Sample records for aerobic nonylphenol degradation

  1. Biotransformation of nonylphenol ethoxylates during sewage treatment under anaerobic and aerobic conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Biotransformation of nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEOs) during continuous anaerobic sewage treatment was compared with the aerobic treatment of sewage spiked with 23 μmol/L technical NPEOs over a period of 90 d. Immediate degradation of NPEOs was observed under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions, indicating that the enzymes and bacteria required for NPEO degradation existed abundantly in both aerobic and anaerobic sludge. Both treatments achieved high removal (>92%) of the spiked NPEO9 mixture.Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis showed that short-chain NPEOs (NPEO1-NPEO3) accumulated in anaerobic (2.01-2.56 μmol/L) and aerobic (1.62-2.03 μmol/L) effluents, with nonylphenol (NP) (0.24-0.31 μmol/L) as another group of metabolites in the anaerobic effluent, and nonylphenoxy carboxylates (NPECs) (2.79-3.30 μmol/L) in the aerobic effluent. Significant accumulation of NP in the anaerobic sludge and NPEO1-3 in the sludge of two reactors was observed. These results indicated that it was difficult to control these harmful metabolites in the conventional treatment processes. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles of sludge samples support the speculation that the NPEO degradation bacteria might be the dominant indigenous species.

  2. Fate and degradation of nonylphenolic compounds during wastewater treatment process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Lian; Junxin Liu


    In order to explore the biodegradation behavior of nonylphenolic compounds during wastewater treatment processing,two full-scale wastewater treatment plants were investigated and batch biodegradation experiments were conducted.The biodegradation pathways under the various operational conditions were identified from batch experiments:shortening of ethoxy-chains dominated under the anaerobic condition,whereas oxidizing of the terminal alcoholic group prevailed over the other routes under the aerobic condition.Results showed that the anoxic condition could accelerate the biodegradation rates of nonylphenolic compounds,but had no influence on the biodegradation pathway.The biodegradation rates of nonylphenol (NP) and short-chain nonylphenol polyethoxylates (NPnEOs,n:number of ethoxy units) increased from the anaerobic condition,then the anoxic,finally to the aerobic condition,while those of long-chain NPnEOs and nonylphenoxy carboxylates (NPECs) seemed similar under the various conditions.Under every operational condition,long-chain NPnEOs showed the highest biodegradation activity,followed by NPECs and short-chain NPnEOs,whereas NP showed relatively recalcitrant characteristics especially under the anaerobic condition.In addition,introducing sulfate and nitrate to the anaerobic condition could enhance the biodegradation of NP and short-chain NPnEOs by supplying more positive redox potentials.

  3. The Bioconcentration and Degradation of Nonylphenol and Nonylphenol Polyethoxylates by Chlorella vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Wen Sun


    Full Text Available Nonylphenol polyethoxylates (NPnEOs, a major class of nonionic surfactants, can easily enter into aquatic environments through various pathways due to their wide applications, which leads to the extensive existence of their relative stable metabolites, namely nonylphenol (NP and mono- to tri-ethoxylates. This study investigated the bioconcentration and degradation of NP and NPnEO oligomers (n = 1–12 by a green algae, Chlorella vulgaris. Experimental results showed that C. vulgaris can remove NP from water phase efficiently, and bioconcentration and degradation accounted for approximately half of its loss, respectively, with a 48 h BCF (bioconcentration factor of 2.42 × 103. Moreover, C. vulgaris could concentrate and degrade NPnEOs, distribution profiles of the series homologues of the NPnEOs in algae and water phase were quite different from the initial homologue profile. The 48 h BCF of the NPnEO homologues increased with the length of the EO chain. Degradation extent of total NPnEOs by C. vulgaris was 95.7%, and only 1.1% remained in water phase, and the other 3.2% remained in the algal cells. The algae removed the NPnEOs mainly through degradation. Due to rapid degradation, concentrations of the long chain NPnEO homologous in both water (n ≥ 2 and the algal phase (n ≥ 5 was quite low at the end of a 48 h experiment.

  4. Anaerobic nonylphenol ethoxylate degradation coupled to nitrate reduction in a modified biodegradability batch test. (United States)

    Luppi, Lorena I; Hardmeier, Ivo; Babay, Paola A; Itria, Raúl F; Erijman, Leonardo


    The aim of this work was to elucidate the role of nitrate as a terminal electron acceptor on the biodegradation of NPEO. We have characterized the products of NPEO degradation by mixed microbial communities in anaerobic batch tests by means of HPLC, (1)H NMR and GC-MS. Anaerobic degradation of NPEO was strictly dependent on the presence of nitrate. Within seven days of anoxic incubation, NP2EO appeared as the major degradation product. After 21 days, NP was the main species detected, and was not degraded further even after 35 days. Nitrate concentration decreased in parallel with NPEO de-ethoxylation. A transient accumulation of nitrite was observed within the time period in which NP formation reached its maximum production. The observed generation of nonylphenol coupled to nitrate reduction suggests that the microbial consortium possessed an alternate pathway for the degradation of NPEO, which was not accessible under aerobic conditions.

  5. Fate of nonylphenol ethoxylate (NPEO) and its inhibitory impact on the biodegradation of acetate under aerobic conditions. (United States)

    Ekdal, Alpaslan


    This study evaluated the kinetics of nonylphenol ethoxylate (NPEO) and acetate biodegradation at a moderate sludge age by acclimated culture under aerobic conditions. A laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactor was set and fed only with acetate mixture. The system was operated at steady state with a sludge age of 8 days. Following this stage, a mixture of NPEO and acetate was fed to the mixed culture in order to assess the biodegradation kinetics of NPEO and its impact on acetate utilization. A mechanistic model was developed involving model components and kinetic parameters for both substrates. The model was calibrated with parameters such as oxygen uptake rate and polyhydroxyalkanoates. Biodegradation characteristics and kinetics of acetate and NPEO were estimated by using the model results. Evaluation of calibrated model indicated that exposure of NPEO to non-acclimated sludge caused significant inhibitory impact on the utilization and storage of acetate. However, acclimation ofbiomass greatly suppressed inhibitory effects of NPEO on growth process involved in the degradation of acetate.

  6. Degradation behaviors of nonylphenol ethoxylates by isolated bacteria using improved isolation method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Xin; ZHANG Yu; ZHANG Jing; YANG Min; Hideyuki Tamaki; Yoichi Kamagata


    Nonylphenol ethoxylate (NPEO)-degrading bacteria were isolated from activated sludge using an improved isolation method, and the corresponding degradation behaviours were investigated. Eight NPEO-degrading strains distributed in genera Pseudomonas, Sphingomonas, Sphingobium, Cupriavidus, Ralstonia, Achromobacter, and Staphylococcus were acquired. The latter five genera have never been reported for the degradation of NPEOs. Four degradation patterns were observed for the eight pure strains. In pattern A, NPEOs were converted to short-chain NPEOs and carboxylated products, while in pattern B, lower ethoxylated oligomers appeared. Nonylphenol monoethoxylate was the main product in pattern C, while in pattern D ethoxylated units was oxidized but not shortened. Pattern C and D have not yet been reported.

  7. Aerobic biodegradation of a nonylphenol polyethoxylate and toxicity of the biodegradation metabolites. (United States)

    Jurado, Encarnación; Fernández-Serrano, Mercedes; Núñez-Olea, Josefa; Lechuga, Manuela


    In this paper a study was made of the biodegradation of a non-ionic surfactant, a nonylphenol polyethoxylate, in biodegradability tests by monitoring the residual surfactant matter. The influence of the concentration on the extent of primary biodegradation, the toxicity of biodegradation metabolites, and the kinetics of degradation were also determined. The primary biodegradation was studied at different initial concentrations: 5, 25 and 50 mg/L, (at sub-and supra-critical micelle concentration). The NPEO used in this study can be considered biodegradable since the primary biodegradation had already taken place (a biodegradation greater than 80% was found for the different initial concentration tested). The initial concentration affected the shape of the resulting curve, the mean biodegradation rate and the percentage of biodegradation reached (99% in less than 8 days at 5 mg/L, 98% in less than 13 days at 25 mg/L and 95% in 14 days at 50 mg/L). The kinetic model of Quiroga and Sales (1991) was applied to predict the biodegradation of the NPEO. The toxicity value was measured as EC(20) and EC(50). In addition, during the biodegradation process of the surfactant a toxicity analysis was made of the evolution of metabolites generated, confirming that the subproducts of the biodegradation process were more toxic than the original.

  8. Aerobic degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls

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    Pieper, D.H. [Dept. of Environmental Microbiology, German Research Center for Biotechnology, Braunschweig (Germany)


    The microbial degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has been extensively studied in recent years. The genetic organization of biphenyl catabolic genes has been elucidated in various groups of microorganisms, their structures have been analyzed with respect to their evolutionary relationships, and new information on mobile elements has become available. Key enzymes, specifically biphenyl 2,3-dioxygenases, have been intensively characterized, structure/sequence relationships have been determined and enzymes optimized for PCB transformation. However, due to the complex metabolic network responsible for PCB degradation, optimizing degradation by single bacterial species is necessarily limited. As PCBs are usually not mineralized by biphenyl-degrading organisms, and cometabolism can result in the formation of toxic metabolites, the degradation of chlorobenzoates has received special attention. A broad set of bacterial strategies to degrade chlorobenzoates has recently been elucidated, including new pathways for the degradation of chlorocatechols as central intermediates of various chloroaromatic catabolic pathways. To optimize PCB degradation in the environment beyond these metabolic limitations, enhancing degradation in the rhizosphere has been suggested, in addition to the application of surfactants to overcome bioavailability barriers. However, further research is necessary to understand the complex interactions between soil/sediment, pollutant, surfactant and microorganisms in different environments. (orig.)

  9. Degradation pathways of low-ethoxylated nonylphenols by isolated bacteria using an improved method. (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Gu, Xin; Zhang, Jing; Yang, Min


    Nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEOs) with low ethoxylation degree (NPav₂EO; containing two ethoxy units on average) and estrogenic properties are the intermediate products of nonionic surfactant NPEOs. To better understand the environmental fate of low-ethoxylated NPEOs, phylogenetically diverse low-ethoxylated NPEO-degrading bacteria were isolated from activated sludge using gellan gum as the gelling reagent. Four isolates belonging to four genera, i.e., Pseudomonas sp. NP522b in γ-Proteobacteria, Variovorax sp. NP427b and Ralstonia sp. NP47a in β-Proteobacteria, and Sphingomonas sp. NP42a in α-Proteobacteria were acquired. Ralstonia sp. NP47a or Sphingomonas sp. NP42a, have not been reported for the degradation of low-ethoxylated NPEOs previously. The biotransformation pathways of these isolates were investigated. The first three strains (NP522b, NP427b, and NP47a) exhibited high NPav₂EO oxidation ability by oxidizing the polyethoxy (EO) chain to form low-ethoxylated nonylphenoxy carboxylates, and then further oxidizing the alkyl chain to form carboxyalkylphenol polyethoxycarboxylates. Furthermore, Sphingomonas sp. NP42a degraded NPav2EO through a nonoxidative pathway with nonylphenol monoethoxylate as the dominant product.

  10. Exploring the potential of applying proteomics for tracking bisphenol A and nonylphenol degradation in activated sludge. (United States)

    Collado, Neus; Buttiglieri, Gianluigi; Kolvenbach, Boris A; Comas, Joaquim; Corvini, Philippe F-X; Rodríguez-Roda, Ignasi


    A significant percentage of bisphenol A and nonylphenol removal in municipal wastewater treatment plants relies on biodegradation. Nonetheless, incomplete information is available concerning their degradation pathways performed by microbial communities in activated sludge systems. Hydroquinone dioxygenase (HQDO) is a specific degradation marker enzyme, involved in bisphenol A and nonylphenol biodegradation, and it can be produced by axenic cultures of the bacterium Sphingomonas sp. strain TTNP3. Proteomics, a technique based on the analysis of microbial community proteins, was applied to this strain. The bacterium proteome map was obtained and a HQDO subunit was successfully identified. Additionally, the reliability of the applied proteomics protocol was evaluated in activated sludge samples. Proteins belonging to Sphingomonas were searched at decreasing biomass ratios, i.e. serially diluting the bacterium in activated sludge. The protein patterns were compared and Sphingomonas proteins were discriminated against the ones from sludge itself on 2D-gels. The detection limit of the applied protocol was defined as 10(-3) g TTNP3 g(-1) total suspended solids (TSSs). The results proved that proteomics can be a promising methodology to assess the presence of specific enzymes in activated sludge samples, however improvements of its sensitivity are still needed.

  11. Degradation of the commercial surfactant nonylphenol ethoxylate by advanced oxidation processes. (United States)

    da Silva, Salatiel Wohlmuth; Klauck, Cláudia Regina; Siqueira, Marco Antônio; Bernardes, Andréa Moura


    Four different oxidation process, namely direct photolysis (DP) and three advanced oxidation processes (heterogeneous photocatalysis - HP, eletrochemical oxidation - EO and photo-assisted electrochemical oxidation - PEO) were applied in the treatment of wastewater containing nonylphenol ethoxylate (NPnEO). The objective of this work was to determine which treatment would be the best option in terms of degradation of NPnEO without the subsequent generation of toxic compounds. In order to investigate the degradation of the surfactant, the processes were compared in terms of UV/Vis spectrum, mineralization (total organic carbon), reaction kinetics, energy efficiency and phytotoxicity. A solution containing NPnEO was prepared as a surrogate of the degreasing wastewater, was used in the processes. The results showed that the photo-assisted processes degrade the surfactant, producing biodegradable intermediates in the reaction. On the other hand, the electrochemical process influences the mineralization of the surfactant. The process of PEO carried out with a 250W lamp and a current density of 10mA/cm(2) showed the best results in terms of degradation, mineralization, reaction kinetics and energy consumption, in addition to not presenting phytotoxicity. Based on this information, this process can be a viable alternative for treating wastewater containing NPnEO, avoiding the contamination of water resources.

  12. Degradation of the commercial surfactant nonylphenol ethoxylate by advanced oxidation processes

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    Wohlmuth da Silva, Salatiel, E-mail: [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS) – Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Minas, Metalúrgica e de Materiais (PPGEM), Av. Bento Gonçalves, 9500, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Klauck, Cláudia Regina, E-mail: [Universidade Feevale, Campus II ERS-239, 2755, Novo Hamburgo, RS (Brazil); Siqueira, Marco Antônio, E-mail: [Universidade Feevale, Campus II ERS-239, 2755, Novo Hamburgo, RS (Brazil); Bernardes, Andréa Moura, E-mail: [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS) – Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Minas, Metalúrgica e de Materiais (PPGEM), Av. Bento Gonçalves, 9500, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)


    Highlights: • NP{sub 4}EO in industrial effluents can be treated before reaching water reservoirs. • Advanced oxidation processes are proposed for the degradation of NP{sub 4}EO. • The degradation rate depends mainly on the light intensity. • The mineralization rate depends mainly on the current density. • Photo-assisted electrochemical oxidation showed the best degradation results. - Abstract: Four different oxidation process, namely direct photolysis (DP) and three advanced oxidation processes (heterogeneous photocatalysis – HP, eletrochemical oxidation – EO and photo-assisted electrochemical oxidation – PEO) were applied in the treatment of wastewater containing nonylphenol ethoxylate (NP{sub n}EO). The objective of this work was to determine which treatment would be the best option in terms of degradation of NP{sub n}EO without the subsequent generation of toxic compounds. In order to investigate the degradation of the surfactant, the processes were compared in terms of UV/Vis spectrum, mineralization (total organic carbon), reaction kinetics, energy efficiency and phytotoxicity. A solution containing NP{sub n}EO was prepared as a surrogate of the degreasing wastewater, was used in the processes. The results showed that the photo-assisted processes degrade the surfactant, producing biodegradable intermediates in the reaction. On the other hand, the electrochemical process influences the mineralization of the surfactant. The process of PEO carried out with a 250 W lamp and a current density of 10 mA/cm{sup 2} showed the best results in terms of degradation, mineralization, reaction kinetics and energy consumption, in addition to not presenting phytotoxicity. Based on this information, this process can be a viable alternative for treating wastewater containing NP{sub n}EO, avoiding the contamination of water resources.

  13. Isolation and characterization of Sphingomonas sp. Y2 capable of high-efficiency degradation of nonylphenol polyethoxylates in wastewater. (United States)

    Bai, Naling; Wang, Sheng; Abuduaini, Rexiding; Zhu, Xufen; Zhao, Yuhua


    Nonylphenol polyethoxylates (NPEOs), although banned for decades, are still widely used in manufactories and thus affect human lives. In this study, a highly efficient NPEO-degrading bacterium, Sphingomonas sp. Y2, was isolated from sewage sludge by enrichment culture. Strain Y2 ensured the complete removal of NPEO in 48 h and degraded 99.2 % NPEO (1,000 mg L(-1)) within 30 h at a specific growth rate of 0.73 h(-1) in minimum salt medium. To date, this degradation efficiency is the highest reported for NPEO metabolism by a pure bacterium under this condition. Furthermore, the application of this bacterium to wastewater treatment demonstrated that it metabolized 98.5 % NPEO (1,000 mg L(-1)) within 5 days with a specific growth rate of 2.03 day(-1). The degradation intermediates, identified as nonylphenol, short-chain NPEOs and short-chain nonylphenol polyethoxycarboxylates by high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, indicated the sequential exo-cleavage of the EO chain. Additionally, the enzymes involved in the biodegradation were inducible rather than constitutive. Considering that strain Y2 exhibits prominent biodegradation advantages in industrial wastewater treatment, it might serve as a promising potential candidate for in situ bioremediation of contamination by NPEOs and other structurally similar compounds.

  14. Degradation and mobility of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate and nonylphenol in sludge-amended soil. (United States)

    Jacobsen, Anne Marie; Mortensen, Gerda Krog; Hansen, Hans Christian Bruun


    Degradation and mobility of the surfactants linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) and nonylphenol (NP) were investigated in a lysimeter study using a sandy loam soil and 45-cm soil columns. Anaerobically digested sewage sludge was incorporated in the top-15-cm soil layer to an initial content of 38 mg LAS and 0.56 mg NP kg(-1) dry wt., respectively. Spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) was sown onto the columns. The lysimeters were placed outdoors and therefore received natural precipitation, but were also irrigated to a total amount of water equivalent to 700 mm of precipitation. Leachate and soil samples from three soil layers were collected continuously during a growth period of 110 d. Leachate samples and soil extracts were concentrated by solid-phase extraction (SPE) and analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection. The concentrations in the top-15-cm soil layer declined to 25 and 45% of the initial contents for LAS and NP, respectively, within the first 10 d of the study. At the end of the study, less than 1% LAS was left, while the NP content was below the detection limit. Assuming first-order degradation kinetics, half-lives of 20 and 37 d were estimated for LAS and NP, respectively. The surfactants were not measured in leachate samples in concentrations above the analytical detection limits of 4.0 and 0.5 microg L(-1) for LAS and NP, respectively. In addition, neither LAS nor NP were measured in concentrations above the detection limits of 150 and 50 microg kg(-1) dry wt., respectively, in soil layers below the 15 cm of sludge incorporation, indicating negligible downward transport of the surfactants in the lysimeters.

  15. Enhanced selection of micro-aerobic pentachlorophenol degrading granular sludge

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    Lv, Yuancai, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Pulp and Paper Engineering, College of Light Industry and Food Science, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Chen, Yuancai, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Pulp and Paper Engineering, College of Light Industry and Food Science, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Ecological Remediation for Industrial Agglomeration Area, College of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Song, Wenzhe, E-mail: [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Ecological Remediation for Industrial Agglomeration Area, College of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Hu, Yongyou, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Pulp and Paper Engineering, College of Light Industry and Food Science, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Ecological Remediation for Industrial Agglomeration Area, College of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China)


    Graphical abstract: In this work, an aerobic column reactor was placed before the USB to maintain micro-oxygen condition in the reactor and the micro-aerobic pentachlorophenol (PCP) degrading granular sludge under oxygen-limited conditions (0.1–0.2 mg L{sup −1}) was successfully obtained. PCP degradation by the micro-aerobic system was studied and the variance of microbial community was also discussed by using PCR-DGGE analysis. - Highlights: • Micro-aerobic granular sludge was cultivated in column-type combined reactors. • PCP biodegradation, VFA accumulation and biogas production were studied. • The function of Methanogenic archaeon in the system was investigated. • Fluctuation and diversity of microbial community were discussed by DGGE analysis. • The dominated microorganisms were identified by 16S rDNA sequences. - Abstract: Column-type combined reactors were designed to cultivate micro-aerobic pentachlorophenol (PCP) degrading granular sludge under oxygen-limited conditions (0.1–0.2 mg L{sup −1}) over 39-day experimental period. Micro-aerobic granular had both anaerobic activity (SMA: 2.34 mMCH{sub 4}/h g VSS) and aerobic activity (SOUR: 2.21 mMO{sub 2}/h g VSS). Metabolite analysis results revealed that PCP was sequentially dechlorinated to TCP, DCP, and eventually to MCP. Methanogens were not directly involved in the dechlorination of PCP, but might played a vital role in stabilizing the overall structure of the granule sludge. For Eubacteria, the Shannon Index (2.09 in inoculated granular sludge) increased both in micro-aerobic granular sludge (2.61) and PCP-degradation granular sludge (2.55). However, for Archaea, it decreased from 2.53 to 1.85 and 1.84, respectively. Although the Shannon Index demonstrated slight difference between micro-aerobic granular sludge and PCP-degradation granular sludge, the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) indicated obvious variance of the microbial composition, revealing significant effect of micro-aerobic

  16. Degradation of organic pollutants in sewage sludge by aerobic-thermophilic sludge treatment. Final report; Abbau organischer Schadstoffe im Klaerschlamm durch aerob-thermophile Schlammbehandlung. Abschlussbericht

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    Prechtl, S.


    A process for reduction of organic polllutants in sewage sludge was to be developed and optimized. The organic fraction of the solid matter in sewage sludge containes more than 300 different pollutant. Apart from the substances classified in the Sewage Sludge Ordinance (dioxins/furans, PCB), there are others that have been considered relevant as well but for which no sufficient data base is available. The research project investigated whether aerobic-thermophilic treatment (AT) would improve the sewage sludge quality with regard to phthalates (di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, DEHP), PAH and 4-nonylphenol (4-NP, a degradation product of nonionic tensides). Pollutants were analzyed by HPLC and GC/MS. The concentration of DEHP and 4-NP was reduced by 70% resp. 50% in laboratory experiments with doped sludges and by 61% resp. 53% in undoped sludges. In semi-industrial tests, a 14% reduction was achieved for DEHP and a 68% reduction for 4-NP. In the case of pyrene, the degradation was up to 57% in the laboratory experiments and 22% in semi-industrial tests. A combined process of short-term anaerobic digestion and AT resulted in a 60% reduction in the case of DEHP. Up to anthracene, PAH were reduced as well. In the case of higher-condensed PAH (basic load in the ppb range) there was no clear result. In the case of 4-NP, the degradation effect was counterbalanced by the formation of new 4-NP from alkylphenol ethoxylates in both anaerobic and aerobic conditions. The results prove the correlation between sewage sludge hygienisation and the time of residue in the reactor system. No enterobacteriaceae were found after a treatment of 96 h, both in the semi-industrial and the laboratory reactors. In activated sludge, a phenol-degrading mixed bacteria culture could be isolated which was also capable of degrading 4-NP in thermophilic conditions. [German] Das Ziel des Forschungsvorhabens war die Entwicklung/Optimierung eines Verfahrens zur Reduktion organischer Schadstoffe im

  17. Nitroglycerin degradation mediated by soil organic carbon under aerobic conditions. (United States)

    Bordeleau, Geneviève; Martel, Richard; Bamba, Abraham N'Valoua; Blais, Jean-François; Ampleman, Guy; Thiboutot, Sonia


    The presence of nitroglycerin (NG) has been reported in shallow soils and pore water of several military training ranges. In this context, NG concentrations can be reduced through various natural attenuation processes, but these have not been thoroughly documented. This study aimed at investigating the role of soil organic matter (SOM) in the natural attenuation of NG, under aerobic conditions typical of shallow soils. The role of SOM in NG degradation has already been documented under anoxic conditions, and was attributed to SOM-mediated electron transfer involving different reducing agents. However, unsaturated soils are usually well-oxygenated, and it was not clear whether SOM could participate in NG degradation under these conditions. Our results from batch- and column-type experiments clearly demonstrate that in presence of dissolved organic matter (DOM) leached from a natural soil, partial NG degradation can be achieved. In presence of particulate organic matter (POM) from the same soil, complete NG degradation was achieved. Furthermore, POM caused rapid sorption of NG, which should result in NG retention in the organic matter-rich shallow horizons of the soil profile, thus promoting degradation. Based on degradation products, the reaction pathway appears to be reductive, in spite of the aerobic conditions. The relatively rapid reaction rates suggest that this process could significantly participate in the natural attenuation of NG, both on military training ranges and in contaminated soil at production facilities.

  18. Degradation of toxaphene in water during anaerobic and aerobic conditions. (United States)

    LacayoR, M; van Bavel, B; Mattiasson, B


    The degradation of technical toxaphene in water with two kinds of bioreactors operating in sequence was studied. One packed bed reactor was filled with Poraver (foam glass particles) running at anaerobic conditions and one suspended carrier biofilm reactor working aerobically. Chemical oxygen demand (COD), chloride, sulphate, pH, dissolved oxygen, total toxaphene and specific toxaphene isomers were measured. After 6 weeks approx. 87% of the total toxaphene was degraded reaching 98% by week 39. The majority of the conversion took place in the anaerobic reactor. The concentrations of toxaphene isomers with more chlorine substituents decreased more rapidly than for isomers with less chlorine substituents.

  19. Purification and Characterization of a Nonylphenol (NP)-degrading Enzyme from Bacillus cereus.Frankland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ge; ZHANG Ying; BAI Yanfen


    An extracellular NP-degrading enzyme secreted by Bacillus cereus.Frankland was purified to homogeneity by a combination of ammonium sulfate precipitation,Phenyl-Sepharose hydrophobic-interaction chromatography and DEAE anion-exchange chromatography.On SDS(sodium dodecyl sulfate)-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis,the purified enzyme showed a relative molecular mass of 58.3 kDa.The depolymerzation of subunits was accompanied with the loss of NP-degrading enzyme activity,and removing denaturing factors by dialysis could restore the dimer structure and enzymatic activity.The enzyme had an isoelectric point of 5.5 and an optimal temperature of 60℃,and was the most active at pH 6.0.The enzymatic activity was stable at pH 4-8 and inhibited by Cu2+.TenN-terminal amino acids were determined to be ASVNSIKIGY,demonstrating that the purified enzyme was a novel one.The hydrolysis pattern of the purified enzyme indicated that the NP-degrading enzyme was an endo NP-degrading enzyme.The extraordinary thermo-stability provided the enzyme with a good prospect to be used as a new tool for clean-production process for textile industry.

  20. Enzymes and Genes Involved in Aerobic Alkane Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongze eShao


    Full Text Available Alkanes are major constituents of crude oil. They are also present at low concentrations in diverse non-contaminated because many living organisms produce them as chemo-attractants or as protecting agents against water loss. Alkane degradation is a widespread phenomenon in nature. The numerous microorganisms, both prokaryotic and eukaryotic, capable of utilizing alkanes as a carbon and energy source, have been isolated and characterized. This review summarizes the current knowledge of how bacteria metabolize alkanes aerobically, with a particular emphasis on the oxidation of long-chain alkanes, including factors that are responsible for chemotaxis to alkanes , transport across cell membrane of alkanes , the regulation of alkane degradation gene and initial oxidation.

  1. Aerobic degradation of sulfanilic acid using activated sludge. (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Cheng, Ka Yu; Ginige, Maneesha P; Kaksonen, Anna H


    This paper evaluates the aerobic degradation of sulfanilic acid (SA) by an acclimatized activated sludge. The sludge was enriched for over three months with SA (>500 mg/L) as the sole carbon and energy source and dissolved oxygen (DO, >5mg/L) as the primary electron acceptor. Effects of aeration rate (0-1.74 L/min), DO concentration (0-7 mg/L) and initial SA concentration (104-1085 mg/L) on SA biodegradation were quantified. A modified Haldane substrate inhibition model was used to obtain kinetic parameters of SA biodegradation and oxygen uptake rate (OUR). Positive linear correlations were obtained between OUR and SA degradation rate (R(2)≥ 0.91). Over time, the culture consumed more oxygen per SA degraded, signifying a gradual improvement in SA mineralization (mass ratio of O(2): SA at day 30, 60 and 120 were 0.44, 0.51 and 0.78, respectively). The concomitant release of near stoichiometric quantity of sulphate (3.2 mmol SO(4)(2-) released from 3.3 mmol SA) and the high chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficacy (97.1%) indicated that the enriched microbial consortia could drive the overall SA oxidation close to a complete mineralization. In contrast to other pure-culture systems, the ammonium released from the SA oxidation was predominately converted into nitrate, revealing the presence of ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in the mixed culture. No apparent inhibitory effect of SA on the nitrification was noted. This work also indicates that aerobic SA biodegradation could be monitored by real-time DO measurement.

  2. Aerobic degradation and photolysis of tylosin in water and soil. (United States)

    Hu, Dingfei; Coats, Joel R


    Veterinary antibiotics enter the environment through the application of organic fertilizers to cropland. In this study, the aerobic degradation of tylosin, a widely used antibiotic in the production of livestock and poultry, was conducted in water and in soil in an effort to further investigate its environmental fate. Tylosin is a macrolide antibiotic, which consists of four factors (A, B, C, D). Water and soil were sampled at selected times and analyzed for tylosin and its degradation products by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), with product identification confirmed by HPLC-mass spectrometry. Tylosin A is degraded with a half-life of 200 d in the light in water, and the total loss of tylosin A in the dark is 6% of the initial spiked amount during the experimental period. Tylosin C and D are relatively stable except in ultrapure water in the light. Slight increases of tylosin B after two months and formation of two photoreaction isomers of tylosin A were observed under exposure to light. However, tylosin probably would degrade faster if the experimental containers did not prevent ultraviolet transmission. In soil, tylosin A has a dissipation half-life of 7 d, and tylosin D is slightly more stable, with a dissipation half-life of 8 d in unsterilized and sterilized soil. Sorption and abiotic degradation are the major factors influencing the loss of tylosin in the environment, and no biotic degradation was observed at the test concentration either in pond water or in an agronomic soil, as determined by comparing dissipation profiles in sterilized and unsterilized conditions.

  3. Acclimation of aerobic-activated sludge degrading benzene derivatives and co-metabolic degradation activities of trichloroethylene by benzene derivative-grown aerobic sludge. (United States)

    Wang, Shizong; Yang, Qi; Bai, Zhiyong; Wang, Shidong; Wang, Yeyao; Nowak, Karolina M


    The acclimation of aerobic-activated sludge for degradation of benzene derivatives was investigated in batch experiments. Phenol, benzoic acid, toluene, aniline and chlorobenzene were concurrently added to five different bioreactors which contained the aerobic-activated sludge. After the acclimation process ended, the acclimated phenol-, benzoic acid-, toluene-, aniline- and chlorobenzene-grown aerobic-activated sludge were used to explore the co-metabolic degradation activities of trichloroethylene (TCE). Monod equation was employed to simulate the kinetics of co-metabolic degradation of TCE by benzene derivative-grown sludge. At the end of experiments, the mixed microbial communities grown under different conditions were identified. The results showed that the acclimation periods of microorganisms for different benzene derivatives varied. The maximum degradation rates of TCE for phenol-, benzoic acid-, toluene-, aniline- and chlorobenzene-grown aerobic sludge were 0.020, 0.017, 0.016, 0.0089 and 0.0047 mg g SS(-1) h(-1), respectively. The kinetic of TCE degradation in the absence of benzene derivative followed Monod equation well. Also, eight phyla were observed in the acclimated benzene derivative-grown aerobic sludge. Each of benzene derivative-grown aerobic sludge had different microbial community composition. This study can hopefully add new knowledge to the area of TCE co-metabolic by mixed microbial communities, and further the understanding on the function and applicability of aerobic-activated sludge.

  4. Degradation of acid orange 7 in an aerobic biofilm. (United States)

    Coughlin, Michael F; Kinkle, Brian K; Bishop, Paul L


    A stable microbial biofilm community capable of completely mineralizing the azo dye acid orange 7 (AO7) was established in a laboratory scale rotating drum bioreactor (RDBR) using waste liquor from a sewage treatment plant. A broad range of environmental conditions including pH (5.8-8.2), nitrification (0.0-4.0 mM nitrite), and aeration (0.2-6.2 mg O2 l(-1)) were evaluated for their effects on the biodegradation of AO7. Furthermore the biofilm maintained its biodegradative ability for over a year while the effects of these environmental conditions were evaluated. Reduction of the azo bond followed by degradation of the resulting aromatic amine appears to be the mechanism by which this dye is biodegraded. Complete loss of color, sulfanilic acid, and chemical oxygen demand (COD) indicate that AO7 is mineralized. To our knowledge this is the first reported occurrence of a sulfonated phenylazonaphthol dye being completely mineralized under aerobic conditions. Two bacterial strains (ICX and SAD4i) originally isolated from the RDBR were able to mineralize, in co-culture, up to 90% of added AO7. During mineralization of AO7, strain ICX reduces the azo bond under aerobic conditions and consumes the resulting cleavage product 1-amino-2-naphthol. Strain SAD4i consumes the other cleavage product, sulfanilic acid. The ability of the RDBR biofilm to aerobically mineralize an azo dye without exogenous carbon and nitrogen sources suggests that this approach could be used to remediate industrial wastewater contaminated with spent dye.

  5. Aerobic cyanide degradation by bacterial isolates from cassava factory wastewater. (United States)

    Kandasamy, Sujatha; Dananjeyan, Balachandar; Krishnamurthy, Kumar; Benckiser, Gero


    Ten bacterial strains that utilize cyanide (CN) as a nitrogen source were isolated from cassava factory wastewater after enrichment in a liquid media containing sodium cyanide (1 mM) and glucose (0.2% w/v). The strains could tolerate and grow in cyanide concentrations of up to 5 mM. Increased cyanide levels in the media caused an extension of lag phase in the bacterial growth indicating that they need some period of acclimatisation. The rate of cyanide removal by the strains depends on the initial cyanide and glucose concentrations. When initial cyanide and glucose concentrations were increased up to 5 mM, cyanide removal rate increased up to 63 and 61 per cent by Bacillus pumilus and Pseudomonas putida. Metabolic products such as ammonia and formate were detected in culture supernatants, suggesting a direct hydrolytic pathway without an intermediate formamide. The study clearly demonstrates the potential of aerobic treatment with cyanide degrading bacteria for cyanide removal in cassava factory wastewaters.

  6. Degradation of TCE using sequential anaerobic biofilm and aerobic immobilized bed reactor (United States)

    Chapatwala, Kirit D.; Babu, G. R. V.; Baresi, Larry; Trunzo, Richard M.


    Bacteria capable of degrading trichloroethylene (TCE) were isolated from contaminated wastewaters and soil sites. The aerobic cultures were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (four species) and Pseudomonas fluorescens. The optimal conditions for the growth of aerobic cultures were determined. The minimal inhibitory concentration values of TCE for Pseudomonas sps. were also determined. The aerobic cells were immobilized in calcium alginate in the form of beads. Degradation of TCE by the anaerobic and dichloroethylene (DCE) by aerobic cultures was studied using dual reactors - anaerobic biofilm and aerobic immobilized bed reactor. The minimal mineral salt (MMS) medium saturated with TCE was pumped at the rate of 1 ml per hour into the anaerobic reactor. The MMS medium saturated with DCE and supplemented with xylenes and toluene (3 ppm each) was pumped at the rate of 1 ml per hour into the fluidized air-uplift-type reactor containing the immobilized aerobic cells. The concentrations of TCE and DCE and the metabolites formed during their degradation by the anaerobic and aerobic cultures were monitored by GC. The preliminary study suggests that the anaerobic and aerobic cultures of our isolates can degrade TCE and DCE.

  7. The degradability of biodegradable plastics in aerobic and anaerobic waste landfill model reactors. (United States)

    Ishigaki, Tomonori; Sugano, Wataru; Nakanishi, Akane; Tateda, Masafumi; Ike, Michihiko; Fujita, Masanori


    Degradabilities of four kinds of commercial biodegradable plastics (BPs), polyhydroxybutyrate and hydroxyvalerate (PHBV) plastic, polycaprolactone plastic (PCL), blend of starch and polyvinyl alcohol (SPVA) plastic and cellulose acetate (CA) plastic were investigated in waste landfill model reactors that were operated as anaerobically and aerobically. The application of forced aeration to the landfill reactor for supplying aerobic condition could potentially stimulate polymer-degrading microorganisms. However, the individual degradation behavior of BPs under the aerobic condition was completely different. PCL, a chemically synthesized BP, showed film breakage under the both conditions, which may have contributed to a reduction in the waste volume regardless of aerobic or anaerobic conditions. Effective degradation of PHBV plastic was observed in the aerobic condition, though insufficient degradation was observed in the anaerobic condition. But the aeration did not contribute much to accelerate the volume reduction of SPVA plastic and CA plastic. It could be said that the recalcitrant portions of the plastics such as polyvinyl alcohol in SPVA plastic and the highly substituted CA in CA plastic prevented the BP from degradation. These results indicated existence of the great variations in the degradability of BPs in aerobic and anaerobic waste landfills, and suggest that suitable technologies for managing the waste landfill must be combined with utilization of BPs in order to enhance the reduction of waste volume in landfill sites.

  8. Advances in Nonylphenols Residues and Their Behaviors in Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Ting-yu


    Full Text Available Nonylphenol, a kind of substances similar to environmental hormone, has biological toxicity, and prevalent in various environ-mental media, such as water, sludge and sediment. It can pose a threat to food safety, but we still lack of knowledge about the residual level of nonylphenol in soil. In this paper, the sources and residual status of nonylphenol in soil and other environmental media were summarized. The behavior processes of nonylphenol in soil were also analyzed, including adsorption and desorption, metabolic degradation, leaching and mi-gration, etc. Future work were also proposed to provide reference for further soil pollution survey and evaluation studies.

  9. Degradation of municipal solid waste in simulated landfill bioreactors under aerobic conditions. (United States)

    Slezak, Radoslaw; Krzystek, Liliana; Ledakowicz, Stanislaw


    In this study the municipal solid waste degradation processes in simulated landfill bioreactors under aerobic and anaerobic conditions is investigated. The effect of waste aeration on the dynamics of the aerobic degradation processes in lysimeters as well as during anaerobic processes after completion of aeration is presented. The results are compared with the anaerobic degradation process to determine the stabilization stage of waste in both experimental modes. The experiments in aerobic lysimeters were carried out at small aeration rate (4.41⋅10(-3)lmin(-1)kg(-1)) and for two recirculation rates (24.9 and 1.58lm(-3)d(-1)). The change of leachate and formed gases composition showed that the application of even a small aeration rate favored the degradation of organic matter. The amount of CO2 and CH4 released from anaerobic lysimeter was about 5 times lower than that from the aerobic lysimeters. Better stabilization of the waste was obtained in the aerobic lysimeter with small recirculation, from which the amount of CO2 produced was larger by about 19% in comparison with that from the aerobic lysimeter with large leachate recirculation.

  10. Biodegradation of polyethoxylated nonylphenols. (United States)

    Ruiz, Yassellis; Medina, Luis; Borusiak, Margarita; Ramos, Nairalith; Pinto, Gilberto; Valbuena, Oscar


    Polyethoxylated nonylphenols, with different ethoxylation degrees (NPEO x ), are incorporated into many commercial and industrial products such as detergents, domestic disinfectants, emulsifiers, cosmetics, and pesticides. However, the toxic effects exerted by their degradation products, which are persistent in natural environments, have been demonstrated in several animal and invertebrate aquatic species. Therefore, it seems appropriate to look for indigenous bacteria capable of degrading native NPEO x and its derivatives. In this paper, the isolation of five bacterial strains, capable of using NPEO 15 , as unique carbon source, is described. The most efficient NPEO 15 degrader bacterial strains were identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens (strain Yas2) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (strain Yas1). Maximal growth rates were reached at pH 8, 27°C in a 5% NPEO 15 medium. The NPEO 15 degradation extension, followed by viscometry assays, reached 65% after 54.5 h and 134 h incubation times, while the COD values decreased by 95% and 85% after 24 h for the Yas1 and Yas2 systems, respectively. The BOD was reduced by 99% and 99.9% levels in 24 h and 48 h incubations. The viscosity data indicated that the NPEO 15 biodegradation by Yas2 follows first-order kinetics. Kinetic rate constant (k) and half life time (τ) for this biotransformation were estimated to be 0.0072 h(-1) and 96.3 h, respectively.

  11. Aerobic and anaerobic microbial degradation of crude (4-methylcyclohexyl)methanol in river sediments. (United States)

    Yuan, Li; Zhi, Wei; Liu, Yangsheng; Smiley, Elizabeth; Gallagher, Daniel; Chen, Xi; Dietrich, Andrea; Zhang, Husen


    Cyclohexane and some of its derivatives have been a major concern because of their significant adverse human health effects and widespread occurrence in the environment. The 2014 West Virginia chemical spill has raised public attention to (4-methylcyclohexyl)methanol (4-MCHM), one cyclohexane derivative, which is widely used in coal processing but largely ignored. In particular, the environmental fate of its primary components, cis- and trans-4-MCHM, remains largely unexplored. This study aimed to investigate the degradation kinetics and mineralization of cis- and trans-4-MCHM by sediment microorganisms under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. We found the removal of cis- and trans-4-MCHM was mainly attributed to biodegradation with little contribution from sorption. A nearly complete aerobic degradation of 4-MCHM occurred within 14 days, whereas the anaerobic degradation was reluctant with residual percentages of 62.6% of cis-4-MCHM and 85.0% of trans-4-MCHM after 16-day incubation. The cis-4-MCHM was degraded faster than the trans under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions, indicating an isomer-specific degradation could occur during the 4-MCHM degradation. Nitrate addition enhanced 4-MCHM mineralization by about 50% under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Both cis- and trans-4-MCHM fit well with the first-order kinetic model with respective degradation rates of 0.46-0.52 and 0.19-0.31 day(-)(1) under aerobic condition. Respective degradation rates of 0.041-0.095 and 0.013-0.052 day(-)(1) occurred under anaerobic condition. One bacterial strain capable of effectively degrading 4-MCHM isomers was isolated from river sediments and identified as Bacillus pumilus at the species level based on 16S rRNA gene sequence and 97% identity. Our findings will provide critical information for improving the prediction of the environmental fate of 4-MCHM and other cyclohexane derivatives with similar structure as well as enhancing the development of feasible treatment

  12. Aerobic degradation potential of the herbicides mecoprop, dichlorprop and bentazone in groundwater from chalk aquifers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levi, Suzi; Hybel, Anne-Marie; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup;


    The aerobic degradation potential of mecoprop, dichlorprop and bentazone was studied at concentration of 1 μg/L in laboratory batch experiments with groundwater from chalk aquifers. Within the incubation period of 129 days, 14C-mecoprop concentration decreased to 60-80% in the microcosms with gro......The aerobic degradation potential of mecoprop, dichlorprop and bentazone was studied at concentration of 1 μg/L in laboratory batch experiments with groundwater from chalk aquifers. Within the incubation period of 129 days, 14C-mecoprop concentration decreased to 60-80% in the microcosms...

  13. Enhanced aerobic degradation of 4-chlorophenol with iron-nickel nanoparticles (United States)

    Shen, Wenjuan; Mu, Yi; Wang, Bingning; Ai, Zhihui; Zhang, Lizhi


    In this study, we demonstrate that the bimetallic iron-nickel nanoparticles (nZVIN) possessed an enhanced performance in comparison with nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) on aerobic degradation of 4-chlorophenol (4-CP). The 4-CP degradation rate constant in the aerobic nZVIN process (nZVIN/Air) was 5 times that in the classic nZVI counterpart system (nZVI/Air). Both reactive oxygen species measurement and inhibition experimental results suggested that hydroxyl radicals were the major active species contributed to aerobic 4-CP degradation with nZVI, on contrast, superoxide radicals predominated the 4-CP degradation in the nZVIN/Air process. High performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometer analysis indicated the intermediates of the nZVI/Air system were p-benzoquinone and hydroquinone, which were resulted from the bond cleavage between the chlorine and carbon atom in the benzene ring by hydroxyl radicals. However, the primary intermediates of 4-CP found in the nZVIN/Air system were phenol via the direct dechlorination by superoxide radicals, accompanying with the formation of chloride ions. On the base of experimental results, a superoxide radicals mediated enhancing mechanism was proposed for the aerobic degradation of 4-CP in the nZVIN/Air system. This study provides new insight into the role of bimetallic nickel on enhancing removal of organic pollutants with nZVI.

  14. The impact of nanoparticles on aerobic degradation of municipal solid waste. (United States)

    Yazici Guvenc, Senem; Alan, Burcu; Adar, Elanur; Bilgili, Mehmet Sinan


    The amount of nanoparticles released from industrial and consumer products has increased rapidly in the last decade. These products may enter landfills directly or indirectly after the end of their useful life. In order to determine the impact of TiO2 and Ag nanoparticles on aerobic landfilling processes, municipal solid waste was loaded to three pilot-scale aerobic landfill bioreactors (80 cm diameter and 350 cm height) and exposed to TiO2 (AT) and Ag (AA) nanoparticles at total concentrations of 100 mg kg(-1) of solid waste. Aerobic landfill bioreactors were operated under the conditions about 0.03 L min(-1) kg(-1) aeration rate for 250 days, during which the leachate, solid waste, and gas characteristics were measured. The results indicate that there was no significant difference in the leachate characteristics, gas constituents, solid quality parameters, and temperature variations, which are the most important indicators of landfill operations, and overall aerobic degradation performance between the reactors containing TiO2 and Ag nanoparticles, and control (AC) reactor. The data also indicate that the pH levels, ionic strength, and the complex formation capacity of nanoparticles with Cl(-) ions can reduce the toxicity effects of nanoparticles on aerobic degradation processes. The results suggest that TiO2 and Ag nanoparticles at concentrations of 100 mg kg(-1) of solid waste do not have significant impacts on aerobic biological processes and waste management systems.

  15. Degradation of alkenones by aerobic heterotrophic bacteria: Selective or not ?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rontani, J-F.; Harji, R.; Guasco, S.; Prahl, F.G.; Volkman, J.K.; Bhosle, N.B.; Bonin, P.

    of alkenones by aerobic heterotrophic bacteria: selective or not? Jean-François Rontani a *, Ranjita Harji a,b , Sophie Guasco a , Fredrick G. Prahl c , John K. Volkman d , Narayan B. Bhosle b , Patricia Bonin a a Laboratoire de Microbiologie de..., Corvallis, OR 97331-5503, US. d CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, GPO Box 1538, Hobart, Tasmania 7001, Australia * Corresponding author. Tel.: +33-4-91-82-96-51; fax: +33-4-91-82-96-41. E-mail address: (J...

  16. Interaction of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers and Aerobic Granular Sludge: Biosorption and Microbial Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shou-Qing Ni


    Full Text Available As a new category of persistent organic pollutants, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs have become ubiquitous global environmental contaminants. No literature is available on the aerobic biotransformation of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209. Herein, we investigated the interaction of PBDEs with aerobic granular sludge. The results show that the removal of BDE-209 from wastewater is mainly via biosorption onto aerobic granular sludge. The uptake capacity increased when temperature, contact time, and sludge dosage increased or solution pH dropped. Ionic strength had a negative influence on BDE-209 adsorption. The modified pseudo first-order kinetic model was appropriate to describe the adsorption kinetics. Microbial debromination of BDE-209 did not occur during the first 30 days of operation. Further study found that aerobic microbial degradation of 4,4′-dibromodiphenyl ether happened with the production of lower BDE congeners.

  17. Variability of Biological Degradation of Aromatic Hydrocarbons in an Aerobic Aquifer Determined by Laboratory Batch Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Henning; Christensen, Thomas Højlund


    The biological aerobic degradation of 7 aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, o-xylene, p-dichlorobenzene, o-dichlorobenzene, naphthalene and biphenyl) was studied for 149 days in replicate laboratory batch experiments with groundwater and sediment from 8 localities representing a 15 m × 30 m...

  18. Effect of the pollution level on the functional bacterial groups aiming at degrading bisphenol A and nonylphenol in natural biofilms of an urban river. (United States)

    Cai, Wei; Li, Yi; Wang, Peifang; Niu, Lihua; Zhang, Wenlong; Wang, Chao


    Bisphenol A (BPA) and 4-nonylphenol (NP) are ubiquitous pollutants with estrogenic activity in aquatic environment and have attracted global concern due to their disruption of endocrine systems. This study investigated the spatial distribution characteristics of the bacterial groups involved in the degradation of BPA and NP within biofilms in an urban river using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. The effects of the pollution level and water parameters on these groups were also assessed. Hierarchical cluster analysis grouped the sampling sites into three clusters reflecting their varying nutrient pollution levels of relatively slight pollution (SP), moderate pollution (MP), and high pollution (HP) based on water quality data and Environmental Quality Standard for Surface Water of China (GB3838-2002). The BPA and NP concentration in river water ranged from 0.8 to 77.5 and 10.2 to 162.9 ng L(-1), respectively. Comamonadaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, Alcaligenaceae, Bacillaceae, Sphingomonadacea, Burkholderiaceae, and Rhizobiaceae were the dominant bacterial taxa involved in BPA and NP degradation, comprising an average of 9.8, 8.1, 7.6, 6.7, 6.2, 4.1, and 2.8 % of total sequences, respectively. The total abundance of these groups showed a slight upward trend and subsequently rapidly decreased with increasing pollution levels. The average proportion of Comamonadaceae in MP river sections was almost 1.5-2 times than that in SP or HP one. The distribution of functional groups was found related to environmental variables, especially pH, conductivity, ammonium nitrogen (NH3-N), and BPA. The abundance of Comamonadaceae and Rhizobiaceae was both closely related to higher values of pH and conductivity as well as lower concentrations of NP and BPA. Alcaligenaceae and Pseudomonadaceae were associated with higher concentrations of TP and CODMn and inversely correlated with DO concentration. This study might provide effective data on

  19. Aerobic versus Anaerobic Microbial Degradation of Clothianidin under Simulated California Rice Field Conditions. (United States)

    Mulligan, Rebecca A; Tomco, Patrick L; Howard, Megan W; Schempp, Tabitha T; Stewart, Davis J; Stacey, Phillip M; Ball, David B; Tjeerdema, Ronald S


    Microbial degradation of clothianidin was characterized under aerobic and anaerobic California rice field conditions. Rate constants (k) and half-lives (DT50) were determined for aerobic and anaerobic microcosms, and an enrichment experiment was performed at various nutrient conditions and pesticide concentrations. Temperature effects on anaerobic degradation rates were determined at 22 ± 2 and 35 ± 2 °C. Microbial growth was assessed in the presence of various pesticide concentrations, and distinct colonies were isolated and identified. Slow aerobic degradation was observed, but anaerobic degradation occurred rapidly at both 25 and 35 °C. Transformation rates and DT50 values in flooded soil at 35 ± 2 °C (k = -7.16 × 10(-2) ± 3.08 × 10(-3) day(-1), DT50 = 9.7 days) were significantly faster than in 25 ± 2 °C microcosms (k= -2.45 × 10(-2) ± 1.59 × 10(-3) day(-1), DT50 = 28.3 days). At the field scale, biodegradation of clothianidin will vary with extent of oxygenation.

  20. Degradation of 1-(2-chlorobenzoyl)-3-(4-chlorophenyl) urea by nanoscale zerovalent iron under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. (United States)

    Lin, Haiying; Hou, Shaogang; Xie, Guohong; Yao, Ziwei; Zhou, Qingxiang


    The goal of present study was to investigate the applicability of nanoscale zerovalent iron (NZVI) on the degradation of 1-(2-chlorobenzoyl)-3-(4-chlorophenyl) urea (CCU) under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, respectively. The experimental results showed that NZVI could effectively degrade CCU, but the removal efficiencies were different under these two different conditions. The best removal efficiencies for CCU were 90.2 and 75.8% under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, respectively. The highly oxidative hydroxyl radicals and reductively hydrogen would account for the rapid degradation of CCU under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, respectively. The experimental results also showed that surfactant Tween 20 significantly inhibited the degradation of CCU under aerobic conditions. However it markedly enhanced the degradation of CCU under anaerobic condition.

  1. Ammonium-oxidizing bacteria facilitate aerobic degradation of sulfanilic acid in activated sludge. (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Ginige, Maneesha P; Kaksonen, Anna H; Cheng, Ka Yu


    Sulfanilic acid (SA) is a toxic sulfonated aromatic amine commonly found in anaerobically treated azo dye contaminated effluents. Aerobic acclimatization of SA-degrading mixed microbial culture could lead to co-enrichment of ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) because of the concomitant release of ammonium from SA oxidation. To what extent the co-enriched AOB would affect SA oxidation at various ammonium concentrations was unclear. Here, a series of batch kinetic experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of AOB on aerobic SA degradation in an acclimatized activated sludge culture capable of oxidizing SA and ammonium simultaneously. To account for the effect of AOB on SA degradation, allylthiourea was used to inhibit AOB activity in the culture. The results indicated that specific SA degradation rate of the mixed culture was negatively correlated with the initial ammonium concentration (0-93 mM, R²= 0.99). The presence of AOB accelerated SA degradation by reducing the inhibitory effect of ammonium (≥ 10 mM). The Haldane substrate inhibition model was used to correlate substrate concentration (SA and ammonium) and oxygen uptake rate. This study revealed, for the first time, that AOB could facilitate SA degradation at high concentration of ammonium (≥ 10 mM) in an enriched activated sludge culture.

  2. Effects of environmental conditions on aerobic degradation of a commercial naphthenic acid. (United States)

    Kinley, Ciera M; Gaspari, Daniel P; McQueen, Andrew D; Rodgers, John H; Castle, James W; Friesen, Vanessa; Haakensen, Monique


    Naphthenic acids (NAs) are problematic constituents in energy-derived waters, and aerobic degradation may provide a strategy for mitigating risks to aquatic organisms. The overall objective of this study was to determine the influence of concentrations of N (as ammonia) and P (as phosphate), and DO, as well as pH and temperatures on degradation of a commercial NA in bench-scale reactors. Commercial NAs provided replicable compounds necessary to compare influences of environmental conditions on degradation. NAs were quantified using high performance liquid chromatography. Microbial diversity and relative abundance were measured in treatments as explanatory parameters for potential effects of environmental conditions on microbial populations to support analytically measured NA degradation. Environmental conditions that positively influenced degradation rates of Fluka NAs included nutrients (C:N 10:1-500:1, C:P 100:1-5000:1), DO (4.76-8.43 mg L(-1)), pH (6-8), and temperature (5-25 °C). Approximately 50% removal of 61 ± 8 mg L(-1) was achieved in less than 2 d after NA introduction, achieving the method detection limit (5 mg L(-1)) by day 6 of the experiment in treatments with a C:N:P ratio of 100:10:1, DO > 8 mg L(-1), pH ∼8-9, and temperatures >23 °C. Microbial diversity was lowest in lower temperature treatments (6-16 °C), which may have resulted in observed slower NA degradation. Based on results from this study, when macro- and micronutrients were available, DO, pH, and temperature (within environmentally relevant ranges) influenced rates of aerobic degradation of Fluka NAs. This study could serve as a model for systematically evaluating environmental factors that influence NA degradation in field scenarios.

  3. Aerobic degradation of trichloroethylene by co-metabolism using phenol and gasoline as growth substrates. (United States)

    Li, Yan; Li, Bing; Wang, Cui-Ping; Fan, Jun-Zhao; Sun, Hong-Wen


    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a common groundwater contaminant of toxic and carcinogenic concern. Aerobic co-metabolic processes are the predominant pathways for TCE complete degradation. In this study, Pseudomonas fluorescens was studied as the active microorganism to degrade TCE under aerobic condition by co-metabolic degradation using phenol and gasoline as growth substrates. Operating conditions influencing TCE degradation efficiency were optimized. TCE co-metabolic degradation rate reached the maximum of 80% under the optimized conditions of degradation time of 3 days, initial OD600 of microorganism culture of 0.14 (1.26×10⁷ cell/mL), initial phenol concentration of 100 mg/L, initial TCE concentration of 0.1 mg/L, pH of 6.0, and salinity of 0.1%. The modified transformation capacity and transformation yield were 20 μg (TCE)/mg (biomass) and 5.1 μg (TCE)/mg (phenol), respectively. Addition of nutrient broth promoted TCE degradation with phenol as growth substrate. It was revealed that catechol 1,2-dioxygenase played an important role in TCE co-metabolism. The dechlorination of TCE was complete, and less chlorinated products were not detected at the end of the experiment. TCE could also be co-metabolized in the presence of gasoline; however, the degradation rate was not high (28%). When phenol was introduced into the system of TCE and gasoline, TCE and gasoline could be removed at substantial rates (up to 59% and 69%, respectively). This study provides a promising approach for the removal of combined pollution of TCE and gasoline.

  4. Aerobic Degradation of Trichloroethylene by Co-Metabolism Using Phenol and Gasoline as Growth Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Li


    Full Text Available Trichloroethylene (TCE is a common groundwater contaminant of toxic and carcinogenic concern. Aerobic co-metabolic processes are the predominant pathways for TCE complete degradation. In this study, Pseudomonas fluorescens was studied as the active microorganism to degrade TCE under aerobic condition by co-metabolic degradation using phenol and gasoline as growth substrates. Operating conditions influencing TCE degradation efficiency were optimized. TCE co-metabolic degradation rate reached the maximum of 80% under the optimized conditions of degradation time of 3 days, initial OD600 of microorganism culture of 0.14 (1.26 × 107 cell/mL, initial phenol concentration of 100 mg/L, initial TCE concentration of 0.1 mg/L, pH of 6.0, and salinity of 0.1%. The modified transformation capacity and transformation yield were 20 μg (TCE/mg (biomass and 5.1 μg (TCE/mg (phenol, respectively. Addition of nutrient broth promoted TCE degradation with phenol as growth substrate. It was revealed that catechol 1,2-dioxygenase played an important role in TCE co-metabolism. The dechlorination of TCE was complete, and less chlorinated products were not detected at the end of the experiment. TCE could also be co-metabolized in the presence of gasoline; however, the degradation rate was not high (28%. When phenol was introduced into the system of TCE and gasoline, TCE and gasoline could be removed at substantial rates (up to 59% and 69%, respectively. This study provides a promising approach for the removal of combined pollution of TCE and gasoline.

  5. Rate limiting factors in trichloroethylene co-metabolic degradation by phenol-grown aerobic granules. (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Tay, Joo Hwa


    The potential of aerobic granular sludge in co-metabolic removal of recalcitrant substances was evaluated using trichloroethylene (TCE) as the model compound. Aerobic granules cultivated in a sequencing batch reactor with phenol as the growth substrate exhibited TCE and phenol degradation activities lower than previously reported values. Depletion of reducing energy and diffusion limitation within the granules were investigated as the possible rate limiting factors. Sodium formate and citrate were supplied to the granules in batch studies as external electron sources. No significant enhancing effect was observed on the instant TCE transformation rates, but 10 mM formate could improve the ultimate transformation capacity by 26 %. Possible diffusion barrier was studied by sieving the biomass into five size fractions, and determining their specific TCE and phenol degradation rates and capacities. Biomass in the larger size fractions generally showed lower activities. Large granules of >700 μm diameter exhibited only 22 % of the flocs' TCE transformation capacity and 35 % of its phenol dependent SOUR, indicating the possible occurrence of diffusion limitation in larger biomass. However, the highest specific TCE transformation rate was observed with the fraction that mostly consisted of small granules (150-300 μm), suggesting an optimal size range while applying aerobic granules in TCE co-metabolic removal.

  6. Evaluation of integrated anaerobic-aerobic biofilm reactor for degradation of azo dye methyl orange. (United States)

    Murali, V; Ong, Soon-An; Ho, Li-Ngee; Wong, Yee-Shian


    This study was to investigate the mineralization of wastewater containing methyl orange (MO) in integrated anaerobic-aerobic biofilm reactor with coconut fiber as bio-material. Different aeration periods (3h in phase 1 and 2; 3, 6 and 15 h in phase 3; 24 h in phase 4 and 5) in aerobic chamber were studied with different MO concentration 50, 100, 200, 200 and 300 mg/L as influent from phase 1-5. The color removals estimated from the standard curve of dye versus optical density at its maximum absorption wavelength were 97%, 96%, 97%, 97%, and 96% and COD removals were 75%, 72%, 63%, 81%, and 73% in phase 1-5, respectively. The MO decolorization and COD degradation followed first-order kinetic model and second-order kinetic model, respectively. GC-MS analysis indicated the symmetrical cleavage of azo bond and the reduction in aromatic peak ensured the partial mineralization of MO.

  7. Degradation of [(14)C]carfentrazone-ethyl under aerobic aquatic conditions. (United States)

    Elmarakby, S A; Supplee, D; Cook, R


    Carfentrazone-ethyl (CF-E) is an aryl triazolinone reduced-risk herbicide for use on corn, wheat, and soybean. As part of the assessment of its metabolic fate, the aerobic aquatic metabolism of [(14)C]CF-E at a concentration of 0.22 microg/g was investigated. Two separate aquatic sediments (silty clay loam and clay loam soils, flooded with water) were used in the study. At each of eight samplings throughout the 30-day study, the distribution of radioactivity between surface water, sediment, and volatile fractions was assessed. At zero time, the majority of the applied radioactivity was contained in the water layer (83-90%), declining to 70-80% after 30 days. This was coupled with an increase in the percent radioactivity in the soil layer from 4-6% at day 0 to 13-19% after 30 days. Nonextractable soil residues and volatile degradation products were formed in negligible amounts. Analysis of the incubation extracts from either aquatic sediment indicated a rapid conversion (90% of the applied radioactivity were formed. Identification of these degradation products was initially achieved through chromatographic comparison with reference synthetic standards and subsequently confirmed using LC-MS analysis. A degradation pathway for CF-E under aerobic aquatic conditions is proposed.

  8. AromaDeg, a novel database for phylogenomics of aerobic bacterial degradation of aromatics. (United States)

    Duarte, Márcia; Jauregui, Ruy; Vilchez-Vargas, Ramiro; Junca, Howard; Pieper, Dietmar H


    Understanding prokaryotic transformation of recalcitrant pollutants and the in-situ metabolic nets require the integration of massive amounts of biological data. Decades of biochemical studies together with novel next-generation sequencing data have exponentially increased information on aerobic aromatic degradation pathways. However, the majority of protein sequences in public databases have not been experimentally characterized and homology-based methods are still the most routinely used approach to assign protein function, allowing the propagation of misannotations. AromaDeg is a web-based resource targeting aerobic degradation of aromatics that comprises recently updated (September 2013) and manually curated databases constructed based on a phylogenomic approach. Grounded in phylogenetic analyses of protein sequences of key catabolic protein families and of proteins of documented function, AromaDeg allows query and data mining of novel genomic, metagenomic or metatranscriptomic data sets. Essentially, each query sequence that match a given protein family of AromaDeg is associated to a specific cluster of a given phylogenetic tree and further function annotation and/or substrate specificity may be inferred from the neighboring cluster members with experimentally validated function. This allows a detailed characterization of individual protein superfamilies as well as high-throughput functional classifications. Thus, AromaDeg addresses the deficiencies of homology-based protein function prediction, combining phylogenetic tree construction and integration of experimental data to obtain more accurate annotations of new biological data related to aerobic aromatic biodegradation pathways. We pursue in future the expansion of AromaDeg to other enzyme families involved in aromatic degradation and its regular update. Database URL:

  9. Particulate organics degradation and sludge minimization in aerobic, complete SRT bioreactors. (United States)

    Amanatidou, Elisavet; Samiotis, Georgios; Trikoilidou, Eleni; Tsikritzis, Lazaros


    The study evaluates the assumption that in activated sludge processes and under specific operating conditions, the considered unbiodegradable particulate organic fractions of influent (XU) organic solids and biomass decay residues (cell debris, XE) are degraded. The evaluation was performed by comparing sludge observed yield (Yobs) evolution in two full scale, complete solids retention time (SRT), aerobic bioreactors, to the predictions of two activated sludge models. The results showed that in steady state operating conditions of complete solids retention AS processes very low solids accumulation occur. In these conditions, solids accumulation is slightly affected by kinetic coefficients and significantly affected by XU and XE degradation rates. High endogenous residues degradation rate values of 0.05 d(-1) and 0.02 d(-1) were estimated for the two bioreactors, resulting in low solids accumulation, calculated at 1.6 tons and 3.59 tons per year respectively, of which 1.37 and 0.87 tons were non volatile suspended solids. Depending on WWTP operating conditions the endogenous residues degradation rate is the limiting factor of solids accumulation and consequently for particulate organics degradation.

  10. Stimulation of aerobic degradation of bentazone, mecoprop and dichlorprop by oxygen addition to aquifer sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levi, Suzi; Hybel, Anne-Marie; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup


    In order to investigate aerobic degradation potential for the herbicides bentazone, mecoprop and dichlorprop, anaerobic groundwater samples from two monitoring and three drinking water wells near a drinking water abstraction field in Nybølle, Denmark, were screened for their degradation potential...... in microcosms using groundwater and sandy aquifer materials. To maintain a certain oxygen concentration this level was measured from the outside of the bottles with a fibre oxygen meter using oxygen-sensitive luminescent sensor foil mounted inside the microcosm, to which supplementary oxygen was added...... to the oxidation of organic matter and other reduced species such as Fe2+, S2- and Mn in sediment before the biodegradation of herbicides takes place. This study suggests that oxygen enhancement around a drinking water abstraction field could stimulate the bioremediation of diffuse source contamination. © 2013 ....

  11. Cultivation and characters of aerobic granules for pentachlorophenol (PCP) degradation under microaerobic condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAN Hui-xia; CHEN Yuan-cai; CHEN Zhong-hao; CHEN Rong


    Cultivation of aerobic granular sludge for pentachlorophenol (PCP) degradation under microaerobic condition ( DO concentration was controlled at 0.2-0.7 mg/L) was studied in this paper. Anaerobic granules were selected as inoculum. The changes of appearance were observed and the variations of SVI, VSS/TSS, PN/PS and the size of sludge were measured during cultivating. The capabilities for degradation of PCP, AOX and CODcr were also studied. Observations on mature granules were carried out by scanning electron microscope, and the results indicated bacillus was dominant on the surface of granules while in the inner of granules both bacillus and coccus were the dominant microorganisms. K, Na, Fe, Ca, Mg, Ni, Co, Mn, Cu and Zn were detected in the granules by element analysis.

  12. Degradation of typical antibiotics during human feces aerobic composting under different temperatures. (United States)

    Shi, Honglei; Wang, Xiaochang C; Li, Qian; Jiang, Shanqing


    Four typical antibiotics were added to human feces for aerobic composting using batch reactors with sawdust as the bulk matrix. Under three composting temperatures (room temperature, 35 ± 2 °C and 55 ± 2 °C), decreases in the extractable concentrations of antibiotics in the compost were monitored for 20 days. As a result, the removals of extractable tetracycline and chlortetracycline were found to be more temperature-dependent than the removals of sulfadiazine and ciprofloxacin. However, more than 90 % of all of the extractable antibiotics were removed at 55 ± 2 °C. Three specific experiments were further conducted to identify the possible actions for antibiotic removal, including self-degradation in aqueous solution, composting with a moist sterile sawdust matrix without adding feces and composting with human feces and moist sterile sawdust. As a result, it was found that the removal of tetracycline and chlortetracycline was mainly due to chemical degradation in water, whereas the removal of sulfadiazine was mainly attributed to adsorption onto sawdust particles. The microbial activity of compost varied with temperature to a certain extent, but the differences were insignificant among different antibiotics. Although microbial action is important for organic matter decomposition, its contribution to antibiotic degradation was small for the investigated antibiotics, except for ciprofloxacin, which was degraded by up to 20 % due to microbial action.

  13. Nonylphenol in the environment: a critical review on occurrence, fate, toxicity and treatment in wastewaters. (United States)

    Soares, A; Guieysse, B; Jefferson, B; Cartmell, E; Lester, J N


    Nonylphenol is a toxic xenobiotic compound classified as an endocrine disrupter capable of interfering with the hormonal system of numerous organisms. It originates principally from the degradation of nonylphenol ethoxylates which are widely used as industrial surfactants. Nonylphenol ethoxylates reach sewage treatment works in substantial quantities where they biodegrade into several by-products including nonylphenol. Due to its physical-chemical characteristics, such as low solubility and high hydrophobicity, nonylphenol accumulates in environmental compartments that are characterised by high organic content, typically sewage sludge and river sediments, where it persists. The occurrence of nonylphenol in the environment is clearly correlated with anthropogenic activities such as wastewater treatment, landfilling and sewage sludge recycling. Nonylphenol is found often in matrices such as sewage sludge, effluents from sewage treatment works, river water and sediments, soil and groundwater. The impacts of nonylphenol in the environment include feminization of aquatic organisms, decrease in male fertility and the survival of juveniles at concentrations as low as 8.2 microg/l. Due to the harmful effects of the degradation products of nonylphenol ethoxylates in the environment, the use and production of such compounds have been banned in EU countries and strictly monitored in many other countries such as Canada and Japan. Although it has been shown that the concentration of nonylphenol in the environment is decreasing, it is still found at concentrations of 4.1 microg/l in river waters and 1 mg/kg in sediments. Nonylphenol has been referred to in the list of priority substances in the Water Frame Directive and in the 3rd draft Working Document on Sludge of the EU. Consequently there is currently a concern within some industries about the possibility of future regulations that may impose the removal of trace contaminants from contaminated effluents. The significance of

  14. Aerobic degradation of N-methyl-4-nitroaniline (MNA by Pseudomonas sp. strain FK357 isolated from soil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazlurrahman Khan

    Full Text Available N-Methyl-4-nitroaniline (MNA is used as an additive to lower the melting temperature of energetic materials in the synthesis of insensitive explosives. Although the biotransformation of MNA under anaerobic condition has been reported, its aerobic microbial degradation has not been documented yet. A soil microcosms study showed the efficient aerobic degradation of MNA by the inhabitant soil microorganisms. An aerobic bacterium, Pseudomonas sp. strain FK357, able to utilize MNA as the sole carbon, nitrogen, and energy source, was isolated from soil microcosms. HPLC and GC-MS analysis of the samples obtained from growth and resting cell studies showed the formation of 4-nitroaniline (4-NA, 4-aminophenol (4-AP, and 1, 2, 4-benzenetriol (BT as major metabolic intermediates in the MNA degradation pathway. Enzymatic assay carried out on cell-free lysates of MNA grown cells confirmed N-demethylation reaction is the first step of MNA degradation with the formation of 4-NA and formaldehyde products. Flavin-dependent transformation of 4-NA to 4-AP in cell extracts demonstrated that the second step of MNA degradation is a monooxygenation. Furthermore, conversion of 4-AP to BT by MNA grown cells indicates the involvement of oxidative deamination (release of NH2 substituent reaction in third step of MNA degradation. Subsequent degradation of BT occurs by the action of benzenetriol 1, 2-dioxygenase as reported for the degradation of 4-nitrophenol. This is the first report on aerobic degradation of MNA by a single bacterium along with elucidation of metabolic pathway.

  15. Biodegradability of biodegradable/degradable plastic materials under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. (United States)

    Mohee, R; Unmar, G D; Mudhoo, A; Khadoo, P


    A study was conducted on two types of plastic materials, Mater-Bi Novamont (MB) and Environmental Product Inc. (EPI), to assess their biodegradability under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. For aerobic conditions, organic fractions of municipal solid wastes were composted. For the anaerobic process, anaerobic inoculum from a wastewater treatment plant was used. Cellulose filter papers (CFP) were used as a positive control for both mediums. The composting process was monitored in terms of temperature, moisture and volatile solids and the biodegradation of the samples were monitored in terms of mass loss. Monitoring results showed a biodegradation of 27.1% on a dry basis for MB plastic within a period of 72 days of composting. Biodegradability under an anaerobic environment was monitored in terms of biogas production. A cumulative methane gas production of 245 ml was obtained for MB, which showed good degradation as compared to CFP (246.8 ml). However, EPI plastic showed a cumulative methane value of 7.6 ml for a period of 32 days, which was close to the blank (4.0 ml). The EPI plastic did not biodegrade under either condition. The cumulative carbon dioxide evolution after 32 days was as follows: CFP 4.406 cm3, MB 2.198 cm3 and EPI 1.328 cm3. The cumulative level of CO2 varying with time fitted sigmoid type curves with R2 values of 0.996, 0.996 and 0.995 for CFP, MB and EPI, respectively.

  16. Stimulation of aerobic degradation of bentazone, mecoprop and dichlorprop by oxygen addition to aquifer sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levi, S.; Hybel, A.-M.; Bjerg, P.L.; Albrechtsen, H.-J., E-mail:


    In order to investigate aerobic degradation potential for the herbicides bentazone, mecoprop and dichlorprop, anaerobic groundwater samples from two monitoring and three drinking water wells near a drinking water abstraction field in Nybølle, Denmark, were screened for their degradation potential for the herbicides. In the presence of oxygen {sup 14}C-labelled bentazone and mecoprop were removed significantly from the two monitoring wells' groundwater samples. Oxygen was added to microcosms in order to investigate whether different oxygen concentrations stimulate the biodegradation of the three herbicides in microcosms using groundwater and sandy aquifer materials. To maintain a certain oxygen concentration this level was measured from the outside of the bottles with a fibre oxygen meter using oxygen-sensitive luminescent sensor foil mounted inside the microcosm, to which supplementary oxygen was added. The highest oxygen concentrations (corresponding to 4–11 mg L{sup −1}) stimulated degradation (a 14–27% increase for mecoprop, 3–9% for dichlorprop and 15–20% for bentazone) over an experimental period of 200 days. Oxygen was required to biodegrade the herbicides, since no degradation was observed under anaerobic conditions. This is the first time bentazone degradation has been observed in aquifer material at low oxygen concentrations (2 mg L{sup −1}). The sediment had substantial oxygen consumption (0.92–1.45 O{sub 2} g{sup -1} dw over 200 days) and oxygen was depleted rapidly in most incubations soon after its addition, which might be due to the oxidation of organic matter and other reduced species such as Fe{sup 2+}, S{sup 2−} and Mn in sediment before the biodegradation of herbicides takes place. This study suggests that oxygen enhancement around a drinking water abstraction field could stimulate the bioremediation of diffuse source contamination. - Highlights: • Addition of different oxygen concentrations stimulated degradation of

  17. Modeling Aerobic Carbon Source Degradation Processes using Titrimetric Data and Combined Respirometric-Titrimetric Data: Experimental Data and Model Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist; Petersen, B.; Nopens, I.;


    vessel and a closed non-aerated respiration chamber for monitoring the oxygen uptake rate related to substrate degradation. The respirometer is combined with a titrimetric unit that keeps the pH of the activated sludge sample at a constant value by addition of acid and/or base. The experimental data......Experimental data are presented that resulted from aerobic batch degradation experiments in activated sludge with simple carbon sources (acetate and dextrose) as substrates. Data collection was done using combined respirometric-titrimetric measurements. The respirometer consists of an open aerated...... clearly showed that the activated sludge bacteria react with consumption or production of protons during aerobic degradation of the two carbon sources under study. Thus, the cumulative amount of added acid and/or base could serve as a complementary information source on the degradation processes...

  18. Phylogenetic analysis of aerobic freshwater and marine enrichment cultures efficient in hydrocarbon degradation: effect of profiling method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, Y.J.; Stephen, J.R.; Richter, A.P.; Venosa, A.D.; Bruggemann, J.; MacNaughton, S.J.; Kowalchuk, G.A.; Haines, J.R.; Kline, E.; White, D.C.


    Aerobically grown enrichment cultures derived from hydrocarbon- contaminated seawater and freshwater sediments were generated by growth on crude oil as sole carbon source. Both cultures displayed a high rate of degradation for a wide range of hydrocarbon compounds. The bacterial species composition

  19. Effect of nitrogen supplementation on aerobic degradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate by consortia of bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kehinde I. Temitope Eniola


    Full Text Available Untreated detergent bearing wastes discharged into the environment are sources of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS. Detergent wastes usually do not contain nitrogen or contain very low amounts. Biostimulation by introducing limiting nutrient element can be useful in biotreatment of such waste. The effect of inorganic and organic nitrogen supplements on aerobic degradation of LAS by LAS-utilizing bacteria was examined. Phosphate-buffered LAS mineral media were prepared and supplemented with different nitrogen sources: NPK fertilizer (inorganic and urea fertilizer (organic. Individual and various consortia of pure cultures of Alcaligenes odorans, Citrobacter diversus, Micrococcus luteus and Pseudomonas putida, previously isolated from a detergent effluent polluted stream, were used. Biodegradation of LAS was monitored in terms of half-life (t½ of the surfactant. The rates of biodegradation by the consortia can be ranked as: 4-membered (t½=8-12 days >3-membered (t½=8-13 days >2-membered consortia (t½=10-15 days >individuals (t½=9-16 days. The inorganic nitrogen source enhanced utilization of the surfactant, while organic nitrogen supplementation generally slowed degradation of the surfactant. In undertaking biotreatment of detergent bearing effluent, inorganic nitrogen should be used as biostimulant.

  20. Biological degradation of triclocarban and triclosan in a soil under aerobic and anaerobic conditions and comparison with environmental fate modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ying Guangguo [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); CSIRO Land and Water, Adelaide Laboratory, PMB2, Glen Osmond SA 5064 (Australia)], E-mail:; Yu Xiangyang [CSIRO Land and Water, Adelaide Laboratory, PMB2, Glen Osmond SA 5064 (Australia); Food Safety Research Institute, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nanjing 210014 (China); Kookana, Rai S. [CSIRO Land and Water, Adelaide Laboratory, PMB2, Glen Osmond SA 5064 (Australia)


    Triclocarban and triclosan are two antimicrobial agents widely used in many personal care products. Their biodegradation behaviour in soil was investigated by laboratory degradation experiments and environmental fate modelling. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analyses showed that triclocarban and triclosan had a tendency to partition into soil or sediment in the environment. Fate modelling suggests that either triclocarban or triclosan 'does not degrade fast' with its primary biodegradation half-life of 'weeks' and ultimate biodegradation half-life of 'months'. Laboratory experiments showed that triclocarban and triclosan were degraded in the aerobic soil with half-life of 108 days and 18 days, respectively. No negative effect of these two antimicrobial agents on soil microbial activity was observed in the aerobic soil samples during the experiments. But these two compounds persisted in the anaerobic soil within 70 days of the experimental period. - Triclocarban and triclosan can be degraded by microbial processes in aerobic soil, but will persist in anaerobic soil.

  1. Stable carbon and hydrogen isotopic fractionations of alkane compounds and crude oil during aerobically microbial degradation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Xianzhi; ZHANG Gan; CHEN Fanzhong; LIU Guoqing


    Normal alkane compounds dodecane, pentadecane, hexadecane, octadecane, tetracosane, isoprenoid alkane pristane and a crude oil sample were aerobically biodegraded with a pure bacterial strain GIM2.5 and white rot fungus Phanerochaete Chrysosporium-1767 to monitor the kinetic fractionation of the molecular stable carbon (δ13C) and hydrogen (δD) isotopes in the course of biodegradation. Both δ13C (V-PDB) and δ D (V-SMOW) remained stable for the standard alkane compounds and n-alkane components (from n-C13 to n-C25) of the crude oil, generally varying in the range of ±0.5‰ and ±5‰ respectively, within the range of the instrumental precisions, especially for those molecularly heavier than n-C16 during microbial degradation. These results indicate that molecular stable carbon and hydrogen isotopic fingerprints can be promising indicators for tracing the sources of petroleum-related contaminants in the environment, especially in the case of severe weathering when they are difficult to be unambiguously identified by the chemical fingerprints alone.

  2. Effect of exposure history on microbial herbicide degradation in an aerobic aquifer affected by a point source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuxen, Nina; de Lipthay, J.R.; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen;


    The effects of in situ exposure to low concentrations (micrograms per liter) of herbicides on aerobic degradation of herbicides in aquifers were studied by laboratory batch experiments. Aquifer material and groundwater were collected from a point source with known exposure histories to the herbic......The effects of in situ exposure to low concentrations (micrograms per liter) of herbicides on aerobic degradation of herbicides in aquifers were studied by laboratory batch experiments. Aquifer material and groundwater were collected from a point source with known exposure histories...... to the herbicides mecoprop (MCPP), dichlorprop, BAM, bentazone, isoproturon, and DNOC. Degradation of the phenoxy acids, mecoprop and dichlorprop, was observed in five of six sampling points from within the plume. Mecoprop was mineralized, and up to 70% was recovered as 14CO2. DNOC was degraded in only two of six...... sampling points from within the plume, and neither BAM, bentazone, nor isoproturon was degraded in any sampling point. A linear correlation (R2 g 0.83) between pre-exposure and amount of herbicide degraded within 50 days was observed for the phenoxy acids, mecoprop and dichlorprop. An improved model fit...

  3. Ascorbic acid enhanced activation of oxygen by ferrous iron: A case of aerobic degradation of rhodamine B. (United States)

    Hou, Xiaojing; Shen, Wenjuan; Huang, Xiaopeng; Ai, Zhihui; Zhang, Lizhi


    Molecular oxygen activation by ferrous ions (Fe(II)) in aqueous solution could generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) with high oxidation potential via reaction between Fe(II) and oxygen molecules (Fe(II)/air), however, ROS yielded in the Fe(II)/air process is insufficient for removal of organic pollutants due to the irreversible ferric ions (Fe(III)) accumulation. In this study, we demonstrate that ascorbic acid (AA) could enhance ROS generation via oxygen activation by ferrous irons (AA/Fe(II)/air) and thus improve the degradation of rhodamine (RhB) significantly. It was found that the first-order aerobic degradation rate of RhB in the AA/Fe(II)/air process in the presence of ascorbic acid is more than 4 times that of the Fe(II)/Air system without adding ascorbic acid. The presence of ascorbic acid could relieve the accumulation of Fe(III) by reductive accelerating the Fe(III)/Fe(II) cycles, as well as lower the redox potential of Fe(III)/Fe(II) through chelating effect, leading to enhanced ROS generation for promoting RhB degradation. This study not only sheds light on the effect of ascorbic acid on aerobic Fe(II) oxidation, but also provides a green method for effective remediation of organic pollutants.

  4. The Effects of Bacterial Inoculants on the Fermentation, Aerobic Stability and Rumen Degradability Characteristics of Wheat Silages


    SUCU, Ekin; FİLYA, İsmail


    This study was carried out to determine the effects of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) inoculants on the fermentation, aerobic stability and in situ rumen degradability characteristics of wheat silages. Wheat was harvested at the early dough stage. Inoculant-1188 (Pioneer®, USA) and Sil-All (Alltech, UK) were used as LAB inoculants. Inoculants were applied to silages at 1.5 x 106 cfu/g levels. Wheat material was ensiled in 1.5-l special anaerobic jars, equipped with a lid enabling gas release on...

  5. Aerobic cometabolic degradation of chlorinated ethenes in a two step system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sipkema, EM; Mocoroa, J; deKoning, W; Vlieg, JETV; Ganzeveld, KJ; Beenackers, AACM; Janssen, DB


    Many of the chlorinated ethenes (CEs) can aerobically only be converted by cometabolism, a process in which the organism converts the contaminant that it cannot use for growth as a result of the nonspecificity of one of its enzymes. For bioremediation systems, the methanotroph Methylosinus trichospo

  6. Modeling Aerobic Carbon Source Degradation Processes using Titrimetric Data and Combined Respirometric-Titrimetric Data: Structural and Practical Identifiability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist; Petersen, B.; Dochain, D.;


    The structural and practical identifiability of a model for description of respirometric-titrimetric data derived from aerobic batch substrate degradation experiments of a CxHyOz carbon source with activated sludge was evaluated. The model processes needed to describe titrimetric data included...... difference in timing between pH effect and oxygen consumption. Finally, the biomass yield YH and the nitrogen content of the biomass i(xB) could be estimated from combined respirometric-titrimetric data obtained with addition of a known amount of carbon source. YH can also be estimated from r(O) data when...... considerably more for dextrose than for acetate degradation models. Noteworthy is the finding that the half-saturation substrate concentrations can be different depending on whether they are estimated from respirometric or titrimetric data. Moreover, this difference appears to be dependent on the carbon source...

  7. Physiological and functional diversity of phenol degraders isolated from phenol-grown aerobic granules: Phenol degradation kinetics and trichloroethylene co-metabolic activities. (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Tay, Joo Hwa


    Aerobic granule is a novel form of microbial aggregate capable of degrading toxic and recalcitrant substances. Aerobic granules have been formed on phenol as the growth substrate, and used to co-metabolically degrade trichloroethylene (TCE), a synthetic solvent not supporting aerobic microbial growth. Granule formation process, rate limiting factors and the comprehensive toxic effects of phenol and TCE had been systematically studied. To further explore their potential at the level of microbial population and functions, phenol degraders were isolated and purified from mature granules in this study. Phenol and TCE degradation kinetics of 15 strains were determined, together with their TCE transformation capacities and other physiological characteristics. Isolation in the presence of phenol and TCE exerted stress on microbial populations, but the procedure was able to preserve their diversity. Wide variation was found with the isolates' kinetic behaviors, with the parameters often spanning 3 orders of magnitude. Haldane kinetics described phenol degradation well, and the isolates exhibited actual maximum phenol-dependent oxygen utilization rates of 9-449 mg DO g DW(-1) h(-1), in phenol concentration range of 4.8-406 mg L(-1). Both Michaelis-Menten and Haldane types were observed for TCE transformation, with the actual maximum rate of 1.04-21.1 mg TCE g DW(-1) h(-1) occurring between TCE concentrations of 0.42-4.90 mg L(-1). The TCE transformation capacities and growth yields on phenol ranged from 20-115 mg TCE g DW(-1) and 0.46-1.22 g DW g phenol(-1), respectively, resulting in TCE transformation yields of 10-70 mg TCE g phenol(-1). Contact angles of the isolates were between 34° and 82°, suggesting both hydrophobic and hydrophilic cell surface. The diversity in the isolates is a great advantage, as it enables granules to be versatile and adaptive under different operational conditions.

  8. Laboratory simulation of the successive aerobic and anaerobic degradation of oil products in oil-contaminated high-moor peat (United States)

    Tolpeshta, I. I.; Trofimov, S. Ya.; Erkenova, M. I.; Sokolova, T. A.; Stepanov, A. L.; Lysak, L. V.; Lobanenkov, A. M.


    A model experiment has been performed on the successive aerobic and anaerobic degradation of oil products in samples of oil-contaminated peat sampled from a pine-subshrub-sphagnum bog near the Sutormin oilfield pipeline in the Yamal-Nenets autonomous district. During the incubation of oil-contaminated peat with lime and mineral fertilizers under complete flooding, favorable conditions are created for the aerobic oxidation of oil products at the beginning of the experiment and, as the redox potential decreases, for the anaerobic degradation of oil products conjugated with the reduction of N5+ and S+6 and methanogenesis. From the experimental data on the dynamics of the pH; Eh; and the NO{3/-}, NO{2/-}, and SO{4/2-} concentrations in the liquid phase of the samples, it has been found that denitrifiers significantly contributed to the biodegradation of oil products under the experimental conditions. After the end of the experiment, the content of oil products in the contaminated samples decreased by 21-26%.

  9. Degradation of Reactive Black 5 dye using anaerobic/aerobic membrane bioreactor (MBR) and photochemical membrane reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Sheng-Jie, E-mail: [Department of Bioenvironmental Engineering and R and D Center for Membrane Technology, Chung Yuan Christian University, 200 Chung Pei Road, Chungli 32023, Taiwan (China); Damodar, Rahul A. [Department of Bioenvironmental Engineering and R and D Center for Membrane Technology, Chung Yuan Christian University, 200 Chung Pei Road, Chungli 32023, Taiwan (China); Hou, Sheng-Chon [Department of Civil Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, 200 Chung Pei Road, Chungli 32023, Taiwan (China)


    Three different types of advance treatment methods were evaluated for the degradation of Reactive Black 5 (RB5). The performance of two stage anaerobic SBR-aerobic MBR, anaerobic MBR with immobilized and suspended biocells and an integrated membrane photocatalytic reactor (MPR) using slurry UV/TiO{sub 2} system were investigated. The results suggest that, nearly 99.9% color removal and 80-95% organic COD and TOC removal can be achieved using different reactor systems. Considering the Taiwan EPA effluent standard discharge criteria for COD/TOC, the degree of treatment achieved by combining the anaerobic-aerobic system was found to be acceptable. Anew, Bacilluscereus, high color removal bacterium was isolated from Anaerobic SBR. Furthermore, when this immobilized into PVA-calcium alginate pellets, and suspended in the anaerobic MBR was able to achieve high removal efficiencies, similar to the suspended biocells system. However, the immobilized cell Anaerobic MBR was found to be more advantageous, due to lower fouling rates in the membrane unit. Results from slurry type MPR system showed that this system was capable of mineralizing RB5 dyes with faster degradation rate as compared to other systems. The reactor was also able to separate the catalyst effectively and perform efficiently without much loss of catalyst activity.

  10. Biodegradation of low-ethoxylated nonylphenols in a bioreactor packed with a new ceramic support (Vukopor ® S10). (United States)

    Sciubba, Luigi; Bertin, Lorenzo; Todaro, Daniela; Bettini, Cristina; Fava, Fabio; Di Gioia, Diana


    This work was aimed at studying the possibility of biodegrading 4-nonylphenol and low ethoxylated nonylphenol mixtures, which are particularly recalcitrant to microbial degradation, by employing a biofilm reactor packed with a ceramic support (Vukopor® S10). A selected microbial consortium (Consortium A) was used to colonize the support. 4-Nonylphenol and ethoxylated nonylphenol degradation and mineralization capabilities were studied both in batch and continuous mode. The results showed that Vukopor® S10 was able to be colonized by an active biofilm for the degradation of the target pollutants with the reactor operating both in batch and continuous mode. On the other hand, pollutant adsorption on the support was negligible. FISH showed equal proportion of Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria in the Igepal CO-520 degrading reactor. A shift towards high proportion of Gammaproteobacteria was observed by supplying Igepal CO-210. PCR-density gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analyses also evidenced that the biofilm evolved with time by changing the mixture applied and that Proteobacteria were the most represented phylum in the biofilm. Taken together, the data obtained provide a strong indication that the biofilm reactor packed with Vukopor® S10 and inoculated with Consortium A could potentially be used to develop a technology for the decontamination of 4-nonylphenol and low ethoxylated nonylphenol polluted effluents.

  11. Bacterial degradation of benzoate: cross-regulation between aerobic and anaerobic pathways



    We have studied for the first time the transcriptional regulatory circuit that controls the expression of the box genes encoding the aerobic hybrid pathway used to assimilate benzoate via coenzyme A (CoA) derivatives in bacteria. The promoters responsible for the expression of the box cluster in the β-proteobacterium Azoarcus sp., their cognate transcriptional repressor, the BoxR protein, and the inducer molecule (benzoyl-CoA) have been characterized. The BoxR protein shows a significant sequ...

  12. Mechanism and kinetics of organic matter degradation based on particle structure variation during pig manure aerobic composting. (United States)

    Ge, Jinyi; Huang, Guangqun; Huang, Jing; Zeng, Jianfei; Han, Lujia


    Characterization of the dynamic structure of composting particles may facilitate our understanding of the mechanisms of organic matter degradation during pig manure-wheat straw aerobic composting. In this study, changes in the size, shape, pores, chemical compositions, and crystal structures of pig manure particles during composting were investigated. The results showed that the median diameter (D50) decreased exponentially, while the particle aspect ratio and sphericity were unchanged, suggesting that particles were degraded uniformly along different radial directions. Pores had a mean diameter of 15-30 μm and were elliptical. The particle porosity increased linearly mainly because of hemicellulose degradation. Furthermore, the influence of particle structure variation on the first order rate constant (k) of organic matter degradation was corrected, which may facilitate the optimization of operation conditions. The k value was proportional to the reciprocal of D50 according to the specific surface area of particles, and it decreased with increased porosity due to the stabilized chemical compositions and crystal structures of particles. However, the applicability of these data to other composting materials should be verified.

  13. Deciphering the genetic determinants for aerobic nicotinic acid degradation: the nic cluster from Pseudomonas putida KT2440. (United States)

    Jiménez, José I; Canales, Angeles; Jiménez-Barbero, Jesús; Ginalski, Krzysztof; Rychlewski, Leszek; García, José L; Díaz, Eduardo


    The aerobic catabolism of nicotinic acid (NA) is considered a model system for degradation of N-heterocyclic aromatic compounds, some of which are major environmental pollutants; however, the complete set of genes as well as the structural-functional relationships of most of the enzymes involved in this process are still unknown. We have characterized a gene cluster (nic genes) from Pseudomonas putida KT2440 responsible for the aerobic NA degradation in this bacterium and when expressed in heterologous hosts. The biochemistry of the NA degradation through the formation of 2,5-dihydroxypyridine and maleamic acid has been revisited, and some gene products become the prototype of new types of enzymes with unprecedented molecular architectures. Thus, the initial hydroxylation of NA is catalyzed by a two-component hydroxylase (NicAB) that constitutes the first member of the xanthine dehydrogenase family whose electron transport chain to molecular oxygen includes a cytochrome c domain. The Fe(2+)-dependent dioxygenase (NicX) converts 2,5-dihydroxypyridine into N-formylmaleamic acid, and it becomes the founding member of a new family of extradiol ring-cleavage dioxygenases. Further conversion of N-formylmaleamic acid to formic and maleamic acid is catalyzed by the NicD protein, the only deformylase described so far whose catalytic triad is similar to that of some members of the alpha/beta-hydrolase fold superfamily. This work allows exploration of the existence of orthologous gene clusters in saprophytic bacteria and some pathogens, where they might stimulate studies on their role in virulence, and it provides a framework to develop new biotechnological processes for detoxification/biotransformation of N-heterocyclic aromatic compounds.

  14. Aerobic degradation of methyl tert-butyl ether by a Proteobacteria strain in a closed culture system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Wei-hong; CHEN Jian-meng; LU Zheng; CHEN Dong-zhi; CHEN Xiao


    The contamination of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in underground waters has become a widely concerned problem all over the world. In this study, a novel closed culture system with oxygen supplied by H2O2 was introduced for MTBE aerobic biodegradation. After 7 d, almost all MTBE was degraded by a pure culture, a member of β-Proteobacteria named as PM1, in a closed system with oxygen supply, while only 40% MTBE was degraded in one without oxygen supply. Dissolved oxygen (DO) levels of the broth in closed systems respectively with and without H2O2 were about 5-6 and 4 mg/L. Higher DO may improve the activity of monooxygemase, which is the key enzyme of metabolic pathway from MTBE to tert-butyl alcohol and finally to CO2, and may result in the increase of the degrading activity of PM1 cell. The purge and trap GC-MS result of the broth in closed systems showed that tert-butyl alcohol,isopronol and acetone were the main intermediate products.

  15. Aerobic degradation of nitrobenzene by immobilization of Rhodotorula mucilaginosa in polyurethane foam. (United States)

    Zheng, Chunli; Zhou, Jiti; Wang, Jing; Qu, Baocheng; Wang, Jing; Lu, Hong; Zhao, Hongxia


    Rhodotorula mucilaginosa Z1 capable of degrading nitrobenzene was immobilized in polyurethane foam. The nitrobenzene-degrading capacity of immobilized cells was compared to free cells in batches in shaken culture. Effects of pH and temperature on the nitrobenzene degradation showed that polyurethane-immobilized Z1 had higher tolerances toward acid, alkali, and heat than those of free cells. Kinetic studies revealed that higher concentrations of nitrobenzene were better tolerated and more quickly degraded by polyurethane-immobilized Z1 than by free cells. Moreover, the ability of polyurethane-immobilized Z1 to resist nitrobenzene shock load was enhanced. Experiments on the nitrobenzene degradation in different concentrations of NaCl and in the presence of phenol or aniline demonstrated that polyurethane-immobilized Z1 exhibited higher tolerance toward salinity and toxic chemicals than those of free cells. Immobilization therefore could be a promising method for treating nitrobenzene industrial wastewater. This is the first report on the degradation of nitrobenzene by a polyurethane-immobilized yeast strain.

  16. Hydrolysis and degradation of filtrated organic particulates in a biofilm reactor under anoxic and aerobic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janning, K.F.; Mesterton, K.; Harremoës, P.


    carbon to the bulk liquid was observed as an indication of hydrolysis taking place. The second experiment was designed as a series of on-line OUR batch experiments in a biofilm reactor with recirculation, in order to investigate further the degradation of particulate organic matter. After the biofilm had...... been starved in order to remove the original organic matter, particulate organic matter was added and the degradation kinetics recorded. The initial removal rate was high, r(A.O2) = 2.1 g O-2/(m(2)d) though fast declining towards endogenous respiration. The respiration ratio between removed oxygen...... and produced carbon dioxide was declining from 1.3 to 1.0 g O-2/g CO2 during the degradation of organic particulates. The respiration ratio during endogenous respiration was determined to be 0.7 g O-2/g CO2 indicating a thorough mineralisation of biomass. (C) 1997 IAWQ. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd....

  17. Aerobic TCE degradation by encapsulated toluene-oxidizing bacteria, Pseudomonas putida and Bacillus spp. (United States)

    Kim, Seungjin; Bae, Wookeun; Hwang, Jungmin; Park, Jaewoo


    The degradation rates of toluene and trichloroethylene (TCE) by Pseudomonas putida and Bacillus spp. that were encapsulated in polyethylene glycol (PEG) polymers were evaluated in comparison with the results of exposure to suspended cultures. PEG monomers were polymerized together with TCE-degrading microorganisms, such that the cells were encapsulated in and protected by the matrices of the PEG polymers. TCE concentrations were varied from 0.1 to 1.5 mg/L. In the suspended cultures of P. putida, the TCE removal rate decreased as the initial TCE concentration increased, revealing TCE toxicity or a limitation of reducing power, or both. When the cells were encapsulated, an initial lag period of about 10-20 h was observed for toluene degradation. Once acclimated, the encapsulated P. putida cultures were more tolerant to TCE at an experimental range of 0.6-1.0 mg/L and gave higher transfer efficiencies (mass TCE transformed/mass toluene utilized). When the TCE concentration was low (e.g., 0.1 mg/L) the removal of TCE per unit mass of cells (specific removal) was significantly lower, probably due to a diffusion limitation into the PEG pellet. Encapsulated Bacillus spp. were able to degrade TCE cometabolically. The encapsulated Bacillus spp. gave significantly higher values than did P. putida in the specific removal and the transfer efficiency, particularly at relatively high TCE concentration of approximately 1.0±0.5 mg/L. The transfer efficiency by encapsulated Bacillus spp. in this study was 0.27 mgTCE/mgToluene, which was one to two orders of magnitude greater than the reported values.

  18. Aerobic degradation of ibuprofen in batch and continuous reactors by an indigenous bacterial community. (United States)

    Fortunato, María Susana; Fuentes Abril, Nancy Piedad; Martinefski, Manuela; Trípodi, Valeria; Papalia, Mariana; Rádice, Marcela; Gutkind, Gabriel; Gallego, Alfredo; Korol, Sonia Edith


    Water from six points from the Riachuelo-Matanza basin was analyzed in order to assess ibuprofen biodegradability. In four of them biodegradation of ibuprofen was proved and degrading bacterial communities were isolated. Biodegradation in each point could not be correlated with sewage pollution. The indigenous bacterial community isolated from the point localized in the La Noria Bridge showed the highest degradative capacity and was selected to perform batch and continuous degradation assays. The partial 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that the community consisted of Comamonas aquatica and Bacillus sp. In batch assays the community was capable of degrading 100 mg L(-1) of ibuprofen in 33 h, with a specific growth rate (μ) of 0.21 h(-1). The removal of the compound, as determined by High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), exceeded 99% of the initial concentration, with a 92.3% removal of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD). In a down-flow fixed-bed continuous reactor, the community shows a removal efficiency of 95.9% of ibuprofen and 92.3% of COD for an average inlet concentration of 110.4 mg. The reactor was kept in operation for 70 days. The maximal removal rate for the compound was 17.4 g m(-3) d(-1). Scanning electron microscopy was employed to observe biofilm development in the reactor. The ability of the isolated indigenous community can be exploited to improve the treatment of wastewaters containing ibuprofen.

  19. Alternative primer sets for PCR detection of genotypes involved in bacterial aerobic BTEX degradation : Distribution of the genes in BTEX degrading isolates and in subsurface soils of a BTEX contaminated industrial site

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrickx, B; Junca, H; Vosahlova, J; Lindner, A; Ruegg, [No Value; Bucheli-Witschel, M; Faber, F; Egli, T; Mau, M; Schlomann, M; Brennerova, M; Brenner, [No Value; Pieper, DH; Top, EM; Dejonghe, W; Bastiaens, L; Springael, D


    Eight new primer sets were designed for PCR detection of (i) mono-oxygenase and dioxygenase gene sequences involved in initial attack of bacterial aerobic BTEX degradation and of (ii) catechol 2,3-dioxygenase gene sequences responsible for metacleavage of the aromatic ring. The new primer sets allow

  20. Use of Advanced Oxidation and Aerobic Degradation for Remediation of Various Hydrocarbon Contaminates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Fallgren


    Western Research Institute in conjunction with Sierra West Consultants, Inc., Tetra Tech, Inc., and the U.S. Department of Energy conducted laboratory and field studies to test different approaches to enhance degradation of hydrocarbons and associated contaminants. WRI in conjunction with Sierra West Consultants, Inc., conducted a laboratory and field study for using ozone to treat a site contaminated with MTBE and other hydrocarbons. Results from this study demonstrate that a TOD test can be used to resolve the O{sub 3} dosage problem by establishing a site-specific benchmark dosage for field ozone applications. The follow-up testing of the laboratory samples provided indications that intrinsic biodegradation could be stimulated by adding oxygen. Laboratory studies also suggests that O3 dosage in the full-scale field implementation could be dialed lower than stoichiometrically designed to eliminate the formation of Cr(VI). WRI conducted a study involving a series of different ISCO oxidant applications to diesel-contaminated soil and determined the effects on enhancing biodegradation to degrade the residual hydrocarbons. Soils treated with permanganate followed by nutrients and with persulfate followed by nutrients resulted in the largest decrease in TPH. The possible intermediates and conditions formed from NOM and TPH oxidation by permanganate and activated persulfate favors microbial TPH degrading activity. A 'passive-oxidation' method using microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology was conducted by WRI in conjunction with Tetra Tech, Inc., to degrade MTBE in groundwater. These experiments have demonstrated that a working MFC (i.e., one generating power) could be established in the laboratory using contaminated site water or buffered media inoculated with site water and spiked with MTBE, benzene, or toluene. Electrochemical methods were studied by WRI with goal of utilizing low voltage and amperage electrical sources for 'geo-oxidation' of organic

  1. Atrazine degradation by aerobic microorganisms isolated from the rhizosphere of sweet flag (Acorus calamus L.). (United States)

    Marecik, Roman; Króliczak, Paweł; Czaczyk, Katarzyna; Białas, Wojciech; Olejnik, Anna; Cyplik, Paweł


    In presented study the capability of microorganisms isolated from the rhizosphere of sweet flag (Acorus calamus) to the atrazine degradation was assessed. Following isolation of the microorganisms counts of psychrophilic bacteria, mesophilic bacteria and fungi were determined. Isolated microorganisms were screened in terms of their ability to decompose a triazine herbicide, atrazine. Our results demonstrate that within the rhizosphere of sweet flag there were 3.8x10(7) cfu of psychrophilic bacteria, 1.8x10(7) cfu of mesophilic bacteria, and 6x10(5) cfu of fungi per 1 g of dry root mass. These microorganisms were represented by more than 20 different strains, and at the first step these strains were grown for 5 days in the presence of atrazine at a concentration of 5 mg/l. In terms of the effect of this trial culture, the bacteria reduced the level of atrazine by an average of about 2-20%, but the average level of reduction by fungi was in the range 18-60%. The most active strains involved in atrazine reduction were then selected and identified. These strains were classified as Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus megaterium, Rahnella aquatilis (three strains), Umbelopsis isabellina, Volutella ciliata and Botrytis cinerea. Culturing of the microorganisms for a longer time resulted in high atrazine degradation level. The highest degradation level was observed at atrazine concentrations of 5 mg/l for S. maltophilia (83.5% after 15 days of culture) and for Botrytis sp. (82% after 21 days of culture). Our results indicate that microorganisms of the sweet flag rhizosphere can play an important role in the bioremediation of atrazine-contaminated sites.

  2. Biodegradation of malachite green by Pseudomonas sp. strain DY1 under aerobic condition: characteristics, degradation products, enzyme analysis and phytotoxicity. (United States)

    Du, Lin-Na; Wang, Sheng; Li, Gang; Wang, Bing; Jia, Xiao-Ming; Zhao, Yu-Hua; Chen, Yun-Long


    Malachite green (MG), a widely-used and recalcitrant dye, has been confirmed to be carcinogenic and mutagenic against many organisms. The main objective of this study is to investigate the capability of Pseudomonas sp. strain DY1 to decolorize MG, and to explore the possible mechanism. The results showed that this strain demonstrated high decolorizing capability (90.3-97.2%) at high concentrations of MG (100-1,000 mg/l) under shaking condition within 24 h. In static conditions, lower but still effective decolorization (78.9-84.3%) was achieved. The optimal pH and temperature for the decolorization was pH 6.6 and 28-30°C, respectively. Mg(2+) and Mn(2+) (1 mM) were observed to significantly enhance the decolorization. The intermediates of the MG degradation under aerobic condition identified by UV-visible, GC-MS and LC-MS analysis included malachite green carbinol, (dimethyl amino-phenyl)-phenyl-methanone, N,N-dimethylaniline, (methyl amino-phenyl)-phenyl-methanone, (amino phenyl)-phenyl methanone and di-benzyl methane. The enzyme analysis indicated that Mn-peroxidase, NADH-DCIP and MG reductase were involved in the biodegradation of MG. Moreover, phytotoxicity of MG and detoxification for MG by the strain were observed. Therefore, this strain could be potentially used for bioremediation of MG.

  3. Comparison of Biodegradation of Nonylphenol Propoxylates with Usage of Two Different Sources of Activated Sludge. (United States)

    Zgoła-Grześkowiak, Agnieszka; Grześkowiak, Tomasz; Szymański, Andrzej


    Aerobic biodegradation behaviour of nonylphenol propoxylates was investigated in two tests with different sewage sludge as inocula. The samples containing target compounds were pre-concentrated using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and analysed with the use of high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Both primary biodegradation and formation of different biodegradation by-products were studied. Primary biodegradation of nonylphenol propoxylates was relatively slow and reached only about 70 % in over 70 days from the start of the tests. The biodegradation by-products from both oxidative and non-oxidative pathways were found. In the non-oxidative route, shortening of the propoxy chain was observed. In the oxidative pathway carboxylic acids and ketones were identified. The biodegradation by-products identified with the use of mass spectrometric detection also persisted for many days.

  4. The effect of Lactobacillus buchneri and Lactobacillus plantarum on the fermentation, aerobic stability, and ruminal degradability of low dry matter corn and sorghum silages. (United States)

    Filya, I


    The effect of Lactobacillus buchneri, alone or in combination with Lactobacillus plantarum, on the fermentation, aerobic stability, and ruminal degradability of low dry matter corn and sorghum silages was studied under laboratory conditions. The inoculants were applied at 1 x 10(6) cfu/g. Silages with no additives served as control. After treatment, the chopped forages were ensiled in 1.5-L anaerobic jars. Three jars per treatment were sampled on d 2, 4, 8, 15, and 90. After 90 d of storage, the silages were subjected to an aerobic stability test lasting 5 d, in which CO2 production, as well as chemical and microbiological parameters, was measured to determine the extent of aerobic deterioration. At the end of the ensiling period (d 90), the L. buchneri- and L. buchneri + L. plantarum-inoculated silages had significantly higher levels of acetic acid than the control and L. plantarum-inoculated silages. Therefore, yeast activity was impaired in the L. buchneri- and L. buchneri + L. plantarum-inoculated silages. As a result, L. buchneri, alone or in combination with L. plantarum, improved aerobic stability of the low dry matter corn and sorghum silages. The combination of L. buchneri and L. plantarum reduced ammonia N concentrations and fermentation losses in the silages compared with L. buchneri alone. However, L. buchneri, L. plantarum, and a combination of L. buchneri + L. plantarum did not effect in situ rumen dry matter, organic matters, or neutral detergent fiber degradability of the silages. The L. buchneri was very effective in protecting the low dry matter corn and sorghum silages exposed to air under laboratory conditions. The use of L. buchneri, alone or in combination with L. plantarum, as a silage inoculant can improve the aerobic stability of low dry matter corn and sorghum silages by inhibition of yeast activity.

  5. Evaluation of aerobic co-composting of penicillin fermentation fungi residue with pig manure on penicillin degradation, microbial population dynamics and composting maturity. (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenhua; Zhao, Juan; Yu, Cigang; Dong, Shanshan; Zhang, Dini; Yu, Ran; Wang, Changyong; Liu, Yan


    Improper treatment of penicillin fermentation fungi residue (PFFR), one of the by-products of penicillin production process, may result in environmental pollution due to the high concentration of penicillin. Aerobic co-composting of PFFR with pig manure was determined to degrade penicillin in PFFR. Results showed that co-composting of PFFR with pig manure can significantly reduce the concentration of penicillin in PFFR, make the PFFR-compost safer as organic fertilizer for soil application. More than 99% of penicillin in PFFR were removed after 7-day composting. PFFR did not affect the composting process and even promote the activity of the microorganisms in the compost. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) indicated that the bacteria and actinomycetes number in the AC samples were 40-80% higher than that in the pig-manure compost (CK) samples in the same composting phases. This research indicated that the aerobic co-composting was a feasible PFFR treatment method.

  6. Comparative toxicity of nonylphenol, nonylphenol-4-ethoxylate and nonylphenol-10-ethoxylate to wheat seedlings (Triticum aestivum L.). (United States)

    Zhang, Qingming; Wang, Feifei; Xue, Changhui; Wang, Caixia; Chi, Shengqi; Zhang, Jianfeng


    Nonylphenol polyethoxylates (NPEOs) are a group of surfactants that are widely used in industrial and household products and often detected in the environment. The metabolite of NPEOs, named nonylphenol (NP), has proven to be an endocrine disruptor, and its environmental behavior and eco-toxicity have been widely investigated in previous studies. However, to the best of our knowledge, insight into the toxicity differences of NP and NPEOs on important crops remains limited. Therefore, this study investigated the comparative toxicity of NP, nonylphenol-4-ethoxylate (NP4EO), and nonylphenol-10-ethoxylate (NP10EO) on wheat seedlings using hydroponic experiments. The results indicated that NP is most toxic to wheat followed by NP4EO, and NP10EO is the least toxic to wheat. The adverse effects of NP on wheat were observed for all the tested parameters including germination, shoot length, root length, chlorophyll, lipid peroxidation, and enzymatic activities. To gain insight into the molecular response, we analyzed the transcript abundance of SOD-Cu/Zn and CAT with NP, NP4EO, and NP10EO exposure using quantitative real-time PCR. The data revealed that both genes exhibited up- or down-regulated expression patterns that were consistent with the activities of the two enzymes. This result further conformed that NP is most toxic to wheat plants.

  7. Sperm of rosy barb (Puntius conchonius) as an in vitro assay system of nonylphenol cytotoxicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Qin; ZHANG Shi-cui; HU Jia-hui; XU Yu-yan


    @@ Nonylphenol (NP) is the final degradation product of alkylphenol polyethoxylates (APEs), which are widely present in plastics, papers, pulp, detergents,pesticides, herbicides, paints and cosmetics. It is estimated that annual global production of APEs is about 500000 t, 60% of which eventually ends up in aquatic ecosystems primarily via wastewater (Sol?et al., 2000). NP is resistant to biodegradation and persistent in the environment (Arukwe et al., 2000).

  8. Mechanism study on UV-induced photodegradation of nonylphenol ethoxylates by intermediate products analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling Chen; Hai Yun Zhou; Lan Liu; Qin Ying Deng


    Photodegradation of nonylphenol ethoxylates (NP10EO) was investigated in laboratory scale under UV irradiation. The intermediate photodegradation products were analyzed by LC-ESI-MS. Three kinds of intermediate products including aldehydic compounds, carboxylic compounds and cyclohexanyl compounds were identified. Five main degradation routes involving the oxidation of the alkyl chain and ethoxylate unit, shortening of the alkyl chain and ethoxylate unit, hydrogenation of the benzene ring were proposed.

  9. Phthalates and Nonylphenols in Roskilde Fjord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikelsøe, J.; Fauser, P.; Sørensen, P. B.;

    The aim of the study has been to investigate the occurrence, sources, transport and fate of nonylphenols and phthalates in the aquatic environment of Roskilde Fjord. It was further intended to find the temporal as well as the spatial variation of these xenobiotics in the fjord and stream water. F...

  10. Post-treatment of anaerobically degraded azo dye Acid Red 18 using aerobic moving bed biofilm process: enhanced removal of aromatic amines. (United States)

    Koupaie, E Hosseini; Moghaddam, M R Alavi; Hashemi, S H


    The application of aerobic moving bed biofilm process as post-treatment of anaerobically degraded azo dye Acid Red 18 was investigated in this study. The main objective of this work was to enhance removal of anaerobically formed the dye aromatic metabolites. Three separate sequential treatment systems were operated with different initial dye concentrations of 100, 500 and 1000 mg/L. Each treatment system consisted of an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (An-SBR) followed by an aerobic moving bed sequencing batch biofilm reactor (MB-SBBR). Up to 98% of the dye decolorization and more than 80% of the COD removal occurred anaerobically. The obtained results suggested no significant difference in COD removal as well as the dye decolorization efficiency using three An-SBRs receiving different initial dye concentrations. Monitoring the dye metabolites through HPLC suggested that more than 80% of anaerobically formed 1-naphthylamine-4-sulfonate was completely removed in the aerobic biofilm reactors. Based on COD analysis results, at least 65-72% of the dye total metabolites were mineralized during the applied treatment systems. According to the measured biofilm mass and also based on respiration-inhibition test results, increasing the initial dye concentration inhibited the growth and final mass of the attached-growth biofilm in MB-SBBRs.

  11. Post-treatment of anaerobically degraded azo dye Acid Red 18 using aerobic moving bed biofilm process: Enhanced removal of aromatic amines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseini Koupaie, E., E-mail: [Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology (AUT), Hafez Ave., Tehran 15875-4413 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Alavi Moghaddam, M.R., E-mail: [Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology (AUT), Hafez Ave., Tehran 15875-4413 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hashemi, S.H., E-mail: [Environmental Science Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    Highlights: {yields} Biofilm process was applied as post-treatment of anaerobically degraded an azo dye. {yields} More than 65% of the dye total metabolites was completely mineralized. {yields} Based on HPLC analysis, more than 80% of 1-naphthylamine-4-sulfonate was removed. {yields} Inhibition of biofilm growth was increased with increasing the initial dye concentration. {yields} Considerable porous morphology was observed in the SEM photographs of the biofilm. - Abstract: The application of aerobic moving bed biofilm process as post-treatment of anaerobically degraded azo dye Acid Red 18 was investigated in this study. The main objective of this work was to enhance removal of anaerobically formed the dye aromatic metabolites. Three separate sequential treatment systems were operated with different initial dye concentrations of 100, 500 and 1000 mg/L. Each treatment system consisted of an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (An-SBR) followed by an aerobic moving bed sequencing batch biofilm reactor (MB-SBBR). Up to 98% of the dye decolorization and more than 80% of the COD removal occurred anaerobically. The obtained results suggested no significant difference in COD removal as well as the dye decolorization efficiency using three An-SBRs receiving different initial dye concentrations. Monitoring the dye metabolites through HPLC suggested that more than 80% of anaerobically formed 1-naphthylamine-4-sulfonate was completely removed in the aerobic biofilm reactors. Based on COD analysis results, at least 65-72% of the dye total metabolites were mineralized during the applied treatment systems. According to the measured biofilm mass and also based on respiration-inhibition test results, increasing the initial dye concentration inhibited the growth and final mass of the attached-growth biofilm in MB-SBBRs.

  12. Degradation of toluene by a mixed population of archetypal aerobes, microaerophiles, and denitrifiers: laboratory sand column experiment and multispecies biofilm model formulation. (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Su; Jaffé, Peter R


    An experiment was conducted in a saturated sand column with three bacterial strains that have different growth characteristics on toluene, Pseudomonas putida F1 which degrades toluene only under aerobic conditions, Thauera aromatica T1 which degrades toluene only under denitrifying conditions, and Ralstonia pickettii PKO1 has a facultative nature and can perform nitrate-enhanced biodegradation of toluene under hypoxic conditions (DO <2 mg/L). Steady-state concentration profiles showed that oxygen and nitrate appeared to be utilized simultaneously, regardless of the dissolved oxygen concentration and the results from fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH) indicated that PKO1 maintained stable cells numbers throughout the column, even when the pore water oxygen concentration was high. Since PKO1's growth rate under aerobic condition is much lower than that of F1, except under hypoxic conditions, these observations were not anticipated. Therefore these observations require a mechanistic explanation that can account for localized low oxygen concentrations under aerobic conditions. To simulate the observed dynamics, a multispecies biofilm model was implemented. This model formulation assumes the formation of a thin biofilm that is composed of the three bacterial strains. The individual strains grow in response to the substrate and electron acceptor flux from bulk fluid into the biofilm. The model was implemented such that internal changes in bacterial composition and substrate concentration can be simulated over time and space. The model simulations from oxic to denitrifying conditions compared well to the experimental profiles of the chemical species and the bacterial strains, indicating the importance of accounting for the biological activity of individual strains in biofilms that span different redox conditions.

  13. Aerobic decolorization and degradation of Acid Orange G (AOG) by suspended growing cells and immobilized cells of a yeast strain Candida tropicalis TL-F1. (United States)

    Tan, Liang; Li, Hua; Ning, Shuxiang; Hao, Jia


    In this study, aerobic decolorization and degradation of azo dye Acid Orange G (AOG) by both suspended growing cells and immobilized cells of a yeast strain Candida tropicalis TL-F1 were studied. The effects of different parameters on decolorization of AOG by both growing suspended and immobilized strain TL-F1 were investigated. Furthermore, a possible decolorization mechanism of AOG was proposed through analyzing metabolic intermediates using UV-vis and high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) methods. Strain TL-F1 could decolorize AOG in both liquid and solid mediums through degradation. The optimal conditions for decolorization with suspended growing cells of strain TL-F1 were as follows: 6-10 g/L sucrose, 5-7 g/L urea, ≥6 % (v/v) inoculation size, ≥160 rpm, 35-40 °C, and pH 5.0-6.0; and those for immobilized cells, the conditions were as follows: 4-6 g/L glucose, 0.2-0.4 g/L urea, 6-10 g/L (wet cell pellets) inoculation size, ≥160 rpm, 35-40 °C, and pH 5.0-7.0. Results of UV-vis scanning spectra suggested that AOG was decolorized through biodegradation, and the possible pathway was proposed through the results of HPLC-MS analysis and related literature. This is a systematic research on aerobic decolorization and degradation of AOG by both suspended and immobilized cells of a C. tropicalis strain.

  14. In situ and laboratory determined first-order degradation rate constants of specific organic compounds in an aerobic aquifer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, P.H.; Bjerg, P.L.; Nielsen, P.;


    experiments. First-order degradation rate constants for aromatic and phenolic hydrocarbons ranged between 0.01 and 0.9 day(-1). Local variations in first-order degradation rates and variations between rate constants determined by ISM and LBM were generally with in a factor of 5, but no systematic differences...

  15. Extensions to modeling aerobic carbon degradation using combined respirometric-titrimetric measurements in view of activated sludge model calibration. (United States)

    Sin, Gürkan; Vanrolleghem, Peter A


    Recently a model was introduced to interpret the respirometric (OUR) -titrimetric (Hp) data obtained from aerobic oxidation of different carbon sources in view of calibration of Activated Sludge Model No.1 (ASM1). The model requires, among others, the carbon dioxide transfer rate (CTR) to be relatively constant during aerobic experiments. As CTR is an inherently nonlinear process, this assumption may not hold for certain experimental conditions. Hence, we extended the model to describe the nonlinear CTR behavior. A simple calibration procedure of the CO2 model was developed only using titrimetric data. The identifiable parameter subset of this model when using titrimetric data only contained the first equilibrium constant of the CO2 dissociation, pK1, the initial aqueous CO2 concentration, C(Tinit) and the nitrogen content of biomass, i(NBM). The extended model was then successfully applied to interpret typical data obtained from respirometric-titrimetric measurements with a nonlinear CO2 stripping process. The parameter estimation results using titrimetric data were consistent with the results estimated using respirometric data (OUR) alone or combined OUR and Hp data, thereby supporting the validity of the dynamic CO2 model and its calibration approach. The increased range of applicability and accurate utilization of the titrimetric data are expected to contribute particularly to the improvement of calibration of ASM models using batch experiments.

  16. Applications of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria in the fields of biological degradation of contaminants and biological wastewater treatment


    Jovcic, Alexander


    In the work here presented four distinctly different problems were investigated. The first problem was an investigation into the degradation of Dichloroethylene (DCE) and 1,1-bis (p-Chlorophenyl)-2-dichloroethylene (DDE) utilising pure bacterial cultures. The second investigation dealt with the degradation of DDE and polychlorinated Biphenyl’s (PCB’s) utilising anaerobic sediments and soils from New Zealand. The third investigation worked on the Granulation of anaerobic River-sediments in Upf...

  17. Several genes encoding enzymes with the same activity are necessary for aerobic fungal degradation of cellulose in nature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter K Busk

    Full Text Available The cellulose-degrading fungal enzymes are glycoside hydrolases of the GH families and lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases. The entanglement of glycoside hydrolase families and functions makes it difficult to predict the enzymatic activity of glycoside hydrolases based on their sequence. In the present study we further developed the method Peptide Pattern Recognition to an automatic approach not only to find all genes encoding glycoside hydrolases and lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases in fungal genomes but also to predict the function of the genes. The functional annotation is an important feature as it provides a direct route to predict function from primary sequence. Furthermore, we used Peptide Pattern Recognition to compare the cellulose-degrading enzyme activities encoded by 39 fungal genomes. The results indicated that cellobiohydrolases and AA9 lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases are hallmarks of cellulose-degrading fungi except brown rot fungi. Furthermore, a high number of AA9, endocellulase and β-glucosidase genes were identified, not in what are known to be the strongest, specialized lignocellulose degraders but in saprophytic fungi that can use a wide variety of substrates whereas only few of these genes were found in fungi that have a limited number of natural, lignocellulotic substrates. This correlation suggests that enzymes with different properties are necessary for degradation of cellulose in different complex substrates. Interestingly, clustering of the fungi based on their predicted enzymes indicated that Ascomycota and Basidiomycota use the same enzymatic activities to degrade plant cell walls.

  18. Prolonged aerobic degradation of shredded and pre-composted municipal solid waste: report from a 21-year study of leachate quality characteristics. (United States)

    Grisey, Elise; Aleya, Lotfi


    The objective of this study was to assess the degree of long-term waste maturation at a closed landfill (Etueffont, France) over a period of 21 years (1989-2010) through analysis of the physicochemical characteristics of leachates as well as biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and metal content in waste. The results show that the leachates, generated in two different sections (older and newer) of the landfill, have low organic, mineral, and metallic loads, as the wastes were mainly of household origin from a rural area where sorting and composting were required. Based on pH and BOD/COD assessments, leachate monitoring in the landfill's newer section showed a rapid decrease in the pollution load over time and an early onset of methanogenic conditions. The closing of the older of the two sections contributed to a significant decline for the majority of parameters, attributable to degradation and leaching. A gradual decreasing trend was observed after waste placement had ceased in the older section, indicating that degradation continued and the waste mass had not yet fully stabilized. At the end of monitoring, leachates from the two landfill linings contained typical old leachates in the maturation period, with a pH ≥ 7 and a low BOD/COD ratio indicating a low level of waste biodegradability. Age actually contributes to a gradual removal of organic, inorganic, and metallic wastes, but it is not the only driving factor behind advanced degradation. The lack of compaction and cover immediately after deposit extended the aerobic degradation phase, significantly reducing the amount of organic matter. In addition, waste shredding improved water infiltration into the waste mass, hastening removal of polluting components through percolation.

  19. Aerobic biodegradation potential of endocrine disrupting chemicals in surface-water sediment at Rocky Mountains National Park, USA (United States)

    Bradley, Paul M.; Battaglin, William A.; Iwanowicz, Luke; Clark, Jimmy M.; Journey, Celeste A.


    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) in surface water and bed sediment threaten the structure and function of aquatic ecosystems. In natural, remote, and protected surface-water environments where contaminant releases are sporadic, contaminant biodegradation is a fundamental driver of exposure concentration, timing, duration, and, thus, EDC ecological risk. Anthropogenic contaminants, including known and suspected EDC, were detected in surface water and sediment collected from 2 streams and 2 lakes in Rocky Mountains National Park (ROMO). The potential for aerobic EDC biodegradation was assessed in collected sediments using 6 14C-radiolabeled model compounds. Aerobic microbial mineralization of natural (estrone and 17β-estradiol) and synthetic (17α-ethinylestradiol) estrogen was significant at all sites. ROMO bed sediment microbial communities also effectively degraded the xenoestrogens, bisphenol-A and 4-nonylphenol. The same sediment samples exhibited little potential for aerobic biodegradation of triclocarban, however, illustrating the need to assess a wider range of contaminant compounds. The current results support recent concerns over the widespread environmental occurrence of carbanalide antibacterials, like triclocarban and triclosan, and suggest that backcountry use of products containing these compounds should be discouraged.

  20. Evaluation of Biostimulation and Bioaugmentation To Stimulate Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5,-triazine Degradation in an Aerobic Groundwater Aquifer. (United States)

    Michalsen, Mandy M; King, Aaron S; Rule, Rebecca A; Fuller, Mark E; Hatzinger, Paul B; Condee, Charles W; Crocker, Fiona H; Indest, Karl J; Jung, Carina M; Istok, Jack D


    Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5,-triazine (RDX) is a toxic and mobile groundwater contaminant common to military sites. This study compared in situ RDX degradation rates following bioaugmentation with Gordonia sp. strain KTR9 (henceforth KTR9) to rates under biostimulation conditions in an RDX-contaminated aquifer in Umatilla, OR. Bioaugmentation was achieved by injecting site groundwater (6000 L) amended with KTR9 cells (10(8) cells mL(-1)) and low carbon substrate concentrations (15 mM fructose) carbon substrate concentrations in an effort to stimulate aerobic or anaerobic microbial activity, respectively. Single-well push-pull tests were conducted to measure RDX degradation rates for each treatment. Average rate coefficients were 1.2 day(-1) for bioaugmentation and 0.7 day(-1) for high carbon biostimulation; rate coefficients for low carbon biostimulation were not significantly different from zero (p values ≥0.060). Our results suggest that bioaugmentation with KTR9 is a feasible strategy for in situ biodegradation of RDX and, at this site, is capable of achieving RDX concentration reductions comparable to those obtained by high carbon biostimulation while requiring ~97% less fructose. Bioaugmentation has potential to minimize substrate quantities and associated costs, as well as secondary groundwater quality impacts associated with anaerobic biostimulation processes (e.g., hydrogen sulfide, methane production) during full-scale RDX remediation.

  1. Several genes encoding enzymes with the same activity are necessary for aerobic fungal degradation of cellulose in nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busk, Peter Kamp; Lange, Mette; Pilgaard, Bo


    . In the present study we further developed the method Peptide Pattern Recognition to an automatic approach not only to find all genes encoding glycoside hydrolases and lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases in fungal genomes but also to predict the function of the genes. The functional annotation is an important...... feature as it provides a direct route to predict function from primary sequence. Furthermore, we used Peptide Pattern Recognition to compare the cellulose-degrading enzyme activities encoded by 39 fungal genomes. The results indicated that cellobiohydrolases and AA9 lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases...

  2. Removal and Biodegradation of Nonylphenol by Four Freshwater Microalgae (United States)

    He, Ning; Sun, Xian; Zhong, Yu; Sun, Kaifeng; Liu, Weijie; Duan, Shunshan


    The removal and biodegradation of nonylphenol (NP) by four freshwater microalgae, including three green algae (Scendesmus quadriauda, Chlorella vulgaris, and Ankistrodesmus acicularis) and one cyanobacterium (Chroococcus minutus) were studied in bacteria-free cultures exposed to different concentrations of NP for 5 days. All four algal species showed a rapid and high ability to remove NP (including bioaccumulation and biodegradation). Among these species, A. acicularis (Ankistrodesmus acicularis) had the highest NP removal rate (83.77%) at 120 h when exposed to different NP treatments (0.5–2.5 mg·L−1), followed by C. vulgaris (Chlorella vulgaris) (80.80%), S. quadriauda (Scendesmus quadriauda) (70.96%) and C. minutus (Chroococcus minutus) (64.26%). C. vulgaris had the highest NP biodegradation percentage (68.80%) at 120 h, followed by A. acicularis (65.63%), S. quadriauda (63.10%); and C. minutus (34.91%). The extracellular NP contents were lower than the intracellular NP contents in all tested algae. The ratio of the extracellular NP content and the intracellular NP content ranged from 0.04 to 0.85. Therefore, the removal of NP from the medium was mainly due to the algal degradation. These results indicate that A. acicularis and C. vulgaris are more tolerant to NP and could be used for treatment of NP contaminated aqueous systems effectively by bioremoval and biodegradation. PMID:27983663

  3. Microbial aerobic and anaerobic degradation of acrylamide in sludge and water under environmental conditions--case study in a sand and gravel quarry. (United States)

    Guezennec, A G; Michel, C; Ozturk, S; Togola, A; Guzzo, J; Desroche, N


    Polyacrylamides (PAMs) are used in sand and gravel quarries as water purification flocculants for recycling process water in a recycling loop system where the flocculants remove fine particles in the form of sludge. The PAM-based flocculants, however, contain residual amounts of acrylamide (AMD) that did not react during the polymerization process. This acrylamide is released into the environment when the sludge is discharged into a settling basin. Here, we explore the microbial diversity and the potential for AMD biodegradation in water and sludge samples collected in a quarry site submitted to low AMD concentrations. The microbial diversity, analyzed by culture-dependent methods and the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis approach, reveals the presence of Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, and Actinobacteria, among which some species are known to have an AMD biodegradation activity. Results also show that the two main parts of the water recycling loop-the washing process and the settling basin-display significantly different bacterial profiles. The exposure time with residual AMD could, thus, be one of the parameters that lead to a selection of specific bacterial species. AMD degradation experiments with 0.5 g L(-1) AMD showed a high potential for biodegradation in all parts of the washing process, except the make-up water. The AMD biodegradation potential in samples collected from the washing process and settling basin was also analyzed taking into account on-site conditions: low (12 °C) and high (25 °C) temperatures reflecting the winter and summer seasons, and AMD concentrations of 50 μg L(-1). Batch tests showed rapid (as little as 18 h) AMD biodegradation under aerobic and anaerobic conditions at both the winter and summer temperatures, although there was a greater lag time before activity started with the AMD biodegradation at 12 °C. This study, thus, demonstrates that bacteria present in sludge and water samples exert an in situ and rapid

  4. Alkanindiges illinoisensis gen. nov., sp. nov., an obligately hydrocarbonoclastic, aerobic squalane-degrading bacterium isolated from oilfield soils. (United States)

    Bogan, Bill W; Sullivan, Wendy R; Kayser, Kevin J; Derr, K D; Aldrich, Henry C; Paterek, J Robert


    An alkane-degrading bacterium, designated GTI MVAB Hex1(T), was isolated from chronically crude oil-contaminated soil from an oilfield in southern Illinois. The isolate grew very weakly or not at all in minimal or rich media without hydrocarbons. Straight-chain aliphatic hydrocarbons, such as hexadecane and heptadecane, greatly stimulated growth; shorter-chain (squalane. The latter of these was most intriguing, as catabolism of squalane has hitherto been reported only for Mycobacterium species. Although unable to utilize mono- or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as sole carbon sources, the isolate did show slight fluorene-mineralizing capability in Luria-Bertani medium, which was partially repressed by hexadecane. In contrast, hexadecane supplementation greatly increased mineralization of (14)C-dodecane, which was not a growth substrate. Further testing emphasized the isolate's extremely narrow substrate range, as only Tween 40 and Tween 80 supported significant growth. Microscopic examination (by scanning and transmission electron microscopy) revealed a slightly polymorphic coccoidal to bacillar morphology, with hydrocarbon-grown cells tending to be more elongated. When grown with hexadecane, GTI MVAB Hex1(T) accumulated a large number of electron-transparent intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies. These were also prevalent during growth in the presence of squalane. Smaller inclusion bodies were observed occasionally with pristane supplementation; they were, however, absent during growth on crude oil. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence data and range of growth substrates, classification of this isolate as the type strain of Alkanindiges illinoisensis gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed, which is most closely related (approx. 94 % sequence similarity) to Acinetobacter junii.

  5. Vertical distribution of nonylphenol and nonylphenol ethoxylates in sedimentary core from the Beipaiming Channel, North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Fen; HU Jian-ying; YANG Min


    The vertical profiles of nonylphenol(NP)and nonylphenol ethoxylates(NPEOs) were investigated in a sediment core from the Beipaiming Channel,North China using high sensitive LC-MS and GC-MS methods.In this core,relatively high concentrations of NP and NPEOS occurred in the surface sediment(≤40 cm),with the maximum value of NP and NPEOs reaching 3539 and 12735 ng/g,respectively,whereas,no NP or NPEOs were detected in deeper sediments(>40 cm).The high concentrations of NP and NPEOs in the surface layers suggested recent inputs in this area.NPEOs with short ethoxy chains(NPnEO,n=0-3)were dominant in the NPEO mixture with percentages from 54%tO 78%.which were similar to the distribution of homolog NPEO in efttuents from nearby sewage treatment plants(STPs).indicating that the channel received the effluents from these STPs.The sewage treatment ratio was quite similar to that found in North America before the 1980s.Finally,the concentrations of NP and NPEOS were related to the total organic carbon(TOC)(P<0.001),suggesting that TOC was an important factor for vertical distribution of NPEOs and NP from the Beipaiming Channel.

  6. Photo-Fenton treatment of a pesticide mixture simulating real wastewater and 4-nonylphenol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gernjak, W.; Mentler, A.; Rodriguez, R.; Furhacker, M.; Malato, S.


    A simulated real wastewater containing a mixture of nine commercial pesticide formulations was degraded by the Photo-Fenton method in concentrating parabolic trough collectors at pilot-plant scale (helio man reactor at PSA) with varying initial iron concentrations (10-60 mg/L) and at two different temperatures (30 and 45 degree centigree). Independent of temperature and iron concentration 85% of the TOC could be degreed. Although the pH value was adjusted to 2.8 prior to ferrous sulfate addition, iron precipitated during the Photo-Fenton treatment (between 20 and 80%), the effect being pronounced stronger at elevated temperatures. TOC degradation rates increased confirming to increase of temperature and of iron concentration, if referred to dissolved iron. Around 20% more hydrogen peroxide was consumed at 45 degree centigree. The high radiation intensity achieved in the concentrating collector did not negatively affect the TOC degradation rates, as this is the case for UiO{sub 2} COD and VOD{sub 5} measurements showed that biodegradability during the Photo-Fenton treatment is enhanced from 15 to 37% of COD. Finally, FT-IR and X-ray diffraction measurements of the precipitated iron revealed a goethite crystal structure. Almost saturated solutions of 4-nonylphenol (2-3 mg/L) could be degraded by two orders of magnitude (Analytical detection limit reached) as well by TiO{sub 2} photo catalysis as by the Photo-Fenton method, the latter one being much quicker. Fenton reaction in the dark transformed between 40 and 80% of initial 4-nonylphenol into oxidized intermediates (1-5 mg/L ferrous iron applied). (Author) 12 refs.

  7. Persistence and distribution of 4-nonylphenol in water, sediment, macrophytes, and wall material of littoral enclosures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinis, L.J.; Tunell, R.; Liber, K. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Superior, WI (United States). Lake Superior Research Inst.; Knuth, M.L. [Environmental Protection Agency, Duluth, MN (United States). Environmental Research Lab.


    Eighteen enclosures (5 m x 10 m) were constructed in the littoral zone of a 2-ha pond near Duluth, MN. Each enclosure consisted of 5 m of natural shoreline and three walls of an inert plastic. The enclosures had an average surface area of 31.9 m{sup 2} , an average depth of 0.6 m and an average water volume of 33.1 m{sup 3}. The enclosure waters were treated with the alkyl phenol ethoxylate precursor and degradation product 4-nonylphenol. Application was accomplished by sub-surface injection over a 20-day period with a 2 day frequency. Nominal aqueous concentrations were 0, 3, 30, 100 and 300 {mu}g/L. Concentrations of 4-nonylphenol were monitored during and after application in the water, sediment, macrophytes, and enclosure wall material. Average maximum water concentrations ranged from 96.5% of nominal to 62.0% of nominal and average minimum water concentrations ranged from 33.3% of nominal to 29.5% of nominal during the application period. Water concentrations decreased exponentially after application ended. Sediment concentrations during the application period were constant from 8 to 20 d and peak concentrations occurred 48 d after application began. Macrophyte concentrations peaked 21 d after initial application with a steady decline through 76 d. Enclosure wall material concentrations reached a peak 3 h before the final application. A gradual decline occurred until 34 d after initial application followed by a more rapid dissipation.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batool Ahansazan


    Full Text Available The most significant source of environmental pollution derived from perilous wastes is the circumstantial and intentional emancipation of specific industrial wastes including resistant and/or toxic pollutants to natural environments. Although, biological treatment methods have been commonly found as most effective alternatives in the removal of persistent compounds in industrial wastewaters, they require some increase for obtaining acceptable removal efficiencies, due to the presence of refractory or toxic compounds in the wastewaters. In this study, the use of surfactant of nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPE in the removal of persistent organic pollutants by biological treatment processes was investigated as an enhancement technique. The application of surfactants can enhance soil and groundwater remediation by increasing contaminant locomotion and solubility to ameliorate the performance of practical conventional remediation technology and by barricading the departure of contaminants to speed the rate of biodegradation of contaminants in environment. The proven effectiveness of surfactants in soil and groundwater remediation has been considered reasonable to expect that surfactants can also enhance the removal of persistent organic pollutants in wastewaters. Different concentrations of nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPE (1000, 1500, 2000 ppm were tested to optimize biosurfactant-enhanced degradation of persistent pollutants in wastewaters. The results of this study demonstrate that the biodegradation of persistent organic pollutants in wastewaters is elevated by the use of biosurfactants. The principal mechanism that raises the biodegradation is the augment solvability of poorly soluble compounds in the wastewater. According to the results of this study, it can be anticipated that biosurfactant-enhanced degradation would result in faster and more complete degradation.

  9. 水中壬基酚的去除研究进展%Advance in the Study on Removal of Nonylphenol in Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽君; 李文岩


    Nonylphenol is a representative sample of material of environmental endocrine disrupting chemicals. It is one of the degradation products of nonylphenol ethoxylate used as non - ionic surfaetant in the environment, and causes great harm to the organism. GC - MS and HPLC are now mainly applied to determine the concentration of nonylphenol in water samples, and solid phase extraction (SPE) and liquid - liquid extraction are used as pretreatment technique. Recent researches show that conventional water treatment processes can not remove nonylphenol efficiently, while physical processes such as activated carbons and chemical processes such as sonolytic d the deep treatment egradation, electrochemical oxidation process in recent years show effective or photodecomposition which paid much attention to decomposition of nonylphenol in water.%壬基酚是环境内分泌干扰物质中具有代表性的物质,非离子表面活性剂壬基酚聚氧乙烯醚在环境中的降解产物,对生物体造成很大危害。目前检测水样中壬基酚的主要方法是采用GC—MS和HPLC,预处理主要采用固相萃取和液一液萃取。研究表明自来水厂的常规处理工艺对于水中壬基酚的去除有限;近年来倍受关注的深度处理工艺如活性炭吸附等物理方法,电化学氧化、光分解、超声化等化学方法对于水中壬基酚的去除效果明显。

  10. Microbial degradation of chloro- and methylphenol mixtures under aerobic and denitrifying conditions. Regulation and interaction in a mixed culture; Mikrobieller Abbau von Chlor- und Methylphenolen im Gemisch unter aeroben und denitrifizierenden Bedingungen. Regulation und Interaktion in einer Mischkultur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollender, J.


    The mechanism and the regulation of the microbial aerobic degradation of chloro- and methylphenol mixtures were investigated by comparing the mixed culture enriched of these phenolic compounds with the isolated pure cultures. The degradation assays and the characterization of the central degrading enzymes involved show that the degradation potential of the mixed culture was essentially determined by the additive abilities of the three pure cultures Alcaligenes xylosoxidans subspecies denitrificans JH1, Pseudomonas stutzeri JH3 and Comamonas testosteroni JH5. Degradation of some substrate mixtures and avoidance of enrichment of metabolites can only be explained by the interaction of the pure cultures or the participation of other organisms in the mixed culture which were not further investigated. (orig.) [Deutsch] Bei den Untersuchungen zum Mechanismus und der Regulation des aeroben Abbaus von Chlor- und Methylphenolen im Gemisch stand der Vergleich zwischen der auf diesen Phenolen angereicherten Mischkultur und den daraus isolierten Reinkulturen im Vordergrund. Die Abbauversuche und die Charakterisierung der am Metabolismus beteiligten zentralen Enzyme zeigen, dass fuer das Abbaupotential der Mischkultur im wesentlichen die additiven Abbauleistungen der drei Reinkulturen Alcaligenes xylosoxidans subspecies dentrificans JH1, Pseudomonas stutzeri JH3 und Comamonas testosteroni JH5 verantwortlich sind. Der Abbau einiger Substratmischungen und die Vermeidung einer Anreicherung von Metaboliten in der Mischkultur sind jedoch nur durch eine Interaktion der Reinkulturen oder durch eine Beteiligung anderer nicht naeher untersuchter Organismen in der Mischkultur zu erklaeren. (orig.)

  11. Anaerobic lactic acid degradation during ensilage of whole crop maize inoculated with lactobacillus buchneri inhibits yeast growth and improves aerobic stability (United States)

    Driehuis; Elferink; Spoelstra


    Aerobic deterioration of silages is initiated by (facultative) aerobic micro-organisms, usually yeasts, that oxidize the preserving organic acids. In this study, a Lactobacillus buchneri strain isolated from maize silage was evaluated for its potential as a bacterial inoculant that enhances aerobic stability of silages. In four experiments, chopped whole crop maize (30-43% dry matter (DM)) was inoculated with Lact. buchneri and ensiled in laboratory silos. Uninoculated silages served as controls. Analysis of silages treated with Lact. buchneri at levels of 103-106 cfu g-1 after about 3 months of anaerobic storage showedthat acetic acid and 1-propanol contents increased with inoculum levels above 104 cfu g-1,whereas lactic acid decreased. Propionic acid, silage pH and DM loss increased withinoculum levels above 105 cfu g-1. Time course experiments with maize inoculated with Lact. buchneri at 4 x 104-2 x 105 cfu g-1 showed that up to 7-14 d after ensiling, Lact. buchneri had no effect on silage characteristics. Thereafter, the lactic acid content of the inoculated silages declined and, simultaneously, acetic acid and, to a lesser extent, propionic acid and 1-propanol, accumulated. Inoculation reduced survival of yeasts during the anaerobic storage phase and inhibited yeast growth when the silage was exposed to O2, resulting in a substantial improvement in aerobic stability. The results indicate that the use of Lact. buchneri as a silage inoculant can enhance aerobic stability by inhibition of yeasts. The ability of the organism to ferment lactic acid to acetic acid appears to be an important underlying principle of this effect.

  12. [Mechanism and pathway of the ozonation of nonylphenol in aqueous solution]. (United States)

    Hu, Xiang; Li, Jin; Pi, Yun-Zheng; Wang, Jiang-Long


    20 mg/L nonylphenol solution was ozonized. The removal efficiency and the intermediate products were studied during the ozonation of nonylphenol, the possible reaction mechanism of the ozonation of nonylphenol was proposed. The experimental results indicate that there are two kinds of ozonation patterns, the oxidation by molecule O3 alone and by O3/*OH. Both ozonation patterns can remove nonylphenol completely within 18 minutes. However, the combined oxidation can remove 96% of the initial nonylphenol within 4 minutes, and it took 12 minutes in the single O3 molecule oxidation system. The formaldehyde was detected during the ozonation of nonylphenol. The concentration reached stability after 8 minutes during the oxidation by single O3 and gradually increased during the combined oxidation process.

  13. Aerobic landfill bioreactor (United States)

    Hudgins, Mark P; Bessette, Bernard J; March, John; McComb, Scott T.


    The present invention includes a method of decomposing municipal solid waste (MSW) within a landfill by converting the landfill to aerobic degradation in the following manner: (1) injecting air via the landfill leachate collection system (2) injecting air via vertical air injection wells installed within the waste mass; (3) applying leachate to the waste mass using a pressurized drip irrigation system; (4) allowing landfill gases to vent; and (5) adjusting air injection and recirculated leachate to achieve a 40% to 60% moisture level and a temperature between F. and F. in steady state.

  14. Presence of nonylphenol ethoxylate surfactants in a watershed in central Mexico and removal from domestic sewage in a treatment wetland. (United States)

    Belmont, Marco A; Ikonomou, Michael; Metcalfe, Chris D


    The Texcoco River in central Mexico is polluted with domestic wastewater as a result of discharges of untreated or inadequately treated sewage. Since nonylphenol ethoxylate (NPEO) surfactants and their intermediate degradation products such as nonylphenol (NP) and NP mono- and diethoxylate (NP1EO, NP2EO) have been found in domestic wastewater and in surface waters near wastewater discharges in industrialized countries, the Texcoco River was sampled to determine whether these compounds were present. The results indicated that NPEOs were present at very high concentrations (> 100 microg/L) in the lower reaches of the Texcoco River, but unlike rivers in industrialized countries, relatively low concentrations of intermediate degradation products, including NP1EO, NP2EO, and NP, were present. The presence and fate of NPEOs compounds in wastewater treatment plants have been studied only in conventional treatment systems in industrialized countries. In this study, the fate of these compounds was studied in a pilot-scale treatment wetland constructed in the small community of Santa Maria Nativitas in the Texcoco River watershed. The treatment wetland removed > 75% of NPEOs from the domestic wastewater, but the greatest proportion of removal occurred in parts of the treatment wetland where sedimentation existed. This is the first report of NPEO compounds in the water resources of a developing country. These data indicate that construction of low-cost and technologically simple treatment wetlands may be one solution to reducing the impacts of contaminants from domestic sewage in developing countries, such as Mexico.

  15. Determination of nonylphenol isomers in landfill leachate and municipal wastewater using steam distillation extraction coupled with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (United States)

    Zhang, Caixiang; Eganhouse, Robert P.; Pontolillo, James; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Wang, Yanxin


    4-Nonylphenols (4-NPs) are known endocrine disruptors and by-products of the microbial degradation of nonylphenol polyethoxylate surfactants. One of the challenges to understanding the toxic effects of nonylphenols is the large number of isomers that may exist in environmental samples. In order to attribute toxic effects to specific compounds, a method is needed for the separation and quantitation of individual nonylphenol isomers. The pre-concentration methods of solvent sublimation, solid-phase extraction or liquid–liquid extraction prior to chromatographic analysis can be problematic because of co-extraction of thousands of compounds typically found in complex matrices such as municipal wastewater or landfill leachate. In the present study, steam distillation extraction (SDE) was found to be an effective pre-concentration method for extraction of 4-NPs from leachate and wastewater, and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC) coupled with fast mass spectral data acquisition by time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ToFMS) enhanced the resolution and identification of 4-NP isomers. Concentrations of eight 4-NP isomers were determined in leachate from landfill cells of different age and wastewater influent and effluent samples. 4-NP isomers were about 3 times more abundant in leachate from the younger cell than the older one, whereas concentrations in wastewater effluent were either below detection limits or <1% of influent concentrations. 4-NP isomer distribution patterns were found to have been altered following release to the environment. This is believed to reflect isomer-specific degradation and accumulation of 4-NPs in the aquatic environment.

  16. Fate of 4-nonylphenol and 17β-estradiol in the Redwood River of Minnesota (United States)

    Writer, Jeffrey; Ryan, Joseph N.; Keefe, Steffanie H.; Barber, Larry B.


    The majority of previous research investigating the fate of endocrine-disrupting compounds has focused on single processes generally in controlled laboratory experiments, and limited studies have directly evaluated their fate and transport in rivers. This study evaluated the fate and transport of 4-nonylphenol, 17β-estradiol, and estrone in a 10-km reach of the Redwood River in southwestern Minnesota. The same parcel of water was sampled as it moved downstream, integrating chemical transformation and hydrologic processes. The conservative tracer bromide was used to track the parcel of water being sampled, and the change in mass of the target compounds relative to bromide was determined at two locations downstream from a wastewater treatment plant effluent outfall. In-stream attenuation coefficients (kstream) were calculated by assuming first-order kinetics (negative values correspond to attenuation, whereas positive values indicate production). Attenuation of 17β-estradiol (kstream = −3.2 ± 1.0 day–1) was attributed primarily due to sorption and biodegradation by the stream biofilm and bed sediments. Estrone (kstream = 0.6 ± 0.8 day–1) and 4-nonylphenol (kstream = 1.4 ± 1.9 day–1) were produced in the evaluated 10-km reach, likely due to biochemical transformation from parent compounds (17β-estradiol, 4-nonylphenolpolyethoxylates, and 4-nonyphenolpolyethoxycarboxylates). Despite attenuation, these compounds were transported kilometers downstream, and thus additive concentrations from multiple sources and transformation of parent compounds into degradates having estrogenic activity can explain their environmental persistence and widespread observations of biological disruption in surface waters.

  17. Importance of Unattached Bacteria and Bacteria Attached to Sediment in Determining Potentials for Degradation of Xenobiotic Organic Contaminants in an Aerobic Aquifer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Henning; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Christensen, Thomas Højlund;


    , was attached to the groundwater sediment (18 x 106 to 25 x 106 cells per g [dry weight]), and only a minor part was unattached in the groundwater (0.6 x 106 to 5.5 x 106 cells per ml). Experiments involving aquifer sediment suspensions showed identical degradation potentials in the laboratory and in the field...... for studying the degradation potential for xenobiotic organic contaminants should contain sediment to obtain the highest numbers of bacteria as well as the broadest and most stable degradation. When only the fine (silt- and clay-size) particles of the sediment were used, nearly the same advantages were gained...

  18. Aerobic microbial enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torsvik, T. [Univ. of Bergen (Norway); Gilje, E.; Sunde, E.


    In aerobic MEOR, the ability of oil-degrading bacteria to mobilize oil is used to increase oil recovery. In this process, oxygen and mineral nutrients are injected into the oil reservoir in order to stimulate growth of aerobic oil-degrading bacteria in the reservoir. Experiments carried out in a model sandstone with stock tank oil and bacteria isolated from offshore wells showed that residual oil saturation was lowered from 27% to 3%. The process was time dependent, not pore volume dependent. During MEOR flooding, the relative permeability of water was lowered. Oxygen and active bacteria were needed for the process to take place. Maximum efficiency was reached at low oxygen concentrations, approximately 1 mg O{sub 2}/liter.

  19. What Is Aerobic Dancing? (United States)

    ... than 24 million people participate in aerobics. Aerobic dance has blossomed into a sport for all to have fun while losing weight and keeping in shape. There are varied forms of aerobics including low-impact, swim and other water aerobics is popular. Dance is still the predominant form and may be ...

  20. Indigenous microfungi and plants reduce soil nonylphenol contamination and stimulate resident microfungal communities. (United States)

    Girlanda, Mariangela; Favero-Longo, Sergio Enrico; Lazzari, Alexandra; Segreto, Rossana; Perotto, Silvia; Siniscalco, Consolata


    Nonylphenol, the most abundant environmental pollutant with endocrine disrupting activity, is also toxic to plants and microorganisms, but its actual impact in the field is unknown. In this study, diversity of culturable soil microfungal and plant communities was assessed in a disused industrial estate, at three sites featuring different nonylphenol pollution. Although soil microfungal assemblages varied widely among the sites, no significant correlation was found with point pollutant concentrations, thus suggesting indirect effects of soil contamination on microfungal assemblages. The potential of indigenous fungi and plants to remove nonylphenol was assessed in mesocosm experiments. Poplar plants and a fungal consortium consisting of the most abundant strains in the nonylphenol-polluted soil samples were tested alone or in combination for their ability to reduce, under greenhouse conditions, nonylphenol levels either in a sterile, artificially contaminated sand substrate, or in two non-sterile soils from the original industrial area. Introduction of indigenous fungi consistently reduced nonylphenol levels in all substrates, up to ca. 70% depletion, whereas introduction of the plant proved to be effective only with high initial pollutant levels. In native non-sterile soil, nonylphenol depletion following fungal inoculation correlated with biostimulation of indigenous fungi, suggesting positive interactions between introduced and resident fungi.

  1. Subsurface fate and transport of sulfamethoxazole, 4-nonylphenol, and 17β-estradiol (United States)

    Barber, L.B.; Meyer, M.T.; LeBlanc, D.R.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Radley, Paul; Chapelle, F.; Rubio, F.


    Subsurface fate and transport of the antibiotic sulfamethoxazole (SX), the non-ionic surfactant degradation product 4-nonylphenol (NP), and the sex hormone 17β-estradiol (E2) were evaluated in a plume of contaminated groundwater at Cape Cod, Massachusetts, USA. The plume is the result of 60 years of wastewater treatment plant effluent disposal into rapid infiltration beds. Natural-gradient, in situ tracer experiments were used to evaluate subsurface transport of SX, NP, and E2 (injected at 300, 530, and 0.55 µg/L, respectively) relative to the conservative tracer bromide. Two geochemical zones were evaluated: (1) uncontaminated groundwater overlying the plume, and (2) contaminated groundwater within the plume that has recently become oxic after decades of anoxic conditions. The uncontaminated groundwater is characterized by a microbial community unacclimated to treated wastewater, whereas the contaminated groundwater is characterized by microbes acclimated to wastewater contaminants. Results from the tracer tests in both zones showed that the antibiotic SX was co-transported with the conservative tracer bromide, with little retardation or mass removal. In contrast, NP and E2, which are more hydrophobic and biodegradable, showed sorption (relative retardation factors ranged up to 5.9) and mass loss at both the uncontaminated and contaminated sites.

  2. Biodegradation and utilization of 4-n-nonylphenol by Aspergillus versicolor as a sole carbon and energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupiński, Mariusz; Janicki, Tomasz [Department of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, University of Lodz, Banacha 12/16, 90-237 Łódź (Poland); Pałecz, Bartłomiej [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Lodz, Pomorska 165, 90-236 Łódź (Poland); Długoński, Jerzy, E-mail: [Department of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, University of Lodz, Banacha 12/16, 90-237 Łódź (Poland)


    Highlights: • A. versicolor is able to degrade 4-n-NP as the sole source of carbon and energy. • 4-n-NP removal by A. versicolor was accompanied by the formation of metabolites. • Radioactive experiments show complete 4-n-NP mineralization by A. versicolor. • 4-n-NP initiates heat production in the A. versicolor spores. - Abstract: 4-n-Nonylphenol (4-n-NP) is an environmental pollutant with endocrine-disrupting activities that is formed during the degradation of nonylphenol polyethoxylates, which are widely used as surfactants. Utilization of 4-n-NP by the filamentous fungus Aspergillus versicolor as the sole carbon and energy source was investigated. By means of gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, we showed that in the absence of any carbon source other than 4-n-NP in the medium, A. versicolor completely removed the xenobiotic (100 mg L{sup −1}) after 3 d of cultivation. Moreover, mass spectrometric analysis of intracellular extracts led to the identification of eight intermediates. The mineralization of the xenobiotic in cultures supplemented with 4-n-NP [ring-{sup 14}C(U)] as a growth substrate was also assessed. After 3 d of incubation, approximately 50% of the initially applied radioactivity was recovered in the form of {sup 14}CO{sub 2}, proving that this xenobiotic was completely metabolized and utilized by A. versicolor as a carbon source. Based on microscopic analysis, A. versicolor is capable of germinating spores under such conditions. To confirm these observations, a microcalorimetric method was used. The results show that even the highest amount of 4-n-NP initiates heat production in the fungal samples, proving that metabolic processes were affected by the use of 4-n-NP as an energetic substrate.

  3. 78 FR 37176 - Addition of Nonylphenol Category; Community Right-to-Know Toxic Chemical Release Reporting (United States)


    ..., or (ii) serious or irreversible-- (I) reproductive dysfunctions, (II) neurological disorders, (III.... Schenk, and R. Schulz. 2002. Environmental chemicals with known endocrine potential affect yolk protein.... Effect of the endocrine disruptor nonylphenol on the marine copepod Tisbe battagliai. Sci. Total...

  4. Effects of Nonylphenol on Brain Gene Expression Profiles in F1 Generation Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective To explore the effects of nonylphenol on brain gene expression profiles in F1 generation rats by microarray technique.Methods mRNA was extracted from the brain of 2-day old F1 generation male rats Whose F0 female generation was either exposed to nonylphenol or free from nonylphenol exposure,and then it was reversely transcribed to cDNA hbeled with cy5 and cy3 fluorescence.Subsequently,cDNA probes were hybridized to two BiostarR-40S cDNA gene chips and fluorescent signals of cy5 and cy3 were scanned and analyzed. Results Two genes were differentially down-regulated.Conclusion Nonylphenol may disturb the neurcendocrine function of male rats when administered perinatally.

  5. Removal of micropollutants from aerobically treated grey water via ozone and activated carbon. (United States)

    Hernández-Leal, L; Temmink, H; Zeeman, G; Buisman, C J N


    Ozonation and adsorption onto activated carbon were tested for the removal micropollutants of personal care products from aerobically treated grey water. MilliQ water spiked with micropollutants (100-1600 μgL(-1)) was ozonated at a dosing rate of 1.22. In 45 min, this effectively removed (>99%): Four parabens, bisphenol-A, hexylcinnamic aldehyde, 4-methylbenzylidene-camphor (4MBC), benzophenone-3 (BP3), triclosan, galaxolide and ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate. After 60 min, the removal efficiency of benzalkonium chloride was 98%, tonalide and nonylphenol 95%, octocrylene 92% and 2-phenyl-5-benzimidazolesulfonic acid (PBSA) 84%. Ozonation of aerobically treated grey water at an applied ozone dose of 15 mgL(-1), reduced the concentrations of octocrylene, nonylphenol, triclosan, galaxolide, tonalide and 4-methylbenzylidene-camphor to below limits of quantification, with removal efficiencies of at least 79%. Complete adsorption of all studied micropollutants onto powdered activated carbon (PAC) was observed in batch tests with milliQ water spiked with 100-1600 μgL(-1) at a PAC dose of 1.25 gL(-1) and a contact time of 5 min. Three granular activated carbon (GAC) column experiments were operated to treat aerobically treated grey water. The operation of a GAC column with aerobically treated grey water spiked with micropollutants in the range of 0.1-10 μgL(-1) at a flow of 0.5 bed volumes (BV)h(-1) showed micropollutant removal efficiencies higher than 72%. During the operation time of 1728 BV, no breakthrough of TOC or micropollutants was observed. Removal of micropollutants from aerobically treated grey water was tested in a GAC column at a flow of 2 BVh(-1). Bisphenol-A, triclosan, tonalide, BP3, galaxolide, nonylphenol and PBSA were effectively removed even after a stable TOC breakthrough of 65% had been reached. After spiking the aerobically treated effluent with micropollutants to concentrations of 10-100 μgL(-1), efficient removal to below limits of quantification

  6. Urinary metabolites of 4-n-nonylphenol in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). (United States)

    Thibaut, R; Debrauwer, L; Rao, D; Cravedi, J P


    Nonylphenol is present in surface water and aquatic sediments and because of its lipophilic characteristics shows a considerable potential to bioaccumulate in aquatic organisms. Nonylphenol inhibits testicular growth and induces vitellogenin synthesis in male rainbow trout. In order to better understand the effects of nonylphenol on fish and its impact in the aquatic environment, it is essential to elucidate the metabolic fate of this compound. A single oral dose (5 mg, 1850 KBq) of [3H]4-n-nonylphenol resulted in 1.1% and 3.0% of the ingested radioactivity eliminated in urine after 24 and 48 h, respectively. Four metabolites were separated by radio-HPLC and tentatively identified by mass spectrometry. Urinary metabolites likely resulted from the initial omega-oxidation of 4-n-nonylphenol to the putative 9-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-nonanoic acid which subsequent beta-oxidation led to 4-hydroxybenzoic acid as major metabolite. Intermediary metabolites, namely 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl) propionic acid and 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-propenoic acid confirmed the occurrence of this beta-oxidative pathway. Urinary metabolites identified in this study were quite different from biotransformation products previously described in bile of trout treated with 4-n-nonylphenol.

  7. The effect of nonylphenol on gene expression in Atlantic salmon smolts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, Laura S., E-mail: [USGS, Leetown Science Center, 11649 Leetown Road, Kearneysville, WV 25430 (United States); McCormick, Stephen D., E-mail: [USGS, Leetown Science Center, Conte Anadromous Fish Research Center, Turners Falls, MA 01376 (United States)


    The parr-smolt transformation in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) is a complex developmental process that culminates in the ability to migrate to and live in seawater. Exposure to environmental contaminants like nonylphenol can disrupt smolt development and may be a contributing factor in salmon population declines. We used GRASP 16K cDNA microarrays to investigate the effects of nonylphenol on gene expression in Atlantic salmon smolts. Nonylphenol exposure reduced gill Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase activity and plasma cortisol and triiodothyronine levels. Transcriptional responses were examined in gill, liver, olfactory rosettes, hypothalamus, and pituitary. Expression of 124 features was significantly altered in the liver of fish exposed to nonylphenol; little to no transcriptional effects were observed in other tissues. mRNA abundance of genes involved in protein biosynthesis, folding, modification, transport and catabolism; nucleosome assembly, cell cycle, cell differentiation, microtubule-based movement, electron transport, and response to stress increased in nonylphenol-treated fish. This study expands our understanding of the effect of nonylphenol on smolting and provides potential targets for development of biomarkers.

  8. The effect of nonylphenol on gene expression in Atlantic salmon smolts (United States)

    Robertson, Laura S.; McCormick, Stephen D.


    The parr–smolt transformation in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) is a complex developmental process that culminates in the ability to migrate to and live in seawater. Exposure to environmental contaminants like nonylphenol can disrupt smolt development and may be a contributing factor in salmon population declines. We used GRASP 16K cDNA microarrays to investigate the effects of nonylphenol on gene expression in Atlantic salmon smolts. Nonylphenol exposure reduced gill Na+/K+-ATPase activity and plasma cortisol and triiodothyronine levels. Transcriptional responses were examined in gill, liver, olfactory rosettes, hypothalamus, and pituitary. Expression of 124 features was significantly altered in the liver of fish exposed to nonylphenol; little to no transcriptional effects were observed in other tissues. mRNA abundance of genes involved in protein biosynthesis, folding, modification, transport and catabolism; nucleosome assembly, cell cycle, cell differentiation, microtubule-based movement, electron transport, and response to stress increased in nonylphenol-treated fish. This study expands our understanding of the effect of nonylphenol on smolting and provides potential targets for development of biomarkers.

  9. Enantiomers of a nonylphenol isomer: absolute configurations and estrogenic potencies. (United States)

    Zhang, Haifeng; Oppel, Iris M; Spiteller, Michael; Guenther, Klaus; Boehmler, Gabriele; Zuehlke, Sebastian


    Enantiomers of 4-(1,1,2-trimethylhexyl)phenol, a chiral isomer of the endocrine disrupting chemical nonylphenol, have been resolved and isolated by preparative chiral HPLC. The absolute configurations of the enantiomers were then determined by an X-ray crystallographic study of the (-)-camphanoyl derivative of the first eluted enantiomer NP(35)E1. The first enantiomer (NP(35)E1) and the second enantiomer (NP(35)E2) eluted were found to have the S and R absolute configurations, respectively. The estrogenic potencies of the S and R enantiomers were tested by the E-screen assay. A slight difference was observed in the relative proliferative effect between the S enantiomer and R enantiomer in the E-screen assay.

  10. Temporary impairment of reproduction in freshwater teleost exposed to nonylphenol. (United States)

    Cardinali, Marco; Maradonna, Francesca; Olivotto, Ike; Bortoluzzi, Guido; Mosconi, Gilberto; Polzonetti-Magni, Alberta M; Carnevali, Oliana


    New born guppies, Poecilia reticulata, were exposed to a sublethal concentration of nonylphenol (NP) for 90 days, with the aim of evaluating the influence that this pollutant has on reproductive functions. At the end of treatment, the gender balance was significantly biased towards females (sex ratio = 0.3 males per female). Treated males displayed anomalous transcription of vitellogenin in correlation with a significant reduction of the gonadosomatic index (GSI); however, an increase of vitellogenin gene transcription, correlating directly with an increase in GSI, was observed in NP treated females. The hepatosomatic index (HSI) was significantly increased in exposed males and females. Females exposed to NP showed no alteration of sexual behavior or reproduction. These findings in guppies suggest that NP has estrogenic potency sufficient to disturb reproduction. Effects were transitory in nature because three months in uncontaminated water allowed males to recover normal sexual efficiency.

  11. Influence of an aerobic fungus grown on solid culture on ruminal degradability and on a mixture culture of anaerobic cellulolytic bacteria. (United States)

    Hernández-Díaz, R; Pimentel-González, D J; Figueira, A C; Viniegra-González, G; Campos-Montiel, R G


    In this work, the effect of a solid fungal culture of Aspergillus niger (An) grown on coffee pulp on the in situ ruminal degradability (RD) of corn stover was evaluated. In addition, the effect of its extracts on the in vitro dry matter disappearance (IVDMD) and on a mixed culture of anaerobic cellulolytic bacteria (MCACB) was also investigated. The solid ferment was a crude culture of An, grown on coffee pulp. Regarding in situ RD, a significant difference (p < 0.05) was found between treatment with 200 g/day of the solid culture and control (no solid culture added) on dry matter, crude protein and neutral detergent fibre on RD. All the water extracts (pH 4, 7 and 10) enhanced IVDMD and stimulated the cellulolytic activity on a MCACB. Ultrafiltration results showed that active compounds with a molecular weight lower than 30 kDa were responsible for the effect on MCACB. Such results suggest that the effects of the solid An culture in RD are related to the presence of water soluble compounds having a molecular weight lower than 30 kDa.

  12. 猪粪好氧堆肥过程有机质降解和热量平衡模型%Modeling of Organic Matter Degradation and Thermal Balance during Pig Slurry Aerobic Composting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永江; 黄光群; 韩鲁佳


    Modeling of organic matter degradation and thermal balance were built based on the first order assumption with respect to the quantity of biodegradable volatile solid ( BVS) and the law of thermal conservation during composting. Different kinds of organic matter were mainly degraded in different composting stages. For the organic matter degradation model,temperature,moisture content,oxygen content and free air space were considered as key influence factors to degeneration rate. For the model of thermal balance,forced convention and conduction were considered as the main heat removal form. In order to verify the constructed models,an aerobic composting process of pig slurry was conducted. Temperature,oxygen content,moisture content and organic matter concentration were all monitored in the process of composting. The results could be helpful for guiding composting process operation.%依据有机质降解一级动力学方程和系统热量平衡方程,充分考虑猪粪好氧堆肥有机质降解的梯次性对数学建模的影响,建立了反应器好氧堆肥过程有机质降解Monod模型和热量平衡模型.有机质降解Monod模型考虑了温度、含水率、氧体积分数和自由空域4种因素对降解系数的影响,其中温度作为最主要影响因素;热量平衡模型中主要考虑了对流、传导的热量传递方式.利用实验室好氧堆肥反应器进行的模型验证试验结果表明:堆肥试验实测值与模型模拟值表现出较好的一致性,有机质降解的实测值与模型模拟值的相对标准误差为13.02%,温度变化的实测值与模型模拟值的相对标准误差为9.9%.

  13. Application of the GREAT-ER model for environmental risk assessment of nonylphenol and nonylphenol ethoxylates in China. (United States)

    Zhang, Lai; Cao, Yan; Hao, Xuewen; Zhang, Yongyong; Liu, Jianguo


    The environmental risk presented by "down-the-drain" chemicals to receiving rivers in large urban areas has received increasing attention in recent years. Geo-referenced Regional Environmental Assessment Tool for European Rivers (GREAT-ER) is a typical river catchment model that has been specifically developed for the risk assessment of these chemicals and applied in many European rivers. By utilizing the new version of the model, GREAT-ER 3.0, which is the first completely open source software for worldwide application, this study represents the first attempt to conduct an application of GREAT-ER in the Wenyu River of China. Aquatic exposure simulation and an environmental risk assessment of nonylphenol (NP) and its environmental precursor nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEOs) were conducted effectively by GREAT-ER model, since NP is one of typical endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and its environmental precursor NPEOs as a "down-the-drain" chemical are extensively used in China. In the result, the predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) of NP and NPEOs in the water of Wenyu River were 538 and 4320 ng/L, respectively, at the regional scale, and 1210 and 8990 ng/L, respectively, at the local scale. From the results profile of the RCR, the combination of high emissions from large STPs with insufficient dilution of the river caused the high RCR. The PECs of NP in the sediment were in the range of 216.8-8218.3 ng/g (dry weight), which was consistent with the available monitoring data. The study showed the worldwide applicability and reliability of GREAT-ER as a river catchment model for the risk assessment of these chemicals and also revealed the general environmental risks presented by NP and NPEOs in the Wenyu River catchment in Beijing due to the extensive use of these chemicals. The results suggest that specific control or treatment measures are probably warranted for these chemicals to reduce their discharge in major cities.

  14. Degradation of organic contaminants with biological aerobic fermentation in activated sludge dewatering and its influencing factors%加工番茄污水污泥生物好氧发酵对有机污染物的降解及其影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    通过研究加工番茄污水污泥的有机污染物降解变化和好氧发酵条件(含水量、pH、C/N、含氧量和CO2)来确定番茄污水中有机污染物降解情况,从而优化加工番茄废水处理。结果表明:最佳生物好氧发酵条件为含水量60%~80%,C/N 范围为5~10,氧气浓度10%,pH=6�5,污泥发酵15 h后,有机物降解速率达到平衡。%We studied the degradation of the organic pollutants in sludge of the waste water from tomato paste processing under aerobic fermentation conditions. The aerobic fermentation parameters were pH, ratio between carbon and nitrogen, oxygen, CO2 , and moisture. The best aerobic fermentation conditions were moisture content between 60% and 80%, ratio between carbon and nitrogen from 5∶1 to 10∶1, oxygen concentration 10% and pH at 6�5. After aerobic fermentation for 15 h, organic contaminants in the sludge decreased obviously.

  15. Treatment of anthraquinone dye wastewater by hydrolytic acidification-aerobic process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jian; WU Min; Li Dan


    Experiment on microbial degradation with two kinds of biological process, hydrolytic acidification-aerobic process and aerobic process was conducted to treat the anthraquinone dye wastewater with CODCr concentration of 400 mg/L and chroma 800. The experimental result demonstrated that the hydrolytic-aerobic process could raise the biodegradability of anthraquinone dye wastewater effectively. The effluent CODCr can reach 120-170 mg/L and chroma 150 which is superior to that from simple aerobic process.

  16. Deposition patterns and transport mechanisms for the endocrine disruptor 4-nonylphenol across the Sierra Nevada Mountains, California. (United States)

    Lyons, Rebecca; Van de Bittner, Kyle; Morgan-Jones, Sean


    Dust and particulate distribution patterns are shifting as global climate change brings about longer drought periods. Particulates act as vehicles for long range transport of organic pollutants, depositing at locations far from their source. Nonylphenol, a biodegradation product of nonylphenol polyethoxylate, is a known endocrine disruptor. Nonylphenol polyethoxylate enters the environment as an inert ingredient in pesticide sprays, potentially traveling great distances from its application site. This is of concern when a highly agricultural region, California's Central Valley, lies adjacent to sensitive areas like the Eastern Sierra Nevada Mountains. The distribution and transport mechanisms for 4-nonylphenol were investigated in Eastern Sierra Nevada canyons. Regions close to canyon headwalls showed trace amounts of 4-nonylphenol in surface water, snow, and atmospheric deposition. Exposed areas had yearly average concentrations as high as 9 μg/L. Distribution patterns are consistent with particulate-bound transport. This suggests with increasing drought periods, higher levels of persistent organic pollutants are likely.

  17. In utero and neonate exposure to nonylphenol develops hyperadrenalism and metabolic syndrome later in life. I. First generation rats (F(1)). (United States)

    Chang, Ling-Ling; Wun, Wan-Song A; Wang, Paulus S


    Nonylphenol (NP) is an endocrine disruptor (ENDR). It is a chemical associated with the production and degradation of nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPE). NPE is widely used as nonionic surfactants. Previously, we observed that NP increased the production of corticosterone and aldosterone from zona fasciculata-reticularis, and zona glomerulosa cells, respectively. By the "fetal origins adult diseases" (Barker hypothesis), we examined the possible impact of NP exposure during developmental (in utero and neonatal) period with focus on disturbed adrenal function and related hyperadrenal syndrome, i.e. Cushings syndrome/metabolic syndrome. In this study, female rats drink NP water during pregnancy and lactation conferred F(1) generation: (1) increase the corticosterone, aldosterone concentration in plasma; (2) increase 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) activity in liver and adipose tissue; (3) increase aldosterone synthase activity in adrenal for adult offspring. Furthermore, it can increase body weight, adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) concentration in plasma, 11β-HSD1 protein expression in liver, steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein expression and 11β-hydroxylase activity in adrenal for male adult offspring. In summary, NP exposure during developmental period bestowed F(1) generation with hyperadrenalism and its consequence of metabolic syndrome.

  18. Enhanced growth and reproduction of Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematoda) in the presence of 4-Nonylphenol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoess, Sebastian; Juettner, I.Ingrid; Traunspurger, Walter; Pfister, Gerd; Schramm, K.-W.; Steinberg, C.E.W


    4-Nonylphenol can enhance growth and reproduction of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. - The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans was exposed over a whole life-cycle (72 h) to several concentrations of 4-nonylphenol (NP; nominal concentrations: 0-350 {mu}g/l). Growth and reproduction of C. elegans were enhanced at NP concentrations of 66 and 40 {mu}g/l, respectively, with effects showing dose-response relationships. These stimulatory effects might be of ecological relevance in benthic habitats, where organisms can be exposed to high concentrations of NP.

  19. Acute toxicity and relationship between metabolites and ecotoxicity during the biodegradation process of non-ionic surfactants: fatty-alcohol ethoxylates, nonylphenol polyethoxylate and alkylpolyglucosides. (United States)

    Jurado, E; Fernández-Serrano, M; Núñez-Olea, J; Luzón, G; Lechuga, M


    The toxicity values of fatty-alcohol ethoxylates, nonylphenol polyethoxylate, and alkylpolyglucosides have been determined by applying assays with luminescent bacteria. Also, the relation between metabolites and ecotoxicity during the biodegradation process has been determined. The biodegradation tests were carried out according to the OECD 301 E test for ready biodegradability. In these tests a solution of the surfactant, representing the sole carbon source for the microorganisms, was tested in a mineral medium, inoculated and incubated under aerobic conditions in the dark. The toxicity of surfactants is related to their molecular structure (Quantitative Structure Activity Relationships, QSAR). For the alkylpolyglucosides, toxicity expressed as EC(50) is related with the critical micelle concentration (CMC), the hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) of the surfactant, and the hydrophobic alkyl chain (R). The results indicate that toxicity increased as the CMC decreased and as the hydrophobicity increased and R rose. For fatty-alcohol ethoxylates, parameters characteristic studied have been HLB, number of units of ethylene oxide and the alkyl chain length. Relationships found are in agreement with the fact that increasing the alkyl chain length leads to a lower EC(50), whereas increasing ethoxylation leads to a lower toxicity. An analysis of the behaviour of the toxicity and HLB again indicates that the toxicity was greater for surfactants with a smaller HLB. The evolution of the toxicity was studied over the biodegradation process, expressed as a percentage of inhibition. For all the non-ionic surfactants assayed, except for the nonylphenol polyethoxylate, a major decline was found in toxicity during the first days of the biodegradation assay and at all the concentrations tested.

  20. Urinary levels of bisphenol A, triclosan and 4-nonylphenol in a general Belgian population. (United States)

    Pirard, Catherine; Sagot, Clémence; Deville, Marine; Dubois, Nathalie; Charlier, Corinne


    Bisphenol A, triclosan and 4-nonylphenol are among the endocrine disruptors which are widely used in daily products. In this study, we reported total urinary levels of bisphenol A, triclosan and 4-nonylphenol, in order to evaluate the baseline contamination of a general population in Belgium. Bisphenol A and triclosan were detected in respectively 97.7% and 74.6% of the samples examined demonstrating that the general Belgian population is extensively exposed to both chemicals. On the other hand, 4-nonylphenol was not detected in any urine samples analyzed, suggesting either low exposure, inadequate biomarker, or that urine is an inappropriate biological matrix for assessing exposure to nonylphenol commercial mixtures. Geometric mean concentration was determined for bisphenol A at 2.55 μg/l and for triclosan at 2.70 μg/l. No significant difference was observed between levels and gender for both bisphenol A and triclosan. When classified by age, the 20-39 year group showed the highest triclosan levels, while all age groups seemed to be similarly exposed to bisphenol A. Both bisphenol A and triclosan urinary levels were not correlated with creatinine excretion in our healthy population, questioning the relevance of the creatinine adjustment in reporting these chemical levels. Bisphenol A levels in urine of people living in the same home and collected on the same time were fairly correlated, confirming the assumption that dietary intake would be the primary route of exposure. Triclosan urinary levels were not correlated with bisphenol A levels.

  1. 4-Nonylphenol and bisphenol A in Swedish food and exposure in Swedish nursing women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gyllenhammar, I.; Glynn, A.; Darnerud, P.O.; Lignell, S.; Delft, R. van; Aune, M.


    4-Nonylphenol (NP) and bisphenol A (BPA) are phenolic substances used in high volumes by the industry. Studies on cells and in experimental animals have shown that both these compounds can be classified as estrogenic hormone disrupters. Information about the exposure of humans to NP and BPA is still

  2. Examining the biodegradation of endocrine disrupting bisphenol A and nonylphenol in WWTPs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Press-Kristensen, Kåre; Lindblom, Erik Ulfson; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye


    The aim of this work was to examine biodegradation of the endocrine disrupting chemicals bisphenol A (BPA) and nonylphenol (NP) in activated sludge. Experiments were performed in a pilot wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Copenhagen, Denmark. During standard operation the BPA concentration...

  3. Bioavailability and biodegradation of nonylphenol in sediment determined with chemical and bioanalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weert, J. de; Cal, A. de la; Berg, H. van den; Murk, A.; Langenhoff, A.; Rijnaarts, H.; Grotenhuis, T.


    The surfactant nonylphenol (NP) is an endocrine-disrupting compound that is widely spread throughout the environment. Although environmental risk assessments are based on total NP concentrations, only the bioavailable fraction posses an environmental risk. The present study describes the bioavailabi

  4. Role of biofilms in sorptive removal of steroidal hormones and 4-nonylphenol compounds from streams (United States)

    Writer, Jeffrey H.; Ryan, Joseph N.; Barber, Larry B.


    Stream biofilms play an important role in geochemical processing of organic matter and nutrients, however, the significance of this matrix in sorbing trace organic contaminants is less understood. This study focused on the role of stream biofilms in sorbing steroidal hormones and 4-nonylphenol compounds from surface waters using biofilms colonized in situ on artificial substrata and subsequently transferred to the laboratory for controlled batch sorption experiments. Steroidal hormones and 4-nonylphenol compounds readily sorb to stream biofilms as indicated by organic matter partition coefficients (Kom, L kg-1) for 17β-estradiol (102.5-2.8 L kg-1), 17α-ethynylestradiol (102.5-2.9 L kg-1), 4-nonylphenol (103.4-4.6 L kg-1), 4-nonylphenolmonoethoxylate (103.5-4.0 L kg-1), and 4-nonylphenoldiethoxylate (103.9-4.3 L kg-1). Experiments using water quality differences to induce changes in the relative composition of periphyton and heterotrophic bacteria in the stream biofilm did not significantly affect the sorptive properties of the stream biofilm, providing additional evidence that stream biofilms will sorb trace organic compounds under of variety of environmental conditions. Because sorption of the target compounds to stream biofilms was linearly correlated with organic matter content, hydrophobic partition into organic matter appears to be the dominant mechanism. An analysis of 17β-estradiol and 4-nonylphenol hydrophobic partition into water, biofilm, sediment, and dissolved organic matter matrices at mass/volume ratios typical of smaller rivers showed that the relative importance of the stream biofilm as a sorptive matrix was comparable to bed sediments. Therefore, stream biofilms play a primary role in attenuating these compounds in surface waters. Because the stream biofilm represents the base of the stream ecosystem, accumulation of steroidal hormones and 4-nonylphenol compounds in the stream biofilm may be an exposure pathway for organisms in higher trophic


    Temporal and dose-response relationships of vitellogenin (VTG) mRNA induction and subsequent plasma VTG accumulation were established for sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus) treated with p-nonylphenol, an alkylphenol, and the organochlorine pesticides methoxychlor and endo...


    Five natural, pharmaceutical, or xenobiotic chemicals (17b-estradiol, ethynylestradiol, diethystilbestrol, nonylphenol, methoxychlor) were tested in two in vitro (MCF-7 breast tumor cell proliferation [E-screen], yeast estrogen system [YES]), and one in vivo (male sheepshead min...

  7. Degradation of endocrine disrupting chemicals by genetic transformants with two lignin degrading enzymes in Phlebia tremellosa. (United States)

    Kum, Hyunwoo; Lee, Sungsuk; Ryu, Sunhwa; Choi, Hyoung T


    A white rot fungus Phlebia tremellosa produced lignin degrading enzymes, which showed degrading activity against various recalcitrant compounds. However, manganese peroxidase (MnP) activity, one of lignin degrading enzymes, was very low in this fungus under various culture conditions. An expression vector that carried both the laccase and MnP genes was constructed using laccase genomic DNA of P. tremellosa and MnP cDNA from Polyporus brumalis. P. tremellosa was genetically transformed using the expression vector to obtain fungal transformants showing increased laccase and MnP activity. Many transformants showed highly increased laccase and MnP activity at the same time in liquid medium, and three of them were used to degrade endocrine disrupting chemicals. The transformant not only degraded bisphenol A and nonylphenol more rapidly but also removed the estrogenic activities of the chemicals faster than the wild type strain.

  8. Characterization and aerobic biodegradation of selected monoterpenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misra, G.; Pavlostathis, S.G.; Li, J.; Purdue, E.M. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)


    Monoterpenes are biogenic chemicals and occur in abundance in nature. Large-scale industrial use of these chemicals has recently been initiated in an attempt to replace halogenated solvents and chlorofluorocarbons which have been implicated in the stratospheric depletion of ozone. This study examined four hydrocarbon monoterpenes (d-limonene, {alpha}-pinene, {gamma}-terpinene, and terpinolene) and four alcohols (arbanol, linalool, plinol, and {alpha}-terpineol). Water solubility, vapor pressure, and octanol/water partition coefficients were estimated. Aerobic biodegradability tests were conducted in batch reactors by utilizing forest soil extract and enriched cultures as inoculum. The hydrophobic nature and high volatility of the hydrocarbons restricted the investigation to relatively low aqueous concentrations. Each monoterpene was analyzed with a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector after extraction from the aqueous phase with isooctane. Terpene mineralization was tested by monitoring liquid-phase carbon, CO{sub 2} production and biomass growth. All four hydrocarbons and two alcohols readily degraded under aerobic conditions. Plinol resisted degradation in assays using inocula from diverse sources, while arbanol degraded very slowly. The intrinsic biokinetics coefficients for the degradation of d-limonene and {alpha}-terpineol were estimated by using cultures enriched with the respective monoterpenes. Monoterpene biodegradation followed Monod kinetics.

  9. Distrubution of the Endocrine Disruptor Nonylphenol and the Effects of Topographical Sheilding in an Eastern Sierra Nevada Mountain Drainage (United States)

    Lyons, R. A.; Van de Bittner, K.; Morgan Jones, S.


    Nonylphenol is a biodegradation product of nonylphenol polyethoxylates, a pervasive compound used in many industrial processes and notably in pesticides as a surfactant. Nonylphenol has been shown to act as an endocrine disruptor at low concentrations. It causes hermaphrodism, birth defects, and high mortality in fish, frogs and other amphibians. The Sierra Nevada Mountains separate the Central Valley in the west from the high desert of Mono Country on the east side of the state of California. The Central Valley represents some of the most heavily cultivated agricultural land in the United States. San Joaquin County alone had an annual pesticide use of over 8 million pounds in 2009 according to the Pesticide Action Network, compared with 4800 pounds in Mono County the same year. Fragile alpine ecosystems in the Sierra Nevadas may be highly susceptible to the effects of endocrine disruptors like nonylphenol. The distribution of nonylphenol is affected by localized topography in a steep walled montane canyon in the Eastern Sierra Nevada Mountains, Convict Creek canyon. The concentration of nonylphenol in snow and surface water increases as the elevation in Convict Creek canyon decreases in an easterly direction from not detectable at the highest elevations to as much as .01mg/L in water and 1.8 mg/L in snow at the lowest elevations. The steep head wall of Convict Creek canyon, facing southeast, provides shielding to the higher elevation lakes from deposition of compounds and particulate matter. As a canyon becomes less steep and broader, more nonylphenol is deposited. Identifying these deposition patterns may assist in determining amphibian and fish populations that are at higher risk of negative impact from these compounds.

  10. Phthalates, Nonylphenols and LAS in Roskilde Wastewater Treatment Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fauser, P.; Sørensen, P. B.; Carlsen, L.

    The steady-state compartment description of the biological reactors and settlers in wastewater treatment plants that is used in SimpleTreat has been evaluated with respect to an alternately operated WWTP situated in Roskilde, Denmark. The effect of substituting a complex discontinuous operation......, involving alternating degradation and flow conditions between two reactors, with one single biological reactor with continuos flow (SimpleTreat) has been investigated by setting-up two models representing the respective operation schemes. An experimental series was performed where inlet, outlet, primary...... concludes that it is possible to substitute a complex alternating operation with a system containing one single biological reactor, corresponding to SimpleTreat, when a suggested empirical aggregate 1st order degradation rate is employed...

  11. DDE remediation and degradation. (United States)

    Thomas, John E; Ou, Li-Tse; All-Agely, Abid


    DDT and its metabolites, DDD and DDE, have been shown to be recalcitrant to degradation. The parent compound, DDT, was used extensively worldwide starting in 1939 and was banned in the United States in 1973. The daughter compound, DDE, may result from aerobic degradation, abiotic dehydrochlorination, or photochemical decomposition. DDE has also occurred as a contaminant in commercial-grade DDT. The p,p'-DDE isomer is more biologically active than the o,p-DDE, with a reported half-life of -5.7 years. However, when DDT was repeatedly applied to the soil, the DDE concentration may remain unchanged for more than 20 yr. Remediation of DDE-contaminated soil and water may be done by several techniques. Phytoremediation involves translocating DDT, DDD, and DDE from the soil into the plant, although some aquatic species (duckweed > elodea > parrot feather) can transform DDT into predominantly DDD with some DDE being formed. Of all the plants that can uptake DDE, Cucurbita pepo has been the most extensively studied, with translocation values approaching "hyperaccumulation" levels. Soil moisture, temperature, and plant density have all been documented as important factors in the uptake of DDE by Cucurbita pepo. Uptake may also be influenced positively by amendments such as biosurfactants, mycorrhizal inoculants, and low molecular weight organic acids (e.g., citric and oxalic acids). DDE microbial degradation by dehalogenases, dioxygenases, and hydrolases occurs under the proper conditions. Although several aerobic degradation pathways have been proposed, none has been fully verified. Very few aerobic pure cultures are capable of fully degrading DDE to CO2. Cometabolism of DDE by Pseudomonas sp., Alicaligens sp., and Terrabacter sp. grown on biphenyl has been reported; however, not all bacterial species that produce biphenyl dioxygenase degraded DDE. Arsenic and copper inhibit DDE degradation by aerobic microorganisms. Similarly, metal chelates such as EDTA inhibit the

  12. Bacterial degradation of detergent compounds. (United States)

    Goodnow, R A; Harrison, A P


    A survey for surfactant degradation among aerobic bacteria has been undertaken. Tests have been made in peptone medium where such a degradation, if it occurs, will be gratuitous. Tallow-alkyl-sulfate, alkyl-ethoxylate-sulfate, and linear-alkyl-benzene-sulfonate were used. Forty-five strains of 34 species in 19 genera degrade one or more of these detergent compounds. With some species, the surfactant inhibits degradation without inhibiting growth, whereas with one species slight degradation took place even at a toxic concentration of surfactant.


    MTBE degradation was investigated using a continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) with biomass retention (porous pot reactor) operated under aerobic conditions. MTBE was fed to the reactor at an influent concentration of 150 mg/l (1.70 mmol/l). A second identifical rector was op...

  14. Terephthalic acid wastewater treatment by using two-stage aerobic process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Based on the tests between anoxic and aerobic process, the two-stage aerobic process with a biological selector was chosen to treat terephthalic acid wastewater (PTA). By adopting the two- stage aerobic process, the CODCr in PTA wastewater could be reduced from 4000-6000 mg/L to below 100 mg/L; the COD loading in the first aerobic tank could reach 7.0-8.0 kgCODCr/(m3.d) and that of the second stage was from 0.2 to 0.4 kgCODCr/(m3.d). Further researches on the kinetics of substrate degradation were carried out.

  15. Fate of sulfamethoxazole, 4-nonylphenol, and 17β-estradiol in groundwater contaminated by wastewater treatment plant effluent (United States)

    Barber, Larry B.; Keefe, Steffanie H.; LeBlanc, Denis R.; Bradley, Paul M.; Chapelle, Francis H.; Meyer, Michael T.; Loftin, Keith A.; Koplin, Dana W.; Rubio, Fernando


    Organic wastewater contaminants (OWCs) were measured in samples collected from monitoring wells located along a 4.5-km transect of a plume of groundwater contaminated by 60 years of continuous rapid infiltration disposal of wastewater treatment plant effluent. Fifteen percent of the 212 OWCs analyzed were detected, including the antibiotic sulfamethoxazole (SX), the nonionic surfactant degradation product 4-nonylphenol (NP), the solvent tetrachloroethene (PCE), and the disinfectant 1,4-dichlorobenzene (DCB). Comparison of the 2005 sampling results to data collected from the same wells in 1985 indicates that PCE and DCB are transported more rapidly in the aquifer than NP, consistent with predictions based on compound hydrophobicity. Natural gradient in situ tracer experiments were conducted to evaluate the subsurface behavior of SX, NP, and the female sex hormone 17β-estradiol (E2) in two oxic zones in the aquifer: (1) a downgradient transition zone at the interface between the contamination plume and the overlying uncontaminated groundwater and (2) a contaminated zone located beneath the infiltration beds, which have not been loaded for 10 years. In both zones, breakthrough curves for the conservative tracer bromide (Br−) and SX were nearly coincident, whereas NP and E2 were retarded relative to Br− and showed mass loss. Retardation was greater in the contaminated zone than in the transition zone. Attenuation of NP and E2 in the aquifer was attributed to biotransformation, and oxic laboratory microcosm experiments using sediments from the transition and contaminated zones show that uniform-ring-labeled 14C 4-normal-NP was biodegraded more rapidly (30−60% recovered as 14CO2 in 13 days) than 4-14C E2 (20−90% recovered as 14CO2in 54 days). There was little difference in mineralization potential between sites.

  16. Antioxidant and antiapoptotic activities of Calotropis procera latex on Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) exposed to toxic 4-nonylphenol. (United States)

    Sayed, Alaa El-Din H; Mohamed, Nadia H; Ismail, Mady A; Abdel-Mageed, Wael M; Shoreit, Ahmed A M


    Calotropis procera L. is known as medicinal plant. The Phytochemical analyzes of its latex revealed that it possessed antioxidants, namely terpenes, phenolic compounds and cardenolides, flavonoids and saponins, while tannins, alkaloids and resin were absent in moderate to high concentration. In the present study, the role of latex of Calotropis procera as antioxidant and antiapoptotic was reported. To carry out this aim, fishes were exposed to 100 µg l(-1) 4-nonylphenol as chemical pollutant. The enzymes, superoxidase dismutase, catalase, acetlycholinstrase (AchE), glutathione s-transferase, cortisol, G6PDH) and apoptotic cells increased significantly (pcatfish after 4-nonylphenol exposure. Our study confirms that crude latex of Calotropis procera possessed antioxidant and antiapoptotic activities against the toxicity of 4-Nonylphenol.

  17. Coupled anaerobic/aerobic biodegradation of 2,4,6 trichlorophenol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Degradation of 2, 4, 6-trichlorophenol(TCP) with co-immobilizing anaerobic granular sludge and isolated aerobic bacterial specieswas studied in coupled anaerobic/aerobic integrated reactors. The synergism of aerobes and anaerobes within co-immobilized granule mightfacilitate degrading the TCP and exchange of anaerobic metabolites 4-CP, which promoted system organic removal efficiency and recovered fromorganic shock-loads more quickly. The biomass specific activities experiment further confirmed that strict anaerobes be not affected over thecourse of this experiment by the presence of an oxic environment, aerobic activity predominated in the outer co-immobilized granule layers,while the interior was characterized by anaerobic activity. The co-immobilized granule could thus enable both aerobic and anaerobic microbesfunction in the same reactor and thereby integrate the oxidative and reductive catabolism.

  18. The life-history of a springtail Folsomia candida living in soil contaminated with nonylphenol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Widarto, T. H.; Krogh, P. H.; Forbes, V.

    Nonylphenol (NP) has been known for long time as a suspected endocrine disruptor in animals. We have conducted an experiment to look at the effect of NP on the life-history of the parthenogenetic springtail, Folsomia candida. Six sub-lethal concentrations (0, 8,16, 24, 32, 40 mg/kg dry soil......) were applied to 6 replicates of soil containing an individual of 0-1 day old juvenile. During continuous exposure (63 days), we assessed springtail life-history traits such as: survival, growth rate, molting time, time between molting, time to first reproduction, egg production, and viability...

  19. Reproductive biomarkers to identify endocrine disruption in Clarias gariepinus exposed to 4-nonylphenol. (United States)

    Sayed, Alaa El-Din H; Mahmoud, Usama M; Mekkawy, Imam A


    The present study investigated the hormones concentrations and gonads alterations of Clarias gariepinus caused by sublethel concentrations of 4-nonylphenol (0, 0.05, 0.08 and 0.1 mg/l). The changes in the activities of the hormones after exposure to these sublethel doses of 4-nonylpenol referred to endocrine disruption in Clarias gariepinus in association with histopathological changes in reproductive tissues. The levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), triiodothyronine (T3), total thyroxine (T4), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone concentrations significantly decreased (PClarias gariepinus reflecting their sensitivity to NP-estrogenic like effects.

  20. Influence of leachate recirculation on aerobic and anaerobic decomposition of solid wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilgili, M. Sinan [Yildiz Technical University, Environmental Engineering Department, 34349 Besiktas, Istanbul (Turkey)]. E-mail:; Demir, Ahmet [Yildiz Technical University, Environmental Engineering Department, 34349 Besiktas, Istanbul (Turkey)]. E-mail:; Ozkaya, Bestamin [Yildiz Technical University, Environmental Engineering Department, 34349 Besiktas, Istanbul (Turkey)]. E-mail:


    In this study, the effect of leachate recirculation on aerobic and anaerobic degradation of municipal solid wastes is determined by four laboratory-scale landfill reactors. The options studied and compared with the traditional anaerobic landfill are: leachate recirculation, landfill aeration, and aeration with leachate recirculation. Leachate quality is regularly monitored by the means of pH, alkalinity, total dissolved solids, conductivity, oxidation-reduction potential, chloride, chemical oxygen demand, ammonia, and total Kjeldahl nitrogen, in addition to generated leachate quantity. Aerobic leachate recirculated landfill appears to be the most effective option in the removal of organic matter and ammonia. The main difference between aerobic recirculated and non-recirculated landfill options is determined at leachate quantity. Recirculation is more effective on anaerobic degradation of solid waste than aerobic degradation. Further studies are going on to determine the optimum operational conditions for aeration and leachate recirculation rates, also with the operational costs of aeration and recirculation.

  1. Integrated Anaerobic-Aerobic Biodegradation of Multiple Contaminants Including Chlorinated Ethylenes, Benzene, Toluene, and Dichloromethane. (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Miho; Zhang, Ming; Toyota, Koki


    Complete bioremediation of soils containing multiple volatile organic compounds (VOCs) remains a challenge. To explore the possibility of complete bioremediation through integrated anaerobic-aerobic biodegradation, laboratory feasibility tests followed by alternate anaerobic-aerobic and aerobic-anaerobic biodegradation tests were performed. Chlorinated ethylenes, including tetrachloroethylene (PCE), trichloroethylene (TCE), cis-dichloroethylene (cis-DCE), and vinyl chloride (VC), and dichloromethane (DCM) were used for anaerobic biodegradation, whereas benzene, toluene, and DCM were used for aerobic biodegradation tests. Microbial communities involved in the biodegradation tests were analyzed to characterize the major bacteria that may contribute to biodegradation. The results demonstrated that integrated anaerobic-aerobic biodegradation was capable of completely degrading the seven VOCs with initial concentration of each VOC less than 30 mg/L. Benzene and toluene were degraded within 8 days, and DCM was degraded within 20 to 27 days under aerobic conditions when initial oxygen concentrations in the headspaces of test bottles were set to 5.3% and 21.0%. Dehalococcoides sp., generally considered sensitive to oxygen, survived aerobic conditions for 28 days and was activated during the subsequent anaerobic biodegradation. However, degradation of cis-DCE was suppressed after oxygen exposure for more than 201 days, suggesting the loss of viability of Dehalococcoides sp., as they are the only known anaerobic bacteria that can completely biodegrade chlorinated ethylenes to ethylene. Anaerobic degradation of DCM following previous aerobic degradation was complete, and yet-unknown microbes may be involved in the process. The findings may provide a scientific and practical basis for the complete bioremediation of multiple contaminants in situ and a subject for further exploration.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Lukáčová


    Full Text Available Nonylphenol (NP is an environmental endocrine disruptor that has toxic, estrogenic and carcinogenic effects in fish, amphibians and mammals. NP can result in male reproductive dysfunction, altered testicular development, decreased male fertility and a decline of spermatozoa count. The target of this in vitro study was to determine the effect of NP on the spermatozoa motility. Specifically, we examined the dose- and time-dependent effect of nonylphenol (1, 10, 100 and 200 µg/mL dissolved either in 0.1% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO or 0.1% ethanol (ETOH on the motility of bovine spermatozoa during several time periods (0 h, 2 h, 4 h and 6 h. The spermatozoa motility was determined by CASA (Computer Assisted Semen Analyzer system using the Sperm VisionTM program. The results showed a decreased spermatozoa motility in all experimental groups with the addition of NP. Significant differences (P<0.001 and P<0.05 between the control group and all experimental groups were recorded. The lowest motility of bovine spermatozoa was found at doses > 100 µg/mL of NP in comparison with the control group. The obtained data indicate that the exposure to high doses of NP has the negative effect on spermatozoa motility.

  3. Effects of triclosan, diclofenac, and nonylphenol on mesophilic and thermophilic methanogenic activity and on the methanogenic communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Symsaris, Evangelos C.; Fotidis, Ioannis; Stasinakis, Athanasios S.


    In this study, a toxicity assay using a mesophilic wastewater treatment plant sludge-based (SI) and a thermophilic manure-based inoculum (MI), under different biomass concentrations was performed to define the effects of diclofenac (DCF), triclosan (TCS), and nonylphenol (NP) on anaerobic digestion...

  4. Interpreting toxicity data in a DEB framework: A case study for nonylphenol in the marine polychaete Capitella teleta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jager, Tjalling; Selck, Henriette


    framework. The case study we selected is a previously published data set for 4-n-nonylphenol in the polychaete worm Capitella teleta (formerly Capitella sp. I). Particular aspects of interest in this study are an apparent slow initial growth, and low-dose stimulation (hormesis) of growth and reproduction...

  5. Synergistic interaction between 4-nonylphenol and high but not low temperatures in Dendrobaena octaedra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dorthe; Bayley, Mark; Holmstrup, Martin


    Studies on joint effects of toxic compounds and temperature have clearly shown that single stressor tests often underestimate the critical limits of the stressor evaluated. In the present study, the joint effects of nonylphenol (NP) and high (25-35 °C) or low (1.4 to -6.4 °C) temperatures in Dend...

  6. Microbial Degradation of Indole and Its Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Kumar Arora


    Full Text Available Indole and its derivatives, including 3-methylindole and 4-chloroindole, are environmental pollutants that are present worldwide. Microbial degradation of indole and its derivatives can occur in several aerobic and anaerobic pathways; these pathways involve different known and characterized genes. In this minireview, we summarize and explain the microbial degradation of indole, indole-3-acetic acid, 4-chloroindole, and methylindole.

  7. 多氯联苯污染土壤好氧降解菌群的分离与鉴定%Isolation and Identification of Aerobic Polychlorinated Biphenyls-Degrading Bacterial Strains in PCBs-contaminated Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐伟; 李英; 梁璐怡; 朱优峰; 王凤平


    Growth of microorganisms was stimulated by incubating polychlorinated biphenyl-polluted soils in Wenling and Xiaoshan with biphenyl as sole carbon and energy source.After 4 weeks,a total of thirty five strains of bacteria which were able to grow on biphenyl-containing minimal medium plates were isolated.Sixty percent of them are gram-negative bacteria.The results of 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that the dominant strains are Stenotrophomonas sp.and Pandoraea sp..We chose two well growing strains from each soil to further study PCB-degradation.The four strains are Corynebacterium sp.WLS,Bacillus sp.WL10,Microbacterium sp.XS4 and Citrobacter sp.XS7.All of them were cultured in fresh mineral medium containing 100 mg ·L-1 biphenyl and 2 mg· L-1 2,3,4,5-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB61) for five days.The residual concentrations of PCB61 determined by gas chromatography showed all the strains could degrade PCB61.Especially,the transformation rate of PCB61 by Corynebacterium sp.WL 8,isolated from Wenling soil,reached 50%.This result will benefit further research of genetic screening,cloning and restructuring,as well as providing guidance for the cultivation of PCBs-degrading bacteria.%从浙江温岭和萧山长期受多氯联苯污染的土壤中,以联苯为唯一碳源和能源进行菌类的富集筛选共得到35株纯菌,其中革兰氏阴性菌占细菌总数的60%.对得到的35株菌株进行16S rRNA基因序列分析,结果显示温岭和萧山土壤中的优势菌属分别为寡养单胞菌(Stenotrophomonas sp.)和潘多拉菌属(Pandoraea sp.).挑选的4株细菌棒状杆菌(Corynebacterium sp.)WL8、芽孢杆菌(Bacillus sp.)WL10、微杆菌属(Microbacterium sp.)XS4和柠檬酸杆菌(Citrobacter sp.)XS7均可在联苯存在情况下共代谢降解2,3,4,5-四氯代多氯联苯(PCB61),其中从温岭土壤中筛选到的Corynebacterium sp.WL 8对PCB61的5d去除率达到了50%.

  8. Biodegradation of Acid Anthraquinone Dye in a Facultative-aerobic Process: Kinetics and Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yin; LI Zai-lei


    The transformation of an anthraquinone dye blue 324 in a facultative-aerobic (F-A) system was investigated. Kinetic parameter study showed that higher Vmax coupled with more recalcitrant chemical oxygen demand (COD) were found in the facuitative biofilm reactor (FBR) than in the aerobic reactor (AR). Results of the product analyses indicated that most of dye molecular could be facultatively broken down into simple intermediates, which would be further degraded under subsequent aerobic condition. The main metabolites in each reactor were detected by infrared (FT-IR) and high performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). Comparison of the toxicities among the dye and its metabolites was conducted, surprisingly, the colorless intermediates from FBR possessed less inhibitory than original dye and the median effective luminescence concentration (EC50) in 15 min for aerobic effluent could not be detected, showing that hardly toxic products existed in the aerobic process effluent.

  9. Biodegradation of tributyl phosphate, an organosphate triester, by aerobic granular biofilms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nancharaiah, Y.V., E-mail:; Kiran Kumar Reddy, G.; Krishna Mohan, T.V.; Venugopalan, V.P.


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Aerobic granular biomass was cultivated by feeding TBP along with acetate. • Rapid biodegradation of TBP when used as a co-substrate or as the sole carbon source. • Biodegradation of 2 mM TBP in 5 h with degradation rate of 0.4 μmol mL{sup −1} h{sup −1}. • High phosphatase activity was observed in TBP-degrading granular biomass. • n-Butanol, hydrolyzed product of TBP, was rapidly metabolized by aerobic granules. - Abstract: Tributyl phosphate (TBP) is commercially used in large volumes for reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. TBP is a very stable compound and persistent in natural environments and it is not removed in conventional wastewater treatment plants. In this study, cultivation of aerobic granular biofilms in a sequencing batch reactor was investigated for efficient biodegradation of TBP. Enrichment of TBP-degrading strains resulted in efficient degradation of TBP as sole carbon or along with acetate. Complete biodegradation of 2 mM of TBP was achieved within 5 h with a degradation rate of 0.4 μmol mL{sup −1} h{sup −1}. TBP biodegradation was accompanied by release of inorganic phosphate in stoichiometric amounts. n-Butanol, hydrolysed product of TBP was rapidly biodegraded. But, dibutyl phosphate, a putative intermediate of TBP degradation was only partially degraded pointing to an alternative degradation pathway. Phosphatase activity was 22- and 7.5-fold higher in TBP-degrading biofilms as compared to bioflocs and acetate-fed aerobic granules. Community analysis by terminal restriction length polymorphism revealed presence of 30 different bacterial strains. Seven bacterial stains, including Sphingobium sp. a known TBP degrader were isolated. The results show that aerobic granular biofilms are promising for treatment of TBP-bearing wastes or ex situ bioremediation of TBP-contaminated sites.

  10. Cultivation of aerobic granular sludge in Acid Red 14 wastewater and the possible Acid Red 14 degradation mechanism%好氧颗粒污泥在酸性红14废水中的形成及降解酸性红14机理的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高景峰; 苏凯; 陈冉妮; 张倩


    The aerobic granular sludge( AGS) was cultivated in a sequencing batch reactor(SBR) treating synthetic Acid Red 14(AR14) wastewater with sucrose as co-substrate. The passible AR14 biodegradation mechanism was also investigated. During phase Ⅰ, the SBR was run in aerobic mode with COD increasing gradually, the AGS appeared on day 29, mean diameter of AGS was (0.16 ± 0.04) mm,the particle size of AGS increased gradually with the increasing COD.However, reduction of AR14 did not occur under aerobic condition.The decolorization rate was only 5 % in phase Ⅰ, adsorption may be the reason. During phase Ⅱ, the SBR was run in anaerobic/aerobic mode, the AR14 decolorization rate increased gradually. On day 102, the decolorization rate increased up to 89% and was kept on the level steadily. On day 120, the MLSS increased to 10 548 mg/L, the average diameter of AGS was (2.18 :± 0.25) mm and sludge volume index was maintained at 38 ml/g. There were lots of bacilli on the surface of AGS, but cocci in the inner part, and no filamentous bacteria were found. The existence of AR14 effectively promoted the stability of aerobic granular sludge. Oxidation reduction potential(ORP) decreased to - 250 mV to - 300 mV under anaerobic condition of phase Ⅱ, and the reduction of AR14 occurred. In the anaerobic period, sucrose was not only used as the carbon source of AGS cultivation but also acted as a co-metabolism substrate of AR14 degradation.This study shows that AGS could be successfully cultivated and stably maintain the treatment of AR14 wastewater. ORP was a very important process control parameter in the anaerobic degradation of azo dyes.%为了考察好氧颗粒污泥在酸性红14(Acid Red 14,AR14)废水中的形成以及降解AR14的能力,在序批式反应器(Sequencing Batch Reactor,SBR)内以蔗糖和AR14为底物培养好氧颗粒污泥.在第I阶段(1~75 d),采用单一好氧的运行方式,好氧颗粒污泥出现在第29 d,粒径为(0.16±0.04) mm.随着

  11. Brain plasticity and aerobic fitness



    Regular aerobic exercise has a wide range of positive effects on health and cognition. Exercise has been demonstrated to provide a particularly powerful and replicable method of triggering a wide range of structural changes within both human and animal brains. However, the details and mechanisms of these changes remain poorly understood. This thesis undertakes a comprehensive examination of the relationship between brain plasticity and aerobic exercise. A large, longitudinal experiment ...

  12. Immunotoxicity of the xenoestrogen 4-nonylphenol to the cockle Cerastoderma glaucum. (United States)

    Matozzo, Valerio; Rova, Giulio; Ricciardi, Francesco; Marin, Maria Gabriella


    The in vivo effects of 4-nonylphenol (NP) on functional responses of haemocytes from the cockle Cerastoderma glaucum were investigated after 7 days exposure to sublethal NP concentrations (0, 0+acetone, 0.0125, 0.025, 0.05 and 0.1 mg/l NP). Haemocytes from both controls and exposed cockles were collected, and the effects of NP on total haemocyte count (THC) and volume of circulating cells, intracellular superoxide anion (O(2)(-)) levels, acid phosphatase and lysozyme-like activities in both haemocyte lysate (HL) and cell-free haemolymph (CFH) were evaluated. Exposure of cockles to 0.1mg/l NP significantly increased THC (pglaucum, mainly by reducing cell membrane stability and promoting cell degranulation.

  13. Electronic structure and mesoscopic simulations of nonylphenol ethoxylate surfactants. a combined DFT and DPD study. (United States)

    Valencia, Diego; Aburto, Jorge; García-Cruz, Isidoro


    The aim of this work was to gain insight into the effect of ethylene oxide (EO) chains on the properties of a series of nonylphenol ethoxylate (NPE) surfactants. We performed a theoretical study of NPE surfactants by means of density functional theory (DFT) and dissipative particle dynamics (DPD). Both approximations were used separately to obtain different properties. Four NPEs were selected for this purpose (EO = 4, 7, 11 and 15 length chains). DFT methods provided some electronic properties that are related to the EO units. One of them is the solvation Gibbs energy, which exhibited a linear trend with EO chain length. DPD calculations allow us to observe the dynamic behavior in water of the NPE surfactants. We propose a coarse-grained model which properly simulates the mesophases of each surfactant. This model can be used in other NPEs applications.

  14. Electronic Structure and Mesoscopic Simulations of Nonylphenol Ethoxylate Surfactants. A Combined DFT and DPD Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isidoro García-Cruz


    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to gain insight into the effect of ethylene oxide (EO chains on the properties of a series of nonylphenol ethoxylate (NPE surfactants. We performed a theoretical study of NPE surfactants by means of density functional theory (DFT and dissipative particle dynamics (DPD. Both approximations were used separately to obtain different properties. Four NPEs were selected for this purpose (EO = 4, 7, 11 and 15 length chains. DFT methods provided some electronic properties that are related to the EO units. One of them is the solvation Gibbs energy, which exhibited a linear trend with EO chain length. DPD calculations allow us to observe the dynamic behavior in water of the NPE surfactants. We propose a coarse-grained model which properly simulates the mesophases of each surfactant. This model can be used in other NPEs applications.

  15. Effects of repeated exposure to 4-nonylphenol on the zooplankton community in littoral enclosures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Halloran, S.L.; Liber, K.; Gangl, J.A. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Superior, WI (United States). Lake Superior Research Inst.; Knuth, M.L. [Environmental Protection Agency, Duluth, MN (United States). Mid-Continent Ecology Div.


    The effects of 4-nonylphenol (NP) on freshwater zooplankton were evaluated in 18 littoral enclosure mesocosms in northeastern Minnesota. The 18 enclosures were allocated to three blocks of six units with each block including two untreated control enclosures and one enclosure for each of four NP treatments. Treated enclosures received 11 applications of NP over a 20-d period between July 8 and 28, 1993. Maximum NP concentrations measured in the water column 2 h after each application averaged ({+-} SD) 5 {+-} 4, 23 {+-} 11, 76 {+-} 21, and 243 {+-} 41 {micro}g/L over the 11 applications. Nonylphenol dissipated rapidly from the water column but was more persistent in sediments and in/on macrophytes. All cladoceran and copepod taxa were significantly reduced in abundance at 243 {+-} 41 {micro}g/L; some sensitive taxa were also affected by 76 {+-} 21 and 23 {+-} 11 {micro}g/L. While many rotifer taxa were unaffected at any of the test concentrations, several were affected at {ge} 76 {+-} 21 {micro}g/L. Ostracods were only affected at 2,243 {+-} 41 {micro}g/L. No zooplankton taxon was affected at 5 {+-} 4 {micro}g/L. The period of maximum impact usually occurred within 1 to 7 d of the last NP application, and recovery to control abundance levels generally occurred within 7 to 28 d of the last NP application. Two sensitive taxa, Acroperus and Calanoida, did not recover at {ge} 76 {+-} 21 {micro}g/L by the end of the study. The maximum acceptable toxicant concentration for protection of all zooplankton taxa was estimated at {approximately} 10 {micro}g/L, although overall community diversity was unaffected at 23 {+-} 11. The water was the most probable route of NP exposure, but the greater persistence of NP residues in/on macrophytes may have contributed to the lack of recovery of some macrophyte-associated taxa.

  16. Genome sequence of Citrobacter sp. strain A1, a dye-degrading bacterium. (United States)

    Chan, Giek Far; Gan, Han Ming; Rashid, Noor Aini Abdul


    Citrobacter sp. strain A1, isolated from a sewage oxidation pond, is a facultative aerobe and mesophilic dye-degrading bacterium. This organism degrades azo dyes efficiently via azo reduction and desulfonation, followed by the successive biotransformation of dye intermediates under an aerobic environment. Here we report the draft genome sequence of Citrobacter sp. A1.

  17. Molecular Characterization of 2-Chlorobiphenyl Degrading Stenotrophomonas maltophilia GS-103

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Somaraja, P.K.; Gayathri, D.; Ramaiah, N.

    The catabolic potential of transformer oil contaminated soil bacteria in aerobic degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) were assessed. Transformer oil contaminated soil sample was subjected to microcosm enrichment experiments (PAS medium...

  18. Degradation of chlorobenzoates and chlorophenols by methanogenic consortia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ennik-Maarsen, K.


    Pollution of the environment with chlorinated organic compounds mainly results from (agro)industrial activity. In many studies, biodegradation is examined under anaerobic conditions, because highly chlorinated compounds are more easily degradable under anaerobic than under aerobic conditions. Proble

  19. Bioremediation of textile azo dyes by aerobic bacterial consortium. (United States)

    Senan, Resmi C; Abraham, T Emilia


    An aerobic bacterial consortium consisting of two isolated strains (BF1, BF2) and a strain of Pseudomonas putida (MTCC1194) was developed for the aerobic degradation of a mixture of textile azodyes and individual azodyes at alkaline pH (9-10.5) and salinity (0.9-3.68 g/l) at ambient temperature (28 +/- 2 degrees C). The degradation efficiency of the strains in different media (mineral media and in the Simulated textile effluent (STE)) and at different dye concentrations were studied. The presence of a H2O2 independent oxidase-laccase (26.5 IU/ml) was found in the culture filtrate of the organism BF2. The analysis of the degraded products by TLC and HPLC, after the microbial treatment of the dyes showed the absence of amines and the presence of low molecular weight oxidative degradation products. The enzymes present in the crude supernatant was found to be reusable for the dye degradation.

  20. Photocatalytic Degradation of Diethyl Phthalate with Surfactant Addition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Tianyong; HU Juan; ZHANG Youlan; LI Bin; FEI Xuening


    This paper studies the adsorption of diethyl phthalate (DEP,an environmental hormone) on the surface of nanoscale TiO2, effects of pH value of solutions, initial concentrations of DEP and additive surfactant on photocatalytic degradation and dynamics of DEP. Under ultra violet illumination, the interaction between DEP and surfactants including DBS (sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate), CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide), and OP-10 (nonylphenol polyoxyethylene ether)was exploited from the perspective of degradation speed calculated by the data of high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and UV-Vis spectra, respectively. Photocatalytic degradation of DEP followed pseudo first-order reaction kinetics. DEP as substrate degraded fast when its initial concentration was 130 mg/L. TiO2 had certain adsorption ability of DEP. TiO2 could adsorb the most DEP at the approximately neutral pH of 6.91. Degradation of DEP was not affected obviously by ad ditives OP-10 and JBS. Degradation rate of DEP was not enhanced greatly in the presence of surfactants, but degradation of DBS was sped up. Degradation rate of DEP was depressed in the presence of additive CTAB. The more CTAB was added, the less DEP was degraded. Degradation rate of CTAB became slow with the increase of initial CTAB concentration. The possible adsorption models among TiO2, DEP and surfactants were given.

  1. Microbial degradation of pyridine using Pseudomonas sp. and isolation of plasmid responsible for degradation. (United States)

    Mohan, S Venkata; Sistla, Srinivas; Guru, R Kumar; Prasad, K Krishna; Kumar, C Suresh; Ramakrishna, S V; Sarma, P N


    Pseudomonas (PI2) capable of degrading pyridine was isolated from the mixed population of the activated sludge unit which was being used for treating complex effluents, the strain was characterized. Aerobic degradation of pyridine was studied with the isolated strain and the growth parameters were evaluated. Pyridine degradation was further conformed by chromatography (HPLC) analysis. The process parameters like biomass growth and dissolved oxygen consumption were monitored during pyridine degradation. In order to conform with the plasmid capability to degrade pyridine, the requisite plasmid was isolated and transferred to DH 5alpha Escherichia coli. The subsequent biodegradation studies revealed the ability of the transformed plasmid capability to degrade the pyridine.

  2. Atrazine and terbutryn degradation in deposits from groundwater environment within the boreal region in Lahti, Finland. (United States)

    Talja, K Marja; Kaukonen, Sanna; Kilpi-Koski, Johanna; Malin, Ismo; Kairesalo, Timo; Romantschuk, Martin; Tuominen, Jari; Kontro, Merja H


    The degradation of pesticides atrazine and terbutryn was investigated under aerobic and anaerobic conditions in the northern boreal region subsurface deposits and sterilized controls from the depths of 6.3-21.0 m below the surface and 1.2-16.9 m below the groundwater table. During 1.3-1.7 years of laboratory incubation, atrazine degradation under aerobic conditions varied from rapid (half-live 38 days) to no degradation. Anaerobically, atrazine half-lives were 430-829 days. Organic matter, nitrogen, and lead in deposits correlated positively with the atrazine concentration in groundwater. Aerobic and anaerobic terbutryn half-lives were 193-644 and 266-400 days, respectively. Microbial aerobic atrazine and terbutryn degradation was confirmed in the deep deposits near the water table. Under aerobic conditions, the high amounts of Cr, Mn, Ni, and Zn in deposits decreased the chemical degradation of terbutryn.

  3. Adsorption characteristics of selected pharmaceuticals and an endocrine disrupting compound-Naproxen, carbamazepine and nonylphenol-on activated carbon. (United States)

    Yu, Zirui; Peldszus, Sigrid; Huck, Peter M


    The adsorption of two representative pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) (naproxen and carbamazepine) and one endocrine disrupting compound (nonylphenol) were evaluated on two types of activated carbon. When determining their isotherms at environmentally relevant concentration levels, it was found that at this low concentration range (10-800 ng/L), removals of the target compounds were contrary to expectations based on their hydrophobicity. Nonylphenol (log K(ow) 5.8) was most poorly adsorbed, whereas carbamazepine (log K(ow) 2.45) was most adsorbable. Nonylphenol Freundlich isotherms at this very low concentration range had a much higher 1/n compared to isotherms at much higher concentrations. This indicates that extrapolation from an isotherm obtained at a high concentration range to predict the adsorption of nonylphenol at a concentration well below the range of the original isotherm, leads to a substantial overestimation of its removals. Comparison of isotherms for the target compounds to those for other conventional micropollutants suggested that naproxen and carbamazepine could be effectively removed by applying the same dosage utilized to remove odorous compounds (geosmin and MIB) at very low concentrations. The impact of competitive adsorption by background natural organic matter (NOM) on the adsorption of the target compounds was quantified by using the ideal adsorbed solution theory (IAST) in combination with the equivalent background compound (EBC) approach. The fulfilment of the requirements for applying the simplified IAST-EBC model, which leads to the conclusion that the percentage removal of the target compounds at a given carbon dosage is independent of the initial contaminant concentration, was confirmed for the situation examined in the paper. On this basis it is suggested that the estimated minimum carbon usage rates (CURs) to achieve 90% removal of these emerging contaminants would be valid at concentrations of less than 500 ng/L in

  4. Enzymatic removal of estrogenic activity of nonylphenol and octylphenol aqueous solutions by immobilized laccase from Trametes versicolor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catapane, Maria [Institute of Genetics and Biophysics “ABT”, Via P. Castellino, 111, 80131 Naples (Italy); National Institute of Biostructures and Biosystems (INBB), Viale Medaglie d’Oro, 305, 00136 Rome (Italy); Nicolucci, Carla; Menale, Ciro; Mita, Luigi [National Institute of Biostructures and Biosystems (INBB), Viale Medaglie d’Oro, 305, 00136 Rome (Italy); Department of Experimental Medicine, Second University of Naples, Via S. M. di Costantinopoli, 16, 80138 Naples (Italy); Rossi, Sergio [Institute of Genetics and Biophysics “ABT”, Via P. Castellino, 111, 80131 Naples (Italy); Mita, Damiano G., E-mail: [Institute of Genetics and Biophysics “ABT”, Via P. Castellino, 111, 80131 Naples (Italy); National Institute of Biostructures and Biosystems (INBB), Viale Medaglie d’Oro, 305, 00136 Rome (Italy); Department of Experimental Medicine, Second University of Naples, Via S. M. di Costantinopoli, 16, 80138 Naples (Italy); Diano, Nadia [Institute of Genetics and Biophysics “ABT”, Via P. Castellino, 111, 80131 Naples (Italy); National Institute of Biostructures and Biosystems (INBB), Viale Medaglie d’Oro, 305, 00136 Rome (Italy); Department of Experimental Medicine, Second University of Naples, Via S. M. di Costantinopoli, 16, 80138 Naples (Italy)


    Highlights: ► Endocrine disruptors cause adverse effects in living organisms. ► Nonylphenol and Octylphenol are alkylphenols recognized as endocrine disruptors. ► It is necessary to remove or reduce their presence in the environment. ► Waters polluted by these pollutants have been bioremediated by immobilized laccase from Trametes versicolor. ► Laccase treated solutions were found to have lost any estrogenic activity. -- Abstract: A fluidized bed reactor, filled with laccase-based beads, has been employed to bioremediate aqueous solutions polluted by endocrine disruptors belonging to the alkylphenols (APs) class. In particular Octylphenol and Nonylphenol have been studied. The catalytic activity of free and immobilized laccase from Trametes versicolor has been characterized as a function of pH, temperature and substrate concentration in the reaction medium. In view of practical applications for each substrate concentration the removal efficiency (RE), the time to halve the initial concentration (τ{sub 50}), and the t{sub c=0}, i.e. the time to reach complete pollutant removal, have been calculated. The immobilized laccase exhibited a lower affinity for octylphenol (K{sub m} = 1.11 mM) than for Nonylphenol (K{sub m} = 0.72 mM), but all the other parameters of applicative interest resulted more significant for octylphenol. For example, the times to reach the complete removal of octylphenol compared to those for nonylphenol at the same concentration is shorter of about 15% (at low concentrations) up to 40% (at high concentrations). The study of cell proliferation with MPP89 cells, a human mesothelioma cell line, and the assay with the YES test indicated the loss of estrogenic activity of the APs solutions after laccase treatment.

  5. The biological degradation as an energy option, determination of the effects of the aerobic phase on the subsequent production of biogas in a sanitary landfill; La degradacion biologica como una opcion energetica, determinacion de los efectos de la fase aerobia sobre la subsecuente produccion de biogas en un relleno sanitario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar Juarez, Oscar [Asesoria de Servicios Ambientales del Bajio (ASSB), (Mexico)


    The present work deals with the energy evaluation of biological processes as energy source and is based on works concerning laboratory, pilot and field research. The objective of the research is to integrate the effect of the aerobic phase during the process of degradation of organic residues (basically the organic fraction of domestic residues), where the last aim is the biogas production. The usefulness of the results is reflected in the suitable estimation of the filling of a sanitary landfill considering the composition of the residues deposited and the effects that this management will have on the run-up time of the same and the velocity of biogas production. Finally, integrates a reflection on the intrinsic energy implications of the process and of the biogas yielding, which is evaluated as well as energy source. [Spanish] El presente trabajo trata sobre la valoracion energetica de procesos biologicos como fuente de energia y se basa en trabajos de investigacion a nivel de laboratorio, piloto y de campo. El objetivo de la investigacion es integrar el efecto de la fase aerobia durante el proceso de degradacion de residuos organicos (basicamente la fraccion organica de residuos domesticos), donde el fin ultimo es la produccion de biogas. La utilidad de los resultados se refleja en la estimacion adecuada del llenado de un relleno sanitario considerando la composicion de los residuos ahi depositados y los efectos que tendra esta gestion sobre el tiempo de estabilizacion de los mismos y la velocidad de produccion de biogas. Finalmente, se integra una reflexion sobre las implicaciones energeticas intrinsecas al proceso y del rendimiento de biogas, el cual a su vez es valorizado como fuente de energia.

  6. Decolorization and biodegradation of azo dye, reactive blue 59 by aerobic granules. (United States)

    Kolekar, Yogesh M; Nemade, Harshal N; Markad, Vijay L; Adav, Sunil S; Patole, Milind S; Kodam, Kisan M


    The present study deals with development of aerobic granules from textile wastewater sludge and challenged with different concentration of reactive blue 59 (RB59) to test their dye degradation potential. The granules efficiently degraded reactive blue 59 and also sustained higher dye loading of up to 5.0 g l(-1). The significant induction of enzymes azoreductase and cytochrome P-450 indicated their prominent role in the dye degradation while genotoxicity studies demonstrated that the biotransformed product of the dye as non-toxic. The microbial community of the textile dyes degrading aerobic sludge granules analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE), revealed significantly diverse dye degrading microbial community belonging to alpha-, beta-, and gamma-proteobacteria.

  7. Selección mediante Simulación de una Estructura de Modelo Cinético para la Degradación Aeróbica de Efluentes de una Industria Láctea Selection by Simulation of a Model for the Kinetic Structure of an Aerobic Degradation System for Effluents from a Milk Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Rosa


    Full Text Available El propósito de este trabajo consiste en implementar una metodología de selección de estructuras de modelos cinéticos, para el caso concreto de la degradación aerobia de los efluentes industriales de una empresa láctea regional, utilizando como herramienta la simulación. Esta se encuentra disponible en un software comercial específico y consiste en configurar para uno o varios sustratos, un set de estructuras de modelos de complejidad creciente, con velocidades de degradación independientes, para evaluar el comportamiento del sistema mediante combinaciones de las mismas, confrontando los resultados obtenidos por simulación con los datos experimentales. Los resultados alcanzados para una estructura relativamente simple se consideran satisfactorios para ser implementados industrialmente. El aporte más importante lo constituye la convalidación tanto de la metodología propuesta como de la potencialidad del software para ser aplicado al análisis de situaciones reales, lo cual resulta de especial importancia para el análisis y diseño de plantas de tratamientoThis work consisted in implementing a methodology for the selection of kinetic model structures for a real case of aerobic degradation of industrial effluents from a regional milk industry using simulation as a tool. This tool is available in a specific commercial software and consists of making configurations for one or several substrates with a set of structural models of increasing complexity and independent degradation velocities. The behavior of the system is evaluated using various combinations of the preceding considerations and comparing the simulated results with industrial experimental data. The results obtained using a relatively simple structure were satisfactory for industrial application. The most important contribution was the proof that both the proposed methodology and the power of the software could be applied to real situations, which is of especial importance

  8. In situ aerobic cometabolism of chlorinated solvents: a review. (United States)

    Frascari, Dario; Zanaroli, Giulio; Danko, Anthony S


    The possible approaches for in situ aerobic cometabolism of aquifers and vadose zones contaminated by chlorinated solvents are critically evaluated. Bioaugmentation of resting-cells previously grown in a fermenter and in-well addition of oxygen and growth substrate appear to be the most promising approaches for aquifer bioremediation. Other solutions involving the sparging of air lead to satisfactory pollutant removals, but must be integrated by the extraction and subsequent treatment of vapors to avoid the dispersion of volatile chlorinated solvents in the atmosphere. Cometabolic bioventing is the only possible approach for the aerobic cometabolic bioremediation of the vadose zone. The examined studies indicate that in situ aerobic cometabolism leads to the biodegradation of a wide range of chlorinated solvents within remediation times that vary between 1 and 17 months. Numerous studies include a simulation of the experimental field data. The modeling of the process attained a high reliability, and represents a crucial tool for the elaboration of field data obtained in pilot tests and for the design of the full-scale systems. Further research is needed to attain higher concentrations of chlorinated solvent degrading microbes and more reliable cost estimates. Lastly, a procedure for the design of full-scale in situ aerobic cometabolic bioremediation processes is proposed.

  9. Combined alkaline and ultrasonic pretreatment of sludge before aerobic digestion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Yiying; LI Huan; MAHAR Rasool Bux; WANG Zhiyu; NIE Yongfeng


    Alkaline and ultrasonic sludge disintegration can both be used as pretreatments of waste activated sludge (WAS) for improving the subsequent anaerobic or aerobic digestion. The pretreatment has been carried out using different combination of these two methods in this study. The effect was evaluated based on the quantity of soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) in the pretreated sludge as well as the degradation of organic matter in the following aerobic digestion. For WAS samples with combined pretreatment, the released COD was in high level than those with ultrasonic or alkaline treatment. When combined with the same ultrasonic treatment, NaOH treatment resulted in more solubilization of WAS than Ca(OH)2. For combined NaOH and ultrasonic treatments with different sequences, the released COD were in the order: simultaneous treatment > ultrasonic treatment following NaOH treatment > NaOH treatment following ultrasonic treatment. For simultaneous treatment, low NaOH dosage (100 g/kg dry solid), short duration (30 min) of NaOH treatment, and low ultrasonic specific energy (7 500 kJ/kg dry solid) were beneficial for sludge disintegration. Using combined NaOH and ultrasonic pretreatment with the optimium parameters, the degradation efficiency of organic matter was increased from 38.0% to 50.7%, which is much higher than with ultrasonic (42.5%) or with NaOH pretreatment (43.5%) in the subsequent aerobic digestion at the same retention time.

  10. Persistence and distribution of 4-nonylphenol following repeated application to littoral enclosures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinis, L.J.; Liber, K.; Tunell, R.L. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Superior, WI (United States). Lake Superior Research Inst.; Knuth, M.L.; Sheedy, B.R.; Ankley, G.T. [Environmental Protection Agency, Duluth, MN (United States). Mid-Continent Ecology Div.


    The persistence and distribution of 4-nonylphenol (NP) were monitored for 440 d, following application to 18 littoral enclosures situated in a 2-ha mesotrophic pond near Duluth, Minnesota. Application was accomplished by subsurface, gravity-fed injection over a 20-d period, with a 2-d frequency, to achieve nominal aqueous concentrations of 0, 3, 30, 100, and 300 {micro}g/L. Mean maximum concentrations in the water over the 20-d application period ranged from 75.7 to 81.0% of nominal for the three highest treatment levels and was 181% of nominal at the lowest treatment level. Water was the major compartment, on a mass balance basis, for NP until 2 to 4 d after the application period, with a mean time to 50% dissipation (DT50) of 0.74 d and a mean time to 95% dissipation (DT95) of 13.8 d. 4-Nonylphenol partitioned to enclosure wall material, macrophytes, and sediment within 2 d of initial application. Macrophytes accumulated maximum NP concentrations of 11.5 and 139 mg/kg 1 to 2 d after the application period at the 30- and 300-{micro}g/L treatment levels, respectively. Mean DT50 and DT95 estimates of NP persistence in/on the macrophytes were 10.3 and 189 d, respectively. Sediment from the 30- and 300-{micro}g/L treatments accumulated maximum dry weight NP concentrations of 2.74 and 27.4 mg/kg, respectively within 20 to 48 d of the first application. The mean sediment porewater NP concentration was 18.6 {micro}g/L for the period 2 to 34 d after application 1 at the 300-{micro}g/L treatment. The sediment was the primary sink for NP 440 d after the initial application with a concentration of 1.97 mg/kg at the 300-{micro}g/L treatment. Mean sediment DT50 and DT95 values were 66.0 and 401 d, respectively, indicating a long-term persistence of NP. Ecocores collected 1 d after the final NP application did not show significant decreases in sediment NP concentration during a 55-d incubation period, corroborating the NP persistence observed in the littoral enclosures.

  11. Physiological and phylogenetic characterization of a stable chlorate-reducing benzene-degrading microbial community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weelink, S.A.B.; Tan, N.C.G.; Broeke, ten H.; Doesburg, van W.C.J.; Langenhoff, A.A.M.; Gerritse, J.; Stams, A.J.M.


    stable anoxic enrichment culture was obtained that degraded benzene with chlorate as an electron acceptor. The benzene degradation rate was 1.65 mM benzene per day, which is similar to reported aerobic benzene degradation rates but 20¿1650 times higher than reported for anaerobic benzene degradation

  12. Study of 4-t-octylphenol degradation and microbial community in granular sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In this study, the authors have investigated the effects of various factors on both aerobic and anaerobic degradation of 4-t-octylphenol (4-t-OP) in granular sludge. In comparison, the aerobic degradation rate was much higher than that of anaerobic degradation. The optimal pH values for 4-t-OP degradation in granular sludge were 9 and 7 under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, respectively. And the degradation rate decreased with an increase in the initial 4-t-OP concentration. Addition of yeast extract or homologous compounds such as phenol also enhanced the 4-t-OP degradation, especially under the aerobic condition. To investigate the bacterial community in this study, the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) method was applied, based on the primers, for the 16S rDNA V3 region of bacteria. γ-proteobacteria and bacillus were identified as the major species of sludge.

  13. Degradation Action of the Anaerobic Bacteria and Oxygen to the Polymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Xiang-Guo; ZHANG Ke


    Oxygen could prohibit anaerobic bacterium in the produced water and degrade the polymer molecular chains.Aiming at problems making up aerobic polymer solution by the produced water in Daqing Oil Field, some evaluations were done on the viscosity characteristics of polymer solution and bactericide in anaerobic and aerobic environments. Reasonable aerobic concentration of the produced water was obtained. The experimental results indicate that the viscosity of polymer solution confected by the produced water in the aerobic environment is higher than that of the polymer solution confected by the produced water in the anaerobic environment, and the reasonable ments, but the sterilization effect is better in the aerobic environment.

  14. Aerobic Performance is Degraded, Despite Modest Hypothermia, In Hot Environments (United States)


    to this idea is that athletes use an anticipatory control mechanism during exercise to ensure maintenance of Tc by making compensatory adjustments in...familiarization period, volunteers were provided with 2 L of carbohydrate –electrolyte beverage to consume the evening before each training day. After an...testing. Two liters of carbohydrate –electrolyte beverage was provided for consumption, in addition to normal food and fluid intake, the night before each

  15. Kinetics of aerobic cometabolic biodegradation of chlorinated and brominated aliphatic hydrocarbons: A review. (United States)

    Jesus, João; Frascari, Dario; Pozdniakova, Tatiana; Danko, Anthony S


    This review analyses kinetic studies of aerobic cometabolism (AC) of halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbons (HAHs) from 2001-2015 in order to (i) compare the different kinetic models proposed, (ii) analyse the estimated model parameters with a focus on novel HAHs and the identification of general trends, and (iii) identify further research needs. The results of this analysis show that aerobic cometabolism can degrade a wide range of HAHs, including HAHs that were not previously tested such as chlorinated propanes, highly chlorinated ethanes and brominated methanes and ethanes. The degree of chlorine mineralization was very high for the chlorinated HAHs. Bromine mineralization was not determined for studies with brominated aliphatics. The examined research period led to the identification of novel growth substrates of potentially high interest. Decreasing performance of aerobic cometabolism were found with increasing chlorination, indicating the high potential of aerobic cometabolism in the presence of medium- and low-halogenated HAHs. Further research is needed for the AC of brominated aliphatic hydrocarbons, the potential for biofilm aerobic cometabolism processes, HAH-HAH mutual inhibition and the identification of the enzymes responsible for each aerobic cometabolism process. Lastly, some indications for a possible standardization of future kinetic studies of HAH aerobic cometabolism are provided.

  16. Biodegradation of p-cresol by aerobic granules in sequencing batch reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Farrukh Basheer; I.H.Farooqi


    The cultivation of aerobic granules in sequencing batch reactor for the biodegradation of p-cresol was studied.The reactor was started with 100 mg/L of p-cresol.Aerobic granules first appeared within one month of start up.The granules were large and strong and had a compact structure.The diameter of stable granules was in the range of 1-5 mm.The integrity coefficient and granules density was found to be 96% and 1046 kg/m3,respectively.The settling velocity of granules was found to be in the range of 2×10-2-6×10-2 m/sec.The aerobic granules were able to degrade p-cresol upto 800 mg/L at a removal efficiency of 88%.Specific p-cresol degradation rate in aerobic granules followed Haldane model for substrate inhibition.High specific p-cresol degradation rate up to 0.96 g pcresol/(g were sustained upto p-cresol concentration of 400 mg/L.Higher removal efficiency,good settling characteristics of aerobic granules,makes sequencing batch reactor suitable for enhancing the microorganism potential for biodegradation of inhibitory compounds.

  17. Aerobic bacterial catabolism of persistent organic pollutants - potential impact of biotic and abiotic interaction. (United States)

    Jeon, Jong-Rok; Murugesan, Kumarasamy; Baldrian, Petr; Schmidt, Stefan; Chang, Yoon-Seok


    Several aerobic bacteria possess unique catabolic pathways enabling them to degrade persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs), polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The catabolic activity of aerobic bacteria employed for removal of POPs in the environment may be modulated by several biotic (i.e. fungi, plants, algae, earthworms, and other bacteria) and abiotic (i.e. zero-valent iron, advanced oxidation, and electricity) agents. This review describes the basic biochemistry of the aerobic bacterial catabolism of selected POPs and discusses how biotic and abiotic agents enhance or inhibit the process. Solutions allowing biotic and abiotic agents to exert physical and chemical assistance to aerobic bacterial catabolism of POPs are also discussed.

  18. Formation and functions of aerobic microbial granula; Entstehung und Funktionen aerober mikrobieller Granula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etterer, T.; Wilderer, P.A. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Lehrstuhl und Pruefamt fuer Wasserguete- und Abfallwirtschaft


    The present project investigates the phenomenon of the formation of aerobic microbial granula and their properties. To generate granula, sequencing batch reactors fed in batches were used. As shown by microbiological assays, fungi played an above-average role in granula formation and build-up. In first degradation experiments, furthermore, chemical oxygen demand (COD) could be reduced by over 90 %. The determination yielded comparable values to activated sludge, standing on average at 1.044g/ml. (orig.) [German] Im Rahmen des hier vorgestellten Projekts wurde das Phaenomen der Bildung aerober mikrobieller Granula sowie deren Eigenschaften untersucht. Zur Erzeugung von Granula wurden schubweise beschickte Reaktoren, sogenannte Sequencing-Batch-Reaktoren (SBR) verwendet. Wie mikrobiologische Untersuchungen zeigten spielen Pilze bei der Entstehung und beim Aufbau eine ueberdurchschnittliche Rolle. Des weiteren konnte in ersten Abbauversuchen der chemische Sauerstoff-Bedarf (CSB) um ueber 90% gesenkt werden. Die Dichtebestimmung ergab vergleichbare Werte zu Belebtschlamm und zwar im Durchschnitt 1,044 g/ml. (orig.)

  19. Preliminary Study on the Performance and Interaction of Recycling Hydrolytic-Aerobic Combined Process of High Concentration Starch Wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李清彪; 廖鑫凯; 吴志旺; 邓旭; 黄益丽; 卢英华; 孙道华; 洪铭媛; 王琳


    A new recycling hydrolytic-aerobic combined process was developed to treat the high concentration organic wastewater. Simulated wastewater containing 10 g·L-1 starch with a CODcr value of 10000 mg·L-1 wasused. At first, the hydrolytic degradation and aerobic degradation process were examined in two batch reactors, respectively. In the stand-alone hydrolytic process, starch in the wastewater almost disappeared after 11 h treatment, but CODCr remained as high as 5803mg·L-1 after two days. In the aerobic process, the biodegradation rate of starch was much slower during the first 11 h than that in the hydrolytic process, although the CODCr removal efficiency reached 89.6% and more than 90% starch could be degraded after 37.5 h. To determine the interaction effects of the two processes, a series of hydrolytic-aerobic combinations were examined in details. Hydrolytic process played an important role in the whole recycle combination process as it could improve the biodegradability of the high concentration starch wastewater. However, from the other experiments, the negative effect of hydrolytic acidification was found in the hydrolytic-aerobic combination, which suggested that the aerobic microorganisms needed time to adapt themselves to the acidic environment. The effect of the degrading time, which was spent in the hydrolytic and aerobic unit, and the number of circulations, with which the wastewater went through the two units were investigated. It was found that a recycle combination of 6 h hydrolytic process with 12 h aerobic process was highly effective and potentially economical, in which the final removal efficiency of CODcr and efficiency of starch degradation reached 94.1% and 98.8%, respectively.

  20. Two-stage anaerobic and post-aerobic mesophilic digestion of sewage sludge: Analysis of process performance and hygienization potential. (United States)

    Tomei, M Concetta; Mosca Angelucci, Domenica; Levantesi, Caterina


    Sequential anaerobic-aerobic digestion has been demonstrated to be effective for enhanced sludge stabilization, in terms of increased solid reduction and improvement of sludge dewaterability. In this study, we propose a modified version of the sequential anaerobic-aerobic digestion process by operating the aerobic step under mesophilic conditions (T=37 °C), in order to improve the aerobic degradation kinetics of soluble and particulate chemical oxygen demand (COD). Process performance has been assessed in terms of "classical parameters" such as volatile solids (VS) removal, biogas production, COD removal, nitrogen species, and polysaccharide and protein fate. The aerobic step was operated under intermittent aeration to achieve nitrogen removal. Aerobic mesophilic conditions consistently increased VS removal, providing 32% additional removal vs. 20% at 20 °C. Similar results were obtained for nitrogen removal, increasing from 64% up to 99% at the higher temperature. Improved sludge dewaterability was also observed with a capillary suction time decrease of ~50% during the mesophilic aerobic step. This finding may be attributable to the decreased protein content in the aerobic digested sludge. The post-aerobic digestion exerted a positive effect on the reduction of microbial indicators while no consistent improvement of hygienization related to the increased temperature was observed. The techno-economic analysis of the proposed digestion layout showed a net cost saving for sludge disposal estimated in the range of 28-35% in comparison to the single-phase anaerobic digestion.

  1. Uptake and distribution of bisphenol A and nonylphenol in vegetable crops irrigated with reclaimed water. (United States)

    Lu, Jian; Wu, Jun; Stoffella, Peter J; Wilson, P Chris


    The potential uptake and distribution of bisphenol A (BPA) and nonylphenol (NP) (from reclaimed irrigation water) in edible crops was investigated. BPA and NP were spiked into simulated reclaimed water at environmentally relevant concentrations. Two crops (lettuce, Lactuca sativa and tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum) were grown hydroponically in a greenhouse using the spiked irrigation water under two irrigation exposure scenarios (overhead foliar exposure and subsurface root exposure). BPA concentrations in tomato fruit were 26.6 ± 5.8 (root exposure) and 18.3 ± 3.5 (foliar exposure) μg kg(-1), while concentrations in lettuce leaves were 80.6 ± 23.1 (root exposure) and 128.9 ± 17.4 (foliar exposure) μg kg(-1). NP concentrations in tomato fruit were 46.1 ± 6.6 (root exposure) and 24.6 ± 6.4 (foliar exposure) μg kg(-1), while concentrations in lettuce leaves were 144.1 ± 9.2 (root exposure) and 195.0 ± 16.9 (foliar exposure) μg kg(-1). BPA was relatively mobile in lettuce plants regardless of exposure route. Limited mobility was observed for NP in both crops and BPA in tomatoes. The estimated daily intake of BPA and NP through consumption of vegetables irrigated with reclaimed water ranged from 8.9-62.9 to 11.9-95.1 μg, respectively, depending on the exposure route.

  2. The effect of para-nonylphenol on Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica) spermatogenesis in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, C. [Laboratory of Fish Reproductive Physiology, Faculty of Agriculture, Ehime University, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8566 (Japan); ' Times Arrow and Biosignaling' PRESTO Japan Science and Technology Agency, Kawaguchi 332-0012 (Japan); Takahashi, N. [Iwate Fisheries Technology Center, Fisheries and Resource Management Division, 3-75-3 Oaza-hirata, Kamaishi, Iwate 026-0001 (Japan); Michino, F. [Laboratory of Fish Reproductive Physiology, Faculty of Agriculture, Ehime University, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8566 (Japan); Miura, T. [Laboratory of Fish Reproductive Physiology, Faculty of Agriculture, Ehime University, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8566 (Japan); ' Times Arrow and Biosignaling' PRESTO Japan Science and Technology Agency, Kawaguchi 332-0012 (Japan)


    Endocrine disrupters have been recognized to interfere with endocrine systems that regulate reproduction, for example, by mimicking or inhibiting the action of endogenous sex steroid hormones including estradiol-17{beta} (E2). In the present study, we examined the effect of an endocrine disrupter, para-nonylphenol (p-NP) on spermatogenesis, and compared it with the action of E2, using an eel testicular organ culture system. p-NP alone stimulated early spermatogonial renewal in the same manner as E2. Neither induced further progress in spermatogenesis. In the presence of 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT), the major androgen in teleosts, p-NP did not prevent the 11-KT-induced progress in spermatogenesis. However, this treatment enlarged the Sertoli cells. Electron microscopic observation revealed that enlarged Sertoli cells contained well-developed organelles. Moreover, the proportion of germ cells appeared to have decreased as a result of Sertoli cell hypertrophy. These results clearly show that p-NP has an effect on Sertoli cells in the presence of an androgen (11-KT), potentially disturbing 11-KT-induced spermatogenesis.

  3. The cooperative adsorption properties of cetyl/amino-SBA-15 for 4-nonylphenol. (United States)

    Quan, Feng; Hu, Yun; Liu, Xingchen; Wei, Chaohai


    In this study, mesoporous SBA-15 bifunctionalized with cetyl and amino groups (cetyl/amino-SBA-15) was successfully prepared by a post-synthesis grafting method. Detailed characterization by XRD, FT-IR, N2 adsorption-desorption and elemental analysis confirmed that cetyl/amino-SBA-15 still retained a long-range ordered hexagonal mesostructure. Cetyl and aminopropyl groups were simultaneously functionalized on the surface of SBA-15. The adsorption capacity of cetyl/amino-SBA-15 was much higher than the arithmetic sum of those of cetyl-SBA-15 and amino-SBA-15 due to the cooperative effect of hydrogen bonding/electrostatic interaction between 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) and aminopropyl groups and hydrophobic interactions between 4-NP and cetyl groups. The effects of the dosage and mole ratio of cetyl and amino groups on the adsorption properties of cetyl/amino-SBA-15 for 4-NP were also investigated. Cetyl/amino-SBA-15 exhibited excellent adsorption capacity over a wide range of pH values and cetyl/amino-SBA-15(3.2/0.8) displayed the highest adsorption capacity up to 120 mg g(-1). Furthermore, cetyl/amino-SBA-15 exhibited high adsorption selectivity for 4-NP against phenol as well as high reusability, showing great potential for applications in wastewater treatment.

  4. Combined Effects of Nonylphenol and Bisphenol A on the Human Prostate Epithelial Cell Line RWPE-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weidong Gan


    Full Text Available The xenoestrogens nonylphenol (NP and bisphenol A (BPA are regarded as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs which have widespread occurrence in our daily life. In the present study, the purpose was to analyze the combined effects of NP and BPA on the human prostate epithelial cell line RWPE-1 using two mathematical models based on the Loewe additivity (LA theory and the Bliss independence (BI theory. RWPE-1 cells were treated with NP (0.01–100 µM and BPA (1–5000 µM in either a single or a combined format. A cell viability assay and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH leakage rate assay were employed as endpoints. As predicted by the two models and based on the cell viability assay, significant synergism between NP and BPA were observed. However, based on the LDH assay, the trends were reversed. Given that environmental contaminants are frequently encountered simultaneously, these data indicated that there were potential interactions between NP and BPA, and the combined effects of the chemical mixture might be stronger than the additive values of individual chemicals combined, which should be taken into consideration for the risk assessment of EDCs.

  5. Chronic toxicity of nonylphenol and ethinylestradiol: haematological and histopathological effects in juvenile Common carp (Cyprinus carpio). (United States)

    Schwaiger, J; Spieser, O H; Bauer, C; Ferling, H; Mallow, U; Kalbfus, W; Negele, R D


    In recent ecotoxicological research, there is an increasing concern about alkylphenolic industrial chemicals, such as nonylphenol (NP), because of their estrogenic properties. Data on the general fish toxicity of these wide spread aquatic pollutants are scarce. In order to evaluate sublethal toxic effects of environmentally relevant concentrations of NP, juvenile Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed to NP concentrations ranging from 1 to 15 microg NP/l over a 70-day period. Classical toxicological endpoints, such as various haematological parameters and histopathological alterations were investigated. In a comprehensive protocol, besides NP-induced effects also alterations due to a treatment with the synthetic estrogen ethinylestradiol (EE2) were evaluated. After both the NP-exposure as well as the EE2-treatment, the predominant haematological finding was a severe anaemia. Histopathological alterations in the kidney, the liver and the spleen occurred exclusively after treatment with EE2, whereas NP-exposed fish did not show any tissue lesions. Depending on the haematological parameter examined, a NOEC between 1 and 5 microg NP/l could be established. From the present findings, it is assumed, that under field conditions, the NP-induced, general toxic effects, might outbalance the relatively weak estrogenic effects of this compound and possibly might disturb ecologically relevant processes such as fish reproduction.

  6. Ultrastructural and developmental evidence of phytotoxicity on cos lettuce (Lactuca sativa) associated with nonylphenol exposure. (United States)

    de Bruin, Willeke; van der Merwe, Chris; Kritzinger, Quenton; Bornman, Riana; Korsten, Lise


    It has long been understood that the presence of endocrine disrupter chemicals (EDCs) in water can affect the reproductive, behavioural and regulatory systems of different types of mammals. Thus far, only a handful of studies have examined its impact on plant systems. Present research is limited to the potential uptake of these chemicals by plants and the general phytotoxic effects it can elicit. The aim of this study was to determine what effect an EDC has on developing plant and cell organelles and how it affects it. In this study, cos lettuce plants were exposed to different concentrations of nonylphenol (NP), an EDC, in a static hydroponic system. Changes in plant morphology, mass and length, chlorophyll content, as well as electrolyte leakage were examined. Furthermore an in-depth investigation of the plant cell ultrastructure was carried out with transmission electron microscopy. Results indicated that cos lettuce growth was severely restricted, chlorophyll content was reduced, leakage of electrolytes increased and roots were stunted especially after ≥3200 μg/l NP exposures. The structure of the rough endoplasmic reticulum, vacuole and chloroplast were also changed. This study emphasizes the importance of water quality management, since the presence of an EDC, like NP, can negatively impact the yield and internal structure of one of the world's most significant salad crops, namely lettuce.

  7. Analysis of octylphenol, nonylphenol, di-octylphthalate in sewage sludge by GC/MS-SIM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.H. [Jeonju University, Cheonju (Korea)


    Sewage sludge samples were extracted with dichlomethane by Soxhlet extraction. The extracts were analysed for the endocrine disrupting compounds (EDC), octylphenol(OP), nonylphenol (NP) and bis (2-ethylhexyl)phthalate(DOP) using GC/MS-SIM. In industrial sewage sludge (sample Z-I) the concentration of NP and DOP were respectively 1168 {mu}g/g and 1172{mu}g/g whereas in domestic sludge (sample Z-2) the concentration were respectively 10.8 {mu}g/g and 80 {mu}g/g. OP was not detected in Z-2, but detected a small amount in Z-2 of the samples. Environmental EDC have been shown to affect the fertility of range of living organisms, including humans, and the high levels of NP and DOP in industrial sewage sludge could have serious implications for the reproductive health of humans particularly if the compounds entered the human food chain through water or the ingestion of vegetables or animal products. 17 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Detection of nonylphenol and persistent organic pollutants in fish from the North Pacific Central Gyre. (United States)

    Gassel, Margy; Harwani, Suhash; Park, June-Soo; Jahn, Andrew


    Despite scientific and public concern, research on food web contamination from chemicals in plastic is limited, and distinguishing plastic sources from prey remains a challenge. We analyzed juvenile yellowtail (Seriola lalandi) from the North Pacific Central Gyre for plastic ingestion and tissue concentrations of persistent organic pollutants and nonionic surfactants to investigate potential contamination from plastic exposure. Ingestion of synthetic debris occurred in ~10% of the sample population. PCBs and DDTs were 352±240 (mean±SD) and 1425±1118 ng/g lw, respectively. PBDEs were 9.08±10.6 ng/g lw, with BDEs-47, 99, and 209 representing 90% of PBDEs. Nonylphenol (NP) was detected in one-third of the yellowtail with a mean of 52.8±88.5 ng/g ww overall and 167±72.3 ng/g ww excluding non-detects. Because environmental NP is strongly associated with wastewater treatment effluents, long-range transport is unlikely, and NP was previously measured in gyre plastic, we concluded that plastic-mediated exposure best explained our findings of NP in yellowtail.

  9. Spatial distribution and migration of nonylphenol in groundwater following long-term wastewater irrigation (United States)

    Wang, Shiyu; Wu, Wenyong; Liu, Fei; Yin, Shiyang; Bao, Zhe; Liu, Honglu


    Seen as a solution to water shortages, wastewater reuse for crop irrigation does however poses a risk owing to the potential release of organic contaminants into soil and water. The frequency of detection (FOD), concentration, and migration of nonylphenol (NP) isomers in reclaimed water (FODRW), surface water (FODSW), and groundwater (FODGW) were investigated in a long-term wastewater irrigation area in Beijing. The FODRW, FODSW and FODGW of any or all of 12 NP isomers were 66.7% to 100%, 76.9% to 100% and 13.3% to 60%, respectively. The mean (± standard deviation) NP concentrations of the reclaimed water, surface water, and groundwater (NPRW, NPSW, NPGW, repectively) were 469.4 ± 73.4 ng L- 1, 694.6 ± 248.7 ng- 1 and 244.4 ± 230.8 ng- 1, respectively. The existence of external pollution sources during water transmission and distribution resulted in NPSW exceeding NPRW. NP distribution in groundwater was related to the duration and quantity of wastewater irrigation, the sources of aquifer recharge, and was seen to decrease with increasing aquifer depth. Higher riverside infiltration rate nearby leads to higher FODGW values. The migration rate of NP isomers was classified as high, moderate or low.

  10. Removal of nonylphenol from industrial sludge by using an electron beam (United States)

    Choi, Jang-Seung; Park, Jun-Hyun; Kim, Yuri; Kim, JinKyu; Jung, SeungTae; Han, Bumsoo; Alkhuraiji, Turki S.


    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and potential EDCs are mostly man-made, found in various materials such as pesticides, additives or contaminants in food, and personal care products. EDCs have been suspected to be associated with altered reproductive function in males and females increased incidence of breast cancer, abnormal growth patterns and neuro-developmental delays in children and changes in immune function. A number of processes were investigated regarding their potential for removing of endocrine disrupters. Those processes are ferric chloride coagulation, powdered activated carbon, magnetic ion exchange combined with microfiltration or ultrafiltration, as well as nanofiltration, and reverse osmosis. They show some good removal of EDCs in aqueous solution, but do not show good efficiency when EDCs are in sludge. High energy ionizing radiation has the ability to remove the EDCs with a very high degree of reliability and in a clean and efficient manner. The ionizing radiation interacts with EDCs both directly and indirectly. Direct interaction takes place with EDCs, and the structure of EDCs is destroyed or changed. During indirect interaction, radiolysis products of water result in the formation of highly reactive intermediates which then react with the target molecules, culminating in structural changes. For confirmation of radiation reduction of EDCs in industrial sludge, a pilot scale experiment up to 50 kGy of electron beam was conducted with samples from the textile dyeing industries. The experimental result showed over a 90% reduction of nonylphenol (NP) at absorbed doses of around 10 kGy.

  11. Determination of 4-nonylphenol concentrations in sediment from a littoral enclosure study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheedy, B.R. [Integrated Lab. Systems, Duluth, MN (United States); Heinis, L.J. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Superior, WI (United States); Knuth, M.L.; Ankley, G.T. [Environmental Protection Agency, Duluth, MN (United States). Environmental Research Lab.


    During the summer of 1993, a small pond, divided into 18 littoral enclosures was dosed for 21 days with the industrial surfactant metabolite, 4-nonylphenol (NP). A team of biologists and chemists monitored the biological and chemical parameters in each littoral enclosure during the dosing period and for several months thereafter. The water column NP concentrations (nominal 0, 3, 30, 1 00 and 300 ppb) remained relatively constant throughout the dosing period and decreased dramatically during the post-dose phase Natural sediment concentrations, determined during the post-dose phase, in most cases remained high, especially at the 300 ppb level. Artificial containers of sediment placed in several enclosures had somewhat lesser concentrations than the natural sediment. Over the six week sampling period (post-dose), the natural sediment concentrations dropped off, but were still significant at 63 days post-dose. This NP disappearance was small in comparison to the disappearance of NP from the water column. Sediment interstitial NP concentrations were not detected. Concentrations of NP in the sediment after winter will be determined and discussed.

  12. Absorption, bioavailability, and metabolism of para-nonylphenol in the rat. (United States)

    Green, Trevor; Swain, Cindy; Van Miller, John P; Joiner, Ronald L


    To better interpret the responses to para-nonylphenol (NP; CASRN84852-15-3) in in vivo toxicity studies, including estrogen-like activity, the bioavailability of 14C-radiolabelled NP has been determined in male and female CD rats following either single oral doses of 10 and 100 mg/kg, single i.v. doses of 10 mg/kg, or repeated daily oral doses of 10 mg/kg for up to 14 d. Up to 80% of an oral dose of NP was rapidly absorbed, the remainder being excreted unchanged in faeces. Excretion was largely complete within 24 h of dosing. Following absorption, NP was metabolised in the liver, with the majority of the metabolites excreted in bile, mainly as glucuronide conjugates. Unchanged NP was found only in bile and urine from female rats given a 100 mg/kg dose, indicating that metabolic saturation occurred. Following repeated dosing, steady state was reached within 7 d. There was no evidence of significant accumulation into tissue compartments nor of a significant change in clearance or the metabolite profiles in urine. These data suggest that the estrogen-like effects observed in toxicity studies with female rats at oral NP doses of approximately 50 mg/kg/d and greater are a result of the increased bioavailability of NP which occurs following metabolic saturation.

  13. Comparison of lignin peroxidase and horseradish peroxidase for catalyzing the removal of nonylphenol from water. (United States)

    Dong, Shipeng; Mao, Liang; Luo, Siqiang; Zhou, Lei; Feng, Yiping; Gao, Shixiang


    Concentrations of aqueous-phase nonylphenol (NP), a well-known endocrine-disrupting chemical, are shown to be reduced effectively via reaction with lignin peroxidase (LiP) or horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and hydrogen peroxide. We systematically assessed their reaction efficiencies at varying conditions, and the results have confirmed that the catalytic performance of LiP toward NP was more efficient than that of HRP under experimental conditions. Mass spectrum analysis demonstrated that polymerization through radical-radical coupling mechanism was the pathway leading to NP transformation. Our molecular modeling with the assistance of ab initio suggested the coupling of NP likely proceeded via covalent bonding between two NP radicals at their unsubstituted carbons in phenolic rings. Data from acute immobilization tests with Daphnia confirm that NP toxicity is effectively eliminated by LiP/HRP-catalyzed NP removal. The findings in this study provide useful information for understanding LiP/HRP-mediated NP reactions, and comparison of enzymatic performance can present their advantages for up-scale applications in water/wastewater treatment.

  14. Spatial distribution and migration of nonylphenol in groundwater following long-term wastewater irrigation. (United States)

    Wang, Shiyu; Wu, Wenyong; Liu, Fei; Yin, Shiyang; Bao, Zhe; Liu, Honglu


    Seen as a solution to water shortages, wastewater reuse for crop irrigation does however poses a risk owing to the potential release of organic contaminants into soil and water. The frequency of detection (FOD), concentration, and migration of nonylphenol (NP) isomers in reclaimed water (FODRW), surface water (FODSW), and groundwater (FODGW) were investigated in a long-term wastewater irrigation area in Beijing. The FODRW, FODSW and FODGW of any or all of 12 NP isomers were 66.7% to 100%, 76.9% to 100% and 13.3% to 60%, respectively. The mean (±standard deviation) NP concentrations of the reclaimed water, surface water, and groundwater (NPRW, NPSW, NPGW, repectively) were 469.4±73.4 ng L(-1), 694.6±248.7 ng(-1) and 244.4±230.8 ng(-1), respectively. The existence of external pollution sources during water transmission and distribution resulted in NPSW exceeding NPRW. NP distribution in groundwater was related to the duration and quantity of wastewater irrigation, the sources of aquifer recharge, and was seen to decrease with increasing aquifer depth. Higher riverside infiltration rate nearby leads to higher FODGW values. The migration rate of NP isomers was classified as high, moderate or low.

  15. Identification of Comamonas testosteroni as an androgen degrader in sewage (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Lung; Wang, Chia-Hsiang; Yang, Fu-Chun; Ismail, Wael; Wang, Po-Hsiang; Shih, Chao-Jen; Wu, Yu-Ching; Chiang, Yin-Ru


    Numerous studies have reported the masculinization of freshwater wildlife exposed to androgens in polluted rivers. Microbial degradation is a crucial mechanism for eliminating steroid hormones from contaminated ecosystems. The aerobic degradation of testosterone was observed in various bacterial isolates. However, the ecophysiological relevance of androgen-degrading microorganisms in the environment is unclear. Here, we investigated the biochemical mechanisms and corresponding microorganisms of androgen degradation in aerobic sewage. Sewage samples collected from the Dihua Sewage Treatment Plant (Taipei, Taiwan) were aerobically incubated with testosterone (1 mM). Androgen metabolite analysis revealed that bacteria adopt the 9, 10-seco pathway to degrade testosterone. A metagenomic analysis indicated the apparent enrichment of Comamonas spp. (mainly C. testosteroni) and Pseudomonas spp. in sewage incubated with testosterone. We used the degenerate primers derived from the meta-cleavage dioxygenase gene (tesB) of various proteobacteria to track this essential catabolic gene in the sewage. The amplified sequences showed the highest similarity (87–96%) to tesB of C. testosteroni. Using quantitative PCR, we detected a remarkable increase of the 16S rRNA and catabolic genes of C. testosteroni in the testosterone-treated sewage. Together, our data suggest that C. testosteroni, the model microorganism for aerobic testosterone degradation, plays a role in androgen biodegradation in aerobic sewage. PMID:27734937

  16. Toluene biodegradation and biofilm growth in an aerobic fixed-film reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arcangeli, Jean-Pierre; Arvin, Erik


    Aerobic biodegradation of toluene in a biofilm system was investigated. Toluene is easily biodegradable, like several other aromatic compounds. The degradation was first order at bulk concentrations lower than 0.14 mg/l and zero order above 6–8 mg/l. An average yield coefficient of 1 mg biomass...

  17. Simulation of aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation processes at a crude oil spill site (United States)

    Essaid, Hedeff I.; Bekins, Barbara A.; Godsy, E. Michael; Warren, Ean; Baedecker, Mary Jo; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.


    A two-dimensional, multispecies reactive solute transport model with sequential aerobic and anaerobic degradation processes was developed and tested. The model was used to study the field-scale solute transport and degradation processes at the Bemidji, Minnesota, crude oil spill site. The simulations included the biodegradation of volatile and nonvolatile fractions of dissolved organic carbon by aerobic processes, manganese and iron reduction, and methanogenesis. Model parameter estimates were constrained by published Monod kinetic parameters, theoretical yield estimates, and field biomass measurements. Despite the considerable uncertainty in the model parameter estimates, results of simulations reproduced the general features of the observed groundwater plume and the measured bacterial concentrations. In the simulation, 46% of the total dissolved organic carbon (TDOC) introduced into the aquifer was degraded. Aerobic degradation accounted for 40% of the TDOC degraded. Anaerobic processes accounted for the remaining 60% of degradation of TDOC: 5% by Mn reduction, 19% by Fe reduction, and 36% by methanogenesis. Thus anaerobic processes account for more than half of the removal of DOC at this site.

  18. Estimation of rates of aerobic hydrocarbon biodegradation by simulation of gas transport in the unsaturated zone (United States)

    Lahvis, M.A.; Baehr, A.L.


    The distribution of oxygen and carbon dioxide gases in the unsaturated zone provides a geochemical signature of aerobic hydrocarbon degradation at petroleum product spill sites. The fluxes of these gases are proportional to the rate of aerobic biodegradation and are quantified by calibrating a mathematical transport model to the oxygen and carbon dioxide gas concentration data. Reaction stoichiometry is assumed to convert the gas fluxes to a corresponding rate of hydrocarbon degradation. The method is applied at a gasoline spill site in Galloway Township, New Jersey, to determine the rate of aerobic degradation of hydrocarbons associated with passive and bioventing remediation field experiments. At the site, microbial degradation of hydrocarbons near the water table limits the migration of hydrocarbon solutes in groundwater and prevents hydrocarbon volatilization into the unsaturated zone. In the passive remediation experiment a site-wide degradation rate estimate of 34,400 g yr-1 (11.7 gal. yr-1) of hydrocarbon was obtained by model calibration to carbon dioxide gas concentration data collected in December 1989. In the bioventing experiment, degradation rate estimates of 46.0 and 47.9 g m-2 yr-1 (1.45 x 10-3 and 1.51 x 10-3 gal. ft.-2 yr-1) of hydrocarbon were obtained by model calibration to oxygen and carbon dioxide gas concentration data, respectively. Method application was successful in quantifying the significance of a naturally occurring process that can effectively contribute to plume stabilization.

  19. Estimation of rates of aerobic hydrocarbon biodegradation by simulation of gas transport in the unsaturated zone (United States)

    Lahvis, Matthew A.; Baehr, Arthur L.


    The distribution of oxygen and carbon dioxide gases in the unsaturated zone provides a geochemical signature of aerobic hydrocarbon degradation at petroleum product spill sites. The fluxes of these gases are proportional to the rate of aerobic biodegradation and are quantified by calibrating a mathematical transport model to the oxygen and carbon dioxide gas concentration data. Reaction stoichiometry is assumed to convert the gas fluxes to a corresponding rate of hydrocarbon degradation. The method is applied at a gasoline spill site in Galloway Township, New Jersey, to determine the rate of aerobic degradation of hydrocarbons associated with passive and bioventing remediation field experiments. At the site, microbial degradation of hydrocarbons near the water table limits the migration of hydrocarbon solutes in groundwater and prevents hydrocarbon volatilization into the unsaturated zone. In the passive remediation experiment a site-wide degradation rate estimate of 34,400 gyr-1 (11.7 gal. yr-1) of hydrocarbon was obtained by model calibration to carbon dioxide gas concentration data collected in December 1989. In the bioventing experiment, degradation rate estimates of 46.0 and 47.9 gm-2yr-1 (1.45×10-3 and 1.51×10-3 gal.ft.-2yr-1) of hydrocarbon were obtained by model calibration to oxygen and carbon dioxide gas concentration data, respectively. Method application was successful in quantifying the significance of a naturally occurring process that can effectively contribute to plume stabilization.

  20. Aerobic granulation of pure bacterial strain Bacillus thuringiensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sunil S ADAV; Duu-Jong LEE


    The objective of this study is to cultivate aer-obic granules by pure bacterial strain, Bacillus thuringien-sis, in a sequencing batch reactor. Stable granules sized 2.0-2.2 mm were formed in the reactor after a five-week cultivation. These granules exhibited excellent settling attributes, and degraded phenol at rates of 1.49 and concentration, respectively. Confocal laser scanning microscopic test results show that Bacillus thuringiensis was distributed over the initial small aggregates, and the outer edge of the granule was away from the core regime in the following stage.

  1. Aerobic conditioning for team sport athletes. (United States)

    Stone, Nicholas M; Kilding, Andrew E


    Team sport athletes require a high level of aerobic fitness in order to generate and maintain power output during repeated high-intensity efforts and to recover. Research to date suggests that these components can be increased by regularly performing aerobic conditioning. Traditional aerobic conditioning, with minimal changes of direction and no skill component, has been demonstrated to effectively increase aerobic function within a 4- to 10-week period in team sport players. More importantly, traditional aerobic conditioning methods have been shown to increase team sport performance substantially. Many team sports require the upkeep of both aerobic fitness and sport-specific skills during a lengthy competitive season. Classic team sport trainings have been shown to evoke marginal increases/decreases in aerobic fitness. In recent years, aerobic conditioning methods have been designed to allow adequate intensities to be achieved to induce improvements in aerobic fitness whilst incorporating movement-specific and skill-specific tasks, e.g. small-sided games and dribbling circuits. Such 'sport-specific' conditioning methods have been demonstrated to promote increases in aerobic fitness, though careful consideration of player skill levels, current fitness, player numbers, field dimensions, game rules and availability of player encouragement is required. Whilst different conditioning methods appear equivalent in their ability to improve fitness, whether sport-specific conditioning is superior to other methods at improving actual game performance statistics requires further research.

  2. The association between nonylphenols and sexual hormones levels among pregnant women: a cohort study in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Huang Chang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nonylphenol (NP has been proven as an endocrine disrupter and had the ability to interfere with the endocrine system. Though the health effects of NP on pregnant women and their fetuses are sustained, these negative associations related to the mechanisms of regulation for estrogen during pregnancy need to be further clarified. The objective of this study is to explore the association between maternal NP and hormonal levels, such as estradiol, testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, and progesterone. METHODS: A pregnant women cohort was established in North Taiwan between March and December 2010. Maternal urine and blood samples from the first, second, and third trimesters of gestation were collected. Urinary NP concentration was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescent detection. A mixed-effects model using a generalised estimating equation (GEE was applied to assess the associations between maternal NP concentration and plasma hormones throughout the three trimesters. RESULTS: In total, 162 singleton pregnant women completed this study through delivery. The geometric mean of creatinine-adjusted urinary NP concentrations were 4.27, 4.21, and 4.10 µg/g cre. in the first, second, and third trimesters respectively. A natural log-transformation of urinary NP concentrations were significantly associated with LH in the GEE model (β = -0.23 mIU/ml, p<0.01. CONCLUSION: This perspective cohort study demonstrates that negative association occurs between maternal NP exposure and plasma LH levels. The estrogen-mimic effect of NP might influence the negative feedback on LH during pregnancy.

  3. Effects of nonylphenol on juveniles and adults in the grey mullet, Liza aurata. (United States)

    Cionna, Cristina; Maradonna, Francesca; Olivotto, Ike; Pizzonia, Gianluca; Carnevali, Oliana


    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of nonylphenol (NP), an environmental pollutant known to have estrogenic activity, on grey mullets. Juvenile and adult physiology was monitored by the expression of vitellogenin (VTG), which is commonly induced by estrogenic pollutants, and cytochrome P4501A1(CYP1A1) as a first signal of detoxification. The dose-response estrogenic effects of NP (25, 100, 1000 microg/l) on hepatic VTG transcript and plasma protein levels, as well as on CYP1A1 transcription and its associated ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity, were assessed in juvenile Liza aurata; 17beta-estradiol (E2; 2 microg/l) treatment for 1 week served as positive control. In addition, we investigated VTG and CYP1A1 expression in adult males injected with two NP at 0.25 or 250 mg/kg body weight relative to 0.07 mg/kg of E2 as a positive control. Juvenile exposure to NP failed to induce a measurable VTG response. In the adult fish, NP exerted estrogenic effects only at the highest dose injected. E2 treatment elicited VTG induction only in adults in a time-related manner. In contrast, NP treatment induced a dose-dependent decrease in CYP1A1 response in both juveniles and adults. An inhibitory effect of E2 on CYP1A1 was evident in all treatment groups as well. These data suggest that, in biomonitoring studies, testing the expression of different biomarkers may provide a more realistic picture of the environmental conditions.

  4. Sorption behavior of nonylphenol (NP) on sewage-irrigated soil: Kinetic and thermodynamic studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Xiaoping; Zhang, Caixiang, E-mail:; Yao, Linlin; Li, Jiale; Liu, Min; Xu, Liang; Evalde, Mulindankaka


    The reuse of wastewater for irrigation of agricultural land is a well established resources management practice but has the disadvantage of inputting various forms of contaminants into the terrestrial environment including nonylphenol (NP), a well known endocrine disrupting substance. To elucidate the environmental fate and transport of NP, the sorption behavior on sewage-irrigated soil was studied by batch experiment. It was found that sorption processes of NP on different sorbents (soil, humic acid (HA) and silica) could be expressed well using two compartment pseudo first-order model, where both surface and intra-particle diffusion were probable rate-controlling processes. Linear model could better express the sorption of NP on soil, black carbon (BC) and mineral (e.g., SiO{sub 2}) except HA than Freundlich model. The large value of distribution coefficients of normalized organic carbon (K{sub oc}) on soils indicated that NP was limited to migrate to deep soil. The higher desorption partition coefficient of NP on soil showed enhanced hysteresis. According to the experimental data, the calculated thermodynamic parameters implied that the sorption reaction on sewage-irrigation was spontaneous, exothermic and entropy decreasing process. The amount of soil organic matter (SOM) dominated the sorption capacity, whereas the sorption behavior of NP on soil showed no significant correlation with ionic strength. - Highlights: • Both surface and intra-particle diffusion were rate-controlling processes. • Soil composition influences the partition activity of NP. • Soil organic matter has dominated the sorption capacity of NP on soil. • NP molecule was limited to migrate to deep soil in sewage-irrigated area.

  5. Degradation of Lix984N and its effect on interfacial emulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiao-rong; QIU Guan-zhou; HU Yue-hua


    The organic phase separated from the interfacial crud provided by Dexing copper mine in Jiangxi, China, was analyzed by combined gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. The results show that many kinds of emphiphiles containing such hydrophilic groups as carbonyl, carboxyl, sulphonyl or acylamine exist in organic phase. Conclusively,Lix984N would degrade gradually during a long-term contact with the acidic aqueous feed and strip reagents. Lix84 and nonylphenol as effective components of Lix984N degraded almost completely after long-term recycling. Lix984N degraded through such reactions as Beckmann rearrange, hydrolysis and sulphofication. The degradation of Lix984N would deteriorate solvent extraction and disengagement performance, and result in a more stable interfacial emulsion.

  6. Microbial fuel cells with highly active aerobic biocathodes (United States)

    Milner, Edward M.; Popescu, Dorin; Curtis, Tom; Head, Ian M.; Scott, Keith; Yu, Eileen H.


    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs), which convert organic waste to electricity, could be used to make the wastewater infrastructure more energy efficient and sustainable. However, platinum and other non-platinum chemical catalysts used for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at the cathode of MFCs are unsustainable due to their high cost and long-term degradation. Aerobic biocathodes, which use microorganisms as the biocatalysts for cathode ORR, are a good alternative to chemical catalysts. In the current work, high-performing aerobic biocathodes with an onset potential for the ORR of +0.4 V vs. Ag/AgCl were enriched from activated sludge in electrochemical half-cells poised at -0.1 and + 0.2 V vs. Ag/AgCl. Gammaproteobacteria, distantly related to any known cultivated gammaproteobacterial lineage, were identified as dominant in these working electrode biofilms (23.3-44.3% of reads in 16S rRNA gene Ion Torrent libraries), and were in very low abundance in non-polarised control working electrode biofilms (0.5-0.7%). These Gammaproteobacteria were therefore most likely responsible for the high activity of biologically catalysed ORR. In MFC tests, a high-performing aerobic biocathode increased peak power 9-fold from 7 to 62 μW cm-2 in comparison to an unmodified carbon cathode, which was similar to peak power with a platinum-doped cathode at 70 μW cm-2.

  7. Aerobic Microbial Respiration In Oceanic Oxygen Minimum Zones. (United States)

    Kalvelage, Tim; Lavik, Gaute; Jensen, Marlene M; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Löscher, Carolin; Schunck, Harald; Desai, Dhwani K; Hauss, Helena; Kiko, Rainer; Holtappels, Moritz; LaRoche, Julie; Schmitz, Ruth A; Graco, Michelle I; Kuypers, Marcel M M


    Oxygen minimum zones are major sites of fixed nitrogen loss in the ocean. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of anaerobic ammonium oxidation, anammox, in pelagic nitrogen removal. Sources of ammonium for the anammox reaction, however, remain controversial, as heterotrophic denitrification and alternative anaerobic pathways of organic matter remineralization cannot account for the ammonium requirements of reported anammox rates. Here, we explore the significance of microaerobic respiration as a source of ammonium during organic matter degradation in the oxygen-deficient waters off Namibia and Peru. Experiments with additions of double-labelled oxygen revealed high aerobic activity in the upper OMZs, likely controlled by surface organic matter export. Consistently observed oxygen consumption in samples retrieved throughout the lower OMZs hints at efficient exploitation of vertically and laterally advected, oxygenated waters in this zone by aerobic microorganisms. In accordance, metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses identified genes encoding for aerobic terminal oxidases and demonstrated their expression by diverse microbial communities, even in virtually anoxic waters. Our results suggest that microaerobic respiration is a major mode of organic matter remineralization and source of ammonium (~45-100%) in the upper oxygen minimum zones, and reconcile hitherto observed mismatches between ammonium producing and consuming processes therein.

  8. Aerobic Microbial Respiration In Oceanic Oxygen Minimum Zones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Kalvelage

    Full Text Available Oxygen minimum zones are major sites of fixed nitrogen loss in the ocean. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of anaerobic ammonium oxidation, anammox, in pelagic nitrogen removal. Sources of ammonium for the anammox reaction, however, remain controversial, as heterotrophic denitrification and alternative anaerobic pathways of organic matter remineralization cannot account for the ammonium requirements of reported anammox rates. Here, we explore the significance of microaerobic respiration as a source of ammonium during organic matter degradation in the oxygen-deficient waters off Namibia and Peru. Experiments with additions of double-labelled oxygen revealed high aerobic activity in the upper OMZs, likely controlled by surface organic matter export. Consistently observed oxygen consumption in samples retrieved throughout the lower OMZs hints at efficient exploitation of vertically and laterally advected, oxygenated waters in this zone by aerobic microorganisms. In accordance, metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses identified genes encoding for aerobic terminal oxidases and demonstrated their expression by diverse microbial communities, even in virtually anoxic waters. Our results suggest that microaerobic respiration is a major mode of organic matter remineralization and source of ammonium (~45-100% in the upper oxygen minimum zones, and reconcile hitherto observed mismatches between ammonium producing and consuming processes therein.

  9. Combination of ozonation with conventional aerobic oxidation for distillery wastewater treatment. (United States)

    Sangave, Preeti C; Gogate, Parag R; Pandit, Aniruddha B


    Laboratory-scale experiments were conducted in order to investigate the effect of ozone as pre-aerobic treatment and post-aerobic treatment for the treatment of the distillery wastewater. The degradation of the pollutants present in distillery spent wash was carried out by ozonation, aerobic biological degradation processes alone and by using the combinations of these two processes to investigate the synergism between the two modes of wastewater treatment and with the aim of reducing the overall treatment costs. Pollutant removal efficiency was followed by means of global parameters directly related to the concentration of organic compounds in those effluents: chemical oxygen demand (COD) and the color removal efficiency in terms of absorbance of the sample at 254 nm. Ozone was found to be effective in bringing down the COD (up to 27%) during the pretreatment step itself. In the combined process, pretreatment of the effluent led to enhanced rates of subsequent biological oxidation step, almost 2.5 times increase in the initial oxidation rate has been observed. Post-aerobic treatment with ozone led to further removal of COD along with the complete discoloration of the effluent. The integrated process (ozone-aerobic oxidation-ozone) achieved approximately 79% COD reduction along with discoloration of the effluent sample as compared to 34.9% COD reduction for non-ozonated sample, over a similar treatment period.

  10. Simultaneous anaerobic-aerobic biodegradation of halogenated phenolic compound under oxygen-limited conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yuan-cai; LAN Hui-xia; ZHAN Huai-yu; FU Shi-yu


    The successful application of co-immobilized aerobic-anaerobic biomaes under limited aeration in wastewater treatment systems would eliminate the problems associated with the intermediates mono-chlorophenol(MCP) and di-chlorophenol(DCP) accumulations. With low initial pentachlorophenol(PCP) concentration, all PCP could be completely removed under oxygen-limited strict anaerobic conditions,and the removal efficiencies with different initial haedspace oxygen percentage(IHOP) were not obviously different from each other. While at high initial PCP concentration, under strictly anaerobic conditions PCP and their intermediates were clearly higher than that under other conditions, and produced obvious accumulation, the highest PCP reduction was achieved by the system receiving 30 IHOP, oxygen-limited system also exhibited lower residual TOC concentration and lower concentration of metabolic intermediates MCP and DCP. These results suggested that under strictly anaerobic condition the reductive dechlorination of low chlorinated compounde became rate limiting in the reductive dechlorination pathway, less chlorinated compounds be more amenable to aerobic degradation, and the aerobes of outer layers could function under limited oxygen. The co-immobilized aerobic-anaerobic biomass for methanogeneeis under limited-aeration for chlorophenol degradation might be an attractive and efficient altemative for the sequential anaerobic/aerobic system to achieve mineralization of a broad range of recalcitrance highly chlorinated organics and low final TOC concentrations.

  11. Lower limb loading in step aerobic dance. (United States)

    Wu, H-W; Hsieh, H-M; Chang, Y-W; Wang, L-H


    Participation in aerobic dance is associated with a number of lower extremity injuries, and abnormal joint loading seems to be a factor in these. However, information on joint loading is limited. The purpose of this study was to investigate the kinetics of the lower extremity in step aerobic dance and to compare the differences of high-impact and low-impact step aerobic dance in 4 aerobic movements (mambo, kick, L step and leg curl). 18 subjects were recruited for this study. High-impact aerobic dance requires a significantly greater range of motion, joint force and joint moment than low-impact step aerobic dance. The peak joint forces and moments in high-impact step aerobic dance were found to be 1.4 times higher than in low-impact step aerobic dance. Understanding the nature of joint loading may help choreographers develop dance combinations that are less injury-prone. Furthermore, increased knowledge about joint loading may be helpful in lowering the risk of injuries in aerobic dance instructors and students.

  12. Isotope dilution gas chromatography with mass spectrometry for the analysis of 4-octyl phenol, 4-nonylphenol, and bisphenol A in vegetable oils. (United States)

    Wu, Pinggu; Zhang, Liqun; Yang, Dajin; Zhang, Jing; Hu, Zhengyan; Wang, Liyuan; Ma, Bingjie


    By the combination of solid-phase extraction as well as isotope dilution gas chromatography with mass spectrometry, a sensitive and reliable method for the determination of endocrine-disrupting chemicals including bisphenol A, 4-octylphenol, and 4-nonylphenol in vegetable oils was established. The application of a silica/N-(n-propyl)ethylenediamine mixed solid-phase extraction cartridge achieved relatively low matrix effects for bisphenol A, 4-octylphenol, and 4-nonylphenol in vegetable oils. Experiments were designed to evaluate the effects of derivatization, and the extraction parameters were optimized. The estimated limits of detection and quantification for bisphenol A, 4-octylphenol, and 4-nonylphenol were 0.83 and 2.5 μg/kg, respectively. In a spiked experiment in vegetable oils, the recovery of the added bisphenol A was 97.5-110.3%, recovery of the added 4-octylphenol was 64.4-87.4%, and that of 4-nonylphenol was 68.2-89.3%. This sensitive method was then applied to real vegetable oil samples from Zhejiang Province of China, and none of the target compounds were detected.

  13. 17-Beta estradiol and 4-nonylphenol delay smolt development and downstream migration in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Steffen S; Skovbølling, Søren; Nielsen, Christian;


    The effect of 17-beta estradiol (E2) and 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) on smoltification and downstream migration of Atlantic salmon was studied in an integrated laboratory and field study. In a stock of hatchery-raised 1-year-old salmon, smoltification progressed from February until late May as judged...

  14. Genomics of aerobic cellulose utilization systems in actinobacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iain Anderson

    Full Text Available Cellulose degrading enzymes have important functions in the biotechnology industry, including the production of biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass. Anaerobes including Clostridium species organize cellulases and other glycosyl hydrolases into large complexes known as cellulosomes. In contrast, aerobic actinobacteria utilize systems comprised of independently acting enzymes, often with carbohydrate binding domains. Numerous actinobacterial genomes have become available through the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea (GEBA project. We identified putative cellulose-degrading enzymes belonging to families GH5, GH6, GH8, GH9, GH12, GH48, and GH51 in the genomes of eleven members of the actinobacteria. The eleven organisms were tested in several assays for cellulose degradation, and eight of the organisms showed evidence of cellulase activity. The three with the highest cellulase activity were Actinosynnema mirum, Cellulomonas flavigena, and Xylanimonas cellulosilytica. Cellobiose is known to induce cellulolytic enzymes in the model organism Thermobifida fusca, but only Nocardiopsis dassonvillei showed higher cellulolytic activity in the presence of cellobiose. In T. fusca, cellulases and a putative cellobiose ABC transporter are regulated by the transcriptional regulator CelR. Nine organisms appear to use the CelR site or a closely related binding site to regulate an ABC transporter. In some, CelR also regulates cellulases, while cellulases are controlled by different regulatory sites in three organisms. Mining of genome data for cellulose degradative enzymes followed by experimental verification successfully identified several actinobacteria species which were not previously known to degrade cellulose as cellulolytic organisms.

  15. Degradation of household biowaste in reactors. (United States)

    Krzystek, L; Ledakowicz, S; Kahle, H J; Kaczorek, K


    Household derived biowaste was degraded by biological methods. The system involves the combined method of low-solids (up to 10% w/v of total solids (TS)) anaerobic digestion and aerobic degradation for the recovery of energy (biogas) and the production of fine humus-like material which can be used as a soil amender or a substrate for further thermal treatment (pyrolysis, gasification). The performance of batch and continuous processes carried out in bioreactors (stirred tank reactor, air-lift) of working volume 6 and 18 dm(3), at different temperatures (25-42 degrees C) was monitored by reduction of TS, volatile solids, chemical oxygen demand, total organic carbon, C/N in time. The application of continuous process with recirculation (33%) caused that for residence time of 8-16 h the obtained degree of organic load reduction was similar to that obtained after 72-96 h of the batch process. The experimental data of batch aerobic degradation was also subjected to kinetic analysis. The sequence of the two processes: aerobic and anaerobic or anaerobic and aerobic showed that the degree of organic load reduction was similar in both cases, while the amount of produced biogas was four times higher when the first stage was anaerobic. The final product after dewatering was subjected to pyrolysis and gasification. The gases obtained were characterised by a high heat of combustion of about 11-15 MJ Nm(-3).

  16. Aerobic granulation strategy for bioaugmentation of a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) treating high strength pyridine wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiaodong; Chen, Yan [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Chemical Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, Jiangsu Province (China); Zhang, Xin [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Chemical Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, Jiangsu Province (China); Suzhou Institute of Architectural Design Co., Ltd, Suzhou 215021, Jiangsu Province (China); Jiang, Xinbai; Wu, Shijing [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Chemical Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, Jiangsu Province (China); Shen, Jinyou, E-mail: [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Chemical Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, Jiangsu Province (China); Sun, Xiuyun; Li, Jiansheng; Lu, Lude [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Chemical Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, Jiangsu Province (China); Wang, Lianjun, E-mail: [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Chemical Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, Jiangsu Province (China)


    Abstract: Aerobic granules were successfully cultivated in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR), using a single bacterial strain Rhizobium sp. NJUST18 as the inoculum. NJUST18 presented as both a good pyridine degrader and an efficient autoaggregator. Stable granules with diameter of 0.5–1 mm, sludge volume index of 25.6 ± 3.6 mL g{sup −1} and settling velocity of 37.2 ± 2.7 m h{sup −1}, were formed in SBR following 120-day cultivation. These granules exhibited excellent pyridine degradation performance, with maximum volumetric degradation rate (V{sub max}) varied between 1164.5 mg L{sup −1} h{sup −1} and 1867.4 mg L{sup −1} h{sup −1}. High-throughput sequencing analysis exhibited a large shift in microbial community structure, since the SBR was operated under open condition. Paracoccus and Comamonas were found to be the most predominant species in the aerobic granule system after the system had stabilized. The initially inoculated Rhizobium sp. lost its dominance during aerobic granulation. However, the inoculation of Rhizobium sp. played a key role in the start-up process of this bioaugmentation system. This study demonstrated that, in addition to the hydraulic selection pressure during settling and effluent discharge, the selection of aggregating bacterial inocula is equally important for the formation of the aerobic granule.

  17. Energetic and metabolic consequences of aerobic and an-aerobic ATP-production.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreurs, V.V.A.M.; Aarts, M.J.; IJssennagger, N.; Hermans, J.; Hendriks, W.H.


    ATP, the currency of cellular energy metabolism, can be produced during aerobic and an-aerobic oxidation of metabolic substrates. The aerobic oxidation yields CO2 + H2O as metabolic end products while ATP is produced by oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondria. Carbohydrate, protein and fat pro

  18. Effects of 4-nonylphenol and 17alpha-ethynylestradiol exposure in the Sydney rock oyster, Saccostrea glomerata: Vitellogenin induction and gonadal development. (United States)

    Andrew, M N; Dunstan, R H; O'Connor, W A; Van Zwieten, L; Nixon, B; MacFarlane, G R


    Adult Saccostrea glomerata were exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of 4-nonylphenol (1microg/L and 100microg/L) and 17alpha-ethynylestradiol (5ng/L and 50ng/L) in seawater over 8 weeks. Exposures were performed to assess effects on vitellogenin induction and gonadal development during reproductive conditioning. Chronic direct estrogenicity within gonadal tissue was assessed via an estrogen receptor-mediated, chemical-activated luciferase reporter gene-expression assay (ER-CALUX). Estradiol equivalents (EEQ) were greatest in the 100microg/L 4-nonylphenol exposure (28.7+/-2.3ng/g tissue EEQ) while 17alpha-ethynylestradiol at concentrations of 50ng/L were 2.2+/-1.5ng/g tissue EEQ. Results suggest 4-nonylphenol may be accumulated in tissue and is partly resistant to biotransformation; maintaining its potential for chronic estrogenic action, while 17alpha-ethynylestradiol, although exhibiting greater estrogenic potency on biological endpoints possibly exerts its estrogenic action before being rapidly metabolised and/or excreted. A novel methodology was developed to assess vitellogenin using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Exposure to both 17alpha-ethynylestradiol (50ng/L) and 4-nonylphenol (100microg/L) produced increases in vitellogenin for females, whereas males exhibited increases in vitellogenin when exposed to 50ng/L 17alpha-ethynylestradiol only. Females exhibited greater vitellogenin responses than males at 50ng/L 17alpha-ethynylestradiol only. Histological examination of gonads revealed a number of individuals exhibiting intersex (ovotestis) in 50ng/L 17alpha-ethynylestradiol exposures. Male individuals in 1microg/L and 100microg/L 4-nonylphenol exposures and 5ng/L 17alpha-ethynylestradiol were at earlier stages of spermatogenic development than corresponding controls.

  19. Aerobic and Anaerobic Transformations in Estrogens and Nutrients in Swine Manure: Environmental Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok K. Singh


    Full Text Available Pig manure is an excellent fertilizer and rich source of organic carbon and nitrogen compounds such organic nitrogen (O-N (95% of total nitrogen that is plant-unavailable-nitrogen (PUN and mineralized nitrogen (about 1% of total nitrogen such as ammonium (NH4+ and nitrate (NO3 that are plant-available-nitrogen (PAN. In addition, manure also contains two forms of estrogens: (i poorly estrogenic thus essentially nontoxic conjugated estrogens (cEs such as estrone (cE1, estradiol (cE2 and estriol (cE3; and (ii highly estrogenic and toxic free estrogens (fEs such as fE2, fE1 and fE3. This study showed that aerobic processing reduced concentrations of total carbon (TC, O-N, PAN and NH4+/NH3 ratio, transiently hydrolyzed cEs (cE2 > cE1 > cE3 into corresponding fEs, transiently increased estrogenic activity and potential toxicity, and rapidly degraded fEs (fE2, fE1 > fE3, thus reducing the estrogenic activity in manure. Unlike aerobic processing, anaerobic processing stabilized and increased PAN and NH4+/NH3 ratio, thus increasing the manure’s fertilizer value. However, anaerobic processing, relative to aerobic processing, poorly hydrolyzed cEs (reducing transient toxicity and increasing reserve toxicity potential and poorly degraded fEs (increasing toxicity in manure. Thus, aerobic and anaerobic environments have distinct effects on manures’ PAN and estrogenic activity, presenting an interesting dilemma: anaerobic incubation that increases manures’ PAN does not effectively degrade estrogens, while aerobic incubation that effectively degrades estrogens (after transiently increasing their estrogenic activity also decreases PAN, thus making manure less profitable. New techniques are need to fully use manure as organic fertilizer.

  20. Aerobic respiration in the Archaean? (United States)

    Towe, K M


    The Earth's atmosphere during the Archaean era (3,800-2,500 Myr ago) is generally thought to have been anoxic, with the partial pressure of atmospheric oxygen about 10(-12) times the present value. In the absence of aerobic consumption of oxygen produced by photosynthesis in the ocean, the major sink for this oxygen would have been oxidation of dissolved Fe(II). Atmospheric oxygen would also be removed by the oxidation of biogenic methane. But even very low estimates of global primary productivity, obtained from the amounts of organic carbon preserved in Archaean rocks, seem to require the sedimentation of an unrealistically large amount of iron and the oxidation of too much methane if global anoxia was to be maintained. I therefore suggest that aerobic respiration must have developed early in the Archaean to prevent a build-up of atmospheric oxygen before the Proterozoic. An atmosphere that contained a low (0.2-0.4%) but stable proportion of oxygen is required.

  1. Effect of nonylphenol on male reproduction: Analysis of rat epididymal biochemical markers and antioxidant defense enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aly, Hamdy A.A., E-mail: [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Domènech, Òscar [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Barcelona University (Spain); Banjar, Zainy M. [Department of Medical Biology, School of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)


    The mechanism by which nonylphenol (NP) interferes with male reproduction is not fully elucidated. Therefore, the present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of NP on male reproductive organ's weight, sperm characteristics, and to elucidate the nature and mechanism of action of NP on the epididymis. Adult male Wistar rats were gavaged with NP, dissolved in corn oil, at 0, 100, 200 or 300 mg/kg/day for 30 consecutive days. Control rats were gavaged with vehicle (corn oil) alone. Body weight did not show any significant change while, absolute testes and epididymides weights were significantly decreased. Sperm count in cauda and caput/corpus epididymides, and sperm motility was significantly decreased. Daily sperm production was significantly decreased in a dose-related manner. Sperm transit time in cauda epididymis was significantly decreased by 300 mg/kg, while in the caput/corpus epididymis it was significantly decreased by 200 and 300 mg/kg of NP. Plasma LDH was significantly increased while; plasma testosterone was significantly decreased in a dose-related pattern. In the epididymal sperm, NP decreased acrosome integrity, Δψm and 5′-nucleotidase activity. Hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) production and LPO were significantly increased in a dose-related pattern. The activities of SOD, CAT and GPx were significantly decreased in the epididymal sperm. In conclusion, this study revealed that NP treatment impairs spermatogenesis and has a cytotoxic effect on epididymal sperm. It disrupts the prooxidant and antioxidant balance. This leads oxidative stress in epididymal sperms of rat. Moreover, the reduction in sperm transit time may affect sperm quality and fertility potential. -- Highlights: ► The nature and mechanism of action of NP on rat epididymis were elucidated. ► NP decreased sperm count, motility, daily sperm production and sperm transit time. ► NP decreased sperm acrosome integrity, Δψm and 5′-nucleotidase activity. ► Plasma

  2. Comparative activities of p-nonylphenol and diethylstilbestrol in noble rat mammary gland and uterotrophic assays. (United States)

    Odum, J; Pyrah, I T; Foster, J R; Van Miller, J P; Joiner, R L; Ashby, J


    Colerangle and Roy (1996, Endocrine 4, 115-122) have described the apparent ability of both diethylstilbestrol (DES) and p-nonylphenol (NP) to cause extensive cell proliferation and lobular development in the mammary glands of young adult Noble rats. The chemicals were administered over 11 days via subcutaneously implanted minipumps. The dose level of DES used (0.076 mg/kg/day) was about 70 times higher than its minimum detection level in rodent uterotrophic and reproductive toxicology studies. In contrast, the lowest active dose level of NP (0.073 mg/kg/day) in the Noble rat mammary gland study was about 600 times lower than its minimum detection level in rat uterotrophic and multigeneration studies. The apparent enhanced sensitivity of the Noble rat mammary gland to the estrogenic activity of NP was considered worthy of further study. Ovariectomized Noble rat uterotrophic assays with NP (minimum detection level approximately 40 mg/kg/day, 3 or 11 days, oral gavage) revealed similar assay sensitivity to that observed for earlier immature and ovariectomized Alderley Park (AP) rat uterotrophic assays of this chemical. The response of the ovariectomized Noble rat uterotrophic assay to DES and estradiol was also as expected from earlier immature AP rat assays. It is concluded that the general sensitivity to estrogens of the Noble rat and the AP rat is similar. A repeat of the Noble rat mammary gland study with DES (11 x 0.076 mg/kg/day) and NP (11 x either 0.073 or 53.2 mg/kg/day), as originally reported by Colerangle and Roy (1996), revealed a strong positive response to DES and no response to NP. It is concluded that the minimum detection level of NP as a weakly estrogenic material in the rat should be based on the results of rat uterotrophic and multigeneration studies and therefore be set at approximately 40 mg/kg/day. It is also concluded that induced S-phase in the rodent mammary gland is best monitored using BRDU, as opposed to PCNA staining, and that use of

  3. Sorption of a branched nonylphenol isomer and perfluorooctanoic acid on geosorbents and carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Chengliang


    As metabolites of organic surfactants, both nonylphenol (NP) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) are toxic and ubiquitous in the environment. Their sorption on soils and sediments is of importance for their fate and transport in the environment. Especially in China, there is still a lack of consolidated knowledge on the sorption behavior of NP and PFOA on geosorbents such as Yangtze River sediments. Thus, the present thesis investigates the sorption of a branched NP isomer [4-(1-ethyl-1, 3-dimethylpentyl) phenol] (NP111) and PFOA on Yangtze River sediments and their model components, i.e. a clay mineral (illite), metal oxides (goethite and {delta}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and organic matter (isolated from Yangtze River sediments and commercial organic matter) by both batch and dialysis techniques. NP111 is the most environmentally relevant NP isomer and its fate in the environment is unknown. Because PFOA is weakly adsorbed on geosorbents, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were studied as promising adsorbents. One of the MWCNTs studied contained traces of metal catalyst on the outer surface. Sorption isotherms of NP111 and PFOA on the sediments and their model components were fitted well by the Freundlich model. Sorption of NP111 on the sediments depended largely on their organic carbon content, resulting in organic carbon-normalized sorption coefficient (K{sub OC}) values between 6.3 x 10{sup 3} and 1.1 x 10{sup 4} L kg{sup -1}. The sorption of NP111 on {delta}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and illite was comparable to that on sediments, but significantly lower than that on goethite. In contrast, the sorption of PFOA on the sediments was significantly lower. The affinity of PFOA to goethite and {delta}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was slightly higher than to the sediments, but it was negligible to natural organic matter and illite. The results suggest that the organic carbon content of the sediments plays a dominant role in the sorption of NP111, whereas goethite acts as a potential sink

  4. Lethal and estrogenic effects of 4-nonylphenol in the cockle Cerastoderma glaucum. (United States)

    Marin, Maria Gabriella; Rigato, Stefano; Ricciardi, Francesco; Matozzo, Valerio


    The lethal and sublethal effects of the xenoestrogen 4-nonylphenol (NP) were evaluated in the cockle Cerastoderma glaucum. In a 96-h lethality test, bivalves were exposed to 0, 0+ acetone, 0.19, 0.38, 0.75, 1.5 and 3.0 mg NP/l. The 96-h LC(50) value was 0.3mg NP/l. No mortality was observed at 0.1 mg NP/l. The potential estrogenicity of NP was studied in both sexually undifferentiated (resting phase) and differentiated (pre-spawning phase) cockles, exposed for 7 and 14 days to 0, 0+ acetone, 0.0125, 0.025, 0.05, and 0.1 mg NP/l. Vitellogenin (Vg)-like protein levels were determined in both haemolymph and digestive gland by the alkali-labile phosphate (ALP) assay. In the resting phase, exposure for 7 days to 0.1 mg NP/l resulted in significant increases in ALP in both haemolymph and digestive gland, compared with controls. A significant increase was also observed in digestive gland of animals exposed to 0.0125 mg NP/l-exposed animals. After 14 days of exposure, haemolymph ALP levels were significantly increased in exposed animals at all NP concentrations tested, whereas no difference was recorded in digestive gland. In the pre-spawning phase, exposure for 7 days to NP significantly increased ALP levels in haemolymph from males exposed at all NP concentrations tested, whereas no significant variations were found in haemolymph from females. NP (0.05 and 0.1 mg/l) was also shown to increase ALP concentrations significantly in digestive gland of males, but not in those of females. Likewise, after 14 days' exposure, ALP levels significantly increased in haemolymph from males only at 0.1 mg NP/l. Conversely, NP caused significant increases in ALP levels in digestive gland from both males (at all NP concentrations tested) and females (at 0.025 and 0.1 mg NP/l). These results demonstrate that NP induces Vg synthesis in C. glaucum. Interestingly, males were more responsive to NP than females.

  5. An integrated evaluation of the persistence and effects of 4-nonylphenol in an experimental littoral ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liber, K. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Superior, WI (United States). Lake Superior Research Inst.; Knuth, M.L.; Stay, F.S. [Environmental Protection Agency, Duluth, MN (United States). Mid-Continent Ecology Div.


    A comprehensive littoral enclosure study was conducted to assess the persistence and distribution of 4-nonylphenol (NP) in a littoral ecosystem, and to evaluate the compound`s effects on resident aquatic biota. Enclosures with a mean ({+-} SD) surface area and volume of 31.4 {+-} 3.3 m{sup 2} and 32.0 {+-} 6.4 m{sup 3}, respectively, received eleven applications at 48-h intervals with one of four different rates of NP. This created a 20-d application period which was followed by a three to fourteen month observation period, depending on the endpoint measured. Mean {+-} SD NP concentrations in the water column measured 2 h after each application averaged 5 {+-} 4, 23 {+-} 11, 76 {+-} 21, and 243 {+-} 41 {micro}g/L at nominal treatments of 3, 30, 100, and 300 {micro}g/L, respectively. Persistence in the water column was relatively short, with a dissipation half-life estimated at {le} 1.2 d. Persistence of NP in sediment and on macrophytes was substantially longer, with estimated half-lives of 28 to 104 d and 8 to 13 d, respectively. Zooplankton was the most sensitive group of organisms evaluated, with significant reductions in population abundances of some copepod taxa observed at the 23 {+-} 11-{micro}g/L treatment. Fish survival was affected at 243 {+-} 41 {micro}g/L. The most sensitive benthic macroinvertebrate taxon, Pisidium (Bivalvia) was affected at 76 {+-} 21 {micro}g/L, but most taxa were only affected at the 243 {+-} 41-{micro}g/L treatment. None of the assessed populations were affected at the 5 {+-} 4-{micro}g/L treatment. Macrophytes and periphyton were not adversely affected by any of the treatments. Overall community composition, assessed at the family level or higher, was not affected at or below the 23 {+-} 11-{micro}g/L treatment, but did exhibit substantial changes at the 243 {+-} 41-{micro}g/L treatment. Some minor changes were observed at the 76 {+-} 21-{micro}g/L treatment. The maximum acceptable toxicant concentration in the water column, based

  6. Fungal Laccases Degradation of Endocrine Disrupting Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Macellaro


    Full Text Available Over the past decades, water pollution by trace organic compounds (ng/L has become one of the key environmental issues in developed countries. This is the case of the emerging contaminants called endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs. EDCs are a new class of environmental pollutants able to mimic or antagonize the effects of endogenous hormones, and are recently drawing scientific and public attention. Their widespread presence in the environment solicits the need of their removal from the contaminated sites. One promising approach to face this challenge consists in the use of enzymatic systems able to react with these molecules. Among the possible enzymes, oxidative enzymes are attracting increasing attention because of their versatility, the possibility to produce them on large scale, and to modify their properties. In this study five different EDCs were treated with four different fungal laccases, also in the presence of both synthetic and natural mediators. Mediators significantly increased the efficiency of the enzymatic treatment, promoting the degradation of substrates recalcitrant to laccase oxidation. The laccase showing the best performances was chosen to further investigate its oxidative capabilities against micropollutant mixtures. Improvement of enzyme performances in nonylphenol degradation rate was achieved through immobilization on glass beads.

  7. Aerobic rice mechanization: techniques for crop establishment (United States)

    Khusairy, K. M.; Ayob, H.; Chan, C. S.; Fauzi, M. I. Mohamed; Mohamad Fakhrul, Z. O.; Shahril Shah, G. S. M.; Azlan, O.; Rasad, M. A.; Hashim, A. M.; Arshad, Z.; E, E. Ibrahim; Saifulizan, M. N.


    Rice being the staple food crops, hundreds of land races in it makes the diversity of rice crops. Aerobic rice production was introduced which requires much less water input to safeguard and sustain the rice production and conserve water due to decreasing water resources, climatic changes and competition from urban and industrial users. Mechanization system plays an important role for the success of aerobic rice cultivation. All farming activities for aerobic rice production are run on aerobic soil conditions. Row seeder mechanization system is developed to replace conventional seeding technique on the aerobic rice field. It is targeted for small and the large scale aerobic rice farmers. The aero - seeder machine is used for the small scale aerobic rice field, while the accord - seeder is used for the large scale aerobic rice field. The use of this mechanization machine can eliminate the tedious and inaccurate seeding operations reduce labour costs and increases work rate. The machine is easy to operate and it can increase crop establishment rate. It reduce missing hill, increasing planting and crop with high yield can be produce. This machine is designed for low costs maintenance and it is easy to dismantle and assemble during maintenance and it is safe to be used.

  8. Quinones in aerobic and anaerobic mitochondria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Klei, S.A.


    Ubiquinone (UQ), also known as coenzyme Q, is a ubiquitous quinone and is known to have several functions. One of these functions is electron carrier in the mitochondrial electron transport chain of aerobically functioning bacteria and eukaryotes. In contrast to this aerobically functioning quinone,

  9. The effect of the UV photon flux on the photoelectrocatalytic degradation of endocrine-disrupting alkylphenolic chemicals. (United States)

    da Silva, Salatiel Wohlmuth; Viegas, Cheila; Ferreira, Jane Zoppas; Rodrigues, Marco Antônio Siqueira; Bernardes, Andréa Moura


    The photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) degradation of 4-nonylphenol ethoxylate (NP4EO) using a low, moderate, or high UV photon flux in different treatment times was investigated. The byproducts were verified using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and gas chromatography with quadrupole mass analyzer (GC-qMS). The GC results showed that the use of a low (2.89 μmol m(-2)s(-1)) or a high (36.16 μmol m(-2)s(-1)) UV photon flux reaching the anode surface was associated to the production of alcohols and the toxic byproduct nonylphenol (NP), leading to the same degradation pathway. Meanwhile, the use of a moderate UV photon flux (14.19 μmol m(-2)s(-1)) reaching the anode surface did not produce alcohols or the NP toxic byproduct. This study demonstrates that different UV photon fluxes will have an influence in the degradation of NP4EO with or without generation of toxic byproducts. Furthermore, it is concluded that, after the determination of the UV photon flux able to degrade NP4EO without NP formation, the treatment time is essential in removal of NP4EO, since increasing the treatment time of 4 to 10 h, when using the PEC best conditions (moderate UV photon flux), implies in a higher treatment efficiency.

  10. The Andersen aerobic fitness test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aadland, Eivind; Terum, Torkil; Mamen, Asgeir


    of agreement) were 26.7±125.2 m for test 2 vs. test 1 (ptest 3 vs. test 2 (p = .514 for mean difference). The equation to estimate VO2peak suggested by Andersen et al. (2008) showed a poor fit in the present sample; thus, we suggest a new equation: VO2peak = 23......BACKGROUND: High aerobic fitness is consistently associated with a favorable metabolic risk profile in children. Direct measurement of peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) is often not feasible, thus indirect tests such as the Andersen test are required in many settings. The present study seeks...... to determine the reliability and validity of the Andersen test in 10-year-old children. METHODS: A total of 118 10-year-old children (67 boys and 51 girls) were recruited from one school and performed four VO2peak tests over three weeks: three Andersen tests (indirect) and one continuous progressive treadmill...

  11. Central treatment of different emulsion wastewaters by an integrated process of physicochemically enhanced ultrafiltration and anaerobic-aerobic biofilm reactor. (United States)

    Zhang, Weijun; Xiao, Ping; Wang, Dongsheng


    The feasibility of an integrated process of ultrafiltration (UF) enhanced by combined chemical emulsion breaking with vibratory shear and anaerobic/aerobic biofilm reactor for central treatment of different emulsion wastewaters was investigated. Firstly, it was found that calcium chloride exhibited better performance in oil removal than other inorganic salts. Chemical demulsification pretreatment could efficiently improve oil removal and membrane filtration in emulsion wastewater treatment by VSEP. According to aerobic batch bioassay, UF permeate exhibited good biodegradability and could be further treated with biological process. Additionally, pilot test indicated that anaerobic-aerobic biofilm exhibited an excellent ability against rise in organic loading and overall chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency of biological system was more than 93% of which 82% corresponded to the anaerobic process and 11% to the aerobic degradation. The final effluent of integrated process could meet the "water quality standards for discharge to municipal sewers" in China.

  12. Fluorometric determination of nonylphenol in water samples enriched with zirconium doped titanium dioxide nanotubes solid phase extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xian Fa Su; Xin Ning Zhao; Guo Hong Xie; Qing Xiang Zhou


    This paper developed a fluorometric method for the sensitive determination of nonylphenol in water samples by preconcentration with zirconium doped titanium dioxide nanotubes solid phase extraction.The parameters on extraction that would influence the enrichment performance such as the kind and volume of eluent,sample pH,sample flow rate,and sample volume were optimized in detail.Under the optimal conditions,the proposed method provided an excellent linear range of 1-150 μg/L and good LOD of 0.076 μg/L.The relative standard deviation (RSD,n =6) was 2.8%.Proposed method was also used for the analysis of real water samples and the spiked recoveries were satisfied in the range of 98.7-103%.

  13. Aerobic biodegradation of organic compounds in hydraulic fracturing fluids. (United States)

    Kekacs, Daniel; Drollette, Brian D; Brooker, Michael; Plata, Desiree L; Mouser, Paula J


    Little is known of the attenuation of chemical mixtures created for hydraulic fracturing within the natural environment. A synthetic hydraulic fracturing fluid was developed from disclosed industry formulas and produced for laboratory experiments using commercial additives in use by Marcellus shale field crews. The experiments employed an internationally accepted standard method (OECD 301A) to evaluate aerobic biodegradation potential of the fluid mixture by monitoring the removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from an aqueous solution by activated sludge and lake water microbial consortia for two substrate concentrations and four salinities. Microbial degradation removed from 57 % to more than 90 % of added DOC within 6.5 days, with higher removal efficiency at more dilute concentrations and little difference in overall removal extent between sludge and lake microbe treatments. The alcohols isopropanol and octanol were degraded to levels below detection limits while the solvent acetone accumulated in biological treatments through time. Salinity concentrations of 40 g/L or more completely inhibited degradation during the first 6.5 days of incubation with the synthetic hydraulic fracturing fluid even though communities were pre-acclimated to salt. Initially diverse microbial communities became dominated by 16S rRNA sequences affiliated with Pseudomonas and other Pseudomonadaceae after incubation with the synthetic fracturing fluid, taxa which may be involved in acetone production. These data expand our understanding of constraints on the biodegradation potential of organic compounds in hydraulic fracturing fluids under aerobic conditions in the event that they are accidentally released to surface waters and shallow soils.

  14. Fit women are not able to use the whole aerobic capacity during aerobic dance. (United States)

    Edvardsen, Elisabeth; Ingjer, Frank; Bø, Kari


    Edvardsen, E, Ingjer, F, and Bø, K. Fit women are not able to use the whole aerobic capacity during aerobic dance. J Strength Cond Res 25(12): 3479-3485, 2011-This study compared the aerobic capacity during maximal aerobic dance and treadmill running in fit women. Thirteen well-trained female aerobic dance instructors aged 30 ± 8.17 years (mean ± SD) exercised to exhaustion by running on a treadmill for measurement of maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2)max) and peak heart rate (HRpeak). Additionally, all subjects performed aerobic dancing until exhaustion after a choreographed videotaped routine trying to reach the same HRpeak as during maximal running. The p value for statistical significance between running and aerobic dance was set to ≤0.05. The results (mean ± SD) showed a lower VO(2)max in aerobic dance (52.2 ± 4.02 ml·kg·min) compared with treadmill running (55.9 ± 5.03 ml·kg·min) (p = 0.0003). Further, the mean ± SD HRpeak was 182 ± 9.15 b·min in aerobic dance and 192 ± 9.62 b·min in treadmill running, giving no difference in oxygen pulse between the 2 exercise forms (p = 0.32). There was no difference in peak ventilation (aerobic dance: 108 ± 10.81 L·min vs. running: 113 ± 11.49 L·min). In conclusion, aerobic dance does not seem to be able to use the whole aerobic capacity as in running. For well endurance-trained women, this may result in a lower total workload at maximal intensities. Aerobic dance may therefore not be as suitable as running during maximal intensities in well-trained females.

  15. Aerobic Degradation of Dinitrotoluenes and Pathway for Bacterial Degradation of 2,6-Dinitrotoluene


    Nishino, Shirley F.; Paoli, George C.; Spain, Jim C.


    An oxidative pathway for the mineralization of 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT) by Burkholderia sp. strain DNT has been reported previously. We report here the isolation of additional strains with the ability to mineralize 2,4-DNT by the same pathway and the isolation and characterization of bacterial strains that mineralize 2,6-dinitrotoluene (2,6-DNT) by a different pathway. Burkholderia cepacia strain JS850 and Hydrogenophaga palleronii strain JS863 grew on 2,6-DNT as the sole source of carbon...

  16. Low aerobic fitness in Brazilian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Augusto Santos Silva


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: aerobic fitness is considered one of the most important components of health-related physical fitness, with low levels related to increased risk of premature death from all causes, especially cardiovascular diseases. OBJECTIVE: to identify the characteristics of adolescents at higher risk of low levels of aerobic fitness. METHODS: the study included 696 adolescents 15-17 years of age enrolled in public high schools of Florianópolis, southern Brazil. This cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Aerobic fitness was measured using the modified Canadian Aerobic Fitness Test mCAFT. Sociodemographic gender, age, school grade, paternal and maternal schooling, socioeconomic status, and anthropometric variables body weight, height, triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness, sexual maturation, physical activity, sedentary behavior, and eating habits were collected. RESULTS: it was found that 31.5% of adolescents had low aerobic fitness levels, being higher in boys 49.2% compared to girls 20.6%. Moreover, girls with sedentary behavior, overweight and high body fat percentage were the groups most likely to have inadequate aerobic fitness. In males, the groups most likely to have inadequate aerobic fitness were those whose parents studied more than eight years, those with low levels of physical activity, and those with inadequate nutrition and excessive body fat. CONCLUSION: low aerobic fitness levels were present in one third of adolescents and was more prevalent in boys. Lifestyle changes, including replacement of sedentary behaviors by physical and sport activities , may assist in improving the aerobic fitness of Brazilian adolescents.

  17. Nonylphenol in pregnant women and their matching fetuses: Placental transfer and potential risks of infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yu-Fang [Institute of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, National Yang Ming University, No. 155, Sec. 2, Li-Nong St., Beitou, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Education and Research, Taipei City Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Wang, Pei-Wei [Department of Pediatrics, Taipei City Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Huang, Li-Wei [Department of OBS and GYN, Taipei City Hospital, Women and Children' s Campus, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Yang, Winnie [Department of Pediatrics, Taipei City Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Yu, Ching-Jung; Yang, Shang-Han; Chiu, Hsin-Hao [Institute of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, National Yang Ming University, No. 155, Sec. 2, Li-Nong St., Beitou, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Mei-Lien, E-mail: [Institute of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, National Yang Ming University, No. 155, Sec. 2, Li-Nong St., Beitou, Taipei, Taiwan (China)


    As the predominant environmental biodegradation product of nonylphenol (NP) ethoxylates and with proven estrogenic effects, NP is formed during the alkylation process of phenols. The purposes of this study were (1) to examine maternal and prenatal exposure to NP in Taiwan, (2) to determine the level of placental protection against NP exposure as well as the level of NP in breast milk, and (3) to assess the potential risk for breastfed newborns exposed to NP through the milk. Thirty pairs of maternal and fetal blood samples, placenta, and breast milk during the 1st and the 3rd months of lactation were collected. External NP exposures of these specimens were then analyzed by using high-performance liquid chromatography coupling with fluorescence detection. Next, the socio-demographics, lifestyle, delivery method, dietary and work history were collected using a questionnaire. In addition, the daily intake of NP from consuming breast milk in the 1st and 3rd months for newborns was studied through deterministic and probabilistic risk assessment methods. The geometric means and geometric standard deviation of NP levels in maternal blood, fetal cord blood, placenta, and breast milk in the 1st and 3rd months were 14.6 (1.7) ng/ml, 18.8 (1.8) ng/ml, 19.8 (1.9) ng/g, 23.5 (3.2) ng/ml, and 57.3 (1.4) ng/ml, respectively. The probabilistic percentiles (50th, 75th, and 95th) of daily intake NP in breast milk were 4.33, 7.79, and 18.39 μg/kg-bw/day in the 1st month, respectively, and were 8.11, 10.78, 16.08 μg/kg-bw/day in the 3rd month, respectively. The probabilistic distributions (5th, 25th, and 50th) of risk for infants aged 1 month old were 0.27, 0.64, and 1.15, respectively, and that for infants aged 3 month old were 0.31, 0.46, and 0.62, respectively. Through repeated exposure from the dietary intake of expectant mothers, fetuses could encounter a high NP exposure level due to transplacental absorption, partitioning between the maternal and fetal compartments. Daily NP

  18. Improvement of Bioremediation Performance for the Degradation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Contaminated Sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Rocchetti


    Full Text Available Microcosm bioremediation strategies were applied to sediments contaminated with hydrocarbons. Experiments were performed in aerobic conditions in a single-step treatment and in a two-step anaerobic-aerobic treatment. In aerobic conditions, either inorganic nutrients or composts were added to the microcosms, while, in the first anaerobic phase of the two-step experiment, acetate and/or allochthonous sulfate-reducing bacteria were used. After the treatment under anaerobic conditions, samples were exposed to aerobic conditions in the presence of compost. In the aerobic treatments, 81% hydrocarbon biodegradation was observed after 43 days in the presence of inorganic nutrients. In aerobic conditions in the presence of mature compost, hydrocarbon biodegradation was 51% after 43 days of treatment, whereas it was 47% after 21 days with fresh compost. The two-step experiment allowed us to obtain a hydrocarbon degradation of 91%, after a first anaerobic step with an inoculum of sulfate-reducing prokaryotes.

  19. Bioaccumulation of 4-nonylphenol and effects on biomarkers, acetylcholinesterase, glutathione-S-transferase and glutathione peroxidase, in Mytilus galloprovincialis mussel gilla. (United States)

    Vidal-Liñán, Leticia; Bellas, Juan; Salgueiro-González, Noelia; Muniategui, Soledad; Beiras, Ricardo


    Wild marine mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis showed a moderate bioaccumulation ability when exposed to waterborne 4-nonylphenol (4-NP), with a bioconcentration factor (BCF) of 6850 L Kg(-1) (dry weight). Kinetic and concentration-response experiments were performed and three enzymatic biomarkers in mussel gills were measured: Glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Exposure of mussels to environmentally relevant concentrations (25-100 μg L(-1)) of 4-nonylphenol significantly inhibited the AChE activity and induced the GST and GPx activities. GST induction was dose dependent whilst GPx activity showed a less consistent pattern, but in both cases the induction remained after a 10 d depuration period. Mussels seem capable of eliminating 4-NP from their tissues through a mechanism involving GST induction.

  20. Neuromodulation of Aerobic Exercise—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia eHeijnen


    Full Text Available Running, and aerobic exercise in general, is a physical activity that increasingly many people engage in but that also has become popular as a topic for scientific research. Here we review the available studies investigating whether and to which degree aerobic exercise modulates hormones, amino acids, and neurotransmitters levels. In general, it seems that factors such as genes, gender, training status, and hormonal status need to be taken into account to gain a better understanding of the neuromodular underpinnings of aerobic exercise. More research using longitudinal studies and considering individual differences is necessary to determine actual benefits. We suggest that, in order to succeed, aerobic exercise programs should include optimal periodization, prevent overtraining and be tailored to interindividual differences, including neuro-developmental and genetically-based factors.

  1. Temperature effect on aerobic denitrification and nitrification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Shu-guang; ZHANG Xiao-jian; WANG Zhan-sheng


    Nitrogen loss without organic removal in biofilter was observed and its possible reason was explained. A lower hydraulic loading could improve aerobic denitrification rate. Aerobic denitrification was seriously affected by low temperature(below 10oC). However, nitrification rate remained high when the temperature dropped from 15oC to5oC. It seemed the autotrophic biofilm in BAF could alleviate the adverse effect of low temperature.

  2. Pentachlorophenol (PCP) degradation microorganism community structure under microaeration condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Yuancai; Hao Yuan; Fu Shiyu; Zhan Huaiyu


    The comparison of pentachlorophenol (PCP)degradation was conducted under micro-aeration and anaerobic condition with three series of batch experiment,results of which indicated that during micro-aeration condition co-immobilized of anaerobic granular sludge and isolated aerobic bacterial species could enhance the efficiency of PCP reduction through the synergism of aerobes and anaerobes reductive dechlorination and exchange of metabolites within the co-immobilized granular sludge.While during anaerobic condition,there was no great difference in the three series.The specific activities experiment further confirmed that strict anaerobes were not affected over the presence of micro aeration environment.Microorganism community construction of co-immobilized anaerobic granular sludge and the mixed isolated aerobic community was also deduced.By the efficient cooperation of aerobes and anaerobes,the high efficiency removal rate of PCP was implemented.

  3. Biodegradation and detoxification of textile azo dyes by bacterial consortium under sequential microaerophilic/aerobic processes. (United States)

    Lade, Harshad; Kadam, Avinash; Paul, Diby; Govindwar, Sanjay


    Release of textile azo dyes to the environment is an issue of health concern while the use of microorganisms has proved to be the best option for remediation. Thus, in the present study, a bacterial consortium consisting of Providencia rettgeri strain HSL1 and Pseudomonas sp. SUK1 has been investigated for degradation and detoxification of structurally different azo dyes. The consortium showed 98-99 % decolorization of all the selected azo dyes viz. Reactive Black 5 (RB 5), Reactive Orange 16 (RO 16), Disperse Red 78 (DR 78) and Direct Red 81 (DR 81) within 12 to 30 h at 100 mg L(-1) concentration at 30 ± 0.2 °C under microaerophilic, sequential aerobic/microaerophilic and microaerophilic/aerobic processes. However, decolorization under microaerophilic conditions viz. RB 5 (0.26 mM), RO 16 (0.18 mM), DR 78 (0.20 mM) and DR 81 (0.23 mM) and sequential aerobic/microaerophilic processes viz. RB 5 (0.08 mM), RO 16 (0.06 mM), DR 78 (0.07 mM) and DR 81 (0.09 mM) resulted into the formation of aromatic amines. In distinction, sequential microaerophilic/ aerobic process doesn't show the formation of amines. Additionally, 62-72 % reduction in total organic carbon content was observed in all the dyes decolorized broths under sequential microaerophilic/aerobic processes suggesting the efficacy of method in mineralization of dyes. Notable induction within the levels of azoreductase and NADH-DCIP reductase (97 and 229 % for RB 5, 55 and 160 % for RO 16, 63 and 196 % for DR 78, 108 and 258 % for DR 81) observed under sequential microaerophilic/aerobic processes suggested their critical involvements in the initial breakdown of azo bonds, whereas, a slight increase in the levels of laccase and veratryl alcohol oxidase confirmed subsequent oxidation of formed amines. Also, the acute toxicity assay with Daphnia magna revealed the nontoxic nature of the dye-degraded metabolites under sequential microaerophilic/aerobic processes. As biodegradation under sequential microaerophilic/aerobic

  4. Biodegradability of selected highly energetic pollutants under aerobic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, A.M.; Greer, C.W.; Hawari, J. [National Research Council of Canada, Montreal, Quebec (Canada). Biotechnology Research Inst.; Ampleman, G. [Defence Research Establishment Valcartier, Courcelette, Quebec (Canada). Div. des Materiaux Energetiques; Lavigne, J. [Canadian Embassy, Washington, DC (United States)


    Laboratory studies were conducted to assess the biodegradation potential of four energetic compounds--1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane (RDX), 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), glycidyl azide polymer (GAP), and nitrocellulose (NC)--under aerobic conditions. Soils contaminated with energetic compounds were screened for microorganisms able to degrade these compounds. Rhodococcus sp. strain A was enriched and purified from RDX-contaminated soil by its ability to use RDX as sole source of nitrogen. Using [{sup 14}C]-labeled RDX, its ability to mineralize RDX to CO{sub 2} in pure culture under aerobic conditions was verified. Bioaugmentation of RDX-contaminated soil with this bacterium enhanced the rate and extent of biodegradation. Although TNT is a more toxic and recalcitrant pollutant, concentration-dependent [{sup 14}C]TNT mineralization activity was detected in TNT-contaminated soil. A Pseudomonas sp., enriched from this soil, was able to extensively transform TNT to partially reduced amine metabolites in axenic liquid culture. In contrast to these isolates, which utilized RDX and TNT as sources of nitrogen, soil consortia developed from soils exhibiting [{sup 14}C]GAP and [{sup 14}C]NC mineralization activities used GAP and NC as sole carbon sources for growth.

  5. Enhanced offspring production in Daphnia magna clones exposed to serotonin reuptake inhibitors and 4-nonylphenol. Stage- and food-dependent effects. (United States)

    Campos, B; Piña, B; Fernández-Sanjuán, M; Lacorte, S; Barata, C


    Risk assessment of emerging pollutants requires the development of bioassays able to detect and understand novel mechanisms of action. This study tested the hypothesis that the increase of offspring production in Daphnia magna induced by certain pollutants may be mediated through different mechanisms, depending on development stages, clones and food rations The study included two selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), fluoxetine and fluvoxamine, and the detergent metabolite 4-nonylphenol. Organisms were exposed from birth to adulthood or only during adulthood at low and high food ration levels. Results indicated that low exposure levels of the three studied substances increased offspring production and/or juvenile developmental rates similarly for all studied clones, but the responses differed among life-stages and food rations. When individuals were exposed to the studied chemicals from birth, enhanced offspring production per female was observed only at low and intermediate food rations. On the contrary, when exposures started in gravid females most treatments increased offspring production. Results obtained with SSRIs support previous findings, where it was stated that these compounds may amplify serotoninergic signaling in D. magna. Nonylphenol effects may be related to the reported alteration of this compound in Daphnia ecdysteroid metabolism. Further investigations are necessary to resolve the biochemical mechanism of SSRI and nonylphenol enhancing offspring production.

  6. Tissue features of lipid peroxidation in rats in conditions of the long-term influence of oxyethylized nonylphenols and their derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marakushin D.I.


    Full Text Available The research of LPO state of white rats in conditions of the long-term influence of oxyethylized nonylphenols and their derivatives was carried out. It was established, that oxyethylized nonylphenols on day 45 of influence in the doses of 1/10 and 1/100 DL50 caused the increase of diene conjugates, TBA-reactants, Schiff bases content in the blood, liver and brain gomogenate. The latter, because of a high reactogenic capability, probably, plays the role of a basic link limiting stability of an organism to the long-term influence of the studied compounds due to change of physicochemical properties of cellular membranes, activity of membrane-localized and lipid-depending enzymes, reactivity of neuroendocrine, immune and other systems of an organism. Intensification of LPO processes is one of the pathogenic links of the mechanisms of action of oxyethylized nonylphenols and their derivatives; this is necessary to take into account developing methods of their correction.

  7. Methane oxidation in a crude oil contaminated aquifer: Delineation of aerobic reactions at the plume fringes (United States)

    Amos, R.T.; Bekins, B.A.; Delin, G.N.; Cozzarelli, I.M.; Blowes, D.W.; Kirshtein, J.D.


    High resolution direct-push profiling over short vertical distances was used to investigate CH4 attenuation in a petroleum contaminated aquifer near Bemidji, Minnesota. The contaminant plume was delineated using dissolved gases, redox sensitive components, major ions, carbon isotope ratios in CH4 and CO2, and the presence of methanotrophic bacteria. Sharp redox gradients were observed near the water table. Shifts in ??13CCH4 from an average of - 57.6??? (?? 1.7???) in the methanogenic zone to - 39.6??? (?? 8.7???) at 105 m downgradient, strongly suggest CH4 attenuation through microbially mediated degradation. In the downgradient zone the aerobic/anaerobic transition is up to 0.5 m below the water table suggesting that transport of O2 across the water table is leading to aerobic degradation of CH4 at this interface. Dissolved N2 concentrations that exceeded those expected for water in equilibrium with the atmosphere indicated bubble entrapment followed by preferential stripping of O2 through aerobic degradation of CH4 or other hydrocarbons. Multivariate and cluster analysis were used to distinguish between areas of significant bubble entrapment and areas where other processes such as the infiltration of O 2 rich recharge water were important O2 transport mechanisms. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A Field Method For Determination of Groundwater and Groundwater-sediment Associated Potentials for Degradation of Xenobiotic Organic Compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Henning; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Holm, Peter Engelund


    Determination of the degradation potentials for a mixture of eight organic trace contaminants (benzene, toluene, o-xylene, naphthalene, tetrachloromethane, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, trichloroethene, tetrachloroethene) has been made by specially developed in situ microcosms under aerobic and anaerobic...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Made Indra Wahyuni


    Full Text Available The increasingpopulationand activity of the Balinese people can increase the amount of waste as a byproduct of community activities. The presence of the metabolites in wastewater as ammonia is toxic to aquatic organisms. Application aerobic biofilter system can be used as an attempt to reduce levels of ammonia. In the aerobic biofilter, contact between the gravel media with microorganisms that form biofilmsare able to accelerate the degradation of organic matter and nitrification processes. The aims of this research are to determine the best consortium of activated sludge to reduce ammonia levels by aerobic biofilter system and to determine the effectivity of aerobic biofilter system. The first stage of this research were seeding of activated sludge from three sources are Wastewater Treatment Plan (WWTP of Suwung Denpasar, WWTP of Wangaya Hospital and WWTP of Bali Tourism Development Corporation (BTDC Nusa Dua Bali, for six days. This research was done by measuring Volatile Suspended Solid (VSS value that showed the growth rate of biomass in activated sludge. The second stage wereapplication of activated sludges and control in aerobic biofilter to reduce ammonia levels, for five days. This study used a Completely Randomized Design with four treatments and three repetitions. The results showed that the best activated sludge obtained from WWTP of Suwung Denpasar indicated by the highest biomass growth (VSS value of 2396.6 mg/L and was able to reduce ammonia up to 0.78 mg/ L. The effectivity of aerobic biofilter system with activated sludge from WWTP of Suwung Denpasar achieve effectivity of treatment process up to 92.20 % and have been able to pass the effectivity of quality standards (90% during five days of processing. The effectivity levels was the highest compared to control and activated sludgetreatments.

  10. Large-scale bioreactor production of the herbicide-degrading Aminobacter sp. strain MSH1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz-Jensen, Nadja; Knudsen, Berith Elkær; Frkova, Zuzana;


    The Aminobacter sp. strain MSH1 has potential for pesticide bioremediation because it degrades the herbicide metabolite 2,6-dichlorobenzamide (BAM). Production of the BAM-degrading bacterium using aerobic bioreactor fermentation was investigated. A mineral salt medium limited for carbon...

  11. Transport and degradation of propylene glycol in the vadose zone: model development and sensitivity analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schotanus, D.; Meeussen, J.C.L.; Lissner, H.; Ploeg, van der M.J.; Wehrer, M.; Totsche, K.U.; Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.


    Transport and degradation of de-icing chemical (containing propylene glycol, PG) in the vadose zone were studied with a lysimeter experiment and a model, in which transient water flow, kinetic degradation of PG and soil chemistry were combined. The lysimeter experiment indicated that aerobic as well

  12. Degradation of herbicides under different redox conditions in eight Danish aquifers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Philip Grinder; Mosbæk, Hans; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen


    The degradation potential of the herbicides 2,4-D, 2,4,5-T, atrazine, dichlobenil, DNOC, bentazone, DCP (dichloroprop), IPU (isoproturon), MCPA and MCPP (mecoprop) and the degradation product from dichlobenil 2,6-dichlorobenzamide (BAM) were investigated in laboratory incubations with sediment an...... and groundwater from eight Danish anaerobic and aerobic aquifers....

  13. Occurrence and fate of alkylphenol polyethoxylate degradation products and linear alkylbenzene sulfonate surfactants in urban ground water: Barcelona case study (United States)

    Tubau, Isabel; Vázquez-Suñé, Enric; Carrera, Jesús; González, Susana; Petrovic, Mira; López de Alda, María J.; Barceló, Damià


    SummaryThis study investigates the fate of alkylphenol polyethoxylates (APEOs) degradation products (DPs) and the occurrence of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) surfactants in urban ground water at field scale. The occurrence of APEOs DPs in ground water was studied in connection with: (1) sources of recharge or/and pollution containing these substances, (2) ground water redox conditions, (3) occurrence of LAS, which are currently the domestic surfactants more used in the study area and (4) other common contaminants in urban ground water in the city of Barcelona. The APEOs DPs analyzed included two nonylphenol carboxylates (NP2EC, NP1EC), two octylphenol carboxylates (OP2EC, OP1EC), nonylphenol (NP) and octylphenol (OP). The highest groundwater concentrations of APEOs DPs were detected in aquifers whose major source of recharge is a river receiving large amounts of effluents from secondary waste water treatment plants (WWTPs). In fact, APEOs DPs concentrations were above those in the river. NP2EC was the compound detected at highest concentrations. These increase with ammonium in samples with low dissolved oxygen. These degradation products were virtually absent in oxidizing aquifers whose main source of recharge is not the river. In this case, only the ultimate degradation product (NP) was detected, which suggests that parent compounds have degraded. These results indicate that APEOs are persistent or less degraded in reducing conditions, whereas they are degraded when oxidizing conditions prevail. By contrast, LAS concentrations were more than one order of magnitude lower than expected based on recharge sources in all (oxidizing and reducing) aquifers.

  14. Mechanism of Kenaf Retting Using Aerobes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢士森; 陈季华; 黄秀宝


    The experimental results showed that the duration of microbial retting processing of kenaf fibers by using aerobic microbe was four times shorter than that by using anaerobic microbe. The residual gum percentage,breaking strength, breaking elongation and linear density of aerobic retted kenaf bundle fibers did not show significantly difference with that of anaerobic retted kenaf bundle fibers by ANOVA-Tukey's studentized test at a = 5% except for the softness. The bioenergetic principle and the calculation of the amount of ATP produced during the decomposition processing of kenaf gums were used to explain why the retting duration in the case of using aerobic microbes was much shorter than that of using anaerobic microbes.

  15. Quality and Quantity of Leachate in Aerobic Pilot-Scale Landfills (United States)

    Bilgili, Memmet Sinan; Demir, Ahmet; Özkaya, Bestamin


    In this study, two pilot-scale aerobic landfill reactors with (A1) and without (A2) leachate recirculation are used to obtain detailed information on the quantity and quality of leachate in aerobic landfills. The observed parameters of leachate quality are pH, chloride (Cl-), chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), and nitrate (NO3 --N). pH values of the leachate increased to 7 after 50 days in reactor A1 and after 70 days in reactor A2. Cl- concentrations increased rapidly to 6100 (A1) and 6900 (A2) mg/L after 80 days, from initial values of 3000 and 2800 mg/L, respectively. COD and BOD values decreased rapidly in the A1 landfill reactor, indicating the rapid oxidation of organic matter. The BOD/COD ratio indicates that leachate recirculation slightly increases the degradation of solid waste in aerobic landfills. NH3-N concentrations decreased as a result of the nitrification process. Denitrification occurred in parts of the reactors as a result of intermittent aeration; this process causes a decrease in NO3 - concentrations. There is a marked difference between the A1 and A2 reactors in terms of leachate quantity. Recirculated leachate made up 53.3% of the leachate generated from the A1 reactor during the experiment, while leachate quantity decreased by 47.3% with recirculation when compared with the aerobic dry landfill reactor.

  16. Detoxification of furfural in Corynebacterium glutamicum under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. (United States)

    Tsuge, Yota; Hori, Yoshimi; Kudou, Motonori; Ishii, Jun; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Kondo, Akihiko


    The toxic fermentation inhibitors in lignocellulosic hydrolysates raise serious problems for the microbial production of fuels and chemicals. Furfural is considered to be one of the most toxic compounds among these inhibitors. Here, we describe the detoxification of furfural in Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC13032 under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Under aerobic culture conditions, furfuryl alcohol and 2-furoic acid were produced as detoxification products of furfural. The ratio of the products varied depending on the initial furfural concentration. Neither furfuryl alcohol nor 2-furoic acid showed any toxic effect on cell growth, and both compounds were determined to be the end products of furfural degradation. Interestingly, unlike under aerobic conditions, most of the furfural was converted to furfuryl alcohol under anaerobic conditions, without affecting the glucose consumption rate. Both the NADH/NAD(+) and NADPH/NADP(+) ratio decreased in the accordance with furfural concentration under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. These results indicate the presence of a single or multiple endogenous enzymes with broad and high affinity for furfural and co-factors in C. glutamicum ATCC13032.

  17. Effect of environmentally-relevant concentrations of nonylphenol on sexual differentiation in zebrafish: a multi-generational study (United States)

    Sun, Dong; Chen, Qi; He, Ning; Diao, Pan-pan; Jia, Li-xing; Duan, Shun-shan


    Nonylphenol (NP) is a persistent environmental chemical that can disrupt the organism’s endocrine system, and is detected in the surface water and sea. In this study, we investigated whether NP can alter transcriptional expression of sexual differentiation-related genes. Three generations of zebrafish were exposed to 0, 2, 20 and 200 μg·L−1 of NP, and transcriptional expression of sexual differentiation genes were assessed in 10, 20 and 40 dpf in the F1 and F2 generations. Growth of zebrafish exposed to 200 μg·L−1 of NP was inhibited at 125 dpf in the F1 generation. 20 μg·L−1 of NP resulted in 80% females in the F1 generation, but had no effect on the F2 generation. In terms of the sexual differentiation genes, the transcriptional expression of cyp19a1a and esr1 genes were upregulated in 20 μg·L−1 of NP in the F1 generation. But expression of the sexual differentiation genes were not affected in the F2 generation. Overall, NP could affect sexual differentiation and gene transcriptional expression in the F1 generation. The tolerance of contaminant in the offsprings was improved at low concentration. PMID:28230098

  18. Competitive sorption between 17α-ethinyl estradiol and bisphenol A/4-n-nonylphenol by soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianzhong Li; Lu Jiang; Xi Xiang; Shuang Xu; Rou Wen; Xiang Liu


    The sorption of 17αt-ethinyl estradiol (EE2),bisphenol A (BPA),and 4-n-nonylphenol (NP) in single systems and the sorption of EE2 with different initial aqueous concentrations of BPA or NP were examined using three soils.Results showed that all sorption isotherms were nonlinear and fit the Freundlich model.The degree of nonlinearity was in the order BPA (0.537-0.686) > EE2 (0.705-0.858) >NP (0.875-0.0.951) in single systems.The isotherm linearity index of EE2 sorption calculated by the Freundlich model for Loam,Silt Loam and Silt increased from 0.758,0.705 and 0.858,to 0.889,0.910 and 0.969,respectively,when BPA concentration increased from 0 to 1000 μg/L,but the effect of NP was comparably minimal.Additionally,EE2 significantly suppressed the sorption of BPA,but insignificantly suppressed that of NP.These findings can be attributed to the difference of sorption affinity of EE2,NP and BPA on the hard carbon (e.g.,black carbon) of soil organic matter that dominated the sorption in the low equilibrium aqueous concentration range of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs).Competitive sorption among EDCs presents new challenges for predicting the transport and fate of EDCs under the influence of co-solutes.

  19. In vitro effects of nonylphenol on motility, mitochondrial, acrosomal and chromatin integrity of ram and boar spermatozoa. (United States)

    Uguz, C; Varisli, O; Agca, C; Evans, T; Agca, Y


    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of nonylphenol (NP) on viability of ram and boar sperm in vitro. Ram or boar spermatozoa were exposed to 1, 10, 100, 250 and 500 μg NP ml(-1) for 1, 2, 3 or 4 h. Computer-assisted sperm motility analysis (CASA) system was used to evaluate sperm motility characteristics. Flow cytometry was used to determine mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and chromatin integrity, while epifluorescent microscopy was used to determine sperm acrosomal status. Exposure of both species spermatozoa to 250 and 500 μg NP ml(-1) was detrimental to progressive motility (P boar spermatozoa with high MMP declined drastically after exposures to ≥250 μg ml(-1) NP (P boar spermatozoa and 10 μg ml(-1) NP for ram spermatozoa. These data show adverse effects of NP on ram and boar spermatozoa and thus its potential harmful effects on male reproduction as NP is found in fruits, vegetables, human milk, fish and livestock products.

  20. [Determination of nonylphenol in wastewater by solid phase extraction gas chromatography mass spectrometry and multi-selective ions]. (United States)

    Hao, Rui-Xia; Liang, Peng; Zhao, Man; Wang, Jun-An; Zhou, Yu-Wen


    Nonylphenol (NP) having endocrine disrupter activity is an ultra trace component in sewage and reuse wastewater. There are many NP isomers in the wastewater because nonyl structure is different. The background impurity of the samples is very complex with many other components. So it is difficulty for quantitative analysis of NP in the samples. About seventy sewages and recycled wastewater samples were measured for the content of NP isomer mixtures by solid-phase extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and multi-selected ions monitoring (shortened as SPE-GC-MS-SIM). The results show that hydrophilic-lipophilic-equilibrium solid-phase extraction pole has selective adsorption for NP, so that the samples can be concentrated from 50 to 200 times. The five kinds of mass spectrum ions, i. e. 107, 121, 135, 149, 163, have higher abundance and distinct character. The sum of five selected ion monitoring (sigmaSIM) is from 54.4 to 73 percent of the total ion current for NP, which can accurately represent different NP isomers. Quantitative analysis base on the spectral integralof the sigmaSIM chromatograph can eliminate interference with background signal and ensure selectivity, accuracy and precision ofthe method.

  1. Reconstruction of the pollution history of alkylphenols (4-tert-octylphenol, 4-nonylphenol) in the Baltic Sea. (United States)

    Graca, Bożena; Staniszewska, Marta; Zakrzewska, Danuta; Zalewska, Tamara


    This paper reports the reconstruction of the pollution history of 4-tert-octylphenol (OP) and 4-nonylphenol (NP) in the Baltic Sea. Alkylphenols are endocrine-disrupting compound and therefore toxic to aquatic organisms. Sediment cores were collected from regions with relatively stable sedimentation conditions. The cores were dated by the (210)Pb method. The OP and NP were determined using HPLC-FL. The highest inventory of these compounds was observed in the Gotland Deep (610 μg m(2) of NP and 47 μg m(2) of OP) and the lowest-on the slope of the Gdansk Deep (24 μg m(2) of NP and 16 μg m(2) of OP). Such spatial distribution was probably, among other factors, the result of the uplift of the sea floor. The pollution trends of OP and NP in sediments coincided with the following: (1) the beginnings of eutrophication (1960s/1970s of the twentieth century) and (2) strong increase in the areal extent and volume of hypoxia and anoxia in the Baltic (present century).

  2. Histological alternation and vitellogenin induction in adult rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) after exposure to ethynylestradiol and nonylphenol (United States)

    Zha, J.; Wang, Z.; Wang, N.; Ingersoll, C.


    Adult rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) were exposed to 0, 1, 5, and 25 ng/l (nominal concentrations) of 17??-ethynylestradiol (EE2) and 3, 10, and 30 ??g/l (nominal concentrations) of 4-nonylphenol (NP) under flow-through conditions for a period of 28 d. Low mortality was observed at 5 and 25 ng/l EE2 and the growth of fish reduced significantly at 25 ng/l EE2 compared to controls. However, the gonadosomatic indices (GSI) of male fish were significantly higher in 1 ng/l EE2 treatments and in 10 and 30 ??g/l NP treatments (p kidney tubules and hypertrophy of the tubular epithelia. Also at these levels of exposure, feminization of male fish could be noticed and parts of males manifested the testis-ova phenomenon. Ovaries of female rare minnow in 25 ng/l EE2 treatment group were degenerated. Therefore when exposed to EE2 and NP even at environmental observed concentrations, adverse effects could occur in the reproductive system of adult fishes. The observed hepatic tissue and renal tissue impairment should be due to the induction and accumulation of VTG in organs, especially in males. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Continuing Exposure to Low-Dose Nonylphenol Aggravates Adenine-Induced Chronic Renal Dysfunction and Role of Rosuvastatin Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen Chia-Hung


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nonylphenol (NP, an environmental organic compound, has been demonstrated to enhance reactive-oxygen species (ROS synthesis. Chronic exposure to low-dose adenine (AD has been reported to induce chronic kidney disease (CKD. Methods In this study, we tested the hypothesis that chronic exposure to NP will aggravate AD-induced CKD through increasing generations of inflammation, ROS, and apoptosis that could be attenuated by rosuvastatin. Fifty male Wistar rats were equally divided into group 1 (control, group 2 (AD in fodder at a concentration of 0.25%, group 3 (NP: 2 mg/kg/day, group 4 (combined AD & NP, and group 5 (AD-NP + rosuvastatin: 20 mg/kg/day. Treatment was continued for 24 weeks for all animals before being sacrificed. Results By the end of 24 weeks, serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN and creatinine levels were increased in group 4 than in groups 1–3, but significantly reduced in group 5 as compared with group 4 (all p  Conclusion NP worsened AD-induced CKD that could be reversed by rosuvastatin therapy.

  4. In vitro assessment ofROS on motility of epididymal sperm of male rat exposed to intraperitoneal administration of nonylphenol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ansoumane Kourouma; Duan Peng; Hady Keita; Aidogie Osamuyimen; Qi Suqin; Quan Chao; Yu Tingting; Yang Kedi


    Objective:To explore the mechanism by which nonylphenol (NP) interferes with male infertility through evaluation of its effects on epididymal sperm of adult male rats.Methods:Twenty four Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were used as epididymal sperm donors. Previously rats were administrated with NP (0, 2, 10 and 50 mg/kg) body weight respectively in corn oil every forty-eight hours by intraperitoneal injection for 30 days. Computer assisted sperm analysis (CASA) was used to determine parameters of sperm. The sperm morphology examination was conducted with a high resolution microscope.Results:Results indicated that exposure to NP has no effect on body weight, while testes weights were significantly decreased. Computer assisted sperm analysis (CASA) showed significant decline in the percentage of motile spermatozoa (P<0.001), STR and LIN (P<0.01), significant increase in ALH (P<0.001), while significant decline in BCF (P<0.001) respectively. Plasma LDH was significantly increased while; plasmaγ-GT activity was significantly decreased. H2O2production and malondialdehyde (MDA) were significantly increased. The Plasma CAT, GSH-Px and SOD activities were significantly decreased.Conclusions:This concludes that NP leads oxidative stress in the epididymal sperm of rats. Moreover, NP can disrupt sperm motility and alterations in the sperm morphology.

  5. Role of structure, accessibility and microporosity on sorption of phenanthrene and nonylphenol by sediments and their fractions. (United States)

    Zhang, Dainan; Duan, Dandan; Huang, Youda; Xiong, Yongqiang; Yang, Yu; Ran, Yong


    To better understand interaction mechanism of sediment organic matter with hydrophobic organic compounds, sorption of phenanthrene (Phen) and nonylphenol (NP) by bulk sediments and their fractions was investigated. Three surface sediments were selectively fractionated into different organic fractions, including the demineralized carbon (DM), lipid free carbon (LF), lipid (LP), and nonhydrolyzable carbon (NHC) fractions. The structure and microporosity of the isolated fractions were characterized by NMR and CO2 adsorption techniques, and used as sorbents for Phen and NP. The calculated micropore volumes (Vo) and specific surface area (SSA) values are positively related to the concentrations of aromatic C and char for the DM, LF and NHC fractions, suggesting that aromatic moieties and char component significantly contribute to the microporosity. The LF fractions exhibit greater sorption affinity than the DM fractions do, indicating that the presence of LP could block the accessibility of sorption sites for Phen and NP. Significant and positive correlations among log K'FOC values for Phen and NP and aromatic carbon and char contents, and Vo and SSA values suggest the aromatic moieties and microporosity dominate their sorption of HOCs by sediment organic matter (SOM). As the NHC fractions have much stronger sorption than other fractions do, they dominate the overall sorption by the bulk samples. This study indicated that the important roles of aromatic moieties, accessibility, and microporosity in the sorption of HOCs by SOM.

  6. Therapeutic aspects of aerobic dance participation. (United States)

    Estivill, M


    An ethnographic analysis of aerobic dance exercise culture was conducted to determine the impact of the culture on the mind-body connection. After a review of the predominant theories on the relationship between vigorous exercise and elevated mood, aerobic dance participants' experiences are reported to illustrate how cognitive experience and self-esteem may be influenced. Interviews revealed that some participants achieved a pleasantly altered state of consciousness and respite from depression and stress. The relationship of the work ethic to achievement of participant satisfaction is underscored.

  7. Aerobic exercise training in modulation of aerobic physical fitness and balance of burned patients


    Ali, Zizi M. Ibrahim; El-Refay, Basant H.; Ali, Rania Reffat


    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine the impact of aerobic exercise on aerobic capacity, balance, and treadmill time in patients with thermal burn injury. [Subjects and Methods] Burned adult patients, aged 20–40 years (n=30), from both sexes, with second degree thermal burn injuries covering 20–40% of the total body surface area (TBSA), were enrolled in this trial for 3 months. Patients were randomly divided into; group A (n=15), which performed an aerobic exercise program 3 days/week for ...

  8. Aerobic biodegradation of propylene glycol by soil bacteria. (United States)

    Toscano, Giuseppe; Cavalca, Lucia; Letizia Colarieti, M; Scelza, Rosalia; Scotti, Riccardo; Rao, Maria A; Andreoni, Vincenza; Ciccazzo, Sonia; Greco, Guido


    Propylene glycol (PG) is a main component of aircraft deicing fluids and its extensive use in Northern airports is a source of soil and groundwater contamination. Bacterial consortia able to grow on PG as sole carbon and energy source were selected from soil samples taken along the runways of Oslo Airport Gardermoen site (Norway). DGGE analysis of enrichment cultures showed that PG-degrading populations were mainly composed by Pseudomonas species, although Bacteroidetes were found, as well. Nineteen bacterial strains, able to grow on PG as sole carbon and energy source, were isolated and identified as different Pseudomonas species. Maximum specific growth rate of mixed cultures in the absence of nutrient limitation was 0.014 h(-1) at 4 °C. Substrate C:N:P molar ratios calculated on the basis of measured growth yields are in good agreement with the suggested values for biostimulation reported in literature. Therefore, the addition of nutrients is suggested as a suitable technique to sustain PG aerobic degradation at the maximum rate by autochthonous microorganisms of unsaturated soil profile.

  9. Strength training and aerobic exercise training for muscle disease (Review)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voet, N.B.M.; Kooi, E.L. van der; Riphagen, I.I.; Lindeman, E.; Engelen, B.G.M. van; Geurts, A.C.H.


    BACKGROUND: Strength training or aerobic exercise programmes might optimise muscle and cardiorespiratory function and prevent additional disuse atrophy and deconditioning in people with a muscle disease. OBJECTIVES: To examine the safety and efficacy of strength training and aerobic exercise trainin

  10. Effects of aerobic exercise intervention on serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein levels and lymphocyte dna damage in obese elderly females (United States)

    Cho, Su Youn; Roh, Hee Tae


    [Purpose] The aim of the reported research was to investigate the effects of regular aerobic exercise on cartilage oligomeric matrix protein and oxidative DNA damage in obese, elderly females. [Subjects and Methods] Sixteen class I obese, elderly females, according to World Health Organization criteria, were randomly and equally assigned to a control group (n=8) or an exercise group (n=8). The exercise group participated in exercise sessions of 60 minutes per day, 3 days per week, for a period of 8 weeks. [Results] After aerobic exercise intervention, weight, body mass index, body fat, waist circumference, and DNA damage (Tail moment) were significantly decreased, compared with baseline values. In contrast, serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein levels were not significantly different among any groups or time-points. [Conclusion] Regular aerobic exercise may be effective for reducing obesity-induced high DNA damage levels in obese females, without causing the deformation or degradation of lower extremity articular cartilage. PMID:27390441

  11. Aerobic exercise in fibromyalgia: a practical review. (United States)

    Thomas, Eric N; Blotman, Francis


    The objective of the study was to determine the current evidence to support guidelines for aerobic exercise (AE) and fibromyalgia (FM) in practice, and to outline specific research needs in these areas. Data sources consisted of a PubMed search, 2007 Cochrane Data Base Systematic review, 2008 Ottawa panel evidence-based clinical practice guidelines, as well as additional references found from the initial search. Study selection included randomized clinical trials that compared an aerobic-only exercise intervention (land or pool based) with an untreated control, a non-exercise intervention or other exercise programs in patients responding to the 1990 American College of Rheumatology criteria for FM. The following outcome data were obtained: pain, tender points, perceived improvement in FM symptoms such as the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire total score (FIQ), physical function, depression (e.g., Beck Depression Inventory, FIQ subscale for depression), fatigue and sleep were extracted from 19 clinical trials that considered the effects of aerobic-only exercise in FM patients. Data synthesis shows that there is moderate evidence of important benefit of aerobic-only exercise in FM on physical function and possibly on tender points and pain. It appears to be sufficient evidence to support the practice of AE as a part of the multidisciplinary management of FM. However, future studies must be more adequately sized, homogeneously assessed, and monitored for adherence, to draw definitive conclusions.

  12. Integrated anaerobic and aerobic treatment of sewage.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaijun Wang,


    This thesis describes results of investigations dealing with sequential concept of anaerobic-aerobic treatment of municipal wastewater. The main purposes of the study were 1) to develop a proper anaerobic hydrolytic pretreatment unit, consisting of a Hydrolysis Upflow Sludge Bed (HUSB-) reactor and

  13. Intraspecific variation in aerobic and anaerobic locomotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jon Christian; Tirsgård, Bjørn; Cordero, Gerardo A.;


    Intraspecific variation and trade-off in aerobic and anaerobic traits remain poorly understood in aquatic locomotion. Using gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata), both axial swimmers, this study tested four hypotheses: (1) gait transition from steady...

  14. GC-MS测定城市污泥中壬基酚及壬基酚聚氧乙烯醚的方法研究%Determination of Nonylphenol and Nonylphenol Polyethoxylates in Municipal Sludge by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高帅鹏; 黄飞; 花建丽; 李冬峰


    A simple and sensitive method for determination of nonylphenol(NP), nonylphenol-mono-ethoxylate (NP1EO) and nonylphenol-di-ethoxylate(NP2EO) in municipal sludge was developed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results show that detection limit of the method is 0.004 mg/kg, the recovery is in the range of 80.2%~ 96.7%. This method is accurate and highly reproducible, and can be used to determine NP, NP1EO and NP2EO in municipal sludge.%研究建立气相色谱串联质谱法测定污泥中壬基酚、壬基酚单氧乙烯醚及壬基酚双氧乙烯醚的方法。该方法的检出限为0.004 mg/kg,方法的精密度RSD为1.09%~2.72%,回收率为80.2%~96.7%。该方法操作简单,结果准确、可靠,重现性好,检出限低,实用价值高,适用于污泥中壬基酚、壬基酚单氧乙烯醚及壬基酚双氧乙烯醚的测定。

  15. Ventilation and Speech Characteristics during Submaximal Aerobic Exercise (United States)

    Baker, Susan E.; Hipp, Jenny; Alessio, Helaine


    Purpose: This study examined alterations in ventilation and speech characteristics as well as perceived dyspnea during submaximal aerobic exercise tasks. Method: Twelve healthy participants completed aerobic exercise-only and simultaneous speaking and aerobic exercise tasks at 50% and 75% of their maximum oxygen consumption (VO[subscript 2] max).…

  16. Contamination of nonylphenolic compounds in creek water, wastewater treatment plant effluents, and sediments from Lake Shihwa and vicinity, Korea: Comparison with fecal pollution (United States)

    Choi, Minkyu; Furlong, Edward T.; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Yu, Jun; Choi, Hee-Gu


    Nonylphenolic compounds (NPs), coprostanol (COP), and cholestanol, major contaminants in industrial and domestic wastewaters, were analyzed in creek water, wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent, and sediment samples from artificial Lake Shihwa and its vicinity, one of the most industrialized regions in Korea. We also determined mass discharge of NPs and COP, a fecal sterol, into the lake, to understand the linkage between discharge and sediment contamination. Total NP (the sum of nonylphenol, and nonylphenol mono- and di-ethoxylates) were 0.32–875 μg L-1 in creeks, 0.61–87.0 μg L-1 in WWTP effluents, and 29.3–230 μg g-1 TOC in sediments. Concentrations of COP were 0.09–19.0 μg L-1 in creeks, 0.11–44.0 μg L-1 in WWTP effluents, and 2.51–438 μg g-1 TOC in sediments. The spatial distributions of NPs in creeks and sediments from the inshore region were different from those of COP, suggesting that Lake Shihwa contamination patterns from industrial effluents differ from those from domestic effluents. The mass discharge from the combined outfall of the WWTPs, located in the offshore region, was 2.27 kg d-1 for NPs and 1.00 kg d-1 for COP, accounting for 91% and 95% of the total discharge into Lake Shihwa, respectively. The highest concentrations of NPs and COP in sediments were found in samples at sites near the submarine outfall of the WWTPs, indicating that the submarine outfall is an important point source of wastewater pollution in Lake Shihwa.

  17. Anaerobic/aerobic treatment of selected azo dyes in wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seshadri, S.; Bishop, P.L. (Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering); Agha, A.M. (Univ. of Aleppo (Syrian Arab Republic). Faculty of Civil Engineering)


    Azo dyes represent the largest class of dyes in use today. Current environmental concern with these dyes revolves around the potential carcinogenic health risk presented by these dyes or their intermediate biodegradation products when exposed to microflora in the human digestive tract. These dyes may build up in the environment, since many wastewater treatment plants allow these dyes to pass through the system virtually untreated. The initial step in the degradation of these dyes is the cleavage of the Azo bond. This cleavage is often impossible under aerobic conditions, but has been readily demonstrated under anaerobic conditions. The focus of the study was to determine the feasibility of using an anaerobic fluidized-bed reactor to accomplish this cleavage. The effects of typical process variables such as hydraulic retention time (HRT), influent dye concentration levels, and degree of bed fluidization on removal efficiencies were also studied. The four dyes selected for this study were Acid-Orange 7, Acid-Orange 8, Acid-Orange 10, and Acid-Red 14. The effectiveness of using a bench-scale-activated sludge reactor as a sequenced second stage was also examined. Results indicate that nearly complete cleavage of the Azo bond is easily accomplished for each of the four dyes under hydraulic retention times of either 12 or 24 h. Initial results indicate, though, that aromatic amine by-products remain. The sequenced second stage was able to remove the remaining Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) load to acceptable levels. Work is presently underway to determine the face of the anaerobic by-products in the aerobic second stage.

  18. Physical injury stimulates aerobic methane emissions from terrestrial plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.-P. Wang


    Full Text Available Physical injury is common in terrestrial plants as a result of grazing, harvesting, trampling, and extreme weather events. Previous studies demonstrated enhanced emission of non-microbial CH4 under aerobic conditions from plant tissues when they were exposed to increasing UV radiation and temperature. Since physical injury is also a form of environmental stress, we sought to determine whether it would also affect CH4 emissions from plants. Physical injury (cutting stimulated CH4 emission from fresh twigs of Artemisia species under aerobic conditions. More cutting resulted in more CH4 emissions. Hypoxia also enhanced CH4 emission from both uncut and cut Artemisia frigida twigs. Physical injury typically results in cell wall degradation, which may either stimulate formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS or decrease scavenging of them. Increased ROS activity might explain increased CH4 emission in response to physical injury and other forms of stress. There were significant differences in CH4 emissions among 10 species of Artemisia, with some species emitting no detectable CH4 under any circumstances. Consequently, CH4 emissions may be species-dependent and therefore difficult to estimate in nature based on total plant biomass. Our results and those of previous studies suggest that a variety of environmental stresses stimulate CH4 emission from a wide variety of plant species. Global change processes, including climate change, depletion of stratospheric ozone, increasing ground-level ozone, spread of plant pests, and land-use changes, could cause more stress in plants on a global scale, potentially stimulating more CH4 emission globally.

  19. Carbamazepine degradation by photolysis and titanium dioxide photocatalysis. (United States)

    Im, Jong-Kwon; Son, Hyun-Seok; Kang, Young-Min; Zoh, Kyung-Duk


    We investigated the degradation of carbamazepine by photolysis/ultraviolet (UV)-C only and titanium dioxide photocatalysis. The degradation of carbamazepine by UV-only and titanium-dioxide-only (adsorption) reactions were inefficient, however, complete degradation of carbamazepine was observed by titanium dioxide photocatalysis within 30 min. The rate of degradation increased as initial carbamazepine concentration decreased, and the removal kinetics fit well with the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model. The addition of methanol, a radical scavenger, decreased carbamazepine removal, suggesting that the hydroxide radical played an important role during carbamazepine degradation. The addition of oxygen during titanium dioxide photocatalysis accelerated hydroxide radical production, thus improving mineralization activity. The photocatalytic degradation was more efficient at a higher pH, whereas the removal of carbamazepine and acridine (a major intermediate) were more efficient under aerobic conditions. The mineralization of carbamazepine during photocatalysis produced various ionic by-products such as ammonium and nitrate by way of nitrogen dioxide.

  20. Aerobic exercise training in modulation of aerobic physical fitness and balance of burned patients. (United States)

    Ali, Zizi M Ibrahim; El-Refay, Basant H; Ali, Rania Reffat


    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine the impact of aerobic exercise on aerobic capacity, balance, and treadmill time in patients with thermal burn injury. [Subjects and Methods] Burned adult patients, aged 20-40 years (n=30), from both sexes, with second degree thermal burn injuries covering 20-40% of the total body surface area (TBSA), were enrolled in this trial for 3 months. Patients were randomly divided into; group A (n=15), which performed an aerobic exercise program 3 days/week for 60 min and participated in a traditional physical therapy program, and group B (n=15), which only participated in a traditional exercise program 3 days/week. Maximal aerobic capacity, treadmill time, and Berg balance scale were measured before and after the study. [Results] In both groups, the results revealed significant improvements after treatment in all measurements; however, the improvement in group A was superior to that in group B. [Conclusion] The results provide evidence that aerobic exercises for adults with healed burn injuries improve aerobic physical fitness and balance.

  1. Distribution, fate and formation of non-extractable residues of a nonylphenol isomer in soil with special emphasis on soil derived organo-clay complexes. (United States)

    Riefer, Patrick; Klausmeyer, Timm; Schäffer, Andreas; Schwarzbauer, Jan; Schmidt, Burkhard


    Anthropogenic contaminants like nonylphenols (NP) are added to soil, for instance if sewage-sludge is used as fertilizer in agriculture. A commercial mixture of NP consists of more than 20 isomers. For our study, we used one of the predominate isomers of NP mixtures, 4-(3,5-dimethylhept-3-yl)phenol, as a representative compound. The aim was to investigate the fate and distribution of the isomer within soil and soil derived organo-clay complexes. Therefore, (14)C- and (13)C-labeled NP was added to soil samples and incubated up to 180 days. Mineralization was measured and soil samples were fractionated into sand, silt and clay; the clay fraction was further separated in humic acids, fulvic acids and humin. The organo-clay complexes pre-incubated for 90 or 180 days were re-incubated with fresh soil for 180 days, to study the potential of re-mobilization of incorporated residues. The predominate incorporation sites of the nonylphenol isomer in soil were the organo-clay complexes. After 180 days of incubation, 22 % of the applied (14)C was mineralized. The bioavailable, water extractable portion was low (9 % of applied (14)C) and remained constant during the entire incubation period, which could be explained by an incorporation/release equilibrium. Separation of organo-clay complexes, after extraction with solvents to release weakly incorporated, bioaccessible portions, showed that non-extractable residues (NER) were preferentially located in the humic acid fraction, which was regarded as an effect of the chemical composition of this fraction. Generally, 27 % of applied (14)C was incorporated into organo-clay complexes as NER, whereas 9 % of applied (14)C was bioaccessible after 180 days of incubation. The re-mobilization experiments showed on the one hand, a decrease of the bioavailability of the nonylphenol residues due to stronger incorporation, when the pre-incubation period was increased from 90 to 180 days. On the other hand, a shift of these residues from the

  2. Binary Interactions of Antagonistic Bacteria with Candida albicans Under Aerobic and Anaerobic Conditions. (United States)

    Benadé, Eliska; Stone, Wendy; Mouton, Marnel; Postma, Ferdinand; Wilsenach, Jac; Botha, Alfred


    We used both aerobic and anaerobic liquid co-cultures, prepared with Luria Bertani broth, to study the effect of bacteria on the survival of Candida albicans in the external environment, away from an animal host. The bacteria were represented by Aeromonas hydrophila, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Clostridium, Enterobacter, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Kluyvera ascorbata and Serratia marcescens. Under aerobic conditions, the yeast's growth was inhibited in the presence of bacterial growth; however, under anaerobic conditions, yeast and bacterial growth in co-cultures was similar to that observed for pure cultures. Subsequent assays revealed that the majority of bacterial strains aerobically produced extracellular hydrolytic enzymes capable of yeast cell wall hydrolysis, including chitinases and mannan-degrading enzymes. In contrast, except for the A. hydrophila strain, these enzymes were not detected in anaerobic bacterial cultures, nor was the antimicrobial compound prodigiosin found in anaerobic cultures of S. marcescens. When we suspended C. albicans cells in crude extracellular enzyme preparations from K. pneumoniae and S. marcescens, we detected no negative effect on yeast viability. However, we found that these preparations enhance the toxicity of prodigiosin towards the yeast, especially in combination with mannan-degrading enzymes. Analyses of the chitin and mannan content of yeast cell walls revealed that less chitin was produced under anaerobic than aerobic conditions; however, the levels of mannan, known for its low permeability, remained the same. The latter phenomenon, as well as reduced production of the bacterial enzymes and prodigiosin, may contribute to anaerobic growth and survival of C. albicans in the presence of bacteria.

  3. Effects of permafrost thaw on carbon emissions under aerobic and anaerobic environments in the Great Hing'an Mountains, China. (United States)

    Song, Changchun; Wang, Xianwei; Miao, Yuqing; Wang, Jiaoyue; Mao, Rong; Song, Yanyu


    The carbon (C) pool of permafrost peatland is very important for the global C cycle. Little is known about how permafrost thaw could influence C emissions in the Great Hing'an Mountains of China. Through aerobic and anaerobic incubation experiments, we studied the effects of permafrost thaw on CH4 and CO2 emissions. The rates of CH4 and CO2 emissions were measured at -10, 0 and 10°C. Although there were still C emissions below 0°C, rates of CH4 and CO2 emissions significantly increased with permafrost thaw under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The C release under aerobic conditions was greater than under anaerobic conditions, suggesting that permafrost thaw and resulting soil environment change should be important influences on C emissions. However, CH4 stored in permafrost soils could affect accurate estimation of CH4 emissions from microbial degradation. Calculated Q10 values in the permafrost soils were significantly higher than values in active-layer soils under aerobic conditions. Our results highlight that permafrost soils have greater potential decomposability than soils of the active layer, and such carbon decomposition would be more responsive to the aerobic environment.

  4. Nonylphenol Toxicity Evaluation and Discovery of Biomarkers in Rat Urine by a Metabolomics Strategy through HPLC-QTOF-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Xin Zhang


    Full Text Available Nonylphenol (NP was quantified using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS in the urine and plasma of rats treated with 0, 50, and 250 mg/kg/day of NP for four consecutive days. A urinary metabolomic strategy was originally implemented by high performance liquid chromatography time of flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-QTOF-MS to explore the toxicological effects of NP and determine the overall alterations in the metabolite profiles so as to find potential biomarkers. It is essential to point out that from the observation, the metabolic data were clearly clustered and separated for the three groups. To further identify differentiated metabolites, multivariate analysis, including principal component analysis (PCA, orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA, high-resolution MS/MS analysis, as well as searches of Metlin and Massbank databases, were conducted on a series of metabolites between the control and dose groups. Finally, five metabolites, including glycine, glycerophosphocholine, 5-hydroxytryptamine, malonaldehyde (showing an upward trend, and tryptophan (showing a downward trend, were identified as the potential urinary biomarkers of NP-induced toxicity. In order to validate the reliability of these potential biomarkers, an independent validation was performed by using the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM-based targeted approach. The oxidative stress reflected by urinary 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG levels was elevated in individuals highly exposed to NP, supporting the hypothesis that mitochondrial dysfunction was a result of xenoestrogen accumulation. This study reveals a promising approach to find biomarkers to assist researchers in monitoring NP.

  5. Distinct effects of 4-nonylphenol and estrogen-17β on expression of estrogen receptor α gene in smolting sockeye salmon (United States)

    Luo, Qiong; Ban, Massatoshi; Ando, Hironori; Kitahashi, Takashi; Bhandari, Ramji K.; McCormick, Stephen D.; Urano, Akihisa


    Xenoestrogens such as 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) have been shown to affect the parr–smolt transformation, but their mechanisms of action are not known. We therefore examined effects of 4-NP and estradiol-17β (E2) on expression of estrogen receptor (ER) α gene in the liver, gill, pituitary and brain of sockeye salmon to elucidate molecular mechanisms of 4-NP and E2 and developmental differences in response during smolting. Fish were treated twice within a week with 4-NP (15 and 150 mg/kg BW), E2 (2 mg/kg BW) or only vehicle at three stages of smolting, pre-smolting in March, early smolting in April and late smolting in May. The absolute amounts of ERα mRNA were determined by real-time PCR. The basal amounts of ERα mRNA peaked in April in the liver, gill and pituitary. In March, E2 extensively increased the amounts in the liver, while 4-NP had no effects at this stage. In contrast, 4-NP (but not E2) decreased liver ERα mRNA in April. 4-NP also decreased the amount of ERα mRNA in the gill in April. In the pituitary, 4-NP increased ERα mRNA in March but decreased it in May. There were no significant effects in the brain. Changes in basal ERα mRNA observed in this study indicate that estrogen responsiveness of tissues may change during salmon smolting. Furthermore, 4-NP and E2 have different effects on expression of ERα gene in the liver and gill during smolting, and the response is dependent on smolt stage.

  6. Nonylphenol polyethoxylate adjuvant mitigates the reproductive toxicity of fomesafen on the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis in outdoor experimental ponds. (United States)

    Jumel, Audrey; Coutellec, Marie-Agnès; Cravedi, Jean-Pierre; Lagadic, Laurent


    The influence of nonylphenol polyethoxylates (NPEO), formulated as the adjuvant Agral 90, on the effects of the diphenyl ether herbicide fomesafen in the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis was investigated, with particular attention to the reproductive performances and underlying energetic and hormonal processes. Separate short-term exposures to low concentrations of fomesafen and fomesafen-Agral mixture were performed in the laboratory. Outdoor experimental ponds (mesocosms) were used for long-term exposures to higher chemical concentrations. At the concentrations used in the studies, NPEO were known as nontoxic in L stagnalis. Fomesafen was mixed with the adjuvant in the 3:7 ratio recommended for agricultural uses (nominal herbicide concentrations of 22 and 40 microg/L in laboratory and mesocosm, respectively). In mesocosms, multiple application of fomesafen, leading to maximal herbicide concentrations of 60.33 +/- 2.68 microg/L in water, resulted in reduced number of egg masses and altered glycogen metabolism in contaminated snails. These changes, as well as affected steroid-like levels in fomesafen-exposed snails, support the hypothesis of impaired neuroendocrine functions. When Agral 90 was added to the herbicide, results obtained in mesocosms showed that the adjuvant softened the impact of fomesafen. In mesocosms treated with the fomesafen-Agral mixture, significantly lower herbicide levels were found in the water (30.33 +/- 14.91 microg/L at the end of the contamination period). Consequently, internal exposure of the snails to fomesafen was reduced when the herbicide was mixed with the adjuvant. Mitigation of the effects of fomesafen by the adjuvant may therefore result from nonionic surfactant activity of NPEO that prevented fomesafen from reaching the snails.

  7. 超高效液相色谱-串联质谱法测定香蕉中壬基酚聚氧乙烯醚及其降解产物%Determination of nonylphenol polyethoxylates and its metabolite nonylphenol in banana by UPLC-MS/MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗金辉; 吕岱竹; 林勇


    In order to study the residues and safety of pesticide adjuvant nonylphenol ethoxylate (NPnEO)in food,a quick and sensitive analytical method for nonylphenol ethoxylate and its metabolite nonylphenol in banana was established with UPLC-MS/MS. The samples were extracted by acetonitrile and cleaned by solid phase extraction column. Several UPLC-MS/MS conditions that included the mobilephase, monitor ions and the selection of calibration of the measurement were studied. The recovery ranged from 75% to 117% at three spiking levels from 5-40 jig/kg with relative standard deviations of 3.2% -9.6%, mean while, the limit of detection of nonylphenol ethoxylate were 0. 005 -0.04 μg/kg and nonylphenol was 0.5 μg/kg. The method was sensitive and rapid.%为了研究壬基酚聚氧乙烯醚在食品中的残留量及安全性,通过乙腈提取、固相萃取法净化,建立了香蕉中壬基酚聚氧乙烯醚(NPnEO)及其降解产物壬基酚(NP)的超高效液相色谱-串联质谱( UPLC-MS/MS)测定方法,并对流动相、监测离子和校正曲线等进行了优化和探讨.结果表明:在5~40 μg/kg添加水平范围内,NPnEO及NP的添加回收率在75% ~ 117%之间,相对标准偏差(RSD)在3.2% ~9.6%之间;NPnEO的检出限在0.005 ~ 0.04μg/kg之间,NP的检出限(LOD)为0.5 μg/kg;该方法快速、灵敏,准确度高,符合残留检测的要求.

  8. Hypertrophy-Promoting Effects of Leucine Supplementation and Moderate Intensity Aerobic Exercise in Pre-Senescent Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Xia


    Full Text Available Several studies have indicated a positive influence of leucine supplementation and aerobic training on the aging skeletal muscle signaling pathways that control muscle protein balance and muscle remodeling. However, the effect of a combined intervention requires further clarification. Thirteen month old CD-1® mice were subjected to moderate aerobic exercise (45 min swimming per day with 3% body weight workload and fed a chow diet with 5% leucine or 3.4% alanine for 8 weeks. Serum and plasma were prepared for glucose, urea nitrogen, insulin and amino acid profile analysis. The white gastrocnemius muscles were used for determination of muscle size and signaling proteins involved in protein synthesis and degradation. The results show that both 8 weeks of leucine supplementation and aerobic training elevated the activity of mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin and its downstream target p70S6K and 4E-BP1, inhibited the ubiquitin-proteasome system, and increased fiber cross-sectional area (CSA in white gastrocnemius muscle. Moreover, leucine supplementation in combination with exercise demonstrated more significant effects, such as greater CSA, protein content and altered phosphorylation (suggestive of increased activity of protein synthesis signaling proteins, in addition to lower expression of proteins involved in protein degradation compared to leucine or exercise alone. The current study shows moderate aerobic training combined with 5% leucine supplementation has the potential to increase muscle size in fast-twitch skeletal muscle during aging, potentially through increased protein synthesis and decreased protein breakdown.

  9. Polysaccharide Degradation (United States)

    Stone, Bruce A.; Svensson, Birte; Collins, Michelle E.; Rastall, Robert A.

    An overview of current and potential enzymes used to degrade polysaccharides is presented. Such depolymerases are comprised of glycoside hydrolases, glycosyl transferases, phosphorylases and lyases, and their classification, active sites and action patterns are discussed. Additionally, the mechanisms that these enzymes use to cleave glycosidic linkages is reviewed as are inhibitors of depolymerase activity; reagents which react with amino acid residues, glycoside derivatives, transition state inhibitors and proteinaceous inhibitors. The characterization of various enzymes of microbial, animal or plant origin has led to their widespread use in the production of important oligosaccharides which can be incorporated into food stuffs. Sources of polysaccharides of particular interest in this chapter are those from plants and include inulin, dextran, xylan and pectin, as their hydrolysis products are purported to be functional foods in the context of gastrointestinal health. An alternative use of degraded polysaccharides is in the treatment of disease. The possibility exists to treat bacterial exopolysaccharide with lyases from bacteriophage to produce oligosaccharides exhibiting bioactive sequences. Although this area is currently in its infancy the knowledge is available to investigate further.

  10. Biological treatment of thin-film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) wastewater using aerobic and anoxic/oxic sequencing batch reactors. (United States)

    Lei, Chin-Nan; Whang, Liang-Ming; Chen, Po-Chun


    The amount of pollutants produced during manufacturing processes of thin-film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) substantially increases due to an increasing production of the opto-electronic industry in Taiwan. This study presents the treatment performance of one aerobic and one anoxic/oxic (A/O) sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) treating synthetic TFT-LCD wastewater containing dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), monoethanolamine (MEA), and tetra-methyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH). The long-term monitoring results for the aerobic and A/O SBRs demonstrate that stable biodegradation of DMSO, MEA, and TMAH can be achieved without any considerably adverse impacts. The ammonium released during MEA and TMAH degradation can also be completely oxidized to nitrate through nitrification in both SBRs. Batch studies on biodegradation rates for DMSO, MEA, and TMAH under anaerobic, anoxic, and aerobic conditions indicate that effective MEA degradation can be easily achieved under all three conditions examined, while efficient DMSO and TMAH degradation can be attained only under anaerobic and aerobic conditions, respectively. The potential odor problem caused by the formation of malodorous dimethyl sulfide from DMSO degradation under anaerobic conditions, however, requires insightful consideration in treating DMSO-containing wastewater.

  11. Degradation of surface-active compounds in a constructed wetland determined using high performance liquid chromatography and extraction spectrophotometry. (United States)

    Šíma, Jan; Pazderník, Marek; Tříska, Jan; Svoboda, Lubomír


    Degradation of anionic and nonionic surfactants in a constructed wetland with horizontal subsurface flow was studied using high performance liquid chromatography and extraction spectrophotometry. The ratio of individual homologues of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) and the efficiency of their removal were studied. Tridecyl-, dodecyl-, undecyl-, and decylbenzene sulfonates were removed with efficiencies of 92.9%, 84.3%, 64.7%, and 41.1%, respectively. These differences are due to sequential shortening of the alkyl chain in homologues during degradation (the higher homologue can provide the lower one). The formation of sulfophenyl carboxylic acids during ω-oxidation of the alkyl chain followed by successive α- and/or β-oxidation is also a possible mechanism for removal of LAS. Solid phase extraction using Chromabond® HR-P columns was used for preconcentration of the analytes prior to their determination by HPLC. Methylene blue active compounds were determined using extraction spectrophotometry. The average efficiency of their removal was 84.9% in this case. The efficiency of nonionic surfactant removal (98.2%) was significantly higher in comparison to that for anionic surfactants. The concentration of the endocrine disruptor nonylphenol (a product of nonylphenol polyethoxylate surfactant degradation) determined in the profile of the wetland was beneath the limit of detection (0.4 μg/L). The average outflow concentrations of anionic and nonionic surfactants determined by spectrophotometry were 0.54 and 0.021 mg/L, respectively. The average outflow concentrations of decyl- and tridecylbenzene sulfonates determined by HPLC were 0.195 and 0.015 mg/L. Efficiencies of 86.4% and 92.2% were obtained for removal of organic compounds as indicated by chemical and biochemical oxygen demand (COD(Cr) and BOD(5)). These results demonstrate the suitability of the constructed wetland for degrading surface-active compounds.

  12. Experimentally nonylphenol-polluted diet induces the expression of silent genes VTG and ER{alpha} in the liver of male lizard Podarcis sicula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verderame, Mariailaria; Prisco, Marina; Andreuccetti, Piero [Department of Biological Sciences, Evolutionary and Comparative Biology Division, University Federico II of Naples, Via Mezzocannone 8, 80134 Naples (Italy); Aniello, Francesco [Department of Biological Sciences, Genetic and Molecular Biology Division, University Federico II of Naples, Via Mezzocannone 8, 80134 Naples (Italy); Limatola, Ermelinda, E-mail: [Department of Biological Sciences, Evolutionary and Comparative Biology Division, University Federico II of Naples, Via Mezzocannone 8, 80134 Naples (Italy)


    Endocrine Disruptor Chemicals (EDCs) with estrogen-like properties i.e nonylphenol (NP) induce vitellogenin (VTG) synthesis in males of aquatic and semi-aquatic specie. In the oviparous species VTG is a female-specific oestrogen dependent protein. Males are unable to synthesize VTG except after E{sub 2} treatment. This study aimed to verify if NP, administered via food and water, is able to induce the expression of VTG even in males of vertebrates with a terrestrial habitat such as the lizard Podarcis. By means of ICC, ISH, W/B and ELISA we demonstrated that NP induces the presence of VTG in the plasma and its expression in the liver. VTG, undetectable in untreated males, reaches the value of 4.34 {mu}g/{mu}l in the experimental ones. Expression analysis and ISH in the liver showed that an NP-polluted diet also elicits the expression of ER{alpha} in the liver which is known to be related to VTG synthesis in Podarcis. - Highlights: > Nonylphenol (NP) polluted diet induces VTG synthesis in a terrestrial vertebrate. > VTG and ER{alpha} genes are unexpressed in the liver of untreated male lizards Podarcis. > In the liver cells of NP-treated males the expression of both VTG and ER{alpha} occurs. > In treated males VTG synthesis is coupled with ER{alpha} expression as in breeding females. - NP-polluted diet induces the expression of ER{alpha} and VTG in the liver.

  13. Acute effects of aerobic exercise promote learning


    Renza Perini; Marta Bortoletto; Michela Capogrosso; Anna Fertonani; Carlo Miniussi


    The benefits that physical exercise confers on cardiovascular health are well known, whereas the notion that physical exercise can also improve cognitive performance has only recently begun to be explored and has thus far yielded only controversial results. In the present study, we used a sample of young male subjects to test the effects that a single bout of aerobic exercise has on learning. Two tasks were run: the first was an orientation discrimination task involving the primary visual cor...

  14. Experimental evidence for aerobic bio-denitrification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Nitrate pollution of groundwater is paid more and more attention for its hazardous to environments and human health. A strain of DN11 was isolated from soil and used in the laboratory columns filled with various media for nitrate removal. The experimental results showed that DN11could reduce nitrate at different rates in different media under the aerobic condition. The mechanism for nitrate removal with DN11 is explained meanwhile.

  15. Aerobic Exercise, Estrogens, and Breast Cancer Risk (United States)


    include early age at menarche, late age at menopause and first childbirth, nulliparity, family history of breast cancer, benign breast disease, and al. (24), a four-cycle intervention consisting of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise in combination with a caloric restrictive diet resulted in...vigorous exercise intervention independent of diet restriction and weight loss. We specifically sought to determine if the exercise intervention would

  16. Adsorption and degradation of five selected antibiotics in agricultural soil. (United States)

    Pan, Min; Chu, L M


    Large quantities of antibiotics are being added to agricultural fields worldwide through the application of wastewater, manures and biosolids, resulting in antibiotic contamination and elevated environmental risks in terrestrial environments. Most studies on the environmental fate of antibiotics focus on aquatic environments or wastewater treatment plants. Little is known about the behavior of antibiotics at environmentally relevant concentrations in agricultural soil. In this study we evaluated the adsorption and degradation of five different antibiotics (tetracycline, sulfamethazine, norfloxacin, erythromycin, and chloramphenicol) in sterilized and non-sterilized agricultural soils under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Adsorption was highest for tetracycline (Kd, 1093 L/kg), while that for sulfamethazine was negligible (Kd, 1.365 L/kg). All five antibiotics were susceptible to microbial degradation under aerobic conditions, with half-lives ranging from 2.9 to 43.3 d in non-sterilized soil and 40.8 to 86.6 d in sterilized soil. Degradation occurred at a higher rate under aerobic conditions but was relatively persistent under anaerobic conditions. For all the antibiotics, a higher initial concentration was found to slow down degradation and prolong persistence in soil. The degradation behavior of the antibiotics varied in relation to their physicochemical properties as well as the microbial activities and aeration of the recipient soil. The poor adsorption and relative persistence of sulfamethazine under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions suggest that it may pose a higher risk to groundwater quality. An equation was proposed to predict the fate of antibiotics in soil under different field conditions, and assess their risks to the environment.

  17. Degradation of the pharmaceuticals diclofenac and sulfamethoxazole and their transformation products under controlled environmental conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier-Larabie, S. [Aquatic Contaminants Research Division, Science and Water Technology Directorate, Environment Canada, Montréal, Québec H2Y 2E7 (Canada); Segura, P.A. [Department of Chemistry, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Québec J1K 2R1 (Canada); Gagnon, C., E-mail: [Aquatic Contaminants Research Division, Science and Water Technology Directorate, Environment Canada, Montréal, Québec H2Y 2E7 (Canada)


    Contamination of the aquatic environment by pharmaceuticals via urban effluents is well known. Several classes of drugs have been identified in waterways surrounding these effluents in the last 15 years. To better understand the fate of pharmaceuticals in ecosystems, degradation processes need to be investigated and transformation products must be identified. Thus, this study presents the first comparative study between three different natural environmental conditions: photolysis and biodegradation in aerobic and anaerobic conditions both in the dark of diclofenac and sulfamethoxazole, two common drugs present in significant amounts in impacted surface waters. Results indicated that degradation kinetics differed depending on the process and the type of drug and the observed transformation products also differed among these exposure conditions. Diclofenac was nearly degraded by photolysis after 4 days, while its concentration only decreased by 42% after 57 days of exposure to bacteria in aerobic media and barely 1% in anaerobic media. For sulfamethoxazole, 84% of the initial concentration was still present after 11 days of exposure to light, while biodegradation decreased its concentration by 33% after 58 days of exposure under aerobic conditions and 5% after 70 days of anaerobic exposure. In addition, several transformation products were observed and persisted over time while others degraded in turn. For diclofenac, chlorine atoms were lost primarily in the photolysis, while a redox reaction was promoted by biodegradation under aerobic conditions. For sulfamethoxazole, isomerization was favored by photolysis while a redox reaction was also favored by the biodegradation under aerobic conditions. To summarize this study points out the occurrence of different transformation products under variable degradation conditions and demonstrates that specific functional groups are involved in the tested natural attenuation processes. Given the complexity of environmental

  18. Effect of contaminant concentration on aerobic microbial mineralization of DCE and VC in stream-bed sediments (United States)

    Bradley, P.M.; Chapelle, F.H.


    Discharge of DCE and VC to an aerobic surface water system simultaneously represents a significant environmental concern and, potentially, a non-engineered opportunity for efficient contaminant bioremediation. The potential for bioremediation, however, depends on the ability of the stream-bed microbial community to efficiently and completely degrade DCE and VC over a range of contaminant concentrations. The purposes of the studies reported here were to assess the potential for aerobic DCE and VC mineralization by stream-bed microorganisms and to evaluate the effects of DCE and VC concentrations on the apparent rates of aerobic mineralization. Bed-sediment microorganisms indigenous to a creek, where DCE-contaminated groundwater continuously discharges, demonstrated rapid mineralization of DCE and VC under aerobic conditions. Over 8 days, the recovery of [1,2-14C]DCE radioactivity as 14CO2 ranged from 17% to 100%, and the recovery of [1,2- 14C]VC radioactivity as 14CO2 ranged from 45% to 100%. Rates of DCE and VC mineralization increased significantly with increasing contaminant concentration, and the response of apparent mineralization rates to changes in DCE and VC concentrations was adequately described by Michaelis-Menten kinetics.Discharge of DCE and VC to an aerobic surface water system simultaneously represents a significant environmental concern and, potentially, a non-engineered opportunity for efficient contaminant bioremediation. The potential for bioremediation, however, depends on the ability of the stream-bed microbial community to efficiently and completely degrade DCE and VC over a range of contaminant concentrations. The purposes of the studies reported here were to assess the potential for aerobic DCE and VC mineralization by stream-bed microorganisms and to evaluate the effects of DCE and VC concentrations on the apparent rates of aerobic mineralization. Bed-sediment microorganisms indigenous to a creek, where DCE-contaminated groundwater

  19. 壬基酚水溶液的臭氧氧化研究%Degradation of Nonylphenol in Aqueous Solution by Ozonation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张霞; 冯精兰; 吴峰; 邓南圣


    研究了壬基酚(NP)溶液初始浓度、溶液初始pH值、臭氧含量对NP降解的影响.结果表明:在pH值为3.0~9.0范围内,pH初始值越大,NP降解率越高;在5~20 mg/L范围内,臭氧体系对它的降解过程遵循表现1级反应动力学规律,表观降解速率常量kobs为0.473 8 min-1;臭氧含量不同时,NI'的降解速率也不同,臭氧浓度越高,降解也越快.氧化过程中有小分子羧酸类物质生成.HPLC色谱图表明,在氧化过程中,没有含苯环结构中间产物的明显积累,可能是由于中间产物生成的量很少或者是由于这些中间产物易于进一步氧化降解形成对280 nm紫外光没有吸收的产物(如苯环分裂的产物等).

  20. Degradation of herbicides in shallow Danish aquifers - an integrated laboratory and field study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Mills, M.; Aamand, J.


    , results were compared. Some herbicides were degraded under aerobic conditions (some phenoxy acids, DNOC and glyphosate) and others under aerobic conditions (other phenoxy acids, DNOC; there was some indication of atrazine transformation). Certain pesticides were not degraded in any investigations......Degradation of pesticides in aquifers has been evaluated based on a number of co-ordinated field and laboratory studies carried out in Danish aquifers. These studies included investigations of vertical and horizontal variability in degradation rates from the vadose zone to an aquifer, the effects...... (dichlobenil, the dichlobenil metabolite 2,6-dichlorobenzamide (BAM), bentazone, isoproturon, metarnitron and metsulfuron-methyl). The spatial variability was substantial, since hardly any of the investigated pesticides were degraded in all comparable samples. This means that it is very difficult to claim...

  1. Simultaneous heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification at high initial phenol concentration by isolated bacterium Diaphorobacter sp. PD-7

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qilong Ge; Xiuping Yue; Guoying Wang


    A strain capable of phenol degradation, heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification was isolated from activated sludge of coking-plant wastewater ponds under aerobic condition. Based on its morphology, physiology, biochemical analysis and phylogenetic characteristics, the isolate was identified as Diaphorobacter sp. PD-7. Biodegradation tests of phenol showed that the maximum phenol degradation occurred at the late phase of exponential growth stages, with 1400 mg·L-1 phenol completely degraded within 85 h. Diaphorobacter sp. PD-7 accumulated a vast quantity of phenol hydroxylase in this physiological phase, ensuring that the cel s quickly utilize phenol as a sole carbon and energy source. The kinetic behavior of Diaphorobacter sp. PD-7 in batch cultures was investigated over a wide range of initial phenol concentrations (0–1400 mg·L-1) by using the Haldane model, which adequately describes the dynamic behavior of phenol biodegradation by strain Diaphorobacter sp. PD-7. At initial phenol concentration of 1400 mg·L-1, batch experiments (0.25 L flask) of nitrogen removal under aerobic condition gave almost entirely removal of 120.69 mg·L-1 ammonium nitrogen within 75 h, while nitrate nitrogen removal reached 91%within 65 h. Moreover, hydroxylamine oxidase, periplasmic nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase were successful y expressed in the isolate.

  2. Characterization of the molecular degradation mechanism of diphenyl ethers by Cupriavidus sp. WS. (United States)

    Wang, Sheng; Bai, Naling; Wang, Bing; Feng, Zhuo; Hutchins, William C; Yang, Ching-Hong; Zhao, Yuhua


    Commonly used flame retardants, such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers, are extremely persistent in the environment, causing serious environmental risks. Certain strains of bacteria are able to degrade several low brominated congeners of PBDEs aerobically. However, the aerobic degradation pathway is not yet well understood, particularly at the genetic level. In this study, we isolated Cupriavidus sp. WS from the environment that could degrade diphenyl ether (DE), 4-bromodiphenyl ether, and 4,4'-bromodiphenyl ether. DE was completely degraded in 6 days without any detectable end-product. Using transposon mutagenesis, several DE degradation-deficient mutants were obtained. Knocking out bphA1, bphA2, and bphA3 eliminated the ability of the Cupriavidus sp. WS bacterium to degrade DE, indicating that the bph genes play a crucial role in DE degradation by this strain. The specific roles of bphA, bphB, and bphC were identified by systematically expressing these genes in Escherichia coli. The dihydrodiol product of BphA was dehydrogenated into 2,3-dihydroxydiphenyl ether by BphB. 2,3-Dihydroxydiphenyl ether was then decomposed into phenol and 2-pyrone-6-carboxylic acid by BphC. Thus, BphA, BphB, and BphC act sequentially in the aerobic degradation of DE, 4-bromodiphenyl ether, and 4,4'-dibromodiphenyl ether by the Cupriavidus sp. WS bacterium.

  3. Impact of intermittent aerations on leachate quality and greenhouse gas reduction in the aerobic-anaerobic landfill method. (United States)

    Nag, Mitali; Shimaoka, Takayuki; Komiya, Teppei


    The aerobic-anaerobic landfill method (AALM) is a novel approach in solid waste management that could shorten the landfill post-closure period and minimize the environmental loads. In this study, the aerobic-anaerobic landfill method was evaluated by using intermittent aeration. In addition, the nitrification-denitrification process was assessed as a means of reducing the emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and improving the leachate quality during the degradation of the organic solid waste. The leachate quality and the gas composition in each of the reactors were measured during the experimental period (408days). The aeration process entailed the injection of air into plexiglass cylinders (200cm height×10 cm diameter), filled with fresh organic solid waste collected from a composting plant. Different aeration routines were applied, namely, continuous aeration (aerobic reactor A), aeration for three days/week (aerobic-anaerobic reactor B), aeration for 6h/day (aerobic-anaerobic reactor C), and no aeration (non-aerated reactor D). It was found that aerobic reactor A produced the best results in terms of reduction of GHGs and improvement of the leachate quality. The aerobic-anaerobic reactor C was found to be more effective than reactor B in respect of both the emission of GHGs and the leachate quality; moreover, compared with aerobic reactor A, energy costs were reduced by operating this reactor. The transition period phenomenon was investigated during an intensive seven-day experiment conducted on the discharged leachate obtained from aerobic-anaerobic reactors B and C. The experiment concerned the differences in the composition of the gas during the aeration and the non-aeration periods. It was found that the transition period between the aeration and non-aeration cycles, which followed the simultaneous nitrification-denitrification had a considerable effect on the leachate quality of both the reactors. The results indicated that AALM has the potential to reduce

  4. Auto heated Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion of sewage sludge; Digestion aerobia termofila autosostenida de lodos urbanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia de las Heras, J. L.; Gutierrez, I.


    Auto heated Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion (ATAD) is one of the most promising technologies for applying the digested sludge to soil amendment. The system was studied in the 60's and developed mostly in Europe since the 70's. The full-scale facilities improvement ran in parallel to the scientific and legislative worry about the presence of pathogenic organisms both in the raw and the digested sewage sludge. ATAD is usually a two stage aerobic process working in the thermophilic temperature range (40 to 80 degree centigree) without any external heat source; the heat produced by the biochemical exergonic reactions during the aerobic degradation of the organic sludge holds the desired temperature values. A comparison of this system with the existing anaerobic stabilisation processes shows as main advantages a high hygienization capacity, small reactor volume for the same organic loading, is resistant to overloading and temperature shocks, is easily manageable, and is economically feasible for small.medium size populations. This process is specially suitable to fulfill the law requirements imposed by the most demanding countries regarding the application of treated sewage sludge to soil improvement. (Author) 19 refs.

  5. Biodegradability and toxicity of sulphonate-based surfactants in aerobic and anaerobic aquatic environments. (United States)

    García, M T; Campos, E; Marsal, A; Ribosa, I


    Four types of commonly used sulphonate-based surfactants (alkane sulphonates, alpha-olefin sulphonates, sulphosuccinates and methyl ester sulphonates) were tested for their aerobic and anaerobic biodegradability as well as for their toxicity to Daphnia magna and Photobacterium phosphoreum to assess the effect of the surfactant structure on those properties. Aerobic biodegradation was evaluated by means of the CO2 headspace test and anaerobic biodegradation was assessed by a method based on the ECETOC test. All the surfactants tested were readily biodegraded under aerobic conditions. No clear effect of the surfactant structures on the toxicity to the aquatic organisms tested was found. The most significant differences in the surfactants studied were observed in their behaviour under anaerobic conditions. Alkane sulphonates, alpha-olefin sulphonates and methyl ester sulphonates were not mineralized in lab anaerobic digesters despite the fact that the last one showed a certain degree of primary degradation. Nevertheless, these surfactants did not significantly inhibit methanogenic activity at concentrations up to 15 g surfactant/kg dry sludge, a concentration that is much higher than the expected concentrations of these surfactants in real anaerobic digesters. Sulphosuccinates showed a high level of primary biodegradation in anaerobic conditions. However, linear alkyl sulphosuccinates were completely mineralized whereas branched alkyl sulphosuccinates achieved percentages of ultimate biodegradation < or =50%.

  6. Effects of perinatal exposure to nonylphenol on delivery outcomes of pregnant rats and inflammatory hepatic injury in newborn rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Yu

    Full Text Available The current study aimed to investigate the effects of perinatal exposure to nonylphenol (NP on delivery outcome of pregnant rats and subsequent inflammatory hepatic injury in newborn rats. The pregnant rats were divided into 2 groups: control group (corn oil and NP exposure group. Thirty-four pregnant rats were administered NP or corn oil by gavage from the sixth day of pregnancy to 21 days postpartum, with blood samples collected at 12 and 21 days of pregnancy and 60 days after delivery. The NP concentration was measured by HPLC, with chemiluminescence used for detection of estrogen and progesterone levels. Maternal delivery parameters were also observed. Liver and blood of the newborn rats were collected and subjected to automatic biochemical detection of liver function and blood lipid analyzer (immunoturbidimetry, and ultrastructural observation of the hepatic microstructure, with the TNF-α and IL-1β hepatic tissue levels evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Compared with the control group, the pregnant and postpartum serum NP and estradiol levels of the mother rats in the NP group were significantly increased, together with lowered progesterone level, increased number of threatened abortion and dystocia, and fewer newborn rats and lower litter weight. Serum and hepatic NP levels of the newborn rats measured 60 days after birth were significantly higher than those of the control group, as well as lower testosterone levels and increased estradiol levels. When observed under electron microscope, the hepatocyte nuclei of the control group were large and round, with evenly distributed chromatin. The chromatin of hepatocytes in the NP group presented deep staining of the nuclei, significant lipid decrease in the cytoplasm, and the majority of cells bonded with lysate. The results of immunohistochemistry showed that there was almost no TNF-α or IL-1β expression in the hepatocytes of the control group, while the number of TNF-α-, PCNA-, and IL-1

  7. Effects of perinatal exposure to nonylphenol on delivery outcomes of pregnant rats and inflammatory hepatic injury in newborn rats (United States)

    Yu, J.; Luo, Y.; Yang, X.F.; Yang, M.X.; Yang, J.; Yang, X.S.; Zhou, J.; Gao, F.; He, L.T.; Xu, J.


    The current study aimed to investigate the effects of perinatal exposure to nonylphenol (NP) on delivery outcome of pregnant rats and subsequent inflammatory hepatic injury in newborn rats. The pregnant rats were divided into 2 groups: control group (corn oil) and NP exposure group. Thirty-four pregnant rats were administered NP or corn oil by gavage from the sixth day of pregnancy to 21 days postpartum, with blood samples collected at 12 and 21 days of pregnancy and 60 days after delivery. The NP concentration was measured by HPLC, with chemiluminescence used for detection of estrogen and progesterone levels. Maternal delivery parameters were also observed. Liver and blood of the newborn rats were collected and subjected to automatic biochemical detection of liver function and blood lipid analyzer (immunoturbidimetry), and ultrastructural observation of the hepatic microstructure, with the TNF-α and IL-1β hepatic tissue levels evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Compared with the control group, the pregnant and postpartum serum NP and estradiol levels of the mother rats in the NP group were significantly increased, together with lowered progesterone level, increased number of threatened abortion and dystocia, and fewer newborn rats and lower litter weight. Serum and hepatic NP levels of the newborn rats measured 60 days after birth were significantly higher than those of the control group, as well as lower testosterone levels and increased estradiol levels. When observed under electron microscope, the hepatocyte nuclei of the control group were large and round, with evenly distributed chromatin. The chromatin of hepatocytes in the NP group presented deep staining of the nuclei, significant lipid decrease in the cytoplasm, and the majority of cells bonded with lysate. The results of immunohistochemistry showed that there was almost no TNF-α or IL-1β expression in the hepatocytes of the control group, while the number of TNF-α-, PCNA-, and IL-1β-positive cells

  8. 17-Beta estradiol and 4-nonylphenol delay smolt development and downstream migration in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar. (United States)

    Madsen, Steffen S; Skovbølling, Søren; Nielsen, Christian; Korsgaard, Bodil


    The effect of 17-beta estradiol (E2) and 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) on smoltification and downstream migration of Atlantic salmon was studied in an integrated laboratory and field study. In a stock of hatchery-raised 1-year-old salmon, smoltification progressed from February until late May as judged by increased gill Na+, K+ -ATPase activity and 24 h sea water (SW)-tolerance. Starting late March, three groups of 150 fish were each given 6 serial injections over 20 days of 2 microg/g body weight E2, 120 microg/g 4-NP dissolved in peanut oil or peanut oil (4 microl/g) as control. After the last injection, all fish were individually tagged (Passive Integrated Transponder tags) and a non-lethal gill biopsy was taken. Two days later (8 April), 100 fish per group were transported to the field site and released into a small stream. Smolt migration was registered by measuring arrival time at a trap downstream of the release site. Serum vitellogenin levels increased several-fold in both male and female E2- and 4-NP-treated fish. Overall, E2- and 4-NP-treatment impaired smolting as judged by elevated condition factor, reduced gill Na+, K+ -ATPase activity and alpha-subunit Na+, K+ -ATPase mRNA level, reduced muscle water content and increased mortality following 24 h SW-challenge. After release, control fish initiated downstream migration immediately, with 50% of the total number of migrants appearing in the trap within 10 days. E2- and 4-NP-treated fish appeared in the trap with a delay in comparison to controls of 6 and 8 days, respectively. After the smolt run, no fish were registered by electro-fishing upstream of the trap. The total number of fish reaching the trap and thus post-release survival was in the order control (81%), E2 (53%), 4-NP (12%). Representatives from all treatment groups held under simulated natural conditions in the laboratory survived 100% through the migration period, suggesting that a combination of behavioural and in-stream factors (predation by herons

  9. Comparing steroid estrogen, and nonylphenol content across a range of European sewage plants with different treatment and management practices. (United States)

    Johnson, A C; Aerni, H-R; Gerritsen, A; Gibert, M; Giger, W; Hylland, K; Jürgens, M; Nakari, T; Pickering, A; Suter, M J-F; Svenson, A; Wettstein, F E


    The effluent of 17 sewage treatment works (STW) across Norway, Sweden, Finland, The Netherlands, Belgium, Germany, France and Switzerland was studied for the presence of estradiol (E2), estrone (E1), ethinylestradiol (EE2) and nonylphenol (NP). Treatment processes included primary and chemical treatment only, submerged aerated filter, oxidation ditch, activated sludge (AS) and combined trickling filter with activated sludge. The effluent strength ranged between 87 and 846 L/PE (population equivalent), the total hydraulic retention time (HRT) ranged between 4 and 120 h, sludge retention time (SRT) between 3 and 30 d, and water temperature ranged from 12 to 21 degrees C. The highest estrogen values were detected in the effluent of the STW which only used primary treatment (13 ng/L E2 and 35 ng/L E1) and on one occasion in one of the STW using the AS system (6.5 ng/L E2, 50.5 ng/L E1, but on three other occasions the concentrations in this STW were at least a factor of 6 lower). For the 16 STW employing secondary treatment E2 was only detected in the effluent of six works during the study period (average 0.7-5.7 ng/L). E1 was detected in the effluent of 13 of the same STW. The median value for E1 for the 16 STW with secondary treatment was 3.0 ng/L. EE2 was only detected in two STW (1.1, <0.8-2.8 ng/L). NP could be detected in the effluent of all 14 STW where this measurement was attempted, with a median of 0.31 microg/L and values ranging from 0.05 to 1.31 microg/L. A comparison of removal performance for E1 was carried out following prediction of the probable influent concentration. A weak but significant (alpha<5%) correlation between E1 removal and HRT or SRT was observed.

  10. Stable carbon isotope fractionation in chlorinated ethene degradation by bacteria expressing three toluene oxygenases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott eClingenpeel


    Full Text Available One difficulty in using bioremediation at a contaminated site is demonstrating that biodegradation is actually occurring in situ. The stable isotope composition of contaminants may help with this, since they can serve as an indicator of biological activity. To use this approach it is necessary to establish how a particular biodegradation pathway affects the isotopic composition of a contaminant. This study examined bacterial strains expressing three aerobic enzymes for their effect on the 13C/12C ratio when degrading both trichloroethene (TCE and cis-1,2-dichloroethene (c-DCE: toluene 3-monoxygenase, toluene 4-monooxygenase, and toluene 2,3-dioxygenase. We found no significant differences in fractionation among the three enzymes for either compound. Aerobic degradation of c-DCE occurred with low fractionation producing δ13C enrichment factors of -0.9±0.5 to -1.2±0.5, in contrast to reported anaerobic degradation δ13C enrichment factors of -14.1‰ to -20.4‰. Aerobic degradation of TCE resulted in δ13C enrichment factors of -11.6±4.1‰ to -14.7±3.0‰ which overlap reported δ13C enrichment factors for anaerobic TCE degradation of -2.5‰ to -13.8‰. The data from this study suggest that stable isotopes could serve as a diagnostic for detecting aerobic biodegradation of TCE by toluene oxygenases at contaminated sites.

  11. [Cardiovascular protection and mechanisms of actions of aerobic exercise]. (United States)

    Hou, Zuo-Xu; Zhang, Yuan; Gao, Feng


    It is well established that aerobic exercise exerts beneficial effect on cardiovascular system, but the underlying mechanisms are yet to be elucidated. Recent studies have shown that aerobic exercise ameliorates insulin resistance, inflammation and mitochondrial dysfunction which play important roles in the development of cardiovascular disease. In this review, we discussed the underlying mechanisms of the cardioprotective role of aerobic exercise, especially the latest progress in this field.

  12. Intensity Thresholds for Aerobic Exercise–Induced Hypoalgesia


    Naugle, Kelly M.; Naugle, Keith E.; Fillingim, Roger B; Samuels, Brian; Riley, Joseph L.


    Despite many studies investigating exercise-induced hypoalgesia, there is limited understanding of the optimal intensity of aerobic exercise in producing hypoalgesic effects across different types of pain stimuli. Given that not all individuals are willing or capable of engaging in high intensity aerobic exercise, whether moderate intensity aerobic exercise is associated with a hypoalgesic response and whether this response generalizes to multiple pain induction techniques needs to be substan...

  13. Perfection aerobic possibilities of athletes in sport dance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Bo


    Full Text Available The organized analysis to functions of the aerobic metabolism of the sport dancers. They are determined reduced components of the aerobic metabolism of partners (male and female. The motivated directivity of the training means and program for development component of the aerobic functions skilled athlete in sport dance. It is proved that loading that is used in training process by sport dances must have a character of cardiorespiratory system.

  14. Degradation of textile dyes by cyanobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Maria Dellamatrice

    Full Text Available Abstract Dyes are recalcitrant compounds that resist conventional biological treatments. The degradation of three textile dyes (Indigo, RBBR and Sulphur Black, and the dye-containing liquid effluent and solid waste from the Municipal Treatment Station, Americana, São Paulo, Brazil, by the cyanobacteria Anabaena flos-aquae UTCC64, Phormidium autumnale UTEX1580 and Synechococcus sp. PCC7942 was evaluated. The dye degradation efficiency of the cyanobacteria was compared with anaerobic and anaerobic-aerobic systems in terms of discolouration and toxicity evaluations. The discoloration was evaluated by absorption spectroscopy. Toxicity was measured using the organisms Hydra attenuata, the alga Selenastrum capricornutum and lettuce seeds. The three cyanobacteria showed the potential to remediate textile effluent by removing the colour and reducing the toxicity. However, the growth of cyanobacteria on sludge was slow and discoloration was not efficient. The cyanobacteria P. autumnale UTEX1580 was the only strain that completely degraded the indigo dye. An evaluation of the mutagenicity potential was performed by use of the micronucleus assay using Allium sp. No mutagenicity was observed after the treatment. Two metabolites were produced during the degradation, anthranilic acid and isatin, but toxicity did not increase after the treatment. The cyanobacteria showed the ability to degrade the dyes present in a textile effluent; therefore, they can be used in a tertiary treatment of effluents with recalcitrant compounds.

  15. Anaerobic microbial degradation of organochlorine insecticides Aldrin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, T.C.; Yen, J.H.; Wang, Y.S. [National Taiwan Univ. (Taiwan)


    Aldrin (1,2,3,4,10,10-hexachloro-1,4,4a,5,8,8a-hexahydro-1,4-endo-exo-5,8-dimethanonnaphthalene), a cyclodiene organochlorine insecticide, was banned by nations and classified as B2 carcinogen by United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Because of its chemical stability and lipophilicity, aldrin is regarded as a persistent and recalcitrant compound. Aldrin is easily adsorbed to soil and sediment after spreading to the environments, furthermore, it may be accumulated in animal's tissue or milk and then cause adverse effects by food-chain. The dissipation process of aldrin in environments has continuously been paid much attention by researchers. In general, the dissipation of aldrin has been thought as relating to three mechanisms: photo-degradation, chemical hydrolysis, and microbial degradation. And it has been well known that microbial degradation is the most important agent for breakdown of organochlorine pesticides. There has been shown that aldrin could be transformed to its metabolites, such as dieldrin or photo-dieldrin, by microorganisms under aerobic conditions, however, limited information has been shown under anaerobic conditions. For this reason, the degradation potential of aldrin by anaerobic microorganisms obtained from indigenous river sediment was evaluated, and the effect of environmental factors such as temperatures and nutrients on the aldrin degradation was also investigated in this study.

  16. Research on aerobics classes influence on physical prepareduess of students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasulia M. А.


    Full Text Available Physical skills of female students doing aerobics have been studied. 165 female students aged 17-18 divided into three groups of 55 each have taken part in the experiment. Groups have been trained according to different methods conventionally called 'power aerobics', 'dance aerobics' and 'jump aerobics'. Level of female students' physical skills has been determined by the results of seven tests in the beginning of an academic year and after six-months term. Mathematical treatment of the results has been carried out. The most preferable as to improving physical skills level method has been discovered to be the one aimed on power abilities development method.

  17. Aerobic capacity related to cardiac size in young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, M; Wollmer, P; Karlsson, M


    Aerobic capacity, defined as peak oxygen uptake (VO2PEAK), is generally considered to be the best single marker for aerobic fitness. We assessed if VO2PEAK is related to different cardiac dimensions in healthy young children on a population base.......Aerobic capacity, defined as peak oxygen uptake (VO2PEAK), is generally considered to be the best single marker for aerobic fitness. We assessed if VO2PEAK is related to different cardiac dimensions in healthy young children on a population base....

  18. Biological Degradation of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene


    Esteve-Núñez, Abraham; Caballero, Antonio (fl. 1793); Ramos, Juan L.


    Nitroaromatic compounds are xenobiotics that have found multiple applications in the synthesis of foams, pharmaceuticals, pesticides, and explosives. These compounds are toxic and recalcitrant and are degraded relatively slowly in the environment by microorganisms. 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) is the most widely used nitroaromatic compound. Certain strains of Pseudomonas and fungi can use TNT as a nitrogen source through the removal of nitrogen as nitrite from TNT under aerobic conditions and ...

  19. Biodegradation of Reactive blue 13 in a two-stage anaerobic/aerobic fluidized beds system with a Pseudomonas sp. isolate. (United States)

    Lin, Jun; Zhang, Xingwang; Li, Zhongjian; Lei, Lecheng


    Pseudomonas sp. strain L1 capable of degrading the azo textile dye Reactive blue 13, was isolated from activated sludge in a sequencing batch reactor. A continuous two-stage anaerobic/aerobic biological fluidized bed system was used to decolorize and mineralize Reactive blue 13. The key factors affecting decolorization were investigated and the efficiency of degradation was also optimized. An overall color removal of 83.2% and COD removal of 90.7% was achieved at pH 7, a residence time of 70 h and a glucose concentration of 2 g/L, HRT=70 h and C(glucose)=2000 mg/L. Oxygen was contributing to blocking the azo bond cleavage. Consequently, decolorization occurred in the anaerobic reactor while partial mineralization was achieved in the aerobic reactor. A possible degradation pathway based on the analysis of intermediates and involving azoreduction, desulfonation, deamination and further oxidation reactions is presented.

  20. Screening and identification of aerobic denitrifiers (United States)

    Shao, K.; Deng, H. M.; Chen, Y. T.; Zhou, H. J.; Yan, G. X.


    With the standards of the effluent quality more stringent, it becomes a quite serious problem for municipalities and industries to remove nitrogen from wastewater. Bioremediation is a potential method for the removal of nitrogen and other pollutants because of its high efficiency and low cost. Seven predominant aerobic denitrifiers were screened and characterized from the activated sludge in the CAST unit. Some of these strains removed 87% nitrate nitrogen at least. Based on their phenotypic and phylogenetic characteristics, the isolates were identified as the genera of Ralstonia, Achromobacter, Aeromonas and Enterobacter.

  1. Intraspecific variation in aerobic and anaerobic locomotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jon Christian; Tirsgård, Bjørn; Cordero, Gerardo A.;


    Intraspecific variation and trade-off in aerobic and anaerobic traits remain poorly understood in aquatic locomotion. Using gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata), both axial swimmers, this study tested four hypotheses: (1) gait transition from steady...... to unsteady (i.e., burst-assisted) swimming is associated with anaerobic metabolism evidenced as excess post exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC); (2) variation in swimming performance (critical swimming speed; U crit) correlates with metabolic scope (MS) or anaerobic capacity (i.e., maximum EPOC); (3...

  2. Taxonomic characterization of the cellulose-degrading bacterium NCIB 10462

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dees, C.; Ringleberg, D.; Scott, T.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Phelps, T. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)


    The gram negative cellulase-producing bacterium NCIB 10462 has been previously named Pseudomonas fluorescens subsp. or var. cellulosa. Since there is renewed interest in cellulose-degrading bacteria for use in bioconversion of cellulose to chemical feed stocks and fuels, we re-examined the characteristics of this microorganism to determine its proper taxonomic characterization and to further define it`s true metabolic potential. Metabolic and physical characterization of NCIB 10462 revealed that this was an alkalophilic, non-fermentative, gram negative, oxidase positive, motile, cellulose-degrading bacterium. The aerobic substrate utilization profile of this bacterium was found to have few characteristics consistent with a classification of P. fluorescens with a very low probability match with the genus Sphingomonas. Total lipid analysis did not reveal that any sphingolipid bases are produced by this bacterium. NCIB 10462 was found to grow best aerobically but also grows well in complex media under reducing conditions. NCIB 10462 grew slowly under full anaerobic conditions on complex media but growth on cellulosic media was found only under aerobic conditions. Total fatty acid analysis (MIDI) of NCIB 10462 failed to group this bacterium with a known pseudomonas species. However, fatty acid analysis of the bacteria when grown at temperatures below 37{degrees}C suggest that the organism is a pseudomonad. Since a predominant characteristic of this bacterium is it`s ability to degrade cellulose, we suggest it be called Pseudomonas cellulosa.

  3. Removal of trichloroethylene (TCE) contaminated soil using a two-stage anaerobic-aerobic composting technique. (United States)

    Ponza, Supat; Parkpian, Preeda; Polprasert, Chongrak; Shrestha, Rajendra P; Jugsujinda, Aroon


    The effect of organic carbon addition on remediation of trichloroethylene (TCE) contaminated clay soil was investigated using a two stage anaerobic-aerobic composting system. TCE removal rate and processes involved were determined. Uncontaminated clay soil was treated with composting materials (dried cow manure, rice husk and cane molasses) to represent carbon based treatments (5%, 10% and 20% OC). All treatments were spiked with TCE at 1,000 mg TCE/kg DW and incubated under anaerobic and mesophillic condition (35 degrees C) for 8 weeks followed by continuous aerobic condition for another 6 weeks. TCE dissipation, its metabolites and biogas composition were measured throughout the experimental period. Results show that TCE degradation depended upon the amount of organic carbon (OC) contained within the composting treatments/matrices. The highest TCE removal percentage (97%) and rate (75.06 micro Mole/kg DW/day) were obtained from a treatment of 10% OC composting matrices as compared to 87% and 27.75 micro Mole/kg DW/day for 20% OC, and 83% and 38.08 micro Mole/kg DW/day for soil control treatment. TCE removal rate was first order reaction kinetics. Highest degradation rate constant (k(1) = 0.035 day(- 1)) was also obtained from the 10% OC treatment, followed by 20% OC (k(1) = 0.026 day(- 1)) and 5% OC or soil control treatment (k(1) = 0.023 day(- 1)). The half-life was 20, 27 and 30 days, respectively. The overall results suggest that sequential two stages anaerobic-aerobic composting technique has potential for remediation of TCE in heavy texture soil, providing that easily biodegradable source of organic carbon is present.

  4. Biodegradation of azo dyes in a sequential anaerobic-aerobic system. (United States)

    Rajaguru, P; Kalaiselvi, K; Palanivel, M; Subburam, V


    A sequential anaerobic aerobic treatment process based on mixed culture of bacteria isolated from textile dye effluent-contaminated soil was used to degrade sulfonated azo dyes Orange G (OG), Amido black 10B (AB), Direct red 4BS (DR) and Congo red (CR). Under anaerobic conditions in a fixed-bed column using glucose as co-substrate, the azo dyes were reduced and amines were released by the bacterial biomass. The amines were completely mineralized in a subsequent aerobic treatment using the same isolates. The maximum degradation rate observed in the treatment system for OG was 60.9 mg/l per day (16.99 mg/g glucose utilized), for AB 571.3 mg/l per day (14.46 mg/g glucose utilized), for DR 112.5 mg/l per day (32.02 mg/g glucose utilized) and for CR 134.9 mg/l per day (38.9 mg/g glucose utilized).

  5. Chemical and microbial community analysis during aerobic biostimulation assays of non-sulfonated alkyl-benzene-contaminated groundwater. (United States)

    Martínez-Pascual, Eulàlia; Jiménez, Nuria; Vidal-Gavilan, Georgina; Viñas, Marc; Solanas, A M


    A chemical and microbial characterization of lab-scale biostimulation assays with groundwater samples taken from an industrial site in which the aquifer had been contaminated by linear non-sulfonate alkyl benzenes (LABs) was carried out for further field-scale bioremediation purposes. Two lab-scale biodegradability assays were performed, one with a previously obtained gas-oil-degrading consortium and another with the native groundwater flora. Results for the characterization of the groundwater microbial population of the site revealed the presence of an important LAB-degrading microbial population with a strong degrading capacity. Among the microorganisms identified at the site, the detection of Parvibaculum lavamentivorans, which have been described in other studies as alkyl benzene sulfonates degraders, is worth mentioning. Incubation of P. lavamentivorans DSMZ13023 with LABs as reported in this study shows for the first time the metabolic capacity of this strain to degrade such compounds. Results from the biodegradation assays in this study showed that the indigenous microbial population had a higher degrading capacity than the gas-oil-degrading consortium, indicating the strong ability of the native community to adapt to the presence of LABs. The addition of inorganic nutrients significantly improved the aerobic biodegradation rate, achieving levels of biodegradation close to 90%. The results of this study show the potential effectiveness of oxygen and nutrients as in situ biostimulation agents as well as the existence of a complex microbial community that encompasses well-known hydrocarbon- and LAS-degrading microbial populations in the aquifer studied.

  6. Reductive transformation and detoxification mechanism of 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene in combined zero valent iron and anaerobic-aerobic process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinyou Shen; Zongyuan Zhou; Changjin Ou; Xiuyun Sun; Jiansheng Li; Weiqing Han; Lin Zhou; Lianjun Wang


    A combined zero valent iron (ZVI) and anaerobic-aerobic process was adopted for the treatment of 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB)-containing wastewater.The transformation pathway,reduction of acute toxicity and enhancement of biodegradability were investigated.After pretreatment by ZVI,DNCB in wastewater could be completely converted into 2,4-diaminochlorobenzene (DACB).The ratio of BOD5/COD increased from 0.005 ± 0.001 to 0.168 ± 0.007,while EC50,48 hr (V/V) increased from 0.65% to 5.20%,indicating the enhancement of biodegradability and reduction of acute toxicity with the pretreatment by ZVI.DACB was further dechlorinated to m-phenylenediamine during the anaerobic process using methanol as electron donor,with EC50,48 hr increasing from 5.20% to 48.2%.After the subsequent anaerobic-aerobic process,m-phenylenediamine was degraded completely,with effluent COD of 67.5 ± 10.8 mg/L.This effluent of the subsequent anaerobic-aerobic process was not toxic to zebrafish.The combined ZVI and anaerobic-aerobic process offers bright prospects for the treatment of chlorinated nitroaromatic compound-containing wastewater.

  7. Acute effects of aerobic exercise promote learning. (United States)

    Perini, Renza; Bortoletto, Marta; Capogrosso, Michela; Fertonani, Anna; Miniussi, Carlo


    The benefits that physical exercise confers on cardiovascular health are well known, whereas the notion that physical exercise can also improve cognitive performance has only recently begun to be explored and has thus far yielded only controversial results. In the present study, we used a sample of young male subjects to test the effects that a single bout of aerobic exercise has on learning. Two tasks were run: the first was an orientation discrimination task involving the primary visual cortex, and the second was a simple thumb abduction motor task that relies on the primary motor cortex. Forty-four and forty volunteers participated in the first and second experiments, respectively. We found that a single bout of aerobic exercise can significantly facilitate learning mechanisms within visual and motor domains and that these positive effects can persist for at least 30 minutes following exercise. This finding suggests that physical activity, at least of moderate intensity, might promote brain plasticity. By combining physical activity-induced plasticity with specific cognitive training-induced plasticity, we favour a gradual up-regulation of a functional network due to a steady increase in synaptic strength, promoting associative Hebbian-like plasticity.

  8. Distribution patterns of octylphenol and nonylphenol in the aquatic system at Mai Po Marshes Nature Reserve, a Subtropical Estuarine Wetland in Hong Kong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiang-li; LUAN Tian-gang; LIANG Yan; WONG Ming-hung; LAN Chong-yu


    Spatial and temporal distribution of octylphenol (OP) and nonylphenol (NP) in Mai Po Marshes, a subtropical estuarine wetland in Hong Kong, were investigated. Surface water samples were collected every month from 11 sites during the period of September-December 2004. Concentrations of OP and NP ranged from 11.3 to 348 ng/L and from 29 to 2591 ng/L, respectively. The high levels of NP and OP were found in November and December than in September and October. The levels of OP and NP have no significant spatial differences except September. Total organic matter in the sediments appeared to be an important factor in controlling the fate of these compounds in the aquatic environment.

  9. Determination of nonylphenol and octylphenol in paper by microwave-assisted extraction coupled to headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Latorre, A; Lacorte, S; Barceló, D; Montury, M


    A novel and simple method for the determination of active endocrine disrupter compounds (octylphenol OP, and nonylphenol NP) in paper using microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and headspace solid-phase microextraction, coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry has been developed. Parameters affecting the efficiency in the MAE process such as exposure time and extraction solvent were studied in order to determine operating conditions. The optimised method was linear over the range studied (1.25-125 microg kg(-1) for OP and 9.50-950 microg kg(-1) for NP) and showed good level of precision, with a RSD lower than 10% and detection limits at 0.10 and 4.56 microg kg(-1) for OP and NP, respectively. The results obtained from six different types of paper revealed the presence of the target compounds in all samples analysed, at levels ranging between 3 and 211 microg kg(-1).

  10. Simultaneous determination of 4-tert-octylphenol,4-nonylphenol and bisphenol A in Guanting Reservoir using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with selected ion monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Xing-long; HUANG Guo-lan; JIANG Gui-bin; ZHOU Qun-fang; LIU Jing-fu


    The wide occurrence of estrogenic compounds 4-tert-octylphenol, 4-nonylphenol, bisphenol A in surface water of Guanting Reservoir was successfully determined. The target compounds in water samples were preconcentrated by liquid-liquid extraction with dichloromethane, derivatized by trifluoroacetic anhydride, and quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS) with selected ion monitoring(SIM). In the selected seven sampling sites(S1-S7), the concentrations of NP in sample S7 were significantly higher than the other in reservoir. The pollution status in S3 and S7 were much more serious. The concentrations of OP, NP and BPA were in the range of 44.5-48.8, 221.6-349.6 and 30.2-82.7 ng/L, respectively. The pollution were mainly inputted from the upper river and released from sediments in Guanting Reservoir.

  11. Degradation kinetics and products of triazophos in intertidal sediment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Kun-de; YUAN Dong-xing


    This work presents laboratory studies on the degradation of triazophos in intertidal sediment. The overall degradations were found to follow the first-order decay model. After being incubated for 6 d, the percentage of degradations of triazophos in unsterilized and sterilized sediments were 94.5% and 20.5%, respectively. Between the temperatures of 15℃ and 35℃, the observed degradation rate constant( kobsd ) enhanced as the incubation temperature increased. Triazophos in sediment degraded faster under aerobic condition than under anaerobic one. The water content of sediment had little influence on the degradation when it was in the range of 50%-100%. The values of kobsd decreased with increasing initial concentration of triazophos in sediment, which could result from the microorganism inhibition by triazophos. Four major degradation products, o, o-diethyl phosphorothioic acid, monoethyl phosphorothioic acid, phosphorothioic acid,and 1-phenyl-3-hydroxy-1,2,4-triazole, were tentatively identified as their corresponding trimethylsilyl derivatives with a gas chromatography-mass spectrometer. The possible degradation pathway of triazophos in intertidal sediment was proposed. The results revealed that triazophos in intertidal sediment was relatively unstable and could be easily degraded.

  12. Modeling organic micro pollutant degradation kinetics during sewage sludge composting. (United States)

    Sadef, Yumna; Poulsen, Tjalfe Gorm; Bester, Kai


    Degradation of 13 different organic micro-pollutants in sewage sludge during aerobic composting at 5 different temperatures over a 52 day period was investigated. Adequacy of two kinetic models: a single first order, and a dual first order expression (using an early (first 7 days) and a late-time (last 45 days) degradation coefficient), for describing micro-pollutant degradation, and kinetic constant dependency on composting temperature were evaluated. The results showed that both models provide relatively good descriptions of the degradation process, with the dual first order model being most accurate. The single first order degradation coefficient was 0.025 d(-1) on average across all compounds and temperatures. At early times, degradation was about three times faster than at later times. Average values of the early and late time degradation coefficients for the dual first order model were 0.066 d(-1) and 0.022 d(-1), respectively. On average 30% of the initial micro-pollutant mass present in the compost was degraded rapidly during the early stages of the composting process. Single first order and late time dual first order kinetic constants were strongly dependent on composting temperature with maximum values at temperatures of 35-65°C. In contrast the early time degradation coefficients were relatively independent of composting temperature.

  13. Delineation of Steroid-Degrading Microorganisms through Comparative Genomic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee H. Bergstrand


    Full Text Available Steroids are ubiquitous in natural environments and are a significant growth substrate for microorganisms. Microbial steroid metabolism is also important for some pathogens and for biotechnical applications. This study delineated the distribution of aerobic steroid catabolism pathways among over 8,000 microorganisms whose genomes are available in the NCBI RefSeq database. Combined analysis of bacterial, archaeal, and fungal genomes with both hidden Markov models and reciprocal BLAST identified 265 putative steroid degraders within only Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria, which mainly originated from soil, eukaryotic host, and aquatic environments. These bacteria include members of 17 genera not previously known to contain steroid degraders. A pathway for cholesterol degradation was conserved in many actinobacterial genera, particularly in members of the Corynebacterineae, and a pathway for cholate degradation was conserved in members of the genus Rhodococcus. A pathway for testosterone and, sometimes, cholate degradation had a patchy distribution among Proteobacteria. The steroid degradation genes tended to occur within large gene clusters. Growth experiments confirmed bioinformatic predictions of steroid metabolism capacity in nine bacterial strains. The results indicate there was a single ancestral 9,10-seco-steroid degradation pathway. Gene duplication, likely in a progenitor of Rhodococcus, later gave rise to a cholate degradation pathway. Proteobacteria and additional Actinobacteria subsequently obtained a cholate degradation pathway via horizontal gene transfer, in some cases facilitated by plasmids. Catabolism of steroids appears to be an important component of the ecological niches of broad groups of Actinobacteria and individual species of Proteobacteria.

  14. Constant growth rate can be supported by decreasing energy flux and increasing aerobic glycolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slavov, Nikolai; Budnik, Bogdan A; Schwab, David; Airoldi, Edoardo M; van Oudenaarden, Alexander


    Fermenting glucose in the presence of enough oxygen to support respiration, known as aerobic glycolysis, is believed to maximize growth rate. We observed increasing aerobic glycolysis during exponential growth, suggesting additional physiological roles for aerobic glycolysis. We investigated such ro

  15. 婴幼儿配方乳粉中壬基酚污染检测与风险控制%Nonylphenol Pollution Detection and Control in Infant Formula Milk Powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Through 86 batches of infant formula milk powder to determine nonylphenol residues by UPLC-MS-MS during 2014-2015.The results showed that the concentration of nonylphenol>280 g/kg samples were 13 batches,exceed the standard rate of 15.1%.Due to environmental hormone nonylphenol,would produce important influence on the normal development of infants that safety risk was high. The nonylphenol pollution sources were investigated,that the plastic package materials,production process and raw milk and other raw materials were the main pollution sources of nonylphenol.This paper proposed the control measures of nonylphenolto control the packaging materials,raw materials and plastic pipes which used in production,could effectively solve the problems of nonylphenol pollution in infant formula milk powder.%2014-2015年对86个批次婴幼儿配方乳粉采用同位素稀释法UPLC-MS-MS测定壬基酚残留量并进行统计,结果表明:壬基酚含量>280μg/kg的样品有13个批次,超标率达15.1%。由于壬基酚属环境激素,对婴幼儿的正常发育会产生重要影响,认为存在较高的安全风险。为此对壬基酚的污染源进行了调查研究,认为塑料包装材料、生产过程及生鲜乳等原料是壬基酚的主要污染源。为此提出了控制壬基酚污染的措施:应对包材、原辅料及生产中使用的塑料类管材等进行控制,从而有效解决婴幼儿配方乳粉中壬基酚的污染问题。

  16. Downregulation of steroid hormone receptor expression and activation of cell signal transduction pathways induced by a chiral nonylphenol isomer in mouse sertoli TM4 cells. (United States)

    Liu, Xiaozhen; Nie, Shaoping; Yu, Qiang; Wang, Xiaoyin; Huang, Danfei; Xie, Mingyong


    Nonylphenols (NPs) are considered as important environmental toxicants and potential endocrine disrupting compounds which can disrupt male reproductive system. 4-[1-Ethyl-1-methylhexy] phenol (4-NP65 ) is one of the main isomers of technical nonylphenol mixtures. In the present study, effect of NPs was evaluated from an isomer-specific viewpoint using 4-NP65 . Decreased mRNA expression levels of estrogen receptor (ER)-α, ER-β, androgen receptor (AR) and progesterone receptor (PR) were observed in the cells exposed to 4-NP65 for 24 h. Furthermore, 4-NP65 treatment evoked significant decrease in protein expression levels of ER-α and ER-β. Levels of mullerian inhibiting substance and transferrin were found to change significantly in 4-NP65 challenged cells. Additionally, JNK1/2-MAPK pathway was activated due to 4-NP65 exposure, but not ERK1/2 and p38-MAPK pathways. Meanwhile, 4-NP65 increased the p-Akt level and showed no effects on the Akt level which indicated that Akt pathway was activated by 4-NP65 . In conclusion, these findings have shown that 4-NP65 exposure affected expression of cell receptors and cell signaling pathways in Sertoli TM4 cells. We proposed that molecular mechanism of reproductive damage in Sertoli cells induced by NPs may be mediated by cell receptors and/or cell signal transduction pathways, and that the effects were dependent on the side chain of NP isomers. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 469-476, 2017.

  17. Microbial community degradation of widely used quaternary ammonium disinfectants. (United States)

    Oh, Seungdae; Kurt, Zohre; Tsementzi, Despina; Weigand, Michael R; Kim, Minjae; Hatt, Janet K; Tandukar, Madan; Pavlostathis, Spyros G; Spain, Jim C; Konstantinidis, Konstantinos T


    Benzalkonium chlorides (BACs) are disinfectants widely used in a variety of clinical and environmental settings to prevent microbial infections, and they are frequently detected in nontarget environments, such as aquatic and engineered biological systems, even at toxic levels. Therefore, microbial degradation of BACs has important ramifications for alleviating disinfectant toxicity in nontarget environments as well as compromising disinfectant efficacy in target environments. However, how natural microbial communities respond to BAC exposure and what genes underlie BAC biodegradation remain elusive. Our previous metagenomic analysis of a river sediment microbial community revealed that BAC exposure selected for a low-diversity community, dominated by several members of the Pseudomonas genus that quickly degraded BACs. To elucidate the genetic determinants of BAC degradation, we conducted time-series metatranscriptomic analysis of this microbial community during a complete feeding cycle with BACs as the sole carbon and energy source under aerobic conditions. Metatranscriptomic profiles revealed a candidate gene for BAC dealkylation, the first step in BAC biodegradation that results in a product 500 times less toxic. Subsequent biochemical assays and isolate characterization verified that the putative amine oxidase gene product was functionally capable of initiating BAC degradation. Our analysis also revealed cooperative interactions among community members to alleviate BAC toxicity, such as the further degradation of BAC dealkylation by-products by organisms not encoding amine oxidase. Collectively, our results advance the understanding of BAC aerobic biodegradation and provide genetic biomarkers to assess the critical first step of this process in nontarget environments.

  18. Aerobic Digestion. Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control. (United States)

    Klopping, Paul H.

    This manual contains the textual material for a single-lesson unit on aerobic sludge digestion. Topic areas addressed include: (1) theory of aerobic digestion; (2) system components; (3) performance factors; (4) indicators of stable operation; and (5) operational problems and their solutions. A list of objectives, glossary of key terms, and…

  19. Longitudinal Predictors of Aerobic Performance in Adolescent Soccer Players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valente-dos-Santos, Joao; Coelho-e-Silva, Manuel J.; Duarte, Joao; Figueiredo, Antonio J.; Liparotti, Joao R.; Sherar, Lauren B.; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Malina, Robert M.


    Background. The importance of aerobic performance in youth soccer is well established. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the contributions of chronological age (CA), skeletal age (SA), body size, and training to the longitudinal development of aerobic performance in youth male soccer play

  20. Aerobic training in persons who have recovered from juvenile dermatomyositis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisager, M; Mathiesen, P R; Vissing, J


    A recent study has shown that 36 persons who had recovered from juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) have on average an 18% decrease in maximal oxygen uptake. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a 12-week aerobic training program in this group, and assess whether aerobic training...

  1. Anaerobic microbial degradation of organic pollutants with chlorate as electron acceptor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehboob, F.


    Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons are two groups of compounds that are widespread pollutants. The aerobic microbial degradation of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons proceeds in general fast and has been widely studied, while the biodegradation in anoxic environments is often incomplete, proceeds

  2. Aerobic rice: crop performance and water use efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Grassi


    Full Text Available Rice (Oryza sativa production largely depends on traditional flooded rice systems whose sustainability is threatened by a progressive decrease in water availability and a constant increase in rice demand due to strong demographic boom in world population. A newly developed water-saving rice system is aerobic rice in which rice grows in nonflooded and unsaturated soil. From 2001, at the International Rice Research Institute in the Philippines, this system has been monitored to identify potentially promising varieties of rice able to grow as an irrigated upland crop and quantify yield potential and water use efficiency. This study reports on the results of cultivating the upland rice variety Apo under different water conditions in 2004-2005 at the IRRI farm in both the dry and wet seasons. The water treatments considered were: aerobic and flooded conditions, alternated flooded and aerobic conditions and aerobic after fallow. Yield and water productivity were compared between aerobic and flooded treatment in both seasons, with the objective of analysing the differences between water treatments. In the experiment the effect of different nitrogen (N application is also considered. The results indicate that the aerobic rice yield was lower than rice production under flood treatment, confirming that observed over past years. Nevertheless, when the aerobic condition is alternated with the anaerobic condition, or a fallow period, the production under aerobic treatment provides good yields (respectively 4.2 and 4.4 ha-1. The fallow period was introduced to observe the response of rice grown under this management. Water productivity was higher in aerobic fields, especially after fallow (0.88 g kg-1. The nitrogen application induced an increase in yield and water productivity, partially compensating for the lack of water in aerobic fields.

  3. A reactor system combining reductive dechloirnation with cometabolic oxidation for complete degradation of tetrachloroentylene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A laboratory sequential anaerobic-aerobic bioreactor system,which consisted of an anaerobic fixed film reactor and twoaerobic chemostats, was set up to degrade tetrachloroethylene (PCE)without accumulating highly toxic degradation intermediates. A soil(ca. 150 mg/liter) of PCE stoichiometrically intocis-1,2-dichloroethylene (cis-DCE), was attached to ceramic mediain the anaerobic fixed film reactor. A phenol degrading strain,Alcaligenes sp. R5, which can efficiently degrade cis-DCE byco-metabolic oxidation, was used as inoculum for the aerobicchemostats consisted of a transformation reactor and a growthreactor. The anaerobic fixed film bioreactor showed more than 99 %of PCE transformation into cis-DCE in the range of influent PCE48h. On the other hand, efficient degradation of the resultantcis-DCE by strain R5 in the following aerobic system could not beachieved due to oxygen limitation. However, 54% of the maximum(H2O2) was supplemented to the transformation reactor as anadditional oxygen source. Further studies are needed to achievemore efficient co-metabolic degradation of cis-DCE in the aerobic reactor.

  4. Aerobic biodegradation of precoagulated cheese whey wastewater. (United States)

    Rivas, Javier; Prazeres, Ana R; Carvalho, Fatima


    Prior to the application of an aerobic biological process, cheese whey wastewater has been pretreated by means of a precipitation stage by adding either NaOH or CaOH2. Both precipitating agents reduce roughly 50% of the raw wastewater chemical oxygen demand (COD). The sludge generated in the prestage shows acceptable settling properties, although solids from the CaOH2-treated effluent are better separated from the liquid bulk than those formed in NaOH-processed wastewater. In both situations, the presedimentation stage renders a supernatant more prone to biodegradation than the untreated effluent. The previous statement is corroborated by the determination of some biological kinetic parameters. Under the operating conditions used in this work, sludge generation after the biological process is reduced to a minimum. The sludge generated shows good settling properties, especially for those experiments in which CaOH2 has previously been added.

  5. Aerobic growth at nanomolar oxygen concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolper, Daniel; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Canfield, Donald Eugene


    known. These capabilities also provide a framework for reconstructing a critical period in the history of life, because low, but not negligible, atmospheric oxygen levels could have persisted before the "Great Oxidation" of the Earth's surface about 2.3 to 2.4 billion years ago. Here, we show......Molecular oxygen (O2) is the second most abundant gas in the Earth's atmosphere, but in many natural environments, its concentration is reduced to low or even undetectable levels. Although low-oxygen-adapted organisms define the ecology of low-oxygen environments, their capabilities are not fully...... that Escherichia coli K-12, chosen for its well-understood biochemistry, rapid growth rate, and low-oxygen-affinity terminal oxidase, grows at oxygen levels of ≤ 3 nM, two to three orders of magnitude lower than previously observed for aerobes. Our study expands both the environmental range and temporal history...

  6. Aerobic growth at nanomolar oxygen concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolper, Daniel Aaron; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Canfield, Donald Eugene


    known. These capabilities also provide a framework for reconstructing a critical period in the history of life, because low, but not negligible, atmospheric oxygen levels could have persisted before the “Great Oxidation” of the Earth’s surface about 2.3 to 2.4 billion years ago. Here, we show......Molecular oxygen (O2) is the second most abundant gas in the Earth’s atmosphere, but in many natural environments, its concentration is reduced to low or even undetectable levels. Although low-oxygen-adapted organisms define the ecology of low-oxygen environments, their capabilities are not fully...... that Escherichia coli K-12, chosen for its well-understood biochemistry, rapid growth rate, and low-oxygen-affinity terminal oxidase, grows at oxygen levels of ≤ 3 nM, two to three orders of magnitude lower than previously observed for aerobes. Our study expands both the environmental range and temporal history...

  7. Properties and degradability of hydrothermal carbonization products. (United States)

    Eibisch, Nina; Helfrich, Mirjam; Don, Axel; Mikutta, Robert; Kruse, Andrea; Ellerbrock, Ruth; Flessa, Heinz


    Biomass carbonized via hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) yields a liquid and a carbon (C)-rich solid called hydrochar. In soil, hydrochars may act as fertilizers and promote C sequestration. We assumed that the chemical composition of the raw material (woodchips, straw, grass cuttings, or digestate) determines the properties of the liquid and solid HTC products, including their degradability. Additionally, we investigated whether easily mineralizable organic components adsorbed on the hydrochar surface influence the degradability of the hydrochars and could be removed by repetitive washing. Carbon mineralization was measured as CO production over 30 d in aerobic incubation experiments with loamy sand. Chemical analysis revealed that most nutrients were preferably enriched in the liquid phase. The C mineralization of hydrochars from woodchips (2% of total C added), straw (3%), grass (6%), and digestate (14%) were dependent on the raw material carbonized and were significantly lower (by 60-92%; < 0.05) than the mineralization of the corresponding raw materials. Washing of the hydrochars significantly decreased mineralization of digestate-hydrochar (up to 40%) but had no effect on mineralization rates of the other three hydrochars. Variations in C mineralization between different hydrochars could be explained by multiple factors, including differences in the O/C-H/C ratios, C/N ratios, lignin content, amount of oxygen-containing functional groups, and pH. In contrast to the solids, the liquid products were highly degradable, with 61 to 89% of their dissolved organic C being mineralized within 30 d. The liquids may be treated aerobically (e.g., for nutrient recovery).

  8. Preliminary Study on the Performance and Interaction of Recycling Hydrolytic-Aerobic Combined Process of High Concentration Starch Wastewater%高浓度淀粉废水水解--好氧循环一体化处理工艺的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李清彪; 廖鑫凯; 吴志旺; 邓旭; 黄益丽; 卢英华; 孙道华; 洪铭嫒; 王琳


    A new recycling hydrolytic-aerobic combined process was developed to treat the high concentration used. At first, the hydrolytic degradation and aerobic degradation process were examined in two batch reactors,respectively. In the stand-alone hydrolytic process, starch in the wastewater almost disappeared after 11 h treatment,but CODCr remained as high as 5803mg. L-1 after two days. In the aerobic process, the biodegradation rate of starch was much slower during the first 11 h than that in the hydrolytic process, although the CODCr removal efficiency reached 89.6% and more than 90% starch could be degraded after 37.5 h. To determine the interaction effects of the two processes, a series of hydrolytic-aerobic combinations were examined in details. Hydrolytic process played an important role in the whole recycle combination process as it could improve the biodegradability of the high concentration starch wastewater. However, from the other experiments, the negative effect of hydrolytic acidification was found in the hydrolytic-aerobic combination, which suggested that the aerobic microorganisms needed time to adapt themselves to the acidic environment. The effect of the degrading time, which was spent in the hydrolytic and aerobic unit, and the number of circulations, with which the wastewater went through the two units were investigated. It was found that a recycle combination of 6 h hydrolytic process with 12 h aerobic process was highly effective and potentially economical, in which the final removal efficiency of CODCr and efficiency of starch degradation reached 94.1% and 98.8%, respectively.

  9. Characterization of Methane Degradation and Methane-Degrading Microbes in Alaska Coastal Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchman, David L. [Univ. of Delaware, Lewes, DE (United States)


    The net flux of methane from methane hydrates and other sources to the atmosphere depends on methane degradation as well as methane production and release from geological sources. The goal of this project was to examine methane-degrading archaea and organic carbon oxidizing bacteria in methane-rich and methane-poor sediments of the Beaufort Sea, Alaska. The Beaufort Sea system was sampled as part of a multi-disciplinary expedition (Methane in the Arctic Shelf or MIDAS) in September 2009. Microbial communities were examined by quantitative PCR analyses of 16S rRNA genes and key methane degradation genes (pmoA and mcrA involved in aerobic and anaerobic methane degradation, respectively), tag pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes to determine the taxonomic make up of microbes in these sediments, and sequencing of all microbial genes (metagenomes ). The taxonomic and functional make-up of the microbial communities varied with methane concentrations, with some data suggesting higher abundances of potential methane-oxidizing archaea in methane-rich sediments. Sequence analysis of PCR amplicons revealed that most of the mcrA genes were from the ANME-2 group of methane oxidizers. According to metagenomic data, genes involved in methane degradation and other degradation pathways changed with sediment depth along with sulfate and methane concentrations. Most importantly, sulfate reduction genes decreased with depth while the anaerobic methane degradation gene (mcrA) increased along with methane concentrations. The number of potential methane degradation genes (mcrA) was low and inconsistent with other data indicating the large impact of methane on these sediments. The data can be reconciled if a small number of potential methane-oxidizing archaea mediates a large flux of carbon in these sediments. Our study is the first to report metagenomic data from sediments dominated by ANME-2 archaea and is one of the few to examine the entire microbial assemblage potentially involved in

  10. Degradation changes stable carbon isotope depth profiles in palsa peatlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Krüger


    Full Text Available Palsa peatlands are a significant carbon pool in the global carbon cycle and are projected to change by global warming due to accelerated permafrost thaw. Our aim was to use stable carbon isotopes as indicators of palsa degradation. Depth profiles of stable carbon isotopes generally reflect organic matter dynamics in soils with an increase of δ13C values during aerobic decomposition and stable or decreasing δ13C values with depth during anaerobic decomposition. Stable carbon isotope depth profiles of undisturbed and degraded sites of hummocks as well as hollows at three palsa peatlands in northern Sweden were used to investigate the degradation processes. The depth patterns of stable isotopes clearly differ between intact and degraded hummocks at all sites. Erosion and cryoturbation at the degraded sites significantly changes the stable carbon isotope depth profiles. At the intact hummocks the uplifting of peat material by permafrost is indicated by a turning in the δ13C depth trend and this assessment is supported by a change in the C / N ratios. For hollows isotope patterns were less clear, but some hollows and degraded hollows in the palsa peatlands show differences in their stable carbon isotope depth profiles indicating enhanced degradation rates. We conclude that the degradation of palsa peatlands by accelerated permafrost thawing could be identified with stable carbon isotope depth profiles. At intact hummocks δ13C depth patterns display the uplifting of peat material by a change in peat decomposition processes.

  11. Effects of biodegradation of mecoprop, dichlorprop and bentazone by changing the redox conditions from anaerobic to aerobic in sandy aquifer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levi, Suzi; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen


    in combination with geological variations may affect microbial degradation processes by mixing in even low oxygen concentrations and create steep gradients and drastic redox zones in aquifers. The aim of the current study was to investigate the stimulation of pesticides biodegradation by adding oxygen...... knowledge, this is the first observation of bentazone degradation with aquifer. Optimization of redox conditions from anaerobic to aerobic by adding oxygen stimulated the biodegradation of three pesticides.......Pesticides and metabolites are detected in an increasing number of aquifers resulting in closure of many drinking water wells. The natural redox conditions of aquifers are considered to be one of the important factors governing the pesticides degradation in groundwater. Water abstraction strategy...

  12. [Isolation and identification of degradation bacteria Enterobacter aerogenes for pyrethriods pesticide residues and its degradation characteristics]. (United States)

    Liao, Min; Zhang, Hai-jun; Xie, Xiao-mei


    By incubation experiment, the bacterial strain labeled as M6R9 was isolated from the tame sludge in water course of Pesticide Factory of Hangzhou, and was identified as Enterobacter aerogenes, which had highly efficient degradation for Bifenthrin, Fenpropathrin and Cypermethrin. By investigating the physiological characteristics of the strain, the results show that the bacterium is a gram-negative aerobe bacilli, size is (0.8-1.9) microm x (0.5-1.0) microm, and is capable of utilizing Bifenthrin, Fenpropathrin and Cypermethrin as sole carbon source. Under the condition of ventilation, (25-30) degrees C, inoculated amount at D(415 nm) 0.2, pH 7.0, pesticide concentration 100 mg x L(-1) and vibrational speed 180 r x min(-1), the degradation efficiencies to Bifenthrin, Fenpropathrin and Cypermethrin are the highest by strain M6R9. Under such condition, in the mixture culture medium with 100 mg x L(-1) Bifenthrin, Fenpropathrin and Cypermethrin, the degradation ratios are 55.74%, 55.11% and 55.96% after culturing 3 d, respectively, the degradation processes are fitted for first-order kinetic equation and the half lives (t(1/2)) are 65.4,70.7 and 68.6 h respectively. The degradation ability of Enterobacter aerogenes M6R9 on Bifenthrin, Fenpropathrin and Cypermethrin is positively correlated to inoculated amount,vibrational speed and ventilation.

  13. Monitoring of growth and physiological activities of biofilm during succession on polystyrene from activated sludge under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. (United States)

    Naz, Iffat; Batool, Syeda Ain-ul; Ali, Naeem; Khatoon, Nazia; Atiq, Niama; Hameed, Abdul; Ahmed, Safia


    The present research work monitored the successive biofilm development and its catabolic role in the degradation of polystyrene (PS). PS material was artificially colonized with biofilm by incubating it with activated sludge under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Biofilm formation was monitored by gravimetric weight analysis, spectrophotometric absorbance technique, heterotrophic plate count, and scanning electron microscopy under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The wet weight (1.59 and 1.17 g) and dry weight (0.41 and 0.08 g) of a biofilm showed a significant constant increase under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, respectively, from first till 9 weeks of incubation. Plate count of the selected bacteria (Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella dysenteriae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) considerably declined (90-99 %) in the biofilm after seventh and fifth weeks of incubation under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, respectively, indicating a positive shift from pathogenic to beneficial microbial community. While most probable number index of fecal coliforms and E. coli in the sludge showed more reduction (98 and 99 %) under aerobic as compare to anaerobic conditions (86 and 91 %) after 9 weeks of biofilm formation on PS cubes. Correspondingly, the decreasing levels of chemical oxygen demand and biochemical oxygen demand (up to 73 %) showed signs of sludge digestion. Scanning electron microscope coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscope revealed nature of PS media containing high carbon content. However, biofilm development proved to be involved in the biochemical transformation of the PS medium as indicated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

  14. Hydrocarbon Specificity During Aerobic oil Biodegradation Revealed in Marine Microcosms With the use of Comprehensive, Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography. (United States)

    Wardlaw, G. D.; Reddy, C. M.; Nelson, R. K.; Valentine, D. L.


    In 2003 the National Research Council reported more than 380 million gallons of oil is emitted into the ocean each year from natural seepage and as a result of anthropogenic activities. Many of the hydrocarbons making up this oil are persistent and toxic to marine life. Petroleum emitted into biologically sensitive areas can lead to environmental stress and ecosystem collapse. As a result many studies and a substantial amount of resources have been devoted to creating efficient and effective remediation tools and developing a better understanding of natural hydrocarbon weathering processes occurring in marine environments. The goal of this study is to elucidate patterns and extent of aerobic hydrocarbon degradation in marine sediments. In order to assess the specific molecular transformations occurring in petroleum emitted into oxic marine environments, we prepared microcosm experiments using sediments and seawater collected from the natural oil seeps offshore Coal Oil Point, California. Petroleum recovered from Platform Holly in the Santa Barbara Channel, was added to a sediment-seawater mixture and the microcosm bottles were allowed to incubate under aerobic conditions for slightly more than 100 days. Comprehensive, two-dimensional gas chromatography was employed in this study to quantify changes in the concentrations of individual hydrocarbon compounds because of the increased resolution and resolving power provided with this robust analytical method. We show significant hydrocarbon mass loss due to aerobic biodegradation for hundreds of tracked compounds in the microcosm bottles. The results shown here provide quantitative evidence for broad-scale metabolic specificity during aerobic hydrocarbon degradation in surface and shallow subsurface marine sediments.

  15. Degradation of the pharmaceuticals diclofenac and sulfamethoxazole and their transformation products under controlled environmental conditions. (United States)

    Poirier-Larabie, S; Segura, P A; Gagnon, C


    Contamination of the aquatic environment by pharmaceuticals via urban effluents is well known. Several classes of drugs have been identified in waterways surrounding these effluents in the last 15years. To better understand the fate of pharmaceuticals in ecosystems, degradation processes need to be investigated and transformation products must be identified. Thus, this study presents the first comparative study between three different natural environmental conditions: photolysis and biodegradation in aerobic and anaerobic conditions both in the dark of diclofenac and sulfamethoxazole, two common drugs present in significant amounts in impacted surface waters. Results indicated that degradation kinetics differed depending on the process and the type of drug and the observed transformation products also differed among these exposure conditions. Diclofenac was nearly degraded by photolysis after 4days, while its concentration only decreased by 42% after 57days of exposure to bacteria in aerobic media and barely 1% in anaerobic media. For sulfamethoxazole, 84% of the initial concentration was still present after 11days of exposure to light, while biodegradation decreased its concentration by 33% after 58days of exposure under aerobic conditions and 5% after 70days of anaerobic exposure. In addition, several transformation products were observed and persisted over time while others degraded in turn. For diclofenac, chlorine atoms were lost primarily in the photolysis, while a redox reaction was promoted by biodegradation under aerobic conditions. For sulfamethoxazole, isomerization was favored by photolysis while a redox reaction was also favored by the biodegradation under aerobic conditions. To summarize this study points out the occurrence of different transformation products under variable degradation conditions and demonstrates that specific functional groups are involved in the tested natural attenuation processes. Given the complexity of environmental samples

  16. Relationships between chemical oxygen demand (COD) components and toxicity in a sequential anaerobic baffled reactor/aerobic completely stirred reactor system treating Kemicetine. (United States)

    Sponza, Delia Teresa; Demirden, Pinar


    In this study the interactions between toxicity removals and Kemicetine, COD removals, intermediate products of Kemicetine and COD components (CODs originating from slowly degradable organics, readily degradable organics, inert microbial products and from the inert compounds) were investigated in a sequential anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR)/aerobic completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR) system with a real pharmaceutical wastewater. The total COD and Kemicetine removal efficiencies were 98% and 100%, respectively, in the sequential ABR/CSTR systems. 2-Amino-1 (p-nitrophenil)-1,3 propanediol, l-p-amino phenyl, p-amino phenol and phenol were detected in the ABR as the main readily degradable inter-metabolites. In the anaerobic ABR reactor, the Kemicetin was converted to corresponding inter-metabolites and a substantial part of the COD was removed. In the aerobic CSTR reactor the inter-metabolites produced in the anaerobic reactor were completely removed and the COD remaining from the anerobic reactor was biodegraded. It was found that the COD originating from the readily degradable organics did not limit the anaerobic degradation process, while the CODs originating from the slowly degradable organics and from the inert microbial products significantly decreased the anaerobic ABR reactor performance. The acute toxicity test results indicated that the toxicity decreased from the influent to the effluent of the aerobic CSTR reactor. The ANOVA test statistics showed that there was a strong linear correlation between acute toxicity, CODs originating from the slowly degradable organics and inert microbial products. A weak correlation between acute toxicity and CODs originating from the inert compounds was detected.

  17. Advance in the Study on Determining and Removal of Nonylphenol Ethoxylates in Water%水中壬基酚聚氧乙烯醚的测定及去除方法研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳治杰; 李文岩


    Along with the ethoxylates becomes a hot mine the concentration of as pretreatment technique. dangers of endocrine disruptors getting peopleg attention, research of water treatment. GC - MS and HPLC are now the study on nonylphenol mainly applied to deter- nonylphenol ethoxylates in water samples, and solid phase extraction (SPE) is used The deep treatment process such as activated carbons and resin adsorption, photo- decomposition and biodegradation which paid much attention to in recent years show effective decomposition of nonylphenol ethoxylates in water.%随着内分泌干扰物的危害不断得到人们的重视,壬基酚聚氧乙烯醚的研究成为了水处理的热点。目前检测水样中壬基酚聚氧乙烯醚的主要方法是采用GC-MS和HPLC,预处理主要采用固相萃取。近年来倍受关注的深度处理工艺如活性炭、树脂吸附法,以及光催化降解和生物降解法能有效的去除水中的壬基酚聚氧乙烯醚。

  18. Development of Aerobic Fitness in Young Team Sport Athletes. (United States)

    Harrison, Craig B; Gill, Nicholas D; Kinugasa, Taisuke; Kilding, Andrew E


    The importance of a high level of aerobic fitness for team sport players is well known. Previous research suggests that aerobic fitness can be effectively increased in adults using traditional aerobic conditioning methods, including high-intensity interval and moderate-intensity continuous training, or more recent game-based conditioning that involves movement and skill-specific tasks, e.g. small-sided games. However, aerobic fitness training for youth team sport players has received limited attention and is likely to differ from that for adults due to changes in maturation. Given young athletes experience different rates of maturation and technical skill development, the most appropriate aerobic fitness training modes and loading parameters are likely to be specific to the developmental stage of a player. Therefore, we analysed studies that investigated exercise protocols to enhance aerobic fitness in young athletes, relative to growth and maturation, to determine current best practice and limitations. Findings were subsequently used to guide an evidence-based model for aerobic fitness development. During the sampling stage (exploration of multiple sports), regular participation in moderate-intensity aerobic fitness training, integrated into sport-specific drills, activities and skill-based games, is recommended. During the specialisation stage (increased commitment to a chosen sport), high-intensity small-sided games should be prioritised to provide the simultaneous development of aerobic fitness and technical skills. Once players enter the investment stage (pursuit of proficiency in a chosen sport), a combination of small-sided games and high-intensity interval training is recommended.

  19. Microbial degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in estuarine sediment of Tama River in Tokyo urban area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamane, Akiko; Hosomi, Masaaki; Murakami, Akihiko [Tokyo Univ. of Agriculture and Technology, Chemical Engineering Dept., Tokyo (Japan); Sakakibara, Koji [Hitachi Zosen Co., Konohana, Osaka (Japan)


    Aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation rates of petroleum hydrocarbons, i.e., hexadecane (HEX), phenanthrene (PHE), and anthracene (ANT), were determined in estuarine sediment of the Tama River in urban Tokyo, followed by estimating their respective degradation potential. While in a sediment slurry, the aerobic biodegradation rates of these petroleum hydrocarbons ranged from 40 to 70 {mu}g.g{sup -1} dry sediment:day{sup -1}. The anaerobic biodegradation rate of HEX was found to be 5 -8 {mu}g.g{sup -1} dry{sup -1}, whereas that of PHE and ANT could not be detected following a 2-month incubation. Aerobic degradation of HEX was not affected by coexistence with either PHE or ANT, nor by the salinity level. The number of HEX-, PHE-, or ANT-utilizing bacteria ranged from 5 - 10% of the total number of aerobic heterotrophic bacteria. We calculated their biodegradation potentials using the biomass of naturally existing petroleum hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria present in the sampled sediment, with results for HEX, PHE, and ANT being 1.0 -3.5, 4.2 x 10{sup -2}, and 1.2 x 10{sup -2} -9.4 x 10{sup -1} {mu}g.g{sup -1} dry sediment day{sup -1}, respectively. In the aerobic tidal sediment of the Tama River, the purification potentials of HEX, PHE, and ANT were assessed to be approximately equal to their accumulation potentials occurring at the normal water level. (Author)

  20. Heritability of aerobic power of individuals in northeast Brazil. (United States)

    Alonso, L; Souza, Ec; Oliveira, Mv; do Nascimento, Lfe; Dantas, Pms


    The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic and environmental contribution to variation in aerobic power in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins. The sample consisted of 20 MZ individuals (12 females and 8 males) and 16 DZ individuals (12 females and 4 males), aged from 8 to 26 years, residents in Natal, Rio Grande do Norte. The twins were assessed by a multistage fitness test. The rate of heritability found for aerobic power was 77%. Based on the results, the estimated heritability was largely responsible for the differences in aerobic power. This implies that such measures are under strong genetic influence.

  1. Microbial degradation of clomazone under simulated California rice field conditions. (United States)

    Tomco, Patrick L; Holstege, Dirk M; Zou, Wei; Tjeerdema, Ronald S


    Clomazone (trade names Cerano and Command) is a popular herbicide used on California rice fields to control aquatic weeds. Its physicochemical characteristics indicate that it will persist primarily in the water column, where microbial degradation may drive its environmental fate. The objectives were to determine microbial degradation rates and compare the metabolic products under aerobic and anaerobic conditions similar to those in California rice fields during the summer. Time-series samples were extracted and analyzed by LC/MS/MS. Metabolic profiling revealed the following clomazone-derived transitions: m/z 240 --> 125 (clomazone), m/z 242 --> 125 (ring-open clomazone), m/z 256 --> 125 (5-hydroxyclomazone), m/z 256 --> 141 (aromatic hydroxyclomazone), m/z 268 --> 125 (unknown metabolite), and m/z 272 --> 141 (4'5-dihydroxyclomazone). Results indicate an anaerobic half-life of 7.9 days, with ring-open clomazone reaching 67.4% of application at 38 days. Aerobically, clomazone degraded more slowly (t(1/2) = 47.3 days), forming mostly soil-bound residues. Thus, under summer conditions, clomazone is likely to dissipate rapidly from fields via anaerobic degradation.

  2. Effect of rhamnolipid on the aerobic removal of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and COD components from petrochemical wastewater. (United States)

    Sponza, Delia Teresa; Gök, Oğuzhan


    The removal efficiencies of 15 PAHs and some COD components (inert, readily degradable, slowly degradable and metabolic products) from a wastewater taken from a petrochemical industry treatment plant (Izmir, Turkey) have been determined using an aerobic completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR). Addition of rhamnolipid surfactant (15 mg l(-1)) increased the removal efficiencies of PAHs and soluble COD from 72% and 90% to 80% and 99%, respectively. The rhamnolipid treatment caused a significant increase of 5- and 6-ring PAH degradation. The soluble COD removal efficiency was 93%, in CSTR reactors with rhamnolipid added. The inert COD removal efficiency was 60% in a CSTR reactor containing rhamnolipid. Batch tests showed that removal arising from the adsorption of the PAHs was low (between 1.88% and 4.84%) while the removal of PAHs from the petrochemical industry wastewater via volatilization varied between 0.69% and 5.92%. Low sorption capacity (K(p)) values for refinery activated sludge (approximately 2.98 l g(-1)) confirmed that bio-sorption was not an important mechanism controlling the fate of PAHs in aerobic CSTR reactors. Models proposed to simulate the PAH removal indicated that 94% of the PAHs were removed via biodegradation.

  3. Fertilization stimulates anaerobic fuel degradation of antarctic soils by denitrifying microorganisms. (United States)

    Powell, Shane M; Ferguson, Susan H; Snape, Ian; Siciliano, Steven D


    Human activities in the Antarctic have resulted in hydrocarbon contamination of these fragile polar soils. Bioremediation is one of the options for remediation of these sites. However, little is known about anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation in polar soils and the influence of bioremediation practices on these processes. Using a field trial at Old Casey Station, Antarctica, we assessed the influence of fertilization on the anaerobic degradation of a 20-year old fuel spill. Fertilization increased hydrocarbon degradation in both anaerobic and aerobic soils when compared to controls, but was of most benefit for anaerobic soils where evaporation was negligible. This increased biodegradation in the anaerobic soils corresponded with a shift in the denitrifier community composition and an increased abundance of denitrifiers and benzoyl-CoA reductase. A microcosm study using toluene and hexadecane confirmed the degradative capacity within these soils under anaerobic conditions. It was observed that fertilized anaerobic soil degraded more of this hydrocarbon spike when incubated anaerobically than when incubated aerobically. We conclude that denitrifiers are actively involved in hydrocarbon degradation in Antarctic soils and that fertilization is an effective means of stimulating their activity. Further, when communities stimulated to degrade hydrocarbons under anaerobic conditions are exposed to oxygen, hydrocarbon degradation is suppressed. The commonly accepted belief that remediation of polar soils requires aeration needs to be reevaluated in light of this new data.

  4. Bacteriocin formation by dominant aerobic sporeformers isolated from traditional maari

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaboré, Donatien; Thorsen, Line; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris


    The antimicrobial activity of 8 Bacillus spp. and 2 Lysinibacillus spp. representing the predominant aerobic sporeformers during traditional maari fermentations, a traditional fermented baobab seeds product from Burkina Faso, was investigated. The antimicrobial activity was assessed against a total...

  5. Is aerobic workload positively related to ambulatory blood pressure?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korshøj, Mette; Clays, Els; Lidegaard, Mark;


    PURPOSE: Cardiovascular disease is prevalent among workers with high levels of occupational physical activity. The increased risk may be due to a high relative aerobic workload, possibly leading to increased blood pressure. However, studies investigating the relation between relative aerobic...... workload and ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) are lacking. The aim was to explore the relationship between objectively measured relative aerobic workload and ABP. METHODS: A total of 116 cleaners aged 18-65 years were included after informed consent was obtained. A portable device (Spacelabs 90217......) was mounted for 24-h measurements of ABP, and an Actiheart was mounted for 24-h heart rate measurements to calculate relative aerobic workload as percentage of relative heart rate reserve. A repeated-measure multi-adjusted mixed model was applied for analysis. RESULTS: A fully adjusted mixed model...

  6. Effect of an aerobic exercise intervention on cardiac autonomic regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallman, David M; Holtermann, Andreas; Søgaard, Karen;


    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this randomized controlled trial (RCT) was to determine whether aerobic exercise during work hours affects cardiac autonomic regulation in cleaners characterized by high levels of occupational physical activity and poor cardiorespiratory fitness. METHOD: Eligible cleaners (n......=116) were randomized to an aerobic exercise group (n=59) or a reference group (n=57) with lectures. The intervention group received two 30-min sessions per week of supervised aerobic exercise over 4months. Diurnal measurements of heart rate variability (HRV) and physical activity (accelerometry) were...... tended to decrease in the exercise group compared with the reference group from baseline to follow-up, being significant for the HF spectral component (p=0.03). CONCLUSION: Among cleaners, a worksite aerobic exercise intervention improved cardiac autonomic regulation during work and leisure...

  7. Enhanced aerobic nitrifying granulation by static magnetic field. (United States)

    Wang, Xin-Hua; Diao, Mu-He; Yang, Ying; Shi, Yi-Jing; Gao, Ming-Ming; Wang, Shu-Guang


    One of the main challenging issues for aerobic nitrifying granules in treating high strength ammonia wastewater is the long granulation time required for activated sludge to transform into aerobic granules. The present study provides a novel strategy for enhancing aerobic nitrifying granulation by applying an intensity of 48.0mT static magnetic field. The element analysis showed that the applied magnetic field could promote the accumulation of iron compounds in the sludge. And then the aggregation of iron decreased the full granulation time from 41 to 25days by enhancing the setting properties of granules and stimulating the secretion of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). Long-term, cycle experiments and fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) analysis proved that an intensity of 48.0mT magnetic field could enhance the activities and growth of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB). These findings suggest that magnetic field is helpful and reliable for accelerating the aerobic nitrifying granulation.

  8. Isolation of aerobic bacteria from ticks infested sheep in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed Ibrahem Jalil


    Conclusions: The high isolation rate of aerobic pathogens from ticks might reflect the active contribution of this arthropod in environmental contamination and increase the probability of transmitting bacterial pathogens to their hosts.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Sokolova


    Full Text Available Examines the impact choreography training in sports aerobics on artistic skills.Objective to investigate whether the use of funds choreo-graphy in training athletes involved in sports aerobics, to find the relationship between choreographic training and asses-sment for artistry.Method or methodology of work methods of studying the theoretical ski works of scientific content, analysis and processing of scientific texts.The results revealed the relationship between estimates for artistry and means-you dance training in sports aerobics. The scope of the results, the materials may be used by coaches in sports aerobics, for further research on the problem of constructing workout.

  10. Sequential anaerobic-aerobic treatment for domestic wastewater - A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kassab, G.; Halalsheh, M.; Klapwijk, A.; Fayyad, M.; Lier, van J.B.


    Introduction, consolidation and even standardization of expensive conventional aerobic systems for domestic wastewater treatment imposed significant financial constraints on the expansion of sanitary services including treatment in developing countries. A viable alternative is the sequential anaerob

  11. Aerobic Exercise: Top 10 Reasons to Get Physical (United States)

    ... plaques in your arteries. Boost your mood Aerobic exercise may ease the gloominess of depression, reduce the tension associated with anxiety and promote relaxation. Stay active and independent as ...

  12. Constraints of propylene glycol degradation at low temperatures and saturated flow conditions. (United States)

    Lissner, Heidi; Wehrer, Markus; Reinicke, Martin; Horváth, Nikoletta; Totsche, Kai Uwe


    During snowmelt, the infiltration of large amounts of propylene glycol (PG), the major compound of many aircraft deicing fluids, affects redox processes and poses a contamination risk for the groundwater. To gain a better understanding about the degradation of PG and the associated biogeochemical processes under these conditions, we conducted saturated soil column experiments at 4 °C. During two successive PG pulses, we monitored the effect of the runway deicer formate (FO) and changing redox conditions on PG degradation. Furthermore, we applied first-order and simplified Monod kinetics to describe PG and FO transport. The transport of 50 mg l(-1) PG showed three stages of microbial degradation, which were defined as lag phase, aerobic phase, and anaerobic phase. During the second pulse, lag effects diminished due to the already accomplished microbial adaption, and the initial degradation rate of PG increased. Degradation of PG was most efficient during aerobic conditions (aerobic phase), while the subsequent drop of the redox potential down to -300 mV decreased the degradation rate (anaerobic phase). Formate addition decreased the overall degradation of PG by 50 and 15 % during the first and second pulse, illustrating the inhibitory effect of FO on PG degradation. The concurrent increase of Fe(III), organic carbon, and the turbidity in the column effluent after PG and FO application suggest the combined export of Fe adsorbed to fragments of detached biofilm. Neither the first-order nor the simplified Monod model was able to reconstruct the dynamic breakthrough of 50 mg l(-1) PG. The breakthrough of 1,000 mg l(-1), however, was described reasonably well with first-order kinetics. At low temperature and high water saturation, the application of first-order degradation kinetics seems therefore appropriate to describe the transport of high concentrations of PG.

  13. Nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria in aerobic granules formed in sequencing batch airlift reactors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Fang; YANG Fenglin; QI Aijiu


    The purpose of this study was to investigate nitrifying bacteria and denitrifying bacteria isolated from aerobic granules.Aerobic granules were formed in an internal-circulate sequencing batch airlift reactor(SBAR)and biodegradation of NH3 -N was analyzed in the reactor.Bacteria were isolated and determined from aerobic granules using selected media.The growth properties and morphology of bacteria colonies were observed by controlling aerobic or anaerobic conditions in the culture medium.It was found that bacteria in aerobic granules were diverse and some of them were facultative aerobes.The diversity of bacteria in aerobic granules was a premise of simultaneous nitrification and denitrification.

  14. Aerobic biodegradation of trichloroethylene and phenol co-contaminants in groundwater by a bacterial community using hydrogen peroxide as the sole oxygen source. (United States)

    Li, Hui; Zhang, Shi-yang; Wang, Xiao-li; Yang, Jie; Gu, Ji-dong; Zhu, Rui-li; Wang, Ping; Lin, Kuang-fei; Liu, Yong-di


    Trichloroethylene (TCE) and phenol were often found together as co-contaminants in the groundwater of industrial contaminated sites. An effective method to remove TCE was aerobic biodegradation by co-metabolism using phenol as growth substrates. However, the aerobic biodegradation process was easily limited by low concentration of dissolved oxygen (DO) in groundwater, and DO was improved by air blast technique with difficulty. This study enriched a bacterial community using hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as the sole oxygen source to aerobically degrade TCE by co-metabolism with phenol in groundwater. The enriched cultures were acclimatized to 2-8 mM H2O2 which induced catalase, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase to decompose H2O2 to release O2 and reduce the toxicity. The bacterial community could degrade 120 mg/L TCE within 12 days by using 8 mM H2O2 as the optimum concentration, and the TCE degradation efficiency reached up to 80.6%. 16S rRNA gene cloning and sequencing showed that Bordetella, Stenotrophomonas sp., Sinorhizobium sp., Variovorax sp. and Sphingobium sp. were the dominant species in the enrichments, which were clustered in three phyla: Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria. Polymerase chain reaction detection proved that phenol hydroxylase (Lph) gene was involved in the co-metabolic degradation of phenol and TCE, which indicated that hydroxylase might catalyse the epoxidation of TCE to form the unstable molecule TCE-epoxide. The findings are significant for understanding the mechanism of biodegradation of TCE and phenol co-contamination and helpful for the potential applications of an aerobic bioremediation in situ the contaminated sites.

  15. Aerobic training and postexercise protein in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Grete; Prahm, Kira P; Dahlqvist, Julia R;


    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of regular aerobic training and postexercise protein-carbohydrate supplementation in patients with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD). METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel study, we randomized untrained men (n = 21...... not add any further improvement to training effects alone. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class II evidence that regular aerobic training with or without postexercise protein-carbohydrate supplementation improves fitness and workload in patients with FSHD....

  16. Water Aerobics as a Form of Health Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna S. Batrak


    Full Text Available The offered literature review considers water aerobics as a form of health activities. Water aerobics is wide spread and popular, especially among women, because it is also the form of adaptive and health activities. It enlarges general physiological effect of physical exercises on the human body. Regular exercises improve physical fitness and physical development, health, mood, sleep, intensify activities and working efficiency.

  17. Membrane-bound respiratory chain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa grown aerobically.


    Matsushita, K.; Yamada, M.; Shinagawa, E; Adachi, O; Ameyama, M


    The electron transport chain of the gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa, grown aerobically, contained a number of primary dehydrogenases and respiratory components (soluble flavin, bound flavin, coenzyme Q9, heme b, heme c, and cytochrome o) in membrane particles of the organism. Cytochrome o, about 50% of the b-type cytochrome, seemed to function as a terminal oxidase in the respiratory chain. The electron transport chain of P. aeruginosa grown aerobically was suggested to be line...

  18. Aerobic training in children with cerebral palsy. (United States)

    Nsenga, A L; Shephard, R J; Ahmaidi, S; Ahmadi, S


    Rehabilitation is a major goal for children with cerebral palsy, although the potential to enhance cardio-respiratory fitness in such individuals remains unclear. This study thus compared current cardio-respiratory status between children with cerebral palsy and able-bodied children, and examined the ability to enhance the cardio-respiratory fitness of children with cerebral palsy by cycle ergometer training. 10 children with cerebral palsy (Gross Motor Function Classification System levels I and II) participated in thrice-weekly 30 min cycle ergometer training sessions for 8 weeks (mean age: 14.2±1.9 yrs). 10 additional subjects with cerebral palsy (mean age: 14.2±1.8 yrs) and 10 able-bodied subjects (mean age: 14.1±2.1 yrs) served as controls, undertaking no training. All subjects undertook a progressive cycle ergometer test of cardio-respiratory fitness at the beginning and end of the 8-week period. Cardio-respiratory parameters [oxygen intake V˙O2), ventilation V ˙ E) and heart rate (HR)] during testing were measured by Cosmed K4 b gas analyzer. The children with cerebral palsy who engaged in aerobic training improved their peak oxygen consumption, heart rate and ventilation significantly (pchildren with cerebral palsy can benefit significantly from cardio-respiratory training, and such training should be included in rehabilitation programs.

  19. Personality, metabolic rate and aerobic capacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Terracciano

    Full Text Available Personality traits and cardiorespiratory fitness in older adults are reliable predictors of health and longevity. We examined the association between personality traits and energy expenditure at rest (basal metabolic rate and during normal and maximal sustained walking. Personality traits and oxygen (VO(2 consumption were assessed in 642 participants from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Results indicate that personality traits were mostly unrelated to resting metabolic rate and energy expenditure at normal walking pace. However, those who scored lower on neuroticism (r = -0.12 and higher on extraversion (r = 0.11, openness (r = 0.13, and conscientiousness (r = 0.09 had significantly higher energy expenditure at peak walking pace. In addition to greater aerobic capacity, individuals with a more resilient personality profile walked faster and were more efficient in that they required less energy per meter walked. The associations between personality and energy expenditure were not moderated by age or sex, but were in part explained by the proportion of fat mass. In conclusion, differences in personality may matter the most during more challenging activities that require cardiorespiratory fitness. These findings suggest potential pathways that link personality to health outcomes, such as obesity and longevity.

  20. Aerobic nitroreduction of dehydrochloramphenicol by bone marrow. (United States)

    Isildar, M; Abou-Khalil, W H; Jimenez, J J; Abou-Khalil, S; Yunis, A A


    It has been previously demonstrated that dehydrochloramphenicol (DH-CAP), a bacterial metabolite of chloramphenicol, induces DNA single strand breaks in intact cells and is profoundly more cytotoxic than chloramphenicol (CAP). In view of previous observations relating genotoxicity of nitrocompounds to their nitroreduction by the target tissue, we studied the nitroreduction of DH-CAP by human and rabbit bone marrow. Nitroreduction by tissue homogenates was determined by the Bratton Marshall colorimetric assay and by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Nitroreduction of DH-CAP by bone marrow cell homogenates was observed under aerobic conditions and the reduction was both cell concentration- and time-dependent. The formation of the amino product aminodehydrochloramphenicol was confirmed by HPLC. Reduction by other tissues including human liver, Raji cells, and HL-60 tumors was also observed. These results suggest that genotoxicity of DH-CAP may be related to its nitroreduction by the target tissue with in situ production of toxic intermediates. Together with previous studies, these observations lend support to the thesis that the p-NO2 group may be the structural feature underlying aplastic anemia from CAP.

  1. Dancing the aerobics ''hearing loss'' choreography (United States)

    Pinto, Beatriz M.; Carvalho, Antonio P. O.; Gallagher, Sergio


    This paper presents an overview of gymnasiums' acoustic problems when used for aerobics exercises classes (and similar) with loud noise levels of amplified music. This type of gymnasium is usually a highly reverberant space, which is a consequence of a large volume surrounded by hard surfaces. A sample of five schools in Portugal was chosen for this survey. Noise levels in each room were measured using a precision sound level meter, and analyzed to calculate the standardized daily personal noise exposure levels (LEP,d). LEP,d values from 79 to 91 dB(A) were found to be typical values in this type of room, inducing a health risk for its occupants. The reverberation time (RT) values were also measured and compared with some European legal requirements (Portugal, France, and Belgium) for nearly similar situations. RT values (1 kHz) from 0.9 s to 2.8 s were found. These reverberation time values clearly differentiate between good and acoustically inadequate rooms. Some noise level and RT limits for this type of environment are given and suggestions for the improvement of the acoustical environment are shown. Significant reductions in reverberation time values and noise levels can be obtained by simple measures.

  2. Aerobic degradation of highly chlorinated polychlorobiphenyls by a marine bacterium, Pseudomonas CH07

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    De, J.; Ramaiah, N.; Sarkar, A.

    : Introduction Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of compounds where the aromatic biphenyl rings carry one to ten chlorine atoms and, theoretically, 209 different PCB congeners can thus be produced. Due to their non... are the ultimate global sinks for worldwide accumulations of PCBs (Berkaw et al., 1996). The toxicity of different congeners of PCBs varies according to the chlorine substitution at different positions of the biphenyl ring and the physical effects of PCBs vary...

  3. Enhancing Natural Attenuation through Bioaugmentation with Aerobic Bacteria that Degrade cis-1,2-Dichloroethene (United States)


    Demobilization ..................................................................................... 40  5.4.6  Disposal of IDW ...the removal and disposal of the non-hazardous site derived soil and purge water ( IDW waste). Following the removal of the IDW waste, the IDW ...clivi ly (nmol-cDCE•min-’•mg- protien-1) 10.05 10.4 17.04 15.67 17.16 ESTCP Draft Final Report ER-0516 42 January 2010 5.4.6 Disposal of IDW

  4. Enhancing Natural Attenuation through Bioaugmentation with Aerobic Bacteria that Degrade cis-1,2-Dichloroethene (United States)


    cDCE cis-1,2-dichloroethene cfu colony forming units CMO cyclohexanone monooxygenase DCA 1,2-dichloroethane DNA deoxyribonucleic acid...of JS666) and (2) cyclohexanone monooxygenase (CMO) (based on the cyclohexanone monooxygenase gene of JS666). Additionally, a putative universal (UNI...molecular probes (one based on the isocitrate lyase gene and one based on the cyclohexanone monooygenase gene). In addition, JS666 activity and

  5. Enhancing Natural Attenuation Through Bioaugmentation with Aerobic Bacteria that Degrade Cis-1,2-Dichloroethene (United States)


    1.0 g ZnSO4·7H2O, 1.0 g CaCl2· 2H2O , 1.0 g FeSO4·7H2O, 1.0 g NaMoO4 · 2H2O , 1.0 g CoCl2·6H2O, and 1.0 g MnSO4·H2O. The pH of the MSM was 7.2 unless...0.85 MgSO4 2.4 0.00049 CaCl2 • 2H2O 0.45 0.0000068 (NH4)6Mo7O24 • 4H2O 0.00015 NaMoO4 • 2H2O 0.0000008 FeSO4 • 7H2O 0.007 0.000018...Metals 44 EDTA 0.0067 0.000034 ZnSO4 • 7H2O 0.038 0.000007 MnSO4 • H2O 0.009 0.0000062 FeSO4 • 7H2O 0.018 CuSO4 • 5H2O 0.0016 0.0000008 Co(NO3)2

  6. Energy efficient aerobic treatment of forest industry wastewaters; Energieffektiv aerob rening av skogsindustriella avloppsvatten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandberg, Maria; From-Aldaron, Mattias


    There is great potential to reduce energy requirements in aerobic biological purification if the oxygen demand can be reduced and oxygen delivery, when process water is aerated, is made more efficient. A model was developed to estimate the possible reduction in oxygen demand. Model variables were COD reduction, sludge withdrawal, oxygen, and alpha-value. Attempts made in an aerator in the lab-scale process shows that water content strongly affects oxygen transport and alpha-value. Surface active extract substances such as fatty acids and resin acids have greatest significance. The effect increases with the concentration of extract substances and decreases with added sodium chloride content

  7. PEM fuel cell degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borup, Rodney L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mukundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    The durability of PEM fuel cells is a major barrier to the commercialization of these systems for stationary and transportation power applications. While significant progress has been made in understanding degradation mechanisms and improving materials, further improvements in durability are required to meet commercialization targets. Catalyst and electrode durability remains a primary degradation mode, with much work reported on understanding how the catalyst and electrode structure degrades. Accelerated Stress Tests (ASTs) are used to rapidly evaluate component degradation, however the results are sometimes easy, and other times difficult to correlate. Tests that were developed to accelerate degradation of single components are shown to also affect other component's degradation modes. Non-ideal examples of this include ASTs examining catalyst degradation performances losses due to catalyst degradation do not always well correlate with catalyst surface area and also lead to losses in mass transport.

  8. Biodegradation kinetics of selected brominated flame retardants in aerobic and anaerobic soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyholm, Jenny Rattfelt, E-mail: jenny.rattfelt@chem.umu.s [Department of Chemistry, Umea University, SE-901 87 Umea (Sweden); Lundberg, Charlott; Andersson, Patrik L. [Department of Chemistry, Umea University, SE-901 87 Umea (Sweden)


    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the biodegradation kinetics in aerobic and anaerobic soil of the following brominated flame retardants: 2,4,4'-tribromodiphenyl ether (BDE 28), decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE 209), tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), 1,2-dibromo-4-(1,2-dibromoethyl)cyclohexane (TBECH), 2,4,6-tribromophenol (246BrPh), and hexabromobenzene (HxBrBz). For comparison, the biodegradation of the chlorinated compounds 2,4,4'-trichlorodiphenyl ether (CDE 28), 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (246ClPh), hexachlorobenzene (HxClBz), and 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 153) was also assessed. In aerobic soil, BDE 209 showed no significant degradation during the test period, but concentrations of the other BFRs declined, with half-lives decreasing in the following order: BDE 28 > TBBPA > TBECH > HxBrBz > 246BrPh. Declines in almost the same order were observed in anaerobic soil: BDE 28, BDE 209 > TBBPA > HxBrBz > TBECH >246BrPh. - Intra- and extrapolated half-lives in soil of tested brominated flame retardants ranged from 7 days for 2,4,6-tribromorophenol to >400 days for decabromodiphenyl ether.

  9. Enhanced Biodegradability of Aerobic Sludge by Bioaugmentation for Pulping Effluent Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honglei Chen


    Full Text Available To demonstrate the feasibility of bioaugmentation in enhancement of the biodegradation of pulping effluent, aerobic sludge was intensified with superior mixed flora. The differences between intensified aerobic activated sludge and original sludge were compared. The results showed that the chemical oxygen demand (COD of pulping effluent treated with the intensified sludge dropped to a much lower level compared with the original sludge, which indicated that the biodegradability of sludge was enhanced by bioaugmentation. The growth kinetics of the sludges were established. The growth rate Vmax of the intensified sludge was elevated from 7.8×10-3 to 7.1×10-3, while the saturation constant Ks decreased from 0.33 to 0.21 after bioaugmentation. In addition, the degradation kinetics showed that the equation coefficient of sludge increased from 4.6×10-3 to 6.4×10-3, confirming the intensification of biodegradation as a result of bioaugmentation.

  10. Degradation of Refuse in Hybrid Bioreactor Landfill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objectivess To explore the process of refuse decomposition in hybrid bioreactor landfill. Methods The bioreactor landfill was operated in sequencing of facultative-anaerobic and aerobic conditions with leachate recireulation, pH, COD, and ammonia in the leachate and pH, biodegradable organic matter (BDM), and cation exchange capacity (CEC) in refuse were detected. Results CEC increased gradually with the degradation of refuse, which was negatively correlad, With BDM. COD and ammonia in the leachate was declined to 399.2 mg L-1 and 20.6 mg N L-1, respectively, during the 357-day operation. The respective concentrations of ammonia and COD were below the second and the third levels of current discharge standards in China. Conclusion The refuse is relatively stable at the end of hybrid bioreactor landfill operation. Most of the readily biodegradable organic matter is mineralized in the initial phase of refuse degradation, whereas the hard-biodegradable organic matter is mainly humidified in the maturity phase of refuse degradation.

  11. Forced Aerobic Exercise Preceding Task Practice Improves Motor Recovery Poststroke (United States)

    Rosenfeldt, Anson B.; Dey, Tanujit; Alberts, Jay L.


    OBJECTIVE. To understand how two types of aerobic exercise affect upper-extremity motor recovery post-stroke. Our aims were to (1) evaluate the feasibility of having people who had a stroke complete an aerobic exercise intervention and (2) determine whether forced or voluntary exercise differentially facilitates upper-extremity recovery when paired with task practice. METHOD. Seventeen participants with chronic stroke completed twenty-four 90-min sessions over 8 wk. Aerobic exercise was immediately followed by task practice. Participants were randomized to forced or voluntary aerobic exercise groups or to task practice only. RESULTS. Improvement on the Fugl-Meyer Assessment exceeded the minimal clinically important difference: 12.3, 4.8, and 4.4 for the forced exercise, voluntary exercise, and repetitive task practice–only groups, respectively. Only the forced exercise group exhibited a statistically significant improvement. CONCLUSION. People with chronic stroke can safely complete intensive aerobic exercise. Forced aerobic exercise may be optimal in facilitating motor recovery associated with task practice. PMID:28218596

  12. Formation, characterization and mathematical modeling of the aerobic granular sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni, Bing-Jie [Queensland Univ., Brisbane, QLD (Australia). Advanced Water Management Centre


    Reports on successful aerobic granulation of sludge in pilot-scale reactor for treatment of low-strength municipal wastewater and identifies the key factors responsible for this process. Develops comprehensive models for sludge granulation, microbial interactions and microbial products formation to provide insights into the dynamics of all the soluble and solid components in aerobic granular sludge system. Demonstrates accelerated start-up and optimization of the anaerobic ammonia oxidation process by seeding the reactor with aerobic granules. Aerobic granular sludge technology will play an important role as an innovative technology alternative to the present activated sludge process in industrial and municipal wastewater treatment in the near future. Intended to fill the gaps in the studies of aerobic granular sludge, this thesis comprehensively investigates the formation, characterization and mathematical modeling of aerobic granular sludge, through integrating the process engineering tools and advanced molecular microbiology. The research results of this thesis contributed significantly to the advance of understanding and optimization of the bacterial granulation processes, the next generation of technology for cost-effective biological wastewater treatment.

  13. Aerobic thermophilic treatment of sewage sludge at pilot plant scale. 2. Technical solutions and process design. (United States)

    Ponti, C; Sonnleitner, B; Fiechter, A


    The performance of the ATS process depends essentially on the oxygen transfer efficiency. Improvement of the mass transfer capacity of a bioreactor allowed to reduce the incubation time necessary to attain sludge stabilization. It is important to use equipment with a high aeration efficiency such as an injector aeration system. The ratio between the total oxygen consumption and the organic matter degradation (delta COD) ranged between 0.4 and 0.8 in the pilot plant, whereas 1.23 was found in completely mixed bioreactors (Bomio, 1990). No significant improvement of the bacterial degradation efficiency was attained with a specific power input exceeding 6-8 kW m-3. A mean residence time of less than 1 d allowed organic matter removals up to 40% with specific power consumption of 10 kWh kg-1 COD oxidized. The sludge hygienization is one of the objectives and benefits of the thermophilic treatment: not only temperature but also the total solids content were important factors affecting inactivation of pathogens. The inactivation rate was promoted by the increase of temperature, while the residual colony forming units decreased with reducing the total solids content of sewage sludge. It is concluded that continuous operation mode would not affect the quality of the hygienization but could display the high degradation potential of the aerobic system.

  14. Aerobic biodegradation of two fluorotelomer sulfonamide-based aqueous film forming foam components produces perfluoroalkyl carboxylates. (United States)

    D'Agostino, Lisa A; Mabury, Scott A


    The biodegradation of 2 common fluorotelomer surfactants used in aqueous film forming foams (AFFFs), 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonamide alkylamine (FTAA) and 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonamide alkylbetaine (FTAB), was investigated over 109 d with aerobic wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) sludge. Results show that biodegradation of 6:2 FTAA and 6:2 FTAB produces 6:2 fluorotelomer alcohol (FTOH), 6:2 fluorotelomer carboxylic acid (FTCA), 6:2 fluorotelomer unsaturated carboxylic acid (FTUCA), 5:3 FTCA, and short chain perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs). Additional degradation products included 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonamide (FTSAm), which was a major degradation product in the presence of either active or sterilized sludge, while 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonate (FTSA) production was measured with sterilized sludge only. Six additional degradation products were tentatively identified by quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (qTOF-MS) and were attributed to N-dealkylation and oxidation of 6:2 FTAA. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison of Combined Aerobic and High-Force Eccentric Resistance Exercise With Aerobic Exercise Only for People With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus


    Marcus, Robin L.; Smith, Sheldon; Morrell, Glen; Addison, Odessa; Dibble, Leland E.; Wahoff-Stice, Donna; LaStayo, Paul C.


    Background and Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the outcomes between a diabetes exercise training program using combined aerobic and high-force eccentric resistance exercise and a program of aerobic exercise only.

  16. Fate of herbicides in a shallow aerobic aquifer: A continuous field injection experiment (Vejen,Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broholm, Mette; Rügge, K.; Tuxen, Nina;


    A continuous, natural gradient, field injection experiment, involving six herbicides and a tracer, was performed in a shallow aerobic aquifer near Vejen, Denmark. Bentazone, ()-2-(4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy) propanoic acid (MCPP), dichlorprop, isoproturon, and the dichlobenil metabolite 2,6-dichlor......, with selected individual points for a longer period. The bromide plume followed a complex path through the monitoring network downgradient of the injection wells. The plume movement was controlled by spatially varied hydraulic conductivities of the sand deposit and influenced by asynchronous seasonal variation...... in groundwater potentials. An average flow velocity of 0.5 m/d was observed, as depicted by bromide. Bentazone, BAM, MCPP, and dichlorprop retardation was negligible, and only slight retardation of isoproturon was observed in the continuous injection experiment and a preceding pulse experiment. No degradation...

  17. Primary biodegradation of veterinary antibiotics in aerobic and anaerobic surface water simulation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Flemming; Toräng, Lars; Loke, M.-L.


    The primary aerobic and anaerobic biodegradability at intermediate concentrations (50-5000 mug/l) of the antibiotics olaquindox (OLA), metronidazole (MET), tylosin (TYL) and oxytetracycline (OTC) was studied in a simple shake flask system simulating the conditions in surface waters. The purpose...... of the study was to provide rate data for primary biodegradation in the scenario where antibiotics pollute surface waters as a result of run-off from arable land. The source of antibiotics may be application of manure as fertilizer or excreta of grazing animals. Assuming first-order degradation kinetics...... substances. The biodegradation behaviour was influenced by neither the concentrations of antibiotics nor the time of the year and location for sampling of surface water. Addition of 1 g/l of sediment or 3 mg/l of activated sludge from wastewater treatment increased the biodegradation potential which...

  18. Rapid production of organic fertilizer by dynamic high-temperature aerobic fermentation (DHAF) of food waste. (United States)

    Jiang, Yang; Ju, Meiting; Li, Weizun; Ren, Qingbin; Liu, Le; Chen, Yu; Yang, Qian; Hou, Qidong; Liu, Yiliang


    Keep composting matrix in continuous collision and friction under a relatively high-temperature can significantly accelerate the progress of composting. A bioreactor was designed according to the novel process. Using this technology, organic fertilizer could be produced within 96h. The electric conductivity (EC) and pH value reached to a stable value of 2.35mS/cm and 7.7 after 96h of fermentation. The total carbon/total nitrogen (TC/TN) and dissolved carbon/dissolved nitrogen (DC/DN) ratio was decrease from 27.3 and 36.2 to 17.4 and 7.6 respectively. In contrast, it needed 24days to achieve the similar result in traditional static composting (TSC). Compost particles with different size were analyzed to explore the rapid degradation mechanism of food waste. The evidence of anaerobic fermentation was firstly discovered in aerobic composting.

  19. Microbial decolorization of reactive black-5 in a two-stage anaerobic-aerobic reactor using acclimatized activated textile sludge. (United States)

    Mohanty, Sagarika; Dafale, Nishant; Rao, Nageswara Neti


    A two-stage anaerobic-aerobic treatment process based on mixed culture of bacteria isolated from textile dye effluent was used to degrade reactive black 5 dye (RB-5). The anaerobic step was studied in more detail by varying the dye concentration from 100 to 3000 mg l(-1). The results showed that major decolorization was achieved during the anaerobic process. The time required for decolorization by > 90% increased as the concentration of the dye increased. It was also found that maintaining dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration below 0.5 mg l(-1 )and addition of a co-substrate viz., glucose, facilitates anaerobic decolorization reaction remarkably. An attempt was made to identify the metabolites formed in anaerobic process by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and UV-VIS spectrophotometry. A plate assay was performed for the detection of dominant decolorizing bacteria. Only a few bacterial colonies with high clearing zones (decolorization zones) were found. The results showed that under anaerobic condition RB-5 molecules were reduced and aromatic amines were generated. The aromatic amine metabolite was partly removed in subsequent aerobic bio-treatment. It was possible to achieve more than 90% decolorization and approximately 46% reduction in amine metabolite concentration through two-stage anaerobic-aerobic treatment after a reaction period of 2 days.

  20. An integrated anaerobic/aerobic bioprocess for the remediation of chlorinated phenol-contaminated soil and groundwater. (United States)

    Ehlers, George A; Rose, Peter D


    An investigation of biodegradation of chlorinated phenol in an anaerobic/aerobic bioprocess environment was made. The reactor configuration used consisted of linked anaerobic and aerobic reactors, which served as a model for a proposed bioremediation strategy. The proposed strategy was studied in two reactors before linkage. In the anaerobic compartment, the transformation of the model contaminant, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP), to lesser-chlorinated metabolites was shown to occur during reductive dechlorination under sulfate-reducing conditions. The consortium was also shown to desorb and mobilize 2,4,6-TCP in soils. This was followed, in the aerobic compartment, by biodegradation of the pollutant and metabolites, 2,4-dichlorophenol, 4-chlorophenol, and phenol, by immobilized white-rot fungi. The integrated process achieved elimination of the compound by more than 99% through fungal degradation of metabolites produced in the dechlorination stage. pH correction to the anaerobic reactor was found to be necessary because acidic effluent from the fungal reactor inhibited sulfate reduction and dechlorination.

  1. Expression of stress response HSP70 gene in Asian paddle crabs, Charybdis japonica, exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals, bisphenol A (BPA) and 4-nonylphenol (NP) (United States)

    Park, Kiyun; Kwak, Ihn-Sil


    The Asian paddle crab, Charybdis japonica, is a potential bio-indicator reflecting marine sediment toxicity as well as a commercially important species living along coastal areas in Korea. This study investigated its stress response by looking at the heat shock protein (HSP70) gene of C. japonica when the organism is exposed to bisphenol A (BPA) and 4-nonylphenol (NP). We characterized partial sequence of HSP70 as the stressresponse gene of C. japonica. The nucleotide sequence of C. japonica HSP70 is over 90% homologous with the corresponding gene of other crabs. Phylogenetic tree analysis revealed a close relationship between C. japonica HSP70 and HSP70 in other species of lobster and shrimps. HSP70 mRNA transcripts were detected in all the examined tissues of C. japonica, with the highest level in gills, the organ that most frequently came into contact with the external BPA or NP-laden water. As no reference data were available for C. japonica crab exposure, the BPA and NP 24-h LC50 values have not been previously determined. The expression of the C. japonica HSP70 gene to various BPA or NP concentrations during short and longer times was assessed. Gene expression was significantly induced in concentration- and time-dependent manners after BPA or NP exposures. These results support the postulation that crab C. japonica HSP70 could be a potential stress response molecular marker to monitor marine ecosystems.

  2. Spatial-temporal distribution and potential ecological risk assessment of nonylphenol and octylphenol in riverine outlets of Pearl River Delta, China. (United States)

    Chen, Ru; Yin, Pinghe; Zhao, Ling; Yu, Qiming; Hong, Aihua; Duan, Shunshan


    The aquatic environments of the Pearl River Delta in Southern China are subjected to contamination with various industrial chemicals from local industries. In this paper, the occurrence, seasonal variation and spatial distribution of alkylphenol octylphenol (OP) and nonylphenol (NP) in river surface water and sediments in the runoff outlets of the Pearl River Delta were investigated. NP and OP were detected in all water and sediment samples and their mean concentrations in surface water during the dry season ranged from 810 to 3366 ng/L and 85.5 to 581 ng/L, respectively, and those in sediments ranged from 14.2 to 95.2 ng/g dw and 0.4 to 3.0 ng/g dw, respectively. In surface water, much higher concentrations were detected in the dry season than those in the wet season. In sediments, the concentrations in the dry season were also mostly higher. High concentrations of NP and OP were found in Humen outlet, likely due to high levels of domestic and industrial wastewater discharges. An ecological risk assessment with the use of hazard quotient (HQ) was also carried out and the HQ values ranged from 3.6×10(-5) to 35 and 64% of samples gave a HQ>1, indicating that the current levels of NP and OP pose a significant risk to the relevant aquatic organisms in the region.

  3. Effects of nonylphenol on early embryonic development, pigmentation and 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine-induced metamorphosis in Bombina orientalis (Amphibia: Anura). (United States)

    Park, Chan Jin; Kang, Han Seung; Gye, Myung Chan


    Nonylphenol (NP) is an estrogenic endocrine disruptor in many aquatic species. In an effort to highlight the developmental toxicity of NP in amphibians, we examined the effects of NP on the embryonic survival, tadpole growth, melanophore development and metamorphosis of a native Korean amphibian species, Bombina orientalis (Anura). When treated to fertilized eggs, 1 μM NP significantly decreased embryonic survival at 48 h post fertilization (p.f.), suggesting that 1 μM NP can exert systemic toxicity in B. orientalis embryos. In the surviving embryos, there were no significant differences in malformation rates between NP-treated embryos and controls at 240 h p.f., suggesting no or low teratogenicity of NP in B. orientalis embryos. Below LC(50) NP significantly decreased body growth and development of melanophores at 0.1 μM, suggesting that NP far below the LC(50) targets multiple developmental events in tadpoles of this frog species. In metamorphosis assay using the premetamorphic tadpoles (corresponding to Nieuwkoop Faber stage 53 in Xenopus laevis) exogenous 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3)-induced tail resorption was significantly decreased by 1 μM NP. However, NP (0.1 and 1 μM)-only treatment did not affected total body T3 and T4 levels, suggesting that NP at tested concentrations inhibits thyroid hormones action but not the synthesis of hormones during metamorphosis.

  4. Complete Genome Sequence of Akkermansia glycaniphila Strain PytT, a Mucin-Degrading Specialist of the Reticulated Python Gut (United States)

    Ouwerkerk, Janneke P.; Schaap, Peter J.; Ritari, Jarmo; Paulin, Lars; Belzer, Clara


    ABSTRACT Akkermansia glycaniphila is a novel Akkermansia species that was isolated from the intestine of the reticulated python and shares the capacity to degrade mucin with the human strain Akkermansia muciniphila MucT. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of strain PytT of 3,074,121 bp. The genomic analysis reveals genes for mucin degradation and aerobic respiration. PMID:28057747

  5. Draft Genome Sequence of Nocardioides luteus Strain BAFB, an Alkane-Degrading Bacterium Isolated from JP-7-Polluted Soil (United States)

    Brown, Lisa M.; Gunasekera, Thusitha S.


    ABSTRACT Nocardioides luteus strain BAFB is a Gram-positive bacterium that efficiently degrades C8 to C11 alkanes aerobically. The draft genome of N. luteus BAFB is 5.76 Mb in size, with 5,358 coding sequences and 69.9% G+C content. The genes responsible for alkane degradation are present in this strain. PMID:28126947

  6. Quantification of aerobic biodegradation and volatilization rates of gasoline hydrocarbons near the water table under natural attenuation conditions (United States)

    Lahvis, M.A.; Baehr, A.L.; Baker, R.J.


    Aerobic biodegradation and volatilization near the water table constitute a coupled pathway that contributes significantly to the natural attenuation of hydrocarbons at gasoline spill sites. Rates of hydrocarbon biodegradation and volatilization were quantified by analyzing vapor transport in the unsaturated zone at a gasoline spill site in Beaufort, South Carolina. Aerobic biodegradation rates decreased with distance above the water table, ranging from 0.20 to 1.5g m-3 d-1 for toluene, from 0.24 to 0.38 g m-3 d-1 for xylene, from 0.09 to 0.24 g m-3 d-1 for cyclohexene, from 0.05 to 0.22 g m-3 d-1 for ethylbenzene, and from 0.02 to 0.08 g m-3 d-1 for benzene. Rates were highest in the capillary zone, where 68% of the total hydrocarbon mass that volatilized from the water table was estimated to have been biodegraded. Hydrocarbons were nearly completely degraded within 1 m above the water table. This large loss underscores the importance of aerobic biodegradation in limiting the transport of hydrocarbon vapors in the unsaturated zone and implies that vapor-plume migration to basements and other points of contact may only be significant if a source of free product is present. Furthermore, because transport of the hydrocarbon in the unsaturated zone can be limited relative to that of oxygen and carbon dioxide, soil, gas surveys conducted at hydrocarbon-spill sites would benefit by the inclusion of oxygen- and carbon-dioxide-gas concentration measurements. Aerobic degradation kinetics in the unsaturated zone were approximately first-order. First-order rate constants near the water table were highest for cyctohexene (0.21-0.65 d-1) and nearly equivalent for ethylbenzene (0.11-20.31 d-1), xylenes (0.10-0.31 d-1), toluene (0.09-0.30 d-1), and benzene (0.07,0.31 d-1). Hydrocarbon mass loss rates at the water table resulting from the coupled aerobic biodegradation and volatilization process were determined by extrapolating gas transport rates through the capillary zone. Mass

  7. Chlordecone fate and mineralisation in a tropical soil (andosol) microcosm under aerobic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernández-Bayo, Jesus D., E-mail: [IRD, UMR LISAH Bât 24, 2 Place Viala, 34060 Montpellier cedex 1 (France); INRA, UMR LISAH Bât 24, 2 Place Viala, 34060 Montpellier cedex 1 (France); Saison, Carine [IRD, UMR LISAH Bât 24, 2 Place Viala, 34060 Montpellier cedex 1 (France); Voltz, Marc [INRA, UMR LISAH Bât 24, 2 Place Viala, 34060 Montpellier cedex 1 (France); Disko, Ulrich; Hofmann, Diana; Berns, Anne E. [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, IBG 3, 52425 Jülich (Germany)


    Chlordecone is a persistent organochlorine insecticide that, even decades after its ban, poses a threat to the environment and human health. Nevertheless, its environmental fate in soils has scarcely been investigated, and elementary data on its degradation and behaviour in soil are lacking. The mineralisation and sorption of chlordecone and the formation of possible metabolites were evaluated in a tropical agricultural andosol. Soil microcosms with two different soil horizons (S-A and S-B) were incubated for 215 days with {sup 14}C-chlordecone. At five different times (1, 33, 88, 150 and 215 days) the extractability of {sup 14}C-chlordecone was analysed. Mineralisation was monitored using {sup 14}CO{sub 2} traps of NaOH. The appearance of metabolites was studied using thin layer and gas chromatography techniques. At the end of the experiment, the water soluble {sup 14}C-activity was 2% of the remaining {sup 14}C-chlordecone for S-A and 8% for S-B. Only 12% of the remaining activity was non extractable and more than 80% remained extractable with organic solvents. For the first time to our knowledge, a significant mineralisation of chlordecone was measured in a microcosm under aerobic conditions (4.9% for S-A and 3.2% for S-B of the initial {sup 14}C-activity). The drastically lower emission of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} in sterilised microcosms indicated the biological origin of chlordecone mineralisation in the non-sterilised microcosms. No metabolites could be detected in the soil extracts. The mineralisation rate of chlordecone decreased by one order of magnitude throughout the incubation period. Thus, the chlordecone content in the soil remained large. This study confirms the existence of chlordecone degrading organisms in a tropical andosol. The reasons why their activity is restricted should be elucidated to allow the development of bioremediation approaches. Possible reasons are a heterogeneous distribution a chlordecone between sub-compartments with different

  8. Recent advances in azo dye degrading enzyme research. (United States)

    Chen, Huizhong


    Azo dyes, which are characterized by one or more azo bonds, are a predominant class of colorants used in tattooing, cosmetics, foods, and consumer products. These dyes are mainly metabolized by bacteria to colorless aromatic amines, some of which are carcinogenic, by azoreductases that catalyze a NAD(P)H-dependent reduction. The resulting amines are further degraded aerobically by bacteria. Some bacteria have the ability to degrade azo dyes both aerobically and anaerobically. Plant-degrading white rot fungi can break down azo dyes by utilizing a number of oxidases and peroxidases as well. In yeast, a ferric reductase system participates in the extracellular reduction of azo dyes. Recently, two types of azoreductases have been discovered in bacteria. The first class of azoreductases is monomeric flavin-free enzymes containing a putative NAD(P)H binding motif at their N-termini; the second class is polymeric flavin dependent enzymes which are studied more extensively. Azoreductases from bacteria represent novel families of enzymes with little similarity to other reductases. Dissociation and reconstitution of the flavin dependent azoreductases demonstrate that the non-covalent bound flavin prosthetic group is required for the enzymatic functions. In this review, structures and carcinogenicity of azo colorants, protein structure, enzymatic function, and substrate specificity, as well as application of the azo dyes and azoreductases will be discussed.

  9. Epoxy Coenzyme A Thioester pathways for degradation of aromatic compounds. (United States)

    Ismail, Wael; Gescher, Johannes


    Aromatic compounds (biogenic and anthropogenic) are abundant in the biosphere. Some of them are well-known environmental pollutants. Although the aromatic nucleus is relatively recalcitrant, microorganisms have developed various catabolic routes that enable complete biodegradation of aromatic compounds. The adopted degradation pathways depend on the availability of oxygen. Under oxic conditions, microorganisms utilize oxygen as a cosubstrate to activate and cleave the aromatic ring. In contrast, under anoxic conditions, the aromatic compounds are transformed to coenzyme A (CoA) thioesters followed by energy-consuming reduction of the ring. Eventually, the dearomatized ring is opened via a hydrolytic mechanism. Recently, novel catabolic pathways for the aerobic degradation of aromatic compounds were elucidated that differ significantly from the established catabolic routes. The new pathways were investigated in detail for the aerobic bacterial degradation of benzoate and phenylacetate. In both cases, the pathway is initiated by transforming the substrate to a CoA thioester and all the intermediates are bound by CoA. The subsequent reactions involve epoxidation of the aromatic ring followed by hydrolytic ring cleavage. Here we discuss the novel pathways, with a particular focus on their unique features and occurrence as well as ecological significance.

  10. High bacterial biodiversity increases degradation performance of hydrocarbons during bioremediation of contaminated harbor marine sediments. (United States)

    Dell'Anno, Antonio; Beolchini, Francesca; Rocchetti, Laura; Luna, Gian Marco; Danovaro, Roberto


    We investigated changes of bacterial abundance and biodiversity during bioremediation experiments carried out on oxic and anoxic marine harbor sediments contaminated with hydrocarbons. Oxic sediments, supplied with inorganic nutrients, were incubated in aerobic conditions at 20 °C and 35 °C for 30 days, whereas anoxic sediments, amended with organic substrates, were incubated in anaerobic conditions at the same temperatures for 60 days. Results reported here indicate that temperature exerted the main effect on bacterial abundance, diversity and assemblage composition. At higher temperature bacterial diversity and evenness increased significantly in aerobic conditions, whilst decreased in anaerobic conditions. In both aerobic and anaerobic conditions, biodegradation efficiencies of hydrocarbons were significantly and positively related with bacterial richness and evenness. Overall results presented here suggest that bioremediation strategies, which can sustain high levels of bacterial diversity rather than the selection of specific taxa, may significantly increase the efficiency of hydrocarbon degradation in contaminated marine sediments.

  11. Performance and dye-degrading bacteria isolation of a hybrid membrane process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Sheng-Jie, E-mail: [Department of Bioenvironmental Engineering and R and D Center for Membrane Technology, Chung Yuan Christian University, No. 200, Rd. Chung-Pei, Chungli 320, Taiwan (China); Teng, Jun-Yu, E-mail: [Department of Civil Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chungli 320, Taiwan (China)


    Textile dyeing wastewater contains harmful compounds, which are toxic to both marine organisms and human beings if it discharged into an aquatic environmental without suitable treatment. In this study, the wastewater containing the azo dye, Reactive Black 5 (RB5), was partially treated in an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor which was further treated either in an aerobic membrane bioreactors (AOMBR) or in combined aerobic membrane bioreactor/reverse osmosis (AOMBR/RO) process. The results showed that in the anaerobic sequencing batch reactor the RB5 dye was degraded to form aromatic amine intermediate metabolites, which were further mineralized in the AOMBR. It was also observed that although all effluents from the AOMBR and AOMBR/RO processes met the Taiwan EPA's effluent criteria, irrespective of which membranes were used in the aerobic tank, the effluent from the AOMBR/RO process met the criteria for reuse for toilet flushing, landscaping, irrigation, and cooling water purposes, where as the AOMBR effluent only met the criteria for cooling water due to incomplete color removal. Five anaerobic high dye-degrading bacteria were isolated, which were identified to be the same species of Lactococcus lactis by 16S rRNA sequencing. The L. lactis showed complete degradation of RB5 and further studies showed that it can also able to degrade Reactive Red 120 and Reactive Yellow 84 efficiently within 6 h.

  12. Enantioselectivity in tebuconazole and myclobutanil non-target toxicity and degradation in soils. (United States)

    Li, Yuanbo; Dong, Fengshou; Liu, Xingang; Xu, Jun; Han, Yongtao; Zheng, Yongquan


    Tebuconazole and myclobutanil are two widely used triazole fungicides, both comprising two enantiomers with different fungicidal activity. However, their non-target toxicity and environmental behavior with respect to enantioselectivity have received limited attention. In the present study, tebuconazole and myclobutanil enantiomers were isolated and used to evaluate the occurrence of enantioselectivity in their acute toxicity to three non-target organisms (Scenedesmus obliquus, Daphnia magna, and Danio rerio). Significant differences were found: R-(-)-tebuconazole was about 1.4-5.9 times more toxic than S-(+)-tebuconazole; rac-myclobutanil was about 1.3-6.1 and 1.4-7.3 more toxic than (-)-myclobutanil and (+)-myclobutanil, respectively. Enantioselectivity was further investigated in terms of fungicide degradation in seven soil samples, which were selected to cover a broad range of soil properties. In aerobic or anaerobic soils, the S-(+)-tebuconazole degraded faster than R-(-)-tebuconazole, and the enantioselectivity showed a correlation with soil organic carbon content. (+)-Myclobutanil was preferentially degraded than (-)-myclobutanil in aerobic soils, whereas both enantiomers degraded at similar rates in anaerobic soils. Apparent correlations of enantioselectivity with soil pH and soil texture were observed for myclobutanil under aerobic conditions. In addition, both fungicides were configurationally stable in soils, i.e., no enantiomerization was found. Enantioselectivity may be a common phenomenon in both aquatic toxicity and biodegradation of chiral triazole fungicides, and this should be considered when assessing ecotoxicological risks of these compounds in the environment.

  13. Biodegradation of phenols in a sandstone aquifer under aerobic conditions and mixed nitrate and iron reducing conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broholm, Mette; Arvin, Erik


    in the groundwater. The potential for biodegradation of the phenols in the sandstone aquifer at the site has been investigated in laboratory microcosms under aerobic (oxygen amended) and mixed nitrate and iron reducing (nitrate enriched and unamended) anaerobic conditions, at a range of concentrations (low: similar...... to 5 mg 1(-1): high: similar to 60 mg 1(-1), and very high: similar to 600 mg 1(-1)) and in the presence of other organic coal-tar compounds (mono- and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (BTEXs and PAHs) and heterocyclic compounds (NSOs)) and ammonia liquor. Sandstone cores and groundwater for the microcosms...... biodegradation of phenol, cresols, 3,4-xylenol and 3,5-xylenol was observed after short lag-phases in the anaerobic microcosms. 2,5-xylenol was partially degraded after a longer lag-phase and 2,6-xylenol persisted throughout the 3 month long experiments. The maximum rates of total phenols degradation...

  14. Denitrification characteristics of a marine origin psychrophilic aerobic denitrifying bacterium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haiyan Zheng; Ying Liu; Guangdong Sun; Xiyan Gao; Qingling Zhang; Zhipei Liu


    A psychrophilic aerobic denitrifying bacterium,strain S1-1,was isolated from a biological aerated filter conducted for treatment of recirculating water in a marine aquaculture system.Strain S1-1 was preliminarily identified as Psychrobacter sp.based on the analysis of its 16S rRNA gene sequence,which showed 100% sequence similarity to that of Psychrobacter sp.TSBY-70.Strain S 1-1 grew well either in high nitrate or high nitrite conditions with a removal of 100% nitrate or 63.50% nitrite,and the total nitrogen removal rates could reach to 46.48% and 31.89%,respectively.The results indicated that nitrate was mainly reduced in its logarithmic growth phase with a very low leve 1 accumulation of nitrite,suggesting that the aerobic denitrification process of strain S l-1 occurred mainly in this phase.The GC-MS results showed that N2O was formed as the major intermediate during the aerobic denitrifying process of strain S1-1.Finally,factors affecting the growth of strain Sl-1 and its aerobic denitrifying ability were also investigated.Results showed that the optimum aerobic denitrification conditions for strain S1-1 were sodium succinate as carbon source,C/N ratio15,salinity 10 g/L NaCl,incubation temperature 20℃ and initial pH 6.5.

  15. Thraustochytrid protists degrade hydrocarbons

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raikar, M.T.; Raghukumar, S.; Vani, V.; David, J.J.; Chandramohan, D.

    Rev, 54 (1990) 305-315. 12 Fedorak P M & Westlake D W S, Microbial degradation of aromatics and saturates in Prudhoe Bay crude oil as determined by glass capillary gas chromatography, Can J Microbiol, (1981) 432-443. 13 Atlas R M, Microbial... degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons: An environmental perspective, Microbiol Rev, 45 (1981) 180-209. 14 Atlas R M, Microbial hydrocarbon degradation- Bioremediation of oil spills, J Chem Tech Biotechnol, 52 (1991) 149-156 15 Venkateswaran K, Iwabuchi T...

  16. Effects of 12 weeks of aerobic training on autonomic modulation, mucociliary clearance, and aerobic parameters in patients with COPD (United States)

    Leite, Marceli Rocha; Ramos, Ercy Mara Cipulo; Kalva-Filho, Carlos Augusto; Freire, Ana Paula Coelho Figueira; de Alencar Silva, Bruna Spolador; Nicolino, Juliana; de Toledo-Arruda, Alessandra Choqueta; Papoti, Marcelo; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos Marques; Ramos, Dionei


    Introduction Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exhibit aerobic function, autonomic nervous system, and mucociliary clearance alterations. These parameters can be attenuated by aerobic training, which can be applied with continuous or interval efforts. However, the possible effects of aerobic training, using progressively both continuous and interval sessions (ie, linear periodization), require further investigation. Aim To analyze the effects of 12-week aerobic training using continuous and interval sessions on autonomic modulation, mucociliary clearance, and aerobic function in patients with COPD. Methods Sixteen patients with COPD were divided into an aerobic (continuous and interval) training group (AT) (n=10) and a control group (CG) (n=6). An incremental test (initial speed of 2.0 km·h−1, constant slope of 3%, and increments of 0.5 km·h−1 every 2 minutes) was performed. The training group underwent training for 4 weeks at 60% of the peak velocity reached in the incremental test (vVO2peak) (50 minutes of continuous effort), followed by 4 weeks of sessions at 75% of vVO2peak (30 minutes of continuous effort), and 4 weeks of interval training (5×3-minute effort at vVO2peak, separated by 1 minute of passive recovery). Intensities were adjusted through an incremental test performed at the end of each period. Results The AT presented an increase in the high frequency index (ms2) (P=0.04), peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) (P=0.01), vVO2peak (P=0.04), and anaerobic threshold (P=0.02). No significant changes were observed in the CG (P>0.21) group. Neither of the groups presented changes in mucociliary clearance after 12 weeks (AT: P=0.94 and CG: P=0.69). Conclusion Twelve weeks of aerobic training (continuous and interval sessions) positively influenced the autonomic modulation and aerobic parameters in patients with COPD. However, mucociliary clearance was not affected by aerobic training. PMID:26648712

  17. In vitro effect of 4-nonylphenol on human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) stimulated hormone secretion, cell viability and reactive oxygen species generation in mice Leydig cells. (United States)

    Jambor, Tomáš; Tvrdá, Eva; Tušimová, Eva; Kováčik, Anton; Bistáková, Jana; Forgács, Zsolt; Lukáč, Norbert


    Nonylphenol is considered an endocrine disruptor and has been reported to affect male reproductive functions. In our in vitro study, we evaluated the effects of 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) on cholesterol levels, hormone formation and viability in cultured Leydig cells from adult ICR male mice. We also determined the potential impact of 4-NP on generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) after 44 h of cultivation. The cells were cultured with addition of 0.04; 0.2; 1.0; 2.5 and 5.0 μg/mL of 4-NP in the present of 1 IU/mL human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and compared to the control. The quantity of cholesterol was determined from culture medium using photometry. Determination of hormone production was performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Metabolic activity assay was used for quantification of cell viability. The chemiluminescence technique, which uses a luminometer to measure reactive oxygen species, was employed. Applied doses of 4-NP (0.04-5.0 μg/mL) slight increase cholesterol levels and decrease production of dehydroepiandrosterone after 44 h of cultivation, but not significantly. Incubation of 4-NP treated cells with hCG significantly (P concentration (5.0 μg/mL). The viability was significantly (P cells. Taken together, the results of our in vitro study reported herein is consistent with the conclusion that 4-nonylphenol is able to influence hormonal profile, cell viability and generate ROS.

  18. Determination of bisphenol A, 4-octylphenol, and 4-nonylphenol in soft drinks and dairy products by ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with derivatization and high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. (United States)

    Lv, Tao; Zhao, Xian-En; Zhu, Shuyun; Qu, Fei; Song, Cuihua; You, Jinmao; Suo, Yourui


    A novel hyphenated method based on ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled to precolumn derivatization has been established for the simultaneous determination of bisphenol A, 4-octylphenol, and 4-nonylphenol by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Different parameters that influence microextraction and derivatization have been optimized. The quantitative linear range of analytes is 5.0-400.0 ng/L, and the correlation coefficients are more than 0.9998. Limits of detection for soft drinks and dairy products have been obtained in the range of 0.5-1.2 ng/kg and 0.01-0.04 μg/kg, respectively. Relative standard deviations of intra- and inter-day precision for retention time and peak area are in the range of 0.47-2.31 and 2.76-8.79%, respectively. Accuracy is satisfactory in the range of 81.5-118.7%. Relative standard deviations of repeatability are in the range of 0.35-1.43 and 2.36-4.75% for retention time and peak area, respectively. Enrichment factors for bisphenol A, 4-octylphenol, and 4-nonylphenol are 170.5, 240.3, and 283.2, respectively. The results of recovery and matrix effect are in the range of 82.7-114.9 and 92.0-109.0%, respectively. The proposed method has been applied to the determination of bisphenol A, 4-octylphenol, and 4-nonylphenol in soft drinks and dairy products with much higher sensitivity than many other methods.

  19. Aerobic exercise reduces biomarkers related to cardiovascular risk among cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korshøj, Mette; Ravn, Marie Højbjerg; Holtermann, Andreas


    PURPOSE: Blue-collar workers have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Accordingly, elevated levels of biomarkers related to risk of cardiovascular disease, such as high-sensitive C-reactive protein, have been observed among blue-collar workers. The objective was to examine whether...... an aerobic exercise worksite intervention changes the level of inflammation biomarkers among cleaners. METHODS: The design was a cluster-randomized controlled trial with 4-month worksite intervention. Before the 116 cleaners aged 18-65 years were randomized, they signed an informed consent form....... The reference group (n = 59) received lectures, and the aerobic exercise group (n = 57) performed worksite aerobic exercise (30 min twice a week). Levels of biomarkers (high-sensitive C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, cholesterol, low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride) were collected...

  20. Virulence factors enhance Citrobacter rodentium expansion through aerobic respiration. (United States)

    Lopez, Christopher A; Miller, Brittany M; Rivera-Chávez, Fabian; Velazquez, Eric M; Byndloss, Mariana X; Chávez-Arroyo, Alfredo; Lokken, Kristen L; Tsolis, Renée M; Winter, Sebastian E; Bäumler, Andreas J


    Citrobacter rodentium uses a type III secretion system (T3SS) to induce colonic crypt hyperplasia in mice, thereby gaining an edge during its competition with the gut microbiota through an unknown mechanism. Here, we show that by triggering colonic crypt hyperplasia, the C. rodentium T3SS induced an excessive expansion of undifferentiated Ki67-positive epithelial cells, which increased oxygenation of the mucosal surface and drove an aerobic C. rodentium expansion in the colon. Treatment of mice with the γ-secretase inhibitor dibenzazepine to diminish Notch-driven colonic crypt hyperplasia curtailed the fitness advantage conferred by aerobic respiration during C. rodentium infection. We conclude that C. rodentium uses its T3SS to induce histopathological lesions that generate an intestinal microenvironment in which growth of the pathogen is fueled by aerobic respiration.

  1. Isolation and denitrification characteristic of an aerobic denitrifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Dan-dan; MA Fang; WANG Hong-yu; DONG Shuang-shi; WANG Ai-jie


    Aerobic denitrifiers were enriched by activated sludge cultivation method. By this way, 105 strains were isolated from the activated sludge and 25 strains were confirmed to be capable of obtaining energy by deoxidization of nitrate to nitrogen gas under aerobic condition. The characteristic of one denitrifier, Pseudomonas chloritidismutans strain, was particularly studied due to its higher nitrogen removal rate. It was found that Pseudomonas chloritidismutans can use nitrite, nitrate and oxygen for aerobic respiration in liquid medium, and the pH increased and ORP decreased by activated denitrifier. When they used nitrite or nitrate for respiration, nitrogen removal effect was high and nitrite could be reduced more efficiently than nitrate. Denitrification process was accomplished faster when both nitrite and nitrate existed in the medium compared to each of which existed alone. Particularly, at denitrifying activity, the nitrogen removal rate of strain was not affected by the DO concentration in the culture media.

  2. Evaluation of Biodegradability of Waste Before and After Aerobic Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchowska-Kisielewicz Monika


    Full Text Available An important advantage of use of an aerobic biostabilization of waste prior to its disposal is that it intensifies the decomposition of the organic fraction of waste into the form which is easily assimilable for methanogenic microorganisms involved in anaerobic decomposition of waste in the landfill. In this article it is presented the influence of aerobic pre-treatment of waste as well as leachate recirculation on susceptibility to biodegradation of waste in anaerobic laboratory reactors. The research has shown that in the reactor with aerobically treated waste stabilized with recilculation conversion of the organic carbon into the methane is about 45% higher than in the reactor with untreated waste stabilized without recirculation.

  3. Assessment of Aerobic Exercise Adverse Effects during COPD Exacerbation Hospitalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Knaut


    Full Text Available Introduction. Aerobic exercise performed after hospital discharge for exacerbated COPD patients is already recommended to improve respiratory and skeletal muscle strength, increase tolerance to activity, and reduce the sensation of dyspnea. Previous studies have shown that anaerobic activity can clinically benefit patients hospitalized with exacerbated COPD. However, there is little information on the feasibility and safety of aerobic physical activity performed by patients with exacerbated COPD during hospitalization. Objective. To evaluate the effects of aerobic exercise on vital signs in hospitalized patients with exacerbated COPD. Patients and Methods. Eleven COPD patients (63% female, FEV1: 34.2 ± 13.9% and age: 65 ± 11 years agreed to participate. Aerobic exercise was initiated 72 hours after admission on a treadmill; speed was obtained from the distance covered in a 6-minute walk test (6MWT. Vital signs were assessed before and after exercise. Results. During the activity systolic blood pressure increased from 125.2 ± 13.6 to 135.8 ± 15.0 mmHg (p=0.004 and respiratory rate from 20.9 ± 4.4 to 24.2 ± 4.5 rpm (p=0.008 and pulse oximetry (SpO2 decreased from 93.8 ± 2.3 to 88.5 ± 5.7% (p<0.001. Aerobic activity was considered intense, heart rate ranged from 99.2 ± 11.5 to 119.1 ± 11.1 bpm at the end of exercise (p=0.092, and patients reached on average 76% of maximum heart rate. Conclusion. Aerobic exercise conducted after 72 hours of hospitalization in patients with exacerbated COPD appears to be safe.

  4. Exercise intensity during Zumba fitness and Tae-bo aerobics


    Hižnayová, Kristína


    This study analyzed and compared the exercise intensity in Zumba fitness and Tae-bo aerobics. Object of the research was monitoring of the heart rate and energy consumption in kcal during exercise unit, by using Heart Rate Monitor Suunto Memory Belt. All measurements were attended by randomly selected 11 women. The data we collected during the six units of the Zumba fitness and six units of the Tae-bo aerobics . Obtained data of the heart rate were evaluated in three main parts of workout: af...

  5. Copper intoxication inhibits aerobic nucleotide synthesis in Streptococcus pneumoniae (United States)

    Johnson, Michael D. L.; Kehl-Fie, Thomas E.; Rosch, Jason W.


    Copper is universally toxic in excess, a feature exploited by the human immune system to facilitate bacterial clearance. The mechanism of copper intoxication remains unknown for many bacterial species. Here, we demonstrate that copper toxicity in Streptococcus pneumoniae is independent from oxidative stress but, rather, is the result of copper inhibiting the aerobic dNTP biosynthetic pathway. Furthermore, we show that copper-intoxicated S. pneumoniae is rescued by manganese, which is an essential metal in the aerobic nucleotide synthesis pathway. These data provide insight into new targets to enhance copper-mediated toxicity during bacterial clearance. PMID:25730343

  6. Myelotoxicity in genistein-, nonylphenol-, methoxychlor-, vinclozolin- or ethinyl estradiol-exposed F1 generations of Sprague-Dawley rats following developmental and adult exposures. (United States)

    Guo, T L; Germolec, D R; Musgrove, D L; Delclos, K B; Newbold, R R; Weis, C; White, K L


    The myelotoxicity of five endocrine active chemicals was evaluated in F1 generation of Sprague-Dawley rats following developmental and adult exposures at three concentration levels. Rats were exposed to genistein (GEN: 25, 250 and 1250 ppm), nonylphenol (NPH: 25, 500 and 2000 ppm), methoxychlor (MXC: 10, 100 and 1000 ppm), vinclozolin (VCZ: 10, 150 and 750 ppm) and ethinyl estradiol (EE2: 5, 25 and 200 ppb) gestationally and lactationally through dams from day 7 of gestation and through feed after weaning on postnatal day (PND) 22 to PND 64. The parameters examined included the number of recovered bone marrow cells, DNA synthesis, and colony forming units (CFU) in the presence of granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and erythropoietin. Except for the EE2, the concentrations of other individual chemicals in the diet were in an approximate range that allowed for a comparison to be made in terms of myelotoxic potency. Decreases in the DNA synthesis, CFU-GM and CFU-M seemed to be the common findings among the alterations induced by these compounds. Using the numbers of alterations induced by each chemical in the parameters examined as criteria for comparison, the order of myelotoxic potency in F(1) males was: GEN>MXC>NPH>VCZ; the order in females: GEN>NPH>VCZ. Additionally, some of the functional changes induced by these compounds were gender-specific or dimorphic. Overall, the results demonstrated that developmental and adult exposures of F1 rats to these endocrine active chemicals at the concentrations tested had varied degrees of myelotoxicity with GEN being the most potent. Furthermore, the sex-specific effects of these chemicals in F1 male and female rats suggest that there may be interactions between these compounds and sex hormone in modulating these responses.

  7. LC-MS/MS analytical procedure to quantify tris(nonylphenyl)phosphite, as a source of the endocrine disruptors 4-nonylphenols, in food packaging materials. (United States)

    Mottier, Pascal; Frank, Nancy; Dubois, Mathieu; Tarres, Adrienne; Bessaire, Thomas; Romero, Roman; Delatour, Thierry


    Tris(nonylphenyl)phosphite, an antioxidant used in polyethylene resins for food applications, is problematic since it is a source of the endocrine-disrupting chemicals 4-nonylphenols (4NP) upon migration into packaged foods. As a response to concerns surrounding the presence of 4NP-based compounds in packaging materials, some resin producers and additive suppliers have decided to eliminate TNPP from formulations. This paper describes an analytical procedure to verify the "TNPP-free" statement in multilayer laminates used for bag-in-box packaging. The method involves extraction of TNPP from laminates with organic solvents followed by detection/quantification by LC-MS/MS using the atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation (APCI) mode. A further acidic treatment of the latter extract allows the release of 4NP from potentially extracted TNPP. 4NP is then analysed by LC-MS/MS using electrospray ionisation (ESI) mode. This two-step analytical procedure ensures not only TNPP quantification in laminates, but also allows the flagging of other possible sources of 4NP in such packaging materials, typically as non-intentionally added substances (NIAS). The limits of quantification were 0.50 and 0.48 µg dm⁻² for TNPP and 4NP in laminates, respectively, with recoveries ranging between 87% and 114%. Usage of such analytical methodologies in quality control operations has pointed to a lack of traceability at the packaging supplier level and cross-contamination of extrusion equipment at the converter level, when TNPP-containing laminates are processed on the same machine beforehand.

  8. Effects of p-nonylphenol and resveratrol on body and organ weight and in vivo fertility of outbred CD-1 mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boubelik Michael


    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to analyse the multigenerational effects of para-nonylphenol (NP and resveratrol (RES on the body weight, organ weight and reproductive fitness of outbred CD-1 mice. The data indicate that in male mice, NP had an effect on the weight of selected reproductive organs and the kidneys in the parental (P generation males. Effects on selected reproductive organs, the liver and kidneys in the F1-generation males were also seen. In females, effects of NP on body weight and kidney weight were seen in the P generation, but no effects on any measured parameter were seen in the F1 generation. RES had no effect on body weight but did have some effect on selected male and female reproductive organs in the P generation. RES altered the spleen and liver weights of P-generation males and the kidney weight of F1-generation males. Acrosomal integrity (using a monoclonal antibody against intra-acrosomal sperm proteins was assessed for both generations of NP- and RES-treated mice. A significant reduction in acrosomal integrity was seen in both generations of NP-treated, but not in RES-treated, mice. Fewer offspring were observed in the second litter of the F2 generation of mice treated with NP; no similar effect was seen in RES-treated mice. The litter sex ratio was not different from controls. Unlike RES, NP had a negative effect on spermatogenesis and sperm quality with a resultant impact on in vivo fertility.

  9. Aqueous exposure to 4-nonylphenol and 17β-estradiol increases stress sensitivity and disrupts ion regulatory ability of juvenile atlantic salmon (United States)

    Lerner, Darrren T.; Bjornsson, Bjorn Thrandur; McCormick, Stephen D.


    Population declines of wild Atlantic salmon have been attributed to an array of anthropogenic disturbances, including dams, commercial and recreational fishing, habitat loss, and pollution. Environmental contaminants in particular, can act as environmental stressors on fish, typically causing disruption of ion homeostasis due to their close association with the aquatic environment. To examine the effects of the xenoestrogen 4-nonylphenol (NP) or 17β-estradiol (E2) on stress sensitivity and ion regulation, we exposed juvenile Atlantic salmon continuously for 21 d to either 10 or 100 μg/L NP (NP-L or NP-H), 2 μg/L E2 (positive control), or vehicle control during the parr-smolt transformation in April. After treatment, fish were sampled in freshwater (FW), transferred to 30‰ seawater (SW) for 24 h, or subjected to a handling stress. Estradiol and NP-H increased plasma vitellogenin in males and females, and E2 increased gonadosomatic index only in males. In FW, E2 reduced sodium potassium–activated adenosine triphosphatase activity as well as plasma levels of growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor I, and triiodothyronine. Both E2 and NP-H reduced plasma sodium in FW and increased plasma chloride in SW. Plasma Cortisol levels pre- and poststressor were significantly elevated by all treatments relative to controls, but only E2 increased plasma glucose before and after the stressor. These results indicate that exposure of anadromous salmonids to environmental estrogens heightens sensitivity to external stressors, impairs ion regulation in both FW and SW, and disrupts endocrine pathways critical for smolt development.

  10. A mechanism of male germ cell apoptosis induced by bisphenol-A and nonylphenol involving ADAM17 and p38 MAPK activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Urriola-Muñoz

    Full Text Available Germ cell apoptosis regulation is pivotal in order to maintain proper daily sperm production. Several reports have shown that endocrine disruptors such as Bisphenol-A (BPA and Nonylphenol (NP induce germ cell apoptosis along with a decrease in sperm production. Given their ubiquitous distribution in plastic products used by humans it is important to clarify their mechanism of action. TACE/ADAM17 is a widely distributed extracellular metalloprotease and participates in the physiological apoptosis of germ cells during spermatogenesis. The aims of this work were: 1 to determine whether BPA and NP induce ADAM17 activation; and 2 to study whether ADAM17 and/or ADAM10 are involved in germ cell apoptosis induced by BPA and NP in the pubertal rat testis. A single dose of BPA or NP (50 mg/kg induces germ cell apoptosis in 21-day-old male rats, which was prevented by a pharmacological inhibitor of ADAM17, but not by an inhibitor of ADAM10. In vitro, we showed that BPA and NP, at similar concentrations to those found in human samples, induce the shedding of exogenous and endogenous (TNF-α ADAM17 substrates in primary rat Sertoli cell cultures and TM4 cell line. In addition, pharmacological inhibitors of metalloproteases and genetic silencing of ADAM17 prevent the shedding induced in vitro by BPA and NP. Finally, we showed that in vivo BPA and NP induced early activation (phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and translocation of ADAM17 to the cell surface. Interestingly, the inhibition of p38 MAPK prevents germ cell apoptosis and translocation of ADAM17 to the cell surface. These results show for the first time that xenoestrogens can induce activation of ADAM17 at concentrations similar to those found in human samples, suggesting a mechanism by which they could imbalance para/juxtacrine cell-to-cell-communication and induce germ cell apoptosis.

  11. Larval exposure to 4-nonylphenol and 17β-estradiol affects physiological and behavioral development of seawater adaptation in Atlantic salmon smolts (United States)

    Lerner, Darrren T.; Bjornsson, Bjorn Thrandur; McCormick, Stephen D.


    Population declines of anadromous salmonids are attributed to anthropogenic disturbances including dams, commercial and recreational fisheries, and pollutants, such as estrogenic compounds. Nonylphenol (NP), a xenoestrogen, is widespread in the aquatic environment due to its use in agricultural, industrial, and household products. We exposed Atlantic salmon yolk-sac larvae to waterborne 10 or 100 μg L-1 NP (NP-L or NP-H, respectively), 2 μg L-1 17β-estradiol (E2), or vehicle, for 21 days to investigate their effects on smolt physiology and behavior 1 year later. NP-H caused approximately 50% mortality during exposure, 30 days after exposure, and 60 days after exposure. Mortality rates of NP-L and E2 fish were not affected until 60 days after treatment, when they were 4-fold greater than those of controls. Treatment with NP-L or E2 as yolk-sac larvae decreased gill sodium-potassium-activated adenosine triphosphatase (Na+,K+-ATPase) activity and seawater (SW) tolerance during smolt development, 1 year after exposure. Exposure to NP-L and E2 resulted in a latency to enter SW and reduced preference for SW approximately 2- and 5-fold, respectively. NP-L-exposed fish had 20% lower plasma insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) levels and 35% lower plasma triiodothyronine (T3). Plasma growth hormone and thyroxine (T4) were unaffected. Exposure to E2 did not affect plasma levels of IGF-I, GH, T3, or T4. Both treatment groups exhibited increased plasma cortisol and decreased osmoregulatory capacity in response to a handling stressor. These results suggest that early exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of NP, and other estrogenic compounds, can cause direct and delayed mortalities and that this exposure can have long term, “organizational” effects on life-history events in salmonids.

  12. Ubiquitous occurrence of chlorinated byproducts of bisphenol A and nonylphenol in bleached food contacting papers and their implications for human exposure. (United States)

    Zhou, Yuyin; Chen, Mo; Zhao, Fanrong; Mu, Di; Zhang, Zhaobin; Hu, Jianying


    The occurrence of bisphenol A (BPA), nonylphenol (NP), and their six chlorinated byproducts were investigated in 74 food contacting papers (FCPs) from China, the U.S.A., Japan, and Europe using a sensitive dansylation LC-MS/MS method. BPA (paper production. The mean concentrations of monochloro-BPA (MCBPA), dichloro-BPA (DCBPA), trichloro-BPA (TCBPA), tetrachloro-BPA (TeCBPA), monochloro-NP (MCNP), and dichloro-NP (DCNP) in bleached FCPs were 0.019 ± 0.025, 0.0033 ± 0.0059, 0.0030 ± 0.0045, 0.0081 ± 0.019, 0.23 ± 0.46, and 0.066 ± 0.11 ng/g, respectively, much higher than those (0.0021 ± 0.0020 ng/g for MCBPA, 0.00068 ± 0.00076 ng/g for DCBPA,

  13. Larval exposure to 4-nonylphenol and 17beta-estradiol affects physiological and behavioral development of seawater adaptation in Atlantic salmon smolts. (United States)

    Lerner, Darren T; Björnsson, Björn Thrandur; McCormick, Stephen D


    Population declines of anadromous salmonids are attributed to anthropogenic disturbances including dams, commercial and recreational fisheries, and pollutants, such as estrogenic compounds. Nonylphenol (NP), a xenoestrogen, is widespread in the aquatic environment due to its use in agricultural, industrial, and household products. We exposed Atlantic salmon yolk-sac larvae to waterborne 10 or 100 microg L(-1) NP (NP-L or NP-H, respectively), 2 microg L(-1) 17beta-estradiol (E2), or vehicle, for 21 days to investigate their effects on smolt physiology and behavior 1 year later. NP-H caused approximately 50% mortality during exposure, 30 days after exposure, and 60 days after exposure. Mortality rates of NP-L and E2 fish were not affected until 60 days after treatment, when they were 4-fold greater than those of controls. Treatment with NP-L or E2 as yolk-sac larvae decreased gill sodium-potassium-activated adenosine triphosphatase (Na+,K(+)-ATPase) activity and seawater (SW) tolerance during smolt development, 1 year after exposure. Exposure to NP-L and E2 resulted in a latency to enter SW and reduced preference for SW approximately 2- and 5-fold, respectively. NP-L-exposed fish had 20% lower plasma insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) levels and 35% lower plasma triiodothyronine (T3). Plasma growth hormone and thyroxine (T4) were unaffected. Exposure to E2 did not affect plasma levels of IGF-I, GH, T3, or T4. Both treatment groups exhibited increased plasma cortisol and decreased osmoregulatory capacity in response to a handling stressor. These results suggest that early exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of NP, and other estrogenic compounds, can cause direct and delayed mortalities and that this exposure can have long-term, "organizational" effects on life-history events in salmonids.

  14. Pyrosequence analysis of bacterial communities in aerobic bioreactors treating polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated soil. (United States)

    Singleton, David R; Richardson, Stephen D; Aitken, Michael D


    Two aerobic, lab-scale, slurry-phase bioreactors were used to examine the biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in contaminated soil and the associated bacterial communities. The two bioreactors were operated under semi-continuous (draw-and-fill) conditions at a residence time of 35 days, but one was fed weekly and the other monthly. Most of the quantified PAHs, including high-molecular-weight compounds, were removed to a greater extent in the weekly-fed bioreactor, which achieved total PAH removal of 76%. Molecular analyses, including pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes, revealed significant shifts in the soil bacterial communities after introduction to the bioreactors and differences in the abundance and types of bacteria in each of the bioreactors. The weekly-fed bioreactor displayed a more stable bacterial community with gradual changes over time, whereas the monthly-fed bioreactor community was less consistent and may have been more strongly influenced by the influx of untreated soil during feeding. Phylogenetic groups containing known PAH-degrading bacteria previously identified through stable-isotope probing of the untreated soil were differentially affected by bioreactor conditions. Sequences from members of the Acidovorax and Sphingomonas genera, as well as the uncultivated "Pyrene Group 2" were abundant in the bioreactors. However, the relative abundances of sequences from the Pseudomonas, Sphingobium, and Pseudoxanthomonas genera, as well as from a group of unclassified anthracene degraders, were much lower in the bioreactors compared to the untreated soil.

  15. Biodegradation of aniline by Candida tropicalis AN1 isolated from aerobic granular sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dianzhan Wang; Guanyu Zheng; Shimei Wang; Dewei Zhang; Lixiang Zhou


    Aniline-degrading microbes were cultivated and acclimated with the initial activated sludge collected from a chemical wastewater treatment plant.During the acclimation processes,aerobic granular sludge being able to effectively degrade aniline was successfully formed,from which a preponderant bacterial strain was isolated and named as ANi.Effects of factors including pH,temperature,and second carbon/nitrogen source on the biodegradation of aniline were investigated.Results showed that the optimal conditions for the biodegradation of aniline by the strain AN1 were at pH 7.0 and 28-35°C.At the optimal pH and temperature,the biodegradation rate of aniline could reach as high as 17.8 mg/( when the initial aniline concentration was 400 mg/L.Further studies revealed that the addition of 1 g/L glucose or ammonium chloride as a second carbon or nitrogen source could slightly enhance the biodegradation efficiency from 93.0% to 95.1%-98.5%.However,even more addition of glucose or ammonium could not further enhance the biodegradation process but delayed the biodegradation of aniline by the strain AN1.Based on morphological and physiological characteristics as well as the phylogenetic analysis of 26S rDNA sequences,the strain AN1 was identified as Candida tropicalis.

  16. Nutrient transformation during aerobic composting of pig manure with biochar prepared at different temperatures. (United States)

    Li, Ronghua; Wang, Quan; Zhang, Zengqiang; Zhang, Guangjie; Li, Zhonghong; Wang, Li; Zheng, Jianzhong


    The effects of the corn stalk charred biomass (CB) prepared at different pyrolysis temperatures as additives on nutrient transformation during aerobic composting of pig manure were investigated. The results showed that the addition of CB carbonized at different temperatures to pig manure compost significantly influenced the compost temperature, moisture, pH, electrical conductivity, organic matter degradation, total nitrogen, [Formula: see text] and NH3 variations during composting. Compared with control and adding CB charred at lower temperature treatments, the addition of CB prepared over 700°C resulted in higher pH (over 9.2) and NH3 emission and lower potherb mustard seed germination index value during the thermophilic phase. Peak temperatures of composts appeared at 7 days for control and 11 days for CB added treatments. During 90 days composting, the organic matter degradation could be increased over 14.8-29.6% after adding of CB in the compost mixture. The introduction of CB in pig manure could prolong the thermophilic phase, inhibit moisture reduce, facilitate the organic matter decomposition, reduce diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) extractable Zn and Cu contents in pig manure composts and increase ryegrass growth. The study indicated that the corn stalk CB prepared around 500°C was a suitable additive in pig manure composting.

  17. Syntrophy in Methanogenic Degradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worm, P.; Müller, N.; Plugge, C.M.; Stams, A.J.M.; Schink, B.


    This chapter deals with microbial communities of bacteria and archaea that closely cooperate in methanogenic degradation and perform metabolic functions in this community that neither one of them could carry out alone. The methanogenic degradation of fatty acids, alcohols, most aromatic compounds, a

  18. Rate of NDF degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Koukolová, V; Lund, Peter


    Degradation profiles for NDF were estimated for 83 samples of grass/grass-clover, 27 samples of cereal whole crop and 14 samples of maize whole crop.......Degradation profiles for NDF were estimated for 83 samples of grass/grass-clover, 27 samples of cereal whole crop and 14 samples of maize whole crop....

  19. Batteries: Imaging degradation (United States)

    Shearing, Paul R.


    The degradation and failure of Li-ion batteries is strongly associated with electrode microstructure change upon (de)lithiation. Now, an operando X-ray tomography approach is shown to correlate changes in the microstructure of electrodes to cell performance, and thereby predict degradation pathways.

  20. Interactive effects of molasses by homofermentative and heterofermentative inoculants on fermentation quality, nitrogen fractionation, nutritive value and aerobic stability of wilted alfalfa (Medicago sativa L) silage. (United States)

    Hashemzadeh-Cigari, F; Khorvash, M; Ghorbani, G R; Ghasemi, E; Taghizadeh, A; Kargar, S; Yang, W Z


    The effect of adding molasses (0, UM or 50 g/kg on DM basis, M) and two types of inoculant including homofermentative (HO) and a combination of homofermentative and propionate-producing bacterial (HOPAB) inoculants on silage fermentation quality, nitrogen fractionation and aerobic stability of pre-bloom, wilted alfalfa (AS) was determined in laboratory silos. The HOPAB inoculant was more effective than HO in reducing the alfalfa silage pH but increased propionate content in the absence of M (p alfalfa crop with M and HOPAB improved aerobic stability by increasing the concentration of acetate and propionate of AS respectively. Adding M tended (p < 0.10) to increase short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and cumulative gas production (CGP). HOPAB alone increased DM disappearance at 24 h post-incubation and effective degradability assuming outflow rate of 8%/h relative to untreated AS (p < 0.05). It was concluded that adding M had no pronounced effects on AS fermentation quality, but increased aerobic stability. HOPAB-inoculated AS with no addition of M improved fermentation quality and increased DM degradability compared with HO.

  1. Cardiorespiratory fitness of asthmatic children and validation of predicted aerobic capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lochte, Lene; Angermann, Marie; Larsson, Benny


    INTRODUCTION: Predicted aerobic capacity (PAC) was estimated by submaximal exercise test and compared with monitored aerobic capacity (MAC) measured by laboratory conditions [maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2peak))] in 18 children and adolescents, 10 asthmatics and 8 matched controls. Objectives...

  2. Lung volumes related to physical activity, physical fitness, aerobic capacity and body mass index in students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihailova A.


    Reduced lung volumes were associated with lower aerobic fitness, lower physical fitness and lower amount of weekly physical activity. Healthier body mass index was associated with higher aerobic fitness (relative VO2max in both female and male.

  3. Kinetics of p-aminoazobenzene degradation by Bacillus subtilis under denitrifying conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zissi, U.S.; Kornaros, M.E.; Lyberatos, G.C.


    Bacillus subtilis is an organism capable of degrading an azo dye, such as p-aminoazobenzene (pAAB), under both aerobic and anoxic conditions. In both cases, pAAB is co-metabolized with a main carbon source and under anoxic conditions denitrification is observed. Kinetic experiments were carried out with a pure culture of B. subtilis and a mathematical model that accurately describes both biodegradation of pAAB under anoxic conditions and the denitrification process under both carbon- and nitrate- or nitrite-limited conditions is developed. Presence of pAAB in culture medium causes an inhibition of bacterial growth and of nitrite accumulation. Bacterial growth and pAAB degradation rates are found to be slower under anoxic conditions compared to the corresponding rates under aerobic conditions.

  4. Enrichment and characterization of sulfate reducing, naphthalene degrading microorganisms (United States)

    Steffen, Kümmel; Florian-Alexander, Herbst; Márcia, Duarte; Dietmar, Pieper; Jana, Seifert; Bergen Martin, von; Hans-Hermann, Richnow; Carsten, Vogt


    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are pollutants of great concern due to their potential toxicity, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. PAH are widely distributed in the environment by accidental discharges during the transport, use and disposal of petroleum products, and during forest and grass fires. Caused by their hydrophobic nature, PAH basically accumulate in sediments from where they are slowly released into the groundwater. Although generally limited by the low water solubility of PAH, microbial degradation is one of the major mechanisms leading to the complete clean-up of PAH-contaminated sites. Whereas organisms and biochemical pathways responsible for the aerobic breakdown of PAH are well known, anaerobic PAH biodegradation is less understood; only a few anaerobic PAH degrading cultures have been described. We studied the anaerobic PAH degradation in a microcosm approach to enrich anaerobic PAH degraders. Anoxic groundwater and sediment samples were used as inoculum. Groundwater samples were purchased from the erstwhile gas works facility and a former wood impregnation site. In contrast, sources of sediment samples were a former coal refining area and an old fuel depot. Samples were incubated in anoxic mineral salt medium with naphthalene as sole carbon source and sulfate as terminal electron acceptor. Grown cultures were characterized by feeding with 13C-labeled naphthalene, 16S rRNA gene sequencing using an Illumina® approach, and functional proteome analyses. Finally, six enrichment cultures able to degrade naphthalene under anoxic conditions were established. First results point to a dominance of identified sequences affiliated to the freshwater sulfate-reducing strain N47, which is a known anaerobic naphthalene degrader, in four out of the six enrichments. In those enrichments, peptides related to the pathway of anoxic naphthalene degradation in N47 were abundant. Overall the data underlines the importance of Desulfobacteria for natural

  5. Bilirubin degradation in methanol induced by continuous UV-B irradiation: a UHPLC--ESI-MS study. (United States)

    Stanojević, J S; Zvezdanović, J B; Marković, D Z


    Degradation of bilirubin in aerobic methanol solution by continuous UV-B irradiation has been investigated in this work. The purpose of this study was to shed more light on bilirubin interaction with the UV-B component of natural sunlight, since bilirubin is a very efficient UV-B absorber located in the skin epidermis. The degradation products have been detected and studied by a combined method of Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-MS). Bilirubin, a toxic pigment which itself is a product of (hemoglobin) degradation in organisms, undergoes its own degradation under aerobic conditions of UV-B continuous irradiation (e.g. photooxidation) that can be partly self-sensitized. Two dipyrrolic structures have been identified as a result of the bilirubin degradation, not including the bilirubin derivative biliverdin whose increase in the irradiated system is synchronous with a time dynamics of bilirubin degradation. It appears that one of dipyrrolic products originates directly from bilirubin and biliverdin molecules, while the other one is probably connected to bilirubin self-sensitized degradation. The precursor role of biliverdin in the degradation process--related to the detected dipyrroles--has not been confirmed.

  6. Environmental occurrence and degradation of the herbicide n-chloridazon. (United States)

    Buttiglieri, Gianluigi; Peschka, Manuela; Frömel, Tobias; Müller, Jutta; Malpei, Francesca; Seel, Peter; Knepper, Thomas P


    A sampling campaign was carried out for n-chloridazon (n-CLZ) and its degradation product desphenyl-chloridazon (DPC) in the Hesse region (Germany) during the year 2007: a total of 548 environmental samples including groundwater, surface water and wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent were analysed. Furthermore, aerobic degradation of n-CLZ has been studied utilising a fixed bed bioreactor (FBBR). In surface water, n-CLZ was detected at low concentrations (average 0.01+/-0.06mugL(-1); maximum 0.89mugL(-1)) with a seasonal peak, whereas DPC was present throughout the year at much higher concentrations (average 0.72+/-0.81mugL(-1); maximum 7.4mugL(-1)). Higher n-CLZ concentrations were observed in the North compared with South Hesse, which is ascribed to a higher density of agricultural areas. Furthermore, methylated DPC (Me-DPC), another degradation product, was detected in surface water. In the degradation test, n-CLZ was completely converted to DPC at all concentrations tested (Me-DPC was not formed under the test conditions). DPC was resistant to further degradation during the whole experimental period of 98 days. The results obtained suggest persistence and high dispersion of DPC in the aquatic environment.

  7. Variability in microbiological degradation experiments, analysis and case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Helle Mølgaard


    estimation method. The examination of reproducibility/variability were carried out for two kinds of experiments: A single substrate experiment with toluene and a dual substrate experiment with toluene and benzene. A pure culture, isolated from soil, grew with benzene and/or toluene as the only carbon......The variability of parameter estimates in microbiological degradation models has not received much attention in the literature. This in spite of the fact that the parameters are used in models for predicting and controlling microbiological processes of commercial interest. Furthermore, the accuracy...... and energy source. The substrates were degraded in batches under aerobic conditions. The Monod model was employed to describe the biological processes in the single substrate system, and 'Bailey & Ollis' model was employed to describe the processes in the dual substrate system. In the single substrate system...

  8. Naphthalene degradation and biosurfactant activity by Bacillus cereus 28BN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuleva, B.; Christova, N. [Inst. of Microbiology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria); Jordanov, B.; Nikolova-Damyanova, B. [Inst. of Organic Chemistry, Sofia (Bulgaria); Petrov, P. [National Center of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases, Sofia (Bulgaria)


    Biosurfactant activity and naphthalene degradation by a new strain identified as Bacillus cereus 28BN were studied. The strain grew well and produced effective biosurfactants in the presence of n-alkanes, naphthalene, crude oil and vegetable oils. The biosurfactants were detected by the surface tension lowering of the medium, thin layer chromatography and infrared spectra analysis. With (2%) naphthalene as the sole carbon source, high levels of rhamnolipids at a concentration of 2.3 g l{sup -1} were determined in the stationary growth. After 20 d of incubation 72 {+-} 4% of the initial naphthalene was degraded. This is the first report for a Bacillus cereus rhamnolipid producing strain that utilized naphthalene under aerobic conditions. The strain looks promising for application in environmental technologies. (orig.)

  9. Roles of Thermophiles and Fungi in Bitumen Degradation in Mostly Cold Oil Sands Outcrops. (United States)

    Wong, Man-Ling; An, Dongshan; Caffrey, Sean M; Soh, Jung; Dong, Xiaoli; Sensen, Christoph W; Oldenburg, Thomas B P; Larter, Steve R; Voordouw, Gerrit


    Oil sands are surface exposed in river valley outcrops in northeastern Alberta, where flat slabs (tablets) of weathered, bitumen-saturated sandstone can be retrieved from outcrop cliffs or from riverbeds. Although the average yearly surface temperature of this region is low (0.7°C), we found that the temperatures of the exposed surfaces of outcrop cliffs reached 55 to 60°C on sunny summer days, with daily maxima being 27 to 31°C. Analysis of the cooccurrence of taxa derived from pyrosequencing of 16S/18S rRNA genes indicated that an aerobic microbial network of fungi and hydrocarbon-, methane-, or acetate-oxidizing heterotrophic bacteria was present in all cliff tablets. Metagenomic analyses indicated an elevated presence of fungal cytochrome P450 monooxygenases in these samples. This network was distinct from the heterotrophic community found in riverbeds, which included fewer fungi. A subset of cliff tablets had a network of anaerobic and/or thermophilic taxa, including methanogens, Firmicutes, and Thermotogae, in the center. Long-term aerobic incubation of outcrop samples at 55°C gave a thermophilic microbial community. Analysis of residual bitumen with a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer indicated that aerobic degradation proceeded at 55°C but not at 4°C. Little anaerobic degradation was observed. These results indicate that bitumen degradation on outcrop surfaces is a largely aerobic process with a minor anaerobic contribution and is catalyzed by a consortium of bacteria and fungi. Bitumen degradation is stimulated by periodic high temperatures on outcrop cliffs, which cause significant decreases in bitumen viscosity.

  10. Anaerobes unleashed: Aerobic fuel cells of Geobacter sulfurreducens (United States)

    Nevin, Kelly P.; Zhang, Pei; Franks, Ashley E.; Woodard, Trevor L.; Lovley, Derek R.

    One of the limitations of power generation with microbial fuel cells is that the anode must typically be maintained under anaerobic conditions. When oxygen is present in the anode chamber microorganisms oxidize the fuel with the reduction of oxygen rather than electron transfer to the anode. A system in which fuel is provided from within a graphite anode and diffuses out to the outer surface of the anode was designed to overcome these limitations. A biofilm of Geobacter sulfurreducens strain KN400, pregrown on the surface of a graphite electrode in a traditional two-chambered system with an anaerobic anode chamber and acetate as an external fuel source, produced current just as well under aerobic conditions when acetate was provided via diffusion from an internal concentrated acetate solution. No acetate was detectable in the external medium. In contrast, aerobic systems in which acetate was provided in the external medium completely failed within 48 h. Internally fed anodes colonized by a strain of KN400 adapted to grow at marine salinities produced current in aerobic seawater as well as an anaerobic anode system. The ability to generate current with an anode under aerobic conditions increases the potential applications and design options for microbial fuel cells.

  11. Tumor vessel normalization after aerobic exercise enhances chemotherapeutic efficacy. (United States)

    Schadler, Keri L; Thomas, Nicholas J; Galie, Peter A; Bhang, Dong Ha; Roby, Kerry C; Addai, Prince; Till, Jacob E; Sturgeon, Kathleen; Zaslavsky, Alexander; Chen, Christopher S; Ryeom, Sandra


    Targeted therapies aimed at tumor vasculature are utilized in combination with chemotherapy to improve drug delivery and efficacy after tumor vascular normalization. Tumor vessels are highly disorganized with disrupted blood flow impeding drug delivery to cancer cells. Although pharmacologic anti-angiogenic therapy can remodel and normalize tumor vessels, there is a limited window of efficacy and these drugs are associated with severe side effects necessitating alternatives for vascular normalization. Recently, moderate aerobic exercise has been shown to induce vascular normalization in mouse models. Here, we provide a mechanistic explanation for the tumor vascular normalization induced by exercise. Shear stress, the mechanical stimuli exerted on endothelial cells by blood flow, modulates vascular integrity. Increasing vascular shear stress through aerobic exercise can alter and remodel blood vessels in normal tissues. Our data in mouse models indicate that activation of calcineurin-NFAT-TSP1 signaling in endothelial cells plays a critical role in exercise-induced shear stress mediated tumor vessel remodeling. We show that moderate aerobic exercise with chemotherapy caused a significantly greater decrease in tumor growth than chemotherapy alone through improved chemotherapy delivery after tumor vascular normalization. Our work suggests that the vascular normalizing effects of aerobic exercise can be an effective chemotherapy adjuvant.

  12. Aerobic Jogging Instruction for Students in Grades 7-12. (United States)

    Nebraska State Dept. of Education, Lincoln.

    Jogging, a form of aerobic exercise, is the act of running at a slow trot. This guide describes an instructional program for high school students to jog progressively longer distances. The emphasis is on participation and gradual improvement. Training principles, teaching methods, common jogging problems, and safety precautions are listed to aid…

  13. Aerobic Oxidation of Methyl Vinyl Ketone in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OUYANG,Xiao-Yue(欧阳小月); JIANG,Huan-Feng(江焕峰); CHENG,Jin-Sheng(程金生); ZHANG,Qun-Jian(张群健)


    Aerobic oxidation of methyl vinyl ketone to acetal in supercritical carbon dioxide are achieved in high conversion and high selectivity when oxygen pressure reaches 0.5MPa. The effects of cocatalysts,additive, pressure and temperature of the reaction are studied in detail.

  14. Aerobic Capacity and Anaerobic Power Levels of the University Students (United States)

    Taskin, Cengiz


    The aim of study was to analyze aerobic capacity and anaerobic power levels of the university students. Total forty university students who is department physical education and department business (age means; 21.15±1.46 years for male and age means; 20.55±1.79 years for female in department physical education), volunteered to participate in this…

  15. Aerobic exercise capacity in post-polio syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorn, E.L.


    The aim of this thesis was to expand the body of knowledge on the diminished aerobic capacity of individuals with post-polio syndrome (PPS). The studies described in this thesis were based on the assumption that, besides a reduced muscle mass, deconditioning contributes to the severely diminished ae

  16. Aerobic Exercise Equipment Preferences among Older Adults: A Preliminary Investigation. (United States)

    Looney, Marilyn A.; Rimmer, James H.


    Developed an instrument to measure the aerobic exercise equipment preference of a frail older population and applied many-facet Rasch analysis to study construct validity and equipment preferences. Results for 16 participants show the usefulness of many-facet Rasch analysis in guiding instrument revision. (SLD)

  17. Aerobic capacity in children and adolescents with cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuren, Olaf; Takken, Tim


    This study described the aerobic capacity [VO(2peak) (ml/kg/min)] in contemporary children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) using a maximal exercise test protocol. Twenty-four children and adolescents with CP classified at Gross Motor Functional Classification Scale (GMFCS) level I or level

  18. Aerobic exercise and intraocular pressure in normotensive and glaucoma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatzibalis Theodosios


    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the increasing number of people participating in physical aerobic exercise, jogging in particular, we considered that it would be worth knowing if there are should be limits to the exercise with regard to the intraocular pressure (IOP of the eyes. The purpose of this study is to check IOP in healthy and primary glaucoma patients after aerobic exercise. Methods 145 individuals were subdivided into seven groups: normotensives who exercised regularly (Group A; normotensives in whose right eye (RE timolol maleate 0.5% (Group B, latanoprost 0.005% (Group C, or brimonidine tartrate 0.2% (Group D was instilled; and primary glaucoma patients under monotherapy with β-blockers (Group E, prostaglandin analogues (Group F or combined antiglaucoma treatment (Group G instilled in both eyes. The IOP of both eyes was measured before and after exercise. Results A statistically significant decrease was found in IOP during jogging. The aerobic exercise reduces the IOP in those eyes where a b-blocker, a prostaglandin analogue or an α-agonist was previously instilled. The IOP is also decreased in glaucoma patients who are already under antiglaucoma treatment. Conclusion There is no ocular restriction for simple glaucoma patients in performing aerobic physical activity.


    A sequential aerobic-anaerobic treatment system has been applied at a commercial scale (3,000 ton per day) municipal solid waste landfill in Kentucky, USA since 2001. In this system, the uppermost layer of landfilled waste is aerated and liquid waste including leachate, surface w...

  20. Intrinsic Aerobic Capacity Sets a Divide for Aging and Longevity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koch, G.; Kemi, O.J.; Qi, N.; Leng, S.X.; Bijma, P.; Gilligan, L.J.; Wilkinson, J.E.; Grevenhof, van E.M.


    Rationale: Low aerobic exercise capacity is a powerful predictor of premature morbidity and mortality for healthy adults as well as those with cardiovascular disease. For aged populations, poor performance on treadmill or extended walking tests indicates closer proximity to future health declines. T

  1. Aerobic Capacity in Children and Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy (United States)

    Verschuren, Olaf; Takken, Tim


    This study described the aerobic capacity [VO[subscript 2peak] (ml/kg/min)] in contemporary children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) using a maximal exercise test protocol. Twenty-four children and adolescents with CP classified at Gross Motor Functional Classification Scale (GMFCS) level I or level II and 336 typically developing…

  2. Group Aquatic Aerobic Exercise for Children with Disabilities (United States)

    Fragala-Pinkham, Maria; Haley, Stephen M.; O'Neill, Margaret E.


    The effectiveness and safety of a group aquatic aerobic exercise program on cardiorespiratory endurance for children with disabilities was examined using an A-B study design. Sixteen children (11 males, five females) age range 6 to 11 years (mean age 9y 7mo [SD 1y 4mo]) participated in this twice-per-week program lasting 14 weeks. The children's …

  3. Sequenced anaerobic-aerobic treatment of hemp pulping wastewaters.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kortekaas, S.


    Biological treatment is an indispensable instrument for water management of non-wood pulp mills, either as internal measure to enable progressive closure of water cycles, or as end of pipe treatment. In this thesis, the sequenced anaerobic-aerobic treatment of hemp ( Cannabis sativa L. ) pulping was

  4. White matter connectivity and aerobic fitness in male adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan M. Herting


    Full Text Available Exercise has been shown to have positive effects on the brain and behavior throughout various stages of the lifespan. However, little is known about the impact of exercise on neurodevelopment during the adolescent years, particularly with regard to white matter microstructure, as assessed by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI. Both tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS and tractography-based along-tract statistics were utilized to examine the relationship between white matter microstructure and aerobic exercise in adolescent males, ages 15–18. Furthermore, we examined the data by both (1 grouping individuals based on aerobic fitness self-reports (high fit (HF vs. low fit (LF, and (2 using VO2 peak as a continuous variable across the entire sample. Results showed that HF youth had an overall higher number of streamline counts compared to LF peers, which was driven by group differences in corticospinal tract (CST and anterior corpus callosum (Fminor. In addition, VO2 peak was negatively related to FA in the left CST. Together, these results suggest that aerobic fitness relates to white matter connectivity and microstructure in tracts carrying frontal and motor fibers during adolescence. Furthermore, the current study highlights the importance of considering the environmental factor of aerobic exercise when examining adolescent brain development.

  5. Aerobic Digestion. Biological Treatment Process Control. Instructor's Guide. (United States)

    Klopping, Paul H.

    This unit on aerobic sludge digestion covers the theory of the process, system components, factors that affect the process performance, standard operational concerns, indicators of steady-state operations, and operational problems. The instructor's guide includes: (1) an overview of the unit; (2) lesson plan; (3) lecture outline (keyed to a set of…

  6. Relative importance of aerobic versus resistance training for healthy aging (United States)

    This review will focus on the importance of aerobic and resistance modes of physical activity for healthy aging as supported by findings in 2007. In line with public health recommendations, several studies in 2007 employed an exercise paradigm that combined both modes of physical activity. While a...

  7. Kinetic comparisons of mesophilic and thermophilic aerobic biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogelaar, J.C.T.; Klapwijk, A.; Temmink, H.; Lier, van J.B.


    Kinetic parameters describing growth and decay of mesophilic (30degreesC) and thermophilic (55degreesC) aerobic biomass were determined in continuous and batch experiments by using oxygen uptake rate measurements
    Kinetic parameters describing growth and decay of mesophilic (30degreesC) and therm

  8. Strength training and aerobic exercise training for muscle disease (Review)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voet, N.B.M.; Kooi, E.L. van der; Riphagen, I.I.; Lindeman, E.; Engelen, B.G.M. van; Geurts, A.C.H.


    BACKGROUND: Strength training or aerobic exercise programmes might optimise muscle and cardiorespiratory function and prevent additional disuse atrophy and deconditioning in people with a muscle disease. This is an update of a review first published in 2004. OBJECTIVES: To examine the safety and eff

  9. Reductive Dechlorination of Trichloroethylene and Tetrachloroethylene under Aerobic Conditions in a Sediment Column


    Enzien, Michael V.; Picardal, Flynn; Terry C Hazen; Arnold, R. G.; Fliermans, Carl B.


    Biodegradation of trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene under aerobic conditions was studied in a sediment column. Cumulative mass balances indicated 87 and 90% removal for trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene, respectively. These studies suggest the potential for simultaneous aerobic and anaerobic biotransformation processes under bulk aerobic conditions.

  10. Aerobic Development of Elite Youth Ice Hockey Players. (United States)

    Leiter, Jeff R; Cordingley, Dean M; MacDonald, Peter B


    Ice hockey is a physiologically complex sport requiring aerobic and anaerobic energy metabolism. College and professional teams often test aerobic fitness; however, there is a paucity of information regarding aerobic fitness of elite youth players. Without this knowledge, training of youth athletes to meet the standards of older age groups and higher levels of hockey may be random, inefficient, and or effective. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the aerobic fitness of elite youth hockey players. A retrospective database review was performed for 200 male AAA hockey players between the ages of 13 and 17 (age, 14.4 ± 1.2 years; height, 174.3 ± 8.5 cm; body mass, 67.2 ± 11.5 kg; body fat, 9.8 ± 3.5%) before the 2012-13 season. All subjects performed a graded exercise test on a cycle ergometer, whereas expired air was collected by either a Parvo Medics TrueOne 2400 or a CareFusion Oxycon Mobile metabolic cart to determine maximal oxygen consumption (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max). Body mass, absolute V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, and the power output achieved during the last completed stage increased in successive age groups from age 13 to 15 years (p ≤ 0.05). Ventilatory threshold (VT) expressed as a percentage of V[Combining Dot Above]O2max and the heart rate (HR) at which VT occurred decreased between the ages of 13 and 14 years (p ≤ 0.05), whereas the V[Combining Dot Above]O2 at which VT occurred increased from the age of 14-15 years. There were no changes in relative V[Combining Dot Above]O2max or HRmax between any successive age groups. The aerobic fitness levels of elite youth ice hockey players increased as players age and mature physically and physiologically. However, aerobic fitness increased to a lesser extent at older ages. This information has the potential to influence off-season training and maximize the aerobic fitness of elite amateur hockey players, so that these players can meet standards set by advanced elite age groups.

  11. Silk structure and degradation. (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Song, Yu-wei; Jin, Li; Wang, Zhi-jian; Pu, De-yong; Lin, Shao-qiang; Zhou, Chan; You, Hua-jian; Ma, Yan; Li, Jin-min; Yang, Li; Sung, K L Paul; Zhang, Yao-guang


    To investigate the structure of silk and its degradation properties, we have monitored the structure of silk using scanning electron microscopy and frozen sections. Raw silk and degummed raw silk were immersed in four types of degradation solutions for 156 d to observe their degradation properties. The subcutaneous implants in rats were removed after 7, 14, 56, 84, 129, and 145 d for frozen sectioning and subsequent staining with hematoxylin and eosin (H.E.), DAPI, Beta-actin and Collagen I immunofluorescence staining. The in vitro weight loss ratio of raw silk and degummed raw silk in water, PBS, DMEM and DMEM containing 10% FBS (F-DMEM) were, respectively, 14%/11%, 12.5%/12.9%, 11.1%/14.3%, 8.8%/11.6%. Silk began to degrade after 7 d subcutaneous implantation and after 145 d non-degraded silk was still observed. These findings suggest the immunogenicity of fibroin and sericin had no essential difference. In the process of in vitro degradation of silk, the role of the enzyme is not significant. The in vivo degradation of silk is related to phagocytotic activity and fibroblasts may be involved in this process to secrete collagen. This study also shows the developing process of cocoons and raw silk.

  12. Intermittent degradation and schizotypy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew W. Roché


    Full Text Available Intermittent degradation refers to transient detrimental disruptions in task performance. This phenomenon has been repeatedly observed in the performance data of patients with schizophrenia. Whether intermittent degradation is a feature of the liability for schizophrenia (i.e., schizotypy is an open question. Further, the specificity of intermittent degradation to schizotypy has yet to be investigated. To address these questions, 92 undergraduate participants completed a battery of self-report questionnaires assessing schizotypy and psychological state variables (e.g., anxiety, depression, and their reaction times were recorded as they did so. Intermittent degradation was defined as the number of times a subject’s reaction time for questionnaire items met or exceeded three standard deviations from his or her mean reaction time after controlling for each item’s information processing load. Intermittent degradation scores were correlated with questionnaire scores. Our results indicate that intermittent degradation is associated with total scores on measures of positive and disorganized schizotypy, but unrelated to total scores on measures of negative schizotypy and psychological state variables. Intermittent degradation is interpreted as potentially derivative of schizotypy and a candidate endophenotypic marker worthy of continued research.

  13. 壬基酚对雄性大鼠生精功能及相关激素和酶的影响%Effect of Nonylphenol on Spermatogenesis Function Serum Hormone and Testicular Enzyme of Male Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯凯琳; 张鹏洲; 申去非; 陈莉; 冯欲静; 张莉


    Objective To study the effect of nonylphenol used at various doses on the spermatogenesis function, serum hormone and testis enzyme of male rats. Methods 48 SD male rats were randomly divided into four groups-, control group, high-dose nonylphenol (200 mg/kg) group, middle-dose nonylphenol (100 mg/kg) group and low-dose nonylphenol (50 mg/kg) group. And then the rats had their stomachs perfused nonylphenols oil solution for 28 straight days,and the control group rats with oil solution. 28 days later,rats were killed and the serum sample was taken to assay levels of T,CORT,FSH and LH by radioimmunoassay. The testis and epididymis of rats were removed quickly. The right testis was used to prepare the tissue homogenate. The level of SOD,MDA,GSH and LDH was determined with spectrophotography. The left testis was used to analyze the percentage of chromosone aberration of primary spermatocytes. Results After 28 days,compared with control group,T, FSH and LH levels of the serum of nonylphenol rats decreased and the hormone level of high-dose (200 mg/kg) group decreased significantly ( P < 0.05). With the dosage increase, the activity of SOD and GSH, the level of MDA increased, so did the activity of LDH. The sperm counts and activity rate of 200 mg/kg nonylphenol rats were below those of the control group. The rate of sperm malformation and chromosome aberration of primary spermatocytes was enhanced markedly. Conclusion Nonylphenol has obvious reproductive toxicity,associated with the reduced level of T,FSH and LH,and the increased activity of GSH and LDH.%目的 初步研究不同剂量壬基酚对雄性大鼠的生精功能及血清激素和睾丸内相关酶的影响.方法 雄性大鼠48只,随机分为4组,即对照组、壬基酚低、中、高( 50、100、200 mg/kg)剂量组,对照组每日灌胃给予植物油(0.15ml/100 g),给药组每日灌胃给予壬基酚油溶液,连续28 d.染毒28 d后处死大鼠,取血,放免法检测血清睾酮(T)、皮质酮(CORT)、

  14. Mechanisms of aerobic performance impairment with heat stress and dehydration. (United States)

    Cheuvront, Samuel N; Kenefick, Robert W; Montain, Scott J; Sawka, Michael N


    Environmental heat stress can challenge the limits of human cardiovascular and temperature regulation, body fluid balance, and thus aerobic performance. This minireview proposes that the cardiovascular adjustments accompanying high skin temperatures (T(sk)), alone or in combination with high core body temperatures (T(c)), provide a primary explanation for impaired aerobic exercise performance in warm-hot environments. The independent (T(sk)) and combined (T(sk) + T(c)) effects of hyperthermia reduce maximal oxygen uptake (Vo(2max)), which leads to higher relative exercise intensity and an exponential decline in aerobic performance at any given exercise workload. Greater relative exercise intensity increases cardiovascular strain, which is a prominent mediator of rated perceived exertion. As a consequence, incremental or constant-rate exercise is more difficult to sustain (earlier fatigue) or requires a slowing of self-paced exercise to achieve a similar sensation of effort. It is proposed that high T(sk) and T(c) impair aerobic performance in tandem primarily through elevated cardiovascular strain, rather than a deterioration in central nervous system (CNS) function or skeletal muscle metabolism. Evaporative sweating is the principal means of heat loss in warm-hot environments where sweat losses frequently exceed fluid intakes. When dehydration exceeds 3% of total body water (2% of body mass) then aerobic performance is consistently impaired independent and additive to heat stress. Dehydration augments hyperthermia and plasma volume reductions, which combine to accentuate cardiovascular strain and reduce Vo(2max). Importantly, the negative performance consequences of dehydration worsen as T(sk) increases.

  15. Acute aerobic exercise modulates primary motor cortex inhibition. (United States)

    Mooney, Ronan A; Coxon, James P; Cirillo, John; Glenny, Helen; Gant, Nicholas; Byblow, Winston D


    Aerobic exercise can enhance neuroplasticity although presently the neural mechanisms underpinning these benefits remain unclear. One possible mechanism is through effects on primary motor cortex (M1) function via down-regulation of the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). The aim of the present study was to examine how corticomotor excitability (CME) and M1 intracortical inhibition are modulated in response to a single bout of moderate intensity aerobic exercise. Ten healthy right-handed adults were participants. Single- and paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation was applied over left M1 to obtain motor-evoked potentials in the right flexor pollicis brevis. We examined CME, cortical silent period (SP) duration, short- and long-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI, LICI), and late cortical disinhibition (LCD), before and after acute aerobic exercise (exercise session) or an equivalent duration without exercise (control session). Aerobic exercise was performed on a cycle ergometer for 30 min at a workload equivalent to 60 % of maximal cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2 peak; heart rate reserve = 75 ± 3 %, perceived exertion = 13.5 ± 0.7). LICI was reduced at 10 (52 ± 17 %, P = 0.03) and 20 min (27 ± 8 %, P = 0.03) post-exercise compared to baseline (13 ± 4 %). No significant changes in CME, SP duration, SICI or LCD were observed. The present study shows that GABAB-mediated intracortical inhibition may be down-regulated after acute aerobic exercise. The potential effects this may have on M1 plasticity remain to be determined.

  16. Augmentation of aerobic respiration and mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle by hypoxia preconditioning with cobalt chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxena, Saurabh [Experimental Biology Division, Defence Institute of Physiology and Allied Sciences, Lucknow Road, Timarpur, Delhi, 110054 (India); Shukla, Dhananjay [Department of Biotechnology, Gitam University, Gandhi Nagar, Rushikonda, Visakhapatnam-530 045 Andhra Pradesh (India); Bansal, Anju, E-mail: [Experimental Biology Division, Defence Institute of Physiology and Allied Sciences, Lucknow Road, Timarpur, Delhi, 110054 (India)


    High altitude/hypoxia training is known to improve physical performance in athletes. Hypoxia induces hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) and its downstream genes that facilitate hypoxia adaptation in muscle to increase physical performance. Cobalt chloride (CoCl{sub 2}), a hypoxia mimetic, stabilizes HIF-1, which otherwise is degraded in normoxic conditions. We studied the effects of hypoxia preconditioning by CoCl{sub 2} supplementation on physical performance, glucose metabolism, and mitochondrial biogenesis using rodent model. The results showed significant increase in physical performance in cobalt supplemented rats without (two times) or with training (3.3 times) as compared to control animals. CoCl{sub 2} supplementation in rats augmented the biological activities of enzymes of TCA cycle, glycolysis and cytochrome c oxidase (COX); and increased the expression of glucose transporter-1 (Glut-1) in muscle showing increased glucose metabolism by aerobic respiration. There was also an increase in mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle observed by increased mRNA expressions of mitochondrial biogenesis markers which was further confirmed by electron microscopy. Moreover, nitric oxide production increased in skeletal muscle in cobalt supplemented rats, which seems to be the major reason for peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) induction and mitochondrial biogenesis. Thus, in conclusion, we state that hypoxia preconditioning by CoCl{sub 2} supplementation in rats increases mitochondrial biogenesis, glucose uptake and metabolism by aerobic respiration in skeletal muscle, which leads to increased physical performance. The significance of this study lies in understanding the molecular mechanism of hypoxia adaptation and improvement of work performance in normal as well as extreme conditions like hypoxia via hypoxia preconditioning. -- Highlights: ► We supplemented rats with CoCl{sub 2} for 15 days along with training. ► Co


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Boubacar KANE; Pierre Y.JULIEN


    An extensive database of reservoir sedimentation surveys throughout continental United States is compiled and analyzed to determine specific degradation SD relationships as function of mean annual rainfall R, drainage area A, and watershed slope S. The database contains 1463 field measurements and specific degradation relationships are defined as function of A, R and S. Weak trends and significant variability in the data are noticeable. Specific degradation measurements are log normally distributed with respect to R, A, and S and 95% confidence intervals are determined accordingly. The accuracy of the predictions does not significantly increase as more independent variables are added to the regression analyses.

  18. Degradation of azo dyes by environmental microorganisms and helminths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kingthom Chung; Stevens, S.E. Jr. (Memphis State Univ., TN (United States). Dept. of Biology)


    The degradation of azo dyes by environmental microorganisms, fungi, and helminths is reviewed. Azo dyes are used in a wide variety of products and can be found in the effluent of most sewage treatment facilities. Substantial quantities of these dyes have been deposited in the environment, particularly in streams and rivers. Azo dyes were shown to affect microbial activities and microbial population sizes in the sediments and in the water columns of aquatic habitats. Only a few aerobic bacteria have been found to reduce azo dyes under aerobic conditions, and little is known about the process. A substantial number of anaerobic bacteria capable of azo dye reduction have been reported. The enzyme responsible for azo dye reduction has been partially purified, and characterization of the enzyme is proceeding. The nematode Ascaris lumbricoides and the cestode Moniezia expanza have been reported to reduce azo dyes anaerobically. Recently the fungus Phanerochaete chrysoporium was reported to mineralize azo dyes via a peroxidation-mediated pathway. A possible degradation pathway for the mineralization of azo dye is proposed and future research needs are discussed.

  19. Degradation and enantiomeric fractionation of mecoprop in soil previously exposed to phenoxy acid herbicides - New insights for bioremediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frková, Zuzana; Johansen, Anders; de Jonge, Lis Wollesen;


    bioremediation. The degradation processes were studied in soil sampled at different depths (3, 4.5 and 6m) at a Danish urban site with a history of phenoxy acid contamination. We observed preferential degradation of the R-enantiomer only under aerobic conditions in the soil samples from 3- and 6-m depth......, and biodegradation rates may differ between enantiomers. Therefore, enantio-preferred degradation of mecoprop (MCPP) in soil was measured to get in-depth information on whether amendment with glucose (BOD equivalents as substrate for microbial growth) and nitrate (redox equivalents for oxidation) can stimulate...