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Sample records for aerobic exercise training

  1. Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy after Aerobic Exercise Training

    OpenAIRE

    Konopka, Adam R.; Harber, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    Current dogma suggests aerobic exercise training has minimal effect on skeletal muscle size. We and others have demonstrated that aerobic exercise acutely and chronically alters protein metabolism and induces skeletal muscle hypertrophy. These findings promote an antithesis to the status quo by providing novel perspective on skeletal muscle mass regulation and insight into exercise-countermeasures for populations prone to muscle loss.

  2. Strength training and aerobic exercise training for muscle disease (Review)

    OpenAIRE

    Voet, N.B.M.; Kooi, E.L. van der; Riphagen, I.I.; Lindeman, E.; van Engelen, B G M; Geurts, A. C. H.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Strength training or aerobic exercise programmes might optimise muscle and cardiorespiratory function and prevent additional disuse atrophy and deconditioning in people with a muscle disease. This is an update of a review first published in 2004. OBJECTIVES: To examine the safety and efficacy of strength training and aerobic exercise training in people with a muscle disease. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Disease Group Specialized Register (July 2012), CENT...

  3. Strength training and aerobic exercise training for muscle disease (Review)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voet, N.B.M.; Kooi, E.L. van der; Riphagen, I.I.; Lindeman, E.; Engelen, B.G.M. van; Geurts, A.C.H.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Strength training or aerobic exercise programmes might optimise muscle and cardiorespiratory function and prevent additional disuse atrophy and deconditioning in people with a muscle disease. This is an update of a review first published in 2004. OBJECTIVES: To examine the safety and eff

  4. Training intensities for aerobic exercise determined on untrained healthy men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miura,Mochiyoshi

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the aerobic training intensity from the maximal and submaximal running exercise in 21 untrained adult men. To accomplish this, we evaluated the relationship between physiological (oxygen intake and heart rate and physical parameters (running speed of training intensity, and determined the training intensity at the submaximal exercise. Oxygen intake and heart rate were measured by a treadmill test. The maximal oxygen intake (VO2 max, and the aerobic threshold (AerT and anaerobic threshold (AT were measured to determine respiratory gas exchange. Running capacity was measured by a 12-min running and treadmill test. For the maximal exercise, there was a significant correlation (r = 0.88, P < 0.01 between VO2 max and 12-min running distance (speed. In addition, the oxygen intake and heart rate at AerT and AT in the submaximal exercise were linearly correlated with running speed. Three levels of training intensity at the submaximal exercise were termed: light, moderate, and heavy. Since AerT was the lower limit intensity and AT was the upper limit, we took the middle of their values as the moderate intensity. The end point for the determination of the training intensity at the submaximal exercise was estimated to be 85% VO2 max and 180 beats.min-1.

  5. Adherence of older women with strength training and aerobic exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Picorelli AMA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Alexandra Miranda Assumpção Picorelli, Daniele Sirineu Pereira, Diogo Carvalho Felício, Daniela Maria Dos Anjos, Danielle Aparecida Gomes Pereira, Rosângela Corrêa Dias, Marcella Guimarães Assis, Leani Souza Máximo Pereira Graduate Program in Rehabilitation Sciences, Department of Physical Therapy, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil Background: Participation of older people in a program of regular exercise is an effective strategy to minimize the physical decline associated with age. The purpose of this study was to assess adherence rates in older women enrolled in two different exercise programs (one aerobic exercise and one strength training and identify any associated clinical or functional factors. Methods: This was an exploratory observational study in a sample of 231 elderly women of mean age 70.5 years. We used a structured questionnaire with standardized tests to evaluate the relevant clinical and functional measures. A specific adherence questionnaire was developed by the researchers to determine motivators and barriers to exercise adherence. Results: The adherence rate was 49.70% in the aerobic exercise group and 56.20% in the strength training group. Multiple logistic regression models for motivation were significant (P=0.003 for the muscle strengthening group (R2=0.310 and also significant (P=0.008 for the aerobic exercise group (R2=0.154. A third regression model for barriers to exercise was significant (P=0.003 only for the muscle strengthening group (R2=0.236. The present study shows no direct relationship between worsening health status and poor adherence. Conclusion: Factors related to adherence with exercise in the elderly are multifactorial. Keywords: older women, adherence, therapeutic exercises

  6. The effects of aerobic and combined aerobic and resistance exercise training on physical fitness in young women.

    OpenAIRE

    Batalha, Nuno; Marmeleira, José; Dias, João

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of aerobic training alone or combined with strength training on the physical fitness of young women. Methods Sixty-five women (18–28 years old), who were not engaged in any exercise program for at least one year, were randomly assigned to an aerobic training group, a combined training group, or a control group. The aerobic training consisted of indoor cycling sessions and the combined training consisted of indoor cycl...

  7. Aerobic Interval Exercise Training Induces Greater Reduction in Cardiac Workload in the Recovery Period in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Borges, Juliana Pereira; Masson, Gustavo Santos; Tibiriçá, Eduardo; Lessa, Marcos Adriano

    2014-01-01

    Background Aerobic interval exercise training has greater benefits on cardiovascular function as compared with aerobic continuous exercise training. Objective The present study aimed at analyzing the effects of both exercise modalities on acute and subacute hemodynamic responses of healthy rats. Methods Thirty male rats were randomly assigned into three groups as follows: continuous exercise (CE, n = 10); interval exercise (IE, n = 10); and control (C, n = 10). Both IE and CE groups performed...

  8. Effect of Aerobic Exercise Training on Chinese Population with Mild to Moderate Depression in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Cassandra W. H. Ho; Chan, S.C.; Wong, J.S.; Cheung, W. T.; Chung, Dicky W S; Lau, Titanic F. O.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Exercise has been suggested to be a viable treatment for depression. This study investigates the effect of supervised aerobic exercise training on depressive symptoms and physical performance among Chinese patients with mild to moderate depression in early in-patient phase. Methods. A randomized repeated measure and assessor-blinded study design was used. Subjects in aerobic exercise group received 30 minutes of aerobic training, five days a week for 3 weeks. Depressive symptoms (...

  9. Influence of aerobic exercise training on post-exercise responses of aortic pulse pressure and augmentation pressure in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuhiko eAkazawa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Central arterial blood pressure (BP is more predictive of future cardiovascular events than is brachial BP because it reflects the BP load imposed on the left ventricle with greater accuracy. However, little is known about the effects of exercise training on central hemodynamic response to acute exercise. The purpose of the present study was to determine the influence of an aerobic exercise regimen on the response of aortic BP after a single aerobic exercise in postmenopausal women. Nine healthy postmenopausal women (age: 61 ± 2 years participated in a 12-week aerobic exercise training regimen. Before and after the training, each subjects performed a single bout of cycling at ventilatory thresholds for 30 min. We evaluated the post-exercise aortic BP response, which was estimated via the general transfer function from applanation tonometry. After the initial pre-training aerobic exercise session, aortic BP did not change significantly: however, aortic pulse pressure and augmentation pressure were significantly attenuated after the single aerobic exercise session following the 12-week training regimen. The present study demonstrated that a regular aerobic exercise training regimen induced the post-exercise reduction of aortic pulse pressure and augmentation pressure. Regular aerobic exercise training may enhance post-exercise reduction in aortic BP.

  10. Exercise training improves aerobic endurance and musculoskeletal fitness in female cardiac transplant recipients

    OpenAIRE

    Warburton Darren; Kim Daniel; Figgures Linda; Riess Kenneth; Haykowsky Mark; Jones Lee; Tymchak Wayne

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Aim Female cardiac transplant recipients' aerobic capacity is 60% lower than sex and age-predicted values. The effect of exercise training on restoring the impaired aerobic endurance and muscle strength in female cardiac transplant recipients is not known. This study examined the effect that aerobic and strength training have on improving aerobic endurance and muscle strength in female cardiac transplant recipients. Methods 20 female cardiac transplant recipients (51 ± 11 years) part...

  11. MAP training: combining meditation and aerobic exercise reduces depression and rumination while enhancing synchronized brain activity

    OpenAIRE

    Alderman, B L; Olson, R L; Brush, C J; Shors, T. J.

    2016-01-01

    Mental and physical (MAP) training is a novel clinical intervention that combines mental training through meditation and physical training through aerobic exercise. The intervention was translated from neuroscientific studies indicating that MAP training increases neurogenesis in the adult brain. Each session consisted of 30 min of focused-attention (FA) meditation and 30 min of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise. Fifty-two participants completed the 8-week intervention, which consisted of t...

  12. Effects of exercise rehab on male asthmatic patients: Aerobic verses rebound training

    OpenAIRE

    Vahid Zolaktaf; Ghasemi, Gholam A; Morteza Sadeghi

    2013-01-01

    Background: There are some auspicious records on applying aerobic exercise for asthmatic patients. Recently, it is suggested that rebound exercise might even increase the gains. This study was designed to compare the effects of rebound therapy to aerobic training in male asthmatic patients. Methods: Sample included 37 male asthmatic patients (20-40 years) from the same respiratory clinic. After signing the informed consent, subjects volunteered to take part in control, rebound, or aerobic ...

  13. Effects of Exercise Rehab on Male Asthmatic Patients: Aerobic Verses Rebound Training

    OpenAIRE

    Zolaktaf, Vahid; Ghasemi, Gholam A; Sadeghi, Morteza

    2013-01-01

    Background: There are some auspicious records on applying aerobic exercise for asthmatic patients. Recently, it is suggested that rebound exercise might even increase the gains. This study was designed to compare the effects of rebound therapy to aerobic training in male asthmatic patients. Methods: Sample included 37 male asthmatic patients (20-40 years) from the same respiratory clinic. After signing the informed consent, subjects volunteered to take part in control, rebound, or aerobic gro...

  14. Effect of Aerobic Exercise Training on Chinese Population with Mild to Moderate Depression in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra W. H. Ho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Exercise has been suggested to be a viable treatment for depression. This study investigates the effect of supervised aerobic exercise training on depressive symptoms and physical performance among Chinese patients with mild to moderate depression in early in-patient phase. Methods. A randomized repeated measure and assessor-blinded study design was used. Subjects in aerobic exercise group received 30 minutes of aerobic training, five days a week for 3 weeks. Depressive symptoms (MADRS and C-BDI and domains in physical performance were assessed at baseline and program end. Results. Subjects in aerobic exercise group showed a more significant reduction in depressive scores (MADRS as compared to control (between-group mean difference = 10.08 ± 9.41; P=0.026 after 3 weeks training. The exercise group also demonstrated a significant improvement in flexibility (between-group mean difference = 4.4 ± 6.13; P=0.02. Limitations. There was lack of longitudinal followup to examine the long-term effect of aerobic exercise on patients with depression. Conclusions. Aerobic exercise in addition to pharmacological intervention can have a synergistic effect in reducing depressive symptoms and increasing flexibility among Chinese population with mild to moderate depression. Early introduction of exercise training in in-patient phase can help to bridge the gap of therapeutic latency of antidepressants during its nonresponse period.

  15. Effects of curcumin intake and aerobic exercise training on arterial compliance in postmenopausal women

    OpenAIRE

    Akazawa, Nobuhiko; Choi, Youngju; Miyaki, Asako; Tanabe, Yoko; Sugawara, Jun; Ajisaka, Ryuichi; Maeda, Seiji

    2013-01-01

    BackgroundReduction in arterial compliance with aging increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. Lifestyle modification, particularly aerobic exercise and dietary modification, has a favorable effect on vascular aging. Curcumin, a major component of turmeric, is an anti-inflammatory agent. Therefore, it is plausible to hypothesize that curcumin improves arterial compliance. We investigated the effects of curcumin ingestion alone and in combination with aerobic exercise training on arterial...

  16. Aerobic Interval Exercise Training Induces Greater Reduction in Cardiac Workload in the Recovery Period in Rats

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    Borges, Juliana Pereira, E-mail: julipborges@gmail.com; Masson, Gustavo Santos; Tibiriçá, Eduardo; Lessa, Marcos Adriano [Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-01-15

    Aerobic interval exercise training has greater benefits on cardiovascular function as compared with aerobic continuous exercise training. The present study aimed at analyzing the effects of both exercise modalities on acute and subacute hemodynamic responses of healthy rats. Thirty male rats were randomly assigned into three groups as follows: continuous exercise (CE, n = 10); interval exercise (IE, n = 10); and control (C, n = 10). Both IE and CE groups performed a 30-minute exercise session. The IE group session consisted of three successive 4-minute periods at 60% of maximal velocity (Max Vel), with 4-minute recovery intervals at 40% of Max Vel. The CE group ran continuously at 50% of Max Vel. Heart rate (HR), blood pressure(BP), and rate pressure product (RPP) were measured before, during and after the exercise session. The CE and IE groups showed an increase in systolic BP and RPP during exercise as compared with the baseline values. After the end of exercise, the CE group showed a lower response of systolic BP and RPP as compared with the baseline values, while the IE group showed lower systolic BP and mean BP values. However, only the IE group had a lower response of HR and RPP during recovery. In healthy rats, one interval exercise session, as compared with continuous exercise, induced similar hemodynamic responses during exercise. However, during recovery, the interval exercise caused greater reductions in cardiac workload than the continuous exercise.

  17. Aerobic Interval Exercise Training Induces Greater Reduction in Cardiac Workload in the Recovery Period in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aerobic interval exercise training has greater benefits on cardiovascular function as compared with aerobic continuous exercise training. The present study aimed at analyzing the effects of both exercise modalities on acute and subacute hemodynamic responses of healthy rats. Thirty male rats were randomly assigned into three groups as follows: continuous exercise (CE, n = 10); interval exercise (IE, n = 10); and control (C, n = 10). Both IE and CE groups performed a 30-minute exercise session. The IE group session consisted of three successive 4-minute periods at 60% of maximal velocity (Max Vel), with 4-minute recovery intervals at 40% of Max Vel. The CE group ran continuously at 50% of Max Vel. Heart rate (HR), blood pressure(BP), and rate pressure product (RPP) were measured before, during and after the exercise session. The CE and IE groups showed an increase in systolic BP and RPP during exercise as compared with the baseline values. After the end of exercise, the CE group showed a lower response of systolic BP and RPP as compared with the baseline values, while the IE group showed lower systolic BP and mean BP values. However, only the IE group had a lower response of HR and RPP during recovery. In healthy rats, one interval exercise session, as compared with continuous exercise, induced similar hemodynamic responses during exercise. However, during recovery, the interval exercise caused greater reductions in cardiac workload than the continuous exercise

  18. Enhancing Cognitive Training Through Aerobic Exercise After a First Schizophrenia Episode: Theoretical Conception and Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuechterlein, Keith H; Ventura, Joseph; McEwen, Sarah C; Gretchen-Doorly, Denise; Vinogradov, Sophia; Subotnik, Kenneth L

    2016-07-01

    Cognitive training (CT) and aerobic exercise have separately shown promise for improving cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Aerobic exercise releases brain-derived neurotrophic factor, which promotes synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis. Thus, aerobic exercise provides a neurotrophic platform for neuroplasticity-based CT. The combination of aerobic exercise and CT may yield more robust effects than CT alone, particularly in the initial course of schizophrenia. In a pilot study, 7 patients with a recent onset of schizophrenia were assigned to Cognitive Training & Exercise (CT&E) and 9 to CT alone for a 10-week period. Posit Science programs were used for CT. Neurocognitive training focused on tuning neural circuits related to perceptual processing and verbal learning and memory. Social cognitive training used the same learning principles with social and affective stimuli. Both groups participated in these training sessions 2d/wk, 2h/d. The CT&E group also participated in an aerobic conditioning program for 30 minutes at our clinic 2d/wk and at home 2d/wk. The effect size for improvement in the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery Overall Composite score for CT&E patients relative to CT patients was large. Functional outcome, particularly independent living skills, also tended to improve more in the CT&E than in the CT group. Muscular endurance, cardiovascular fitness, and diastolic blood pressure also showed relative improvement in the CT&E compared to the CT group. These encouraging pilot study findings support the promise of combining CT and aerobic exercise to improve the early course of schizophrenia. PMID:27460618

  19. Effects of swimming training on aerobic capacity and exercise induced bronchoconstriction in children with bronchial asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Matsumoto, I.; Araki, H; Tsuda, K; Odajima, H; Nishima, S; Higaki, Y.; Tanaka, H.; Tanaka, M.; Shindo, M

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—A study was undertaken to determine whether swimming training improved aerobic capacity, exercise induced bronchoconstriction (EIB), and bronchial responsiveness to inhaled histamine in children with asthma.
METHODS—Eight children with mild or moderate asthma participated in swimming training every day for six weeks. The intensity of training was individually determined and set at 125% of the child's lactate threshold (LT), measured using a swimming ergometer. ...

  20. Helping Adults to Stay Physically Fit: Preventing Relapse Following Aerobic Exercise Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrick, G. Ken; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Long-term adherence to an aerobic exercise regime is a major problem among exercise program graduates. This article discusses the steps involved in developing relapse prevention treatment strategies for aerobic exercise programs. (JMK)

  1. Impact of aerobic and anaerobic exercise training on oxidative stress and antioxidant defense in athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Song-Young; Kwak, Yi-Sub

    2016-01-01

    Exercise mediates an excessive free radical production leading to oxidative stress (OS). The body has natural antioxidant systems that help decrease OS, and these systems may be enhanced with exercise training. However, only a few studies have investigated the differences in resting OS and antioxidant capacity (AOC) between aerobically trained athletes (ET), anaerobically trained athletes (RT), and untrained individuals (UT). Therefore, this study sought to investigate the resting and postexercise OS and AOC in ET, RT, and UT. Sixty healthy young males (26.6±0.8 yr) participated in this study. Subjects were divided into three groups, ET, RT, and UT by distinct training background. Resting plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyls (PC) were not significantly different in ET, RT, and UT. However, MDA and PC were significantly increased following a graded exercise test (GXT) in UT but not in ET and RT. Resting total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels and TAC were not different in ET, RT, and UT. Interestingly, TAC levels significantly decreased after the GXT in all groups. Additionally, UT showed lower post-exercise TAC levels compared to ET and RT. These results showed that ET, RT, and UT have similar OS and AOC at rest. However, both ET and RT have greater AOC against exercise mediated OS compared to UT. These findings may explain, at least in part, why both aerobic and anaerobic types of exercise training improve redox balance. However, it appears there is no specific exercise type effect in terms of redox balance.

  2. Impact of aerobic and anaerobic exercise training on oxidative stress and antioxidant defense in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Song-Young; Kwak, Yi-Sub

    2016-04-01

    Exercise mediates an excessive free radical production leading to oxidative stress (OS). The body has natural antioxidant systems that help decrease OS, and these systems may be enhanced with exercise training. However, only a few studies have investigated the differences in resting OS and antioxidant capacity (AOC) between aerobically trained athletes (ET), anaerobically trained athletes (RT), and untrained individuals (UT). Therefore, this study sought to investigate the resting and postexercise OS and AOC in ET, RT, and UT. Sixty healthy young males (26.6±0.8 yr) participated in this study. Subjects were divided into three groups, ET, RT, and UT by distinct training background. Resting plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyls (PC) were not significantly different in ET, RT, and UT. However, MDA and PC were significantly increased following a graded exercise test (GXT) in UT but not in ET and RT. Resting total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels and TAC were not different in ET, RT, and UT. Interestingly, TAC levels significantly decreased after the GXT in all groups. Additionally, UT showed lower post-exercise TAC levels compared to ET and RT. These results showed that ET, RT, and UT have similar OS and AOC at rest. However, both ET and RT have greater AOC against exercise mediated OS compared to UT. These findings may explain, at least in part, why both aerobic and anaerobic types of exercise training improve redox balance. However, it appears there is no specific exercise type effect in terms of redox balance. PMID:27162773

  3. Exercise training reverses impaired skeletal muscle metabolism induced by artificial selection for low aerobic capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Lessard, Sarah J.; Rivas, Donato A.; Stephenson, Erin J.; Yaspelkis, Ben B.; Koch, Lauren G.; Britton, Steven L.; Hawley, John A.

    2010-01-01

    We have used a novel model of genetically imparted endurance exercise capacity and metabolic health to study the genetic and environmental contributions to skeletal muscle glucose and lipid metabolism. We hypothesized that metabolic abnormalities associated with low intrinsic running capacity would be ameliorated by exercise training. Selective breeding for 22 generations resulted in rat models with a fivefold difference in intrinsic aerobic capacity. Low (LCR)- and high (HCR)-capacity runner...

  4. Effects of Aerobic Exercise Training on Stress Reactivity in Every-Day Life

    OpenAIRE

    Haaren, Birte von

    2015-01-01

    The current thesis investigated the effects of a 20-week aerobic exercise training on physiological and emotional responses to real-life stress using a randomized, controlled trial and an inactive sample. To assess participants' physiological and psychological responses during everyday life, ambulatory assessment was used. In summary, the present thesis provides empirical support that regular exercise can lead to improved emotional and physiological responses during real-life stress.

  5. Effects of cognitive training with and without aerobic exercise on cognitively demanding everyday activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Mark A; Binder, Ellen F; Bugg, Julie M; Waldum, Emily R; Dufault, Carolyn; Meyer, Amanda; Johanning, Jennifer; Zheng, Jie; Schechtman, Kenneth B; Kudelka, Chris

    2014-09-01

    We investigated the potential benefits of a novel cognitive-training protocol and an aerobic exercise intervention, both individually and in concert, on older adults' performances in laboratory simulations of select real-world tasks. The cognitive training focused on a range of cognitive processes, including attentional coordination, prospective memory, and retrospective-memory retrieval, processes that are likely involved in many everyday tasks, and that decline with age. Primary outcome measures were 3 laboratory tasks that simulated everyday activities: Cooking Breakfast, Virtual Week, and Memory for Health Information. Two months of cognitive training improved older adults' performance on prospective-memory tasks embedded in Virtual Week. Cognitive training, either alone or in combination with 6 months of aerobic exercise, did not significantly improve Cooking Breakfast or Memory for Health Information. Although gains in aerobic power were comparable with previous reports, aerobic exercise did not produce improvements for the primary outcome measures. Discussion focuses on the possibility that cognitive-training programs that include explicit strategy instruction and varied practice contexts may confer gains to older adults for performance on cognitively challenging everyday tasks. PMID:25244489

  6. Effect of Aerobic Exercise Training on Blood Pressure in Indians: Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punia, Sonu; Kulandaivelan, Sivachidambaram; Singh, Varun; Punia, Vandana

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. High blood pressure (BP) is one of the most important modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, which accounts for one in every eight deaths worldwide. It has been predicted that, by 2020, there would be 111% increase in cardiovascular deaths in India. Aerobic exercise in the form of brisk walking, jogging, running, and cycling would result in reduction in BP. Many meta-analytical studies from western world confirm this. However, there is no such review from Indian subcontinent. Objective. Our objective is to systematically review and report the articles from India in aerobic exercise on blood pressure. Methodology. Study was done in March 2016 in Google Scholar using search terms "Aerobic exercise" AND "Training" AND "Blood pressure" AND "India." This search produced 3210 titles. Results. 24 articles were identified for this review based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. Total of 1107 subjects participated with median of 25 subjects. Studies vary in duration from +3 weeks to 12 months with each session lasting 15-60 minutes and frequency varies from 3 to 8 times/week. The results suggest that there was mean reduction of -05.00 mmHg in SBP and -03.09 mmHg in DBP after aerobic training. Conclusion. Aerobic training reduces the blood pressure in Indians. PMID:27493989

  7. Aerobic exercise (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerobic exercise gets the heart working to pump blood through the heart more quickly and with more force than ... must be oxygenated more quickly, which quickens respiration. Aerobic exercise strengthens the heart and boosts healthy cholesterol ...

  8. Effects of Cognitive Training with and without Aerobic Exercise on Cognitively-Demanding Everyday Activities

    OpenAIRE

    McDaniel, Mark A.; Binder, Ellen F.; Bugg, Julie M.; Waldum, Emily R; Dufault, Carolyn; Meyer, Amanda; Johanning, Jennifer; Zheng, Jie; Schechtman, Kenneth B.; Kudelka, Chris

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the potential benefits of a novel cognitive training protocol and an aerobic exercise intervention, both individually and in concert, on older adults’ performances in laboratory simulations of select real-world tasks. The cognitive training focused on a range of cognitive processes, including attentional coordination, prospective memory, and retrospective-memory retrieval, processes that are likely involved in many everyday tasks, and that decline with age. Primary outcome mea...

  9. Is aerobic dance an effective alternative to walk-jog exercise training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garber, C E; McKinney, J S; Carleton, R A

    1992-06-01

    In order to compare the physiological effects of an 8 week aerobic dance program to those of a walk-jog exercise training program, 60 male and female University employees ages 24-48 years were randomly assigned to an aerobic dance program (N = 22), a walk-jog program (N = 24), or a sedentary control group (N = 15). Subjects who had an exercise compliance rate less than or equal to 85% were dropped from the study, as were control subjects who had scheduling conflicts or illnesses precluding post-treatment testing. Thirty-five subjects completed the 8 week period with a compliance rate greater than or equal to 85%, leaving 14 in the aerobics group, 11 in the walk-jog group and 10 in the control group. Significant increases (p less than 0.001) in maximal oxygen uptake occurred in both the aerobics (+3.9 ml/kg-1/min-1) and walk-jog group (+3.4 ml/kg-1/min-1), while no significant change was observed in the control group. Peak heart rate decreased significantly (p less than 0.05) in the aerobics (-4 b/min-1) and walk-jog groups (-3 b/min-1 but was unchanged in the control group (-1 b/min-1) following the treatment period. Body weight, peak respiratory exchange ratio and peak minute ventilation remained the same in the aerobics, walk-jog and control groups throughout the treatment period. It is concluded that aerobic dance programs can result in similar improvements in aerobic power as a walk-jog program. Thus, an aerobic dance program is an effective alternative to a traditional walk-jog training regime. PMID:1434581

  10. MAP training: combining meditation and aerobic exercise reduces depression and rumination while enhancing synchronized brain activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderman, B L; Olson, R L; Brush, C J; Shors, T J

    2016-01-01

    Mental and physical (MAP) training is a novel clinical intervention that combines mental training through meditation and physical training through aerobic exercise. The intervention was translated from neuroscientific studies indicating that MAP training increases neurogenesis in the adult brain. Each session consisted of 30 min of focused-attention (FA) meditation and 30 min of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise. Fifty-two participants completed the 8-week intervention, which consisted of two sessions per week. Following the intervention, individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD; n=22) reported significantly less depressive symptoms and ruminative thoughts. Typical healthy individuals (n=30) also reported less depressive symptoms at follow-up. Behavioral and event-related potential indices of cognitive control were collected at baseline and follow-up during a modified flanker task. Following MAP training, N2 and P3 component amplitudes increased relative to baseline, especially among individuals with MDD. These data indicate enhanced neural responses during the detection and resolution of conflicting stimuli. Although previous research has supported the individual beneficial effects of aerobic exercise and meditation for depression, these findings indicate that a combination of the two may be particularly effective in increasing cognitive control processes and decreasing ruminative thought patterns. PMID:26836414

  11. Designing an aerobic exercise training in water as an alternative treatment for depression: A new method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Mohammadiyoun

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A highly disruptive emotional disorder is major depression, characterized by abnormal regulation of feelings of sadness and happiness. Traditional treatment for depression was pharmacological treatment. One alternative that has been shown to be effective in alleviating depression is physical activity. Previous observation and interventional studies have suggested that regular aerobic exercise reduced symptoms of depression. Moreover physical activity and exercise in water may have some beneficial effects on mood. However the purpose of this investigation was to design an aerobic exercise pattern in water and evaluate the effects of this pattern on depression.Methods and Materials: Two hundred and forty-nine male undergraduates allocated for this study. The Beck Depression Inventory was used to measure the presence and degree of depression. Fifty –two males (body mass, 67.8  9.3 kg; height, 1.73  0.04 m; age, 22.26  2.4 who obtained a depressive score more than 18 participated in an aerobic exercise program. The aerobic exercise program included unstructured water- polo sessions, 60 minute duration, three times per week for seven weeks. The participants trained at 60-70 % of maximum heart rate. The Beck Depression Inventory was administered before aerobic exercise training, at the first, twelfth, and twenty- first sessions. Results: Analysis of variance with repeated measures (ANOVA showed that levels of depression score were significantly higher pre-treatment than in middle-treatment (P<0.05. A significant change was observed between the pre-treatment and post-treatment (P<0.05, the level of depression score was lower in post-treatment. Comparison of Beck score in the depressed samples at the first day (25.19, twelfth (15.08, and the twenty-first (11.64 of session, after performance of the practice, was significant (P<0.05. The results in control group at pre and post training exercise unchanged significantly. Conclusion

  12. Effect of Aerobic Exercise Training on Blood Pressure in Indians: Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonu Punia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. High blood pressure (BP is one of the most important modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, which accounts for one in every eight deaths worldwide. It has been predicted that, by 2020, there would be 111% increase in cardiovascular deaths in India. Aerobic exercise in the form of brisk walking, jogging, running, and cycling would result in reduction in BP. Many meta-analytical studies from western world confirm this. However, there is no such review from Indian subcontinent. Objective. Our objective is to systematically review and report the articles from India in aerobic exercise on blood pressure. Methodology. Study was done in March 2016 in Google Scholar using search terms “Aerobic exercise” AND “Training” AND “Blood pressure” AND “India.” This search produced 3210 titles. Results. 24 articles were identified for this review based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. Total of 1107 subjects participated with median of 25 subjects. Studies vary in duration from +3 weeks to 12 months with each session lasting 15–60 minutes and frequency varies from 3 to 8 times/week. The results suggest that there was mean reduction of −05.00 mmHg in SBP and −03.09 mmHg in DBP after aerobic training. Conclusion. Aerobic training reduces the blood pressure in Indians.

  13. Effects of Exhaustive Aerobic Exercise on Tryptophan-Kynurenine Metabolism in Trained Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Barbara; Geiger, Daniela; Schauer, Markus; Gatterer, Hannes; Burtscher, Martin; Fuchs, Dietmar

    2016-01-01

    Exhaustive exercise can cause a transient depression of immune function. Data indicate significant effects of immune activation cascades on the biochemistry of monoamines and amino acids such as tryptophan. Tryptophan can be metabolized through different pathways, a major route being the kynurenine pathway, which is often systemically up-regulated when the immune response is activated. The present study was undertaken to examine the effect of exhaustive aerobic exercise on biomarkers of immune activation and tryptophan metabolism in trained athletes. After a standardized breakfast 2 h prior to exercise, 33 trained athletes (17 women, 16 men) performed an incremental cycle ergometer exercise test at 60 rpm until exhaustion. After a 20 min rest phase, the participants performed a 20 min maximal time-trial on a cycle ergometer (RBM Cyclus 2, Germany). During the test, cyclists were strongly encouraged to choose a maximal pedalling rate that could be maintained for the respective test duration. Serum concentrations of amino acids tryptophan, kynurenine, phenylalanine, and tyrosine were determined by HPLC and immune system biomarker neopterin by ELISA at rest and immediately post exercise. Intense exercise was associated with a strong increase in neopterin concentrations (p<0.001), indicating increased immune activation following intense exercise. Exhaustive exercise significantly reduced tryptophan concentrations by 12% (p<0.001) and increased kynurenine levels by 6% (p = 0.022). Also phenylalanine to tyrosine ratios were lower after exercise as compared with baseline (p<0.001). The kynurenine to tryptophan ratio correlated with neopterin (r = 0.560, p<0.01). Thus, increased tryptophan catabolism by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase appears likely. Peak oxygen uptake correlated with baseline tryptophan and kynurenine concentrations (r = 0.562 and r = 0.511, respectively, both p<0.01). Findings demonstrate that exhaustive aerobic exercise is associated with increased immune

  14. Effects of Exhaustive Aerobic Exercise on Tryptophan-Kynurenine Metabolism in Trained Athletes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Strasser

    Full Text Available Exhaustive exercise can cause a transient depression of immune function. Data indicate significant effects of immune activation cascades on the biochemistry of monoamines and amino acids such as tryptophan. Tryptophan can be metabolized through different pathways, a major route being the kynurenine pathway, which is often systemically up-regulated when the immune response is activated. The present study was undertaken to examine the effect of exhaustive aerobic exercise on biomarkers of immune activation and tryptophan metabolism in trained athletes. After a standardized breakfast 2 h prior to exercise, 33 trained athletes (17 women, 16 men performed an incremental cycle ergometer exercise test at 60 rpm until exhaustion. After a 20 min rest phase, the participants performed a 20 min maximal time-trial on a cycle ergometer (RBM Cyclus 2, Germany. During the test, cyclists were strongly encouraged to choose a maximal pedalling rate that could be maintained for the respective test duration. Serum concentrations of amino acids tryptophan, kynurenine, phenylalanine, and tyrosine were determined by HPLC and immune system biomarker neopterin by ELISA at rest and immediately post exercise. Intense exercise was associated with a strong increase in neopterin concentrations (p<0.001, indicating increased immune activation following intense exercise. Exhaustive exercise significantly reduced tryptophan concentrations by 12% (p<0.001 and increased kynurenine levels by 6% (p = 0.022. Also phenylalanine to tyrosine ratios were lower after exercise as compared with baseline (p<0.001. The kynurenine to tryptophan ratio correlated with neopterin (r = 0.560, p<0.01. Thus, increased tryptophan catabolism by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase appears likely. Peak oxygen uptake correlated with baseline tryptophan and kynurenine concentrations (r = 0.562 and r = 0.511, respectively, both p<0.01. Findings demonstrate that exhaustive aerobic exercise is associated with

  15. Individual Variability in Aerobic Fitness Adaptations to 70-d of Bed Rest and Exercise Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Meghan; Buxton, Roxanne; Goetchius, Elizabeth; DeWitt, John; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori

    2016-01-01

    Change in maximal aerobic capacity (VO2pk) in response to exercise training and disuse is highly variable among individuals. Factors that could contribute to the observed variability (lean mass, daily activity, diet, sleep, stress) are not routinely controlled in studies. The NASA bed rest (BR) studies use a highly controlled hospital based model as an analog of spaceflight. In this study, diet, hydration, physical activity and light/dark cycles were precisely controlled and provided the opportunity to investigate individual variability. PURPOSE. Evaluate the contribution of exercise intensity and lean mass on change in VO2pk during 70-d of BR or BR + exercise. METHODS. Subjects completed 70-d of BR alone (CON, N=9) or BR + exercise (EX, N=17). The exercise prescription included 6 d/wk of aerobic exercise at 70 - 100% of max and 3 d/wk of lower body resistance exercise. Subjects were monitored 24 hr/d. VO2pk and lean mass (iDXA) were measured pre and post BR. ANOVA was used to evaluate changes in VO2pk pre to post BR. Subjects were retrospectively divided into high and low responders based on change in VO2pk (CON > 20% loss, n=5; EX >10% loss, n=4, or 5% gain, n=4) to further understand individual variability. RESULTS. VO2pk decreased from pre to post BR in CON (Ptraining induced gains in VO2pk appear unrelated to lean mass or exercise intensity.

  16. The Effects of Aerobic Exercise Training on Psychosocial Aspects of Men with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Aim: This study was conducted to examine the effects of aerobic exercise training on psychosocial aspects (mental health, the aspects of physical symptoms, anxiety and insomnia, social functioning, and depression) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: 53 men who had type 2 diabetes mellitus for a mean duration of the disease for 3±5 years were selected purposely and classified randomly into experimental (27 patients) and a control group (26 patients). Patients in the experimenta...

  17. Aerobic exercise training facilitates the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy in patients with panic disorder with/without agoraphobia

    OpenAIRE

    Gaudlitz, Katharina Anna

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Physical activity and especially aerobic exercise has been discussed as a therapeutic alternative or add-on for the treatment of anxiety disorders. Up to date, a small number of randomized controlled trials suggests supplementary clinical effectiveness of exercise for patients with panic disorder. The aim of this study was to determine whether aerobic exercise training compared to physical activity with low impact can improve the effect of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in p...

  18. Influence of aerobic exercise training on cardiovascular and endocrine-inflammatory biomarkers in hypertensive postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline P. Jarrete

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Given that few studies have examined the interaction between endocrine-inflammatory mediators and aerobic exercise training in hypertensive postmenopausal women, the aim of this study was to investigate whether aerobic exercise training (AET for twenty-four sessions would alter cortisol, leptin and interleukin-1β (IL-1β levels. To further analyze endothelium function in response to AET, we also examined redox state as well as NO/cGMP pathway in this population. Eighteen hypertensive postmenopausal women finished this study. AET program consisted of 24 sessions in treadmill, 3 times per week, duration of 30 up to 40 min for each session, for 8 weeks at intensity of 100% of the MLSS according to previous incremental test. Heart rate was monitored in all studied time (resting and during exercise sessions. After 48 h of the last exercise session, blood samples were collected for biochemical analyses (levels of cortisol, leptin, IL-1β, nitrite/nitrate (NOx−, cGMP, malondialdehyde (MDA and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA; superoxide and catalase activity. We also measured systolic and diastolic blood pressure. A significant reduction in body mass was observed. As expected, systolic and diastolic blood pressure values were significantly reduced after AET in hypertensive women. We also found a marked increase in NOx− levels as well as cGMP concentration in trained women, approximately 37.7 and 30.8%, respectively. No changes in cortisol, leptin, ADMA and IL-1β levels were observed after AET. Similarly, MDA levels and catalase activity were not affected by AET. In contrast, a marked increase in SOD activity was found (86.6%. In conclusion, our findings show that aerobic exercise training for twenty-four sessions promoted a significant reduction in blood pressure by activating NO/cGMP pathway as well as by promoting an up-regulation of SOD activity without changing in cortisol/leptin levels in postmenopausal hypertensive women.

  19. Short-term aerobic exercise training improves gut peptide regulation in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullman, Emily L; Kelly, Karen R; Haus, Jacob M; Fealy, Ciaran E; Scelsi, Amanda R; Pagadala, Mangesh R; Flask, Chris A; McCullough, Arthur J; Kirwan, John P

    2016-05-15

    Obesity-related nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is now the most common chronic liver disease. Exercise and diet are uniformly prescribed treatments for NAFLD; however, there are limited empirical data on the effects of exercise training on metabolic function in these patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the fasting and glucose-stimulated adaptation of gut peptides to short-term aerobic exercise training in patients with NAFLD. Twenty-two obese subjects, 16 with NAFLD [body mass index (BMI), 33.2 ± 1.1 (SE) kg/m(2)] and 6 obese controls (BMI, 31.3 ± 1.2 kg/m(2)), were enrolled in a supervised aerobic exercise program (60 min/day, 85% of their heart rate maximum, for 7 days). Fasting and glucose-stimulated glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-17-36) and peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYYTotal) concentrations in plasma were assessed before and after the exercise program. Initially, the NAFLD group had higher fasting PYY (NAFLD = 117 ± 18.6, control = 47.2 ± 6.4 pg/ml, P obese adults with NAFLD. PMID:27032902

  20. Cardiovascular and autonomic modulation by the central nervous system after aerobic exercise training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Martins-Pinge

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The autonomic nervous system plays a key role in maintaining homeostasis under normal and pathological conditions. The sympathetic tone, particularly for the cardiovascular system, is generated by sympathetic discharges originating in specific areas of the brainstem. Aerobic exercise training promotes several cardiovascular adjustments that are influenced by the central areas involved in the output of the autonomic nervous system. In this review, we emphasize the studies that investigate aerobic exercise training protocols to identify the cardiovascular adaptations that may be the result of central nervous system plasticity due to chronic exercise. The focus of our study is on some groups of neurons involved in sympathetic regulation. They include the nucleus tractus solitarii, caudal ventrolateral medulla and the rostral ventrolateral medulla that maintain and regulate the cardiac and vascular autonomic tonus. We also discuss studies that demonstrate the involvement of supramedullary areas in exercise training modulation, with emphasis on the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, an important area of integration for autonomic and neuroendocrine responses. The results of these studies suggest that the beneficial effects of physical activity may be due, at least in part, to reductions in sympathetic nervous system activity. Conversely, with the recent association of physical inactivity with chronic disease, these data may also suggest that increases in sympathetic nervous system activity contribute to the increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases associated with a sedentary lifestyle.

  1. Effects of a Rebound Exercise Training Program on Aerobic Capacity and Body Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomassoni, Teresa L.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    This study was designed to determine if aerobic dancing on rebound exercise equipment (minitrampolines) is an effective way to improve aerobic capacity and body composition. Although aerobic capacity improved, percent body fat did not change. Results were similar to those produced by conventional aerobic dance programs of like intensity. (MT)

  2. Aerobic exercise training induces metabolic benefits in rats with metabolic syndrome independent of dietary changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Wesendonck Caponi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the effects of aerobic exercise training without dietary changes on cardiovascular and metabolic variables and on the expression of glucose transporter Type 4 in rats with metabolic syndrome. METHODS: Twenty male spontaneously hypertensive rats received monosodium glutamate during the neonatal period. The animals were allocated to the following groups: MS (sedentary metabolic syndrome, MS-T (trained on a treadmill for 1 hour/day, 5 days/week for 10 weeks, H (sedentary spontaneously hypertensive rats and H-T (trained spontaneously hypertensive rats. The Lee index, blood pressure (tail-cuff system, insulin sensitivity (insulin tolerance test and functional capacity were evaluated before and after 10 weeks of training. Glucose transporter Type 4 expression was analyzed using Western blotting. The data were compared using analysis of variance (ANOVA (p<0.05. RESULTS: At baseline, the MS rats exhibited lower insulin sensitivity and increased Lee index compared with the H rats. Training decreased the body weight and Lee index of the MS rats (MS-T vs. MS, but not of the H rats (H-T vs. H. There were no differences in food intake between the groups. At the end of the experiments, the systolic blood pressure was lower in the two trained groups than in their sedentary controls. Whole-body insulin sensitivity increased in the trained groups. Glucose transporter Type 4 content increased in the heart, white adipose tissue and gastrocnemius muscle of the trained groups relative to their respective untrained groups. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the present study shows that an isolated aerobic exercise training intervention is an efficient means of improving several components of metabolic syndrome, that is, training reduces obesity and hypertension and increases insulin sensitivity.

  3. Effects of chest physiotherapy and aerobic exercise training on physical fitness in young children with cystic fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Elbasan Bulent; Tunali Nur; Duzgun Irem; Ozcelik Ugur

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Cystic fibrosis is a multisystem disease where the main problems are existing in the respiratory system. Aerobic exercise programs are effective in increasing physical fitness and muscle endurance in addition to chest physiotherapy. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of chest physiotherapy and aerobic exercise training on physical fitness in young children with cystic fibrosis. Methods Sixteen patients with cystic fibrosis, between the ages 5-13 ye...

  4. Effects of Exhaustive Aerobic Exercise on Tryptophan-Kynurenine Metabolism in Trained Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Barbara; Geiger, Daniela; Schauer, Markus; Gatterer, Hannes; Burtscher, Martin; Fuchs, Dietmar

    2016-01-01

    Exhaustive exercise can cause a transient depression of immune function. Data indicate significant effects of immune activation cascades on the biochemistry of monoamines and amino acids such as tryptophan. Tryptophan can be metabolized through different pathways, a major route being the kynurenine pathway, which is often systemically up-regulated when the immune response is activated. The present study was undertaken to examine the effect of exhaustive aerobic exercise on biomarkers of immune activation and tryptophan metabolism in trained athletes. After a standardized breakfast 2 h prior to exercise, 33 trained athletes (17 women, 16 men) performed an incremental cycle ergometer exercise test at 60 rpm until exhaustion. After a 20 min rest phase, the participants performed a 20 min maximal time-trial on a cycle ergometer (RBM Cyclus 2, Germany). During the test, cyclists were strongly encouraged to choose a maximal pedalling rate that could be maintained for the respective test duration. Serum concentrations of amino acids tryptophan, kynurenine, phenylalanine, and tyrosine were determined by HPLC and immune system biomarker neopterin by ELISA at rest and immediately post exercise. Intense exercise was associated with a strong increase in neopterin concentrations (pcognitive processes. PMID:27124720

  5. Effects of interval aerobic training combined with strength exercise on body composition, glycaemic and lipid profile and aerobic capacity of obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coll-Risco, Irene; Aparicio, Virginia A; Nebot, Elena; Camiletti-Moirón, Daniel; Martínez, Rosario; Kapravelou, Garyfallia; López-Jurado, María; Porres, Jesús M; Aranda, Pilar

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of interval aerobic training combined with strength exercise in the same training session on body composition, and glycaemic and lipid profile in obese rats. Sixteen lean Zucker rats and sixteen obese Zucker rats were randomly divided into exercise and sedentary subgroups (4 groups, n = 8). Exercise consisted of interval aerobic training combined with strength exercise in the same training session. The animals trained 60 min/day, 5 days/week for 8 weeks. Body composition, lipid and glycaemic profiles and inflammatory markers were assessed. Results showed that fat mass was reduced in both lean and obese rats following the exercise training (effect size (95% confidence interval (CI)) = 1.8 (0.5-3.0)). Plasma low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and fasting glucose were lower in the exercise compared to the sedentary groups (d = 2.0 (0.7-3.2) and 1.8 (0.5-3.0), respectively). Plasma insulin was reduced in exercise compared to sedentary groups (d = 2.1 (0.8-3.4)). Some exercise × phenotype interactions showed that the highest decreases in insulin, homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance, fasting and postprandial glucose were observed in the obese + exercise group (all, P exercise would improve body composition, and lipid and glycaemic profiles, especially in obese rats. PMID:26634322

  6. Effects of aerobic training on exercise-related oxidative stress in mitochondrial myopathies

    OpenAIRE

    Siciliano, Gabriele; SIMONCINI, COSTANZA; Gerfo, Annalisa Lo; Orsucci, Daniele; Ricci, Giulia; Mancuso, Michelangelo

    2012-01-01

    In mitochondrial myopathies with respiratory chain deficiency impairment of energy cell production may lead to in excess reactive oxygen species generation with consequent oxidative stress and cell damage. Aerobic training has been showed to increase muscle performance in patients with mitochondrial myopathies. Aim of this study has been to evaluate, in 7 patients (6F e 1 M, mean age 44.9 ± 12.1 years) affected by mitochondrial disease, concomitantly to lactate exercise curve, the occurrence ...

  7. Metabolomic Response of Skeletal Muscle to Aerobic Exercise Training in Insulin Resistant Type 1 Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotzert, Michelle S.; Murray, Michael R.; McDonald, Matthew W.; Olver, T. Dylan; Velenosi, Thomas J.; Hennop, Anzel; Noble, Earl G.; Urquhart, Brad L.; Melling, C. W. James

    2016-01-01

    The etiology of insulin resistance in Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) is unknown, however it affects approximately 20% of T1D patients. Intramyocellular lipids (IMCL) have been identified as a mechanism of insulin resistance. We examined skeletal muscle of T1D rats to determine if alterations in lipid metabolism were evident and whether aerobic exercise training improves IMCL and insulin resistance. To do so, 48 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into control (C), sedentary diabetes (D) and diabetes exercise (DX) groups. Following multiple low-dose Streptozotocin (STZ) injections (20 mg/kg), glycemia (9–15 mM) was maintained using insulin treatment. DX were treadmill trained at high intensity (~75% V02max; 5days/week) for 10 weeks. The results demonstrate that D exhibited insulin resistance compared with C and DX, indicated by decreased glucose infusion rate during a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (p < 0.05). There were no differences between C and DX, suggesting that exercise improved insulin resistance (p < 0.05). Metabolomics analysis revealed a significant shift in lipid metabolism whereby notable fatty acid metabolites (arachidonic acid, palmitic acid and several polyunsaturated fatty acids) were significantly elevated in D compared to C and DX. Based on the intermediates observed, insulin resistance in T1D is characterized by an insulin-desensitizing intramyocellular fatty acid metabolite profile that is ameliorated with exercise training. PMID:27197730

  8. Strength and power training did not modify cardiovascular responses to aerobic exercise in elderly subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kanegusuku

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Resistance training increases muscle strength in older adults, decreasing the effort necessary for executing physical tasks, and reducing cardiovascular load during exercise. This hypothesis has been confirmed during strength-based activities, but not during aerobic-based activities. This study determined whether different resistance training regimens, strength training (ST, constant movement velocity or power training (PT, concentric phase performed as fast as possible can blunt the increase in cardiovascular load during an aerobic stimulus. Older adults (63.9 ± 0.7 years were randomly allocated to: control (N = 11, ST (N = 13, twice a week, 70-90% 1-RM and PT (N = 15, twice a week, 30-50% 1-RM groups. Before and after 16 weeks, oxygen uptake (VO2, systolic blood pressure (SBP, heart rate (HR, and rate pressure product (RPP were measured during a maximal treadmill test. Resting SBP and RPP were similarly reduced in all groups (combined data = -5.7 ± 1.2 and -5.0 ± 1.7%, respectively, P < 0.05. Maximal SBP, HR and RPP did not change. The increase in measured VO2, HR and RPP for the increment in estimated VO2 (absolute load decreased similarly in all groups (combined data = -9.1 ± 2.6, -14.1 ± 3.9, -14.2 ± 3.0%, respectively, P < 0.05, while the increments in the cardiovascular variables for the increase in measured VO2 did not change. In elderly subjects, ST and PT did not blunt submaximal or maximal HR, SBP and RPP increases during the maximal exercise test, showing that they did not reduce cardiovascular stress during aerobic tasks.

  9. Aerobic exercise in pulmonary rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Brasileiro de Vasconcelos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to conduct a literature review on the usefulness of aerobic exercise in pulmonary rehabilitation. This is an exploratory study of literature through the electronic databases Medline, Lilacs, Scielo, Pubmed and Google Scholar, published between 1996 and 2012, conducted during the period February to May 2012 with the following keywords: COPD, pulmonary rehabilitation, aerobic exercises, physical training, quality of life. The change in pulmonary function and dysfunction of skeletal muscles that result in exercise intolerance and reduced fitness and may cause social isolation, depression, anxiety and addiction. The training exercise is the most important component of the program of pulmonary rehabilitation where the aerobic training provides consistent results in clinical improvement in levels of exercise tolerance and decreased dyspnea generating more benefits to the body, reducing the chance of cardiovascular disease and improves quality and expectation of life. We demonstrated that the use of aerobic exercise in pulmonary rehabilitation program, allows an improvement of motor skills, decreased muscle fatigue and deconditioning, reducing sedentary lifestyle; however, has little or no effect on the reduction of strength and atrophy muscle.

  10. Metabolomic Response of Skeletal Muscle to Aerobic Exercise Training in Insulin Resistant Type 1 Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotzert, Michelle S; Murray, Michael R; McDonald, Matthew W; Olver, T Dylan; Velenosi, Thomas J; Hennop, Anzel; Noble, Earl G; Urquhart, Brad L; Melling, C W James

    2016-01-01

    The etiology of insulin resistance in Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) is unknown, however it affects approximately 20% of T1D patients. Intramyocellular lipids (IMCL) have been identified as a mechanism of insulin resistance. We examined skeletal muscle of T1D rats to determine if alterations in lipid metabolism were evident and whether aerobic exercise training improves IMCL and insulin resistance. To do so, 48 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into control (C), sedentary diabetes (D) and diabetes exercise (DX) groups. Following multiple low-dose Streptozotocin (STZ) injections (20 mg/kg), glycemia (9-15 mM) was maintained using insulin treatment. DX were treadmill trained at high intensity (~75% V02max; 5days/week) for 10 weeks. The results demonstrate that D exhibited insulin resistance compared with C and DX, indicated by decreased glucose infusion rate during a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (p lipid metabolism whereby notable fatty acid metabolites (arachidonic acid, palmitic acid and several polyunsaturated fatty acids) were significantly elevated in D compared to C and DX. Based on the intermediates observed, insulin resistance in T1D is characterized by an insulin-desensitizing intramyocellular fatty acid metabolite profile that is ameliorated with exercise training. PMID:27197730

  11. The intervention composed of aerobic training and non-exercise physical activity (I-CAN) study: Rationale, design and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, Damon L; Dover, Sara E; Nevels, Tyara R; Solar, Chelsey A; Brophy, Patricia M; Hall, Tyler R; Houmard, Joseph A; Lutes, Lesley D

    2015-11-01

    Recent data has suggested that prolonged sedentary behavior is independent risk factor for cardiovascular and all-cause mortality independent of adequate amounts of moderate to vigorous physical activity. However, few studies have prospectively evaluated if exercise training and increasing non-exercise physical activity leads to greater reduction in cardiometabolic risk compared to aerobic training alone. The purpose of the Intervention Composed of Aerobic Training and Non-Exercise Physical Activity (I-CAN) study is to determine whether a physical activity program composed of both aerobic training (consistent with public health recommendations) and increasing non-exercise physical activity (3000 steps above baseline levels) leads to enhanced improvements in waist circumference, oral glucose tolerance, systemic inflammation, body composition, and fitness compared to aerobic training alone in obese adults (N=45). Commercially available accelerometers (Fitbits) will be used to monitor physical activity levels and behavioral coaching will be used to develop strategies of how to increase non-exercise physical activity levels. In this manuscript, we describe the design, rationale, and methodology associated with the I-CAN study. PMID:26542389

  12. The influence of training characteristics on the effect of aerobic exercise training in patients with chronic heart failure: A meta-regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vromen, T; Kraal, J J; Kuiper, J; Spee, R F; Peek, N; Kemps, H M

    2016-04-01

    Although aerobic exercise training has shown to be an effective treatment for chronic heart failure patients, there has been a debate about the design of training programs and which training characteristics are the strongest determinants of improvement in exercise capacity. Therefore, we performed a meta-regression analysis to determine a ranking of the individual effect of the training characteristics on the improvement in exercise capacity of an aerobic exercise training program in chronic heart failure patients. We focused on four training characteristics; session frequency, session duration, training intensity and program length, and their product; total energy expenditure. A systematic literature search was performed for randomized controlled trials comparing continuous aerobic exercise training with usual care. Seventeen unique articles were included in our analysis. Total energy expenditure appeared the only training characteristic with a significant effect on improvement in exercise capacity. However, the results were strongly dominated by one trial (HF-action trial), accounting for 90% of the total patient population and showing controversial results compared to other studies. A repeated analysis excluding the HF-action trial confirmed that the increase in exercise capacity is primarily determined by total energy expenditure, followed by session frequency, session duration and session intensity. These results suggest that the design of a training program requires high total energy expenditure as a main goal. Increases in training frequency and session duration appear to yield the largest improvement in exercise capacity. PMID:26849686

  13. Rhodiola crenulata- and Cordyceps sinensis-Based Supplement Boosts Aerobic Exercise Performance after Short-Term High Altitude Training

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Chung-Yu; Hou, Chien-Wen; Bernard, Jeffrey R.; Chen, Chiu-Chou; Hung, Ta-Cheng; Cheng, Lu-Ling; Liao, Yi-Hung; Kuo, Chia-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Chen, Chung-Yu, Chien-Wen Hou, Jeffrey R. Bernard, Chiu-Chou Chen, Ta-Cheng Hung, Lu-Ling Cheng, Yi-Hung Liao, and Chia-Hua Kuo. Rhodiola crenulata- and Cordyceps sinensis-based supplement boosts aerobic exercise performance after short-term high altitude training. High Alt Med Biol 15:371–379, 2014.—High altitude training is a widely used strategy for improving aerobic exercise performance. Both Rhodiola crenulata (R) and Cordyceps sinensis (C) supplements have been reported to improve exerc...

  14. 7-week aerobic exercise training reduces adipocyte area and improves insulin sensitivity in Wistar rats fed a highly palatable diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nádia F. Garcia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect aerobic exercise training on fat pad mass, adipocyte size, leptin release and insulin sensitivity in rats fed with high fat-palatable diet. Twenty-four male Wistar rats (250-260g were divided into four groups: sedentary control (CTR/SD, trained control (CTR/TR, obese sedentary (OB/SD and obese trained (OB/TR. Obese groups were fed with high fat-palatable diet (27% of fat and control groups fed with AIN-93. Our results showed that aerobic exercise training was effective to reduce body weight and epididymal fat mass in CTR/TR and OB/TR. Insulin and glucose levels were increased in OB/TR compared with OB/SD. Aerobic exercise training reduced the average area of adipocytes in CTR/TR and OB/TR and it was associated with reduced plasma insulin and leptin. In conclusion, 7-week aerobic exercise training reduces adipocyte area and improves insulin sensitivity and leptin levels in high fat-palatable diet-fed Wistar rats.

  15. Promotion of the mind through exercise (PROMoTE): a proof-of-concept randomized controlled trial of aerobic exercise training in older adults with vascular cognitive impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Davis Jennifer C; Jacova Claudia; Boyd Lara A; Eng Janice J; Liu-Ambrose Teresa; Bryan Stirling; Lee Philip; Brasher Penny; Hsiung Ging-Yuek R

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Sub-cortical vascular ischaemia is the second most common etiology contributing to cognitive impairment in older adults, and is frequently under-diagnosed and under-treated. Although evidence is mounting that exercise has benefits for cognitive function among seniors, very few randomized controlled trials of exercise have been conducted in populations at high-risk for progression to dementia. Aerobic-based exercise training may be of specific benefit in delaying the progre...

  16. The Effect of 8-week Aerobic and Concurrent (aerobic- resistance Exercise Training on Serum IL-6 Levels and Insulin Resistance in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Yousefipoor

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introductoin: Increased level of serum IL-6 is related to development of type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance. The American Diabetes Association and the American College of Sports Medicine recommend that combination of resistance and aerobic exercise is favorable for patients with type 2 diabetes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 8 weeks of aerobic exercise and concurrent (aerobic-resistance exercise on serum IL-6 Levels and insulin resistance in Type 2 Diabetic patients. Methods: In this study, from patients referring to Kermanshah Diabetes Association, 24 volunteers participated in the study as subjects and were divided into aerobic (n=8, concurrent (n=8, and control group (n=8 randomly. Training program for the aerobic group included 3 sessions of running per week with 60 to 80% maximal heart rate for 8 weeks but the concurrent group in addition to running, performed resistance training of major muscles groups. Before and after the intervention, body weight, BMI, fasting blood glucose, serum IL-6 and HOMA-IR were measured. Results: HOMA-IR and fasting blood glucose were significantly decreased in both training groups after intervention, but showed no significant changes in the control group. No significant changes were observed for serum IL-6 levels, body weight or BMI. Conclusion: performing 8 weeks of aerobic or concurrent training with improvement of insulin resistance and fasting blood glucose could be helpful for type 2 diabetic patients; however, it cannot significantly affect serum IL-6 levels, body weight, or BMI in these patients.

  17. The lung cancer exercise training study: a randomized trial of aerobic training, resistance training, or both in postsurgical lung cancer patients: rationale and design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crawford Jeffrey

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Lung Cancer Exercise Training Study (LUNGEVITY is a randomized trial to investigate the efficacy of different types of exercise training on cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2peak, patient-reported outcomes, and the organ components that govern VO2peak in post-operative non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients. Methods/Design Using a single-center, randomized design, 160 subjects (40 patients/study arm with histologically confirmed stage I-IIIA NSCLC following curative-intent complete surgical resection at Duke University Medical Center (DUMC will be potentially eligible for this trial. Following baseline assessments, eligible participants will be randomly assigned to one of four conditions: (1 aerobic training alone, (2 resistance training alone, (3 the combination of aerobic and resistance training, or (4 attention-control (progressive stretching. The ultimate goal for all exercise training groups will be 3 supervised exercise sessions per week an intensity above 70% of the individually determined VO2peak for aerobic training and an intensity between 60 and 80% of one-repetition maximum for resistance training, for 30-45 minutes/session. Progressive stretching will be matched to the exercise groups in terms of program length (i.e., 16 weeks, social interaction (participants will receive one-on-one instruction, and duration (30-45 mins/session. The primary study endpoint is VO2peak. Secondary endpoints include: patient-reported outcomes (PROs (e.g., quality of life, fatigue, depression, etc. and organ components of the oxygen cascade (i.e., pulmonary function, cardiac function, skeletal muscle function. All endpoints will be assessed at baseline and postintervention (16 weeks. Substudies will include genetic studies regarding individual responses to an exercise stimulus, theoretical determinants of exercise adherence, examination of the psychological mediators of the exercise - PRO relationship, and exercise-induced changes

  18. Rhodiola crenulata- and Cordyceps sinensis-based supplement boosts aerobic exercise performance after short-term high altitude training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chung-Yu; Hou, Chien-Wen; Bernard, Jeffrey R; Chen, Chiu-Chou; Hung, Ta-Cheng; Cheng, Lu-Ling; Liao, Yi-Hung; Kuo, Chia-Hua

    2014-09-01

    High altitude training is a widely used strategy for improving aerobic exercise performance. Both Rhodiola crenulata (R) and Cordyceps sinensis (C) supplements have been reported to improve exercise performance. However, it is not clear whether the provision of R and C during high altitude training could further enhance aerobic endurance capacity. In this study, we examined the effect of R and C based supplementation on aerobic exercise capacity following 2-week high altitude training. Alterations to autonomic nervous system activity, circulatory hormonal, and hematological profiles were investigated. Eighteen male subjects were divided into two groups: Placebo (n=9) and R/C supplementation (RC, n=9). Both groups received either RC (R: 1400 mg+C: 600 mg per day) or the placebo during a 2-week training period at an altitude of 2200 m. After 2 weeks of altitude training, compared with Placebo group, the exhaustive run time was markedly longer (Placebo: +2.2% vs. RC: +5.7%; p<0.05) and the decline of parasympathetic (PNS) activity was significantly prevented in RC group (Placebo: -51% vs. RC: -41%; p<0.05). Red blood cell, hematocrit, and hemoglobin levels were elevated in both groups to a comparable extent after high altitude training (p<0.05), whereas the erythropoietin (EPO) level remained higher in the Placebo group (∼48% above RC values; p<0.05). The provision of an RC supplement during altitude training provides greater training benefits in improving aerobic performance. This beneficial effect of RC treatment may result from better maintenance of PNS activity and accelerated physiological adaptations during high altitude training. PMID:25251930

  19. Aerobic exercise training improves whole muscle and single myofiber size and function in older women

    OpenAIRE

    Harber, Matthew P.; Konopka, Adam R.; Douglass, Matthew D.; Minchev, Kiril; Kaminsky, Leonard A; Trappe, Todd A.; Trappe, Scott

    2009-01-01

    To comprehensively assess the influence of aerobic training on muscle size and function, we examined seven older women (71 ± 2 yr) before and after 12 wk of cycle ergometer training. The training program increased (P < 0.05) aerobic capacity by 30 ± 6%. Quadriceps muscle volume, determined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), was 12 ± 2% greater (P < 0.05) after training and knee extensor power increased 55 ± 7% (P < 0.05). Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis to determine ...

  20. Cardiorespiratory fitness level correlates inversely with excess post-exercise oxygen consumption after aerobic-type interval training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsuo Tomoaki

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to reveal any association between cardiorespiratory fitness level and excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC using three cycling protocols with varying degrees of exercise intensity, i.e., sprint interval training (SIT, high-intensity interval aerobic training (HIAT, and continuous aerobic training (CAT. Findings Ten healthy men, aged 20 to 31 years, attended a cross-over experiment and completed three exercise sessions: SIT consisting of 7 sets of 30-s cycling at 120% VO2max with a 15-s rest between sets; HIAT consisting of 3 sets of 3-min cycling at 80~90% VO2max with a 2-min active rest at 50% VO2max between sets; and CAT consisting of 40 min of cycling at 60~65% VO2max. During each session, resting VO2, exercise VO2, and a 180-min post-exercise VO2 were measured. The net exercise VO2 during the SIT, HIAT, and CAT averaged 14.7 ± 1.5, 31.8 ± 4.1, and 71.1 ± 10.0 L, and the EPOCs averaged 6.8 ± 4.0, 4.5 ± 3.3, and 2.9 ± 2.8 L, respectively. The EPOC with SIT was greater than with CAT (P P = 0.12. Correlation coefficients obtained between subjects’ VO2max and the ratio of EPOC to net exercise VO2 for SIT, HIAT, and CAT were −0.61 (P = 0.06, -0.79 (P P = 0.23, respectively. Conclusions Our data suggest that cardiorespiratory fitness level correlates negatively with the magnitude of EPOC, especially when performing aerobic-type interval training.

  1. Designing an aerobic exercise training in water as an alternative treatment for depression: A new method

    OpenAIRE

    Morteza Mohammadiyoun; Hamid Kalalian- Moghaddam; Ali Younesian

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: A highly disruptive emotional disorder is major depression, characterized by abnormal regulation of feelings of sadness and happiness. Traditional treatment for depression was pharmacological treatment. One alternative that has been shown to be effective in alleviating depression is physical activity. Previous observation and interventional studies have suggested that regular aerobic exercise reduced symptoms of depression. Moreover physical activity and exercise in water may ha...

  2. Effects of Exhaustive Aerobic Exercise on Tryptophan-Kynurenine Metabolism in Trained Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Barbara Strasser; Daniela Geiger; Markus Schauer; Hannes Gatterer; Martin Burtscher; Dietmar Fuchs

    2016-01-01

    Exhaustive exercise can cause a transient depression of immune function. Data indicate significant effects of immune activation cascades on the biochemistry of monoamines and amino acids such as tryptophan. Tryptophan can be metabolized through different pathways, a major route being the kynurenine pathway, which is often systemically up-regulated when the immune response is activated. The present study was undertaken to examine the effect of exhaustive aerobic exercise on biomarkers of immun...

  3. Effects of Aerobic Exercise Training on Cardiac Renin-Angiotensin System in an Obese Zucker Rat Strain

    OpenAIRE

    Diego Lopes Mendes Barretti; Flávio de Castro Magalhães; Tiago Fernandes; Everton Crivoi do Carmo; Kaleizu Teodoro Rosa; Maria Claudia Irigoyen; Carlos Eduardo Negrão; Edilamar Menezes Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Obesity and renin angiotensin system (RAS) hyperactivity are profoundly involved in cardiovascular diseases, however aerobic exercise training (EXT) can prevent obesity and cardiac RAS activation. The study hypothesis was to investigate whether obesity and its association with EXT alter the systemic and cardiac RAS components in an obese Zucker rat strain. METHODS: THE RATS WERE DIVIDED INTO THE FOLLOWING GROUPS: Lean Zucker rats (LZR); lean Zucker rats plus EXT (LZR+EXT); obese Zu...

  4. The effects of an exercise training program on body composition and aerobic capacity parameters in Tunisian obese children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofien Regaieg

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of children obesity is rising alarmingly in both developed and developing countries. Developing effective exercise programs is a strategy for decreasing this prevalence and limiting obesity-associated long-term comorbidities. Objectives: To determine whether a 16-week training program; in addition to the school physical education and without dietary intervention; could have beneficial effects on body composition and aerobic capacity of obese children. Materials and Methods: Twenty-eight obese children (16 boys, 12 girls; aged 12-14 years were enrolled and were divided into either the exercise group (EG, n = 14 or the control group (CG, n = 14. EG participated in a 16-week aerobic exercises (four 60-min sessions per week at 70-85% of HRmax (maximum heart rate, in addition to the school physical education. Fat-Free Mass (FFM and Fat Mass (FM were assessed with bioelectrical impedance equipment. To assess aerobic capacity, maximal metabolic equivalent of task (METmax and maximal workload (Wmax were estimated with an electronically braked cycle ergometer (type Ergoline 500® . Results: At baseline, there were no differences between the two groups. After the training program, only the EG showed significant reduction in BMI (body mass index and waist circumference compared with the baseline values (P < 0.001. Exercise training significantly decreased FM only in the EG. A significant increase in FFM was seen in both groups; more marked in the EG. There was a significant increase in METmax (P < 0.05 and Wmax (P = 0.02 in the EG, and no significant changes in these parameters were seen in the CG. HRmax significantly decreased only in the EG (P < 0.05. Conclusion: This training program has beneficial effects on body composition and aerobic capacity parameters in obese children. Our intervention has the advantage of providing a sustainable and reproducible school and community approach for the management of children obesity.

  5. 7-week aerobic exercise training reduces adipocyte area and improves insulin sensitivity in Wistar rats fed a highly palatable diet

    OpenAIRE

    Nádia F. Garcia; Carmem P. Valgas da Silva; Maycon Jr Ferreira; Leandro K. Oharomari; Thalita Rocha; Camila de Moraes

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect aerobic exercise training on fat pad mass, adipocyte size, leptin release and insulin sensitivity in rats fed with high fat-palatable diet. Twenty-four male Wistar rats (250-260g) were divided into four groups: sedentary control (CTR/SD), trained control (CTR/TR), obese sedentary (OB/SD) and obese trained (OB/TR). Obese groups were fed with high fat-palatable diet (27% of fat) and control groups fed with AIN-93. Our results showed that...

  6. Effects of aerobic interval training versus continuous moderate exercise programme on aerobic and anaerobic capacity, somatic features and blood lipid profile in collegate females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzystof Mazurek

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available introduction. Regular physical activity has many positive health benefits, including reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases, metabolic diseases and some cancers, as well as improving the quality of life. objectives. The aim of the study was to examine the effects of 8-week aerobic interval cycle exercise training (AIT compared to continuous cycle exercises of moderate intensity (CME on the aerobic and anaerobic capacity, somatic features and lipid profile. material and methods. The research was conducted in 88 volunteers aged 19.5±0.6 years, who were randomized to three groups of organized physical activity (OPA, who exercised 3 times per week in 47 min sessions: (I AIT (n=24 comprising 2 series of 6x10 s sprinting with maximal pedalling cadence and active rest pedalling with intensity 65%–75% HRmax, (II CME (n=22 corresponding to 65%-75% HRmax, (III regular collegiate physical education classes of programmed exercises (CON; n=42. Before and after OPA anthropometrics, aero- and anaerobic capacity and lipid profile indices were measured. results. In AIT, a significantly greater decrease of waist circumference and WHR was noted when compared to CON, and a significantly greater reduction of sum of skinfolds than in CON and CME. Improvement in relative and absolute VO2max (L/min and ml/kg/min was significantly higher in AIT than CON. Work output and peak power output in the anaerobic test improved significantly in AIT, CME and CON, but independently of training type. OPA was effective only in reducing triglyceride concentrations in CME and CON groups, without interaction effects in relation to training type. conclusion. It was found that 8 weeks of OPA was beneficial in improving somatic and aerobic capacity indices, but AIT resulted in the greatest improvement in somatic indices (waist circumference, WHR, sum of skinfolds and in VO[sub]2[/sub]max, compared to CME and CON programmes.

  7. "Effect of Aerobic Exercise Training on Pulmonary Function and Tolerance of Activity in Asthmatic Patients "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Reza Farid

    2005-09-01

    There were significant changes in FEV1, FVC, PEF, FEF25-75%, MVV, RF and 6MWT between asthmatic patients of the two groups (P≤0.05, but FEV1/FVC showed no significant change. Mean of changes in FEV1, FVC, PEF, FEF25-75%, MVV, RF and 6MWT were –25.56, -17.19, 32.09, -27.93, -22.18, 5.63 and –307.5 in case group respectively while they were 6.2, 4.67, 1.96, 6.65, 15.56,-2.87 and 18.78 in the control group. This study shows that aerobic exercises in asthmatic patients lead to an improvement in pulmonary functions. Aerobic exercise rehabilitation can be a complement to medical treatment of asthma.

  8. An economic evaluation of resistance training and aerobic training versus balance and toning exercises in older adults with mild cognitive impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer C Davis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI represents a critical window to intervene against dementia. Exercise training is a promising intervention strategy, but the efficiency (i.e., relationship of costs and consequences of such types of training remains unknown. Thus, we estimated the incremental cost-effectiveness of resistance training or aerobic training compared with balance and tone exercises in terms of changes in executive cognitive function among senior women with probable MCI. METHODS: Economic evaluation conducted concurrently with a six-month three arm randomized controlled trial including eighty-six community dwelling women aged 70 to 80 years living in Vancouver, Canada. Participants received twice-weekly resistance training (n = 28, twice weekly aerobic training (n = 30 or twice-weekly balance and tone (control group classes (n = 28 for 6 months. The primary outcome measure of the Exercise for Cognition and Everyday Living (EXCEL study assessed executive cognitive function, a test of selective attention and conflict resolution (i.e., Stroop Test. We collected healthcare resource utilization costs over six months. RESULTS: Based on the bootstrapped estimates from our base case analysis, we found that both the aerobic training and resistance training interventions were less costly than twice weekly balance and tone classes. Compared with the balance and tone group, the resistance-training group had significantly improved performance on the Stroop Test (p = 0.04. CONCLUSIONS: Resistance training and aerobic training result in health care cost saving and are more effective than balance and tone classes after only 6 months of intervention. Resistance training is a promising strategy to alter the trajectory of cognitive decline in seniors with MCI. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00958867.

  9. High-Intensity Intermittent Training Positively Affects Aerobic and Anaerobic Performance in Judo Athletes Independently of Exercise Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchini, Emerson; Julio, Ursula F.; Panissa, Valéria L. G.; Lira, Fábio S.; Gerosa-Neto, José; Branco, Braulio H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The present study investigated the effects of high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT) on lower- and upper-body graded exercise and high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE, four Wingate bouts) performance, and on physiological and muscle damage markers responses in judo athletes. Methods: Thirty-five subjects were randomly allocated to a control group (n = 8) or to one of the following HIIT groups (n = 9 for each) and tested pre- and post-four weeks (2 training d·wk−1): (1) lower-body cycle-ergometer; (2) upper-body cycle-ergometer; (3) uchi-komi (judo technique entrance). All HIIT were constituted by two blocks of 10 sets of 20 s of all out effort interspersed by 10 s set intervals and 5-min between blocks. Results: For the upper-body group there was an increase in maximal aerobic power in graded upper-body exercise test (12.3%). The lower-body group increased power at onset blood lactate in graded upper-body exercise test (22.1%). The uchi-komi group increased peak power in upper- (16.7%) and lower-body (8.5%), while the lower-body group increased lower-body mean power (14.2%) during the HIIE. There was a decrease in the delta blood lactate for the uchi-komi training group and in the third and fourth bouts for the upper-body training group. Training induced testosterone-cortisol ratio increased in the lower-body HIIE for the lower-body (14.9%) and uchi-komi (61.4%) training groups. Conclusion: Thus, short-duration low-volume HIIT added to regular judo training was able to increase upper-body aerobic power, lower- and upper-body HIIE performance.

  10. Aerobic exercise training reduces cardiac function in adult male offspring exposed to prenatal hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Laura M; Kirschenman, Raven; Quon, Anita; Morton, Jude S; Shah, Amin; Davidge, Sandra T

    2015-09-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) has been associated with increased susceptibility to myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Exercise is an effective preventive intervention for cardiovascular diseases; however, it may be detrimental in conditions of compromised health. The aim of this study was to determine whether exercise training can improve cardiac performance after I/R injury in IUGR offspring. We used a hypoxia-induced IUGR model by exposing pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats to 21% oxygen (control) or hypoxic (11% oxygen; IUGR) conditions from gestational day 15 to 21. At 10 wk of age, offspring were randomized to a sedentary group or to a 6-wk exercise protocol. Transthoracic echocardiography assessments were performed after 6 wk. Twenty-four hours after the last bout of exercise, ex vivo cardiac function was determined using a working heart preparation. With exercise training, there was improved baseline cardiac performance in male control offspring but a reduced baseline cardiac performance in male IUGR exercised offspring (P exercise decreased superoxide generation in control offspring, while in IUGR offspring, it had the polar opposite effect (interaction P ≤ 0.05). There was no effect of IUGR or exercise on cardiac function in female offspring. In conclusion, in male IUGR offspring, exercise may be a secondary stressor on cardiac function. A reduction in cardiac performance along with an increase in superoxide production in response to exercise was observed in this susceptible group. PMID:26157059

  11. Promotion of the mind through exercise (PROMoTE: a proof-of-concept randomized controlled trial of aerobic exercise training in older adults with vascular cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis Jennifer C

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sub-cortical vascular ischaemia is the second most common etiology contributing to cognitive impairment in older adults, and is frequently under-diagnosed and under-treated. Although evidence is mounting that exercise has benefits for cognitive function among seniors, very few randomized controlled trials of exercise have been conducted in populations at high-risk for progression to dementia. Aerobic-based exercise training may be of specific benefit in delaying the progression of cognitive decline among seniors with vascular cognitive impairment by reducing key vascular risk factors associated with metabolic syndrome. Thus, we aim to carry out a proof-of-concept single-blinded randomized controlled trial primarily designed to provide preliminary evidence of efficacy aerobic-based exercise training program on cognitive and everyday function among older adults with mild sub-cortical ischaemic vascular cognitive impairment. Methods/Design A proof-of-concept single-blinded randomized trial comparing a six-month, thrice-weekly, aerobic-based exercise training group with usual care on cognitive and everyday function. Seventy older adults who meet the diagnostic criteria for sub-cortical ischaemic vascular cognitive impairment as outlined by Erkinjuntti and colleagues will be recruited from a memory clinic of a metropolitan hospital. The aerobic-based exercise training will last for 6 months. Participants will be followed for an additional six months after the cessation of exercise training. Discussion This research will be an important first step in quantifying the effect of an exercise intervention on cognitive and daily function among seniors with sub-cortical ischaemic vascular cognitive impairment, a recognized risk state for progression to dementia. Exercise has the potential to be an effective, inexpensive, and accessible intervention strategy with minimal adverse effects. Reducing the rate of cognitive decline among seniors

  12. Low-intensity aerobic exercise training attenuates airway inflammation and remodeling in a rat model of steroid-resistant asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin Qingwu; Chen Xi; Feng Juntao; Qin Ling; Hu Chengping

    2014-01-01

    Background Aerobic exercise can improve symptoms,reduce airway inflammation,and even ameliorate airway remodeling in asthmatic animals and patients.However,previous studies have focused mainly on the effect of aerobic exercise on steroid-sensitive asthma (SSA).The goals of this study were to determine the effect of low-intensity aerobic exercise training on airway hyperresponsiveness,inflammation,and remodeling in a rat model of steroid-resistant asthma (SRA) and to identify the potential mechanisms underlying these effects.Methods Endotoxin-free ovalbumin with or without lipopolysaccharide were applied to establish rat models of SRA and SSA,respectively.Airway hyperresponsiveness,inflammation,remodeling,expression of interleukin (IL)-25,IL-33,thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP),high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1),and IL-17 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF),and the role of dexamethasone (DXM) were compared between these two asthmatic rat models.The effect of low-intensity aerobic exercise training and anti-HMGB1 treatment on airway hyperresponsiveness,inflammation,and remodeling in SRA rats also was evaluated.Results SRA rats developed neutrophil-dominated airway inflammation ((29.5±4.1)% of the total cell numbers in BALF),whereas SSA rats developed eosinophil-dominated airway inflammation ((24.0±6.1)% of the total cell numbers in BALF).Compared with SSA rats,SRA rats had more severe airway hyperresponsiveness,lower levels of IL-25 ((33.6±10.3) vs.(104.8±24.9) pg/ml),IL-33 ((87.5±25.0) vs.(226.6±40.7) pg/ml),and TSLP ((1 933.2±899.5) vs.(7 224.0±992.1) pg/ml),and higher levels of HMGB1 ((21.2±4.5) vs.(5.4±1.6) ng/ml) and IL-17 ((780.5±261.7) vs.(291.4±76.4) pg/ml) in BALF (all P <0.05).However,there was no significant difference in goblet cell hyperplasia,subepithelial collagen thickness,and airway smooth muscle remodeling between the two groups.Compared with control SSA rats,airway hyperresponsiveness,inflammation,and remodeling in SRA rats

  13. Physical Training Status Determines Oxidative Stress and Redox Changes in Response to an Acute Aerobic Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damirchi, Arsalan; Farjaminezhad, Manoochehr

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To assess the influence of different physical training status on exercise-induced oxidative stress and changes in cellular redox state. Methods. Thirty male subjects participated in this study and were assigned as well-trained (WT), moderately trained (MT), and untrained (UT) groups. The levels of cortisol, creatine kinase, plasma reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG), cysteine/cystine (Cys/CySS), and GSH/GSSG ratio in red blood cells (RBCs) were measured immediately and 10 and 30 min after exercise. Results. Following the exercise, plasma GSH/GSSG (p = 0.001) and Cys/CySS (p = 0.005) were significantly reduced in all groups. Reduction in plasma GSH/GSSG ratio in all groups induced a transient shift in redox balance towards a more oxidizing environment without difference between groups (p = 0.860), while RBCs GSH/GSSG showed significant reduction (p = 0.003) and elevation (p = 0.007) in UT and MT groups, respectively. The highest level of RBCs GSH/GSSG ratio was recorded in MT group, and the lowest one was recorded in the WT group. Conclusion. Long term regular exercise training with moderate intensity shifts redox balance towards more reducing environment, versus intensive exercise training leads to more oxidizing environment and consequently development of related diseases. PMID:27064342

  14. Comparison the effects of one session aerobic exercise and resistance training on some of the coagulation markers of healthy young women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Habibian

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical training is a useful method to reduce disease of cardiovascular, but the effect of exercise on the coagulation system is under investigation. The aim of this study was to determine the response of one bout exhaustive aerobic exercise and resistance training on some of coagulation markers in healthy young women.Materials and Method: This quasi-experimental research was performed in 2009. Twenty trained volunteer female students of physical education Sari Azad university were selected objectively and availability. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups of aerobic (n=10 and resistance training (n=10. Aerobic group performed an exhaustive workout program on treadmill intensity 65 to75% Vo2max on treadmill. The resistance group completed three sets of 5-7 repetitions of six exercises at an intensity corresponding to 80% of 1RM. Following 12 to 14 hours of nightly fasting, venous blood samples (5 cc were collected pre, immediately after exercise and after 60 min of recovery and analyzed for PT, aPTT and fibrinogen. Participants were matched according to anthropometric measurements, age and Vo2max. Hypothesizes were tested by using independent t, repeated measures and post-hoc test (p 0.05. Results: Both the aerobic and resistance training groups, PT time (p<0.001 and aPTT time significantly decreased (p=0.006, p<0.001 respectively times between the two groups and the effect of resistant training on fibrinogen level immediately after exercise. Also aPTT time higher increased after recovery in comparison with baseline levels in aerobic (p=0.006 and resistance training groups (p<0.001. There were no significant differences in PT and aPTT was higher than aerobic training (p=0.0035.Conclusion: The results show that both of acute aerobic and or anaerobic exercise lead to small and transit coagulation system and increase in coagulation times

  15. Comparison the effects of one session aerobic exercise and resistance training on some of the coagulation markers of healthy young women

    OpenAIRE

    Masoumeh Habibian; S. Jafar Moosavi; Farshad Tojari; S. Reza Moosavi-Gilani

    2010-01-01

    Background: Physical training is a useful method to reduce disease of cardiovascular, but the effect of exercise on the coagulation system is under investigation. The aim of this study was to determine the response of one bout exhaustive aerobic exercise and resistance training on some of coagulation markers in healthy young women.Materials and Method: This quasi-experimental research was performed in 2009. Twenty trained volunteer female students of physical education Sari Azad university we...

  16. Using molecular classification to predict gains in maximal aerobic capacity following endurance exercise training in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmons, James A; Knudsen, Steen; Rankinen, Tuomo;

    2010-01-01

    A low maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) is a strong risk factor for premature mortality. Supervised endurance exercise training increases VO2max with a very wide range of effectiveness in humans. Discovering the DNA variants that contribute to this heterogeneity typically requires substantial...

  17. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the effect of aerobic vs. resistance exercise training on visceral fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, I; Keating, S E; Baker, M K; Johnson, N A

    2012-01-01

    It is increasingly recognized that the location of excess adiposity, particularly increased deposition of visceral adipose tissue (VAT), is important when determining the adverse health effects of overweight and obesity. Exercise therapy is an integral component of obesity management, but the most potent exercise prescription for VAT benefit is unclear. We aimed to evaluate the independent and synergistic effects of aerobic exercise (AEx) and progressive resistance training (PRT) and to directly compare the efficacy of AEx and PRT for beneficial VAT modulation. A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to assess the efficacy of exercise interventions on VAT content/volume in overweight and obese adults. Relevant databases were searched to November 2010. Included studies were randomized controlled designs in which AEx or PRT in isolation or combination were employed for 4 weeks or more in adult humans, where computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used for quantification of VAT pre- and post-intervention. Of the 12196 studies from the initial search, 35 were included. After removal of outliers, there was a significant pooled effect size (ES) for the comparison between AEx therapy and control (-0.33, 95% CI: -0.52 to -0.14; P < 0.01) but not for the comparison between PRT therapy and control (0.09, 95% CI: -0.17 to -0.36; P = 0.49). Of the available nine studies which directly compared AEx with PRT, the pooled ES did not reach statistical significance (ES = 0.23, 95% CI: -0.02 to 0.50; P = 0.07 favouring AEx). The pooled ES did not reach statistical significance for interventions that combined AEx and PRT therapy vs. control (-0.28, 95% CI: -0.69 to 0.14; P = 0.19), for which only seven studies were available. These data suggest that aerobic exercise is central for exercise programmes aimed at reducing VAT, and that aerobic exercise below current recommendations for overweight/obesity management may be sufficient for beneficial VAT

  18. The miRNA plasma signature in response to acute aerobic exercise and endurance training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Nielsen

    Full Text Available MiRNAs are potent intracellular posttranscriptional regulators and are also selectively secreted into the circulation in a cell-specific fashion. Global changes in miRNA expression in skeletal muscle in response to endurance exercise training have been reported. Therefore, our aim was to establish the miRNA signature in human plasma in response to acute exercise and chronic endurance training by utilizing a novel methodological approach. RNA was isolated from human plasma collected from young healthy men before and after an acute endurance exercise bout and following 12 weeks of endurance training. Global miRNA (742 miRNAs measurements were performed as a screening to identify detectable miRNAs in plasma. Using customized qPCR panels we quantified the expression levels of miRNAs detected in the screening procedure (188 miRNAs. We demonstrate a dynamic regulation of circulating miRNA (ci-miRNA levels following 0 hour (miR-106a, miR-221, miR-30b, miR-151-5p, let-7i, miR-146, miR-652 and miR-151-3p, 1 hour (miR-338-3p, miR-330-3p, miR-223, miR-139-5p and miR-143 and 3 hours (miR-1 after an acute exercise bout (P<0.00032. Where ci-miRNAs were all downregulated immediately after an acute exercise bout (0 hour the 1 and 3 hour post exercise timepoints were followed by upregulations. In response to chronic training, we identified seven ci-miRNAs with decreased levels in plasma (miR-342-3p, let-7d, miR-766, miR-25, miR-148a, miR-185 and miR-21 and two miRNAs that were present at higher levels after the training period (miR-103 and miR-107 (P<0.00032. In conclusion, acute exercise and chronic endurance training, likely through specific mechanisms unique to each stimulus, robustly modify the miRNA signature of human plasma.

  19. Effects of intermittent hypoxia and light aerobic exercise on circulating stem cells and side population, after strenuous eccentric exercise in trained rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-Espinosa, Cristian; Ferreira, Inês; Ríos-Kristjánsson, Juan Gabriel; Rizo-Roca, David; García Godoy, Maria Dolors; Rico, Laura G; Rubi-Sans, Gerard; Torrella, Joan Ramon; Pagès, Teresa; Petriz, Jordi; Viscor, Ginés

    2015-01-01

    Our goal was to address if intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (IHH) exposure can help to increase the number of peripheral blood circulating progenitor cells and side population (SP) stem cells, in order to establish the usefulness of this intervention for skeletal muscle repair, because these cells play a role in tissue regeneration. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were studied in two basal states: untrained and trained and compared with 1, 3, 7 and 14 days stages of damage recovery of trained rats that had suffered skeletal muscle injury. Three experimental groups were studied: rats with passive recovery (CTRL); rats exposed to IHH after muscle damage (HYP); and, trained rats that, in addition to IHH, performed light aerobic exercise sessions (EHYP). We observed an increase in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) (mean = 0.153% of cells) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) (mean = 0.0020% of cells) in EHYP on day 7. Also these cells showed characteristics of more primitive progenitors in comparison to the other experimental groups (mean = 0.107% of cells), as deduced by retention of the promising fluorescent probe Vybrant Dye Cycle Violet. We concluded that intermittent exposure to hypobaric hypoxia in combination with light aerobic exercise increased the number of HSCs and EPCs on the 7th day in EHYP group, although the exercise-induced stimulus showed a reverse effect on SP kinetics. PMID:25266982

  20. Effects of aerobic exercise training on maternal and neonatal outcome: a randomized controlled trial on pregnant women in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To assess the effect of aerobic exercise training on maternal and neonatal outcome. Methods: The case-control study was conducted between January and July, 2011. It was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of Toyserkan Azad University, and data was collected at prenatal clinics and delivery centres located in Hamedan, Iran. It comprised 80 pregnant women between 20-26 weeks of gestation randomly assigned to two equal and matching groups of cases and controls. The intervention group did exercise continuously on a bicycle ergometre for 15 minutes, three times a week; the intensity being 50-60% of maximal heart rate. The control group did not do any exercise training. All information was obtained from the clinics, delivery centres, and from the reports of delivery room midwives. Results: No statistically significant difference was found between the two groups in gestational weight gain, pregnancy length, mode of delivery, first and second stage of labour, perineal tear, and 1st and 5th min Apgar score. Mean neonatal weight was significantly less in the intervention group than the control group (p<0.001). Conclusion: Exercising on a bicycle ergometer during pregnancy seems to be safe for the mother and the neonate. (author)

  1. Acute effects of resistance exercise and intermittent intense aerobic exercise on blood cell count and oxidative stress in trained middle-aged women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of an intermittent intense aerobic exercise session and a resistance exercise session on blood cell counts and oxidative stress parameters in middle-aged women. Thirty-four women were selected and divided into three groups: RE group (performing 60 min of resistance exercises, N = 12), spinning group (performing 60 min of spinning, N = 12), and control group (not exercising regularly, N = 10). In both exercise groups, lymphocytes and monocytes decreased after 1-h recuperation (post-exercise) compared to immediately after exercise (P < 0.05). Immediately after exercise, in both exercised groups, a significant increase in TBARS (from 16.5 ± 2 to 25 ± 2 for the spinning group and from 18.6 ± 1 to 28.2 ± 3 nmol MDA/mL serum for the RE group) and protein carbonyl (from 1.0 ± 0.3 to 1.6 ± 0.2 for the spinning group and from 0.9 ± 0.2 to 1.5 ± 0.2 nmol/mg protein for the RE group) was observed (P < 0.05). A decrease in antioxidant activities (non-protein sulfhydryl, superoxide dismutase, catalase) was also demonstrated with a negative correlation between damage markers and antioxidant body defenses (P < 0.05). These results indicate that an acute bout of intermittent or anaerobic exercise induces immune suppression and increases the production of reactive oxygen species, causing oxidative stress in middle-aged and trained women. Furthermore, we demonstrated that trained women show improved antioxidant capacity and lower oxidative damage than sedentary ones, demonstrating the benefits of chronic regular physical activity

  2. The miRNA Plasma Signature in Response to Acute Aerobic Exercise and Endurance Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren; Åkerström, Thorbjörn; Rinnov, Anders;

    2014-01-01

    MiRNAs are potent intracellular posttranscriptional regulators and are also selectively secreted into the circulation in a cell-specific fashion. Global changes in miRNA expression in skeletal muscle in response to endurance exercise training have been reported. Therefore, our aim was to establish...... training. Global miRNA (742 miRNAs) measurements were performed as a screening to identify detectable miRNAs in plasma. Using customized qPCR panels we quantified the expression levels of miRNAs detected in the screening procedure (188 miRNAs). We demonstrate a dynamic regulation of circulating miRNA (ci...

  3. Aerobic exercise augments muscle transcriptome profile of resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Tommy R; Fernandez-Gonzalo, Rodrigo; Tesch, Per A; Rullman, Eric; Gustafsson, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Recent reports suggest that aerobic exercise may boost the hypertrophic response to short-term resistance training. This study explored the effects of an acute aerobic exercise bout on the transcriptional response to subsequent resistance exercise. Ten moderately trained men performed ∼45 min cycling on one leg followed by 4 × 7 maximal knee extensions for each leg, 15 min later. Thus, one limb performed aerobic and resistance exercise (AE + RE) while the opposing leg did resistance exercise only (RE). Biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle of each leg 3 h after the resistance exercise bout. Using DNA microarray, we analyzed differences [≥1.5-fold, false discovery rate (FDR) ≤10%] in gene expression profiles for the two modes of exercise. There were 176 genes up (127)- or downregulated (49) by AE + RE compared with RE. Among the most significant differentially expressed genes were established markers for muscle growth and oxidative capacity, novel cytokines, transcription factors, and micro-RNAs (miRNAs). The most enriched functional categories were those linked to carbohydrate metabolism and transcriptional regulation. Upstream analysis revealed that vascular endothelial growth factor, cAMP-response element-binding protein, Tet methylcytosine dioxygenase, and mammalian target of rapamycin were regulators highly activated by AE + RE, whereas JnK, NF-κβ, MAPK, and several miRNAs were inhibited. Thus, aerobic exercise alters the skeletal muscle transcriptional signature of resistance exercise to initiate important gene programs promoting both myofiber growth and improved oxidative capacity. These results provide novel insight into human muscle adaptations to diverse exercise modes and offer the very first genomic basis explaining how aerobic exercise may augment, rather than compromise, muscle growth induced by resistance exercise. PMID:27101291

  4. Lifestyle Intervention Involving Calorie Restriction with or without Aerobic Exercise Training Improves Liver Fat in Adults with Visceral Adiposity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiichi Yoshimura

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the effect of calorie restriction-induced weight loss with or without aerobic exercise on liver fat. Methods. Thirty-three adults with visceral adiposity were divided into calorie restriction (CR; n = 18 or CR and aerobic exercise (CR + Ex; n = 15 groups. Target energy intake was 25 kcal/kg of ideal body weight. The CR + Ex group had a targeted exercise time of 300 min/wk or more at lactate threshold intensity for 12 weeks. Results. Reductions in body weight (CR, -5.3 ± 0.8 kg; CR + Ex, -5.1 ± 0.7 kg, fat mass (CR, -4.9± 0.9 kg; CR + Ex, -4.4 ± 0.6 kg, and visceral fat (CR, -24 ± 5 cm2; CR + Ex, -37 ± 5 cm2 were not statistically different between groups. Liver fat decreased significantly in both groups, with no difference between groups. Change in maximal oxygen uptake was significantly greater in the CR + Ex group than in the CR group (CR, -0.7 ± 0.7 mL/kg/min; CR + Ex, 2.9 ± 1.0 mL/kg/min. Conclusion. Both CR and CR + Ex resulted in an improved reduction in liver fat; however, there was no additive effect of exercise training.

  5. Effect of a 12-Week Low vs. High Intensity Aerobic Exercise Training on Appetite-Regulating Hormones in Obese Adolescents: A Randomized Exercise Intervention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Wagner Luiz; Lofrano-Prado, Mara Cristina; Oyama, Lila Missae; Cardel, Michelle; Gomes, Priscyla Praxedes; Andrade, Maria Laura S S; Freitas, Camila R M; Balagopal, Prabhakaran; Hill, James O

    2015-11-01

    Little is known about how the intensity of aerobic training influences appetite-regulating hormones in obese adolescents. Our goal was to assess the effect of low and high intensity aerobic trainings on food intake and appetite-regulating hormones in obese adolescents. Forty three obese adolescents (age: 13-18y, BMI: 34.48 ± 3.94 kg/m2) were randomized into high intensity training (HIT; n = 20) or low intensity training (LIT; n = 23) groups for 12 weeks. All participants also received the same nutritional, psychological and clinical counseling. Pre- and postintervention energy intake (EI) and circulating levels of insulin, leptin, peptide YY3-36 (PYY3-36) and ghrelin were measured. Adolescents in the HIT showed a reduction in total EI and an increase in PYY3-36 (p exercise training performed at ventilatory threshold 1 intensity, reduced EI and augmented PYY3-36 in obese adolescents, compared with LIT. The data suggest that HIT and LIT have differential effects in the regulation of appetite signals and subsequent EI in obese adolescents. PMID:26680421

  6. Effects of Aerobic Exercise Training and Irbesartan on Blood Pressure and Heart Rate Variability in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Marquis

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The present pilot study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of an aerobic exercise training (AET program alone or combined with an antihypertensive agent (irbesartan to reduce blood pressure (BP and enhance heart rate variability (HRV in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients.

  7. Electrical stimulation of skeletal muscles. An alternative to aerobic exercise training in patients with chronic heart failure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobsák, Petr; Nováková, Marie; Fiser, Bohumil; Siegelová, Jarmila; Balcárková, Pavla; Spinarová, Lenka; Vítovec, Jirí; Minami, Naoyoshi; Nagasaka, Makoto; Kohzuki, Masahiro; Yambe, Tomoyuki; Imachi, Kou; Nitta, Shin-ichi; Eicher, Jean-Christophe; Wolf, Jean-Eric

    2006-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether electrical stimulation of skeletal muscles could represent a rehabilitation alternative for patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Thirty patients with CHF and NYHA class II-III were randomly assigned to a rehabilitation program using either electrical stimulation of skeletal muscles or bicycle training. Patients in the first group (n = 15) had 8 weeks of home-based low-frequency electrical stimulation (LFES) applied simultaneously to the quadriceps and calf muscles of both legs (1 h/day for 7 days/week); patients in the second group (n = 15) underwent 8 weeks of 40 minute aerobic exercise (3 times a week). After the 8-week period significant increases in several functional parameters were observed in both groups: maximal VO2 uptake (LFES group: from 17.5 +/- 4.4 mL/kg/min to 18.3 +/- 4.2 mL/kg/min, P bicycle group: from 18.1 +/- 3.9 mL/kg/min to 19.3 +/- 4.1 mL/kg/min, P bicycle group: from 91.2 +/- 13.4 W to 112.9 +/- 10.8 W, P bicycle group: from 425 +/- 118 m to 483 +/- 120 m, P bicycle group: from 510 +/- 90 seconds to 611 +/- 112 seconds, P electrical stimulation. LFES should be considered as a valuable alternative to classical exercise training in patients with CHF. PMID:16823250

  8. Aerobic exercise training improves oxidative stress and ubiquitin proteasome system activity in heart of spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Luiz Henrique Soares; de Moraes, Wilson Max Almeida Monteiro; Matsuo Junior, Eduardo Hiroshi; de Orleans Carvalho de Moura, Elizabeth; Antunes, Hanna Karen Moreira; Montemor, Jairo; Antonio, Ednei Luiz; Bocalini, Danilo Sales; Serra, Andrey Jorge; Tucci, Paulo José Ferreira; Brum, Patricia Chakur; Medeiros, Alessandra

    2015-04-01

    The activity of the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) and the level of oxidative stress contribute to the transition from compensated cardiac hypertrophy to heart failure in hypertension. Moreover, aerobic exercise training (AET) is an important therapy for the treatment of hypertension, but its effects on the UPS are not completely known. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of AET on UPS's activity and oxidative stress level in heart of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). A total of 53 Wistar and SHR rats were randomly divided into sedentary and trained groups. The AET protocol was 5×/week in treadmill for 13 weeks. Exercise tolerance test, non-invasive blood pressure measurement, echocardiographic analyses, and left ventricle hemodynamics were performed during experimental period. The expression of ubiquitinated proteins, 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), Akt, phospho-Akt(ser473), GSK3β, and phospho-GSK3β(ser9) were analyzed by western blotting. The evaluation of lipid hydroperoxide concentration was performed using the xylenol orange method, and the proteasomal chymotrypsin-like activity was measured by fluorimetric assay. Sedentary hypertensive group presented cardiac hypertrophy, unaltered expression of total Akt, phospho-Akt, total GSK3β and phospho-GSK3β, UPS hyperactivity, increased lipid hydroperoxidation as well as elevated expression of 4-HNE but normal cardiac function. In contrast, AET significantly increased exercise tolerance, decreased resting systolic blood pressure and heart rate in hypertensive animals. In addition, the AET increased phospho-Akt expression, decreased phospho-GSK3β, and did not alter the expression of total Akt, total GSK3β, and ubiquitinated proteins, however, significantly attenuated 4-HNE levels, lipid hydroperoxidation, and UPS's activity toward normotensive group levels. Our results provide evidence for the main effect of AET on attenuating cardiac ubiquitin proteasome hyperactivity and oxidative stress in SHR

  9. Effects of exercise rehab on male asthmatic patients: Aerobic verses rebound training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Zolaktaf

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Regular exercise strengthens the respiratory muscles and improves the cellular respiration. At the same time, it improves the muscular, respiratory, and cardio-vascular systems. Effects of rebound exercise seem to be promising. Findings suggest that rebound exercise is a useful complementary means for asthmatic male patients.

  10. The effect of 12 weeks of aerobic, resistance or combination exercise training on cardiovascular risk factors in the overweight and obese in a randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Suleen S

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence suggests that exercise training improves CVD risk factors. However, it is unclear whether health benefits are limited to aerobic training or if other exercise modalities such as resistance training or a combination are as effective or more effective in the overweight and obese. The aim of this study is to investigate whether 12 weeks of moderate-intensity aerobic, resistance, or combined exercise training would induce and sustain improvements in cardiovascular risk profile, weight and fat loss in overweight and obese adults compared to no exercise. Methods Twelve-week randomized parallel design examining the effects of different exercise regimes on fasting measures of lipids, glucose and insulin and changes in body weight, fat mass and dietary intake. Participants were randomized to either: Group 1 (Control, n = 16; Group 2 (Aerobic, n = 15; Group 3 (Resistance, n = 16; Group 4 (Combination, n = 17. Data was analysed using General Linear Model to assess the effects of the groups after adjusting for baseline values. Within-group data was analyzed with the paired t-test and between-group effects using post hoc comparisons. Results Significant improvements in body weight (−1.6%, p = 0.044 for the Combination group compared to Control and Resistance groups and total body fat compared to Control (−4.4%, p = 0.003 and Resistance (−3%, p = 0.041. Significant improvements in body fat percentage (−2.6%, p = 0.008, abdominal fat percentage (−2.8%, p = 0.034 and cardio-respiratory fitness (13.3%, p = 0.006 were seen in the Combination group compared to Control. Levels of ApoB48 were 32% lower in the Resistance group compared to Control (p = 0.04. Conclusion A 12-week training program comprising of resistance or combination exercise, at moderate-intensity for 30 min, five days/week resulted in improvements in the cardiovascular risk profile in overweight and obese

  11. Aerobic Exercise Training in Formerly Preeclamptic Women: Effects on Venous Reserve.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, R.R.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Lotgering, F.K.; Spaanderman, M.E.

    2015-01-01

    In women with a history of preeclampsia, low plasma volume (aerobic exerc

  12. Effects of aerobic exercise training on cardiac renin-angiotensin system in an obese Zucker rat strain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Lopes Mendes Barretti

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Obesity and renin angiotensin system (RAS hyperactivity are profoundly involved in cardiovascular diseases, however aerobic exercise training (EXT can prevent obesity and cardiac RAS activation. The study hypothesis was to investigate whether obesity and its association with EXT alter the systemic and cardiac RAS components in an obese Zucker rat strain. METHODS: THE RATS WERE DIVIDED INTO THE FOLLOWING GROUPS: Lean Zucker rats (LZR; lean Zucker rats plus EXT (LZR+EXT; obese Zucker rats (OZR and obese Zucker rats plus EXT (OZR+EXT. EXT consisted of 10 weeks of 60-min swimming sessions, 5 days/week. At the end of the training protocol heart rate (HR, systolic blood pressure (SBP, cardiac hypertrophy (CH and function, local and systemic components of RAS were evaluated. Also, systemic glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol and its LDL and HDL fractions were measured. RESULTS: The resting HR decreased (∼12% for both LZR+EXT and OZR+EXT. However, only the LZR+EXT reached significance (p<0.05, while a tendency was found for OZR versus OZR+EXT (p = 0.07. In addition, exercise reduced (57% triglycerides and (61% LDL in the OZR+EXT. The systemic angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE activity did not differ regardless of obesity and EXT, however, the OZR and OZR+EXT showed (66% and (42%, respectively, less angiotensin II (Ang II plasma concentration when compared with LZR. Furthermore, the results showed that EXT in the OZR prevented increase in CH, cardiac ACE activity, Ang II and AT2 receptor caused by obesity. In addition, exercise augmented cardiac ACE2 in both training groups. CONCLUSION: Despite the unchanged ACE and lower systemic Ang II levels in obesity, the cardiac RAS was increased in OZR and EXT in obese Zucker rats reduced some of the cardiac RAS components and prevented obesity-related CH. These results show that EXT prevented the heart RAS hyperactivity and cardiac maladaptive morphological alterations in obese Zucker rats.

  13. The effects of altitude/hypoxic training on oxygen delivery capacity of the blood and aerobic exercise capacity in elite athletes – a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hun-young; Hwang, Hyejung; Park, Jonghoon; Lee, Seongno; Lim, Kiwon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was designed as a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing effectiveness of altitude/hypoxic training (experimental) versus sea-level training (control) on oxygen delivery capacity of the blood and aerobic exercise capacity of elite athletes in Korea. [Methods] Databases (Research Information Service System, Korean studies Information Service System, National Assembly Library) were for randomized controlled trials comparing altitude/hypoxic training versus sea-level training in elite athletes. Studies published in Korea up to December 2015 were eligible for inclusion. Oxygen delivery capacity of the blood was quantified by red blood cell (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), erythropoietin (EPO); and aerobic exercise capacity was quantified by maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max). RBC, Hb, Hct, VO2max represented heterogeneity and compared post-intervention between altitude/hypoxic training and sea-level training in elite athletes by a random effect model meta-analysis. EPO represented homogeneity and meta-analysis performed by a fixed effect model. Eight independent studies with 156 elite athletes (experimental: n = 82, control: n = 74) were included in the metaanalysis. [Results] RBC (4.499×105 cell/ul, 95 % CI: 2.469 to 6.529), Hb (5.447 g/dl, 95 % CI: 3.028 to 7.866), Hct (3.639 %, 95 % CI: 1.687 to 5.591), EPO (0.711 mU/mL, 95% CI: 0.282 to 1.140), VO2max (1.637 ml/kg/min, 95% CI: 0.599 to 1.400) showed significantly greater increase following altitude/hypoxic training, as compared with sea-level training. [Conclusion] For elite athletes in Korea, altitude/ hypoxic training appears more effective than sea-level training for improvement of oxygen delivery capacity of the blood and aerobic exercise capacity. PMID:27298808

  14. The effects of exercise training on maximum aerobic capacity, rest heart beat, blood pressure and anthropometric variables of postmenopausal women with breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader - Rahnama

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of exercise training on maximum aerobic capacity, rest heart beat, blood pressure and anthropometric variables of postmenopausal women with breast cancer. Twenty nine women with breast cancer who received surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy with current hormone therapy divided into two groups; intervention and control. Subjects of intervention group performed 15 weeks combination exercise training including walking (2 sessions per week and resistance training (2 sessions per week that different from walking days. Before and after 15 weeks, Vo2max, rest heart beat, blood pressure, body weight, body mass index (BMI and waist to hip ratio (WHR were measured in two groups. Data analyzed by using t- test. Significant differences were observed for Vo2max, rest heart beat, body weight, BMI and WHR between intervention and control groups (P< 0.05, after 15 weeks. In fact, exercise training had positive effects on the Vo2max, rest heart beat, body weight, BMI and WHR in postmenopausal women with breast cancer. No significant different was founded for blood pressure between two groups (P=0.193. In conclusion, exercise training can improve maximum aerobic capacity, rest heart beat and anthropometric variables in postmenopausal women with breast cancer.

  15. Effect of Moderate Aerobic Exercise Training on Pulmonary Functions and Its Correlation With The Antioxidant Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANJU MADAN GUPT

    2015-06-01

    Antioxidant status was assessed by the level of malondialdehyde in plasma. FVC showed a significant increase while PEFR, IRV, MVV and MRF showed a highly significant increase. Physical exercise also provides a favorable change in the biochemical parameters such as MDA. [Natl J Med Res 2015; 5(2.000: 136-139

  16. Effects of moderate-intensity aerobic cycling and swim exercise on post-exertional blood pressure in healthy young untrained and triathlon-trained men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakin, Robert; Notarius, Catherine; Thomas, Scott; Goodman, Jack

    2013-12-01

    Aerobic exercises such as running, walking and cycling are known to elicit a PEH (post-exercise hypotensive) response in both trained and UT (untrained) subjects. However, it is not known whether swim exercise produces a similar effect in normotensive individuals. The complex acute physiological responses to water immersion suggest swimming may affect BP (blood pressure) differently than other forms of aerobic exercises. We tested the hypothesis that an acute bout of swimming would fail to elicit a PEH BP response compared with an equivalent bout of stationary cycling, regardless of training state. We studied 11 UT and ten triathlon-trained young healthy normotensive [SBP/DBP (systolic BP/diastolic BP) swimming sessions to assess changes in BP during a 75-min seated recovery. CO (cardiac output), SV (stroke volume), TPR (total peripheral resistance), HR (heart rate), HRV (HR variability) and core and skin temperature were also assessed. In UT subjects, PEH was similar between cycling (-3.1±1 mmHg) and swimming (-5.8±1 mmHg), with the greater magnitude of PEH following swimming, reflecting a significant fall in SV between modalities (PTrained individuals did not exhibit a PEH response following swimming (0.3±1 mmHg), yet had a significant fall in SBP at 50 min post-cycling exercise (-3.7±1 mmHg) (Pswimming in the trained group may reflect a higher cardiac sympathetic outflow [as indicated by the LF (low-frequency) spectral component of HRV) (25 and 50 min) (Ptraining may limit the potential for an effective post-exertional hypotensive response to aerobic swimming. PMID:23763298

  17. The effects of exercise training on maximum aerobic capacity, resting heart rate, blood pressure and anthropometric variables of postmenopausal women with breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Rahnama

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of exercise training on maximum aerobic capacity, resting heart rate (RHR, blood pressure and anthropometric variables of postmenopausal women with breast cancer. Methods: Twenty nine women with breast cancer who received surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy with current hormone therapy were divided into two groups; intervention and control. Subjects in the intervention group performed 15 weeks combination exercise training including walking for 25 to 45 minutes (2 sessions per week and resistance training for 60 minutes (2 sessions per week that were different from walking days. In pre and post tests, VO 2 max, RHR, blood pressure, body weight, body mass index (BMI and waist to hip ratio (WHR were measured in both groups. Data was analyzed using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA. Results: Significant differences were observed for VO 2 max, RHR, body weight, BMI and WHR between intervention and control groups after 15 weeks (p 0.05. Conclusions: It can be concluded that exercise training may improve maximum aerobic capacity, RHR and anthropometric variables in postmenopausal women with breast cancer.

  18. Aerobic exercise and endurance: improving fitness for health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmore, Jack H

    2003-05-01

    Clinicians who understand how the body responds to exercise, how aerobic training improves cardiovascular fitness, and the benefits and principles of prescribing aerobic exercise can effectively encourage patients to become active and optimize programs for those already active. Patients who are active at an early age and who continue to enjoy active lifestyles as adults will attenuate the normal losses in cardiovascular endurance, strength, and flexibility that accompany aging and sedentary living, thereby maintaining greater independence throughout their life spans. PMID:20086470

  19. Aerobic exercise training reduces cannabis craving and use in non-treatment seeking cannabis-dependent adults.

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    Maciej S Buchowski

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cannabis dependence is a significant public health problem. Because there are no approved medications for this condition, treatment must rely on behavioral approaches empirically complemented by such lifestyle change as exercise. AIMS: To examine the effects of moderate aerobic exercise on cannabis craving and use in cannabis dependent adults under normal living conditions. DESIGN: Participants attended 10 supervised 30-min treadmill exercise sessions standardized using heart rate (HR monitoring (60-70% HR reserve over 2 weeks. Exercise sessions were conducted by exercise physiologists under medical oversight. PARTICIPANTS: Sedentary or minimally active non-treatment seeking cannabis-dependent adults (n = 12, age 25±3 years, 8 females met criteria for primary cannabis dependence using the Substance Abuse module of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID. MEASUREMENTS: Self-reported drug use was assessed for 1-week before, during, and 2-weeks after the study. Participants viewed visual cannabis cues before and after exercise in conjunction with assessment of subjective cannabis craving using the Marijuana Craving Questionnaire (MCQ-SF. FINDINGS: Daily cannabis use within the run-in period was 5.9 joints per day (SD = 3.1, range 1.8-10.9. Average cannabis use levels within the exercise (2.8 joints, SD = 1.6, range 0.9-5.4 and follow-up (4.1 joints, SD = 2.5, range 1.1-9.5 periods were lower than during the run-in period (both P<.005. Average MCQ factor scores for the pre- and post-exercise craving assessments were reduced for compulsivity (P  = .006, emotionality (P  = .002, expectancy (P  = .002, and purposefulness (P  = .002. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this pilot study warrant larger, adequately powered controlled trials to test the efficacy of prescribed moderate aerobic exercise as a component of cannabis dependence treatment. The neurobiological mechanisms that account for these

  20. Fasting Leptin Is a Metabolic Determinant of Food Reward in Overweight and Obese Individuals during Chronic Aerobic Exercise Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Hopkins

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in food reward have been implicated in exercise-induced compensatory eating behaviour. However, the underlying mechanisms of food reward, and the physiological correlates of exercise-induced changes in food reward, are unknown. Methods. Forty-six overweight and obese individuals completed 12 weeks of aerobic exercise. Body composition, food intake, and fasting metabolic-related hormones were measured at baseline, week six, and postintervention. On separate days, the reward value of high-and-low-fat food (explicit liking and implicit wanting was also assessed at baseline, week six, and postintervention. Results. Following the intervention, FM, FFM, and VO2peak improved significantly, while fasting leptin decreased. However, food intake or reward did not change significantly. Cross-sectional analyses indicated that FM (P=0.022 and FFM (P=0.046 were associated with explicit liking for high-fat food, but implicit wanting was associated with FM only (P=0.005. Fasting leptin was associated with liking (P=0.023 and wanting (P=0.021 for high-fat food. Furthermore, a greater exercise-induced decline in fasting leptin was associated with increased liking (P=0.018. Conclusion. These data indicate that food reward has a number of physiological correlates. In particular, fasting leptin appears to play an active role in mediating food reward during exercise-induced weight loss.

  1. The Effect of 12 Weeks Aerobic Exercise Training on Visfatin, Chemerin Serum Changes in 45-60 year old Obese Women with Type2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Seifi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adipocytokine including chemerin and visfatin have a key role in metabolic regulations, as well as obesity-related disorders such as type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the 12-week exercise training on changes in levels of visfatin and chemerin in obese women with type 2 diabetes. Methods: In this study, 30 overweight women with the age range of 45-60 years old were selected and ther were divided into the control group (n = 15, and the experimental group (n = 15 which had no significant differences based on the body fat percentage and the body mass index. Exercise program consisted of increasing aerobic exercise three times were for 12 weeks. To measure Chemerin and Visfatin, blood samples before and 24 hours after the last training session were collected. Data evaluation was performed using ANCOVA to compare the pre-test and post-test in each group. Results: According to the obtained results, there was no significant difference between weight, body mass index, lean body weight, fat mass and fat percentage, but the chemerin levels have been increased significantly (p=0.0001 and also visfatin and glucose levels have been decreased (respectively p=0.0001 and p=0.001. Conclusion: Aerobic activities are a stimulating factor for increasing in the chemerin hormone and also a stimulating factor for decreasing in the Visfatin hormone. It could be said that regular aerobic activities in 12 weeks are a good stimulating factor for creating changes in these hormones in women with diabetes and it is probably one of the contributing factors of physiologic changes resulted from these exercise activities is changes in these hormones.

  2. Effect of individualized worksite exercise training on aerobic capacity and muscle strength among construction workers - a randomized controlled intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Bibi; Holtermann, Andreas; Søgaard, Karen;

    2012-01-01

    tailored exercise programs on their physical fitness and muscular capacity. METHOD: The study was a randomized controlled trial of male constructions workers allocated to either an exercise or control group. The intervention lasted 12 weeks, and the exercise group trained 3 x 20 minutes a week. The......OBJECTIVES: The combination of high physical work demands and low physical capacity has been shown to increase the risk for cardiovascular disease and musculoskeletal disorders. The aim of this study was to assess the physical capacity of construction workers and evaluate the effect of individually...... participants completed health checks before and after the intervention period. Data from the first health check were used to tailor the exercise in the interventions. RESULTS: At baseline, participants had maximal oxygen consumption (VO (2max)) of 2.9 [standard deviation (SD) 0.7L/min] and body mass index (BMI...

  3. An Investigation of Measuring Apparatus for Vo_2 During Exercise,and Effects of 10-week Exercise Training on Aerobic Work Capacity,Body Composition and Oxidative Enzymes in Skeletal Muscle in Obese-Diabetic Model OLETF Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Masato; Seino, Tetsuya; Kimura, Masaki; Hodumi, Noriko; Terada, Shin; Higuchi, Mitsuru; Shibasaki, Toshiaki

    2005-01-01

    SUZUKI, M., SEINO, T., KIMURA, M., HODUMI, N., TERADA, S., HIGUCHI, M., and SHIBASAKI, T. An Investigation of Measuring Appatratus for VO2 During Exercise, and Effects of 10-week Exercise Training on Aerobic Work Capacity, Body Composition and Oxidative Enzymes in Skeletal Muscle in Obese-Diabetic Model OLETF Rats. Abv. Exerc. Sports Physiol., Vol.11, No.1 pp.21-31, 2005. This study was conducted to develop an open-cicuit metabolic apparatus equipped with a treadmill for obese-diabetic model ...

  4. Frequency of Combined Resistance and Aerobic Training in Older Women

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Gordon; McCarthy, John P.; Zuckerman, Paul A.; Bryan, David R.; Bickel, C. Scott; Hunter, Gary R.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the optimal frequency of combined aerobic and resistance training for improving muscular strength (MS), cardiovascular fitness (CF), and functional tasks (FTs) in women older than 60 years. Sixty-three women were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 exercise training groups. Group 1 performed 1 resistance exercise training (RET) and 1 aerobic exercise training (AET) session per week (AET/RET 1 × wk−1); group 2 performed 2 RET and 2 AET sessions per week (AET/RET ...

  5. Sex differences in resting hemodynamics and arterial stiffness following 4 weeks of resistance versus aerobic exercise training in individuals with pre-hypertension to stage 1 hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collier Scott R

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypertension (HTN exhibits sexual dimorphism; the incidence for women surpasses men during the sixth decade of life, while the pharmacological treatments are less effective and produce more side-effects in women than in men. Aerobic exercise (AE has been shown to prevent and treat HTN; however, resistance exercise (RE is not recommended as a strategy to treat HTN. In this study, we investigated the potential sex differences of AE versus RE in a cohort of unmedicated patients with hypertension. Methods In total, 40 moderately active, pre-hypertensive or stage 1 essential hypertensive male (M and female (F participants aged 40 to 60 years were randomly divided into four groups: M AE, M RE, F AE, and F. Each group exercised at moderate intensity, 3 days/week for 4 weeks. Hemodynamic, vascular and blood-flow data were collected before and after exercise training. Results Men showed a significant increase in central pulse wave velocity following RE while females showed no significant changes (12 ± to 13.9 ± vs. 9.2 ± to 9.6 ± m/s, respectively. RE showed significantly greater increases in peak blood flow when compared to AE (F RE 15 ± to 20 ± vs. F AE 17.5 ± to19.5 ±, M RE 19 ± to 24 ± vs M AE 21 ± to 25 ± ml* 100 ml*min, respectively. In addition, systolic and diastolic BP decreased greater for women following RE when compared to AE whereas men showed comparable decreases in BP following either exercise mode. Conclusion Moderate-intensity RE training may be a more favorable for women as a treatment option for hypertension because of greater decreases in diastolic BP and significant increases in flow-mediated dilation without concomitant increases in arterial stiffness, compared with their male counterparts.

  6. Aerobic exercise in children with oxidative phosphorylation defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luuk Schreuder

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue and exercise intolerance are symptoms in children with metabolic myopathy. Frequently this is combined with muscle pain in children with mitochondrial myopathy. Offering therapeutic advice remains challenging in this patient group. Here we describe five children above the age of four years, with normal intelligence, myopathy, exercise intolerance, motor developmental delay, and fatigue, who were diagnosed with a mitochondrial dysfunction. Based on the positive experience of condition training in adults with mitochondrial disease and inactivity, aerobic exercise training was advised for all the children. Because of the lack of clear protocols for individualized mitochondrial myopathies, regular training was initiated. The Movement Assessment Battery of Children, the Jamar dynamometer for grip force, and the Bruce protocol treadmill test were applied for evaluation. No patient showed significant disease progression on a weekly scheme of strength training or on aerobic training during periods varying between 6 and 18 months. Only one out of the five patients has shown an improvement after a period of structured, aerobic training, demonstrating good compliance and motivation over the course of 18 months. Some patients developed severe muscle pain after explosive exercise. Even in a relatively homogenous, intelligent group of patients and motivated parents, we could not reach full compliance. With our case studies, we would like to draw attention to the importance and pitfalls of movement therapy in children with mitochondrial disease.

  7. Aerobic exercise training improves insulin sensitivity without changes in body weight, body fat, adiponectin, and inflammatory markers in overweight and obese girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassis, George P; Papantakou, Katerina; Skenderi, Katerina; Triandafillopoulou, Maria; Kavouras, Stavros A; Yannakoulia, Mary; Chrousos, George P; Sidossis, Labros S

    2005-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of aerobic exercise training on insulin sensitivity in overweight and obese girls. Nineteen overweight and obese girls (mean +/- SD: age, 13.1+/-1.8 years; body mass index, 26.8+/-3.9 kg/m(2)) volunteered for this study. Body composition (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry), insulin sensitivity (oral glucose tolerance test and homeostasis model assessment estimate of insulin resistance; n=15), adiponectin, C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin (IL) 6, insulin-like growth factor-1, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 serum levels, and blood lipids and lipoproteins were assessed before and after 12 weeks of aerobic training. Cardiorespiratory fitness increased by 18.8% (P<.05) as a result of training. The area under the insulin concentration curve (insulin area under the curve) decreased by 23.3% (12781.7+/-7454.2 vs 9799.0+/-4918.6 microU.min/mL before and after intervention, respectively; P=.03). Insulin sensitivity was improved without changes in body weight (pre-intervention, 67.9+/-14.5 kg; post-intervention, 68.3+/-14.0 kg) or percent body fat (pre-intervention, 41.4% +/- 4.8%; post-intervention, 40.7%+/-5.2%). The lower limb fat-free mass increased by 6.2% (P<.01) as a result of training, and changes in lower limb fat-free mass were correlated with changes in the insulin area under the curve (r= -.68; P< .01). Serum adiponectin, IL-6, and CRP concentrations did not change (pre-intervention vs post-intervention: adiponectin, 9.57+/-3.01 vs 9.08+/-2.32 microg/mL; IL-6, 1.67+/-1.29 vs 1.65+/-1.25 pg/mL, CRP, 3.21+/-2.48 vs 2.73+/-1.88 mg/L) whereas insulin-like growth factor-1 was lower after training (pre-intervention, 453.8 +/- 159.3 ng/mL; post-intervention, 403.2+/- 155.1 ng/mL; P<.05). In conclusion, 12 weeks of aerobic training improved insulin sensitivity in overweight and obese girls without change in body weight, percent body fat, and circulating

  8. Acute effects of aerobic exercise promote learning

    OpenAIRE

    Renza Perini; Marta Bortoletto; Michela Capogrosso; Anna Fertonani; Carlo Miniussi

    2016-01-01

    The benefits that physical exercise confers on cardiovascular health are well known, whereas the notion that physical exercise can also improve cognitive performance has only recently begun to be explored and has thus far yielded only controversial results. In the present study, we used a sample of young male subjects to test the effects that a single bout of aerobic exercise has on learning. Two tasks were run: the first was an orientation discrimination task involving the primary visual cor...

  9. Randomised controlled trial: Effects of aerobic exercise training programme on indices of adiposity and metabolic markers in hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the effects of interval training programme on blood pressure, maximal oxygen consumption, indices of adiposity and metabolic markers in black African men with essential hypertension. Methods: The study was conducted at Murtala Muhammed Specialist Hospital, Kano, Nigeria, from October 24, 2007 to February 24, 2009. It comprised 245 male patients with mild to moderate (systolic blood pressure 140-179 and diastolic blood pressure 90-109 mmHg) essential hypertension who were age-matched and grouped into experimental and control groups. The experimental group was involved in an 8-week training programme of between 45 and 60 minutes, while the controls remained sedentary during the period. Cardiovascular parameters, maximal oxygen consumption, per cent body fat, waist-to-hip ratio, body mass index, fasting blood sugar, total cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein and artherogenic index were assessed. Analysis of co-variance and Pearson correlation tests were used in data analysis which was done using SPSS 16. Results: The study had 140 (57.1%) cases with a mean age of 58.90+-7.35 years, and 105 (42.9%) controls with a mean age of 58.27+-6.24 years. It revealed significant increased effect of interval training programme on maximal oxygen consumption and high-density lipoprotein. There was significant reduction in on all the other controls. Changes in maximal oxygen consumption as a result of interval training significantly and negatively correlated with the other variables except high-density lipoprotein. Conclusions: The therapeutic role of interval exercise training on blood pressure reduction may be mediated through elevation of high-density lipoprotein, reduction of other markers of metabolism, and reduction in bodyweight and fatness. (author)

  10. Survey the effect of aerobic exercise on aerobic capacity in patients with coronary artery disease (cad)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increased aerobic exercise capacity appears to reduce both all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease mortality. Physical exercise to improve maximal oxygen consumption (VO/sub 2max/) is thus strongly recommended, however evidence regarding the most efficient training intensity for patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) is still lacking. The purpose of this randomized study was to assess the effects of aerobic exercise for increasing VO/sub 2max/ in stable CAD-patients. Thirty stable CAD-patients were randomized to supervised walking 30 min three times a week for 10 weeks. Before and after training VO/sub 2max/ was predicted from Bruce treadmill test. Before training VO/sub 2max/ was 35.2+-4.32 ml/kg/min and after training the mean VO/sub 2max/ was 43.1+-3.4 ml/kg/min. This difference was significant (p<0.05). Aerobic exercise is effective for increasing VO/sub 2max/ in stable CAD-patients. As VO/sub 2max/ seems to reflect a continuum between health and cardiovascular disease and death, the present data may be useful in designing effective training programmes for improved health in the future. (author)

  11. The Effects of High Intensity Interval Training vs Steady State Training on Aerobic and Anaerobic Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, Carl; Farland, Courtney V.; Guidotti, Flavia; Harbin, Michelle; Roberts, Brianna; Schuette, Jeff; Tuuri, Andrew; Doberstein, Scott T.; Porcari, John P.

    2015-01-01

    High intensity interval training (HIIT) has become an increasingly popular form of exercise due to its potentially large effects on exercise capacity and small time requirement. This study compared the effects of two HIIT protocols vs steady-state training on aerobic and anaerobic capacity following 8-weeks of training. Fifty-five untrained college-aged subjects were randomly assigned to three training groups (3x weekly). Steady-state (n = 19) exercised (cycle ergometer) 20 minutes at 90% of ...

  12. Monitorização ambulatorial da pressão arterial em indivíduos normotensos submetidos a duas sessões únicas de exercícios: resistido e aeróbio Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in normotensive individuals undergoing two single exercise sessions: resistive exercise training and aerobic exercise training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambrosina Maria Lignani de Miranda Bermudes

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar a influência de duas sessões únicas de exercício resistido (circuito com pesos e aeróbio sobre as alterações pressóricas, em indivíduos sedentários e normotensos. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados pela monitorização numa situação controle, sem realização de exercícios (MAPA 1 25 indivíduos, após exercício resistido (MAPA 2 e após exercício aeróbio (MAPA 3. Os exercícios resistidos foram realizados sob forma de circuito com pesos, com intensidade de 40% da força máxima individual e os exercícios aeróbicos em cicloergômetro, com intensidade entre 60% e 70% da freqüência cardíaca (FC máxima alcançada no teste ergométrico. RESULTADOS: A pressão arterial sistólica (PAS de 24h e sub-períodos vigília e sono não apresentaram variações estatisticamente significantes quando comparada à MAPA2 e MAPA3 e MAPA2 e MAPA3 entre si. A pressão arterial diastólica (PAD de 24h e diurna apresentaram reduções significantes (POBJECTIVE: To assess the influence of 2 single exercise sessions on blood pressure in sedentary normotensive individuals: one of resistive exercise training (circuit weight training and the other of aerobic exercise training. METHODS: Using ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, this study assessed 25 individuals as follows: in a controlled situation at rest (ABPM 1; after resistive exercise training (ABPM 2; and after aerobic exercise training (ABPM 3. Resistive exercise training was performed as circuit weight training with an intensity of 40% of each individual's maximum strength. The aerobic exercise training was performed on a cycloergometer with intensity between 60% and 70% of the maximum heart rate (HR reached during previous exercise testing. RESULTS: Systolic blood pressure (SBP values during 24 hours and during subperiods of wakefulness and sleep showed no statistically significant variations when the results obtained at rest were compared with those of ABPM2 and ABPM3, and when

  13. Fructose modifies the hormonal response and modulates lipid metabolism in aerobic exercise after glucose supplementation

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández, Juan Marcelo; Da Silva-Grigoletto, Marzo Edir; Ruano-Ruiz, Juan; Caballero-Villarraso, Javier; Moreno-Luna, Rafael; Tunez-Fiñana, Isaac; Tasset-Cuevas, Inmaculada; Pérez-Martinez, Pablo; López-Miranda, José; Pérez-Jiménez, Francisco

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The metabolic response, when aerobic exercise is performed after the ingestion of glucose plus fructose, is unclear. To compare the hormonal and lipid responses provoked by the ingestion of glucose plus fructose in relation to glucose alone, during aerobic exercise and the recovery phase, we administered two beverages containing glucose plus fructose or glucose in a randomised crossover design, to twenty healthy, aerobically trained volunteers. After a 15-minute resting pe...

  14. Metabolic response to 6-week aerobic exercise training and dieting in previously sedentary overweight and obese pre-menopausal women: A randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petri Wiklund

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: Our results indicate that small weight loss does not produce measurable health benefits, whereas short-term regular aerobic exercise can improve glucose and lipid metabolism even in the absence of weight loss in previously sedentary overweight and obese women.

  15. Cardiovascular adaptations to exercise training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellsten, Ylva; Nyberg, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Aerobic exercise training leads to cardiovascular changes that markedly increase aerobic power and lead to improved endurance performance. The functionally most important adaptation is the improvement in maximal cardiac output which is the result of an enlargement in cardiac dimension, improved...... arteries is reduced, a factor contributing to increased arterial compliance. Endurance training may also induce alterations in the vasodilator capacity, although such adaptations are more pronounced in individuals with reduced vascular function. The microvascular net increases in size within the muscle...... allowing for an improved capacity for oxygen extraction by the muscle through a greater area for diffusion, a shorter diffusion distance, and a longer mean transit time for the erythrocyte to pass through the smallest blood vessels. The present article addresses the effect of endurance training on systemic...

  16. Aerobic exercises: their cardiovascular and other benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aerobic exercise can help prevent ischemic heart disease and other diseases. Physical inactivity is a major factor for developing Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) which is characterized by deposit of cholesterol, calcium and other substances in the inner lining of the arteries, that supply to cardiac muscle. It also contributes to other risk factors including obesity, hypertension, increased triglycerides, low level of HDL cholesterol and diabetes. The essential components of a systematic individualized exercise prescription include the appropriate mode, intensity, duration, frequency and progression of physical activity. There are four components of exercise program; a warm up, an endurance phase, optional recreational activity and a cool down. For sedentary individuals, exercise should start at 60% of maximum heart rare. Benefits of physical activity depend on the total amount of exercise. Vigorous leisure time activity should be promoted in order to give way to healthy living. (author)

  17. ROLE OF PHYSICAL EXERCISE, FITNESS AND AEROBIC TRAINING IN TYPE 1 DIABETIC AND HEALTHY MEN IN RELATION TO THE LIPID PROFILE, LIPID PEROXIDATION AND THE METABOLIC SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E. Laaksonen

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Dyslipidemia and possibly lipid peroxidation play important roles in the development of macro- and microvascular disease in type 1 diabetes mellitus. Little is known, however, of the role of aerobic exercise in dyslipidemia and resting and exercise-induced lipid peroxidation in type 1 diabetes. Despite the well-known effect of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA on components of the metabolic syndrome, little is known of the association of LTPA and cardiorespiratory fitness (maximal oxygen consumption, VO2max with development of the metabolic syndrome itself. A randomized controlled trial assessing the effect of a 12-16 week aerobic exercise program on VO2max and the lipid profile was carried out in otherwise healthy young men with type 1 diabetes. The effect of acute physical exercise on oxidative stress and antioxidant defenses and the relation to VO2max in men with type 1 diabetes was also evaluated. To test four recently proposed definitions by the World Health Organization (WHO and National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP of the metabolic syndrome, the sensitivity and specificity of the definitions for prevalent and incident diabetes were assessed in a population-based cohort of middle-aged men. We also studied the associations of LTPA and cardiorespiratory fitness with prevalent and incident cases of the metabolic syndrome. A 12-16 week endurance exercise program produced antiatherogenic changes in lipid, lipoprotein and apolipoprotein levels in 20 type 1 diabetic men who for the most part were already physically active at baseline. The most favorable training-induced changes in the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL/low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL and apolipoprotein A-I/apolipoprotein B ratios were in patients with low baseline HDL/LDL levels, likely the group with the most benefit to be gained by such changes. Plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, a measure of lipid peroxidation, was higher in nine

  18. Effect of aerobic exercise on Pancreas Beta-cells function in adult obese males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Eizadi

    2014-08-01

    Conclusion: Aerobic exercise training increases beta cells function and decreases FBS in obese men. These findings support the hypothesis that regular physical activity postpones the occurrence of type 2 diabetes in adult obese subjects.

  19. The effects of exercise training and acute exercise duration on plasma folate and vitamin B12

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Young-Nam; Hwang, Ji Hyeon; Cho, Youn-Ok

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Energy production and the rebuilding and repair of muscle tissue by physical activity require folate and vitamin B12 as a cofactor. Thus, this study investigated the effects of regular moderate exercise training and durations of acute aerobic exercise on plasma folate and vitamin B12 concentrations in moderate exercise trained rats. MATERIALS/METHODS Fifty rats underwent non-exercise training (NT, n = 25) and regular exercise training (ET, n = 25) for 5 weeks. The ET gro...

  20. The Effect of Aerobic Exercise on Cardiopulmonary System in Children

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    Dilek Sevimli

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The purpose of this study is to investigate the changes in cardiopulmonary system stimulated by aerobic exercise in different age group of children and to find out in which age group aerobic exercise is more effective. METHOD: Totally, 76 children participated in this study. Ages of the participants ranged between 11–17, and mean age was 14.08±0.65. Participants were divided into three groups according to their age range. There were 23 in the first and second and 30 participants in the third group, (15–17, (13–14 and 30 (11–12 respectively. Each of the groups then was divided into two parts one of which was experimental and the other was control group. During 8 weeks, a training programme based on doing aerobic exercise lasting one hour 3 days a week was performed in the experimental groups. Before and after training, EKG, spirometer, blood pressure, heart rate, PWC 170 test of the participants, which was the data collection method, were recorded. The results obtained were compared through t test method of SPSS. RESULTS: The results revealed a decrease in the systolic blood pressure and in the heart rate of those who did exercise as opposed to those who did not do exercise in Group I. In addition, R wave height in V6 of exercise group showed a statistically significant increase. As for second group, it was determined that the R/S, at V1 derivation obtained from the participants who did exercise showed a statistically decrease as compared to those of the participants who did not do exercise. In the third group, no changes were observed in the systolic blood pressure the heart rate, R wave height in V6 and R/S although the measures of PWC 170 test, VC and FVC obtained from all training groups made a significant increase when compared to those of control groups. CONCLUSION: The results of this study revealed that of the three groups the 15–17 age group was affected mostly by the aerobic exercise on kardiyopulmoner sytem. The results

  1. Aerobic Games and Playful exercises in 9-YearOld Boys: Intensity and Fitness Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Gunnar E Mathisen; Rein M Jensen; Svein A Pettersen

    2016-01-01

    Previous research on exercise for pre-adolescents with the purpose of improving aerobic fitness levels has yielded contradictory results. Sufficient training intensity, frequency and duration are the crucial factors in achieving this goal; the question, however, is whether it is possible to reach sufficient intensity levels using aerobic games and playful exercises. Variety and fun are the important factors in motivating children to participate in physical exercises and sports. Therefore, the...

  2. Effects of aerobic exercise training on heart rate variability during wakefulness and sleep and cardiorespiratory responses of young and middle-aged healthy men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Catai

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of aerobic physical training (APT on heart rate variability (HRV and cardiorespiratory responses at peak condition and ventilatory anaerobic threshold. Ten young (Y: median = 21 years and seven middle-aged (MA = 53 years healthy sedentary men were studied. Dynamic exercise tests were performed on a cycloergometer using a continuous ramp protocol (12 to 20 W/min until exhaustion. A dynamic 24-h electrocardiogram was analyzed by time (TD (standard deviation of mean R-R intervals and frequency domain (FD methods. The power spectral components were expressed as absolute (a and normalized units (nu at low (LF and high (HF frequencies and as the LF/HF ratio. Control (C condition: HRV in TD (Y: 108, MA: 96 ms; P<0.05 and FD - LFa, HFa - was significantly higher in young (1030; 2589 ms²/Hz than in middle-aged men (357; 342 ms²/Hz only during sleep (P<0.05; post-training effects: resting bradycardia (P<0.05 in the awake condition in both groups; VO2 increased for both groups at anaerobic threshold (P<0.05, and at peak condition only in young men; HRV in TD and FD (a and nu was not significantly changed by training in either groups. The vagal predominance during sleep is reduced with aging. The resting bradycardia induced by short-term APT in both age groups suggests that this adaptation is much more related to intrinsic alterations in sinus node than in efferent vagal-sympathetic modulation. Furthermore, the greater alterations in VO2 than in HRV may be related to short-term APT.

  3. Repeated Bouts of Aerobic Exercise Enhance Regulatory T Cell Responses in a Murine Asthma Model

    OpenAIRE

    Lowder, Thomas; Dugger, Kari; Deshane, Jessy; Estell, Kim; Schwiebert, Lisa M

    2009-01-01

    We have reported previously that moderate intensity aerobic exercise training attenuates airway inflammation in a murine asthma model. Recent studies implicate regulatory T (Treg) cells in decreasing asthma-related airway inflammation; as such, the current study examined the effect of exercise on Treg cell function in a murine asthma model. Mice were sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA) prior to the start of exercise training at a moderate intensity 3× / week for 4 wks; exercise was performed as t...

  4. Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Overweight Children's Cognitive Functioning: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Catherine L.; Tomporowski, Phillip D.; Boyle, Colleen A.; Waller, Jennifer L.; Miller, Patricia H.; Naglieri, Jack A.; Gregoski, Mathew

    2007-01-01

    The study tested the effect of aerobic exercise training on executive function in overweight children. Ninety-four sedentary, overweight but otherwise healthy children (mean age = 9.2 years, body mass index [greater than or equal to] 85th percentile) were randomized to a low-dose (20 min/day exercise), high-dose (40 min/day exercise), or control…

  5. Exercise training in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satta, A

    2000-12-01

    Asthma is a chronic disease that is often limiting the exercise capacity. Rehabilitation programs are recommended and widely applied in asthmatic patients, and exercise prescription is a keystone of these programs. The impairment of exercise performance in asthmatics, the role of exercise training in such patients, the mechanisms of its beneficial effects and the suggested programs are discussed in a review, accordingly to the current evidence and available data in scientific literature. Exercise performance is impaired in most asthmatics. There is no conclusive evidence that asthma may involve a ventilatory limitation to exercise. The lesser fitness in asthmatics seems mainly due to inactivity and sedentary lifestyle. Exercise induced asthma (EIA) is a significant problem, and the best approach to minimise its effects on exercise capacity is prevention. Exercise training has been proved to have health-related benefits and to improve the quality of life. There is substantial evidence that exercise training increases exercise performance and fitness in asthmatics. It is still unclear whether physical training improves pulmonary function and bronchial responsiveness. Since asthma ranges widely, exercise prescription varies for each patient. The proper selection of the patients and the choice of exercise programs are the steps required. Accordingly with the severity of the disease, exercise strategies may range from sports activities to, when the disease is severe, inpatient hospital programs that overlap with COPD rehabilitation. Further research to clarify some aspects (effects on pulmonary function and EIA, outcomes, cost-benefit relationship) is necessary. PMID:11296996

  6. Exercise strategies to improve aerobic capacity, insulin sensitivity and mitochondrial biogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Per

    2014-01-01

    Regular exercise plays a key role in the maintenance of health and physical capabilities. Extensive research shows that exercise is an efficient method to prevent diabetes. Both resistance and aerobic exercise training are well known countermeasures for insulin resistance. However, depending on factors like purpose, capability and accessibility, different exercise modes need to be evaluated on both applied and molecular levels. In addition, exercise is the means to improve performance. New tr...

  7. Effects of Aerobic Exercise and Resistance Training on Stage I and II Breast Cancer Survivors: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Dena; Erck, Elizabeth G.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Lack of physical activity has been noted in breast cancer survivors and been attributed to decreased physical function. Purpose: This study assessed the effects of a moderate-to-vigorous physical exercise program on body fat percentage, maximal oxygen consumption (VO[subscript 2] max), body mass index, and bone mineral density (BMD) of…

  8. Effects of Kettlebell Training on Aerobic Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falatic, J Asher; Plato, Peggy A; Holder, Christopher; Finch, Daryl; Han, Kyungmo; Cisar, Craig J

    2015-07-01

    This study examined the effects of a kettlebell training program on aerobic capacity. Seventeen female National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I collegiate soccer players (age: 19.7 ± 1.0 years, height: 166.1 ± 6.4 cm, weight: 64.2 ± 8.2 kg) completed a graded exercise test to determine maximal oxygen consumption (V̇O2max). Participants were assigned to a kettlebell intervention group (KB) (n = 9) or a circuit weight-training (CWT) control group (n = 8). Participants in the KB group completed a kettlebell snatch test to determine individual snatch repetitions. Both groups trained 3 days a week for 4 weeks in addition to their off-season strength and conditioning program. The KB group performed the 15:15 MVO2 protocol (20 minutes of kettlebell snatching with 15 seconds of work and rest intervals). The CWT group performed multiple free-weight and dynamic body-weight exercises as part of a continuous circuit program for 20 minutes. The 15:15 MVO2 protocol significantly increased V̇O2max in the KB group. The average increase was 2.3 ml·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹, or approximately a 6% gain. There was no significant change in V̇O2max in the CWT control group. Thus, the 4-week 15:15 MVO2 kettlebell protocol, using high-intensity kettlebell snatches, significantly improved aerobic capacity in female intercollegiate soccer players and could be used as an alternative mode to maintain or improve cardiovascular conditioning. PMID:26102260

  9. A Preliminary Exercise Study of Japanese Version of High-intensity Interval Aerobic Training (J-HIAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Tomoaki; Seino, Satoshi; Ohkawara, Kazunori; Tanaka, Kiyoji; Yamada, Shin; Ohshima, Hiroshi; Mukai, Chiaki

    In a microgravity environment, the volume load on the left ventricle is reduced and the cardiac function deteriorates.Consequently, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) decreases during spaceflight. Reduced cardiac function can lead to serious health problems such as cardiac atrophy, diastolic dysfunction, and orthostatic hypotension. An exercise using a bicycle ergometer during spaceflight may help to increase the volume load on the left ventricle. On the other hand, many astronauts also experience weight loss during spaceflight because energy imbalances can occur. Some researchers indicate that excessive exercise may promote the energy deficit and have a negative impact on long-term spaceflight. Therefore, we have been devising an original bicyle erogometer protocol better suited to astronauts experiencing long-term spaceflight.One of our candidate protocols is the 3 × 3 protocol named J-HIAT, i.e., three times 3-min intervals with a 2-min active recovery period between intervals. In response to our preliminary experiments, we concluded that J-HIAT would be a potential protocol to control the increase of energy consumption and to have a significant impact on VO2max and the cardiac function. To further verify this method, we are working on full-scale experiments. In future, we will show the results of these experiments.

  10. Aerobic Games and Playful exercises in 9-YearOld Boys: Intensity and Fitness Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar E Mathisen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous research on exercise for pre-adolescents with the purpose of improving aerobic fitness levels has yielded contradictory results. Sufficient training intensity, frequency and duration are the crucial factors in achieving this goal; the question, however, is whether it is possible to reach sufficient intensity levels using aerobic games and playful exercises. Variety and fun are the important factors in motivating children to participate in physical exercises and sports. Therefore, the aim of the study was to investigate the effect of high intensity exercises in pre-adolescent boys, using programs consisting of fun activities and aerobic games. The findings show that the participants achieved intensity levels above 80 % of HRpeak on average in about 60 % of the total exercise time, resulting in significantly improved aerobic fitness.

  11. COMPARATIVE EFFECT OF AEROBICS AND RESISTANCE EXERCISES ON SELECTED PHYSIOLOGICAL VARIABLES AMONG OBESE CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    M. Dhanalakshmi; Grace Helina; Senthilkumar

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to find out the comparative effects of aerobics and resistance exercises on selected physiological variables among obese children. To achieve the purpose, 60 Obese children, whose BMI was greater than 30 kg/m2 were randomly selected and assigned into three groups, aerobics exercises group (AEG), resistance training group (RTG) and Control group (CG) consisting of 20 in each. After assessing physiological variables, forced vital capacity and resting heart rate init...

  12. Acute and chronic effects of aerobic and resistance exercise on ambulatory blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crivaldo Gomes Cardoso Jr

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is a ubiquitous and serious disease. Regular exercise has been recommended as a strategy for the prevention and treatment of hypertension because of its effects in reducing clinical blood pressure; however, ambulatory blood pressure is a better predictor of target-organ damage than clinical blood pressure, and therefore studying the effects of exercise on ambulatory blood pressure is important as well. Moreover, different kinds of exercise might produce distinct effects that might differ between normotensive and hypertensive subjects. The aim of this study was to review the current literature on the acute and chronic effects of aerobic and resistance exercise on ambulatory blood pressure in normotensive and hypertensive subjects. It has been conclusively shown that a single episode of aerobic exercise reduces ambulatory blood pressure in hypertensive patients. Similarly, regular aerobic training also decreases ambulatory blood pressure in hypertensive individuals. In contrast, data on the effects of resistance exercise is both scarce and controversial. Nevertheless, studies suggest that resistance exercise might acutely decrease ambulatory blood pressure after exercise, and that this effect seems to be greater after low-intensity exercise and in patients receiving anti-hypertensive drugs. On the other hand, only two studies investigating resistance training in hypertensive patients have been conducted, and neither has demonstrated any hypotensive effect. Thus, based on current knowledge, aerobic training should be recommended to decrease ambulatory blood pressure in hypertensive individuals, while resistance exercise could be prescribed as a complementary strategy.

  13. EFFECT OF HIGH & LOW INTENSITIES OF AEROBIC EXERCISE ON PHYSICAL FITNESS INDEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhusudhan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Aerobic exercise reduces body fat and improves weight control, increases HDL&Vo2 max. Also improves PFI (physical fitness index which is defined as ability to carry out daily tasks with vigour and alertness without undue fatigue. Though aerobic exercise is found to improve physical fitness, the relative merits of different intensities of aerobi c exercise in improving physical fitness is still uncertain. AIM: The present study was conducted to know the Effect of High & low intensity aerobic training on physical fitness index. MATERIALS & METHODS : 80 sedentary men (18 - 40 years were randomized in to 2 equal groups (High Intensity & low intensity group . The High [80% HR max] & Low intensity [50 % HR max] groups underwent aerobic exercise training using Bicycle ergo meter (COSCO at 900kpm & 540kpm, for 15mins/day & 30mins/day respectively, 5days a week, for a period of 14weeks. Physical fitness index of each subject was recorded by Modified Harvard step test before & after intervention. RESULTS : After 14 weeks of aerobic training both the exercise groups had improvement in PFI, but high intensity gr oup had a significant (p<0.05 improvement in PFI (97.18 - 101.14 than low intensity group (98.12 - 100.6. CONCLUSION : High intensity aerobic exercise is effective in improving physical fitness.

  14. Supplementary Low-Intensity Aerobic Training Improves Aerobic Capacity and Does Not Affect Psychomotor Performance in Professional Female Ballet Dancers

    OpenAIRE

    Smol, Ewelina; Fredyk, Artur

    2012-01-01

    We investigated whether 6-week low-intensity aerobic training program used as a supplement to regular dance practice might improve both the aerobic capacity and psychomotor performance in female ballet dancers. To assess their maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and anaerobic threshold (AT), the dancers performed a standard graded bicycle ergometer exercise test until volitional exhaustion prior to and after the supplementary training. At both these occasions, the psychomotor performance (assessed...

  15. Effect of exercise training on leucine oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxidation of the BCAA leucine is increased during a bout of exhaustive exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of exercise training on leu oxidation during aerobic exercise. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a commercial diet ad lib and divided into sedentary and two trained groups. Animals were trained to run on a treadmill with a 100 incline at 28 m/min for 5 wks for either 50 or 120 min/day. There were no differences in food intake or body weight. After a 12 hr fast, animals were run for 50 or 120 min and changes in leu catabolism determined by measurement of in vivo leu oxidation and activity of branched chain keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKAD). For measurement of leu oxidation, rats were injected IP with 4 μCi 1-14C-leu during the last 15 min of exercise, placed in glass metabolic chambers, and 14CO2 collected in 1 N NaOH for 30 min periods. Leu oxidation was increased by 40% after 50 min of exercise and by 79% after 120 min of exercise. Five weeks of training reduced the rate of leu oxidation during an exercise bout. The activity of the BCKAD was not increased in the trained animals after either 50 or 120 min of exercise. These data indicate that the rate of leu oxidation during exercises is dependent on the duration of the exercise and that training will reduce the magnitude of this effect

  16. Aerobic training enhances muscle deoxygenation in early post-myocardial infarction

    OpenAIRE

    Takagi, Shun; Murase, Norio; Kime, Ryotaro; Niwayama, Masatsugu; Osada, Takuya; Katsumura, Toshihito

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Exercise-induced skeletal muscle deoxygenation is startling by its absence in early post-myocardial infarction (MI) patients. Exercise training early post-MI is associated with reduced cardiovascular risk and increased aerobic capacity. We therefore investigated whether aerobic training could enhance the muscle deoxygenation in early post-MI patients. Methods 21 ± 8 days after the first MI patients (n = 16) were divided into 12-week aerobic training (TR, n = 10) or non-training (CON, ...

  17. High Intensity Aerobic Exercise Training Improves Deficits of Cardiovascular Autonomic Function in a Rat Model of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus with Moderate Hyperglycemia

    OpenAIRE

    Grisé, Kenneth N.; T. Dylan Olver; Matthew W. McDonald; Adwitia Dey; Mao Jiang; James C. Lacefield; J. Kevin Shoemaker; Noble, Earl G.; C. W. James Melling

    2016-01-01

    Indices of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) in experimental models of Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) are often contrary to clinical data. Here, we investigated whether a relatable insulin-treated model of T1DM would induce deficits in cardiovascular (CV) autonomic function more reflective of clinical results and if exercise training could prevent those deficits. Sixty-four rats were divided into four groups: sedentary control (C), sedentary T1DM (D), control exercise (CX), or T1DM e...

  18. Acute effect of hematological parameters on aerobic and anaerobic exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan İbiş

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Main of aim of this study in which 18 volunteers with average of 21,6 years are involved is to search acute effect of hematological parameters on aerobic and anaerobic exercise. Max VO2 values of volunteers are obtained using Astrand bicycle ergonometric test.   Aerobic exercise was taken with %50 of max VO2 for 45 minutes and anaerobic exercise was taken with %120 of max VO2 till exhausted. Blood samples were taken before exercise, just after exercise and 24 hours after exercise and we looked at hematocrit values. Statistical analysis was done using one-way ANOVA test. There are no significant values observed in hemotological results for aerobic exercise. But, there were some significant values observed in Hb, Hct, Wbc just after anaerobic exercise whereas some significant decreases were observed for 24 hours after exercise. Comparison of both exercises time showed that there is significant increase in anaerobic exercise and decreases in aerobic exercise. As a result, maximal and hard exercise affects hematological values more then moderate exercise. The reason of this observation is because there has been a change in hematocrit levels and movement of leucocyte from margination pool to demargination pool in blood circulation duration of exercise and after exercise.

  19. Effect of aerobic exercise training and cognitive behavioural therapy on reduction of chronic fatigue in patients with facioscapulohumeral dystrophy: protocol of the FACTS-2-FSHD trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Engelen Baziel GM

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In facioscapulohumeral dystrophy (FSHD muscle function is impaired and declines over time. Currently there is no effective treatment available to slow down this decline. We have previously reported that loss of muscle strength contributes to chronic fatigue through a decreased level of physical activity, while fatigue and physical inactivity both determine loss of societal participation. To decrease chronic fatigue, two distinctly different therapeutic approaches can be proposed: aerobic exercise training (AET to improve physical capacity and cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT to stimulate an active life-style yet avoiding excessive physical strain. The primary aim of the FACTS-2-FSHD (acronym for Fitness And Cognitive behavioural TherapieS/for Fatigue and ACTivitieS in FSHD trial is to study the effect of AET and CBT on the reduction of chronic fatigue as assessed with the Checklist Individual Strength subscale fatigue (CIS-fatigue in patients with FSHD. Additionally, possible working mechanisms and the effects on various secondary outcome measures at all levels of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF are evaluated. Methods/Design A multi-centre, assessor-blinded, randomized controlled trial is conducted. A sample of 75 FSHD patients with severe chronic fatigue (CIS-fatigue ≥ 35 will be recruited and randomized to one of three groups: (1 AET + usual care, (2 CBT + usual care or (3 usual care alone, which consists of no therapy at all or occasional (conventional physical therapy. After an intervention period of 16 weeks and a follow-up of 3 months, the third (control group will as yet be randomized to either AET or CBT (approximately 7 months after inclusion. Outcomes will be assessed at baseline, immediately post intervention and at 3 and 6 months follow up. Discussion The FACTS-2-FSHD study is the first theory-based randomized clinical trial which evaluates the effect and the

  20. Aerobic exercise reduces biomarkers related to cardiovascular risk among cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korshøj, Mette; Ravn, Marie Højbjerg; Holtermann, Andreas;

    2016-01-01

    aerobic exercise worksite intervention changes the level of inflammation biomarkers among cleaners. METHODS: The design was a cluster-randomized controlled trial with 4-month worksite intervention. Before the 116 cleaners aged 18-65 years were randomized, they signed an informed consent form. The...... reference group (n = 59) received lectures, and the aerobic exercise group (n = 57) performed worksite aerobic exercise (30 min twice a week). Levels of biomarkers (high-sensitive C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, cholesterol, low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride) were collected at...... that an aerobic exercise intervention among cleaners leads to reduced levels of high-sensitive C-reactive protein and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and an unaltered level of fibrinogen. The aerobic exercise seems to improve inflammatory levels and lipoprotein profile among cleaners, with no...

  1. Maximal aerobic exercise following prolonged sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, J; Radomski, M; Hart, L; Plyley, M; Shephard, R J

    1989-12-01

    The effect of 60 h without sleep upon maximal oxygen intake was examined in 12 young women, using a cycle ergometer protocol. The arousal of the subjects was maintained by requiring the performance of a sequence of cognitive tasks throughout the experimental period. Well-defined oxygen intake plateaus were obtained both before and after sleep deprivation, and no change of maximal oxygen intake was observed immediately following sleep deprivation. The endurance time for exhausting exercise also remained unchanged, as did such markers of aerobic performance as peak exercise ventilation, peak heart rate, peak respiratory gas exchange ratio, and peak blood lactate. However, as in an earlier study of sleep deprivation with male subjects (in which a decrease of treadmill maximal oxygen intake was observed), the formula of Dill and Costill (4) indicated the development of a substantial (11.6%) increase of estimated plasma volume percentage with corresponding decreases in hematocrit and red cell count. Possible factors sustaining maximal oxygen intake under the conditions of the present experiment include (1) maintained arousal of the subjects with no decrease in peak exercise ventilation or the related respiratory work and (2) use of a cycle ergometer rather than a treadmill test with possible concurrent differences in the impact of hematocrit levels and plasma volume expansion upon peak cardiac output and thus oxygen delivery to the working muscles. PMID:2628360

  2. The Effect of Three Months of Aerobic Training on Stroop Performance in Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    David Predovan; Sarah A Fraser; Mélanie Renaud; Louis Bherer

    2012-01-01

    Growing evidence supports the use of physical training interventions to improve both physical and cognitive performances in healthy older adults. Few studies have examined the impact of aerobic exercise on Stroop task performance, a measure of executive functions. In the current 3-month aerobic training study, 50 older adults (mean age = 67.96 ± 6.25 years) were randomly assigned to either a three-month physical training group or to a control group (waiting list). Training sessions were 3 tim...

  3. The Effect of 8 weeks aerobic exercise and yoga on primary dismenorrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Siahpour

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & aim: Dysmenorrhea, menstrual cramps without physical pain is a common complaint in gynecology. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of aerobic training on primary Dysmenorrhea in a period of 8 weeks. Materials & Methods: In the present clinical-trial study, 60 non-athlete girls with primary Dysmenorrhea were randomly divided into three groups: aerobic training, yoga and control groups. Based on the visual analog scale of pain intensity, pain duration and amount of analgesics administered was assessed before and after the period of primary Dysmenorrhea using a questionnaire. In this eight-week exercise program, the aerobic exercises group for 60 minutes in three weeks and yoga exercises group in three sessions per week for 60 minutes, the yoga breathing techniques, exercises, asana and relaxation techniques were performed. There was no intervention in the control group. Data were analyzed by Wilcoxon, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann Whitney (p0.05. There was a significant decrease in the analgesic consumption in the yoga group compared to the exercise group (p<0/05. Conclusion: Both aerobic and yoga are effective in the treatment of primary Dysmenorrhea, but yoga has a greater reduction property on drug dosage. Key words: primary dysmenorrhea, aerobic exercise, yoga exercise, female student

  4. High Intensity Aerobic Exercise Training Improves Deficits of Cardiovascular Autonomic Function in a Rat Model of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus with Moderate Hyperglycemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth N. Grisé

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Indices of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN in experimental models of Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM are often contrary to clinical data. Here, we investigated whether a relatable insulin-treated model of T1DM would induce deficits in cardiovascular (CV autonomic function more reflective of clinical results and if exercise training could prevent those deficits. Sixty-four rats were divided into four groups: sedentary control (C, sedentary T1DM (D, control exercise (CX, or T1DM exercise (DX. Diabetes was induced via multiple low-dose injections of streptozotocin and blood glucose was maintained at moderate hyperglycemia (9–17 mM through insulin supplementation. Exercise training consisted of daily treadmill running for 10 weeks. Compared to C, D had blunted baroreflex sensitivity, increased vascular sympathetic tone, increased serum neuropeptide Y (NPY, and decreased intrinsic heart rate. In contrast, DX differed from D in all measures of CAN (except NPY, including heart rate variability. These findings demonstrate that this T1DM model elicits deficits and exercise-mediated improvements to CV autonomic function which are reflective of clinical T1DM.

  5. High Intensity Aerobic Exercise Training Improves Deficits of Cardiovascular Autonomic Function in a Rat Model of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus with Moderate Hyperglycemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisé, Kenneth N; Olver, T Dylan; McDonald, Matthew W; Dey, Adwitia; Jiang, Mao; Lacefield, James C; Shoemaker, J Kevin; Noble, Earl G; Melling, C W James

    2016-01-01

    Indices of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) in experimental models of Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) are often contrary to clinical data. Here, we investigated whether a relatable insulin-treated model of T1DM would induce deficits in cardiovascular (CV) autonomic function more reflective of clinical results and if exercise training could prevent those deficits. Sixty-four rats were divided into four groups: sedentary control (C), sedentary T1DM (D), control exercise (CX), or T1DM exercise (DX). Diabetes was induced via multiple low-dose injections of streptozotocin and blood glucose was maintained at moderate hyperglycemia (9-17 mM) through insulin supplementation. Exercise training consisted of daily treadmill running for 10 weeks. Compared to C, D had blunted baroreflex sensitivity, increased vascular sympathetic tone, increased serum neuropeptide Y (NPY), and decreased intrinsic heart rate. In contrast, DX differed from D in all measures of CAN (except NPY), including heart rate variability. These findings demonstrate that this T1DM model elicits deficits and exercise-mediated improvements to CV autonomic function which are reflective of clinical T1DM. PMID:26885531

  6. Endurance training and aerobic fitness in young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baquet, Georges; van Praagh, Emmanuel; Berthoin, Serge

    2003-01-01

    Training-induced adaptations in aerobic fitness have been extensively studied in adults, and some exercise scientists have recommended similar training programmes for young people. However, the subject of the response to aerobic training of children and adolescents is controversial. The effects of exercise training on prepubertal children are particularly debatable. The latter may be partly explained by different training designs, which make comparisons between studies very problematic. We have analysed the procedures applied to protocol design and training methods to highlight the real impact of aerobic training on the peak oxygen uptake (V-dotO2) of healthy children and adolescents. In accordance with previously published reviews on trainability in youngsters, research papers were rejected from the final analysis according to criteria such as the lack of a control group, an unclear training protocol, inappropriate statistical procedures, small sample size, studies with trained or special populations, or with no peak V-dotO2 data. Factors such as maturity, group constitution, consistency between training and testing procedures, drop out rates, or attendance were considered, and possible associations with changes in peak V-dotO2 with training are discussed. From 51 studies reviewed, 22 were finally retained. In most of the studies, there was a considerable lack of research regarding circumpubertal individuals in general, and particularly in girls. The results suggest that methodologically listed parameters will exert a potential influence on the magnitude of peak V-dotO2 improvement. Even if little difference is reported for each parameter, it is suggested that the sum of errors will result in a significant bias in the assessment of training effects. The characteristics of each training protocol were also analysed to establish their respective potential influence on peak V-dotO2 changes. In general, aerobic training leads to a mean improvement of 5-6% in the peak V

  7. The Effects of Selected Aerobic Exercise Modalities on Self Esteem among Female Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norlena Salamuddin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Self-esteem is fundamental component in psychological health and is affected with dynamics of physical exercise. This study explore the effects of selected aerobic exercise programs on self esteem and attempts to determine the most effective aerobic exercise program in boosting self-esteem. This study uses the experimental design on a sample of 120 female undergraduate students. The instruments used were the Self-Esteem Scale. Data was analyzed using inferential statistics. t-test conducted shows significant differences in self-esteem score between pretest and posttest in all modalities of aerobic exercise programs. Analysis of variance reveals that there is a significant difference (F=81.299, p<0.01 between the four modalities of aerobic exercise programs, and post hoc test shows that combination of step-dance aerobics and weight training program is most effective in increasing self esteem among female students. Results of this study contribute to developing the role of aerobic exercise in improving self esteem. It is also useful in assisting to develop policies and programs that enhance self esteem.

  8. 不同强度有氧运动对高血压病患者的疗效观察%The effect of different intensity aerobic exercise training on blood pressure control in hypertensive patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林秀瑶; 汪流; 朱达斌; 许云辉; 王景峰

    2009-01-01

    目的 比较两种不同强度的有氧训练对高血压病患者的疗效.方法 将高血压病患者随机分为A组和B组,分别接受强度为20%和60%最大运动能力的有氧训练,试验开始和结束时进行24 h动态血压监测和生活质量的评价.结果 2组患者治疗后各项动态血压指标均有下降,且治疗后两组差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).治疗后用美国简明健康量表各维度评分,在总的健康状况、活力、情感角色和心理健康方面,A组均高于B组(P0. 05).There was a significant difference of the increment of general health, vitality, emotion and mentality between the two groups after treatment with group A better than group B(P <0. 05). Conclusions Aerobic exercise training at 20% and 60% of the maximal intensity has similar ambulatory blood pressure, but the quality of life is significantly better after aerobic exercise training at 20% of the maximal intensity.

  9. Effect of resistance and aerobic exercises on bone mineral density, muscle strength and functional ability in children with hemophilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Eid

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: Based on obtained data, it can be concluded that, resistance and aerobic exercise training program is effective in increasing BMD, muscle strength and functional ability in children with hemophilia.

  10. Characteristics Research of Aerobics Physical Agility Training Based on Statistical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerobics is an emerging sport item and its audience is constantly expanding and our aerobics technology is increasingly developing and it is ongoing to move closer towards the international advanced level. In this study it first analyzes the physical agility training of aerobics, first establishes the content structure of the physical agility training project and analyzes the need of the training content and then analyzes the competitive level status of China’s competitive aerobics through the competition results, finally conducts a detailed summary analysis for aerobics players’ body shape characteristics, action dynamics requirement, the overall strength control rules and the training principles of exercise endurance. The discussion content and research results of the text provide theoretical reference for the development of China’s competitive aerobics, thus the movement of our country can develop higher and faster.

  11. THE EFFECTS OF AEROBIC EXERCISE ON SKELETAL MUSCLE METABOLISM, MORPHOLOGY AND IN SITU ENDURANCE IN DIABETIC RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Nilay Ergen; Hatice Kurdak; Seref Erdogan; Ufuk Ozgü Mete; Mehmet Kaya; Nurten Dikmen; Ayşe Doğan; Sanli Sadi Kurdak

    2005-01-01

    The effects of aerobic exercise training on skeletal muscle endurance capacity were examined in diabetic rats in situ. Moderate diabetes was induced by iv injection of streptozotocin and an exercise training program on a treadmill was carried out for 8 weeks. The animals randomly assigned to one of the four experimental groups: control-sedentary (CS), control-exercise (CE), diabetic-sedentary (DS) or diabetic-exercise (DE). The changes in the muscle endurance capacity were evaluated through t...

  12. Integrated Resistance and Aerobic Training Maintains Cardiovascular and Skeletal Muscle Fitness During 14 Days of Bed Rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploutz-Snyder, Lori; Goetchius, Elizabeth; Crowell, Brent; Hackney, Kyle; Wickwire, Jason; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Snyder, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Background: Known incompatibilities exist between resistance and aerobic training. Of particular importance are findings that concurrent resistance and aerobic training reduces the effectiveness of the resistance training and limits skeletal muscle adaptations (example: Dudley & Djamil, 1985). Numerous unloading studies have documented the effectiveness of resistance training alone for the maintenance of skeletal muscle size and strength. However the practical applications of those studies are limited because long ]duration crew members perform both aerobic and resistance exercise throughout missions/spaceflight. To date, such integrated training on the International Space Station (ISS) has not been fully effective in the maintenance of skeletal muscle function. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of high intensity concurrent resistance and aerobic training for the maintenance of cardiovascular fitness and skeletal muscle strength, power and endurance over 14 days of strict bed rest. Methods: 9 subjects (8 male and 1 female; 34.5 +/- 8.2 years) underwent 14 days of bed rest with concurrent training. Resistance and aerobic training were integrated as shown in table 1. Days that included 2 exercise sessions had a 4-8 hour rest between exercise bouts. The resistance training consisted of 3 sets of 12 repetitions of squat, heel raise, leg press and hamstring curl exercise. Aerobic exercise consisted of periodized interval training that included 30 sec, 2 min and 4 min intervals alternating by day with continuous aerobic exercise.

  13. Aerobic training alone or combined with strength training affects fitness in elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burich, Rasmus; Teljigović, Sanel; Boyle, Eleanor;

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate if combined strength and aerobic training can enhance aerobic capacity in the elderly to a similar extent as aerobic training alone when training duration is matched. METHODS: Elderly men and women (age 63.2 ± 4.7) were randomized into two intervention groups: an aerobic...... subsequently to the aerobic training. Combined training additionally improves strength and self-assessed general health more than aerobic training alone....

  14. 有氧健身操训练对中年肥胖女性体成分影响的研究%Studies of the Impact of Aerobic Exercise Training on Middle-aged Obese Women Body Composition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莹; 韩帅红; 阮江

    2014-01-01

    The research is designed to take the advantages of present scientific research power and personnel tech -nology , by the research of more than 40 obese women ( whose weight over the standard for 20%-30%) , who are aged from 35-40 and have had aerobic exercise training in the fitness club , and offering them a 3-month long aerobic exercise training, then measure their waist -to-hip ratio (WHR) and body mass index (BMI) before and after the training , which namely the study of the impact of aerobic exercise training on middle -aged obese women body composition .Evaluate the effect of reducing weight , combined with dietary guidance and health ad-vice, gradually amend the physical activity of the fitness trainee to make the trainee have the reduction in weight but not in body moisture , to achieve the ideal consequence of lipid -decreasing and adding muscle , while ensu-ring safety and effect of the process .%本研究旨在利用我部现有的科研力量和人员技术优势,通过对40多名在健身俱乐部进行有氧健身操锻炼的年龄在30-45岁女性肥胖(超过标准体重20-30)者进行为期3个月的有氧健身操锻炼,然后对锻炼前后的腰臀比( WHR)和体重指数( BMI)进行测量,即有氧健身操训练对中年肥胖女性体成分影响的研究,评价其减肥效果,结合膳食指导和健康咨询,逐步修正健身操练习者的运动量,使健身练习者达到降重不降水,降脂增肌的最佳减肥效果,确保减肥过程的安全、有效。

  15. Aerobic training in patients with anoctamin 5 myopathy and hyperckemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissing, Christoffer R; Preisler, Nicolai; Husu, Edith;

    2014-01-01

    -sit-to-stand test (FRSTST). RESULTS: Training resulted in improvements in VO(2max) (27 ± 7%; P = 0.0001) and FRSTST time (35 ± 12%; P = 0.007). Improvements in physiologic and functional muscle testing were accompanied by stable CK levels and no reports of adverse effects. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that...... supervised aerobic exercise training is safe and effective in improving oxidative capacity and muscle function in patients with anoctamin 5 deficiency....

  16. Small-sided games versus interval training in amateur soccer players: effects on the aerobic capacity and the ability to perform intermittent exercises with changes of direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellal, Alexandre; Varliette, Christophe; Owen, Adam; Chirico, Erica N; Pialoux, Vincent

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of small-sided games (SSGs) in soccer versus high-intensity intermittent training (HIT) on a continuous aerobic test (Vameval) and the performance in an intermittent test with changes of direction (CODs; 30-15 intermittent fitness test [30-15(IFT)]). Twenty-two amateur soccer players (mean age ± SD: 26.3 ± 4.7 years) were assigned to 3 different groups for 6 weeks: SSG group (n = 8), HIT group (n = 8), and control group (CG; n = 6). In addition to the usual technical and tactical sessions and competitive games, the SSG group performed 9 sessions of 2 versus 2 and 1 versus 1 SSGs, whereas the HIT group performed 9 sessions of intermittent runs in the form of 30 seconds of effort interspersed with 30 seconds of passive recovery (30s-30s), 15s-15s, and 10s-10s. The HIT and SSG groups showed performance improvements in the Vameval test (5.1 and 6.6%, respectively) and the 30-15(IFT) intermittent test with CODs (5.1 and 5.8%, respectively), whereas there was no change in the performance of the CG. Players from HIT and SSG groups showed similar increase in their performance in the 30-15(IFT) and the Vameval tests during the 6-week training period, especially with an increase significantly different to that in a traditional training as in the CG (p soccer players. Furthermore, these 2 methods of training applied during the 6 weeks induce similar effect on the recovery capacity and on the ability to repeat directional changes of 180°. Coaches will now be able to choose between these two methods according to the objective of the training and to optimize the training. PMID:22130398

  17. Extensive functional evaluations to monitor aerobic training in Becker Muscular Dystrophy: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina Tramonti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Low-intensity aerobic training seems to have positive effects on muscle strength, endurance and fatigue in Becker Muscular Dystrophy (BMD patients. We describe the case of a 33-year old BMD man, who performed a four-week aerobic training. Extensive functional evaluations were executed to monitor the efficacy of the rehabilitative treatment. Results evidenced an increased force exertion and an improvement in muscle contraction during sustained exercise. An improvement of walk velocity, together with agility, endurance capacity and oxygen consumption during exercise was observed. Moreover, an enhanced metabolic efficiency was evidenced, as shown by reduced lactate blood levels after training. Interestingly, CK showed higher levels after the training protocol, revealing possible muscle damage. In conclusion, aerobic training may represent an effective method improving exercise performance, functional status and metabolic efficiency. Anyway, a careful functional assessment should be taken into account as a useful approach in the management of the disease’s rehabilitative treatment.

  18. Effect of exercise training on leucine oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrix, M.K.; Layman, D.K.

    1986-03-01

    Oxidation of the BCAA leucine is increased during a bout of exhaustive exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of exercise training on leu oxidation during aerobic exercise. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a commercial diet ad lib and divided into sedentary and two trained groups. Animals were trained to run on a treadmill with a 10/sup 0/ incline at 28 m/min for 5 wks for either 50 or 120 min/day. There were no differences in food intake or body weight. After a 12 hr fast, animals were run for 50 or 120 min and changes in leu catabolism determined by measurement of in vivo leu oxidation and activity of branched chain keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKAD). For measurement of leu oxidation, rats were injected IP with 4 ..mu..Ci 1-/sup 14/C-leu during the last 15 min of exercise, placed in glass metabolic chambers, and /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ collected in 1 N NaOH for 30 min periods. Leu oxidation was increased by 40% after 50 min of exercise and by 79% after 120 min of exercise. Five weeks of training reduced the rate of leu oxidation during an exercise bout. The activity of the BCKAD was not increased in the trained animals after either 50 or 120 min of exercise. These data indicate that the rate of leu oxidation during exercises is dependent on the duration of the exercise and that training will reduce the magnitude of this effect.

  19. Exercise Training in Children and Adolescents with Cystic Fibrosis: Theory into Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig A. Williams

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity and exercise training play an important role in the clinical management of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF. Exercise training is more common and recognized as an essential part of rehabilitation programmes and overall CF care. Regular exercise training is associated with improved aerobic and anaerobic capacity, higher pulmonary function, and enhanced airway mucus clearance. Furthermore, patients with higher aerobic fitness have an improved survival. Aerobic and anaerobic training may have different effects, while the combination of both have been reported to be beneficial in CF. However, exercise training remains underutilised and not always incorporated into routine CF management. We provide an update on aerobic and anaerobic responses to exercise and general training recommendations in children and adolescents with CF. We propose that an active lifestyle and exercise training are an efficacious part of regular CF patient management.

  20. Time course analysis reveals gene-specific transcript and protein kinetics of adaptation to short-term aerobic exercise training in human skeletal muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Brendan Egan; Paul L O'Connor; Juleen R. Zierath; Donal J O'Gorman

    2013-01-01

    Repeated bouts of episodic myofibrillar contraction associated with exercise training are potent stimuli for physiological adaptation. However, the time course of adaptation and the continuity between alterations in mRNA expression and protein content are not well described in human skeletal muscle. Eight healthy, sedentary males cycled for 60 min at 80% of peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) each day for fourteen consecutive days, resulting in an increase in VO2peak of 17.5±3.8%. Skeletal musc...

  1. The effect of intensity controlled aerobic dance exercise on aerobic capacity of middle-aged, overweight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillett, P A; Eisenman, P A

    1987-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of intensity controlled exercise on the aerobic capacity of overweight, middle-aged women. Thirty-eight moderately overweight women, ages 35-57, participated in a 16-week dance-exercise program. Random assignment was made to an experimental group (n = 20) in which intensity of exercise was controlled and prescribed, and a control group (n = 18) in which exercise was of an intensity typical to commercial aerobic classes. Prior to the onset of training, and at the completion of 16 weeks, the following fitness tests were administered: Aerobic capacity expressed as VO2 max, body composition analysis, blood chemistry, blood pressure, resting heart rate, muscular endurance, and flexibility. T-tests, ANCOVA, and gain-score analyses were utilized to evaluate data. Both groups showed small changes in weight, percent fat, resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure, resting heart rate, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), muscular endurance, and flexibility, but these changes were statistically nonsignificant. The VO2 max for the experimental group increased 41%, while the VO2 max for the control group increased 22% (p less than 0.05). The results suggest that the cardiovascular fitness changes for overweight, middle-aged women are greater when exercise intensity and progression are tailored to their age and fitness level. PMID:3423310

  2. COPD: benefits of exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    In patients with stable, moderate or severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), general exercise training, including limb exercises, provides sustained improvement in various quality of life domains, compared with care without pulmonary rehabilitation. After a COPD exacerbation, exercise training appears to reduce the risk of hospitalisation in the following months by at least half. Few studies have evaluated the adverse effects of exercise training in COPD, but based on the data available in 2015, its harm-benefit balance appears favourable. PMID:27152405

  3. Both aerobic exercise and cognitive-behavioral therapy reduce chronic fatigue in FSHD: An RCT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voet, N.B.; Bleijenberg, G.; Hendriks, J.C.M.; Groot, I.M. de; Padberg, G.W.; Engelen, B.G. van; Geurts, A.C.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of aerobic exercise training (AET) and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) on chronic fatigue in patients with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD). METHODS: We performed a multicenter, assessor-blinded, randomized clinical trial (RCT). Fifty-seven patien

  4. [Both aerobic exercise and cognitive-behavioral therapy reduce fatigue in FSHD: an RCT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voet, V.B.M.; Bleijenberg, G.; Hendriks, J.C.M.; Groot, I.J.M. de; Padberg, G.W.; Engelen, B.G.M. van; Geurts, A.C.H.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of aerobic exercise training (AET) and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) on chronic fatigue in patients with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD). DESIGN: A multicenter, assessor-blinded, randomized clinical trial (Dutch Trial Register No 1447). METHOD:

  5. Plasma cell‐free mitochondrial DNA declines in response to prolonged moderate aerobic exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Shockett, Penny E.; Khanal, Januka; Sitaula, Alina; Oglesby, Christopher; Meachum, William A.; Castracane, V. Daniel; Kraemer, Robert R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Increased plasma cell‐free mitochondrial DNA (cf‐mDNA), a damage‐associated molecular pattern (DAMP) produced by cellular injury, contributes to neutrophil activation/inflammation in trauma patients and arises in cancer and autoimmunity. To further understand relationships between cf‐mDNA released by tissue injury, inflammation, and health benefits of exercise, we examined cf‐mDNA response to prolonged moderate aerobic exercise. Seven healthy moderately trained young men (age = 22.4 ...

  6. Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Overweight Children’s Cognitive Functioning: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Catherine L.; Tomporowski, Phillip D.; Boyle, Colleen A; Waller, Jennifer L.; Miller, Patricia H.; Naglieri, Jack A.; Gregoski, Mathew

    2007-01-01

    The study tested the effect of aerobic exercise training on executive function in overweight children. Ninety-four sedentary, overweight but otherwise healthy children (mean age = 9.2 years, body mass index ≥ 85th percentile) were randomized to a low-dose (20 min/day exercise), high-dose (40 min/day exercise), or control condition. Exercise sessions met 5 day/wk for 15 weeks. The Cognitive Assessment System (CAS), a standardized test of cognitive processes, was administered individually befor...

  7. Is the effect of aerobic exercise on cognition a placebo effect?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cary R Stothart

    Full Text Available A number of studies and meta-analyses conclude that aerobic fitness (walking interventions improve cognition. Such interventions typically compare improvements from these interventions to an active control group in which participants engage in non-aerobic activities (typically stretching and toning for an equivalent amount of time. However, in the absence of a double-blind design, the presence of an active control group does not necessarily control for placebo effects; participants might expect different amounts of improvement for the treatment and control interventions. We conducted a large survey to explore whether people expect greater cognitive benefits from an aerobic exercise intervention compared to a control intervention. If participants expect greater improvement following aerobic exercise, then the benefits of such interventions might be due in part to a placebo effect. In general, expectations did not differ between aerobic and non-aerobic interventions. If anything, some of the results suggest the opposite (e.g., respondents expected the control, non-aerobic intervention to yield bigger memory gains. These results provide the first evidence that cognitive improvements following aerobic fitness training are not due to differential expectations.

  8. Mood alterations in mindful versus aerobic exercise modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netz, Yael; Lidor, Ronnie

    2003-09-01

    The results of most recent studies have generally indicated an improvement in mood after participation in aerobic exercise. However, only a few researchers have compared mindful modes of exercise with aerobic exercise to examine the effect of 1 single session of exercise on mood. In the present study, the authors assessed state anxiety, depressive mood, and subjective well-being prior to and following 1 class of 1 of 4 exercise modes: yoga, Feldenkrais (awareness through movement), aerobic dance, and swimming; a computer class served as a control. Participants were 147 female general curriculum and physical education teachers (mean age = 40.15, SD = 0.2) voluntarily enrolled in a 1-year enrichment program at a physical education college. Analyses of variance for repeated measures revealed mood improvement following Feldenkrais, swimming, and yoga but not following aerobic dance and computer lessons. Mindful low-exertion activities as well as aerobic activities enhanced mood in 1 single session of exercise. The authors suggest that more studies assessing the mood-enhancing benefits of mindful activities such as Feldenkrais and yoga are needed. PMID:14629072

  9. Impact of aerobic exercise training during chemotherapy on cancer related cognitive impairments in patients suffering from acute myeloid leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome - Study protocol of a randomized placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, P; Oberste, M; Bloch, W; Schenk, A; Joisten, N; Hartig, P; Wolf, F; Baumann, F T; Garthe, A; Hallek, M; Elter, T

    2016-07-01

    Cancer related cognitive impairments (CRCI) are frequently reported by patients prior to, during and after medical treatment. Although this cognitive decline severely affects patients' quality of life, little is known about effective treatments. Exercise programs represent a promising supportive strategy in this field. However, evidence is sparse and existing studies display methodological limitations. In the planned study, 83 men and women newly diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) will be randomized into one of three treatment groups. During 4weeks of induction chemotherapy with Anthracycline and Cytarabin patients allocated to exercise group will cycle 3×/week for 30min at moderate to vigorous intensity on an ergometer. Patients allocated to placebo group will receive a supervised myofascial release training (3×/week, approx. 30min) and patients at control group will get usual care. As primary endpoints a cognitive test battery will be conducted measuring performances depending on verbal/spatial memory and executive functioning. Secondary endpoints will be self-perceived cognitive functioning, as well as neurotrophic and inflammatory serum markers. All assessments will be conducted immediately after hospitalization and before chemotherapy is commenced, immediately before discharge of hospital after 4-5weeks as well as before continuing medical treatment 3-4weeks after discharge. This will be the first study investigating the impact of an aerobic exercise training on CRCI in AML/MDS patients. We hope that the study design and the state-of-the-art assessments will help to increase knowledge about CRCI in general and exercise as potential treatment option in this under investigated population. PMID:27261170

  10. On Aerobic Exercise and Behavioral and Neural Plasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Caitlin Peplinski; Ami Patel; Kiersten L. Berggren; Kerr, Abigail L.; Swain, Rodney A.; Sikorski, Angela M.

    2012-01-01

    Aerobic exercise promotes rapid and profound alterations in the brain. Depending upon the pattern and duration of exercise, these changes in the brain may extend beyond traditional motor areas to regions and structures normally linked to learning, cognition, and emotion. Exercise-induced alterations may include changes in blood flow, hormone and growth factor release, receptor expression, angiogenesis, apoptosis, neurogenesis, and synaptogenesis. Together, we believe that these changes underl...

  11. AEROBIC AND STRENGTH TRAINING RESPONSES IN THE VO2max

    OpenAIRE

    Pilar Sánchez Collado; Cíntia Campolina Duarte Rocha; Sandro Fernandes da Silva; José Antonio De Paz

    2007-01-01

    The strength training of produces improvements in the skeletal muscle as to the muscular hypertrophy, already the aerobic training produces an increase in him I number and in the size of the mitochondria. The objective was verifying the answers of the aerobic training and of force in the aerobic variables. The study was composed of 3 groups. The Aerobic Group (G1) that performed 6 weeks of training of aerobic, the Strength Group (G2) that did a program of 6 strength training weeks and the Gro...

  12. COMPARISON OF SELECTIVE AEROBIC AND PILATES EXERCISE ON LEPTIN LEVELS & CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS IN SEDENTARY WOMEN

    OpenAIRE

    Parichehr Hanachi; Parvaneh Nazarali; Azam Ramezan khani

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was Comparison of selective aerobic exercise and Pilates trainings onleptin and cardiovascular risk factors in sedentary women.Materials and Methods: Call the home health area 2 Tehran municipalities; Thirty four women(age: 30-40y) were recruited and divided randomly in groups as following: control (C; n=10);aerobic (EX; n=12) and Pilates(n=12). Participants of EX and Pilates groups performed trainings 3 sessions/week; 45min/session for 16 weeks at 60-75% of maximum hear...

  13. Effects of combined training vs aerobic training on cognitive functions in COPD: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aquino G

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Giovanna Aquino,1 Enzo Iuliano,1 Alessandra di Cagno,2 Angela Vardaro,3 Giovanni Fiorilli,1 Stefano Moffa,1 Alfonso Di Costanzo,1 Giuseppe De Simone,3 Giuseppe Calcagno1 1Department of Medicine and Health Sciences “Vincenzo Tiberio”, University of Molise, Campobasso, 2Department of Health Science, University ForoItalico, Rome, 3“Villa Margherita”, Benevento, Italy Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of high-intensity aerobic training (AT and high-intensity aerobic training combined with resistance training (ie, combined training [CT] on cognitive function in patients with COPD. Methods: Twenty-eight Caucasian male patients (68.35±9.64 years; mean ± SD with COPD were recruited and randomized into two groups, AT and CT. Both groups performed physical reconditioning for 4 weeks, with a frequency of five training sessions per week. The CT group completed two daily sessions of 30 minutes: one aerobic session and one strength session, respectively; The AT group performed two 30-minute aerobic endurance exercise sessions on treadmill. Physical and cognitive function tests were performed before and after the training intervention performances. Results: Exercise training improved the following cognitive functions: long-term memory, verbal fluency, attentional capacity, apraxia, and reasoning skills (P<0.01. Moreover, the improvements in the CT group were significantly greater than those in the AT group in long-term memory, apraxia, and reasoning skills (P<0.05. Conclusion: CT may be a possible strategy to prevent cognitive decline and associated comorbidities in male patients with COPD. Keywords: physical training, cognition, resistance training, rehabilitation, respiratory disease

  14. Aerobic exercise and intraocular pressure in normotensive and glaucoma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatzibalis Theodosios

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the increasing number of people participating in physical aerobic exercise, jogging in particular, we considered that it would be worth knowing if there are should be limits to the exercise with regard to the intraocular pressure (IOP of the eyes. The purpose of this study is to check IOP in healthy and primary glaucoma patients after aerobic exercise. Methods 145 individuals were subdivided into seven groups: normotensives who exercised regularly (Group A; normotensives in whose right eye (RE timolol maleate 0.5% (Group B, latanoprost 0.005% (Group C, or brimonidine tartrate 0.2% (Group D was instilled; and primary glaucoma patients under monotherapy with β-blockers (Group E, prostaglandin analogues (Group F or combined antiglaucoma treatment (Group G instilled in both eyes. The IOP of both eyes was measured before and after exercise. Results A statistically significant decrease was found in IOP during jogging. The aerobic exercise reduces the IOP in those eyes where a b-blocker, a prostaglandin analogue or an α-agonist was previously instilled. The IOP is also decreased in glaucoma patients who are already under antiglaucoma treatment. Conclusion There is no ocular restriction for simple glaucoma patients in performing aerobic physical activity.

  15. Impact of 6-month aerobic exercise on Alzheimer's symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fang; Thomas, William; Nelson, Nathaniel W; Bronas, Ulf G; Dysken, Maurice; Wyman, Jean F

    2015-06-01

    Little is known about how aerobic exercise affects Alzheimer's disease (AD). The purpose of this pilot study was to test the impact of 6-month cycling on AD symptoms in community-dwelling older adults with mild-to-moderate AD, using a single-group, repeated-measures design (n = 26). AD symptoms were measured with the AD Assessment Scale-Cognitive (ADAS-Cog), Disability in AD (DAD), and Neuropsychiatric Inventory-Caregiver (NPI-Q) scales at baseline, 3 and 6 months. Data were analyzed using mixed linear models. The ADAS-Cog, DAD, and NPI-Q severity scores remained unchanged over the 6-month period, while caregiver distress decreased 40% (p < .05). We conclude that aerobic exercise may reduce AD symptoms and appears effective in decreasing caregiver distress. Further randomized controlled trials are needed to examine the effects of aerobic exercise in AD. PMID:24652914

  16. Effect of aerobic and anaerobic exercises on glycemiccontrol in type 1 diabetic youths

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrea Lukács; László Barkai

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the long-term effect of aerobic and/ or anaerobic exercise on glycemic control in youths with type 1 diabetes. METHODS: Literature review was performed in spring and summer 2014 using PubMed/MEDLINE, Google Scholar, Scopus, and ScienceDirect with the following terms: aerobic, anaerobic, high-intensity, resistance, exercise/training, combined with glycemic/metabolic control, glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and type 1 diabetes. Only peer-reviewed articles in English wereincluded published in the last 15 years. It was selectedfrom 1999 to 2014. Glycemic control was measuredwith HbA1c. Studies with an intervention lasting atleast 12 wk were included if the HbA1c was measuredbefore and after the intervention.RESULTS: A total of nine articles were found, andthey were published between the years of 2002-2011.The sample size was 401 diabetic youths (166 malesand 235 females) with an age range of 10-19 yearsexcept one study, in which the age range was 13-30years. Study participants were from Australia, Tunisia,Lithuania, Taiwan, Turkey, Brazilia, Belgium, Egypt andFrance. Four studies were aerobic-based, four werecombined aerobic and anaerobic programs, and onecompared aerobic exercise to anaerobic one. Availablestudies had insufficient evidence that any type ofexercise or combined training would clearly improvethe glycemic control in type 1 diabetic youth. Onlythree (two aerobic-based and one combined) studiescould provide a significant positive change in glycemiccontrol.CONCLUSION: The regular physical exercise hasseveral other valuable physiological and health benefitsthat justify the inclusion of exercise in pediatricdiabetes treatment and care.

  17. The effect of aerobic exercise on cortical architecture in patients with chronic schizophrenia: a randomized controlled MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkai, Peter; Malchow, Berend; Wobrock, Thomas; Gruber, Oliver; Schmitt, Andrea; Honer, William G; Pajonk, Frank-Gerald; Sun, Frank; Cannon, Tyrone D

    2013-09-01

    Via influencing brain plasticity, aerobic exercise could contribute to the treatment of schizophrenia patients. As previously shown, physical exercise increases hippocampus volume and improves short-term memory. We now investigated gray matter density and brain surface expansion in this sample using MRI-based cortical pattern matching methods. Comparing schizophrenia patients to healthy controls before and after 3 months of aerobic exercise training (cycling) plus patients playing table football yielded gray matter density increases in the right frontal and occipital cortex merely in healthy controls. However, respective exercise effects might be attenuated in chronic schizophrenia, which should be verified in a larger sample. PMID:23161338

  18. Interaction Effect of 8-Week Aerobic Exercise and Omega-3 Fatty Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Khedri

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Scientific evidence indicates the impact of aerobic exercise and omega-3 fatty acids - both –are for the improvement of the cardiovascular system .The purpose of this research was about studies interaction effect of 8 weeks aerobic exercise and omega- 3 fatty acids supplementation on plasma adiponectin concentration of elderly men.Materials and Methods: In this study, 36 male non-athletes aged were between 50 to 70 year age range of men aged the city of Genaveh. Statistical sample of 36 male non- athletes in the age range 50 to 70 years old randomly selected in four groups of nine persons, respectively, the first group: exercise supplemental omega-3, Group II: Exercise placebo group: supplementation with omega-3 groups quarter: placebo. Endurance exercise training program includes 24 sessions and 3 sessions per week, with duration and intensity was determined. (55-70% HRmax. Daily supplements of omega-3 fatty acids were 2 Capsule. Blood samples were taken after fasting 14 hours before the study and 48 hours after the last training session was conducted. The data Kolmogrov-Smirnov, t-test, One-Way Anova at significance level of p≤ 0.05 were analyzed in SPSS 17. Results: The results of research after 8 weeks showed that moderate-intensity aerobic exercise and omega-3 fatty acids supplementation, only increased in the exercise + omega-3 fatty acids group (7.8% that could not created a significant increase in plasma adiponectin concentration groups. Also in final of research did not show a significant difference between groups in compare after 8 weeks. Conclusion: The results showed that by aerobic exercise and use of omega-3 fatty acids and increase amounts of adiponectin and its anti boil property, perhaps maybe that, adiponectin by effect of its preservation has a great role in prevention and reduce of cardiovascular diseases.

  19. The Effect of Aerobic Exercise on Cardiopulmonary System in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Dilek Sevimli; Fuat Kocyigit

    2009-01-01

    AIM: The purpose of this study is to investigate the changes in cardiopulmonary system stimulated by aerobic exercise in different age group of children and to find out in which age group aerobic exercise is more effective. METHOD: Totally, 76 children participated in this study. Ages of the participants ranged between 11–17, and mean age was 14.08±0.65. Participants were divided into three groups according to their age range. There were 23 in the first and second and 30 participant...

  20. Exercise intensity during Zumba fitness and Tae-bo aerobics

    OpenAIRE

    Hižnayová, Kristína

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzed and compared the exercise intensity in Zumba fitness and Tae-bo aerobics. Object of the research was monitoring of the heart rate and energy consumption in kcal during exercise unit, by using Heart Rate Monitor Suunto Memory Belt. All measurements were attended by randomly selected 11 women. The data we collected during the six units of the Zumba fitness and six units of the Tae-bo aerobics . Obtained data of the heart rate were evaluated in three main parts of workout: af...

  1. A Single Bout of Moderate Aerobic Exercise Improves Motor Skill Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statton, Matthew A; Encarnacion, Marysol; Celnik, Pablo; Bastian, Amy J

    2015-01-01

    Long-term exercise is associated with improved performance on a variety of cognitive tasks including attention, executive function, and long-term memory. Remarkably, recent studies have shown that even a single bout of aerobic exercise can lead to immediate improvements in declarative learning and memory, but less is known about the effect of exercise on motor learning. Here we sought to determine the effect of a single bout of moderate intensity aerobic exercise on motor skill learning. In experiment 1, we investigated the effect of moderate aerobic exercise on motor acquisition. 24 young, healthy adults performed a motor learning task either immediately after 30 minutes of moderate intensity running, after running followed by a long rest period, or after slow walking. Motor skill was assessed via a speed-accuracy tradeoff function to determine how exercise might differentially affect two distinct components of motor learning performance: movement speed and accuracy. In experiment 2, we investigated both acquisition and retention of motor skill across multiple days of training. 20 additional participants performed either a bout of running or slow walking immediately before motor learning on three consecutive days, and only motor learning (no exercise) on a fourth day. We found that moderate intensity running led to an immediate improvement in motor acquisition for both a single session and on multiple sessions across subsequent days, but had no effect on between-day retention. This effect was driven by improved movement accuracy, as opposed to speed. However, the benefit of exercise was dependent upon motor learning occurring immediately after exercise-resting for a period of one hour after exercise diminished the effect. These results demonstrate that moderate intensity exercise can prime the nervous system for the acquisition of new motor skills, and suggest that similar exercise protocols may be effective in improving the outcomes of movement rehabilitation

  2. A Single Bout of Moderate Aerobic Exercise Improves Motor Skill Acquisition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew A Statton

    Full Text Available Long-term exercise is associated with improved performance on a variety of cognitive tasks including attention, executive function, and long-term memory. Remarkably, recent studies have shown that even a single bout of aerobic exercise can lead to immediate improvements in declarative learning and memory, but less is known about the effect of exercise on motor learning. Here we sought to determine the effect of a single bout of moderate intensity aerobic exercise on motor skill learning. In experiment 1, we investigated the effect of moderate aerobic exercise on motor acquisition. 24 young, healthy adults performed a motor learning task either immediately after 30 minutes of moderate intensity running, after running followed by a long rest period, or after slow walking. Motor skill was assessed via a speed-accuracy tradeoff function to determine how exercise might differentially affect two distinct components of motor learning performance: movement speed and accuracy. In experiment 2, we investigated both acquisition and retention of motor skill across multiple days of training. 20 additional participants performed either a bout of running or slow walking immediately before motor learning on three consecutive days, and only motor learning (no exercise on a fourth day. We found that moderate intensity running led to an immediate improvement in motor acquisition for both a single session and on multiple sessions across subsequent days, but had no effect on between-day retention. This effect was driven by improved movement accuracy, as opposed to speed. However, the benefit of exercise was dependent upon motor learning occurring immediately after exercise-resting for a period of one hour after exercise diminished the effect. These results demonstrate that moderate intensity exercise can prime the nervous system for the acquisition of new motor skills, and suggest that similar exercise protocols may be effective in improving the outcomes of movement

  3. Lung function profiles and aerobic capacity of adult cigarette and hookah smokers after 12 weeks intermittent training

    OpenAIRE

    Koubaa, Abdessalem; Triki, Moez; Trabelsi, Hajer; Masmoudi, Liwa; Zeghal, Khaled N; Sahnoun, Zouhair; Hakim, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Pulmonary function is compromised in most smokers. Yet it is unknown whether exercise training improves pulmonary function and aerobic capacity in cigarette and hookah smokers and whether these smokers respond in a similar way as do non-smokers.Aim: To evaluate the effects of an interval exercise training program on pulmonary function and aerobic capacity in cigarette and hookah smokers.Methods: Twelve cigarette smokers, 10 hookah smokers, and 11 non-smokers participated in our ...

  4. The Effects of High Intensity Interval Training vs Steady State Training on Aerobic and Anaerobic Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Foster, Courtney V. Farland, Flavia Guidotti, Michelle Harbin, Brianna Roberts, Jeff Schuette, Andrew Tuuri, Scott T. Doberstein, John P. Porcari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available High intensity interval training (HIIT has become an increasingly popular form of exercise due to its potentially large effects on exercise capacity and small time requirement. This study compared the effects of two HIIT protocols vs steady-state training on aerobic and anaerobic capacity following 8-weeks of training. Fifty-five untrained college-aged subjects were randomly assigned to three training groups (3x weekly. Steady-state (n = 19 exercised (cycle ergometer 20 minutes at 90% of ventilatory threshold (VT. Tabata (n = 21 completed eight intervals of 20s at 170% VO2max/10s rest. Meyer (n = 15 completed 13 sets of 30s (20 min @ 100% PVO2 max/ 60s recovery, average PO = 90% VT. Each subject did 24 training sessions during 8 weeks. Results: There were significant (p < 0.05 increases in VO2max (+19, +18 and +18% and PPO (+17, +24 and +14% for each training group, as well as significant increases in peak (+8, + 9 and +5% & mean (+4, +7 and +6% power during Wingate testing, but no significant differences between groups. Measures of the enjoyment of the training program indicated that the Tabata protocol was significantly less enjoyable (p < 0.05 than the steady state and Meyer protocols, and that the enjoyment of all protocols declined (p < 0.05 across the duration of the study. The results suggest that although HIIT protocols are time efficient, they are not superior to conventional exercise training in sedentary young adults.

  5. Maternal Responses to Aerobic Exercise in Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Margie H; Skow, Rachel J; Steinback, Craig D

    2016-09-01

    Exercise is one of the most physiologically challenging stressors requiring the coordination of metabolic, respiratory, and cardiovascular responses to meet increased energy requirements of the working muscle. During pregnancy, all women without contraindication are encouraged to exercise as part of a healthy lifestyle. Pregnancy itself is associated with profound physiological adaptations to the maternal cardiovascular, respiratory, and metabolic systems, which serve to support the needs of the growing fetus. Therefore the physiological adaptations to exercise during pregnancy are more pronounced and critically important. This review provides an overview of our current understanding of the physiological adaptations to acute prenatal exercise. PMID:27042798

  6. Aerobic training in persons who have recovered from juvenile dermatomyositis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisager, M; Mathiesen, P R; Vissing, J;

    2013-01-01

    patients had a median disease duration of 3.4years (1.4-10.3), a median treatment duration of 2.4years (0.4-9.3) and a median duration of remission of 7.0years (1.2-30.0). Patients trained at home on a cycle ergometer for 12weeks at a heart rate interval corresponding to 65% of their maximal oxygen uptake......A recent study has shown that 36 persons who had recovered from juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) have on average an 18% decrease in maximal oxygen uptake. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a 12-week aerobic training program in this group, and assess whether aerobic training...... (VO2max). VO2max and maximal workload (Wmax) were determined before and after the 12-week training period through an incremental cycling test to exhaustion. The patients served as their own controls. Eight patients with JDM in remission completed the 12-week exercise program; one patient completed 9...

  7. Physical health of young and middle age women under influence of step-aerobics exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masliak I.P.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine the degree of step-aerobics exercises’ influence on 20-35 years age women’s health. Material: in the research 28 women of 20-35 years old age participated. Anthropometric indicators, heart beats rate in rest and after load (20 squats for 30 sec., blood pressure, vital capacity of lungs, hand dynamometry were registered. Results: level of physical health has been determined; influence of step-aerobics on women’s health has been found; age differences in the tested indicators have been analyzed. It was found out that step-aerobic trainings influence greatly on the following indicators: body mass, circumferential sizes and cardio vascular system; on functioning of respiratory system, strength of hand’s flexors and regulation of 31-35 years age women’s cardio-vascular system. Conclusions: application of step-aerobic exercises positively influenced on health of 20-35 years old women.

  8. A preliminary, randomized trial of aerobic exercise for alcohol dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Richard A.; Abrantes, Ana M.; Minami, Haruka; Read, Jennifer P.; Marcus, Bess H.; Jakicic, John M.; Strong, David R.; Dubreuil, Mary Ella; Gordon, Alan A.; Ramsey, Susan E.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2014-01-01

    Interventions targeting physical activity may be valuable as an adjunct to alcohol treatment, but have been relative untested. In the current study, alcohol dependent, physically sedentary patients were randomized to: a 12-week moderate-intensity, group aerobic exercise intervention (AE; n = 25) or a brief advice to exercise intervention (BA-E; n=23). Results showed that individuals in AE reported significantly fewer drinking and heavy drinking days, relative to BA-E during treatment. Further...

  9. Changes in Glucose, TNF-α and IL-6 Blood Levels in Middle-aged Women Associated with Aerobic Exercise and Meditation Training

    OpenAIRE

    Hur; Han, Gun-Soo; Cho, Byung-Jun

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of exercise therapy on glucose, TNF-α and IL-6 blood levels in middle-aged women. [Subjects] A total of 46 participants were assigned to four groups: Type D personality+Exercise (n=12), Type D+no-Exercise (n=12), not-Type D+Exercise (n=12), and not-Type D+no-Exercise (n=10). [Methods] Blood glucose was measured by the hexokinase method. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to measure the circulating plasma lev...

  10. AmIRTEM: a functional model for training of aerobic endurance for health improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaeta, Eugenio; Cea, Gloria; Arredondo, Maria T; Leuteritz, Jan P

    2012-11-01

    In a nonstrenuous exercise, the heart rate (HR) shows a linear relationship with the maximum volume of oxygen consumption VO(2Max) and serves as an indicator of performance of the cardiovascular system. The HR replaces the %VO(2Max) in exercise program prescription to improve aerobic endurance. In order to achieve an optimal effect in an endurance training, the athlete needs to work out at an HR high enough to trigger the aerobic metabolism, while avoiding the very high HRs that bring along significant risks of myocardial infarction. The minimal and optimal base training programs, followed by stretching exercises to prevent injuries, are adequate programs to maximize benefits and minimize health risks for the cardiovascular system during single session training. In this paper, we have defined a functional model for an ambient intelligence system that monitors, evaluates, and trains the aerobic endurance. It is based on the Android operating system and the Gow Running smart shirt. The system has been evaluated during functional assessment stress testing of aerobic endurance in the Stress Physiology Laboratory (SPL) of the Technical University of Madrid. Furthermore, a voice system designed to guide the user through minimal and optimal base training programs has been evaluated. The results obtained fully confirm the model with a high correlation between the data collected by the system and the by SPL. There is also a high hit rate between training sessions of the users and the objective training functions defined in the training programs. PMID:22801486

  11. Effects of acute physical exercise on executive functions: a comparison between aerobic and strength exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Christiano Rodrigues; Gualano, Bruno; Takao, Pollyana Pereira; Avakian, Paula; Fernandes, Rafael Mistura; Morine, Diego; Takito, Monica Yuri

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of acute aerobic and strength exercises on selected executive functions. A counterbalanced, crossover, randomized trial was performed. Forty-two healthy women were randomly submitted to three different conditions: (1) aerobic exercise, (2) strength exercise, and (3) control condition. Before and after each condition, executive functions were measured by the Stroop Test and the Trail Making Test. Following the aerobic and strength sessions, the time to complete the Stroop "non-color word" and "color word" condition was lower when compared with that of the control session. The performance in the Trail Making Test was unchanged. In conclusion, both acute aerobic and strength exercises improve the executive functions. Nevertheless, this positive effect seems to be task and executive function dependent. PMID:22889693

  12. The Effect of Eight Weeks of Intense Aerobic Exercise on Chemerin and

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Moradi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Adipokines, including omentin and chemerin, are cytokines that are mainly secreted by adipose tissue. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of eight weeks of intense aerobic exercise on chemerin and omentin plasma levels in female Sprague Dawely rats. Methods: In the present experimental study, 35 two-month old Sprague Dawely rats were randomly divided into two groups: control (15 rats and training (20 rats. The training program included aerobic exercises which were conducted increasingly five times a week for 8 weeks. Blood samples were taken 24 h after the last training session. After eight weeks, an independent t-test and Pearson's correlation coefficient were used for data analysis. Results: The results showed that there was significant difference between omentin serum levels (p=0.012 and chemerin serum levels (p=0.003 in rats that had undergone exercises with high intensity program as compared to the control group. In addition, no significant correlation was observed between omentin and chemerin levels (p=0.08. Conclusion: According to the results of the present study as well as the importance of omentin and chemerin level changes, it seems that the training time must be more than 8 weeks and the exercise intensity should be tailored to the individual's fitness level. Otherwise, subjects are not able to perform the exercise program properly.

  13. Can a single session of a community-based group exercise program combining step aerobics and bodyweight resistance exercise acutely reduce blood pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Romeu; Sousa, Nelson; Garrido, Nuno; Cavaco, Braulio; Quaresma, Luís; Reis, Victor Machado

    2014-09-29

    This study aimed to analyze the acute effects of a single session of a community-based group exercise program combining step aerobics and bodyweight resistance exercise on blood pressure in healthy young adult women. Twenty-three healthy young adult women (aged 31.57 ± 7.87 years) participated in two experimental sessions (exercise and control) in a crossover study design. Blood pressure was monitored before, immediately after and at 10, 20 and 30 min of recovery. The exercise session consisted of four phases: 1) a warm-up (5 min of dance aerobics); 2) aerobic exercise training (30 min of step aerobics); 3) resistance exercise training (six sets of 12 repetitions of three bodyweight exercises in a circuit mode, 10 min); and 4) a cool-down (5 min of breathing and flexibility exercises); totaling 50 min of duration. Systolic blood pressure after exercise was significantly lower compared to control at the 10th min (-10.83 ± 2.13 vs. -2.6 ± 2.13 mmHg; p = 0.009), 20th min (-11.26 ± 2.13 vs. -3.04 ± 2.13 mmHg; p = 0.009) and 30th min of recovery (-10.87 ± 2.39 vs. -0.48 ± 2.39 mmHg; p = 0.004). A single session of a community-based group exercise program combining step aerobics and bodyweight resistance exercise was effective in inducing significant post-exercise hypotension in healthy young adult women. This type of low-cost exercise interventions may have an important role in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases and in community health promotion. PMID:25713644

  14. Can a Single Session of a Community-Based Group Exercise Program Combining Step Aerobics and Bodyweight Resistance Exercise Acutely Reduce Blood Pressure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendes Romeu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the acute effects of a single session of a community-based group exercise program combining step aerobics and bodyweight resistance exercise on blood pressure in healthy young adult women. Twentythree healthy young adult women (aged 31.57 ± 7.87 years participated in two experimental sessions (exercise and control in a crossover study design. Blood pressure was monitored before, immediately after and at 10, 20 and 30 min of recovery. The exercise session consisted of four phases: 1 a warm-up (5 min of dance aerobics; 2 aerobic exercise training (30 min of step aerobics; 3 resistance exercise training (six sets of 12 repetitions of three bodyweight exercises in a circuit mode, 10 min; and 4 a cool-down (5 min of breathing and flexibility exercises; totaling 50 min of duration. Systolic blood pressure after exercise was significantly lower compared to control at the 10th min (-10.83 ± 2.13 vs. -2.6 ± 2.13 mmHg; p = 0.009, 20th min (-11.26 ± 2.13 vs. -3.04 ± 2.13 mmHg; p = 0.009 and 30th min of recovery (-10.87 ± 2.39 vs. -0.48 ± 2.39 mmHg; p = 0.004. A single session of a community-based group exercise program combining step aerobics and bodyweight resistance exercise was effective in inducing significant post-exercise hypotension in healthy young adult women. This type of low-cost exercise interventions may have an important role in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases and in community health promotion.

  15. Aerobic exercise in coronary heart disease

    OpenAIRE

    Moholdt, Trine Tegdan

    2010-01-01

    Physical inactivity is recognised as a risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD). Healthy subjects who exercise have lower all-cause and CHD mortality compared to inactive. Also in subjects with already established CHD, being physically active seems to be associated with reduced mortality, but less data exist. Especially, the amount and intensity of exercise required for risk reduction in CHD patients is not yet fully resolved. With data from a population based prospective cohort study, th...

  16. Time-course effects of aerobic exercise training on cardiovascular and renal parameters in 2K1C renovascular hypertensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.C.A. Maia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Exercise training (Ex has been recommended for its beneficial effects in hypertensive states. The present study evaluated the time-course effects of Ex without workload on mean arterial pressure (MAP, reflex bradycardia, cardiac and renal histology, and oxidative stress in two-kidney, one-clip (2K1C hypertensive rats. Male Fischer rats (10 weeks old; 150–180 g underwent surgery (2K1C or SHAM and were subsequently divided into a sedentary (SED group and Ex group (swimming 1 h/day, 5 days/week for 2, 4, 6, 8, or 10 weeks. Until week 4, Ex decreased MAP, increased reflex bradycardia, prevented concentric hypertrophy, reduced collagen deposition in the myocardium and kidneys, decreased the level of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS in the left ventricle, and increased the catalase (CAT activity in the left ventricle and both kidneys. From week 6 to week 10, however, MAP and reflex bradycardia in 2K1C Ex rats became similar to those in 2K1C SED rats. Ex effectively reduced heart rate and prevented collagen deposition in the heart and both kidneys up to week 10, and restored the level of TBARS in the left ventricle and clipped kidney and the CAT activity in both kidneys until week 8. Ex without workload for 10 weeks in 2K1C rats provided distinct beneficial effects. The early effects of Ex on cardiovascular function included reversing MAP and reflex bradycardia. The later effects of Ex included preventing structural alterations in the heart and kidney by decreasing oxidative stress and reducing injuries in these organs during hypertension.

  17. Effect of a Single Session of Aerobic and Circuit-Resistance Exercise on Plasma Ghrelin and Agouti-Related Peptide (AgRP) Levels in Well-Trained Females

    OpenAIRE

    Mahdiyeh Ebrahimnia; Amir Rashidlamir; Mehdi Seyed-Alhosseini

    2014-01-01

    Background: Ghrelin and agouti-related protein (AgRP) are orexigenic peptides secreted from stomach mucosa and the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus, respectively. Both peptides affect feeding behavior and play a role in energy balance, glucose homeostasis, and adiposity. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of two types of exercises, aerobic and single circuit resistance exercise on plasma ghrelin and AgRP levels. Materials and Methods: The current study is sem...

  18. Electric motor assisted bicycle as an aerobic exercise machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, T; Okada, S; Makikawa, M

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study is to maintain a continuous level of exercise intensity around the aerobic threshold (AT) during riding on an electric motor assisted bicycle using a new control system of electrical motor assistance which uses the efficient pedaling rate of popular bicycles. Five male subjects participated in the experiment, and the oxygen uptake was measured during cycling exercise using this new pedaling rate control system of electrical motor assistance, which could maintain the pedaling rate within a specific range, similar to that in previous type of electrically assisted bicycles. Results showed that this new pedaling rate control system at 65 rpm ensured continuous aerobic exercise intensity around the AT in two subjects, and this intensity level was higher than that observed in previous type. However, certain subjects were unable to maintain the expected exercise intensity because of their particular cycling preferences such as the pedaling rate. It is necessary to adjust the specific pedaling rate range of the electrical motor assist control according to the preferred pedaling rate, so that this system becomes applicable to anyone who want continuous aerobic exercise. PMID:23366293

  19. On Aerobic Exercise and Behavioral and Neural Plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin Peplinski

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Aerobic exercise promotes rapid and profound alterations in the brain. Depending upon the pattern and duration of exercise, these changes in the brain may extend beyond traditional motor areas to regions and structures normally linked to learning, cognition, and emotion. Exercise-induced alterations may include changes in blood flow, hormone and growth factor release, receptor expression, angiogenesis, apoptosis, neurogenesis, and synaptogenesis. Together, we believe that these changes underlie elevations of mood and prompt the heightened behavioral plasticity commonly observed following adoption of a chronic exercise regimen. In the following paper, we will explore both the psychological and psychobiological literatures relating to exercise effects on brain in both human and non-human animals and will attempt to link plastic changes in these neural structures to modifications in learned behavior and emotional expression. In addition, we will explore the therapeutic potential of exercise given recent reports that aerobic exercise may serve as a neuroprotectant and can also slow cognitive decline during normal and pathological aging.

  20. Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Lung Function in Overweight and Obese Students

    OpenAIRE

    Azad, Ahmad; Gharakhanlou, Reza; Niknam, Alireza; Ghanbari, Amir

    2011-01-01

    Background In healthy teenagers, obesity and physical inactivity are the two main factors that affect respiratory function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of aerobic exercise training on improving lung function in overweight and obese students. Materials and Methods Thirty overweight or obese subjects with poor endurance performance and mild deterioration of respiratory indices (forced expiratory volume and forced expiratory volume in 1 second < 90% predicted) were randomly ...

  1. Effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation and aerobic exercise training on arterial stiffness and autonomic functions in patients with chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobšák, Petr; Tomandl, Josef; Spinarova, Lenka; Vitovec, Jiri; Dusek, Ladislav; Novakova, Marie; Jarkovsky, Jiri; Krejci, Jan; Hude, Petr; Honek, Tomáš; Siegelova, Jarmila; Homolka, Pavel

    2012-10-01

    Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) of leg muscles has been introduced in clinical practice as a rehabilitation (RHB) method in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF); however, the role of NMES on the reduction of arterial stiffness and autonomic disbalance in these patients has not yet been studied. Sixty-one patients with stable CHF (mean age 58.9 [2.1] years; mean ejection fraction 31 [4.2]%, New York Heart Association II-III) were randomly assigned into two groups. Patients in (i) exercise training group (ET; n = 30) underwent 12 weeks of bicycle ET (3 × 40 min/week); (ii) group NMES (n = 31) performed 12 weeks of NMES of quadriceps and calf muscles (frequency 10 Hz, mode "20 s on-20 s off," intensity 60 mA), 2 × 60 min/day. Noninvasive assessment of arterial stiffness was done using the cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI). CAVI and heart rate variability (HRV) and ·VO(2peak) were evaluated before and after RHB program. Both types of RHB reduced significantly CAVI (ET from 9.6 [0.2] to 8.9 [0.2], P < 0.012; NMES from 9.3 [0.2] to 8.7 [0.2], P < 0.013), increased high frequency (HF) component of HRV (+65.6%; P = 0.001) and decreased ratio of low frequency (LF) component with HF component (LF/HF ratio) in group ET (-39.8%; P < 0.001). Changes of HRV parameters in group NMES were not significant; however, a marked tendency to autonomic stabilization was present. Both types of RHB led also to significant increase of ·VO(2peak) (ET from 18.7 [0.7] to 20.8 [0.7] mL/kg/min, P < 0.004; NMES from 17.3 [0.7] to 19.0 [0.7] mL/kg/min, P < 0.001). ET or NMES has been shown to improve significantly arterial stiffness and to stabilize autonomic balance. PMID:22882472

  2. Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Anxiety Disorders: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Moura, Antonio Marcos; Lamego, Murilo Khede; Paes, Flávia; Ferreira Rocha, Nuno Barbosa; Simoes-Silva, Vitor; Rocha, Susana Almeida; de Sá Filho, Alberto Souza; Rimes, Ridson; Manochio, João; Budde, Henning; Wegner, Mirko; Mura, Gioia; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Yuan, Ti-Fei; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Machado, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are the most common psychiatric disorders observed currently. It is a normal adaptive response to stress that allows coping with adverse situations. Nevertheless, when anxiety becomes excessive or disproportional in relation to the situation that evokes it or when there is not any special object directed at it, such as an irrational dread of routine stimuli, it becomes a disabling disorder and is considered to be pathological. The traditional treatment used is medication and cognitive behavioral psychotherapy, however, last years the practice of physical exercise, specifically aerobic exercise, has been investigated as a new non-pharmacological therapy for anxiety disorders. Thus, the aim of this article was to provide information on research results and key chains related to the therapeutic effects of aerobic exercise compared with other types of interventions to treat anxiety, which may become a useful clinical application in a near future. Researches have shown the effectiveness of alternative treatments, such as physical exercise, minimizing high financial costs and minimizing side effects. The sample analyzed, 66.8% was composed of women and 80% with severity of symptoms anxiety as moderate to severe. The data analyzed in this review allows us to claim that alternative therapies like exercise are effective in controlling and reducing symptoms, as 91% of anxiety disorders surveys have shown effective results in treating. However, there is still disagreement regarding the effect of exercise compared to the use of antidepressant symptoms and cognitive function in anxiety, this suggests that there is no consensus on the correct intensity of aerobic exercise as to achieve the best dose-response, with intensities high to moderate or moderate to mild. PMID:26556089

  3. Cardiovascular response to dynamic aerobic exercise: a mathematical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magosso, E; Ursino, M

    2002-11-01

    An original mathematical model of the cardiovascular response to dynamic exercise is presented. It includes the pulsating heart, the pulmonary and systemic circulation, a separate description of the vascular bed in active tissues, the local metabolic vasodilation in these tissues and the mechanical effects of muscular contractions on venous return. Moreover, the model provides a description of the ventilatory response to exercise and various neural regulatory mechanisms working on cardiovascular parameters. These mechanisms embrace the so-called central command, the arterial baroreflex and the lung inflation reflex. All parameters in the model have been given in accordance with physiological data from the literature. In this work, the model has been used to simulate the steady-state value of the main cardiorespiratory quantities at different levels of aerobic exercise and the temporal pattern in the transient phase from rest to moderate exercise. Results suggest that, with suitable parameter values the model is able accurately to simulate the cardiorespiratory response in the overall range of aerobic exercise. This response is characterised by a moderate hypertension (10-30%) and by a conspicuous increase in systemic conductance (80-130%), heart rate (64-150%) and cardiac output (100-200%). The transient pattern exhibits three distinct phases (lasting approximately 5s, 15s and 2 min), that reflect the temporal heterogeneity of the mechanisms involved. The model may be useful to improve understanding of exercise physiology and as an educational tool to analyse the complexity of cardiovascular and respiratory regulation. PMID:12507317

  4. Can aerobic exercise protect against dementia?

    OpenAIRE

    Neill R Graff-Radford

    2011-01-01

    There are more than 36 million people in the US over the age of 65, and all of them are impacted by the cognitive decline and brain atrophy associated with normal aging and dementia-causing conditions like Alzheimer's disease, Lewy body disease, and vascular dementia. Recently, moderate exercise and improved fitness have been shown to enhance cognition in cognitively normal older persons as well as in individuals who complain of memory difficulty. Additionally, fitness correlates with brain v...

  5. Serum leptin and ghrelin changes-induced aerobic training ‎in healthy young females

    OpenAIRE

    Masoumeh Azizi

    2012-01-01

    Background: Ghrelin is a peptide hormone secreted from the endocrine cells of stomach, ‎affecting feeding behavior, appetite, energy consumption, weight, and body composition which ‎may thus be an essential hormone for maintaining energy hemostasis. Leptin, an antagonist to ‎ghrelin, is another hormone which also plays a key role in metabolism. Much evidence indicates ‎that aerobic exercise training is a key component of exercise recommendations for weight control. ‎Yet, results on the impact...

  6. Cardiac parasympathetic reactivation following exercise: implications for training prescription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Jamie; Peake, Jonathan M; Buchheit, Martin

    2013-12-01

    The objective of exercise training is to initiate desirable physiological adaptations that ultimately enhance physical work capacity. Optimal training prescription requires an individualized approach, with an appropriate balance of training stimulus and recovery and optimal periodization. Recovery from exercise involves integrated physiological responses. The cardiovascular system plays a fundamental role in facilitating many of these responses, including thermoregulation and delivery/removal of nutrients and waste products. As a marker of cardiovascular recovery, cardiac parasympathetic reactivation following a training session is highly individualized. It appears to parallel the acute/intermediate recovery of the thermoregulatory and vascular systems, as described by the supercompensation theory. The physiological mechanisms underlying cardiac parasympathetic reactivation are not completely understood. However, changes in cardiac autonomic activity may provide a proxy measure of the changes in autonomic input into organs and (by default) the blood flow requirements to restore homeostasis. Metaboreflex stimulation (e.g. muscle and blood acidosis) is likely a key determinant of parasympathetic reactivation in the short term (0-90 min post-exercise), whereas baroreflex stimulation (e.g. exercise-induced changes in plasma volume) probably mediates parasympathetic reactivation in the intermediate term (1-48 h post-exercise). Cardiac parasympathetic reactivation does not appear to coincide with the recovery of all physiological systems (e.g. energy stores or the neuromuscular system). However, this may reflect the limited data currently available on parasympathetic reactivation following strength/resistance-based exercise of variable intensity. In this review, we quantitatively analyse post-exercise cardiac parasympathetic reactivation in athletes and healthy individuals following aerobic exercise, with respect to exercise intensity and duration, and fitness/training

  7. The Effect of Different Combination of Aerobic Exercise and Strength Training on the Physical Fitness of the Overweight University Students%有氧运动和力量训练不同顺序组合对超重大学生体适能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王明献; 李玉周

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effect of different combination of aerobic exercise and strength training on fitness of voverweight students.20 overweight university students are divided into two groups at random:aerobic exercise then strength training and strength training then aerobic exercise.Twelve weeks later,the relevant indicators are investigated before and after the exercise and training,and SPSS17.0 is used to analyze the changes of the indictors.The difference of the lean body mass of the subj ects in aerobic exercise then strength training is not significant,while the differences of the indexes of the body fat,BMI,the lean body mass/body weight,and body weight are significant for aerobic exercise then strength training,but the differences of all the above indexes are insignificant for strength training then aerobic exercise;the differ-ences of the grip strength are both insignificant in two groups;the differences of the indexes of the back muscle strength and standing long j ump of strength training then aerobic exercise are significant,and the differences of their vital capacity and the VO2 max are highly significant.12 weeks of aerobic exercise then strength training and strength training then aerobic exercise can improve overweight students'physical quality;There is no difference on vital capacity and the VO2 max of different combination prescription after 1 2 weeks,but the influence of strength training then aerobic exercise group on lean body mass,back strength and standing long j ump is more obvious;Strength training then aerobic exercise is the suitable exercise for the people who want to reduce body fat,increase strength and improve vital capacity and the VO2 max.%研究有氧运动和力量训练不同顺序组合对超重大学生体适能的影响。随机选取20名超重大学生,分为有氧运动后力量训练组和力量训练后有氧运动组,测试12周锻炼前后相关指标的变化。实验结果显示:有氧运动后力量训练组受试

  8. Effect of a Single Session of Aerobic and Circuit-Resistance Exercise on Plasma Ghrelin and Agouti-Related Peptide (AgRP Levels in Well-Trained Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdiyeh Ebrahimnia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ghrelin and agouti-related protein (AgRP are orexigenic peptides secreted from stomach mucosa and the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus, respectively. Both peptides affect feeding behavior and play a role in energy balance, glucose homeostasis, and adiposity. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of two types of exercises, aerobic and single circuit resistance exercise on plasma ghrelin and AgRP levels. Materials and Methods: The current study is semi-experimental. Twenty two athletes young females randomly selected and assigned into two experimental groups and one control group. Blood samples were collected before and after the enforced protocol. Plasma AgRP and ghrelin levels were measured using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA method. Results: Results showed a significant increase in plasma AgRP (p=0.001 and ghrelin concentration in control and aerobic (p=0.001 and circulate-resistance (p=0.001 groups. Conclusion: In healthy females a single session of aerobic and circuit-resistance exercise could be associated with the increase of these peptides in response to the negative balance of energy produced by exercising for increasing appetite to compensate energy resources body subjects.

  9. The Effects of Acute Exercise and Exercise Training on Plasma Homocysteine: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deminice, Rafael; Ribeiro, Diogo Farias; Frajacomo, Fernando Tadeu Trevisan

    2016-01-01

    Background Although studies have demonstrated that physical exercise alters homocysteine levels in the blood, meta-analyses of the effects of acute exercise and exercise training on homocysteine blood concentration have not been performed, especially regarding the duration and intensity of exercise, which could affect homocysteine levels differently. Objective The aim of this meta-analysis was to ascertain the effects of acute exercise and exercise training on homocysteine levels in the blood. Method A review was conducted according to the guidelines of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses using the online databases PubMed, SPORTDiscus, and SciELO to identify relevant studies published through June 2015. Review Manager was used to calculate the effect size of acute exercise and exercise training using the change in Hcy plasmaserum concentration from baseline to post-acute exercise and trained vs. sedentary control groups, respectively. Weighted mean differences were calculated using random effect models. Results Given the abundance of studies, acute exercise trials were divided into two subgroups according to exercise volume and intensity, whereas the effects of exercise training were analyzed together. Overall, 22 studies with a total of 520 participants indicated increased plasma homocysteine concentration after acute exercise (1.18 μmol/L, 95% CI: 0.71 to 1.65, p homocysteine levels in the blood. Increased homocysteine induced by exercise was significantly associated with volume of exercise, but not intensity. By contrast, resistance training reduced plasma homocysteine concentration (-1.53 μmol/L, 95% CI: -2.77 to -0.28, p = .02), though aerobic training did not. The cumulative results of the seven studies with a total of 230 participants in exercise training analysis did not demonstrate a significant impact on homocysteine levels in the blood (-0.56 μmol/L, 95% CI: -1.61 to 0.50, p = .23). Conclusions Current evidence

  10. Does aerobic exercise improve or impair cardiorespiratory fitness and health among cleaners?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korshøj Larsen, Mette; Lidegaard, Mark; Skotte, Jørgen H; Krustrup, Peter; Krause, Niklas; Søgaard, Karen; Holtermann, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: It is unknown if aerobic exercise overloads or improves the cardiovascular system among workers with high occupational physical activity. This was investigated in a worksite randomized controlled trial (RCT) of aerobic exercise among cleaners. METHODS: We randomized 116 cleaners between...... 18-65 years. The aerobic exercise group (N=57) performed worksite aerobic exercise (30 minutes twice a week) and the reference group (N=59) received lectures. Cardiorespiratory fitness, blood pressure (BP) and diurnal heart rate (HR) for measuring aerobic workload [% HR reserve (% HRR)] were...

  11. Influence of Aerobic Training and Combinations of Interventions on Cognition and Neuroplasticity after Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constans, Annabelle; Pin-Barre, Caroline; Temprado, Jean-Jacques; Decherchi, Patrick; Laurin, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    Stroke often aggravated age-related cognitive impairments that strongly affect several aspects of quality of life. However, few studies are, to date, focused on rehabilitation strategies that could improve cognition. Among possible interventions, aerobic training is well known to enhance cardiovascular and motor functions but may also induce beneficial effects on cognitive functions. To assess the effectiveness of aerobic training on cognition, it seems necessary to know whether training promotes the neuroplasticity in brain areas involved in cognitive functions. In the present review, we first explore in both human and animal how aerobic training could improve cognition after stroke by highlighting the neuroplasticity mechanisms. Then, we address the potential effect of combinations between aerobic training with other interventions, including resistance exercises and pharmacological treatments. In addition, we postulate that classic recommendations for aerobic training need to be reconsidered to target both cognition and motor recovery because the current guidelines are only focused on cardiovascular and motor recovery. Finally, methodological limitations of training programs and cognitive function assessment are also developed in this review to clarify their effectiveness in stroke patients. PMID:27445801

  12. On the Cellular Basis of Aerobic Fitness: Intensity-Dependence and Time-Course of Cardiomyocyte and Endothelial Adaptations to Exercise Training

    OpenAIRE

    Kemi, Ole Johan

    2005-01-01

    Beneficial effects of exercise are closely associated with fitness and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). Capacity for oxygen transport increases mainly by improved cardiac function, including larger chamber volumes, myocardial hypertrophy, and enhanced diastolic and systolic function. Higher arterial conductance, capillarity, and oxygen utilization in skeletal muscle also contribute. The present thesis investigates the cellular basis for cardiac and arterial effects; how they correlate with cha...

  13. Effect of the low- versus high-intensity exercise training on endoplasmic reticulum stress and GLP-1 in adolescents with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sung Soo; Yoo, Jae Ho; So, Yong Seok

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The primary objective of this study was to investigate the effect of low-intensity exercise training compare with high-intensity exercise training on endoplasmic reticulum stress and glucagon-like peptide-1 in adolescents with type 2 diabetes mellitus. [Subjects and Methods] The low-intensity exercise training group performed aerobic exercise training at an intensity of ≤ 45% of the heart rate reserve. The high-intensity interval exercise training group performed interval exercise t...

  14. Effects of aerobic and strength-based training on metabolic health indicators in older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Cumming Sean P; Coelho e Silva Manuel J; Veríssimo Manuel T; Martins Raul A; Teixeira Ana M

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The weakening of the cardiovascular system associated with aging could be countered by increasing levels of physical activity and functional fitness. However, inconsistent findings have been found, and the variety of characteristics of exercise used in previous studies may partly explain that inconsistent results. Objective To investigate the training effect of sixteen weeks of moderate intensity, progressive aerobic and strength-based training on metabolic health of older...

  15. On improving effect combining aerobic and anaerobic loads of character in the classroom for physical training in universities

    OpenAIRE

    Goginava S.E.; Rumba O.G.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: substantiate the health effects on the body through a combination of students in the classroom for physical training loads of aerobic and anaerobic nature. Material : the study involved 174 students of 1-3 courses NIU "BSU." Of these, 90 girls and 84 boys aged 17-20 years. Results : the specificity of the health effects of athletic gymnastics as a means of anaerobic training students. The specificity of the health effects of swimming as a means of improving aerobic exercise. Expedien...

  16. Operator Training by Emergency Exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The defence in depth concept requires not only provisions for coping with anticipated operational occurrences as well as design basis accidents but also provisions which allow appropriate reactions to beyond design basis accidents. In accordance with this concept the Nuclear Safety Convention, which was signed by many IAEA Member States, deals among others with emergency preparedness and the correlated provisions. The Safety Convention requires that on-site and off-site emergency plans are routinely tested for nuclear installations. The aim of these provisions is primarily the prevention of radiological consequences in the environment of nuclear installations but also the mitigation of such consequences, should they nevertheless occur. Up to the eighties emergency preparedness concentrated on a few provisions by the operators and in particular on plant-external emergency planning. As a result of the accidents at Three Mile Island as well as Chernobyl and with the findings from many risk studies, accident management measures and emergency procedures were developed. This led to an increased plant internal emergency preparedness focussing on the prevention of severe core damage in case of beyond design basis accidents and on the reduction of external consequences in case of such hypothetical events. For emergency exercises based on event-sheets Volume 1 of the 'Manual for the Planning, Coordination and Evaluation of Emergency Exercises' has been elaborated in 1997. This manual emphasizes the modular structure of emergency exercises. The performed simulator-assisted exercises show that this type of exercises offers an extension of the spectrum of training measures. Explanations and findings related to this type of exercises are summarized in a second Volume of the above mentioned manual. In this volume the pros and cons of the two exercise types are discussed among others. Using the gathered experience laid down in particular in the two volumes of the manual a basis

  17. Cognitive enhancement by transcranial laser stimulation and acute aerobic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jungyun; Castelli, Darla M; Gonzalez-Lima, F

    2016-08-01

    This is the first randomized, controlled study comparing the cognitive effects of transcranial laser stimulation and acute aerobic exercise on the same cognitive tasks. We examined whether transcranial infrared laser stimulation of the prefrontal cortex, acute high-intensity aerobic exercise, or the combination may enhance performance in sustained attention and working memory tasks. Sixty healthy young adults were randomly assigned to one of the following four treatments: (1) low-level laser therapy (LLLT) with infrared laser to two forehead sites while seated (total 8 min, 1064 nm continuous wave, 250 mW/cm(2), 60 J/cm(2) per site of 13.6 cm(2)); (2) acute exercise (EX) of high-intensity (total 20 min, with 10-min treadmill running at 85-90 % VO2max); (3) combined treatment (LLLT + EX); or (4) sham control (CON). Participants were tested for prefrontal measures of sustained attention with the psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) and working memory with the delayed match-to-sample task (DMS) before and after the treatments. As compared to CON, both LLLT and EX reduced reaction time in the PVT [F(1.56) = 4.134, p = 0.01, η (2)  = 0.181] and increased the number of correct responses in the DMS [F(1.56) = 4.690, p = 0.005, η (2)  = 0.201], demonstrating a significant enhancing effect of LLLT and EX on cognitive performance. LLLT + EX effects were similar but showed no significantly greater improvement on PVT and DMS than LLLT or EX alone. The transcranial infrared laser stimulation and acute aerobic exercise treatments were similarly effective for cognitive enhancement, suggesting that they augment prefrontal cognitive functions similarly. PMID:27220529

  18. Effects of Combined Selective Aerobic Moderate Intensity Exercises and Soya Intake on Serum Lipids and Obesity in Obese Postmenopausal Women

    OpenAIRE

    A Zarneshan

    2012-01-01

    Background & Aim: Today, the percentage of deaths due to heart diseases has increased and along with the exercise training role in reducing obesity and cardiovascular disease, soy is a useful source of food in reducing blood lipid and obesity. The present study investigated the effect of combined selective short aerobic moderate intensity exercise and soya intake on serum lipids and obesity in obese postmenopausal women. Methods: In the present quasi-experimental study conducted in 2006 o...

  19. Estimated Aerobic Capacity Changes in Adolescents with Obesity Following High Intensity Interval Exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Brooke E. Starkoff; Eneli, Ihuoma U.; Andrea E. Bonny; Robert P. Hoffman; Steven T. Devor

    2014-01-01

    Vigorous aerobic exercise may improve aerobic capacity (VO2max) and cardiometabolic profiles in adolescents with obesity, independent of changes to weight. Our aim was to assess changes in estimated VO2max in obese adolescents following a 6-week exercise program of varying intensities. Adolescents with obesity were recruited from an American mid-west children’s hospital and randomized into moderate exercise (MOD) or high intensity interval exercise (HIIE) groups for a 6-week exercise interven...

  20. The Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Cognitive Function of Alzheimer's Disease Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Si-Yu; Shan, Chun-Lei; Qing, He; Wang, Wei; Zhu, Yi; Yin, Meng-Mei; Machado, Sergio; Yuan, Ti-Fei; Wu, Ting

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of moderate intensity of aerobic exercise on elderly people with mild Alzheimer's disease, we recruited fifty volunteers aged 50 years to 80 years with cognitive impairment. They were randomized into two groups: aerobic group (n=25) or control group (n=25). The aerobic group was treated with cycling training at 70% of maximal intensity for 40 min/d, 3 d/wk for 3 months. The control group was only treated with heath education. Both groups were received cognitive evaluation, laboratory examination before and after 3 months. The results showed that the Minimum Mental State Examination score, Quality of Life Alzheimer's Disease score and the plasma Apo-a1 level was significantly increased (Pcognition score, Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire score was significantly decreased.(Paerobic group before and after 3 months in aerobic group. For the control group, there was no significant difference in scores of Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognition, Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire, Quality of Life Alzheimer's Disease, Apo-a1 (P>0.05), while Minimum Mental State Examination scores decreased significantly after 3 months (Paerobic exercise can improve cognitive function in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease. PMID:26556080

  1. Intensive exercise training suppresses testosterone during bed rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, C. E.; Stanford, K. I.; Stein, T. P.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    2005-01-01

    Spaceflight and prolonged bed rest (BR) alter plasma hormone levels inconsistently. This may be due, in part, to prescription of heavy exercise as a countermeasure for ameliorating the adverse effects of disuse. The initial project was to assess exercise programs to maintain aerobic performance and leg strength during BR. The present study evaluates the effect of BR and the performance of the prescribed exercise countermeasures on plasma steroid levels. In a 30-day BR study of male subjects, the efficacy of isotonic (ITE, n = 7) or isokinetic exercise (IKE, n = 7) training was evaluated in contrast to no exercise (n = 5). These exercise countermeasures protected aerobic performance and leg strength successfully. BR alone (no-exercise group) did not change steroidogenesis, as assessed by the plasma concentrations of cortisol, progesterone, aldosterone, and free (FT) and total testosterone (TT). In the exercise groups, both FT and TT were decreased (P exercise countermeasures on plasma testosterone was not associated with indexes of overtraining. The reduction in plasma testosterone associated with both the IKE and ITE countermeasures during BR supports our hypothesis that intensive exercise countermeasures may, in part, contribute to changes in plasma steroid concentrations during spaceflight.

  2. Special speed-power training as the basis of technical skillfulness improvement in sport aerobic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshenska T.V.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to theoretically work out and experimentally substantiate effectiveness of authors’ methodic of speed-power qualities’ training in sport aerobic. Material: 20 sportsmen participated in the research: boys and girls of 8-12 years’ age. Assessment of speed-power fitness was conducted by results of commonly accepted tests, applied in sport practice. Results: we have developed complexes of jump exercises, which envisage varying of conditions of exercises’ fulfillment at the account of pushing conditions (jumps in depth, jumps over obstacles and jumps on elevated platforms. When fulfilling jumps in motion the main was achievement of maximal height with fixing of jump’s form in flight. Conclusions: we offer six complexes of exercises for speed-power training in sport aerobic. These complexes are recommended to be fulfilled at the end of preparatory part of training session during 15-20 minutes.

  3. Effects of Aerobic Exercise and Whole Body Vibration on Glycaemia Control in Type 2 Diabetic Males

    OpenAIRE

    Mahyar Salavati; Hamid Aghaalinejad; Lale Behboudi; Mohammad-Ali Azarbayjani

    2011-01-01

    Purpose aerobic exercise has been identified as the main treatment for type 2 diabetic patients. Such an exercise, however, is usually repined by some of patients who suffer from lack of stamina. Therefore, whole body vibration has recently been introduced as a passive intervention. The present study aimed at comparing how aerobic exercise and whole body vibration affect glycaemia control in type 2 diabetic males. Methods Thirty diabetic males were divided into three groups, namely aerobic ex...

  4. Balinese dance exercises improve the maximum aerobic capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adiputra, N; Alex, P; Sutjana, D P; Tirtayasa, K; Manuaba, A

    1996-06-01

    The maximum aerobic capacity can be used to predict the maximum working capacity. The maximum working capacity plays an important role in achieving the best performance. Therefore, physical fitness program for maintaining maximum working capacity is a must. A study on the application of Balinese dance exercise was carried out. Sixty young male Balinese, aged from 17 to 19 years were used as subjects. They were divided into two groups: Experimental group (EG) and control group (CG) based on their VO2max. The EG participated in a program of Balinese dance exercise 3 x 50 min per week for 8 weeks. Pretest-posttest control group design was applied. The maximum aerobic capacity was measured, based on the Modified Harvard Step-up Test and nomogram of Astrand. The results are as follows: there is a very significant improvement of VO2max from 2.7 +/- 0.5 l/min or 51.1 +/- 9.1 ml/kg/min into 3.1 +/- 0.5 l/min or 58.9 +/- 9.8 ml/kg/min. Other parameters such as resting heart rate, blood pressure and percent body fat were decreased significantly. The study concludes that Balinese dance exercise could be used as a program for physical fitness maintenance. PMID:9551128

  5. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of an Aerobic Exercise Program and the Personality Characteristics of Patients with Fibromyalgia Syndrome: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Vural, Meltem; Berkol, Tonguc Demir; Erdogdu, Zeynep; Pekedis, Keramettin; Kuçukserat, Batuhan; Aksoy, Cihan

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a 6-week aerobic exercise program on pain, physical function, and psychological status, and to evaluate the personality characteristics of fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) patients. [Subjects and Methods] Fourteen women with FMS were enrolled. They were trained for a 6-week home-based aerobic exercise program. The Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, the Beck Depression Inventory, the visual analog scale of pain and sleep quality wer...

  6. SEVERE OBESITY SHIFTS METABOLIC THRESHOLDS BUT DOES NOT ATTENUATE AEROBIC TRAINING ADAPTATIONS IN ZUCKER RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Santos Rosa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Severe obesity affects metabolism with potential to influence the lactate and glycemic response to different exercise intensities in untrained and trained rats. Here we evaluated metabolic thresholds and maximal aerobic capacity in rats with severe obesity and lean counterparts at pre- and post-training. Zucker rats (obese: n = 10, lean: n = 10 were submitted to constant treadmill bouts, to determine the maximal lactate steady state, and an incremental treadmill test, to determine the lactate threshold, glycemic threshold and maximal velocity at pre and post 8 weeks of treadmill training. Velocities of the lactate threshold and glycemic threshold agreed with the maximal lactate steady state velocity on most comparisons. The maximal lactate steady state velocity occurred at higher percentage of the maximal velocity in Zucker rats at pre-training than the percentage commonly reported and used for training prescription for other rat strains (i.e., 60% (obese = 78±9% and lean = 68±5%, P 0.05, whereas increase in maximal velocity was greater in the obese group (P <0.05 vs. lean. In conclusion, lactate threshold, glycemic threshold and maximal lactate steady state occurred at similar exercise intensity in Zucker rats at pre- and post-training. Severe obesity shifted metabolic thresholds to higher exercise intensity at pre-training, but did not attenuate submaximal and maximal aerobic training adaptations.

  7. Aerobic exercise improves the inflammatory profile correlated with cardiac remodeling and function in chronic heart failure rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramiro B. Nunes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of 8 weeks of aerobic exercise training on cardiac functioning and remodeling and on the plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines in chronic heart failure rats. METHODS: Wistar rats were subjected to myocardial infarction or sham surgery and assigned to 4 groups: chronic heart failure trained (n = 7, chronic heart failure sedentary (n = 6, sham trained (n = 8 and sham sedentary (n = 8. Four weeks after the surgical procedures, the rats were subjected to aerobic training in the form of treadmill running (50 min/day, 5 times per week, 16 m/min. At the end of 8 weeks, the rats were placed under anesthesia, the hemodynamic variables were recorded and blood samples were collected. Cardiac hypertrophy was evaluated using the left ventricular weight/body weight ratio, and the collagen volume fraction was assessed using histology. RESULTS: The chronic heart failure trained group showed a reduction in left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, a lower left ventricular weight/body weight ratio and a lower collagen volume fraction compared with the chronic heart failure sedentary group. In addition, exercise training reduced the plasma levels of TNF-α and IL-6 and increased the plasma level of IL-10. CONCLUSION: An 8-week aerobic exercise training program improved the inflammatory profile and cardiac function and attenuated cardiac remodeling in chronic heart failure rats.

  8. Similar enhancement of BK(Ca) channel function despite different aerobic exercise frequency in aging cerebrovascular myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, N; Liu, B; Xiang, S; Shi, L

    2016-07-18

    Aerobic exercise showed beneficial influence on cardiovascular systems in aging, and mechanisms underlying vascular adaption remain unclear. Large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BK(Ca)) channels play critical roles in regulating cellular excitability and vascular tone. This study determined the effects of aerobic exercise on aging-associated functional changes in BK(Ca) channels in cerebrovascular myocytes, Male Wistar rats aged 20-22 months were randomly assigned to sedentary (O-SED), low training frequency (O-EXL), and high training frequency group (O-EXH). Young rats were used as control. Compared to young rats, whole-cell BK(Ca) current was decreased, and amplitude of spontaneous transient outward currents were reduced. The open probability and Ca(2+)/voltage sensitivity of single BK(Ca) channel were declined in O-SED, accompanied with a reduction of tamoxifen-induced BK(Ca) activation; the mean open time of BK(Ca) channels was shortened whereas close time was prolonged. Aerobic exercise training markedly alleviated the aging-associated decline independent of training frequency. Exercise three times rather than five times weekly may be a time and cost-saving training volume required to offer beneficial effects to offset the functional declines of BK(Ca) during aging. PMID:27070745

  9. High-intensity compared to moderate-intensity training for exercise initiation, enjoyment, adherence, and intentions: an intervention study

    OpenAIRE

    Heinrich, Katie M.; Patel, Pratik M; O’Neal, Joshua L; Heinrich, Bryan S

    2014-01-01

    Background Understanding exercise participation for overweight and obese adults is critical for preventing comorbid conditions. Group-based high-intensity functional training (HIFT) provides time-efficient aerobic and resistance exercise at self-selected intensity levels which can increase adherence; behavioral responses to HIFT are unknown. This study examined effects of HIFT as compared to moderate-intensity aerobic and resistance training (ART) on exercise initiation, enjoyment, adherence,...

  10. The impact of exercise training on conduit artery wall thickness and remodeling in chronic heart failure patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maiorana, A.J.; Naylor, L.H.; Exterkate, A.; Swart, A.; Thijssen, D.H.J.; Lam, K.; O'Driscoll, G.; Green, D.J.

    2011-01-01

    Exercise training is an important adjunct to medical therapy in chronic heart failure, but the extent to which exercise impacts on conduit artery remodeling is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of aerobic and resistance exercise training modalities on arterial remodeling in p

  11. Cardiorespiratory response to aerobic exercise programs with different intensity: 20 weeks longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandip Meghnad Hulke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: participation in regular intensive exercise is associated with a modest increase in left ventricular wall thickness and cavity size. The magnitude of improvement depends on frequency, intensity, type, and duration of exercise program. Aims: to determine the effect of sports training on LV morphology and function, lung function, and to know the intensity of the exercise program enough for these changes. Settings and design: this was a longitudinal study (20 weeks duration done on the medical college students. Material and methods: three groups, doing exercise at different intensities, high intensity group (HG [74.9±3.9 %HRmax], low intensity group (LG [59.46±4.1%HRmax] and no exercise group (NG were made, and their assessments were done using the echocardiography and pulmonary function test three times, first before start of the exercise program, second at the end of 10th week, and then at the end of the 20th week. Statistical analysis used: 3 × 3 Anova test and Bonferroni′s post-test using Graph pad prism5 software. Results: significant improvement was seen in HG in majority of cardio respiratory parameters (VO2max, heart rate, LVIDD, LVIDS, EDV, MVV, PEFR, FVC as compared to the LG (VO2max, heart rate, MVV, PEFR and this improvement was specially seen at the end of the twentieth week. Conclusions: twenty weeks of training is helpful in improving aerobic power, MVV, and PEFR even the exercise is of moderate (LG to high intensity (HG but for overall cardio respiratory development physical training must be associated with very hard intensity if duration of the exercise program is short.

  12. Effects of long-term aerobic exercise on EPOC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeCheminant, J D; Jacobsen, D J; Bailey, B W; Mayo, M S; Hill, J O; Smith, B K; Donnelly, J E

    2008-01-01

    This study sought to determine the influence of 16 months of progressive aerobic exercise on excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) and the extent EPOC contributed to weight management. Twenty-five overweight/obese women and 16 overweight/obese men participated in a 16-month exercise program (moderate-intensity treadmill walking) that progressed across the first 26 weeks to 5 days.wk(-1), 45 min.session(-1), and 75% HRR. Three-hour EPOC was measured at baseline, 9 months, and 16 months by indirect calorimetry in response to an exercise session (treadmill walking), in which energy expenditure (EE) was estimated from the participant's previous 10 exercise sessions. For women, EPOC was 7.5 +/- 4.9, 9.6 +/- 7.6, and 6.5 +/- 6.5 L at baseline, 9 months, and 16 months, respectively (p > 0.05). For men, EPOC increased from baseline (11.8 +/- 6.8 L) to 9 months (13.5 +/- 8.6 L) (p < 0.05) with no further increase at 16 months (13.5 +/- 11.0 L). Change in EPOC was correlated with change in EE at 9 months (r = 0.65; p < 0.05) and 16 months (r = 0.58; p < 0.05) for men but not women. Progressive long-term exercise significantly influenced EPOC in overweight/obese men but not women. Change in volume of exercise likely explained the increase in energy expenditure during EPOC in men. EPOC contributed modestly to EE compared to the exercise itself. PMID:17879880

  13. Effects of a high-intensity intermittent training program on aerobic capacity and lipid profile in trained subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouerghi, Nejmeddine; Khammassi, Marwa; Boukorraa, Sami; Feki, Moncef; Kaabachi, Naziha; Bouassida, Anissa

    2014-01-01

    Background Data regarding the effect of training on plasma lipids are controversial. Most studies have addressed continuous or long intermittent training programs. The present study evaluated the effect of short-short high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT) on aerobic capacity and plasma lipids in soccer players. Methods The study included 24 male subjects aged 21–26 years, divided into three groups: experimental group 1 (EG1, n=8) comprising soccer players who exercised in addition to regular short-short HIIT twice a week for 12 weeks; experimental group 2 (EG2, n=8) comprising soccer players who exercised in a regular football training program; and a control group (CG, n=8) comprising untrained subjects who did not practice regular physical activity. Maximal aerobic velocity and maximal oxygen uptake along with plasma lipids were measured before and after 6 weeks and 12 weeks of the respective training program. Results Compared with basal values, maximal oxygen uptake had significantly increased in EG1 (from 53.3±4.0 mL/min/kg to 54.8±3.0 mL/min/kg at 6 weeks [PHIIT improves aerobic capacity. Although changes in the lipid profile were not significant after this training program, they may have a beneficial impact on health. PMID:25378960

  14. Responses of trace elements to aerobic maximal exercise in elite sportsmen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otag, Aynur; Hazar, Muhsin; Otag, Ilhan; Gürkan, Alper Cenk; Okan, Ilyas

    2014-05-01

    Trace elements are chemical elements needed in minute quantities for the proper growth, development, and physiology of the organism. In biochemistry, a trace element is also referred to as a micronutrient. Trace elements, such as nickel, cadmium, aluminum, silver, chromium, molybdenum, germanium, tin, titanium, tungsten, scandium, are found naturally in the environment and human exposure derives from a variety of sources, including air, drinking water and food. The Purpose of this study was investigated the effect of aerobic maximal intensity endurance exercise on serum trace elements as well-trained individuals of 28 wrestlers (age (year) 19.64±1.13, weight (Kg) 70.07 ± 15.69, height (cm) 176.97 ± 6.69) during and after a 2000 meter Ergometer test protocol was used to perform aerobic (75 %) maximal endurance exercise. Trace element serum levels were analyzed from blood samples taken before, immediately after and one hour after the exercise. While an increase was detected in Chromium (Cr), Nickel (Ni), Molybdenum (Mo) and Titanium (Ti) serum levels immediately after the exercise, a decrease was detected in Aluminum (Al), Scandium (Sc) and Tungsten (W) serum levels. Except for aluminum, the trace elements we worked on showed statistically meaningful responses (P sportsman performance but also in terms of future healthy life plans and clinically. PMID:24762350

  15. Attrition and Adherence of Young Women to Aerobic Exercise: Lessons from the WISER study

    OpenAIRE

    Arikawa, Andrea Y.; O’Dougherty, Maureen; Kaufman, Beth C.; Schmitz, Kathryn H.; Kurzer, Mindy S.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to identify factors associated with attrition and adherence of young women to a 16-week randomized aerobic exercise intervention on biomarkers associated with breast cancer risk. The exercise group was prescribed a progressive weight-bearing aerobic exercise program consisting of 30 minute workouts, 5 times/wk for 16 weeks. Adherence was calculated as the average minutes of exercise per week during participation in the study. Of the total of 212 women randomized ...

  16. Aerobic Exercise Attenuates Airway Inflammatory Responses in a Mouse Model of Atopic Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Pastva, Amy; Estell, Kim; Schoeb, Trenton R.; Atkinson, T. Prescott; Schwiebert, Lisa M

    2004-01-01

    Recent reports indicate that aerobic exercise improves the overall physical fitness and health of asthmatic patients. The specific exercise-induced improvements in the pathology of asthma and the mechanisms by which these improvements occur, however, are ill-defined; thus, the therapeutic potential of exercise in the treatment of asthma remains unappreciated. Using an OVA-driven mouse model, we examined the role of aerobic exercise in modulating inflammatory responses associated with atopic a...

  17. Aerobic Exercise Protects Retinal Function and Structure from Light-Induced Retinal Degeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Lawson, Eric C.; Han, Moon K.; Sellers, Jana T.; Chrenek, Micah A; Hanif, Adam; Gogniat, Marissa A.; Boatright, Jeffrey H.; Pardue, Machelle T.

    2014-01-01

    Aerobic exercise is a common intervention for rehabilitation of motor, and more recently, cognitive function (Intlekofer and Cotman, 2013; Wood et al., 2012). While the underlying mechanisms are complex, BDNF may mediate much of the beneficial effects of exercise to these neurons (Ploughman et al., 2007; Griffin et al., 2011; Real et al., 2013). We studied the effects of aerobic exercise on retinal neurons undergoing degeneration. We exercised wild-type BALB/c mice on a treadmill (10 m/min fo...

  18. A Single Bout of Moderate Aerobic Exercise Improves Motor Skill Acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    Statton, Matthew A.; Marysol Encarnacion; Pablo Celnik; Bastian, Amy J

    2015-01-01

    Long-term exercise is associated with improved performance on a variety of cognitive tasks including attention, executive function, and long-term memory. Remarkably, recent studies have shown that even a single bout of aerobic exercise can lead to immediate improvements in declarative learning and memory, but less is known about the effect of exercise on motor learning. Here we sought to determine the effect of a single bout of moderate intensity aerobic exercise on motor skill learning. In e...

  19. Effect of One Period of Aerobic Exercise on Serum Levels of Alkaline Phosphatase and Osteocalcin in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein-nezhad; Azarbayjani; Matinhomaee; Khorshidi

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a ten week period of aerobic exercise training on serum alkaline phosphates and osteocalsin in type 2 diabetic patients. Methods: In a quasi-experimental trial study twenty one male patients with type 2 diabetes(40-50 years) were randomly divided into exercise(n=11) and control(n=10) groups. The exercise group underwent a 10-week aerobic exercise program(three sessions per week, 45-60 minutes each session, at 50-65% of ...

  20. Blood lactate diagnostics in exercise testing and training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beneke, Ralph; Leithäuser, Renate M; Ochentel, Oliver

    2011-03-01

    A link between lactate and muscular exercise was seen already more than 200 years ago. The blood lactate concentration (BLC) is sensitive to changes in exercise intensity and duration. Multiple BLC threshold concepts define different points on the BLC power curve during various tests with increasing power (INCP). The INCP test results are affected by the increase in power over time. The maximal lactate steady state (MLSS) is measured during a series of prolonged constant power (CP) tests. It detects the highest aerobic power without metabolic energy from continuing net lactate production, which is usually sustainable for 30 to 60 min. BLC threshold and MLSS power are highly correlated with the maximum aerobic power and athletic endurance performance. The idea that training at threshold intensity is particularly effective has no evidence. Three BLC-orientated intensity domains have been established: (1) training up to an intensity at which the BLC clearly exceeds resting BLC, light- and moderate-intensity training focusing on active regeneration or high-volume endurance training (Intensity MLSS). High-performance endurance athletes combining very high training volume with high aerobic power dedicate 70 to 90% of their training to intensity domain 1 (Intensity < Threshold) in order to keep glycogen homeostasis within sustainable limits. PMID:21487146

  1. Change in energy expenditure and physical activity in response to aerobic and resistance exercise programs

    OpenAIRE

    Drenowatz, Clemens; Grieve, George L.; DeMello, Madison M.

    2015-01-01

    Exercise is considered an important component of a healthy lifestyle but there remains controversy on effects of exercise on non-exercise physical activity (PA). The present study examined the prospective association of aerobic and resistance exercise with total daily energy expenditure and PA in previously sedentary, young men. Nine men (27.0 ± 3.3 years) completed two 16-week exercise programs (3 exercise sessions per week) of aerobic and resistance exercise separated by a minimum of 6 week...

  2. The Effect of Aerobic Exercise on Serum C - Reactive Protein and Leptin Levels in Untrained Middle-Aged Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Hejazi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of death in the world. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of aerobic exercise on serum inflammatory markers in untrained middle-aged women. Methods: Nineteen healthy female middle-aged were selected by convenience sampling method and were randomly divided into two experimental (n=11 and control (n=8 groups. The exercise protocol included aerobic exercise training lasted for 6 months and 3 sessions per week and every session lasted for 60 minutes and with intensity of 55-65 percent of maximum heart rate reserve (MHR. Blood samples were taken to measure serum leptin and C-Reactive Protein (CRP before and after aerobic training period. General linear- Repeated measures (GL-RM was used to comparing of within, Interactive and between means groups. The level of significance was set at P< 0.05. Results: The level of serum leptin in middle-aged women did not change significant. However, the levels of CRP during this period did not change significantly. Conclusion: Six months of aerobic exercise does not induce significant change in serum levels of CRP, while leptin levels reduced in middle-aged women. Regular physical activity probably causes decrease in serum leptin level if body mass index and body fat mass reduce simultaneously.

  3. Aerobic exercise improves hippocampal function and increases BDNF in the serum of young adult males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Éadaoin W; Mullally, Sinéad; Foley, Carole; Warmington, Stuart A; O'Mara, Shane M; Kelly, Aine M

    2011-10-24

    Physical activity has been reported to improve cognitive function in humans and rodents, possibly via a brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-regulated mechanism. In this study of human subjects, we have assessed the effects of acute and chronic exercise on performance of a face-name matching task, which recruits the hippocampus and associated structures of the medial temporal lobe, and the Stroop word-colour task, which does not, and have assessed circulating concentrations of BDNF and IGF-1 in parallel. The results show that a short period of high-intensity cycling results in enhancements in performance of the face-name matching, but not the Stroop, task. These changes in cognitive function were paralleled by increased concentration of BDNF, but not IGF-1, in the serum of exercising subjects. 3 weeks of cycling training had no effect on cardiovascular fitness, as assessed by VO2 scores, cognitive function, or serum BDNF concentration. Increases in fitness, cognitive function and serum BDNF response to acute exercise were observed following 5 weeks of aerobic training. These data indicate that both acute and chronic exercise improve medial temporal lobe function concomitant with increased concentrations of BDNF in the serum, suggesting a possible functional role for this neurotrophic factor in exercise-induced cognitive enhancement in humans. PMID:21722657

  4. Comparison between Nintendo Wii Fit aerobics and traditional aerobic exercise in sedentary young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douris, Peter C; McDonald, Brittany; Vespi, Frank; Kelley, Nancy C; Herman, Lawrence

    2012-04-01

    Exergaming is becoming a popular recreational activity for young adults. The purpose was to compare the physiologic and psychological responses of college students playing Nintendo Wii Fit, an active video game console, vs. an equal duration of moderate-intensity brisk walking. Twenty-one healthy sedentary college-age students (mean age 23.2 ± 1.8 years) participated in a randomized, double cross-over study, which compared physiologic and psychological responses to 30 minutes of brisk walking exercise on a treadmill vs. 30 minutes playing Nintendo Wii Fit "Free Run" program. Physiologic parameters measured included heart rate, rate pressure product, respiratory rate, and rating of perceived exertion. Participants' positive well-being, psychological distress, and level of fatigue associated with each exercise modality were quantified using the Subjective Exercise Experience Scale. The mean maximum heart rate (HRmax) achieved when exercising with Wii Fit (142.4 ± 20.5 b·min(-1)) was significantly greater (p = 0.001) compared with exercising on the treadmill (123.2 ± 13.7 b·min(-1)). Rate pressure product was also significantly greater (p = 0.001) during exercise on the Wii Fit. Participants' rating of perceived exertion when playing Wii Fit (12.7 ± 3.0) was significantly greater (p = 0.014) when compared with brisk walking on the treadmill (10.1 ± 3.3). However, psychologically when playing Wii Fit, participants' positive well-being decreased significantly (p = 0.018) from preexercise to postexercise when compared with exercising on the treadmill. College students have the potential to surpass exercise intensities achieved when performing a conventional standard for moderate-intensity exercise when playing Nintendo Wii Fit "Free Run" with a self-selected intensity. We concluded that Nintendo Wii Fit "Free Run" may act as an alternative to traditional moderate-intensity aerobic exercise in fulfilling the American College of Sports Medicine requirements for

  5. Exercise training prior to myocardial infarction attenuates cardiac deterioration and cardiomyocyte dysfunction in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique Marchesi Bozi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The present study was performed to investigate 1 whether aerobic exercise training prior to myocardial infarction would prevent cardiac dysfunction and structural deterioration and 2 whether the potential cardiac benefits of aerobic exercise training would be associated with preserved morphological and contractile properties of cardiomyocytes in post-infarct remodeled myocardium. METHODS: Male Wistar rats underwent an aerobic exercise training protocol for eight weeks. The rats were then assigned to sham surgery (SHAM, sedentary lifestyle and myocardial infarction or exercise training and myocardial infarction groups and were evaluated 15 days after the surgery. Left ventricular tissue was analyzed histologically, and the contractile function of isolated myocytes was measured. Student's t-test was used to analyze infarct size and ventricular wall thickness, and the other parameters were analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis test followed by Dunn's test or a one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey's test (p<0.05. RESULTS: Myocardial infarctions in exercise-trained animals resulted in a smaller myocardial infarction extension, a thicker infarcted wall and less collagen accumulation as compared to myocardial infarctions in sedentary animals. Myocardial infarction-induced left ventricular dilation and cardiac dysfunction, as evaluated by +dP/dt and -dP/dt, were both prevented by previous aerobic exercise training. Moreover, aerobic exercise training preserved cardiac myocyte shortening, improved the maximum shortening and relengthening velocities in infarcted hearts and enhanced responsiveness to calcium. CONCLUSION: Previous aerobic exercise training attenuated the cardiac dysfunction and structural deterioration promoted by myocardial infarction, and such benefits were associated with preserved cardiomyocyte morphological and contractile properties.

  6. Plasma cell-free mitochondrial DNA declines in response to prolonged moderate aerobic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shockett, Penny E; Khanal, Januka; Sitaula, Alina; Oglesby, Christopher; Meachum, William A; Castracane, V Daniel; Kraemer, Robert R

    2016-01-01

    Increased plasma cell-free mitochondrial DNA (cf-mDNA), a damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) produced by cellular injury, contributes to neutrophil activation/inflammation in trauma patients and arises in cancer and autoimmunity. To further understand relationships between cf-mDNA released by tissue injury, inflammation, and health benefits of exercise, we examined cf-mDNA response to prolonged moderate aerobic exercise. Seven healthy moderately trained young men (age = 22.4 ± 1.2) completed a treadmill exercise trial for 90 min at 60% VO2 max and a resting control trial. Blood was sampled immediately prior to exercise (0 min = baseline), during (+18, +54 min), immediately after (+90 min), and after recovery (R40). Plasma was analyzed for cf-mDNA, IL-6, and lactate. A significant difference in cf-mDNA response was observed between exercise and control trials, with cf-mDNA levels reduced during exercise at +54 and +90 (with or without plasma volume shift correction). Declines in cf-mDNA were accompanied by increased lactate and followed by an increase in IL-6, suggesting a temporal association with muscle stress and inflammatory processes. Our novel finding of cf-mDNA decline with prolonged moderate treadmill exercise provides evidence for increased clearance from or reduced release of cf-mDNA into the blood with prolonged exercise. These studies contrast with previous investigations involving exhaustive short-term treadmill exercise, in which no change in cf-mDNA levels were reported, and contribute to our understanding of differences between exercise- and trauma-induced inflammation. We propose that transient declines in cf-mDNA may induce health benefits, by reducing systemic inflammation. PMID:26755735

  7. Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy with Concurrent Exercise Training: Contrary Evidence for an Interference Effect.

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    Murach, Kevin A; Bagley, James R

    2016-08-01

    Over the last 30+ years, it has become axiomatic that performing aerobic exercise within the same training program as resistance exercise (termed concurrent exercise training) interferes with the hypertrophic adaptations associated with resistance exercise training. However, a close examination of the literature reveals that the interference effect of concurrent exercise training on muscle growth in humans is not as compelling as previously thought. Moreover, recent studies show that, under certain conditions, concurrent exercise may augment resistance exercise-induced hypertrophy in healthy human skeletal muscle. The purpose of this article is to outline the contrary evidence for an acute and chronic interference effect of concurrent exercise on skeletal muscle growth in humans and provide practical literature-based recommendations for maximizing hypertrophy when training concurrently. PMID:26932769

  8. Hypertrophy-Promoting Effects of Leucine Supplementation and Moderate Intensity Aerobic Exercise in Pre-Senescent Mice

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    Zhi Xia

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have indicated a positive influence of leucine supplementation and aerobic training on the aging skeletal muscle signaling pathways that control muscle protein balance and muscle remodeling. However, the effect of a combined intervention requires further clarification. Thirteen month old CD-1® mice were subjected to moderate aerobic exercise (45 min swimming per day with 3% body weight workload and fed a chow diet with 5% leucine or 3.4% alanine for 8 weeks. Serum and plasma were prepared for glucose, urea nitrogen, insulin and amino acid profile analysis. The white gastrocnemius muscles were used for determination of muscle size and signaling proteins involved in protein synthesis and degradation. The results show that both 8 weeks of leucine supplementation and aerobic training elevated the activity of mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin and its downstream target p70S6K and 4E-BP1, inhibited the ubiquitin-proteasome system, and increased fiber cross-sectional area (CSA in white gastrocnemius muscle. Moreover, leucine supplementation in combination with exercise demonstrated more significant effects, such as greater CSA, protein content and altered phosphorylation (suggestive of increased activity of protein synthesis signaling proteins, in addition to lower expression of proteins involved in protein degradation compared to leucine or exercise alone. The current study shows moderate aerobic training combined with 5% leucine supplementation has the potential to increase muscle size in fast-twitch skeletal muscle during aging, potentially through increased protein synthesis and decreased protein breakdown.

  9. Hypertrophy-Promoting Effects of Leucine Supplementation and Moderate Intensity Aerobic Exercise in Pre-Senescent Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Zhi; Cholewa, Jason; Zhao, Yan; Yang, Yue-Qin; Shang, Hua-Yu; Guimarães-Ferreira, Lucas; Naimo, Marshall Alan; Su, Quan-Sheng; Zanchi, Nelo Eidy

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have indicated a positive influence of leucine supplementation and aerobic training on the aging skeletal muscle signaling pathways that control muscle protein balance and muscle remodeling. However, the effect of a combined intervention requires further clarification. Thirteen month old CD-1(®) mice were subjected to moderate aerobic exercise (45 min swimming per day with 3% body weight workload) and fed a chow diet with 5% leucine or 3.4% alanine for 8 weeks. Serum and plasma were prepared for glucose, urea nitrogen, insulin and amino acid profile analysis. The white gastrocnemius muscles were used for determination of muscle size and signaling proteins involved in protein synthesis and degradation. The results show that both 8 weeks of leucine supplementation and aerobic training elevated the activity of mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) and its downstream target p70S6K and 4E-BP1, inhibited the ubiquitin-proteasome system, and increased fiber cross-sectional area (CSA) in white gastrocnemius muscle. Moreover, leucine supplementation in combination with exercise demonstrated more significant effects, such as greater CSA, protein content and altered phosphorylation (suggestive of increased activity) of protein synthesis signaling proteins, in addition to lower expression of proteins involved in protein degradation compared to leucine or exercise alone. The current study shows moderate aerobic training combined with 5% leucine supplementation has the potential to increase muscle size in fast-twitch skeletal muscle during aging, potentially through increased protein synthesis and decreased protein breakdown. PMID:27144582

  10. Hypertrophy-Promoting Effects of Leucine Supplementation and Moderate Intensity Aerobic Exercise in Pre-Senescent Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Zhi; Cholewa, Jason; Zhao, Yan; Yang, Yue-Qin; Shang, Hua-Yu; Guimarães-Ferreira, Lucas; Naimo, Marshall Alan; Su, Quan-Sheng; Zanchi, Nelo Eidy

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have indicated a positive influence of leucine supplementation and aerobic training on the aging skeletal muscle signaling pathways that control muscle protein balance and muscle remodeling. However, the effect of a combined intervention requires further clarification. Thirteen month old CD-1® mice were subjected to moderate aerobic exercise (45 min swimming per day with 3% body weight workload) and fed a chow diet with 5% leucine or 3.4% alanine for 8 weeks. Serum and plasma were prepared for glucose, urea nitrogen, insulin and amino acid profile analysis. The white gastrocnemius muscles were used for determination of muscle size and signaling proteins involved in protein synthesis and degradation. The results show that both 8 weeks of leucine supplementation and aerobic training elevated the activity of mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) and its downstream target p70S6K and 4E-BP1, inhibited the ubiquitin-proteasome system, and increased fiber cross-sectional area (CSA) in white gastrocnemius muscle. Moreover, leucine supplementation in combination with exercise demonstrated more significant effects, such as greater CSA, protein content and altered phosphorylation (suggestive of increased activity) of protein synthesis signaling proteins, in addition to lower expression of proteins involved in protein degradation compared to leucine or exercise alone. The current study shows moderate aerobic training combined with 5% leucine supplementation has the potential to increase muscle size in fast-twitch skeletal muscle during aging, potentially through increased protein synthesis and decreased protein breakdown. PMID:27144582

  11. The Paroxetine Effect on Exercise Performance Depends on the Aerobic Capacity of Exercising Individuals

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    Francisco Teixeira-Coelho, João Paulo Uendeles-Pinto, Ana Cláudia Alves Serafim, Samuel Penna Wanner, Márcio de Matos Coelho, Danusa Dias Soares

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the influence of aerobic capacity on the activation of the central serotonergic system and exercise fatigue in young men that ingested a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and were then subjected to moderate-intensity physical exercise. The maximal oxygen consumption of sixteen volunteers was measured during an incremental test. The volunteers were divided into two groups: subjects with higher (HAC and lower (LAC aerobic capacities. The volunteers were subjected to four experimental trials in which they ingested either placebo or paroxetine (10, 20 or 40 mg and, 4.5 h later, cycled at 60% of their maximal power output until reaching fatigue. None of the three paroxetine doses influenced the total exercise time in the LAC group. However, for the HAC group, the time to fatigue in the 20 mg paroxetine condition was 15% less than that in the placebo condition (76.3 ± 5.1 min vs. 90.0 ± 7.9 min; p < 0.05. The time to fatigue was higher in the HAC group than in the LAC group for all treatments. Our results provide additional evidence that aerobic capacity modulates the activity of the serotonergic system. However, contrary to what would be expected considering previous reports, the activation of the serotonergic system in exercising subjects in the HAC group was not less than that in the LAC group.

  12. Active Female Maximal and Anaerobic Threshold Cardiorespiratory Responses to Six Different Water Aerobics Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Amanda H.; Alberton, Cristine L.; Finatto, Paula; Pinto, Stephanie S.; Cadore, Eduardo L.; Zaffari, Paula; Kruel, Luiz F. M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Maximal tests conducted on land are not suitable for the prescription of aquatic exercises, which makes it difficult to optimize the intensity of water aerobics classes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the maximal and anaerobic threshold cardiorespiratory responses to 6 water aerobics exercises. Volunteers performed 3 of the…

  13. Exercise volume and aerobic fitness in young adults: the Midwest Exercise Trial-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Matthew M; Washburn, Richard A; Honas, Jeffery J; Lee, Jaehoon; Donnelly, Joseph E

    2016-01-01

    To examine the effect of exercise volume at a fixed intensity on changes in aerobic fitness. Ninety-two overweight/obese individuals (BMI 25-40 kg m(2)), age 18-30 years, 50 % women, completed a 10 mo, 5 d wk(-1) supervised exercise intervention at 2 levels of exercise energy expenditure (400 or 600 kcal session(-1)) at 70-80 % heart rate (HR) max. Exercise consisted primarily of walking/jogging on motor-driven treadmills. The duration and intensity of all exercise sessions were verified by a downloadable HR monitor set to collect HR in 1-min epochs. All participants were instructed to continue their typical patterns of non-exercise physical activity and dietary intake over the duration of the 10 mo intervention. Maximal aerobic capacity (indirect calorimetry) was assessed on a motor-driven treadmill using a modified Balke protocol at baseline, mid-point (5 mo), and following completion of the 10 mo intervention. VO2 max (L min(-1)) increased significantly in both the 400 (11.3 %) and 600 kcal session(-1) groups (14 %) compared to control (-2.0 %; p young adults. PMID:27026879

  14. 中高强度有氧运动干预阿尔茨海默病的临床研究%Clinical Effects of Aerobic Exercises Training with Moderate and High Intensity in Alzheimer’s Disease Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王英; 沈飞飞; 朱奕; 杨思雨; 李海燕; 汪琴; 王炜; 吴婷

    2014-01-01

    目的探讨中高强度有氧运动疗法对阿尔茨海默病(AD)患者的干预作用。方法将52例AD患者分为中等强度有氧运动(中等强度)组(13例)、高强度有氧运动(高强度)组(13例)和对照组(26例)。所有入组患者均按AD常规治疗,中等强度组和高强度组分别接受强度为50%和70%最大运动能力的有氧运动训练12周,每周3次。于治疗前、治疗后8和12周对3组患者进行AD相关量表(MMSE、ADCS-ADL、NPI、NPI-D和ADAS-cog)评价,同时进行体格检查、血常规、血生化常规等检查。结果中等强度组、高强度组有氧运动能明显改善患者的认知能力和精神神经症状,与对照组比较差异有统计学意义(P0.05). Patients with 70% of maximal intensity exercise got a better improvement of MMSE and NPI than the patients with 50% of maximal intensity exercise (P<0.05) at the end of 8 weeks. However, 50% and 70% of maximal intensity provide similar effects at the end of 12 weeks.Conclusion Aerobic exercises can improve the cognitive and functional symptoms of AD patients, with acceptable safety and tolerance. Long term aerobic exercises with different intensity may provide similar beneift.

  15. Lipid and lipoprotein changes in premenstrual women following step aerobic dance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, P E; Ferguson, M A; Arnold, R O

    2005-10-01

    Exercise training can improve lipid and lipoprotein concentrations and reduce the risk of heart disease. Little information is available concerning aerobic dance training and lipoprotein concentration changes in women. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of two different methods of step bench training on cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition, and lipoprotein concentrations in college-aged females. Subjects were assigned to one of three groups: a traditional continuous step (CS), an interval step group (IS), or a non-exercise control group (C). The CS and the IS groups participated in three 50-minute sessions for 12 weeks. The CS session included a warm-up, 30-35 min of continuous bench stepping, 10-15 min of calisthenic exercises, and a 5-min cool-down. The IS sessions included a 5-7-min warm-up, 35-40 min of alternating intervals of bench stepping and non-step aerobic dance, and a 5-7-min cool-down. Target heart rates were maintained within 70 to 85% of maximal heart rate. Results showed increases in HDL-C concentrations in the IS group (pdance groups (p<0.05) and cardiovascular fitness increased in both groups (p<0.01). No changes were evident in the control group. In college-aged women, 12 weeks of IS or CS training improved cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition. In addition, IS training appears to have a greater effect on HDL-C concentrations than CS training. PMID:16158373

  16. 香菇多糖及有氧运动对训练大鼠免疫系统影响的实验研究%Effect of Lentinan and Aerobic Exercise on Immune System in the Endurance-trained Rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈美琴; 华晔

    2012-01-01

    Objective:In order to search potent intervening means for low-level exercise-associated cellular immune capacities,effect of Lentinan and Aerobic exercise on on immune system in endurance-trained rats was observed.Methods: After 4 weeks test of Lentinan given and Aerobic Exercise to mice,time of exhaustive exercise were record,tests SOD,CAT,GSH-Px,MDA,AOC of spleen,percentage of peripheral T Lymphocyte subsets in circulating blood were tested by FCM.Results :Lentinan and Aerobic exercise could prolonged the exhausting exercise time(P 〈 0.05),improved Antioxidant enzymes activity such as CAT、MDA.Afer exhausting exercise,percentage of CD3+、CD4+and the ratio of CD4+ to CD8+ in Lymphocyte subsets,as well as were lower(P 〈 0.01).The change was prevented by Lentinan and aerobic exercise.Conclusion: Lentinan and aerobic exercise may improve exercise capacity,reduce lipid peroxidetion in immune organs caused by the exhaustive training,improve motion fatigue,and preven immunosuppression after exercise in rats,enhance effect after combinating the two means.%目的:探讨香菇多糖和有氧运动对一次力竭运动大鼠免疫系统的影响,为改善力竭运动引起的免疫功能低下寻找有效的干预措施。方法:大鼠经过4周的香菇多糖灌药和有氧运动训练后,记录力竭运动时间,测试大鼠力竭后脾脏SOD,CAT,GSH-Px,MDA,AOC,用流式细胞术测大鼠外周血T细胞亚群的变化。结果:香菇多糖和有氧运动均可延长力竭时间(P〈0.05),显著改善力竭大鼠脾脏CAT、MDA等抗氧化酶活性。一次力竭后大鼠CD3+T、CD4+T百分率和CD4+/CD8+比例非常显著降低(P〈0.01),香菇多糖和有氧运动可有效预防T淋巴细胞亚群的这种变化。结论:香菇多糖和有氧运动均可提高大鼠运动能力,减轻力竭训练引起的免疫器官脂质过氧化损伤,改善运动疲劳,预防运动性免疫功能低下,且两者配合有协同作用。

  17. Aerobic endurance training versus relaxation training in patients with migraine (ARMIG: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

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    Totzeck Andreas

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Migraine is one of the most frequent headache diseases and impairs patients’ quality of life. Up to now, many randomized studies reported efficacy of prophylactic therapy with medications such as beta-blockers or anti-epileptic drugs. Non-medical treatment, like aerobic endurance training, is considered to be an encouraging alternative in migraine prophylaxis. However, there is still a lack of prospective, high-quality randomized trials. We therefore designed a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of aerobic endurance training versus relaxation training in patients with migraine (ARMIG. Methods This is a single-center, open-label, prospective, randomized trial. Sixty participants with migraine are randomly allocated to either endurance training or a relaxation group. After baseline headache diary documentation over at least 4 weeks, participants in the exercise group will start moderate aerobic endurance training under a sport therapist’s supervision at least 3 times a week over a 12-week period. The second group will perform Jacobson’s progressive muscle relaxation training guided by a trained relaxation therapist, also at least 3 times a week over a 12-week period. Both study arms will train in groups of up to 10 participants. More frequent individual training is possible. The follow-up period will be 12 weeks after the training period. The general state of health, possible state of anxiety or depression, impairments due to the headache disorder, pain-related disabilities, the headache-specific locus of control, and the motor fitness status are measured with standardized questionnaires. Discussion The study design is adequate to generate meaningful results. The trial will be helpful in gaining important data on exercise training for non-medical migraine prophylaxis. Trial registration The trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01407861.

  18. Effect of aerobic exercise on the contractile function of gastrocnemius myosin heavy chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-jun Ren

    2009-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of 4- 6 weeks' treadmill training of male SD rats on the contractile function of their gnstroenemius myosin heavy chain (MHC). Methods Forty male SD rats were randomly divided into control group and training group. The treadmill training of the training group rats was incessantly performed for 4- 6 weeks at an intensity of about 75% VO2max (18. 5- 24 m/min, gradient of 0°, each training session lasting 50 minutes, twice a day). The content of gastrocnemlas MHC mRNA was tested by reverse transcription polymernse chain reaction (RT-PCR), and the changes of muscle fibre and its cross-section area (CSA) were measured using immunohistochemistry. Electric stimulation tests were used to determine the maximal tension of isometric contraction of the post-training gastrocnemius. Results ① After continuous treadmill training for 4 - 6 weeks, we found that the content of the total MHC, MHC Ⅰ , MHC Ⅱ x, MHC Ⅱ a mRNAs was 105%, 105%, 109% and 108% of that in the resting control group, respectively, and the MHC Ⅱ b mRNA content did not change significantly. The percentage of MHC Ⅰ mRNA in the total MHC mRNA increased while that of MHC Ⅱ mRNA decreased after aerobic training. ② The slow type of fibre type Ⅰ was the main part of the MHC after training and the CSA of the muscle fibres increased simultaneously. ③ The maximal tension of isometric contraction by pulse stimulation of square wave in the training group increased significantly compared with that in the control group (P<0. 01). Conclusion The findings indicate that aerobic exercise may promote an increase in the contractile function of MHC.

  19. Effects of Acute Aerobic Exercise on Executive Function in Older Women

    OpenAIRE

    Peiffer, Roseann; Darby, Lynn A; Fullenkamp, Adam; MORGAN, AMY L.

    2015-01-01

    Acute aerobic exercise may increase cognitive processing speed among tasks demanding a substantial degree of executive function. Few studies have investigated executive function after acute exercise in older adults across various exercise intensities. Healthy females 60-75 years of age (n = 11) who were not on medications completed 20-min exercise sessions at a moderate (50%VO2max) exercise intensity and a vigorous (75%VO2max) exercise intensity. Modified flanker tasks (reaction times) and d2...

  20. Cellular fibronectin response to supervised moderate aerobic training in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghadir, Ahmad H; Gabr, Sami A; Al-Eisa, Einas

    2016-04-01

    [Purpose] Physical activity is one of the most pivotal targets for the prevention and management of vascular complications, especially endothelial dysfunctions. Cellular fibronectin is an endothelium-derived protein involved in subendothelial matrix assembly. Its plasma levels reflect matrix alterations and vessel wall destruction in patients with type II diabetes. This study investigated the influence of 12 weeks of supervised aerobic training on cellular fibronectin and its relationship with insulin resistance and body weight in type II diabetic subjects. [Subjects and Methods] This study included 50 men with type II diabetes who had a mean age of 48.8 ± 14.6 years and were randomly divided into two groups: an aerobic exercise group (12 weeks, three 50 minutes sessions per week) and control group. To examine changes in cellular fibronectin, glycosylated hemoglobin, insulin resistance, fasting insulin, fasting blood sugar, and lipid profile, 5 ml of blood was taken from the brachial vein of patients before and 48 hours after completion of the exercise period and after 12 hours of fasting at rest. Data analysis was performed using the SPSS-16 software with the independent and paired t-tests. [Results] A significant decrease was observed in body mass index and body fat percentage in the experimental group. Compared with the control group, the aerobic exercise group showed a significant decrease in cellular fibronectin, glycosylated hemoglobin, insulin resistance, fasting insulin, fasting blood sugar, and lipid profile after 12 weeks of aerobic exercise. The change in cellular fibronectin showed positive significant correlation with body mass index, diabetic biomarkers, and physical activity level. [Conclusion] The results showed that supervised aerobic exercise as a stimulus can change the levels of cellular fibronectin as matrix metalloproteinase protein a long with improvement of insulin sensitivity and glycosylated hemoglobin in order to prevent

  1. Exercise training improves mean arterial pressure in breast cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C. Mills

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently, many breast cancer survivors worldwide live with treatment-related side effects, including cardiovascular health problems. This study examined effects of a 5-month exercise intervention on non-invasive markers of cardiovascular health in breast cancer survivors. Relationships between these markers and commonly used markers of overall health were also explored. Fifty-two survivors completed the exercise training at a rehabilitation center at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill between 2008-2011. A combined aerobic and resistance exercise intervention (3 times/week for 1h at intensities progressing from low (40% to moderate (65-70% of VO2max for aerobic and 8-12 repetitions max for the resistance exercise were implemented. Significant reduction in mean arterial pressure (MAP was observed from baseline to final assessment. A significant correlation was found between MAP and Body Mass Index (BMI. In conclusion, 5-months combined aerobic and resistance exercise intervention positively improved MAP which was, in part, attributed to changes in BMI.

  2. Estimation of aerobic fitness among young men without exercise test

    OpenAIRE

    Tanskanen Minna M.; Kyröläinen Heikki; Santtila Matti; Tammelin Tuija

    2015-01-01

    Study aim: to develop and estimate the validity of non-exercise methods to predict VO2max among young male conscripts entering military service in order to divide them into the different physical training groups. Material and methods: fifty males (age 19.7 ± 0.3 years) reported their physical activity before military service by IPAQ and SIVAQ questionnaires. Furthermore, Jackson’s non-exercise method was used to estimate VO2max. Body mass and height were measured, body mass index ...

  3. Effects of Moderate Aerobic Exercise on Cognitive Abilities and Redox State Biomarkers in Older Adults

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    Ahmad H. Alghadir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We used a moderate aerobic exercise program for 24 weeks to measure the positive impact of physical activity on oxidative stress and inflammatory markers and its association with cognitive performance in healthy older adults. A total of 100 healthy subjects (65–95 Yrs were randomly classified into two groups: control group (n=50 and exercise group (n=50. Cognitive functioning, physical activity score, MDA, 8-OHdG, TAC, and hs-CRP were assessed using LOTCA battery, prevalidated PA questionnaire, and immunoassay techniques. LOTCA 7-set scores of cognitive performance showed a significant correlation with physical activity status and the regulation of both oxidative stress free radicals and inflammatory markers in all older subjects following 24 weeks of moderate exercise. Physically active persons showed a higher cognitive performance along with reduction in the levels of MDA, 8-OHdG, and hs-CRP and increase in TAC activity compared with sedentary participants. Cognitive performance correlated positively with the increase in TAC activity and physical fitness scores and negatively with MDA, 8-OHdG, and hs-CRP, respectively. There was a significant improvement in motor praxis, vasomotor organization, thinking operations, and attention and concentration among older adults. In conclusion, moderate aerobic training for 24 weeks has a positive significant effect in improving cognitive functions via modulating redox and inflammatory status of older adults.

  4. Effects of Moderate Aerobic Exercise on Cognitive Abilities and Redox State Biomarkers in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghadir, Ahmad H; Gabr, Sami A; Al-Eisa, Einas S

    2016-01-01

    We used a moderate aerobic exercise program for 24 weeks to measure the positive impact of physical activity on oxidative stress and inflammatory markers and its association with cognitive performance in healthy older adults. A total of 100 healthy subjects (65-95 Yrs) were randomly classified into two groups: control group (n = 50) and exercise group (n = 50). Cognitive functioning, physical activity score, MDA, 8-OHdG, TAC, and hs-CRP were assessed using LOTCA battery, prevalidated PA questionnaire, and immunoassay techniques. LOTCA 7-set scores of cognitive performance showed a significant correlation with physical activity status and the regulation of both oxidative stress free radicals and inflammatory markers in all older subjects following 24 weeks of moderate exercise. Physically active persons showed a higher cognitive performance along with reduction in the levels of MDA, 8-OHdG, and hs-CRP and increase in TAC activity compared with sedentary participants. Cognitive performance correlated positively with the increase in TAC activity and physical fitness scores and negatively with MDA, 8-OHdG, and hs-CRP, respectively. There was a significant improvement in motor praxis, vasomotor organization, thinking operations, and attention and concentration among older adults. In conclusion, moderate aerobic training for 24 weeks has a positive significant effect in improving cognitive functions via modulating redox and inflammatory status of older adults. PMID:27195073

  5. Promoting Motor Cortical Plasticity with Acute Aerobic Exercise: A Role for Cerebellar Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mang, Cameron S.; Brown, Katlyn E.; Neva, Jason L.; Snow, Nicholas J.; Campbell, Kristin L.; Boyd, Lara A.

    2016-01-01

    Acute aerobic exercise facilitated long-term potentiation-like plasticity in the human primary motor cortex (M1). Here, we investigated the effect of acute aerobic exercise on cerebellar circuits, and their potential contribution to altered M1 plasticity in healthy individuals (age: 24.8 ± 4.1 years). In Experiment   1, acute aerobic exercise reduced cerebellar inhibition (CBI) (n = 10, p = 0.01), elicited by dual-coil paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation. In Experiment   2, we evaluated the facilitatory effects of aerobic exercise on responses to paired associative stimulation, delivered with a 25 ms (PAS25) or 21 ms (PAS21) interstimulus interval (n = 16 per group). Increased M1 excitability evoked by PAS25, but not PAS21, relies on trans-cerebellar sensory pathways. The magnitude of the aerobic exercise effect on PAS response was not significantly different between PAS protocols (interaction effect: p = 0.30); however, planned comparisons indicated that, relative to a period of rest, acute aerobic exercise enhanced the excitatory response to PAS25 (p = 0.02), but not PAS21 (p = 0.30). Thus, the results of these planned comparisons indirectly provide modest evidence that modulation of cerebellar circuits may contribute to exercise-induced increases in M1 plasticity. The findings have implications for developing aerobic exercise strategies to “prime” M1 plasticity for enhanced motor skill learning in applied settings.

  6. The Effects of Selected Aerobic Exercise Modalities on Self Esteem among Female Students

    OpenAIRE

    Norlena Salamuddin; Mohd Taib Harun; Sanaa Ali Ahmed Al-Rashed

    2014-01-01

    Self-esteem is fundamental component in psychological health and is affected with dynamics of physical exercise. This study explore the effects of selected aerobic exercise programs on self esteem and attempts to determine the most effective aerobic exercise program in boosting self-esteem. This study uses the experimental design on a sample of 120 female undergraduate students. The instruments used were the Self-Esteem Scale. Data was analyzed using inferential statistics. t-test conducted s...

  7. Effects of aerobic exercise on the body composition and lipid profile of overweight adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Diego Augusto Santos Silva; Edio Luiz Petroski; Andreia Pelegrini

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an aerobic physical exercise program without dietary intervention prescribed with blood lactate levels on body composition and lipid profile of overweight adolescents. A randomized study consisting of pre- and post-treatment tests was conducted on overweight adolescents who were randomly divided into an experimental group submitted to an aerobic exercise program and a control group. The exercise program lasted 12 weeks. After the interventio...

  8. Sweat Rates During Continuous and Interval Aerobic Exercise: Implications for NASA Multipurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Jeffrey W.; Scott, Jessica; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.

    2016-01-01

    Aerobic deconditioning is one of the effects spaceflight. Impaired crewmember performance due to loss of aerobic conditioning is one of the risks identified for mitigation by the NASA Human Research Program. Missions longer than 8 days will involve exercise countermeasures including those aimed at preventing the loss of aerobic capacity. The NASA Multipurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) will be NASA's centerpiece architecture for human space exploration beyond low Earth orbit. Aerobic exercise within the small habitable volume of the MPCV is expected to challenge the ability of the Air Revitalization System, especially in terms of moisture and temperature control. Exercising humans contribute moisture to the environment by increased respiratory rate (exhaling air saturated with moisture) and sweat. Current acceptable values are based on theoretical models that rely on an "average" crew member working continuously at 75% of their aerobic capacity (Human Systems Integration Requirements Document). Evidence suggests that high intensity interval exercise for much shorter durations are equally effective or better in building and maintaining aerobic capacity. This investigation will examine metabolic moisture and heat production for operationally relevant continuous and interval aerobic exercise protocols. The results will directly inform what types of aerobic exercise countermeasures will be feasible to prescribe for crewmembers aboard the MPCV.

  9. Effect of aerobic training in patients with spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (Kennedy disease)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preisler, N; Andersen, G; Thøgersen, F; Crone, C; Jeppesen, T D; Wibrand, F; Vissing, J

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We examined the effect of aerobic exercise in patients with spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA). SBMA is caused by a defect androgen receptor. This defect causes motor neuron death, but considering the important function of androgens in muscle, it is possible that muscle damage in...... SBMA also occurs independently of motor neuron damage. METHODS: Eight patients with SBMA engaged in regular cycling exercise for 12 weeks. Maximum oxygen uptake (Vo(2max)), maximal work capacity (W(max)), muscle morphology, citrate synthase (CS) activity, body composition, EMG, static strength...... any of the other variables examined before and after training, and the patients with SBMA did not feel improvements in ADL. CONCLUSIONS: Frequent, moderate-intensity aerobic conditioning is of little beneficial effect in patients with spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA). High levels of plasma...

  10. The Effect of Exercise Training Modality on Serum Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor Levels in Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Swift, Damon L.; Johannsen, Neil M.; Myers, Valerie H.; Earnest, Conrad P.; Smits, Jasper A. J.; Blair, Steven N.; Church, Timothy S.

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been implicated in memory, learning, and neurodegenerative diseases. However, the relationship of BDNF with cardiometabolic risk factors is unclear, and the effect of exercise training on BDNF has not been previously explored in individuals with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Men and women (N = 150) with type 2 diabetes were randomized to an aerobic exercise (aerobic), resistance exercise (resistance), or a combination of both (combination...

  11. Blood lactate level in Wistar rats after four and twelve week intermittent aerobic training

    OpenAIRE

    Dewi N. Sari; Sutjahjo Endardjo; Dewi I.S. Santoso

    2013-01-01

    Background: Aerobic training can be done not only continuously, but also intermittently. Intermittent aerobic training aimed to get blood lactate level lower than continuous aerobic training. Blood lactate concentration in one of the various factors that determine training performance. However, until recently, little studies about intermittent aerobic training and blood lactate levels have been done. Therefore, this study aimed to measure blood lactate levels in Wistar rats after 4 and 12 wee...

  12. The Training Effects of Dance Aerobics: A Review with an Emphasis on the Perspectives of Investigations

    OpenAIRE

    Zaletel, Petra; Gabrilo, Goran; Perić, Mia

    2013-01-01

    The training effects of contemporary aerobics programmes (hi lo, dance aerobics, step aerobics, aqua aerobics etc.) have been frequently investigated. However, we found no recent paper which reviewed aerobic programmes with regard to their training effectiveness, characteristics of the subjects involved, variables of interest and experimental design. In this paper we summarise the findings of more than 40 studies published in the 2000–2011 period that investigated the training effects of diff...

  13. THE EFFECTS MAXIMAL AND SUB MAXIMAL AEROBIC EXERCISE ON THE BRONCHOSPASM INDICES IN NON ATHLETIC

    OpenAIRE

    Amir GANJİ; Mohsen GHANBARZADEH; Abdolhamid HABİBİ; Masoud NİKBAHT

    2012-01-01

    Background: Exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB) is a transient airway obstruction that occurs during and after the exercise. Exercise-induced bronchospasm is observed in healthy individuals as well as the asthmatic and allergic rhinitis patients. Research question: The study compared the effects of one session of submaximal aerobic exercise and a maximal one on the prevalence of exercise-induced bronchospasm in non-athletic students. Type of study: An experimental study, using human subjects,...

  14. Impact of aerobic exercise on sleep and motor skills in children with autism spectrum disorders – a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Brand, Serge; Jossen, Stefanie; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Pühse, Uwe; Gerber, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Background Prevalence rates of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have increased dramatically in the last two decades. In addition to the core symptoms such as impaired communication, difficulties in social interaction, and restricted and stereotypical patterns of behavior and interests, poor sleep and motor skill (MS) deficits have also been observed in children with ASD. On the other hand, there is evidence that aerobic exercise training (AET) has a positive impact on sleep, and that specific t...

  15. The influence of a pre-exercise sports drink (PRX) on factors related to maximal aerobic performance

    OpenAIRE

    Mooneyhan Andy; Simpson Warren; Keith Susan; Byars Allyn; Greenwood Mike

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Pre-exercise sports drinks (PRX) are commonly used as ergogenic aids in athletic competitions requiring aerobic power. However, in most cases, claims regarding their effectiveness have not been substantiated. In addition, the ingredients in PRX products must be deemed acceptable by the athletic governing bodies that regulate their use in training and competition. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a modified PRX formulation (known as EM·PACT™) from ear...

  16. Lung function profiles and aerobic capacity of adult cigarette and hookah smokers after 12 weeks intermittent training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdessalem Koubaa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pulmonary function is compromised in most smokers. Yet it is unknown whether exercise training improves pulmonary function and aerobic capacity in cigarette and hookah smokers and whether these smokers respond in a similar way as do non-smokers. Aim: To evaluate the effects of an interval exercise training program on pulmonary function and aerobic capacity in cigarette and hookah smokers. Methods: Twelve cigarette smokers, 10 hookah smokers, and 11 non-smokers participated in our exercise program. All subjects performed 30 min of interval exercise (2 min of work followed by 1 min of rest three times a week for 12 weeks at an intensity estimated at 70% of the subject's maximum aerobic capacity (VO2max. Pulmonary function was measured using spirometry, and maximum aerobic capacity was assessed by maximal exercise testing on a treadmill before the beginning and at the end of the exercise training program. Results: As expected, prior to the exercise intervention, the cigarette and hookah smokers had significantly lower pulmonary function than the non-smokers. The 12-week exercise training program did not significantly affect lung function as assessed by spirometry in the non-smoker group. However, it significantly increased both forced expiratory volume in 1 second and peak expiratory flow (PEF in the cigarette smoker group, and PEF in the hookah smoker group. Our training program had its most notable impact on the cardiopulmonary system of smokers. In the non-smoker and cigarette smoker groups, the training program significantly improved VO2max (4.4 and 4.7%, respectively, v VO2max (6.7 and 5.6%, respectively, and the recovery index (7.9 and 10.5%, respectively. Conclusions: After 12 weeks of interval training program, the increase of VO2max and the decrease of recovery index and resting heart rate in the smoking subjects indicated better exercise tolerance. Although the intermittent training program altered pulmonary function only

  17. Effects of Combined Selective Aerobic Moderate Intensity Exercises and Soya Intake on Serum Lipids and Obesity in Obese Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Zarneshan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aim: Today, the percentage of deaths due to heart diseases has increased and along with the exercise training role in reducing obesity and cardiovascular disease, soy is a useful source of food in reducing blood lipid and obesity. The present study investigated the effect of combined selective short aerobic moderate intensity exercise and soya intake on serum lipids and obesity in obese postmenopausal women. Methods: In the present quasi-experimental study conducted in 2006 on women of Urmia, Iran, 56 obese postmenopausal women were selected and randomly divided into four groups of 14 subjects as follow: exercise-soya, exercise, soya, and control group. Pre- and post protocol blood samples were collected and the level of TG (Triglyceride, tCho (Total Cholesterol, LDL-C (Low density lipoprotein, HDL-C (high density lipoprotein were measured. Exercise training within the range of 60-70% maximum heart rate (MHR was performed for 60 minutes, 3 sessions per week. The subjects of soya group and exercise-soya group had a 100 gram soya nut intake daily for 10 weeks. After The training course, blood samples were taken from the subjects. The collected data was analyzed using Two-way ANOVA and paired t-test. Results: Having soya along with exercise had significant impact on reduction of TG, tCho, LDL-C means (p<0.05. Body mass index and waist to hip ratio decreased significantly in exercise-soya group after 10 weeks (p<0.05. Conclusion: Based on the findings of this study, aerobic moderate intensity exercise along with soya intake, decrease obesity and serum lipids in obese postmenopausal women.

  18. The Impact of 10 weeks of Aerobic Exercise and Supplementation of Green Tea on Lipid Profile, Insulin Resistance and Liver Enzymes (GGT, ALT, AST in Obese Diabetic Women (type 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Izadi Ghahfarokhi

    2015-05-01

    Conclusions: Green tea supplements with aerobic training were effective in controlling obesity and type 2 diabetes. By increasing the duration of the exercise and supplementation, it may find desirable results on serum cholesterol and triglycerides.

  19. A STUDY ON EFFECTIVENESS OF TREADMILL EXERCISE TRAINING IN GAIT PARAMETERS OF CHRONIC STROKE CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Divan Mohaideen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Stroke is the leading cause of death and the most common cause of disability. This study determined the effects of Treadmill Aerobic Exercise on spatial and temporal gait parameters among stroke patients. Materials & Methods: In this study, Thirty -nine subjects with hemiparetic stroke underwent Treadmill Aerobic Exercise four times weekly for six months from December 2006 to June 2007. This study has taken place in Department of Physical therapy and Rehabilitation, GSN multi Specialty hospital and research Centre, Hyderabad, India. We measured the spatial and temporal gait parameters of the subjects before and after Treadmill Aerobic Exercise training by the means of 30-foot timed walks, 6 minute distance walks with usual assistive devices and 8metre instrumented walkway without assistive devices. Pre and post training results were compared and contrast. Results: This study results that the Treadmill Aerobic Exercise improved 30-foot walks by 17% and 6 minute walk by 23%. Unassisted walking velocity increased 22%, stride length increased 13% and cadence increased 7%. Paretic and non-paretic step lengths increased significantly, and respective step times increased significantly. Discussion: Large study should be done with treadmill exercise training along with other skills for the better results to improve the gait parameters in chronic stroke cases. Conclusion: This study shows the evidence for positive changes in spatial and temporal gait parameters of subjects with stroke after Treadmill Aerobic Exercise.

  20. Recent Research on Eating Disorders and Body Image Distortion among Aerobic Instructors and Exercise Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, Dick; And Others

    This document reviews the research linking excessive exercise with eating disorders. Seven steps are listed that an individual follows in going from someone who starts out using exercise and aerobic dance as a stress management technique or a hobby to becoming an exercise dependent individual with addictive behavior. Studies are reviewed, the…

  1. Effect of regular aerobic exercise with ozone exposure on peripheral leukocyte populations in Wistar male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshar Jafari

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: The immune system in endurance athletes may be at risk for deleterious effects of gasous pollutants such as ambient ozone. Therefore, this study was performed to assess the effect of regular aerobic exercise with ozone exposure on peripheral leukocytes populations in male Wistar rats.
    • METHODS: Twenty eight 8 weeks old rats were selected and randomly divided into four groups of ozone-unexposed anduntrained (control or group 1, n = 6, ozone-exposed and untrained (group 2, n = 6, ozone-unexposed and trained (group 3, n = 8, ozone-exposed and trained (group 4, n = 8. All animals in groups 3 and 4 were regularly running (20 m/min, 30 min/day on a treadmill for 7 weeks (5 day/week. After the last ozone exposure [0.3 ppm, 30 min per sessions], blood samples were obtained from the cardiac puncture and hematological parameters as well as blood lactate were measured using automatic analyzers. Data were expressed as means (± SD and analyzed by ANOVA and Pearson's correlation tests at p < 0.05.
    • RESULTS: All the hematological parameters differences (except RBC and hemoglobin rate were significantly higher in the trained groups (p < 0.001. However, ozone-induced leukocytosis in the trained (but not in the sedentary rats was statistically higher than in the counterpart groups.
    • CONCLUSIONS: Repeated acute ozone exposure has more additive effect on peripheral leukocyte counts in active animals. But, more researches are needed to identify effects of ozone exposure on other components of the immune system in athletes and non-athletes.
    • KEYWORDS: Moderate Aerobic Exercise, Ozone Exposure,  eukocytosis, Wistar Rats.

  2. Coronary atheroma regression and plaque characteristics assessed by grayscale and radiofrequency intravascular ultrasound after aerobic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madssen, Erik; Moholdt, Trine; Videm, Vibeke; Wisløff, Ulrik; Hegbom, Knut; Wiseth, Rune

    2014-11-15

    The aim of the present study was to investigate effects of aerobic interval training (AIT) versus moderate continuous training (MCT) on coronary atherosclerosis in patients with significant coronary artery disease on optimal medical treatment. Thirty-six patients were randomized to AIT (intervals at ≈ 90% of peak heart rate) or MCT (continuous exercise at ≈ 70% of peak heart rate) 3 times a week for 12 weeks after intracoronary stent implantation. Grayscale and radiofrequency intravascular ultrasounds (IVUS) were performed at baseline and follow-up. The primary end point was the change in plaque burden, and the secondary end points were change in necrotic core and plaque vulnerability. Separate lesions were classified using radiofrequency IVUS criteria. We demonstrated that necrotic core was reduced in both groups in defined coronary segments (AIT -3.2%, MCT -2.7%, p <0.05) and in separate lesions (median change -2.3% and -0.15 mm(3), p <0.05). Plaque burden was reduced by 10.7% in separate lesions independent of intervention group (p = 0.06). No significant differences in IVUS parameters were found between exercise groups. A minority of separate lesions were transformed in terms of plaque vulnerability during follow-up with large individual differences between and within patients. In conclusion, changes in coronary artery plaque structure or morphology did not differ between patients who underwent AIT or MCT. The combination of regular aerobic exercise and optimal medical treatment for 12 weeks induced a moderate regression of necrotic core and plaque burden in IVUS-defined coronary lesions. PMID:25248813

  3. Effect of aerobic exercise on premenstrual symptoms, haematological and hormonal parameters in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Lithy, A; El-Mazny, A; Sabbour, A; El-Deeb, A

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of aerobic exercise on premenstrual symptoms, haematological and hormonal parameters in young women. A total of 30 participants aged 16-20 years and complaining of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) were randomly assigned into two groups: a control group received vitamin B6 and Ca supplements once daily and a study group received the same medical treatment and participated in treadmill training three times per week for 3 months. A premenstrual syndrome questionnaire (MSQ), complete blood picture and hormone assays were performed for the assessment of all participants at the start and after the end of the treatment course. The study group showed a significant decrease in all post-treatment subscale symptoms, scores and total score. Haemoglobin, haematocrit, red cell count and platelet count were significantly increased, while mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and white blood cell count showed no significant differences. There was also a significant decrease in prolactin, oestradiol and progesterone levels. In conclusion, aerobic exercise increases haemoglobin, haematocrit, red cell count and platelet count, and decreases levels of prolactin, oestradiol and progesterone, resulting in improvement of fatigue, impaired concentration, confusion and most premenstrual symptoms. PMID:25279689

  4. The Impact of Aerobic Exercise on Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Neurocognition in Individuals With Schizophrenia: A Single-Blind, Randomized Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Kimhy, David; Vakhrusheva, Julia; Bartels, Matthew N.; Armstrong, Hilary F.; Ballon, Jacob S; Khan, Samira; Chang, Rachel W.; Hansen, Marie C.; Ayanruoh, Lindsey; Lister, Amanda; Castrén, Eero; Smith, Edward E.; Sloan, Richard P.

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia display substantial neurocognitive deficits for which available treatments offer only limited benefits. Yet, findings from studies of animals, clinical and nonclinical populations have linked neurocognitive improvements to increases in aerobic fitness (AF) via aerobic exercise training (AE). Such improvements have been attributed to up-regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). However, the impact of AE on neurocognition, and the putative role of BD...

  5. Benefits of Exercise Training in Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motl, Robert W; Sandroff, Brian M

    2015-09-01

    Exercise training represents a behavioral approach for safely managing many of the functional, symptomatic, and quality of life consequences of multiple sclerosis (MS). This topical review paper summarizes evidence from literature reviews and meta-analyses, supplemented by recent individual studies, indicating that exercise training can yield small but important improvements in walking, balance, cognition, fatigue, depression, and quality of life in MS. The paper highlights limitations of research on exercise training and its consequences and future research directions and provides an overview for promotion of exercise training in MS based on recent prescriptive guidelines. Collectively, the evidence for the benefits of exercise training in MS suggests that the time is ripe for the promotion of exercise by healthcare providers, particularly neurologists as a central part of the clinical care and management of MS patients. PMID:26223831

  6. Aerobic Training after Myocardial Infarction: Remodeling Evaluated by Cardiac Magnetic Resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataly Lino Izeli

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Numerous studies show the benefits of exercise training after myocardial infarction (MI. Nevertheless, the effects on function and remodeling are still controversial. Objectives: To evaluate, in patients after (MI, the effects of aerobic exercise of moderate intensity on ventricular remodeling by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR. Methods: 26 male patients, 52.9 ± 7.9 years, after a first MI, were assigned to groups: trained group (TG, 18; and control group (CG, 8. The TG performed supervised aerobic exercise on treadmill twice a week, and unsupervised sessions on 2 additional days per week, for at least 3 months. Laboratory tests, anthropometric measurements, resting heart rate (HR, exercise test, and CMR were conducted at baseline and follow-up. Results: The TG showed a 10.8% reduction in fasting blood glucose (p = 0.01, and a 7.3-bpm reduction in resting HR in both sitting and supine positions (p < 0.0001. There was an increase in oxygen uptake only in the TG (35.4 ± 8.1 to 49.1 ± 9.6 mL/kg/min, p < 0.0001. There was a statistically significant decrease in the TG left ventricular mass (LVmass (128.7 ± 38.9 to 117.2 ± 27.2 g, p = 0.0032. There were no statistically significant changes in the values of left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV and ejection fraction in the groups. The LVmass/EDV ratio demonstrated a statistically significant positive remodeling in the TG (p = 0.015. Conclusions: Aerobic exercise of moderate intensity improved physical capacity and other cardiovascular variables. A positive remodeling was identified in the TG, where a left ventricular diastolic dimension increase was associated with LVmass reduction.

  7. Effect of Exercise Training on Enos Expression, NO Production and Oxygen Metabolism in Human Placenta

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Bustamante, Juanita; Czerniczyniec, Analia; Aguilar de Plata, Ana C.; Lores-Arnaiz, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the effects of combined aerobic and resistance exercise training during the second half of pregnancy on endothelial NOS expression (eNOS), nitric oxide (NO) production and oxygen metabolism in human placenta. Methods The study included 20 nulliparous in gestational week 16–20, attending prenatal care at three tertiary hospitals in Colombia who were randomly assigned into one of two groups: The exercise group (n = 10) took part in an exercise session three times a week f...

  8. Exercício aeróbico, treinamento de força muscular e testes de aptidão física para adolescentes com fibrose cística: revisão da literatura Exercise testing, aerobic and strength training for adolescents with cystic fibrosis: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Regina Moutinho de Miranda Chaves

    2007-09-01

    "cystic fibrosis" were used to select articles. This survey demonstrated that aerobic exercises and muscular strength training help to relieve the bronchial tree, reduce progressive pulmonary function failure and improve self-esteem and quality of life. The best results were obtained with assisted training programs due to their regularity.

  9. Aerobic exercise and yoga improve neurocognitive function in women with early psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jingxia; Chan, Sherry Kw; Lee, Edwin Hm; Chang, Wing Chung; Tse, Michael; Su, Wayne Weizhong; Sham, Pak; Hui, Christy Lm; Joe, Glen; Chan, Cecilia Lw; Khong, P L; So, Kwok Fai; Honer, William G; Chen, Eric Yh

    2015-01-01

    Impairments of attention and memory are evident in early psychosis, and are associated with functional disability. In a group of stable, medicated women patients, we aimed to determine whether participating in aerobic exercise or yoga improved cognitive impairments and clinical symptoms. A total of 140 female patients were recruited, and 124 received the allocated intervention in a randomized controlled study of 12 weeks of yoga or aerobic exercise compared with a waitlist group. The primary outcomes were cognitive functions including memory and attention. Secondary outcome measures were the severity of psychotic and depressive symptoms, and hippocampal volume. Data from 124 patients were included in the final analysis based on the intention-to-treat principle. Both yoga and aerobic exercise groups demonstrated significant improvements in working memory (Peffect sizes compared with the waitlist control group. The yoga group showed additional benefits in verbal acquisition (Pexercise improved overall and depressive symptoms (all P⩽0.01) after 12 weeks. Small increases in hippocampal volume were observed in the aerobic exercise group compared with waitlist (P=0.01). Both types of exercise improved working memory in early psychosis patients, with yoga having a larger effect on verbal acquisition and attention than aerobic exercise. The application of yoga and aerobic exercise as adjunctive treatments for early psychosis merits serious consideration. This study was supported by the Small Research Funding of the University of Hong Kong (201007176229), and RGC funding (C00240/762412) by the Authority of Research, Hong Kong. PMID:27336050

  10. Effects of aerobic interval training and continuous training on cellular markers of endothelial integrity in coronary artery disease: a SAINTEX-CAD substudy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Craenenbroeck, Emeline M; Frederix, Geert; Pattyn, Nele; Beckers, Paul; Van Craenenbroeck, Amaryllis H; Gevaert, Andreas; Possemiers, Nadine; Cornelissen, Veronique; Goetschalckx, Kaatje; Vrints, Christiaan J; Vanhees, Luc; Hoymans, Vicky Y

    2015-12-01

    In this large multicenter trial, we aimed to assess the effect of aerobic exercise training in stable coronary artery disease (CAD) patients on cellular markers of endothelial integrity and to examine their relation with improvement of endothelial function. Two-hundred CAD patients (left ventricular ejection fraction > 40%, 90% male, mean age 58.4 ± 9.1 yr) were randomized on a 1:1 base to a supervised 12-wk rehabilitation program of either aerobic interval training or aerobic continuous training on a bicycle. At baseline and after 12 wk, numbers of circulating CD34(+)/KDR(+)/CD45dim endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), CD31(+)/CD3(+)/CXCR4(+) angiogenic T cells, and CD31(+)/CD42b(-) endothelial microparticles (EMPs) were analyzed by flow cytometry. Endothelial function was assessed by flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery. After 12 wk of aerobic interval training or aerobic continuous training, numbers of circulating EPCs, angiogenic T cells, and EMPs were comparable with baseline levels. Whereas improvement in peak oxygen consumption was correlated to improvement in FMD (Pearson r = 0.17, P = 0.035), a direct correlation of baseline or posttraining EPCs, angiogenic T cells, and EMP levels with FMD was absent. Baseline EMPs related inversely to the magnitude of the increases in peak oxygen consumption (Spearman rho = -0.245, P = 0.027) and FMD (Spearman rho = -0.374, P = 0.001) following exercise training. In conclusion, endothelial function improvement in response to exercise training in patients with CAD did not relate to altered levels of EPCs and angiogenic T cells and/or a diminished shedding of EMPs into the circulation. EMP flow cytometry may be predictive of the increase in aerobic capacity and endothelial function. PMID:26453327

  11. The effect of low-level laser therapy on oxidative stress and functional fitness in aged rats subjected to swimming: an aerobic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guaraldo, Simone A; Serra, Andrey Jorge; Amadio, Eliane Martins; Antônio, Ednei Luis; Silva, Flávio; Portes, Leslie Andrews; Tucci, Paulo José Ferreira; Leal-Junior, Ernesto Cesar Pinto; de Carvalho, Paulo de Tarso Camillo

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in conjunction with aerobic training interferes with oxidative stress, thereby influencing the performance of old rats participating in swimming. Thirty Wistar rats (Norvegicus albinus) (24 aged and six young) were tested. The older animals were randomly divided into aged-control, aged-exercise, aged-LLLT, aged-LLLT/exercise, and young-control. Aerobic capacity (VO2max(0.75)) was analyzed before and after the training period. The exercise groups were trained for 6 weeks, and the LLLT was applied at 808 nm and 4 J energy. The rats were euthanized, and muscle tissue was collected to analyze the index of lipid peroxidation thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities. VO2 (0.75)max values in the aged-LLLT/exercise group were significantly higher from those in the baseline older group (p  0.05). Laser therapy in conjunction with aerobic training may reduce oxidative stress, as well as increase VO2 (0.75)max, indicating that an aerobic exercise such as swimming increases speed and improves performance in aged animals treated with LLLT. PMID:26861983

  12. The interplay between aerobic metabolism and antipredator performance: vigilance is related to recovery rate after exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Killen, Shaun S; Reid, Donald; Marras, Stefano; Domenici, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    When attacked by a predator, fish respond with a sudden fast-start motion away from the threat. Although this anaerobically-powered swimming necessitates a recovery phase which is fueled aerobically, little is known about links between escape performance and aerobic traits such as aerobic scope (AS) or recovery time after exhaustive exercise. Slower recovery ability or a reduced AS could make some individuals less likely to engage in a fast-start response or display reduced performance. Conve...

  13. The influence of training status on the fatigue threshold and performance during high intensity exercise.

    OpenAIRE

    Bøgseth, Tina

    2015-01-01

    The influence of training status on the fatigue threshold and performance during high intensity exercise were studied in six endurance trained cyclists and seven recreationally students during 1 min anaerobic TT and 10 min aerobic TT. The peripheral fatigue was expressed as reduction in the potentiated single quadriceps twitch force (Qtw-pot) from baseline from pre to post cycling exercise measured with supra maximal femoral nerve electro stimulation. The central fatigue was estimated from vo...

  14. Aerobic interval exercise with an eccentric contraction induces muscular hypertrophy and augmentation of muscular strength in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Tsumiyama, Wakako; Oki, Sadaaki; Takamiya, Naomi; Umei, Namiko; Shimizu, Michele Eisemann; Ono, Takeya; Otsuka, Akira

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine whether an aerobic interval exercise using an eccentric contraction would result in skeletal muscular hypertrophy and augmentation of muscular strength in rats. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-one female Wistar rats were used in this study. The rats were randomly divided into three groups. The control group performed no exercise. The aerobic endurance exercise group ran for 90 min. The aerobic interval exercise group ran for a total of 90 minut...

  15. The Acute Effects of a Single Bout of Moderate-intensity Aerobic Exercise on Cognitive Functions in Healthy Adult Males

    OpenAIRE

    Nanda, Bijli; Balde, Jagruti; MANJUNATHA, S.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Single acute bouts of moderately-intense aerobic exercise like walking have been found to improve cognitive control of attention in children, but some studies have reported no improvement in cognitive flexibility following acute aerobic exercise. Submaximal aerobic exercise performed for 60 minutes facilitated specific aspects of information processing in adults but extended exercises leading to dehydration compromised both information processing and memory functions. Improvemen...

  16. Peripheral vascular reactivity and serum BDNF responses to aerobic training are impaired by the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, José R; Alves, Cleber R; de Souza, Sílvia B C; Marsiglia, Julia D C; Silva, Michelle S M; Pereira, Alexandre C; Teixeira, Antônio L; Vieira, Erica L M; Krieger, José E; Negrão, Carlos E; Alves, Guilherme B; de Oliveira, Edilamar M; Bolani, Wladimir; Dias, Rodrigo G; Trombetta, Ivani C

    2016-02-01

    Besides neuronal plasticity, the neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is also important in vascular function. The BDNF has been associated with angiogenesis through its specific receptor tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB). Additionally, Val66Met polymorphism decreases activity-induced BDNF. Since BDNF and TrkB are expressed in vascular endothelial cells and aerobic exercise training can increase serum BDNF, this study aimed to test the hypotheses: 1) Serum BDNF levels modulate peripheral blood flow; 2) The Val66Met BDNF polymorphism impairs exercise training-induced vasodilation. We genotyped 304 healthy male volunteers (Val66Val, n = 221; Val66Met, n = 83) who underwent intense aerobic exercise training on a running track three times/wk for 4 mo. We evaluated pre- and post-exercise training serum BDNF and proBDNF concentration, heart rate (HR), mean blood pressure (MBP), forearm blood flow (FBF), and forearm vascular resistance (FVR). In the pre-exercise training, BDNF, proBDNF, BDNF/proBDNF ratio, FBF, and FVR were similar between genotypes. After exercise training, functional capacity (V̇o2 peak) increased and HR decreased similarly in both groups. Val66Val, but not Val66Met, increased BDNF (interaction, P = 0.04) and BDNF/proBDNF ratio (interaction, P < 0.001). Interestingly, FBF (interaction, P = 0.04) and the FVR (interaction, P = 0.01) responses during handgrip exercise (HG) improved in Val66Val compared with Val66Met, even with similar responses of HR and MBP. There were association between BDNF/proBDNF ratio and FBF (r = 0.64, P < 0.001) and FVR (r = -0.58, P < 0.001) during HG exercise. These results show that peripheral vascular reactivity and serum BDNF responses to exercise training are impaired by the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and such responsiveness is associated with serum BDNF concentrations in healthy subjects. PMID:26603150

  17. Aquatic-Aerobic Exercise as a Means of Stress Reduction during Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, Kara Mallory; Smith, Sheila A.

    2003-01-01

    The goals of this research were to explore the current literature regarding associations between psychological stress and adverse fetal outcome, associations between aerobic exercise and psychological stress reduction, and associations between aerobic exercise and fetal outcome. The published studies that were located provide evidence of the following: 1) Stress reactivity increases physiologically during pregnancy, 2) pregnant women may experience additional stressors that are usually not ex...

  18. Nociception Before and After Exercise In Rats Bred for High and Low Aerobic Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Geisser, Michael E; Wang, Wenfei; Smuck, Matthew; Koch, Lauren G.; Britton, Steven L.; Lydic, Ralph

    2008-01-01

    Exercise and stress are known to influence pain perception. However, little is known about how level of fitness influences pain perception and the experience of pain. In the present study, pain perception before and after exercise to exhaustion was examined in 6 rats systematically bred to have a high aerobic capacity (HCR animals) and 6 rats systematically bred to have a low aerobic capacity (LCR animals). HCR animals had significantly higher pain thresholds compared to LCR animals before an...

  19. Aerobic exercise and yoga improve neurocognitive function in women with early psychosis

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Jingxia; Chan, Sherry KW; Lee, Edwin HM; Chang, Wing Chung; Tse, Michael; Su, Wayne Weizhong; Sham, Pak; Hui, Christy LM; Joe, Glen; Chan, Cecilia LW; Khong, P. L.; So, Kwok Fai; Honer, William G.; Chen, Eric YH

    2015-01-01

    Impairments of attention and memory are evident in early psychosis, and are associated with functional disability. In a group of stable, medicated women patients, we aimed to determine whether participating in aerobic exercise or yoga improved cognitive impairments and clinical symptoms. A total of 140 female patients were recruited, and 124 received the allocated intervention in a randomized controlled study of 12 weeks of yoga or aerobic exercise compared with a waitlist group. The primary ...

  20. The Effect of Short-Term Aerobic Exercise on Depression and Body Image in Iranian Women

    OpenAIRE

    Sareh Zarshenas; Parsa Houshvar; Ali Tahmasebi

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of short-term aerobic exercise on depression symptoms and body image attitudes among Iranian women. In this quasiexperimental study, 82 females were assigned to experimental group (aerobic exercise group, n = 41) or control group (waiting list, n = 41) and evaluated by Beck Depression Inventory-second edition (BDI-II) and Multidimensional Body Self-Relation Questionnaire (MBSRQ), respectively. The experimental group received four-week aero...

  1. Acute effect of vigorous aerobic exercise on the inhibitory control in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Browne, Rodrigo Alberto Vieira; Costa, Eduardo Caldas; Sales, Marcelo Magalhães; Fonteles, André Igor; Moraes, José Fernando Vila Nova de; Barros, Jônatas de França

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To assess the acute effect of vigorous aerobic exercise on the inhibitory control in adolescents. Methods: Controlled, randomized study with crossover design. Twenty pubertal individuals underwent two 30-minute sessions: (1) aerobic exercise session performed between 65% and 75% of heart rate reserve, divided into 5 min of warm-up, 20 min at the target intensity and 5 min of cool down; and (2) control session watching a cartoon. Before and after the sessions, the computeri...

  2. The Effect of Low Impact and Mixed Impact Aerobic Exercise on Percentage of Body Fat

    OpenAIRE

    Umar Nawawi

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of low impact aerobic exercise and mixed impact aerobic exercise on lowering percentage of body fat. Many people have difficulty to stay away from overweight (obesity). It is widely known that obesity is commonly caused by over fat in the body. The populations of this research were female students of Faculty of Sport Science, Universitas Negeri Padang, while the samples were female students Department of Coaching Education. 20 female students were se...

  3. Aerobic exercise protects retinal function and structure from light-induced retinal degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Eric C; Han, Moon K; Sellers, Jana T; Chrenek, Micah A; Hanif, Adam; Gogniat, Marissa A; Boatright, Jeffrey H; Pardue, Machelle T

    2014-02-12

    Aerobic exercise is a common intervention for rehabilitation of motor, and more recently, cognitive function (Intlekofer and Cotman, 2013; Wood et al., 2012). While the underlying mechanisms are complex, BDNF may mediate much of the beneficial effects of exercise to these neurons (Ploughman et al., 2007; Griffin et al., 2011; Real et al., 2013). We studied the effects of aerobic exercise on retinal neurons undergoing degeneration. We exercised wild-type BALB/c mice on a treadmill (10 m/min for 1 h) for 5 d/week or placed control mice on static treadmills. After 2 weeks of exercise, mice were exposed to either toxic bright light (10,000 lux) for 4 h to induce photoreceptor degeneration or maintenance dim light (25 lux). Bright light caused 75% loss of both retinal function and photoreceptor numbers. However, exercised mice exposed to bright light had 2 times greater retinal function and photoreceptor nuclei than inactive mice exposed to bright light. In addition, exercise increased retinal BDNF protein levels by 20% compared with inactive mice. Systemic injections of a BDNF tropomyosin-receptor-kinase (TrkB) receptor antagonist reduced retinal function and photoreceptor nuclei counts in exercised mice to inactive levels, effectively blocking the protective effects seen with aerobic exercise. The data suggest that aerobic exercise is neuroprotective for retinal degeneration and that this effect is mediated by BDNF signaling. PMID:24523530

  4. Menstrual cycle phase effects free testosterone responses to prolonged aerobic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, A R; O'Leary, C B; Hackney, A C

    2015-09-01

    Research has shown that total testosterone (tT) levels in women increase acutely during a prolonged bout of aerobic exercise. Few studies, however, have considered the impact of the menstrual cycle phase on this response or have looked at the biologically active free testosterone (fT) form responses. Therefore, this study examined the fT concentration response independently and as a percentage (fT%) of tT to prolonged aerobic exercise during phases of the menstrual cycle with low estrogen-progesterone (L-EP; i.e., follicular phase) and high estrogen-progesterone (H-EP; i.e., luteal phase). Ten healthy, recreationally trained, eumennorrheic women (X ± SD: age = 20 ± 2 y, mass = 58.7 ± 8.3 kg, body fat = 22.3 ± 4.9 %, VO(2max) = 50.7 ± 9.0 ml/kg/min) participated in a laboratory based study and completed a 60-minute treadmill run during the L-EP and H-EP menstrual phases at ~70% of VO(2max). Blood was drawn prior to (PRE), immediately after (POST) and following 30 minutes of recovery (30POST) with each 60-minute run. During H-EP, there was a significant increase in fT concentrations from PRE to POST (p exercise sampling time. There was, however, a main effect for exercise where fT% POST was a greater proportion of tT than at PRE (p exercise bout; specifically, there being higher levels under H-EP conditions. This suggests more biologically active T is available during exercise in this phase. This response may be a function of the higher core temperatures found with H-EP causing greater sex hormone binding protein release of T, or could be a function of greater degrees of glandular production. Further work is warranted to elucidate the mechanism of this occurrence. It is recommended that researchers examining T responses to exercise in women look at both tT and fT forms in order to have an accurate endocrine assessment in women. PMID:26551749

  5. High intensity aerobic interval training improves peak oxygen consumption in patients with metabolic syndrome: CAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Espinoza Salinas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction A number of cardiovascular risk factors characterizes the metabolic syndrome: insulin resistance (IR, low HDL cholesterol and high triglycerides. The aforementioned risk factors lead to elevated levels of abdominal adipose tissue, resulting in oxygen consumption deficiency. Purpose To verify the validity and applicability of using high intensity interval training (HIIT in subjects with metabolic syndrome and to answer the following question: Can HIIT improve peak oxygen consumption? Method The systematic review "Effects of aerobic interval training on exercise capacity and metabolic risk factors in individuals with cardiometabolic disorders" was analyzed. Results Data suggests high intensity aerobic interval training increases peak oxygen consumption by a standardized mean difference of 3.60 mL/kg-1/min-1 (95% confidence interval, 0.28-4.91. Conclusion In spite of the methodological shortcomings of the primary studies included in the systematic review, we reasonably conclude that implementation of high intensity aerobic interval training in subjects with metabolic syndrome, leads to increases in peak oxygen consumption.

  6. The Effects of a 10-Week Water Aerobic Exercise on the Resting Blood Pressure in Patients with Essential Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahani

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose To investigate the effects of a 10-week water aerobic exercise on the resting blood pressure in patients with stage 1 or 2 hypertension referring to Tehran University Clinics. Methods Forty men with stage 1 or 2 essential hypertension were assigned to two groups of intervention [n = 12; aged 48.33±10.74 years (mean±SD] and control [n = 28; aged 46.96±11.58 years (mean±SD]. Subjects in the intervention group participated in a supervised 10-week water aerobic training program of 55 min sessions, 3 days per week on alternate days, while those in the control group were not involved in any regular training program during this period. Blood pressure of the participants was recorded and compared at the beginning and at the end of the study (48 hours after the last training session. Results Exercise lowered systolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure by 11.71 (95% confidence interval: 5.07 to 18.35 and 5.90 (95% confidence interval: 1.17 to 10.63 mm Hg respectively. The lowering effect of exercise on diastolic blood pressure was neither statistically significant nor clinically important (0.55 mm Hg; P. value = 0.8. There was no significant effect of age, baseline body mass index and stage of hypertension on the exercise-induced changes in blood pressure. Conclusion A 10-week course of water aerobic exercise markedly reduced the systolic and mean arterial blood pressure of patients with essential hypertension and is especially recommended for the obese and the elderly who have orthopedic problems or bronchospasm.

  7. Teaching skeletal muscle adaptations to aerobic exercise using an American Physiological Society classic paper by Dr. Philip Gollnick and colleagues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gregory A

    2006-09-01

    The use of primary research in the classroom enhances the critical thinking abilities of students. The present article describes a strategy for using the American Physiological Society classic paper "Enzyme activity and fiber composition in skeletal muscle of untrained and trained men" by Dr. Philip D. Gollnick and colleagues to enhance the students' ability to understand research, increase their knowledge of the adaptations to exercise, and learn computer skills in data analysis and presentation. By having students read, study, prepare graphs, and discuss the data from a classic paper, they gain an improved understanding of the factors that influence aerobic exercise ability. This study is especially useful for illuminating the exercise-specific differences in bioenergetic enzymes, muscle fiber type, and fitness characteristics that exist between untrained and trained individuals. PMID:16912145

  8. Ginsenoside Rg3 improves cardiac mitochondrial population quality: Mimetic exercise training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •Rg3 is an ergogenic aid. •Rg3 improves mitochondrial antioxidant capacity. •Rg3 regulates mitochondria dynamic remodeling. •Rg3 alone matches some the benefits of aerobic exercise. -- Abstract: Emerging evidence indicates exercise training could mediate mitochondrial quality control through the improvement of mitochondrial dynamics. Ginsenoside Rg3 (Rg3), one of the active ingredients in Panax ginseng, is well known in herbal medicine as a tonic and restorative agent. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the beneficial effects of Rg3 has been elusive. In the present study, we compared the effects of Rg3 administration with aerobic exercise on mitochondrial adaptation in cardiac muscle tissue of Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats. Three groups of SD rats were studied: (1) sedentary control, (2) Rg3-treated and (3) aerobic exercise trained. Both aerobic exercise training and Rg3 supplementation enhanced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α) and nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) protein levels in cardiac muscle. The activation of PGC-1α led to increased mRNA levels of mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) and nuclear related factor 1(Nrf1), these changes were accompanied by increases in mitochondrial DNA copy number and complex protein levels, while activation of Nrf2 increased levels of phase II detoxifying enzymes, including nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate:quinone oxidoreductase 1(NQO1), superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and catalase. Aerobic exercise also enhanced mitochondrial autophagy pathway activity, including increased conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II and greater expression of beclin1 and autophagy-related protein 7 (ATG7), these effects of aerobic exercise are comparable to that of Rg3. These results demonstrate that Rg3 mimics improved cardiac adaptations to exercise by regulating mitochondria dynamic remodeling and enhancing the quantity and quality of mitochondria

  9. Ginsenoside Rg3 improves cardiac mitochondrial population quality: Mimetic exercise training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Mengwei [Key Laboratory of State General Administration of Sport, Shanghai Research Institute of Sports Science, Shanghai 200031 (China); Huang, Chenglin [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Vascular Biology, Department of Hypertension and Pharmacology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University, School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025 (China); Wang, Cheng; Zheng, Jianheng; Zhang, Peng; Xu, Yangshu [Key Laboratory of State General Administration of Sport, Shanghai Research Institute of Sports Science, Shanghai 200031 (China); Chen, Hong, E-mail: hchen100@hotmail.com [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Vascular Biology, Department of Hypertension and Pharmacology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University, School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025 (China); Shen, Weili, E-mail: weili_shen@hotmail.com [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Vascular Biology, Department of Hypertension and Pharmacology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University, School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025 (China)

    2013-11-08

    Highlights: •Rg3 is an ergogenic aid. •Rg3 improves mitochondrial antioxidant capacity. •Rg3 regulates mitochondria dynamic remodeling. •Rg3 alone matches some the benefits of aerobic exercise. -- Abstract: Emerging evidence indicates exercise training could mediate mitochondrial quality control through the improvement of mitochondrial dynamics. Ginsenoside Rg3 (Rg3), one of the active ingredients in Panax ginseng, is well known in herbal medicine as a tonic and restorative agent. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the beneficial effects of Rg3 has been elusive. In the present study, we compared the effects of Rg3 administration with aerobic exercise on mitochondrial adaptation in cardiac muscle tissue of Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats. Three groups of SD rats were studied: (1) sedentary control, (2) Rg3-treated and (3) aerobic exercise trained. Both aerobic exercise training and Rg3 supplementation enhanced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α) and nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) protein levels in cardiac muscle. The activation of PGC-1α led to increased mRNA levels of mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) and nuclear related factor 1(Nrf1), these changes were accompanied by increases in mitochondrial DNA copy number and complex protein levels, while activation of Nrf2 increased levels of phase II detoxifying enzymes, including nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate:quinone oxidoreductase 1(NQO1), superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and catalase. Aerobic exercise also enhanced mitochondrial autophagy pathway activity, including increased conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II and greater expression of beclin1 and autophagy-related protein 7 (ATG7), these effects of aerobic exercise are comparable to that of Rg3. These results demonstrate that Rg3 mimics improved cardiac adaptations to exercise by regulating mitochondria dynamic remodeling and enhancing the quantity and quality of mitochondria.

  10. Effects of anabolic steroids and high-intensity aerobic exercise on skeletal muscle of transgenic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Fontana

    Full Text Available In an attempt to shorten recovery time and improve performance, strength and endurance athletes occasionally turn to the illicit use of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS. This study evaluated the effects of AAS treatment on the muscle mass and phenotypic characteristics of transgenic mice subjected to a high-intensity, aerobic training program (5d/wk for 6 weeks. The transgenic mice (CETP(+/-LDLr(-/+ were engineered to exhibit a lipid profile closer to humans. Animals were divided into groups of sedentary (Sed and/or training (Ex mice (each treated orally with AAS or gum arabic/vehicle: Sed-C, Sed-M, ex-C, ex-M. The effects of AAS (mesterolone: M on specific phenotypic adaptations (muscle wet weight, cross-sectional area, and fiber type composition in three hindlimb muscles (soleus:SOL, tibialis anterior:TA and gastrocnemius:GAS were assessed. In order to detect subtle changes in fiber type profile, the entire range of fiber types (I, IC, IIAC, IIA, IIAD, IID, IIDB, IIB was delineated using mATPase histochemistry. Body weight gain occurred throughout the study for all groups. However, the body weight gain was significantly minimized with exercise. This effect was blunted with mesterolone treatment. Both AAS treatment (Sed-M and high-intensity, aerobic training (ex-C increased the wet weights of all three muscles and induced differential hypertrophy of pure and hybrid fibers. Combination of AAS and training (ex-M resulted in enhanced hypertrophy. In the SOL, mesterolone treatment (Sed-M and ex-M caused dramatic increases in the percentages of fiber types IC, IIAC, IIAD, IID, with concomitant decrease in IIA, but had minimal impact on fiber type percentages in the predominantly fast muscles. Overall, the AAS-induced differential adaptive changes amounted to significant fiber type transformations in the fast-to-slow direction in SOL. AAS treatment had a significant effect on muscle weights and fiber type composition in SOL, TA and GAS which was

  11. Effect of Taking Soybean Supplement and Regular Aerobic Exercise in Water on Mental and Physical Symptoms of Premenstrual Syndrome among Female Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masume Nazemi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of taking soybean supplement and regular aerobic exercise in water on mental and physical symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS among female students. Methods: This study was a single blind quasi-experimental trial that was conducted on female students living in dormitories of Shahroud University. In this study of 67 female students suffering from severe PMS that were eligible for inclusion, 40 persons voluntarily by completing a consent form were willing to work with us until the end of the study. After performing the pre-test and completing the questionnaire (PMS, subjects were divided into 4 groups: Aerobic training, taking soybean supplement, soybean supplement along with aerobic exercise and placebo. Aerobic exercises include activities in water for 8 weeks, with three sessions per week, and intensity of 55 to 65 percent of maximum heart rate. The supplement contains a capsule of 500 mg of soybean, taken once daily and the placebo contains starch, flour and oleaster powder that was similar to soybean capsule, taken once daily. At the end of eight weeks in the post-test stage, participants again completed the PMS questionnaire accurately. Given the normality of data, two-way ANOVA was performed to analyze the data using SPSS18 software. Results: The results showed that aerobic training in water for eight weeks had a significantly effect on general, physical and mental PMS symptoms in training group. Moreover, taking soybean for eight weeks had a significant effect on general and mental symptoms in supplement group, but no significant effect was observed in physical symptoms. In addition, 8 weeks of taking soybean supplement along with aerobic exercise in the water reduce the symptoms, but this difference was not significant. Conclusion: According to the results of this research, Soybean supplement or aerobic exercise in water can be used to treat or reduce PMS symptoms.

  12. Lower extremity joint flexibility and isokinetic performance differences in step aerobic exercise which was done with different music speeds

    OpenAIRE

    Yenigün, Özlem; Çolak, Tuncay; Özbek, Aydın; Yenigün, Nahit; Büyükdemirtaş, Tacettin; Kurt, Şentürk; Çolak, Enis

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the effects of 12 weeks of step aerobic exercise program which is done with different music speeds on knee flexor and extansor muscle groups’ strength developments. That’s why two different music speeds (125 bpm and 130 bpm) were selected. The volunteer university students (40 women) were randomly assigned to two training groups. The first (age:  22,15 ± 2,52) and the second group (age: 22,05 ± 1,73) were trained with 125 bpm music speed and 130 bpm music s...

  13. The impact of long-term exercise training on psychological function in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, R D; Storandt, M; Malley, M

    1993-01-01

    The effect of long-term aerobic training on psychological function was examined in 87 sedentary older adults who engaged in a year-long endurance exercise training program compared with a nonexercising control group. In addition to improved cardiovascular fitness, a positive change in self-reported morale was found for the exercise condition. Of the cognitive functions measured, a significant effect was noted for the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS) Logical Memory subtest; however, this effect was caused by a decline in performance from pre- to posttesting in the control group. Long-term exercise training had little, if any, effect on improving cognitive function in this older adult sample. PMID:8418145

  14. Spill exercise 1980: an LLNL emergency training exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An emergency training exercise at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) demonstrated that off-hours emergency personnel can respond promptly and effecively to an emergency situation involving radiation, hazardous chemicals, and injured persons. The exercise simulated an explosion in a chemistry laboratory and a subsequent toxic-gas release

  15. Effects of Simultaneous or Sequential Weight Loss Diet and Aerobic Interval Training on Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Rodriguez, R; Ortega, J F; Guio de Prada, V; Fernández-Elías, V E; Hamouti, N; Morales-Palomo, F; Martinez-Vizcaino, V; Nelson, R K

    2016-04-01

    Our purpose in this study was to investigate efficient and sustainable combinations of exercise and diet-induced weight loss (DIET), in order to combat obesity in metabolic syndrome (MetS) patients. We examined the impact of aerobic interval training (AIT), followed by or concurrent to a DIET on MetS components. 36 MetS patients (54±9 years old; 33±4 BMI; 27 males and 9 females) underwent 16 weeks of AIT followed by another 16 weeks without exercise from the fall of 2013 to the spring of 2014. Participants were randomized to AIT without DIET (E CON, n=12), AIT followed by DIET (E-then-D, n=12) or AIT concurrent with DIET (E+D, n=12) groups. Body weight decreased below E CON similarly in the E-then-D and E+D groups (~5%). Training improved blood pressure and cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2peak) in all groups with no additional effect of concurrent weight loss. However, E+D improved insulin sensitivity (HOMA) and lowered plasma triglycerides and blood cholesterol below E CON and E-then-D (all P<0.05). Weight loss in E-then-D in the 16 weeks without exercise lowered HOMA to the E+D levels and maintained blood pressure at trained levels. Our data suggest that a new lifestyle combination consisting of aerobic interval training followed by weight loss diet is similar, or even more effective on improving metabolic syndrome factors than concurrent exercise plus diet. PMID:26667921

  16. Nonlinear Exercise Training in Advanced Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Is Superior to Traditional Exercise Training A Randomized Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijn, Peter; van Keimpema, Anton; Legemaat, Monique; Gosselink, Rik; van Stel, Henk

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: The optimal exercise training intensity and strategy for individualized exercise training in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is not clear. Objectives: This study compares the effects of nonlinear periodized exercise (NLPE) training used in athletes to traditional endurance an

  17. The effects of cadence, impact, and step on physiological responses to aerobic dance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darby, L A; Browder, K D; Reeves, B D

    1995-09-01

    The physiological responses to aerobic dance exercise of varied impact (high, low), step (less arm movement vs. more arm movement), and cadence (124 vs. 138 beats.min-1) were investigated. Experienced, female aerobic dancers (N = 16) performed activities that combined the levels of impact and step for 3 trials of 8-min each. Dependent variables included heart rate, percentage of maximal heart rate, oxygen consumption, percentage of maximal oxygen consumption, and respiratory exchange ratio. Repeated measures analyses of variance indicated a significant Impact x Step interaction whereby oxygen consumption was greater for the high impact-less arm movement activity (jog), while the low impact-more arm movement activity (power jack) was greater for heart rate. The interaction of aerobic dance characteristics (e.g., impact, arm movement) that may alter physiological responses to aerobic dance exercise should be identified in future aerobic dance routines and studies. PMID:7481084

  18. Justification for experimental methods for circuit training aerobics classes first mature age women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyniuk O.V.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: develop and validate a methodology for circuit training aerobics. Methodology focused on improving physical health first mature age women. Material : a study was conducted with 81 women (age 21 - 35 years. Results : justified the means and methods of circuit training, the duration of the structural components, the rational parameters of physical activity, pulse modes. Depending on the physical health of women developed a set of circuit training for the main part of the session. Complex circuit training consists of 2 series, active rest interval between 3 minutes. Duration of employment in one series of 23 minutes. Exercises are performed at 5 locations: 3 - aerobic (3x5 min, 2 - power (2x4 min. The total duration of training - 49 minutes. The intensity of the training load is regulated by the level of physical health and the maximum test results. Conclusions : The positive changes morphofunctional indicators show an increase in the body's bioenergy and women transition to a higher level of physical health.

  19. The effect of three months of aerobic training on stroop performance in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predovan, David; Fraser, Sarah A; Renaud, Mélanie; Bherer, Louis

    2012-01-01

    Growing evidence supports the use of physical training interventions to improve both physical and cognitive performances in healthy older adults. Few studies have examined the impact of aerobic exercise on Stroop task performance, a measure of executive functions. In the current 3-month aerobic training study, 50 older adults (mean age = 67.96 ± 6.25 years) were randomly assigned to either a three-month physical training group or to a control group (waiting list). Training sessions were 3 times per week for 60 minutes. All participants completed pre- and post-test measures of cognitive performance using the modified Stroop task and physical performance (Rockport one-mile test). Compared to controls, the training group showed significant improvements in physical capacity (P Stroop performance, but only in the inhibition/switching condition (P Stroop task at posttest (r = -0.538; P = 0.007). Importantly, the reported gains in cognitive performance were observed after only three months of physical training. Taken together, the results suggest that even short-term physical interventions can enhance older adults' executive functions. PMID:23304504

  20. Aerobic Exercise and Pharmacological Therapies for Skeletal Myopathy in Heart Failure: Similarities and Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline V. Bacurau

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal myopathy has been identified as a major comorbidity of heart failure (HF affecting up to 20% of ambulatory patients leading to shortness of breath, early fatigue, and exercise intolerance. Neurohumoral blockade, through the inhibition of renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAS and β-adrenergic receptor blockade (β-blockers, is a mandatory pharmacological therapy of HF since it reduces symptoms, mortality, and sudden death. However, the effect of these drugs on skeletal myopathy needs to be clarified, since exercise intolerance remains in HF patients optimized with β-blockers and inhibitors of RAS. Aerobic exercise training (AET is efficient in counteracting skeletal myopathy and in improving functional capacity and quality of life. Indeed, AET has beneficial effects on failing heart itself despite being of less magnitude compared with neurohumoral blockade. In this way, AET should be implemented in the care standards, together with pharmacological therapies. Since both neurohumoral inhibition and AET have a direct and/or indirect impact on skeletal muscle, this review aims to provide an overview of the isolated effects of these therapeutic approaches in counteracting skeletal myopathy in HF. The similarities and dissimilarities of neurohumoral inhibition and AET therapies are also discussed to identify potential advantageous effects of these combined therapies for treating HF.

  1. The effects of a graduated aerobic exercise programme on cardiovascular disease risk factors in the NHS workplace: a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Moreton Michelle; Whyte Gregory P; Hewitt Jennifer A; van Someren Ken A; Levine Tanya S

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Sufficient levels of physical activity provide cardio-protective benefit. However within developed society sedentary work and inflexible working hours promotes physical inactivity. Consequently to ensure a healthy workforce there is a requirement for exercise strategies adaptable to occupational time constraint. This study examined the effect of a 12 week aerobic exercise training intervention programme implemented during working hours on the cardiovascular profile of a se...

  2. Aerobic exercise increases hippocampal volume and improves memory in multiple sclerosis: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavitt, V M; Cirnigliaro, C; Cohen, A; Farag, A; Brooks, M; Wecht, J M; Wylie, G R; Chiaravalloti, N D; DeLuca, J; Sumowski, J F

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis leads to prominent hippocampal atrophy, which is linked to memory deficits. Indeed, 50% of multiple sclerosis patients suffer memory impairment, with negative consequences for quality of life. There are currently no effective memory treatments for multiple sclerosis either pharmacological or behavioral. Aerobic exercise improves memory and promotes hippocampal neurogenesis in nonhuman animals. Here, we investigate the benefits of aerobic exercise in memory-impaired multiple sclerosis patients. Pilot data were collected from two ambulatory, memory-impaired multiple sclerosis participants randomized to non-aerobic (stretching) and aerobic (stationary cycling) conditions. The following baseline/follow-up measurements were taken: high-resolution MRI (neuroanatomical volumes), fMRI (functional connectivity), and memory assessment. Intervention was 30-minute sessions 3 times per week for 3 months. Aerobic exercise resulted in 16.5% increase in hippocampal volume and 53.7% increase in memory, as well as increased hippocampal resting-state functional connectivity. Improvements were specific, with no comparable changes in overall cerebral gray matter (+2.4%), non-hippocampal deep gray matter structures (thalamus, caudate: -4.0%), or in non-memory cognitive functioning (executive functions, processing speed, working memory: changes ranged from -11% to +4%). Non-aerobic exercise resulted in relatively no change in hippocampal volume (2.8%) or memory (0.0%), and no changes in hippocampal functional connectivity. This is the first evidence for aerobic exercise to increase hippocampal volume and connectivity and improve memory in multiple sclerosis. Aerobic exercise represents a cost-effective, widely available, natural, and self-administered treatment with no adverse side effects that may be the first effective memory treatment for multiple sclerosis patients. PMID:24090098

  3. Children and Aerobic Exercise: A Review of Cognitive and Behavioral Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, M. Cay; Labbe, Elise E.

    1994-01-01

    Summarizes and critiques 16 studies involving the cognitive and behavioral effects of aerobic exercise on children in both schools and clinical settings. Concludes that few studies concurrently measure physical and psychological changes that may accompany exercise in children and suggests methods for further investigation. (SW)

  4. Acute Aerobic Exercise Impacts Selective Attention: An Exceptional Boost in Lower-Income Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tine, Michele T.; Butler, Allison G.

    2012-01-01

    Educational research suggests that lower-income children exhibit poor general executive functioning relative to their higher-income peers. Meanwhile, sports psychology research suggests that an acute bout of aerobic exercise improves executive functioning in children. Yet, it has never been determined if such exercise (1) specifically improves the…

  5. Lower extremity joint flexibility and isokinetic performance differences in step aerobic exercise which was done with different music speeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Yenigün

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the effects of 12 weeks of step aerobic exercise program which is done with different music speeds on knee flexor and extansor muscle groups’ strength developments. That’s why two different music speeds (125 bpm and 130 bpm were selected. The volunteer university students (40 women were randomly assigned to two training groups. The first (age:  22,15 ± 2,52 and the second group (age: 22,05 ± 1,73 were trained with 125 bpm music speed and 130 bpm music speed, respectively, for one hour a day and three days a week. Before and after the training, the knee flexion/extension muscle strengths were measured 60, 180 and 300 deg/sec angular velocity with biodex system-3 dynamometer. After that training program, both of the groups’ muscle strengths values were increased (p<0,05. Between the two groups, statistically significant differences, as 300 deg/sec angular velocity, were found during the measurements (p<0,05. It was seen that the participants, who were trained with 130 bpm music speeds, reached well values for endurance measurements. As a result, it is stated that the step aerobic exercise, which was done with 130 bpm music speeds, is an effective method for developing the knee flexor and extansor muscle’s endurance.

  6. Lower extremity joint flexibility and isokinetic performance differences in step aerobic exercise which was done with different music speeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Yenigün

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the effects of 12 weeks of step aerobic exercise program which is done with different music speeds on knee flexor and extansor muscle groups’ strength developments. That’s why two different music speeds (125 bpm and 130 bpm were selected. The volunteer university students (40 women were randomly assigned to two training groups. The first (age: 22,15 ± 2,52 and the second group (age: 22,05 ± 1,73 were trained with 125 bpm music speed and 130 bpm music speed, respectively, for one hour a day and three days a week. Before and after the training, the knee flexion/extension muscle strengths were measured 60, 180 and 300 deg/sec angular velocity with biodex system-3 dynamometer. After that training program, both of the groups’ muscle strengths values were increased (p<0,05. Between the two groups, statistically significant differences, as 300 deg/sec angular velocity, were found during the measurements (p<0,05. It was seen that the participants, who were trained with 130 bpm music speeds, reached well values for endurance measurements. As a result, it is stated that the step aerobic exercise, which was done with 130 bpm music speeds, is an effective method for developing the knee flexor and extansor muscle’s endurance.

  7. Effects of aerobic exercises training of different intensities on dynamic blood pressure and quality of life in hypertension patients%不同强度的有氧运动对高血压病患者动态血压和生存质量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪流; 林秀瑶; 许云辉; 朱达斌; 王景峰

    2009-01-01

    目的:比较两种不同强度的有氧运动训练对高血压病患者动态血压和生存质量的影响.方法:将收治的60例高血压病患者随机分为A组和B组,接受强度分别为20%和60%最大运动能力的10周有氧运动训练.试验开始和结束时分别进行动态血压监测和生存质量的评价.结果:2组患者治疗后各项动态血压指标均有下降,差异无显著性(P>0.05).治疗后2组患者SF-36量表各维度评分中躯体疼痛和社会功能与治疗前比较无显著性差异(P>0.05),其他6项指标:躯体功能、躯体角色、总体健康状况、活力、情感角色和心理健康,与治疗前比较均有显著性差异(P<0.05).治疗后SF-36量表各维度评分,其4项指标:总体健康状况、活力、情感角色和心理健康,A组均高于B组(P<0.05).结论:采用最大运动能力的20%和60%的强度进行有氧训练可以取得相似的降压效果,但采用最大运动能力的20%的运动强度对于提高患者的生存质量效果更好.%Objective: To compare the effects of aerobic exercises training of two different intensities on dynamic blood pressure (DBP) and quality of life (QOL) in hypertension patients. Method: Sixty hypertension patients were randomly allocated into 2 groups, and were treated with aerobic exercises training at 20% or 60% of maximal intensity for 10 weeks, respectively .The DBP was monitored and QOL was assessed with SF-36 scale pre-and post-therapy. Result: There was no significant difference of decreasing degree of each parameter of DBP in both groups (P>0.05). After treatment, the result of SF-36 scale assessment showed that there was no significant difference for bodily pain(BP) and social functioning(SF) in both groups (P>0.05). There were significant differences of increasing degree of general health (GH), vitality (VT), role emotional (RE) and mental health (MH) between two groups after treatment, and that of A group was better than that of B group

  8. Aerobic training and postexercise protein in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Grete; Prahm, Kira P; Dahlqvist, Julia R;

    2015-01-01

    interval (CI) 4%-15%], 18% [CI 10%-26%], 7% [CI 4%-11%], respectively, p < 0.001, number needed to treat = 2.1). Self-assessed physical capacity and health (Short Form-36) also improved. Muscle strength and daily activity levels did not change with training. Protein-carbohydrate supplementation did not......OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of regular aerobic training and postexercise protein-carbohydrate supplementation in patients with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD). METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel study, we randomized untrained men (n = 21......) and women (n = 20) with FSHD (age 19-65 years) to 2 training groups-training with protein supplement (n = 18) and training with placebo supplement (n = 13)-and a nonintervention control group (n = 10). We assessed fitness, walking speed, muscle strength, questionnaires, and daily activity levels...

  9. Aerobic training stimulates growth and promotes disease resistance in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Vicente; Grisdale-Helland, Barbara; Helland, Ståle J; Kristensen, Torstein; Jørgensen, Sven Martin; Helgerud, Jan; Claireaux, Guy; Farrell, Anthony P; Krasnov, Aleksei; Takle, Harald

    2011-10-01

    Improving fish robustness is of utmost relevance to reducing fish losses in farming. Although not previously examined, we hypothesized that aerobic training, as shown for human studies, could strengthen disease resistance in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Thus, we exercised salmon pre-smolts for 6 weeks at two different aerobic training regimes; a continuous intensity training (CT; 0.8bls(-1)) and an interval training (IT; 0.8bl s(-1) 16h and 1.0bl s(-1) 8h) and compared them with untrained controls (C; 0.05bl s(-1)). The effects of endurance training on disease resistance were evaluated using an IPN virus challenge test, while the cardiac immune modulatory effects were characterized by qPCR and microarray gene expression analyses. In addition, swimming performance and growth parameters were investigated. Survival after the IPN challenge was higher for IT (74%) fish than for either CT (64%) or C (61%) fish. While both CT and IT groups showed lower cardiac transcription levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 prior to the IPN challenge test, IT fish showed the strongest regulation of genes involved in immune responses and other processes known to affect disease resistance. Both CT and IT regimes resulted in better growth compared with control fish, with CT fish developing a better swimming efficiency during training. Overall, interval aerobic training improved growth and increased robustness of Atlantic salmon, manifested by better disease resistance, which we found was associated with a modulation of relevant gene classes on the cardiac transcriptome. PMID:21726657

  10. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and exercise are important to the physical and mental health of almost everyone, including older adults. Staying ... specifically planned, structured, and repetitive such as weight training, tai chi, or an aerobics class. Including both ...

  11. UNACYLATED GHRELIN LEVELS INCREASE AFTER AEROBIC EXERCISE PROGRAM IN OBESE WOMEN

    OpenAIRE

    Bahman Mirzaei; Khadije Irandoust; Farhad Rahmani-Nia; Hamid Mohebbi; Sadegh Hassan-Nia

    2009-01-01

    MIRZAEI, B.; IRANDOUST, K.; RAHMANI-NIA, F.; MOHEBBI, H.; HASSAN-NIA, S. Unacylated Ghrelin levels increase after aerobic exercise program in obese women. Brazilian Journal Biomotricity, v. 3, n. 1, p. 11-20, 2009. We assessed acylated (AG) and unacylated ghrelin (UAG) levels in response to exercise induced weight loss without decreased caloric intake. Twenty-three sedentary, obese women with age 43± 6.1(yr) and BMI 30.5± 1.6(kg/m2) were randomly assigned in aerobic exercise and control group...

  12. Age Moderates the Association of Aerobic Exercise with Initial Learning of an Online Task Requiring Cognitive Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Patrick J; Tomporowski, Phillip D; Dishman, Rodney K

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether people differed in change in performance across the first five blocks of an online flanker task and whether those trajectories of change were associated with self-reported aerobic or resistance exercise frequency according to age. A total of 8752 men and women aged 13-89 completed a lifestyle survey and five 45-s games (each game was a block of ~46 trials) of an online flanker task. Accuracy of the congruent and incongruent flanker stimuli was analyzed using latent class and growth curve modeling adjusting for time between blocks, whether the blocks occurred on the same or different days, education, smoking, sleep, caffeinated coffee and tea use, and Lumosity training status ("free play" or part of a "daily brain workout"). Aerobic and resistance exercise were unrelated to first block accuracies. For the more cognitively demanding incongruent flanker stimuli, aerobic activity was positively related to the linear increase in accuracy [B=0.577%, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.112 to 1.25 per day above the weekly mean of 2.8 days] and inversely related to the quadratic deceleration of accuracy gains (B=-0.619% CI, -1.117 to -0.121 per day). An interaction of aerobic activity with age indicated that active participants younger than age 45 had a larger linear increase and a smaller quadratic deceleration compared to other participants. Age moderates the association between self-reported aerobic, but not self-reported resistance, exercise and changes in cognitive control that occur with practice during incongruent presentations across five blocks of a 45-s online, flanker task. PMID:26581792

  13. Changes of the sweet taste sensitivity due to aerobic physical exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Luh Putu Ayu Wardhani

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sweet taste is a pleasant sensation. Sweet taste is mostly consumed and fancied by many people. Physiologically, glucose is body's source of energy, but if over used it can be affected to the body's metabolism. This can be worsen if the person's not doing a healthy lifestyle. One way to implement a healthy lifestyle is by doing physical exercises. Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine changes in sensory sensitivity of sweet taste due to aerobic physical exercise. Methods: This study was conducted on subjects aged 20 to 30 years. The subjects did aerobic exercise using 80% load of MHR. The measurement sensitivity of the senses of the sweet taste was done for three times before the subject take aerobic physical exercise, four weeks after doing aerobic physical exercise, and eight weeks after doing aerobic physical exercise. Results: There was significant difference towards sensitivity of sweet taste sense before doing aerobic physical exercise, 4 week after doing the aerobic physical exercise, and 8 week after doing aerobic physical exercise. Conclusion: Aerobic physical exercise during eight weeks increase sweet taste sensitivity.Latar belakang: Rasa manis memberikan sensasi yang menyenangkan. Rasa manis merupakan jenis rasa yang paling banyak dikonsumsi dan disukai oleh sekelompok orang. Secara fisiologis, glukosa bisa berperan sebagai sumber energi, namun apabila dikonsumsi secara berlebihan dapat menimbulkan efek patologis. Hal ini dihubungkan dengan individu yang mempunyai gaya hidup yang tidak sehat. Salah satu cara yang bisa dilakukan untuk membiasakan gaya hidup sehat adalah dengan latihan fisik (olah raga. Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk membuktikan adanya perubahan sensitivitas indera kecap rasa manis setelah melakukan latihan fisik aerobik. Metode: Penelitian ini melibatkan subyek laki-laki, berusia 20–30 tahun. Subjek melakukan latihan fisik aerobik dengan intensitas sebesar 80% maximal heart rate

  14. Comparison of Different Forms of Exercise Training in Patients With Cardiac Disease: Where Does High-Intensity Interval Training Fit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayda, Mathieu; Ribeiro, Paula A B; Juneau, Martin; Nigam, Anil

    2016-04-01

    In this review, we discuss the most recent forms of exercise training available to patients with cardiac disease and their comparison or their combination (or both) during short- and long-term (phase II and III) cardiac rehabilitation programs. Exercise training modalities to be discussed include inspiratory muscle training (IMT), resistance training (RT), continuous aerobic exercise training (CAET), and high-intensity interval training (HIIT). Particular emphasis is placed on HIIT compared or combined (or both) with other forms such as CAET or RT. For example, IMT combined with CAET was shown to be superior to CAET alone for improving functional capacity, ventilatory function, and quality of life in patients with chronic heart failure. Similarly, RT combined with CAET was shown to optimize benefits with respect to functional capacity, muscle function, and quality of life. Furthermore, in recent years, HIIT has emerged as an alternative or complementary (or both) exercise modality to CAET, providing equivalent if not superior benefits to conventional continuous aerobic training with respect to aerobic fitness, cardiovascular function, quality of life, efficiency, safety, tolerance, and exercise adherence in both short- and long-term training studies. Finally, short-interval HIIT was shown to be useful in the initiation and improvement phases of cardiac rehabilitation, whereas moderate- or longer-interval (or both) HIIT protocols appear to be more appropriate for the improvement and maintenance phases because of their high physiological stimulus. We now propose progressive models of exercise training (phases II-III) for patients with cardiac disease, including a more appropriate application of HIIT based on the scientific literature in the context of a multimodal cardiac rehabilitation program. PMID:26927863

  15. The effect of aerobic exercise on intrahepatocellular and intramyocellular lipids in healthy subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Egger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intrahepatocellular (IHCL and intramyocellular (IMCL lipids are ectopic lipid stores. Aerobic exercise results in IMCL utilization in subjects over a broad range of exercise capacity. IMCL and IHCL have been related to impaired insulin action at the skeletal muscle and hepatic level, respectively. The acute effect of aerobic exercise on IHCL is unknown. Possible regulatory factors include exercise capacity, insulin sensitivity and fat availability subcutaneous and visceral fat mass. AIM: To concomitantly investigate the effect of aerobic exercise on IHCL and IMCL in healthy subjects, using Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy. METHODS: Normal weight, healthy subjects were included. Visit 1 consisted of a determination of VO2max on a treadmill. Visit 2 comprised the assessment of hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity by a two-step hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamp. At Visit 3, subcutaneous and visceral fat mass were assessed by whole body MRI, IHCL and IMCL before and after a 2-hours aerobic exercise (50% of VO(2max using ¹H-MR-spectroscopy. RESULTS: Eighteen volunteers (12M, 6F were enrolled in the study (age, 37.6±3.2 years, mean±SEM; VO(2max, 53.4±2.9 mL/kg/min. Two hours aerobic exercise resulted in a significant decrease in IMCL (-22.6±3.3, % from baseline and increase in IHCL (+34.9±7.6, % from baseline. There was no significant correlation between the exercise-induced changes in IMCL and IHCL and exercise capacity, subcutaneous and visceral fat mass and hepatic or peripheral insulin sensitivity. CONCLUSIONS: IMCL and IHCL are flexible ectopic lipid stores that are acutely influenced by physical exercise, albeit in different directions. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrial.gov NCT00491582.

  16. Effects of Multicomponent Exercise Training on Physical Functioning among Institutionalized Elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Justine; Tengku Aizan Hamid; Vikram Mohan; Madhanagopal Jagannathan

    2012-01-01

    This quasiexperimental study aimed to measure the effects of 12-week multicomponent exercise training on physical functioning among institutionalized elderly. Forty-three participants (age = 70.88 ± 7.82 years) were self-assigned to an intervention (n=23) or control (n=20) group. Before and after training, cardiorespiratory endurance, arm curl strength, grip strength, lower limb strength, upper and lower limb flexibility, balance, and mobility were assessed. The training included aerobic, res...

  17. A Pilot Study of Aerobic Exercise as an Adjunctive Treatment for Drug Dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Richard A.; Abrantes, Ana M.; Read, Jennifer P.; Marcus, Bess H.; Jakicic, John; Strong, David R.; Oakley, Julie R.; Ramsey, Susan E.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Stuart, Gregory G.; Dubreuil, Mary Ella; Gordon, Alan A.

    2010-01-01

    Intervention to increase exercise in drug dependent patients represents a potentially useful yet unexplored strategy for preventing relapse. However, there are currently no established exercise interventions for use with this population. The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the feasibility of aerobic exercise as an adjunct to substance abuse treatment among drug dependent patients. Participants included 16 (31% female, 38.3 years old) drug dependent patients who participated in a 12...

  18. The influence of a pre-exercise sports drink (PRX on factors related to maximal aerobic performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mooneyhan Andy

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pre-exercise sports drinks (PRX are commonly used as ergogenic aids in athletic competitions requiring aerobic power. However, in most cases, claims regarding their effectiveness have not been substantiated. In addition, the ingredients in PRX products must be deemed acceptable by the athletic governing bodies that regulate their use in training and competition. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a modified PRX formulation (known as EM·PACT™ from earlier investigations on factors related to maximal aerobic performance during a graded exercise test. The modification consisted of removing creatine to meet the compliance standards set forth by various athletic organizations that regulate the use of nutritional supplements. Methods Twenty-nine male and female college students varying in levels of aerobic fitness participated in a randomized crossover administration of PRX (containing 14 g/serving of fructose, medium-chain triglycerides, and amino acids mixed with 8 oz. of water and placebo (PL 30 minutes prior to performing a treadmill test with approximately one week separation between the trials. VO2max, maximal heart rate (HR, time to exhaustion (Time, and percentage estimated non-protein fat substrate utilization (FA during two a priori submaximal stages of a graded exercise testing were evaluated. Results The VO2max mean value of the PRX trial was significantly greater than the PL trial (P Conclusions The modified PRX formulation utilized in this investigation supports the findings of the previous investigation and its efficacy for enhancing indices of aerobic performance (specifically VO2max, Time, & FA during graded exercise testing.

  19. Interval Running Training Improves Cognitive Flexibility and Aerobic Power of Young Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venckunas, Tomas; Snieckus, Audrius; Trinkunas, Eugenijus; Baranauskiene, Neringa; Solianik, Rima; Juodsnukis, Antanas; Streckis, Vytautas; Kamandulis, Sigitas

    2016-08-01

    Venckunas, T, Snieckus, A, Trinkunas, E, Baranauskiene, N, Solianik, R, Juodsnukis, A, Streckis, V, and Kamandulis, S. Interval running training improves cognitive flexibility and aerobic power of young healthy adults. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2114-2121, 2016-The benefits of regular physical exercise may well extend beyond the reduction of chronic diseases risk and augmentation of working capacity, to many other aspects of human well-being, including improved cognitive functioning. Although the effects of moderate intensity continuous training on cognitive performance are relatively well studied, the benefits of interval training have not been investigated in this respect so far. The aim of the current study was to assess whether 7 weeks of interval running training is effective at improving both aerobic fitness and cognitive performance. For this purpose, 8 young dinghy sailors (6 boys and 2 girls) completed the interval running program with 200 m and 2,000 m running performance, cycling maximal oxygen uptake, and cognitive function was measured before and after the intervention. The control group consisted of healthy age-matched subjects (8 boys and 2 girls) who continued their active lifestyle and were tested in the same way as the experimental group, but did not complete any regular training. In the experimental group, 200 m and 2,000 m running performance and cycling maximal oxygen uptake increased together with improved results on cognitive flexibility tasks. No changes in the results of short-term and working memory tasks were observed in the experimental group, and no changes in any of the measured indices were evident in the controls. In conclusion, 7 weeks of interval running training improved running performance and cycling aerobic power, and were sufficient to improve the ability to adjust behavior to changing demands in young active individuals. PMID:26808852

  20. Beneifcial mechanisms of aerobic exercise on hepatic lipid metabolism in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui Guo; Emily C Liong; Kwok Fai So; Man-Lung Fung; George L Tipoe

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) refers to any fatty liver disease that is not due to excessive use of alcohol. NAFLD probably results from abnormal hepatic lipid metabolism and insulin resistance. Aerobic exercise is shown to improve NAFLD. This review aimed to evaluate the molecular mechanisms involved in the beneifcial effects of aerobic exercise on NAFLD. DATA SOURCE:We searched articles in English on the role of aerobic exercise in NAFLD therapy in PubMed. RESULTS:The mechanisms of chronic aerobic exercise in regulating the outcome of NAFLD include: (i) reducing in-trahepatic fat content by down-regulating sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c and up-regulating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptorγ expression levels; (ii) decreas-ing hepatic oxidative stress through modulating the reactive oxygen species, and enhancing antioxidant enzymes such as catalase and glutathione peroxidase; (iii) ameliorating hepatic inlfammation via the inhibition of pro-inlfammatory media-tors such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1 beta; (iv) attenuating mitochondrial dependent apoptosis by reducing cytochrome C released from the mitochondria to the cytosol; and (v) inducing hepato-protective autophagy. CONCLUSION:Aerobic exercise, via different mechanisms, signiifcantly decreases the fat content of the liver and improves the outcomes of patients with NAFLD.

  1. Acute post-exercise change in blood pressure and exercise training response in patients with coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antti M Kiviniemi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We tested the hypothesis that acute post-exercise change in blood pressure (BP may predict exercise training responses in BP in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD. Patients with CAD (n=116, age 62±5 years, 85 men underwent BP assessments at rest and during 10-min recovery following a symptom-limited exercise test before and after the 6-month training intervention (one strength and 3-4 aerobic moderate-intensity exercises weekly. Post-exercise change in systolic BP (SBP was calculated by subtracting resting SBP from lowest post-exercise SBP. The training-induced change in resting SBP was -2±13 mmHg (p=0.064, ranging from -42 to 35 mmHg. Larger post-exercise decrease in SBP and baseline resting SBP predicted a larger training-induced decrement in SBP (β=0.46 and β=-0.44, respectively, p<0.001 for both. Acute post-exercise decrease in SBP provided additive value to baseline resting SBP in the prediction of training-induced change in resting SBP (R squared from 0.20 to 0.26, p=0.002. After further adjustments for other potential confounders (sex, age, baseline body mass index, realized training load, post-exercise decrease in SBP still predicted the training response in resting SBP (β=0.26, p=0.015. Acute post-exercise change in SBP was associated with training-induced change in resting SBP in patients with CAD, providing significant predictive information beyond baseline resting SBP.

  2. Effects of Aerobic Step Combined with Resistance Training on Biochemical Bone Markers, Health-Related Physical Fitness and Balance in Working Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anek, Achariya; Kanungsukasem, Vijit; Bunyaratavej, Narong

    2015-09-01

    The objectives of this research were to develop an aerobic step combined with resistance training exercise program, and to compare the effects of A) aerobic step exercise training (STE), B) resistance aerobic exercise training (RES), C) a combined aerobic step with resistance exercise training (COM) on the health-related fitness, balance, and biochemical bone markers. Sixty participants were working female volunteers at the age of 35-45. They were divided into 4 groups by simple random sampling method. Fifteen of the participants were in the STE group, 14 in the RES group, 15 in the COM group, and 16 in the control group (CON). The STE, RES and COM exercise training programs were designed to yield the same intensity and achieve the same range of heart rate during each stage of the program. During the training, music was used to set the tempo of the workouts. At the 8th week, it was found that resting heart rate and systolic blood pressure significantly-increased only in the STE and COM groups. After 16 weeks, the experiment results showed the significant improvement in the COM and STE groups of exercise training for β-CrossLaps, P1NP NMID Osteocalcin and bone formation (PINP/β-CrossLaps x0.31) but not in the RES group. For balance ability, the COM group showed significantly greater change than the RES group after the training intervention (p < 0.05). It can thus be concluded that the STE and COM training were effective in improving bone formation (PINP/β-CrossLaps x 0.31) but not in the RES group. For balance ability, the COM group showed more significant change than the RES group. Therefore, this is not only a good exercise choice for the working-age people but also it can help reduce the risks of osteoporosis and falling in women in particular. PMID:26529814

  3. Effects of aerobic training on leptin, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 levels in obese and lean men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahdat Boghrabadi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Obesity results in some diseases such as of atherosclerosis diabetic and thereforeinfluence on the immune system, greatly. Given the undeniable role of sport in general health, the aim ofthis present study was to assay the effects of regular exercise on serum levels of immunoregulators factors(leptin, tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF- α and interleukin-6 in obese and lean men.Material and methods: 37 male subjects divided two groups of obese and lean with body compositionanalyzer. Blood samples were taken 48 h before starting the aerobic training program. Then, both groupsperformed the aerobic training program included running with 65-85% of individual maximum heart rateon treadmill for 3 sessions per week, 30 minutes per session and 2 consecutive months. Then anotherblood sample was taken following the training period. Serum levels of leptin, TNF- α and interleukin-6of all subjects before and after the training period were measured using standard biochemical methodsfrom all the subjects and all the parameters were measured in both groups again.Results: Our results showed that the aerobic training resulted in a significant decrease in leptin levelsin obese (p=0.000 and non obese (p=0.004 peoples and also a significant decrease in TNF- α (p=0.042in lean people. However, the aerobic training had no significant influence in the levels of interleukin-6 inboth groups.Conclusion: The results showed that regular and light aerobic exercises could decrase leptin levels inboth obese and lean men, but have differential effects on levels of TNF- α in both groups. These effectsmay influence functions of immune system and metabolism in obese and lean men in a different way.

  4. Anaerobic threshold employed on exercise training prescription and performance assessment for laboratory rodents: A short review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Phablo; Mendes, Sávio Victor Diogenes; Leal-Cardoso, José Henrique; Ceccatto, Vânia Marilande

    2016-04-15

    Several studies have generated numerous terms in the field of exercise training prescription and performance assessment that often do not match the information previously demonstrated by many other works, generating much debate and resulting in an immense pool of scientific results. Several protocols in exercise training prescription and performance assessment have been proposed for these purposes by many reasons. In the field of exercise science, the protocol must be thoroughly investigated and provide real tools to be reproducible. Many laboratories have been adapting and developing evaluation protocols and testing on physical training of rodents in different experimental conditions. In this context, mice, rats and rabbits are preferentially chosen due to easy manipulation and good response to exercise, and comparable at results obtained with humans in compatible effort intensities. But, the exercise training programs and aerobic-anaerobic transition assessment proposed for animal models vary extensively, depending on the species, gender, age, type of stimulus, type of exercise, type of method and also on the specific objectives of the program. This short review demonstrates the need in offering tools performed by invasive measurement to assess the anaerobic threshold by blood lactate employed on evolution of aerobic-anaerobic parameters of rodents. The objective of this short review was to present and to discuss physical evaluation protocols applications to rodents. The table submitted may give a basis for anaerobic threshold employed on exercise training prescription and performance assessment for laboratory rodents in future research. PMID:26860893

  5. Effect of high-impact aerobics and strength training on BMD in young women aged 20-35 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, M T C; Braun, W; Bassin, S L; Dutto, D; Pontello, A; Wong, N D; Spalding, T W; Arnaud, S B

    2011-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of a 12-month exercise intervention using either high-impact step aerobic exercise or moderate-intensity strength training on areal bone mineral density (aBMD) we studied 51 untrained women, aged 20-35 years, for this study. Whole body and heel and wrist aBMD were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, Hologic or PIXI Lunar). Subjects were randomly assigned to: impact-loaded step aerobic exercise (SA, n=15), moderate-intensity lower body strength training (ST, n=16) or non-exercise control (CON, n=20). Data analysis only included those who completed 95% of each training routine and attended at least 80% of all sessions. Group differences in aBMD, leg press strength and urinary cross-link deoxypridinoline (μDPD) were analysed using analysis of variance. After a 12-month intervention, the SA elicited an increase in aBMD of the heel (4.4%, p<0.05) and leg press strength (15%, p<0.05), relative to baseline. Meanwhile, the ST showed an increase in leg press strength (48%, p<0.05) with no significant increase in aBMD at any measured site. Similar and unchanged μDPD was observed in all 3 groups at baseline, 6 and 12 months. In conclusion, a 12-month high-impact step aerobic exercise resulted in a significant increase in the heel aBMD in untrained young women, who complied with the exercise regimen. A moderate intensity strength training intervention of similar duration had no effect on aBMD although leg strength increased significantly. PMID:21165807

  6. Frequency and duration of interval training programs and changes in aerobic power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, E. L.; Bartels, R. L.; Obrien, R.; Bason, R.; Mathews, D. K.; Billings, C. E.

    1975-01-01

    The present study was designed to ascertain whether a training frequency of 2 days/wk for a 7- and 13-wk interval training program would produce improvement in maximal aerobic power comparable to that obtained from 7- and 13-wk programs of the same intensity consisting of 4 training days/wk. After training, there was a significant increase in maximal aerobic power that was independent of both training frequency and duration. Maximal heart rate was significantly decreased following training. Submaximal aerobic power did not change with training, but submaximal heart rate decreased significantly with greater decreases the more frequent and the longer the training.

  7. Features of development of coordination abilities features of athletes in sports aerobics in initial training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodrenkova I.A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : to develop theoretically and experimentally justify the methodology of development of coordination abilities of athletes aged 7-9 years involved in sports aerobics. Material : the study involved 20 participants (7-9 years. 8 athletes performed the test tasks. The choice of tests carried out on the basis of the analysis of the dominant motor mode competition exercises. Results : It was found that the coordination abilities are necessary in the development of speed, density, and the number of running technical elements. With more than a significant increase in performance test tasks that characterize: musicality, coordination, dynamic balance. The basic tools, methods, techniques, and requirements for the exercises. The level of development of coordination abilities. Conclusions : the author's method of development of coordination abilities include: rational choice of means and methods of training impact on their similarities and differences with the target competitive activity.

  8. Three versus six months of exercise training in breast cancer survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Sprod, Lisa K.; Hsieh, City C.; Hayward, Reid; Schneider, Carole M.

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most prevalent type of cancer in American women. Exercise appears to diminish many of the side effects resulting from breast cancer and its treatment. Very little research, however, has compared the outcomes of varying lengths of combined aerobic and resistance training exercise interventions on physiological and psychological parameters in breast cancer survivors. The purpose of this study was to compare the physiological and psychological outcomes following 3 and 6 mont...

  9. THE EFFECTS MAXIMAL AND SUB MAXIMAL AEROBIC EXERCISE ON THE BRONCHOSPASM INDICES IN NON ATHLETIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir GANJİ

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB is a transient airway obstruction that occurs during and after the exercise. Exercise-induced bronchospasm is observed in healthy individuals as well as the asthmatic and allergic rhinitis patients. Research question: The study compared the effects of one session of submaximal aerobic exercise and a maximal one on the prevalence of exercise-induced bronchospasm in non-athletic students. Type of study: An experimental study, using human subjects, was designed. Methods: 20 non-athletic male students participated in two sessions of aerobic exercise. The prevalence of EIB was investigated among them. The criteria for assessing exercise-induced bronchospasm were ≥10% fall in FEV1, ≥15% fall in FEF25-75%, or ≥25% fall in PEFR. Results: The results revealed that the maximal exercise did not affect FEF25-75% and PEF, but it led to a meaningful reduction in FEV1. Contrarily, the submaximal exercise affected none of these indices. That is, in both protocols the same result was obtained for PEF and FEF25-75. Moreover, the prevalence of EIB was 15% in the submaximal exercise and 20% in the maximal one. Actually, this difference was significant. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that in contrast to the subjects who performed submaximal exercise, those who participated in the maximal protocol showed more changes in the pulmonary function indices and the prevalence of EIB was greater among them.

  10. Acute aerobic exercise and information processing: energizing motor processes during a choice reaction time task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audiffren, Michel; Tomporowski, Phillip D; Zagrodnik, James

    2008-11-01

    The immediate and short-term after effects of a bout of aerobic exercise on young adults' information processing were investigated. Seventeen participants performed an auditory two-choice reaction time (RT) task before, during, and after 40 min of ergometer cycling. In a separate session, the same sequence of testing was completed while seated on an ergometer without pedalling. Results indicate that exercise (1) improves the speed of reactions by energizing motor outputs; (2) interacts with the arousing effect of a loud auditory signal suggesting a direct link between arousal and activation; (3) gradually reduces RT and peaks between 15 and 20 min; (4) effects on RT disappear very quickly after exercise cessation; and (5) effects on motor processes cannot be explained by increases in body temperature caused by exercise. Taken together, these results support a selective influence of acute aerobic exercise on motor adjustment stage. PMID:18930445

  11. The Effects of Aerobic Exercise on the Levels of Leptin and Adiponectin in Overweight Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Reza Attarzadeh Hosseini

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Several epidemiological studies have indicated factors such as Leptin level, Adiponectin and plasma adiponectin-to-leptin index to be the predicting biomarkers for cardiovascular diseases. Given the importance of healthy nutrition and adequate exercise in reducing the risk of Atherosclerosis, this study aimed to investigate the effects of fasting and aerobic exercise on the level of leptin and adiponectin in overweight women.   Materials and Methods: In this study, 27 overweight and obese women with the body mass index (BMI of ≥25 kg/m2 and the age range of 45-20 years were selected by targeted sampling and were divided into two groups of fasting accompanied with aerobic exercise (N=15, and fasting only (N=12. The active group had an exercise protocol including three 60-minute sessions of aerobic exercise per week, with the maximum heart rate of 50-65%. Anthropometric dimensions and blood levels of leptin and adiponectin were measured in all the subjects before, at the second week and the fourth week and one week after Ramadan. Data analysis was carried out using repeated measures, and a P value of ≤0.05 was considered significant.   Results: In this study, one month of fasting accompanied with aerobic exercise had a significant effect on the amount of leptin, adiponectin and leptin-to-adiponectin ratio (P

  12. Aerobic exercise and plasma beta endorphin levels in patients with migrainous headache without aura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köseoglu, E; Akboyraz, A; Soyuer, A; Ersoy, A O

    2003-12-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effects of plasma beta endorphin level and exercise on migrainous headache. Forty patients with migrainous headache without aura (MWOA), firstly exercised on a treadmill and afterwards were asked to continue an aerobic home exercise program for six weeks. On evaluation, basal plasma beta endorphin level was negatively correlated with total duration of attacks in the last month period (P = 0.01). Exercise was found to have beneficial effects on all migraine parameters (P endorphin levels after the treadmill practice (P exercise program except four patients not regularly attended to the program (P endorphin level. However, pre-exercise beta endorphin level was found to be negatively correlated with the changes in the number of attacks (P endorphin level due to exercise (P exercise on migrainous headache, especially in patients with lower basal beta endorphin level. PMID:14984230

  13. Abdominal fat reducing outcome of exercise training: fat burning or hydrocarbon source redistribution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chia-Hua; Harris, M Brennan

    2016-07-01

    Fat burning, defined by fatty acid oxidation into carbon dioxide, is the most described hypothesis to explain the actual abdominal fat reducing outcome of exercise training. This hypothesis is strengthened by evidence of increased whole-body lipolysis during exercise. As a result, aerobic training is widely recommended for obesity management. This intuition raises several paradoxes: first, both aerobic and resistance exercise training do not actually elevate 24 h fat oxidation, according to data from chamber-based indirect calorimetry. Second, anaerobic high-intensity intermittent training produces greater abdominal fat reduction than continuous aerobic training at similar amounts of energy expenditure. Third, significant body fat reduction in athletes occurs when oxygen supply decreases to inhibit fat burning during altitude-induced hypoxia exposure at the same training volume. Lack of oxygen increases post-meal blood distribution to human skeletal muscle, suggesting that shifting the postprandial hydrocarbons towards skeletal muscle away from adipose tissue might be more important than fat burning in decreasing abdominal fat. Creating a negative energy balance in fat cells due to competition of skeletal muscle for circulating hydrocarbon sources may be a better model to explain the abdominal fat reducing outcome of exercise than the fat-burning model. PMID:27152424

  14. The effect of aerobic exercise on autonomic function and pain in women with fibromyalgia.

    OpenAIRE

    Brandsarbakken, Håvard

    2010-01-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic pain syndrome often accompanied by an autonomic dysfunction. Reduced heart rate variability (HRV) indicating an enhanced sympathetic drive at rest and a lack of sympathetic reactivity during stress is commonly seen in subjects with FM. Earlier studies have shown that aerobic exercise can increase HRV in healthy persons. The aim of this study was to use recordings of HRV and blood pressure (BP) in the evaluation of the effects of a moderate intensity aerobic exer...

  15. DEMO-II Trial. Aerobic Exercise versus Stretching Exercise in Patients with Major Depression—A Randomised Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Jesper Krogh; Poul Videbech; Carsten Thomsen; Christian Gluud; Merete Nordentoft

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effect of referring patients from a clinical setting to a pragmatic exercise intervention for depressive symptoms, cognitive function, and metabolic variables has yet to be determined. METHODS: Outpatients with major depression (DSM-IV) were allocated to supervised aerobic or stretching exercise groups during a three months period. The primary outcome was the Hamilton depression score (HAM-D(17)). Secondary outcomes were cognitive function, cardiovascular risk markers, and emp...

  16. DEMO-II Trial. Aerobic Exercise versus Stretching Exercise in Patients with Major Depression—A Randomised Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Krogh, Jesper; Videbech, Poul; Thomsen, Carsten; Gluud, Christian; Nordentoft, Merete

    2012-01-01

    Background The effect of referring patients from a clinical setting to a pragmatic exercise intervention for depressive symptoms, cognitive function, and metabolic variables has yet to be determined. Methods Outpatients with major depression (DSM-IV) were allocated to supervised aerobic or stretching exercise groups during a three months period. The primary outcome was the Hamilton depression score (HAM-D17). Secondary outcomes were cognitive function, cardiovascular risk markers, and employm...

  17. The Comparison of the Efficacy Aerobic Exercises Versus Strengthening, Stretching and Mobilization Exercises in Subacute and Chronic Low Back Pain

    OpenAIRE

    KARAN, Ayse

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the efficacy of aerobic exercises versus strengthening, stretching and mobilization exercises in patients with subacute or chronic low back pain. Forty patients were recruited for the study and randomly allocated to two groups. All patients were evaluated at admission, mid-treatment and termination of the program by visual analog scale (VAS), face scale, weekly analgesic intake and Million visual analog scale for pain. They were also scor...

  18. Effect of intermittent aerobic exercise on sleep quality and sleep disturbances in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løppenthin, Katrine; Esbensen, Bente Appel; Jennum, Poul;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Poor sleep is prevalent in patients with systemic inflammatory disorders, including rheumatoid arthritis, and, in addition to fatigue, pain, depression and inflammation, is associated with an increased risk of co-morbidity and all-cause mortality. Whereas non-pharmacological intervent......BACKGROUND: Poor sleep is prevalent in patients with systemic inflammatory disorders, including rheumatoid arthritis, and, in addition to fatigue, pain, depression and inflammation, is associated with an increased risk of co-morbidity and all-cause mortality. Whereas non......-pharmacological interventions in patients with rheumatoid arthritis have been shown to reduce pain and fatigue, no randomized controlled trials have examined the effect of non-pharmacological interventions on improvement of sleep in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The aim of this trial was to evaluate the efficacy of an...... intermittent aerobic exercise intervention on sleep, assessed both objectively and subjectively in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. METHODS/DESIGN: A randomized controlled trial including 44 patients with rheumatoid arthritis randomly assigned to an exercise training intervention or to a control group. The...

  19. Influence of preliminary exercise training on muscle damage indices in rats after one bout of prolonged treadmill exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Ju; Kim, Young Mi; Hwangbo, Kak; Kim, Young Mi

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of exercise on muscle damage indices in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Two groups of rats were trained in either moderate- or high-intensity treadmill running for 4 weeks. Subsequently, the concentrations of creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were examined following a single bout of prolonged (3-h) intensive exercise. [Subjects and Methods] The study included forty 6-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 150-180 g each. The aerobic exercise group was divided into high-intensity (28 m/min) and moderate-intensity (15 m/min) subgroups. Both subgroups were trained for 35 min daily for 6 days per week (excluding Sunday) over a 4-week period. Following training, the high- and moderate-intensity exercise groups and a non-exercise group performed one bout of prolonged (3-h) treadmill exercise for 3 hours at a speed of 15 m/min. [Results] Creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase levels differed significantly among the groups. [Conclusion] The preliminary exercise groups showed lower muscle damage and inflammatory response levels than the non-exercise group after the bout of prolonged intensive exercise. PMID:27390433

  20. Effect of Exercise Intensity on Differentiated and Undifferentiated Ratings of Perceived Exertion During Cycle and Treadmill Exercise in Recreationally Active and Trained Women

    OpenAIRE

    Bolgar, Melinda R.; Carol E. Baker; Goss, Fredric L.; Elizabeth Nagle; Robert J. Robertson

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to examine the effect of aerobic exercise intensity on components of the differentiated perceived exertion model in young women performing weight bearing and non-weight bearing aerobic exercise. Subjects were 18-25 yr old women who were recreationally active (n = 19; VO2max = 33.40 ml·kg-1·min-1) and trained (N = 22; VO2max = 43.3 ml·kg-1·min-1). Subjects underwent two graded exercise tests (GXT) on a treadmill and bike which were separated by 48 hours. RPE-Overall...

  1. Effect of Aerobic Training on Cognitive Function and Arterial Stiffness in Sedentary Young Adults: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel Asamoah; Jason Siegler; Dennis Chang; Andrew Scholey; Alan Yeung; Cheema, Birinder S.

    2013-01-01

    This study measured cognitive and vascular responses to aerobic training in sedentary young adults. Ten adults (6 women, 4 men; 18–29 years) were randomly assigned to an experimental or no-treatment control group. The experimental group engaged in a 6-week intervention, performed on exercise cycle and treadmill, 3x/week, 50 min/session; intensity was increased over time. Outcome measures included arterial stiffness (augmentation index, AIx, and pulse pressure), cardiorespiratory fitness ( ), ...

  2. Benefits of aerobic or resistance training during pregnancy on maternal health and perinatal outcomes: A systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Perales, María; Santos-Lozano, Alejandro; Ruiz, Jonatan R.; Lucía Mulas, Alejandro; Barakat, Rubén

    2016-01-01

    To understand what evidence exists with regard to maternal and offspring benefits of aerobic and/or resistance training during pregnancy. Systematic review of RCTs (published until May 2015) with healthy pregnant women and focusing on the benefits of exercise interventions on maternal health or perinatal outcomes. Studies were ranked as high/low quality, and a level of evidence was established according to the number of high-quality studies and consistency of the results. 61 RCTs were analyze...

  3. A community-based approach to trials of aerobic exercise in aging and Alzheimer’s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Vidoni, Eric D.; Van Sciver, Angela; Johnson, David K.; He, Jinghua; Honea, Robyn; Haines, Brian; Goodwin, Jami; Laubinger, M. Pat; Anderson, Heather S.; Kluding, Patricia M.; Donnelly, Joseph E.; Billinger, Sandra A.; Burns, Jeffrey M.

    2012-01-01

    The benefits of exercise for aging have received considerable attention in both the popular and academic press. The putative benefits of exercise for maximizing cognitive function and supporting brain health have great potential for combating Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Aerobic exercise offers a low-cost, low-risk intervention that is widely available and may have disease modifying effects. Demonstrating aerobic exercise alters the AD process would have enormous public health implications. The ...

  4. Effects of Physical Activity on Children’s Executive Function: Contributions of Experimental Research on Aerobic Exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Best, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Executive function refers to the cognitive processes necessary for goal-directed cognition and behavior, which develop across childhood and adolescence. Recent experimental research indicates that both acute and chronic aerobic exercise promote children’s executive function. Furthermore, there is tentative evidence that not all forms of aerobic exercise benefit executive function equally: Cognitively-engaging exercise appears to have a stronger effect than non-engaging exercise on children’s ...

  5. A combined continuous and interval aerobic training improves metabolic syndrome risk factors in men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sari-Sarraf V

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Vahid Sari-Sarraf,1 Akbar Aliasgarzadeh,2 Mohammad-Mahdi Naderali,3 Hamid Esmaeili,1 Ebrahim K Naderali4 1Department of Exercise Physiology, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tabriz, 2Bone Research Centre, Endocrine Unit, Department of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; 3The School of Pharmacy and Biomolecular Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, 4Faculty of Science, Liverpool Hope University, Liverpool, UK Abstract: Individuals with metabolic syndrome have significantly higher risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes leading to premature death mortality. Metabolic syndrome has a complex etiology; thus, it may require a combined and multi-targeted aerobic exercise regimen to improve risk factors associated with it. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of combined continuous and interval aerobic training on patients with metabolic syndrome. Thirty adult male with metabolic syndrome (54±8 years were randomly divided into two groups: test training group (TTG; n=15 and control group (CG; n=15. Subjects in TTG performed combined continuous and interval aerobic training using a motorized treadmill three times per week for 16 weeks. Subjects in CG were advised to continue with their normal activities of life. Twenty-two men completed the study (eleven men in each group. At the end of the study, in TTG, there were significant (for all, P<0.05 reductions in total body weight (-3.2%, waist circumference (-3.43 cm, blood pressure (up to -12.7 mmHg, and plasma insulin, glucose, and triacylglyceride levels. Moreover, there were significant (for all, P<0.05 increases VO2max (-15.3% and isometric strength of thigh muscle (28.1% and high-density lipoprotein in TTG. None of the above indices were changed in CG at the end of 16-week study period. Our study suggests that adoption of a 16-week combined continuous and interval aerobic training regimen in men

  6. Effect of Training Mode on Post-Exercise Heart Rate Recovery of Trained Cyclists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDonald Kelia G.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The sympathetic nervous system dominates the regulation of body functions during exercise. Therefore after exercise, the sympathetic nervous system withdraws and the parasympathetic nervous system helps the body return to a resting state. In the examination of this relationship, the purpose of this study was to compare recovery heart rates (HR of anaerobically versus aerobically trained cyclists. With all values given as means ± SD, anaerobically trained track cyclists (n=10, age=25.9 ± 6.0 yrs, body mass=82.7 ± 7.1 kg, body fat=10.0 ± 6.3% and aerobically trained road cyclists (n=15, age=39.9 ± 8.5 yrs, body mass=75.3 ± 9.9 kg, body fat=13.1 ± 4.5% underwent a maximal oxygen uptake test. Heart rate recovery was examined on a relative basis using heart rate reserve as well as the absolute difference between maximum HR and each of two recovery HRs. The post-exercise change in HR at minute one for the track cyclists and road cyclists respectively were 22 ± 8 bpm and 25 ± 12 bpm. At minute two, the mean drop for track cyclists was significantly (p<0.05 greater than the road cyclists (52 ± 15 bpm and 64 ± 11 bpm. Training mode showed statistically significant effects on the speed of heart rate recovery in trained cyclists. Greater variability in recovery heart rate at minute two versus minute one suggests that the heart rate should be monitored longer than one minute of recovery for a better analysis of post-exercise autonomic shift.

  7. Changes in selected cardiorespiratory responses to exercise and in body composition following a 12-week aerobic dance programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, L D; Morton, A R

    1986-01-01

    Cardiorespiratory and body composition changes were evaluated in 25 sedentary females, aged 18 to 30 years, following 12 weeks of aerobic dance training (3 days a week, 45 min a session). Fifteen subjects, from the same population, comprised a control group: they maintained their normal activity and dietary habits over the course of the study. Analysis of variance of the values for selected cardiorespiratory responses revealed that the aerobic dance programme produced training effects in the experimental group. These training effects were indicated by significant improvements in O2 pulse, VE, heart rate and perceived exertion during submaximal exercise. Significant improvements were also noted in VO2 max, maximal O2 pulse, VE max, maximal heart rate and maximal running time on the treadmill. Additionally, increases in lean body mass and body density, together with decreases in percentage body fat and the sum of four skinfold thicknesses were found to be significant for the experimental group. No significant improvements in any of these variables were found for the control group. It was concluded that this 12-week aerobic dance programme was successful in promoting beneficial changes in cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition. PMID:3586112

  8. Acute aerobic exercise increases brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in elderly with Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Flávia Gomes de Melo; Vital, Thays Martins; Stein, Angelica Miki; Arantes, Franciel José; Rueda, André Veloso; Camarini, Rosana; Teodorov, Elizabeth; Santos-Galduróz, Ruth Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Studies indicate the involvement of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Decreased BDNF levels may constitute a lack of trophic support and contribute to cognitive impairment in AD. The benefits of acute and chronic physical exercise on BDNF levels are well-documented in humans, however, exercise effects on BDNF levels have not been analyzed in older adults with AD. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of acute aerobic exercise on BDNF levels in older adults with AD and to verify associations among BDNF levels, aerobic fitness, and level of physical activity. Using a controlled design, twenty-one patients with AD (76.3 ± 6.2 years) and eighteen healthy older adults (74.6 ± 4.7 years) completed an acute aerobic exercise. The outcomes included measures of BDNF plasma levels, aerobic fitness (treadmill grade, time to exhaustion, VO2, and maximal lactate) and level of physical activity (Baecke Questionnaire Modified for the Elderly). The independent t-test shows differences between groups with respect to the BDNF plasma levels at baseline (p = 0.04; t = 4.53; df = 37). In two-way ANOVA, a significant effect of time was found (p = 0.001; F = 13.63; df = 37), the aerobic exercise significantly increased BDNF plasma levels in AD patients and healthy controls. A significant correlation (p = 0.04; r = 0.33) was found between BDNF levels and the level of physical activity. The results of our study suggest that aerobic exercise increases BDNF plasma levels in patients with AD and healthy controls. In addition to that, BDNF levels had association with level of physical activity. PMID:24164734

  9. Effects of continuous vs interval exercise training on oxygen uptake efficiency slope in patients with coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.M.L. Prado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The oxygen uptake efficiency slope (OUES is a submaximal index incorporating cardiovascular, peripheral, and pulmonary factors that determine the ventilatory response to exercise. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of continuous exercise training and interval exercise training on the OUES in patients with coronary artery disease. Thirty-five patients (59.3±1.8 years old; 28 men, 7 women with coronary artery disease were randomly divided into two groups: continuous exercise training (n=18 and interval exercise training (n=17. All patients performed graded exercise tests with respiratory gas analysis before and 3 months after the exercise-training program to determine ventilatory anaerobic threshold (VAT, respiratory compensation point, and peak oxygen consumption (peak VO2. The OUES was assessed based on data from the second minute of exercise until exhaustion by calculating the slope of the linear relation between oxygen uptake and the logarithm of total ventilation. After the interventions, both groups showed increased aerobic fitness (P<0.05. In addition, both the continuous exercise and interval exercise training groups demonstrated an increase in OUES (P<0.05. Significant associations were observed in both groups: 1 continuous exercise training (OUES and peak VO2 r=0.57; OUES and VO2 VAT r=0.57; 2 interval exercise training (OUES and peak VO2 r=0.80; OUES and VO2 VAT r=0.67. Continuous and interval exercise training resulted in a similar increase in OUES among patients with coronary artery disease. These findings suggest that improvements in OUES among CAD patients after aerobic exercise training may be dependent on peripheral and central mechanisms.

  10. THE EFFECT OF AEROBIC TRAINING ON SERUM ADIPONECTIN AND LEPTIN LEVELS AND INFLAMMATORY MARKERS OF CORONARY HEART DISEASE IN OBESE MEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Akbarpour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 12 weeks of aerobic training on the serum levels of adiponectin and leptin and on inflammatory markers of coronary heart disease in obese men. Sixteen non-athlete obese men were randomly assigned to one of two experimental groups. The experimental group underwent aerobic training consisting of three sessions per week for 12 weeks, while the control group did not participate in the training programme during the study period. Five millilitres of venous blood was taken from each participant at the beginning of the study, during week six and at the end of week 12 to measure the levels of leptin, adiponectin, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor-α. The findings showed that aerobic training led to decreases in the levels of CRP (P=0.002, IL-6 (P = 0.001 and leptin (P = 0.003 and an increase in the level of adiponectin (P = 0.002 in the experimental group relative to the control group. In addition, the level of TNF-α decreased in the experimental group after the 12-week aerobic training period, although this change was not statistically significant. According to the results of this study, regular aerobic exercise decreases the potential risk of coronary heart disease by improving the plasma levels of IL-6, adiponectin, leptin and CRP. Additionally, aerobic exercise can be used as effective non-pharmacological treatment to prevent diseases.

  11. The effects of aerobic exercise training on oxidative stress and ultrastructure of pancreas tissue in diabetic rats%有氧运动对糖尿病大鼠胰腺组织氧化应激及超微结构的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢大帝; 吴军

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of aerobic exercise training on oxidative stress and ultrastructure of pancreas tissue in diabetic rats and the mechanism of protective effects of aerobic exercise training on pancreatic mitochondria in diabetic rats. Methods Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups:a normal control group,a diabetic model group and an exercise diabetic group,with 10 rats in each group.Type 2 diabetic rat models were established by intra-abdominal injection of streptozotocin (STZ).The success rate of establishing diabetic rat models was 85.7%.The normal control group and diabetic model group were not given exercise training.Exercise group was trained with 8 weeks of swimming of medium strength,eg.60 min/time,5 d/week. After training for 8 weeks, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathion peroxidase (GPX),nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and the contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) in pancreatic mitochondria were observed respectively.The ultrastructures of pancreas tissue in rats were observed under electron microscope. Results After swimming training for 8 weeks,the activities of SOD and GPx in pancreatic mitochondria in exercise diabetic group elevated more obviously than those in diabetic model group ( P < 0.05 ),while the activity of NOS and the contents of MDA and NO reduced obviously (P < 0.05 ).Compared with diabetic model group,the ultrastructures of pancreas tissue in exercise diabetic group improved,and the histomorphology was similar to normal control group. Conclusions Aerobic exercise training can provide protective effects on pancreas in diabetic rats,and can enhance antioxidation ability to eliminate free radicals,improve the ultrastructures of pancreas tissue.%目的 通过观察游泳训练对糖尿病大鼠胰腺组织抗氧化作用及超微结构的影响,探讨有氧运动对糖尿病大鼠胰腺线粒体保护作用的机制.方法 健康SD大鼠45只,

  12. Influence of Aerobic Exercise on Stress Response and Circulatory Function in Patients with High Risk of Cardiovas-cular Diseases after Intensive Military Trainings%有氧运动对心血管病高危因素新兵高强度军事训练后机体循环功能与应激反应的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鹏; 韩国华; 蒋希; 马兴杰; 董岸莺; 乔昆

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察有氧运动对存在心血管病高危因素新兵高强度军事训练后机体循环功能与应激反应的影响。方法选取某部存在心血管病高危因素的新入伍战士40名,在常规体能锻炼基础上增加有氧运动,为期2个月,于有氧锻炼开始前和结束后行10 km 跑步运动应激测试,记录受试者运动应激前30 min 及后10 min 心率、收缩压、心率血压乘积的变化,以及血超敏 C 反应蛋白(hs-CRP)、心肌型肌酸激酶同工酶(CK-MB)和氨基末端脑钠肽前体(NT-proBNP)浓度的变化。结果受试者两次运动应激后心率、收缩压、心率血压乘积及血 hs-CRP、NT-proBNP 浓度均升高(P <0.01);第2次运动应激后心率、心率血压乘积及血 hs-CRP、NT-proBNP 浓度升高幅度低于首次运动应激后(P <0.05或 P <0.01)。结论高强度军事训练可增加心血管病高危人群的应激反应并影响其循环功能,合理的体能锻炼联合有氧运动有助于减少急性心血管病事件甚至心源性猝死的发生。%Objective To observe the influences of aerobic exercise on stress response and circulatory function in the patients with high risk of cardiovascular diseases after intensive military training. Methods A comprehensive method was used including questionnaire survey, physical examination and 12-lead electrocardiogram. The population with cardiovascular high-risk (n = 40) was intervened by aerobic exercise for 2 months. The changes of HR, blood pressure, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), creatinekinase-MB ( CK-MB) and amino-terminal pro-B-type brain natriuretic peptide ( NT-proBNP) were compared between the two groups before and after a 10 km run. Results There was no significant difference in rate-pressure product and biological indexes among two groups before the exercise. After the exercise,rate-pressure product, hs-CRR, and NT-proBNP increased and there was statistical difference between the two

  13. Quick Tips for Weight Training Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Saul

    2004-01-01

    Weight training is one of the single most popular types of fitness activities in the United States. One of the reasons for its popularity is that it dramatically contributes to improved strength, muscle tone, body composition, health and appearance. Weight training is a progressive resistance exercise in which resistance is gradually increased as…

  14. Aerobic training alone or combined with strength training affects fitness in elderly: Randomized trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teljigovic, Sanel; Burich, Rasmus; Sjøgaard, Gisela;

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate if combined strength and aerobic training can enhance aerobic capacity in the elderly to a similar extent as aerobic training alone when training duration is matched. Methods: Elderly men and women (age 63.2 ± 4.7) were randomized into two intervention groups: an aerobic...... group (AG, n=17) and a combined group (CG, n=16). Subjects trained 40 minutes three times a week for 12 weeks. Both groups trained 20 minutes at 65% of heart rate reserve on ergometer cycles followed by another 20 minutes on the ergometer cycles for AG and 20-minute strength training for the lower body......) and MVC (p < .001). VO2max increased 17% confidence interval (CI) [7.4–26] in CG and 26% CI [14.1–38.2] in AG, with no significant difference between groups. MVC increased 22% CI [16.3–27.7] in CG and 9% CI [4.6–13.5] in AG with CG improving MVC more than AG (p < .01). CG’s score on the general health...

  15. Aerobic exercise, subjective health and psychological well-being within age and gender subgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransford, H E; Palisi, B J

    1996-06-01

    This research examines relationships between different forms of aerobic exercise (swim, walk, jog, dance) and two measures of health: subjective health and psychological well-being. We hypothesize that the relationship between aerobic exercise and subjective health/well-being will be notably stronger for older than younger persons and females than males. This prediction is based on Homans' exchange theory of investments and rewards. Since social norms concerning aerobic exercise are likely to be weaker among older (than younger) persons and among women than men, older persons and women who do exercise are making special investments and should expect greater rewards (good health). The concept of 'exercise norms' implies social comparisons with others. Accordingly, age comparative data were analyzed to see if older persons who exercise see themselves as more active than their age peers than do younger persons. Data come from a national probability sample of 3025 adults (National Survey of Personal Health Practices and Consequences). As predicted, exercise was much more strongly related to subjective health and well-being among older than younger respondents. In the main, the gender hypothesis was not supported. PMID:8771638

  16. Acute effect of vigorous aerobic exercise on the inhibitory control in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Alberto Vieira Browne

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To assess the acute effect of vigorous aerobic exercise on the inhibitory control in adolescents. Methods: Controlled, randomized study with crossover design. Twenty pubertal individuals underwent two 30-minute sessions: (1 aerobic exercise session performed between 65% and 75% of heart rate reserve, divided into 5 min of warm-up, 20 min at the target intensity and 5 min of cool down; and (2 control session watching a cartoon. Before and after the sessions, the computerized Stroop test-Testinpacs™ was applied to evaluate the inhibitory control. Reaction time (ms and errors (n were recorded. Results: The control session reaction time showed no significant difference. On the other hand, the reaction time of the exercise session decreased after the intervention (p<0.001. The number of errors made at the exercise session were lower than in the control session (p=0.011. Additionally, there was a positive association between reaction time (Δ of the exercise session and age (r2=0.404, p=0.003. Conclusions: Vigorous aerobic exercise seems to promote acute improvement in the inhibitory control in adolescents. The effect of exercise on the inhibitory control performance was associated with age, showing that it was reduced at older age ranges.

  17. Effect of moderate-intensity exercise training on the cognitive function of young adults with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastula, Robert M; Stopka, Christine B; Delisle, Anthony T; Hass, Chris J

    2012-12-01

    In addition to cognitive impairment, young adults with intellectual disabilities (IDs) are also more likely to be in poor health. Exercise may help ameliorate both of these deficits. While the health benefits of exercise are well documented and understood, the cognitive benefits of exercise are emerging. Exercise has been shown to improve the cognitive function of young, old, and diseased populations but few studies have evaluated the effect of exercise training on the cognitive functioning of individuals with IDs. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of moderate-intensity exercise training on the cognitive function of young adults with IDs. Fourteen students (age, 19.4 ± 1.3 years) with mild to moderate IDs participated in an 8-week comprehensive exercise intervention program based on circuit training, aerobic dancing, and adapted sport activities. Sessions lasted 45 minutes, and intensity was maintained at 60-70% of maximum heart rate (HR(max)). Aerobic fitness was assessed via the Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA) step test, and intellectual functioning was assessed via 3 subtests from the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities once before and after the intervention. Performance was significantly improved on all 3 cognitive tests (all, p processing speed, a measure taking into account each individual's performance on the 3 subtests, was 103%. The mean individual improvement in aerobic fitness was 17.5%. Moderate-intensity exercise training can yield robust improvements in the cognitive functioning and aerobic fitness of young adults with IDs. These effects support the inclusion of exercise into the lives of young adults with ID to promote their physical and cognitive health. Fourteen students (age, 19.4 ± 1.3 years) with mild to moderate IDs participated in an 8-week comprehensive exercise intervention program based on circuit training, aerobic dancing, and adapted sport activities. Sessions lasted 45 minutes and intensity

  18. The Effect of Aerobic Exercise on Neuroplasticity within the Motor Cortex following Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, Kate; Buckley, Jonathan D.; McDonnell, Michelle N.

    2016-01-01

    Background Aerobic exercise is associated with enhanced plasticity in the motor cortex of healthy individuals, but the effect of aerobic exercise on neuroplasticity following a stroke is unknown. Objective The aim of this study was to compare corticomotoneuronal excitability and neuroplasticity in the upper limb cortical representation following a single session of low intensity lower limb cycling, or a rest control condition. Methods We recruited chronic stroke survivors to take part in three experimental conditions in a randomised, cross-over design. Corticomotoneuronal excitability was examined using transcranial magnetic stimulation to elicit motor evoked potentials in the affected first dorsal interosseus muscle. Following baseline measures, participants either cycled on a stationary bike at a low exercise intensity for 30 minutes, or remained resting in a seated position for 30 minutes. Neuroplasticity within the motor cortex was then examined using an intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) paradigm. During the third experimental condition, participants cycled for the 30 minutes but did not receive any iTBS. Results Twelve participants completed the study. We found no significant effect of aerobic exercise on corticomotoneuronal excitability when compared to the no exercise condition (P > 0.05 for all group and time comparisons). The use of iTBS did not induce a neuroplastic-like response in the motor cortex with or without the addition of aerobic exercise. Conclusions Our results suggest that following a stroke, the brain may be less responsive to non-invasive brain stimulation paradigms that aim to induce short-term reorganisation, and aerobic exercise was unable to induce or improve this response. PMID:27018862

  19. The Role of Aerobic and Anaerobic Training Programs on CD34+ Stem Cells and Chosen Physiological Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalaby, Mohammed Nader; Saad, Mohammed; Akar, Samy; Reda, Mubarak Abdelreda Ali; Shalgham, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Exercise is one of the most powerful non-pharmacological strategies, which can affect nearly all cells and organs in the body. Changes in the behavior of adult stem cells have been shown to occur in response to exercise. Exercise may act on regenerative potential of tissues by altering the ability to generate new stem cells and differentiated cells that are able to carry out tissue specific functions. The purpose of this study was to reveal the role of aerobic and anaerobic training programs on CD34+ Stem Cells and chosen physiological variables. Twenty healthy male athletes aged 18–24 years were recruited for this study. Healthy low active males and BMI matched participants (n=10) aged 20–22 years were recruited as controls. Aerobic and anaerobic training programs for 12 weeks were conducted. VO2max pulse observation was carried out using the Astrand Rhyming protocol. RBCs, WBCs, HB and hematocrit were estimated using a coulter counter, lactate by the Accusport apparatus, CD34+ stem cells by flow cytometry. VO2max was increased significantly in case of the aerobic training program compared to anaerobic one (62±2.2 ml/kg/min vs. 54±2.1 ml/kg/min). Haemotological values increased significantly in the anaerobic program when compared to the aerobic one, RBCs (5.3±0.3 and 4.9±0.2 mln/ul), WBCs (6.6±0.5 and 6.1±0.4 thous/ul), HB (15.4±0.4 and 14.2±0.5 g/de), Hematocrit (4.6±1.2 and 4.4±1.1 %), CD34+ stem cells count increased significantly in case of the anaerobic program compared to the aerobic (251.6±21.64 and 130±14.61) and sedentary one (172±24.10). These findings suggest that anaerobic training programs provoke better adaptation to exercise and stem cell counts may differ between trained and sedentary subjects. Circulating immature cells are likely to be involved in angiogenesis and repair process, both mechanisms being associated with strenuous exercise. Knowledge of the physiological effects of training on stem cells might be of potential

  20. Effect of Aloe vera on some indicators of cell damage after a period of aerobic exercise in male athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barati Amir-Hosein

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Aloe vera is a medicinal plant with antioxidant activity. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of Aloe vera on some indicators of cell damage after a period of aerobic exercise in male athletes of 15-18 years old. Methods: In this clinical trial study, 20 male students with average weight of 64.85 ± 51 and height of 172.05 ± 6.4 were randomly assigned to 2 groups of Aloe vera supplement (n = 10 and placebo (n = 10. Then aerobic training was conducted for 4 weeks. The supplemented group took 3 capsules, each capsule contains 2 g of dried Aloe vera and placebo group took 3 capsules/day containing dextran after every meal. To determine the index of cell injury markers creatine kinase (CK, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and reactive protein C (CRP were determined and blood samples were collected 24 hours before and after each test. The data were analyzed using ANOVA and independent t test. Significance level was considered as P ≤ .05. Results: The use of Aloe vera during aerobic exercise significantly reduced LDH (P = .006 in the supplement group (15% reduction compared to placebo group and CRP with 11% reduction in the supplement group compared to placebo (P = .008. There was no significant reduction in CK. Conclusion: The findings of this study showed that Aloe vera reduces cell damage and inflammation indicators. This result may reflect the role of Aloe vera as anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agent.

  1. A two-year program of aerobics and weight training enhances bone mineral density of young women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlander, A. L.; Genant, H. K.; Sadowsky, S.; Byl, N. N.; Gluer, C. C.

    1995-01-01

    Previous research suggests that physical activity may have a beneficial effect on bone mineral density (BMD) in women. This relationship was explored in a 2-year, randomized, intervention trial investigating the efficacy of exercise and calcium supplementation on increasing peak bone mass in young women. One hundred and twenty-seven subjects (ages of 20-35 years) were randomly assigned either to an exercise program that contained both aerobics and weight training components or to a stretching program. Calcium supplementation (up to 1500 mg/day including dietary intake) or placebo was given in a double-blinded design to all subjects. Spinal trabecular BMD was determined using quantitative computed tomography (QCT). Spinal integral, femoral neck, and trochanteric BMD were measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and calcaneal BMD by single photon absorptiometry (SPA). Fitness variables included maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max), and isokinetic muscle performance of the trunk and thigh. Measurements were made at baseline, 1 year, and 2 years. Sixty-three subjects (32 exercise, 31 stretching) completed the study, and all the measured bone parameters indicated a positive influence of the exercise intervention. There were significant positive differences in BMD between the exercise and stretching groups for spinal trabecular (2.5%), femoral neck (2.4%), femoral trochanteric (2.3%), and calcaneal (6.4%) measurements. The exercise group demonstrated a significant gain in BMD for spinal integral (1.3 +/- 2.8%, p effect on any of the bone parameters. In regard to fitness parameters, the exercise group completed the study with significant gains in VO2max and isokinetic (peak torque) values for the knee flexion and extension and trunk extension. This study indicates that over a 2-year period, a combined regimen of aerobics and weight training has beneficial effects on BMD and fitness parameters in young women. However, the addition of daily calcium supplementation does not

  2. Short-term inspiratory muscle training potentiates the benefits of aerobic and resistance training in patients undergoing CABG in phase II cardiac rehabilitation program

    OpenAIRE

    Hermes, Bárbara Maria; Cardoso, Dannuey Machado; Gomes, Tiago José Nardi; dos Santos, Tamires Daros; Vicente, Marília Severo; Pereira, Sérgio Nunes; Barbosa, Viviane Acunha; de Albuquerque, Isabella Martins

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the efficiency of short-term inspiratory muscle training program associated with combined aerobic and resistance exercise on respiratory muscle strength, functional capacity and quality of life in patients who underwent coronary artery bypass and are in the phase II cardiac rehabilitation program. Methods A prospective, quasi-experimental study with 24 patients who underwent coronary artery bypass and were randomly assigned to two groups in the Phase II cardiac rehabi...

  3. Short-term inspiratory muscle training potentiates the benefits of aerobic and resistance training in patients undergoing CABG in phase II cardiac rehabilitation program

    OpenAIRE

    Bárbara Maria Hermes; Dannuey Machado Cardoso; Tiago José Nardi Gomes; Tamires Daros dos Santos; Marília Severo Vicente; Sérgio Nunes Pereira; Viviane Acunha Barbosa; Isabella Martins de Albuquerque

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To investigate the efficiency of short-term inspiratory muscle training program associated with combined aerobic and resistance exercise on respiratory muscle strength, functional capacity and quality of life in patients who underwent coronary artery bypass and are in the phase II cardiac rehabilitation program. Methods: A prospective, quasi-experimental study with 24 patients who underwent coronary artery bypass and were randomly assigned to two groups in the Phase II c...

  4. Examining of the effects of aerobic dance and step dance exercises on some hematological parameters and blood lipids

    OpenAIRE

    Halil İbrahim Ceylan; Gönül Babayiğit İrez; Özcan Saygın

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the the effects of aerobic and step dance exercises on hematological and blood lipids parameters. 32 university students were voluntarily participated in this study. They were randomly assigned to aerobic dance (N=16) and step dances (N=16). All groups were participated an hour aerobic or step dance exercise session 2 times in a week during 3 months. Wilcoxon Sign test was used to analyze pretest and posttest results of variables. As results, significant di...

  5. 健美操锻炼和团体心理训练对大学女生心理压力和皮质醇的影响%Effects of Moderate-intensity Aerobics Exercise and Team Mental Training on Psychological Stress and Cortisol of Female College Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜军; 陈思; 陈爱国; 陈剑锋; 陈作松

    2013-01-01

    duration of the physical exercise , and the mental training ,to study psychological stress before and after the intervention and its different dimen-sions ,and the change of salivary cortisol levels .Results :(1) The main effect of physical exercise in social contact was very significant ;the main effect of psychological training was not significant in any dimension of psychological stress ;the main effect of exercise combined with mental train-ing in the daily trifles was significant ,and in life ,development ,family ,life events and the over-all score were very significant .(2) The main effect of mental training participants’ salivary corti-costerone was very significant ,physical exercise combined with psychological training partici-pants’ cortisol levels lower than the participants of the regular physical exercise ,moderate physi-cal exercise ,and mental training .(3) After the intermediary effect test ,there was no significant correlation between salivary cortisol and psychological stress indicators .Conclusion :the combi-nation of moderate intensity exercise and mental training is beneficial to female college students for coping with psychological stress ,its positive effect significantly better than the single physical exercise program or mental training program ;The duration mental training or moderate intensity exercise can significantly reduce the female college students’ level of psychological stress ;Mental training can regulate the female college students’ cortisol in quiet condition effectively ;Moderate physical exercise and mental training reduce the psychological stress level of female college students ,which are not by regulating the content of salivary cortisol .

  6. THE EFFECTS OF AEROBIC EXERCISE ON SKELETAL MUSCLE METABOLISM, MORPHOLOGY AND IN SITU ENDURANCE IN DIABETIC RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilay Ergen

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of aerobic exercise training on skeletal muscle endurance capacity were examined in diabetic rats in situ. Moderate diabetes was induced by iv injection of streptozotocin and an exercise training program on a treadmill was carried out for 8 weeks. The animals randomly assigned to one of the four experimental groups: control-sedentary (CS, control-exercise (CE, diabetic-sedentary (DS or diabetic-exercise (DE. The changes in the muscle endurance capacity were evaluated through the square wave impulses (supramaximal of 0.2-ms duration at 1 Hz in the in situ gastrocnemius-soleus muscle complex. Muscle was stimulated continuously until tension development reduced to the half of this maximal value. Time interval between the beginning and the end of stimulation period is defined as contraction duration. Following the training period, blood glucose level reduced significantly in the DE group compared to DS group (p < 0.05. The soles muscle citrate synthase activity was increased significantly in both of the trained groups compared to sedentary animals (p < 0.05. Fatigued muscle lactate values were not significantly different from each other. Ultrastractural abnormality of the skeletal muscle in DS group disappeared with training. Presence of increased lipid droplets, mitochondria clusters and glycogen accumulation was observed in the skeletal muscle of DE group. The contraction duration was longer in the DE group than others (p < 0.001. Fatigue resistance of exercised diabetic animals may be explained by increased intramyocellular lipid droplets, high blood glucose level and muscle citrate synthase activity

  7. The interplay between aerobic metabolism and antipredator performance: vigilance is related to recovery rate after exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun Steven Killen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available When attacked by a predator, fish respond with a sudden fast-start motion away from the threat. Although this anaerobically-powered swimming necessitates a recovery phase which is fuelled aerobically, little is known about links between escape performance and aerobic traits such as aerobic scope or recovery time after exhaustive exercise. Slower recovery ability or a reduced aerobic scope could make some individuals less likely to engage in a fast-start response or display reduced performance. Conversely, increased vigilance in some individuals could permit faster responses to an attack but also increase energy demand and prolong recovery after anaerobic exercise. We examined how aerobic scope and the ability to recover from anaerobic exercise relates to differences in fast-start escape performance in juvenile golden grey mullet at different acclimation temperatures. Individuals were acclimated to either 18, 22, or 26oC, then measured for standard and maximal metabolic rates and aerobic scope using intermittent flow respirometry. Anaerobic capacity and the time taken to recover after exercise were also assessed. Each fish was also filmed during a simulated attack to determine response latency, maximum speed and acceleration, and turning rate displayed during the escape response. Across temperatures, individuals with shorter response latencies during a simulated attack are those with the longest recovery time after exhaustive anaerobic exercise. Because a short response latency implies high preparedness to escape, these results highlight the trade-off between the increased vigilance and metabolic demand, which leads to longer recovery times in fast reactors. These results improve our understanding of the intrinsic physiological traits that generate inter-individual variability in escape ability, and emphasise that a full appreciation of trade-offs associated with predator avoidance and energy balance must include energetic costs associated with

  8. Effects of aerobic exercise on the body composition and lipid profile of overweight adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Augusto Santos Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an aerobic physical exercise program without dietary intervention prescribed with blood lactate levels on body composition and lipid profile of overweight adolescents. A randomized study consisting of pre- and post-treatment tests was conducted on overweight adolescents who were randomly divided into an experimental group submitted to an aerobic exercise program and a control group. The exercise program lasted 12 weeks. After the intervention, a reduction in triceps skinfold thickness, percent body fat and fat mass and an increase in fat-free mass and lipid profile (HDL-c were observed in the experimental group (p<0.05. These findings indicate a possible reduction in the risk of cardiovascular diseases in overweight adolescents who regularly exercise.

  9. Effects of a short-term differently dosed aerobic exercise on maximum aerobic capacity in breast cancer survivors: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brdareski Zorica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Regular physical activity and exercise improves quality of life and possibly reduces risk of disease relapse and prolongs survival in breast cancer survivors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a 3-week moderate intensity aerobic training, on aerobic capacity (VO2max in breast cancer survivors. Methods. A prospective, randomized clinical study included 18 female breast cancer survivors in stage I-IIIA, in which the primary treatment was accomplished at least 3 months before the study inclusion. In all the patients VO2max was estimated using the Astrand’s protocol on a bicycle-ergometer (before and after 3 weeks of training, while subjective assessment of exertion during training were estimated by the Category-Ratio RPE Scale. Each workout lasted 21 minutes: 3 minutes for warmup and cool-down each and 15 min of full training, 2 times a week. The workload in the group E1 was predefined at the level of 45% to 65% of individual VO2max, and in the group E2 it was based on subjective evaluation of exertion, at the level marked 4-6. Data on the subjective feeling of exertion were collected after each training course in both groups. Results. We recorded a statistically significant improvement in VO2max in both groups (E1 - 11.86%; E2 - 17.72%, with no significant differences between the groups. The workload level, determined by the percent of VO2max, was different between the groups E1 and E2 (50.47 ± 7.02% vs 55.58 ± 9.58%, as well as subjective perception of exertion (in the groups E1 and E2, 11.6% and 41.6% of training, respectively, was graded in the mark 6. Conclusion. In our group of breast cancer survivors, a 3-week moderate intensity aerobic training significantly improved the level of VO2max.

  10. Hypoxic training methods for improving endurance exercise performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob A. Sinex

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Endurance athletic performance is highly related to a number of factors that can be altered through altitude and hypoxic training including increases in erythrocyte volume, maximal aerobic exercise capacity, capillary density, and economy. Physiological adaptations in response to acute and chronic exposure to hypoxic environments are well documented and range from short-term detrimental effects to longer-term adaptations that can improve performance at altitude and in sea-level competitions. Many altitude and hypoxic training protocols have been developed, employing various combinations of living and training at sea-level, low, moderate, and high altitudes and utilizing natural and artificial altitudes, with varying degrees of effectiveness. Several factors have been identified that are associated with individual responses to hypoxic training, and techniques for identifying those athletes most likely to benefit from hypoxic training continue to be investigated. Exposure to sufficiently high altitude (2000–3000 m for more than 12 h/day, while training at lower altitudes, for a minimum of 21 days is recommended. Timing of altitude training related to competition remains under debate, although general recommendations can be considered.

  11. The effects of three months of aerobic and strength training on selected performance- and fitness-related parameters in modern dance students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutedakis, Yiannis; Hukam, Harmel; Metsios, George; Nevill, Alan; Giakas, Giannis; Jamurtas, Athanasios; Myszkewycz, Lynn

    2007-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the effects of a 12-week aerobic and muscular strength training program on selected dance performance and fitness-related parameters in modern dance students. The sample consisted of 32 men and women (age 19 +/- 2.2 years) who were randomly assigned into exercise (n = 19) and control (n = 13) groups. Anthropometric and flexibility assessments, treadmill ergometry, strength measurements, and- on a separate day-a dance technique test were conducted pre- and postexercise training in both groups. After the end of the program, the exercise group revealed significant increases in dance (p modern dance students (a) a 3-month aerobic and strength training program has positive effects on selected dance performance and fitness-related parameters, (b) aerobic capacity and leg strength improvements do not hinder dance performance as studied herein, and (c) the dance-only approach does not provide enough scope for physical fitness enhancements. PMID:17685714

  12. Continuous Exercise but Not High Intensity Interval Training Improves Fat Distribution in Overweight Adults

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of high intensity interval training (HIIT) versus continuous aerobic exercise training (CONT) or placebo (PLA) on body composition by randomized controlled design. Methods. Work capacity and body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) were measured before and after 12 weeks of intervention in 38 previously inactive overweight adults. Results. There was a significant group × time interaction for change in work capacity (P < ...

  13. Aerobic fitness does not modulate protein metabolism in response to increased exercise: a controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Byerley Lauri O; Castaneda-Sceppa Carmen; Grediagin Ann; Pikosky Matthew A; Smith Tracey J; Glickman Ellen L; Young Andrew J

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background A sudden increase in exercise and energy expenditure is associated with an increase in protein turnover and nitrogen excretion. This study examined how a sudden increase in exercise-induced energy expenditure affected whole body protein metabolism and nitrogen balance in people of differing levels of aerobic fitness. We hypothesized that alterations in whole-body protein turnover would be attenuated, and nitrogen balance would be preserved, in individual with higher levels...

  14. Cardiorespiratory responses to moderate exercise and determination of aerobic power in first year medical students

    OpenAIRE

    Subha Kavundapadi Chandrasekaran; Rajkumar Devaraj

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular and metabolic disorder has become common in individuals leading a sedentary life. Exercise stress tests are carried out as part of the investigations for determining the individual fitness level. Aerobic power or VO2max which involves a full functional support from cardio respiratory and metabolic pathways is an appropriate test to study cardio pulmonary fitness. The main objective of the study is to find out the normal cardiopulmonary responses to exercise and thei...

  15. Effects of Moderate Aerobic Exercise on Cognitive Abilities and Redox State Biomarkers in Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Alghadir, Ahmad H.; Gabr, Sami A; Al-Eisa, Einas S.

    2016-01-01

    We used a moderate aerobic exercise program for 24 weeks to measure the positive impact of physical activity on oxidative stress and inflammatory markers and its association with cognitive performance in healthy older adults. A total of 100 healthy subjects (65–95 Yrs) were randomly classified into two groups: control group (n = 50) and exercise group (n = 50). Cognitive functioning, physical activity score, MDA, 8-OHdG, TAC, and hs-CRP were assessed using LOTCA battery, prevalidated PA quest...

  16. Aerobic exercise in obese diabetic patients with chronic kidney disease: a randomized and controlled pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper Cheryl; Jelinek Christine S; Qureshi Shahzad; Bast Joseph P; Moinuddin Irfan; Leehey David J; Edwards Lonnie C; Smith Bridget M; Collins Eileen G

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Patients with obesity, diabetes, and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are generally physically inactive, have a high mortality rate, and may benefit from an exercise program. Methods We performed a 24-week randomized controlled feasibility study comparing aerobic exercise plus optimal medical management to medical management alone in patients with type 2 diabetes, obesity (body mass index [BMI] > 30 kg/m2), and stage 2-4 CKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] 15-90 m...

  17. The Effect of Aerobic Exercise Program on Pulmonary Function and Cardiorespiratory Capacity in Obese Women

    OpenAIRE

    Ayşe SARSAN; Hakan ALKAN; Sevin BAŞER; Necmettin YILDIZ; Merih ÖZGEN; Füsun ARDIÇ

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of a sixmonth aerobic exercise program on pulmonary function and cardiorespiratory capacity in obese women.
Materials and Methods: A total of 50 subjects 25 obese women who neither did regular exercise nor applied a special diet program, and 25 healthy controls were included in the study. Body mass index (BMI), maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max) and pulmonary function tests (PFT) values were measured as evaluation parameters in both groups. Obese women were ...

  18. Effect of Aerobic Training on Cognitive Function and Arterial Stiffness in Sedentary Young Adults: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

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    Samuel Asamoah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study measured cognitive and vascular responses to aerobic training in sedentary young adults. Ten adults (6 women, 4 men; 18–29 years were randomly assigned to an experimental or no-treatment control group. The experimental group engaged in a 6-week intervention, performed on exercise cycle and treadmill, 3x/week, 50 min/session; intensity was increased over time. Outcome measures included arterial stiffness (augmentation index, AIx, and pulse pressure, cardiorespiratory fitness (, and cognitive function (attention, processing speed, working memory, episodic memory, and executive function. Participants randomized to aerobic training improved processing speed versus control (, ES = 0.55. However, no group × time effects were noted in other domains of cognitive function. AIx was reduced by approximately 16% from before to after intervention in the experimental group; however, the improvement was not statistically significant versus control (, ES = 0.22. Pulse pressure did not change between groups over time (, ES = 0.0. increased by approximately 10% in the experimental group; however, the change was not significant between groups over time (, ES = 0.27. Vascular and cognitive adaptations to aerobic training may move in parallel. Robust trials simultaneously investigating a broad spectrum of aerobic training interventions and vascular and cognitive outcomes are warranted.

  19. The effect of physical training on patients with rheumatoid arthritis: changes in disease activity, muscle strength and aerobic capacity. A clinically controlled minimized cross-over study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngberg, K; Danneskiold-Samsøe, B; Halskov, O

    1988-01-01

    For decades, physical training of rheumatoid arthritis (RA)-patients has been controversial, especially for patients with active disease. The aim of this study was to investigate whether RA-patients could receive graduated training without increasing the activity of the disease. In a controlled...... cross-over study the effect of graduated progressive training has been evaluated in 18 RA-patients with moderately active disease. The training was performed twice weekly with aerobic conditioning and strength exercises progressing to strenuous exercises over an 8-week period. The design was a crossover...

  20. Aerobic exercise improves cognition for older adults with glucose intolerance, a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Laura D; Frank, Laura L; Foster-Schubert, Karen; Green, Pattie S; Wilkinson, Charles W; McTiernan, Anne; Cholerton, Brenna A; Plymate, Stephen R; Fishel, Mark A; Watson, G Stennis; Duncan, Glen E; Mehta, Pankaj D; Craft, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    Impaired glucose regulation is a defining characteristic of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) pathology and has been linked to increased risk of cognitive impairment and dementia. Although the benefits of aerobic exercise for physical health are well-documented, exercise effects on cognition have not been examined for older adults with poor glucose regulation associated with prediabetes and early T2DM. Using a randomized controlled design, twenty-eight adults (57-83 y old) meeting 2-h tolerance test criteria for glucose intolerance completed 6 months of aerobic exercise or stretching, which served as the control. The primary cognitive outcomes included measures of executive function (Trails B, Task Switching, Stroop, Self-ordered Pointing Test, and Verbal Fluency). Other outcomes included memory performance (Story Recall, List Learning), measures of cardiorespiratory fitness obtained via maximal-graded exercise treadmill test, glucose disposal during hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, body fat, and fasting plasma levels of insulin, cortisol, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, insulin-like growth factor-1, amyloid-β (Aβ40 and Aβ42). Six months of aerobic exercise improved executive function (MANCOVA, p=0.04), cardiorespiratory fitness (MANOVA, p=0.03), and insulin sensitivity (p=0.05). Across all subjects, 6-month changes in cardiorespiratory fitness and insulin sensitivity were positively correlated (p=0.01). For Aβ42, plasma levels tended to decrease for the aerobic group relative to controls (p=0.07). The results of our study using rigorous controlled methodology suggest a cognition-enhancing effect of aerobic exercise for older glucose intolerant adults. Although replication in a larger sample is needed, our findings potentially have important therapeutic implications for a growing number of adults at increased risk of cognitive decline. PMID:20847403

  1. Acute effect of vigorous aerobic exercise on the inhibitory control in adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Rodrigo Alberto Vieira; Costa, Eduardo Caldas; Sales, Marcelo Magalhães; Fonteles, André Igor; de Moraes, José Fernando Vila Nova; Barros, Jônatas de França

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To assess the acute effect of vigorous aerobic exercise on the inhibitory control in adolescents. Methods: Controlled, randomized study with crossover design. Twenty pubertal individuals underwent two 30-minute sessions: (1) aerobic exercise session performed between 65% and 75% of heart rate reserve, divided into 5 min of warm-up, 20 min at the target intensity and 5 min of cool down; and (2) control session watching a cartoon. Before and after the sessions, the computerized Stroop test-Testinpacs™ was applied to evaluate the inhibitory control. Reaction time (ms) and errors (n) were recorded. Results: The control session reaction time showed no significant difference. On the other hand, the reaction time of the exercise session decreased after the intervention (pexercise session were lower than in the control session (p=0.011). Additionally, there was a positive association between reaction time (Δ) of the exercise session and age (r 2=0.404, p=0.003). Conclusions: Vigorous aerobic exercise seems to promote acute improvement in the inhibitory control in adolescents. The effect of exercise on the inhibitory control performance was associated with age, showing that it was reduced at older age ranges. PMID:26564328

  2. EFFECTS OF EXERCISE TRAINING ON CARDIOVASCULAR ADRENERGIC SYSTEM

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    Dario eLeosco

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In heart failure (HF, exercise has been shown to modulate cardiac sympathetic hyperactivation which is one of the earliest features of neurohormonal derangement in this syndrome and correlates with adverse outcome. An important molecular alteration related to chronic sympathetic overstimulation in HF is represented by cardiac β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR dysfunction . It has been demonstrated that exercise reverses β-AR dysfunction by restoring cardiac receptor membrane density and G-protein-dependent adenylyl cyclase activation. In particular, several evidence indicate that exercise reduces levels of cardiac G-protein coupled receptor kinase-2 (GRK2 which is known to be involved in both β1-AR and β2-AR dysregulation in HF. Similar alterations of β-AR system have been described also in the senescent heart. It has also been demonstrated that exercise training restores adrenal GRK2/α-2AR/cathecolamine (CA production axis. At vascular level, exercise shows a therapeutic effect on age-related impairment of vascular reactivity to adrenergic stimulation and restores β-AR-dependent vasodilatation by increasing vascular β-AR responsiveness and reducing endothelial GRK2 activity. Sympathetic nervous system overdrive is thought to account for >50 % of all cases of hypertension and a lack of balance between parasympathetic and sympathetic modulation has been observed in hypertensive subjects. Non-pharmacological, lifestyle interventions have been associated with reductions in SNS overactivity and blood pressure in hypertension. Several evidence have highlighted the blood pressure lowering effects of aerobic endurance exercise in patients with hypertension and the significant reduction in sympathetic neural activity has been reported as one of the main mechanisms explaining the favourable effects of exercise on blood pressure control.

  3. The Effects of an Aerobic Exercise Program on Psychological Variables in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perri, Samuel, II; Templer, Donald I.

    1985-01-01

    In a study assessing the psychological effects of exercise in the elderly, a 14-week aerobic program for older adults (N=23) produced a significant increase in self-concept and a significantly greater perceived internal locus of control. Improvement in memory was not found. (Author)

  4. The effect of walking exercise on the aerobic capacities and some blood values of females

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    Renan İri

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available It is known that systematic power walking reduces the heart rate and blood pressure, and that a one-hour walk burns 400 calories in average.The aim of the study is to examine the effect of walking exercises on the aerobic capacity, body fat rate and blood values of sedentary women. An eight-week walking program is regularly applied to the subjects 3 days a week. The aerobic capacities, body fat rates, body mass index and blood values of the subjects are measured both before and after the walking exercise in the study.While, after the eight-week walking exercise, significant decreases (p<0.05 in weight body fat rate and body mass index, aerobic capacity, and glucose HDL LDL values are seen in comparison with the first measurements, no significance (p<0.05 in hemoglobin, erythrocyte, leukocyte, cholesterol, triglyceride values has been observed.In conclusion, it is found out that walking exercises improve aerobic capacity positively and thus statistical differences in some blood parameters, body fat rate and body mass index occur with the increase of oxygen inhaled

  5. Effects of Physical Activity on Children's Executive Function: Contributions of Experimental Research on Aerobic Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Executive function refers to the cognitive processes necessary for goal-directed cognition and behavior, which develop across childhood and adolescence. Recent experimental research indicates that both acute and chronic aerobic exercise promote children's executive function. Furthermore, there is tentative evidence that not all forms of aerobic…

  6. Acute exercise and aerobic fitness influence selective attention during visual search

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    Tom eBullock

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Successful goal directed behavior relies on a human attention system that is flexible and able to adapt to different conditions of physiological stress. However, the effects of physical activity on multiple aspects of selective attention and whether these effects are mediated by aerobic capacity, remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a prolonged bout of physical activity on visual search performance and perceptual distraction. Two groups of participants completed a hybrid visual search flanker/response competition task in an initial baseline session and then at 17-minute intervals over a 2 hour 16 minute test period. Participants assigned to the exercise group engaged in steady-state aerobic exercise between completing blocks of the visual task, whereas participants assigned to the control group rested in between blocks. The key result was a correlation between individual differences in aerobic capacity and visual search performance, such that those individuals that were more fit performed the search task more quickly. Critically, this relationship only emerged in the exercise group after the physical activity had begun. The relationship was not present in either group at baseline and never emerged in the control group during the test period, suggesting that under these task demands, aerobic capacity may be an important determinant of visual search performance under physical stress. The results enhance current understanding about the relationship between exercise and cognition, and also inform current models of selective attention.

  7. Adipose tissue lipolysis is increased during a repeated bout of aerobic exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stich, V; de Glisezinski, I; Berlan, M;

    2000-01-01

    The goal of the study was to examine whether lipid mobilization from adipose tissue undergoes changes during repeated bouts of prolonged aerobic exercise. Microdialysis of the subcutaneous adipose tissue was used for the assessment of lipolysis; glycerol concentration was measured in the dialysate...

  8. Aerobic Exercise and Other Healthy Lifestyle Factors That Influence Vascular Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Parker, Jessica R.; LaRocca, Thomas J.; Seals, Douglas R

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) remain the leading cause of death in the United States and other modern societies. Advancing age is the major risk factor for CVD, primarily due to stiffening of the large elastic arteries and the development of vascular endothelial dysfunction. In contrast, regular aerobic exercise protects against the development…

  9. Autophagic signaling and proteolytic enzyme activity in cardiac and skeletal muscle of spontaneously hypertensive rats following chronic aerobic exercise.

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    Elliott M McMillan

    Full Text Available Hypertension is a cardiovascular disease associated with deleterious effects in skeletal and cardiac muscle. Autophagy is a degradative process essential to muscle health. Acute exercise can alter autophagic signaling. Therefore, we aimed to characterize the effects of chronic endurance exercise on autophagy in skeletal and cardiac muscle of normotensive and hypertensive rats. Male Wistar Kyoto (WKY and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR were assigned to a sedentary condition or 6 weeks of treadmill running. White gastrocnemius (WG of hypertensive rats had higher (p<0.05 caspase-3 and proteasome activity, as well as elevated calpain activity. In addition, skeletal muscle of hypertensive animals had elevated (p<0.05 ATG7 and LC3I protein, LAMP2 mRNA, and cathepsin activity, indicative of enhanced autophagic signaling. Interestingly, chronic exercise training increased (p<0.05 Beclin-1, LC3, and p62 mRNA as well as proteasome activity, but reduced (p<0.05 Beclin-1 and ATG7 protein, as well as decreased (p<0.05 caspase-3, calpain, and cathepsin activity. Left ventricle (LV of hypertensive rats had reduced (p<0.05 AMPKα and LC3II protein, as well as elevated (p<0.05 p-AKT, p-p70S6K, LC3I and p62 protein, which collectively suggest reduced autophagic signaling. Exercise training had little effect on autophagy-related signaling factors in LV; however, exercise training increased (p<0.05 proteasome activity but reduced (p<0.05 caspase-3 and calpain activity. Our results suggest that autophagic signaling is altered in skeletal and cardiac muscle of hypertensive animals. Regular aerobic exercise can effectively alter the proteolytic environment in both cardiac and skeletal muscle, as well as influence several autophagy-related factors in skeletal muscle of normotensive and hypertensive rats.

  10. The Effect of Three Months Regular Aerobic Exercise on Premenstrual Syndrome

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    Zinat Ghanbari

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the effects of three-month regular aerobic exercise on the PMS symptoms. Also correlations with age, education, marital status and severity of PMS symptoms were studied.Materials and Methods: A Quasi- Experimental study was conducted on 91 volunteer women with regular menstrual cycle and no history of gynecological, endocrinological and psychological disorders. The study was done during March 2005- March 2007, in Tehran University of Medical Sciences. A Modified Menstrual Distress Questionnaire (MMDQ was used in this study. Participants were divided into two groups: Non-exercised, they also didn't have any past experience of regular exercise (n= 48 and Exercised (n= 43. The exercise time duration was one hour and was carried out three times per week for three months.  Emotional, behavioral, electrolyte, autonomic, neurovegatative and skin symptoms of PMS were compared between two groups. P value was considered significant at < 0.05.Results: A significant difference was observed for electrolytic, neurovegetative and cognitive symptoms before and after the exercise. Also the severity of skin and neurovegetative symptoms were different in experimental groups with and without past history of doing regular exercise. There was no correlation between age, education, marital status and severity of PMS symptoms.Conclusion: Three months of regular aerobic exercise effectively reduces the severity of PMS symptoms.

  11. Effect of exercise training on ventilatory efficiency in patients with heart disease: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, D M L; Rocco, E A; Silva, A G; Rocco, D F; Pacheco, M T; Furlan, V

    2016-06-20

    The analysis of ventilatory efficiency in cardiopulmonary exercise testing has proven useful for assessing the presence and severity of cardiorespiratory diseases. During exercise, efficient pulmonary gas exchange is characterized by uniform matching of lung ventilation with perfusion. By contrast, mismatching is marked by inefficient pulmonary gas exchange, requiring increased ventilation for a given CO2 production. The etiology of increased and inefficient ventilatory response to exercise in heart disease is multifactorial, involving both peripheral and central mechanisms. Exercise training has been recommended as non-pharmacological treatment for patients with different chronic cardiopulmonary diseases. In this respect, previous studies have reported improvements in ventilatory efficiency after aerobic exercise training in patients with heart disease. Against this background, the primary objective of the present review was to discuss the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in abnormal ventilatory response to exercise, with an emphasis on both patients with heart failure syndrome and coronary artery disease. Secondly, special focus was dedicated to the role of aerobic exercise training in improving indices of ventilatory efficiency among these patients, as well as to the underlying mechanisms involved. PMID:27332771

  12. Effect of exercise training on ventilatory efficiency in patients with heart disease: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, D.M.L.; Rocco, E.A.; Silva, A.G.; Rocco, D.F.; Pacheco, M.T.; Furlan, V.

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of ventilatory efficiency in cardiopulmonary exercise testing has proven useful for assessing the presence and severity of cardiorespiratory diseases. During exercise, efficient pulmonary gas exchange is characterized by uniform matching of lung ventilation with perfusion. By contrast, mismatching is marked by inefficient pulmonary gas exchange, requiring increased ventilation for a given CO2 production. The etiology of increased and inefficient ventilatory response to exercise in heart disease is multifactorial, involving both peripheral and central mechanisms. Exercise training has been recommended as non-pharmacological treatment for patients with different chronic cardiopulmonary diseases. In this respect, previous studies have reported improvements in ventilatory efficiency after aerobic exercise training in patients with heart disease. Against this background, the primary objective of the present review was to discuss the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in abnormal ventilatory response to exercise, with an emphasis on both patients with heart failure syndrome and coronary artery disease. Secondly, special focus was dedicated to the role of aerobic exercise training in improving indices of ventilatory efficiency among these patients, as well as to the underlying mechanisms involved. PMID:27332771

  13. Active Video Game Exercise Training Improves the Clinical Control of Asthma in Children: Randomized Controlled Trial.

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    Evelim L F D Gomes

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine whether aerobic exercise involving an active video game system improved asthma control, airway inflammation and exercise capacity in children with moderate to severe asthma.A randomized, controlled, single-blinded clinical trial was carried out. Thirty-six children with moderate to severe asthma were randomly allocated to either a video game group (VGG; N = 20 or a treadmill group (TG; n = 16. Both groups completed an eight-week supervised program with two weekly 40-minute sessions. Pre-training and post-training evaluations involved the Asthma Control Questionnaire, exhaled nitric oxide levels (FeNO, maximum exercise testing (Bruce protocol and lung function.No differences between the VGG and TG were found at the baseline. Improvements occurred in both groups with regard to asthma control and exercise capacity. Moreover, a significant reduction in FeNO was found in the VGG (p < 0.05. Although the mean energy expenditure at rest and during exercise training was similar for both groups, the maximum energy expenditure was higher in the VGG.The present findings strongly suggest that aerobic training promoted by an active video game had a positive impact on children with asthma in terms of clinical control, improvement in their exercise capacity and a reduction in pulmonary inflammation.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01438294.

  14. The effect of regular aerobic exercise on urinary brain-derived neurotrophic factor in children

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    Yunita Fediani

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Nervous system development in early life influences the quality of cognitive ability during adulthood. Neuronal development and neurogenesis are highly influenced by neurotrophins. The most active neurotrophin is brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF. Physical activity has a positive effect on cognitive function. However, few experimental studies have been done on children to assess the effect of aerobic regular exercise on BDNF levels. Objective To assess the effect of regular aerobic exercise on urinary BDNF levels in children. Methods This clinical study was performed in 67 children aged 6-8 years in Palembang. The intervention group (n=34 engaged in aerobic gymnastics three times per week for 8 weeks, while the control group (n=33 engaged in gymnastic only once per week. Measurements of urinary BDNF were performed on both groups before and after intervention. Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon rank tests were used to analyze the differences between groups. Results There was no difference in urinary BDNF levels between the two groups prior to the intervention. After intervention, the mean urinary BDNF levels were significantly higher in the intervention group than in the control group, 230.2 (SD 264.4 pg/mL vs. 88.0 (SD 35.4 pg/mL, respectively (P=0.027. We also found that engaging in aerobic gymnastics significantly increased urinary BDNF levels from baseline in both groups (P=0.001. Conclusion Regular aerobic exercise can increase urinary BDNF levels and potentially improve cognitive function. Aerobic exercise should be a routine activity in school curriculums in combination with the learning process to improve children’s cognitive ability.[Paediatr Indones. 2014;54:351-7.].

  15. Twelve-Week Aerobic Training Decreases Chemerin Level and Improves Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Overweight and Obese Men

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    Saremi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose The inflammatory state of adipose tissue in obese subjects may be the most important factor linking increased adipose tissue mass to insulin resistance. Chemerin is a newly discovered adipokine that plays an important role in macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue and may contribute to the development of inflammation and insulin resistance. We examined the effects of 12 weeks of aerobic training on serum chemerin levels in association with cardiovascular risk factors in overweight and obese males. Methods Twenty-one overweight and obese subjects [44.3 (±4.1 yrs, body mass index (BMI ≥25 kg/m2 were assigned to exercise training (obese EX, n= 11 and control (obese CON, n= 10 groups. The obese EX group participated in 12 weeks of progressive aerobic training 5 days a week. Serum chemerin, insulin resistance, lipid profiles, blood pressure, and body composition were all measured before and after the training. Results After the aerobic training, waist circumference (P=0.009, fat percent (P=0.03, visceral fat (P=0.03, subcutaneous fat (P=0.01, fasting glucose (P=0.01, insulin resistance (P=0.03, triglyceride (P=0.05, total cholesterol (P=0.04, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P=0.05 and systolic blood pressure (P=0.04 of participates were significantly decreased. Concurrently, serum chemerin concentrations were significantly decreased after aerobic program (P=0.02. Conclusion Aerobic training caused an improvement in cardiometabolic risk factors in obese subjects, and this improvement was accompanied by decreased chemerin levels.

  16. Effect of Low-Intensity Aerobic Exercise on Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I and Insulin-Like Growth Factor-Binding Proteins in Healthy Men

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    Yuichiro Nishida

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased concentrations of circulating insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I or IGF-I relative to IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs are associated with increased risk of developing several forms of cancer. Conversely, exercise is linked with reduced risk. This study aims to investigate the effect of a low-intensity exercise program on circulating levels of IGF-I, IGFBP-1, and IGFBP-3, in previously sedentary males. Fourteen healthy men participated in cycle ergometer training at lactate threshold intensity for 60 min/day, 5 days/week for 6 weeks. After aerobic training, insulin sensitivity improved by 20%, while fasting insulin levels decreased by 13%. Simultaneously, low-intensity aerobic training decreased the circulating levels of IGF-I by 9%, while IGFBP-1 levels increased by 16%. An interesting finding was that higher pretraining level of IGF-I was associated with greater decline in IGF-I with training. Insulin-sensitizing low-intensity aerobic exercise is thus considered to be an effective method for downregulating IGF-I and upregulating IGFBP-1 levels.

  17. The influence of an acute bout of aerobic exercise on cortical contributions to motor preparation and execution

    OpenAIRE

    Thacker, Jonathan S.; Middleton, Laura E; McIlroy, William E.; Staines, W. Richard

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Increasing evidence supports the use of physical activity for modifying brain activity and overall neurological health. Specifically, aerobic exercise appears to have a positive effect on cognitive function, which some have suggested to be a result of increasing levels of arousal. However, the role of aerobic exercise on movement‐related cortical activity is less clear. We tested the hypothesis that (1) an acute bout of exercise modulates excitability within motor areas and (2) trans...

  18. Echinochrome A Improves Exercise Capacity during Short-Term Endurance Training in Rats

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    Dae Yun Seo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Echinochrome A (Echi A improves mitochondrial function in the heart; however, its effects on skeletal muscle are still unclear. We hypothesized that Echi A administration during short-term exercise may improve exercise capacity. Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into the following groups: control group (CG, Echi A-treated group (EG, aerobic exercise group (AG, and aerobic exercise treated with Echi A group (AEG (n = 6 per group. Echi A was administered intra-peritoneally (0.1 mg/kg of Echi A in 300 µL phosphate-buffered saline daily 30 min before each exercise training. The AG and AEG groups performed treadmill running (20 m/min, 60 min/day five days/week for two weeks. The exercise capacity was significantly higher in the AG and AEG groups compared to other groups. Interestingly, the exercise capacity increased more effectively in the AEG group. The body weight in the EG tended to be slightly lower than that in the other groups. There were no significant changes in the plasma lipids among the groups. However, the gastrocnemius muscle mitochondria content was greater in the EG and AEG groups. These findings show that Echi A administration after short-term endurance training enhances exercise capacity, which was associated with an increase in skeletal muscle mitochondrial content.

  19. Effect of aerobic exercise during pregnancy on antenatal depression

    OpenAIRE

    El-Rafie, Mervat M; Khafagy, Ghada M; Gamal, Marwa G

    2016-01-01

    Background Antenatal depression is not uncommon and is associated with a greater risk of negative pregnancy outcomes. Aim Exploring the effect of exercise in preventing and treating antenatal depression. Methods This was a prospective interventional controlled study carried out in 100 pregnant women treated at the Ain-Shams Family Medicine Center and Maadi Outpatient Clinic, Cairo, Egypt. The participants were divided into two groups (n=50 in the exercise group and n=50 in the control group)....

  20. Aerobic exercise in children with oxidative phosphorylation defects

    OpenAIRE

    Luuk Schreuder; Gera Peters; Ria Nijhuis-van der Sanden; Eva Morava

    2010-01-01

    Fatigue and exercise intolerance are symptoms in children with metabolic myopathy. Frequently this is combined with muscle pain in children with mitochondrial myopathy. Offering therapeutic advice remains challenging in this patient group. Here we describe five children above the age of four years, with normal intelligence, myopathy, exercise intolerance, motor developmental delay, and fatigue, who were diagnosed with a mitochondrial dysfunction. Based on the positive experience of condition ...

  1. Influence of aerobic training on cardiovascular and metabolic parameters in elderly hypertensive women

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    Nayara F. T. Braz

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: The proposed walking program did not alter serum cholesterol, but it did reduce resting blood pressure, improve aerobic performance and accelerate the fall in heart rate and mean blood pressure during the postprogressive maximal aerobic exercise recovery period in elderly hypertensive women.

  2. Effects of a high-intensity intermittent training program on aerobic capacity and lipid profile in trained subjects

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    Ouerghi N

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nejmeddine Ouerghi,1,2 Marwa Khammassi,1 Sami Boukorraa,1 Moncef Feki,2 Naziha Kaabachi,2 Anissa Bouassida,1,3 1Research Unit, Sportive Performance and Physical Rehabilitation, High Institute of Sports and Physical Education of Kef, University of Jendouba, Kef, Tunisia, 2Laboratory of Biochemistry, Rabta Hospital, Faculty of Medicine of Tunis, El Manar University, Tunis, 3Physiology Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine Ibn el Jazzar, Sousse, Tunisia Background: Data regarding the effect of training on plasma lipids are controversial. Most studies have addressed continuous or long intermittent training programs. The present study evaluated the effect of short-short high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT on aerobic capacity and plasma lipids in soccer players. Methods: The study included 24 male subjects aged 21–26 years, divided into three groups: experimental group 1 (EG1, n=8 comprising soccer players who exercised in addition to regular short-short HIIT twice a week for 12 weeks; experimental group 2 (EG2, n=8 comprising soccer players who exercised in a regular football training program; and a control group (CG, n=8 comprising untrained subjects who did not practice regular physical activity. Maximal aerobic velocity and maximal oxygen uptake along with plasma lipids were measured before and after 6 weeks and 12 weeks of the respective training program. Results: Compared with basal values, maximal oxygen uptake had significantly increased in EG1 (from 53.3±4.0 mL/min/kg to 54.8±3.0 mL/min/kg at 6 weeks [P<0.05] and to 57.0±3.2 mL/min/kg at 12 weeks [P<0.001]. Maximal oxygen uptake was increased only after 12 weeks in EG2 (from 52.8±2.7 mL/min/kg to 54.2±2.6 mL/min/kg, [P<0.05], but remain unchanged in CG. After 12 weeks of training, maximal oxygen uptake was significantly higher in EG1 than in EG2 (P<0.05. During training, no significant changes in plasma lipids occurred. However, after 12 weeks, total and low-density lipoprotein

  3. Aerobic physical activity and resistance training: an application of the theory of planned behavior among adults with type 2 diabetes in a random, national sample of Canadians

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    Karunamuni Nandini

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aerobic physical activity (PA and resistance training are paramount in the treatment and management of type 2 diabetes (T2D, but few studies have examined the determinants of both types of exercise in the same sample. Objective The primary purpose was to investigate the utility of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB in explaining aerobic PA and resistance training in a population sample of T2D adults. Methods A total of 244 individuals were recruited through a random national sample which was created by generating a random list of household phone numbers. The list was proportionate to the actual number of household telephone numbers for each Canadian province (with the exception of Quebec. These individuals completed self-report TPB constructs of attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control and intention, and a 3-month follow-up that assessed aerobic PA and resistance training. Results TPB explained 10% and 8% of the variance respectively for aerobic PA and resistance training; and accounted for 39% and 45% of the variance respectively for aerobic PA and resistance training intentions. Conclusion These results may guide the development of appropriate PA interventions for aerobic PA and resistance training based on the TPB.

  4. Pyruvate ingestion for 7 days does not improve aerobic performance in well-trained individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, M. A.; Spriet, L. L.; Dyck, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    The purposes of the present studies were to test the hypotheses that lower dosages of oral pyruvate ingestion would increase blood pyruvate concentration and that the ingestion of a commonly recommended dosage of pyruvate (7 g) for 7 days would enhance performance during intense aerobic exercise in well-trained individuals. Nine recreationally active subjects (8 women, 1 man) consumed 7, 15, and 25 g of pyruvate and were monitored for a 4-h period to determine whether blood metabolites were altered. Pyruvate consumption failed to significantly elevate blood pyruvate, and it had no effect on indexes of carbohydrate (blood glucose, lactate) or lipid metabolism (blood glycerol, plasma free fatty acids). As a follow-up, we administered 7 g/day of either placebo or pyruvate, for a 1-wk period to seven, well-trained male cyclists (maximal oxygen consumption, 62.3 +/- 3.0 ml. kg(-1). min(-1)) in a randomized, double-blind, crossover trial. Subjects cycled at 74-80% of their maximal oxygen consumption until exhaustion. There was no difference in performance times between the two trials (placebo, 91 +/- 9 min; pyruvate, 88 +/- 8 min). Measured blood parameters (insulin, peptide C, glucose, lactate, glycerol, free fatty acids) were also unaffected. Our results indicate that oral pyruvate supplementation does not increase blood pyruvate content and does not enhance performance during intense exercise in well-trained cyclists.

  5. EFFECTS OF SIX MONTHS OF COMBINED AEROBIC AND RESISTANCE TRAINING FOR ELDERLY PATIENTS WITH A LONG HISTORY OF TYPE 2 DIABETES

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    Sijie Tan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effects of a 6-month combined aerobic and resistance training program on the body composition, glycemic control, lipid profile, and functional capacity of older patients with a long history of type 2 diabetes. 25 subjects (65.9 ± 4. 2 yrs; M/F: 13/12 with a long history of type 2 diabetes (16.7 ± 6.7 yrs were randomly allocated into either the exercise or control groups. The exercise group trained three sessions a week. Each session consisted of a warm-up period, 30 minutes of moderate aerobic exercise, 10 minutes of resistance training with five leg muscle exercises (two sets of 10-12 repetitions at 50-70% of 1RM for each activity, and a cool-down period. The variables of body composition, glycemic control, lipid profile, and functional capacity were measured before and after the study period. Exercise training decreased waist-hip ratio and body fat of the trained subjects. Concentrations of fasting and 2-hour post-glucose challenge plasma glucose and serum insulin, and glycosylated hemoglobin decreased significantly in the exercise group. Exercise training improved the lipid profile and also increased the leg muscle strength and 6-minute walking distance of the trained subjects. The control group, however, increased their body fat and fasting plasma glucose, while other variables were not changed during the study period. The current results demonstrate that elderly patients with a long history of type 2 diabetes can benefit from the 6-month combined aerobic and resistance training program

  6. Effects of Aerobic Training on Primary Dysmenorrhea Symptomatology in College Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Richard G.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a 12-week aerobic training program on menstrual distress symptoms in college females with clinically diagnosed primary dysmenorrhea. The findings suggest that aerobic training can significantly reduce the symptoms associated with primary dysmenorrhea. (Author/MT)

  7. EFFECT OF 8 WEEKS OF AEROBIC OR RESISTANCE TRAINING ON BLOOD PRESSURE IN NON-PHYSICAL EDUCATION MALE STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastegar Hoseini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim : Nowadays increasing blood pressure is the most important risk factor of coronary, cerebral and renal vessel diseases. The benefits of aerobic exercise (AE training on blood pressure (BP but the effects of resistance training are less well delineated. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of resistance or aerobic training on haemodynamics in non-physical education male students. Methods : The target population consisted entirely of male students of University of Guilan. Among them 40 male’s non- athlete were recruited and randomly assigned to 8 weeks of either resistance (RE or AE training. Before and after training, BP, were measured. Statistical analysis was performed by student t – test. Results : The results show that resting systolic BP (SBP decreased following both training modes (SBP: RE, pre 128±1.9 vs post 121±2.3; AE, pre 129±4.2 vs post 123±3.3 mm Hg, P=0.005; diastolic BP: RE, pre 77±2.4 vs post 73±2.1; AE, pre 78±3.4 vs post 74±2.9 mm Hg, P=0.001. Although both RE and AE training decreased BP; were not significant differences among RE and AE training decreased BP. Conclusion : Both RE and AE training decreased BP in non athlete males. Therefore, promotion in physical activity level could be an effective way to decrease hypertension in non-physical education males.

  8. Higher circulating leukocytes in women with PCOS is reversed by aerobic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covington, Jeffrey D; Tam, Charmaine S; Pasarica, Magdalena; Redman, Leanne M

    2016-05-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by insulin resistance, elevated circulating leukocytes, and hypothesized to have higher adipose tissue inflammation. Aerobic exercise reduces circulating leukocytes and improves insulin sensitivity in obese individuals, but the effect of exercise on inflammation in PCOS is not known. We investigated circulating leukocytes, insulin sensitivity by euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp, serum pro- and anti-inflammatory markers (hsCRP, TNF-α, total and high molecular weight adiponectin), and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) gene expression of proinflammatory markers in 8 PCOS women and 8 obese control females matched for BMI. Additionally, in a prospective study, the 8 women with PCOS underwent a 16-week aerobic exercise regimen with the same measures performed post-intervention. Compared to controls, white blood cell counts (WBC) were 30% higher (p = 0.04) and circulating total adiponectin levels were 150% lower (p = 0.03) in women with PCOS at baseline/pre-exercise conditions. SAT gene expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF, p DHEA-S, p < 0.001) after 16 weeks. In conclusion, women with PCOS have higher circulating leukocytes compared to controls, which can be reversed by aerobic exercise and is associated with improvements in insulin sensitivity. PMID:25446648

  9. Cardiorespiratory and neuromuscular responses during water aerobics exercise performed with and without equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, S S; Cadore, E L; Alberton, C L; Silva, E M; Kanitz, A C; Tartaruga, M P; Kruel, L F M

    2011-12-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the cardiorespiratory and neuromuscular responses to water aerobics exercise performed with and without equipment. 15 women performed stationary jogging combined with elbow flexion/extension without equipment, with water-drag forces equipment and with water-floating equipment, at 2 submaximal cadences and at maximal cadence. Heart rate, oxygen uptake and electromyographic signal from biceps brachii, triceps brachii, biceps femoris and rectus femoris were collected during the exercise. The heart rate and oxygen uptake showed significantly higher values during the execution of the water aerobics exercise with either equipment compared to the execution without equipment. In addition, significant difference was found between submaximal cadences. For neuromuscular responses, no significant differences were found between the submaximal cadences for all muscles analyzed; however, significant differences were found between these submaximal cadences and the maximal cadence. Similarly, the results showed no significant differences between the execution of the exercise with or without equipment, except in the muscle activation of triceps brachii and biceps femoris, which was higher when using water-floating and water-drag forces equipment, respectively. In conclusion, the water aerobics exercise presented higher cardiorespiratory responses with equipment and also increased the cadence of execution. Nevertheless, neuromuscular responses were higher only at maximal cadence. PMID:22052026

  10. The Effect of Regular Aerobic Training on Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha (TNF-α in Males With Type II Diabetes

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    Ghasemalipour

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background A growing body of literature suggests that systemic inflammation is associated with obesity, type II diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of three months of aerobic training on serum Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-α, as an inflammatory cytokine, in males with type II diabetes. Patients and Methods Twenty-four adult obese males aged 38 to 48 years and Body Mass Index (BMI of 30 to 36 kg/m 2 with type II diabetes were randomly divided to exercise (n = 12 and control (n = 12 groups. The exercise group completed an aerobic training program (for three months, three times/week and the control group did not participate in the exercise program. Fasting serum TNF-α and all anthropometrical markers were measured before and after the training program. Data was analyzed by independent-paired sample T test. Results Exercise training resulted in a significant increase in body weight (P < 0.001, body fat percentage (P < 0.001, BMI (P < 0.001 and abdominal circumference (P < 0.001. There was no significant difference in serum TNF-a before-compared to after-training program (P = 0.83. Conclusions Based on these data, we conclude that the aerobic training program does not have an anti-inflammatory property with emphasis on serum TNF-α in type II diabetic patients.

  11. Central nervous system adaptation to exercise training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, Lois Anne

    Exercise training causes physiological changes in skeletal muscle that results in enhanced performance in humans and animals. Despite numerous studies on exercise effects on skeletal muscle, relatively little is known about adaptive changes in the central nervous system. This study investigated whether spinal pathways that mediate locomotor activity undergo functional adaptation after 28 days of exercise training. Ventral horn spinal cord expression of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), a trophic factor at the neuromuscular junction, choline acetyltransferase (Chat), the synthetic enzyme for acetylcholine, vesicular acetylcholine transporter (Vacht), a transporter of ACh into synaptic vesicles and calcineurin (CaN), a protein phosphatase that phosphorylates ion channels and exocytosis machinery were measured to determine if changes in expression occurred in response to physical activity. Expression of these proteins was determined by western blot and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Comparisons between sedentary controls and animals that underwent either endurance training or resistance training were made. Control rats received no exercise other than normal cage activity. Endurance-trained rats were exercised 6 days/wk at 31m/min on a treadmill (8% incline) for 100 minutes. Resistance-trained rats supported their weight plus an additional load (70--80% body weight) on a 60° incline (3 x 3 min, 5 days/wk). CGRP expression was measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). CGRP expression in the spinal dorsal and ventral horn of exercise-trained animals was not significantly different than controls. Chat expression measured by Western blot and IHC was not significantly different between runners and controls but expression in resistance-trained animals assayed by IHC was significantly less than controls and runners. Vacht and CaN immunoreactivity in motor neurons of endurance-trained rats was significantly elevated relative to control and resistance-trained animals. Ventral

  12. Estimated Aerobic Capacity Changes in Adolescents with Obesity Following High Intensity Interval Exercise

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    Brooke E. Starkoff

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Vigorous aerobic exercise may improve aerobic capacity (VO2max and cardiometabolic profiles in adolescents with obesity, independent of changes to weight. Our aim was to assess changes in estimated VO2max in obese adolescents following a 6-week exercise program of varying intensities. Adolescents with obesity were recruited from an American mid-west children’s hospital and randomized into moderate exercise (MOD or high intensity interval exercise (HIIE groups for a 6-week exercise intervention, consisting of cycle ergometry for 40 minutes, 3 days per week. Heart rate was measured every two minutes during each exercise session.  Estimated VO2max measured via Åstrand cycle test, body composition, and physical activity (PA enjoyment evaluated via questionnaire were assessed pre/post-intervention. Twenty-seven adolescents (age 14.7±1.5; 17 female, 10 male completed the intervention. Estimated VO2max increased only in the HIIE group (20.0±5.7 to 22.7±6.5 ml/kg/min, p=0.015. The HIIE group also demonstrated increased PA enjoyment, which was correlated with average heart rate achieved during the intervention (r=0.55; p=0.043. Six weeks of HIIE elicited improvements to estimated VO2max in adolescents with obesity. Furthermore, those exercising at higher heart rates demonstrated greater PA enjoyment, implicating enjoyment as an important determinant of VO2max, specifically following higher intensity activities.

  13. Exercise training using arms and legs versus legs along.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostardi, R A; Gandee, R N; Norris, W A

    1981-07-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether levels of conditioning associated with conventional leg work are comparable to those associated with both arm and leg work. Six healthy men conditioned for 6 weeks using both arms and legs while a similar group of 5 men conditioned using legs alone. The subjects trained 3 times per week on a bicycle ergometer, and covered a distance of 3 miles (4.83 km) per session using interval training techniques. Oxygen consumption (VO2) and heart rate (HR) were the primary comparative measures. There were no differences in improvement of maximal aerobic power between the 2 groups. However, the arm and leg subjects were able to do more work at a lower HR during the conditioning program. This implies considerably less physical stress on the heart and skeletal muscle, and indicates that the feeling of stress is related to metabolic rate per square area of working muscle rather than to total metabolism. Since this type of conditioning provides high levels of improvement in aerobic power wit less demands on the myocardium, it is suggested that arm and leg exercise be incorporated in the rehabilitation of cardiac patients. PMID:7247660

  14. Exercise Training During Bed Rest Attenuates Deconditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Hargens, Alan R. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    A 30-day 6 deg. head-down bed rest study was conducted to evaluate high-intensity, short-duration, alternating isotonic cycle ergometer exercise (ITE) training and high-intensity intermittent isokinetic exercise (IKE) training regiments designed to maintain peak VO2 and muscle mass, strength, and endurance at ambulatory control levels throughout prolonged bed rest. Other elements of the deconditioning (acclimation) syndrome, such as proprioception, psychological performance, hypovolemia, water balance, body composition, and orthostatic tolerance, were also measured. Compared with response during bed rest of the no exercise (NOE) control group: the ITE training regimen (a) maintained work capacity (peak VO2), (b) maintained plasma and red cell volume, (c) induced positive body water balance, (d) decreased quality of sleep and mental concentration, and (e) had no effect on the decrease in orthostatic tolerance; the IKE training regimen (a) attenuated the decrease in peak VO2 by 50%, (b) attenuated loss of red cell volume by 40%, but had no effect on loss of plasma volume, (c) induced positive body water balance, (d) had no adverse effect on quality of sleep or concentration, and (e) had no effect on the decrease in orthostatic tolerance. These findings suggest that various elements of the deconditioning syndrome can be manipulated by duration and intensity of ITE or IKE training regiments, and that several different training protocols will be required to maintain or restore physiological and psychological performance of individuals confined to prolonged bed rest.

  15. DEMO-II trial. Aerobic exercise versus stretching exercise in patients with major depression-a randomised clinical trial.

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    Jesper Krogh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The effect of referring patients from a clinical setting to a pragmatic exercise intervention for depressive symptoms, cognitive function, and metabolic variables has yet to be determined. METHODS: Outpatients with major depression (DSM-IV were allocated to supervised aerobic or stretching exercise groups during a three months period. The primary outcome was the Hamilton depression score (HAM-D(17. Secondary outcomes were cognitive function, cardiovascular risk markers, and employment related outcomes. RESULTS: 56 participants were allocated to the aerobic exercise intervention versus 59 participants to the stretching exercise group. Post intervention the mean difference between groups was -0.78 points on the HAM-D(17 (95% CI -3.2 to 1.6; P = .52. At follow-up, the participants in the aerobic exercise group had higher maximal oxygen uptake (mean difference 4.4 l/kg/min; 95% CI 1.7 to 7.0; P = .001 and visuospatial memory on Rey's Complex Figure Test (mean difference 3.2 points; 95% CI 0.9 to 5.5; P = .007 and lower blood glucose levels (mean difference 0.2 mmol/l; 95% CI 0.0 to 0.5; P = .04 and waist circumference (mean difference 2.2 cm; 95% CI 0.3 to 4.1; P = .02 compared with the stretching exercise group. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this trial does not support any antidepressant effect of referring patients with major depression to a three months aerobic exercise program. Due to lower recruitment than anticipated, the trial was terminated prior to reaching the pre-defined sample size of 212 participants; therefore the results should be interpreted in that context. However, the DEMO-II trial does suggest that an exercise program for patients with depression offer positive short-term effects on maximal oxygen uptake, visuospatial memory, fasting glucose levels, and waist circumference. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00695552.

  16. The Health Benefits and Challenges of Exercise Training in Persons Living with Schizophrenia: A Pilot Study

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    Donna J. Lang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: In addition to the hallmark cognitive and functional impairments mounting evidence indicates that schizophrenia is also associated with an increased risk for the development of secondary complications, in particular cardio-metabolic disease. This is thought to be the result of various factors including physical inactivity and the metabolic side effects of psychotropic medications. Therefore, non-pharmacological approaches to improving brain health, physical health, and overall well-being have been promoted increasingly. Methods: We report on the health-related physical fitness (body composition, blood pressure, heart rate, and aerobic fitness and lipid profile of persons living with schizophrenia and effective means to address the challenges of exercise training in this population. Results: There was a markedly increased risk for cardio-metabolic disease in 13 persons living with schizophrenia (Age = 31 ± 7 years including low aerobic fitness (76% ± 34% of predicted, reduced HDL (60% of cohort, elevated resting heart rate (80% of cohort, hypertension (40% of cohort, overweight and obesity (69% of cohort, and abdominal obesity (54% of cohort. Individualized exercise prescription (3 times/week was well tolerated, with no incidence of adverse exercise-related events. The exercise adherence rate was 81% ± 21% (Range 48%–100%, and 69% of the participants were able to complete the entire exercise training program. Exercise training resulted in clinically important changes in physical activity, aerobic fitness, exercise tolerance, blood pressure, and body composition. Conclusion: Persons living with schizophrenia appear to be at an increased risk for cardio-metabolic disease. An individualized exercise program has shown early promise for the treatment of schizophrenia and the various cognitive, functional, and physiological impairments that ultimately affect health and well-being.

  17. Acute Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Feelings of Energy in Relation to Age and Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legrand, Fabien D; Bertucci, William M; Hudson, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    A crossover experiment was performed to determine whether age and sex, or their interaction, affect the impact of acute aerobic exercise on vigor-activity (VA). We also tested whether changes in VA mediated exercise effects on performance on various cognitive tasks. Sixty-eight physically inactive volunteers participated in exercise and TV-watching control conditions. They completed the VA subscale of the Profile of Mood States immediately before and 2 min after the intervention in each condition. They also performed the Trail Making Test 3 min after the intervention in each condition. Statistical analyses produced a condition . age . sex interaction characterized by a higher mean VA gain value in the exercise condition (compared with the VA gain value in the TV-watching condition) for young female participants only. In addition, the mediational analyses revealed that changes in VA fully mediated the effects of exercise on TMT-Part A performance. PMID:25880874

  18. Crossfit-based high-intensity power training improves maximal aerobic fitness and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael M; Sommer, Allan J; Starkoff, Brooke E; Devor, Steven T

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a crossfit-based high-intensity power training (HIPT) program on aerobic fitness and body composition. Healthy subjects of both genders (23 men, 20 women) spanning all levels of aerobic fitness and body composition completed 10 weeks of HIPT consisting of lifts such as the squat, deadlift, clean, snatch, and overhead press performed as quickly as possible. Additionally, this crossfit-based HIPT program included skill work for the improvement of traditional Olympic lifts and selected gymnastic exercises. Body fat percentage was estimated using whole-body plethysmography, and maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) was measured by analyzing expired gasses during a Bruce protocol maximal graded treadmill test. These variables were measured again after 10 weeks of training and compared for significant changes using a paired t-test. Results showed significant (p < 0.05) improvements of VO2max in men (43.10 ± 1.40 to 48.96 ± 1.42 ml · kg · min) and women (35.98 ± 1.60 to 40.22 ± 1.62 ml · kg · min) and decreased body fat percentage in men (22.2 ± 1.3 to 18.0 ± 1.3) and women (26.6 ± 2.0 to 23.2 ± 2.0). These improvements were significant across all levels of initial fitness. Significant correlations between absolute oxygen consumption and oxygen consumption relative to body weight was found in both men (r = 0.83, p < 0.001) and women (r = 0.94, p < 0.001), indicating that HIPT improved VO2max scaled to body weight independent of changes to body composition. Our data show that HIPT significantly improves VO2max and body composition in subjects of both genders across all levels of fitness. PMID:23439334

  19. Exercise training modulates functional sympatholysis and alpha-adrenergic vasoconstrictor responsiveness in hypertensive and normotensive individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Stefan Peter; Nyberg, Michael Permin; Gliemann Hybholt, Lasse;

    2014-01-01

    Essential hypertension is linked to an increased sympathetic vasoconstrictor activity and reduced tissue perfusion. We investigated the role of exercise training on functional sympatholysis and postjunctional α-adrenergic responsiveness in individuals with essential hypertension. Leg haemodynamics...... exercise training improves functional sympatholysis and reduces postjunctional α-adrenergic responsiveness in both normo- and hypertensive individuals. The ability for functional sympatholysis and the vasodilator and sympatholytic effect of intravascular ATP appears not to be altered in essential...... were measured before and after 8 weeks of aerobic training (3-4 times/week) in 8 hypertensive (47 ± 2 years) and 8 normotensive untrained individuals (46 ± 1 years) during arterial tyramine infusion, arterial ATP infusion and/or one-legged knee extensions. Before training, exercise hypaeremia and leg...

  20. Influence of aerobic exercise intensity on myofibrillar and mitochondrial protein synthesis in young men during early and late postexercise recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Di Donato, Danielle M.; Daniel W D West; Churchward-Venne, Tyler A.; Breen, Leigh; Baker, Steven K.; Phillips, Stuart M.

    2014-01-01

    Aerobic exercise is typically associated with expansion of the mitochondrial protein pool and improvements in muscle oxidative capacity. The impact of aerobic exercise intensity on the synthesis of specific skeletal muscle protein subfractions is not known. We aimed to study the effect of aerobic exercise intensity on rates of myofibrillar (MyoPS) and mitochondrial (MitoPS) protein synthesis over an early (0.5–4.5 h) and late (24–28 h) period during postexercise recovery. Using a within-subje...

  1. The effects of 12 weeks of step aerobics training on functional fitness of elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallage, Tatiane; Krause, Maressa P; Haile, Luke; Miculis, Cristiane P; Nagle, Elizabeth F; Reis, Rodrigo S; Da Silva, Sergio G

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of 12 weeks of step aerobics (SA) training on the functional fitness of apparently healthy older women. Thirteen previously sedentary elderly women (mean age 63.14 years) participated in this study. Subjects performed 3 training sessions per week for 30-60 minutes per session. All measurements were assessed at baseline, after 12 weeks of training (posttest), and after 1 month of detraining. Assessments included the evaluation of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), strength of the upper (arm-curl [AC] test) and lower body (30-second chair-stand test [CS]), dynamic balance and agility (8 foot up and go [8 ft]), flexibility (chair sit-and-reach [CSR]), and cardiorespiratory fitness (6-minute walk test [6MW]). Step aerobics significantly improved all functional fitness components except for BMI. The 12 weeks of SA promoted a large effect size in the following measurements: WC (d = 1.6); CSR (d = 1.51); CS (d = 1.49); AC (d = 1.41); 8 ft (d = 1.32); and 6MW (d = 1.06) (p < 0.05). These results indicate that 12 weeks of SA had a positive effect on the functional fitness components of these older women. Furthermore, these findings were confirmed by the reverse effect observed after 1 month of detraining, except for upper body strength (AC test). In conclusion, 12 weeks of SA training can promote improvements in the functional fitness of apparently healthy older women. Therefore, SA can be considered an effective exercise modality to prevent the loss of functional fitness and its associated consequences. PMID:20634751

  2. Cerebral hemodynamics of the aging brain: risk of Alzheimer disease and benefit of aerobic exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi eTarumi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer disease (AD and cerebrovascular disease often coexist with advanced age. Mounting evidence indicates that the presence of vascular disease and its risk factors increase the risk of AD, suggesting a potential overlap of the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. In particular, atherosclerosis, endothelial dysfunction, and stiffening of central elastic arteries have been shown to associate with AD. Currently, there are no effective treatments for the cure and prevention of AD. Vascular risk factors are modifiable via either pharmacological or lifestyle intervention. In this regard, habitual aerobic exercise is increasingly recognized for its benefits on brain structure and cognitive function. Considering the well-established benefits of regular aerobic exercise on vascular health, exercise-related improvements in brain structure and cognitive function may be mediated by vascular adaptations. In this review, we will present the current evidence for the physiological mechanisms by which vascular health alters the structural and functional integrity of the aging brain and how improvements in vascular health, via regular aerobic exercise, potentially benefits cognitive function.

  3. Acute effect of high-intensity aerobic exercise performed on treadmill and cycle ergometer on strength performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panissa, Valéria L G; Tricoli, Valmor A A; Julio, Ursula F; Ribeiro, Natalia; de Azevedo Neto, Raymundo M A; Carmo, Everton C; Franchini, Emerson

    2015-04-01

    Concurrent training (i.e., combination of endurance with strength training) may result in negative interference on strength performance. Moreover, there are indications that the magnitude of this interference is dependent on endurance exercise mode. Thus, this study aimed to verify the acute effects of previous running and cycling on strength endurance performance. After the determination of the maximum intensity reached (Imax) during treadmill running and cycle ergometer pedaling and half-squat maximum strength (1 repetition maximum [1RM]), 10 physically active men were submitted to 3 experimental conditions: control condition (S) comprised of 4 sets of maximum repetitions at 80% 1RM, intermittent running (RS), and cycling (CS) conditions (15 × 1 minute:1 minute in the Imax) followed by the strength exercise (S). Maximum number of repetitions (MNR), total session volume (TV), and vastus lateralis electromyographic signal (VLRMS) were analyzed. It was observed that MNR and TV performed in set 1 in the S condition was superior to that performed in set 1 in the RS (p TV (p = 0.012). For the VLRMS, there was a main effect for repetition, with higher values in the last repetition compared with the second one (p effect was higher after the aerobic cycling exercise. PMID:25259468

  4. Predicting the Amount and Direction of Blood Pressure Change after Aerobic Training and Detraining in Sedentary Midlife Men

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    Karim Azali Alamadari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Considering the likelihood of uncommon blood pressure adaptations with exercise training and detraining observed in some individual, it seems the standard exercise prescriptions needs to be reconsidered. Therefore, the prediction of the future blood pressure responses to exercise and detraining is warranted. Methods: 70 sedentary volunteer midlife men with mild hypertension randomized were divided into experimental (Ex and control groups. The Ex subjects participated in aerobic training (walking/running program (24 sessions (3/wk at 60 to 70% of maximum heart rate, MHR 40 min per session; followed by 2 weeks of detraining. The data were analyzed using pearson correlation and chi-square goodness of fit, kappa, paired samples t and ANOVA tests. Results: The direction of mean atrial pressure (MAP changes in adaptation with both training and detraining periods were not similar in the Ex subjects so that some have experienced good response(GR, some have no response (NR and some other even experienced bad response (BR. Although all of the metabolic risks values had significant differences during the study, however; only a significant change was observed in Zmets value (P<0.05 in the GR subjects. Moreover, both GR and BR subjects had more metabolic risk counts and also upper Zmets at baseline. The baseline MAP, age, BMI, plasma HDL and LDL were recognized as the predictors of MAP changes in adaptation with training. Conclusion: All metabolic risk factors are important in predicting the direction of MAP response to training, however; participation in aerobic exercise would not possibly leads to bad responding in those with high metabolic risk factors. However, more research remains to be done because of a little body of evidence is available.

  5. A genetic predisposition score for muscular endophenotypes predicts the increase in aerobic power after training: the CAREGENE study

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    Schepers Dirk

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is widely accepted that genetic variability might explain a large part of the observed heterogeneity in aerobic capacity and its response to training. Significant associations between polymorphisms of different genes with muscular strength, anaerobic phenotypes and body composition have been reported. Muscular endophenotypes are positively correlated with aerobic capacity, therefore, we tested the association of polymorphisms in twelve muscular related genes on aerobic capacity and its response to endurance training. Methods 935 Coronary artery disease patients (CAD who performed an incremental exercise test until exhaustion at baseline and after three months of training were included. Polymorphisms of the genes were detected using the invader assay. Genotype-phenotype association analyses were performed using ANCOVA. Different models for a genetic predisposition score (GPS were constructed based on literature and own data and were related to baseline and response VO2 scores. Results Carriers of the minor allele in the R23K polymorphism of the glucocorticoid receptor gene (GR and the ciliary neurotrophic factor gene (CNTF had a significantly higher increase in peakVO2 after training (p AMPD1 gene had a significantly lower relative increase (p 2. GPS of data driven models were significantly associated with the increase in peakVO2 after training. Conclusions In CAD patients, suggestive associations were found in the GR, CNTF and the AMPD1 gene with an improved change in aerobic capacity after three months of training. Additionally data driven models with a genetic predisposition score (GPS showed a significant predictive value for the increase in peakVO2.

  6. Effect of exercise training on eNOS expression, NO production and oxygen metabolism in human placenta.

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    Robinson Ramírez-Vélez

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of combined aerobic and resistance exercise training during the second half of pregnancy on endothelial NOS expression (eNOS, nitric oxide (NO production and oxygen metabolism in human placenta. METHODS: The study included 20 nulliparous in gestational week 16-20, attending prenatal care at three tertiary hospitals in Colombia who were randomly assigned into one of two groups: The exercise group (n = 10 took part in an exercise session three times a week for 12 weeks which consisted of: aerobic exercise at an intensity of 55-75% of their maximum heart rate for 60 min and 25 mins. Resistance exercise included 5 exercise groups circuit training (50 repetitions of each using barbells (1-3 kg/exercise and low-to-medium resistance bands. The control group (n = 10 undertook their usual physical activity. Mitochondrial and cytosol fractions were isolated from human placental tissue by differential centrifugation. A spectrophotometric assay was used to measure NO production in cytosolic samples from placental tissue and Western Blot technique to determine eNOS expression. Mitochondrial superoxide levels and hydrogen peroxide were measured to determine oxygen metabolism. RESULTS: Combined aerobic and resistance exercise training during pregnancy leads to a 2-fold increase in eNOS expression and 4-fold increase in NO production in placental cytosol (p = 0.05. Mitochondrial superoxide levels and hydrogen peroxide production rate were decreased by 8% and 37% respectively in the placental mitochondria of exercising women (p = 0.05. CONCLUSION: Regular exercise training during the second half of pregnancy increases eNOS expression and NO production and decreases reactive oxygen species generation in human placenta. Collectively, these data demonstrate that chronic exercise increases eNOS/NO production, presumably by increasing endothelial shear stress. This adaptation may contribute to the beneficial effects of exercise on

  7. Effects of Combined Exercise Training on Body Composition and Metabolic Syndrome Factors

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    Chang-Ho Ha

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Metabolic syndrome (MS is emerging as a serious public health problem in Korea. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 12 weeks of combined exercise training on body composition and MS factors in obese Korean female college students.Methods: Subjects were randomly assigned to exercise (n = 7 and control (n = 9 groups. The exercise group trained for 80 min/day, for 3 day/week for 12 weeks. Each exercise session comprised 3 phases: warm-up for 10 min, main exercise for 60 min (consisting of aerobic exercise for 30 min and resistance exercise for 30 min, and cool down for 10 min.Results: The exercise intensity for aerobic exercise was 60-80% of the heart rate reserve (HRR for 30 min, while the resistance exercises were 10-15 repetitions maximum (RM for 30 min. Two-way repeated analysis of variance (ANOVA was used for statistical analysis. There were no interaction effects (time × group on the MS-related factors of blood lipid composition such as triglycerides (TGs, high-density lipoprotein (HDL, glucose, total cholesterol (TC, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL. However, interaction effects were observed (time × group on percent body fat (P = 0.006, waist circumference (WC; P < 0.001, systolic blood pressure (SBP; P = 0.010, and diastolic blood pressure (DBP; P = 0.007.Conclusions: A 12-week supervised combined exercise program could effectively reduce percent body fat, WC, SBP, and DBP. However, it was not effective on MS-related factors of blood lipid composition such as TG, HDL, glucose, TC, and LDL in a sample population of obese Korean female college students.

  8. Power and physiological changes in the body of aerobics competitors with different skills at the moment of exercise performing

    OpenAIRE

    Baranauskaitė, Asta

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to determine power and physiological changes in the body of aerobics competitors with different skills at the moment of exercise performing. 24 aerobic competitors were selected as a research object. All the members of the research group were divided into three groups with reference to their personal data (obtained after the assessment of the relations between their indices and their skills). The groups were as follows: group 1 – highly skilled aerobic comp...

  9. Effects of combined training vs aerobic training on cognitive functions in COPD: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Aquino G; Iuliano E; di Cagno A; Vardaro A; Fiorilli G; Moffa S; Di Costanzo A; De Simone G; Calcagno G

    2016-01-01

    Giovanna Aquino,1 Enzo Iuliano,1 Alessandra di Cagno,2 Angela Vardaro,3 Giovanni Fiorilli,1 Stefano Moffa,1 Alfonso Di Costanzo,1 Giuseppe De Simone,3 Giuseppe Calcagno1 1Department of Medicine and Health Sciences “Vincenzo Tiberio”, University of Molise, Campobasso, 2Department of Health Science, University ForoItalico, Rome, 3“Villa Margherita”, Benevento, Italy Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of high-intensity aerobic training (AT) and hi...

  10. Differential cardiac effects of aerobic interval training versus moderate continuous training in a patient with schizophrenia: a case report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eHerbsleb

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality rates for patients with schizophrenia are reported to contribute to their reduced life expectancy. Common reasons for increased cardiac mortality rates include cigarette smoking, obesity, dyslipidemia, diabetes and poorer health behavior in general. The majority of excess mortality among people with schizophrenia is caused by cardiovascular complications. Reduced vagal activity might be one important mechanism leading to this increased cardiac mortality and has been consistently described in patients and their healthy first-degree relatives.In this case study, we compared two different aerobic exercise regimes in one patient with chronic schizophrenia to investigate their effects on cardiovascular regulation. The patient completed a 6-week period of moderate continuous training followed by a 6-week period of interval training, each regime 2 times per week, on a stationary bicycle. This was followed by a 6-week period of detraining. Primary outcome measures examined heart rate (HR and heart rate variability (HRV at rest while secondary measures assessed fitness parameters such as the ventilatory threshold 1 (VT1. We observed that interval training was far more effective than moderate continuous training in increasing HRV, as indicated by RMSSD (improvement to baseline 27% vs. 18%, and reducing resting heart rate (-14% vs. 0%. Improvement in VT1 (21% vs. -1% was only observed after interval training. Our study provides preliminary data that the type of intervention is highly influential for improving cardiac function in patients with schizophrenia. While cardiovascular function might be influenced by continuous training to some degree, no such effect was present in this patient with schizophrenia. In addition, the beneficial effect of interval training on heart rate regulation vanished completely after a very short period of detraining after the intervention.

  11. Comparison of Aerobic, Resistance and Concurrent Exercise on Lipid Profiles and Adiponectin in Sedentary Men

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad-Ali Azarbayjani; bahram abedi

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Recently adiponectin has appeared to be a modulator of lipid metabolism. But its response to physical activity is not clear yet. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of type of exercise on lipid profiles and adiponectin in sedentary men. Methods: In this quasi-experimental research a sample of thirty male subjects were randomly assigned into 3 groups of aerobic exercise (AE), (AE: 60-70% of their maximal oxygen consumption (Vo¬2max) for 30 min), resistance exer...

  12. Moderate-to-high intensity aerobic exercise in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Kristian S; Sobol, Nanna; Beyer, Nina;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Physical exercise may modulate neuropathology and symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This pilot study assessed the feasibility of conducting a study of moderate-to-high intensity aerobic exercise in home-dwelling patients with mild AD. METHODS: An uncontrolled preintervention...... parameters. RESULTS: Attendance (mean, range: 90 %, 70-100 %) and retention (seven out of eight) rates were very high. No serious adverse events were observed. In general, patients and caregivers were positive towards the intervention. CONCLUSION: This study shows that it is feasible to conduct moderate...

  13. Predictability of psychic outcome for exercise training and exercise training including relaxation therapy after myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J. Duivenvoorden (Hugo); J. van Dixhoorn (J.)

    1991-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract Predictability of the psychic outcome for two cardiac rehabilitation programmes was investigated in 119 myocardial infarction patients. They were randomly assigned to either a five-week daily exercise training or to an identical training in combination with six sessions of

  14. Defining Optimal Aerobic Exercise Parameters to Affect Complex Motor and Cognitive Outcomes after Stroke: A Systematic Review and Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Mahmudul Hasan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although poststroke aerobic exercise (AE increases markers of neuroplasticity and protects perilesional tissue, the degree to which it enhances complex motor or cognitive outcomes is unknown. Previous research suggests that timing and dosage of exercise may be important. We synthesized data from clinical and animal studies in order to determine optimal AE training parameters and recovery outcomes for future research. Using predefined criteria, we included clinical trials of stroke of any type or duration and animal studies employing any established models of stroke. Of the 5,259 titles returned, 52 articles met our criteria, measuring the effects of AE on balance, lower extremity coordination, upper limb motor skills, learning, processing speed, memory, and executive function. We found that early-initiated low-to-moderate intensity AE improved locomotor coordination in rodents. In clinical trials, AE improved balance and lower limb coordination irrespective of intervention modality or parameter. In contrast, fine upper limb recovery was relatively resistant to AE. In terms of cognitive outcomes, poststroke AE in animals improved memory and learning, except when training was too intense. However, in clinical trials, combined training protocols more consistently improved cognition. We noted a paucity of studies examining the benefits of AE on recovery beyond cessation of the intervention.

  15. Defining Optimal Aerobic Exercise Parameters to Affect Complex Motor and Cognitive Outcomes after Stroke: A Systematic Review and Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, S M Mahmudul; Rancourt, Samantha N; Austin, Mark W; Ploughman, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Although poststroke aerobic exercise (AE) increases markers of neuroplasticity and protects perilesional tissue, the degree to which it enhances complex motor or cognitive outcomes is unknown. Previous research suggests that timing and dosage of exercise may be important. We synthesized data from clinical and animal studies in order to determine optimal AE training parameters and recovery outcomes for future research. Using predefined criteria, we included clinical trials of stroke of any type or duration and animal studies employing any established models of stroke. Of the 5,259 titles returned, 52 articles met our criteria, measuring the effects of AE on balance, lower extremity coordination, upper limb motor skills, learning, processing speed, memory, and executive function. We found that early-initiated low-to-moderate intensity AE improved locomotor coordination in rodents. In clinical trials, AE improved balance and lower limb coordination irrespective of intervention modality or parameter. In contrast, fine upper limb recovery was relatively resistant to AE. In terms of cognitive outcomes, poststroke AE in animals improved memory and learning, except when training was too intense. However, in clinical trials, combined training protocols more consistently improved cognition. We noted a paucity of studies examining the benefits of AE on recovery beyond cessation of the intervention. PMID:26881101

  16. Comparison Among Aerobic Exercise and Other Types of Interventions to Treat Depression: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    de Souza Moura, Antonio Marcos; Lamego, Murilo Khede; Paes, Flávia; Rocha, Nuno Barbosa; Simoes-Silva, Vitor; Rocha, Susana; de Sá Filho, Alberto Souza; Rimes, Ridson; Manochio, João; Budde, Henning; Wegner, Mirko; Mura, Gioia; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Yuan, Ti-Fei; Nardi, Antonio Egidio

    2015-01-01

    Depression is a common and disabling disease that affects over 100 million people worldwide and can have a significant impact on physical and mental health, reducing their quality of life. Thus, the aim of this article was to provide information on research results and key chains related to the therapeutic effects of chronic aerobic exercise compared with other types of interventions to treat depression, which may become a useful clinical application in a near future. Researches have shown th...

  17. The Effect of Three Months Regular Aerobic Exercise on Premenstrual Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Zinat Ghanbari; Farideh Dehghan Manshavi; Mina Jafarabadi

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effects of three-month regular aerobic exercise on the PMS symptoms. Also correlations with age, education, marital status and severity of PMS symptoms were studied.Materials and Methods: A Quasi- Experimental study was conducted on 91 volunteer women with regular menstrual cycle and no history of gynecological, endocrinological and psychological disorders. The study was done during March 2005- March 2007, in Tehran University of Medical Sciences. A Modified Menstr...

  18. The effect of regular aerobic exercise on urinary brain-derived neurotrophic factor in children

    OpenAIRE

    Yunita Fediani; Masayu Rita Dewi; Muhammad Irfannuddin; Masagus Irsan Saleh; Safri Dhaini

    2014-01-01

    Background Nervous system development in early life influences the quality of cognitive ability during adulthood. Neuronal development and neurogenesis are highly influenced by neurotrophins. The most active neurotrophin is brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Physical activity has a positive effect on cognitive function. However, few experimental studies have been done on children to assess the effect of aerobic regular exercise on BDNF levels. Objective To assess the effect of regu...

  19. Effect of regular aerobic exercise with ozone exposure on peripheral leukocyte populations in Wistar male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Afshar Jafari; Mohammad Ali Hosseinpour faizi; Fariba Askarian; Hassan Pourrazi

    2009-01-01

    • BACKGROUND: The immune system in endurance athletes may be at risk for deleterious effects of gasous pollutants such as ambient ozone. Therefore, this study was performed to assess the effect of regular aerobic exercise with ozone exposure on peripheral leukocytes populations in male Wistar rats.
    • METHODS: Twenty eight 8 weeks old rats were selected and randomly divided into four groups of ozone-u...

    • THE EFFECT OF 8-WEEK LOW IMPACT AEROBIC EXERCISE ON PLASMA FIBRINOGEN CONCENTRATION IN OLDER WOMEN

      OpenAIRE

      Mohammad Faramarzi; Shahla Dehghan

      2011-01-01

      The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of 8-week low impact rhythmic aerobic(LIA) exercise on plasma fibrinogen concentration in older women. subjects were 23 healthyand enable to do physical activity old women of one of retirement homes. Subjects divided totwo groups including experimental (n=14) and control (n=11) and after 8 hours nightly fastingfor assessment fibrinogen 5cc blood sampling was derived from anterior vein. Afterwardexperimental groups were participated in LIA...

  1. The effect of protein preloads and aerobic high intensity interval exercise on weight reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Hellesvik, Kristin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: A randomized double-blinded study to compare the effects of two daily isocaloricpreloads of either protein or carbohydrate. The preloads were given prior to main meals incombination with high intensity aerobic exercise. Responses in weight, Body Mass Index(BMI), waist and hip circumference, fat mass, lean mass, fat percentage, oxygen uptake(VO2max), work economy and blood values were studied.Methods: Forty female overweight individuals were randomly assigned to either a proteingrou...

  2. Effect of Aerobics Exercise on Self-Esteem in Iranian Female Adolescents Covered by Welfare Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Marzieh Hasanpour; Mansooreh Tabatabaei; Mousa Alavi; Vahid Zolaktaf

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Deprivation of parents might decrease self-esteem (SE) and result in affective and social incompatibility. In this randomized control trial, we examined the effect of aerobics exercise on SE among female adolescents living with no natural family. Materials and Methods. The sample consisted of all female adolescents aged 13 to 19 years (n: 72) who were covered by Isfahan Welfare organization. Participants were assigned into intervention and control groups by matched random sampli...

  3. The endocannabinoid system mediates aerobic exercise-induced antinociception in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdino, Giovane; Romero, Thiago R L; Silva, José Felipe P; Aguiar, Daniele C; de Paula, Ana Maria; Cruz, Jader S; Parrella, Cosimo; Piscitelli, Fabiana; Duarte, Igor D; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Perez, Andrea C

    2014-02-01

    Exercise-induced antinociception is widely described in the literature, but the mechanisms involved in this phenomenon are poorly understood. Systemic (s.c.) and central (i.t., i.c.v.) pretreatment with CB₁ and CB₂ cannabinoid receptor antagonists (AM251 and AM630) blocked the antinociception induced by an aerobic exercise (AE) protocol in both mechanical and thermal nociceptive tests. Western blot analysis revealed an increase and activation of CB₁ receptors in the rat brain, and immunofluorescence analysis demonstrated an increase of activation and expression of CB₁ receptors in neurons of the periaqueductal gray matter (PAG) after exercise. Additionally, pretreatment (s.c., i.t. and i.c.v.) with endocannabinoid metabolizing enzyme inhibitors (MAFP and JZL184) and an anandamide reuptake inhibitor (VDM11) prolonged and intensified this antinociceptive effect. These results indicate that exercise could activate the endocannabinoid system, producing antinociception. Supporting this hypothesis, liquid-chromatography/mass-spectrometry measurements demonstrated that plasma levels of endocannabinoids (anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol) and of anandamide-related mediators (palmitoylethanolamide and oleoylethanolamide) were increased after AE. Therefore, these results suggest that the endocannabinoid system mediates aerobic exercise-induced antinociception at peripheral and central levels. PMID:24148812

  4. Effects of aerobic exercise on the resting heart rate, physical fitness, and arterial stiffness of female patients with metabolic syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Seol-Jung; Kim,; Ko, Kwang-Jun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of aerobic exercise on the resting heart rate, physical fitness, and arterial stiffness or female patients with metabolic syndrome. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects were randomly assigned to an exercise group (n=12) or a control group (n=11). Subjects in the exercise group performed aerobic exercise at 60–80% of maximum heart rate for 40 min 5 times a week for 12 weeks. The changes in metabolic syndrome risk factors, resting he...

  5. Acute Aerobic Exercise Increases Cortical Activity during Working Memory: A Functional MRI Study in Female College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Li; Wei-Wei Men; Yu-Kai Chang; Ming-Xia Fan; Liu Ji; Gao-Xia Wei

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that acute aerobic exercise is associated with improved cognitive function. However, neural correlates of its cognitive plasticity remain largely unknown. The present study examined the effect of a session of acute aerobic exercise on working memory task-evoked brain activity as well as task performance. A within-subjects design with a counterbalanced order was employed. Fifteen young female participants (M = 19.56, SD = 0.81) were scanned using functional magneti...

  6. The order of exercise during concurrent training for rehabilitation does not alter acute genetic expression, mitochondrial enzyme activity or improvements in muscle function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren G MacNeil

    Full Text Available Concurrent exercise combines different modes of exercise (e.g., aerobic and resistance into one training protocol, providing stimuli meant to increase muscle strength, aerobic capacity and mass. As disuse is associated with decrements in strength, aerobic capacity and muscle size concurrent training is an attractive modality for rehabilitation. However, interference between the signaling pathways may result in preferential improvements for one of the exercise modes. We recruited 18 young adults (10 ♂, 8 ♀ to determine if order of exercise mode during concurrent training would differentially affect gene expression, protein content and measures of strength and aerobic capacity after 2 weeks of knee-brace induced disuse. Concurrent exercise sessions were performed 3x/week for 6 weeks at gradually increasing intensities either with endurance exercise preceding (END>RES or following (RES>END resistance exercise. Biopsies were collected from the vastus lateralis before, 3 h after the first exercise bout and 48 h after the end of training. Concurrent exercise altered the expression of genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis (PGC-1α, PRC, PPARγ, hypertrophy (PGC-1α4, REDD2, Rheb and atrophy (MuRF-1, Runx1, increased electron transport chain complex protein content, citrate synthase and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase enzyme activity, muscle mass, maximum isometric strength and VO 2peak. However, the order in which exercise was completed (END>RES or RES>END only affected the protein content of mitochondrial complex II subunit. In conclusion, concurrent exercise training is an effective modality for the rehabilitation of the loss of skeletal muscle mass, maximum strength, and peak aerobic capacity resulting from disuse, regardless of the order in which the modes of exercise are performed.

  7. Cancer Cachexia: Muscle Physiology and Exercise Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew L. Goodwin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Cachexia in cancer patients is a condition marked by severe tissue wasting and a myriad of quality of life and health consequences. Cachexia is also directly linked to the issues of morbidity and survivability in cancer patients. Therapeutic means of mitigating cachexia and its effects are thus critical in cancer patient treatment. We present a discussion on the use of physical exercise activities in the context of such treatment as a means to disruption the tissue wasting effects (i.e., muscle tissue losses via anorexigenic pro-inflammatory cytokines of cachexia. In addition we propose a theoretical model (Exercise Anti-Cachectic Hypothetical—“EACH” model as to how exercise training may promote a disruption in the cycle of events leading to advancing cachexia and in turn promote an enhanced functionality and thus improved quality of life in cancer patients.

  8. The effects of a 16 week aerobic exercise programme on circulating lymphocyte subpopulations: a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Lavelle, G; Gormley, J; Doherty, D

    2015-01-01

    Maximal exercise testing provides valuable information and is widely considered a gold standard measure of aerobic capacity (VO2max). However, maximal exercise testing can be very labour intensive and can pose potentially hazardous in certain populations; such as the elderly, those previously sedentary or individuals with a history of chronic lung or heart conditions. Consequently, sub maximal exercise testing is used in a variety of clinical and research settings. Submaximal exercise testing...

  9. Cardiorespiratory response to aerobic exercise programs with different intensity: 20 weeks longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Sandip Meghnad Hulke; Phatak, Mrunal S.; Yuganti P Vaidya

    2012-01-01

    Context: participation in regular intensive exercise is associated with a modest increase in left ventricular wall thickness and cavity size. The magnitude of improvement depends on frequency, intensity, type, and duration of exercise program. Aims: to determine the effect of sports training on LV morphology and function, lung function, and to know the intensity of the exercise program enough for these changes. Settings and design: this was a longitudinal study (20 weeks duration) done on the...

  10. Effect of 12-week-long aerobic training programme on body composition, aerobic capacity, complete blood count and blood lipid profile among young women

    OpenAIRE

    Kostrzewa-Nowak, Dorota; Nowak, Robert; Jastrzębski, Zbigniew; Zarębska, Aleksandra; Bichowska, Marta; Drobnik-Kozakiewicz, Izabela; Radzimiński, Łukasz; Leońska-Duniec, Agata; Ficek, Krzysztof; Cięszczyk, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    Background: Numerous data suggest that aerobic-type exercise improves lipoprotein-lipid profiles, cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition in young women. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biological response to high-low impact aerobic fitness among young women. Materials and methods: Thirty-four young women aged 22 (19-24) years were divided into three groups: underweight (N = 10), normal weight (N = 12) and overweight (N = 12). Aerobic capacity, anthropometry and body comp...

  11. Short-term inspiratory muscle training potentiates the benefits of aerobic and resistance training in patients undergoing CABG in phase II cardiac rehabilitation program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Maria Hermes

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To investigate the efficiency of short-term inspiratory muscle training program associated with combined aerobic and resistance exercise on respiratory muscle strength, functional capacity and quality of life in patients who underwent coronary artery bypass and are in the phase II cardiac rehabilitation program. Methods: A prospective, quasi-experimental study with 24 patients who underwent coronary artery bypass and were randomly assigned to two groups in the Phase II cardiac rehabilitation program: inspiratory muscle training program associated with combined training (aerobic and resistance group (GCR + IMT, n=12 and combined training with respiratory exercises group (GCR, n=12, over a period of 12 weeks, with two sessions per week. Before and after intervention, the following measurements were obtained: maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures (PImax and PEmax, peak oxygen consumption (peak VO2 and quality of life scores. Data were compared between pre- and post-intervention at baseline and the variation between the pre- and post-phase II cardiac rehabilitation program using the Student's t-test, except the categorical variables, which were compared using the Chi-square test. Values of P<0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: Compared to GCR, the GCR + IMT group showed larger increments in PImax (P<0.001, PEmax (P<0.001, peak VO2 (P<0.001 and quality of life scores (P<0.001. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that the addition of inspiratory muscle training, even when applied for a short period, may potentiate the effects of combined aerobic and resistance training, becoming a simple and inexpensive strategy for patients who underwent coronary artery bypass and are in phase II cardiac rehabilitation.

  12. Evaluation of the effectiveness of an aerobic exercise program and the personality characteristics of patients with fibromyalgia syndrome: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vural, Meltem; Berkol, Tonguc Demir; Erdogdu, Zeynep; Pekedis, Keramettin; Kuçukserat, Batuhan; Aksoy, Cihan

    2014-10-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a 6-week aerobic exercise program on pain, physical function, and psychological status, and to evaluate the personality characteristics of fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) patients. [Subjects and Methods] Fourteen women with FMS were enrolled. They were trained for a 6-week home-based aerobic exercise program. The Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, the Beck Depression Inventory, the visual analog scale of pain and sleep quality were measured at baseline and at the end of week 6. The personality profiles were evaluated using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI). [Results] After the exercise program, significant improvements were determined in pain, sleep quality, physical function, depression and FMS symptoms compared to baseline. In addition, the hysteria item (71.21±8.84) of the MMPI was significantly higher in FMS. [Conclusion] Our findings indicate that home-based aerobic exercise may be a useful treatment in the management of FMS. Personality characteristics should be considered during the planning process of the treatment of FMS. Personality is a filter between life events and psychological responses. It is defined to be the integration of effective and behavioral patterns. Long-term studies involving larger clinical samples are needed to define the role of personality characteristics in FMS. PMID:25364113

  13. [New strategies for exercise training in osteoporosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelmann, A; Schilling, S; Neuerburg, C; Mutschler, W; Böcker, W; Felsenberg, D; Stumpf, U

    2015-11-01

    In the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis, movement with muscle strengthening and proprioceptive training plays a major role. This was taken into consideration in the guidelines by the governing body on osteoporosis (Dachverband Osteoporose, DVO) from 2014 on prophylaxis, diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis and in the DVO guidelines from 2008 on physiotherapy and exercise therapy for osteoporosis. Increases in lumbar bone density of between 0.5 % and 2.5 % can be achieved in women by strengthening exercises with high resistance. With this combination and strengthening of the quadriceps muscle a reduction of falls and hence the fracture risk could also be achieved. In traumatology, training for muscle strengthening is not always possible, especially for elderly patients. Practically relevant alternatives are regular walking and aquatraining, which may also lead to a significant increase in bone mineral density. Furthermore, large effects can be achieved with alternating side whole-body vibration (WBV) training with whole body vibration plates with only 3 days of training per week and with short training periods (15-20 min). Rates of increase in leg strength between 20 % and almost 40 % and in bone density between 0.5 % and 4 % in 6 months have been described. Whether and with what intensity whole body vibration therapy could be used for e.g. more rapid healing of fractures, is currently unclear. Initial positive results have been described in animal models. PMID:26467265

  14. Exercise-training intervention studies in competitive swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspenes, Stian Thoresen; Karlsen, Trine

    2012-06-01

    Competitive swimming has a long history and is currently one of the largest Olympic sports, with 16 pool events. Several aspects separate swimming from most other sports such as (i) the prone position; (ii) simultaneous use of arms and legs for propulsion; (iii) water immersion (i.e. hydrostatic pressure on thorax and controlled respiration); (iv) propulsive forces that are applied against a fluctuant element; and (v) minimal influence of equipment on performance. Competitive swimmers are suggested to have specific anthropometrical features compared with other athletes, but are nevertheless dependent on physiological adaptations to enhance their performance. Swimmers thus engage in large volumes of training in the pool and on dry land. Strength training of various forms is widely used, and the energetic systems are addressed by aerobic and anaerobic swimming training. The aim of the current review was to report results from controlled exercise training trials within competitive swimming. From a structured literature search we found 17 controlled intervention studies that covered strength or resistance training, assisted sprint swimming, arms-only training, leg-kick training, respiratory muscle training, training the energy delivery systems and combined interventions across the aforementioned categories. Nine of the included studies were randomized controlled trials. Among the included studies we found indications that heavy strength training on dry land (one to five repetitions maximum with pull-downs for three sets with maximal effort in the concentric phase) or sprint swimming with resistance towards propulsion (maximal pushing with the arms against fixed points or pulling a perforated bowl) may be efficient for enhanced performance, and may also possibly have positive effects on stroke mechanics. The largest effect size (ES) on swimming performance was found in 50 m freestyle after a dry-land strength training regimen of maximum six repetitions across three

  15. Exercise training improves vascular mitochondrial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Song-Young; Rossman, Matthew J; Gifford, Jayson R; Bharath, Leena P; Bauersachs, Johann; Richardson, Russell S; Abel, E Dale; Symons, J David; Riehle, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Exercise training is recognized to improve cardiac and skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiratory capacity; however, the impact of chronic exercise on vascular mitochondrial respiratory function is unknown. We hypothesized that exercise training concomitantly increases both vascular mitochondrial respiratory capacity and vascular function. Arteries from both sedentary (SED) and swim-trained (EX, 5 wk) mice were compared in terms of mitochondrial respiratory function, mitochondrial content, markers of mitochondrial biogenesis, redox balance, nitric oxide (NO) signaling, and vessel function. Mitochondrial complex I and complex I + II state 3 respiration and the respiratory control ratio (complex I + II state 3 respiration/complex I state 2 respiration) were greater in vessels from EX relative to SED mice, despite similar levels of arterial citrate synthase activity and mitochondrial DNA content. Furthermore, compared with the SED mice, arteries from EX mice displayed elevated transcript levels ofperoxisome proliferative activated receptor-γ coactivator-1αand the downstream targetscytochrome c oxidase subunit IV isoform 1,isocitrate dehydrogenase(Idh)2, andIdh3a, increased manganese superoxide dismutase protein expression, increased endothelial NO synthase phosphorylation (Ser(1177)), and suppressed reactive oxygen species generation (allPrespiratory capacity and evidence of improved redox balance, which may, at least in part, be attributable to elevated NO bioavailability, have the potential to protect against age- and disease-related challenges to arterial function. PMID:26825520

  16. The Metabolic Syndrome and the immediate antihypertensive effects of aerobic exercise: a randomized control design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maresh Carl M

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The metabolic syndrome (Msyn affects about 40% of those with hypertension. The Msyn and hypertension have a common pathophysiology. Exercise is recommended for their treatment, prevention and control. The influence of the Msyn on the antihypertensive effects of aerobic exercise is not known. We examined the influence of the Msyn on the blood pressure (BP response following low (LIGHT, 40% peak oxygen consumption, VO2peak and moderate (MODERATE, 60% VO2peak intensity, aerobic exercise. Methods Subjects were 46 men (44.3 ± 1.3 yr with pre- to Stage 1 hypertension (145.5 ± 1.6/86.3 ± 1.2 mmHg and borderline dyslipidemia. Men with Msyn (n = 18 had higher fasting insulin, triglycerides and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA and lower high density lipoprotein than men without Msyn (n = 28 (p Results Systolic BP (SBP was reduced 8 mmHg (p 2 = 0.123, p = 0.020, Msyn (β = 0.277, r2 = 0.077, p = 0.069, and HOMA (β = -0.124, r2 = 0.015, p = 0.424. Msyn (r2 = 0.096, p = 0.036 was the only significant correlate of the DBP response after LIGHT. Conclusion Men without the Msyn respond more favorably to the antihypertensive effects of lower intensity, aerobic exercise than men with the Msyn. If future work confirms our findings, important new knowledge will be gained for the personalization of exercise prescriptions among those with hypertension and the Msyn.

  17. Mood after various brief exercise and sport modes: aerobics, hip-hop dancing, ice skating, and body conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungwoon; Kim, Jingu

    2007-06-01

    To investigate the potential psychological benefits of brief exercise and sport activities on positive mood alterations, 45 Korean high school and 232 undergraduate students enrolled in physical education and stress management classes voluntarily participated and were randomly assigned to one of four activities: aerobic exercise, body conditioning, hip-hop dancing, and ice skating. Mood changes from before to after exercise (2 pm to 3 pm) were measured based on a Korean translation of the Subjective Exercise Experiences Scale. The findings suggested that the aerobics and hip-hop dancing groups rated positive well-being higher than the body conditioning and ice skating groups. Immediately after exercise, psychological distress was rated lower in the aerobics and hip-hop dancing groups, as was fatigue. PMID:17879660

  18. Muscle Adaptations Following Short-Duration Bed Rest with Integrated Resistance, Interval, and Aerobic Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackney, Kyle J.; Scott, Jessica M.; Buxton, Roxanne; Redd-Goetchius, Elizabeth; Crowell, J. Brent; Everett, Meghan E.; Wickwire, Jason; Ryder, Jeffrey W.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.

    2011-01-01

    Unloading of the musculoskeletal system during space flight results in deconditioning that may impair mission-related task performance in astronauts. Exercise countermeasures have been frequently tested during bed rest (BR) and limb suspension; however, high-intensity, short-duration exercise prescriptions have not been fully explored. PURPOSE: To determine if a high intensity resistance, interval, and aerobic exercise program could protect against muscle atrophy and dysfunction when performed during short duration BR. METHODS: Nine subjects (1 female, 8 male) performed a combination of supine exercises during 2 weeks of horizontal BR. Resistance exercise (3 d / wk) consisted of squat, leg press, hamstring curl, and heel raise exercises (3 sets, 12 repetitions). Aerobic (6 d / wk) sessions alternated continuous (75% VO2 peak) and interval exercise (30 s, 2 min, and 4 min) and were completed on a supine cycle ergometer and vertical treadmill, respectively. Muscle volumes of the upper leg were calculated pre, mid, and post-BR using magnetic resonance imaging. Maximal isometric force (MIF), rate of force development (RFD), and peak power of the lower body extensors were measured twice before BR (averaged to represent pre) and once post BR. ANOVA with repeated measures and a priori planned contrasts were used to test for differences. RESULTS: There were no changes to quadriceps, hamstring, and adductor muscle volumes at mid and post BR time points compared to pre BR (Table 1). Peak power increased significantly from 1614 +/- 372 W to 1739 +/- 359 W post BR (+7.7%, p = 0.035). Neither MIF (pre: 1676 +/- 320 N vs. post: 1711 +/- 250 N, +2.1%, p = 0.333) nor RFD (pre: 7534 +/- 1265 N/ms vs. post: 6951 +/- 1241 N/ms, -7.7%, p = 0.136) were significantly impaired post BR.

  19. The Effect of Eight Weeks of Aerobic Training on Reducing Mood Disorders, Depression And Mania in High School Students High School Boys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Piri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to consider the effect of eight weeks of aerobic training on the reduction of mood disorders, depression and mania in boys' high school in Ilam-Iran. This was a quasi-experimental and field research taking the experimental and control groups into consideration. In this study, 60 students were randomly selected as the sample. In order to measure students' Depression and mania, multifaceted Minnesota questionnaire (MMPI-2 and depression and mania sub-scales were used. We applied both descriptive and inferential statistics using SPSS software for statistical analysis of data. The results showed that eight weeks of aerobic exercise had a significant effect on students` depressive disorders and mania. Eight weeks of aerobic exercise reduced depression and mania in experimental group of students.

  20. EFFECT OF AEROBIC EXERCISE OF MODERATE INTENSITY AND SHORT DURATION ON INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE IN YOUNG INDIVIDUALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syamala Devi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Intra-ocular pressure (IOP in normal individuals varies throughout the night and day. The diurnal variation for normal eyes is between 3 and 6mmHg and the variation may increase in glaucomatous eyes. Hence, the present effort is to investigate the effect of moderate exercise on intraocular pressure changes. IOP was measured before and after exercise in 100 subjects (50M, 50F with no ocular abnormality with ages ranging from 18-21 years by using Schiotz tonometer. Weight, height and body mass index, were recorded. The results obtained were compared between before-and-after-exercise of the subjects. The data were presented as the mean ± SD, Student’s t-test was used to calculate significance between means. The IOP showed a statistically significant fall following moderate exercise. The mean IOP significantly decreased (p0.05 decreased after 60 minutes of aerobic exercise. Gender wise comparison of intraocular pressure both before and after exercise did not reveal much significance. Physical exercise, such as jogging, walking and bicycle riding, could be suggested as a complimentary therapy in addition to the pharmaceutical and surgical therapies available for glaucoma patients, even though the mechanism for lowering IOP is not clear enough.

  1. Lightweight and Compace Multifunction Computer-Controlled Strength and Aerobic Training Device Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TDA Research proposes to develop a computer-controlled lightweight and compact device for aerobic and resistive training (DART) to counteract muscular atrophy and...

  2. Aerobic training and l-arginine supplementation promotes rat heart and hindleg muscles arteriogenesis after myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbar, Kamal; Rahmani-Nia, Farhad; Shahabpour, Elham

    2016-09-01

    Arteriogenesis is a main defense mechanism to prevent heart and local tissues dysfunction in occlusive artery disease. TGF-β and angiostatin have a pivotal role in arteriogenesis. We tested the hypothesis that aerobic training and l-arginine supplementation promotes cardiac and skeletal muscles arteriogenesis after myocardial infarction (MI) parallel to upregulation of TGF-β and downregulation of angiostatin. For this purpose, 4 weeks after LAD occlusion, 50 male Wistar rats were randomly distributed into five groups: (1) sham surgery without MI (sham, n = 10), (2) control-MI (Con-MI, n = 10), (3) l-arginine-MI (La-MI, n = 10), (4) exercise training-MI (Ex-MI, n = 10), and (5) exercise and l-arginine-MI (Ex + La-MI). Exercise training groups running on a treadmill for 10 weeks with moderate intensity. Rats in the l-arginine-treated groups drank water containing 4 % l-arginine. Arteriolar density with different diameters (11-25, 26-50, 51-75, and 76-150 μm), TGF-β, and angiostatin gene expression were measured in cardiac (area at risk) and skeletal (soleus and gastrocnemius) muscles. Smaller arterioles decreased in cardiac after MI. Aerobic training and l-arginine increased the number of cardiac arterioles with 11-25 and 26-50 μm diameters parallel to TGF-β overexpression. In gastrocnemius muscle, the number of arterioles/mm(2) was only increased in the 11 to 25 μm in response to training with and without l-arginine parallel to angiostatin downregulation. Soleus arteriolar density with different size was not different between experimental groups. Results showed that 10 weeks aerobic exercise training and l-arginine supplementation promotes arteriogenesis of heart and gastrocnemius muscles parallel to overexpression of TGF-β and downregulation of angiostatin in MI rats. PMID:27121159

  3. Combined aerobic exercise and enzyme replacement therapy rejuvenates the mitochondrial-lysosomal axis and alleviates autophagic blockage in Pompe disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, M I; MacNeil, L G; Kitaoka, Y; Suri, R; Young, S P; Kaczor, J J; Nates, N J; Ansari, M U; Wong, T; Ahktar, M; Brandt, L; Hettinga, B P; Tarnopolsky, M A

    2015-10-01

    A unifying feature in the pathogenesis of aging, neurodegenerative disease, and lysosomal storage disorders is the progressive deposition of macromolecular debris impervious to enzyme catalysis by cellular waste disposal mechanisms (e.g., lipofuscin). Aerobic exercise training (AET) has pleiotropic effects and stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis, antioxidant defense systems, and autophagic flux in multiple organs and tissues. Our aim was to explore the therapeutic potential of AET as an ancillary therapy to mitigate autophagic buildup and oxidative damage and rejuvenate the mitochondrial-lysosomal axis in Pompe disease (GSD II/PD). Fourteen weeks of combined recombinant acid α-glucosidase (rhGAA) and AET polytherapy attenuated mitochondrial swelling, fortified antioxidant defense systems, reduced oxidative damage, and augmented glycogen clearance and removal of autophagic debris/lipofuscin in fast-twitch skeletal muscle of GAA-KO mice. Ancillary AET potently augmented the pool of PI4KA transcripts and exerted a mild restorative effect on Syt VII and VAMP-5/myobrevin, collectively suggesting improved endosomal transport and Ca(2+)- mediated lysosomal exocytosis. Compared with traditional rhGAA monotherapy, AET and rhGAA polytherapy effectively mitigated buildup of protein carbonyls, autophagic debris/lipofuscin, and P62/SQSTM1, while enhancing MnSOD expression, nuclear translocation of Nrf-2, muscle mass, and motor function in GAA-KO mice. Combined AET and rhGAA therapy reactivates cellular clearance pathways, mitigates mitochondrial senescence, and strengthens antioxidant defense systems in GSD II/PD. Aerobic exercise training (or pharmacologic targeting of contractile-activity-induced pathways) may have therapeutic potential for mitochondrial-lysosomal axis rejuvenation in lysosomal storage disorders and related conditions (e.g., aging and neurodegenerative disease). PMID:26001726

  4. Does creatine supplementation improve the plasma lipid profile in healthy male subjects undergoing aerobic training?

    OpenAIRE

    Scagliusi Fernanda B; Benatti Fabiana B; Artioli Guilherme G; Ugrinowitsch Carlos; Gualano Bruno; Harris Roger C; Lancha Antonio H

    2008-01-01

    Abstract We aimed to investigate the effects of creatine (Cr) supplementation on the plasma lipid profile in sedentary male subjects undergoing aerobic training. Methods Subjects (n = 22) were randomly divided into two groups and were allocated to receive treatment with either creatine monohydrate (CR) (~20 g·day-1 for one week followed by ~10 g·day-1 for a further eleven weeks) or placebo (PL) (dextrose) in a double blind fashion. All subjects undertook moderate intensity aerobic training d...

  5. Exercise assessment and training in pulmonary rehabilitation for patients with COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S; Harrison, S; Houchen, L; Wagg, K

    2011-09-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common condition with a growing impact on global health services. Patients with COPD frequently complain of dyspnoea and leg fatigue on exertion. Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) is an established intervention for the management of patients with COPD. There is clear evidence for the benefit in this population. The purpose of this article is to describe the assessment process, exercise intervention and its anticipated benefits, in the context of a rehabilitation programme for individuals with COPD. This has been sub-divided into aerobic, skeletal muscle resistance and inspiratory muscle rationale, assessment and training. The evidence supporting the incorporation of aerobic and skeletal muscle resistance training in PR is well established. The benefit of including inspiratory muscle training (IMT) as an adjunct to PR is less clear. PMID:21946406

  6. [Practical advice for exercise-induced asthma in children: experience of the exercise training centre of Necker-Enfants malades hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karila, C; Fuchs-Climent, D; Clairicia, M; Leborgne, P; Salort, M; De Blic, J; Scheinmann, P

    2005-01-01

    Now, to care exercise-induced asthma is not only to prescribe drugs. It is a global and interdisciplinary approach: the pulmonary rehabilitation, matching a therapeutic education and a physical training, with the goal of promoting a regular physical activity in the asthmatic child, achieving physiological benefits and improvement of quality of life. Getting from the experience of Necker-Enfants Malades Hospital's Training Centre, a few advises encourage the physical practice of the asthmatic child, and decrease risks of exercise-induced asthma: optimisation of treatments;progressive beginning and end of exercises; use of the diaphragmatic breathing, keeping up with the exercise; use of the ventilatory threshold (or dysponea threshold) as intensity of the aerobic training; practice of different activities promoting play and conviviality in sports and allowing the integration of sports in the daily life of the asthmatic child. PMID:15653067

  7. Effects of exercise training on chronic inflammation in obesity : current evidence and potential mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Tongjian; Arsenis, Nicole C; Disanzo, Beth L; Lamonte, Michael J

    2013-04-01

    Chronic, systemic inflammation is an independent risk factor for several major clinical diseases. In obesity, circulating levels of inflammatory markers are elevated, possibly due to increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines from several tissues/cells, including macrophages within adipose tissue, vascular endothelial cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Recent evidence supports that adipose tissue hypoxia may be an important mechanism through which enlarged adipose tissue elicits local tissue inflammation and further contributes to systemic inflammation. Current evidence supports that exercise training, such as aerobic and resistance exercise, reduces chronic inflammation, especially in obese individuals with high levels of inflammatory biomarkers undergoing a longer-term intervention. Several studies have reported that this effect is independent of the exercise-induced weight loss. There are several mechanisms through which exercise training reduces chronic inflammation, including its effect on muscle tissue to generate muscle-derived, anti-inflammatory 'myokine', its effect on adipose tissue to improve hypoxia and reduce local adipose tissue inflammation, its effect on endothelial cells to reduce leukocyte adhesion and cytokine production systemically, and its effect on the immune system to lower the number of pro-inflammatory cells and reduce pro-inflammatory cytokine production per cell. Of these potential mechanisms, the effect of exercise training on adipose tissue oxygenation is worth further investigation, as it is very likely that exercise training stimulates adipose tissue angiogenesis and increases blood flow, thereby reducing hypoxia and the associated chronic inflammation in adipose tissue of obese individuals. PMID:23494259

  8. Long-term aerobic exercise protects against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity by modulating the expression of IL-6 and HO-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Yasue Saito Miyagi

    Full Text Available Nephrotoxicity is substantial side effect for 30% of patients undergoing cancer therapy with cisplatin and may force them to change or even abandon the treatment. Studies regarding aerobic exercise have shown its efficacy for the treatment of many types of diseases and its capacity to reduce tumors. However, little is known about the impact of physical exercise on cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury (AKI. In the present study, our aim was to investigate the role of physical exercise in AKI induced by cisplatin. We submitted C57Bl6 male mice to seven weeks of chronic exercise on a training treadmill and treated them with single i.p. injection of cisplatin (20 mg/kg in the last week. Exercise efficacy was confirmed by an increased capillary-to-fiber ratio in the gastrocnemius muscle of exercised groups (EX and CIS-EX. The group submitted to exercise before cisplatin administration (CIS-EX exhibited less weight loss and decreased serum urea levels compared to the cisplatin group (CIS. Exercise also showed a protective role against cisplatin-induced cell death in the kidney. The CIS-EX group showed a lower inflammatory response, with less TNF and IL-10 expression in the kidney and serum. In the same group, we observed an increase of IL-6 and HO-1 expression in the kidney. Taken together, our results indicate that chronic aerobic exercise is able to attenuate AKI by inducing IL-6 and HO-1 production, which results in lower inflammatory and apoptotic profiles in the kidney.

  9. Comparison Among Aerobic Exercise and Other Types of Interventions to Treat Depression: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Moura, Antonio Marcos; Lamego, Murilo Khede; Paes, Flávia; Ferreira Rocha, Nuno Barbosa; Simoes-Silva, Vitor; Rocha, Susana Almeida; de Sá Filho, Alberto Souza; Rimes, Ridson; Manochio, João; Budde, Henning; Wegner, Mirko; Mura, Gioia; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Yuan, Ti-Fei; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Machado, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Depression is a common and disabling disease that affects over 100 million people worldwide and can have a significant impact on physical and mental health, reducing their quality of life. Thus, the aim of this article was to provide information on research results and key chains related to the therapeutic effects of chronic aerobic exercise compared with other types of interventions to treat depression, which may become a useful clinical application in a near future. Researches have shown the effectiveness of alternative treatments, such as physical exercise, minimizing high financial costs and minimizing side effects. In this review, the data analyzed allows us to claim that alternative therapies, such as exercise, are effective on controlling and reducing symptoms. 69.3% of the studies that investigated the antidepressant effects of exercise on depressive were significant, and the other 30.7% of the studies improved only in general physiological aspects, such as increased oxygen uptake, increased use of blood glucose and decreased body fat percentage, with no improvement on symptoms of depression. From the sample analyzed, 71.4% was composed of women, and regarding the severity of symptoms, 85% had mild to moderate depression and only 15% had moderate to severe depression. However, there is still disagreement regarding the effect of exercise compared to the use of antidepressants in symptomatology and cognitive function in depression, this suggests that there is no consensus on the correct intensity of aerobic exercise as to achieve the best dose-response, with intensities high to moderate or moderate to mild. PMID:26556090

  10. The Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Psychological and Behavioral Variables of Individuals with Developmental Disabilities: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabler-Halle, Debra; And Others

    1993-01-01

    This article reviews and critiques the literature on the effects of participation in aerobic exercise on psychological/behavioral variables for persons with mental retardation and associated disabilities. Findings suggested that participation in an exercise program produces immediate, but not durable, benefits in the psychological and behavioral…

  11. Effect of Aerobics Exercise on Self-Esteem in Iranian Female Adolescents Covered by Welfare Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Hasanpour

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Deprivation of parents might decrease self-esteem (SE and result in affective and social incompatibility. In this randomized control trial, we examined the effect of aerobics exercise on SE among female adolescents living with no natural family. Materials and Methods. The sample consisted of all female adolescents aged 13 to 19 years (n: 72 who were covered by Isfahan Welfare organization. Participants were assigned into intervention and control groups by matched random sampling. Intervention inclu