserguete- und Abfallwirtschaft

    1999-07-01

    The present project investigates the phenomenon of the formation of aerobic microbial granula and their properties. To generate granula, sequencing batch reactors fed in batches were used. As shown by microbiological assays, fungi played an above-average role in granula formation and build-up. In first degradation experiments, furthermore, chemical oxygen demand (COD) could be reduced by over 90 %. The determination yielded comparable values to activated sludge, standing on average at 1.044g/ml. (orig.) [German] Im Rahmen des hier vorgestellten Projekts wurde das Phaenomen der Bildung aerober mikrobieller Granula sowie deren Eigenschaften untersucht. Zur Erzeugung von Granula wurden schubweise beschickte Reaktoren, sogenannte Sequencing-Batch-Reaktoren (SBR) verwendet. Wie mikrobiologische Untersuchungen zeigten spielen Pilze bei der Entstehung und beim Aufbau eine ueberdurchschnittliche Rolle. Des weiteren konnte in ersten Abbauversuchen der chemische Sauerstoff-Bedarf (CSB) um ueber 90% gesenkt werden. Die Dichtebestimmung ergab vergleichbare Werte zu Belebtschlamm und zwar im Durchschnitt 1,044 g/ml. (orig.)

  9. Preliminary Study on the Performance and Interaction of Recycling Hydrolytic-Aerobic Combined Process of High Concentration Starch Wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李清彪; 廖鑫凯; 吴志旺; 邓旭; 黄益丽; 卢英华; 孙道华; 洪铭媛; 王琳

    2004-01-01

    A new recycling hydrolytic-aerobic combined process was developed to treat the high concentration organic wastewater. Simulated wastewater containing 10 g·L-1 starch with a CODcr value of 10000 mg·L-1 wasused. At first, the hydrolytic degradation and aerobic degradation process were examined in two batch reactors, respectively. In the stand-alone hydrolytic process, starch in the wastewater almost disappeared after 11 h treatment, but CODCr remained as high as 5803mg·L-1 after two days. In the aerobic process, the biodegradation rate of starch was much slower during the first 11 h than that in the hydrolytic process, although the CODCr removal efficiency reached 89.6% and more than 90% starch could be degraded after 37.5 h. To determine the interaction effects of the two processes, a series of hydrolytic-aerobic combinations were examined in details. Hydrolytic process played an important role in the whole recycle combination process as it could improve the biodegradability of the high concentration starch wastewater. However, from the other experiments, the negative effect of hydrolytic acidification was found in the hydrolytic-aerobic combination, which suggested that the aerobic microorganisms needed time to adapt themselves to the acidic environment. The effect of the degrading time, which was spent in the hydrolytic and aerobic unit, and the number of circulations, with which the wastewater went through the two units were investigated. It was found that a recycle combination of 6 h hydrolytic process with 12 h aerobic process was highly effective and potentially economical, in which the final removal efficiency of CODcr and efficiency of starch degradation reached 94.1% and 98.8%, respectively.

  10. [Application of Micro-aerobic Hydrolysis Acidification in the Pretreatment of Petrochemical Wastewater].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chen; Wu, Chang-yong; Zhou, Yue-xi; Fu, Xiao-yong; Chen, Xue-min; Qiu, Yan-bo; Wu, Xiao-feng

    2015-10-01

    Micro-aerobic hydrolysis acidification technology was applied in the reconstruction of ananaerobic hydrolysis acidification tank in a north petrochemical wastewater treatment plant. After put into operation, the monitoring results showed that the average removal rate of COD was 11.7% when influent COD was 490.3-673.2 mg x L(-1), hydraulic retention time (HRT) was 24 and the dissolved oxygen (DO) was 0.2-0.35 mg x L(-1). In addition, the BOD5/COD value was increased by 12.4%, the UV254 removal rate reached 11.2%, and the VFA concentration was increased by 23.0%. The relative molecular weight distribution (MWD) results showed that the small molecule organic matter ( 100 x 10(3)) percentage was decreased from 31.8% to 14.0% after micro-aerobic hydrolysis acidification. The aerobic biodegradation batch test showed that the degradation of petrochemical wastewater was significantly improved by the pretreatment of micro-aerobic hydrolysis acidification. The COD of influent can be degraded to 102.2 mg x L(-1) by 48h aerobic treatment while the micro-aerobic hydrolysis acidification effluent COD can be degraded to 71.5 mg x L(-1) on the same condition. The effluent sulfate concentration of micro-aerobic hydrolysis acidification tank [(930.7 ± 60.1) mg x L(-1)] was higher than that of the influent [(854.3 ± 41.5) mg x L(-1)], indicating that sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) was inhibited. The toxic and malodorous gases generation was reduced with the improvement of environment. PMID:26841606

  11. Isomer-specific determination of 4-nonylphenols using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eganhouse, R.P.; Pontolillo, J.; Gaines, R.B.; Frysinger, G.S.; Gabriel, F.L.P.; Kohler, H.-P.E.; Giger, W.; Barber, L.B.

    2009-01-01

    Technical nonylphenol (tNP), used for industrial production of nonylphenol polyethoxylate surfactants, is a complex mixture of C3-10-phenols. The major components, 4-nonylphenols, are weak endocrine disruptors whose estrogenicities vary according to the structure of the branched nonyl group. Thus, accurate risk assessment requires isomer-specific determination of 4-NPs. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC x GC/ ToFMS) was used to characterize tNP samples obtained from seven commercial suppliers. Under optimal chromatographic conditions, 153-204 alkylphenol peaks, 59-66 of which were identified as 4-NPs, were detected. The 4-NPs comprised ???86-94% of tNP, with 2-NPs and decylphenols making up???2-9%and???2-5%, respectively. The tNP products were analyzed for eight synthetic 4-NP isomers, and results were compared with published data based on GC/ MS analysis. Significant differences were found among the products and between two samples from a single supplier. The enhanced resolution of GC x GC coupled with fast mass spectral data acquisition by ToFMS facilitated identification of all major 4-NP isomers and a number of previously unrecognized components. Analysis of tNP altered by the bacterium, Sphingobium xenophagum Bayram, revealed several persistent 4-NPs whose structures and estrogenicities are presently unknown. The potential of this technology for isomer-specific determination of 4-NP isomers in environmental matrices is demonstrated using samples of wastewatercontaminated groundwater and municipal wastewater. ?? 2009 American Chemical Society.

  12. The Andersen aerobic fitness test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aadland, Eivind; Terum, Torkil; Mamen, Asgeir;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High aerobic fitness is consistently associated with a favorable metabolic risk profile in children. Direct measurement of peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) is often not feasible, thus indirect tests such as the Andersen test are required in many settings. The present study seeks to...... agreement) were 26.7±125.2 m for test 2 vs. test 1 (p<.001 for mean difference) and 3.9±88.8 m for test 3 vs. test 2 (p = .514 for mean difference). The equation to estimate VO2peak suggested by Andersen et al. (2008) showed a poor fit in the present sample; thus, we suggest a new equation: VO2peak = 23....... Researchers should be aware of the amount of noise in indirect tests that estimate aerobic fitness....

  13. The effects of 4-nonylphenol contamination on livers of Tilapia fish (Oreochromus spilurs) in Jeddah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulla Bin-Dohaish, El-jawaher

    2012-01-01

    Alkylphenol polyethoxylates is a group of estrogenic compounds. Natural or synthetic types of these compounds react with the endocrine system by binding hormone receptors, resulting in interference with their action, which is why they are called endocrine disrupting chemicals. Among their hydrolytic products are nonylphenols (NP), which are considered pollutants of aquatic environments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pathological alterations on liver tissue of fish exposed to these compounds for long durations, starting from beginning of life and during the period of sexual maturity. Tilapia fish were obtained from Abhur fish farms, reared in the laboratory in special basins, and divided into two groups. The first maternal group was untreated and their larvae were divided into three sub-groups: control; exposed to 15μg/L; and exposed to 30 μg/L. The second maternal group was divided into 2 sub-groups: with larvae exposed to 15μg/L; and with their larvae exposed to 30 μg/L. Larvae and mother exposed to different concentrations of NP (15 and 30 μg/L) showed an increased accumulation of NP in both livers and muscles compared to the control group due to bioaccumulation. Tissue section examinations of the treated group (15 μg NP /L) showed disruption of liver architecture, with lyses, loss of nuclei, necrosis, and fatty infiltration. The changes were more marked in tissues exposed to (30 μg NP /L). Although this pollution was not lethal, its effect may be reflected in vital activities and in the economy. PMID:22688979

  14. Sorption behavior of nonylphenol (NP) on sewage-irrigated soil: Kinetic and thermodynamic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reuse of wastewater for irrigation of agricultural land is a well established resources management practice but has the disadvantage of inputting various forms of contaminants into the terrestrial environment including nonylphenol (NP), a well known endocrine disrupting substance. To elucidate the environmental fate and transport of NP, the sorption behavior on sewage-irrigated soil was studied by batch experiment. It was found that sorption processes of NP on different sorbents (soil, humic acid (HA) and silica) could be expressed well using two compartment pseudo first-order model, where both surface and intra-particle diffusion were probable rate-controlling processes. Linear model could better express the sorption of NP on soil, black carbon (BC) and mineral (e.g., SiO2) except HA than Freundlich model. The large value of distribution coefficients of normalized organic carbon (Koc) on soils indicated that NP was limited to migrate to deep soil. The higher desorption partition coefficient of NP on soil showed enhanced hysteresis. According to the experimental data, the calculated thermodynamic parameters implied that the sorption reaction on sewage-irrigation was spontaneous, exothermic and entropy decreasing process. The amount of soil organic matter (SOM) dominated the sorption capacity, whereas the sorption behavior of NP on soil showed no significant correlation with ionic strength. - Highlights: • Both surface and intra-particle diffusion were rate-controlling processes. • Soil composition influences the partition activity of NP. • Soil organic matter has dominated the sorption capacity of NP on soil. • NP molecule was limited to migrate to deep soil in sewage-irrigated area

  15. Effects of nonylphenol and ethinylestradiol on copper redhorse (Moxostoma hubbsi), an endangered species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltais, Domynick; Roy, Robert L

    2014-10-01

    The copper redhorse, Moxostoma hubbsi, is an endangered species endemic to Quebec. The presence of contaminants, in particular endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), in its habitat has been advanced as partly responsible for the reproductive difficulties encountered by the species. In the present study, immature copper redhorse were exposed to the estrogenic surfactant nonylphenol (NP; 1, 10 and 50µg/l) and the synthetic estrogen 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2; 10ng/l) for 21 days in a flow-through system. The endpoints investigated included general health indicators (hepatosomatic index and hematocrit), thyroid hormones, sex steroids, brain aromatase activity, plasma and mucus vitellogenin (VTG), cytochrome P4501A protein expression and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity, heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and muscle acetylcholinesterase. Exposure to 10ng EE2/l significantly increased brain aromatase activity. Exposure to 50µg NP/l resulted in a significant reduction of plasma testosterone concentrations and a significant induction of hepatic HSP70 protein expression. NP at 50µg/l also induced plasma and mucus VTG. The presence of elevated VTG levels in the surface mucus of immature copper redhorse exposed to NP, and its correlation to plasma VTG, supports the use of mucus VTG as a non-invasive biomarker to evaluate copper redhorse exposure to EDCs in the environment and contribute to restoration efforts of the species. The results of the present study indicate that exposure to high environmentally relevant concentrations of NP and EE2 can affect molecular endpoints related to reproduction in the copper redhorse. PMID:25063883

  16. Can 4-nonylphenol induce vitellogenin-like proteins in the clam Tapes philippinarum?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitellogenins (Vg) are precursors of egg-yolk proteins (vitellins) constituting energy reserves for embryos. In oviparous females, Vg are produced in the liver (or equivalent organs) under the control of endogenous estrogens, released into the bloodstream (plasma or hemolymph), and stored in developing oocytes. Although Vg levels are generally undetectable in male plasma, they may significantly increase in (xeno-)estrogen-exposed males. The aim of the present study was to evaluate estrogenic effects of 4-nonylphenol (NP) in sexually differentiated males and females of the Manila clam Tapes philippinarum. Clams were exposed for 7 days to various sublethal NP concentrations (0, 0+acetone, 0.025, 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 mg NP/L) and Vg-like protein levels were evaluated in both hemolymph and digestive glands of mollusks by the alkali-labile phosphate assay. This method, based on the determination of phosphates released by Vg, has previously been used to detect Vg concentrations in both fish plasma and bivalve hemolymph. Although Vg levels were generally higher in both hemolymph and digestive gland of T. philippinarum females, males appeared to be more sensitive than females to the estrogenic effects of NP. In males exposed to 0.1 and 0.2 mg NP/L, Vg levels increased significantly in both hemolymph (P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively) and digestive gland (P<0.05), whereas no changes were observed in those of females. Although the mechanisms by which NP exerts its in vivo endocrine-modulating effects in bivalve mollusks remain unclear, the results of this study demonstrate that NP may induce Vg-like proteins in T. philippinarum, particularly males

  17. miRNA regulation of cytotoxic effects in mouse Sertoli cells exposed to nonylphenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Seung Jun

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is known that some environmental chemicals affect the human endocrine system. The harmful effects of endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC nonylphenol (NP have been studied since the 1980s. It is known that NP adversely affects physiological functions by mimicking the natural hormone 17 beta-estradiol. In the present study, we analyzed the expression of miRNAs and their target genes in mouse Sertoli TM4 cells to better understand the regulatory roles of miRNAs on Sertoli cells after NP exposure. Methods Mouse TM4 Sertoli cells were treated with NP for 3 or 24 h, and global gene and miRNA expression were analyzed using Agilent mouse whole genome and mouse miRNA v13 arrays. Results We identified genes that were > 2-fold differentially expressed in NP-treated cells and control cells (P Ppara may regulate the expression of certain miRNAs, including miR-378, miR-125a-3p miR-20a, miR-203, and miR-101a, after exposure to NP. Additionally, comprehensive analysis of predicted target genes for miRNAs showed that the expression of genes with roles in cell proliferation, the cell cycle, and cell death were regulated by miRNA in NP-treated TM4 cells. Levels of expression of the miRNAs miR-135a* and miR-199a-5p were validated by qRT-PCR. Finally, miR-135a* target gene analysis suggests that the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS following exposure to NP exposure may be mediated by miR-135a* through regulation of the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway. Conclusions Collectively, these data help to determine NP's actions on mouse TM4 Sertoli cells and increase our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the adverse effects of xenoestrogens on the reproductive system.

  18. Estimation of rates of aerobic hydrocarbon biodegradation by simulation of gas transport in the unsaturated zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahvis, M.A.; Baehr, A.L.

    1996-01-01

    The distribution of oxygen and carbon dioxide gases in the unsaturated zone provides a geochemical signature of aerobic hydrocarbon degradation at petroleum product spill sites. The fluxes of these gases are proportional to the rate of aerobic biodegradation and are quantified by calibrating a mathematical transport model to the oxygen and carbon dioxide gas concentration data. Reaction stoichiometry is assumed to convert the gas fluxes to a corresponding rate of hydrocarbon degradation. The method is applied at a gasoline spill site in Galloway Township, New Jersey, to determine the rate of aerobic degradation of hydrocarbons associated with passive and bioventing remediation field experiments. At the site, microbial degradation of hydrocarbons near the water table limits the migration of hydrocarbon solutes in groundwater and prevents hydrocarbon volatilization into the unsaturated zone. In the passive remediation experiment a site-wide degradation rate estimate of 34,400 g yr-1 (11.7 gal. yr-1) of hydrocarbon was obtained by model calibration to carbon dioxide gas concentration data collected in December 1989. In the bioventing experiment, degradation rate estimates of 46.0 and 47.9 g m-2 yr-1 (1.45 x 10-3 and 1.51 x 10-3 gal. ft.-2 yr-1) of hydrocarbon were obtained by model calibration to oxygen and carbon dioxide gas concentration data, respectively. Method application was successful in quantifying the significance of a naturally occurring process that can effectively contribute to plume stabilization.

  19. Aerobic granulation of pure bacterial strain Bacillus thuringiensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sunil S ADAV; Duu-Jong LEE

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study is to cultivate aer-obic granules by pure bacterial strain, Bacillus thuringien-sis, in a sequencing batch reactor. Stable granules sized 2.0-2.2 mm were formed in the reactor after a five-week cultivation. These granules exhibited excellent settling attributes, and degraded phenol at rates of 1.49 and concentration, respectively. Confocal laser scanning microscopic test results show that Bacillus thuringiensis was distributed over the initial small aggregates, and the outer edge of the granule was away from the core regime in the following stage.

  20. Simultaneous sonication-assisted extraction, and determination by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, of di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, nonylphenol, nonylphenol ethoxylates and polychlorinated biphenyls in sludge from wastewater treatment plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di-(2-ethyl-hexyl)phthalate (DEHP), nonylphenol, nonylphenol mono- and diethoxylates (NPEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are organic pollutants in sewage sludge which have to be monitored in the European Union according to a future Sludge Directive. In the present work, an analytical method for the simultaneous extraction and determination of DEHP, NPEs and PCBs is proposed for the routine analysis of these compounds in sludge from wastewater treatment plants. All the compounds were simultaneously extracted by sonication with hexane and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in electronic impact mode. Recoveries achieved were 105% for DEHP, 61.4-88.6% for NPEs and 55.8-108.3% for PCBs with relative standard deviation bellow 10%. Limits of quantification were 65 μg kg-1 for DEHP, from 630 to 2504 μg kg-1 for NPEs and from 5.4 to 10.6 μg kg-1 for PCBs in dried sludge. The applicability of the proposed method was evaluated by the determination of these compounds in sludge from wastewater treatment plants in Seville (South Spain)

  1. Methods to determine aerobic endurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosquet, Laurent; Léger, Luc; Legros, Patrick

    2002-01-01

    Physiological testing of elite athletes requires the correct identification and assessment of sports-specific underlying factors. It is now recognised that performance in long-distance events is determined by maximal oxygen uptake (V(2 max)), energy cost of exercise and the maximal fractional utilisation of V(2 max) in any realised performance or as a corollary a set percentage of V(2 max) that could be endured as long as possible. This later ability is defined as endurance, and more precisely aerobic endurance, since V(2 max) sets the upper limit of aerobic pathway. It should be distinguished from endurance ability or endurance performance, which are synonymous with performance in long-distance events. The present review examines methods available in the literature to assess aerobic endurance. They are numerous and can be classified into two categories, namely direct and indirect methods. Direct methods bring together all indices that allow either a complete or a partial representation of the power-duration relationship, while indirect methods revolve around the determination of the so-called anaerobic threshold (AT). With regard to direct methods, performance in a series of tests provides a more complete and presumably more valid description of the power-duration relationship than performance in a single test, even if both approaches are well correlated with each other. However, the question remains open to determine which systems model should be employed among the several available in the literature, and how to use them in the prescription of training intensities. As for indirect methods, there is quantitative accumulation of data supporting the utilisation of the AT to assess aerobic endurance and to prescribe training intensities. However, it appears that: there is no unique intensity corresponding to the AT, since criteria available in the literature provide inconsistent results; and the non-invasive determination of the AT using ventilatory and heart rate

  2. Microbial fuel cells with highly active aerobic biocathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Edward M.; Popescu, Dorin; Curtis, Tom; Head, Ian M.; Scott, Keith; Yu, Eileen H.

    2016-08-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs), which convert organic waste to electricity, could be used to make the wastewater infrastructure more energy efficient and sustainable. However, platinum and other non-platinum chemical catalysts used for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at the cathode of MFCs are unsustainable due to their high cost and long-term degradation. Aerobic biocathodes, which use microorganisms as the biocatalysts for cathode ORR, are a good alternative to chemical catalysts. In the current work, high-performing aerobic biocathodes with an onset potential for the ORR of +0.4 V vs. Ag/AgCl were enriched from activated sludge in electrochemical half-cells poised at -0.1 and + 0.2 V vs. Ag/AgCl. Gammaproteobacteria, distantly related to any known cultivated gammaproteobacterial lineage, were identified as dominant in these working electrode biofilms (23.3-44.3% of reads in 16S rRNA gene Ion Torrent libraries), and were in very low abundance in non-polarised control working electrode biofilms (0.5-0.7%). These Gammaproteobacteria were therefore most likely responsible for the high activity of biologically catalysed ORR. In MFC tests, a high-performing aerobic biocathode increased peak power 9-fold from 7 to 62 μW cm-2 in comparison to an unmodified carbon cathode, which was similar to peak power with a platinum-doped cathode at 70 μW cm-2.

  3. Aerobic Microbial Respiration In Oceanic Oxygen Minimum Zones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Kalvelage

    Full Text Available Oxygen minimum zones are major sites of fixed nitrogen loss in the ocean. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of anaerobic ammonium oxidation, anammox, in pelagic nitrogen removal. Sources of ammonium for the anammox reaction, however, remain controversial, as heterotrophic denitrification and alternative anaerobic pathways of organic matter remineralization cannot account for the ammonium requirements of reported anammox rates. Here, we explore the significance of microaerobic respiration as a source of ammonium during organic matter degradation in the oxygen-deficient waters off Namibia and Peru. Experiments with additions of double-labelled oxygen revealed high aerobic activity in the upper OMZs, likely controlled by surface organic matter export. Consistently observed oxygen consumption in samples retrieved throughout the lower OMZs hints at efficient exploitation of vertically and laterally advected, oxygenated waters in this zone by aerobic microorganisms. In accordance, metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses identified genes encoding for aerobic terminal oxidases and demonstrated their expression by diverse microbial communities, even in virtually anoxic waters. Our results suggest that microaerobic respiration is a major mode of organic matter remineralization and source of ammonium (~45-100% in the upper oxygen minimum zones, and reconcile hitherto observed mismatches between ammonium producing and consuming processes therein.

  4. Simultaneous anaerobic-aerobic biodegradation of halogenated phenolic compound under oxygen-limited conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yuan-cai; LAN Hui-xia; ZHAN Huai-yu; FU Shi-yu

    2005-01-01

    The successful application of co-immobilized aerobic-anaerobic biomaes under limited aeration in wastewater treatment systems would eliminate the problems associated with the intermediates mono-chlorophenol(MCP) and di-chlorophenol(DCP) accumulations. With low initial pentachlorophenol(PCP) concentration, all PCP could be completely removed under oxygen-limited strict anaerobic conditions,and the removal efficiencies with different initial haedspace oxygen percentage(IHOP) were not obviously different from each other. While at high initial PCP concentration, under strictly anaerobic conditions PCP and their intermediates were clearly higher than that under other conditions, and produced obvious accumulation, the highest PCP reduction was achieved by the system receiving 30 IHOP, oxygen-limited system also exhibited lower residual TOC concentration and lower concentration of metabolic intermediates MCP and DCP. These results suggested that under strictly anaerobic condition the reductive dechlorination of low chlorinated compounde became rate limiting in the reductive dechlorination pathway, less chlorinated compounds be more amenable to aerobic degradation, and the aerobes of outer layers could function under limited oxygen. The co-immobilized aerobic-anaerobic biomass for methanogeneeis under limited-aeration for chlorophenol degradation might be an attractive and efficient altemative for the sequential anaerobic/aerobic system to achieve mineralization of a broad range of recalcitrance highly chlorinated organics and low final TOC concentrations.

  5. Aerobic granular processes: Current research trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Quanguo; Hu, Jianjun; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2016-06-01

    Aerobic granules are large biological aggregates with compact interiors that can be used in efficient wastewater treatment. This mini-review presents new researches on the development of aerobic granular processes, extended treatments for complicated pollutants, granulation mechanisms and enhancements of granule stability in long-term operation or storage, and the reuse of waste biomass as renewable resources. A discussion on the challenges of, and prospects for, the commercialization of aerobic granular process is provided. PMID:26873285

  6. Microbial degradation of hydrochlorofluorocarbons (CHCl2F and CHCl2CF3) in soils and sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oremland, R.S.; Lonergan, D.J.; Culbertson, C.W.; Lovley, D.R.

    1996-01-01

    The ability of microorganisms to degrade trace levels of the hydrochlorofluorocarbons HCFC-21 and HCFC-123 was investigated. Methanotroph- linked oxidation of HCFC-21 was observed in aerobic soils, and anaerobic degradation of HCFC-21 occurred in freshwater and salt marsh sediments. Microbial degradation of HCFC-123 was observed in anoxic freshwater and salt marsh sediments, and the recovery of 1,1,1-trifluoro-2-chloroethane indicated the involvement of reductive dechlorination. No degradation of HCFC-123 was observed in aerobic soils. In same experiments, HCFCs were degraded at low (parts per billion) concentrations, raising the possibility that bacteria in nature remove HCFCs from the atmosphere.

  7. 17-Beta estradiol and 4-nonylphenol delay smolt development and downstream migration in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Steffen S; Skovbølling, Søren; Nielsen, Christian;

    2004-01-01

    The effect of 17-beta estradiol (E2) and 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) on smoltification and downstream migration of Atlantic salmon was studied in an integrated laboratory and field study. In a stock of hatchery-raised 1-year-old salmon, smoltification progressed from February until late May as judged by...

  8. Improved RDX detoxification with starch addition using a novel nitrogen-fixing aerobic microbial consortium from soil contaminated with explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Imran; Yang, Jihoon; Yoo, Byungun; Park, Joonhong

    2015-04-28

    In this work, we developed and characterized a novel nitrogen-fixing aerobic microbial consortium for the complete detoxification of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). Aerobic RDX biodegradation coupled with microbial growth and nitrogen fixation activity were effectively stimulated by the co-addition of starch and RDX under nitrogen limiting conditions. In the starch-stimulated nitrogen-fixing RDX degradative consortium, the RDX degradation activity was correlated with the xplA and nifH gene copy numbers, suggesting the involvement of nitrogen fixing populations in RDX biodegradation. Formate, nitrite, nitrate, and ammonia were detected as aerobic RDX degradation intermediates without the accumulation of any nitroso-derivatives or NDAB (4-nitro-2,4-diazabutanal), indicating nearly complete mineralization. Pyrosequencing targeting the bacterial 16S rRNA genes revealed that the Rhizobium, Rhizobacter and Terrimonas population increased as the RDX degradation activity increased, suggesting their involvement in the degradation process. These findings imply that the nitrogen-fixing aerobic RDX degrading consortium is a valuable microbial resource for improving the detoxification of RDX-contaminated soil or groundwater, especially when combined with rhizoremediation. PMID:25661171

  9. Degradation of household biowaste in reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzystek, L; Ledakowicz, S; Kahle, H J; Kaczorek, K

    2001-12-28

    Household derived biowaste was degraded by biological methods. The system involves the combined method of low-solids (up to 10% w/v of total solids (TS)) anaerobic digestion and aerobic degradation for the recovery of energy (biogas) and the production of fine humus-like material which can be used as a soil amender or a substrate for further thermal treatment (pyrolysis, gasification). The performance of batch and continuous processes carried out in bioreactors (stirred tank reactor, air-lift) of working volume 6 and 18 dm(3), at different temperatures (25-42 degrees C) was monitored by reduction of TS, volatile solids, chemical oxygen demand, total organic carbon, C/N in time. The application of continuous process with recirculation (33%) caused that for residence time of 8-16 h the obtained degree of organic load reduction was similar to that obtained after 72-96 h of the batch process. The experimental data of batch aerobic degradation was also subjected to kinetic analysis. The sequence of the two processes: aerobic and anaerobic or anaerobic and aerobic showed that the degree of organic load reduction was similar in both cases, while the amount of produced biogas was four times higher when the first stage was anaerobic. The final product after dewatering was subjected to pyrolysis and gasification. The gases obtained were characterised by a high heat of combustion of about 11-15 MJ Nm(-3). PMID:11640982

  10. Aerobic remediation of petroleum sludge through soil supplementation: Microbial community analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Enhanced aerobic-degradation of PAHs was noticed with increasing soil concentration. ► Lower ring PAHs showed superior degradation over higher ring PAHs. ► Role of dehydrogenase activity, redox pattern and dissolved oxygen was investigated. ► Community analysis detected survival of efficient aromatic degrading microorganisms. - Abstract: The effect of soil concentration on the aerobic degradation of real-field petroleum sludge was studied in slurry phase reactor. Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) showed effective removal but found to depend on the soil concentration. Aromatic fraction (48.12%) documented effective degradation compared to aliphatics (47.31%), NSO (28.69%) and asphaltenes (26.66%). PAHs profile showed efficient degradation of twelve individual aromatic compounds where lower ring compounds showed relatively higher degradation efficiency compared to the higher ring compounds. The redox behaviour and dehydrogenase activity showed a linear increment with the degradation pattern. Microbial community composition and changes during bioremediation were studied using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Among the 12 organisms identified, Proteobacteria was found to be dominant representing 50% of the total population (25% of γ-proteobacteria; 16.6% of β-proteobacteria; 8.3% of α-proteobacteria), while 33.3% were of uncultured bacteria and 16.6% were of firmicutes.

  11. Transport and degradation of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) in the pyritic Rabis Creek aquifer, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinsby, K.; Hojberg, A.L.; Engesgaard, P.;

    2007-01-01

    Vertical profiles of the chlorofluorocarbons CFC-11, CFC-12, and CFC-113 penetrating aerobic and anaerobic parts of a shallow sandy aquifer show that the CFC gases are degraded in the <1 m thick transition zone from aerobic to anaerobic groundwater in a pyritic sand aquifer at Rabis Creek, Denmark...

  12. Genomics of aerobic cellulose utilization systems in actinobacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iain Anderson

    Full Text Available Cellulose degrading enzymes have important functions in the biotechnology industry, including the production of biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass. Anaerobes including Clostridium species organize cellulases and other glycosyl hydrolases into large complexes known as cellulosomes. In contrast, aerobic actinobacteria utilize systems comprised of independently acting enzymes, often with carbohydrate binding domains. Numerous actinobacterial genomes have become available through the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea (GEBA project. We identified putative cellulose-degrading enzymes belonging to families GH5, GH6, GH8, GH9, GH12, GH48, and GH51 in the genomes of eleven members of the actinobacteria. The eleven organisms were tested in several assays for cellulose degradation, and eight of the organisms showed evidence of cellulase activity. The three with the highest cellulase activity were Actinosynnema mirum, Cellulomonas flavigena, and Xylanimonas cellulosilytica. Cellobiose is known to induce cellulolytic enzymes in the model organism Thermobifida fusca, but only Nocardiopsis dassonvillei showed higher cellulolytic activity in the presence of cellobiose. In T. fusca, cellulases and a putative cellobiose ABC transporter are regulated by the transcriptional regulator CelR. Nine organisms appear to use the CelR site or a closely related binding site to regulate an ABC transporter. In some, CelR also regulates cellulases, while cellulases are controlled by different regulatory sites in three organisms. Mining of genome data for cellulose degradative enzymes followed by experimental verification successfully identified several actinobacteria species which were not previously known to degrade cellulose as cellulolytic organisms.

  13. Aerobic granulation strategy for bioaugmentation of a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) treating high strength pyridine wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiaodong; Chen, Yan [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Chemical Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, Jiangsu Province (China); Zhang, Xin [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Chemical Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, Jiangsu Province (China); Suzhou Institute of Architectural Design Co., Ltd, Suzhou 215021, Jiangsu Province (China); Jiang, Xinbai; Wu, Shijing [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Chemical Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, Jiangsu Province (China); Shen, Jinyou, E-mail: shenjinyou@mail.njust.edu.cn [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Chemical Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, Jiangsu Province (China); Sun, Xiuyun; Li, Jiansheng; Lu, Lude [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Chemical Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, Jiangsu Province (China); Wang, Lianjun, E-mail: wanglj@mail.njust.edu.cn [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Chemical Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, Jiangsu Province (China)

    2015-09-15

    Abstract: Aerobic granules were successfully cultivated in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR), using a single bacterial strain Rhizobium sp. NJUST18 as the inoculum. NJUST18 presented as both a good pyridine degrader and an efficient autoaggregator. Stable granules with diameter of 0.5–1 mm, sludge volume index of 25.6 ± 3.6 mL g{sup −1} and settling velocity of 37.2 ± 2.7 m h{sup −1}, were formed in SBR following 120-day cultivation. These granules exhibited excellent pyridine degradation performance, with maximum volumetric degradation rate (V{sub max}) varied between 1164.5 mg L{sup −1} h{sup −1} and 1867.4 mg L{sup −1} h{sup −1}. High-throughput sequencing analysis exhibited a large shift in microbial community structure, since the SBR was operated under open condition. Paracoccus and Comamonas were found to be the most predominant species in the aerobic granule system after the system had stabilized. The initially inoculated Rhizobium sp. lost its dominance during aerobic granulation. However, the inoculation of Rhizobium sp. played a key role in the start-up process of this bioaugmentation system. This study demonstrated that, in addition to the hydraulic selection pressure during settling and effluent discharge, the selection of aggregating bacterial inocula is equally important for the formation of the aerobic granule.

  14. Aerobic granulation strategy for bioaugmentation of a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) treating high strength pyridine wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abstract: Aerobic granules were successfully cultivated in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR), using a single bacterial strain Rhizobium sp. NJUST18 as the inoculum. NJUST18 presented as both a good pyridine degrader and an efficient autoaggregator. Stable granules with diameter of 0.5–1 mm, sludge volume index of 25.6 ± 3.6 mL g−1 and settling velocity of 37.2 ± 2.7 m h−1, were formed in SBR following 120-day cultivation. These granules exhibited excellent pyridine degradation performance, with maximum volumetric degradation rate (Vmax) varied between 1164.5 mg L−1 h−1 and 1867.4 mg L−1 h−1. High-throughput sequencing analysis exhibited a large shift in microbial community structure, since the SBR was operated under open condition. Paracoccus and Comamonas were found to be the most predominant species in the aerobic granule system after the system had stabilized. The initially inoculated Rhizobium sp. lost its dominance during aerobic granulation. However, the inoculation of Rhizobium sp. played a key role in the start-up process of this bioaugmentation system. This study demonstrated that, in addition to the hydraulic selection pressure during settling and effluent discharge, the selection of aggregating bacterial inocula is equally important for the formation of the aerobic granule

  15. Sorption of a branched nonylphenol isomer and perfluorooctanoic acid on geosorbents and carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Chengliang

    2011-10-13

    As metabolites of organic surfactants, both nonylphenol (NP) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) are toxic and ubiquitous in the environment. Their sorption on soils and sediments is of importance for their fate and transport in the environment. Especially in China, there is still a lack of consolidated knowledge on the sorption behavior of NP and PFOA on geosorbents such as Yangtze River sediments. Thus, the present thesis investigates the sorption of a branched NP isomer [4-(1-ethyl-1, 3-dimethylpentyl) phenol] (NP111) and PFOA on Yangtze River sediments and their model components, i.e. a clay mineral (illite), metal oxides (goethite and {delta}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and organic matter (isolated from Yangtze River sediments and commercial organic matter) by both batch and dialysis techniques. NP111 is the most environmentally relevant NP isomer and its fate in the environment is unknown. Because PFOA is weakly adsorbed on geosorbents, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were studied as promising adsorbents. One of the MWCNTs studied contained traces of metal catalyst on the outer surface. Sorption isotherms of NP111 and PFOA on the sediments and their model components were fitted well by the Freundlich model. Sorption of NP111 on the sediments depended largely on their organic carbon content, resulting in organic carbon-normalized sorption coefficient (K{sub OC}) values between 6.3 x 10{sup 3} and 1.1 x 10{sup 4} L kg{sup -1}. The sorption of NP111 on {delta}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and illite was comparable to that on sediments, but significantly lower than that on goethite. In contrast, the sorption of PFOA on the sediments was significantly lower. The affinity of PFOA to goethite and {delta}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was slightly higher than to the sediments, but it was negligible to natural organic matter and illite. The results suggest that the organic carbon content of the sediments plays a dominant role in the sorption of NP111, whereas goethite acts as a potential sink

  16. Effect of nonylphenol on male reproduction: Analysis of rat epididymal biochemical markers and antioxidant defense enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanism by which nonylphenol (NP) interferes with male reproduction is not fully elucidated. Therefore, the present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of NP on male reproductive organ's weight, sperm characteristics, and to elucidate the nature and mechanism of action of NP on the epididymis. Adult male Wistar rats were gavaged with NP, dissolved in corn oil, at 0, 100, 200 or 300 mg/kg/day for 30 consecutive days. Control rats were gavaged with vehicle (corn oil) alone. Body weight did not show any significant change while, absolute testes and epididymides weights were significantly decreased. Sperm count in cauda and caput/corpus epididymides, and sperm motility was significantly decreased. Daily sperm production was significantly decreased in a dose-related manner. Sperm transit time in cauda epididymis was significantly decreased by 300 mg/kg, while in the caput/corpus epididymis it was significantly decreased by 200 and 300 mg/kg of NP. Plasma LDH was significantly increased while; plasma testosterone was significantly decreased in a dose-related pattern. In the epididymal sperm, NP decreased acrosome integrity, Δψm and 5′-nucleotidase activity. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production and LPO were significantly increased in a dose-related pattern. The activities of SOD, CAT and GPx were significantly decreased in the epididymal sperm. In conclusion, this study revealed that NP treatment impairs spermatogenesis and has a cytotoxic effect on epididymal sperm. It disrupts the prooxidant and antioxidant balance. This leads oxidative stress in epididymal sperms of rat. Moreover, the reduction in sperm transit time may affect sperm quality and fertility potential. -- Highlights: ► The nature and mechanism of action of NP on rat epididymis were elucidated. ► NP decreased sperm count, motility, daily sperm production and sperm transit time. ► NP decreased sperm acrosome integrity, Δψm and 5′-nucleotidase activity. ► Plasma LDH was

  17. Physiological and phylogenetic characterization of a stable benzene-degrading, chlorate-reducing microbial community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weelink, S.A.B.; Tan, N.C.G.; Broeke, H. ten; Doesburg, W. van; Langenhoff, A.A.M.; Gerritse, J.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    A stable anoxic enrichment culture was obtained that degraded benzene with chlorate as an electron acceptor. The benzene degradation rate was 1.65 mM benzene per day, which is similar to reported aerobic benzene degradation rates but 20-1650 times higher than reported for anaerobic benzene degradati

  18. Tracing organic compounds in aerobically altered methane-derived carbonate pipes (Gulf of Cadiz, SW Iberia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merinero, Raúl; Ruiz-Bermejo, Marta; Menor-Salván, César; Lunar, Rosario; Martínez-Frías, Jesús

    2012-07-01

    The primary geochemical process at methane seeps is anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM), performed by methanotrophic archaea and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). The molecular fingerprints (biomarkers) of these chemosynthetic microorganisms can be preserved in carbonates formed through AOM. However, thermal maturity and aerobic degradation can change the original preserved compounds, making it difficult to establish the relation between AOM and carbonate precipitation. Here we report a study of amino acid and lipid abundances in carbonate matrices of aerobically altered pipes recovered from the seafloor of the Gulf of Cadiz (SW Iberian Peninsula). This area is characterized by a complex tectonic regime that supports numerous cold seeps. Studies so far have not determined whether the precipitation of carbonate pipes in the Gulf of Cadiz is a purely chemical process or whether microbial communities are involved. Samples from this site show signs of exposure to oxygenated waters and of aerobic alteration, such as oxidation of authigenic iron sulfides. In addition, the degradation index, calculated from the relative abundance of preserved amino acids, indicates aerobic degradation of organic matter. Although crocetane was the only lipid identified from methanotrophic archaea, the organic compounds detected (n-alkanes, regular isoprenoids and alcohols) are compatible with an origin from AOM coupled with bacterial sulfate reduction (BSR) and subsequent aerobic degradation. We establish a relation among AOM, BSR and pipe formation in the Gulf of Cadiz through three types of analysis: (1) stable carbon and oxygen isotopic composition of carbonate minerals; (2) carbonate microfabrics; and (3) mineralogical composition. Our results suggest that carbonate pipes may form through a process similar to the precipitation of vast amounts of carbonate pavements often found at cold seeps. Our approach suggests that some organic compound patterns, in combination with additional

  19. Aerobic rice mechanization: techniques for crop establishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khusairy, K. M.; Ayob, H.; Chan, C. S.; Fauzi, M. I. Mohamed; Mohamad Fakhrul, Z. O.; Shahril Shah, G. S. M.; Azlan, O.; Rasad, M. A.; Hashim, A. M.; Arshad, Z.; E, E. Ibrahim; Saifulizan, M. N.

    2015-12-01

    Rice being the staple food crops, hundreds of land races in it makes the diversity of rice crops. Aerobic rice production was introduced which requires much less water input to safeguard and sustain the rice production and conserve water due to decreasing water resources, climatic changes and competition from urban and industrial users. Mechanization system plays an important role for the success of aerobic rice cultivation. All farming activities for aerobic rice production are run on aerobic soil conditions. Row seeder mechanization system is developed to replace conventional seeding technique on the aerobic rice field. It is targeted for small and the large scale aerobic rice farmers. The aero - seeder machine is used for the small scale aerobic rice field, while the accord - seeder is used for the large scale aerobic rice field. The use of this mechanization machine can eliminate the tedious and inaccurate seeding operations reduce labour costs and increases work rate. The machine is easy to operate and it can increase crop establishment rate. It reduce missing hill, increasing planting and crop with high yield can be produce. This machine is designed for low costs maintenance and it is easy to dismantle and assemble during maintenance and it is safe to be used.

  20. Aerobic Dancing--A Rhythmic Sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Jacki

    Fitness programs now and in the future must offer built-in cardiovascular conditioning, variety, novelty, and change to meet the physical, mental, and emotional needs of our society. Aerobic dancing (dancing designed to train and strengthen the heart, lungs, and vascular system) is one of the first indoor group Aerobic exercise programs designed…

  1. Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy after Aerobic Exercise Training

    OpenAIRE

    Konopka, Adam R.; Harber, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    Current dogma suggests aerobic exercise training has minimal effect on skeletal muscle size. We and others have demonstrated that aerobic exercise acutely and chronically alters protein metabolism and induces skeletal muscle hypertrophy. These findings promote an antithesis to the status quo by providing novel perspective on skeletal muscle mass regulation and insight into exercise-countermeasures for populations prone to muscle loss.

  2. Aerobic growth at nanomolar oxygen concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolper, Daniel; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Canfield, Donald Eugene

    2010-01-01

    Escherichia coli K-12, chosen for its well-understood biochemistry, rapid growth rate, and low-oxygen-affinity terminal oxidase, grows at oxygen levels of ≤ 3 nM, two to three orders of magnitude lower than previously observed for aerobes. Our study expands both the environmental range and temporal history of...... aerobic organisms....

  3. Fungal Laccases Degradation of Endocrine Disrupting Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Macellaro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decades, water pollution by trace organic compounds (ng/L has become one of the key environmental issues in developed countries. This is the case of the emerging contaminants called endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs. EDCs are a new class of environmental pollutants able to mimic or antagonize the effects of endogenous hormones, and are recently drawing scientific and public attention. Their widespread presence in the environment solicits the need of their removal from the contaminated sites. One promising approach to face this challenge consists in the use of enzymatic systems able to react with these molecules. Among the possible enzymes, oxidative enzymes are attracting increasing attention because of their versatility, the possibility to produce them on large scale, and to modify their properties. In this study five different EDCs were treated with four different fungal laccases, also in the presence of both synthetic and natural mediators. Mediators significantly increased the efficiency of the enzymatic treatment, promoting the degradation of substrates recalcitrant to laccase oxidation. The laccase showing the best performances was chosen to further investigate its oxidative capabilities against micropollutant mixtures. Improvement of enzyme performances in nonylphenol degradation rate was achieved through immobilization on glass beads.

  4. The bioaccumulation and fate of a branched 14C-p-nonylphenol isomer in Lymnaea stagnalis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalah, Joseph O; Behechti, Akbar; Severin, Gabriele F; Lenoir, Dieter; Günther, Klaus; Kettrup, Antonius; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    2003-07-01

    A single branched isomer of p-nonylphenol, 4(3',6'-dimethyl-3'-heptyl)-phenol, previously identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as one of the major constituent isomers in p-nonylphenol (constituting approximately 10% of all its isomers), was synthesized and used in studies of its bioaccumulation and excretion in the hermophroditic pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis L. Branched isomers of nonylphenol are perceived to have more estrogenlike toxicity than the straight-chain isomers in addition to being more resistant to biodegradation in the environment. With an average static exposure concentration of 104 microg/L (range: 92-116 microg/L) in water at 19 degrees C for 8 d, the uptake of the compound was found to be fairly rapid, reaching a peak concentration of 23,548 microg/kg of whole tissue wet weight after 5 d and a peak bioaccumulation factor (BAFw) of 242 (5,562, based on lipid weight) after 3 d. The uptake data fitted into a logarithmic expression C(t) = 5,231 ln(t) + 11,956, where C(t) is the amount of residues accumulated in whole tissue in micrograms per kilogram tissue wet weight after a period of time, t, and t is the period of exposure in days. By determination of the excretion of 14C-residues released in water and in feces, an average loss of 96% of the accumulated residues was achieved after 22 d of continuous exposure to clean water. By first-order kinetics analysis of the excretion data, an average half-life of excretion of 4.9 d was obtained. By high-performance liquid chromatography and gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, a catechol metabolite, 4(3',6'-dimethyl-3'-heptyl)-catechol, was detected in tissue extracts (after hydrolysis with beta-glucuronidase) and in feces, in addition to the parent isomer, suggesting that the isomer may have been metabolized by glucuronic acid conjugation and hydroxylation at the ortho position of its phenolic ring. PMID:12836966

  5. Degradation of norgestrel by bacteria from activated sludge: comparison to progesterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shan; Ying, Guang-Guo; Liu, You-Sheng; Peng, Fu-Qiang; He, Liang-Ying

    2013-09-17

    Natural and synthetic progestagens in the environment have become a concern due to their adverse effects on aquatic organisms. Laboratory studies were performed to investigate aerobic biodegradation of norgestrel by bacteria from activated sludge in comparison with progesterone, and to identify their degradation products and biotransformation pathways. The degradation of norgestrel followed first order reaction kinetics (T1/2 = 12.5 d), while progesterone followed zero order reaction kinetics (T1/2 = 4.3 h). Four and eight degradation products were identified for norgestrel and progesterone, respectively. Six norgestrel-degrading bacterial strains (Enterobacter ludwigii, Aeromonas hydrophila subsp. dhakensis, Pseudomonas monteilii, Comamonas testosteroni, Exiguobacterium acetylicum, and Chryseobacterium indologenes) and one progesterone-degrading bacterial strain (Comamonas testosteroni) were successfully isolated from the enrichment culture inoculated with aerobic activated sludge. To our best knowledge, this is the first report on the biodegradation products and degrading bacteria for norgestrel under aerobic conditions. PMID:23952780

  6. The stability of aerobic granular sludge under 4-chloroaniline shock in a sequential air-lift bioreactor (SABR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Liang; Lv, Mei-le; Dai, Xin; Zhou, Jia-heng; Xu, Xiang-yang

    2013-07-01

    The aerobic granular sludge technology has a great potential in treatment of municipal wastewater and industrial wastewater containing toxic non-degradable pollutants. However, the formation and structural stability of aerobic granular sludge is susceptible to toxic shock. In the study, the effect of 4-chloroaniline (4-ClA) as a common toxic pollutant on the granular structure and performance was investigated, and the mechanism was revealed to provide more information on 4-ClA degradation with aerobic granular sludge process. The results showed that a 4-ClA shock at influent 200 mg L(-1) could cause the disintegration of aerobic granular sludge and decrease of the pollutant removal performance. The analysis of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) within the mature and disintegrated granular sludge showed that the decrease of protein content in EPS, especially the components like Amide I 3-turn helix and β-sheet structures and aspartate, was not good for the stability of aerobic granular sludge. The microbial community results demonstrated that the disappearance of dominant bacteria like Kineosphaera limosa or appearance like Acinetobacter, might contribute to the reduction of EPS and disintegration of aerobic granular sludge. PMID:23685649

  7. The life-history of a springtail Folsomia candida living in soil contaminated with nonylphenol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Widarto, T. H.; Krogh, P. H.; Forbes, V.

    Nonylphenol (NP) has been known for long time as a suspected endocrine disruptor in animals. We have conducted an experiment to look at the effect of NP on the life-history of the parthenogenetic springtail, Folsomia candida. Six sub-lethal concentrations (0, 8,16, 24, 32, 40 mg/kg dry soil...... in response to different concentrations of NP. The juveniles did not survive the highest concentration of the chemical. In linking the effects on individuals to the population level and for identifying which trait(s) was (were) responsible for the effect on l, we used a simple two-stage model to estimate...... population growth rate (l). Decomposition analysis to investigate the contribution of each of the affected life-history traits to the effects observed on l, and elasticity analysis to examine the relative sensitivity of l to changes in each of the life history traits provided valuable insight...

  8. Fluorometric determination of nonylphenol in water samples enriched with zirconium doped titanium dioxide nanotubes solid phase extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xian Fa Su; Xin Ning Zhao; Guo Hong Xie; Qing Xiang Zhou

    2012-01-01

    This paper developed a fluorometric method for the sensitive determination of nonylphenol in water samples by preconcentration with zirconium doped titanium dioxide nanotubes solid phase extraction.The parameters on extraction that would influence the enrichment performance such as the kind and volume of eluent,sample pH,sample flow rate,and sample volume were optimized in detail.Under the optimal conditions,the proposed method provided an excellent linear range of 1-150 μg/L and good LOD of 0.076 μg/L.The relative standard deviation (RSD,n =6) was 2.8%.Proposed method was also used for the analysis of real water samples and the spiked recoveries were satisfied in the range of 98.7-103%.

  9. Nonylphenol in pregnant women and their matching fetuses: Placental transfer and potential risks of infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yu-Fang [Institute of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, National Yang Ming University, No. 155, Sec. 2, Li-Nong St., Beitou, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Education and Research, Taipei City Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Wang, Pei-Wei [Department of Pediatrics, Taipei City Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Huang, Li-Wei [Department of OBS and GYN, Taipei City Hospital, Women and Children' s Campus, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Yang, Winnie [Department of Pediatrics, Taipei City Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Yu, Ching-Jung; Yang, Shang-Han; Chiu, Hsin-Hao [Institute of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, National Yang Ming University, No. 155, Sec. 2, Li-Nong St., Beitou, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Mei-Lien, E-mail: mlchen@ym.edu.tw [Institute of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, National Yang Ming University, No. 155, Sec. 2, Li-Nong St., Beitou, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2014-10-15

    As the predominant environmental biodegradation product of nonylphenol (NP) ethoxylates and with proven estrogenic effects, NP is formed during the alkylation process of phenols. The purposes of this study were (1) to examine maternal and prenatal exposure to NP in Taiwan, (2) to determine the level of placental protection against NP exposure as well as the level of NP in breast milk, and (3) to assess the potential risk for breastfed newborns exposed to NP through the milk. Thirty pairs of maternal and fetal blood samples, placenta, and breast milk during the 1st and the 3rd months of lactation were collected. External NP exposures of these specimens were then analyzed by using high-performance liquid chromatography coupling with fluorescence detection. Next, the socio-demographics, lifestyle, delivery method, dietary and work history were collected using a questionnaire. In addition, the daily intake of NP from consuming breast milk in the 1st and 3rd months for newborns was studied through deterministic and probabilistic risk assessment methods. The geometric means and geometric standard deviation of NP levels in maternal blood, fetal cord blood, placenta, and breast milk in the 1st and 3rd months were 14.6 (1.7) ng/ml, 18.8 (1.8) ng/ml, 19.8 (1.9) ng/g, 23.5 (3.2) ng/ml, and 57.3 (1.4) ng/ml, respectively. The probabilistic percentiles (50th, 75th, and 95th) of daily intake NP in breast milk were 4.33, 7.79, and 18.39 μg/kg-bw/day in the 1st month, respectively, and were 8.11, 10.78, 16.08 μg/kg-bw/day in the 3rd month, respectively. The probabilistic distributions (5th, 25th, and 50th) of risk for infants aged 1 month old were 0.27, 0.64, and 1.15, respectively, and that for infants aged 3 month old were 0.31, 0.46, and 0.62, respectively. Through repeated exposure from the dietary intake of expectant mothers, fetuses could encounter a high NP exposure level due to transplacental absorption, partitioning between the maternal and fetal compartments. Daily NP

  10. Nonylphenol in pregnant women and their matching fetuses: Placental transfer and potential risks of infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the predominant environmental biodegradation product of nonylphenol (NP) ethoxylates and with proven estrogenic effects, NP is formed during the alkylation process of phenols. The purposes of this study were (1) to examine maternal and prenatal exposure to NP in Taiwan, (2) to determine the level of placental protection against NP exposure as well as the level of NP in breast milk, and (3) to assess the potential risk for breastfed newborns exposed to NP through the milk. Thirty pairs of maternal and fetal blood samples, placenta, and breast milk during the 1st and the 3rd months of lactation were collected. External NP exposures of these specimens were then analyzed by using high-performance liquid chromatography coupling with fluorescence detection. Next, the socio-demographics, lifestyle, delivery method, dietary and work history were collected using a questionnaire. In addition, the daily intake of NP from consuming breast milk in the 1st and 3rd months for newborns was studied through deterministic and probabilistic risk assessment methods. The geometric means and geometric standard deviation of NP levels in maternal blood, fetal cord blood, placenta, and breast milk in the 1st and 3rd months were 14.6 (1.7) ng/ml, 18.8 (1.8) ng/ml, 19.8 (1.9) ng/g, 23.5 (3.2) ng/ml, and 57.3 (1.4) ng/ml, respectively. The probabilistic percentiles (50th, 75th, and 95th) of daily intake NP in breast milk were 4.33, 7.79, and 18.39 μg/kg-bw/day in the 1st month, respectively, and were 8.11, 10.78, 16.08 μg/kg-bw/day in the 3rd month, respectively. The probabilistic distributions (5th, 25th, and 50th) of risk for infants aged 1 month old were 0.27, 0.64, and 1.15, respectively, and that for infants aged 3 month old were 0.31, 0.46, and 0.62, respectively. Through repeated exposure from the dietary intake of expectant mothers, fetuses could encounter a high NP exposure level due to transplacental absorption, partitioning between the maternal and fetal compartments. Daily NP

  11. Aerobic biodegradation of organic compounds in hydraulic fracturing fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kekacs, Daniel; Drollette, Brian D; Brooker, Michael; Plata, Desiree L; Mouser, Paula J

    2015-07-01

    Little is known of the attenuation of chemical mixtures created for hydraulic fracturing within the natural environment. A synthetic hydraulic fracturing fluid was developed from disclosed industry formulas and produced for laboratory experiments using commercial additives in use by Marcellus shale field crews. The experiments employed an internationally accepted standard method (OECD 301A) to evaluate aerobic biodegradation potential of the fluid mixture by monitoring the removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from an aqueous solution by activated sludge and lake water microbial consortia for two substrate concentrations and four salinities. Microbial degradation removed from 57 % to more than 90 % of added DOC within 6.5 days, with higher removal efficiency at more dilute concentrations and little difference in overall removal extent between sludge and lake microbe treatments. The alcohols isopropanol and octanol were degraded to levels below detection limits while the solvent acetone accumulated in biological treatments through time. Salinity concentrations of 40 g/L or more completely inhibited degradation during the first 6.5 days of incubation with the synthetic hydraulic fracturing fluid even though communities were pre-acclimated to salt. Initially diverse microbial communities became dominated by 16S rRNA sequences affiliated with Pseudomonas and other Pseudomonadaceae after incubation with the synthetic fracturing fluid, taxa which may be involved in acetone production. These data expand our understanding of constraints on the biodegradation potential of organic compounds in hydraulic fracturing fluids under aerobic conditions in the event that they are accidentally released to surface waters and shallow soils. PMID:26037076

  12. Fit women are not able to use the whole aerobic capacity during aerobic dance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edvardsen, Elisabeth; Ingjer, Frank; Bø, Kari

    2011-12-01

    Edvardsen, E, Ingjer, F, and Bø, K. Fit women are not able to use the whole aerobic capacity during aerobic dance. J Strength Cond Res 25(12): 3479-3485, 2011-This study compared the aerobic capacity during maximal aerobic dance and treadmill running in fit women. Thirteen well-trained female aerobic dance instructors aged 30 ± 8.17 years (mean ± SD) exercised to exhaustion by running on a treadmill for measurement of maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2)max) and peak heart rate (HRpeak). Additionally, all subjects performed aerobic dancing until exhaustion after a choreographed videotaped routine trying to reach the same HRpeak as during maximal running. The p value for statistical significance between running and aerobic dance was set to ≤0.05. The results (mean ± SD) showed a lower VO(2)max in aerobic dance (52.2 ± 4.02 ml·kg·min) compared with treadmill running (55.9 ± 5.03 ml·kg·min) (p = 0.0003). Further, the mean ± SD HRpeak was 182 ± 9.15 b·min in aerobic dance and 192 ± 9.62 b·min in treadmill running, giving no difference in oxygen pulse between the 2 exercise forms (p = 0.32). There was no difference in peak ventilation (aerobic dance: 108 ± 10.81 L·min vs. running: 113 ± 11.49 L·min). In conclusion, aerobic dance does not seem to be able to use the whole aerobic capacity as in running. For well endurance-trained women, this may result in a lower total workload at maximal intensities. Aerobic dance may therefore not be as suitable as running during maximal intensities in well-trained females. PMID:22080322

  13. Low aerobic fitness in Brazilian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Augusto Santos Silva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: aerobic fitness is considered one of the most important components of health-related physical fitness, with low levels related to increased risk of premature death from all causes, especially cardiovascular diseases. OBJECTIVE: to identify the characteristics of adolescents at higher risk of low levels of aerobic fitness. METHODS: the study included 696 adolescents 15-17 years of age enrolled in public high schools of Florianópolis, southern Brazil. This cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Aerobic fitness was measured using the modified Canadian Aerobic Fitness Test mCAFT. Sociodemographic gender, age, school grade, paternal and maternal schooling, socioeconomic status, and anthropometric variables body weight, height, triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness, sexual maturation, physical activity, sedentary behavior, and eating habits were collected. RESULTS: it was found that 31.5% of adolescents had low aerobic fitness levels, being higher in boys 49.2% compared to girls 20.6%. Moreover, girls with sedentary behavior, overweight and high body fat percentage were the groups most likely to have inadequate aerobic fitness. In males, the groups most likely to have inadequate aerobic fitness were those whose parents studied more than eight years, those with low levels of physical activity, and those with inadequate nutrition and excessive body fat. CONCLUSION: low aerobic fitness levels were present in one third of adolescents and was more prevalent in boys. Lifestyle changes, including replacement of sedentary behaviors by physical and sport activities , may assist in improving the aerobic fitness of Brazilian adolescents.

  14. Improvement of Bioremediation Performance for the Degradation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Contaminated Sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Rocchetti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Microcosm bioremediation strategies were applied to sediments contaminated with hydrocarbons. Experiments were performed in aerobic conditions in a single-step treatment and in a two-step anaerobic-aerobic treatment. In aerobic conditions, either inorganic nutrients or composts were added to the microcosms, while, in the first anaerobic phase of the two-step experiment, acetate and/or allochthonous sulfate-reducing bacteria were used. After the treatment under anaerobic conditions, samples were exposed to aerobic conditions in the presence of compost. In the aerobic treatments, 81% hydrocarbon biodegradation was observed after 43 days in the presence of inorganic nutrients. In aerobic conditions in the presence of mature compost, hydrocarbon biodegradation was 51% after 43 days of treatment, whereas it was 47% after 21 days with fresh compost. The two-step experiment allowed us to obtain a hydrocarbon degradation of 91%, after a first anaerobic step with an inoculum of sulfate-reducing prokaryotes.

  15. Biodegradation of o-nitrophenol by aerobic granules with glucose as co-substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basheer, Farrukh; Isa, M H; Farooqi, I H

    2012-01-01

    Aerobic granules to treat wastewater containing o-nitrophenol were successfully developed in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) using activated sludge as inoculum. Stable aerobic granules were obtained with a clearly defined shape and diameters ranging from 2 to 6 mm after 122 days of operation. The integrity coefficient (IC) and granules density was found to be 98% and 1,054 kg m(-3) respectively. After development of aerobic granules, o-nitrophenols were successfully degraded to an efficiency of 78% at a concentration of 70 mg L(-1). GC-MS study revealed that the biodegradation of o-nitrophenol occurred via catechol via nitrobenzene pathway. Specific o-nitrophenol biodegradation rates followed the Haldane model and the associated kinetic parameters were found as follows: V(max) = 3.96 g o-nitrophenol g(-1)VSS(-1)d(-1), K(s) = 198.12 mg L(-1), and K(i) = 31.16 mg L(-1). The aerobic granules proved to be a feasible and effective way to degrade o-nitrophenol containing wastewater. PMID:22643407

  16. Formation of aerobic granules in the presence of a synthetic chelating agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines the development of aerobic granular sludge in the presence of a synthetic chelating agent, nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), in sequencing batch reactors (SBR). The growth of seed sludge at 0.26 mM, 0.52 mM and 1.05 mM of NTA was found to be significantly lower as compared to that in the absence of NTA. Aerobic granulation was significantly enhanced in the three SBRs (R2, R3 and R4), which were fed with 0.26 mM, 0.52 mM and 1.05 mM of NTA as a co-substrate, in comparison to the acetate-alone fed SBR (R1). After 2 months of operation, the mean diameter of the biomass stabilized at 0.35 mm in R1 (acetate alone), as compared to 2.18 mm in R4 (1.05 mM NTA + acetate). NTA degradation was established in SBRs, with almost complete removal during the SBR cycle. Batch experiments also showed efficient degradation of NTA by the aerobic granules. - Synthetic chelating agent enhances aerobic microbial granulation

  17. Formation of aerobic granules in the presence of a synthetic chelating agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nancharaiah, Yarlagadda V. [Water and Steam Chemistry Division, Chemistry Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, BARC Facilities, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India)], E-mail: yvn@igcar.ernet.in; Joshi, Hiren M.; Krishna Mohan, Tulsi V.; Venugopalan, Vayalam P.; Narasimhan, Sevilimedu V. [Water and Steam Chemistry Division, Chemistry Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, BARC Facilities, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India)

    2008-05-15

    This paper examines the development of aerobic granular sludge in the presence of a synthetic chelating agent, nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), in sequencing batch reactors (SBR). The growth of seed sludge at 0.26 mM, 0.52 mM and 1.05 mM of NTA was found to be significantly lower as compared to that in the absence of NTA. Aerobic granulation was significantly enhanced in the three SBRs (R2, R3 and R4), which were fed with 0.26 mM, 0.52 mM and 1.05 mM of NTA as a co-substrate, in comparison to the acetate-alone fed SBR (R1). After 2 months of operation, the mean diameter of the biomass stabilized at 0.35 mm in R1 (acetate alone), as compared to 2.18 mm in R4 (1.05 mM NTA + acetate). NTA degradation was established in SBRs, with almost complete removal during the SBR cycle. Batch experiments also showed efficient degradation of NTA by the aerobic granules. - Synthetic chelating agent enhances aerobic microbial granulation.

  18. How "healthful" are aerobics classes? Exploring the health and wellness messages in aerobics classes for women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Abundo, Michelle Lee

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the health messages communicated by aerobics instructors in aerobics classes for women. A theoretical framework influenced by adult learning theory and feminist pedagogy was used in this qualitative study. Over a 3-month period, the practices of five aerobics instructors working at one nonprofit fitness center and one wellness facility were explored. The methods of data collection were one interview with each aerobics instructor and 14 site visits to conduct participant observations and to retrieve of documents. Despite the nonprofit and wellness-based environment of the exercise facilities in this research, there was still an overemphasis on the physical aspect of aerobics classes. Therefore, the potential wellness-related benefits of aerobics classes for women, especially in environments that identified themselves as promoting wellness, were not fully realized. PMID:17148107

  19. Laboratory evaluation of bioaugmentation for aerobic treatment of RDX in groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Mark E; Hatzinger, Paul B; Condee, Charles W; Andaya, Christina; Vainberg, Simon; Michalsen, Mandy M; Crocker, Fiona H; Indest, Karl J; Jung, Carina M; Eaton, Hillary; Istok, Jonathan D

    2015-02-01

    The potential for bioaugmentation with aerobic explosive degrading bacteria to remediate hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) contaminated aquifers was demonstrated. Repacked aquifer sediment columns were used to examine the transport and RDX degradation capacity of the known RDX degrading bacterial strains Gordonia sp. KTR9 (modified with a kanamycin resistance gene) Pseudomonas fluorescens I-C, and a kanamycin resistant transconjugate Rhodococcus jostii RHA1 pGKT2:Km+. All three strains were transported through the columns and eluted ahead of the conservative bromide tracer, although the total breakthrough varied by strain. The introduced cells responded to biostimulation with fructose (18 mg L(-1), 0.1 mM) by degrading dissolved RDX (0.5 mg L(-1), 2.3 µM). The strains retained RDX-degrading activity for at least 6 months following periods of starvation when no fructose was supplied to the column. Post-experiment analysis of the soil indicated that the residual cells were distributed along the length of the column. When the strains were grown to densities relevant for field-scale application, the cells remained viable and able to degrade RDX for at least 3 months when stored at 4 °C. These results indicate that bioaugmentation may be a viable option for treating RDX in large dilute aerobic plumes. PMID:25503243

  20. Minireview: Selective Degradation of Mitochondria by Mitophagy*

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Insil; Rodriguez-Enriquez, Sara; Lemasters, John J.

    2007-01-01

    Mitochondria are the essential site of aerobic energy production in eukaryotic cells. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are an inevitable by-product of mitochondria metabolism and can cause mitochondrial DNA mutations and dysfunction. Mitochondrial damage can also be the consequence of disease processes. Therefore, maintaining a healthy population of mitochondria is essential to the well-being of cells. Autophagic delivery to lysosomes is the major degradative pathway in mitochondrial turnover, a...

  1. Biodegradation of phenols in a sandstone aquifer under aerobic conditions and mixed nitrate and iron reducing conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broholm, Mette; Arvin, Erik

    2000-01-01

    for the microcosms were collected from within the anaerobic ammonium plume at the field site. Fast and complete degradation of phenol, o- and p-cresol, 2,5- and 3,4-xylenol with no or very short initial lag-phases was observed under aerobic conditions at low concentrations. 2,6- and 3,5-Xylenol were...

  2. Neuromodulation of Aerobic Exercise—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia eHeijnen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Running, and aerobic exercise in general, is a physical activity that increasingly many people engage in but that also has become popular as a topic for scientific research. Here we review the available studies investigating whether and to which degree aerobic exercise modulates hormones, amino acids, and neurotransmitters levels. In general, it seems that factors such as genes, gender, training status, and hormonal status need to be taken into account to gain a better understanding of the neuromodular underpinnings of aerobic exercise. More research using longitudinal studies and considering individual differences is necessary to determine actual benefits. We suggest that, in order to succeed, aerobic exercise programs should include optimal periodization, prevent overtraining and be tailored to interindividual differences, including neuro-developmental and genetically-based factors.

  3. Physiological responses during aerobic dance of individuals grouped by aerobic capacity and dance experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, D; Ballor, D L

    1991-03-01

    This study examined the effects of aerobic capacity (peak oxygen uptake) and aerobic dance experience on the physiological responses to an aerobic dance routine. The heart rate (HR) and VO2 responses to three levels (intensities) of aerobic dance were measured in 27 women. Experienced aerobic dancers (AD) (mean peak VO2 = 42 ml.kg-1.min-1) were compared to subjects with limited aerobic dance experience of high (HI) (peak VO2 greater than 35 ml.kg-1.min-1) and low (LO) (peak VO2 less than 35 ml.kg-1.min-1) aerobic capacities. The results indicated the LO group exercised at a higher percentage of peak heart rate and peak VO2 at all three dance levels than did either the HI or AD groups (HI = AD). Design of aerobic dance routines must consider the exercise tolerance of the intended audience. In mixed groups, individuals with low aerobic capacities should be shown how and encouraged to modify the activity to reduce the level of exertion. PMID:2028095

  4. Pentachlorophenol (PCP) degradation microorganism community structure under microaeration condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Yuancai; Hao Yuan; Fu Shiyu; Zhan Huaiyu

    2007-01-01

    The comparison of pentachlorophenol (PCP)degradation was conducted under micro-aeration and anaerobic condition with three series of batch experiment,results of which indicated that during micro-aeration condition co-immobilized of anaerobic granular sludge and isolated aerobic bacterial species could enhance the efficiency of PCP reduction through the synergism of aerobes and anaerobes reductive dechlorination and exchange of metabolites within the co-immobilized granular sludge.While during anaerobic condition,there was no great difference in the three series.The specific activities experiment further confirmed that strict anaerobes were not affected over the presence of micro aeration environment.Microorganism community construction of co-immobilized anaerobic granular sludge and the mixed isolated aerobic community was also deduced.By the efficient cooperation of aerobes and anaerobes,the high efficiency removal rate of PCP was implemented.

  5. Temperature effect on aerobic denitrification and nitrification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Shu-guang; ZHANG Xiao-jian; WANG Zhan-sheng

    2003-01-01

    Nitrogen loss without organic removal in biofilter was observed and its possible reason was explained. A lower hydraulic loading could improve aerobic denitrification rate. Aerobic denitrification was seriously affected by low temperature(below 10oC). However, nitrification rate remained high when the temperature dropped from 15oC to5oC. It seemed the autotrophic biofilm in BAF could alleviate the adverse effect of low temperature.

  6. Collection of "strengthening sets" of aerobics lesson.\\\\

    OpenAIRE

    CAKL, Vojtěch

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this bachelor study was to create a strengthening sets for aerobic lessons including showing these possisions in practice on selective aerobic lessons . Based on special literature the author had chosen suitable muscle development exercises to increase the body strenth. These exercises were there practised for six weeks continuously. Before and after the research were selected individuals who were compared by 4 exact same tests to detect static and dynamic body strength. The result...

  7. Evaluation of A "Floating" Aerobics Floor

    OpenAIRE

    Favor, Craig M.

    1997-01-01

    Aerobics dance floors often produce annoying floor vibrations in adjacent parts of a building due to the rhythmic impact of the aerobicists. Various types of shock absorbing aerobics and dance floors are widely used to prevent injuries to the participants, but the floors may not prevent vibrations in adjacent areas of the building. The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate a temporary "floating" concrete a...

  8. Aerobic digester design for the biodegradation of plant tannins in industrial wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Tramšek, Marko; Goršek, Andreja

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes aerobic digester design for the biodegradation of plant tannins in industrial wastewater. For optimal design, using the criterion of minimal total holding time, some experimental investigations into tannins’ biodegradation rate in industrial wastewater were performed in the first part of this research. The chemical oxygen demand method (COD) was applied to follow the tannins degradation rate. The kinetic parameters of a supposed Aiba’s inhibition kinetic model were determ...

  9. Biodegradation and detoxification of textile azo dyes by bacterial consortium under sequential microaerophilic/aerobic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lade, Harshad; Kadam, Avinash; Paul, Diby; Govindwar, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Release of textile azo dyes to the environment is an issue of health concern while the use of microorganisms has proved to be the best option for remediation. Thus, in the present study, a bacterial consortium consisting of Providencia rettgeri strain HSL1 and Pseudomonas sp. SUK1 has been investigated for degradation and detoxification of structurally different azo dyes. The consortium showed 98-99 % decolorization of all the selected azo dyes viz. Reactive Black 5 (RB 5), Reactive Orange 16 (RO 16), Disperse Red 78 (DR 78) and Direct Red 81 (DR 81) within 12 to 30 h at 100 mg L-1 concentration at 30 ± 0.2 °C under microaerophilic, sequential aerobic/microaerophilic and microaerophilic/aerobic processes. However, decolorization under microaerophilic conditions viz. RB 5 (0.26 mM), RO 16 (0.18 mM), DR 78 (0.20 mM) and DR 81 (0.23 mM) and sequential aerobic/microaerophilic processes viz. RB 5 (0.08 mM), RO 16 (0.06 mM), DR 78 (0.07 mM) and DR 81 (0.09 mM) resulted into the formation of aromatic amines. In distinction, sequential microaerophilic/ aerobic process doesn’t show the formation of amines. Additionally, 62-72 % reduction in total organic carbon content was observed in all the dyes decolorized broths under sequential microaerophilic/aerobic processes suggesting the efficacy of method in mineralization of dyes. Notable induction within the levels of azoreductase and NADH-DCIP reductase (97 and 229 % for RB 5, 55 and 160 % for RO 16, 63 and 196 % for DR 78, 108 and 258 % for DR 81) observed under sequential microaerophilic/aerobic processes suggested their critical involvements in the initial breakdown of azo bonds, whereas, a slight increase in the levels of laccase and veratryl alcohol oxidase confirmed subsequent oxidation of formed amines. Also, the acute toxicity assay with Daphnia magna revealed the nontoxic nature of the dye-degraded metabolites under sequential microaerophilic/aerobic processes. As biodegradation under sequential microaerophilic/aerobic

  10. Methane oxidation in a crude oil contaminated aquifer: Delineation of aerobic reactions at the plume fringes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, R.T.; Bekins, B.A.; Delin, G.N.; Cozzarelli, I.M.; Blowes, D.W.; Kirshtein, J.D.

    2011-01-01

    High resolution direct-push profiling over short vertical distances was used to investigate CH4 attenuation in a petroleum contaminated aquifer near Bemidji, Minnesota. The contaminant plume was delineated using dissolved gases, redox sensitive components, major ions, carbon isotope ratios in CH4 and CO2, and the presence of methanotrophic bacteria. Sharp redox gradients were observed near the water table. Shifts in ??13CCH4 from an average of - 57.6??? (?? 1.7???) in the methanogenic zone to - 39.6??? (?? 8.7???) at 105 m downgradient, strongly suggest CH4 attenuation through microbially mediated degradation. In the downgradient zone the aerobic/anaerobic transition is up to 0.5 m below the water table suggesting that transport of O2 across the water table is leading to aerobic degradation of CH4 at this interface. Dissolved N2 concentrations that exceeded those expected for water in equilibrium with the atmosphere indicated bubble entrapment followed by preferential stripping of O2 through aerobic degradation of CH4 or other hydrocarbons. Multivariate and cluster analysis were used to distinguish between areas of significant bubble entrapment and areas where other processes such as the infiltration of O 2 rich recharge water were important O2 transport mechanisms. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The effect of organic matter and oxygen on the degradation of bacterial membrane lipids in marine sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, H. Rodger; Fallon, Robert D.; Patton, John S.

    1986-05-01

    The biodegradation of purified radiolabelled membrane lipids from a methanogenic bacterium and a pseudomonad were investigated in mangrove, beach and high marsh marine sediments under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The effect of organic matter on the amount and rate of degradation was also examined by supplementing beach sediments with humic acids. In aerobic sediments, CO 2 was the major product of lipid degradation while under anaerobic conditions both CO 2 and CH 4 were major end products and the overall rates were reduced (up to 40%) relative to aerobic conditions. Total bacterial numbers increased during all incubations with the largest increases occurring in anaerobic sediments supplemented with humic acids. No lipid degradation occurred in aerobic or anaerobic sediments treated with formaldehyde or autoclaving. In low organic beach sediments, the ester-linked phospholipid of the pseudomonad was degraded much more rapidly than the diphytanyl glycerol diether of the methanogen with 69% of the phospholipid degraded in 96 hours versus only 4% of the methanogen lipid. Lipid degradation in both aerobic and anaerobic sediments was highly correlated to organic matter content with increasing amounts of organic matter inhibiting degradation. Long incubations (75 days) of the diphytanyl glycerol ether resulted in 51% degraded to CO 2 in low (0.5%) organic mangrove sediments while only 9% was mineralized in high (10.8%) organic marsh sediments. Physicochemical sorption of membrane lipids to the organic matrix is proposed as a mechanism which protects membrane lipids from microbial attack and degradation.

  12. Biodegradation of bisphenol A and other bisphenols by a gram-negative aerobic bacterium.

    OpenAIRE

    Lobos, J. H.; Leib, T K; Su, T. M.

    1992-01-01

    A novel bacterium designated strain MV1 was isolated from a sludge enrichment taken from the wastewater treatment plant at a plastics manufacturing facility and shown to degrade 2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)propane (4,4'-isopropylidenediphenol or bisphenol A). Strain MV1 is a gram-negative, aerobic bacillus that grows on bisphenol A as a sole source of carbon and energy. Total carbon analysis for bisphenol A degradation demonstrated that 60% of the carbon was mineralized to CO2, 20% was associated...

  13. Degradation of ascorbic acid in ethanolic solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hsin-Yun; Tsai, Yi-Chin; Fu, Chi-Chang; Wu, James Swi-Bea

    2012-10-24

    Ascorbic acid occurs naturally in many wine-making fruits. The industry also uses ascorbic acid as an antioxidant and color stabilizer in the making of alcoholic beverages including white wine, wine cooler, alcopop, and fruit liqueur. However, the degradation of ascorbic acid itself may cause browning and the deterioration of color quality. This study was aimed to monitor the degradation of ascorbic acid, the formation of degradation products, and the browning in storage of ascorbic acid containing 0-40% (v/v) ethanolic solutions buffered at pH 3.2 as models of alcoholic beverages. The results show that ascorbic acid degradation in the ethanolic solutions during storage follows first-order reaction, that the degradation and browning rates increase with the increase of ethanol concentration, that the activation energy for the degradation of ascorbic acid is in the range 10.35-23.10 (kcal/mol), that 3-hydroxy-2-pyrone is an indicator and a major product of ascorbic acid degradation, and that aerobic degradation pathway dominants over anaerobic pathway in ascorbic acid degradation in ethanolic solutions. PMID:22994409

  14. EFEKTIVITAS SISTEM BIOFILTER AEROB DALAM MENURUNKAN KADAR AMONIA PADA AIR LIMBAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Made Indra Wahyuni

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasingpopulationand activity of the Balinese people can increase the amount of waste as a byproduct of community activities. The presence of the metabolites in wastewater as ammonia is toxic to aquatic organisms. Application aerobic biofilter system can be used as an attempt to reduce levels of ammonia. In the aerobic biofilter, contact between the gravel media with microorganisms that form biofilmsare able to accelerate the degradation of organic matter and nitrification processes. The aims of this research are to determine the best consortium of activated sludge to reduce ammonia levels by aerobic biofilter system and to determine the effectivity of aerobic biofilter system. The first stage of this research were seeding of activated sludge from three sources are Wastewater Treatment Plan (WWTP of Suwung Denpasar, WWTP of Wangaya Hospital and WWTP of Bali Tourism Development Corporation (BTDC Nusa Dua Bali, for six days. This research was done by measuring Volatile Suspended Solid (VSS value that showed the growth rate of biomass in activated sludge. The second stage wereapplication of activated sludges and control in aerobic biofilter to reduce ammonia levels, for five days. This study used a Completely Randomized Design with four treatments and three repetitions. The results showed that the best activated sludge obtained from WWTP of Suwung Denpasar indicated by the highest biomass growth (VSS value of 2396.6 mg/L and was able to reduce ammonia up to 0.78 mg/ L. The effectivity of aerobic biofilter system with activated sludge from WWTP of Suwung Denpasar achieve effectivity of treatment process up to 92.20 % and have been able to pass the effectivity of quality standards (90% during five days of processing. The effectivity levels was the highest compared to control and activated sludgetreatments.

  15. The use of ozone, ozone plus UV radiation, and aerobic microorganisms in the purification of some agro-industrial wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitez, F Javier; Acero, Juan L; Gonzalez, Teresa; Garcia, Juan

    2002-08-01

    The oxidation of the pollutant organic matter present in wastewaters generated during different stages in the black table-olive industry was investigated by using ozone alone or combined with UV radiation; by using aerobic microorganisms; and finally, by aerobic degradation of the previously ozonated wastewaters. In the ozonation processes, the removal of substrate (COD) and aromatic compounds, the decreases in BOD5 and pH, and the ozone consumed in the reaction were evaluated. A kinetic study was conducted that led to the evaluation of the stoichiometric ratio for the chemical reaction, as well as the rate constants for the substrate reduction and ozone disappearance. In the single aerobic degradation treatment, the evolution of substrate and biomass was monitored during the process, and a kinetic study was performed by applying the Contois model to the experimental data, giving the specific biokinetic constant, the cell yield coefficient, and the rate constant for the microorganism death phase. Finally, a combined process was performed, consisting in the aerobic degradation of pre-ozonated wastewaters, and the effect of such chemical pretreatment on the substrate removal and kinetic parameters of the later biological stage is discussed. PMID:15328694

  16. Quantifying pesticide sorption and degradation parameters: Modeling a field injection experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højberg, Anker Lajer; Christensen, J. L.; Engesgaard, Peter Knudegaard;

    2000-01-01

    The potential for natural attenuation of pesticides in a shallow aerobic aquifer was investigated in three injection experiments. Two pesticides could readily be identified as easily degradable from the observed decrease in solute concentration whereas degradation could only be quantified by use of...... numerical modeling for the remaining pesticides....

  17. Large-scale bioreactor production of the herbicide-degrading Aminobacter sp. strain MSH1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz-Jensen, Nadja; Knudsen, Berith Elkær; Frkova, Zuzana;

    2014-01-01

    The Aminobacter sp. strain MSH1 has potential for pesticide bioremediation because it degrades the herbicide metabolite 2,6-dichlorobenzamide (BAM). Production of the BAM-degrading bacterium using aerobic bioreactor fermentation was investigated. A mineral salt medium limited for carbon and with an...

  18. Competitive sorption between 17α-ethinyl estradiol and bisphenol A/4-n-nonylphenol by soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianzhong Li; Lu Jiang; Xi Xiang; Shuang Xu; Rou Wen; Xiang Liu

    2013-01-01

    The sorption of 17αt-ethinyl estradiol (EE2),bisphenol A (BPA),and 4-n-nonylphenol (NP) in single systems and the sorption of EE2 with different initial aqueous concentrations of BPA or NP were examined using three soils.Results showed that all sorption isotherms were nonlinear and fit the Freundlich model.The degree of nonlinearity was in the order BPA (0.537-0.686) > EE2 (0.705-0.858) >NP (0.875-0.0.951) in single systems.The isotherm linearity index of EE2 sorption calculated by the Freundlich model for Loam,Silt Loam and Silt increased from 0.758,0.705 and 0.858,to 0.889,0.910 and 0.969,respectively,when BPA concentration increased from 0 to 1000 μg/L,but the effect of NP was comparably minimal.Additionally,EE2 significantly suppressed the sorption of BPA,but insignificantly suppressed that of NP.These findings can be attributed to the difference of sorption affinity of EE2,NP and BPA on the hard carbon (e.g.,black carbon) of soil organic matter that dominated the sorption in the low equilibrium aqueous concentration range of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs).Competitive sorption among EDCs presents new challenges for predicting the transport and fate of EDCs under the influence of co-solutes.

  19. Short-term responses of selected endocrine parameters in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to 4-nonylphenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi, Mohammad; Zargham, Davood; Asadi, Asad; Bashti, Tayebeh; Kamayi, Kianoosh

    2015-12-01

    The synthetic organic compound 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) has been shown to have a wide range of adverse effects on the endocrine system of various animals including fish. The present study evaluated the potential effects of 4-NP on vitellogenin (VTG) synthesis, steroid, and thyroid hormone concentrations in both juvenile male and female rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Fish were exposed by intraperitoneal injection to different doses of 4-NP (1, 10, 50, and 100 μg g(-1)) or vehicle (coconut oil) over a period of 14 days. Blood samples were collected 7 and 14 days after initiation of treatment. Plasma VTG levels in 4-NP-treated fish were detected by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis as a high molecular weight protein band of 180 KDa. In addition, plasma VTG concentrations were quantified indirectly using plasma alkali-labile phosphate (ALP) and plasma calcium. Both ALP and calcium levels in plasma showed similar and parallel increase patterns after exposure to 4-NP that were significantly higher compared with controls. The analysis of plasma sex steroid levels revealed a significant increase in 17β-estradiol and testosterone in plasma of juvenile males and females, respectively. Furthermore, a significant increase was observed in plasma cortisol levels. On the other hand, 4-NP decreased both plasma triiodothyronine and thyroxine after 7 and 14 days of treatment. These results suggest that 4-NP can affect different parts of the endocrine system, which may lead to serious impairments in physiological homeostasis of juvenile rainbow trout. PMID:23771873

  20. In vitro assessment ofROS on motility of epididymal sperm of male rat exposed to intraperitoneal administration of nonylphenol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ansoumane Kourouma; Duan Peng; Hady Keita; Aidogie Osamuyimen; Qi Suqin; Quan Chao; Yu Tingting; Yang Kedi

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the mechanism by which nonylphenol (NP) interferes with male infertility through evaluation of its effects on epididymal sperm of adult male rats.Methods:Twenty four Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were used as epididymal sperm donors. Previously rats were administrated with NP (0, 2, 10 and 50 mg/kg) body weight respectively in corn oil every forty-eight hours by intraperitoneal injection for 30 days. Computer assisted sperm analysis (CASA) was used to determine parameters of sperm. The sperm morphology examination was conducted with a high resolution microscope.Results:Results indicated that exposure to NP has no effect on body weight, while testes weights were significantly decreased. Computer assisted sperm analysis (CASA) showed significant decline in the percentage of motile spermatozoa (P<0.001), STR and LIN (P<0.01), significant increase in ALH (P<0.001), while significant decline in BCF (P<0.001) respectively. Plasma LDH was significantly increased while; plasmaγ-GT activity was significantly decreased. H2O2production and malondialdehyde (MDA) were significantly increased. The Plasma CAT, GSH-Px and SOD activities were significantly decreased.Conclusions:This concludes that NP leads oxidative stress in the epididymal sperm of rats. Moreover, NP can disrupt sperm motility and alterations in the sperm morphology.

  1. Patterns of Fluctuating Asymmetry and Shape Variation in Chironomus riparius (Diptera, Chironomidae) Exposed to Nonylphenol or Lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arambourou, Hélène; Beisel, Jean-Nicolas; Branchu, Philippe; Debat, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Deformities and fluctuating asymmetry in chironomid larvae have been proposed as sensitive indicators of biological stress and are commonly used to assess the ecological impact of human activities. In particular, they have been associated in Chironomus riparius, the most commonly used species, with heavy metal and pesticide river pollution. In this study, the effect of lead and 4-nonylphenol on mouthpart morphological variation of Chironomus riparius larvae was investigated by traditional and geometric morphometrics. For this purpose, first to fourth instar larvae were exposed to sediment spiked with lead (from 3.0 to 456.9 mg/kg dry weight) or 4-NP (from 0.1 to 198.8 mg/kg dry weight). Mentum phenotypic response to pollutants was assessed by four parameters: (1) the frequency of deformities, (2) fluctuating asymmetry of mentum length, (3) fluctuating asymmetry of mentum shape and (4) the mentum mean shape changes. Despite the bioaccumulation of pollutants in the chironomid’s body, no significant differences between control and stressed groups were found for mouthpart deformities and fluctuating asymmetry of mentum length. Slight effects on mentum shape fluctuating asymmetry were observed for two stressed groups. Significant mean shape changes, consisting of tooth size increase and tooth closing, were detected for lead and 4-NP exposure respectively. Those variations, however, were negligible in comparison to mentum shape changes due to genetic effects. These results suggest that the use of mentum variation as an indicator of toxic stress in Chironomus riparius should be considered cautiously. PMID:23133660

  2. Effects of 4-nonylphenol on spermatogenesis and induction of testicular apoptosis through oxidative stress-related pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Peng; Hu, Chunhui; Butler, Holly J; Quan, Chao; Chen, Wei; Huang, Wenting; Tang, Sha; Zhou, Wei; Yuan, Meng; Shi, Yuqin; Martin, Francis L; Yang, Kedi

    2016-07-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that prepubertal exposure to 4-nonylphenol (NP) affects reproductive function in male rats. Twenty-four rats at five-weeks-old were randomly divided into four groups and treated with NP at varying concentrations (0, 5, 20, and 60mg/kg/2d) for thirty days by intra-peritoneal injection. 60mg/kg NP induced spermatogenic degeneration and pronounced deficits in epididymal sperm count, motility and function, whereas potentially stimulatory effects were observed at 5 NPmg/kg. Moreover, 60mg/kg NP resulted in a significant reduction in fructose, FSH and LH; induced apoptosis related to oxidative stress; inhibited mRNA and protein levels of Bcl-2 and PCNA; as well as the additional up-regulation of p53, Bax, Apaf-1, cytochrome c, cleaved-caspase-3, Fas and FasL expression. Our data suggest potentially hormetic effects of NP on spermatogenic function. High-dose NP impairs testicular development and function by reducing cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis involving oxidative stress-related p53-Bcl-2/Bax and -Fas/FasL pathways. PMID:27109770

  3. Suppression of CYP1A1 expression by 4-nonylphenol in murine Hepa-1c1c7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, H G; Kim, J Y; Choi, C Y; You, H J; Hahm, K

    2001-04-10

    This study investigated the effects that 4-nonylphenol (NP) has on CYP1A1 expression in Hepa-1c1c7 cell cultures. NP alone did not affect CYP1A1-specific 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity. In contrast, the 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-inducible EROD activities were markedly reduced upon concomitant treatment with TCDD and NP in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment with tamoxifen, an anti-estrogen that acts through the estrogen receptor, did not affect the suppressive effects that NP has on TCDD-inducible EROD activity. The TCDD-inducible CYP1A1 mRNA levels were markedly suppressed upon concomitant treatment with TCDD and NP that is consistent with their effects on EROD activity. A transient transfection assay using dioxin-response element (DRE)-linked luciferase and an electrophoretic mobility shift assay revealed that NP reduced the transformation of the aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor to a form capable of binding specifically to the DRE sequence of the CYP1A1 gene promoter. These results suggest that the down-regulation of CYP1A1 gene expression by NP in Hepa-1c1c7 cells might be an antagonism of the DRE-binding potential of the nuclear Ah receptor, but is not mediated through the estradiol receptor. PMID:11248424

  4. Continuing Exposure to Low-Dose Nonylphenol Aggravates Adenine-Induced Chronic Renal Dysfunction and Role of Rosuvastatin Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen Chia-Hung

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nonylphenol (NP, an environmental organic compound, has been demonstrated to enhance reactive-oxygen species (ROS synthesis. Chronic exposure to low-dose adenine (AD has been reported to induce chronic kidney disease (CKD. Methods In this study, we tested the hypothesis that chronic exposure to NP will aggravate AD-induced CKD through increasing generations of inflammation, ROS, and apoptosis that could be attenuated by rosuvastatin. Fifty male Wistar rats were equally divided into group 1 (control, group 2 (AD in fodder at a concentration of 0.25%, group 3 (NP: 2 mg/kg/day, group 4 (combined AD & NP, and group 5 (AD-NP + rosuvastatin: 20 mg/kg/day. Treatment was continued for 24 weeks for all animals before being sacrificed. Results By the end of 24 weeks, serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN and creatinine levels were increased in group 4 than in groups 1–3, but significantly reduced in group 5 as compared with group 4 (all p  Conclusion NP worsened AD-induced CKD that could be reversed by rosuvastatin therapy.

  5. [Anaerobic-aerobic infection in acute appendicitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamchich, V I; Ulitovskiĭ, I V; Savich, E I; Znamenskiĭ, V A; Beliaeva, O A

    1998-01-01

    362 patients with acute appendicitis (AA) were examined. For microbiological diagnosis of aerobic and anaerobic nonclostridial microflora we used complex accelerated methods (including evaluation of gram-negative microorganisms in comparison with tinctorial-fermentative method of differential staining according to oxygen sensitivity of catalasopositive together with aerobic and cathalasonegative anaerobic microorganisms) as well as complete bacteriologic examination with determination of sensitivity of the above microorganism to antimicrobial remedies. High rate of aerobic-anaerobic microbial associations and substantial identity of microflora from appendicis and exudate from abdominal cavity was revealed, which evidenced the leading role of endogenous microorganisms in etiology and pathogenesis of AA and peritonitis i. e. autoinfection. In patients with destructive forms of AA, complicated by peritonitis it is recommended to use the accelerated method of examination of pathologic material as well as the complete scheme of examination with the identification of the isolated microorganisms and the correction of antibiotic treatment. PMID:9511291

  6. Mechanism of Kenaf Retting Using Aerobes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢士森; 陈季华; 黄秀宝

    2001-01-01

    The experimental results showed that the duration of microbial retting processing of kenaf fibers by using aerobic microbe was four times shorter than that by using anaerobic microbe. The residual gum percentage,breaking strength, breaking elongation and linear density of aerobic retted kenaf bundle fibers did not show significantly difference with that of anaerobic retted kenaf bundle fibers by ANOVA-Tukey's studentized test at a = 5% except for the softness. The bioenergetic principle and the calculation of the amount of ATP produced during the decomposition processing of kenaf gums were used to explain why the retting duration in the case of using aerobic microbes was much shorter than that of using anaerobic microbes.

  7. The fate of bisphenol A, 4-tert-octylphenol and 4-nonylphenol leached from plastic debris into marine water--experimental studies on biodegradation and sorption on suspended particulate matter and nano-TiO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staniszewska, Marta; Graca, Bożena; Nehring, Iga

    2016-02-01

    Experiments were carried out, the aim of which was to determine the leaching rates for bisphenol A (4,4'-(propane-2,2-diyl)diphenol - BPA), 4-tert-octylphenol (OP), 4-nonylphenol (NP) from polycarbonate and recycled tyre granules into the seawater. Additionally biodegradation, sorption on marine suspended particulate matter and sorption on various types of nano-TiO2 of BPA, OP, NP were studied. Experiments were carried out on plastics at various stages of degradation. The conducted experiment confirmed the flux of BPA, OP and NP from the studied plastics into seawater. The initial photodegradation of the plastic had a significant influence on the amount of the studied components released into water. During the first days of the experiment leaching was weaker from aged materials. After 60 days leaching of BPA and OP was higher for aged plastic compared to unaged. On average, suspension adsorbed OP, BPA and NP from seawater at respective levels of 37%, 75% and 100%. On the other hand, during biodegradation on average 25%, 9% and 2% of OP, BPA and NP respectively are removed from water. Nano-TiO2 of 21 nm pore size diameter adsorbed all the compounds more strongly than nano-TiO2 of 15 nm pores sized coated with Al and stearic acid. The strongest sorption (100%) on different types of nano-TiO2 was that of the most hydrophobic and more linear structured NP with just one phenol group. The weakest sorption was observed in the case of BPA, which is the least hydrophobic, and characterized by higher compared to NP and OP steric hindrance and electrostatic repulsion. PMID:26702557

  8. Hydrogen Isotope Fractionation As a Tool to Identify Aerobic and Anaerobic PAH Biodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kümmel, Steffen; Starke, Robert; Chen, Gao; Musat, Florin; Richnow, Hans H; Vogt, Carsten

    2016-03-15

    Aerobic and anaerobic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) biodegradation was characterized by compound specific stable isotope analysis (CSIA) of the carbon and hydrogen isotope effects of the enzymatic reactions initiating specific degradation pathways, using naphthalene and 2-methylnaphtalene as model compounds. Aerobic activation of naphthalene and 2-methylnaphthalene by Pseudomonas putida NCIB 9816 and Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 17483 containing naphthalene dioxygenases was associated with moderate carbon isotope fractionation (εC = -0.8 ± 0.1‰ to -1.6 ± 0.2‰). In contrast, anaerobic activation of naphthalene by a carboxylation-like mechanism by strain NaphS6 was linked to negligible carbon isotope fractionation (εC = -0.2 ± 0.2‰ to -0.4 ± 0.3‰). Notably, anaerobic activation of naphthalene by strain NaphS6 exhibited a normal hydrogen isotope fractionation (εH = -11 ± 2‰ to -47 ± 4‰), whereas an inverse hydrogen isotope fractionation was observed for the aerobic strains (εH = +15 ± 2‰ to +71 ± 6‰). Additionally, isotope fractionation of NaphS6 was determined in an overlaying hydrophobic carrier phase, resulting in more reliable enrichment factors compared to immobilizing the PAHs on the bottle walls without carrier phase. The observed differences especially in hydrogen fractionation might be used to differentiate between aerobic and anaerobic naphthalene and 2-methylnaphthalene biodegradation pathways at PAH-contaminated field sites. PMID:26855125

  9. 蛋白组学技术研究有氧运动影响C57BL/6小鼠骨骼肌代谢系列报道之四——有氧运动对胰岛素抵抗小鼠骨骼肌蛋白折叠/降解通路相关蛋白的影响%"Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Skeletal Muscle Metabolism in C57BL/6 Mice with Proteome Analysis" Serial Report 4: Effects of Aerobic Exercise on the Fold / Degradation Protein in Skeletal Muscle of C57BL/6 Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    褚晓蕾; 牛燕媚; 袁海瑞; 刘效磊; 尹苗苗; 黄雯; 傅力

    2011-01-01

    Precursor)运动后下降38%,β型蛋白酶体7前体(Proteasome Subunit Beta Type-7 Precursor)运动后增加3.27倍,α型蛋白酶体1(Proteasome Subunit Alpha Type-1)运动后增加1.67倍,伴侣素β亚基(Chaperonin Containing Tcp-1 Beta Subunit,CCTβ)、Ester Hydrolase ClIOrf54 Homolog为运动后新增蛋白.结论:6周有氧运动可通过调节IR小鼠骨骼肌蛋白折叠/降解通路相关蛋白的表达,改善高脂饮食诱导的IR.%Objective The aim of this study was to explore the role of fold / degradation proteins involved in aerobic exercise ameliorating insulin resistance (IR) by identifying the differentially expressed proteins in the skeletal muscle of mice after exercise. Methods Eighty male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into IR model group (IR, n = 60) and normal diet group (NC, n = 60) . Rats in IR group were fed with high-fat diet for 10 weeks. The IR was confirmed by fasting serum insulin level (FIN) and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) . Then the IR group was randomly subdivided into a high-fat-diet exercise group (HE) and a high-fat-diet control group (HC) . The HE group was required to run on a treadmill for 6 weeks with the intensity of 75%VO2 max. After the completion of the 6-week exercise, the proteins extracted from the quadriceps femoris were quantified with Bradford and then separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) . The result was analyzed by ImageMas-ter 2D Platinum V5.0. The selected differentially expressed proteins were analyzed using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS ) and Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC/LC-MS/MS) . The differentially expressed proteins were identified using Mascot software and NCBI nr database. Results Compared with the NC group, FIN of 10-week high-fat-diet group increased by 50%, and time point of OGTT peak shifted backward obviously with a platform stage. After 6-week aerobic exercise, the FIN in HE group decreased by 17.2% as compared

  10. Mathematical modeling of the effects of aerobic and anaerobic chelate biodegradation on actinide speciation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biodegradation of natural and anthropogenic chelating agents directly and indirectly affects the speciation, and, hence, the mobility of actinides in subsurface environments. We combined mathematical modeling with laboratory experimentation to investigate the effects of aerobic and anaerobic chelate biodegradation on actinide [Np(IV/V), Pu(IV)] speciation. Under aerobic conditions, nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) biodegradation rates were strongly influenced by the actinide concentration. Actinide-chelate complexation reduced the relative abundance of available growth substrate in solution and actinide species present or released during chelate degradation were toxic to the organisms. Aerobic bio-utilization of the chelates as electron-donor substrates directly affected actinide speciation by releasing the radionuclides from complexed form into solution, where their fate was controlled by inorganic ligands in the system. Actinide speciation was also indirectly affected by pH changes caused by organic biodegradation. The two concurrent processes of organic biodegradation and actinide aqueous chemistry were accurately linked and described using CCBATCH, a computer model developed at Northwestern University to investigate the dynamics of coupled biological and chemical reactions in mixed waste subsurface environments. CCBATCH was then used to simulate the fate of Np during anaerobic citrate biodegradation. The modeling studies suggested that, under some conditions, chelate degradation can increase Np(IV) solubility due to carbonate complexation in closed aqueous systems

  11. Mathematical modelling of the effects of aerobic and anaerobic chelate biodegradation on actinide speciation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biodegradation of natural and anthropogenic chelating agents directly and indirectly affects the speciation, and hence, the mobility of actinides in subsurface environments. We combined mathematical modelling with laboratory experimentation to investigate the effects of aerobic and anaerobic chelate biodegradation on actinide [Np(IV/V), Pu(IV)] speciation. Under aerobic conditions, nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) biodegradation rates were strongly influenced by the actinide concentration. Actinide-chelate complexation reduced the relative abundance of available growth substrate in solution and actinide species present or released during chelate degradation were toxic to the organisms. Aerobic bioutilization of the chelates as electron-donor substrates directly affected actinide speciation by releasing the radionuclides from complexed form into solution, where their fate was controlled by inorganic ligands in the system. Actinide speciation was also indirectly affected by pH changes caused by organic biodegradation. The two concurrent processes of organic biodegradation and actinide aqueous chemistry were accurately linked and described using CCBATCH, a computer model developed at Northwestern University to investigate the dynamics of coupled biological and chemical reactions in mixed waste subsurface environments. CCBATCH was then used to simulate the fate of Np during anaerobic citrate biodegradation. The modelling studies suggested that, under some conditions, chelate degradation can increase Np(IV) solubility due to carbonate complexation in closed aqueous systems. (orig.)

  12. THE RATE AND NATURE OF WOMEN INJURIES IN STEP AEROBICS

    OpenAIRE

    Gholam Ali Ghasemi; Vahid Zolaktaf; Fereshteh Kazemi

    2011-01-01

    Step aerobics is a form of aerobic exercise that utilizes a 90×45×20 centimeter platform. ItsInternational competitions are held annually. This sport is popular in Iranian specialist femalesport clubs and its national competitions are growing gradually. The purpose of this survey wasto determine the rate and nature of sport injury in Iranian athletes of step aerobics. Weadministered a structured interview using a modified version of standard questionnaire of"Aerobics Pathology". The populatio...

  13. Glycogen metabolism in aerobic mixed cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dircks, Klaus; Beun, J.J.; van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.;

    2001-01-01

    In this study, the metabolism of glycogen storage and consumption in mixed cultures under aerobic conditions is described. The experimental results are used to calibrate a metabolic model, which as sole stoichiometric variables has the efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation (delta) and maintenan...

  14. Contamination of nonylphenolic compounds in creek water, wastewater treatment plant effluents, and sediments from Lake Shihwa and vicinity, Korea: Comparison with fecal pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Minkyu; Furlong, Edward T.; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Yu, Jun; Choi, Hee-Gu

    2011-01-01

    Nonylphenolic compounds (NPs), coprostanol (COP), and cholestanol, major contaminants in industrial and domestic wastewaters, were analyzed in creek water, wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent, and sediment samples from artificial Lake Shihwa and its vicinity, one of the most industrialized regions in Korea. We also determined mass discharge of NPs and COP, a fecal sterol, into the lake, to understand the linkage between discharge and sediment contamination. Total NP (the sum of nonylphenol, and nonylphenol mono- and di-ethoxylates) were 0.32–875 μg L-1 in creeks, 0.61–87.0 μg L-1 in WWTP effluents, and 29.3–230 μg g-1 TOC in sediments. Concentrations of COP were 0.09–19.0 μg L-1 in creeks, 0.11–44.0 μg L-1 in WWTP effluents, and 2.51–438 μg g-1 TOC in sediments. The spatial distributions of NPs in creeks and sediments from the inshore region were different from those of COP, suggesting that Lake Shihwa contamination patterns from industrial effluents differ from those from domestic effluents. The mass discharge from the combined outfall of the WWTPs, located in the offshore region, was 2.27 kg d-1 for NPs and 1.00 kg d-1 for COP, accounting for 91% and 95% of the total discharge into Lake Shihwa, respectively. The highest concentrations of NPs and COP in sediments were found in samples at sites near the submarine outfall of the WWTPs, indicating that the submarine outfall is an important point source of wastewater pollution in Lake Shihwa.

  15. EFFECTS OF AQUA AEROBICS AND FLOOR AEROBICS ON BREATH HOLDING TIME AMONG SCHOOL GIRLS

    OpenAIRE

    P.V. Shelvam; S. Arunadevi

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to find out the effects of aqua aerobics and floor aerobics on breath holding time among school girls. To achieve this purpose of the study, ninety school girls were selected as subjects who were studied Cornation Higher Secondary School, Sivakasi. The selected subjects were aged between 15 to 17 years. The selected subjects were randomly divided into three groups of 30 subjects each group. Group one acted as experimental group I and group two acted as experimenta...

  16. Oxidation of aquatic pollutants by ferrous–oxalate complexes under dark aerobic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Electron transfer from ferrous–oxalate complexes to oxygen occurs in dark conditions. • OH radicals generated by ferrous–oxalate complexes initiate the oxidation process. • Degradation kinetics depends on the speciation of ferrous–oxalate complexes. • Ferrous–oxalate complexes are the most efficient for the degradation of pollutants. - Abstract: This study evaluates the ability of FeII–oxalate complexes for the generation of ·OH through oxygen reduction and the oxidative degradation of aquatic pollutants under dark aerobic conditions (i.e., with oxygen but without light). The degradation of 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) was rapid in the mixture of Fe2+ and oxalate prepared using ultrapure water, but was absent without either Fe2+ or oxalate. The formation of FeII–oxalate complexes enables two-electron reduction of oxygen to generate H2O2 and subsequent production of ·OH. The significant inhibition of 4-CP degradation in the presence of H2O2 and ·OH scavenger confirms such mechanisms. The degradation experiments with varying [Fe2+], [oxalate], and initial pH demonstrated that the degradation rate depends on [FeII(Ox)22−], but the degree of degradation is primarily determined by [FeII(Ox)22−] + [FeII(Ox)0]. Efficient degradation of diverse aquatic pollutants, especially phenolic pollutants, was observed in the FeII–oxalate complexes system, wherein the oxidation efficacy was primarily correlated with the reaction rate constant between pollutant and ·OH. The effect of various organic ligands (oxalate, citrate, EDTA, malonate, and acetate) on the degradation kinetics of 4-CP was investigated. The highest efficiency of oxalate for the oxidative degradation is attributed to its high capability to enhance the reducing power and low reactivity with ·OH

  17. Distribution, fate and formation of non-extractable residues of a nonylphenol isomer in soil with special emphasis on soil derived organo-clay complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riefer, Patrick; Klausmeyer, Timm; Schäffer, Andreas; Schwarzbauer, Jan; Schmidt, Burkhard

    2011-01-01

    Anthropogenic contaminants like nonylphenols (NP) are added to soil, for instance if sewage-sludge is used as fertilizer in agriculture. A commercial mixture of NP consists of more than 20 isomers. For our study, we used one of the predominate isomers of NP mixtures, 4-(3,5-dimethylhept-3-yl)phenol, as a representative compound. The aim was to investigate the fate and distribution of the isomer within soil and soil derived organo-clay complexes. Therefore, (14)C- and (13)C-labeled NP was added to soil samples and incubated up to 180 days. Mineralization was measured and soil samples were fractionated into sand, silt and clay; the clay fraction was further separated in humic acids, fulvic acids and humin. The organo-clay complexes pre-incubated for 90 or 180 days were re-incubated with fresh soil for 180 days, to study the potential of re-mobilization of incorporated residues. The predominate incorporation sites of the nonylphenol isomer in soil were the organo-clay complexes. After 180 days of incubation, 22 % of the applied (14)C was mineralized. The bioavailable, water extractable portion was low (9 % of applied (14)C) and remained constant during the entire incubation period, which could be explained by an incorporation/release equilibrium. Separation of organo-clay complexes, after extraction with solvents to release weakly incorporated, bioaccessible portions, showed that non-extractable residues (NER) were preferentially located in the humic acid fraction, which was regarded as an effect of the chemical composition of this fraction. Generally, 27 % of applied (14)C was incorporated into organo-clay complexes as NER, whereas 9 % of applied (14)C was bioaccessible after 180 days of incubation. The re-mobilization experiments showed on the one hand, a decrease of the bioavailability of the nonylphenol residues due to stronger incorporation, when the pre-incubation period was increased from 90 to 180 days. On the other hand, a shift of these residues from the

  18. Physical injury stimulates aerobic methane emissions from terrestrial plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.-P. Wang

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Physical injury is common in terrestrial plants as a result of grazing, harvesting, trampling, and extreme weather events. Previous studies demonstrated enhanced emission of non-microbial CH4 under aerobic conditions from plant tissues when they were exposed to increasing UV radiation and temperature. Since physical injury is also a form of environmental stress, we sought to determine whether it would also affect CH4 emissions from plants. Physical injury (cutting stimulated CH4 emission from fresh twigs of Artemisia species under aerobic conditions. More cutting resulted in more CH4 emissions. Hypoxia also enhanced CH4 emission from both uncut and cut Artemisia frigida twigs. Physical injury typically results in cell wall degradation, which may either stimulate formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS or decrease scavenging of them. Increased ROS activity might explain increased CH4 emission in response to physical injury and other forms of stress. There were significant differences in CH4 emissions among 10 species of Artemisia, with some species emitting no detectable CH4 under any circumstances. Consequently, CH4 emissions may be species-dependent and therefore difficult to estimate in nature based on total plant biomass. Our results and those of previous studies suggest that a variety of environmental stresses stimulate CH4 emission from a wide variety of plant species. Global change processes, including climate change, depletion of stratospheric ozone, increasing ground-level ozone, spread of plant pests, and land-use changes, could cause more stress in plants on a global scale, potentially stimulating more CH4 emission globally.

  19. Physical injury stimulates aerobic methane emissions from terrestrial plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.-P. Wang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical injury is common in terrestrial plants as a result of grazing, trampling, and extreme weather events. Previous studies demonstrated enhanced emission of non-microbial CH4 under aerobic conditions from plant tissues when they were exposed to increasing UV radiation and temperature. Since physical injury is also a form of environmental stress, we sought to determine whether it would also affect CH4 emissions from plants. Physical injury (cutting stimulated CH4 emission from fresh twigs of Artemisiaspecies under aerobic conditions. More cutting resulted in more CH4 emissions. Hypoxia also enhanced CH4 emission from both uncut and cut Artemisia frigida twigs. Physical injury typically results in cell wall degradation, which may either stimulate formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS or decrease scavenging of them. Increased ROS activity might explain increased CH4 emission in response to physical injury and other forms of stress. There were significant differences in CH4 emissions among 10 species of Artemisia, with some species emitting no detectable CH4 under any circumstances. Consequently, CH4 emissions may be species-dependent and therefore difficult to estimate in nature based on total plant biomass. Our results and those of previous studies suggest that a variety environmental stresses stimulate CH4 emission from a wide variety of plant species. Global change processes, including climate change, depletion of stratospheric ozone, increasing ground-level ozone, spread of plant pests, and land-use changes, could cause more stress in plants on a global scale, potentially stimulating more CH4 emission globally.

  20. Aerobic biotransformation of polyfluoroalkyl phosphate esters (PAPs) in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chen; Liu, Jinxia

    2016-05-01

    Microbial transformation of polyfluoroalkyl phosphate esters (PAPs) into perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) has recently been confirmed to occur in activated sludge and soil. However, there lacks quantitative information about the half-lives of the PAPs and their significance as the precursors to PFCAs. In the present study, the biotransformation of 6:2 and 8:2 diPAP in aerobic soil was investigated in semi-dynamics reactors using improved sample preparation methods. To develop an efficient extraction method for PAPs, six different extraction solvents were compared, and the phenomenon of solvent-enhanced hydrolysis was investigated. It was found that adding acetic acid could enhance the recoveries of the diPAPs and inhibit undesirable hydrolysis during solvent extraction of soil. However 6:2 and 8:2 monoPAPs, which are the first breakdown products from diPAPs, were found to be unstable in the six solvents tested and quickly hydrolyzed to form fluorotelomer alcohols. Therefore reliable measurement of the monoPAPs from a live soil was not achievable. The apparent DT50 values of 6:2 diPAP and 8:2 diPAP biotransformation were estimated to be 12 and > 1000 days, respectively, using a double first-order in parallel model. At the end of incubation of day 112, the major degradation products of 6:2 diPAP were 5:3 fluorotelomer carboxylic acid (5:3 acid, 9.3% by mole), perfluoropentanoic acid (PFPeA, 6.4%) and perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA, 6.0%). The primary product of 8:2 diPAP was perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, 2.1%). The approximately linear relationship between the half-lives of eleven polyfluoroalkyl and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs, including 6:2 and 8:2 diPAPs) that biotransform in aerobic soils and their molecular weights suggested that the molecular weight is a good indicator of the general stability of low-molecular-weight PFAS-based compounds in aerobic soils. PMID:26849529

  1. Induction of vitellogenin synthesis in immature male yellowfin seabream (Acanthopagrus latus) exposed to 4-nonylphenol and 17β-estradiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi, Mohammad; Safahieh, Alireza; Madiseh, Simin Dehghan; Zolgharnein, Hossein; Ghatrami, Ebrahim Rajabzade

    2015-03-01

    In the present study, the effects of xenoestrogen 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) and 17β-estradiol (E2) on the synthesis of vitellogenin (VTG) in immature male yellowfin seabream (Acanthoparus latus) were assessed to determine the potential use of this species as a biological model for studying endocrine disrupters in the Musa estuary in southern seawaters of Iran. A total number of 104 fish were injected by 10, 50, 100, 150 and 200 µg g(-) (1) week(-) (1) of 4-NP and 2 µg g(-) (1) week(-) (1) of E2, and their blood plasma was obtained for biochemical analysis on days 0, 7 and 14. The hepatosomatic index (HSI) of each fish was also recorded at each sampling time. The results showed that 4-NP significantly induced VTG synthesis in A. latus, which was detected by gel electrophoresis as two major protein bands (∼210 and 191 KDa). The induction of VTG was also determined indirectly by measuring the alkali-labile phosphate, total plasma calcium and protein. All of these VTG indicators significantly increased in the plasma of 4-NP- and E2-treated fish. Meanwhile, a significant dose-dependent increase was observed in HSI, indicating the activation of hepatic VTG production in 4-NP- and E2-injected fish. Furthermore, the plasma alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase concentrations significantly increased in 4-NP-treated fish, presumably reflecting a situation of hepatic tissue damage due to 4-NP toxicity. Based on the results, it is suggested that A. latus could be used successfully as a model species for future studies of endocrine disrupting contaminants in the Musa estuary. PMID:23258736

  2. Biochemical and morphological changes in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells induced by treatment of rats with p-Nonylphenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Abnosi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:In previous investigations, we have shown para-nonylphenol (p-NP caused significant reduction of proliferation and differentiation of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs in vitro. In this study, we first treat the rats with p-NP, then carried out the biochemical and morphological studies on MSCs. Materials and Methods: Proliferation property of cells was evaluated with the help of MTT assay, trypan blue, population doubling number, and colony forming assay. Differentiation property was evaluated with quantitative alizarin red assay, measurement of alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity as well as intracellular calcium content. In addition; morphological study, TUNEL test, activated caspase assay, and comet assay were performed to evaluate the mechanism of the cell death. Results: The results showed significant reduction in the colony-forming-ability and population-doubling-number of extracted cells when compared to control ones. In addition, it was revealed that the p-NP treatment of rats caused significant reduction in nuclear diameter, cytoplasm shrinkage, and induction of caspase-dependent-apoptosis. Also there was significant reduction in ALP activity, intracellular calcium content, and intracellular matrix following osteogenic differentiation. Conclusion: As MSCs are the cellular back up for bone remodeling and repair, we suggest more investigations to be conducted regarding the correlation between the increasing number of patients suffering from osteoporosis and p-NP toxicity. Also, we strongly recommend WHO and local health organization to prevent industries of using p-NP in formulation of industrial products which may cause changes in proliferation and differentiation properties of stem cells.

  3. Mechanism of and relation between the sorption and desorption of nonylphenol on black carbon-inclusive sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correlation between the sorption and desorption of nonylphenol (NP) and binary linear regression were conducted to reveal the underlying mechanism of and relation between sorption domains and desorption sites in black carbon (BC)-amended sediment. The sorption and desorption data could be fitted well using dual-mode (R2 = 0.971–0.996) and modified two-domain model (R2 = 0.986–0.995), respectively, and there were good correlations between these two parts of parameters (R2 = 0.884–0.939, P < 0.01). The NP percentage in desorbable fraction was almost equal to that of the partition fraction, suggesting the desorbed NP came from linear partition domain, whereas the resistant desorption NP was segregated in nonlinear adsorption sites, which were dominated by pores in BC-amended sediment. Our investigation refined theory about the relation between sorption domains and desorption sites in sediment and could be used to predict the release risk of NP using sorption data when BC is used for NP pollution control. - Highlights: • Modified two-domain model fits kinetic data of NP desorbed from BC-sediment well. • NP of partition domain can desorb, but NP of adsorption domain resists desorbing. • Pore of BC is responsible for the nonlinear adsorption of NP in sediment. • The release risk of NP from BC-sediment could be predicted by sorption data. • The study perfects theory of relation between sorption domain and desorption site. - NP in partition domain can desorb, but NP in adsorption domain resists desorbing, and the release risk of NP could be predicted by sorption data in BC-amended sediment

  4. Nonylphenol Toxicity Evaluation and Discovery of Biomarkers in Rat Urine by a Metabolomics Strategy through HPLC-QTOF-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Xin Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nonylphenol (NP was quantified using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS in the urine and plasma of rats treated with 0, 50, and 250 mg/kg/day of NP for four consecutive days. A urinary metabolomic strategy was originally implemented by high performance liquid chromatography time of flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-QTOF-MS to explore the toxicological effects of NP and determine the overall alterations in the metabolite profiles so as to find potential biomarkers. It is essential to point out that from the observation, the metabolic data were clearly clustered and separated for the three groups. To further identify differentiated metabolites, multivariate analysis, including principal component analysis (PCA, orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA, high-resolution MS/MS analysis, as well as searches of Metlin and Massbank databases, were conducted on a series of metabolites between the control and dose groups. Finally, five metabolites, including glycine, glycerophosphocholine, 5-hydroxytryptamine, malonaldehyde (showing an upward trend, and tryptophan (showing a downward trend, were identified as the potential urinary biomarkers of NP-induced toxicity. In order to validate the reliability of these potential biomarkers, an independent validation was performed by using the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM-based targeted approach. The oxidative stress reflected by urinary 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG levels was elevated in individuals highly exposed to NP, supporting the hypothesis that mitochondrial dysfunction was a result of xenoestrogen accumulation. This study reveals a promising approach to find biomarkers to assist researchers in monitoring NP.

  5. Isomer-specific analysis of nonylphenols with estrogenic activity and their distribution in aquatic environment in relation to endocrine disrupters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Y.S.; Katase, T.; Inoue, T. [Nihon Univ., Fujisawa, Kanagawa (Japan). College of Bioresource Sciences; Horii, Y.; Yamashita, N. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Makino, M.; Uchiyama, T.; Fujimoto, Y. [Nihon Univ., Chiba (Japan). College of Pharmacy

    2004-09-15

    The effect of estrogen-exposure on levels of a larval storage protein of Balanus amphitrite, cypris major protein (CMP), which is related to barnacle vitellin, has been examined at low concentrations (0.01-1.0 {mu}g/l) of 4-nonylphenol (NP) and 17{beta}-estradiol (E2) (1.0 {mu}g/l) from egg hatching until the nauplius cypris stage. Eventually, the exposure to 0.01 {mu}g/l of NP led to a ca. 50% increase in the optical density of the CMP. There are theoretically ca. 170 kinds of isomers of NP, based on the structure of the nonyl side chain in NP. We fractionated a commercial NP by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to give six fractions (Fr. 1- Fr. 6). Fr. 3 - Fr. 5 were further separated to afford 14 fractions by using gas chromatograph equipped with a preparative fraction collector (GC-PFC) and 11 NP isomers were identified by gas chromatograph equipped with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). The chemical structures of 11 isomers (NP1 to NP14) were characterized and estrogenicities of the selected isomers were tested in recombinant yeast screen system. The 4-(1,1-dimethyl-2-ethyl-pentyl)- phenol (NP7) was found to exhibit the highest estrogenic activity corresponding to 1.9 x 10{sup -3} that of E2. The NP4 and 6 were structurally in diastereomer. The individual isomer of NP in aquatic samples taken from Ariake Sea and Tokyo, Japan was analyzed by steam distillation extraction in the present study.

  6. Binary Interactions of Antagonistic Bacteria with Candida albicans Under Aerobic and Anaerobic Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benadé, Eliska; Stone, Wendy; Mouton, Marnel; Postma, Ferdinand; Wilsenach, Jac; Botha, Alfred

    2016-04-01

    We used both aerobic and anaerobic liquid co-cultures, prepared with Luria Bertani broth, to study the effect of bacteria on the survival of Candida albicans in the external environment, away from an animal host. The bacteria were represented by Aeromonas hydrophila, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Clostridium, Enterobacter, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Kluyvera ascorbata and Serratia marcescens. Under aerobic conditions, the yeast's growth was inhibited in the presence of bacterial growth; however, under anaerobic conditions, yeast and bacterial growth in co-cultures was similar to that observed for pure cultures. Subsequent assays revealed that the majority of bacterial strains aerobically produced extracellular hydrolytic enzymes capable of yeast cell wall hydrolysis, including chitinases and mannan-degrading enzymes. In contrast, except for the A. hydrophila strain, these enzymes were not detected in anaerobic bacterial cultures, nor was the antimicrobial compound prodigiosin found in anaerobic cultures of S. marcescens. When we suspended C. albicans cells in crude extracellular enzyme preparations from K. pneumoniae and S. marcescens, we detected no negative effect on yeast viability. However, we found that these preparations enhance the toxicity of prodigiosin towards the yeast, especially in combination with mannan-degrading enzymes. Analyses of the chitin and mannan content of yeast cell walls revealed that less chitin was produced under anaerobic than aerobic conditions; however, the levels of mannan, known for its low permeability, remained the same. The latter phenomenon, as well as reduced production of the bacterial enzymes and prodigiosin, may contribute to anaerobic growth and survival of C. albicans in the presence of bacteria. PMID:26566932

  7. Isolation and characterization of RDX-degrading Rhodococcus species from a contaminated aquifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Anat; Adar, Eilon; Nejidat, Ali; Ronen, Zeev

    2011-09-01

    Groundwater contamination by the explosive hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) is a global problem. Israel's coastal aquifer was contaminated with RDX. This aquifer is mostly aerobic and we therefore sought aerobic bacteria that might be involved in natural attenuation of the compound in the aquifer. RDX-degrading bacteria were captured by passively sampling the indigenous bacteria onto sterile sediments placed within sampling boreholes. Aerobic RDX biodegradation potential was detected in the sediments sampled from different locations along the plume. RDX degradation with the native sampled consortium was accompanied by 4-nitro-2,4-diazabutanal formation. Two bacterial strains of the genus Rhodococcus were isolated from the sediments and identified as aerobic RDX degraders. The xplA gene encoding the cytochrome P450 enzyme was partially (~500 bp) sequenced from both isolates. The obtained DNA sequences had 99% identity with corresponding gene fragments of previously isolated RDX-degrading Rhodococcus strains. RDX degradation by both strains was prevented by 200 μM of the cytochrome P450 inhibitor metyrapone, suggesting that cytochrome P450 indeed mediates the initial step in RDX degradation. RDX biodegradation activity by the T7 isolate was inhibited in the presence of nitrate or ammonium concentrations above 1.6 and 5.5 mM, respectively (100 mg l(-1)) while the T9N isolate's activity was retarded only by ammonium concentrations above 5.5 mM. This study shows that bacteria from the genus Rhodococcus, potentially degrade RDX in the saturated zone as well, following the same aerobic degradation pathway defined for other Rhodococcus species. RDX-degrading activity by the Rhodococcus species isolate T9N may have important implications for the bioremediation of nitrate-rich RDX-contaminated aquifers. PMID:21327803

  8. AEROBIC AND STRENGTH TRAINING RESPONSES IN THE VO2max

    OpenAIRE

    Pilar Sánchez Collado; Cíntia Campolina Duarte Rocha; Sandro Fernandes da Silva; José Antonio De Paz

    2007-01-01

    The strength training of produces improvements in the skeletal muscle as to the muscular hypertrophy, already the aerobic training produces an increase in him I number and in the size of the mitochondria. The objective was verifying the answers of the aerobic training and of force in the aerobic variables. The study was composed of 3 groups. The Aerobic Group (G1) that performed 6 weeks of training of aerobic, the Strength Group (G2) that did a program of 6 strength training weeks and the Gro...

  9. Hypertrophy-Promoting Effects of Leucine Supplementation and Moderate Intensity Aerobic Exercise in Pre-Senescent Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Xia

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have indicated a positive influence of leucine supplementation and aerobic training on the aging skeletal muscle signaling pathways that control muscle protein balance and muscle remodeling. However, the effect of a combined intervention requires further clarification. Thirteen month old CD-1® mice were subjected to moderate aerobic exercise (45 min swimming per day with 3% body weight workload and fed a chow diet with 5% leucine or 3.4% alanine for 8 weeks. Serum and plasma were prepared for glucose, urea nitrogen, insulin and amino acid profile analysis. The white gastrocnemius muscles were used for determination of muscle size and signaling proteins involved in protein synthesis and degradation. The results show that both 8 weeks of leucine supplementation and aerobic training elevated the activity of mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin and its downstream target p70S6K and 4E-BP1, inhibited the ubiquitin-proteasome system, and increased fiber cross-sectional area (CSA in white gastrocnemius muscle. Moreover, leucine supplementation in combination with exercise demonstrated more significant effects, such as greater CSA, protein content and altered phosphorylation (suggestive of increased activity of protein synthesis signaling proteins, in addition to lower expression of proteins involved in protein degradation compared to leucine or exercise alone. The current study shows moderate aerobic training combined with 5% leucine supplementation has the potential to increase muscle size in fast-twitch skeletal muscle during aging, potentially through increased protein synthesis and decreased protein breakdown.

  10. Hypertrophy-Promoting Effects of Leucine Supplementation and Moderate Intensity Aerobic Exercise in Pre-Senescent Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Zhi; Cholewa, Jason; Zhao, Yan; Yang, Yue-Qin; Shang, Hua-Yu; Guimarães-Ferreira, Lucas; Naimo, Marshall Alan; Su, Quan-Sheng; Zanchi, Nelo Eidy

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have indicated a positive influence of leucine supplementation and aerobic training on the aging skeletal muscle signaling pathways that control muscle protein balance and muscle remodeling. However, the effect of a combined intervention requires further clarification. Thirteen month old CD-1(®) mice were subjected to moderate aerobic exercise (45 min swimming per day with 3% body weight workload) and fed a chow diet with 5% leucine or 3.4% alanine for 8 weeks. Serum and plasma were prepared for glucose, urea nitrogen, insulin and amino acid profile analysis. The white gastrocnemius muscles were used for determination of muscle size and signaling proteins involved in protein synthesis and degradation. The results show that both 8 weeks of leucine supplementation and aerobic training elevated the activity of mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) and its downstream target p70S6K and 4E-BP1, inhibited the ubiquitin-proteasome system, and increased fiber cross-sectional area (CSA) in white gastrocnemius muscle. Moreover, leucine supplementation in combination with exercise demonstrated more significant effects, such as greater CSA, protein content and altered phosphorylation (suggestive of increased activity) of protein synthesis signaling proteins, in addition to lower expression of proteins involved in protein degradation compared to leucine or exercise alone. The current study shows moderate aerobic training combined with 5% leucine supplementation has the potential to increase muscle size in fast-twitch skeletal muscle during aging, potentially through increased protein synthesis and decreased protein breakdown. PMID:27144582

  11. Hypertrophy-Promoting Effects of Leucine Supplementation and Moderate Intensity Aerobic Exercise in Pre-Senescent Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Zhi; Cholewa, Jason; Zhao, Yan; Yang, Yue-Qin; Shang, Hua-Yu; Guimarães-Ferreira, Lucas; Naimo, Marshall Alan; Su, Quan-Sheng; Zanchi, Nelo Eidy

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have indicated a positive influence of leucine supplementation and aerobic training on the aging skeletal muscle signaling pathways that control muscle protein balance and muscle remodeling. However, the effect of a combined intervention requires further clarification. Thirteen month old CD-1® mice were subjected to moderate aerobic exercise (45 min swimming per day with 3% body weight workload) and fed a chow diet with 5% leucine or 3.4% alanine for 8 weeks. Serum and plasma were prepared for glucose, urea nitrogen, insulin and amino acid profile analysis. The white gastrocnemius muscles were used for determination of muscle size and signaling proteins involved in protein synthesis and degradation. The results show that both 8 weeks of leucine supplementation and aerobic training elevated the activity of mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) and its downstream target p70S6K and 4E-BP1, inhibited the ubiquitin-proteasome system, and increased fiber cross-sectional area (CSA) in white gastrocnemius muscle. Moreover, leucine supplementation in combination with exercise demonstrated more significant effects, such as greater CSA, protein content and altered phosphorylation (suggestive of increased activity) of protein synthesis signaling proteins, in addition to lower expression of proteins involved in protein degradation compared to leucine or exercise alone. The current study shows moderate aerobic training combined with 5% leucine supplementation has the potential to increase muscle size in fast-twitch skeletal muscle during aging, potentially through increased protein synthesis and decreased protein breakdown. PMID:27144582

  12. Polysaccharide Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Bruce A.; Svensson, Birte; Collins, Michelle E.; Rastall, Robert A.

    An overview of current and potential enzymes used to degrade polysaccharides is presented. Such depolymerases are comprised of glycoside hydrolases, glycosyl transferases, phosphorylases and lyases, and their classification, active sites and action patterns are discussed. Additionally, the mechanisms that these enzymes use to cleave glycosidic linkages is reviewed as are inhibitors of depolymerase activity; reagents which react with amino acid residues, glycoside derivatives, transition state inhibitors and proteinaceous inhibitors. The characterization of various enzymes of microbial, animal or plant origin has led to their widespread use in the production of important oligosaccharides which can be incorporated into food stuffs. Sources of polysaccharides of particular interest in this chapter are those from plants and include inulin, dextran, xylan and pectin, as their hydrolysis products are purported to be functional foods in the context of gastrointestinal health. An alternative use of degraded polysaccharides is in the treatment of disease. The possibility exists to treat bacterial exopolysaccharide with lyases from bacteriophage to produce oligosaccharides exhibiting bioactive sequences. Although this area is currently in its infancy the knowledge is available to investigate further.

  13. Experimentally nonylphenol-polluted diet induces the expression of silent genes VTG and ER{alpha} in the liver of male lizard Podarcis sicula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verderame, Mariailaria; Prisco, Marina; Andreuccetti, Piero [Department of Biological Sciences, Evolutionary and Comparative Biology Division, University Federico II of Naples, Via Mezzocannone 8, 80134 Naples (Italy); Aniello, Francesco [Department of Biological Sciences, Genetic and Molecular Biology Division, University Federico II of Naples, Via Mezzocannone 8, 80134 Naples (Italy); Limatola, Ermelinda, E-mail: limatola@unina.it [Department of Biological Sciences, Evolutionary and Comparative Biology Division, University Federico II of Naples, Via Mezzocannone 8, 80134 Naples (Italy)

    2011-05-15

    Endocrine Disruptor Chemicals (EDCs) with estrogen-like properties i.e nonylphenol (NP) induce vitellogenin (VTG) synthesis in males of aquatic and semi-aquatic specie. In the oviparous species VTG is a female-specific oestrogen dependent protein. Males are unable to synthesize VTG except after E{sub 2} treatment. This study aimed to verify if NP, administered via food and water, is able to induce the expression of VTG even in males of vertebrates with a terrestrial habitat such as the lizard Podarcis. By means of ICC, ISH, W/B and ELISA we demonstrated that NP induces the presence of VTG in the plasma and its expression in the liver. VTG, undetectable in untreated males, reaches the value of 4.34 {mu}g/{mu}l in the experimental ones. Expression analysis and ISH in the liver showed that an NP-polluted diet also elicits the expression of ER{alpha} in the liver which is known to be related to VTG synthesis in Podarcis. - Highlights: > Nonylphenol (NP) polluted diet induces VTG synthesis in a terrestrial vertebrate. > VTG and ER{alpha} genes are unexpressed in the liver of untreated male lizards Podarcis. > In the liver cells of NP-treated males the expression of both VTG and ER{alpha} occurs. > In treated males VTG synthesis is coupled with ER{alpha} expression as in breeding females. - NP-polluted diet induces the expression of ER{alpha} and VTG in the liver.

  14. Effect of freeze-thaw cycles and 4-nonylphenol on cellular energy allocation in the freeze-tolerant enchytraeid Enchytraeus albidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrício-Silva, Ana L; Amorim, Mónica J B

    2016-02-01

    Due to climate change and intense anthropogenic activity, organisms from cold regions are often exposed to combined effects of temperature fluctuations and contaminants. In this investigation, we assessed the lipid, protein, and carbohydrate energy budgets; the energy available (Ea); consumed (Ec); and cellular energy allocation (CEA) of the freeze-tolerant Enchytraeus albidus, when exposed to sublethal concentrations of 4-nonylphenol (a lipophilic contaminant) for 7 days, followed by exposure to different temperature regimes (continuous 2 °C, continuous -4 °C, and daily freeze-thaw cycles (FTC) (2 to -4 °C) for additional 10 days. Results showed that a pre-exposure to 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) induced important changes in the worms' energy budgets and CEA and increased mortality with most severe effects observed for the FTC events. For FTC, lipids were the most accumulated energy source, whereas during freezing (-4 °C), proteins were the most used. FTC caused the highest Ec, indicating the higher energy requirements for organisms when shifting between freezing and thawing events. This is also in line with the higher mortality observed in FTC compared to continuous -4 °C or 2 °C. Worms exposed to continuous freezing presented relatively stable and positive levels of Ea and low levels of Ec, possibly related with the decrease in metabolism. PMID:26490934

  15. Evaluation of microbial transport during aerobic bioaugmentation of an RDX-contaminated aquifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, Fiona H; Indest, Karl J; Jung, Carina M; Hancock, Dawn E; Fuller, Mark E; Hatzinger, Paul B; Vainberg, Simon; Istok, Jonathan D; Wilson, Edward; Michalsen, Mandy M

    2015-11-01

    In situ bioaugmentation with aerobic hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX)-degrading bacteria is being considered for treatment of explosives-contaminated groundwater at Umatilla Chemical Depot, Oregon (UMCD). Two forced-gradient bacterial transport tests of site groundwater containing chloride or bromide tracer and either a mixed culture of Gordonia sp. KTR9 (xplA (+)Km(R)), Rhodococcus jostii RHA1 (pGKT2 transconjugant; xplA (+)Km(R)) and Pseudomonas fluorescens I-C (xenB (+)), or a single culture of Gordonia sp. KTR9 (xplA (+); i.e. wild-type) were conducted at UMCD. Groundwater monitoring evaluated cell viability and migration in the injection well and downgradient monitoring wells. Enhanced degradation of RDX was not evaluated in these demonstrations. Quantitative PCR analysis of xplA, the kanamycin resistance gene (aph), and xenB indicated that the mixed culture was transported at least 3 m within 2 h of injection. During a subsequent field injection of bioaugmented groundwater, strain KTR9 (wild-type) migrated up to 23-m downgradient of the injection well within 3 days. Thus, the three RDX-degrading strains were effectively introduced and transported within the UMCD aquifer. This demonstration represents an innovative application of bioaugmentation to potentially enhance RDX biodegradation in aerobic aquifers. PMID:26438043

  16. Biological treatment of thin-film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) wastewater using aerobic and anoxic/oxic sequencing batch reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Chin-Nan; Whang, Liang-Ming; Chen, Po-Chun

    2010-09-01

    The amount of pollutants produced during manufacturing processes of thin-film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) substantially increases due to an increasing production of the opto-electronic industry in Taiwan. This study presents the treatment performance of one aerobic and one anoxic/oxic (A/O) sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) treating synthetic TFT-LCD wastewater containing dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), monoethanolamine (MEA), and tetra-methyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH). The long-term monitoring results for the aerobic and A/O SBRs demonstrate that stable biodegradation of DMSO, MEA, and TMAH can be achieved without any considerably adverse impacts. The ammonium released during MEA and TMAH degradation can also be completely oxidized to nitrate through nitrification in both SBRs. Batch studies on biodegradation rates for DMSO, MEA, and TMAH under anaerobic, anoxic, and aerobic conditions indicate that effective MEA degradation can be easily achieved under all three conditions examined, while efficient DMSO and TMAH degradation can be attained only under anaerobic and aerobic conditions, respectively. The potential odor problem caused by the formation of malodorous dimethyl sulfide from DMSO degradation under anaerobic conditions, however, requires insightful consideration in treating DMSO-containing wastewater. PMID:20705321

  17. Biology of Moderately Halophilic Aerobic Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Nieto Gutiérrez, Joaquín José; Ventosa Ucero, Antonio; Oren, Aharon

    1998-01-01

    The moderately halophilic heterotrophic aerobic bacteria form a diverse group of microorganisms. The property of halophilism is widespread within the bacterial domain. Bacterial halophiles are abundant in environments such as salt lakes, saline soils, and salted food products. Most species keep their intracellular ionic concentrations at low levels while synthesizing or accumulating organic solutes to provide osmotic equilibrium of the cytoplasm with the surrounding medium. Complex mechanisms...

  18. Acute effects of aerobic exercise promote learning

    OpenAIRE

    Renza Perini; Marta Bortoletto; Michela Capogrosso; Anna Fertonani; Carlo Miniussi

    2016-01-01

    The benefits that physical exercise confers on cardiovascular health are well known, whereas the notion that physical exercise can also improve cognitive performance has only recently begun to be explored and has thus far yielded only controversial results. In the present study, we used a sample of young male subjects to test the effects that a single bout of aerobic exercise has on learning. Two tasks were run: the first was an orientation discrimination task involving the primary visual cor...

  19. Experimental evidence for aerobic bio-denitrification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Nitrate pollution of groundwater is paid more and more attention for its hazardous to environments and human health. A strain of DN11 was isolated from soil and used in the laboratory columns filled with various media for nitrate removal. The experimental results showed that DN11could reduce nitrate at different rates in different media under the aerobic condition. The mechanism for nitrate removal with DN11 is explained meanwhile.

  20. Comparison of bioaugmented EGSB and GAC–FBB reactors and their combination with aerobic SBR for the abatement of chlorophenols

    OpenAIRE

    Puyol, Daniel; Monsalve, Víctor Manuel; Sanchís, Sonia; Sanz, José Luis; Fernández Mohedano, Ángel; Rodríguez, Juan José

    2015-01-01

    The biological abatement of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (246TCP) and its chlorinated degradation byproducts using anaerobic and aerobic biological reactors coupled in series has been studied. The performance of an anaerobic fluidized bed biofilm reactor (FBBR) and expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactors bioaugmented with Desulfitobacterium strains was compared within a wide range of 246TCP loading rates. The bioaugmentation of an EGSB reactor with Desulfitobacterium strains enhanced the chloro...

  1. Nitrification and aerobic denitrification in anoxic-aerobic sequencing batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzate Marin, Juan C; Caravelli, Alejandro H; Zaritzky, Noemí E

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of achieving nitrogen (N) removal using a lab-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) exposed to anoxic/aerobic (AN/OX) phases, focusing to achieve aerobic denitrification. This process will minimize emissions of N2O greenhouse gas. The effects of different operating parameters on the reactor performance were studied: cycle duration, AN/OX ratio, pH, dissolved oxygen concentration (DOC), and organic load. The highest inorganic N removal (NiR), close to 70%, was obtained at pH=7.5, low organic load (440mgCOD/(Lday)) and high aeration given by 12h cycle, AN/OX ratio=0.5:1.0 and DOC higher than 4.0mgO2/L. Nitrification followed by high-rate aerobic denitrification took place during the aerobic phase. Aerobic denitrification could be attributed to Tetrad-forming organisms (TFOs) with phenotype of glycogen accumulating organisms using polyhydroxyalkanoate and/or glycogen storage. The proposed AN/OX system constitutes an eco-friendly N removal process providing N2 as the end product. PMID:26512862

  2. Carbon isotope effects associated with Fenton-like degradation of toluene: Potential for differentiation of abiotic and biotic degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-mediated oxygenation to enhance subsurface aerobic biodegradation is a frequently employed remediation technique. However, it may be unclear whether observed organic contaminant mass loss is caused by biodegradation or chemical oxidation via hydroxyl radicals generated during catalyzed Fenton-like reactions. Compound-specific carbon isotope analysis has the potential to discriminate between these processes. Here we report laboratory experiments demonstrating no significant carbon isotope fractionation during Fenton-like hydroxyl radical oxidation of toluene. This implies that observation of significant isotopic fractionation of toluene at a site undergoing H2O2-mediated remediation would provide direct evidence of biodegradation. We applied this approach at a field site that had undergone 27 months of H2O2-mediated subsurface oxygenation. Despite substantial decreases (> 68%) in groundwater toluene concentrations carbon isotope signatures of toluene (δ13Ctol) showed no significant variation (mean = - 27.5 ±0.3 per mille, n = 13) over a range of concentrations from 11.1 to 669.0 mg L-1. Given that aerobic degradation by ring attack has also been shown to result in no significant isotopic fractionation during degradation, at this site we were unable to discern the mechanism of degradation. However, such differentiation is possible at sites where aerobic degradation by methyl group attack results in significant isotopic fractionation

  3. Simultaneous heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification at high initial phenol concentration by isolated bacterium Diaphorobacter sp. PD-7

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qilong Ge; Xiuping Yue; Guoying Wang

    2015-01-01

    A strain capable of phenol degradation, heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification was isolated from activated sludge of coking-plant wastewater ponds under aerobic condition. Based on its morphology, physiology, biochemical analysis and phylogenetic characteristics, the isolate was identified as Diaphorobacter sp. PD-7. Biodegradation tests of phenol showed that the maximum phenol degradation occurred at the late phase of exponential growth stages, with 1400 mg·L-1 phenol completely degraded within 85 h. Diaphorobacter sp. PD-7 accumulated a vast quantity of phenol hydroxylase in this physiological phase, ensuring that the cel s quickly utilize phenol as a sole carbon and energy source. The kinetic behavior of Diaphorobacter sp. PD-7 in batch cultures was investigated over a wide range of initial phenol concentrations (0–1400 mg·L-1) by using the Haldane model, which adequately describes the dynamic behavior of phenol biodegradation by strain Diaphorobacter sp. PD-7. At initial phenol concentration of 1400 mg·L-1, batch experiments (0.25 L flask) of nitrogen removal under aerobic condition gave almost entirely removal of 120.69 mg·L-1 ammonium nitrogen within 75 h, while nitrate nitrogen removal reached 91%within 65 h. Moreover, hydroxylamine oxidase, periplasmic nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase were successful y expressed in the isolate.

  4. Adduct formation in LC-ESI-MS of nonylphenol ethoxylates: mass spectrometrical, theoretical and quantitative analytical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of nonylphenol ethoxylate (A9PEOn) surfactants with LC-ESI-MS was investigated in a detailed study of the formation of different types of adducts. Part of the observations was explained by calculating their relative stabilities using molecular dynamics techniques. Strong differences in adduct formation behaviour were found for different oligomers. Beside the common sodium adducts, surfactant dimer adducts [2 x A9PEO1,2 + Na]+, adducts including a solvent molecule [A9PEO1,2 + MeOH + Na]+ and doubly charged adducts [A9PEO>11 + 2 x Na]2+ were found. Molecular dynamics calculations showed that the A9PEOn molecule wraps itself around the complexing sodium ion in a way that negative electronic charges on oxygen have optimum electrostatic interaction with this ion. van der Waals interactions between alkyl chains are of less importance for the stability of these adducts. Both [2 x A9PEO2,5 + Na]+ dimer and [A9PEO2,5 + Na]+ monomer adducts turned out to be stable from an energetic point of view with adducts of A9PEO5 being more stable than adducts of A9PEO2. Only for the monomer adduct the latter is in accordance with experimental observations. Consequences of the formation of several adducts per A9PEOn oligomer for the quantitative analysis of environmental samples were evaluated. In clean samples, it was found that the presence of short-chain A9PEO1,2 can cause an overestimation of long-chain A9PEO>2. In real environmental extracts, other processes like matrix effects have a stronger influence on the quantitative result, and therefore no significant influence of adduct formation processes could be observed. However, inclusion of [A9PEO1,2 + MeOH + Na]+ adduct signals does improve the detection limits of the two short-chain oligomers. Correct quantitative results are obtained when A9PEO1 and A9PEO2 are quantified separately, and longer oligomers with a molar calibration followed by correction of the average molar weight of the A9PEO>2 in the sample

  5. Impact of intermittent aerations on leachate quality and greenhouse gas reduction in the aerobic-anaerobic landfill method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, Mitali; Shimaoka, Takayuki; Komiya, Teppei

    2016-09-01

    The aerobic-anaerobic landfill method (AALM) is a novel approach in solid waste management that could shorten the landfill post-closure period and minimize the environmental loads. In this study, the aerobic-anaerobic landfill method was evaluated by using intermittent aeration. In addition, the nitrification-denitrification process was assessed as a means of reducing the emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and improving the leachate quality during the degradation of the organic solid waste. The leachate quality and the gas composition in each of the reactors were measured during the experimental period (408days). The aeration process entailed the injection of air into plexiglass cylinders (200cm height×10 cm diameter), filled with fresh organic solid waste collected from a composting plant. Different aeration routines were applied, namely, continuous aeration (aerobic reactor A), aeration for three days/week (aerobic-anaerobic reactor B), aeration for 6h/day (aerobic-anaerobic reactor C), and no aeration (non-aerated reactor D). It was found that aerobic reactor A produced the best results in terms of reduction of GHGs and improvement of the leachate quality. The aerobic-anaerobic reactor C was found to be more effective than reactor B in respect of both the emission of GHGs and the leachate quality; moreover, compared with aerobic reactor A, energy costs were reduced by operating this reactor. The transition period phenomenon was investigated during an intensive seven-day experiment conducted on the discharged leachate obtained from aerobic-anaerobic reactors B and C. The experiment concerned the differences in the composition of the gas during the aeration and the non-aeration periods. It was found that the transition period between the aeration and non-aeration cycles, which followed the simultaneous nitrification-denitrification had a considerable effect on the leachate quality of both the reactors. The results indicated that AALM has the potential to reduce

  6. Concentrations and fate of sugars, proteins and lipids during domestic and agro-industrial aerobic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorini, Dominique; Choubert, Jean-Marc; le Pimpec, Paul; Heduit, Alain

    2011-01-01

    This work investigates the composition and the fate of sugars, lipids, proteins, amino acids under aerobic conditions for 13 domestic and 4 agro-industrial wastewaters, sampled before and after treatment. The rates of aerobic degradation were moreover studied with a 21-day continuous aeration batch test. It is shown that the sum of the biochemical forms represented 50 to 85% of the total chemical oxygen demand (COD). Lipids represented the half of the identified COD; sugars and proteins correspond to a quarter of the identified COD. Aerobic processes provided an increase of the relative fractions for proteins, whereas the ones of lipids decreased and sugars fraction remains stable. For the wastewaters released from cheese dairy (lipid-rich) and slaughterhouses (protein/lipid-rich), the dissolved phase after biological treatment is composed of proteins whereas the particulate one is composed of lipids. After the 21-day test, the concentration in proteins was nearby 10 mg/L. The results should be used for operations of WWTP to detect when a dysfunction is about to occur. They can be used to predict the concentrations in the treated water when upgrading an existing municipal plant that will admit agro-industrial discharge. PMID:21866767

  7. Auto heated Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion of sewage sludge; Digestion aerobia termofila autosostenida de lodos urbanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia de las Heras, J. L.; Gutierrez, I.

    2002-07-01

    Auto heated Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion (ATAD) is one of the most promising technologies for applying the digested sludge to soil amendment. The system was studied in the 60's and developed mostly in Europe since the 70's. The full-scale facilities improvement ran in parallel to the scientific and legislative worry about the presence of pathogenic organisms both in the raw and the digested sewage sludge. ATAD is usually a two stage aerobic process working in the thermophilic temperature range (40 to 80 degree centigree) without any external heat source; the heat produced by the biochemical exergonic reactions during the aerobic degradation of the organic sludge holds the desired temperature values. A comparison of this system with the existing anaerobic stabilisation processes shows as main advantages a high hygienization capacity, small reactor volume for the same organic loading, is resistant to overloading and temperature shocks, is easily manageable, and is economically feasible for small.medium size populations. This process is specially suitable to fulfill the law requirements imposed by the most demanding countries regarding the application of treated sewage sludge to soil improvement. (Author) 19 refs.

  8. Weed competitiveness and yielding ability of aerobic rice genotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, D.L.

    2006-01-01

    Keywords:    Broad-sense heritability; Crop vigour; Genetic correlation; Indirect selection index; Plant erectness; Rice germplasm; Seeding rate; Vegetative growth; Weed-suppressive ability.Aerobic rice, grown under aerobic soil conditions like maize or wheat, is an innovative way to cope with the growing demand for rice and the increasing water scarcity. Weeds are the most severe constraint to aerobic rice. The use of herbicides causes environmental pollution and induces the proliferation of...

  9. WAYS TO IMPROVE THE PHYSICAL FITNESS THROUGH AEROBIC GYMNASTICS MEANS

    OpenAIRE

    Zaharia A.M.; Rață G.

    2013-01-01

    This research aimed to study the probable effects that aerobic gymnastics could have on the body, for improving the physical fitness. The main goal of the research was to identify the effects the aerobic gymnastics has in improving physical fitness.This research was conducted on 15 subjects between 18 and 30 years old, who participated in aerobic gymnastics fitness-type lessons, three times a week. The programs comprised exercises of physical development , stretching and elasticity, of relaxa...

  10. Endocrine disruption of parr-smolt transformation and seawater tolerance of Atlantic salmon by 4-nonylphenol and 17β-estradiol

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Stephen D.; O'Dea, Michael F.; Moeckel, Amy M.; Lerner, Darrren T.; Bjornsson, Bjorn Thrandur

    2005-01-01

    Sex steroids are known to interfere with the parr-smolt transformation of anadromous salmonids, and environmental estrogens such as nonylphenol have recently been implicated in reduced returns of Atlantic salmon in the wild. To determine the endocrine pathways by which estrogenic compounds affect smolt development and seawater tolerance, groups of juvenile Atlantic salmon were injected with one of five doses (0.5, 2, 10, 40 or 150 μg g−1) of branched 4-nonylphenol (NP), 2 μg g−1 of 17β-estradiol (E2), or vehicle, during the parr-smolt transformation in April, and the treatment was repeated 4, 8, and 11 days after the first injection. Plasma was obtained for biochemical analysis 7 and 14 days after initiation of treatment. After 14 days of treatment, additional fish from each treatment group were exposed to seawater for 24 h to assess salinity tolerance. The E2 treatment and the highest NP dose resulted in lower salinity tolerance and decreased plasma insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) levels, along with elevated levels of plasma vitellogenin and total calcium. Plasma growth hormone levels were elevated at intermediate NP doses only, and not affected by E2. After 7 days, plasma thyroxine (T4) levels decreased in a strong, dose-dependent manner in response to nonylphenol, but after 14 days, this suppressive effect of T4 occurred at the highest NP dose only. Similarly, E2 decreased plasma T4 levels at 7, but not 14 days. Plasma 3,3′,5-triodo-l-thyronine was reduced by E2 and the highest NP dose after 7 and 14 days of treatment. Plasmacortisol levels were not affected by any of the treatments. The results indicate that the parr-smolt transformation and salinity tolerance can be compromised by exposure to estrogenic compounds. Suppression of plasma IGF-I levels is a likely endocrine pathway for the effects of estrogenic compounds on hypo-osmoregulatory capacity, and the detrimental effects of E2 and NP on thyroid hormone levels are

  11. Aerobic capacity related to cardiac size in young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, M; Wollmer, P; Karlsson, M;

    2013-01-01

    Aerobic capacity, defined as peak oxygen uptake (VO2PEAK), is generally considered to be the best single marker for aerobic fitness. We assessed if VO2PEAK is related to different cardiac dimensions in healthy young children on a population base.......Aerobic capacity, defined as peak oxygen uptake (VO2PEAK), is generally considered to be the best single marker for aerobic fitness. We assessed if VO2PEAK is related to different cardiac dimensions in healthy young children on a population base....

  12. Research on aerobics classes influence on physical prepareduess of students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasulia M. А.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Physical skills of female students doing aerobics have been studied. 165 female students aged 17-18 divided into three groups of 55 each have taken part in the experiment. Groups have been trained according to different methods conventionally called 'power aerobics', 'dance aerobics' and 'jump aerobics'. Level of female students' physical skills has been determined by the results of seven tests in the beginning of an academic year and after six-months term. Mathematical treatment of the results has been carried out. The most preferable as to improving physical skills level method has been discovered to be the one aimed on power abilities development method.

  13. Dancing the aerobics "Hearing loss choreography"

    OpenAIRE

    Beatriz M. Pinto; Carvalho, A.; Sérgio Oliveira

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the health clubs acoustic problems when used for aerobics exercises classes (and similar) with loud noise levels in sound amplified music. A sample of five schools in Portugal was chosen for this survey. Noise levels in each room were measured and analyzed to calculate the standardized daily personal noise exposure levels (Leq8). Leq8 values up to 96 dB(A) were found in this type of room inducing a health risk for its occupants. This type of gymnasium is usu...

  14. [Heterotrophic Nitrification and Aerobic Denitrification of the Hypothermia Aerobic Denitrification Bacterium: Arthrobacter arilaitensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Teng-xia; Ni, Jiu-pai; Li, Zhen-lun; Sun, Quan; Ye Qing; Xu, Yi

    2016-03-15

    High concentrations of ammonium, nitrate and nitrite nitrogen were employed to clarify the abilities of heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification of Arthrobacter arilaitensis strain Y-10. Meanwhile, by means of inoculating the strain suspension into the mixed ammonium and nitrate, ammonium and nitrite nitrogen simulated wastewater, we studied the simultaneous nitrification and denitrification ability of Arthrobacter arilaitensis strain Y-10. In addition, cell optical density was assayed in each nitrogen removal process to analyze the relationship of cell growth and nitrogen removal efficiency. The results showed that the hypothermia denitrification strain Arthrobacter arilaitensis Y-10 exhibited high nitrogen removal efficiency during heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification. The ammonium, nitrate and nitrite removal rates were 65.0%, 100% and 61.2% respectively when strain Y-10 was cultivated for 4 d at 15°C with initial ammonium, nitrate and nitrite nitrogen concentrations of 208.43 mg · L⁻¹, 201.16 mg · L⁻¹ and 194.33 mg · L⁻¹ and initial pH of 7.2. Nitrite nitrogen could only be accumulated in the medium containing nitrate nitrogen during heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification process. Additionally, the ammonium nitrogen was mainly removed in the inorganic nitrogen mixed synthetic wastewater. In short, Arthrobacter arilaitensis Y-10 could conduct nitrification and denitrification effectively under aerobic condition and the ammonium nitrogen removal rate was more than 80.0% in the inorganic nitrogen mixed synthetic wastewater. PMID:27337904

  15. Micropollutants removal in an anaerobic membrane bioreactor and in an aerobic conventional treatment plant

    OpenAIRE

    Agargues Llamas, Miguel Rafael; Robles Martínez, Ángel; Bouzas Blanco, Alberto; SECO TORRECILLAS, AURORA

    2012-01-01

    The paper expresses an attempt to tackle the problem due to the presence of micropollutants in wastewater which may be able to disrupt the endocrine system of some organisms. These kinds of compounds are ubiquitously present in municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents. The aim of this paper is to compare the fate of the alkylphenols-APs (4-(tert-octyl)) phenol, t-nonylphenol and 4-p-nonylphenol and the hormones (estrone, 17ß-estradiol and 17¿-ethinylestradiol) in a submerged anae...

  16. The effects of aerobic and combined aerobic and resistance exercise training on physical fitness in young women.

    OpenAIRE

    Batalha, Nuno; Marmeleira, José; Dias, João

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of aerobic training alone or combined with strength training on the physical fitness of young women. Methods Sixty-five women (18–28 years old), who were not engaged in any exercise program for at least one year, were randomly assigned to an aerobic training group, a combined training group, or a control group. The aerobic training consisted of indoor cycling sessions and the combined training consisted of indoor cycl...

  17. Taxonomic characterization of the cellulose-degrading bacterium NCIB 10462

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dees, C.; Ringleberg, D.; Scott, T.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Phelps, T. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1994-06-01

    The gram negative cellulase-producing bacterium NCIB 10462 has been previously named Pseudomonas fluorescens subsp. or var. cellulosa. Since there is renewed interest in cellulose-degrading bacteria for use in bioconversion of cellulose to chemical feed stocks and fuels, we re-examined the characteristics of this microorganism to determine its proper taxonomic characterization and to further define it`s true metabolic potential. Metabolic and physical characterization of NCIB 10462 revealed that this was an alkalophilic, non-fermentative, gram negative, oxidase positive, motile, cellulose-degrading bacterium. The aerobic substrate utilization profile of this bacterium was found to have few characteristics consistent with a classification of P. fluorescens with a very low probability match with the genus Sphingomonas. Total lipid analysis did not reveal that any sphingolipid bases are produced by this bacterium. NCIB 10462 was found to grow best aerobically but also grows well in complex media under reducing conditions. NCIB 10462 grew slowly under full anaerobic conditions on complex media but growth on cellulosic media was found only under aerobic conditions. Total fatty acid analysis (MIDI) of NCIB 10462 failed to group this bacterium with a known pseudomonas species. However, fatty acid analysis of the bacteria when grown at temperatures below 37{degrees}C suggest that the organism is a pseudomonad. Since a predominant characteristic of this bacterium is it`s ability to degrade cellulose, we suggest it be called Pseudomonas cellulosa.

  18. Bioremediation of 2-chlorophenol containing wastewater by aerobic granules-kinetics and toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → 2-Chlorophenol degrading aerobic granules were cultivated in sequencing batch reactor in presence of glucose and the organic loading rate (OLR) was increased from 6.9 to 9.7 kg COD m-3 d-1 during the experiment. → Spectral studies confirmed that the biodegradation occurs via chlorocatechol pathway and modified ortho-cleavage. → Biodegradation kinetics of 2-CP followed the Haldane model with kinetic parameters (R2 > 0.9) Vmax = 840 mg2-CP gMLVSS-1 d-1, Ks = 24.61 mg L-1, Ki = 315.02 mg L-1. → Genotoxic examination by plasmid nicking assay confirmed that the effluent was non-toxic. - Abstract: 2-Chlorophenol (2-CP) degrading aerobic granules were cultivated in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) in presence of glucose. The organic loading rate (OLR) was increased from 6.9 to 9.7 kg COD m-3 d-1 (1150-1617 mg L-1COD per cycle) during the experiment. The alkalinity (1000 mg L-1 as CaCO3) was maintained throughout the experiment. The specific cell growth rate was found to be 0.013 d-1. A COD removal efficiency of 94% was achieved after steady state at 8 h HRT (hydraulic retention time). FTIR, UV, GC, GC/MS studies confirmed that the biodegradation of 2-CP occurs via chlorocatechol (modified ortho-cleavage) pathway. Biodegradation kinetics followed the Haldane model with kinetic parameters: Vmax = 840 mg2-CP gMLVSS-1 d-1, Ks = 24.61 mg L-1, Ki = 315.02 mg L-1. Abiotic losses of 2-CP due to volatilization and photo degradation by sunlight were less than 3% and the results of genotoxicity showed that the degradation products are eco-friendly.

  19. Simultaneous determination of 4-tert-octylphenol,4-nonylphenol and bisphenol A in Guanting Reservoir using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with selected ion monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Xing-long; HUANG Guo-lan; JIANG Gui-bin; ZHOU Qun-fang; LIU Jing-fu

    2004-01-01

    The wide occurrence of estrogenic compounds 4-tert-octylphenol, 4-nonylphenol, bisphenol A in surface water of Guanting Reservoir was successfully determined. The target compounds in water samples were preconcentrated by liquid-liquid extraction with dichloromethane, derivatized by trifluoroacetic anhydride, and quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS) with selected ion monitoring(SIM). In the selected seven sampling sites(S1-S7), the concentrations of NP in sample S7 were significantly higher than the other in reservoir. The pollution status in S3 and S7 were much more serious. The concentrations of OP, NP and BPA were in the range of 44.5-48.8, 221.6-349.6 and 30.2-82.7 ng/L, respectively. The pollution were mainly inputted from the upper river and released from sediments in Guanting Reservoir.

  20. Reductive transformation and detoxification mechanism of 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene in combined zero valent iron and anaerobic-aerobic process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinyou Shen; Zongyuan Zhou; Changjin Ou; Xiuyun Sun; Jiansheng Li; Weiqing Han; Lin Zhou; Lianjun Wang

    2012-01-01

    A combined zero valent iron (ZVI) and anaerobic-aerobic process was adopted for the treatment of 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB)-containing wastewater.The transformation pathway,reduction of acute toxicity and enhancement of biodegradability were investigated.After pretreatment by ZVI,DNCB in wastewater could be completely converted into 2,4-diaminochlorobenzene (DACB).The ratio of BOD5/COD increased from 0.005 ± 0.001 to 0.168 ± 0.007,while EC50,48 hr (V/V) increased from 0.65% to 5.20%,indicating the enhancement of biodegradability and reduction of acute toxicity with the pretreatment by ZVI.DACB was further dechlorinated to m-phenylenediamine during the anaerobic process using methanol as electron donor,with EC50,48 hr increasing from 5.20% to 48.2%.After the subsequent anaerobic-aerobic process,m-phenylenediamine was degraded completely,with effluent COD of 67.5 ± 10.8 mg/L.This effluent of the subsequent anaerobic-aerobic process was not toxic to zebrafish.The combined ZVI and anaerobic-aerobic process offers bright prospects for the treatment of chlorinated nitroaromatic compound-containing wastewater.

  1. Aerobic Thermophilic Composting of Municipal Solid Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D V Wadkar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Composting is a natural process that turns organic material into a dark rich substance called compost. Aerobic Composting is the creation of compost that depends on bacteria that thrive in an oxygen rich environment. Aerobic bacteria manage the chemical process by converting the inputs (i.e. air, water and carbon and nitrogen rich materials into heat, carbon dioxide and ammonium. The ammonium is further converted by bacteria into plant nourishing nitrites and nitrates through the process of nitrification. Thermophilic Composting is breaking down biological waste with thermophilic (heat loving bacteria. A cylindrical reactor was made. Organic wasteincluded dry vegetable waste collected from MSW ramp, Koregaon park, Pune. The characteristics of compost like pH, moisture content, temperature, C/N ratio and volume reduction were studied for the period of maturation (42days. It can be concluded that the values are within the desired limits and compost is suitable for ornamental plants. The setup of reactor is affordable and thus the compost obtained is effective and economical.

  2. Bioaccumulation of 4-nonylphenol and effects on biomarkers, acetylcholinesterase, glutathione-S-transferase and glutathione peroxidase, in Mytilus galloprovincialis mussel gills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wild marine mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis showed a moderate bioaccumulation ability when exposed to waterborne 4-nonylphenol (4-NP), with a bioconcentration factor (BCF) of 6850 L Kg−1 (dry weight). Kinetic and concentration-response experiments were performed and three enzymatic biomarkers in mussel gills were measured: Glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Exposure of mussels to environmentally relevant concentrations (25–100 μg L−1) of 4-nonylphenol significantly inhibited the AChE activity and induced the GST and GPx activities. GST induction was dose dependent whilst GPx activity showed a less consistent pattern, but in both cases the induction remained after a 10 d depuration period. Mussels seem capable of eliminating 4-NP from their tissues through a mechanism involving GST induction. - Highlights: • Accumulation of 4-NP in mussels seems to be moderate compared to other organics, with a BCF = 6850 L kg−1. • GST was the biomarker that yielded the highest sensitivity to this compound. • GST activity was significantly induced after 15 d exposure to 4-NP concentrations from 50 μg L−1. • GST induction was associated to a reduction in 4-NP in the mussel tissues. • AChE activity was significantly inhibited after 30 d exposure at 75 μg L−1. - The biotransformation of 4-NP in Mytilus galloprovincialis seems to involve GST, which was significantly induced in a dose:response pattern with 4-NP exposure

  3. Aerobic Fitness Thresholds Associated with Fifth Grade Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittberg, Richard; Cottrell, Lesley A.; Davis, Catherine L.; Northrup, Karen L.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Whereas effects of physical fitness and physical activity on cognitive function have been documented, little is known about how they are related. Purpose: This study assessed student aerobic fitness measured by FITNESSGRAM Mile times and/or Pacer circuits and whether the nature of the association between aerobic fitness and…

  4. Differential production of slime under aerobic and anaerobic conditions.

    OpenAIRE

    Barker, L P; Simpson, W A; Christensen, G D

    1990-01-01

    A series of 37 clinical isolates of coagulase-negative staphylococci previously identified as negative for slime production by the tube test were reexamined by the tissue culture plate test under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. None of the strains produced slime under anaerobic conditions; however, five strains (13%) produced slime under aerobic conditions.

  5. EFFECTS OF CORN SILAGE INOCULANTS ON AEROBIC STABILITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerobic stability of corn silage can be a major problem for farmers particularly in warm weather. Silage inoculants, while the most common type of silage additive, have not been consistently effective at improving aerobic stability. This study investigated new and proposed inoculant products over ...

  6. Aerobic Digestion. Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopping, Paul H.

    This manual contains the textual material for a single-lesson unit on aerobic sludge digestion. Topic areas addressed include: (1) theory of aerobic digestion; (2) system components; (3) performance factors; (4) indicators of stable operation; and (5) operational problems and their solutions. A list of objectives, glossary of key terms, and…

  7. Water Aerobics as a Form of Health Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Anna S. Batrak; Antonina V. Polyakova

    2013-01-01

    The offered literature review considers water aerobics as a form of health activities. Water aerobics is wide spread and popular, especially among women, because it is also the form of adaptive and health activities. It enlarges general physiological effect of physical exercises on the human body. Regular exercises improve physical fitness and physical development, health, mood, sleep, intensify activities and working efficiency.

  8. Aerobic training alone or combined with strength training affects fitness in elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burich, Rasmus; Teljigović, Sanel; Boyle, Eleanor;

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate if combined strength and aerobic training can enhance aerobic capacity in the elderly to a similar extent as aerobic training alone when training duration is matched. METHODS: Elderly men and women (age 63.2 ± 4.7) were randomized into two intervention groups: an aerobic...... subsequently to the aerobic training. Combined training additionally improves strength and self-assessed general health more than aerobic training alone....

  9. Improved TNT detoxification by starch addition in a nitrogen-fixing Methylophilus-dominant aerobic microbial consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Imran; Lee, Jaejin; Yoo, Keunje; Kim, Seonghoon; Park, Joonhong

    2015-12-30

    In this study, a novel aerobic microbial consortium for the complete detoxification of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) was developed using starch as a slow-releasing carbon source under nitrogen-fixing conditions. Aerobic TNT biodegradation coupled with microbial growth was effectively stimulated by the co-addition of starch and TNT under nitrogen-fixing conditions. The addition of starch with TNT led to TNT mineralization via ring cleavage without accumulation of any toxic by-products, indicating improved TNT detoxification by the co-addition of starch and TNT. Pyrosequencing targeting the bacterial 16S rRNA gene suggested that Methylophilus and Pseudoxanthomonas population were significantly stimulated by the co-addition of starch and TNT and that the Methylophilus population became predominant in the consortium. Together with our previous study regarding starch-stimulated RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) degradation (Khan et al., J. Hazard. Mater. 287 (2015) 243-251), this work suggests that the co-addition of starch with a target explosive is an effective way to stimulate aerobic explosive degradation under nitrogen-fixing conditions for enhancing explosive detoxification. PMID:26342802

  10. Heart rate during aerobics classes in women with different previous experience of aerobics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laukkanen, R M; Kalaja, M K; Kalaja, S P; Holmala, E B; Paavolainen, L M; Tummavuori, M; Virtanen, P; Rusko, H K

    2001-01-01

    This study measured heart rate during floor and step aerobic classes at three intensity levels. A group of 20 female occasional exercisers [mean age 33 (SD 8) years, mean body mass index 21 (SD 2) kg.m-2 volunteered to participate in six aerobic classes (three floor classes, three step classes) and in a laboratory test as members of one of two groups according to their prestudy regular participation in aerobics classes. Subjects in group A had participated four or more times a week and those of group B less than twice a week. The characteristics of the groups were as follows: group A, n = 10, mean maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) 38.7 (SD 3.6) ml.kg-1.min-1, mean maximal heart rate (HRmax) 183 (SD 8) beats.min-1; group B, n = 10, VO2max 36.1 (SD 3.6) ml.kg-1.min-1, HRmax 178 (SD 7) beats.min-1. Each class consisted of a warm-up, a 20 min period of structured aerobic exercise (cardiophase) and a cool-down. The cardiophase was planned and guided as light, (rate of perceived exertion, RPE 11-12), moderate (RPE 13-14) or heavy (RPE 15-17) by an experienced instructor. The mean heart rates during the light classes were 72 (step) and 74 (floor) %HRmax in group A and 75 (step) and 79 (floor) %HRmax in group B; during the moderate classes, 84 (step) and 80 (floor) %HRmax in group A and 82 (step) and 83 (floor) %HRmax in group B, and during the heavy classes 89 (step and floor) %HRmax in group A and 88 (step) and 92 (floor) %HRmax in group B. Differences in heart rate and %HRmax were not statistically significant between the groups. However, differences in heart rate and %HRmax between the intensities (light vs moderate, moderate vs heavy and light vs heavy) were significant within both groups (all, P < 0.01). Based on the results, we conclude that intensity management during the aerobics classes was generally successful regardless of the participants' prior participation in aerobics. However, some individuals who were older and/or had less prior participation tended to

  11. Aerobic exercise reduces biomarkers related to cardiovascular risk among cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korshøj, Mette; Ravn, Marie Højbjerg; Holtermann, Andreas;

    2016-01-01

    aerobic exercise worksite intervention changes the level of inflammation biomarkers among cleaners. METHODS: The design was a cluster-randomized controlled trial with 4-month worksite intervention. Before the 116 cleaners aged 18-65 years were randomized, they signed an informed consent form. The...... reference group (n = 59) received lectures, and the aerobic exercise group (n = 57) performed worksite aerobic exercise (30 min twice a week). Levels of biomarkers (high-sensitive C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, cholesterol, low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride) were collected at...... that an aerobic exercise intervention among cleaners leads to reduced levels of high-sensitive C-reactive protein and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and an unaltered level of fibrinogen. The aerobic exercise seems to improve inflammatory levels and lipoprotein profile among cleaners, with no...

  12. Microbiology of Wetwood: Importance of Pectin Degradation and Clostridium Species in Living Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Schink, Bernhard; James C. Ward; Zeikus, J. Gregory

    1981-01-01

    Wetwood samples from standing trees of eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides), black poplar (Populus nigra), and American elm (Ulmus americana) contained high numbers of aerobic and anaerobic pectin-degrading bacteria (104 to 106 cells per g of wood). High activity of polygalacturonate lyase (≤0.5 U/ml) was also detected in the fetid liquid that spurted from wetwood zones in the lower trunk when the trees were bored. A prevalent pectin-degrading obligately anaerobic bacterium isolated from th...

  13. Comparison of factors influencing trichloroethylene degradation by toluene-oxidizing bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Leahy, J G; Byrne, A M; Olsen, R H

    1996-01-01

    The degradation of trichloroethylene (TCE) by toluene-oxidizing bacteria has been extensively studied, and yet the influence of environmental conditions and physiological characteristics of individual strains has received little attention. To consider these effects, the levels of TCE degradation by strains distinguishable on the basis of toluene and nitrate metabolism were compared under aerobic or hypoxic conditions in the presence and absence of nitrate and an exogenous electron donor, lact...

  14. A reactor system combining reductive dechloirnation with cometabolic oxidation for complete degradation of tetrachloroentylene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A laboratory sequential anaerobic-aerobic bioreactor system,which consisted of an anaerobic fixed film reactor and twoaerobic chemostats, was set up to degrade tetrachloroethylene (PCE)without accumulating highly toxic degradation intermediates. A soil(ca. 150 mg/liter) of PCE stoichiometrically intocis-1,2-dichloroethylene (cis-DCE), was attached to ceramic mediain the anaerobic fixed film reactor. A phenol degrading strain,Alcaligenes sp. R5, which can efficiently degrade cis-DCE byco-metabolic oxidation, was used as inoculum for the aerobicchemostats consisted of a transformation reactor and a growthreactor. The anaerobic fixed film bioreactor showed more than 99 %of PCE transformation into cis-DCE in the range of influent PCE48h. On the other hand, efficient degradation of the resultantcis-DCE by strain R5 in the following aerobic system could not beachieved due to oxygen limitation. However, 54% of the maximum(H2O2) was supplemented to the transformation reactor as anadditional oxygen source. Further studies are needed to achievemore efficient co-metabolic degradation of cis-DCE in the aerobic reactor.

  15. Aerobic exercises: their cardiovascular and other benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aerobic exercise can help prevent ischemic heart disease and other diseases. Physical inactivity is a major factor for developing Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) which is characterized by deposit of cholesterol, calcium and other substances in the inner lining of the arteries, that supply to cardiac muscle. It also contributes to other risk factors including obesity, hypertension, increased triglycerides, low level of HDL cholesterol and diabetes. The essential components of a systematic individualized exercise prescription include the appropriate mode, intensity, duration, frequency and progression of physical activity. There are four components of exercise program; a warm up, an endurance phase, optional recreational activity and a cool down. For sedentary individuals, exercise should start at 60% of maximum heart rare. Benefits of physical activity depend on the total amount of exercise. Vigorous leisure time activity should be promoted in order to give way to healthy living. (author)

  16. Aerobics trainer, health club settle discrimination lawsuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-04-01

    A health club settled out-of-court, agreeing to pay an undisclosed sum of money and to train its managers on the legal obligations of people with HIV and other disabilities, following litigation brought by an aerobics instructor at the club. The instructor filed the suit after he was forced to either disclose his HIV status to the 3,000 members or be fired. He was fired after he refused to sign a letter drafted by the club's manager. Six months later the club's president gave club employees the letter which the plaintiff argued violated his right to privacy. This is the second time a health club has settled an AIDS discrimination case. Both cases focused on the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). In settling the case, the club denied any wrongdoing and said they settled out of court to avoid the costs of litigation. PMID:11362274

  17. [Research of aerobic granule characteristics with different granule age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Man; Yang, Chang-Zhu; Pu, Wen-Hong; Luo, Ying-Dong; Gong, Jian-Yu

    2012-03-01

    In the SBR reactor, we studied the different style, physicochemical characteristic, pollutants removal and microbial activity between the short age and long age aerobic granule, respectively. The short age aerobic granule was cultivated from activated floccules sludge and the other was gotten from aerobic granular sludge which was operated stably more than one year. The results indicated that the wet density, the specific gravity and integrated coefficient (IC) of the short age aerobic granule were 1.066 g x cm(-1), 1.013 g x cm(-3) and 98.7%, respectively. And that of long age were 1.026 g x cm(-3), 1.010 g x cm(-3) and 98.4%, respectively. All of them were higher than the long age aerobic granule. The mean diameters of them were 1.9 mm and 2.2 mm, respectively. The settling velocity of short age and long age aerobic granule were 0.005-0.032 m x s(-1) and 0.003-0.028 m x s(-1), respectively, and two kinds of aerobic granule settling velocity increased with the diameter increased. SVI of the former was lower. The COD removal rates of two aerobic granules were above 90%, and the NH4(+) -N removal rates of them were about 85%. The results of the COD effluent concentration, NH4(+) -N effluent concentration and the pollutants concentration in a typical cycle indicated that the short age aerobic granule had better pollutants removal efficiency. The TP removal rates of them were between 40% -90% and 32% -85%, respectively. The TN removal rates of them were about 80%. The SOUR(H) SOUR(NH4) and SOUR(NO2) of the short age aerobic granule were 26.4, 14.8 and 11.2 mg x (h x g)(-1), respectively. And that of long age were 25.2, 14.4 and 8.4 mg x (h x g)(-1), respectively. In summary, the aerobic granule had significantly different physical and chemical characteristics because of different granule age, and the short age aerobic granule exhibited better pollutants removal ability, higher microbial activity and more stability than the long age aerobic granule. PMID:22624385

  18. Effects of Kettlebell Training on Aerobic Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falatic, J Asher; Plato, Peggy A; Holder, Christopher; Finch, Daryl; Han, Kyungmo; Cisar, Craig J

    2015-07-01

    This study examined the effects of a kettlebell training program on aerobic capacity. Seventeen female National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I collegiate soccer players (age: 19.7 ± 1.0 years, height: 166.1 ± 6.4 cm, weight: 64.2 ± 8.2 kg) completed a graded exercise test to determine maximal oxygen consumption (V̇O2max). Participants were assigned to a kettlebell intervention group (KB) (n = 9) or a circuit weight-training (CWT) control group (n = 8). Participants in the KB group completed a kettlebell snatch test to determine individual snatch repetitions. Both groups trained 3 days a week for 4 weeks in addition to their off-season strength and conditioning program. The KB group performed the 15:15 MVO2 protocol (20 minutes of kettlebell snatching with 15 seconds of work and rest intervals). The CWT group performed multiple free-weight and dynamic body-weight exercises as part of a continuous circuit program for 20 minutes. The 15:15 MVO2 protocol significantly increased V̇O2max in the KB group. The average increase was 2.3 ml·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹, or approximately a 6% gain. There was no significant change in V̇O2max in the CWT control group. Thus, the 4-week 15:15 MVO2 kettlebell protocol, using high-intensity kettlebell snatches, significantly improved aerobic capacity in female intercollegiate soccer players and could be used as an alternative mode to maintain or improve cardiovascular conditioning. PMID:26102260

  19. Survey the effect of aerobic exercise on aerobic capacity in patients with coronary artery disease (cad)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increased aerobic exercise capacity appears to reduce both all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease mortality. Physical exercise to improve maximal oxygen consumption (VO/sub 2max/) is thus strongly recommended, however evidence regarding the most efficient training intensity for patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) is still lacking. The purpose of this randomized study was to assess the effects of aerobic exercise for increasing VO/sub 2max/ in stable CAD-patients. Thirty stable CAD-patients were randomized to supervised walking 30 min three times a week for 10 weeks. Before and after training VO/sub 2max/ was predicted from Bruce treadmill test. Before training VO/sub 2max/ was 35.2+-4.32 ml/kg/min and after training the mean VO/sub 2max/ was 43.1+-3.4 ml/kg/min. This difference was significant (p<0.05). Aerobic exercise is effective for increasing VO/sub 2max/ in stable CAD-patients. As VO/sub 2max/ seems to reflect a continuum between health and cardiovascular disease and death, the present data may be useful in designing effective training programmes for improved health in the future. (author)

  20. Preliminary Study on the Performance and Interaction of Recycling Hydrolytic-Aerobic Combined Process of High Concentration Starch Wastewater%高浓度淀粉废水水解--好氧循环一体化处理工艺的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李清彪; 廖鑫凯; 吴志旺; 邓旭; 黄益丽; 卢英华; 孙道华; 洪铭嫒; 王琳

    2004-01-01

    A new recycling hydrolytic-aerobic combined process was developed to treat the high concentration used. At first, the hydrolytic degradation and aerobic degradation process were examined in two batch reactors,respectively. In the stand-alone hydrolytic process, starch in the wastewater almost disappeared after 11 h treatment,but CODCr remained as high as 5803mg. L-1 after two days. In the aerobic process, the biodegradation rate of starch was much slower during the first 11 h than that in the hydrolytic process, although the CODCr removal efficiency reached 89.6% and more than 90% starch could be degraded after 37.5 h. To determine the interaction effects of the two processes, a series of hydrolytic-aerobic combinations were examined in details. Hydrolytic process played an important role in the whole recycle combination process as it could improve the biodegradability of the high concentration starch wastewater. However, from the other experiments, the negative effect of hydrolytic acidification was found in the hydrolytic-aerobic combination, which suggested that the aerobic microorganisms needed time to adapt themselves to the acidic environment. The effect of the degrading time, which was spent in the hydrolytic and aerobic unit, and the number of circulations, with which the wastewater went through the two units were investigated. It was found that a recycle combination of 6 h hydrolytic process with 12 h aerobic process was highly effective and potentially economical, in which the final removal efficiency of CODCr and efficiency of starch degradation reached 94.1% and 98.8%, respectively.

  1. Characterization of Methane Degradation and Methane-Degrading Microbes in Alaska Coastal Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchman, David L. [Univ. of Delaware, Lewes, DE (United States)

    2012-03-29

    The net flux of methane from methane hydrates and other sources to the atmosphere depends on methane degradation as well as methane production and release from geological sources. The goal of this project was to examine methane-degrading archaea and organic carbon oxidizing bacteria in methane-rich and methane-poor sediments of the Beaufort Sea, Alaska. The Beaufort Sea system was sampled as part of a multi-disciplinary expedition (Methane in the Arctic Shelf or MIDAS) in September 2009. Microbial communities were examined by quantitative PCR analyses of 16S rRNA genes and key methane degradation genes (pmoA and mcrA involved in aerobic and anaerobic methane degradation, respectively), tag pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes to determine the taxonomic make up of microbes in these sediments, and sequencing of all microbial genes (metagenomes ). The taxonomic and functional make-up of the microbial communities varied with methane concentrations, with some data suggesting higher abundances of potential methane-oxidizing archaea in methane-rich sediments. Sequence analysis of PCR amplicons revealed that most of the mcrA genes were from the ANME-2 group of methane oxidizers. According to metagenomic data, genes involved in methane degradation and other degradation pathways changed with sediment depth along with sulfate and methane concentrations. Most importantly, sulfate reduction genes decreased with depth while the anaerobic methane degradation gene (mcrA) increased along with methane concentrations. The number of potential methane degradation genes (mcrA) was low and inconsistent with other data indicating the large impact of methane on these sediments. The data can be reconciled if a small number of potential methane-oxidizing archaea mediates a large flux of carbon in these sediments. Our study is the first to report metagenomic data from sediments dominated by ANME-2 archaea and is one of the few to examine the entire microbial assemblage potentially involved in

  2. Degradation changes stable carbon isotope depth profiles in palsa peatlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Krüger

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Palsa peatlands are a significant carbon pool in the global carbon cycle and are projected to change by global warming due to accelerated permafrost thaw. Our aim was to use stable carbon isotopes as indicators of palsa degradation. Depth profiles of stable carbon isotopes generally reflect organic matter dynamics in soils with an increase of δ13C values during aerobic decomposition and stable or decreasing δ13C values with depth during anaerobic decomposition. Stable carbon isotope depth profiles of undisturbed and degraded sites of hummocks as well as hollows at three palsa peatlands in northern Sweden were used to investigate the degradation processes. The depth patterns of stable isotopes clearly differ between intact and degraded hummocks at all sites. Erosion and cryoturbation at the degraded sites significantly changes the stable carbon isotope depth profiles. At the intact hummocks the uplifting of peat material by permafrost is indicated by a turning in the δ13C depth trend and this assessment is supported by a change in the C / N ratios. For hollows isotope patterns were less clear, but some hollows and degraded hollows in the palsa peatlands show differences in their stable carbon isotope depth profiles indicating enhanced degradation rates. We conclude that the degradation of palsa peatlands by accelerated permafrost thawing could be identified with stable carbon isotope depth profiles. At intact hummocks δ13C depth patterns display the uplifting of peat material by a change in peat decomposition processes.

  3. Degradation of the pharmaceuticals diclofenac and sulfamethoxazole and their transformation products under controlled environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier-Larabie, S; Segura, P A; Gagnon, C

    2016-07-01

    Contamination of the aquatic environment by pharmaceuticals via urban effluents is well known. Several classes of drugs have been identified in waterways surrounding these effluents in the last 15years. To better understand the fate of pharmaceuticals in ecosystems, degradation processes need to be investigated and transformation products must be identified. Thus, this study presents the first comparative study between three different natural environmental conditions: photolysis and biodegradation in aerobic and anaerobic conditions both in the dark of diclofenac and sulfamethoxazole, two common drugs present in significant amounts in impacted surface waters. Results indicated that degradation kinetics differed depending on the process and the type of drug and the observed transformation products also differed among these exposure conditions. Diclofenac was nearly degraded by photolysis after 4days, while its concentration only decreased by 42% after 57days of exposure to bacteria in aerobic media and barely 1% in anaerobic media. For sulfamethoxazole, 84% of the initial concentration was still present after 11days of exposure to light, while biodegradation decreased its concentration by 33% after 58days of exposure under aerobic conditions and 5% after 70days of anaerobic exposure. In addition, several transformation products were observed and persisted over time while others degraded in turn. For diclofenac, chlorine atoms were lost primarily in the photolysis, while a redox reaction was promoted by biodegradation under aerobic conditions. For sulfamethoxazole, isomerization was favored by photolysis while a redox reaction was also favored by the biodegradation under aerobic conditions. To summarize this study points out the occurrence of different transformation products under variable degradation conditions and demonstrates that specific functional groups are involved in the tested natural attenuation processes. Given the complexity of environmental samples

  4. Numerical simulation of competitive aerobic / anaerobic hydrocarbon plume biodegradation in two-dimensional bench scale lab-experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, C.; Ballarini, E.; Bauer, R.; Griebler, C.; Bauer, S.

    2011-12-01

    The biodegradation of oxidizable hydrocarbon contaminants in the subsurface requires the presence of compatible microbial communities as well as sufficient amounts of electron acceptors and nutrients. In this context, transverse mixing, driven by dispersion and diffusion, is one of the main mechanisms governing the availability of dissolved electron acceptors at a hydrocarbon plume fringe. Aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation of hydrocarbons limited by transverse mixing has been studied experimentally in 2D bench-scale flow-through tanks, filled with a saturated porous medium. Flow of groundwater through the tanks was induced by pumping water at one side through injection ports, and simultaneously extracting water at the other side of the tank. An ethylbenzene plume was established by injection through the central inlet port. A mixture of unlabeled and fully deuterium-labeled isotopomers was used in order to investigate the spatial distribution of degradation processes via monitoring of compound-specific stable isotope fractionation. In the first phase of the experiment, aerobic biodegradation was studied. For this purpose, the tank was recharged with water containing oxygen as a dissolved electron acceptor and the aerobic strain Pseudomonas putida F1 was inoculated. Later, nitrate was added to the recharge water as an additional electron acceptor and the denitrifying strain Aromatoleum aromaticum EbN1 was amended to study competitive aerobic/anaerobic biodegradation. A numerical reactive transport model of the experiment was set up for a model based interpretation of the observed degradation patterns. In a sensitivity analysis, the influence of the relevant hydrodynamic parameters on the observable distributions of ethylbenzene isotopomers, oxygen and nitrate was studied. Subsequent model calibration allowed for a good agreement with ethylbenzene concentrations measured at the tank outlet ports as well as oxygen concentrations, which were measured at several

  5. Relationships between chemical oxygen demand (COD) components and toxicity in a sequential anaerobic baffled reactor/aerobic completely stirred reactor system treating Kemicetine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study the interactions between toxicity removals and Kemicetine, COD removals, intermediate products of Kemicetine and COD components (CODs originating from slowly degradable organics, readily degradable organics, inert microbial products and from the inert compounds) were investigated in a sequential anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR)/aerobic completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR) system with a real pharmaceutical wastewater. The total COD and Kemicetine removal efficiencies were 98% and 100%, respectively, in the sequential ABR/CSTR systems. 2-Amino-1 (p-nitrophenil)-1,3 propanediol, l-p-amino phenyl, p-amino phenol and phenol were detected in the ABR as the main readily degradable inter-metabolites. In the anaerobic ABR reactor, the Kemicetin was converted to corresponding inter-metabolites and a substantial part of the COD was removed. In the aerobic CSTR reactor the inter-metabolites produced in the anaerobic reactor were completely removed and the COD remaining from the anerobic reactor was biodegraded. It was found that the COD originating from the readily degradable organics did not limit the anaerobic degradation process, while the CODs originating from the slowly degradable organics and from the inert microbial products significantly decreased the anaerobic ABR reactor performance. The acute toxicity test results indicated that the toxicity decreased from the influent to the effluent of the aerobic CSTR reactor. The ANOVA test statistics showed that there was a strong linear correlation between acute toxicity, CODs originating from the slowly degradable organics and inert microbial products. A weak correlation between acute toxicity and CODs originating from the inert compounds was detected.

  6. Microbial degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in estuarine sediment of Tama River in Tokyo urban area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation rates of petroleum hydrocarbons, i.e., hexadecane (HEX), phenanthrene (PHE), and anthracene (ANT), were determined in estuarine sediment of the Tama River in urban Tokyo, followed by estimating their respective degradation potential. While in a sediment slurry, the aerobic biodegradation rates of these petroleum hydrocarbons ranged from 40 to 70 μg.g-1 dry sediment:day-1. The anaerobic biodegradation rate of HEX was found to be 5 -8 μg.g-1 dry sediment.day-1, whereas that of PHE and ANT could not be detected following a 2-month incubation. Aerobic degradation of HEX was not affected by coexistence with either PHE or ANT, nor by the salinity level. The number of HEX-, PHE-, or ANT-utilizing bacteria ranged from 5 - 10% of the total number of aerobic heterotrophic bacteria. We calculated their biodegradation potentials using the biomass of naturally existing petroleum hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria present in the sampled sediment, with results for HEX, PHE, and ANT being 1.0 -3.5, 4.2 x 10-2, and 1.2 x 10-2 -9.4 x 10-1 μg.g-1 dry sediment day-1, respectively. In the aerobic tidal sediment of the Tama River, the purification potentials of HEX, PHE, and ANT were assessed to be approximately equal to their accumulation potentials occurring at the normal water level. (Author)

  7. Is aerobic workload positively related to ambulatory blood pressure?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korshøj, Mette; Clays, Els; Lidegaard, Mark;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Cardiovascular disease is prevalent among workers with high levels of occupational physical activity. The increased risk may be due to a high relative aerobic workload, possibly leading to increased blood pressure. However, studies investigating the relation between relative aerobic...... workload and ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) are lacking. The aim was to explore the relationship between objectively measured relative aerobic workload and ABP. METHODS: A total of 116 cleaners aged 18-65 years were included after informed consent was obtained. A portable device (Spacelabs 90217) was...

  8. Effects of a Rebound Exercise Training Program on Aerobic Capacity and Body Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomassoni, Teresa L.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    This study was designed to determine if aerobic dancing on rebound exercise equipment (minitrampolines) is an effective way to improve aerobic capacity and body composition. Although aerobic capacity improved, percent body fat did not change. Results were similar to those produced by conventional aerobic dance programs of like intensity. (MT)

  9. Augmentation of aerobic respiration and mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle by hypoxia preconditioning with cobalt chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High altitude/hypoxia training is known to improve physical performance in athletes. Hypoxia induces hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) and its downstream genes that facilitate hypoxia adaptation in muscle to increase physical performance. Cobalt chloride (CoCl2), a hypoxia mimetic, stabilizes HIF-1, which otherwise is degraded in normoxic conditions. We studied the effects of hypoxia preconditioning by CoCl2 supplementation on physical performance, glucose metabolism, and mitochondrial biogenesis using rodent model. The results showed significant increase in physical performance in cobalt supplemented rats without (two times) or with training (3.3 times) as compared to control animals. CoCl2 supplementation in rats augmented the biological activities of enzymes of TCA cycle, glycolysis and cytochrome c oxidase (COX); and increased the expression of glucose transporter-1 (Glut-1) in muscle showing increased glucose metabolism by aerobic respiration. There was also an increase in mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle observed by increased mRNA expressions of mitochondrial biogenesis markers which was further confirmed by electron microscopy. Moreover, nitric oxide production increased in skeletal muscle in cobalt supplemented rats, which seems to be the major reason for peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) induction and mitochondrial biogenesis. Thus, in conclusion, we state that hypoxia preconditioning by CoCl2 supplementation in rats increases mitochondrial biogenesis, glucose uptake and metabolism by aerobic respiration in skeletal muscle, which leads to increased physical performance. The significance of this study lies in understanding the molecular mechanism of hypoxia adaptation and improvement of work performance in normal as well as extreme conditions like hypoxia via hypoxia preconditioning. -- Highlights: ► We supplemented rats with CoCl2 for 15 days along with training. ► CoCl2 supplementation augmented

  10. Paddy field – A natural sequential anaerobic–aerobic bioreactor for polychlorinated biphenyls transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The environmental pollution and health risks caused by the improper disposal of electric and electronic waste (e-waste) have become urgent issues for the developing countries. One of the typical pollutants, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), is commonly found in farmland in Taizhou, a major hotspot of e-waste recycling in China. This study investigated the amount of PCB residue in local farmlands. Biotransformation of PCBs was further studied under different water management conditions in paddy field with or without rice cultivation, with a special focus on the alternating flooded and drying processes. It was found that paddy field improved the attenuation of PCBs, especially for highly chlorinated congeners. In the microcosm experiment, 40% or more of the initial total PCBs was removed after sequential flood–drying treatments, compared to less than 10% in the sterilized control and 20% in the constant-drying system. Variation in the quantity of PCBs degrading and dechlorinating bacterial groups were closely related to the alteration of anaerobic–aerobic conditions. These results suggested that alternating anoxic–oxic environment in paddy field led to the sequential aerobic–anaerobic transformation of PCBs, which provided a favorable environment for natural PCB attenuation. - Highlights: • Paddy fields hold significantly lower level of PCBs than drylands, especially highly-chlorinated PCBs. • Microbial dechlorination of PCBs is favored under flooded conditions in paddy field. • Aerobic biodegradation of PCBs is benefited under dry conditions in paddy field. • PCBs dechlorination rate is accelerated in rice planted paddy field compared to the unplanted one. • Alternating anoxic–oxic environment in paddy field led to the sequential aerobic–anaerobic transformation of PCBs. - Alternating anoxic–oxic environment led to the sequential aerobic–anaerobic transformation of PCBs in paddy field, which could act as a natural sequential anaerobic–aerobic

  11. Nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria in aerobic granules formed in sequencing batch airlift reactors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Fang; YANG Fenglin; QI Aijiu

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate nitrifying bacteria and denitrifying bacteria isolated from aerobic granules.Aerobic granules were formed in an internal-circulate sequencing batch airlift reactor(SBAR)and biodegradation of NH3 -N was analyzed in the reactor.Bacteria were isolated and determined from aerobic granules using selected media.The growth properties and morphology of bacteria colonies were observed by controlling aerobic or anaerobic conditions in the culture medium.It was found that bacteria in aerobic granules were diverse and some of them were facultative aerobes.The diversity of bacteria in aerobic granules was a premise of simultaneous nitrification and denitrification.

  12. THE RELATIONSHIP OF CHOREOGRAPHY PREPARATION AND ARTISTRY IN AEROBIC GYMNASTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Sokolova

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Examines the impact choreography training in sports aerobics on artistic skills.Objective to investigate whether the use of funds choreo-graphy in training athletes involved in sports aerobics, to find the relationship between choreographic training and asses-sment for artistry.Method or methodology of work methods of studying the theoretical ski works of scientific content, analysis and processing of scientific texts.The results revealed the relationship between estimates for artistry and means-you dance training in sports aerobics. The scope of the results, the materials may be used by coaches in sports aerobics, for further research on the problem of constructing workout.

  13. WAYS TO IMPROVE THE PHYSICAL FITNESS THROUGH AEROBIC GYMNASTICS MEANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaharia A.M.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to study the probable effects that aerobic gymnastics could have on the body, for improving the physical fitness. The main goal of the research was to identify the effects the aerobic gymnastics has in improving physical fitness.This research was conducted on 15 subjects between 18 and 30 years old, who participated in aerobic gymnastics fitness-type lessons, three times a week. The programs comprised exercises of physical development , stretching and elasticity, of relaxation, of coordination, and not in the least, of muscle strengthening. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the applied means, the Ruffier test was used to assess the physical fitness of the subjects, and the Dorgo Index, to assess the cool-down response. The research data emphasized the subjects' interest for their physical fitness through a dynamic activity, constituting an argument for the practice of aerobic gymnastics throughout one's entire life, as a mean to preserve one's youth and beauty.

  14. Impairment of cellulose- and cellobiose-degrading soil Bacteria by two acidic herbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberger, Stefanie; Drake, Harold L; Kolb, Steffen

    2012-02-01

    Herbicides have the potential to impair the metabolism of soil microorganisms. The current study addressed the toxic effect of bentazon and 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid on aerobic and anaerobic Bacteria that are involved in cellulose and cellobiose degradation in an agricultural soil. Aerobic saccharide degradation was reduced at concentrations of herbicides above environmental values. Microbial processes (e.g. fermentations, ferric iron reduction) that were linked to anaerobic cellulose and cellobiose degradation were reduced in the presence of both herbicides at concentrations above and at those that occur in crop field soil. 16S rRNA gene transcript numbers of total Bacteria, and selected bacterial taxa (Clostridia [Group I], Planctomycetaceae, and two uncultivated taxa of Bacteroidetes) decreased more in anoxic than in oxic cellulose-supplemented soil microcosms in the presence of both herbicides. Collectively, the results suggested that the metabolism of anaerobic cellulose-degrading Bacteria was impaired by typical in situ herbicide concentrations, whereas in situ concentrations did not impair metabolism of aerobic cellulose- and cellobiose-degrading soil Bacteria. PMID:22098368

  15. Membrane-bound respiratory chain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa grown aerobically.

    OpenAIRE

    Matsushita, K; M. Yamada; Shinagawa, E; Adachi, O; Ameyama, M

    1980-01-01

    The electron transport chain of the gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa, grown aerobically, contained a number of primary dehydrogenases and respiratory components (soluble flavin, bound flavin, coenzyme Q9, heme b, heme c, and cytochrome o) in membrane particles of the organism. Cytochrome o, about 50% of the b-type cytochrome, seemed to function as a terminal oxidase in the respiratory chain. The electron transport chain of P. aeruginosa grown aerobically was suggested to be line...

  16. Aerobic and Anaerobic Starvation Metabolism in Methanotrophic Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Roslev, P.; King, G. M.

    1995-01-01

    The capacity for anaerobic metabolism of endogenous and selected exogenous substrates in carbon- and energy-starved methanotrophic bacteria was examined. The methanotrophic isolate strain WP 12 survived extended starvation under anoxic conditions while metabolizing 10-fold less endogenous substrate than did parallel cultures starved under oxic conditions. During aerobic starvation, the cell biomass decreased by 25% and protein and lipids were the preferred endogenous substrates. Aerobic prote...

  17. The medically important aerobic actinomycetes: epidemiology and microbiology.

    OpenAIRE

    McNeil, M. M.; Brown, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    The aerobic actinomycetes are soil-inhabiting microorganisms that occur worldwide. In 1888, Nocard first recognized the pathogenic potential of this group of microorganisms. Since then, several aerobic actinomycetes have been a major source of interest for the commercial drug industry and have proved to be extremely useful microorganisms for producing novel antimicrobial agents. They have also been well known as potential veterinary pathogens affecting many different animal species. The medic...

  18. Strength training and aerobic exercise training for muscle disease (Review)

    OpenAIRE

    Voet, N.B.M.; Kooi, E.L. van der; Riphagen, I.I.; Lindeman, E.; van Engelen, B G M; Geurts, A. C. H.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Strength training or aerobic exercise programmes might optimise muscle and cardiorespiratory function and prevent additional disuse atrophy and deconditioning in people with a muscle disease. This is an update of a review first published in 2004. OBJECTIVES: To examine the safety and efficacy of strength training and aerobic exercise training in people with a muscle disease. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Disease Group Specialized Register (July 2012), CENT...

  19. Aerobic exercise and endurance: improving fitness for health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmore, Jack H

    2003-05-01

    Clinicians who understand how the body responds to exercise, how aerobic training improves cardiovascular fitness, and the benefits and principles of prescribing aerobic exercise can effectively encourage patients to become active and optimize programs for those already active. Patients who are active at an early age and who continue to enjoy active lifestyles as adults will attenuate the normal losses in cardiovascular endurance, strength, and flexibility that accompany aging and sedentary living, thereby maintaining greater independence throughout their life spans. PMID:20086470

  20. Water Aerobics as a Form of Health Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna S. Batrak

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The offered literature review considers water aerobics as a form of health activities. Water aerobics is wide spread and popular, especially among women, because it is also the form of adaptive and health activities. It enlarges general physiological effect of physical exercises on the human body. Regular exercises improve physical fitness and physical development, health, mood, sleep, intensify activities and working efficiency.

  1. Destruction of tryptophan during the aerobic oxidation of sulfite ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tryptophan was rapidly destroyed aerobically in the presence of Mn2+ and sulfite. The rate of destruction was greatly increased when horseradish peroxidase was added. The optimal pH for the reaction was 8.0. The destruction of tryptophan was dependent on the aerobic oxidation of sulfite. Superoxide dismutase inhibited sulfite oxidation and thus inhibited the tryptophan destruction. Tracer studies using 14C indicate that tryptophan is converted into at least 4 products

  2. THE RELATIONSHIP OF CHOREOGRAPHY PREPARATION AND ARTISTRY IN AEROBIC GYMNASTICS

    OpenAIRE

    I. V. Sokolova

    2015-01-01

    Examines the impact choreography training in sports aerobics on artistic skills.Objective to investigate whether the use of funds choreo-graphy in training athletes involved in sports aerobics, to find the relationship between choreographic training and asses-sment for artistry.Method or methodology of work methods of studying the theoretical ski works of scientific content, analysis and processing of scientific texts.The results revealed the relationship between estimates for artistry and me...

  3. p53 aerobics: the major tumor suppressor fuels your workout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Jan-Philipp; Gu, Wei

    2006-07-01

    In addition to its role as the central regulator of the cellular stress response, p53 can regulate aerobic respiration via the novel transcriptional target SCO2, a critical regulator of the cytochrome c oxidase complex (Matoba et al., 2006). Loss of p53 results in decreased oxygen consumption and aerobic respiration and promotes a switch to glycolysis, thereby reducing endurance during physical exercise. PMID:16814724

  4. Dosing method of physical activity in aerobics classes for students

    OpenAIRE

    Beliak Yu. I.; Zinchenko N.M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose : reasons for the method of dosing of physical activity in aerobics classes for students. The basis of the method is the evaluation of the metabolic cost of funds used in them. Material : experiment involved the assessment of the pulse response of students to load complexes classical and step aerobics (n = 47, age 20-23 years). In complexes used various factors regulating the intensity: perform combinations of basic steps, involvement of movements with his hands, holding in hands dumb...

  5. Water aerobics in pregnancy: cardiovascular response, labor and neonatal outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Braga Angelica F; Cecatti Jose G; Pereira Rosa I; Baciuk Erica P; Cavalcante Sergio R

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background To evaluate the association between water aerobics, maternal cardiovascular capacity during pregnancy, labor and neonatal outcomes. Methods A randomized, controlled clinical trial was carried out in which 34 pregnant women were allocated to a water aerobics group and 37 to a control group. All women were submitted to submaximal ergometric tests on a treadmill at 19, 25 and 35 weeks of pregnancy and were followed up until delivery. Oxygen consumption (VO2 max), cardiac outp...

  6. Audio Processing Solution for Video Conference Based Aerobics

    OpenAIRE

    Berggren, Magnus; Stjernberg, Louise; Lindström, Fredric; Claesson, Ingvar

    2010-01-01

    In this paper an audio processing solution for video conference based aerobics is presented. The proposed solution leaves the workout music unaltered by separating it from the speech and processing each signal separately. The speech signal processing is also performed at a lower sample rate, which saves computational power. Real time evaluation of the system shows that high quality music as well as a good two-way communication is maintained during the aerobic session.

  7. Fetal cardiotocography before and after water aerobics during pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Silveira Carla; Pereira Belmiro G; Cecatti Jose G; Cavalcante Sergio R; Pereira Rosa I

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objective To evaluate the effect of moderate aerobic physical activity in water on fetal cardiotocography patterns in sedentary pregnant women. Method In a non-randomized controlled trial, 133 previously sedentary pregnant women participated in multiple regular sessions of water aerobics in a heated swimming pool. Cardiotocography was performed for 20 minutes before and just after the oriented exercise. Cardiotocography patterns were analyzed pre- and post-exercise according to gesta...

  8. Impact of brisk walking and aerobics in overweight women

    OpenAIRE

    Melam, Ganeswara Rao; Alhusaini, Adel A.; Buragadda, Syamala; Kaur, Taranpreet; Khan, Imran Ali

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Lack of physical activity and an uncontrolled diet cause excessive weight gain, which leads to obesity and other metabolic disorders. Studies have indicated that brisk walking and aerobics are the best methods for controlling and reducing weight and body mass composition. [Subjects and Methods] In this study, 45 overweight women were enrolled and divided into 3 groups. Women not involved in brisk walking or aerobics were included in group A (n = 15) as control subjects; women involv...

  9. Diversity and organization of genes for aerobic degradation of aromatic compounds under high environmental pollution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Josefiová, Jiřina; Brennerová, Mária

    Praha: VSCHT, 2012. s. 162-162. ISBN 978-80-7080-819-1. [International Symposium on Biosorption and Bioremediation /5./. 24.06.2012-28.06.2012, Praha] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M06011 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : PCR screening Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  10. Dancing the aerobics ''hearing loss'' choreography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Beatriz M.; Carvalho, Antonio P. O.; Gallagher, Sergio

    2002-11-01

    This paper presents an overview of gymnasiums' acoustic problems when used for aerobics exercises classes (and similar) with loud noise levels of amplified music. This type of gymnasium is usually a highly reverberant space, which is a consequence of a large volume surrounded by hard surfaces. A sample of five schools in Portugal was chosen for this survey. Noise levels in each room were measured using a precision sound level meter, and analyzed to calculate the standardized daily personal noise exposure levels (LEP,d). LEP,d values from 79 to 91 dB(A) were found to be typical values in this type of room, inducing a health risk for its occupants. The reverberation time (RT) values were also measured and compared with some European legal requirements (Portugal, France, and Belgium) for nearly similar situations. RT values (1 kHz) from 0.9 s to 2.8 s were found. These reverberation time values clearly differentiate between good and acoustically inadequate rooms. Some noise level and RT limits for this type of environment are given and suggestions for the improvement of the acoustical environment are shown. Significant reductions in reverberation time values and noise levels can be obtained by simple measures.

  11. Personality, metabolic rate and aerobic capacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Terracciano

    Full Text Available Personality traits and cardiorespiratory fitness in older adults are reliable predictors of health and longevity. We examined the association between personality traits and energy expenditure at rest (basal metabolic rate and during normal and maximal sustained walking. Personality traits and oxygen (VO(2 consumption were assessed in 642 participants from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Results indicate that personality traits were mostly unrelated to resting metabolic rate and energy expenditure at normal walking pace. However, those who scored lower on neuroticism (r = -0.12 and higher on extraversion (r = 0.11, openness (r = 0.13, and conscientiousness (r = 0.09 had significantly higher energy expenditure at peak walking pace. In addition to greater aerobic capacity, individuals with a more resilient personality profile walked faster and were more efficient in that they required less energy per meter walked. The associations between personality and energy expenditure were not moderated by age or sex, but were in part explained by the proportion of fat mass. In conclusion, differences in personality may matter the most during more challenging activities that require cardiorespiratory fitness. These findings suggest potential pathways that link personality to health outcomes, such as obesity and longevity.

  12. Maximal aerobic exercise following prolonged sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, J; Radomski, M; Hart, L; Plyley, M; Shephard, R J

    1989-12-01

    The effect of 60 h without sleep upon maximal oxygen intake was examined in 12 young women, using a cycle ergometer protocol. The arousal of the subjects was maintained by requiring the performance of a sequence of cognitive tasks throughout the experimental period. Well-defined oxygen intake plateaus were obtained both before and after sleep deprivation, and no change of maximal oxygen intake was observed immediately following sleep deprivation. The endurance time for exhausting exercise also remained unchanged, as did such markers of aerobic performance as peak exercise ventilation, peak heart rate, peak respiratory gas exchange ratio, and peak blood lactate. However, as in an earlier study of sleep deprivation with male subjects (in which a decrease of treadmill maximal oxygen intake was observed), the formula of Dill and Costill (4) indicated the development of a substantial (11.6%) increase of estimated plasma volume percentage with corresponding decreases in hematocrit and red cell count. Possible factors sustaining maximal oxygen intake under the conditions of the present experiment include (1) maintained arousal of the subjects with no decrease in peak exercise ventilation or the related respiratory work and (2) use of a cycle ergometer rather than a treadmill test with possible concurrent differences in the impact of hematocrit levels and plasma volume expansion upon peak cardiac output and thus oxygen delivery to the working muscles. PMID:2628360

  13. Energy efficient aerobic treatment of forest industry wastewaters; Energieffektiv aerob rening av skogsindustriella avloppsvatten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandberg, Maria; From-Aldaron, Mattias

    2011-01-15

    There is great potential to reduce energy requirements in aerobic biological purification if the oxygen demand can be reduced and oxygen delivery, when process water is aerated, is made more efficient. A model was developed to estimate the possible reduction in oxygen demand. Model variables were COD reduction, sludge withdrawal, oxygen, and alpha-value. Attempts made in an aerator in the lab-scale process shows that water content strongly affects oxygen transport and alpha-value. Surface active extract substances such as fatty acids and resin acids have greatest significance. The effect increases with the concentration of extract substances and decreases with added sodium chloride content

  14. Degradation of Refuse in Hybrid Bioreactor Landfill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN LONG; Yu-YANG LONG; HAI-CHUN LIU; DONG-SHENG SHEN

    2009-01-01

    Objectivess To explore the process of refuse decomposition in hybrid bioreactor landfill. Methods The bioreactor landfill was operated in sequencing of facultative-anaerobic and aerobic conditions with leachate recireulation, pH, COD, and ammonia in the leachate and pH, biodegradable organic matter (BDM), and cation exchange capacity (CEC) in refuse were detected. Results CEC increased gradually with the degradation of refuse, which was negatively correlad, With BDM. COD and ammonia in the leachate was declined to 399.2 mg L-1 and 20.6 mg N L-1, respectively, during the 357-day operation. The respective concentrations of ammonia and COD were below the second and the third levels of current discharge standards in China. Conclusion The refuse is relatively stable at the end of hybrid bioreactor landfill operation. Most of the readily biodegradable organic matter is mineralized in the initial phase of refuse degradation, whereas the hard-biodegradable organic matter is mainly humidified in the maturity phase of refuse degradation.

  15. Partial nitritation and o-cresol removal with aerobic granular biomass in a continuous airlift reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemaat, Zulkifly; Suárez-Ojeda, María Eugenia; Pérez, Julio; Carrera, Julián

    2014-01-01

    Several chemical industries produce wastewaters containing both, ammonium and phenolic compounds. As an alternative to treat this kind of complex industrial wastewaters, this study presents the simultaneous partial nitritation and o-cresol biodegradation in a continuous airlift reactor using aerobic granular biomass. An aerobic granular sludge was developed in the airlift reactor for treating a high-strength ammonium wastewater containing 950 ± 25 mg N-NH4(+) L(-1). Then, the airlift reactor was bioaugmented with a p-nitrophenol-degrading activated sludge and o-cresol was added progressively to the ammonium feed to achieve 100 mg L(-1). The results showed that stable partial nitritation and full biodegradation of o-cresol were simultaneously maintained obtaining a suitable effluent for a subsequent anammox reactor. Moreover, two o-cresol shock-load events with concentrations of 300 and 1000 mg L(-1) were applied to assess the capabilities of the system. Despite these shock load events, the partial nitritation process was kept stable and o-cresol was totally biodegraded. Fluorescence in situ hybridization technique was used to identify the heterotrophic bacteria related to o-cresol biodegradation and the ammonia oxidising bacteria along the granules. PMID:24140352

  16. Simultaneous methanogenesis and denitrification of aniline wastewater by using anaerobic-aerobic biofilm system with recirculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wastewater containing highly concentrated nitrogenous and aromatic compounds, such as aniline, is difficult to degrade and very toxic to microorganisms, especially to nitrifier. In order to remove both carbon and nitrogen from aniline wastewater, recently two biofilm reactors equipped with anaerobic-aerobic cycle and internal recirculation have demonstrated some potential in treating the wastewater. In such system, ammonification, methanogenesis and denitrification reactions occurred simultaneously in one anaerobic reactor, followed by COD removal and nitrification in the aerobic reactor. The effect of recirculation ratio on COD and nitrogen removal using such reactor arrangement was therefore investigated in the present work. The results showed that recirculation had little impact on the overall COD removal or denitrification activity in the anaerobic reactor at any tested ratio, 96-98% of overall COD removal efficiency was achieved with a final effluent COD value below 200 mg/L. But nitrification and TN removal were strongly affected by recirculation. The nitrification rate reached a maximum of 0.48 kg N/(m3 d) at recirculation ratio of 1 and complete nitrification was achieved at the recirculation ratios over 2. TN removal efficiency increased continuously and a sharp reduction of sludge production in the system was observed with increasing recirculation.

  17. The Training Effects of Dance Aerobics: A Review with an Emphasis on the Perspectives of Investigations

    OpenAIRE

    Zaletel, Petra; Gabrilo, Goran; Perić, Mia

    2013-01-01

    The training effects of contemporary aerobics programmes (hi lo, dance aerobics, step aerobics, aqua aerobics etc.) have been frequently investigated. However, we found no recent paper which reviewed aerobic programmes with regard to their training effectiveness, characteristics of the subjects involved, variables of interest and experimental design. In this paper we summarise the findings of more than 40 studies published in the 2000–2011 period that investigated the training effects of diff...

  18. Biotic and Abiotic Degradation of CL-20 and RDX in Soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crocker, Fiona H.; Thompson, Karen T.; Szecsody, Jim E.; Fredrickson, Herbert L.

    2005-11-01

    The caged cyclic nitramine 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20) is a new explosive that has the potential to replace existing military explosives, but little is known about its environmental toxicity, transport, and fate. We quantified and compared the aerobic environmental fate of CL-20 to the widely used cyclic nitramine explosive hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in surface and subsurface soil microcosms. Soil-free controls and biologically mediated processes. Both abiotic and biological processes significantly degraded CL-20 in all soils examined. Apparent abiotic, first-order degradation rates (k) for CL-20 were not significantly different between soil-free controls (0.018 < k < 0.030 d-1) and biologically attenuated soil controls (0.003 degradation rates (0.068 < k <1.22 d-1). Extents of mineralization of 14C–CL-20 to 14CO2 in biologically active soil microcosms were 41.1 to 55.7%, indicating that the CL-20 cage was broken, since all carbons are part of the heterocyclic cage. Under aerobic conditions, abiotic degradation rates of RDX were generally slower (0 < k < 0.032 d-1) than abiotic CL-20 degradation rates. In biologically active soil microcosms amended with glucose aerobic RDX degradation rates varied between 0.010 and 0.474 d-1. Biodegradation was a key factor in determining the environmental fate of RDX, while a combination of biotic and abiotic processes was important with CL-20. Our data suggest that CL-20 should be less recalcitrant than RDX in aerobic soils.

  19. Anaerobic degradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Anders Skibsted; Haagensen, Frank; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2003-01-01

    increases during anaerobic stabilization due to transformation of easily degradable organic matter. Hence, LAS is regarded as resistant to biodegradation under anaerobic conditions. We present data from a lab-scale semi-continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) spiked with linear dodecylbenzene sulfonate (C......% of the added C-12 LAS was bioavailable and 20% was biotransformed when spiking with 100 mg/L of C-12 LAS and a TS concentration of 14.2 mg/L. Enhanced bioavailability of C-12 LAS was obtained in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor inoculated with granular sludge and sewage sludge. Biodegradation......Linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) found in wastewater is removed in the wastewater treatment facilities by sorption and aerobic biodegradation. The anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge has not been shown to contribute to the removal. The concentration of LAS based on dry matter typically...

  20. Supplementary Low-Intensity Aerobic Training Improves Aerobic Capacity and Does Not Affect Psychomotor Performance in Professional Female Ballet Dancers

    OpenAIRE

    Smol, Ewelina; Fredyk, Artur

    2012-01-01

    We investigated whether 6-week low-intensity aerobic training program used as a supplement to regular dance practice might improve both the aerobic capacity and psychomotor performance in female ballet dancers. To assess their maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and anaerobic threshold (AT), the dancers performed a standard graded bicycle ergometer exercise test until volitional exhaustion prior to and after the supplementary training. At both these occasions, the psychomotor performance (assessed...

  1. Digestion and degradation, air for life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettinga, G

    2001-01-01

    Anaerobic degradation of dead biomass is a natural gasification process, an anaerobic crematorium producing a very useful end-product composed of methane and carbon dioxide, generally polluted with small amounts of some malodorous and quite toxic volatile S-compounds. It leads to the production of essential building elements for new life. This exciting field became my faith, vision, hope and expectation. This paper intends to present a reflection of more than three decades of research, teaching and advertisement in the field of sustainable environmental protection technologies, particularly of systems based on anaerobic digestion and the biological sulphur cycle. Considerable progress has been made during these decades worldwide, both in the basic understanding of the various processes and concepts, but also in the implementation of these systems, despite the fact that particularly the implementation frequently proceeded very laboriously. The difficulties certainly can no longer be attributed to technological limitations and/or insufficient understanding of the microbiology and chemistry only, but mainly to the frustrating social rigidity and short-term self-interest in all sectors of our society. By combining anaerobic processes with other microbiological degradation or transformation processes, like those based on the biological sulphur cycle, micro-aerobic and conventional aerobic and anoxic processes, ideal conditions can be created to valorise residues (wastes) from domestic, industrial and agricultural origin. It is simply not just "technology", but also a route to achieve more sustainability and justice in society. It is a fight against conservative establishments. Decomposition, disintegration disbandment, it also stands for deliverance and liberation, space and air for continuation of life. PMID:11730132

  2. Simultaneous nitritation and p-nitrophenol removal using aerobic granular biomass in a continuous airlift reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemaat, Zulkifly; Suárez-Ojeda, María Eugenia; Pérez, Julio; Carrera, Julián

    2013-12-01

    The chemical and petrochemical industries produce wastewaters containing ammonium and phenolic compounds. Biological treatment of these wastewaters could be problematic due to the possible inhibitory effects exerted by phenolic compounds. The feasibility of performing simultaneous nitritation and p-nitrophenol (PNP) biodegradation using a continuous aerobic granular reactor was evaluated. A nitrifying granular sludge was bioaugmented with a PNP-degrading floccular sludge, while PNP was progressively added to the feed containing a high ammonium concentration. Nitritation was sustained throughout the operational period with ca. 85% of ammonium oxidation and less than 0.3% of nitrate in the effluent. PNP biodegradation was unstable and the oxygen limiting condition was found to be the main explanation for this unsteadiness. An increase in dissolved oxygen concentration from 2.0 to 4.5 mg O2 L(-1) significantly enhanced PNP removal, achieving total elimination. Acinetobacter genus and ammonia-oxidising bacteria were the predominant bacteria species in the granular biomass. PMID:24177164

  3. Aerobic digestion of tannery wastewater in a sequential batch reactor by salt-tolerant bacterial strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durai, G.; Rajasimman, M.; Rajamohan, N.

    2011-09-01

    Among the industries generating hyper saline effluents, tanneries are prominent in India. Hyper saline wastewater is difficult to treat by conventional biological treatment methods. Salt-tolerant microbes can adapt to these conditions and degrade the organics in hyper saline wastewater. In this study, the performance of a bench scale aerobic sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was investigated to treat the tannery wastewater by the salt-tolerant bacterial strains namely Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus flexus, Exiguobacterium homiense and Styphylococcus aureus. The study was carried out under different operating conditions by changing the hydraulic retention time, organic loading rate and initial substrate concentration. From the results it was found that a maximum COD reduction of 90.4% and colour removal of 78.6% was attained. From this study it was found that the salt-tolerant microorganisms could improve the reduction efficiency of COD and colour of the tannery wastewater.

  4. Primary biodegradation of veterinary antibiotics in aerobic and anaerobic surface water simulation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Flemming; Toräng, Lars; Loke, M.-L.;

    2001-01-01

    The primary aerobic and anaerobic biodegradability at intermediate concentrations (50-5000 mug/l) of the antibiotics olaquindox (OLA), metronidazole (MET), tylosin (TYL) and oxytetracycline (OTC) was studied in a simple shake flask system simulating the conditions in surface waters. The purpose of...... substances. The biodegradation behaviour was influenced by neither the concentrations of antibiotics nor the time of the year and location for sampling of surface water. Addition of 1 g/l of sediment or 3 mg/l of activated sludge from wastewater treatment increased the biodegradation potential which is...... the study was to provide rate data for primary biodegradation in the scenario where antibiotics pollute surface waters as a result of run-off from arable land. The source of antibiotics may be application of manure as fertilizer or excreta of grazing animals. Assuming first-order degradation kinetics...

  5. Development of an Intermediate-Scale Aerobic Bioreactor to Regenerate Nutrients from Inedible Crop Residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, Barry W.; Strayer, Richard F.

    1994-01-01

    Three Intermediate-Scale Aerobic Bioreactors were designed, fabricated, and operated. They utilized mixed microbial communities to bio-degrade plant residues. The continuously stirred tank reactors operated at a working volume of 8 L, and the average oxygen mass transfer coefficient, k(sub L)a, was 0.01 s(exp -1). Mixing time was 35 s. An experiment using inedible wheat residues, a replenishment rate of 0.125/day, and a solids loading rate of 20 gdw/day yielded a 48% reduction in biomass. Bioreactor effluent was successfully used to regenerate a wheat hydroponic nutrient solution. Over 80% of available potassium, calcium, and other minerals were recovered and recycled in the 76-day wheat growth experiment.

  6. Removal of trace nonylphenol from water in the coexistence of suspended inorganic particles and NOMs by using a cellulose-based flocculant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhen; Ren, Kexin; Guibal, Eric; Jia, Shuying; Shen, Jiachun; Zhang, Xuntong; Yang, Weiben

    2016-10-01

    A flocculation method was used for the removal of trace nonylphenol (NP) from synthetic surface water containing natural organic matters (humic acid, HA) and suspended inorganic particles (kaolin). A polymeric flocculant (CMCND), with enhanced cationic property and unique switchable hydrophobic/hydrophilic characteristic, was specially designed for this application. CMCND showed a high efficiency for trace NP removal, turbidity and UV254 abatements: under optimized conditions (pH: 4; T: 35 °C; dosage: 40 mg/L), the removal of NP reached up to 79%. By using dosage-pH flocculation diagrams and correlation analyses as tools, kaolin and HA were found to exert synergistic effects on NP removal, with the aid of CMCND; the synergistic effect of HA is higher due to π-π stacking. Zeta potential-dosage profiles clearly demonstrated charge neutralization predominated at pH 4, due to the strong cationic groups in the flocculant. Floc size monitoring displayed that the delayed phase transformation process (from hydrophilicity to hydrophobicity) of CMCND at 35 °C enhanced NP removal. In addition, spectral analyses clarified the interactions among CMCND, NP, kaolin and HA: charge attraction and hydrophobic interaction between CMCND and NP played the key roles. The findings are of significance for removing endocrine-disrupting chemicals in environmental remediation. PMID:27459160

  7. Fast analysis of 4-tertoctylphenol, pentachlorophenol and 4-nonylphenol in river sediments by QuEChERS extraction procedure combined with GC-QqQ-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czech, T; Bonilla, N Barco; Gambus, F; González, R Romero; Marín-Sáez, J; Vidal, J L Martínez; Frenich, A Garrido

    2016-07-01

    A quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe (QuEChERS)-based extraction method has been optimized for the determination of pentachlorophenol, 4-tertoctylphenol and 4-nonylphenol in river sediments. The extraction method was followed by gas chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (GC-QqQ-MS/MS) analysis, which ensures the reliable identification of the target compounds. The proposed method has been validated allowing the successful determination of the selected compounds, with recoveries ranging from 72 to 96%, when three concentration levels were evaluated (10, 50 and 100μgkg(-1)) and inter-day and intra-day precision, expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD), were lower than 20%. The method showed limits of detection (LODs) and limits of quantification (LOQs) ranging from 0.1 to 2.0μgkg(-1) and from 0.5 to 5.0μgkg(-1), respectively. Finally, 25 real samples from Poland have been analyzed, and only 4-tertoctylphenol was detected at concentrations up to 8.9μgkg(-1) of soil dry weight. PMID:27039060

  8. Bioconcentration and depuration of (14) C-labeled 17α-ethinyl estradiol and 4-nonylphenol in individual organs of the marine bivalve Mytilus edulis L. .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardi, Karen L; Poynton, Helen C; Duphily, Brian J; Blalock, Bonnie J; Robinson, William E

    2016-04-01

    Endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs), including 17α-ethinyl estradiol (EE2) and 4-nonylphenol (4-NP), enter coastal environments primarily in effluents of wastewater treatment facilities and have become ubiquitous in marine surface waters, sediments, and biota. Although EE2 and 4-NP have been detected in marine shellfish, the kinetics of bioconcentration and their tissue distribution have not been thoroughly investigated. The authors performed bioconcentration and depuration experiments in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, with 3.37 nM EE2 (0.999 μg/L) and 454 nM 4-NP (100.138 µg/L). Mussels and seawater were sampled throughout a 38-d exposure and a 35-d depuration period, and 6 tissues were individually assayed. Uptake of EE2 and 4-NP was curvilinear throughout exposure and followed a similar uptake pattern: digestive gland > gill ≥ remaining viscera > gonad > adductor > plasma. Depuration varied, however, with half-lives ranging from 2.7 d (plasma) to 92 d (gill) for EE2 and 15 d (plasma) to 57 d (gill) for 4-NP. An innovative modeling approach, with 3 coupled mathematical models, was developed to differentiate the unique roles of the gill and plasma in distributing the EDCs to internal tissues. Plasma appears pivotal in regulating EDC uptake and depuration within the whole mussel. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:863-873. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:26126666

  9. Evidence of reproductive disruption associated with neuroendocrine changes induced by UV–B filters, phtalates and nonylphenol during sexual maturation in rats of both gender

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endocrine disruptors (EDs) are exogenous substances or xenoestrogens natural or synthetic, capable of interacting with different systems and altering their normal hormonal regulation, being the reproductive system one of the most affected. EDs produce their effects not only by acting on nuclear steroid receptors, but also on membrane receptors, steroidal and non-steroidal synthetic enzymatic pathways and/or metabolism. The incorporation to the body depend on each EDs, which are liposoluble and easily deposited in the tissue; thus ensuring a prolonged accumulation and release, even when the exposure is not continuous. In addition to cross the placenta, EDs may act in the offspring during the reproductive system formation and maturation key stages and its regulatory mechanisms. The effects of EDs can be multiple, but most acts mediating estrogenic and/or antiandrogenic effect. Three groups of EDs are widely used: in plastics (phtalates), sunscreens (cinnamate and methylbenzylcamphor), and detergents (nonylphenol). In this paper we review the effects of the exposure to these environmental chemicals on the reproductive system and the possible mechanisms by which they occur, focusing in the hypothalamic–pituitary neuroendocrine mechanisms that regulate the reproductive system

  10. Tolerance to organic loading rate by aerobic granular sludge in a cyclic aerobic granular reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Bei; Yang, Chang-zhu; Pu, Wen-hong; Yang, Jia-kuan; Liu, Fu-biao; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Jing; Cheng, Kai

    2015-04-01

    Sodium acetate as carbon source, tolerance to organic loading rate (OLR) by aerobic granular sludge in a cyclic aerobic granular reactor (CAGR) was investigated by gradually increasing the influent COD. AGS could maintain stability in the continuous flow reactor under OLR⩽15kg/m(3)d in the former 65 days, and SVI, granulation rate, average particle size and water content was 21 ml/g, 98%, 1.8mm and 97.2% on the 65th day. However, AGS gradually disintegrated after the 66 th day when OLR increased to 18 kg/m(3)d, and granules' properties deteriorated rapidly in a short time. High removal rates to pollutants were achieved by CAGR in the former 65 days, but the removal rates of pollutants dropped sharply from the 66 th day. With the increase of OLR and particle size, anaerobic cores inside the granules were formed by massive dead cells, while instability of anaerobic core eventually led to the collapse of the system. PMID:25710570

  11. Theagalloflavic Acid, a New Pigment Derived from Hexahydroxydiphenoyl Group, and Lignan Oxidation Products Produced by Aerobic Microbial Fermentation of Green Tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Yosuke; Matsuda, Tomoko; Sugihara, Keisuke; Saito, Yoshinori; Zhang, Ying-Jun; Yang, Chong-Ren; Tanaka, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Chinese ripe pu-erh tea is produced by aerobic microbial fermentation of green tea. To clarify the microbial degradation of tea polyphenols, Japanese commercial green tea was mixed with Chinese ripe pu-erh tea, which retains microorganisms, and fermented for 5 d. Chromatographic separation yielded a novel water-soluble yellow pigment termed theagalloflavic acid. Spectroscopic and chemical evidence suggested that this pigment was produced by oxidative ring cleavage of hexahydroxydiphenoyl esters. In addition, two new oxygenated lignin metabolites, (+)-5,5'-dihydroxypinoresinol and 5-hydroxydihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol, were also isolated together with known degradation products of quercetin and tea catechins. PMID:27373646

  12. Targeted polypeptide degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, George M.; Janse, Daniel M.

    2008-05-13

    This invention pertains to compositions, methods, cells and organisms useful for selectively localizing polypeptides to the proteasome for degradation. Therapeutic methods and pharmaceutical compositions for treating disorders associated with the expression and/or activity of a polypeptide by targeting these polypeptides for degradation, as well as methods for targeting therapeutic polypeptides for degradation and/or activating therapeutic polypeptides by degradation are provided. The invention provides methods for identifying compounds that mediate proteasome localization and/or polypeptide degradation. The invention also provides research tools for the study of protein function.

  13. DNA degradation and Apoptosis : DNA degradation

    OpenAIRE

    Torriglia, Alicia; Padron, Laura

    2005-01-01

    Apoptosis, is a form of programmed cell death essential for the development and maintenance of multicellular organisms. DNA degradation is one of the hallmarks of apoptosis. The central component of the apoptotic machinery is a proteolytic system involving caspases and non-caspases proteases. CAD, a caspase-activated DNase, is the endonuclease responsible for DNA degradation during caspase-dependent apoptosis. The relationship between non-caspase proteases and endonucleases is less clear and ...

  14. Effect of whey protein coating on quality attributes of low-fat, aerobically packaged sausage during refrigerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shon, J; Chin, K B

    2008-08-01

    Whey protein-based edible coating was used to reduce oxidative degradation and microbial growth of low-fat sausages (LFSs) stored at 4 degrees C for 8 wk, under aerobic package. Whey protein coating reduced (P<0.05) thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and peroxide value (PV) formation compared to control sausages. The percent inhibition of TBARS and PV for whey protein-coated sausages, compared to the control, was 31.3% and 27.1%, respectively. The ability of the whey protein coating to provide a moisture barrier for the sausages was reduced (P<0.05). In addition, a reduction of moisture loss by 36.7% compared to the control was achieved by whey coating. However, whey protein coating of LFSs did not inhibit the growth of either the total number of aerobic bacteria or of Listeria monocytogenes. These results indicated that whey protein coating had an antioxidative activity in LFSs under aerobic package during refrigerated storage. PMID:19241536

  15. Process engineering in biological aerobic waste-water treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavrilescu, M.; Macoveanu, M. [Technical Univ. Gh. Asachi, Iasi (Romania). Dept. of Environmental Engineering

    1999-11-01

    A non-comprehensive review of several technical developments in the field of aerobic biological waste-water treatment engineering is carried out, considering the active role the engineers have to play in this field. This paper brings together conventional and advanced problems in the field of aerobic biological waste-water treatment. Such an overview of biological waste-water treatment also precedes comments on some important aspects concerning the microorganisms responsible for waste-water treatment as well as consideration of the application of fundamentals and kinetics to the analysis of the biological processes used most commonly for aerobic biological waste-water treatment. A survey of the development of the biological activated-sludge process and some modifications are given. Some problems implied in the conventional activated-sludge waste-water treatment are analyzed, considering conventional processes and bioreactor models (the continuous stirred-tank reactor model and the plug-flow reactor models of the activated-sludge process) as well as aerated lagoons. Further, modifications of the activated-sludge process are presented. These include additional details on the bioreactor progress and applications, with emphasis on aspects concerning airlift bioreactors and their variants, deep-shaft bioreactors and reciprocating jet bioreactors which are considered as the third generation of bioreactors owing to their important advantages in design, operation and performance in waste-water treatment. Sequencing-batch reactors and aerobic digestion processes, including conventional aerobic digestion, high-purity oxygen digestion, thermophilic aerobic digestion and cryophylic aerobic digestion are also reviewed. Finally, some aspects regarding the operational factors that are involved in the selection of the reactor type are included. (orig.)

  16. Field tests for evaluating the aerobic work capacity of firefighters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Sofie Lindberg

    Full Text Available Working as a firefighter is physically strenuous, and a high level of physical fitness increases a firefighter's ability to cope with the physical stress of their profession. Direct measurements of aerobic capacity, however, are often complicated, time consuming, and expensive. The first aim of the present study was to evaluate the correlations between direct (laboratory and indirect (field aerobic capacity tests with common and physically demanding firefighting tasks. The second aim was to give recommendations as to which field tests may be the most useful for evaluating firefighters' aerobic work capacity. A total of 38 subjects (26 men and 12 women were included. Two aerobic capacity tests, six field tests, and seven firefighting tasks were performed. Lactate threshold and onset of blood lactate accumulation were found to be correlated to the performance of one work task (r(s = -0.65 and -0.63, p<0.01, respectively. Absolute (mL · min(-1 and relative (mL · kg(-1 · min(-1 maximal aerobic capacity was correlated to all but one of the work tasks (r(s = -0.79 to 0.55 and -0.74 to 0.47, p<0.01, respectively. Aerobic capacity is important for firefighters' work performance, and we have concluded that the time to row 500 m, the time to run 3000 m relative to body weight (s · kg(-1, and the percent of maximal heart rate achieved during treadmill walking are the most valid field tests for evaluating a firefighter's aerobic work capacity.

  17. The aerobic activity of metronidazole against anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dione, Niokhor; Khelaifia, Saber; Lagier, Jean-Christophe; Raoult, Didier

    2015-05-01

    Recently, the aerobic growth of strictly anaerobic bacteria was demonstrated using antioxidants. Metronidazole is frequently used to treat infections caused by anaerobic bacteria; however, to date its antibacterial activity was only tested in anaerobic conditions. Here we aerobically tested using antioxidants the in vitro activities of metronidazole, gentamicin, doxycycline and imipenem against 10 common anaerobic and aerobic bacteria. In vitro susceptibility testing was performed by the disk diffusion method, and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by Etest. Aerobic culture of the bacteria was performed at 37°C using Schaedler agar medium supplemented with 1mg/mL ascorbic acid and 0.1mg/mL glutathione; the pH was adjusted to 7.2 by 10M KOH. Growth of anaerobic bacteria cultured aerobically using antioxidants was inhibited by metronidazole after 72h of incubation at 37°C, with a mean inhibition diameter of 37.76mm and an MIC of 1μg/mL; however, strains remained non-sensitive to gentamicin. No growth inhibition of aerobic bacteria was observed after 24h of incubation at 37°C with metronidazole; however, inhibition was observed with doxycycline and imipenem used as controls. These results indicate that bacterial sensitivity to metronidazole is not related to the oxygen tension but is a result of the sensitivity of the micro-organism. In future, both culture and antibiotic susceptibility testing of strictly anaerobic bacteria will be performed in an aerobic atmosphere using antioxidants in clinical microbiology laboratories. PMID:25813393

  18. Degradation of Parathion by Microorganisms from Cranberry Bogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Oxygen concentration and different carbon sources drastically altered parathion degradation in culture media inoculated with microorganisms from Wisconsin cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) growing soils. These microorganisms also grew in basal salts media utilizing parathion as a sole carbon source. 14CO2 was produced only from phenyl-labelled parathion while 14C-(ethyl)-parathion derived radiocarbon remained in the stale media of the soil-free cultures. Addition of 0.05% glucose to basal salts medium inhibited 14C-(phenyl)-parathion degradation while the addition of 0.05% yeast extract to basal salts medium also inhibited microbiological degradation of the insecticide to 14CO2, but to a lesser extent. Aminoparathion and aminoparaoxon were formed only in basal salts medium with 0.05% yeast extract. Aerobic cultures produced more 14CO2 from 14C-(phenyl)-parathion and less aminoparathion than anaerobic cultures. Aminoparathion was more abundant in cultures with inocula obtained from the 18- to 23-cm layer than with culture inocula obtained from the 0- to 5-cm soil layer under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. (author)

  19. Chlordecone fate and mineralisation in a tropical soil (andosol) microcosm under aerobic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernández-Bayo, Jesus D., E-mail: fernanje@supagro.inra.fr [IRD, UMR LISAH Bât 24, 2 Place Viala, 34060 Montpellier cedex 1 (France); INRA, UMR LISAH Bât 24, 2 Place Viala, 34060 Montpellier cedex 1 (France); Saison, Carine [IRD, UMR LISAH Bât 24, 2 Place Viala, 34060 Montpellier cedex 1 (France); Voltz, Marc [INRA, UMR LISAH Bât 24, 2 Place Viala, 34060 Montpellier cedex 1 (France); Disko, Ulrich; Hofmann, Diana; Berns, Anne E. [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, IBG 3, 52425 Jülich (Germany)

    2013-10-01

    Chlordecone is a persistent organochlorine insecticide that, even decades after its ban, poses a threat to the environment and human health. Nevertheless, its environmental fate in soils has scarcely been investigated, and elementary data on its degradation and behaviour in soil are lacking. The mineralisation and sorption of chlordecone and the formation of possible metabolites were evaluated in a tropical agricultural andosol. Soil microcosms with two different soil horizons (S-A and S-B) were incubated for 215 days with {sup 14}C-chlordecone. At five different times (1, 33, 88, 150 and 215 days) the extractability of {sup 14}C-chlordecone was analysed. Mineralisation was monitored using {sup 14}CO{sub 2} traps of NaOH. The appearance of metabolites was studied using thin layer and gas chromatography techniques. At the end of the experiment, the water soluble {sup 14}C-activity was 2% of the remaining {sup 14}C-chlordecone for S-A and 8% for S-B. Only 12% of the remaining activity was non extractable and more than 80% remained extractable with organic solvents. For the first time to our knowledge, a significant mineralisation of chlordecone was measured in a microcosm under aerobic conditions (4.9% for S-A and 3.2% for S-B of the initial {sup 14}C-activity). The drastically lower emission of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} in sterilised microcosms indicated the biological origin of chlordecone mineralisation in the non-sterilised microcosms. No metabolites could be detected in the soil extracts. The mineralisation rate of chlordecone decreased by one order of magnitude throughout the incubation period. Thus, the chlordecone content in the soil remained large. This study confirms the existence of chlordecone degrading organisms in a tropical andosol. The reasons why their activity is restricted should be elucidated to allow the development of bioremediation approaches. Possible reasons are a heterogeneous distribution a chlordecone between sub-compartments with different

  20. Chlordecone fate and mineralisation in a tropical soil (andosol) microcosm under aerobic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chlordecone is a persistent organochlorine insecticide that, even decades after its ban, poses a threat to the environment and human health. Nevertheless, its environmental fate in soils has scarcely been investigated, and elementary data on its degradation and behaviour in soil are lacking. The mineralisation and sorption of chlordecone and the formation of possible metabolites were evaluated in a tropical agricultural andosol. Soil microcosms with two different soil horizons (S-A and S-B) were incubated for 215 days with 14C-chlordecone. At five different times (1, 33, 88, 150 and 215 days) the extractability of 14C-chlordecone was analysed. Mineralisation was monitored using 14CO2 traps of NaOH. The appearance of metabolites was studied using thin layer and gas chromatography techniques. At the end of the experiment, the water soluble 14C-activity was 2% of the remaining 14C-chlordecone for S-A and 8% for S-B. Only 12% of the remaining activity was non extractable and more than 80% remained extractable with organic solvents. For the first time to our knowledge, a significant mineralisation of chlordecone was measured in a microcosm under aerobic conditions (4.9% for S-A and 3.2% for S-B of the initial 14C-activity). The drastically lower emission of 14CO2 in sterilised microcosms indicated the biological origin of chlordecone mineralisation in the non-sterilised microcosms. No metabolites could be detected in the soil extracts. The mineralisation rate of chlordecone decreased by one order of magnitude throughout the incubation period. Thus, the chlordecone content in the soil remained large. This study confirms the existence of chlordecone degrading organisms in a tropical andosol. The reasons why their activity is restricted should be elucidated to allow the development of bioremediation approaches. Possible reasons are a heterogeneous distribution a chlordecone between sub-compartments with different microbial activities or a degradation of chlordecone by co

  1. Bioremediation of 2-chlorophenol containing wastewater by aerobic granules-kinetics and toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Mohammad Zain [Environmental Research Laboratory, Department of chemistry, Aligarh Muslim University, Faculty of Science, Aligarh 202002, UP (India); Mondal, Pijush Kanti, E-mail: pijushamu@gmail.com [Environmental Research laboratory, Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002, UP (India); Sabir, Suhail, E-mail: sabirsuhail09@gmail.com [Environmental Research Laboratory, Department of chemistry, Aligarh Muslim University, Faculty of Science, Aligarh 202002, UP (India)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: {yields} 2-Chlorophenol degrading aerobic granules were cultivated in sequencing batch reactor in presence of glucose and the organic loading rate (OLR) was increased from 6.9 to 9.7 kg COD m{sup -3} d{sup -1} during the experiment. {yields} Spectral studies confirmed that the biodegradation occurs via chlorocatechol pathway and modified ortho-cleavage. {yields} Biodegradation kinetics of 2-CP followed the Haldane model with kinetic parameters (R{sup 2} > 0.9) V{sub max} = 840 mg2-CP gMLVSS{sup -1} d{sup -1}, K{sub s} = 24.61 mg L{sup -1}, K{sub i} = 315.02 mg L{sup -1}. {yields} Genotoxic examination by plasmid nicking assay confirmed that the effluent was non-toxic. - Abstract: 2-Chlorophenol (2-CP) degrading aerobic granules were cultivated in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) in presence of glucose. The organic loading rate (OLR) was increased from 6.9 to 9.7 kg COD m{sup -3} d{sup -1} (1150-1617 mg L{sup -1}COD per cycle) during the experiment. The alkalinity (1000 mg L{sup -1} as CaCO{sub 3}) was maintained throughout the experiment. The specific cell growth rate was found to be 0.013 d{sup -1}. A COD removal efficiency of 94% was achieved after steady state at 8 h HRT (hydraulic retention time). FTIR, UV, GC, GC/MS studies confirmed that the biodegradation of 2-CP occurs via chlorocatechol (modified ortho-cleavage) pathway. Biodegradation kinetics followed the Haldane model with kinetic parameters: V{sub max} = 840 mg2-CP gMLVSS{sup -1} d{sup -1}, K{sub s} = 24.61 mg L{sup -1}, K{sub i} = 315.02 mg L{sup -1}. Abiotic losses of 2-CP due to volatilization and photo degradation by sunlight were less than 3% and the results of genotoxicity showed that the degradation products are eco-friendly.

  2. Performance and dye-degrading bacteria isolation of a hybrid membrane process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Textile dyeing wastewater contains harmful compounds, which are toxic to both marine organisms and human beings if it discharged into an aquatic environmental without suitable treatment. In this study, the wastewater containing the azo dye, Reactive Black 5 (RB5), was partially treated in an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor which was further treated either in an aerobic membrane bioreactors (AOMBR) or in combined aerobic membrane bioreactor/reverse osmosis (AOMBR/RO) process. The results showed that in the anaerobic sequencing batch reactor the RB5 dye was degraded to form aromatic amine intermediate metabolites, which were further mineralized in the AOMBR. It was also observed that although all effluents from the AOMBR and AOMBR/RO processes met the Taiwan EPA's effluent criteria, irrespective of which membranes were used in the aerobic tank, the effluent from the AOMBR/RO process met the criteria for reuse for toilet flushing, landscaping, irrigation, and cooling water purposes, where as the AOMBR effluent only met the criteria for cooling water due to incomplete color removal. Five anaerobic high dye-degrading bacteria were isolated, which were identified to be the same species of Lactococcus lactis by 16S rRNA sequencing. The L. lactis showed complete degradation of RB5 and further studies showed that it can also able to degrade Reactive Red 120 and Reactive Yellow 84 efficiently within 6 h.

  3. Maternal and fetal responses to low-impact aerobic dance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurray, R G; Katz, V L; Poe, M P; Hackney, A C

    1995-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the physiologic responses to low-impact aerobics using treadmill walking as a control. Ten pregnant women between 21 and 28 weeks of gestation completed 40 minutes of low-impact aerobic dance. The maternal and fetal responses were then compared to 40 minutes of walking at the same heart rate. The aerobics program consisted of a 10-minute warm-up, 20 minutes of high-intensity exercise, and 10 minutes of decreasing intensity. Heart rates were recorded every 5 minutes, and oxygen uptake (VO2) and fetal response (real-time ultrasound) were obtained every 10 minutes. The maternal heart rates were similar during both trials (overall, 133 +/- 6 beat/min). VO2 values during walking were about 4 mL/kg/min greater than during aerobic dance (p dance caused greater fetal heart rates than walking (p rates had returned toward rest within 5 minutes following exercise. Low-impact aerobic dance, compared with walking at similar heart rates, results in a lower maternal metabolic rate and increases the transient stress on the fetus. PMID:7575837

  4. Mood alterations in mindful versus aerobic exercise modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netz, Yael; Lidor, Ronnie

    2003-09-01

    The results of most recent studies have generally indicated an improvement in mood after participation in aerobic exercise. However, only a few researchers have compared mindful modes of exercise with aerobic exercise to examine the effect of 1 single session of exercise on mood. In the present study, the authors assessed state anxiety, depressive mood, and subjective well-being prior to and following 1 class of 1 of 4 exercise modes: yoga, Feldenkrais (awareness through movement), aerobic dance, and swimming; a computer class served as a control. Participants were 147 female general curriculum and physical education teachers (mean age = 40.15, SD = 0.2) voluntarily enrolled in a 1-year enrichment program at a physical education college. Analyses of variance for repeated measures revealed mood improvement following Feldenkrais, swimming, and yoga but not following aerobic dance and computer lessons. Mindful low-exertion activities as well as aerobic activities enhanced mood in 1 single session of exercise. The authors suggest that more studies assessing the mood-enhancing benefits of mindful activities such as Feldenkrais and yoga are needed. PMID:14629072

  5. Aerobic fitness and its relationship with growth and maturation processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilson Serpeloni Cyrino

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aimf of this paper is to provide information concerning aerobic fitness and then relate the behavior of aerobic strength with growth and maturation processes, since the aerobic metabolism during the practice of physical exercises has been the target of research along the last decades, both under the perspective of health promotion and the improvement of the athletic performance. In that sense, information about aerobic fitness has provided the evaluation of the cardiorespiratory system functioning, the training efficacy control, the determining of the effort relative load, besides determining the individual’s energy expenditure in different age groups, both male and female, and with differential levels of physical fitness. The main indexes used in this purpose have been the maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max or the peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak. However, several factors may influence such indexes, being either determinant or retraint of the motor performance, mostly in predominantly aerobic activities. Among such factors the emphasis is on growth and maturation processes, which can explain many of the differences found in the behavior of different individuals submitted to similar physical efforts, providing thus a more consistent analysis of the differences in the motor performance, particularly of young male and female.

  6. Denitrification characteristics of a marine origin psychrophilic aerobic denitrifying bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Haiyan; Liu, Ying; Sun, Guangdong; Gao, Xiyan; Zhang, Qingling; Liu, Zhipei

    2011-01-01

    A psychrophilic aerobic denitrifying bacterium, strain S1-1, was isolated from a biological aerated filter conducted for treatment of recirculating water in a marine aquaculture system. Strain S1-1 was preliminarily identified as Psychrobacter sp. based on the analysis of its 16S rRNA gene sequence, which showed 100% sequence similarity to that of Psychrobacter sp. TSBY-70. Strain S1-1 grew well either in high nitrate or high nitrite conditions with a removal of 100% nitrate or 63.50% nitrite, and the total nitrogen removal rates could reach to 46.48% and 31.89%, respectively. The results indicated that nitrate was mainly reduced in its logarithmic growth phase with a very low level accumulation of nitrite, suggesting that the aerobic denitrification process of strain S1-1 occurred mainly in this phase. The GC-MS results showed that N2O was formed as the major intermediate during the aerobic denitrifying process of strain S1-1. Finally, factors affecting the growth of strain S1-1 and its aerobic denitrifying ability were also investigated. Results showed that the optimum aerobic denitrification conditions for strain S1-1 were sodium succinate as carbon source, C/N ratio15, salinity 10 g/L NaCl, incubation temperature 20 degrees C and initial pH 6.5. PMID:22432315

  7. Impact of brisk walking and aerobics in overweight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melam, Ganeswara Rao; Alhusaini, Adel A; Buragadda, Syamala; Kaur, Taranpreet; Khan, Imran Ali

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Lack of physical activity and an uncontrolled diet cause excessive weight gain, which leads to obesity and other metabolic disorders. Studies have indicated that brisk walking and aerobics are the best methods for controlling and reducing weight and body mass composition. [Subjects and Methods] In this study, 45 overweight women were enrolled and divided into 3 groups. Women not involved in brisk walking or aerobics were included in group A (n = 15) as control subjects; women involved in brisk walking were in group B (n = 15); and those involved in aerobics were in group C (n = 15). [Results] This program was carried out 5 days/week for 10 weeks. Pre- and post-measurements of body mass index, waist and hip circumference, and skinfold thickness of the abdomen, subscapular area, biceps, and triceps were recorded for the women in all 3 groups. All values decreased in women who participated in brisk walking and aerobics for 10 weeks. [Conclusion] These results indicate that aerobics with diet therapy is a more effective intervention program for controlling and reducing body mass index and skinfold thickness than brisk walking with diet therapy in North Indian women. PMID:26957777

  8. Denitrification characteristics of a marine origin psychrophilic aerobic denitrifying bacterium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haiyan Zheng; Ying Liu; Guangdong Sun; Xiyan Gao; Qingling Zhang; Zhipei Liu

    2011-01-01

    A psychrophilic aerobic denitrifying bacterium,strain S1-1,was isolated from a biological aerated filter conducted for treatment of recirculating water in a marine aquaculture system.Strain S1-1 was preliminarily identified as Psychrobacter sp.based on the analysis of its 16S rRNA gene sequence,which showed 100% sequence similarity to that of Psychrobacter sp.TSBY-70.Strain S 1-1 grew well either in high nitrate or high nitrite conditions with a removal of 100% nitrate or 63.50% nitrite,and the total nitrogen removal rates could reach to 46.48% and 31.89%,respectively.The results indicated that nitrate was mainly reduced in its logarithmic growth phase with a very low leve 1 accumulation of nitrite,suggesting that the aerobic denitrification process of strain S l-1 occurred mainly in this phase.The GC-MS results showed that N2O was formed as the major intermediate during the aerobic denitrifying process of strain S1-1.Finally,factors affecting the growth of strain Sl-1 and its aerobic denitrifying ability were also investigated.Results showed that the optimum aerobic denitrification conditions for strain S1-1 were sodium succinate as carbon source,C/N ratio15,salinity 10 g/L NaCl,incubation temperature 20℃ and initial pH 6.5.

  9. Degradation of organic contaminants found in organic waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini; Mogensen, Anders Skibsted; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2000-01-01

    In recent years, great interest has arisen in recycling of the waste created by modern society. A common way of recycling the organic fraction is amendment on farmland. However, these wastes may contain possible hazardous components in small amounts, which may prevent their use in farming. The...... objective of our study has been to develop biological methods by which selected organic xenobiotic compounds can be biotransformed by anaerobic or aerobic treatment. Screening tests assessed the capability of various inocula to degrade two phthalates di-n-butylphthalate, and di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, five...

  10. Organic chemical degradation by remote study of the redox conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, P. M.; Revil, A.; Binley, A. M.; Bloem, E.; French, H. K.

    2014-12-01

    Monitoring the natural (and enhanced) degradation of organic contaminants is essential for managing groundwater quality in many parts of the world. Contaminated sites often have limited access, hence non-intrusive methods for studying redox processes, which drive the degradation of organic compounds, are required. One example is the degradation of de-icing chemicals (glycols and organic salts) released to the soil near airport runways during winter. This issue has been broadly studied at Oslo airport, Gardermoen, Norway using intrusive and non-intrusive methods. Here, we report on laboratory experiments that aim to study the potential of using a self-potential, DCresistivity, and time-domain induced polarization for geochemical characterization of the degradation of Propylene Glycol (PG). PG is completely miscible in water, does not adsorb to soil particles and does not contribute to the electrical conductivity of the soil water. When the contaminant is in the unsaturated zone near the water table, the oxygen is quickly consumed and the gas exchange with the surface is insufficient to ensure aerobic degradation, which is faster than anaerobic degradation. Since biodegradation of PG is highly oxygen demanding, anaerobic pockets can exist causing iron and manganese reduction. It is hypothesised that nitrate would boost the degradation rate under such conditions. In our experiment, we study PG degradation in a sand tank. We provide the system with an electron highway to bridge zones with different redox potential. This geo-battery system is characterized by self-potential, resistivity and induced polarization anomalies. An example of preliminary results with self-potential at two different times of the experiment can be seen in the illustration. These will be supplemented with more direct information on the redox chemistry: in-situ water sampling, pH, redox potential and electrical conductivity measurements. In parallel, a series of batch experiments have been

  11. Determination of bisphenol A, 4-octylphenol, and 4-nonylphenol in soft drinks and dairy products by ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with derivatization and high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Tao; Zhao, Xian-En; Zhu, Shuyun; Qu, Fei; Song, Cuihua; You, Jinmao; Suo, Yourui

    2014-10-01

    A novel hyphenated method based on ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled to precolumn derivatization has been established for the simultaneous determination of bisphenol A, 4-octylphenol, and 4-nonylphenol by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Different parameters that influence microextraction and derivatization have been optimized. The quantitative linear range of analytes is 5.0-400.0 ng/L, and the correlation coefficients are more than 0.9998. Limits of detection for soft drinks and dairy products have been obtained in the range of 0.5-1.2 ng/kg and 0.01-0.04 μg/kg, respectively. Relative standard deviations of intra- and inter-day precision for retention time and peak area are in the range of 0.47-2.31 and 2.76-8.79%, respectively. Accuracy is satisfactory in the range of 81.5-118.7%. Relative standard deviations of repeatability are in the range of 0.35-1.43 and 2.36-4.75% for retention time and peak area, respectively. Enrichment factors for bisphenol A, 4-octylphenol, and 4-nonylphenol are 170.5, 240.3, and 283.2, respectively. The results of recovery and matrix effect are in the range of 82.7-114.9 and 92.0-109.0%, respectively. The proposed method has been applied to the determination of bisphenol A, 4-octylphenol, and 4-nonylphenol in soft drinks and dairy products with much higher sensitivity than many other methods. PMID:25045130

  12. Valve actuator motor degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valve actuator motor degradation and failure has been a significant, but little studied, problem in the nuclear industry. This study provides a discussion of the primary failure mode --thermal degradation-- and reviews the basis for the solution to thermal degradation -- thermal protection. The study also provides reviews of various industry data bases, discusses effects of other failure modes such as corrosion, and provides a review of other considerations the user should entertain when assessing thermal protection

  13. INTERMITTENT DEGRADATION AND SCHIZOTYPY

    OpenAIRE

    Roché, Matthew W.; Silverstein, Steven M.; Lenzenweger, Mark F.

    2015-01-01

    Intermittent degradation refers to transient detrimental disruptions in task performance. This phenomenon has been repeatedly observed in the performance data of patients with schizophrenia. Whether intermittent degradation is a feature of the liability for schizophrenia (i.e., schizotypy) is an open question. Further, the specificity of intermittent degradation to schizotypy has yet to be investigated. To address these questions, 92 undergraduate participants completed a battery of self-repo...

  14. Impact of 6-month aerobic exercise on Alzheimer's symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fang; Thomas, William; Nelson, Nathaniel W; Bronas, Ulf G; Dysken, Maurice; Wyman, Jean F

    2015-06-01

    Little is known about how aerobic exercise affects Alzheimer's disease (AD). The purpose of this pilot study was to test the impact of 6-month cycling on AD symptoms in community-dwelling older adults with mild-to-moderate AD, using a single-group, repeated-measures design (n = 26). AD symptoms were measured with the AD Assessment Scale-Cognitive (ADAS-Cog), Disability in AD (DAD), and Neuropsychiatric Inventory-Caregiver (NPI-Q) scales at baseline, 3 and 6 months. Data were analyzed using mixed linear models. The ADAS-Cog, DAD, and NPI-Q severity scores remained unchanged over the 6-month period, while caregiver distress decreased 40% (p < .05). We conclude that aerobic exercise may reduce AD symptoms and appears effective in decreasing caregiver distress. Further randomized controlled trials are needed to examine the effects of aerobic exercise in AD. PMID:24652914

  15. Isolation and denitrification characteristic of an aerobic denitrifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Dan-dan; MA Fang; WANG Hong-yu; DONG Shuang-shi; WANG Ai-jie

    2006-01-01

    Aerobic denitrifiers were enriched by activated sludge cultivation method. By this way, 105 strains were isolated from the activated sludge and 25 strains were confirmed to be capable of obtaining energy by deoxidization of nitrate to nitrogen gas under aerobic condition. The characteristic of one denitrifier, Pseudomonas chloritidismutans strain, was particularly studied due to its higher nitrogen removal rate. It was found that Pseudomonas chloritidismutans can use nitrite, nitrate and oxygen for aerobic respiration in liquid medium, and the pH increased and ORP decreased by activated denitrifier. When they used nitrite or nitrate for respiration, nitrogen removal effect was high and nitrite could be reduced more efficiently than nitrate. Denitrification process was accomplished faster when both nitrite and nitrate existed in the medium compared to each of which existed alone. Particularly, at denitrifying activity, the nitrogen removal rate of strain was not affected by the DO concentration in the culture media.

  16. Effects of the geophagous earthworm Metaphire guillelmi on sorption, mineralization, and bound-residue formation of 4-nonylphenol in an agricultural soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of earthworms on fate of nonylphenol (NP) are obscure. Using 14C-4-NP111 as a representative, we studied the fate of 4-NP in an agricultural soil with or without the earthworm Metaphire guillelmi and in fresh cast of the earthworm. Sorption of 4-NP on the cast (Kd 1564) was significantly higher than on the parent soil (Kd 1474). Mineralization of 4-NP was significantly lower in the cast (13.2%) and the soil with earthworms (10.4%) than in the earthworm-free soil (16.0%). One nitro metabolite of 4-NP111 (2-nitro-4-NP111) was identified in the soil and cast, and the presence of the earthworm significantly decreased its amounts. The presence of earthworm also significantly decreased formation of bound residues of 4-NP in the soil. Our results demonstrate that earthworms could significantly change the fate of 4-NP, underlining that earthworm effects should be considered when evaluating behavior and risk of 4-NP in soil. - Highlights: • The earthworm Metaphire guillelmi inhibited mineralization of 4-NP in the soil. • A less-polar metabolite of 4-NP (2-nitro-4-NP111) was detected in the soil and cast. • The presence of earthworm reduced the amount of 2-nitro-4-NP111 in the soil. • M. guillelmi significantly reduced formation of bound residues of 4-NP in the soil. - Earthworms significantly changed the fate of 4-NP, highlighting that effects of earthworm should be considered when evaluating the behavior and risk of 4-NP in soil

  17. Nonylphenol disrupts the cardio-protective effects of 17β-estradiol on ischemia/reperfusion injury in isolated hearts of guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Hu, Huiyuan; Zhao, Meimi; Zhao, Jinsheng; Yin, Dandan; Sun, Xuefei; Liu, Shuyuan; Gao, Qinghua; Yu, Lifeng; Hao, Liying

    2013-01-01

    Nonylphenol (NP), a widely distributed, toxic, endocrine-disrupting chemical, has estrogenic properties. However, its cardiac effects remain unclear. In this study, the effects of NP on isolated guinea pig hearts were studied in three separate experiments. First, hearts were perfused with 10⁻⁷ M NP or 10⁻⁵ M NP to determine whether NP was toxic to isolated healthy hearts. Next, hearts were subjected to 50 min of ischemia and 60 min of reperfusion (I50R60) with 10⁻⁷ M NP or 10⁻⁵ M NP to determine whether NP could aggravate ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Finally, the interaction of the cardio-protective agent 17β-estradiol (E₂) with NP was studied using 10⁻⁷ M E₂, 10⁻⁷ M E₂ plus 10⁻⁷ M NP, and 10⁻⁷ M E₂ plus 10⁻⁵ M NP. Heart rate (HR) and coronary flow (CF) were significantly decreased and the leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in effluent was increased in the 10⁻⁵ M NP group. However, there were no obvious changes in HR, CF, the leakage of LDH or creatine kinase (CK), or the activity of superoxide dismutase in either of the NP treatments in the I50R60 model. Treatment with 10⁻⁷ M E₂ attenuated I/R injury by increasing HR, decreasing the leakage of LDH and CK, and decreasing infarct size. However, these effects were reversed by both concentrations of NP. These data demonstrate that NP had direct toxic effects on normal hearts and NP might disrupt the cardio-protective effects of E₂ on I/R injury. PMID:24067721

  18. LC-MS/MS analytical procedure to quantify tris(nonylphenyl)phosphite, as a source of the endocrine disruptors 4-nonylphenols, in food packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottier, Pascal; Frank, Nancy; Dubois, Mathieu; Tarres, Adrienne; Bessaire, Thomas; Romero, Roman; Delatour, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    Tris(nonylphenyl)phosphite, an antioxidant used in polyethylene resins for food applications, is problematic since it is a source of the endocrine-disrupting chemicals 4-nonylphenols (4NP) upon migration into packaged foods. As a response to concerns surrounding the presence of 4NP-based compounds in packaging materials, some resin producers and additive suppliers have decided to eliminate TNPP from formulations. This paper describes an analytical procedure to verify the "TNPP-free" statement in multilayer laminates used for bag-in-box packaging. The method involves extraction of TNPP from laminates with organic solvents followed by detection/quantification by LC-MS/MS using the atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation (APCI) mode. A further acidic treatment of the latter extract allows the release of 4NP from potentially extracted TNPP. 4NP is then analysed by LC-MS/MS using electrospray ionisation (ESI) mode. This two-step analytical procedure ensures not only TNPP quantification in laminates, but also allows the flagging of other possible sources of 4NP in such packaging materials, typically as non-intentionally added substances (NIAS). The limits of quantification were 0.50 and 0.48 µg dm⁻² for TNPP and 4NP in laminates, respectively, with recoveries ranging between 87% and 114%. Usage of such analytical methodologies in quality control operations has pointed to a lack of traceability at the packaging supplier level and cross-contamination of extrusion equipment at the converter level, when TNPP-containing laminates are processed on the same machine beforehand. PMID:24552621

  19. Cloning of Ki-ras and Ha-ras cDNAs from the hermaphroditic fish Rivulus marmoratus (Cyprinodontiformes, Rivulidae) and its expression after exposure to 4-nonylphenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Mi; Jung, Sang-Oun; Seo, Jung Soo; Yoon, Yong-Dal; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2006-07-01

    Previous studies on ras proto-oncogene genes in fish have been focused on chemical-associated carcinogenesis, and the expression of fish ras genes was not well-characterized. We investigated Ki- and Ha-ras genes from the hermaphroditic fish Rivulus marmoratus to understand better their expression patterns in specific tissues, as well as their responses to endocrine-disrupting chemicals such as 4-nonylphenol (4-NP). By investigating expression patterns, we found that the R. marmoratus Ki-ras (Rm Ki-ras) gene showed an alternative splicing event between exons 4A and 4B according to tissue types, which is different from the expression pattern of mammalian Ki-ras genes. In the Rm Ki-ras gene, there were two different expressed types, with exons 1-2-3-4A-4B (long form) and with exons 1-2-3-4B (short form). In the Rm Ki-ras gene, the long form was expressed strongly in the gonad and intestine, and the short form was expressed ubiquitously, except for a low level of expression in the liver. Following 4-NP exposure (300 microg/L), the Rm Ki-ras long form in the liver was significantly expressed, while it was expressed moderately in the ovaries. However, the Rm Ha-ras gene was significantly over-expressed in the brain, while its expression in the gonad was down-regulated. In relation to these modulations after 4-NP exposure, we searched the Rm Ha- and Ki-ras promoter regions and found several ERE-half sites, that may be involved in the modulation of ras gene expression following 4-NP exposure. These genes could be applicable as new biomarker genes for assessing exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Further, this implies the disturbance of ras-dependent signal transduction following EDC exposure. PMID:16716392

  20. Novel aerobic tetracycline resistance gene that chemically modifies tetracycline.

    OpenAIRE

    Speer, B S; Salyers, A A

    1989-01-01

    A tetracycline resistance gene that was found originally on the Bacteroides plasmid pBF4 confers resistance on Escherichia coli but only when cells are growing aerobically. When E. coli EM24 carrying this aerobic tetracycline resistance (*Tcr) gene is grown in medium containing tetracycline, the resulting spent medium is no longer toxic to tetracycline-sensitive (Tcs) E. coli EM24 (B.S. Speer and A.A. Salyers, J. Bacteriol. 170: 1423-1429, 1988). To determine whether the *Tcr gene product mod...

  1. New records in aerobic power among octogenarian lifelong endurance athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Trappe, Scott; Hayes, Erik; Galpin, Andrew; Kaminsky, Leonard; Jemiolo, Bozena; Fink, William; Trappe, Todd; Jansson, Anna; Gustafsson, Thomas; Tesch, Per

    2012-01-01

    We examined whole body aerobic capacity and myocellular markers of oxidative metabolism in lifelong endurance athletes [n = 9, 81 ± 1 yr, 68 ± 3 kg, body mass index (BMI) = 23 ± 1 kg/m2] and age-matched, healthy, untrained men (n = 6; 82 ± 1 y, 77 ± 5 kg, BMI = 26 ± 1 kg/m2). The endurance athletes were cross-country skiers, including a former Olympic champion and several national/regional champions, with a history of aerobic exercise and participation in endurance events throughout their liv...

  2. Frequency of Combined Resistance and Aerobic Training in Older Women

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Gordon; McCarthy, John P.; Zuckerman, Paul A.; Bryan, David R.; Bickel, C. Scott; Hunter, Gary R.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the optimal frequency of combined aerobic and resistance training for improving muscular strength (MS), cardiovascular fitness (CF), and functional tasks (FTs) in women older than 60 years. Sixty-three women were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 exercise training groups. Group 1 performed 1 resistance exercise training (RET) and 1 aerobic exercise training (AET) session per week (AET/RET 1 × wk−1); group 2 performed 2 RET and 2 AET sessions per week (AET/RET ...

  3. The Effect of Aerobic Exercise on Cardiopulmonary System in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Dilek Sevimli; Fuat Kocyigit

    2009-01-01

    AIM: The purpose of this study is to investigate the changes in cardiopulmonary system stimulated by aerobic exercise in different age group of children and to find out in which age group aerobic exercise is more effective. METHOD: Totally, 76 children participated in this study. Ages of the participants ranged between 11–17, and mean age was 14.08±0.65. Participants were divided into three groups according to their age range. There were 23 in the first and second and 30 participant...

  4. Aerobic bioremediation of petroleum contaminated soil using controlled landfarming technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that the Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control (DNREC) has been concerned about open, uncontrolled landfarming remediation procedures producing a significant amount of atmospheric volatile petroleum discharge and increasing the probability of the remediation site's soil and groundwater becoming contaminated by rainwater. WIK Associates, Inc., therefore, has been developing full scale aerobic bioremediation technology for clients within the Delaware area in order to carry out year round, full scale, aerobic biodegradation of petroleum contaminated soils, while controlling any volatile emissions

  5. Enhancing excess sludge aerobic digestion with low intensity ultrasound

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Wen-chuan; LI Dong-xue; ZENG Xiao-lan; LONG Teng-rui

    2006-01-01

    In order to enhance the efficiency of aerobic digestion, the excess sludge was irradiated by low intensity ultrasound at a frequency of 28 kHz and acoustic intensity of 0.53 W/cm2. The results show that the sludge stabilization without ultrasonic treatment can be achieved after 17 d of digestion, whereas the digestion time of ultrasonic groups can be cut by 3 - 7 d. During the same digestion elapsing, in ultrasonic groups the total volatile suspended solid removal rate is higher than that in the control group. The kinetics of aerobic digestion of excess sludge with ultrasound can also be described with first-order reaction.

  6. Influence employment by improving aerobics on motor readiness of girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shypulo I. P.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : substantiate the effect of employment by improving aerobics on motor readiness of girls in extracurricular educational institutions. Material : the study involved 90 women aged 16-18 years old. Classes are held 3 times a week for 1 hour each. Results : defined state and the most informative indicators motor fitness girls. Built analytical model of graph model for forecasting and conducting quantitative and qualitative control of motor fitness girls. The degree of severity of each of the parameters studied motor fitness girls. Conclusions : the possibilities of predicting outcomes. Recommended method of aerobics classes, which has five stages. Its main feature - the constant objective control efficiency of employment.

  7. Exercise intensity during Zumba fitness and Tae-bo aerobics

    OpenAIRE

    Hižnayová, Kristína

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzed and compared the exercise intensity in Zumba fitness and Tae-bo aerobics. Object of the research was monitoring of the heart rate and energy consumption in kcal during exercise unit, by using Heart Rate Monitor Suunto Memory Belt. All measurements were attended by randomly selected 11 women. The data we collected during the six units of the Zumba fitness and six units of the Tae-bo aerobics . Obtained data of the heart rate were evaluated in three main parts of workout: af...

  8. Degradations and Rearrangement Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianbo

    This section deals with recent reports concerning degradation and rearrangement reactions of free sugars as well as some glycosides. The transformations are classified in chemical and enzymatic ways. In addition, the Maillard reaction will be discussed as an example of degradation and rearrangement transformation and its application in current research in the fields of chemistry and biology.

  9. Rate of NDF degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Koukolová, V; Lund, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Degradation profiles for NDF were estimated for 83 samples of grass/grass-clover, 27 samples of cereal whole crop and 14 samples of maize whole crop.......Degradation profiles for NDF were estimated for 83 samples of grass/grass-clover, 27 samples of cereal whole crop and 14 samples of maize whole crop....

  10. Effect of biochar on the fate of volatile petroleum hydrocarbons in an aerobic sandy soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushnaf, Khaled M.; Puricelli, Sara; Saponaro, Sabrina; Werner, David

    2011-11-01

    Biochar addition to soil is currently being investigated as a novel technology to remediate polluted sites. A critical consideration is the impact of biochar on the intrinsic microbial pollutant degradation, in particular at sites polluted with a mixture of readily biodegradable and more persistent organic pollutants. We therefore studied the impact of biochar (2% on dry weight basis) on the fate of volatile petroleum hydrocarbons in an aerobic sandy soil with batch and column studies. The soil-water partitioning coefficient, K d, was enhanced in the biochar-amended soil up to a factor 36, and petroleum hydrocarbon vapor migration was retarded accordingly. Despite increased sorption, in particular of monoaromatic hydrocarbons, the overall microbial respiration was comparable in the biochar-amended and unamended soil. This was due to more rapid biodegradation of linear, cyclic and branched alkanes in the biochar amended soil. We concluded that the total petroleum hydrocarbon degradation rate was controlled by a factor other than substrate availability and the reduced availability of monoaromatic hydrocarbons in the biochar amended soil led to greater biodegradation of the other petroleum compounds.

  11. Chlorine isotope investigation of natural attenuation of trichloroethene in an aerobic aquifer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural attenuation of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) can be an important mechanism for groundwater remediation. It is difficult to determine the effectiveness of natural CAH attenuation from chemical analyses of groundwater samples because mixing, dispersion, and secondary reactions can mask the chemical evidence of attenuation. In this paper, the authors explore the application of stable chlorine isotope ratio measurements as a new tool for evaluating natural attenuation of CAHs. They report stable isotope ratios of chlorine in both trichloroethene (TCE) and inorganic chloride in groundwater from an aerobic aquifer beneath an extensively contaminated industrial site, the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant in western Kentucky. Variations in the concentrations and chlorine isotope ratios of TCE and chloride in the groundwater are consistent with those expected from natural attenuation. These data support a model in which partial TCE degradation occurred in relatively impermeable, clay-rich sediments above the aquifer, and little or no further degradation of TCE occurred within the aquifer. A record of changing conditions within the TCE source area can be inferred from the spatial variation of chlorine isotope ratios for TCE and chloride within the plume

  12. Biodegradation of aniline by Candida tropicalis AN1 isolated from aerobic granular sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dianzhan Wang; Guanyu Zheng; Shimei Wang; Dewei Zhang; Lixiang Zhou

    2011-01-01

    Aniline-degrading microbes were cultivated and acclimated with the initial activated sludge collected from a chemical wastewater treatment plant.During the acclimation processes,aerobic granular sludge being able to effectively degrade aniline was successfully formed,from which a preponderant bacterial strain was isolated and named as ANi.Effects of factors including pH,temperature,and second carbon/nitrogen source on the biodegradation of aniline were investigated.Results showed that the optimal conditions for the biodegradation of aniline by the strain AN1 were at pH 7.0 and 28-35°C.At the optimal pH and temperature,the biodegradation rate of aniline could reach as high as 17.8 mg/(L.hr) when the initial aniline concentration was 400 mg/L.Further studies revealed that the addition of 1 g/L glucose or ammonium chloride as a second carbon or nitrogen source could slightly enhance the biodegradation efficiency from 93.0% to 95.1%-98.5%.However,even more addition of glucose or ammonium could not further enhance the biodegradation process but delayed the biodegradation of aniline by the strain AN1.Based on morphological and physiological characteristics as well as the phylogenetic analysis of 26S rDNA sequences,the strain AN1 was identified as Candida tropicalis.

  13. Complete Genome Sequence of the Aerobic Marine Methanotroph Methylomonas methanica MC09

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boden, Rich [University of Warwick, UK; Cunliffe, Michael [University of Warwick, UK; Scanlan, Julie [University of Warwick, UK; Moussard, Helene [University of Warwick, UK; Kits, K. Dimitri [University of Alberta, Edmondton, Canada; Klotz, Martin G [University of Louisville, Louisville; Jetten, MSM [Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands; Vuilleumier, Stephane [University of Strasbourg; Han, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Peters, Lin [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mikhailova, Natalia [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Teshima, Hazuki [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pagani, Ioanna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Cheng, Jan-Fang [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Stein, Lisa Y. [University of Alberta, Edmondton, Canada; Murrell, Collin [University of Warwick, UK

    2011-01-01

    Methylomonas methanica MC09 is a mesophilic, halotolerant, aerobic, methanotrophic member of the Gammaproteobacteria, isolated from coastal seawater. Here we present the complete genome sequence of this strain, the first available from an aerobic marine methanotroph.

  14. Helping Adults to Stay Physically Fit: Preventing Relapse Following Aerobic Exercise Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrick, G. Ken; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Long-term adherence to an aerobic exercise regime is a major problem among exercise program graduates. This article discusses the steps involved in developing relapse prevention treatment strategies for aerobic exercise programs. (JMK)

  15. Solid-Phase Thermophilic Aerobic Reactor (STAR) Processing of Fecal, Food, and Plant Residues

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    A description of the Solid Waste Resource Recovery ALS-NSCORT projects: Solid Phase Thermophilic Aerobic Reactor (STAR), Nitrogen Cycling in Advanced Life Support Systems, and Plant-based Anaerobic-Aerobic Bioreactor Linked Operation (PAABLO). 26 pages.

  16. Transformation of {sup 14}C-pyrimidynyloxybenzoic herbicide ZJ0273 in aerobic soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haiyan, Wang; Zhiyang, Yu; Ling, Yue; Ailiang, Han; Yanfei, Zhang; Juying, Li [Institute of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences, Key Laboratory of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences of Ministry of Agriculture, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Qingfu, Ye, E-mail: qfye@zju.edu.cn [Institute of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences, Key Laboratory of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences of Ministry of Agriculture, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Zhengmin, Yang [Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200032 (China); Long, Lu, E-mail: lulong@mail.sioc.ac.cn [Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200032 (China)

    2010-04-15

    A soil metabolism study of propyl 4-(2-(4,6-dimethoxypyrimidin-2-yloxy)benzylamino)benzoate (ZJ0273), a novel broad-spectrum herbicide, was carried out using {sup 14}C labeled on two different rings, i.e., [pyrimidine-4,6-{sup 14}C] ZJ0273 and [benzyl-U-{sup 14}C] ZJ0273. Ultralow liquid scintillation counting and LC-MS/MS were used to identify the degradation intermediates and quantify their dynamics in aerobic soils. Four aromatic intermediates, 4-(2-(4,6-dimethoxypyrimidin-2-yloxy)benzylamino)benzoic acid (M1), 4-(2-(4,6-dimethoxypyrimidin-2-yloxy)benzamido)benzoic acid (M2), 2-(4,6-dimethoxypyrimidin-2-yloxy)benzoic acid (M3), and 4,6-dimethoxypyrimidin-2-ol (M4), were identified and their identity was further confirmed against authentic standards. Analysis of metabolites suggested two degradation pathways: (1) Upon loss of the propyl group, M1 was produced via hydrolysis of propyl 4-(2-(4,6-dimethoxypyrimidin-2-yloxy)benzylamino)benzoate after which the C-N bond between rings A and B was cleaved by oxidation and biochemical degradation to yield M3, which was further converted into M4 and finally mineralized to CO{sub 2}; and (2) the first step was the same as in pathway 1, but M1 first underwent a carbonylation to form M2. The C-N bond between rings A and B of M2 was cleaved by hydrolysis to yield M3. Dynamic changes in the four metabolites in aerobic soils were also investigated by HPLC coupled analysis of radioactivity of isolated peaks. After a 100-day incubation, 1.7-9.7% of applied {sup 14}C was found as M1, 0.3-1.1% as M2, 14.5-20.9% as M3, and 3.7-6.7% as M4 in the soils, and pH appeared to be the most influential soil property affecting the formation and dissipation of these metabolites.

  17. Transformation of 14C-pyrimidynyloxybenzoic herbicide ZJ0273 in aerobic soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A soil metabolism study of propyl 4-(2-(4,6-dimethoxypyrimidin-2-yloxy)benzylamino)benzoate (ZJ0273), a novel broad-spectrum herbicide, was carried out using 14C labeled on two different rings, i.e., [pyrimidine-4,6-14C] ZJ0273 and [benzyl-U-14C] ZJ0273. Ultralow liquid scintillation counting and LC-MS/MS were used to identify the degradation intermediates and quantify their dynamics in aerobic soils. Four aromatic intermediates, 4-(2-(4,6-dimethoxypyrimidin-2-yloxy)benzylamino)benzoic acid (M1), 4-(2-(4,6-dimethoxypyrimidin-2-yloxy)benzamido)benzoic acid (M2), 2-(4,6-dimethoxypyrimidin-2-yloxy)benzoic acid (M3), and 4,6-dimethoxypyrimidin-2-ol (M4), were identified and their identity was further confirmed against authentic standards. Analysis of metabolites suggested two degradation pathways: (1) Upon loss of the propyl group, M1 was produced via hydrolysis of propyl 4-(2-(4,6-dimethoxypyrimidin-2-yloxy)benzylamino)benzoate after which the C-N bond between rings A and B was cleaved by oxidation and biochemical degradation to yield M3, which was further converted into M4 and finally mineralized to CO2; and (2) the first step was the same as in pathway 1, but M1 first underwent a carbonylation to form M2. The C-N bond between rings A and B of M2 was cleaved by hydrolysis to yield M3. Dynamic changes in the four metabolites in aerobic soils were also investigated by HPLC coupled analysis of radioactivity of isolated peaks. After a 100-day incubation, 1.7-9.7% of applied 14C was found as M1, 0.3-1.1% as M2, 14.5-20.9% as M3, and 3.7-6.7% as M4 in the soils, and pH appeared to be the most influential soil property affecting the formation and dissipation of these metabolites.

  18. Blood lactate level in Wistar rats after four and twelve week intermittent aerobic training

    OpenAIRE

    Dewi N. Sari; Sutjahjo Endardjo; Dewi I.S. Santoso

    2013-01-01

    Background: Aerobic training can be done not only continuously, but also intermittently. Intermittent aerobic training aimed to get blood lactate level lower than continuous aerobic training. Blood lactate concentration in one of the various factors that determine training performance. However, until recently, little studies about intermittent aerobic training and blood lactate levels have been done. Therefore, this study aimed to measure blood lactate levels in Wistar rats after 4 and 12 wee...

  19. Exercise training improves aerobic endurance and musculoskeletal fitness in female cardiac transplant recipients

    OpenAIRE

    Warburton Darren; Kim Daniel; Figgures Linda; Riess Kenneth; Haykowsky Mark; Jones Lee; Tymchak Wayne

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Aim Female cardiac transplant recipients' aerobic capacity is 60% lower than sex and age-predicted values. The effect of exercise training on restoring the impaired aerobic endurance and muscle strength in female cardiac transplant recipients is not known. This study examined the effect that aerobic and strength training have on improving aerobic endurance and muscle strength in female cardiac transplant recipients. Methods 20 female cardiac transplant recipients (51 ± 11 years) part...

  20. Enrichment and characterization of sulfate reducing, naphthalene degrading microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, Kümmel; Florian-Alexander, Herbst; Márcia, Duarte; Dietmar, Pieper; Jana, Seifert; Bergen Martin, von; Hans-Hermann, Richnow; Carsten, Vogt

    2014-05-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are pollutants of great concern due to their potential toxicity, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. PAH are widely distributed in the environment by accidental discharges during the transport, use and disposal of petroleum products, and during forest and grass fires. Caused by their hydrophobic nature, PAH basically accumulate in sediments from where they are slowly released into the groundwater. Although generally limited by the low water solubility of PAH, microbial degradation is one of the major mechanisms leading to the complete clean-up of PAH-contaminated sites. Whereas organisms and biochemical pathways responsible for the aerobic breakdown of PAH are well known, anaerobic PAH biodegradation is less understood; only a few anaerobic PAH degrading cultures have been described. We studied the anaerobic PAH degradation in a microcosm approach to enrich anaerobic PAH degraders. Anoxic groundwater and sediment samples were used as inoculum. Groundwater samples were purchased from the erstwhile gas works facility and a former wood impregnation site. In contrast, sources of sediment samples were a former coal refining area and an old fuel depot. Samples were incubated in anoxic mineral salt medium with naphthalene as sole carbon source and sulfate as terminal electron acceptor. Grown cultures were characterized by feeding with 13C-labeled naphthalene, 16S rRNA gene sequencing using an Illumina® approach, and functional proteome analyses. Finally, six enrichment cultures able to degrade naphthalene under anoxic conditions were established. First results point to a dominance of identified sequences affiliated to the freshwater sulfate-reducing strain N47, which is a known anaerobic naphthalene degrader, in four out of the six enrichments. In those enrichments, peptides related to the pathway of anoxic naphthalene degradation in N47 were abundant. Overall the data underlines the importance of Desulfobacteria for natural

  1. Degradation of transuranic-contaminated wastes under geological isolation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of extensive experimental studies on the degradation of existing defense transuranic-contaminated (TRU) wastes are presented. Environmental conditions for waste degradation are representative of deep geological isolation of TRU wastes in a bedded-salt repository, as anticipated for the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in southeastern New Mexico. TRU-contaminated waste matrices investigated include cellulosics, plastics, rubbers, mixed organic composite, bitumen, a developmental concrete-TRU ash matrix, mild steel, and inorganic process sludges. Degradation mechanisms studied were alpha radiolysis, microbial action, thermal decomposition and dewatering, and chemical corrosion. Experimental variables are waste composition, alpha-contamination level, temperature, pressure, time, water or brine content, aerobic or anaerobic conditions, etc. Results of waste degradation are presented in terms of gas generation rates, gas compositions, container corrosion rates, effectiveness of anti-corrosion coatings, microbial formation and degradation of chelating agents. Based on experimental results, the relative quantities of gas generated by individual mechanisms acting on the organic matrix wastes can be ranked as follows: (1) microbial action, (2) thermal decomposition (at 400C and higher), (3) alpha radiolysis, and (4) corrosion. Corrosion of metallic waste canisters and realistic bedded-salt repository conditions was determined not to have a significant effect on potential waste retrievability. The technical data provided in these studies are used in assessments to determine whether existing forms of TRU wastes are acceptable for safe geological isolation. (author)

  2. Naphthalene degradation and biosurfactant activity by Bacillus cereus 28BN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuleva, B.; Christova, N. [Inst. of Microbiology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria); Jordanov, B.; Nikolova-Damyanova, B. [Inst. of Organic Chemistry, Sofia (Bulgaria); Petrov, P. [National Center of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2005-08-01

    Biosurfactant activity and naphthalene degradation by a new strain identified as Bacillus cereus 28BN were studied. The strain grew well and produced effective biosurfactants in the presence of n-alkanes, naphthalene, crude oil and vegetable oils. The biosurfactants were detected by the surface tension lowering of the medium, thin layer chromatography and infrared spectra analysis. With (2%) naphthalene as the sole carbon source, high levels of rhamnolipids at a concentration of 2.3 g l{sup -1} were determined in the stationary growth. After 20 d of incubation 72 {+-} 4% of the initial naphthalene was degraded. This is the first report for a Bacillus cereus rhamnolipid producing strain that utilized naphthalene under aerobic conditions. The strain looks promising for application in environmental technologies. (orig.)

  3. The anaerobic degradation of gaseous, nonmethane alkanes — From in situ processes to microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Florin Musat

    2015-01-01

    The short chain, gaseous alkanes ethane, propane, n- and iso-butane are released in significant amounts into the atmosphere, where they contribute to tropospheric chemistry and ozone formation. Biodegradation of gaseous alkanes by aerobic microorganisms, mostly bacteria and fungi isolated from terrestrial environments, has been known for several decades. The first indications for short chain alkane anaerobic degradation were provided by geochemical studies of deep-sea environments around hydr...

  4. Complete degradation of polychlorinated hydrocarbons by a two-stage biofilm reactor.

    OpenAIRE

    Fathepure, B Z; Vogel, T M

    1991-01-01

    A two-stage anaerobic-aerobic biofilm reactor successfully degraded a mixture of chlorinated organic compounds to water-soluble metabolic intermediates and carbon dioxide. Reductive dechlorination of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), tetrachloroethylene (PCE), and chloroform (CF) occurred on all tested primary carbon sources such as glucose, methanol, and acetate. However, the extent of dechlorination was maximum when the anaerobic biofilm column was fed acetate as a primary carbon source. HCB, PCE, a...

  5. Functionally Redundant Cellobiose-Degrading Soil Bacteria Respond Differentially to Oxygen ▿†

    OpenAIRE

    Schellenberger, Stefanie; Drake, Harold L.; Kolb, Steffen

    2011-01-01

    The availability of oxygen (O2) in aerated (i.e., water-unsaturated) soils affects the metabolic activities of aerobic and anaerobic soil prokaryotes that degrade plant-derived saccharides. Fluctuating availabilities of O2 were imposed on agricultural soil slurries supplemented with cellobiose. Slurries were subjected to oxic conditions (48 h), followed by an anoxic period (120 h) and a final oxic period (24 h). Redox potential was stable at 500 mV during oxic periods but decreased rapidly (w...

  6. Naphthalene Degradation and Incorporation of Naphthalene-Derived Carbon into Biomass by the Thermophile Bacillus thermoleovorans

    OpenAIRE

    Annweiler, E.; Richnow, H.H.; Antranikian, G.; Hebenbrock, S.; Garms, C.; Franke, S; Francke, W.; Michaelis, W

    2000-01-01

    The thermophilic aerobic bacterium Bacillus thermoleovorans Hamburg 2 grows at 60°C on naphthalene as the sole source of carbon and energy. In batch cultures, an effective substrate degradation was observed. The carbon balance, including naphthalene, metabolites, biomass, and CO2, was determined by the application of [1-13C]naphthalene. The incorporation of naphthalene-derived carbon into the bulk biomass as well as into specified biomass fractions such as fatty acids and amino acids was conf...

  7. Acute effect of hematological parameters on aerobic and anaerobic exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan İbiş

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Main of aim of this study in which 18 volunteers with average of 21,6 years are involved is to search acute effect of hematological parameters on aerobic and anaerobic exercise. Max VO2 values of volunteers are obtained using Astrand bicycle ergonometric test.   Aerobic exercise was taken with %50 of max VO2 for 45 minutes and anaerobic exercise was taken with %120 of max VO2 till exhausted. Blood samples were taken before exercise, just after exercise and 24 hours after exercise and we looked at hematocrit values. Statistical analysis was done using one-way ANOVA test. There are no significant values observed in hemotological results for aerobic exercise. But, there were some significant values observed in Hb, Hct, Wbc just after anaerobic exercise whereas some significant decreases were observed for 24 hours after exercise. Comparison of both exercises time showed that there is significant increase in anaerobic exercise and decreases in aerobic exercise. As a result, maximal and hard exercise affects hematological values more then moderate exercise. The reason of this observation is because there has been a change in hematocrit levels and movement of leucocyte from margination pool to demargination pool in blood circulation duration of exercise and after exercise.

  8. Biological phosphorus uptake under anoxic and aerobic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerrn-Jespersen, Jens Peter; Henze, Mogens

    1993-01-01

    Biological phosphorus removal was investigated under anoxic and aerobic conditions. Tests were made to establish whether phosphorus accumulating bacteria can take up phosphate under anoxic conditions and thus utilise nitrate as oxidant. Furthermore, it was tested how the amount of organic matter...

  9. High Abundances of Aerobic Anoxygenic Phototrophs in Saline Steppe Lakes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Medová, Hana; Boldareva, Ekaterina; Hrouzek, Pavel; Borzenko, S. V.; Namsaraev, Z. B.; Gorlenko, V. M.; Namsaraev, B. B.; Koblížek, Michal

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 76, č. 2 (2011), s. 393-400. ISSN 0168-6496 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP501/10/0221 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : bacteriochlorophyll * soda lakes * aerobic photosynthetic bacteria Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.408, year: 2011

  10. Aerobic Capacity in Children and Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschuren, Olaf; Takken, Tim

    2010-01-01

    This study described the aerobic capacity [VO[subscript 2peak] (ml/kg/min)] in contemporary children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) using a maximal exercise test protocol. Twenty-four children and adolescents with CP classified at Gross Motor Functional Classification Scale (GMFCS) level I or level II and 336 typically developing…

  11. Strength training and aerobic exercise training for muscle disease (Review)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voet, N.B.M.; Kooi, E.L. van der; Riphagen, I.I.; Lindeman, E.; Engelen, B.G.M. van; Geurts, A.C.H.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Strength training or aerobic exercise programmes might optimise muscle and cardiorespiratory function and prevent additional disuse atrophy and deconditioning in people with a muscle disease. This is an update of a review first published in 2004. OBJECTIVES: To examine the safety and eff

  12. Intrinsic Aerobic Capacity Sets a Divide for Aging and Longevity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koch, G.; Kemi, O.J.; Qi, N.; Leng, S.X.; Bijma, P.; Gilligan, L.J.; Wilkinson, J.E.; Grevenhof, van E.M.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale: Low aerobic exercise capacity is a powerful predictor of premature morbidity and mortality for healthy adults as well as those with cardiovascular disease. For aged populations, poor performance on treadmill or extended walking tests indicates closer proximity to future health declines. T

  13. Sequenced anaerobic-aerobic treatment of hemp pulping wastewaters.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kortekaas, S.

    1998-01-01

    Biological treatment is an indispensable instrument for water management of non-wood pulp mills, either as internal measure to enable progressive closure of water cycles, or as end of pipe treatment. In this thesis, the sequenced anaerobic-aerobic treatment of hemp ( Cannabis sativa L. ) pulping was

  14. Kinetic comparisons of mesophilic and thermophilic aerobic biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogelaar, J.C.T.; Klapwijk, A.; Temmink, H.; Lier, van J.B.

    2003-01-01

    Kinetic parameters describing growth and decay of mesophilic (30degreesC) and thermophilic (55degreesC) aerobic biomass were determined in continuous and batch experiments by using oxygen uptake rate measurements
    Kinetic parameters describing growth and decay of mesophilic (30degreesC) and therm

  15. Aerobic Removal of Technetium by a Marine Halomonas Strain▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Fujimoto, Ken; Morita, Takami

    2006-01-01

    A novel strain of Halomonas (Tc-202), which has the capability of removing Tc(VII) from solid- and aqueous-phase material aerobically, was isolated from the marine environment. Tc-202 removed 55% of the total 99Tc in solutions at 15°C by reducing Tc(VII) to Tc(V), but other Halomonas strains did not.

  16. PATTERN OF AEROBIC B ACTERIAL INFECTION O F DIABETIC FOOT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmeshwari

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diabetic foot ulcer is one of the commonest complications of longstanding diabetes. Diabetic foot is a common cause of hospital admission in diabetic patients in India. The trio of problems leading onto diabetic foot is neuropathy, vascular changes and infections, which constitute the diabetic foot syndrome. OBJECTIVES: To determine prevalence of aerobic pathogens in diabetic foot lesions. METHODS: Tissue samples were taken from the affected foot of 109 diabetic patients and processed by routine microbiological methods. RESULTS : A total of 244 aerobic organisms were isolated from 100 cases with an average of 2.5 organisms per case. Staphylococcus aureus was the predominant aerobe isolated (25.4% followed by Proteus mirabilis (21.3%. The other aerobes isolated were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (10.65%, Kleb siella pneumonia (8.6%, Escherichia coli (6.9%, Enterococcus faecalis (5.32%, Coagulase Negative Staphylococcus (4.5%, Proteus vulgaris (4.09%, Klebsiella oxytoca (3.27%, Citrobacter freudii (2.86%, Corynebacterium species (2.04%, Group A streptococci and Acinetobacter species (1.63%, and Enterobacter species (0.82%. MRSA was 17.8%. CONCLUSION : Diabetic foot infections are polymicrobial in nature. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common among gram - positive organisms, while P roteus mirabilis was the most frequent isolate among the gram - negative pathogens. Hence early identification of the risk factors and timely institution of appropriate treatment is indispensable to avoid amputations.

  17. COMMERCIAL-SCALE AEROBIC-ANAEROBIC BIOREACTOR LANDFILL OPERATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A sequential aerobic-anaerobic treatment system has been applied at a commercial scale (3,000 ton per day) municipal solid waste landfill in Kentucky, USA since 2001. In this system, the uppermost layer of landfilled waste is aerated and liquid waste including leachate, surface w...

  18. Aerobic Oxidation of Methyl Vinyl Ketone in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OUYANG,Xiao-Yue(欧阳小月); JIANG,Huan-Feng(江焕峰); CHENG,Jin-Sheng(程金生); ZHANG,Qun-Jian(张群健)

    2002-01-01

    Aerobic oxidation of methyl vinyl ketone to acetal in supercritical carbon dioxide are achieved in high conversion and high selectivity when oxygen pressure reaches 0.5MPa. The effects of cocatalysts,additive, pressure and temperature of the reaction are studied in detail.

  19. Aerobic Digestion. Biological Treatment Process Control. Instructor's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopping, Paul H.

    This unit on aerobic sludge digestion covers the theory of the process, system components, factors that affect the process performance, standard operational concerns, indicators of steady-state operations, and operational problems. The instructor's guide includes: (1) an overview of the unit; (2) lesson plan; (3) lecture outline (keyed to a set of…

  20. Aerobic exercise and intraocular pressure in normotensive and glaucoma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatzibalis Theodosios

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the increasing number of people participating in physical aerobic exercise, jogging in particular, we considered that it would be worth knowing if there are should be limits to the exercise with regard to the intraocular pressure (IOP of the eyes. The purpose of this study is to check IOP in healthy and primary glaucoma patients after aerobic exercise. Methods 145 individuals were subdivided into seven groups: normotensives who exercised regularly (Group A; normotensives in whose right eye (RE timolol maleate 0.5% (Group B, latanoprost 0.005% (Group C, or brimonidine tartrate 0.2% (Group D was instilled; and primary glaucoma patients under monotherapy with β-blockers (Group E, prostaglandin analogues (Group F or combined antiglaucoma treatment (Group G instilled in both eyes. The IOP of both eyes was measured before and after exercise. Results A statistically significant decrease was found in IOP during jogging. The aerobic exercise reduces the IOP in those eyes where a b-blocker, a prostaglandin analogue or an α-agonist was previously instilled. The IOP is also decreased in glaucoma patients who are already under antiglaucoma treatment. Conclusion There is no ocular restriction for simple glaucoma patients in performing aerobic physical activity.